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Scientific American 
Reference Book 



Compiled by 
Albert A^/ Hopkins 

and 

A. Russell Bond 



Munn &^ Company, Publishers 

Scientific American Offices 
New York 

1905 - I 



Copyright, 1904, by 
Mi'NN & Company 



All rights reserved 



i 



PRESS OF 

ANDREW H. KEX.LOGG CO. 

NEW YORK 



PREFACE. 



\ 



I 



THE Editor of the Scientific American receives during the year 
thousands of inquiries from readers and correspondents covering 
a wide range of topics. The information sought for, in many cases, can 
not readily be found in any available reference or text-book. It has been 
decided, therefore, to prepare a work which shall be comprehensive 
in character and which shall contain a mass of information not readily 
procured elsewhere. The very wide range of topics covered in the 
^^ Scientific American Keference Book may be inferred by examining 
^ the index and table of contents. This work has been made as non- 
>L technical as the subjects treated of will admit, and is intended as a 
^ ready reference book for the home and the office. It is possible that 
(-:> in some of the tables published in the book certain inconsistencies 
/^ may be observed. Such a condition of affairs is in some cases in- 
evitable. In procuring the figures, for example, from different De- 
partments of the Government, with reference to any subject, it has 
been found that statistics vary in certain particulars. These variations 
are due to the different methods of tabulation, or to some different 
system by means of which the figures have been arrived at. In a 
number of cases these discrepancies will be noted in the book, but they 
are not to be regarded as errors. 

The debt for advice and help has been a heavy one. The com- 
pilation of this book would have been impossible without the cordial 
cooperation of government officials, who have been most kind. Our 
thanks are especially due to the Hon. 0. P. Austin, Chief of the 
Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor; to the 
Hon. S. N". D. North,. Director of the Census; Prof. John C. Monaghan, 
Editor of the Consular Reports; Hon. Eugene Tyler Chamberlain, 
Commissioner Bureau of Navigation; Dr. Marcus Benjamin, of the 
Smithsonian Institution ; Major W. D. Beach, U. S. A., of the General 
Staff; Rear- Admiral Charles O'Neil, late Chief of Bureau of 



Ordnance, U. S. N. ; Hon. S. I. Kimball, General Superintendent, 
Life Saving Service; the Director of the Mint, Capt, Seaton 
Schroeder, TJ. S. N., Chief Intelligence Officer, TJ. S. N.; many ex- 
aminers in the Patent Office; Hon. Willis L. Moore, Chief of the 
Weather Bureau ; many officials of the Agricultural Department ; Hon. 
Carroll D. Wright, Commissioner Bureau of Labor; Hon. George M. 
Bowers, and Mr. A. B. Alexander, of the Bureau of Fisheries; Prof. 
Charles Baskerville, Ph.D.; Edward W. Byrn, of Washington; Dr. 
George F. Kunz, Hon. S. W. Stratton, of the Bureau of Standards, 
and many others. 

We are also indebted to the J. B. Lippincott Co. for permission 
to use diagrams of Geometrical Constructions; to HazelPs Annual, 
Whittaker^s Almanac, and the " Daily Mail Year Book.^' A number 
of our diagrams are from the " TJniversal-Taschen Atlas ^^ of Prof A. 
L. Hichmann. Our matter on the " Arctic Kegions ^^ is translated 
from Dr. Hermann Haack's " Geographen-Kalender." For a number 
of our tables we must thank the excellent pocket books of D. K. Clark 
and Philip E. Bjorling, and we are also indebted to the Year Book 
issued by our esteemed English contemporary " Knowledge.'^ 

It is hoped that this work will save many fruitless searches through 
works of reference, as the aim of the compilers has been to obtain 
matter which is not readily available elsewhere. 

New York, October 15, 1904. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I, 



CHAPTER I. 
The Progress of Discovery 1-16 



DlTlslon Into Races. 

Total Population and Area of the 

World. 
Languages of the World. 
Progress of Discovery. 
The Distribution of Land and 

Water. 



The Cultivation of Land in all Con- 
tinents. 

The Polar Regions. 

The Antarctic. 

The Area and Population of all 
Countries. 

The Great Cities of the World. 



CHAPTER II. 
Shipping and Yachts 17-51 



Summary of Shipping. 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels. 

Large and Fast Ocean Steamers. 

Motive Power and Material of Con- 
struction. 

Foreign Carrying Trade of the 
United States. 

The Panama Route. 

Dimensions of the Largest Ocean 
Steamers 

The World's Shipping In 1903. 

The Speeds of Ocean Greyhounds. 

Record of Passengers Landed. 

The First Steamboats. 

The Largest Steamship Owners. 



Vessels having 10,000 Tons Dis- 
placement or over. 

The " Baltic." 

Comparison of Locomotives with the 
" Oceanic." 

The Supplies of the " Deutsch- 
land." 

Provisioning a Liner. 

Steam Turbines and Speed. 

The Cost of Speed. 

U. S. Life-saving Service. 

Disasters involving Loss of Life. 

Board of Life-saving Appliances. 

The Lighthouse Establishment. 

From Cruiser to Racing Machine. 



CHAPTER III. 
The Navies of the World 53-90 



Construction and Classification of 

Warships. 
Navies of the World Compared. 
Relative Strength In Materiel. 
Relative Order of Warship Strength. 
Sea Strength of the Principal Naval 

Powers. 
Number of Torpedo Vessels and 

Submarines. 
Navies of the World in Detail. 
Regulations of the Naval Academy. 



List of Ships of the Navy. 

Submarine Boats. 

The Torpedo Boat. 

Torpedoes. 

The Interior of a Battleship. 

The Turret of a Battleship. 

Submarine Mines. 

Naval Ammunition. 

Our Naval Guns in the Civil 

and To-day. 
Pay of Naval and Marine Corps. 



War 



CHAPTER IV. 
Armies of the World 91-116 



The Army of the United States. 

Foreign Armies. 

United States Military Academy. 



Springfield Magazine Rifle. 
Sixteen-inch Gun. 
Foreign Armies. 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 
Railboads of the World 117-136 



Railroads of the World. 
Railway Signals. 
Railroads of the United States. 
Street and Electric Railroads. 



Railway Gauges. 
Cape to Cairo Railway. 
Trans-Siberian Railway. 



CHAPTER VI. 
Population of the United States 



137-170 



Population of Each State. 

Official Census of the United States 

by Counties. 
How Population is Sheltered. 
Areas oi States. 
Population Liying in Cities. 
Population of Cities of 25,000 or 

over. 
Death Rates. 



Foreign Born Population. 
Population at Work. 
Indians. 

Number of Pensioners. 
Immigration. 
Labor's Death Roll. 
Acnuisition to Territory and Center 
of Population. 



CHAPTER VII. 
Education, Libraries, Printing, and Publishing 171-184 



The Value of an Education. 
Number of Students in Schools and 

Colleges. 
Libraries of the United States. 



Printing and Publishinj 

Raw and Finished Products in 

Printing. 
Libraries of the World. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Telegraphs, Telephones, Submarine Cables, Wireless Telegraphy, 

AND Signaling 185-209 



Land Lines of the World. 
Mileage of Lines and Wires. 
Morse Code. 

Statistics of Telephone Companies. 
Telegraphic Time Signals. 
Standard Time. 
Variation of Time. 
Submarine Telegraphs. 



Wireless Telegraphy. 
International Code of Signals. 
Distress Signals. 
Weather Bureau Stations. 
Distant Signals. 
Cyclones. 

Life-saving Signals. 
Weather Bureau. 



CHAPTER IX. 
Patents 211-255 



Patents In Relation to Manufac- 
tures. 

Distinguished Inventors. 

Progress of Inventions. 

General Information Regarding 
Patents. 



Abstracts of Decisions. 

Foreign Patents. 

Patent Laws of the United States. 

History of the American Patent 

System. 
Copyright Law of the United States. 



CHAPTER X. 
Manufactures 257-309 



^ 



Localization of Industries. 
Manufacturing in the United States. 
Merchandise Inoported and Exported. 
United States Trade In 1903. 
Motive Power Appliances. 



Comparative Summary of Power. 
Iron and Steel. 

Value of Agricultural Implements. 
Summary of Progress. 



CONTENTS. 



VII 



CHAPTER XI. 
Departments of the Federal Government. . . 



311-325 



Department of Justice. 
Department of State. 
Department of the Treasury. 
Department of War. 
Department of Agriculture. 
Post Office Department. 
Department or Navy. 
Department of the Interior. 
Commissioner of Patents. 
Board on Geographic Names. 



Civii Service Commission. 

National Academy of Sciences. 

Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Department of Commerce and Labor. 

Internationai Bureau of American 
Republics. 

American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

National Debts. 



CHAPTER XII. 
The Post Office 327-336 



Postal Information. 

The Postal Service of the World. 

Suggestions to the Public. 



The United States Post Office. 
Number of Post Offices. 
Government Expenditures. 



CHAPTER XIII. 
International Institutions and Bureaus 



The Nobel Prizes. 

The Pollok Prize. 

Court of Arbitration. 

Postal Union. 

Bureau of Telegraphs. 

Bureau of Weights and Measures. 

Union for the Protection of Indus- 
trial and Literary Property. 

Bureau for Repression of Slave 
Trade. 



337-342 

Union for Publication Customs 
Tariffs. 

Bureau of Railroad Transporta- 
tion. 

Bureau of Geodesy. 

Carnegie ** Hero " Commission. 

Rhodes Scholarships. 

Carnegie Institution. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
Mines and Mining 343-353 



Summary of the Mineral Production 
of the United States. 



Mines and Quarries. 
Clay Products. 



PART II. 

CHAPTER I. 
Geometrical Constructions " 399-412 



Geometrical Figures. 
Geometrical Constructions. 



The Circle. 

Formulas for the Circle. 



CHAPTER II. 
Machine Elements 413-416 



CHAPTER III. 
Mechanical Movements 417-441 



Toothed Gear. 

Friction Gear. 

Chain Gear. 

Rope Gear. 

Clutches. 

Angle Shaft Couplings and Universal 

Joints. 
Ratchet Movements. 
Escapements. 



Gearing. 

Cams and Cam Movements. 

Miscellaneous Movements. 

Drafting Devices. 

Governors. 

Springs. 

Belting. 

Types of Engines. 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



PART III. 

CHAPTER I. 
Chemistry 443-452 



Table of Elements. 
International Atomic Weights. 
Common Names of Chemical 

stances. 
Specific Gravity. 
Thermometer Scales. 
Value of Rare Elements. 
Radium and Radio-Activity. 



Sub- 



Prices of French Radium. 

Melting Points of Chemical Ele- 
ments. 

Boiling Points of Chemical Ele- 
ments. 

Heat of Combustion. 

Sizes of Dry Plates. 



i 



CHAPTER II. 
Astronomy 453-464 



Astronomical Summary. 
Astronomical Symbols and Abbrevi- 
ations. 
Solar System. 
Greek Alphabet. 



Names of the Principal Stars. 
Magnitudes and Distances of some 

of the Stars. 
Star Map of the Heavens. 
Refractors of the World. 



PART IV. 

Weights and Measures 465-500 



Linear Measure. 

Land Measure, Linear. 

Land Measure, Square. 

Geographical and Nautical Meas- 
ure. 

Cubic Measure. 

United States Dry Measure. 

United States Liquid Measure. 

Apothecaries' Liquid Measure 

Old Wine and Spirit Measure. 

Avoirdupois Weight. 

Troy Weight. 

Diamond Measure. 

Household Measures. 

Foreign Weights and Measures. 

Decimal System of Weights and 
Measures. 

Approximate Equivalent of French 
and English Measures. 

Table of Metric Measures. 

French and English Compound 
Equivalents. 

To Reduce I*arts to Weight. 

Mensuration. 

Circular . Measure. 

Angular Measure. 

Time. 

Table of Decimal Equivalents. 

Bible Weights and Measures. 

Jewish Money. 

Roman Money. 

Time and Watch on Ship. 

Specific Gravity of Stones. 

Specific Gravity of Mineral Sub- 
stances. 

Specific Gravity of Fuels. 

Specific Gravity of Woods. 

Specific Gravity of Animal Sub- 
stances. 

Specific Gravity of Vegetable Sub- 
stances. 

Specific Gravity of Liquids. 

Specific Gravity of Gases. 

T^nits of Log Measure. 

Cord Measure. 

Hardness of Minerals. 

Heat — Tts Mechanical Equivalent. 

Steam Pressure and Temperature. 



Table of Temperature. 

Expansion of Solids. 

Expansion of Liquids. 

Strength of Materials. 

Friction. 

Water. 

Air. 

Strength of Ice. 

Weight of Balls. 

Pipes. . 

Animal Power. 

Manual Power. 

Windmills. 

Force of Wind. 

Metals, Weights for Various Dimen- 
sions. 

Weight of Castings. 

Pulling Strength of Men and Ani- 
mals. 

Boiler Tubes. 

To Obtain Index of a Lathe. 

Nails. 

Rules on Gearing. 

Rules for Pulley Speed. 

Wall Paper. 

Standard Gauge for Plate. 

Electrical Engineering. 

The Ohm. 

C. G. S. Electrical Standards. 

Electromagnetic System of Electric 
Units. 

Units of Force, Pressure, Work, 
Power. 

Resistance. 

Res' stance of Metals in Standard 
Ohms. 

Heat and Electrical Conductivity. 

Resistance and Weight Tables. 

Weight per Mile of Copper Wire. 

Wire Gauges. 

Weight and Length of Iron and 
Steel Wire. 

Electrical Horse-power. 

Composition of Battery Cells. 

Table of Height and Weight. 

Table of Mortality. 

Compound Interest. 

Roman Notation. 



1 

ritSW THE RESIDENT. 


II.S.FLA6. U.SUNIONJACK 


Rt¥[NU£fLAG. BELGIUM. BRAZIL 
CMilE CBtTE. Cuba 


ECOADOR. TOAMCi.. 



CHAPTER I. 



PROGRESS OF DISCOVERT. 



DIVISIONS INTO RACES. 

Race. Location. Number. 

Indo-Germanic or Aryan Europe, Persia, India, etc 545,600,000 

MODgoIian or IVranian Urester Part of Asia 630,000.000 

Semitic or Uamitic North Africa, Arabia 65,000,000 

Negro and Bantu Central Africa 150,000,000 

Hottentot and Bushman ^outh Africa 150,000 



TOTAL AREAS AND POPULATION OF THE EARTH. 



figuare 

(1) Aaia 17,07l!999 

(2) Europe 3.824,956 

(3) Africa 11,506-785 

(41 America 15,284,872 

(5) Australia and 

Oceania 3.457.667 

(6) Polar Regions 1,656,394 

Total .... 52,802.673 



Square Tkouiand». Square Squa 



Kiiometera. 
44.21 G,.''.23 
9,90f(,C47 
29,802,603 
39,587,860 



ilile. 
820.768 48.0 
393,486 102.9 
180,321 ].'i.6 
146,432 9.5 



136,759.007 1.547,470 177, 
— Hubner'9 Geoffraphiaeh-Statisr%tc 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



3 



THE PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY. 



Date. 



B C 

140(K1250 

7 1350 

1000 

750 

700 
600 
500 

i « 

470 

330 

« • 

329-325 

290 

218 

about 120 

61-58 
since 30 

20 

15 

A.D. 

84 

150 
518-21 
671-95 

861 

865 

. 876 

985 
? 1000 

1154 

about 1200 
1253 

1271-95 

1290 
1325-52 



1327 
1415-60 
1419-20 

1442 

?1460 

1474 

1485 

1487 

1492-98 

1497-98 

1498 

1499 
< • 

1500 



1502 
1512 
1513 



Explorer and Nationality. 



Egyptians. , 
Greeks. ... 
Phoenicians . 
Greeks 



Samians 

Phoenicians 

Himilco (Cart hag.). 



Anaximander (of Miletus). 
Hecataeus (of Miletus). . . . 

Hanno (Carthag.) 

Pytheas of Massilia 

Nearchus (Macedon.) 

Alexander the Great 

Egyptians 

Romans 

Eudoxus of Cyzicus 

Romans 

Romans 



Strabo (Greek). 
Romans 



Romans 

Claudius Ptolemy ( Egypt. ) 

Hoei-sing (Chinese) 

I-tsing (Chinese) 

Norsemen 

Naddod (Norse) 



Gunnbjom (Norse). 



Erik the Red (Norse). . . . 

Lyef Erikson (son of | 

Erik the Red) f 

Edrisi (Sicily) 



Arabs 

Ruysbroek. 



Marco Polo (Venet.). 

Genoese 

Ibn Batuta (Arab.), 



Sir John Mandeville (Eng) 

Prince Henry (Port.) 

J. Gonzales and Martin I 

Vaz (Port.) r 

Nuno Tristao (Port.) 

Cintra and Costa (Port.). . 
Toscanelli (Ital.) 

Diego Cam (Port.) 

Bartholomew Diaz (Port.) 

Columbus (Gen.) 

Giovanni Cabot (Anglo- I 

Ven.) \ 

Vasco da Gama (Port.). . . 
Amerigo Vespucci (Ital.). . 

Pinzon (Span. ) 

G. Cortereal (Port.) 

Alvarez Cabral (Port.). . .. 

Columbus (Gen.) 

Ponce de Leon (Span.'). . . 
Portuguese 



Discovery or Exploration. 



Invasions of Habesh, Arabia, Phcenicia, Syria. 

Argonautic expedition to Colchis. 

Voyages to Ophir, Cades, Britain. 

Extension of Colonies in the Mediterranean and Pon- 

tus Euxinus. 
Spafai (Tartessus) discovered for the Greeks. 
Circumnavigation of Africa by order of Necho. 
Atlantic coasts of Europe. Sargasso Sea. Said to 

have visited Britain. 
Makes the first maps. 
Writes the first geography. 
West Africa as far as Cape Palmas. 
? Thule, North Sea, Scandinavia. 
Sails from the Indus to Red Sea. 
Expedition to Iran, Turan, and India. 
Navigate the East coast of Africa. 
Hannibal crosses the Alps. 
Attempts circumnavigation of Africa. 
Julius Caesar in Gaul, Germany, and Britain 
Extension of geographical knowledge and commerce 

as far as Central Asia. 
Describes Roman Empire and first mentions Thuie 

and Ireland. 
Tiberius discovers the Lake of Constance; Drusus, 

the Brenner Pass. 
Agricola circumnavigates Britain. 
Constructs his Geography and Atlas. 
Visits Pamirs and Punjab. 
Visits Java, Sumatra, and India. 
Faroe Islands. North Cape of Europe rounded. 
Discovers Iceland. Visited by Irish monks about 

795. 
Greenland coast. Rediscovered by Erik the Red 

(983). 
Colonizes Greenland. 
Discovers Newfoundland (Helluland), Nova Scotia 

(Markland), and coast of New England ( Vinland)[ ?]. 
Geographer to King of Sicily, produces his geo- 
graphy. 
Trading merchants discover Siberia. 
Reaches Karakorum, the ancient seat of the Mongol 

Empire. 
Travels in Central Asia, China, India, Persia. 
Canaries, Azores, etc. 
Travels through the whole Mohammedan World, N. 

Africa, E. Africa, ^S. Russia, Arabia, India and 

China. 
? Travels in India. 
Gives an impetus to Portuguese voyages of discovery. 

Porto Santo and Madeira discovered. 

Cape Verde, etc. 

Coast of Guinea reached 

Sends Columbus his map showing the western route 

to Cathay (China). 
Mouth of the Congo reached. 
Rounds Cape of Good Hope. 
America, West Indies, Trinidad, Cuba, etc. 
Sails along E. coast of America from Labrador as far 

as Florida. 
Route to India by Cape of Good Hope. 
Venezuela, and that America was not "part of Asia." 
Discovers mouth of R. Amazon and Cape St. Roque. 
Reaches entrance of Hudson Strait, called by him 

Strait of Anian. 
Brazil (named by him Ilha da Vera Cruz, being S. 

part of Bahia State). 
Central America on his fourth voyage. 
Florida. 
Reach the Moluccas. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY— Continued. 



Date. I Explorer and Nationality. 



A.D. 

1513 

151G 

1517 

1519-21 

1519-21 



1534 

1535 

1535-42 

1539 
about 1540 
1541 

1542 



1553 

1576 

1577-80 



1587 
1596 

1598 
1606 

1608 

1610 

1614-17 

1616 



1618 
1642 
1643 
1645 

1660 

1673 

1725-43 

1728 and '41 

1764-66 
1768-79 



1770 

1785-88 
1789 
1792 

1795-1806 
1799-1804 

1801-1804 
1803-6 

1805-9 

1807-8 

1819 

1825 

1819 



Balboa (Span.) 

Solis (Span.) 

Sebastian Cabot (Eng.). . . 

Cortez (Span.) 

Magellan (Span.) 

Pizarro (Span.) 

Diego d'Almagro (Span.). 
Jacques Cartier (Fr.) 

Francesco de UUoa (Span. ) 

French 

Pizarro and Orellana I 

(Span.) ) 

Antonio de Mota 

Ruy Lopez de Villalobos. . 

(Span.) 

Pinto (Port.) 

Sir H. Willoughby (Eng.). 

Frobisher (Eng.) 

Sir F. Drake (Eng.) 

J. Davis (Eng.) 

Barentz and Heemskerk I 

(Dut.) r 

Mendana (Span.) 

Quiros (Span.) 

Torres (Span.) 

Champlain (French) 

H. Hudson (Eng.) 

Spill bergen (Dut.) 

W. Baffin (Eng.) 

LeMaire and Schouten | 

(Dut.) ( 

Dirk Hartog (Dut.) 

G. Thompson (Eng. mer.). 

Abel Tasman (Dut.) 

Vries (Dut.) 

Deshnev (Cossack) 

French 

Marquette and Joliet (Fr ) 

Russians 

Bering (Dan.) and { 
Tisnirikov (Rus.). . . . f 

Byron ( Eng. ) 

Capt. Cook (Eng.) 

James Bruce (Scot.). .... 

Liakhov (Russian) 

La Perouse (French) 

A. Mackenzie (Scot.) 

Vancouver (Eng.) 

Mungo Park (Scot.) 

Alex, von Humboldt f 

(Ger.) f 

Flinders (Eng.) 

Krusen stern (Rus ) 

Salt (Eng.) 

Klaproth (Ger.) 

Sir E. Parry (Eng.) 

Sir J. Franklin | 

Richardson and Back >• 

(Eng.) ) 

Long (U.S.) 



Discovery or Exploration. 



Crosses Isthmus of Panama and discovers Pacific 
Ocean. 

Reaches La Plata. 

Hudson Strait. 

Conquest of Mexico. 

First to circumnavigate the globe. Passes through 
the Strait of Magellan, crosses the Pacific, and dis- 
covers the Philippines. 

Completes the Conquest of Peru. 

Conquers Chili. 

Gulf of St. Jjawrence. Ascends river to Hochelaga 
(Montreal). 

Explores Gulf of California. 

Continent of Australia seen by French sailors. 

Amazon River. 

First reaches Japan. 

Discovers Pelew Islands, and takes possession of 
Philippine Islands for Spain. 

Visits Japan. 

Novaia Zemlia. 

Labrador and Baffin Land. 

Second circumnavigation of the globe, and first saw 
Cape Horn. Explored W. coast of N. America 
nearly as far as Vancouver Archipelago. 

Davis Strait. 

Spitzbergen, Bear Islands, etc. 

Discovers Marquesas Islands. 

Tahiti (Sagittaria), and other South Sea Islands. 

Torres Strait. Dutch reach Australia. 

Discovers Lake Ontario. 

Hudson Bay and discoveries in N. America. 

Circumnavigation of the globe. 

Enters Baffin Bay. 

Round Cape Horn. 

West coast of Australia. 

Sails up Gambia. 

Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) and New Zealand. 

Explores E. coast Japan, Saghalien, and Kurile Is. 

Rounds East Cape of Asia from the Ko\ym& to the 

Anadyr. 
Lake region of the St. Lawrence discovered. 
Exploration of the Mississippi from the north. 
Exploration of the coasts of Siberia. 

Bering Strait and the NW. coast of America. 

Circumnavigation of the globe 

Voyages round the world. Hydrographical surveys 

of the Society Islands, Sandwich Islands, E. coast 

of Australia, Cook Strait in New Zealand, Antarctic 

Ocean, NW. coast of America, etc. 
Sources of the Blue Nile. 
Discovers New Siberian Islands. 
North of Japan, Saghalien, etc. 
Exploration of the Mackenzie River. 
Vancouver Island circumnavigated. Discovered by 

Perez, 1774. Exploration of NW. coast of America. 
Journeys and explorations in the Niger districts. 

Explorations in South America and "Cosmos." 

Southern coasts of Australia. 

Surveys in Sea of Japan and Sea of Okhotsk, Sagha- 
lien, etc. 
Visit to Abyssinia 
Exploration of the Caucasus. 
Parry Archipelago. 

Coppermine and Mackenzie Rivers explored. 

Exploration of Rocky Mountains 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Date. 


Explorer and Nalionality. 


Discovery or Exploration. 


1819 


Wm. Smith (Eng.) 


South Orkney Islands and South SbelUnds. Visited 
by Wedtieli in IS22. 


■■K* 


Denhsm and Clapperton ( 

A.'G,"f;^ing(8e(it.).:::,. 

i!en ■Cflillie (French). . ., 


Lake Chad. 




BiK!08(Eng.) 

Sir F,"8eh<miburgk [Qet.Y. 


Royal Geographical Society founded in London. 
Ejfto™tion''S the" Niger and Benu*. 

iss,;.?'i"d.,.„. 



3 Che radius of a threi 



6 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE PROGRESS OF DISCOVERY— Con/tnwed. 



Date. Explorer and Nationality. 



Discovery or Exploration. 



1837 

1837-40 

1839 

1839 

1840 

1841 
1841-73 
1844-45 

1845 

1848 
1849-55 

1850 

1852-4,1861 

1856-59 

1858 
» » 

1860 

1862 
1862-63 
1864-66 

1867-72 
1868-71 

1869 

1870-1886 

1871-75 

1872 

1872-76 

1872-76 

1873 
1874-75 

1876 
187&-90 

1876 

1878-79 
1878-89 

1878-85 
1878-92 

1879 

1881-85 
1885 

1886 
1887 

1893-96 

1897 
1893-97 
1895-96 

1896 
1896-98 

1897 

1897 

1898-99 

1899 

1900 

1900-02 



Wood (Eng.) 

D'Urville (French). 
J. Balleny (Eng.). . 
Eyre (Eng.) 



Trtlmmer 

Sir James C. Ross ( Eng. ). . 
D. I^ivingstone (Scot.). . . 

Leichhardt (Ger.) 

Sir John Franklin ( Eng. ). 
Rebmann and Krapf (Ger. ) 
Richardson and Barth I 

(Eng. -Ger) ( 

Sir R.M'Clure (Irish)... . 
Sir C. R. Markham ( Eng. ). 

Du ChaiHu (French) 

Sir R. Burton (Scot.). . . . 
Speke and Grant (Brit.). . 

Sir S. Baker (Eng.) 

M'Douall Stuart (Scot.). . 
W. G. Palgrave(Eng.). . . 
G. Rohlfs(Ger.) 

Richthofen (Ger.) 

G. Schweinfurth (Ger.). . . 

G. Nachtigal (Ger.) 



Prejevalsky (Rus.) 

Leigh Smith ( Eng. ) 

Payer and Weyprecht I 

(^Austrian) \ 

"Challenger" Expedi- ) 

tion(Brit.) f 

Ernest Giles 

Warburton (Irish) 

Lieut. Cameron (Eng.).. . . 

De Breeze (French) 

H. M. Stanley (Eng.) 

Sir Geo. Nares and I 

A. H. Markham (Eng.) I 

Nordenskjold (Swed.). . . . 

Thomson (Scot.) 



Major Serpa Pinto (Port.).! 
Emin Pasha (Ger.) | 

I 

Moustier and Zweifel { 

(Swiss) ) I 

Greely (U. S.) \ 

Wiesmann (Ger.) 

Junker (Rus.-Ger.) \ 

Peary (U. S.) I 

Capt. Yo unghusbandl ! 

(Eng.) (■ 

Nansen (Norw.) 

Jackson (Scot.) 

Sven Hedin (Swed.) 

Pr. Henri d'Orl^ans 

Donaldson Smith (Scot.).. 

CaT)t. Marchand 

Andr^e (Swed.) 



D. Carnegie 

De Gerlache (Belgian).. . . 

Major Gibbons 

Borchgrevink (Brit. Ex.). 
Duke of Abruzzi (Ital.). . . 
Sven Hedin (Swed.) 



Sources of the Oxus. 

Ad^lie Land. Reached 66*' 30' S. lat. 

Balleny Islands, 66° 4V S. lat. 

Discovers Lake Torrens, S. Australia, and in 1841 

journeys from Adelaide to King George's Sound. 
Remains of ancient Nineveh. 
Victoria Land, with volcanoes Erebus and Terror. 
Thirty years* travel in Central South Africa. 
Cros.ses Australia, Moreton Bay to Port Essington. 
Sails on his last voyage never to return. 
Mt. Kilima Njaro. Sighted Mt. Kenia. 

Western Sudan and Sahara. 

Northwest Passage. 

Explorations in Peru. 

Basin of Ogowp River, W. Africa 

Lake Tanganyika 

Victoria Nyanza. 

Explores Lpper Nile. Discovers Albert Nyanza, 1864. 

Crossed Australia. 

Journeys in Central and Eastern Arabia. 

Journey in W. Sudan by Ghadames, Murzuk, and 

Wadai to R. Niger. 
Extensive travel and exploration in China. 
Exploration of the Jur, Niam-Niam, and Monbuttu 

countries. 
Explorations in Lake Chad region and Central Sudan 

States. 
Journeys in Mongolia, Tibet, etc. 
Exploration of N. part of Spitzbergen. Vaigats Is. 

Franz Josef Land. 

Explores the depths of the oceans. 

Traverses Northwest Australia. 
Crosses Western Australia from East to West. 
Crosses Equatorial Africa. 
Explorations in the Ogowd and Gabun region. 
Congo Basin; Mt. Ruwenzori; Forests on the Ani- 
,wimi, etc. 

Grant Land. Penetrated as far N. as 83° 20' lat. 

Northeast passage. 

Journeys through Masai Land, British South Africa, 

Sokoto, Morocco, etc. 
Twice crosses Africa. 
Travels and Surveys in Equatorial Africa. Discovery 

of Semliki River, etc. 

Sources of the Niger. 

Grinnell Land and NE. coast of Greenland. 
Across Africa from West coast, Congo Basin. 
Welle-Mobangi, etc. 
North Greenland. 

Travels from Pekin to Kashmir. 

Hviotenland, etc.; reached his "Farthest North" in 

lat. 86° 13' 6" N. 
Surveys and explorations in Franz Josef Land. 
Explorations in North Central Asia. 
Travels in Tonkin and China. 
Explores region of Lake Rudolf. 
Travels from Upper Mobangi to Fashoda. 
Attempt to cross over the North Pole in a balloon, 

with fatal results. 
Crosses Western Australia from S. to N. 
"Belgica," first ship to winter within Antarctic circle. 
Explorations in Congo and Zambezi headwaters. 
Reached lat. 78° 50' S. via Victoria Land. 
Reached lat. 86° 33' N. via Franz Josef Land. 
Important Journey in (!)entral Asia. 



■Ba^thclomew's AtUu, 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



3 SURFACE APD THE DIVISION 



B SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RErBRBNCB BOOK. 

TOTAL AREAS AND FOPULATION OF THE POLAR RBQIONS. 

SquflPB In 

Bqusre KUo- Thou- 

MiLes. meten. unds. 

(2) Danf/h"pi»«B3li>iiE on' Ure^ 

(3) Brilbb poraensions: 



u Jn^ Tib* 







ii' 


0.3 


O.V 


SOZ.SM 
1.S73 


1.301.100 
4,075 


..'. 


.''.■.™ 


0.00 


14^95 


38,580 








1.656,391 


4,290.0aS 


13 


0.3 


0.1 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



9 



THE POLAR REGIONS. 



National emulation, more particu- 
larly since the great success of Nan- 
sen, seems to have played the chief 
role in all the recent researches un- 
dertaken in the vicinity of the poles. 

No fewer than three expeditions were 
organized in 1902 for the main purpose 
of reaching the North Pole. Otto 
Sverdrup, the Norwegian, with Nan- 
sen's old ship, the "Frarn," started in 
through Smith Sound ; Lieut. Robert 
E. Peary, of the United States navy, 
pursued a like course ; while Mr. E. B. 
Baldwin, also an American, selected 
Franz Josef Land as his point of de- 
parture, although Prince Luigl, of Sa- 
voy, had only just vainly attempted it. 

The expedition led by Capt. Sver- 
drup was incontestably the most suc- 
cessful, says Dr. Herman Haack in his 
Geographen Kalender. As early as 
1898 his expedition was already under 
way. He spent the first winter north 
of Cape Sabine, where, by means of 
extended sledge journeys, he explored 
the fiords of Hayes Sound, in 
the following spring even advancing 
as far as the west coast of Elles- 
mereland. Finding the ice condi- 
tions no more favorable in 1899 
than in the previous summer, he 
abandoned forthwith his former plan 
and fixed upon Jones Sound as the 
starting point for his investigations, 
in the hope of finding on the we'st 
coast of Ellesmereland a better and 
freer water course to the north than 
the narrow neck of Smith Sound can 
afford, which is so easily obstructed by 
the pack ice from the Pole. Sverdrup 
met with difficulties in Jones Sound 
also, for he could push no farther 
forward than Inglefeld had reached in 
1852, and so he took up his second 
winter quarters at the point where the 
coast of Ellesmereland seemed to bend 
northward, under north latitude 76 
deg. 29 min. and west longitude 84 
deg. 24 min. 

The sledge journeys of the fall of 
that year established the fact that 
Ellesmereland extended much farther 
westwafd than was supposed, and was 
separated from North Kent only by 
the Belcher Channel, a small arm of 
the sea. In the spring of 1900 Sver- 
drup continued the exploration of the 
west coast of Ellesmereland, where he 
discovered a deep fiord, while his as- 
sistant, Isachsen, examined a large 
body of land lying to the west of it. 
The "Fram" being free from ice in 



August, the passage through Jones 
Sound was continued, but the ship 
was soon fast again in the Belcher 
Channel near the westernmost point of 
Ellesmereland, and Sverdrup estab- 
lished his third winter quarters under 
latitude 76 deg. 48 min. and longitude 
89 deg. The fall of 1900 and the 
spring of 1901 were devoted to sledge 
journeys. 

Sverdrup himself continued his ex- 
ploration of Ellesmereland, examining 
anew and more thoroughly the fiord 
which he discovered the year before, 
after which he turned northward and 
succeeded in reaching the most west- 
erly point occupied by him in the 
spring of 1899, to which he had then 
proceeded from Smith Sound. 

Isachsen proceeded westward and 
discovered north of North Cornwall 
two larger islands, exploring their 
southern coasts till they turned to- 
ward the north. Under latitude 79 
deg. 30 min. and longitude 106 deg., 
he reached his farthest western limit, 
from which point neither to the west 
nor to the north was any land visible, 
and from the character of the floating 
ice it was not probable that any land 
existed in either direction. In July of 
that year the north coast of North 
Devon was explored in boats. 

All attempts to get the "Fram" out 
of the ice having failed, Sverdrup was 
compelled to pass- a fourth winter in 
1901-2 in this region, during which 
other extended sledge journeys were 
undertaken. Following the west coast 
of Ellesmereland, Sverdrup attempted 
to reach 80 deg. 16 min, N., 85 deg. 33 
rain. W., the farthest point attained by 
Lieut. Aldrich, of the English Polar 
Expedition of 1875-76, on the west 
coast of Grinnell Land, coming down 
from the north. He was not success- 
ful, however, though he penetrated as 
far north as 80 deg. 37 min., which 
was but a short distance from the goal. 
Sledge journeys undertaken by other 
participants in the expedition resulted 
in the exploration of the west coast of 
North Devon. In the beginning of 
August, 1902, when the "Fram" was 
again free from ice, Sverdrup started 
immediately upon his homeward way, 
reaching Stavanger on the 19th of Sep- 
tember. The chief result of this ex- 
pedition was the discovery of large 
land areas west of Ellesmereland, and 
since the discovery of Franz Josef 
Land no such extension of our know!- 



10 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



edge of these regions has been sig- 
nalized. 

Lieut. Robert N. Peary. I^. S. N., 
conceived a plan of reaching the North 
Pole by sledge journeys, accompanied 
by no one but Esquimaux and his 
black servant Henson. For this pur- 
pose it became necessary to establish, 
well to the south, a* point of departure 
that could be reached every year by a 
ship, which could supply fresh pro- 
visions and new outfittings, that were 
to be pushed toward the north and de- 
posited in caches along the coast. The 
weak point of the scheme lay in the 
fact that the advance to the farthest 
points already reached required so 
much time for so small a sledge 
crew that further penetration into 
the unknown must be undertaken 
at an advanced season of the 
year, when the stability of the ice 
made such a movement questionable. 
The winter of 1898-99 Peary passed at 
Etah, on the eastern shore of Smith 
Sound, in order to interest the abo- 
rigines in his plan, buy dogs, and per- 
fect other preparations. After his 
ship, the ** Windward," reached him 
with fresh supplies in the fall of 1899, 
he was transported to Cape Sabine, 
which he had fixed upon as the start- 
ing point and base of the expedition. 
Here he passed the winter of 1809- 
1900. In the spring of 1900 he under- 
took a sledge journey straight across 
Ellesmereland, and in the fall of that 
year established a line of depots to- 
ward the north. In the spring of 1901 
he made the first energetic move to- 
ward the Pole, which led him from 
Grant Land in the direction of Green- 
land. He passed the most northern 
point, 83 deg. 24 min., reached by 
Lockwood in the Greely expedition of 
1882, and fixed, under latitude 83 deg. 
39 min., the northern extremity of 
Greenland. He followed the coast to- 
ward the east until it began to bend 
decidedly to the southeast in the direc- 
tion of Independence Bay, thus estab- 
lishing the insular nature of Green- 
land. 

On his return he made a dash for 
the north and reached 83 deg. 50 min., 
the highest point thus far attained on 
the American side of the polar archi- 
pelai?o. During the spring of 1902, 
Peary even exceeded this. Starting 
from Cape Hekla, the northernmost 
point of Grant Land, he proceeded over 
the ice as far as 84 deg. 17 min., while 
Capt. Markham, in 1876, succeeded 
only in reaching 83 deg. 20 min. from 
this side. From the European side, 



however, Capt. Cagni, of the Italian 
expedition, starting from Franz Josef 
Land, attained the advanced position 
of 86 deg. 34 min. 

Peary was obliged to make his dash 
in April, and, as was the case with 
Markham, he found the ice in a very 
unsatisfactory condition ; the immense 
hummocks of compressed drift-ice in- 
creased the difficulties of travel for 
both dogs and men. There were no 
traces, however, of the unchangeable 
paleocrystic ice mentioned by Slark- 
ham, for on the return Peary met with 
numerous open places and channels 
which caused serious delays. No land 
was visible to the north of either 
Greenland or Grant Land. In spite of 
the unsuccessful termination of his ex- 
pedition, Peary is still convinced that 
the best point of departure is from the 
American side of the archipelago, and^ 
moreover, that, with an early start 
from Grant Land, the Pole may be 
reached by sledge. Though Sverdrup 
and Peary added to our knowledge of 
the Polar regions, the third expedition 
fitted out by Mr. Ziegler, an American, 
and under the direction of Mr. Bald- 
win, who started from Franz Josef 
Land for the Pole, was closed without 
definite results. Several small islands 
were discovered; the hut in which 
Nansen and Johansen lived in 1895-(> 
was again found ; some scientific 
events were noted ; meteorological 
sketches and photographs of the 
Nbrthern Lights were made, and yet 
the finality of the expedition was a 
fiasco. No earnest attempt to reach 
the Pole was made. Serious friction 
between Baldwin and Fridtjof, the 
sailing master of the expedition, is re- 
sponsible for the unsuccessful termina- 
tion. 

Among the most important of the 
Polar expeditions is that led by Baron 
Toll, a Russian, for the discovery and 
exploration of the island either exist- 
ing or supposed to exist to the north 
of the New Siberian Islands. Having 
twice before, in 1886 and 1894, visited 
the northernmost of these islands. Toll 
left Europe again in 1900 in the steam- 
ship "Sarja" upon a similar quest. 
IJpon entering the Sea of Kars^ he did 
not pick up the ship which was bring- 
ing him coal, and since both the con- 
dition of the ice and the open sea were 
favorable to his designs, he preferred 
not to wait for it. Cape Tfecheljuskin, 
the extreme northern point of Asia, 
and the intended termination of the 
first summer's journey, was not 
reached, but the condition of the ice 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



11 



compelled him to put into Colin-Archer 
haven, at the entrance to the Taimyr 
Straits, on September 26, where he 
passed the winter. 

Failing in two attempts to gain the 
mouth of the Jenissei by crossing the 
land. Lieutenant Kolomeizoff finally 
reached it by following the coast. Dur- 
ing the spring of 1901, the extent of 
Taimyr Bay was carefully explored 
upon sleds, and through the discovery 
of the hut in which Lapten spent the 
winter of 1840-1, as well as by reach- 
ing the most northern station of the 
Middendorf expedition of 1843, the 
mouth of the Taimyr River was def- 
initely fixed. The "Sarja" could not 
proceed till August 25. Cape Tschel- 
juskin was safely rounded and the 
course set for the location where, ac- 
cording to Toirs observation in 1886, 
the distant Polarland, seen as early as 
1811 by Sannikow, to the north of 
Kotelny, ought to be. This point was 
passed without sighting the supposed 
land, and a few miles before reaching 
Cape Emma, the southernmost point 
on Bennett Island, discovered by the 
"Jeannette" expedition, the ice became 
so packed that further progress north- 
ward was impossible. On the return 
voyage the ship cruised again in the 
vicinity of the supposed Sannikow. 
land, but without sighting it. On Sep- 
tember 24, .1901, the "Sarja" froze in 
at the island of Kotelny, in Nerpitscha 
Bay, where the expedition passed the 
winter. Whether or not Sannikow 
and Toll were deceived as to what they 
saw cannot yet be determined. It is 
quite possible that they may have mis- 
calculated the distance and that the 
island may lie farther north in a sec- 
tion not touched even by Nansen's 



drift in the "Fram" during the long 
winter night of his journey in 1893-4. 
Being unable to get coal from the Lena 
River, the "Sarja" became unfit for 
long journeys ; accordingly Toll re- 
solved upon sledge journeys to the 
north, similar to those undertaken 
from the "Fram" by Nansen. The 
geologist, Birula, began such a journey 
May 11, intending to explore the larg- 
est of the New Siberian Islands. On 
June 5 Toll followed him, accompanied 
by the astronomer Seeberg and two 
Jakuts, but touched only at the north- 
ernmost point, Cape Wyssoki, which 
he left on July 13, crossing the ice for 
Bennett Island. Toll left Lieut. F. 
Mattheissen in charge of the "Sarja," 
but August 21 arrived before any 
earnest effort could be made to proceed 
to New Siberia and Bennett Land to 
bring back the sledge parties. About 
Kotelny and Faddejew the ice was so 
thick that these islands could be passed 
neither to the north nor the south, and 
since the open season was fast drawing 
to a close, Mattheissen brought the 
"Sarja" back to the Lena, where he 
anchored in the bay of Tiksi Septem- 
ber 8. Being too deep of draft to 
steam up the river, the "Sarja" was 
abandoned, and the crew, together 
with the scientific collection and in- 
struments, were transferred to Jakutsk 
on the small steamer "Lena." 

It was expected that Toll and Bi- 
rula would return to the mainland at 
the beginning of winter, but Birula re- 
turned in 1903, in good health, without 
having seen Toll. Perhaps the condi- 
tion of the ice between Bennett Land 
and New Siberia prevented Toll's re- 
turn, and it was held that he would at- 
tempt it again in the spring of 1903. 



THE GREAT [LAURENTIAN] LAKES. 



Lakes. 



Superior 

Huron (with Georgian Bay) 

St. Clair 

Erie 

Ontario 

Michigan 



Length, 
Miles. 


Breadth, 
Miles. 


Area, 
Sq. Miles. 


Height 

above Sea. 

Feet. 


390 


160 


31.420 


602i 


400 


160 


24,000 


57fr 


25 


25 


360 


570 

566- 


250 


60 


10.000 


190 


52 


7.330 


240 


345 


58 


25,590 


578i 



Lake Michigan is wholly within the United States and is connected 
with Lake Huron by the Strait of Mackinaw. 

— Statisticcd Year Book of Canada. 



12 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ANTARCTIC EXPLORATIONS. 



Though the quest of the North Pole 
has monopolized the world's attention 
for more than a century, it has of late 
not been entirely without a rival. 
The British expedition broke the 
farthest-south record by reaching the 
latitude of 82 deg. 17 min. Mr. Borch- 
grevink previously held the record at 
78 deg. 51 min. 



THE BRITISH EXPEDITION 

sailed from London in July, 1901, on 
the Discovery, under command of Oapt. 
Scott, R. N. Fearful lest the currents 
might destroy the expedition, a rescu- 
ing party was dispatched in 1902 un- 
der Lieut. William Colbeck, who took 
part in the Borchgrevink South Polar 
expedition. The rescuers on the Morn- 




MAP OP THE ANTARCTIC REGIONS. 

— Bartholomew* 8 Atlas (with additions.) 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



13 



ing left Wellington, December 6, 1902, 
and returned to the same place March 
25, 1903, bringing reports of the suc- 
cessful work of the main expedition. 
The Discovery reached Cape Adare, 
the northernmost point of Victoria 
Land, January 9, 1902, and followed 
the coast south ; from Mt. Erebus the 
ship skirted the wall of ice, discovered 
by Ross, as far as longitude 165 deg. 
E., where it turned more to the north. 
Behind the ice wall reared the high- 
lands covered with glaciers which Ross 
had sighted. 

Under 67 deg. N. and 152 deg. 30 
min. E. the ship reached its farthest 
point, whence it returned to Victoria 
Land to go into winter quarters in 
MacMurdo Bay, near the volcano Mt. 
Erebus, in longitude 174 deg. E. 

Sledge journeys began in September, 
1902. The one led by Captain Scott 
marched for three months, attaining a 
point under 82 deg. 17 min., which sur- 
passed Borchgrevink's 78 deg. 50 min. 
by nearly 3^ deg. A second sledge 
party, commanded by Lieutenant Armi- 
tage, turned westward of Erebus, and 
during a march of fifty-two days 
reached an elevation of 9,000 feet. This 
is the more noteworthy since all the 
dogs died, supposedly from spoiled pro- 
visions. The Morning found the Dis- 
covery still in winter quarters, and 
when the rescuers departed the Dis- 
covery seemed still fast in the ice. 

Late in 1903 the Morning and the 
whaler Terra Nova were refitted and 
started on a second expedition to the 
relief of the Discovery. The latter 
was found on February 14 and the 
three vessels returned to Lyttleton, 
New Zealand, on April 1, 1904. Among 
the chief results of the expedition was 
the discovery that Mount Erebus and 
Mount Terror are on a small island, 
and that there is a large land mass 
lying west and southwest of the ice 
barrier, with ice plateaus 9,000 feet 
in height and peaks which reach to 
14,000. It was discovered that the ice 
barrier is afloat, though fed from land, 
and that high land lies to the southeast 
of the hitherto unknown extremity of 
the barrier. 

THE GERMAN EXPEDITION, 

which entered the ice-pack south of the 
Indian Ocean on February 13, 1902, 
left it on April 9, 1903, and returned 
from a voyage highly fruitful of scien- 
tific results, although not comparable 
with the voyage of the Discovery in 
sensational experiences. Incidentally 
it has swept away the Termination 
Land of Wilkes, passed the winter in 



the close pack, carried out numerous 
and important sledge journeys, discov- 
ered new land (called Kaiser Wilhelm 
II. Coast), and actually reached land 
in the solitary peak called the Grauss- 
berg. Balloons were used successfully 
during the expedition. The farthest 
south was 66 deg. 2 min., and the 
ship was frozen for many months in 
ice 30 feet thick. 

THE SWEDISH EXPEDITION, 

under Captain Otto Nordenskjold, left 
Europe in October, 1901, and entered 
the Antarctic regions in February, 
1902. The ship returned from the 
Falkland Islands to Graham's Land in 
March, 1902, went south again in the 
southern summer of 1902-1903. With 
the assistance of the Swedish govern- 
ment the Norwegian steamer Frithjof 
was dispatched for the relief of the 
Antarctic, whose commander, by the 
way. is Captain Larsen, well known 
for nis Antarctic voyage in the Jason. 
To the Republic of Argentine, which 
sent the gunboat Uraguay, belongs the 
honor of having rescued the Swedish 
expedition, which was found at Snow 
Hill on Louis Philippe Land in des- 
perate straits, their vessel having been 
crushed by the ice and sunk on Febru- 
ary 12, 1903. 

THE SCOTTISH EXPEDITION, 

on the Scotia, under the command of 
Mr. W. S. Bruse (formerly of the 
Jackson-Harmsworth expedition), set 
sail on November 3, 1902, for what is 
known as the Weddell quadrant of the 
Antarctic regions, with the intention 
of following in the wake of Captain 
Jas. Weddell, who reached a high 
southern latitude in open sea. This 
route was advisedly selected, as the 
Scottish expedition is devoting its at- 
tention to oceanographical work. Cap- 
tain Robertson, the well-known whal- 
ing skipper, commanded the Scotia. 
Contrary to expectation, the Scotia 
wintered in the ice, and no further 
news of her has yet been received. 

THE FRENCH EXPEDITION, 

under the command of Dr. Charcot, 
sailed from Havre in August, 1903, to 
explore Alexander Land. The origi- 
nal plan of the expedition was to ex- 
plore Nova Zembla, but just then the 
Swedish expedition was causing a 
great deal of anxiety, and it was de- 
cided to direct the expedition toward 
the South Pole in search of Norden- 
skjold. The rescue of the Swedish ex- 
pedition then left Dr. Charcot free to 
make explorations in Antarctic re- 
gions. 



14 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AREA AND POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 

COMMERCE WITH 

Revised and Corrected by the Bureau of 



Countries. 



Argentina 

Australasia: Commonwealth. . . 

New Zealand 

Austria-Hungary 

Austria 

Himgary 

Bel|:ium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

British colonies, n. e. s 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Central America: Costa Rica.. . 

Guatemala. . . 

Honduras. . . , 

Nicaragua- . . 

San Salvador. 
Chile 



China. . . . 
Colombia. 
Cuba 



Denmark 

Ecuador 

Egypt » 

Finland 

France 

Algeria 

Tunis 

French colonies, n. e. s. 

French East Indies *. . , 
German Empire 

German colonies 

Greece 

Haiti 

India, British ^ 

Italy. 



Japan 

Formosa 

Korea 

Mexico 

Netherlands. . . .' 

Dutch East Indies. 

Norway 

Paraguay 

Persia 

Peru 

Portugal 

Roumania 

Russia 

Santo Domingo 

Servia 

Siam 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United Kingdom 

United States 

Philippine Islands. 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 



Total 41,414,336 



Area and Population. 







Popula- 


Area. 


Population. 


tion per 

Square 

Mile. 


Sq. Miles. 






1,135,840 


4.794.000 


4.22 


2,972,573 


3,772,000 


1.27 


104,761 


788,000 


7.52 


241,333 


45,405,000 


188.14 


2» 115,903 


2« 26,151,000 


225.63 


2* 125,430 


2» 19,254,000 


153.51 


11,373 


6,694,000 


588.59 


703,604 


1,816,000 


2.58 


3,219,000 


14.334,000 


4.45 


951,333 


14,434,000 


15.17 


38.080 


3,744,000 


98.33 


3.048,710 


5,457,000 


1.79 


23.000 


313,000 


13.61 


46,774 


1,647,000 


35.21 


46,250 


775,000 


16.76 


49,200 


w 500,000 


10.16 


7,225 


1,007,000 


139.38 


279,901 


3,051,000 


10.90 


1,632,420 


407,253.000 


265.76 


604,773 


» 4,000,000 


7.92 


43,000 


1,573,000 


36.58 


15.360 


2,465.000 


160.48 


116,000 


1.204,000 


10.38 


383,900 


9,734,000 


25.36 


144,255 


2,744,000 


19.02 


207,054 


38.962,000 


188.17 


184,474 


4,739,000 


25.69 


51,000 


1,900,000 


37.25 


3,376,602 - 


26,427,000 


7.83 


461,196 


18,346,000 


39.78 


208,830 


58,549,000 


280.36 


1,025,829 


13,543.000 


13.20 


25,014 


2,434,000 


97.31 


10,204 


1,294,000 


126.81 


1,766,642 


294.361.000 


166.62 


110,646 


32,475,000 


293.50 


147,655 


45,862,000 


310.60 


13,458 


2,706.000 


201.07 


84,400 


» 12,000,000 


142.18 


767,060 


13,545.000 


17.65 


12.563 


5,347,000 


425.61 


736.400 


35,736.000 


48.53 


124.130 


2,263.000 


18.23 


97.722 


636,000 


6.51 


628,000 


» 9,500,000 


15.13 


713.859 


4,610,000 


6.46 


36,038 


5,429,000 


150.65 


50,700 


5.913,000 


116.63 


8,660,395 


141,000,000 


16.28 


18,045 


610.000 


33.80 


18,630 


2,636,000 


136.12 


236,000 


5,000,000 


21.19 


194,783 


18,618.000 


96.68 


172,876 


5,199,000 


30.07 


15,976 


3.356,000 


210.07 


1,115,046 


24,932,000 


22.36 


121,371 


41,961,000 


345.73 


8« 3,025,600 


80,372,000 


26.56 


115.000 


7,590,000 


66.00 


72,210 


959,000 


13.28 


593.940 


2,445,000 


4.12 


41,414.336 


1,508,659,000 





^ Exclusive of intercolonial commerce, but including gold and silver. * Including gold 
* French Africa. ® Includes French possessions in India and French Indo-China, viz.. 
the feudatory States. * Included under Sweden. 8« Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

OF THE WORLD, THEIR TOTAL FOEEION COMMERCE, AND 
THE UNITED STATES. 

StatiBticB. DepsrtmeDt of Commerce Bad Labor. 





Toragc 


Commerce. 






Commerce with the 
L'niteJ atatea. 








Exonaaf 


Exports from 


Imports into 


Year. 




Erporta. 


Ei 




Unfted Sutea 


United StAIes 












from. 




Dnllari. 


Dollar,. 




DMar,. 


DoUan. 


Dollar, 




99,133,000 


173.206.000 


+ 


73,772,000 


9,808,529 


10,306,373 








1 213,713.000 


+ 


10,069,000 


28.101.784 


' 13,845,001 


1902 


'SSjai 




= 66.403.000 










IMZ 


349,228 


000 


388,4*0.000 


+ 


39:232:000 


6.672,580 


10,003.348 
















■■■\«B-- 


'm.m 


wo' 


37V,626,660 ' 








""liw.m" 


1902 


S,5ST 


000 


11.070.000 


+ 


00 


6.92s 


1.731 




113,288 


NX) 


177,323,000 




00 


11,1 5,565 


71,583,086 


1fi02 


«*57C 










S7,SS6,757 


22.875.024 


1902 


13,751 




20:011:000 










'1903 


2Z4:aH 


WO 


196.18 ,000 




00 


■ " ■ 123, ■72:41s 


■■■54. 00:410" 


1902 




MO 


5,66 ,000 


4- 


00 


1,897,043 


3.291.54B 


1900 


3l01! 












2. 90.145 


1902 


1872 










''9«i:96! 


1, 36.220 


1901 


2,18i 


WO 


3,24 ,000 


+ 


00 


1,3S4,51S 


2, 99.313 






WO 


3,92 ,000 




00 


158,320 


583.459 


1903 


43 [331! 










3, 53,222 


7, 55.839 


190a 


I9S364 


»0 


134:72 :ooo 








28, 82,113 


18M 


10.MJ 


MO 


1S,48 .000 


+ 




2: 23:401 




•1903 


5S,820 


WO 


77,S4 ,000 




00 


21, 69,572 


62,341,942 


1903 


11«,726 




8S,73 .000 






14, 12,900 


68,494 


1903 


7029 










1, 17,850 


1,823,166 


1902 


73,22! 


WO 


87:08i:000 




00 




10,854,628 
















') 




S4g!02e 




820! 67 1: 000 








87.895,253 


1902 


M.228 


WO 


60,801,000 




00 




5 461,102 


1901 


12,483 


WO 


7,551,000 




00 








4fi,8ai 




35,806,000 






2.785,418 


1,088.493 








40,677,000 








3,873 


1902 


1.340;i7S 


WO 


1,113,313,000 




00 


174,264:495 


111,999,904 


1901 




WO 


4,497,000 




00 


30,949 








WO 










1,229,144 




S'.SK 












1,127,641 


1902-3 


2S5,«14 


WO 


408:396:000 






4:SS6:«S3 


61,831,665 


1902 


342:71f 


wo 


284,177.000 




00 


33135512 


33,612,864 








127,326,000 






21,622,603 


40,597,682 




'^;^t 




6,881.000 












6744 

74;e9( 




4 142 000 






42,227:786 




>\m 


wo 


88,200.000 




00 


" 's'um.mi' 


1902 


887,308 








00 


74,576.164 


20,899,588 




86,894 




98:72^:000 








15,313,948 


1902 


77.779 




45.687,000 






(') ■ 


(') 


1902 


2,27( 


wo 


3.787,000 




00 


14,815 


3,890 
































2;82M93 ■ 


1902 


e(SM4 


wo 


30:710:000 




00 


2.915:897 


3.229,818 


1902 


5A.m 


wo 


2,340,000 


+ 


00 


138.615 
















7.S18.in 


7,262,757 








s:22 4:000 








3,361,319 


1902 


8.6S0 


000 


13,920.000 




00 






1M2 


15.7^ 


wo 


21.103,000 


+ 


JM 












161,297,000 








8;7S7:62V 


1902 


134:60; 




105 m. 000 




29:451:000 


a. 3o:i37 


4,193,307 


1902 


217.803 


000 


168.741.000 




49,062,000 


203.357 






117.134 


xw 








354.457 


2,359,830 




2,S71.4ia 




1.379:283:000 


- 


,192:133:000 




180,249,111 


*lt03 


1. 025,7 1( 




1.392.231.000 


+ 


360,512,000 






M903 


32:07; 


xw 


33:122:000 


+ 


150:000 


4,038:eO9' 


■■■■ii,372;58V* 


1902 














2,830,089 


1SSS 


8:S6( 


xw 


14:000:000 


+ 


6:340:000 


2:736:720 


6,609,919 




11,621,366.000 


10.266,M7,000 




,3547690^ 


1,356,911.5.925 _ 


1,003.221,820 


■nd rilver. 




in total. ' 


iw 


enHins Jun 


e 3a ' Inelude. 


under Ru»ia. 


Cochin Ch. 


na. Tonkin 


Ann 




nil 


Laos. ' 1 


cludinB area an 


d populalion of 



16 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 













CHAPTER n. 



SHIPPII^G AI^D TACHT8 



SUMMARY OF SHIPPING. 



The growth of our merchant marine 
is slow, and is in no sense commensu- 
rate with our phenomenal advance- 
ment in manufactures and commerce. 
At the same time, it is a fact worthy 
of note that the documented tonnage 
of the United States on June 30, 1903, 
for the first time in our history exceed- 
ed 6,000,000 gross tons register, com- 
prising 24,425 vessels of 6,087,345 
gross tons. These figures do not in- 
clude 1,828 yachts of 74,990 gross tons. 
The total shipping of the United King- 
dom for 1902 was 20,258 vessels, of 
15,357,052 gross tons (vessels of Brit- 
ish colonies number 15,533 of 512,268 
net tons). On January 1, 1902, the to- 
tal shipping of the German Empire was 
6,024 vessels of 3,503,551 gross tons. 
The shipping of the United Kingdom 
and Germany is largely employed in 
developing foreign trade. The ship- 
ping of the United States is almost 
wholly a part of our domestic trans- 
portation system. On June 30, 1903, 
5,141,037 gross tons were engaged in 
transportation and coastwise trade, 
879,264 gross tons were devoted to 
foreign trade, and 67,044 to fisheries. 
The distribution of our tonnage on- 
June 30, 1903, was : Atlantic Ocean, 
3,157,373 gross tons; Pacific Ocean, 
812.179 gross tons ; the Great Lakes, 
1,902,698 gross tons ; Mississippi sys- 
tem, 215,01)5 gross tons. Our ship- 
ping on the Pacific has increased more 
rapidly than on the Atlantic. In re- 
gard to motive power, 3,408,088 gross 
tons were propelled by steam, and 1,- 
965,924 gross tons were sailing ves- 
sels, and 713,333 gross tons of canal- 
boats and barges were variously pro- 
pelled. As regards the materials of 
construction, 2,440,247 gross tons were 
of iron and steel construction, and 3,- 
647,098 gross tons were of wood. The 
following table shows the geographical 
distribution, motive power, and ma- 
terial of construction of American 
shipping June 30, 1903. 



17 



American Shipping. 


Number. 


Gross 
Tonnage. 


OEOORAPUICAL DIS- 
TRIBUTION. 

Atlantic and Gulf coasts . 
Porto Rico 


17,218 

59 

2,575 

69 

3,110 

1,394 


3,149,711 
7,662 


Pacific coast 


775,869 


Hawaiian Islands 

Northern lakes 


36,320 
1,902,638 


Western rivers 


215,035 






Total 


24,425 

16,187 
184 


6,087,345 


POWER AND MATERIAL. 

Sail: 

Wood 


2,391,017 


Iron and steel 


288,240 


Total 


16,371 

6,675 
1,379 


2,679,257 


Steam : 

Wood 


1,256,081 


Iron and steel 


2,152,007 


Total 


8,054 

695 
2,840 


3,418,088 


Canal boats 


78,406 


Barges 


634,927 






Total 


3,535 

847 
191 
123 
150 


713,333 


CONSTRUCTION DURING 
THE YEAR 1903. 

Geographical distribtUion, 

Altantic and Gulf coasts . 
Pacific coast. ' 


244,860 
43,336 


Northern lakes 


136,844 


Western rivers 


11,112 






Total 

Power and material. 
Sail: 

Wood 


1,311 

466 
4 

451 

100 

19 

267 
4 


436,152 
77,795 


Steel 


12,184 


Steam : 

Wood 


31,674 


Iron and steel 

Canal boats 


240,107 
2,215 


Barges : 

Wood 


66,249 


Steel 


5,928 






Total 


1.311 


436,152 



18 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



During the years 1902 and 1903, 
nearly 100,000 tons of large ocean-go- 
ing steamers have been added to our 
registered fleet. 

The subject of the losses of* vessels 
from various causes is a most impor- 
tant one. During the year ending 
June 30, 1903. 487 vessels of 107,084 
gross tons were reported. The num- 
ber and rig of vessels lost is shown 
by the annexed table : 



nearby countries. The excellent light- 
house system of the American coast and 
care in navigation have, however, over- 
come liability to accident from the na- 
ture 'of our trade along the coasts. 
Collision differs totally from stranding 
in that, for its prevention, onie must 
look to the navigating officers. The 
figures show that superior care and in- 
telligence are possessed by the navi- 
gating officers of American steamers. 



Rig. 


Stranded. 

21 
153 

7 

ISl 


Collision. 


Fire. 


Foun- 
dered. 


Aban- 
doned. 


Total. 


Steam 


8 

25 

3 


49 

61 

2 

112 


28 

107 

ll9 




106 


SaU 


13 


35Q 


Unriggied 


22 






13 




Total 


36 


145 


487 



The very heavy percentage of loss 
of steamers by fire discloses unsatis- 
factory attention to duty in the hold 
or insufficient fire apparatus, or both. 
The table given includes lost American 
vessels of all sizes on the rivers and 
lakes of the country, as well as salt 
water. For comparison of the relative 
losses of the merchant shipping of the 
United States and foreign nations, the 
most complete figures are those of the 
"Bureau Veritas." They cover only 
sea-going steamers of over 100 gross 
tons and sea-going sail vessels of over 
50 net tons. The proportion of for- 
eign vessels on the ocean is so great 
and of American vessels so small that 
the figures do not clearly disclose the 
relative security of navigation under 
various flags and laws. Figures show 
that American sea-going vessels from 
1896 to 1903 have been less liable to 
accident but more liable to total loss 
than foreign steamers, while American 
sea-going sail vessels have been more 
liable both to accident and loss than 
foreign sea-going sail vessels. The 
losses of both steamers and sail vessels 
of all nations are due, of course, more 
to stranding than to any other cause, 
as it accounts for 47 per cent, of the 
losses of American sea-going steamers 
and 53 per cent, of the losses of 
American sea-going sail vessels. 
The losses of foreign steamers are 
44 per cent., and the losses of for- 
eign sail vessels 46 per cent. There 
is a special reason why American ves- 
sels are more liable to stranding 
than the vessels of other nations which 
conduct the world's deep-sea trade. 
American vessels are seldom found in 
midocean on long voyages. Their 
course is usually along our own coasts 
in the domestic trade, or in trade with 



The third cause of loss and accident 
in the order followed by the **Bureau 
Veritas" is fire. The element of di- 
rect human responsibility in the case 
of fire is considerably greater than in 
cases of collision, where fog and the 
fault of the second party to the colli- 
sion may produce disaster, and is 
much greater than in cases of strand- 
ing, where fog, defective charts, and 
an inadequately lighted coast add to 
the perils which stress of weather al- 
ways creates. Afloat or ashore fire 
seems usually to be a peril to life and 
property, to be guarded against only 
by a higher degree of men's watchful- 
ness or by better extinguishing ap- 
pliances. Each vessel is separated 
usually by the water from every other 
vessel as buildings ashore are not sepa- 
rated, so that extra precautions should 
produce better results with ships than 
with buildings. The American steam 
fleet contains a considerable propor- 
tion of wooden hulls, while foreign 
steamers are usually steel. Still it is 
not pleasant to notice that while the 
loss of 18 per cent, of lost American 
steamers may be charged to fire, the 
loss of only 4 per cent, of lost for- 
eign steamers is charged to this cause ; 
that while 8 per cent, of damaged 
American steamers suffered from fire, 
only 5 per cent, of foreign vessels came 
from this cause ; that 4 per cent, of 
lost American sail vessels were burned 
and only 2 per cent, of lost foreign 
sail vessels were burned. The only re- 
lieving feature of these particular fig- 
ures is that the proportion of accidents 
from fii^ to American sail vessels — 3 
per cent, of the total — was the same as 
to foreign vessels. The situation dis- 
closed may be corrected. Whether that 
correction should come from the under- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



10 



writers or from the Government in its 
legislative or executive branch is not 
now considered. 

Collision to a great extent, and fire 
to a greater extent, cause loss or acci- 
dent to vessels mainly through lack of 
skill and vigilance of the officers and 
crew. Except where caused by unu- 
sual storms or waves vessels founder, 
on the other hand, on account of struc- 
tural weakness of the hull. This 
weakness may be inherent and the 
fault of the builder, or it may be due 
to age and inadequate repair, the fault 
of the owner. In rare cases a new ves- 
sel, splendidly built, may yield to the 
tempest. The separation of causes of 
loss by the "Bureau Veritas" into 
foundered, abandoned, and missing, 
while proper enough from the point of 
view of the statistician, is not wholly 
satisfactory to those required to deal 
with facts from the point of view of 
possible remedy. The three classes, 
foundered, abandoned, and missing, 
really constitute one class for remedial 
purjjoses. That class consists of ves- 
sels which, on account of defects of 
the hull, are lost at sea. Most of 
them founder. Some of them are 
abandoned by their crews and the ship 
does not actually go down before their 
eyes. All of these ultimately go down 
except the proportion kept afloat by 
their cargoes, such as lumber-laden 
schooners. This small proportion con- 
stitutes the class known as *'derelicts." 
Leaks (defects in a vessel's bottom) 
cause about 2 per cent, of the accidents 
to American steamers and to foreign 
steamers. Leaks, again, cause 20 per 
cent, of the accidents to American sail 
vessels, and only 15 per cent, of the 
accidents to foreign sail vessels. 

Stress of weather or storms ac- 
counted for 10 per cent of the acci- 
dents to American steamers, 13 per 
cent, of accidents to foreign steamers, 
30 per cent, of accidents to American 
sail vessels, and 35 per cent, of acci- 
dents to foreign sail vessels. Doubt- 
less the excellent system of weather 
reports and storm warning along the 
American coasts helps to produce this 
favorable showing for American ves- 
sels. The principal cause of accidents 
to American steamers lies in the en- 
gines and boilers to which 29 per cent. 
of our steamer accidents are charged, 
compared with 24 per cent, for for- 
eign steamers. Collision (31 per cent.) 
is the principal cause of British steam- 
er accidents; stranding (31 per cent.) 
of German accidents. Accidents to 
engines and boilers may be due to de- 



fective original construction, to inade- 
quate repairs, or to faults of the men 
in charge of them. Generally speak- 
ing, American machinery holds a 
high place in the world's esteem, and 
while positive evidence Is not at hand, 
it still seems probable that American 
marine engines and boilers are equal 
to those of foreign make. If that be 
so then the large proportion of acci- 
dents from engines and boilers must 
proceed from one or both of the other 
two causes mentioned. The returns 
of the number of men including mas- 
ters required to man the documented 
fleet of merchant vessels and yachts 
of the United States report crews ag- 
gregating 135,828 men, 88,249 men be- 
ing engaged on steamers, while the 
crews of sailing vessels number 45,- 
030 men, and unrigged boats require 
2,549 men to man them. These fig- 
ures are only for the crews reported. 

Returns for 1903 show that 3,086 
American steam vessels, including 
yachts, aggregating 2,994,866 gross 
tons, are propelled by engines aggre- 
gating 2,369,202 indicated horsepower. 
The figures indicate an annual con- 
sumption of about 10,0(X),000 long tons 
of coal for fuel on these steamers, and 
the employment on board of about 20,- 
000 men as firemen and trimmers. The 
total number of steam vessels (includ- 
ing motor launches) on June 30, 1903, 
was 8,801 of 3,459,(544 gross tons, so 
that the figures stated cover 86 per 
cent, of our steam tonnage, including 
yachts. In the navy 207 steam vessels 
of 206,953 tons (displacement) ane 
propelled by engines of 624,745 indi- 
cated horse-power. — Condensed from 
the Report of the U. S. Commissioner 
of Navigation. 



Flag Day. — Flag Day is June 14. 
"Old Glory" was 127 years old on June 
14, 1904. 



NATIONAL SWISS RAILWAYS. 

Four of the chief railway lines in 
Switzerland — the Central Suisse, the 
Nord Est, the Union Suisse, and the 
Jura-Simplon — have been nationalized. 
There only remains the St. Gothard 
Company. The existing concession 
will be renounced 1905, and the pur- 
chase price fixed on the basis of the 
average returns of the 10 years pre- 
ceding 1894-1904. 



20 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



STATEMENT OF NUMBER AND NET AND GROSS TONNAGE 

STEAM AND SAILING VESSELS OF OVER 100 TONS, OF 

THE SEVERAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD, 

AS RECORDED IN LLOYD'S 

REGISTER FOR 1903-4. 



OF 



Flag. 



British: 

United Kingdom , 
Colonies , 



Total, 



American (United States) : 

Sea 

Lake 

Total 



Argentine 

Austro-Hungarian. 

Belgian. . 

Brazilian. 

Chilean 

Chinese 

Cuban 

Danish 

Dutch 

French 

German 

Greek 

Italian 

Japanese 

Mexican 

Norwegian 

Philippine Islands. 

Portuguese 

Russian 

Spanish 

Swedish 

Turkish 

Other countries. . . , 



Total, including coun- 
tries not specified. . . 



Steam. 



Num- 
ber. 



7,530 
1,023 



8.553 



862 
349 

1,211 

119 

267 

112 

228 

49 

45 

41 

385 

360 

717 

1,425 

199 

365 

544 

32 

962 

92 

48 

573 

459 

750 

125 



17.761 



Net Tons. 



8,233,721 
466,732 

8,700,453 



810,003 
756,470 



1,566,473 

44,678 

348,461 

103,459 

84,110 

42,164 

38,807 

24,703 

283,490 

387,800 

584,180 

1,720,106 

205,996 

448,704 

366.232 

9,070 

570.869 

27,035 

32,642 

354,539 

461,333 

308,623 

57,970 



16,822,466 



Sail. 



Gross 
Tons. 



13,410,894 
782,688 

14.193.582 



1,220,995 
1,001,072 



2,222,067 

70,862 

557.745 

156,559 

132,107 

67,186 

60,491 

38,550 

483,968 

613,219 

1,153,761 

2.794,311 

325,895 

704,109 

585,542 

15,210 

935,229 

43,138 

61,217 

578,343 

720,822 

502,581 

92,869 

23,330 



I 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



27,183,365 



1,622 
959 

2,581 



2,119 
56 

2,175 

99 
29 
2 
90 
59 



12 
414 

98 
638 
473 
192 
861 
1,042 

16 
1,256 

37 
152 
726 
136 
704 
216 

15 



12,182 



Net Tons. 



1,478,677 
334,115 



1,812,792 



1,259,986 
129,903 



1,389,889 

24,918 
20,952 
488 
22,979 
36,572 



2,324 

97,279 

45,626 

468,255 

488,936 

52,304 

476,226 

141,276 

3,678 

718,511 

8,261 

50,087 

231,305 

43,625 

218,535 

61,625 

5,333 



Num- 
ber. 



9,152 
1.982 

11,134 



2.981 
405 



3,386 

218 
296 
114 
318 
108 
45 
53 
799 
458 

1.355 

1,898 
391 

1,226 

1,586 
48 

2,218 
129 
200 

1,299 
595 

1,514 

341 

47 



6,459.766 



29,943 



Ton- 
nage. 



14,889,571 
1.116,803 



16,006,374 



2,480.981 
1,130,975 



3,611,956 

95,780 
578.697 
157,047 
155,086 
103,758 

60,491 

40,874 

581,247 

658,845 

1,622,016 

3,283,247 

378,199 

1,180,335 

726,818 

18,888 
1,653,740 

51,399 
101.304 
809,648 
764,447 
721,116 
154,494 

28,663 



33.643,131 



THE WORLD'S LARGE AND FAST OCEAN STEAMSHIPS. 



The following table shows the sea- 
going screw steamships in the world of 
12 knots or upward, and of 2,000 gross 
tons or more, recorded in Lloyd's Reg- 
ister on July 1, 1903, including a few 
vessels building at that time. While 
in tonnage these vessels are about one- 
fourth of the world's sea-going steam 
tonnage, in efficiency, due to their size 
and speed, they represent more nearly 
one-third of the effective ocean-carry- 
ing power of the world in the general 
foreign and colonial carrying trade, 
and probably 85 per cent, of the 
world's foreign passenger trade. 





1903. 


Speed. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Twenty knots and over 

Under 20 and over 19 knots . 
Under 19 and over 18 knots. 
Under 18 and over 17 knots. 
Under 17 and over 16 knots. 
Under 10 and over 15 knots. 
Under 15 and over 14 knots. 
Under 14 and over 13 knots. 
Under 13 and over 12 knots. 


20 

9 

24 

56 

80 

98 

154 

379 

502 

1,322 


236,114 

63.219 

191.454 

378,197 

550.315 

509,479 

766,719 

1.886.602 

2,079,775 


Total 


6,661,874 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



11 



I 



it 'A 



Is 
31 



i§ 

ti 



22 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



flag: 



The following table classifies these vessels in 1903, according to speed and 



Flag. 


Speed in Knots. 


20 


19 


18 


17 


16 


i5 


14 


13 


12 


TotaL 


British 


7 
5 
4 

2 
2 


"i' 
"i' 

4 

1 


17 
3 
3 


25 

* v 

19 


40 
7 

15 
5 
2 
2 


38 

8 
26 
1 
2 
2 


80 
9 

27 
3 

■ "5 ■ 


197 • 
38 

28 
42 

2 

6 


308 

68 
17 
39 
20 

7 


712 
140 
129 
113 
J*2 


German 


AiTien^ftn, 


French 

Russian 


Spanish 






23 


Roumanian 




1 




1 


Italian 








1 
2 
2 
3 


9 
3 
3 


6 

7 
2 


10 
24 
11 


12 
6 
6 


38 


Japanese 








3 


45 


Austro-Hungarian 








24 


Danish 










3 


Dutch 










5 

1 


6 
■ ■ 9 ■ 


3 
9 

■ ■ 6 ' 
3 


14 
2 
1 

■ ■ *2 ■ 
502 


28 


Belgian 










1 


13 


Chilean 










10 


Portuguese 














6 


Brazilian 
















3 


Argentine 
















2 


• 


20 


9 


24 


56 


80 


98 


154 






Total 


379 


1,322 





MOTIVE POWER AND CHIEF MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION OF 

THE WORLD'S MERCHANT MARINE. 

MOTIVE POWER. 



Year. 



1890. 
1895. 
1900. 
1903. 



Total Vessels. 



Num- 
ber. 



32,298 
30,368 
28,422 
29.943 



Tons. 



22,151,651 
25,107.632 
29,043,728 
33,643.131 



Steam. 



Num- 
ber. 



11,108 
13,256 
15.898 
17.761 



Gross 
Tons. 



12,985,372 
16,887,971 
22.369,358 
27.183.365 



Net Tons. 



8,295.514 
10.573.642 
13.856,513 
16,822,466 



Sail. 



Num- 
ber. 



21,190 
17.112 
12,524 
12,182 



Net Tons. 



9,166,279 
8,219,661 
6,674,370 
6,459,766 



Recorded in Lloyd's, 100 tons or over. 



CONSTRUCTION. 



Year. 



1890. 
1895. 
1900. 
1902. 



Total Vessels. 



Num- 
ber. 



1.362 

794 

1,285 

1.336 



Tons. 



1.646,809 
1,211,615 
2,268.938 
2.346,315 



Steam. 



Num- 
ber. 



880 
629 
966 
900 



Gross Tons. 



1.328,541 
1,114,019 
2,046,339 
2.218,600 



SaU. 



Num- 
ber. 



482 
165 
319 
436 



Net Tons. 



318,268 

97,596 

222.599 

285,340 



Vessels built in the world (over 100 tons), according to Lloyd's (including vesseb not 
recorded in Lloyd's). 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOREIGN CARRYING TRADE— UNITED STATES. 

Tfae following stateEoeut of the l clearances from 1821 to 19( 

value of imports aod exports eai'ried nished by the Bureau of 

in United States aad in foreign ves- Treasury Department: 
aela, and the tannage of entries and' | 













Eiports. 




i i 
I 1 

K IS 


InFo 


ST 


InCtir»and 


'"wS^" 


In Fonicn 




1 

a 

17 
59 


2S 

I 
1 

36 
13 

1 




•^ 11 

i i\ 

S 42 

1 i 

■l 1 














































































■ (7;3W.37li ■ 

Si 

M.902.7Si 






2I.149.4TS 
10,821.381 
33,20I,9SS 






720.no.S21 


IS9S 

IS::::::::: 


ewslssTlsso 



s«paTa(«1y atated 



The following table shows the dis- 
taneea by the proposed Panama route 
from some of the principal seaports of 



PANAMA ROL'TB. 

North and South Ameri 
Africa, to ' Sa: ~ 
para ISO. 



St. Petersbur 
Stockholm . . 
Copcnhflggn. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



f PANAMA _ja!teJ'<"*'<^ LENBTH. 

166.53 Mina 



NICARAGUA* 



J.£N$rH %SffAftPNESSOF CU/rVATUflE 

' TOTAL lemrN BP.SSMms. 
f'TOTALNQ Of DEGREES 77/° 

•k_J \^ '\Jf V_y V^ A_7 \o^LQiGmS 2339 



LOCKS. 




+ 90. 

n 



PANAMA OANAL 



The following table sivea the dis- 
tance from New York to ports named 
1); the routes speciSed : 



From 


£- 


Via 
Sue». 


'Is? 


New Vork to~ 

Tienlsin 

. Shanghai 


as 


iii 

12,737 


141446 


There are 4 
cable-laying a 


nd repa 


hips en 
ring. 


aged in 



The longest submarine telephon 
cable is on the Lou don -Brussels route 
It extends from St. Margaret's Bay ti 
La Panne, a distance of 54 miles. 



WORLD'S OUTPUT OF TONNAGE. 



Co..L^ 


im 


im 


United Kingdom 


1,4a 
4»; 

iw 

i; 
fij 

13 

"i 


S30 

i 

M7 

s 

m 

52 

31 
M 

no 


Tons. 
l.fllB.IMO 


















NorwHiy sad Sweden . . 


fiM> 








2o:wa 


Spain and Portugal. . . . 


'■SSS 






Jaimn (European) 

Hongkong (Europiini; 


31820 


SingaporalEuropean).. 





SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



25 



DIMENSIONS OF THE LARGEST FAST OCEAN STEAMERS. 



The largest and in many respects 
the highest tj'pe of marine architecture 
is to be found in the modern ocean 
greyhound for transatlantic trade. In 
recent years the rival companies have 
vied with each other in the effort to 
excel, and steamships of larger size, 



greater speed, and more perfect equip- 
ment have followed each other, until 
it would seem that the limit had been 
reached. In the accompanying table 
the largest and most recent steamers 
are placed in comparison with the 
'*Great Eastern." 



Name of Ship. 



Great Eastern 

Paris 

Teutonic 

Campania 

St. Paul 

Kaiser Wilhelm der Crosse, 

Oceanic 

Deutschland. 

Baltic 



Date. 


Length 
over All. 


Beam. 


Depth. 


Draught. 


Displace- 
ment. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Tons. 


1858 


692 


83 


57^ 


25* 


27,000 


1888 


560 


63 


42 


26i 


13,000 


1890 


585 


57i 


42 


26 


12,000 


1893 


625 


65 


m 


28 


19,000 


1895 


554 


63 


42 


27 


14.000 


1897 


649 


66 


43 


29 


20,000 


1899 


704 


68 


49 


32* 


28.500 


1900 


686^ 


67i 


44 


29 


22,000 


1904 


725f 


75 


49 


30* 


40.000 



Maxi- 
mum 
Speed. 

Knots. 
12 
20 
20 
22 
21 

22.35 
20 
23.5 
20 



SPEEDS OF OCEAN GREYHOUNDS. 

The following tables show the fast 
recorded times in which journeys have 
been made between English ports and 



those of the United States, Canada, 
India, China, Burmah, Australia, 
South Africa, and the West Indies. 



The Atlantic 
Record. 



De u t s c h 1 and 
(16,500). 

Kronprinz Wil- 
helm (15,000). 

Kaiser Wilhelm 
II. 

Lucania (12,952) 

St. Paul (11,629) 
Teutonic 

(10,000). 
Minneapolis 

(13,402). 
New England 

(11,400). 
Tunisian 

(10,576). 



Line or Company. 



Hamburg - Amer- 
ican. 

North -German 
Lloyd. 

North -German 
Lloyd. 

Cunard 

American 

White Star 

Atlantic Transport 

Dominion 

Allan 



Timing of Record Run taken 
between 



New York (Sandy Hook) and 
Plymouth (off Eddystone). 

New York (Sandy Hook) 
and Plymouth. 

New York (Sandy Hook) and 
Plymouth (off Eddystone). 

Queenstown (Daunt's Rock) 
and New York. 

Southampton and New York. 

Queenstown (Daunt's Rock) 
and New York. 

(Off) Dover and New York 
(Sandy Hook). 

Queenstown (Daunt's Rock) 
and Boston Light. 

Rimouski and Moville (Ire- 
land) via Belle Isle. 



Dis- 
tance, 
Nauti- 
cal 
Miles. 



2,982 
2,978 
3,112 
2,779 

3,046 

2,778 

3,265 
2,636 
2,307 



Record 
Rim. 



D. H. M. 

E. 5 7 38 

E. 5 8 18 

E. 5 11 58 

W. 5 7 23 

W. 6 31 
W. 5 16 31 

W. 8 2 31 

W. 6 12 42 

E. 6 5 20 



Speed, 
Knots 

per 
Hour. 



23.36 

23.21 

23.58 

21.81 

21.08 
20.34 

16.80 

16.62 

15.5 



E. = Sailing eastward. 



W. = Sailing westward. 



-Daily Mail Year Book, 1904 



RECORD OF ATLANTIC PASSENGER SERVICE TO NEW YORK. 



Year. 


No. of 
Pas- 
sages. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Total. 

351,573 
382,936 
300,237 
411,177 


Year. 


No. of 
Pas- 
sages. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Total. 


1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 


852 
901 
812 
826 


99.223 

90,932 

80,586 

107,415 


252,350 
192,004 
219,651 
303.762 


1900 
1901 
1902 


838 
887 
922 


137,852 
128,143 
139,848 


403,491 

438,868 
574,276 


541,343 
567,011 
714,124 



—Daily Mail Year Book, 1904. 



26 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RETURN OF PASSENGERS LANDED AT NEW YORK BY FIVE 

PRINCIPAL LINES. 





1902. 


1901. 


1900. 


Line. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


Cabin. 


Steerage. 


North-German Lloyd 

Hamburg- American 

White Star 


27,767 
20,698 
18,402 
16,308 
14,456 


110,697 
98.988 
40,225 
23,650 
20.658 


22,960 
20,977 
18,167 
17,783 
12,110 


101,384 
78,560 
30.483 
19,943 
12,511 


26,577 
23,657 
14,948 
20,000 
16,435 


92,143 
72,245 
29.370 


Cunard 


22.751 


American 


16.884 







—Daily Mail Year Book, 1904. 



FIRST STEAMBOATS, PIONEER SAILINGS, AND 

EARLIEST LINES. 



1707. Denis Papin experimented on River 
Fulda with paddle-wheel steamboat. 

1736. Jonathan Hulls patented designs 
similar to modern paddle boat. 

1769. James Watt invented a double-acting 
side-lever engine. 

1783. Marquess of Jouffrey made experi- 
ments in France. 

1786. James Ramsey, in America, propelled 
a boat with steam through a stern-pipe. 

1785 Robert Fitch, in America, propelled a 
boat with canoe-paddles fixed to a moving 
beam. 

1787. Robert Miller, of Edinburgh, tried 
primitive manual machinery. 

1788. Miller, with Symington, produced a 
double-hull stern-wheel steamboat. 

1802. Charlotte Dtihdaa, the first practical 
steam tugboat, designed by Symington. 

1804. Phoenix, screw-boat designed by 
Stephens in New York; first steamer to make 
a sea voyage. 

1807. Clermont, first passenger steamer con- 
tinuously employed ; built by Fulton in U. S.A. 

1812. Comet, first passenger steamer con- 
tinuously employed in Europe; built by Miller 
in Scotland. 

1818. Rob Roy, first sea-trading steamer in 
the world, built at Glasgow. 

1819. Savannah, first auxiliars^ steamer, 

Saddle wheels, to cross the Atlantic; built in 
[ew York. 
1821. Aaron Manhy, first steamer (English 
canal boat) built of iron. 

1823. City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. was 
established. 

1824. General Steam Navigation Co. was 
established at London. 

1824. George Thompson & Co. (Aberdeen 
Line), were established. 

1825. Enterprise made the first steam pass- 
age to India. 

1825. William Fawcett, pioneer steamer of 
the P. & O. S. N. Co. 

1830. T. & J. Harrison (Harrison Line) were 
established at Liverpool. 

1832. Elburkah, iron steamer, took a private 
exploring party up the Niger. 

1834. Lloyd's Register for British and 
Foreign Shipping established. 



1836. Austrian Lloyd Steam Navigation Co. 
established at Trieste. 

1837. Francis B. Ogden^ first successful 
screw tugboat; fitted with Ericsson's pro- 
peller. 

1838. Archimedes, made the Dover-Calais 
passage under two hoiu-s, fitted with Smith's 
propeller. 

1838. R. F. Stockton, built for a tugboat, 
fitted with Ericsson's propeller, sailed to 
America; first iron vessel to cross the Atlantic; 
first screw steamer used in America. 

1839. Thames, pioneer steamer of the Royal 
Mail Steam Packet Ck). 

1839. George Smith & Sons (Gty Line) 
were established at Glasgow. 

1840. Britannia, pioneer steatner of the 
CXinard Line. 

1840. Chile, pioneer steamer of the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Co. 

1846.. OrecU Britain, first iron screw steamer, 
precursor of modem Atlantic steamer. 

1846. Thos. Wilson, Sons & Co., Ltd. (Wil- 
son Line), established at Hull. 

1847. Pacific Mail Steamship Co. established 
in America. 

1849. Houlder Brothers & Co. established 
at I^ndon. 

1860. Bullard, King & Co. (Natal Line) es- 
tablished at London. 

1860. Messageries Maritimes de France es- 
tablished. 

1860. Inman (now American) Line, estab- 
lished at Liverpool. 

1851. Tiber, first steamer of the Bibby Line, 
established 1821 at Liverpool. 

1862. Forerunner, pioneer steamer of the 
African Steamship 0>. 

1863. Union Steamship Co. was established 
(now Union-Castle Line.) 

1863. Borussia, first steamer of the Ham- 
burg-American Packet Co., established 1847. 

1864. Canadian, first steamer of the Allan 
Line, established 1820. 

1866. British India Steam Navigation Co. 
was established. 

1866. Tempest, first steamer Anchor Line. 

1868. Bremen, first Atlantic steamer of the 
Norddeutscher Lloyd, established 1866. 

1868. Great Eastern launched into the 
Thames. Jan. 31; commenced. May 1. 1864. 

— Whittaker's Almanac. 



aCIBNTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



15 


4 


r --^1 


!" 
1. 

r 
11 
!■ 


-J 


Is 




1 a 

pi 

o 

: ^ 


1 : 






,7— "i 


1 




■■' J 

V. 1 . . . 


1 ■' 



28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



NUMBER OF VESSELS OVER 5,000 TONS EACH, AND PARTICULARS 
OF LARGEST VESSELS BELONGING TO EACH COUNTRY. 



Country. 

Austria 

Belgium. . . . 

Brazil 

Chile 

Denmark. . . 

France 

Germany. . . 
Gr. Britain. . 

Greece 

Holland. . . . 

Italy 

Japan 

Norway. . . . 

Russia 

Spain 

Sweden 

UnitedStates 

Total .... 



No. 



7 
2 

1 

5 

39 

139 

437 

13 

8 

21 

14 
9 
2 

64 

751 



Ship's Name. 



Austria 

Vaderland ,..-.... 

RioGallejos 

Rancajua 

Uniteci States 

La Savoie 

Kaiser Wilhelm II 

Cedric 

Keramiac 

Noordam 

II Piemonte 

Aki Maru 

Afton 

Moskva 

Alfonso XII 

Kronprins Gustaf.. 
Minnesota 



Gr. Tons. 


Speed. 


7,688 


12i 


11,899 


16 


2,987 


* 


6,976 


* 


10,100 


16 


11,884 


21 


19,036 


23i 


21,036 


17 


4,700 


* 


12,631 


16 


6,026 


* 


6,444 


14 


4,434 


* 


7,297 


20 


6,875 


19 


6,383 


* 


21,000 


* 



■ Owners. 



Austrian Lloyd. 

Red Star Line. 

Hamburg S. American SS. Co. 

S. American Nav. Co. 

Forende Dampskibs, Copenhagen. 

Compagnie G^n. Transatlantique. 

Norddeutscher Lloyd. 

White Star Line. 

M. S. Vagliano. 

Holland- American Line. 

L. Capuccio & Co. 

Nippon Yusen Kaisha. 

McLaren & McLaren. 

Russian Vol. Fleet Assn. 

Compania Transatlantica. 

A. Johnson. 

Gt. Northern Steamship Co. 



* Under 12 Knots. 



FROM STEAM PACKET TO STEAM PALACE. 



(1) Wood Paddle-boats. 

(2) Iron 



(3) Iron Screw Steamers. 

(4) Steel " 



(5) Steel Twin-Screw Steamers. 



Date 


Name of Steamer. 


Owners. 


Remarks. 


1833 
1838 


Royal William. . .(1) 
Sirius 


Quebec & HalifaxS.N.Co. ] 

British and Amer.S.N.Co. . 
Great Western S.N.Co. . . . 

Transatlantic SS. Co 

Cunard Line 


From Pictou (N.S.), 1st to cross the 

Atlantic. 
From Cork, 1st departure from U. K. 

" Bristol, 1st built for Atlantic. 

*' Liverpool, Ist departure. 

* * Liverpool , 1 st carriedBritish mails. 

" New York. 1st carried U.S. mails. 


1840 


Great Western 

Royal William (2). .. 
Britannia 


1849 


Atlantic 


Collins '* 


1854 


Canadian 


Allan •• 


" GlasflTow. 1st steamer of Line. 


1856 


Tempest 


Anchor *' 


1st 


•< 


Borussia 


Hamburg-American Line . 
Collins Line 


" Hamburg. 1st 


<( 


Adriatic 


Last Sailinir of Line. 


1858 


Bremen 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


From Bremen to New York. 








1856 


Persia (2) 

Scotia 


Cunard 


1st Cunard iron paddle steamer. 


1862 


i« 


Last *• 








1845 
1860 


Great Britain. . . . (3) 

City of Glasgow 

Great Eastern. . . . 
Italy. .. r 


Great Western S.N.Co. . . . 
Inman Line 


1st Atlantic iron screw steamer. 

1st to carry steerage passengers. 

Paddle wheels and propeller. 

1st Atlantic ss. with comp. engines. 

1st ** " " steam steering gear. 

1st with'midship saloon, &c. 

1st sailing of Line to Liverpool. 

1st to exceed H 000 tons Great Eastern 


1868 
1868 


East.and Australian SS.Co. 
National Line 


1869 


City of Brussels. • . . . 

Oceanic (1st) 

Pennsylvania 

Britannic 


Inman " 


1871 


White Star Line 


1873 


American " 


1874 


White Star " 


1875 


City of Berlin 

Arizona 


Inman " 


Ist with electric light. [excepted. 
Watertight compartments floated her. 
1st "ocean greyhound." 
Sunk outside New York; every one 


1879 


Guion. . " 


1882 


Alaska 


it tt 


1883 


Oregon 


i " "(1) t 

1 Cunard " (2) \ 






saved by N. D. Lloyd ss. Fulda. 


1879 


Buenos Ayrean. . (4) 
Servia 


Allan Line 


Ist Atlantio ntpf^l Rt(>'fi.Tnpr 'I' 


1881 


Cunard " 


lat Cunard '* ** 


•« 

1884 


City of Rome 

America 


j Inman (1) Line I 

1 Anchor(2) " f 

National ** . 


Fitted with three funnels. 
1st and last express ss. of Line. 
1st with 20 knots speed. 
1st triple-expansion express ss.f 


it 


j Umbria { 

1 Etruria ) 

Aller 


Cunard " 


1886 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


1888 
1889 


3 City of NewYork(5) 

1 City of Paris 

j Teutonic |. 

1 Majestic \ 

Fiirst Bismarck 

La Touraine 


I nman& Internationale 1) ( 
American Line (2) ) 

White Star Line 


1st twin-screw ocean expresses.^ 

1st to exceed 10,000 tons.G.E. excepted 

Designed as mercantile cruisers. 


1.890 
892 


Hamburg-American Line . 
Compagnie G^n^rale Trans. 


Ist under 6^ days from Southampton. 
Record Havre to New York, 6i days. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



29 



FROM STEAM PACKET TO STEAM PALACE— CorUinued. 



Date 



1893 

1895 

1897 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 



Name of Steamer, 



Campanisi I 

Lucania S 

St. Paul I 

St. Louis f 

KaiserWilhelm d. Gr. 

Oceanic 

Deutschland 

Celtic 

KronprinzWilhelm 

Kaiser Wilhelm II. . . 

Baltic 



Owners. 



Cunard Line. 



American 

Norddeutscher Lloyd .... 

White Star Line 

Hambiu-g-American Line 

White Star Line 

Norddeutscher Lloyd. . . . 
Norddeutscher Lloyd .... 
White Star Line 



Remarks. 



Lucania: highest day's run 562 knots. 
Liverpool to New York records. 
Largest express steamers ever built in 

America. 
Record day's run, 580 knots. [tons. 
Balanced engines. 1st to exceed 15,000 
Fastest ocean steamer in the world. 
1st to exceed 20,000 tons. 

Largest express steamer in the world. 
Largest ss. in the world — 726x76x49. 



* Union Co. of N.Z.'s Rotomohana, 1,763 tons, was first ocean steel ss. 1879. 

t Martello, 2,432 tons, of Wilson Line, was first Atlantic cargo triple-expansion ss. 1884. 

X Notting Hill, 3,921 tons, of Twin-screw Cargo Line, came out so engined, 1881. 



REDUCTION OF PASSAGE. 




PROGRESS IN LENGTH. 


Days. Tons. 






Feet. Tons. 


1862. Under 9 from Q'town.Scotia 3,871 


1838, 1st to exceed 


200 Great Western 1,340 


1869 *' 8 ** •* CityofBruss'. 3,081 


1845 ' 




300 Great Britain 2,084 


1882. " 7 •• " Alaska 6,400 


1858 




680 Great Easternl8,918 


1889. " 6 ♦* •• City of Paris 10,669 


1871 ' 




400 Oceanic (1). . 3,807 


1894. •• 5i " " Lucania. . . . 12,950 


1881 ' 




500 Servia 7,392 


1897. " 6 " S'ton. KaiserWil- 


1893 ' 




600 Campania. . . 12,952 


helm der Gr 14,349 


1899 




700 Oceanic (2). . 17,247 


1903. " 5* *• Cherb'gDeutschland 16,502 


1904 




725 Baltic 23,000 



LARGEST STEAMSHIP OWNERS IN THE WORLD. 
Owners of over 100,000 gross tons in order of tonnage. 



Lines. 



Hamburg-American . . 
Norddeutscher Lloyd. 
Brit.-Ind. Steam N.Co. 
P. & O. Steam N. Co. . 

Union-Castle 

Leyland 

White Star 

A. Holt 

NipponYusen Kaisha 
Messageries Maritimes 
EUerman Lines, Ltd. . 
Elder, Dempster &Co.. 

Wilson 

Navigazione Gen.Ital . 

Austrian Lloyd 

Clan 

Harrison 

American 

Canadian Pacific Ry. . 
Comp. G^n^. Trans. . . 

Hansa 

Pacific Steam N.Co. . . 
For. Damps. Selskab. . 
Atlantic Trans. Co. . . 

Anchor 

Allan 

Hamb'g S. American . 

Cunard 

Dominion Line 

Lamport & Holt 

Chargeurs R^unis .... 

Kosmos 

Prince 

R. Ropner & Co 

Royal Mail S. P. Co. . 
Deutsch-Australische. 
Russ.Steam N.&T.Co. 
Shell 



Head OflSce. 



Hamburg 

Bremen 

London 

London 

London 

Liverpdol 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Tokio 

Paris 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Hull 

Rome 

Trieste 

Glasgow 

Liverpool 

Philadelphia. . . 

Montreal 

Paris 

Bremen 

Liverpool 

Copenhagen. ... 

London 

Glasgow 

Glasgow 

Hamburg 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Liverpool 

Paris 

Hamburg 

Newcastle-on-T. 
West Hartlepool 

London 

Hamburg 

St. Petersburg. . 
London 



Total 
Tonnage. 


[Over 

20 
knots 


Knots. 


Under 

12 
knots 


20ll9'l8'l7 

1 1 1 


16 

4 
5 
5 
4 
2 

2 

• • 
■ • 

4 

2 

4 
3 

■4 
3 

1 

6 
3 
3 
1 
2 

"2 
4 

3 


15 

1 

7 

21 

1 

'4 
3 

'2 
1 
9 
3 

■ • 

i 
1 

6 

14 
1 

1 

i 

• • 

1 
1 

"2 


14 

8 
25 
11 
2 
6 
1 
3 
7 
1 

• • 

1 
2 
2 

'5 
2 
6 

6 

'7 
2 

1 

. 

1 

• • 

2 

• • 


13 

7 

23 

23 

11 

4 

9 

13 

24 

23 

25 

6 

11 

12 

14 

11 

4 

23 

3 

3 

4 

'4 

4 

'4 
4 
3 
1 
3 
2 
4 

a • 

i 


12 


650,000 
583,000 
432,000 
349,000 
314,000 
281,000 
260,000 
263,000 
248,000 
239,000 
237,000 
236,000 
208,000 
231,000 
203,000 
189,000 
189,000 
180,000 
170,000 
169,000 
160,000 
151,000 
149,000 
138,000 
135,000 
134,000 
130,000 
129,000 
125,000 
124,000 
115,000 
109,000 
108,000 
108,000 
105,000 
105,000 
102,000 
100.000 


1 
3 

*i 

2 
2 


1 

1 

■ • 

2 

2 

4 
2 


1 
2 


1 
2 

12 

i 
"i 


2 

4 
8 

3 

io 
i 

• • 

9 

• • 

• • 

i 

• • 

8 


16 
23 
38 

9 
20 
20 

1 
13 

4 

7 
19 

4 
13 
13 
11 
21 

9 

2 

"7 

'7 
2 
2 
5 
7 
9 

'3 
14 
25 
11 
2 

• • 

5 
i5 


93 
60 
11 
5 
13 
12 

i5 
41 
11 
47 
93 
75 
65 
41 
24 

5 

6 
13 
15 
45 

3 
109 

6 
18 
15 
20 

9 

4 
17 

5 
17 
36 
38 
19 
23 
51 
33 



o 
H 



125 
122 
125 
59 
49 
47 
27 
55 
78 
58 
72 
113 
102 
107 
71 
49 
37 
25 
23 
52 
45 
41 
119 
19 
30 
30 
32 
19 
15 
35 
34 
28 
40 
38 
36 
23 
66 
33 



— WhiUaker'9 Almanac 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Number belonging to each 



Country. 


ZOknota 


IS knots 


18} lets. 


18 knots 


17i knot-. 


17kts. 


16 knots. 


Total. 




i 


'' 


■| 


■• 


!^ 


7 


3 
40 


i 




8 




40 




21 


a 


2 


10 


22 


39 


78 


190 



l."'3iAri8n, 2:Jihedrri^Mk^'C^~2:'i 
751 were Br 
OCEAN STEAMERS. 20 Knots and o 



in of N. Zestsr 
speedof atleiiatl2 



■era in the world eapabte of a na- 

In order ol Tonnage. 



'KauKrWilktlmll. H. P. 38.000 : roomfor775l9t CU39.342 2d cUse.and 770 3d clas9 
BKOgti* and crew of 620. 

SHORT TRIP STEAMERS (British and Foreign). 20 Knots and c 

BMTtBH Boats. 



2U. Saaaex. Tamise, Mancbe, aU 21l,A] 

--■--' "I, Cambria, Anfllia. Hibemia, 

CwnbriB, Westward Ho 

Tit* 204, Royal Sovereign 

ard (turbine engines). Queen Alen 






Dover— Ostend Service. 

Queen sborough — Flushing 3i 
New York— The HighlanttB. 



Tbe four fastest sb 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN HEFBRENCE BOOK. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



The succeaa of (he "Oceanii" 
showed that the most remunerative 
type of oraft for the trausatlantie 
traffic is the vei^iwl of a mediuiD speed, 
maintained under all varjiing condi- 
tions, but of a tremendous tonnage. 
Although speed may be an important 
desideratum from one point of view, 
sucL a qualification is in reality ouly 
appealing to a limited quota of pas- 
sengers, the bulk of travelers prefer- 
ring greater comfort and steadiness of 
the vessel, ea[)ecially in tough weather. 
Each of the two vessels built after the 
"Oceanic" has marked an increase in 
size and tonnage upon its predecessor. 

The latest liner, the "Baltic," sur- 
passes in size anything that has thus 
far been attempted, though it is by no 
means the finite, for Messrs. Ilarland 
& WoltE have declared their readiness 
to build a vessel of 50,000 tons. The 
realization of such a vessel is de- 
pendent upon the capacity of a dock 

The length of the •■Baltic" over all 
is 725 feet inches. This is an in- 
crease upon the length ot the "Celtic" 
and "Cedric" of 25 feet. The beam is 
the same, being 75 feet; the depth, 4!) 
feet. The gross tonnage is 23,000 
tons, an increase of about 3,000 tons. 
The cargo capacity is about 28,0<)0 
tons, and the total displacement at the 
load draft approximates 40.000 tons. 

The total complement of passengers 
is 3,000 passengers, and a crew of 
almut 350. The general arrangement 
of the ship is similar to the other two 
vessels ot this type — a continuous 
shade deck running fore and aft, with 
three tiers of deckhouses and two 
promenade decks al)ove same. On the 



upper promenade deck is the first-class 
smokeroom and library, and the two 
bouses below contain the deck stale- 
rooms. All the first-class accommo- 
dation is situated amidships. 

The vessel is not speedy. In the 
case of the "Oceanic" a speed of 20 
knots can be maintained, hut in the 
Hubseiiuent vessels this was reduced to 
about lOli knots. The "Baltic" will 
approximate the same speed, with a 
great reserve of power, to enable this 
rate of traveling to he maintained 
even under adverse conditions. 

The "Baltic" is fitted with engines 
ot Harland & Wolffs quadruple-eipan- 
•<ion type, developing about 13.000 
I. II. I'. The engines are arranged on 
the balance principle, which practical- 
ly does away with all vibration. The 
twin engines and twin screws afford 
anothf-r element ot safety to the ship 
and passengers, and the possibility oC 
danger is reduced to a minimum. 

The maiden trip of the "Baltic" was 
made without incident. Her trip oc- 
cupied 7 days 13 hours and 37 min- 
utes. She left Liverpool at 5 P. M. 
on Jnne 20. 1904. and by 8:21 had 
passed Roek Light on her way to 
Qoeenalown. Her daily runs were : 
July 1, 312 knots; July 2, 395 knots: 
July 3. 403 knots; July 4, 417 knots; 
July 5, 38T knots; July 6, 407 knots; 
Jujj 7, 414 knots. 

from seventy-eight 



luly 7, 
The e 



2;!5 t 



B of c 



I day. Her 



>nly 



and fireroom force is comparative.j 
small — fourteen engineers, fifteen oil- 
ers, thirty-sii firemen, twenty-six coal 
passers, two storekeepers, two stew- 
ards and one wlnchman making up the 
three watches. 



'bipboard. . 

plete- installation ot this kind is that 
on the "Kronprinz Wilhelm." Here 
all the cabins have telephones, in ad- 
dition to the electric light, and call 
bells. The first-class cabins and 
the dining-room are heated by elec- 
tric stoves. A system of bulkhead 
telegraphy enables the captain in a 
moment of danger, caused by collision, 
to see, while on the bridge, whether 
all the water-tight doors are closed. 
There are forty such doors, and each 
one fails into place. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CopjrtBhl. UM, bj Hiinn a Oa. 

THE QUADRUPLE SCREW TURBINE CUNARDERS OF 1006 COMPARED 

WITH THE PARK ROW BUILDING, TRINITY CHURCH. THE 

WHITE STAR STEAMSHIP ■'BALTIC" OF 1871, AND 

THE FIRST CUNAKD STK\MSHIF 

"BRITANNIA" OF 1840. 



34 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AMERICAN FREIGHT LOCOMOTIVES AND THE ENGINES OF THE 
"OCEANIC"— A COMPARISON OF HORSEPOWER. 



We are told that "Comparisons are 
odious," and the statement would 
seem to be based upon a fairly cor- 
rect estimate of human nature ; but 
as soon as we get outside of the range 
of human susceptibilities and apply 
our comparisons to insensate things, 
comparisons become not only extreme- 
ly interesting, but at times a valua- 
ble means of increasing our general 
knowledge and our sense of the prop- 
er relative proportion of things. 

The pictorial comparison to be 
found here is based upon one of the 
mammoth freight locomotives which 
are being turned out in considerable 
numbers just now by the leading loco- 
motive works of the country. In addi- 
tion to the usual information as to 
dimensions and construction, Mr. R. 
Wells, the superintendent of the Rog- 
ers Locomotive Works, has favored us 
with particulars of some novel ex- 
periments which he carried out to de- 
termine the exact location of the cen- 
ter of gravity of this locomotive above 
the rails. He has also given us particu- 
lars of its horsepower and freight- 
hauling capacity on a level road, and it 
occurs to us that a comparison of the 
relative power of one of these engines 
when working up to its maximum indi- 
cated horsepower with the maximum 
indicated horsepower of the "Oceanic," 
the second largest steamship in the 
world, will be attractive to that sec- 
tion of our readers that likes to have 
its facts enlivened occasionally with a 
touch of the fanciful and curious. 

The locomotive shown is an extreme- 
ly powerful Consolidation which was 
recently built by the Rogers Company 
for the Illinois Central Railroad for 
use on one of the divisions of their line 
where the grades are somewhat heav- 
ier than on the divisions connecting 
with it. It was designed to haul 
trains of a maximum weight of 2,000 
tons over grades of 38 feet to the mile. 
The cylinders are 23 inches in diam- 
eter, by 30 inches stroke ; the drivers 
are 57 inches in diameter and they 
carry 198,000 pounds weight of the 
locomotive out of a total weight of 
218,000 pounds. The boiler, which is 
of the Belpaire type, is 80 inches in 
diamieter at the smoke-box ; the fire- 
box measures 42 inches by 132 inches, 
and there are 417 2-inch tubes which 
are 13 feet 8 inches in length. There 
are 252 square feet of heating sur- 
face in the fire-box, and 2,951 square 



feet in the tubes, making a total heat- 
ing surface of 3,203 square feet. The 
tender is exceptionally large, the ca- 
pacity of the tank being 5,000 gallons, 
while the coal space has a capacity of 
10 tons. 

The increase in the diameter of lo- 
comotive boilers which has taken place 
of late years has necessitated their be- 
ing carried above the tops of the 
wheels, with the result that the cen- 
ter of the boiler is in some recent loco- 
motives as much as 9 feet above the 
rails. To the uninitiated these im- 
mense • machines have an exceedingly 
top-heavy appearance, and it looks as 
though their stability would be endan- 
gered, especially when they are run- 
ning at high speed around a curve. 
Before sending this engine out of the 
shops, the Rogers Locomotive Com- 
pany made an experimental test to 
determine the exact location of its cen- 
ter of gravity. The result is certain- 
ly surprising, for although the top of 
the boiler is fully 9 feet above the 
rails, the center of gravity was found 
to be only 50^ inches above the top 
of the rails, that is to say, about 6V^ 
inches below the top of the driving 
wheels. As a matter of fact, the 
great bulk of the boiler is very decep- 
tive to the eye, and one is liable to for- 
get that the greatest concentration of 
weight lies in the heavy frame, the 
wheels, the axles, cranks and running 
gear, and the heavy saddle and cylinder 
castings. The test was made by sus- 
pending the engine on the upper sur- 
face of two 3-inch steel pins or jour- 
nals as pivots, the one at the front be- 
ing located 6 inches in front of the 
cylinder saddle, and the one at the rear 
6 inches back of the boiler, both pivots 
being, of course, the same distance 
above the rails and on the vertical cen- 
ter line of the engine. After several 
trials, points of suspension were found 
which were in line with the center of 
gravity, which, as thus determined, 
was found to be 50l^ inches above the 
top of the rail. As the bearing points 
of the drivers on the rails are about 
56 inches apart, the base on which the 
engine runs must be 1.1 times. as wide 
as the height of the center of gravity 
of the engine above the rails. It is 
evident from this test that the center 
of gravity of such a locomotive could 
be raised still higher without endan- 
gering the stability of the engine under 
the ordinary conditions of service. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



4 COMPARISON OF MAIIINE ENGINE AND LOCOMOTIVE POWER. 



36 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



A COMPARISON OF MARINE ENGINE AND 
LOCOMOTIVE HORSEPOWER. 

In order to secure a basis for com- 
parison of tiie power of a modern 
freight locomotive with that of a mod- 
ern steamship, we have chosen the 
"Oceanic." This truly gigantic ship, 
which exceeds the "Great Eastern" in 
length and in displacement, is 704 
feet in length, and on a draft of 32% 
feet displaces 28,500 tons. As the 
depth of water in the entrance chan- 
nels to New York Harbor, will not 
accommodate a vessel drawing that 
amount, for the purpose of this com- 
parison we will suppose that the 
"Oceanic" is drawing 30 feet, at 
which draft she would displace about 
26,000 tons. On this displacement 
her engines will indicate about 28,000 
horsepower when driving the vessel at 
a speed of 22 land miles an hour. 

Now, it is estimated that the big 
Rogers Consolidation could haul about 
3,250 tons weight of train at a speed 
of 22 miles an hour, on the level, and 
that while doing this work it would in- 
dicate about 1,760 horsepower. Here 
then we have a basis of comparison, 
and we may apply it in two ways. 
Either we may ask how many of these 
locomotives would have to be crowded 
into the hold of the "Oceanic," and 
coupled to her main shafts, in order to 
drive her through the water at 22 
miles an hour or we may determine 
how many of these locomotives it 
would take to haul the "Oceanic" if 
she were placed upon a movable cradle 
of the kind designed by Captain Eads 
for his Tehuantepec Ship Railway. 
In the first case, we know that when 
the main shafts of the "Oceanic" are 
making about 90 turns a minute, the 
engines are indicating about 28,000 
horsepower, which is their maximum 
capacity. On the other hand, we 
know that when the drivers of one of 
these locomotives are making about 
150 turns a minute, and the maxi- 
mum tractive effort is being exerted 
at the periphery of the wheels, it is 
indicating about 1,760 horsepower, 
which represents its possible maximum 
indication at that- speed. If now the 
sixteen necessary locomotives (the 
number being found by dividing the 
horsepower of the ship by the horse- 
power of the locomotive) were ar- 
ranged in two lines, one above each 
main shaft, and the tractive effort of 
the drivers transmitted by means of 
friction wheels to the shafts, the speed 
of the rotation being reduced by in- 
termediate gearing, in the ratio of 150 



to 90, we should have the conditions 
shown in the engraving on the pre- 
vious page, where the locomotives, in 
double phalanx, are shown grinding 
merrily away at their unwonted task 
of driving a modern transatlantic liner. 

To determine how many Rogers 
Consolidations it would take to haul 
the "Oceanic" over a ship railway 
whose grade is perfectly level, we will 
neglect the weight of the cradle and 
assume that its rolling friction is the 
same as that of a weight of loaded 
freight cars, equal to that of the ship. 
The displacement (that is, the weight 
of the water which the ship displaces 
at a given draft) on a draft of 30 feet 
would be about 26,000 tons, and di- 
viding this amount by 3,250 tons, 
which is the maximum weight of train 
which one locomotive can haul at 22 
miles an hour, we find that it would 
take just eight locomotives to haul 
the "Oceanic" by rail at a speed of 22 
miles an hour. This result is par- 
ticularly interesting as showing how 
quickly the resistance of the water to 
the motion of the ship increases with 
the speed. As a matter of fact it 
increases as the cube of the speed, 
with the result that, although the 
*'Oceanic" could be moved at a canal- 
boat speed of 2% miles an hour by 
less locomotives than it would take to 
haul it at that speed on land, at a 
speed of 22 miles an hour it requires 
just twice the power on the water that 
it would on the land. 

The "Oceanic," as she rests upon the 
ship railway cradle, represents both 
the dead and the live load ; that is to 
say, the ship and the cargo. With a 
view to showing graphically what an 
enormous mass is represented by her 
26,000 tons displacement, attention is 
drawn to the sketch showing an 
equivalent weight in loaded box cars 
of 40.000 pounds capacity, each of 
which with its load would weigh about 
thirty long tons. If this weight were 
made up into two separate trains each 
train would contain 433 cars and 
would be about three miles in length. 



Between Brussels and Charleroi 
there is a length of nearly 30 miles of 
canal served by overhead wires. The 
motor "tractors" run on the rough 
canal towpath, with plain wheels of 
hard steel. In another style on the 
Finow . and the Tetlow Canals, the 
"tractor" runs on a single rail by the 
pair of wheels on one side, and on the 
towpath by a plain pair of wheels on 
the other side. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBRENCB BOOK. 37 



Oopjrlgllt. l»t, bj Munn & Co. 

SUPPLIl'S OF THE "DEUTSCHLAND." 



38 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUPPLIES OF THE " DEUTSCHLAND." 



Not by any means the least im- 
pressive evidence of the huge size 
to which the modern transatlantic 
steamship has grown is to be found 
in the graphic representation, now 
presented, of the bewildering amount 
of provisions that have to be taken 
aboard for a single trip across the 
ocean. A mere tabulation of the vari- 
ous kinds of food which go to re- 
plenish the ship's larder, during the 
few days which she spends in port, 
fails to convey any adequate idea of 
the vast amount of stores taken 
aboard. Our pictorial representation 
is, of course, purely imaginary, par- 
ticularly as regards the live stock ; 
the beef, mutton, game, etc., being re- 
ceived on the ship in the dressed condi- 
tion, no live stock whatever being car- 
ried. The drawing was made up from 
a list of the actual amount of pro- 
visions carried on a recent eastward 
trip on the Hamburg- American liner 
"Deutschland," and the number of live 
stock which contributed to meet 
the supplies for one voyage was es- 
timated from the actual number of cat- 
tle, sheep, etc., that would be required 
to make up the total weights in dressed 
meats. With the exception of the live 
stock, the provisions are shown in the 
actual shape in which they would be 
taken on board. 

The dimensions of the vessel are : 
Length, 686 feet ; beam, 67 feet, and 
displacement, 23,000 tons; her highest 
average speed for the whole trip is 
23.36 knots, and she has made the 
journey from Sandy Hook to the 
Lizard in five days seven hours and 
thirty-eight minutes. In considering 
the question of feeding the passengers 
on a vessel of this size, the thought 
is suggested that here are other hun- 
gry mouths within the hull of the ship 
besides those to be found in the din- 
ing saloons of the passengers and the 
messrooms of the crew ; mouths that 
are so voracious that they require 
feeding not merely at the three regular 
meal hours of the ship, but every hour 
of the day and night, from the time 
the moorings are cast off at one port 
until the vessel is warped alongside at 
the other. We refer to the 112 fur- 
naces in which the fuel of the sixteen 
boilers in the boiler-room is consumed 
at the rate of 572 tons per day. Now, 
although the voyage from New York 
to Hamburg lasts only six or seven 
days, according to the state of the 
weather, the bunkers of the ship are 



constructed to hold a sufficiently large 
reserve of coal to cover all contin- 
gencies, her total coal capacity being 
about 5,000 tons ; and at each voyage 
care is taken to see that they are 
pretty well filled. 

The total number of souls on board 
of the vessel when she has a full pas- 
senger list is 1,61 7, made up of 467 first 
cabin, 300 second cabin, 300 steerage 
and a crew of 550, the crew compris- 
ing officers, seamen, stewards and the 
engine-room force. Sixteen hundred 
and seventeen souls would constitute 
the total inhabitants of many an 
American community that dignifies 
itself with the name of "city," and it is 
a fact that the long procession which 
is shown in our illustration, wending 
its way through the assembled pro- 
visions on the quay, by no means rep- 
resents the length of the line were the 
passengers and crew strung out along 
Broadway or any great thoroughfare 
of that city. If this number of people 
were to march four deep through 
Broadway, with a distance of say 
about a yard between ranks, they 
would extend for about a quarter of a 
mile, or say the length of five city 
blocks. 

To feed these people for a period of 
six days requires, in meat alone, the 
equivalent of fourteen steers, ten 
calves, twenty-nine sheep, twenty-six 
lambs, and nine hogs. If the flocks of 
chickens, geese and game required to 
furnish the three tons of poultry and 
game that are consumed were to join 
in the procession aboard the vessel, 
they would constitute a contingent by 
themselves not less than 1.500 strong. 
The ship's larder is also stocked with 
1,700 pounds of fish, 400 pounds of 
tongues, sweetbreads, etc., 1,700 dozen 
eggs and 14 barrels of oysters and 
clams. The 1,700 dozen eggs packed 
in cases would cover a considerable 
area, as shown in our engraving, while 
the 1,000 brick of ice cream would re- 
quire 100 tubs to hold them. Of table 
butter there would be taken on board 
1,300 pounds, while the 2,200 quarts of 
milk would require 64 cans to hold it, 
and the 300 quarts of cream 8 cans. 

In the way of vegetables there are 
shipped on board 175 barrels of pota- 
toes, 75 barrels of assorted vegetables, 
20 crates of tomatoes and table celery, 
200 dozen lettuce ; while the require- 
ments of dessert alone would call for 
4 1-4 tons of fresh fruits. For making 
up into daily supply of bread, biscuits, 



SCrENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



^^f^^iT^ 



40 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



cakes, pies, and the toothsome odds- 
and-ends of the pastry cook's art, there 
are taken on board at each trip flk) bar- 
rels of flour, each weighing 195 pounds, 
this item alone adding a weight of 8l^ 
tons to the cooks' stores. To this also 
we must add 350 pounds of yeast and 
GOO pounds of oatmeal and hominy. 

Under the head of liquids the most 
important item is the 400 tons of 
drinking water, whose bulk is ade- 
quately represented by the circular 
tank shown in our engraving. This is 
supplemented by 12,000 quarts of wine 
and liquors, 15,000 quarts of beer in 
kegs, besides 3,000 bottles of beer. 
Last, but not by any means least, is 
the supply of 40 tons of ice. 

Of course, it will be understood that, 
as in the case of the coal, it is not to 
be supposed that all of this supply will 



be consumed on the voyage. There 
must be a margin, and a fairly liberal 
margin, of every kind of provision. 
Moreover, the extent to which the 
larder and cellar are emptied will vary 
according to the condition of the voy- 
age. In tempestuous weather, where 
the trip is a succession of heavy gales, 
and the dining room tables are liable 
to be practically deserted for two or 
three days at a stretch, the consump- 
tion will be modified considerably. 
Stormy voyages of this character, 
after all, occur at infrequent intervals, 
and as a rule the supplies are pretty 
well consumed by the time the pas- 
sage is over. 

Now, having dealt with the general 
food supplies, we will. deal with the 
food supplies of another large liner for 
a single trip. 



PROVISIONING THE " KRONPRINZ WILHELM " FOR A SINGLE 

TRANSATLANTIC TRIP. 



The Book of Genesis does not record 
the tonnage of the huge vessel which 
finally stranded on Mount Ararat, af- 
ter finishing the most wonderful voy- 
age ever described in the annals of 
mankind. But it is quite safe to as- 
sume that the dimensions of the Ark, 
that old-time floating storehouse, are 
exceeded in size by the largest of 
steamships now crossing the Atlantic. 

Not the least striking evidence of 
the size of these modem monsters of 
the deep is afforded by the vast quan- 
tities of food which must be taken 
aboard for a single six-day trip across 
the Atlantic. For the 1,500 passen- 
gers and the several hundred men con- 
stituting the crew, carloads of food 
and whole tanks of liquids are neces- 
sary. To enumerate in cold type the 
exact quantities of bread, meat, and 
vegetables consumed in a weekly trip 
would give but an inadequate idea of 
the storing capacity of a modern liner. 
We have, therefore, prepared a picture 
which graphically shows by compari- 
son with the average man the equiva- 
lent of the meat, poultry, and bread- 
stuffs, as well as the liquors used. 
Each kind of food has been concen- 
trated into a giant unit, compared 
with which the figure of the average 
man seems puny. 

On the "Kronprinz Wilhelm," of the 
North German Lloyd Line, which 
steamship we have taken for the pur- 
pose of instituting our comparisons, 
lome 19,800 pounds of fresh meat and 



14,300 pounds of salt beef and mut- 
ton, in all 34,100 pounds of meat, are 
eaten during a single trip from New 
York to Bremen. This enormous quan- 
tity of meat has been pictured in the 
form of a single joint of beef, which, 
if it actually existed, would be some- 
what less than 10 feet high, 10 feet 
long, and 5 feet wide. If placed on 
one end of a scale, it would require 
about 227 average men in the other end 
to tip the beam. 

For a single voyage the "Kronprinz 
Wilhelm" uses 2,640 pounds of ham, 
1,320 pounds of bacon, and 506 pounds 
of sausage — in all, 4,466 pounds. 
Since most of this is pork, it may 
well be pictured in the form of a ham. 
That single ham is equivalent in 
weight to 374 average hams. It is 
ly^ feet high, 3 feet in diameter and 
2 feet thick. 

The poultry eaten by the passen- 
gers of the steamer during a trip to 
Bremen or New York weighs 4,840 
pounds. Suppose that we show these 
4,840 pounds of poultry in the form 
of a turkey, dressed and ready for 
the oven. The bird would be a giant 
10 feet long, 8 feet broad, and 5 feet 
high. 

Sauerkraut, beans, peas, rice, and 
fresh vegetables are consumed to the 
amount of 25,320 pounds. Packed for 
market, these preserved and fresh vege- 
tables would be contained in 290 bas- 
kets of the usual form, which piled up 
make a formidable truncated pyramid- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



41 



The quantity of eggs required is no 
less startling than the quantity of 
vegetables, for some 25,000 are needed 
to satisfy the wants of passengers and 
crew. Eggs are usually packed in 
cases, 30 dozen to the case. The 
"Kronprinz Wilhelm," when she leaves 
New York or Bremen, must therefore 
take on board 69 of these cases, which 
have been shown in a great pile, 23 
cases high and 3 cases wide. 

The bakers of the ship find it neces- 
sary to use 33,000 pounds of flour dur- 
ing the trip. In other words, 169 bar- 
rels are stowed away somewhere in the 
hold of the big ship. 

Besides the foods already enumerat- 
ed, 1,980 pounds of fresh fish and 330 
pounds of salted fish are eaten during 
the six-day voyage. The total amount 
of 2,310 pounds would be equivalent 
to a single bluefish 20 feet long, 5 feet 
in greatest diameter, and 1^ feet 
broad. Such a fish compares favor- 
ably in length, at least, with a good- 
sized whale. 

The potatoes required far outweigh 
any other single article of food con- 
tained in the storerooms ; for their en- 
tire weight is 61,600 pounds. If it 
were possible to grow a single tuber of 
that weight, it would have a height of 
14 feet and a diameter of 7 feet. 

The butter, too, if packed into a sin- 
gle tub, would assume large dimen- 
sions. This single tub would contain 
6,600 pounds, and would be 6 feet 
high. 



Of dried fruit, 2,640 pounds are eat- 
en, and of fresh fruit 11,000 pounds, 
in all 13,640 pounds. If this fruit 
were all concentrated into a single 
pear, its height would be 7 feet, and 
the width at the thickest part 5 feet. 

Whole lakes of liquids are drunk up 
by the thirsty passengers and crew. 
No less than 425 tons of fresh water 
are required, which occupy 14,175 cu- 
bic feet and would fill a tank 25 feet 
in diameter and 30 feet high. The 
1,716 gallons of milk used for drinking 
and cooking would be contained in a 
can 6 feet 1 inch in diameter and 11^/^ 
feet high. The gallons and gallons of 
wines, liquors, and beer consumed 
should dishearten the most optimistic 
temperance advocate. Under the joy- 
ous title of "beverages" the following 
items are to be found in the purser's 
account book : 

Champagne 850 bottles. 

Claret 980 bottles. 

Madeira, sherry, etc.... 135 bottles. 
Rhine and Moselle wines.1,700 bottles. 

Rum and cordials 760 bottles. 

Mineral water 5,250 bottles. 

Beer in kegs 2,960 gallons. 

Beer in bottles 600 bottles. 

Suppose these things to drink were 
contained in one claret bottle. Some 
idea of the hugeness of this bottle may 
be gained when it is considered that its 
height would be over 24 feet and its 
diameter over 6 feet. 



THE ATLANTIC LINERS. 

NEW CUNARDERS — ^PASSENGERS CARRIED — PRICE OF SPEED — ATLANTIC TRUST. 



The New Cunarders. — The most 
notable event in shipping circles during 
1903 was the government agreement 
with the Cunard Company, for the 
building of two vessels of higher 
speed than any liners in existence. It 
is an eminently desirable and satisfac- 
tory arrangement from the British 
point of view, and the development of 
its scientific and technical aspects will 
be followed with an intensity of in- 
terest which can perhaps only be par- 
alleled within living memory by the 
construction of the "Great Eastern." 
The reasons for this we shall note di- 
rectly. 

Cunard Agreement. — Ten years 
have elapsed since the "Campania" 
and "Lucania" made the last British 
record of 22 knots, since which period 
five German liners have eclipsed the 
performance of these ships. It is con- 



fidently believed that the Cunard Com- 
pany will be able to exceed the limits 
imposed by the government terms — of 
a minimum average ocean speed of 
24% knots an hour in moderate weath- 
er. This will be a knot above the 
"crack" German vessels. 

Subject to certain very fair condi- 
tions, the government will advance a 
sum not exceeding $3,000,000 for the 
building of the two new vessels. This 
will be secured by a charge upon the 
whole of the company's assets. It is 
to be advanced in instalments on the 
inspector certifying the attainment of 
certain stages of progress in the work, 
and the sum will have to be repaid in 
twenty yearly instalments. 

For the mail service the company 
will receive $340,000 per annum, with 
extra payment for mails weighing over 
100 tons (or 4,000 cubic feet measure- 



42 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ment), carried in any one week. The 
plans for the vessels are not yet made 
public. 

The Fast Boats. — That the new 
departure will pay seems assured, be- 
cause statistics show that the fastest 
boats, notwithstanding their higher 
rates, attract more passengers than the 
slower boats do. The latter are just 
as comfortable, and the cuisine is the 
same, yet a knot or two more in speed 
doubles and trebles the first-class pas- 
sengers, to whom in many cases time 
is money. 

Thus, in one week in April, 1903, 
the "Kaiser Wilhelm II." left New 
York with 521 first-class, and 355 sec- 
ond-class passengers, while on the 
same day a vessel of the American 
Line left with only 82 first-class and 
72 second-class passengers. On one 
day in May the "Kronprinz Wilhelm" 
left with 380 first and 187 second class 
passengers, while on the following day 
a White Star liner took 149 first and 
160 second class. Such significant 
contrasts might be largely multiplied. 

"Cedbic" Recjord. — The big fast 
ships suffer less from rough weather 
than the smaller, slower ones, and that 
apart from speed attracts. The sur- 
geon of the "Cedric," next to the larg- 
est liner, reported that on her maiden 
voyage not a single passenger was sea- 
sick. A wine glass, .brimming full, 
was placed on the edge of a sideboard, 
and left undisturbed throughout the 
voyage, but not a drop was spilled, 
nor did the glass move. 

The Peice of Speed. — The in- 
creased price that must be paid for 



speed is a matter that lies in a nut- 
shell. The reason is that a slight ad- 
vance in speed requires an immense 
increase in engine power and vast coal 
storage. These increase the displace- 
ment, which again makes still greater 
demands on the power required. By 
the time these are provided for, there 
is no cargo space left worth mention- 
ing. There the limit to size for that 
speed is reached, and to obtain higher 
rates involves bigger vessels. This, 
too, explains why improvements in the 
design of and economical working of 
engines and boilers is so eagerly sought 
after with a view to reduce the cubical 
space required for these in the hull, 
and is also one reason why steam tur- 
bines are being put on vessels of in- 
creasingly large dimensions. 

Cost in Coal. — The Admiralty 
Committee on "Subsidies to Merchant 
Cruisers" have issued some tabular 
statements which show the price of 
speed in a very graphic way. From 
one of these we see that while a 20- 
knot steamer consumes 2,228 tons of 
coal on a 3,000 mile voyage, a 26-knot 
one will be expected to consume 6,131 
tons; and that the 19,000 horsepower 
of the first must give place to the enor- 
mous total of 68,000 horsepower for 
the last. The cost again of the vessel 
is $1,750,000 in the slower ship, and 
$6,250,000 in the swifter. A heavy 
price truly to pay for the extra six 
knots ! But the investment is a good 
one on passenger linera^s the previ- 
ous paragraph shows. The next table 
shows these and other points in a 
striking manner: 



Speed, in knots 

Time of voyage (chronom- 
eter hours) 

Prime cost, dollars 

Indicated horsepower. . . . 

Length, in feet 

Displacement tonnage. . . 

Coal, in tons 

Steam pressure, pounds 
per square inch 

Machinery department, 
number of hands 



20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


150 

1,750,000 

19.000 

600 

13,000 

2,228 


143 

2,000,000 

22,000 

630 

15,000 

2,456 


136 

2,350.000 

25.500 

660 

17.300 

2.912 


130 

2.875,000 

30,000 

690 

19,800 

3,058 


125 

4,250.000 

40,000 

720 

22.400 

3,900 


120 

5.000,000 

52,000 

750 

25,400 

4.876 


150 


165 


181 


198 


216 


234 


100 


110 


125 


150 


200 


260 



26 

115.5 

6,250,000 

68,000 

780 

28,500 

6,131 

254 

34^ 



The following table compiled from Lloyd's gives the number of vessels built in Great Britain, 
arranged according to size. They vary somewhat from the returns quoted on other pages. 





O 

4 

77 

81 


^ o 

69 
69 


25 
25 


1 • 

*^ cr. 


0> n 

00 

10 
10 


in 

o S 

-1 


• 
CO 

y^ 

6 
36 

42 


• 

n 

6 
53 


n 

a 

eo 

3 

89 


00 

60 
60 


• 

si 

oH 

41 
41 


• 

fi 
^ o 

OS 


10,000 Tons 
and above. 


Grand Total. 


Vessels. 


No. 

19 
537 

556 


Tonn'ge. 


SaU 

Steam .... 


15 


34 
34 


19 


9 


36.384 
1,376,327 


Total. . 


15 


59 


92 


19 


9 


1,412,711 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



48 



STEAM TURBINES AND SPEED. 



Growth of the Steam Tubbine. — 
The steam turbine has been applied 
to the propulsion of vessels, and is 
steadily growing in favor. 

The number of vessels so fitted is 
not large, but the development is 
none the less remarkable when we 
remember that pleasure, and cross- 
channel steamers, torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers, and yachts are now fitted 
with these engines, while ten years 
ago not one turbine vessel was in 
service. 



t^ »» 



Eablt Types. — The "Turbinia,* 
1894, was the first of the kind, fol- 
lowed by the "Viper," 1898, and the 
"Cobra." The "King Edward," 1901, 
was the first passenger steamer so fit- 
ted, followed by the "Queen Alexan- 
dra," 1902, both for passenger service 
on the Clyde. 

Cboss-Channel Boats. — The suc- 
cess of these vessels was the immediate 
cause of the application of the steam 
turbine to the cross-channel services — 
the "Queen" for the Dover-Calais 
route, and the "Brighton," the New- 
haven-Dieppe boat. On an unoflScial 
trip made in August, 1903, this vessel 
maintained a speed of 20 knots. The 
"Brighton" is 282 feet in length, and 
accommodates 1,000 passengers. Her 
engines are rated at 7,000 horsepower. 
The reversing turbines are fitted to 
the outside screw shafts, and are ca- 
pable of moving her astern at about 
12 knots. The lubrication of the en- 
gines is automatic, the oil being sup- 
plied at a pressure of 6 lbs. per square 
inch. TTie "Queen" has also behaved 
excellently, running between Dover 
and Calais within the hour, in a gale 
of wind. 

Ibish Boats. — Two steam turbine 
vessels are being built for the Mid- 
land Railway service between Eng- 
land, the Isle of Man, and Belfast. 
Two others of the same class will be 
fitted with ordinary reciprocating en- 
gines, so that relative tests of the two 
kinds of propulsion will be available 
under equal conditions. The steamers 
will be of 20 knots speed, 330 feet long, 
by 40 feet beam, and 25 feet depth. 

Thbee Yachts have been fitted with 
steam turbines. Two torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers, the "Velox" and the "Eden," 
and the "Amethyst," third-class cruis- 
er, are designed for turbine propulsion, 
the first being in commission, the oth- 



ers at the time of writing being on 
order. 

A Commission has been appointed, 
at the suggestion of Lord Inverclyde, 
to investigate the question of the 
economy of steam turbines and their 
suitability to the new big Cunarders. 
The commission comprises representa- 
tives of the Admiralty, the Cunard 
Company, Lloyd's, and three shipbuild- 
ers. At the time of writing no deci- 
sion has been published. But the fact 
of such a commission having been ap- 
pointed testifies to the rapid headway 
which the turbine is making. But two 
or three years since, most shipbuilders 
would have declined even to seriously 
entertain or to discuss such a proposal. 
The Allan Line and the Union Steam- 
ship Co. are building a 17 and an 18- 
knot turbine vessel respectively. 

Objections. — ^Though the above is 
not a large list, it must be remember- 
ed that shipowners and the Admiralty 
are naturally very cautious in fitting 
vessels with novel means of propul- 
sion. The whole history of steam 
navigation is one of slow but sure ad- 
vances. The installation of water- 
tube boilers is another case in point. 

The great objection to the use of 
turbines for driving ocean liners is that 
this form of engine does not reverse. 
A separate set of engines is employed 
for reversing, at lower speeds. The 
captains of big vessels strongly object 
to this, because they say that even 
greater power would be desirable for 
going astern than ahead, in order to 
avoid sudden collision. 

Land Tubbines. — On land, Par- 
sons' turbines are being used exten- 
sively for driving electric generators, 
aggregating about 250,000 horsepower, 
and in sizes up to 5,000 horsepower. 
Yet the first practical steam turbine 
was not built until 1884, and that is 
now in the South Kensington Museum. 
A recent computation gives the total 
aggregate power of steam turbines of 
all types in use, under construction, or 
ordered, in different parts of the world, 
at over 500,000 horsepower. 

Advantages of Tubbines. — The 
principal point in favor of a turbine 
is, that it has no reciprocating mo- 
tion, like that of the piston of a com- 
mon engine, and therefore the hull of 
a vessel is not shaken so much as by 
reciprocating engines. Turbine en- 



44 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



gines weigh much less, and occupy 
less room than ordinary engines of the 
same power, so that passenger accom- 
modation can be increased. Usually 
three sets of engines are employed, 
each driving a separate propeller shaft, 
which again conduces to steadiness of 
motion. 

Expiration of Parsons* Patent. 
— Several circumstances have occurred 
latterly to help on the progress of the 
steam turbine besides its recent suc- 
cessful application to steam yachts, 
Clyde pleasure steamers, and. cross- 
channel services. One of these is 
the expiration during the year 1903 
of the five years' extension of the 
patent that was granted to the Hon. 
C. A. Parsons in 1884. A result 



of this is that several firms now ex- 
press their intention of going in for 
the manufacture of Parsons* turbines. 
Another is that the success of these 
turbines has acted as a stimulus to 
other inventors, and the Parsons tur- 
bine will have to face the rivalry of 
others, including the De Laval, and 
another promising one, that of Mr. C. 
G. Curtis, of New York. 

It is safe to predict that the old- 
fashioned steam engines, the big mill 
type excepted, will gradually give place 
to the steam turbines, and to the gas 
and oil engines. Apart from economy 
and compactness, the turbines are 
cleaner than any other engines, being 
self-lubricating and enclosed. 

—Daily Mail Year Book, 1904. 



UNITED STATES LIFE-SAVING SERVICE. 



The number of disasters to docu- 
mented vessels within the scope of the 
Service was 346 for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1903. On board these 
vessels were 3,682 persons, of whom 
20 were lost. The estimated value of 
the vessels was $7,101,605 and that 
of their cargoes $1,746,610, making 
the total value of property involved 
$8,848,215. Of this amount $7,683,- 
580 was saved and $1,164,635 lost. 
The number of vessels totally lost was 
57. In addition to the foregoing there 
were 351 casualties to undocumented 
craft — sailboats,* rowboats, etc. — car- 
rying 655 persons, 4 of whom per- 
ished. The value of property involved 
in these instances is estimated at 
$202,935, of which $198,465 was saved 
and $4,470 lost. 

The results of disasters to vessels 
of all descriptions within the scope of 
the Service, therefore, aggregate as 
follows : 

Total number of disasters 697 

Total value of prop>erty involved . . $9,051,150 

Total value of property saved * $7,882,045 

Total value of property lost $1,169,105 

Total number of p>ersons involved . 4,337 

Total number of persons lost 24 

Total number of shipwrecked per- 
sons succored at stations ♦ 1,086 

Total number of days* succor af- 
forded * 2,414 

Number of vessels totally lost 57 



The foregoing summary does not in- 
clude 56 persons not on board of ves- 
sels who were rescued from various po- 
sitions of peril. 



VESSELS ASSISTED. 

The life-saving crews saved and as- 
sisted in saving 438 imperiled vessels, 
valued with their cargoes at $4,598,- 
840. Of this number 287, valued with 
their cargoes at $793,670, were saved 
without other assistance. In the re- 
maining instances, 151 in number, the 
life-saving crews co-operated with 
wrecking vessels, tugs, and other 
agencies in saving property estimated 
at $3,661,875, out of a total of $3,805,- 
170 imperiled. Besides this the crews 
afforded assistance of greater or less 
importance to 573 other vessels, ren- 
dering aid. therefore, altogether to 
1,011 vessels of all kinds, including 
small craft. This number is exclu- 
sive of 218 instances in which vessels 
running into danger were warned off 
by station patrolmen. One hundred 
and ninety-eight of these warnings 
were given at night by Coston lights. 

The apportionment of the foregoing 
statistics to the Atlantic, Lake and 
Pacific coasts, respectively, is shown in 
the following table : 



* It should not be understood that the entire amount represented by these figures was saved 
by the Service. A considerable portion was saved by salvage companies, wrecking tugs, and 
other instrvunentalities, often working in conjunction with the surfmen. It is manifestly im- 
possible to apportion the relative results accomplished. It is equally impossible to give even 
an approximate estimate of the number of lives saved by the station crews. It would be pre- 
posterous to assume that all those on board vessels suffering disaster who escape would have 
been lost but for the aid of the life-savers ; yet the number of persons taken ashore by the life- 
boats and other appliances by no means indicates the sum total saved by the Service. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



45 



APPORTIONMENT TO ATLANTIC, LAKE AND PACIFIC COASTS. 



Disasters to Vessels. 



Total number of disasters 

Total value of vessels dollars. . . . 

Total value of cargoes do 

Total amount of property involved. . . do 

Total amount of property saved do 

Total amount of property lost do 

Total number of persons on board 

Total number of persons lost 

Number of shipwrecked persons succored at 

stations 

Total number of days' succor afforded 

Number of disasters involving total loss of 

vessels 



Atlantic 

and Gulf 

coasts. 



438 

3,501,520 

973,370 

4,474,890 

3,636,745 

833.145 

2,694 

20 

t970 
' t2,238 

46 



Lake 
coasts.* 



226 

2,888,860 

720,025 

3.608.885 

^.360,145 

248,740 

1,177 

3 

tl02 
tl62 

10 



Pacific 
coast. 

33 

910,575 

56,800 

967,375 

885,155 

82,220 

466 

1 

tl4 
tl4 



Total. 



697 
7,300.955 
1,750,195 
9,051.150 
7,882.045 
1,169,105 
4,337 
24 

1 1.086 
t2,414 

57 



GENERAL SUMMARY 

Of disasters which have occurred with- 
in the scope of life-saving operations 
from November 1, 1871 (date of intro- 
duction of present system), to close of 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1903. J 

Total number of disasters 14,076 

Total value of vessels $148,098,035 

Total value of cargoes $62,253,644 

Total value of property involved . $210,351,679 
Total value of property saved . . .$166,253,022 

Total value of property lost $44,098,657 

Total number of persona involved § 102,474 

Total number of lives lost || 1,027 

Total number of persons succored 

at stations H 17,747 

Total number of days' succor af- 
forded 43,006 



The Board on Life Saving Appli- 
ances was constituted by the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, January 3, 1882, 
and meets periodically for the transac- 
tion of such business as may come be- 
fore it. Inventors and exhibitors are 
allowed to appear before the court to 
explain the methods of construction 
and set forth the merits claimed for 
their devices. Committees are then 
appointed to consider the various de- 
vices submitted to the Board, and each 
committee reports upon each device, 
and the results are published in the 
Report of the Board on Life Saving 
Appliances, which is incorporated in 
the Annual Report of the United 
States Life Saving Service. 



THE LIGHTHOUSE ESTABLISHMENT. 



There are under the control of the 
Lighthouse Establishment, Oct. 15, 
1903, the following named aids to 
navigation : 

Light-houses and beacon lights 1,425 

Light-vessels in position 45 

Light- vessels for relief 8 

Gas-lighted buoys in position 119 

Fog-signals operated by steam, caloric, 

or oil engines, about 200 

Fog-signals operated by machinery.about 250 

Post lights, about 1,875 

Day or unlighted beacons, about 550 

Whistling buoys in position, about 90 



Bell buoys in position, about 130 

Other buoys m position, including pile 
buoys and stakes in Fifth district and 
buoys in Alaskan waters 5,500 

In the construction, care and main- 
tenance of these aids to navigation 
there are. employed : 

Steam tenders 39 

Steam launches 7 

Sailing tenders 2 

. Light-keepers, about 1,550 

Officers and crews of light-vessels and 

tenders, about 1.225 

Laborers in charge of post lights, about . 1,600 



* Including the river station at Louisville, Kentucky. 

t These figures include persons to whom succor was given who were not on board vessels 
embraced in table of casualties. 

t It should be observed that the operations of the Service during this period have been limited 
as follows: Season of 1871-72. to the coasts of Long Island and New Jersey; seasons of 1872-74 
to the coasts of Cape Cod, Long Island, and New Jersey; season of 1874-75. to the coasts of New 
England. Long Island. New Jersey, and the coast from Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras; season 
of 1875-76. to the coasts of New England, Long Island. New Jersey, the coast from Cap>e Hen- 
lopen to Cape Charles, and the coast from Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras; season of 1876-77 and 
since, all the foregoing with the addition of the eastern coast of Florida and portions of the 
lake coasts. In 1877-78 the Pacific coast was added, and in 1880 the coast of Texas. 

i Including persons rescued not on board vessels. 

ll Eighty-five of these were lost at the disaster to the steamer Metropolis in 1877-78, when 
service was impeded by distance, and 14 others in the same year owing to similar causes. 

f Including castaways not on board vessels embraced in Tables of Casualties. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FROM CRUISER TO RACING MACHINE. 



What might be called the sc-ieatlfic 
period of yacht defligning in this ooun- 
try begins at about the period of the 
races of "Puritao" agaiost "Genesta." 
in 1885. The growth to the eiaggerat- 
ed proportions of hull and aaii plan 
shown in our accompanying diagram, 
is the logical and inevitable 



a little tesH than these lengths, theii 
rating will be diminished accordingly. 
Outside of this restriction ^ou may do 
just anything you please in modeling 
your hulls. They may be built of any 
material : they may be broad or nar- 
row, shallow or deep : light and leak- 
able as a wicker basket, or tight and 



F THE AMEBICAK C 



of a rule of measurement altogether 
too broad and loose in its specifica- 
tions. The only elements taxed in this 
rule are length on the water-line when 
on an even keel, and total sail area. 
To the competing designers the rule 
has said, "When your yachts are placed 
under the measurer's tape, if 90-footers 
they must not be over 90 feet long on 
the water-line, or it 70-footers not over 
70 feet. If you choose to make them 



heavy as an ironclad. As to the spread 
of sail, you may crack on just as much 
as you please ; alwa.rs with the under- 
standing, however, that the more you 
carry the greater will be your racing 



at the time of the "Puritan"- 
"Genesta" races, our yacht designers 
were beginning to emerge from the 
rnle-of-thumb methods that character- 
ized the days of the center-board sloop 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



47 



and schooner, and were beginning, 
thanks to the victorious career of one 
or two imported deep-keel English cut- 
ters, to appreciate the value of outside 
lead as an element of sail-carrying 
power. Hence, the "Puritan" carried 
a large proportion of her 48 tons of 
lead ballast on the keel, and although 
she was marked by the sboalness of 
body and limited draft of the prevail- 
ing centerboard type, she was an ex- 
tremely able sea boat, fast and com- 
fortable, a wooden vessel of first-class 
construction, with a reasonable spread 
of sail which she was well able to carry 
in a blow, as was proved in that me- 
morable race of twenty miles to lee- 
ward and back in half a gale of wind 
in which she won by a narrow margin 
over "Genesta." At the close of her 
racing career "Puritan" was changed 
from sloop to schooner rig, and to-day 
she is doing service as a snug and com- 



to carry it; and like her predecessor 
she was changed after the cup races to 
a schooner, and is to-day in service as 
a successful cruiser. After a lapse of 
six years the New York Yacht Club 
was called upon once more to defend 
the cup, and on this occasion they went 
to Herreshoff, from whom they ob- 
tained two yachts, one of which, the 
"Colonia," was a keel boat, drawing 
14 feet of water, built of steel, and car- 
rying about 11,000 square feet of sail. 
She was a failure, for the reason that, 
like the "Navaho, another Herreshoflf 
90-footer of the same year, she was 
a poor boat on the wind. 

The other yacht built for cup de- 
fense by Herreshoflf was the "Vigil- 
ant," and in her we see the engineer 
attacking the problem of yacht design 
from his own particular point of view. 
Tobin bronze is used for the plating, 
hollow spars are experimented with, and 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 90-FOOT RACING YACHT. 









Hoist 
















Water- 


Base of 


from 










Spinna- 


Total 


Yachts. 


line 


Fore 


Boom to 


Boom. 


Gaff. 


ker 


Sail 




Length. 


Triangle. 


Topmast 
Sheave. 






"ftT" 


in. 


Boom. 


Area. 




ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


ft. 


in. 


ft. in. 


sq. ft. 


Puritan 


81 H 
85 7 


62 
67 


104 
111 


76 
80 


6 



47 
50 






62 
67 


7,370 


Mayflower 

Volunteer 


8,824 


85 10 


67 


111 


84 





51 


6 


67 


9,107 


Vinlant 


86 2 

88 54 

89 7i 


69 
73 3 


122 
129 5 


98 
106 






57 

64 



10 


69 
73 4 


11,312 


Defender 


12.640 


Columbia 


73 3 


138 5 


107 





64 


10 


73 4 


13,211 


Constitution 


89 9 


78 


142 


110 





72 





78 


14,400 


Reliance 


90 


84 


155 


115 





72 





84 


16,247 



fortable cruiser. "Mayflower," the 
next cup defender, was an improved 
"Puritan," with 5 feet more length on 
the water-line and 8,824 square feet of 
sail ; she was built of wood, and sub- 
sequently to her defense of the cup she 
was turned into a comfortable cruiser. 
Her sail area is so nearly the same as 
that of her successor, "Volunteer," that 
to avoid crowding our drawing her sail- 
plan does not appear. "Volunteer" was 
designed by Burgess, the designer of 
"Puritan" and "Mayflower." She was 
the first of our large sloops to be built 
of steel. She was about 5 feet longer 
on the water-line than "Puritan" and 
carried a much larger sail-plan, the 
boom being 84 feet as against 70 1-2 
feet of "Puritan," and the hoist to the 
topmast sheave being 111 feet as 
against 104 feet in the earlier boat. 
"Volunteer" also was a perfectly sound 
and wholesome vessel. Although her 
rig was a large one, she was well able 



high-grade steel wire rope, blocks and 
other gear of extreme lightness, make 
their appearance in the spar and sail- 
plans. As a consequence, although the 
"Vigilant" was only a few inches 
longer on the water-line than the "Vol- 
unteer," she carried over 2,000 square 
feet more sail. The boom was length- 
ened out to nigh upon 100 feet, while 
the hoist went up to 132 feet ; and the 
sail spread to 11,312 square feet. "Vig- 
ilant" was to be the last of the cen- 
terboard yachts ; for although she beat 
"Valkyrie II." in the series of races, 
she was beaten badly to windward by 
that boat in a stiff bree;5e; and subse- 
quently, during a season in English 
waters, was beaten eleven times out of 
eighteen by the deep-keel cutter 
"Britannia," a sister boat to "Valky- 
rie II." That season's experience 
sealed the fate of the centerboard. and 
when the next challenge came, the Her- 
reshoffs, entrusted with the contract of 



48 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 





RACING YACHT FROM 18S5 TO 1903. 



50 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



building a yacht to beat her, turned 
out to meet her the deep-keel cutter- 
sloop "Defender." "Vigilant" was the 
last of the cup-defenders that was good 
for anything but cup defense. She has 
been changed into a yawl, and has 
proved to be an excellent cruiser under 
her reduced rig. In "Defender" we see 
the engineer still at work, reducing 
scantling and lightening up on con- 
struction even to the smallest detail. 
"Defender" was built of manganese 
bronze in the underbody, and alumi- 
nium in the topsides and framing. She 
carried a hollow steel mast, boom and 
gaff. As a consequence, although she 
was a smaller boat than "Vigilant," 
having some 3 feet less beam, so great 
was the lightening of her weights, and 
the increase in stability due to lower 
ballast, that she carried over 1,000 
feet more sail than the larger yacht, 
spreading 12,640 square feet. The main 
boom reached far over the taffrail, be- 
ing 106 feet in length over all. The 
hoist was 7 1-2 feet greater and the 
forward measurement from mast to 
end of bowsprit had increased to over 
73 feet. 

When the "Defender" commenced 
her trials it began to be evident that 
in the development of the 90-foot 
racing yacht the limit, not merely of 
convenience but of actual safety, had 
been passed. The draft of 19 feet was 
in itself prohibitive of the use of the 
boat as a cruiser, since it shut her out 
from many of the harbors and desir- 
able anchorages, while the experience 
of the boat in fresh to moderate breezes 
was marked by breakdowns which, on 
one occasion, came very near to being 
disastrous. In some races, when the 
wind breezed up, rivets were sheared 
off and the climax came when in a bit 
of a squall the pull of the weather 
shrouds was so great that the mast 
came very near punching a hole for 
itself through the bottom of the boat. 
Herreshoff evidently had overlooked 
the fact that, in cutting into the keel 
until its forward edge was aft of the 
mast-step, he had left nothing but the 
light floor-plates and the frail plating 
to take the enormous downward thrust 
of the mast. Emergency repairs were 
at once made by carrying a pair of 
%-jnch by 8-inch steel straps from 
the toot of the mast up to a junction 
with the chain-plates at the deck. 
Trouble was also experienced in keep- 
ing the bowsprit from coming inboard ; 
several of the frames of the boat broke 
t the turn of the garboards ; and from 
rst to last the extreme lightness of 



the craft was a source of unceasing 
anxiety to her owners. 

Four years later the Bristol yard 
turned out "Columbia," a yacht that 
embodied some of those features of 
hull and sail-plan which experience 
in the smaller classes had shown to be 
conducive to high speed. She had a 
foot more depth, or 20 feet ; her over- 
hangs, forward and aft, were carried 
out until on a water-line length of 89 
feet 7 1-8 inches she had an over-all 
length of about 50 per cent more, or 
132 feet. Although a 90-footer when 
at anchor she was a 115-footer when 
heeled to her sailing lines, the great 
increase in the overhangs being due 
to the effort to build the biggest pos- 
sible boat on the arbitrary so-called 
90-foot length. The enlargement of 
the sail-plan was chiefly in the direc- 
tion of greater hoist, the distance from 
main boom to topmast sheave being 
138 1-2 feet. The disastrous experi- 
ence with "Defender" showed the ab- 
solute necessity of using more reliable 
materials in the hull, which was con- 
structed of Tobin bronze plating on 
steel frames. The hull structure proved 
satisfactory, but the lightening up of 
the spars and standing rigging had 
been carried too far, as shown by the 
fact that in her trial races she car^ 
ried away her mast. 

Two years later, to meet "Sham- 
rock II.," Herreshoff brought out the 
"Constitution," which differed in form 
from "Columbia" merely by an in- 
crease of one foot in the beam. The 
sail-plan was greater than that of 
"Columbia" by« about 1,200 square feet. 
The hoist had now increased to 142 
feet, the boom to 110 feet, and the base 
of the forward triangle to 78 feet. 
"Constitution's" appearance is com- 
parable only to that of "Defender" in 
the constant succession of breakdowns 
that have occurred ; but with this dis- 
tinction, however, that whereas "De- 
fender's" trouble was in the hull, "Con- 
stitution's" has been up aloft. At dif- 
ferent times she has carried away her 
mainmast, her topmast and her gaflf. 
Of the hull, however, it must be ad- 
mitted that the system of belt-and-lon- 
gitudinal framing adopted by Herres- 
hoff has been eminently successful. 
Although it is probable that no large 
amount of weight is saved over the old 
system of framing, it is certain that 
weight for weight it is considerably 
stronger. "Constitution" proved so 
much of a disappointment that it was 
really realized that to defend the 
cup successfully some radical depar- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



61 



ture must be taken, and Herreshoff 
struck out most boldly in the direc- 
tion of the "scow" type, which had 
proved so fast in the smaller classes of 
yachts. On a water-line of 90 feet 
the new boat has a beam of. over 26 
feet, a draft of 20 feet, and an 
over-all length of close upon 150 feet. 
Although she is a 90-footer at anchor, 
she is fully a 120-footer when heeled 
to a breeze; and to this fact is to be 
ascribed the astonishing sail-carrying 
power which she has shown, the area 
under the New York Yacht Club 
measurement being 16,247 square feet ; 
and if changes are made they will be 
rather in the direction of an increase 
than a reduction of sail-plan. The 
growth of sail power in the last fifteen 
years may be summed up in the state- 



ment that on an increased water-line 
length of only 10 feet the "Reliance" 
of 1903 spreads over twice as much 
sail as did "Puritan" in 1885. In her 
we see, unquestionably, the highest 
possible development under the exist- 
ing rule, and although the boat is an 
overgrown monstrosity as a sailing 
craft, she is certainly a great tribute 
to her builder, both as a naval archi- 
tect and as a wonderfully resourceful 
and ingenious mechanic. She is the 
biggest, lightest constructed, most pow~ 
erful, and probably the fastest yacht 
of her water-line length that ever was 
or ever will be constructed, and she 
possesses that dual quality, never be- 
fore found in one and the same yacht, 
of being relatively just as fast in light 
as she is in strong winds. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE NAVIES OF THE WORIjD. 



The subject of the navies of the 
world is a most important one. 
Schemes of classification vary, and it 
is diflScult to obtain any figures which 
agree. The three English authorities 
are "The Naval Annual," by T. A. 
Brassey; "The Naval Pocket Book," 
by Sir W. Laird Clowes, and F. T. 
Jane's "All the World's Fighting 
Ships" (Munn & Co., publishers). The 
latter is filled with illustrations, dia- 
grams, etc., and has an excellent 



thumb index, facilitating easy refer- 
ence. Our comparison of naval 
strength is based on these three books. 
In addition, we give the tables of the 
Hydrographic Office, and for those who 
care to pursue the matter further, we 
give an abstract of the section of 
Hazell's Annual dealing with the sub- 
ject. With this explanation it is hoped 
that tha dissimilar figures will not be 
as confusing as they otherwise would 
be. 



THE CONSTRUCTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MODERN 

WARSHIPS. 



The modern warship is an ever pop- 
ular subject with the readers of the il- 
lustrated press. This is proved by the 
tenacity with which guns, ships and 
armor hold their place as conspicuous 
subjects for the pen and the brush. 
It is a question, however, in spite of 
the familiarity of the public with the 
technical phraseology of the warship, 
whether the average reader has a very 
accurate idea of the distinctions be- 
tween the various classes of ships and 
between the various elements from the 
combination of which these ships de- 
rive their distinctive class character- 
istics. He is told that the "Indiana" 
is a battleship, the "Brooklyn" an ar- 
mored cruiser, the "Columbia" a pro- 
tected cruiser, and the "Puritan" a 
monitor. But it is probable that he 
has only a vague idea as to what quali- 
ties they are that mark the distinction, 
or why the distinctions should need to 
exist at all. 

With a view to answering these 
questions in a general way, we have 
prepared three diagrams and a per- 
spective drawing which show the con- 
structive features of the several types 
of warship to which we have referred 
above. In diagrams I to III the armor 
is indicated by full black lines or by 
shading, the approximate thickness of 
the armor being shown by the thick- 
ness of the lines and the depth of the 



53 



shading. The fine lines represent the 
unarmored portions of the ordinary 
plating of the ships. In the end view 
the armor is shown by full lines and 
shading and the ordinary ship plating 
by dotted lines. 

When the naval architect sits down 
at his desk to design a warship of a 
certain size, he knows that there is 
one element of the vessel which is 
fixed and unalterable, and that is her 
displacement. By displacement is 
meant the actual weight of the ship, 
which is, of course, exactly equal to 
the weight of water which she dis- 
places. This total weight is the cap- 
ital with which the architect has to 
work, and he uses his judgment in dis- 
tributing it among the . various ele- 
ments which go to make up the ship. 
Part is allotted to the hull, part to 
the motive power, part to the armor 
protection, part to the guns, and part 
to the fuel, stores, furnishing and gen- 
eral equipment. 

It is evident that the allotment of 
weights is a matter of compromise — 
whatever excess is given to one ele- 
ment must be taken from another ; 
else, the ship will exceed the given 
displacement. Among the elements 
above mentioned there are some, such 
as weight of hull, provisions, stores, 
and furnishings, which for a given 
size of ship will not vary greatly. 



5* SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




&g 5 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



-S 

al 
as . 

.'■ 1 
.-J i 

ii Is 

S- S D 

■ - 

6b 



i 

51?- I 



56 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



There are other elements, such as guns, 
armor, engines and fuel-supply, which 
may vary considerably in different 
ships, according to the type of vessel 
that is produced. If, for instance, the 
architect is designing an extremely 
fast ship of type No. 1, which has a 
speed of 23 knots, he will have to al- 
lot such a large amount of weight to 
the motive power that he will only be 
able to give the ship very slight armor 
protection and a comparatively light 
battery of guns. If he wishes to pro- 
duce a fast ship that shall be more 
heavily armed and armored, he has to 



besides protecting his water line in the 
region of the engines and boilers with 
a belt of steel of the same dimensions. 

The swift and lightly armed and ar- 
mored ship is known as a protected 
cruiser ; the less speedy but more heav- 
ily armed and armored ship belongs to 
the armored cruiser type, and the 
slowest ship, with its capacity for tak- 
ing and giving the heaviest blows that 
modern guns can inflict, is known as 
a battleship. 

In the construction of a warship 
the two qualities of attack and de- 
fense have to be supplied. The offep- 



♦ ***/«•** .-, 



n n ? n n , 



^ A 



8-8 




j.:FMorier£9 cjtuisjn-MjuifoTs 




jr, AXMOjiiff cjiursxjt'gj jurors, 





0.0 



Jlfa9<tM.xm» jrmfinmt M»i/«r* Ma^mimt 



m, SATTZIJUflP'J? XjrOTS. 




^.^•uM^ 9mttwm. 



COMPARATIVE ARMOR PROTECTION IN PRINCIPAL TYPES OF MODERN 

WAR VESSELS. 



be content with less speed, say 20 or 
21 knots, as in No. 2, and the weight 
so saved on the motive power appears 
in the shape of a side belt of armor at 
the water line, more complete protec- 
tion for the guns in the shape of bar- 
bettes and turrets and considerably 
heavier armament. If, again, he de- 
sires to produce a ship capable of con- 
tending with the most powerful ships 
in line of battle', as in No. 3, he is 
content with much lower speed, say 
16 or 17 knots an hour, and he in- 
creases the power of his guns until 
they weigh over 60 tons apiece, and 
protects them with great redoubts 
and turrets of steel 1 1-2 feet thjck, 



sive powers are furnished by the guns, 
the torpedoes and the ram ; the defen- 
sive powers are provided by giving the 
ship a complete double bottom and an 
abundance of watertight compart- 
ments, and by providing it with as 
much armor plating as it will carry to 
keep out the shells of the enemy. The 
greatest danger to which a warship is 
exposed is that of being sunk either 
by under-water attack by torpedoes or 
the ram, or by beinr penetrated at the 
water line by hea ihell fire. The 
destructive force oi a torpedo is so 
great that all that can be done is to 
localize its effects. For this purpose, 
and also to give greater structural 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



strength, the bull below the water line 
is built double— a hull within a hull. 
The longitudinal aud transverse plate 



. which are known 
inner and outer bottoms, aud the space 
is thus divided iuto iunumerable wa- 
tertight compartments or cells. There 
is a poasibility that a blow that would 
burst in the outer shell might not rup- 
ture the inner shell ; but if it should, 
the inRow of water is confined to a lim- 
ited portion of the hull b; dividing 
the latter b; transverse and longitudi- 
nal walls or bulkheads of plating. A 
blow that burst in both outer and in- 
ner shells would onl; admit water to 
one of man? compartments, and tbe 
ship would still have a large reserve 
of huoyancy. 

In protecting warships against shell 
Gre it is recognized that there are 



the battleship this deck is generally 
flat from side to side amidships for 
about two-thirds of the ship's length. 
At the sides it rests upon a wall of 
vertical armor from 15 to 18 inches in 
thickness, which extends in Ihe wake 
of the magazines, engines and boilers. 
This side armor is usually about T 1-2 
feet in height, 3 feet of it being above 
and 41-2 feet below the water line. 
At each end of the side armor a trans- 
verse wall of armor ertends clear 
across the ship. This rectangular wall 
with its roof of 3-in. steel thus forms a 
kind of inverted box, snugly sheltered 
below which are the before mentioned 
"vitals" of the ship. At each end of 
this inverted box two huge barbettes, 
with walls 15 to 17 inches thick, are 
built up to a few feet above the main 
deck, and just within and above them 
revolve a pair of turrets with walls of 



THE INVUW^BRABLB, FLOATING f 



: BATTLESHIP. 



■HE OUTEB WAL 



certain parts of the ship which are of 
paramount importance. Inasmuch as 
their disablement would leave it at the 
mercy of the enemy. These are the 
"vitals" of the ship, and they com- 
prise the magazines, tbe boilers, the 
engines and the steering gear. If a 
shell penetnited the magazines, it 
would be liable to result in the blowing 
up of the whole ship, and if it entered 
the holler, engine or steering rpoms, 
it would probably render the ship un- 
manageable, in which event she would 
run the risk of being rammed and 
ink by the enemy. 



In all warships the vitals 

ered by a complete protectiv_ .. 

steel, which varies in thii-hncss from 



e deck of 



1 1-2 to 3 inchas. The highest . .. . 
the deck is generally at a slightly 
higher level than the water line amid- 
ships, and it curves down at each end 
to meet the bow and the stem. lu 



15 (0 17 inch steel. (See perspective 
view.) The turrets give shelter to the 
big gims, of which there are a pair in 
each, and the barbettes protect the 
turning gear by which the turrets are 
rotated. There is thus a continuous 
wall of 15 to 17 inch steel extend- 
ing from 4 feet below the water line 
to the roofs of the turrets. 

With this description in mind the 
reader will see, on looking at diagram 
No. III., that before heavy shells 
can injure the engines, boilers or guns, 
they must pass through from 15 to 18 
inches of solid and, in the case of 
American battleships, face-hardened 
Harvey steel. The B-ineh and 8-inch 
guns are protected by 6 and 8 inches 

Now it can readily be understood 
that ell this amount of heavy armor 
and guns adds greatly to the weight 
of the ship, and for this reason, in 



58 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



spite of her smaller engine power, a 
firstclass battleship rarely displaces 
less than 10,000 tons, and in some for- 
eign navies the displacement runs up 
to nearly 16,000 tons. This will be 
understood by reference to the perspec- 
tive view, where the armored portions 
of the ship are indicated by full lines 
and shading. It will be seen that all 
that part of the ship lying below the 
water line is shut in by a continuous 
i*oof of steel which is 3 inches in 
thickness forward and aft of the bulk- 
heads. Over the central armored cita- 
del it is 2 3-4 inches thick. All the 
plating indicated by dotted lines might 
be shot away without the "vitals" suf- 
fering injury or the ship being sunk. 
The reader will see that it is the bat- 
tleship's sides and the extra deck and 
freeboard which they provide which 
constitute practically the difference be- 
tween a battleship and a monitor. 

This brings us to the consideration 
of the monitor type. Take away from 
a battleship all that portion which is 
shown in our drawing in shaded lines 
above the water line ; lower the bar- 
bettes until they rise only a few feet 
above the steel deck, and we have a_ 
ship of the general monitor type. The' 
monitor is distinguished by very low 
freeboard — only a few inches in the ex- 
treme type — the absence of a heavy 
secondary battery and the possession 
of a main armament of heavy guns. 
Such a ship labors heavily in bad 
weather and is not intended for ser- 
vice at any distance from the coasts. 
To make a seagoing vessel out of her 
it would be necessary to add one, or 
even two decks, placing the guns well 
lip above the water, after which 
changes she would be no longer a moni- 
tor, but a seagoing battleship. 

In the cruiser type the protective 
deck does not extend across the ship 
at one level, but curves down to meet 
the hull at a point several feet below 
the water line. This sloping portion 
is made thicker than the flat portion, 
as in diagram No. II., where the deck 
is 3 inches thick on the flat and G 
inches on the slopes. In the case of 
the armored cruisers, a belt of vertical 
armor is carried at the water line and 
in all cruisers the V-shaped space be- 
tween belt and sloping deck is filled 
in with coal or with some form of wa- 
ter-excluding material, such as corn- 
pith cellulose. In diagram II., which 
represents (he fine armored cruiser 



"Brooklyn," it will be seen that before 
it could reach the engine room a shell 
would have to pass through 3 inches 
of vertical steel, about 6 feet of coal 
and 6 inches of inclined armor — a to- 
tal resistance equal to 14 or 35 inches 
of solid steel. The guns and turning 
gear are protected by 5 1-2-inch steel 
turrets and 8-inch barbettes. The bar- 
bettes, it will oe seen, do not extend 
continuously down to the armored 
deck, as in the battleship, for this 
would requii-e a greater weight of 
armor than can be allowed. Conse- 
quently, the architect is only able to 
furnish the guns wi^h a small armor- 
plated tube for protecting the ammu- 
nition in its passage from the maga- 
zines to the barbettes. 

In the protected cruiser the side arm- 
or at the water line disappears alto- 
gether, and dependence is placed en- 
tirely upon the sloping sides of the 
protective deck, the water-excluding 
cellulose and the 6 or 8 feet of coal 
which is stowed in the bunkers in the 
wake of the engines and boilers. The 
barbettes, turrets and armored am- 
munition tubis of the armored cruiser 
disappear, and their place is taken 
by comparatively light shields and 
casements of 4-inch steel which serve 
to protect the gun crews. 

It will be seen from the above de- 
scription that each class of vessel is 
only fitted to engage ships of its own 
type. The protected cruiser "Colum- 
bia" rNo. I.) might, with her light 6 
and 4 inch guns, hammer away all day 
at the "Indiana" (No. III.) without 
being able to do much more than 
knock the paint off the latter*s 18-inch 
armor, whereas one well-directed shot 
from the 13-inch guns of the "Indiana" 
would be sufficient to sink or disable 
the "Columbia." The "Brooklyn" 
would fare better, and at close range 
her 8-inch guns might happen to pene- 
trate the belt or turret armor of the 
"Indiana," but the issue of the duel 
would never be in doubt for an in- 
stant. A "Columbia" or a "Brook- 
lyn" would show its heels to an "In- 
diana" or "Massachusetts," and their 
great speed would give them the op- 
tion of refusing or accepting battle 
with almost any craft that is afloat 
upon the seas to-day. 

It should be mentioned, in con- 
clusion, that the dividing lines in the 
classification of warships are some- 
what flexible. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



59 



RELATIVE STRENGTH IN MATERIEL: PRINCIPAL NAVIES. 

A Parliamentary Return dated March 26th, 1903, was issued in May of that year, showine 
the Fleets of Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, Italy, the United States of America, and 
Japan. This return is here brought up to date Dec. 31st, 1903. This refers to the text matter. — 
HazeJVs Annual. 

The figures in the tables show the condition of affairs on Jan. 1, 1904; since this t^me the 
Russo-Japanese war shows great changes. The severe losses of the Russians and the slight 
losses of the Japanese have been taken into account in the tables. The third, fourt.h and mth 
tables are issued by the Office of Naval Intelligence, U. S. N., with modifications, according to 
newspaper reports, occasioned by the Russo-Japanese War. 

BUILT. 



Type. 

Battleships, 1st class 

2nd class 

3rd class 

Coast defence vessels 

Cruisers, armored 

" protected, 1st class . 
2nd class . 
3rd class. 

'* unprotected 

Torpedo vessels 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 

Torpedo boats. . . 

Submarines .• 



Great 
Britain. 


France. 


49 


20 


4 


9 


2 


1 


2 


14 


24 


10 


21 


7 


51t 


16 


32t 


17 


10 


1 


34 


16 


112 


14 


85 


247 


5 


15 



Germany. 


Ru.ssia. 


Italy. 


United 
States. 


14 


12 


12 


12 


4 


2 


— 


1 


12 


1 


5 




11 


13 


— 


15 


2 


6 


5 


2 


1 


2 




3 


8 


4 


5 


12 


10 




11 


2 


20 


3 




11 


2 


8 


14 




32 


40 


11 


20 


93 


150 


145 


27 






1 


3 



Japan. 

6 
1 

2 ■ 

_8§ 

10 

7 

9 

1 
17 
63 



BUILDING. 



Type. 



Battleships, 1st class j 

" 2nd -class 

Coast defence vessels 

Cruisers, armored J 

" protected, 1st class. . . . 

2nd class. . . 
3rd class. . j 

Scouts j 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 

Torpedo-boats 

Submarines j 



Great 
Britain. 


France. 


Russia. 


7 




J6 
16* 


6* 


6 


13 


J 12 

1 1* 




4* 


3* 




— _ 


12* 






2 




2 


4 






3* 






4 






4* 






19 


J 19 

1 4* 


6 


16* 




5 


jl8 
125* 


7 






4 


25 


2 


10* 


18* 





Germany. 


Italy. 


United 
States. 


6 


6 
3* 


w* 


3 

1* 


1 


1 
11 


5 
2* 


1* 


5 


— 




1* 


6* 


2* 
8 


4 


1 


2 


5 



Japan. 



4* 



6* 



2 
1 



2 

18 



RELATIVE ORDER OF WAR SHIP STRENGTH. 



At Present. 



Nation. 



Great Britain. 

France 

Germany 

Russia 

United States 

Italy 

Japan 

Austria 



Tonnage. 



1,516,040 
576,108 
387,874 
346.458 
294,405 
258,838 
243,586 
93,913 



As WOULD BE THE CaSE WERE VESSELS 

Building now Completed. 



Nation. 



Great Britain. 

France 

United States, 

Germany 

Russia 

Italy 

Japan 

Austria 



Tonnage. 



1,867,250 
755,757 
616,275 
505,619 
458,432 
329,257 
253,681 
149,833 



* Signifies programme 1903-4 (ordered or projected). 

t Including three partially protected. 

1 Including one partially protected. 

§ Including two vessels purchased from the Argentine for $7,500,000, Dec. 31st, 1903. 



60 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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62 



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THE NAVIES OF THE WORLD 
IN DETAIL. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

Personnel. — There are 321 executive oflS- 
cere and 158 engineer officers on the active list, 
and from 5,000 to 6,000 men. The executive 
officers are divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 
2 rear-admirals, 3 commodores, 11 captains, 
42 commanders, 30 lieutenants, 91 sub-lieu- 
tenants, 81 midshipmen, and 60 cadets. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903 was: — 

BUILT. 

Battleships 1 

Coast defence vessels 4 

Armored cruisers 4 

Protected cruisers 5 

Torpedo vessels 5 

Torpedo-boat destroyeis 3 

Torpedo boats 22 

BUILDING. 

♦Armored cruisers 2 

Dockyards. — TTie principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: — 

San Fernando. — Three small docks take 
cruisers. 

Puerto Belgrano. — One large dock takes 
battleships. 

Buenos Ayres. — Very limited accommo- 
dation. 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

Personnel. — The number of all ranks in 
the Austrian Navy, including reserves, isl0,841. 
The officers of the Austrian Navy are distri- 
buted as follows: 1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 
17 captains, 27 commanders, 37 lieutenant- 
commanders, 200 lieutenants, 101 sub-lieu- 
tenants, and 180 midshipmen. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built, 
building, and projected on Nov. 30th, 1903, 
was: — 

BUILT. 

Battleships, 3rd class 5 

Coast defence ships 3 

River monitors 4 

Armored cruisers 1 

Protected cruisers, 2nd cla.ss 2 

3rd class 4 

Torpedo vessels 15 

Torpedo boats 37 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 4 

Monitors 2 

Armored cruisers 1 

Torpedo vessels 5 

Dockyard. — The principal Government 
dockyard of Austria-Hungary is situated at 
Pola. There are three small docks there. 

* These two vessels are the Bemadino 
Rivadavia and the Mariano Moreno, which 
were built in Italy, and were sold (Dec. 31st, 
1903) to the Japanese Government. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



63 



BRAZIL. 

Pebsonnel. — The personnel of the Brazil- 
ian navy numbers about 8,500 of all ranks. 
The executive officers are distributed as fol- 
lows; 1 admiral, 2 vice-admirals, 10 rear- 
admirals, 18 captains, 30 commanders, 60 
lieutenant-commanders, 175 lieutenants, and 
160 sub-lieutenants. 

Materiel. — The ships built for the Brazil- 
ian Navy number in all 63. There are no 
vessels under construction. 

BUILT. 

Coast defence ships 9 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo vessels 18 

Torpedo boats 28 

Submarines 2 

Dockyards. — The only important dock- 
yard is situated at Rio de Janeiro, where there 
are three docks to take cruisers, and two 
smaller ones. Besides this there are naval 
bases at Para, Bahia, Pernambuco, and 
Ladario de Matto Grosso. 

CHILE. • 

Personnel. — The numbers of officers and 
men on the active list are variously stated to 
be from 6,000 to 8,000. The executive officers 
are distributed as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 4 
rear-admirals, 11 captains, 18 commanders, 
16 lieutenant-commanders, 25 lieutenants, 
and 36 midshipmen. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: — 

built. 

Battleships 2 

Armored cruisers 2 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo vessels 5 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 6 

Torpedo boats 24 

Dockyards. — The principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: — 

Talcahuno. — One dock takes any warship. 
Valparaiso. — Two small floating docks take 
cruisers. 

DENMARK. 

Personnel. — The personnel numbers about 
4,000 of all ranks. The executive officers are 
divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 2 rear- 
admirals, 16 captains, 38 commanders, 63 
lieutenants, 33 sub-lieutenants, and 23 mid- 
shipmen. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: — 

built. 

Battleships 4 

Coast defence vessels 4 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo boats 25 

building. 
Coast defence vessel 1 

Dockyard. — At Copenhagen there are three 
small docks. 



FRANCE. 

personnel. 

The number of officers and men on the active 
list of the French Navy in 1903 was 53,247, and 
in the Reserve there were 49,346 officers and 
men. The number of men effective during 
1903 was less by 2,940 than the number avail- 
able during the preceding year. 

The executive officers of the French Navy 
are divided as follows: — 15 vice-admirals, 30 
rear-admirals, 124 captains, 212 commanders, 
751 lieutenant-commanders, 574 lieutenants, 
146 sub-lieutenants, 100 midshipmen, 183 
cadets. 

materiel. 
The number of ships built, building, and 
projected for the French Navy on Nov. 30th, 
1903, was:— 

built. 

Battleships, Ut class 20 

2nd class 9 

3rd class' 1 

Coast defence vessels 14 

Armored cruisers 10 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 7 

2nd class 16 

3rd class 17 

Unprotected cruisers 1 

Torpedo vessels 16 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 14 

Torpedo boats 247 

Submarines 15 

building. 

. Battleships, 1st class. 6 

" Armored cruisers 12 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 19 

Torpedo-boats 18 

Submarines 25 

projected. 

Armored cruiser* 1 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 4 

Torpedo boats 25 

Submarines 18 

dockyards. 
The Government dockyards in France are 
situated as follows: — 

Cherbourg. — One dock takes battleships 

14,000 tons; seven smaller. 
Brest. — One dock takes battleships; others 

very small. 
Lorient. — One dock takes battleships 14,000 

tons; one takes small cruisers. 
Rochefort. — Three docks, take small vessels 

only. 
Toulon. — Three docks take battleships 

14,000 tons; six others take cruisers. 



GERMANY. 

PERSONNEL. * 

The number of officers and men on the ac- 
tive list is 35,685, and on the regular reserve 
there are 5,114. The total number of able- 
bodied men liable for service in the Reserve, 
however, is about 70,000. 

* This armored cruiser is the Ernest Renan 
of 13,562 tons. 



64 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



The executive officers of the German Navy 
are divided as follows: — 8 vice-admirals, 16 
rear-admirals, 58 captains, 125 commanders, 
245 lieutenant-commanders, 382 lieutenants, 
332 sub-lieutenants, 401 midshipmen, 200 
cadets. 

MATERIEL.. 

The strength of the German Navy in ships 
built and building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: — 

BUILT. 

Battleships, 1st class 14 

2nd class 4 

3rd class 12 

Coast defence ships 11 

Armored cruisers 2 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 1 

2nd class 8 

3rd class 10 

Unprotected cruisers 20 

Torpedo vessels 2 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 32 

Torpedo boats 93 

Submarines 7 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers 3 

Protected cruisers, 3rd class 5 

PROJECTED. 

Armored cruiser* 1 

Protected cruisers 2 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 6 

Torpedo boats — 

Submarine 1 

DOCKYARDS. 

The German dockyards are situated as 
follows : — 

Kiel. — Two docks take any ship. Also two 
floating docks. Four docks take any 
ship up to 10,000 tons. 

Wilhelmshaven. — One dock takes any ship; 
one takes up to 10,000 tons. Three float- 
ing docks ; two new ones building. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers, seamen, boys, and 
marines provided for sea and other services for 
the year 1903-4 amounts to 127,100, being an 
increase of 4,600 on the previous year. The 
strength of the Royal Marines on Jan. 1st, 
1903, was 19,579. 

The passing of the Naval Forces Act during 
the year will strengthen the Naval Reserves by 
increasing its numbers, and by authorizing 
short-service system in the Navy, on condition 
that those accepting such employment shall 
complete a terna of seven years in the reserve. 
The Royal Naval Volunteers authorized by 
the Act of 1902 have commenced enrolment, 
and Divisions have been formed at London 
and Glasgow. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength of the British Navy in ships 
It, building, and projected on Nov. 30th, 
1, was: — 



BUILT. 

Battleships, Ist class 49 

2nd class 4 

3rd class 2 

Coast defence ships 2 

Armored crusiers 24 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 21 

2nd class 51 

3rd class 32 

Unprotected cruisers 10 

Torpedo vessels 34 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 112 

Torpedo boats 85 

Submarines 5 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 7 

Armored cruisers 13 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 2 

3rd class 4 

Scouts 4 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 19 

Torpedo boats 5 

Submarines 4 

PROJECTED. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers 4 

Protected cruisers 3 

Scouts 4 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 15 

Submarines 10 

Two of the first-class battleships are those 
purchased from Chile. 

DOCKYARDS. 

The public dockyards in Great Britain are 
situated as follows: — 

Portsmouth. — Six docks take any ship ; three 
take armored cruisers, 10,000 tons and 
smaller. 

Devonport. — Two docks take battleships; 
two smaller. 

Keyham. — One dock takes small battle- 
ships; three smaller. 

Chatham. — Six docks take battleships 
(four small ones onlv) ; four smaller. 

Sheerness. — Five small docks. 

Pembroke. — One dock takes small battle- 
ships. 

Haulbowline. — ^Two docks take any ship. 



ITALY. 

PERSONNEL. 

There are 26,948 officers and men on the 
active list for the current financial year, and 
the reserve numbers 33,667 officers and 
men. This latter is, however, of doubtful 
efficiency, for many of the officers are over 
sixty-five years of age, and the men have but 
little training. 

The executive officers of the Italian Navy are 
divided as follows: — 1 admiral, 7 vice-admirals, 
14 rear-admirals, 58 captains, 70 commanders, 
75 lieutenant-commanders, 410 lieutenants, 
160 sub-lieutenants, 130 midshipmen. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength of ships built, building and 
projected on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: — 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



65 



Bun/r. 

Battleships, Ist class 12 

** 3rd class 5 

Armored oruisei^ 5 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 5 

3rd class 11 

Torpedo vessels 14 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 11 

Torpedo boats 146 

Submarines 1 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers. 1 

Submarines 1 

PROJECTED. 

Battleships, Ist class 3 

Protected cruisers, 3rd class 1 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 2 

Toipedo boats 8 

Submarines 1 

DOCKTARD8. 

The Government dockyards of Italy are 
situated as follows: — 

Spesia. — One dock takes any ship ; one takes 

all Italian ships; four smaller. 

Venice.— One dock takes cruisers; one 

smidler. One building to take any ship. 
Taranto.— One dock takes any ship. 



JAPAN. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers and men available 
for active service is about 31,000. There is 
also a small reserve of some 4,000. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength in ships built, building, and 
projected on Nov 30th, 1903, less loss, was: — 

BUILT. 

Battleships, Ist class 6 

2nd class 1 

Coast defence ships 2 

Armored cruisers 8* 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 10 

3rdchiss 7 

Unprotected cruisers 

Torpedo vessels 1 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 17 

Toipedo boats. 63 

BUILDING. 

Protected cruisers, 2nd class 2 

3rd class 1 

Torp)edo-boat destroyers 2 

Torpedo boats 18 

PROJECTED. 

Battleships,! 1st class 4 

Armored cruisers. '. ., . 6 

DOCKYARDS. 

The Government dockyards in Japan are 
situated as follows: — 

Yokosuka. — One dock takes any ship ; two 

smaller. 
Kure. — One dock takes cruisers. 

* Including two vessels, each of 7700 tons 
displacement and a speed of 20 knots, pur- 
chased from the Argentine Government for 
$7,600,000 (Dec. 31st, 1903). 

t The projected vessels have not been 
named. 



NETHERLANDS. 

Personnel. — The total of officers and men 
enlisted for the navy reaches 11,000, but this 
fig^ure includes the marine infantry. The 
executive officers are divided as follows: 1 
vice-admiral, 3 rear admirals, 26 captains, 40 
commanders, 400 lieutenants and sub-lieu- 
tenants, and 200 midshipmen. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built, 
building and projected on Nov. 30th, 1903, 
was: — 

BUILT. 

Battleships, 3rd class 2 

Coast defence ships 19 

Unprotected cruisers 11 

Torpedo vessels 12 

Torpedo boats 29 

BUILDING. 

Coast defence ships 2 

Torpedo boats 6 

PROJECTED. 

Coast defence ships 3 

Torpedo vessels 7 

Torpedo boats 2 

Submarine (to be purchased) 1 

Dockyards. — ^The principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: 

Helder. — Two docks take cruisers. 
Hellevoetsluis. — One dock takes small 

battleships. 
Amsterdam. — Two floating docks take 

cruisers. 
Rotterdam. — Three floating docks take 

small cruisers. 



NORWAY. 

Personnel. — The personnel numbers about 
2,000, of which 1,000 are permanent, and the 
remainder yearly conscripts. The executive 
officers are divided as follows: 1 rear-admiral, 
4 captains, 14 commanders, 28 lieutenant- 
commanders, 37 lieutenants, 30 sub-lieuten- 
ants. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: — 

BUILT. 

0)ast defence vessels 4 

Torpedo vessels 7 

Torpedo boats 26 

BUILDING. 

Coast defence vessel 1 

Torpedo boats 2 

Submarine 1 

Dockyards. — The principal dockyards of 
Norway are situated as follows: — 

Horten. — One dry dock takes small battle- 
ships. 

(Dhristiansand. — One dry dock takes small 
battleships, 



66 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PORTUGAL. 
Personnel.. — The number of men in the 
Portuguese Navy is about 5,000, and, in addi- 
tion, there are 2 vice-admirals, 5 rear-admirals, 
16 captains, 25 commanders, 25 lieutenant- 
commanders, 80 lieutenants, 110 sub-lieu- 
tenants, 37 midshipmen, and 96 cadets. The 
age for retirement of a vice-admiral is 70 
years, rear-admiral 66 years, and other officers 
64 years. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was: — 

BUILT. 

Battleship 1 

Unprotected cruisers 7 

Torpedo vessels 14 

Toipedo boats 11 

BUILDING. 

Torpedo vessels 2 

Dockyard. — There are four small docks at 
Lisbon. 



RUSSIA. 
personnel. 

There are 2,900 officers on the effective list 
of the Russian Navy, and the number of men 
is 61,516. In the Reserve there are about 
30,000 of all ranks. 

The executive officers of the Russian Navy 
are divided as follows: — 1 commander-in- 
chief (admiral-general), 14 admirals, 24 vice- 
admirals, 33 rear-admirals, 92 captains, 212 
commanders, 850 lieutenants, 400 midshipmen. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength of the Russian Navy in ships 
built, building and projected, on Nov. 30th, 
1903, less losses, was: — 

■ BUILT. 

Battleships, 1st class 12 

2nd class 2 

3rd class 1 

Coast defence ships 13 

Armored cruisers 6 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 2 

2nd class 4 

3rd class — 

Unprotected cruisers 3 

Torpedo vessels 8 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 40 

Torpedo boats 150 

Submarines 

BUILDING. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers. 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 2 

2nd class 2 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 6 

Torpedo-boats 7 

Submarines 2 

PROJECTED. 

Battleships, 1st class 6 

Armored cruisers 3 

Protected cruisers, 1st class 2 



The projected battleships are the Tcheama, 
Evatafi, and loann Zlatoust, all of which are re- 
ported to have been laid down in the Black 
Sea yards; and the Itnperato}' Pavel, the Andrei 
Pervotvannui, to be built in the St. Petersburg 
yards. Of the sixth vessel nothing is yet 
known, nor have the names of the armored 
cruisers transpired. The protected cruisers 
are to be of the Kagul type. 

[The war with Japan has modified all figures 
of present strength.] 

DOCKYARDS. 

The principal Russian dockyards are situ- 
ated as follows: — 

Kronstadt. — One dock takes any ship ; three 

smaller. 
Libau. — ^Two docks take any ship. 
Sevastopol. — Two docks take any ship. 



SPAIN. 
Personnel. — There are 16,700 of all ranks 
in the Spanish Navy, and 9,000 marines. All 
these are conscripts. The officers are divided 
as follows: 1 admiral, 4 vice-admirals, 11 rear- 
admirals, 22 captains, 47 commanders, 94 
lieutenant-commanders, 131 lieutenants, 340 
sub-lieutenants, 165 midshipmen, and 100 
cadets. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th, 1903, was.- — 

BUILT. 

Battleship 1 

Armored crui.sers 2 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo vessels 17 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 4 

Torpedo boats 10 

BUILDING. 

Armored cruisers 2 

Protected cruisers 2 

Dockyards. — The principal dockyards are 
situated as follows: — 

Cadiz. — Three docks take cruisers. 

Cartagena. — One floating dock takes large 
cruisers. 

Bilboa. — One dock takes any Spanish ship; 
two smaller. 

SWEDEN. 
Personnel. — The personnel of the Swedish 
Navy in 1903 numbered about 7,500 of all 
ranks. In addition there are about 20,000 
yearly conscripts available, but the majority 
of these are seldom called upon. The officers 
are divided as follows: 1 vice-admiral, 4 rear- 
admirals, 6 commodores, 24 captains, 64 com- 
manders, 55 lieutenants, 30 sub-lieutenants. 

Materiel. — The strength of ships built and 
building on Nov. 30th was: — 

BUILT. 

Coast defence vessels 10 

Torpedo vessels 14 

Torpedo-boat destroyer 1 

Torpedo boats 28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



67 



BUILDING. 

Battleship 1 

Armored cruiser 1 

Torpedo boats 3 

Submarine 1 ^ 

Dockyards. — The principal dockyards in 
Sweden are situated as follows: — 

Karlscrona. — Three docks take any Swedish 

ship; three smaller. 
Stockholm. — One dock takes cruisers. 



TURKEY. 

Personnbl. — ^There are 31,000 officers and 
men in the Turkish Navy and 9,000 marines. 
The officers are divided as follows : 2 admirals, 
9 vice-admirals, 16 rear-admirals, 30 captains, 

90 commanders, 300 lieutenant-command- 
ers, 250 lieutenants, 200 sub-lieutenants. 

Materiel. — The strength in ships built and 
building for the Turkish Navy on Nov. 30th, 
1903, was:— 

BUILT. 

Battleships — 

Protectea cruiser 1 

Torpedo vessels 6 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 2 

Torpedo boats 25 

Submarines 2 

BUILDING. 

Protected cruisers 6 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 2 



UNITED STATES. 

ADMINISTRATION. 

The President of the United States is ex- 
officio Commander-in-chief of the Navy. As 
his executive he appoints a Secretary of the 
Navy, a member of his Cabinet, on a four 
years' term. He also appoints an Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy, and these two political 
officials, who are usually civilians, exercise a 
general control and supervision of the ten de- 
partments or bureaus among which the busi- 
ness is distributed. These departments are 
very similar to those in the British Admiralty, 
and they are almost all of them under the 
direction of naval officers. There are also 
special boards, mostly departmental, wht> ad- 
vise either the Secretary of the Navy or the 
chiefs of the bureaus on technical points. 



There is nothing approximating to the head- 
quarters staff which is found in all naval ad- 
ministrations, based on the precedent of the 
organization of land forces. In this respect 
the naval administration of the United States 
and Great Britain differ from almost all the 
rest. With regard to the estimates, the chiefs 
of the various bureaus prepare and make 
annually reports which are published, and in 
these reports they make recommendations 
with estimates of cost. The Secretary of the 
Navy also makes an annual report, summaris- 
ing the reports of his subordinates, with his 
own recommendations, which are submitted 
to Congress in the shape of Bills, which, being 
passed by the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, and approved by the President, 
become law. The United States Navy is 
manned by voluntary enlistment. 

FINANCE. 

The proposed estimates for 1904-5 total 
$102,866,449, those for 1903-4 having been 
$79,039,331. It is proposed to devote to new 
construction the sum of $28,826,860. 

PERSONNEL. 

The number of officers and men on the 
effective list of the United States Navy is 
29,838, inclusive of 7,000 marines. There is 
a reserve in course of formation, but it is not 
yet in working order. 

The executive officers of the United States 
Navy are distributed as follows: — 1 admiral, 
1 vice-admiral, 21 rear-admirals, 73 captains, 
114 commanders, 172 lieutenant-commanders, 
350 lieutenants, 100 second-lieutenants, 130 
ensigns, 90 naval cadets at sea. 

MATERIEL. 

The strength in ships of the United States 
Navy built, building and projected, is sepa- 
rately treated. 

DOCKYARDS. 

The Government dockyards in the United 
States are situated as follows: — 

Brooklyn. — One dock takes any ship; two 

smaller. 
Norfolk, Va. — One dock takes any ship; one 

smaller. 
Mare Island, Cal. — One dock takes any ship. 
Boston, Mass. — One small dock. 
League Island, Pa. — One large wooden dock, 
Portsmouth, N. H. — One small dock. 

— HazeU's AnmuU, 1904. 



THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 



On January 1, 1904, there was upon 
the active list 1 admiral, 27 rear ad- 
mirals, 80 captains, 120 commanders, 
192 lieut.-commanders, 331 lieuten- 
ants, 24 lieutenants (junior grade), 
166 ensigns, 101 midshipmen, 16 med- 
ical directors, 15 medical inspectors, 86 
surgeons, 35 passed assistant surgeons, 
68 assistant surgeons, 14 pay directors, 
35 pay inspectors, 76 paymasters, 30 
passed assistant paymasters, 18 assist- 
ant paymasters, 23 chaplains, 12 pro- 



fessors of mathematics, 1 secretary to 
the admiral, 20 naval constructors, 30 
assistant naval constructors, 28 civil 
engineers, 5 assistant civil engineers, 
12 chief boatswains, 116 boatswains, 
12 chief gunners, 100 gunners, 14 
chief carpenters, 73 carpenters, 7 chief 
sailmakers, 150 warrant machinists, 25 
pharmacists, and 16 mates. There 
were also 649 midshipmen on proba- 
tion at the Naval Academy at Annap- 
olis, Md. 



68 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES 
INTO THE NAVAL ACADEMY AS MIDSHIPMEN. 



NOMINATION. 

The students of the Naval Academy 
are styled Midshipmen. Two Mid- 
shipmen are allowed for each Senator, 
Representative, and Delegate in Con- 
gress, two for the District of Colum- 
bia, and five each year from the United 
States at large. The appointments 
from the District of Columbia and five 
each year at large are made by the 
President. One Midshipman is al- 
lowed from Porto Rico, who must be a 
native of that island. The appoint- 
ment is made by the President, on the 
recommendation of the Governor of 
Porto Rico. The Congressional ap- 
pointments are equitably distributed, 
so that in regular course each Senator, 
Representative, and Delegate in Con- 
gress may appoint one Midshipman 
during each Congress. After June 
30, 1913. each Senator, Representa- 
tive, and Delegate in Congress will be 
allowed to appoint but one Midship- 
man instead of two. The course for 
Midshipmen is six years — four years 
at the Academy, when the succeeding 
appointment is made, and two years at 
sea, at the expiration of which time 
the examination for final graduation 
takes place. Midshipmen who pass 
the examination for final graduation 
are appointed to fill vacancies in the 
lower grades of the Line of the Navy 
and of the Marine Corps, in the order 
of merit as determined by the Academ- 
ic Board of the Naval Academy. 

"The Secretary of the Navy shall, as 
soon as practicable after the fifth day 
of March in each year, notify in writ- 
ing each Senator, Representative, and 
Delegate in Congress of any vacancy 
which may be regarded as existing in 
the State, District, or Territory which 
he represents, and the nomination of a 
candidate to fill such vacancy shall be 
made upon the recommendation of the 
Senator, Representative, or Delegate. 
Such recommendation shall be made by 
the first day of June of that year, and 
if not so made the Secretary of the 
Navy shall fill the vacancy by the ap- 
pointment of an actual resident of the 
State, District, or Territory in which 
the vacancy exists, who shall have 
been for at least two years immedi- 
ately preceding his appointment an 
actual bona fide resident of the State, 
District, or Territory in which the 
vacancy exists, and shall have the 



qualifications otherwise prescribed by 
law." 

(Act approved March 4, 1903.) 

Candidates allowed for Congression- 
al Districts, for Territories, and for 
the District of Columbia must be act- 
ual residents of the Districts or Ter- 
ritories, respectively, from which they 
are nominated. 

All candidates must, at the time of 
their examination for admission, be 
between the ages of sixteen and twenty 
years. A candidate is eligible for ap- 
pointment on the day he becomes six- 
teen, and is ineligible on the day he 
becomes twenty years of age. 

EXAMINATION. 

"All candidates for admission into the 
Academy shall he examined according 
to such regulations and at such stated 
times as the Secretary of the Navy 
may prescribe. Candidates rejected at 
such eofamination shall not have the 
privilege of another examination for 
admission to the same class unless rec- 
ommended by the Board of Examin- 
ers." (Rev. Stat., Sec. 1515.) 

When any candidate, who has been 
nominated upon the recommendation 
of a Senator, Member, or Delegate of 
the House of Representatives, is found, 
upon examination, to be physically or 
mentally disqualified for admission, the 
Senator, Member, or Delegate shall be 
notified to recommend another candi- 
date, who shall be examined according 
to the provisions of the preceding sec- 
tion. 

Beginning with the year nineteen 
hundred and four, but two examina- 
tions for admission of Midshipmen to 
the Academy will be held each year, as 
follows : 

1. The first examination to be held 
on the third Tuesday in April, under 
the supervision of the Civil Service 
Commission, at points given in a list 
furnished by the Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, Navy Department, Washington, 
D. C., who also furnish sample exam- 
ination papers. Candidates are exam- 
ined mentally only at this examination. 
All those qualifying mentally who are 
entitled to appointment in order of 
nomination will be notified by the Su- 
perintendent of the Naval Academy to 
report at the Academy for physical ex- 
amination on or about June 10, and if 
physically qualified will be appointed. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



69 



Candidates nominated for the April 
examination may be examined at 
Washington, D. C., if so desired, or at 
any of the places in any State named 
in the above schedule. 

Senators and Representatives are re- 
quested, when designating their nomi- 
nees, to give the place at which it is 
desired they should be examined if 
nominated for the April examination. 

2. The second and last examination 
will be held at Annapolis, Md., only, 
on the third Tuesday in June, under 
the supervision of the Superintendent 
of the Naval Academy. Candidates 
are examined mentally at this examin- 
ation, and all those entitled to appoint- 
ment will be directed to report for 
physical examination, as soon as prac- 
ticable, at the Naval Academy. 

Alternates are given the privilege of 
reporting for examination at the same 
time with the principal. 

No examination will be held later 
than the third Tuesday in June. 

The large number of Midshipmen to 
be instructed and drilled makes this 
rule necessary, and it is to the great 
advantage of the new Midshipmen 
themselves. The summer months are 
utilized in preliminary instruction in 
professional branches and drills, such 
as handling boats under oars and sails, 
and in seamanship, gunnery, and 
infantry drills. These practical exer- 
cises form most excellent groundwork 
as a preparation for the academic 
course. 

The examination papers used in all 
examinations are prepared at the 
Naval Academy and the examination 
marks made by candidates finally 
passed upon by the officials of the 
Academy. 

Under the law, candidates failing to 
pass the entrance examination will not 
be allowed another examination for 
admission to the same class unless 
recommended for re-examination by the 
Board of Examiners. 

The Civil Service Commission only 
conducts the examination of candidates 
whose names have been furnished by 
the Navy Department. It is requested 
that all correspondence relative to the 
nomination and examination of candi- 



dates be addressed to the Bureau of 
Navigation, Navy Department. 

Nominations for examination on the 
third Tuesday in April should be for- 
warded to the Bureau ten days prior 
to the date of examination, as that is 
the latest date on which arrangements 
can be made for the examination. 

Candidates will be required to enter 
the Academy immediately after passing 
the prescribed examination. 

No leave of absence will he granted 
to Midshipmen of the fourth class. 

Candidates witl be examined physic- 
ally at the Naval Academy by a board 
composed of three medical officers of 
the Navy. 

Attention will also be paid to the 
stature of the candidate, and no one 
manifestly under size for his age will 
be received at the Academy. In the 
case of doubt about the physical con- 
dition of the candidate, any marked 
deviation from the usual standard of 
height or weight will add materially 
to the consideration for rejection. The 
height of candidates for admission 
shall not be less than 5 feet 2 inches 
between the ages of 16 and 18 years, 
and not less than 5 feet 4 inches be- 
tween the ages of 18 and 20 years. 

Candidates will be examined men- 
tally in punctuation, spelling, arith- 
metic, geography, English grammar. 
United States history, world's history, 
algebra through quadratic equations, 
and plane geometry (five books of 
Chauvenet's Geometry, or an equiva- 
lent). Deficiency in any one of these 
subjects may be sufficient to insure the 
rejection of the candidate. 

ADMISSION. 

Candidates who pass the physical 
and mental examinations will receive 
appointments as Midshipmen, and be- 
come students of the Academy. Each 
Midshipman will be required to sign 
articles by which he binds himself to 
serve in the United States Navy eight 
years (including his time of probation 
at the Naval Academy ) , unless sooner 
discharged. 

The pay of a Midshipman is $500 a 
year, commencing at the date of his 
admission. 



The cruisers are the light cavalry of 
the navy. As their name implies, their 
duty is to cruise the seas, keeping in 
touch with the enemy's fleets and act- 
ing as the "eyes" of the line-of-battle 
ships. Tbey ^re ^Isq i^tended for the 



double duty of attacking an enemy's 
commerce and defending that of the 
country whose flag they carry. Fleets 
of merchant vessels or of transport 
ships will be "convoyed" by cruisers 
from port to port. 



70 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



LIST OF SHIPS OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 

[Abbreviations. — HvU: S., steel; S. W., steel, wood sheathed; I., iron; W., wood. Praptdaion: 
S., screw; T. S., twin screw; Tr. S., triple screw; P., paddle.] 



FIRST RATE. 



Name. 



Maine 

Missouri 

Alabama 

Illinois 

Wisconsin. . . . 
Kearsarge. . . . 
Kentucky. . . . 

Iowa 

Indiana 

Massachusetts 

Oregon 

Brooklyn 

New York. . . . 




12,500 
12,500 
11.525 
11,525 
11,525 
11,525 
11,525 
11,340 
10,288 
10.288 
10,288 
9.215 
8.200 



Ist class battleship 

.do 

. do 

.do 

. do 

• ^j1^J« •••■•■■■•• 

.do 

. do 

. do 

. do 

. do 

Armored cruiser. . . 
. ...do 



Hull. 



8. 
8. 
S. 
8. 
S. 
S. 
8. 
8. 
S. 
8. 
8. 
S. 
S. 



I.H.P. 


Propul- 




sion. 


16,000 


T.S. 


16,000 


T.8. 


11,366 


T.8. 


11,366 


T.S. 


10.000 


TS. 


11,954 


TS. 


12,318 


TS. 


12,105 


TS. 


9,738 


T.S. 


10,403 


TS. 


11,111 


TS. 


18,769 


T.S. 


17,401 


TS. 



Guns 
(main 

bat- 
tery). 

20 
20 
18 
18 
18 
22 
22 
18 
16 
16 
16 
20 
18 



SECOND RATE. 



Name. 




Columbia. . . . 
Minneapolis. . 

Texas 

Puritan 

Olympia 

Chicago 

Yankee 

Prairie 

Buffalo 

Dixie 

Baltimore. . . 
Philadelphia. 
Newark. ..... 

San Francisco 
Monterey. . . . 

Monadnock. . 



7,376 
7,376 
6,315 
6,060 

5,870 
5,000 
6,888 
6,872 
6,888 
6,145 
4,413 
4,324 
4,098 
4,098 
4,084 



4,005 



Type. 



Protected cruiser. . . 

....do 

2d class battleship . 

Double-turret mon- 
itor. 

Protected cruiser . . 

. . . .do 

Cruiser (converted) 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

....do 

Protected cruiser. . . 

. . . . do. . 

. . . . do. . 

. . . . do 

Barbette turret, low 
free-board mon- 
itor. 

Double-turret mon- 
itor. 



Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion. 


S. 


18,509 


Tr.S. 


S. 


20,862 


Tr.S. 


8. 


8,610 


TS. 


I. 


3,700 


TS. 


S. 


17,313 


T.S. 


8. 


9.000 


T.S. 


I. 


3,800 


8. 


I. 


3.800 


8. 


S. 


3.600 


S. 


s. 


3,800 


S. 


s. 


10,064 


TS. 


s. 


8.815 


T.S. 


8. 


8.869 


T.S. 


8. 


9.913 


T.S. 


S. 


5,244 


T.S. 


I. 


3,000 


T.S. 



Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 

11 

11 

8 

10 

14 
18 
10 
10 

6 
10 
12 
12 
12 
12 

4 



THIRD RATE. 



Name. 



Aiax 

Glacier. . . 
Celtic. . . . 
Culgoa. . . 
Saturn. . . 
Rainbow. . 
Arethusa. 
Alexander. 



Dis- 
place- 
ment 
(tons). 



*7.500 
*7.000 

6,428 
*6,300 
*6,220 

6,206 
*6,200 

6,181 



Type. 



Collier 

Refrigerator ship . . 

...do 

Supply ship 

Collier 

Cruiser (converted) 

Tank steamer 

Collier 



Hull. 



S. 
8. 
8. 
S. 
I. 
S. 
8. 
S. 



I.H.P. 



3,000 
4,000 
1,890 

ti.soo 

1,500 
1,800 



1,026 



Propul- 
sion. 



S. 
8. 
8. 

S. 
S. 
8. 
S. 



Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 

~t2~ 



t2 
t2 



* Estimated. t Secondary battery. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



71 



THIRD RATE— CorUinued. 



Name. 



Iris. 



Brutus 

Sterling 

Csesar 

Nero 

Nanshan 

Abarenda. . . . , 

Supply 

Marcellus 

Hannibal. . . . , 

Leonidas 

Solace 

Panther 

Miantonomoh . 



Amphitrite. 
Terror. . . . 



Albany 

New Orleans 

Arkansas 

Wyoming 

Nevada 

Florida 

Cincinnati 

Raleigh 

Cleveland 

Reina Mercedes 

Atlanta 

Boston 

Hartford 

Mayflower 

Topeka 

Katahdin 

Detroit 

Montgomery 

Marblehead 

Mohican 

Manila 

Bennington 

Concord 

Yorktown 

Dolphin , 

Wilmington. ........ 

Helena 

Adams 

Essex. 

Enterprise 

Nashville 

Castine 

Machias 

Chesapeake 

Don Juan de Austria . 

Isla de Luzon 

Isia de Cuba 

Alert 

Ranger 

Annapolis 

Vicksburg 

Wheeling 

Marietta 

Newport 

Princeton 

Lawton 

Relief 




6,100 

*6,000 
6,663 
5,016 
4,925 

*4,827 
4,670 
4,460 

*4,400 
4,291 
4,242 
4,700 
4,260 
3,990 

3,990 
3.990 

3,437 
3,437 
3.214 
3,214 
3,714 
3,214 
3,213 
3,213 
3,100 
3,090 
3,000 
3,000 
2,790 
2.690 
2,372 
2,155 
2,089 
2,089 
2,089 
1,900 
1,800 
1,710 
1,710 
1,710 
1,486 
1,392 
1,392 
1,375 
1,375 
1,375 
1,371 
1,177 
1,177 
1,175 
1,159 
1,030 
1,030 
1,020 
1,020 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1.000 
1,000 
1,000 
*4,100 
*3,000 



Type. 



Supply and repair 

snip. 
Collier 

.do 

. do 

. do 

. do 

.do 

Supply ship 

Collier 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

Hospital ship 

Cruiser (converted). 
Double-turret mon- 
itor. 

Double-turret mon- 
itor. . . . 
Protected cruiser . . 

Monitor 

■ vAvl* ••••■■•■■■• 

• v&v/« •••••••■••■ 

.do 

Protected cruiser . . 

.do 

. do 

.do 

• ^A\Ja •• ■• ■• •• ■•• 

.do 

Cruiser 

Cruiser (converted) 

Gunboat 

Harbor defence ram 
Unprotected cruiser 

, . . . do 

Cruiser 

Gunboat 



.do. 



• • • ■ 



. . . . do 

Dispatch boat 

Light draft gunb't . 

. ... do 

Cruiser 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

Light-draft gunb't . 

Gunboat 

. . . . do 

• • • • VAV/» ••«■••■•••• 

• ■ • • V&V^* •• ■••■>• ■• a 

• • ■ • V&^* ••■■•••aa«« 

....do 

Ouiser 

. . . . do 

Composite gunboat 

. . . .do 

• • a • VA\^* ••••aaaaaa* 

. . . . do 

. .do 

Transport 

Hospital ship 



Hull. 


I.H.P. 


Propul- 
sion. 


S. 


1,300 


S. 


S. 


1,200 


S. 


I. 


*926 


s. 


S. 


1,500 


s. 


S. 


1,000 


s. 


s. 




a • 


s. 


l.OSO 


s. 


I. 


1,069 


s. 


I. 


1,200 


s. 


s. 


1,100 


s. 


s. 


1,000 


s. 


s. 


3,200 


s. 


I. 


• • 


s. 


I. 


1,426 


T.S. 


I. 


1,600 


T.S. 


I. 


1.600 


T.S. 


s.w. 


7,500 


T.S. 


s.w. 


7,500 


T.S. 


s. 


2,400 


T.S. 


s. 


2,400 


T.S. 


s. 


2,400 


T.S. 


s. 


2,400 


T.S. 


s. 


10,000 


T.S. 


s. 


10.000 


T.S. 


s.w. 


4.700 


T.S. 


s. 


3.700 


S. 


s. 


4.000 


s. 


s. 


4.030 


s. 


w. 


2.000 


s. 


s. 


4.700 


T.S. 


I. 


2,000 


T.S. 


s. 


5,068 


T.S. 


s. 


6,227 


T.S. 


s. 


5,680 


T.S. 


s. 


5,451 


T.S. 


w. 


1,100 


S. 


I. 


750 


s. 


I. 


3.436 


T.S. 


s. 


3,405 


T.S. 


s. 


3,392 


T.S 


8. 


2,253 


S. 


s. 


1,894 


T.S. 


s. 


1,988 


T.S. 


w. 


800 


S. 


w. 


800 


s. 


w. 


800 


s. 


s. 


2,636 


T.S. 


s. 


2,199 


T.S. 


s. 


2,046 


T.S. 


Comp. 




SaUs. 


I. 


1,566 


a 


s. 


2,627 


T.S. 


s. 


2,627 


T.S. 


I. 


600 


S. 


I. 


600 


s. 


CJomp. 


1.227 


s. 


Comp. 


1,118 


s. 


Comp. 


1,081 


T.S. 


Comp. 


1,064 


T.S. 


(Domp. 


1,008 


s. 


(Domp. 


800 


s. 


S. 


3,200 


s. 


S. 


2,666 


s. 



Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 



8 
8 
13 
2 
8 
4 
10 
10 
10 
6 
2 
6 
6 
6 
3 
8 
8 
6 
6 
1 
8 
8 
8 
6 
4 
6 
6 
3 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



* £}8timated. t Secondary battery. 



72 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOURTH RATE. 



Name. 



/ 



Lebanon 

Juatin 

Southery 

Pompey 

Zafiro 

General Alava 

Yankton 

Vesuvius 

Petrel 

Scorpion 

Fern 

Bancroft 

Vixen 

Gloucester 

Michif^an 

Wasp 

Frolic 

Dorothea 

Elcano 

Pinta 

Stranger 

Peoria 

Hist 

Eagle 

Hornet 

Quiros 

Villalobos 

Hawk 

Siren 

Sylvia 

Callao 

Pampanga 

Paragua ^ 

Samar 

Arayat 

Aileen 

Mindanao 

Elfrida 

Sylph 

C^amianes 

Albay 

Leyte 

Oneida 

Panav 

Manilefio 

Mariveles 

Mindoro 

Restless 

Shearwater 

Inca 

Alvarado 

Sandoval 

Huntress 

Basco 

Gardoqui 

Urdaneta 



Dis- 
place- 
ment 
(tons.) 



3,375 

*3,300 

*3,100 

*3,085 

*2,000 

1,40 

976 

0929 

892 
850 
840 
839 
806 
786 
685 
630 
607 
594 
560 
550 

*546 
488 
472 
434 
425 
400 
400 
375 

*315 

*302 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
192 
174 

*173 
152 
150 
150 
150 
150 
142 
142 
142 
142 
137 
122 

♦120 
100 
100 
82 
42 
42 
42 



Type. 



Collier 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

Transport 

. . . . do 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 
Dynamite-gun ves- 
sel. 

Gunboat 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

Tender 

Gunboat 

Gunboat conv't'd). . 

. . . . do 

Cruiser 

Gunboat (conv't'd) 

. . do 

. . do 

Gunboat 

. . do 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

. . do 

. . do 

. . do 

..do 

Gunboat 

. . do 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

. . do 

. . do 

Gunboat 

. . do 

. . do 

. . do 

. . do 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

Gunboat 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

, . . . do 

Gunboat 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

Gunboat 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

Gunboat 

. . . . do 

Gunboat (conv't'd). 

Gunboat 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 



Hull. 


I.H.P. 


I. 




S. 




I. 




s. 




8. 




S. 


770 


S. 


750 


S. 


3,795 


S. 


1.095 


S. 


2.800 


w. 


300 


s. 


1.213 


s. 


1.250 


s. 


2,000 


I. 


365 


s. 


1.800 


s. 


550 


s. 


1.558 


s. 


600 


I. 


310 


I. 




8. 




S. 


500 


S. 


850 


s. 


800 


Comp. 


208 


Olmp. 


208 


S. 


1,000 


S. 




I. 


• • • • • 


s. 


250 


I. 


250 


I. 


250 


I. 


250 


I. 


260 


s. 


500 


I. 


100 


S. 


200 


s. 


550 


I. 


125 


I. 


125 


I. 


125 


w. 


350 


I. 


125 


I. 


125 


I. 


125 


I. 


125 


I. 


500 


8. 




w. 


400 


s. 


137 


s. 


137 


Comp. 




I. 


44 


I. 


44 


I. 


44 

1 



Propul- 
.sion. 



8. 
8. 
8. 
8. 

8.' 

8. 

T.8. 

8. 
TS. 

8. 
T.8. 

8. 

8. 

P. 

8. 

8. 

8. 
T.S. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 

8. 
T.S. 

8. 

8. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 

8. 

T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

8. 

S. 

8. 

8. 

8. 



Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 



t4 
t2 
t2 
t2 



t4 
t8 
t3 



4 

r8 

^3 

4 
t4 

tio 

h4 

tio 



V. 

rl( 

I 



t2 
5 

•7 
6 
6 
9 

•2 

2 

■4 

■■4 

6 

6 

••4 

••4 

■■4 

6 

■■5 

6 

2 

•8 

3 

3 

3 

6 

"•4 

•4 

•4 

•4 

•8 

3 

•■2 

•2 

2 

•2 

2 

+2 

t2 



* Estimated f Secondary battery. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



73 



TORPEDO VESSELS. 



Name. 



Decatur 

Bainbridge. . . 

Barry 

Dale 

Chauncey. ... 

Whipple , 

Stewart 

Truxtun 

Worden 

Hopkins 

Lawrence 

Hull 

Macdonough. , 

Preble. 

Paul Jones. . . . 

Perry 

Bagley 

Barney 

Biddle 

Ericsson , 

Foote , 

Gwin , 

Mackenzie. . . . 

Somers , 

Gushing 

Thornton. . . . , 
Stockton. . . . . 

De Long , 

Wilkes 

Rodgers 

Tingey 

Bailey 

Shubrick. ... 

Dupont 

Porter , 

Talbot. 

Manly. 

Farragut. . . . . 

Davis 

Fox 

T.A.M. Craven 
Dahlgren .... 

McKee 

Winslow 

Morris 

Stiletto 

Rowan , 

Plunger 

Porpoise 

Shark 

Adder 

Moccasin. . . . . 

Grampus 

Pike 

Holland 



Dis- 
place- 
ment 
(tons). 



Type. 



420 
420 
420 
420 
420 
433 
420 
433 
433 
408 
400 
408 
400 
420 
420 
420 
167 
167 
167 
120 
142 

46 

65 
145 
105 
165 
166 
165 
165 
142 
165 
235 
166 
165 
165 

46i 

30 
273 
132 
132 
146 
146 

65 
142 
105 

31 
182 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 
120 

73 



Torpedo boat des . . 

• ■ ■ ■ UU* •••■■■■■■•■ 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

....do 

. . . .do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

....do 

Torpedo boat 

....do 

...do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

....do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

....do 

. ...do 

Torpedo beat 

....do 

. . . .do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

....do 

. , . . do 

. . . . do 

. . . . do 

....do 

. . . . do 

....do 

Submarine tor.boat 

....do 

. . . . do 

...do 

. . . . do. . 

. . . . do 

. ...do... 

. . , . do 



Hull. 



S. 
S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

8. 

s. 

8. 
S. 
S. 

S. 

s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 
s. 

8. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

w. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 



I.H.P. 



8,000 

8,000 

8.000 

8,000 

8,000 

8.300 

7,000 

8,300 

8,300 

7,200 

8,400 

7,200 

8,400 

7,000 

7,000 

7,000 

4,200 

4,200 

4,200 

1,800 

2,000 

850 

850 

1,900 

1,720 

3,000 

3,000 

3.000 

3,000 

2,000 

3,000 

5,600 

3,000 

3,400 

3,400 

850 

250 

5,600 

1,750 

1,750 

4,200 

4,200 

850 

2,000 

1,750 

359 

3,200 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

150 





Guns 


Propul- 


(main 


sion. 


bat- 




tery). 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


♦2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


♦2 


T.S. 


♦2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


♦3 


S. 


*2 


s. 


*2 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


♦3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


♦3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


S. 


*2 


s. 


*1 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*2 


T.S; 


*2 


S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*3 


T.S. 


*3 


S. 


*2 


T.S. 


*3 


S. 


♦1 


S. 


*1 


s. 


*1 


s. 


*1 


s. 


*1 


s. 


*1 


s. 


*l 


s. 


♦l 



* Tori)edo tubes. 



74 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 



Name. 



Connecticut. 
Kansas. . . '. . 
Louisiana. . . 



Minnesota. 
Vermont. . 



Georgia. . . 
Nebraska. . 
New Jersey. 



Hhode Island. 
Virginia 



Idaho 

Mississippi. 
Ohio 



Tennessee 

Washington. . . . 

California. ..... 

Pennsylvania. . . 
West Virginia . . 

Colorado 

Maryland. 

South Dakota. . 

Charleston 

Milwaukee 



St. Louis 

Chattanooga. . . 

Denver 

Des Moines. . . . 



Galveston. 
Tacoma. . 



Dubuque . 



Paducah. . . . 
Gunboat No. 
Cumberland. 



16 



Intrepid. 
Boxer. . . 



Stringham (No. 

19) 
Goldsborough 

(No. 20) 

Nicholson 

(No. 30) 
O'Brien (No. 31) 
Blakely (No. 28) 

Sotoyomo (No.9) 



Dis- 
place- 
ment 
(tons). 



16,000 

16,000 

16,000 

16,000 
16,000 

15,000 
15,000 
16,000 

14,600 
14,600 

13,000 
13,000 
12,600 

14,500 

14,600 

14,000 

14,000 

14,000 

13,600 

::3,6oo 

13,600 

9,600 

9,600 

9,600 
3,100 
3,100 
3,100 

3,100 
3,100 

1,085 

1,085 

1,800 

1,800 
345 

340 

247i 

174 

174 

165 

225 



Type. 



1st class 
battleship 
. .do. . . . 

. .do. . . . 

. .do. . . . 
. .do. . . . 

. .do. . . . 
. .do. . . . 
. .do. . . . 

. .do. . . . 
. .do. . . . 

. .do. . . . 
. .do. . . . 
. .do. . . . 

Armored 

cruiser. 

. .do. . . . 

. .do. . . . 

Armored 

cruiser. 

. .do. . . . 

. . do. . . . 

. .do. . . . 

do 



Protected 

cruiser. 

. . do 

. . do 

. . do 

. .do 

. .do. . . .. 

. .do 

. . do 

Gunboat . 



. . do 

. . do 

Training 

ship 

. . do 

Training 

brigantme 

Torpedo 

boat 
. .do. . . . 

• • vl^^* • • ■ ■ 

. . do 

. . do 

. . do 



Hull. 



S. 
S. 

s. 

s. 
s. 

s.w. 
s.w. 
s.w. 

s. 
s. 

s. 
s. 
s. 

s. 

s. 

s.w. 
s.w. 
s.w. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 
s.w. 

s.w. 
s.w. 

s.w. 
s.w. 

s.w. 

s.w. 

s. 
s. 

s. 
w. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 

s. 



I.H.P. 



16,500 

16.500 

16,500 

16,600 
16,500 

18,000 
18,000 
18,000 

18,000 
18,000 

10,000 
10,000 
16,000 

25,000 

25,000 

23,000 

23,000 

23,000 

23,000 

23,000 

23,000 

21,000 

21,000 

21,000 
4,700 
4,700 
4,700 

4,700 
4,700 

1,050 
1,060 



Pro- 
pul- 
sion. 



7,200 

6,000 

3,500 

3,500 
3,000 

450 



T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 
T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 



T.S. 
T.S. 

T.S. 

T.S. 
T.S. 

S. 



Guns 
(main 
bat- 
tery). 



Place where building. 



24 

24 

24 

24 
24 

24 
24 
24 

24 
24 

22 
22 
20 

20 

20 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

22 

14 

14 

14 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 



6 
6 
6 

• • 

*2 

*2 

*3 

♦3 
*3 



Navy Yard, New York. 

New York Ship Building Co., 

Camden, N. J. 
Newport News Ship Building and 

Dry Dock Ck)., N'p't News.Va. 
Do. 
Fore River S. & E. Co., Quincy, 

Bath Iron Works, Bath, Me. 

Moran Bros. CJo., Seattle, Wash. 

Fore River S. & E. Co., Quincy, 
Mass. 
Do. 

Newport News Ship BuildiAg and 
Dry Dock Co., N'p't News,Va. 

Contract not yet awarded. 
Do. 

Union Iron Works, San Francis* 
CO, Cal. 

Wm. Cramp & Sons, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

New York Ship Building Co., 
Camden, N. J. 

Union Iron Works, San Francis- ' 
CO, Cal. 

Wm. Oamp & Sons, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Newport News Ship Building and 
Dry Dock Co., N'p't News,Va. 

Wm. Cramp & Sons, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Newport News Ship Building and 
Dry Dock Co., N'p't New8,Va. 

Union Iron Works, San Francis- 
co, Cal. 

Newport News Ship Building and 
Dry Dock Co., ISf'p't News,Va. 

Union Iron Works, San Francis- 
co, Cal. 

Neafie <& Levy, Philadelphia,Pa. 

Navy Yard, New York. 

Neafie & Levy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fore River S. & E. Co., Quincy, 
Mass. 

Navy Yard, Norfolk. 

Union Iron Works, San Francis- 
co, Cal. 

Gas Engine and Power Co., and 
Chas. L. Seabury & Co., con- 
solidated, Morris Heights.N.Y. 
Do. 

Contract not yet awarded. 

Navy Yard, Boston, Mass. 

Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 
Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N. H. 

Navy Yard, League Island. 

Navy Yard, Puget Sound. 

Navy Yard, New York. 

Do. 

Geo. Lawley & Sons, South Bos- 
ton, Mass. 
Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 



*Torpedo tubes. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF VESSELS IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 



ain^e-turrat harbor-defense monitora . . 

Double-turret monitors 

Prot«rt«d oruiaers 

ITnpTDtested oraieers 

GunboMs 

Ligbt-dr»rt gunboata 

CcffQposite funbosle, ,,,,,..-.- - . 

TruoiiiE ahip^avaJAeademy), sheathed 

SpecitJ clasa (DolphiD-Vesuviiu) 

Gunboata under SOOtona 

Torpedo-boat destroyers 

Steel torpedo boats 

Wooden torpedo boat - 

Wooden cruisirtf vesaelB, steam 

Wooden (ailing vessels 

Tugs 

Auxiliary emisers 

Converted yachta 

Collien 

Supply ships and hospital ships ........ 



Total 

Grand Total,. 



.e" submarine boat c 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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78 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE TORPEDO BOAT IN MODERN WARFARE. 



The Russo-Japanese war has proved 
the wisdom of building torpedo boat 
destroyers of the dimensions and pow- 
er that characterize the latest models. 
With their length of 220 feet, beam of 
over 20 feet and draft of between 9 
and 10 feet, giving a displacement of 
between 300 and 400 tons, the mod- 
ern destroyer is a very serviceable sea 
boat, which was more than could be 
said for the torpedo boat of an earlier 
decade. The high freeboard and the 
provision of a raised turtle-back for- 
ward, render these boats able to main- 
tain their high speed in fairly rough 
water, and in the present operations 
the flotillas of Japanese destroyers 
seem to have been perfectly well able 
to keep the sea in all weather. Evi- 
dently the lessons taught by the dis- 
asters that happened to some of the 
high-powered British torpedo boat de- 
stroyers, when they were badly 
wrenched, and in one case actually bro- 
ken in two in a heavy seaway, have 
been laid to heart, and the Japanese 
destroyers which did such good work 
around Port Arthur are evidently sea- 
worthy vessels. 

A surprising feature of torpedo boat 
service in the Far Eastern struggle is 



the wide range of duties which were 
assigned to the destroyers. Scouting 
work- which ordinarily would be given 
to cruisers from 3,000 to 6,000 tons 
displacement was satisfactorily car- 
ried out by these little 400-ton craft. 

By reference to the section dia- 
gram on page 77 the reader can obtain 
a very complete idea of a torpedo boat 
interior. Forward in the bow is a 
collision compartment formed by a 
bulkhead located several feet from the 
bow. Aft of that is the chain locker, 
and then the torpedoes, of which half 
a dozen are carried on a vessel of this 
character. Since the torpedo boat car- 
ries no afinor whatever, the torpedoes, 
the war-heads, and the magazines are 
placed below the water-line, where they 
are safe from any except a plunging 
shot. The torpedoes are stowed with 
their war-heads containing the guncot- 
ton charge unscrewed, the latter being 
stowed separately, as shown in the en- 
graving. Aft of the war-heads is the 
forward magazine and a compartment 
given up to the general ship's stores. 
On the deck above are the quarters 
for the crew, which will number be- 
tween fifty and sixty men in the larger 
boats. 



THE MODERN TORPEDO. 



Commenting during the late Spanish 
war upon the eflSciency of the torpedo, 
we said : "Although torpedo warfare 
has not yet achieved results at all pro- 
portionate to the amount of thought 
and skill that have been devoted to 
it, the failure has probably been due 
more to a lack of opportunity or of 
efficient handling than to-, any defi- 
ciency in the torpedo itself." The 
startling events that marked the open- 
ing of the Russo-Japan war have es- 
tablished the truth of that statement, 
for in the hands of an alert, intelligent 
and daring people, this deadly weapon, 
in the first half hour of hostilities, so 
badly crippled two of the finest battle- 
ships and one of the best cruisers of 
the Russian navy that they had to be 
beached, and a blow was struck at the 
naval prestige of Russia from which 
that country will take many years to 
recover. At the same time, the !Port 
Arthur torpedo attack must be judged 
at its true value ; and, therefore, we 
must not lose sight of the fact that 
information is finding its way to the 
public ear which makes it pretty evi- 
dent that the Russian ships were not 
looking for, and were totally unpre- 



pared to receive, a torpedo attack. If 
this is the case, what has been proved 
is that if the torpedo boat can get un- 
molested within easy range, the tor- 
pedo is fairly sure of its. mark — and 
this we all knew well enough before 
the war began. 

The Whitehead torpedo is undergo- 
ing constant development, the latest 
improvement being the introduction of 
the gyroscope for the purpose of keep- 
ing the torpedo more accurately upon 
its true course. The latest patterns 
include this device and are generally 
of larger diameter and greater length 
than the earlier types. 

We show on the preceding page an 
illustration of a Schwartzkopff tor- 
pedo, which is the type used in the 
Russian navy. It is merely a modifica- 
tion of the Whitehead and operates 
upon the same principles. 

The torpedo here shown consists of 
a cigar-shaped body of phosphor-bronze 
or steel, divided into six separate 
compartments as follows: (1) The 
magazine, (2) the secret chamber, (3) 
the reservoir, (4) the engine compart- 
ment, (5) the buoyancy compartment, 
((>) the bevel-gear chamber. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



79 



The magazine contains the explosive 
charge, which consists of a series of 
disks of wet guncotton packed snugly 
together. The cartridge primer, fc, for 
exploding the charge, consists of sev- 
eral cylinders of dry guncotton packed 
in a tube which passes through per- 
forations in the guncotton disks, t. 
The foremost of the six cylinders con- 
tains a detonating primer consisting of 
fulminate of mercury. The small pro- 
peller at the extreme point of the tor- 
pedo is part of an ingenious safety de- 
vice for preventing premature explo- 
sion in handling. When not in use, 
the firing pin is held in check by a 
sleeve ; but as soon as the torpedo 
strikes the water the rotation of the 
little propellers releases the sleeve and 
leaves the firing pin ready to strike the 
detonating primer the moment the tor- 
pedo meets an obstruction. 

The "secret chamber" is the most 
ingenious part of this most ingenious 
piece of mechanism. Its piston, pen- 
dulum and springs perform the impor- 
tant work of regulating the horizontal 
rudders which keep the torpedo at the 
proper depth. Immediately in front of 
the secret chamber is a narrow com- 
partment perforated on its walls to 
allow the outside water to enter. The 
front wall of the secret chamber car- 
ries a piston, a, which can move in the 
direction of the axis of the torpedo. 
The pressure of the water is resisted 
by three coiled springs, as shown in 
the longitudinal section. At a certain 
predetermined depth, according to the 
tension on the springs, the springs and 
water pressure will be in equilibrium ; 
below that depth the piston will be 
driven in by the water pressure, and 
above it the springs will push forward 
the piston. To prevent too sudden os- 
cillation in this action, the piston is 
connected to the rod, e, of a swinging 
pendulum, d. The motion of the pis- 
ton is communicated by rods, which 
pass through the hollow stay rods of 
the air chamber to the horizontal or 
diving rudders. If the torpedo goes too 
deep the piston moves back, the pendu- 
lum swings forward and the rudders 
are elevated, the reverse movements 
taking place if the immersion is not 
sufficient. When a torpedo dives into 



the water, the first part of its run is 
made on a wave line which crosses and 
recrosses the desired and ultimate level 
of immersion, the piston and the pen- 
dulum gradually bringing the torpedo 
to a true course. The reservoir forms 
the central body of the "fish." It is 
made of forged cast steel and is tested 
up to seventy atmospheres. A tuyere 
at its after end feeds the air to the 
engine. The torpedo is driven by a 
three-cylinder engine, with cylinders 
120 deg. apart, acting on a common 
crank. The engine is started by means 
of a valve which is opened by a lever 
striking a projecting lug on the launch- 
ing tube, when the torpedo is fired. 

The buoyancy chamber is an air- 
tight compartment, the purpose of 
which is to afford the proper buoyancy 
to the torpedo ; it carries a piece of 
lead ballast, by shifting which the trim 
can be controlled. The two tubes, / 
and g, carry the connecting rods for 
controlling the horizontal diving rud- 
ders. 

Next comes the bevel-gear chamber, 
where is located the gear, /, for caus- 
ing the propellers, m, to rotate in op- 
posite directions. The after propeller 
is keyed to the main shaft ; the forward 
propeller is keyed to a sleeve which 
rotates freely upon the main shaft, and 
the motion is reversed by means of two 
bevel-wheel gears which turn on a 
spindle at right angles to the main 
shaft. The "tail" consists of a stock 
with vertical vanes, which act as the 
vertical rudder, and two frames which 
carry the horizontal rudders. 

The torpedo is fired from a launch- 
ing tube by the explosion of a small 
charge of gunpowder behind it. This 
compresses the air which surrounds 
the rear half of the torpedo and thrusts 
it out of the tube without any serious 
jar. 

The range and speed of the torpedoes 
vary with the size. The weapon here 
shown is 14 inches in diameter, 15 feet 
in length, carries 90 pounds of guncot- 
ton and has a speed of 28 knots for a 
lange of 800 yards. The 18-inch 
Whitehead torpedo is 16 feet 7^^ 
inches in length, carries a* charge of 
220 pounds of guncotton and has a 
speed of 31 knots for 1,000 yards. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INTERIOR OP A BATTLESHIP. 



The story of tlie complicated char- 
acter of the interior of a modern bat- 
tleship ia one that has grown some- 
what stale in the telling, and it ia not 
the fault of the magazine writer and 
the occasional correspondent of Sun- 
day supplemeota, if the general public 
is not aatisGed that a great battleship 
or cruiser, is complicated beyond the 
power of words to exprpHS. 

In saying that the battleship ia com> 
plicated we must be careful to remem- 
ber that complication does not imply 
oonfosiou ; and that in all the prscti- 



vesse), but will leave it to the diagram 
to tell its own story. 

The drawing is what is known as an 
inboard profile ; that is to say. it ia a 
vertical, central, longitudinal section 
through the whole length of the ship. 
TTle huge structure of which we thns 
obtain an interior view, is a little un- 
der 450 feet in length from the eitreme 
tip of the ram to the end ot the rud- 
der. The foundation of the whole is 
the keel, which ia nothing more nor 
less tlian a deep plate girder, 3 feet 6 
inches in depth, estending from the in- 



SECriON OF A HOD) 



cable BChieyementa of engineering it 

would be difficult if not impossible to 

find a structure which in spite of the 

man] parts of which it is made up 

and the enormous elaboration of detail 

that It manife'4ts is reall} so harmo 

nioualy proportioned or is better fitted 

to the ends for which it was dE^iiEned 

Tliere are some subjects of whuh an 

illustration will tell more in file mm 

utes than tongue or pen < an explam in 

an hour and m presentine the accora 

— iwnying view of the interior of one ot 

latest battleships of the United 

I Navy we ahall not attempt to 

oy elaborate descnption of the 



board end of the i 
rudler post Bisecting it at every 3 
feet of Its length occurs one of the 
plate girder frames or nbs which ei 
tend athwartship and run up to the 
under edge of the armor *elf where 
they are reduced to a depth of sav from 
18 to 12 imhes Che frames extend 
ing up the Bides of the ship to the 
kvel of the upper deck On the out 
•i de of the'ip frames is riveted the 
outer plating of t!he ship and upon the 
inaide of the frames eitending as high 
up as the under side of the water line 
belt aay 4 or 5 feet below the water 
line IS riveted an inner shell of plat 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBKBRENCE BOOK. 



iDg. The space between the outer sod 
inner plating la divided up by tbe 
frames into transverse water-tight 
chambers 3 feet in width, and every 
one of these spaces is subdivided by 
seven or ei^t loDgitudinal plate gird- 
ers which are built into the double 
bottom, as it is called, parallel with 
the ke«l and extending, most of tbem. 
tbe entire leoglh from stem to stern, 
CoDsequeiitly it will be seen that the 
space between the outer and inner 
shells of tbe ship's bottom is divided 
into an innumerable number of sep- 
arate compartments, measuring 3 feet 
in depth by 4 feet in length by al)out 



of the fragments of heavy, 
high-explosive sbells, bursting within 
tbe ship above the water-line, a steel 
deck, 2 to 3 indbes in thickness, known 
as the protective deck, extends at 
about the level of the water-line over 
tbe wbote of tbe vitals, and is con- 
tinued in a gently curving slope to the 
ram forward and to the stem aft. In 
tbe vessel here shown this steel deck 
is H4 inches thick on tbe flat and 3 
inches thick on tbe slopes. 

Now. the space below the protective 
deck is divided up by a targe number 
of traosveree. water-tight bulkheads 
of steel plating, there being nineteen 



DDERN BATTLESHIP. 



28. General worke 


op. 37. 8h.(t alloy snde-i 


lehmag- 45. Ward 


29. Warriml office 


Bn>™timiiig 38. Admiral's office. 




30. WuTsnt offic 






3:). Junior officers- p* 


try. 48! Trinim 


Si Stirs.. 


40. Wardroom pantry 


40. Admir 


41. Skylight trunk t 




33. Crane. 




SL Admii 






36. IZ-inoh handling room. 44. Bread and 

(i feet in width. Tbe plates are se- 
curely riveted together. 

Above tbe inner Qoor or platform the 
central portion of the vessel is taken 
op by the magazines, boiler rooms and 
engine rooms. These because of tbeir 
vast importance, are known as tbe 
ship's vitals, and great care is taken 
to provide them against the entrame 
of heavy projectiles of tbe enemy, and. 
as far as may be, egainst tbe attack 
of the still more deadly torpedo. The 
engines and boilers are so proportioned 
as to height that they do not extend 
above the water-line ; and to protect 
them from plunging shot, or from tbe 



of these bulkheads altogether. Thay 
extend from tlie inner shell of the 
vessel to the under side of the protec- 
tive deck. They are riveted perfectly 
water-tight, communication from com- 
partment to compartment being by wa- 
ter-tight doors. Forward in the bow 
are the trimming tanks, used to assist 
in bringing tbe vessel to an even keel. 
Tlien abaft of the collision bulkhead 
are bread and dry provision stoi'es. and 
the construction stores. Tn tbe next 
compartment, wTiich is divided into 
three decks, we have on the floor o' 
the ship a storei'oom for torpedo gea 
submarine mines, etc. Above this 



82 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the under- water torpedo room, and im- 
mediately below the protective deck are 
kept the paymaster's stores and life 
preservers. In the next compartment, 
below on the platform, are the anchor 
gear and dhaln lockers, and above this 
the navigator's stores. Passing through 
the next bulkhead we come to the vi- 
tals of the shi^ proper, with the 6- 
inch gun magazines on the floor, the 
12-inc'h magazines and handling rooms 
on the deck above, and above this the 
14-pounder ammunition and blower 
rooms. Above the magazines, and rest- 
ing on the protective deck, is the bar- 
bette of the forward pair of 12-inch 
guns, the armor and its relative thick- 
ness being shown by heavy, black lines ; 
while in front of the barbette the heavy 
sloping black line indicates the 
athwartship sloping bulkhead, placed 
there to prevent raking projectiles 
from passing through the entire struc- 
ture of the ship. Immediately to the 
rear of the forward barbette is seen 
the coning tower, with the heavily ar 
mored tube which protects the tele- 
phones, electric wires, fuse tubes, etc., 
that pass from the tower down below 
the protective deck. In the next com 
partment, aft of the magazines, are 
the dynamo rooms ; and then between 
the next two bulkheads is placed an 
athwartship coal bunker. A similar 
athwartship coal bunker extends 
athwartship on the other side of the 
boiler rooms ; and it must be under- 
stood that at the side of the boiler 
rooms are the wing bunkers which run 
aft for the whole length of the boiler 
rooms and engine rooms. The boiler 
installation on this particular ship is 
entirely of the water-tube type, and 
it consists of twenty-four units ar- 
ranged in six separate water-tight com- 
partments, three on each side of the 
center line of the vessel. Aft of the 
boiler rooms comes the athwartship 
coal bunker above referred to, and 
then in two separate water-tight com- 
partments are the twin-screw engines. 
Aft of the engines in another com- 
partment is contained a complete set 
of magazines similar to that beneath 
the forward barbette, and above them, 
resting on the protective deck is the 
after barbette and turret, with its pair 
of 12-inch guns. Aft of the maga- 
zines come more compartments, de- 
voted to stores. In the next com- 
partment, down on the platform, are 
the fresh-water tanks and two trim- 
ming tanks, and on the deck above, be- 
''^w the protective deck are, first, the 
ring-machinery room, and then the 



steering-gear room, each being in a 
separate water-tight compartment. 
This completes the description of the 
space below the protective deck. 

The protective deck is known more 
generally among seamen as the berth 
deck. Above that, at a distance of 
about 8'^^ feet, comes the main deck, 
and 8% feet above that the upper 
deck, while amidships, between the two 
main turrets, is the superstructure, the 
deck of which is known as the super- 
structure or boat deck. The berth 
deck and main deck are devoted to the 
living accommodations of the officers 
and crew, the crew being amidships 
and forward, and the officers aft. The 
berth deck, as its name would indicate, 
is largely devoted to the berthing and 
general living accommodation of the 
crew. Here are also to be found, in 
the wake of the forward gun turrets, 
on one side the sick bay, and on the 
other side the refrigerating room and 
ice machine. Aft of that, on the port 
side, are the sick bay, lavatory, dis- 
pensary, machinists' quarters, ord- 
nance workshop and blowers ; while on 
the starboard side are the petty offi- 
cers' quarters, the laundry, and the 
drying-room. Then, in the wake of 
the boiler-rooms, on each side of the 
ship, are coal bunkers which add their 
protection to that of the side armor 
of the vessel. In the center of the 
ship are washrooms for the crew and 
firemen. Aft of the coal bunkers on 
this deck come the officers' quarters. 
On both sides of the ship are the 
staterooms of the junior officers, and 
the wardroom staterooms, while be- 
tween them is a large wardroom and 
dining-room with its pantry. The ex- 
treme aft portion of the berth deck 
is taken up by officers' lavatories, etc. 

On the main deck above, forward, is 
more berthing accommodation for the 
crew, also shower baths and lavatories, 
while amidships are found the various 
galleys for the crew and the officers, 
arranged between the basco of the 
smokestacks, while amidships in the 
wings of the vessel is more berthing 
space for the crew. Aft on the main 
deck the space is given up largely to 
accommodations for the senior officers 
and for the admiral, which, by the 
way, give one an impression more of 
commodiousness than of rich or ex- 
travagant furnishing. Forward, above 
the conning tower, are the pilothouse, 
chartroom and the room of the com- 
manding officer. In the particular 
ship shown, the heavier guns are 
mounted on the upper deck, two 12- 



SCIKNTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



LONGITUDINAL SECTION THROUGH A UNITED STATES 

SHOWING 13-INCH GUN TURRET. BARBETTE, HANDLING 
ROOM, AND MAGAZINES. 



84 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



inch guns in a turret forward and two 
aft, and eight 8-inch guns in two ar- 
mored turrets, two on each broadside 
amidships. The intermediate battery 
of twelve 6-inch guns is mounted on 
the main deck, the guns firing through 
casemates. On this deck are also 
eight 3-inch guns, four forward and 
four aft; there are also four 3-inch 
guns, mounted in broadside on the 



upper deck, within the superstructure. 
Tlie new method of emplacing guns on 
our warships, by which it is possible 
to swing the guns around until their 
muzzles are flush with the side of the 
ship, has the good effect of leaving the 
side of the ship free from projecting 
objects when the vessel is in harbor, 
and of leaving the living spaces of the 
crew but very slightly obstructed. 



SECTION THROUGH THE TURRET AND BARBETTE OF A 

MODERN BATTLESHIP. 



In the foregoing illustration, show- 
ing the interior of a turret and bar- 
bette on a modern American battle 
ship, the section has been carried 
down through the structure of the ship 
to the keel. It is taken on a vertical 
plane in the line of the keel and in- 
cludes enough of the ship in the fore 
and aft direction to take in the am- 
munition and handling rooms, and 
show the methods of storing the shot 
and shell and powder and the means 
for bringing it up to the breech of the 
gun. Commencing at the bottom of 
the section we have, first, the outside 
plating of the ship ; then about four 
feet above that is the inside plating, 
or inner bottom, as it is called. This 
space is divided laterally by the frames 
of the ship, which run across the bot- 
tom and up the sides to the shelf, upon 
which the side armor rests. Upon the 
double bottom, and between that and 
the first deck above, is a magazine 
where the ammunition is stored in 
racks as shown in the illustration, this 
particular ammunition being for the 
rapid-fire guns of six-inch calibre. On 
the deck above and centrally below the 
turret,* is located the handling room 
into which open by water-tight doors 
the magazines, where are stored the 
powder charges and the shells for the 
12-inch guns above. Two decks above 
we come to the steel protective deck, 
2^ to 3 inches in thickness. Upon 



this deck is erected a great circular 
structure known as the barbette, 
whose walls will be from eight to 
twelve inches in thickness. The bar- 
bette is actually a circular steel fort, 
and it is thick enough and its steel 
protection hard enough, to break up 
and keep out the heaviest projectiles 
of the enemy, except when they are 
fired at close ranges. At about two- 
thirds of the height of the barbette is 
a heavy circular track upon which runs 
a massive turntable. The framing of 
this turntable extends to a point 
slightly above the top edge of the bar- 
bette, and upon it is imposed the mas- 
sive structure of the turret, which is 
formed, like the barbette, of heavy 
steel armor carried upon framing, the 
form of the turret in plan being ellip- 
tical. Its front face, which slopes 
at an angle of about 40 degrees, is 
pierced with two ports, through which 
project the two heavy 12-inch guns. 
The mounting of these guns is car- 
ried also upon the turntable and re- 
volves with the turret. Prom the 
handling room below a steel elevator 
track extends up through the barbette 
and curves back to the rear of the gun ; 
and upon this there travel two ammu- 
nition cages which are loaded below 
upon the handling room floor and carry 
the projectiles and powder up to the 
breech of the guns, where it is thrust 
into the gun by mechanical rammers. 



THE SUBMARINE MINE. 



Broadly speaking, there are three 
different kinds of submarine mines. 
First, observation mines, which are 
fired from the shore when a ship is 
known to be in range ; second, auto- 
matic mines, which are exploded on 
being struck by a ship, which is the 
kind with which the Russians claim 



that the "Petropavlovsk" was sunk; 
third, electric-contact mines, which 
on being struck by a passing vessel 
give notification to an operator on 
shore, who fires the mine by the throw 
of a switch. 

The accompanying illustrations 
show a system of electric-contact 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the mi 



ground mines, laid acrose a chani 
with a battery of rapid-fire guns 
ebore bo ptai^ that tbey command the 
whole of the mine field, and render it 
impossible for the small boats of the 
e-aetay to attempt to eiplode the mi 
before the big battleships and armo 
cruisers pass over them. Tlie battery 
is placed rather low down near the 
water, and above it is a battery of 
heavy S and 10- inch breech-loading 
rlSes mounted either en barbetle, 
or on disappearing mounts, while 
above these, carefully masked by 
sh rubbery, is a Qriug atalion, 
"'"■"'" 's connected by cables with 
les in the channel. Some- 
by preference, the Bring 
station la placed in a maaaive concrete 
casemate, which is built into the struc- 
ture of the fortification. Tlie sub- 
marine mines would be laid out in a 
series of parallel lines, and so spaced 
that the mines in each line would cover 
the spaces left In the adjacent lines, 
with tbe result that on whatever 
courae a ship might be steering, she 
would be certain to strike one or m" - 
of tbe mines before she passes over 
field. The ground mine, which, as 
have said, is usually a hemispherical 
metal ease, contains several hundred 
pounds of high explosive, and is h( 
tn place on the bed of the river 
channel by its own weight, sometin: 
assisted by heavy hooks cast upon the 
outer shell. Anchored to the mine, 
and floating above it, at a depth below 
water that is leas than the draft of the 
enemy's vessels, is a hollow buoyant 
Bphere in which is placed the electric 
circuit-closer. The second engraving 
of the two herewith shown represents 
a section through the floating sphere. 
and shows the details of a type ot 
circuit-closer which has been very 
widely used. It consists of a horse- 
shoe magnet, il, il. within which is 
hung by a coiled wire a ball, B. A 
silken cord is hung fi-om the top of 
the magnet, passes down through the 
ball, and is attached to an armature, 
A. When the vessel strikes the buoy, 
the ball is thrown to one side, draws 
aside the silken cord and lifts the 
armature, A. To the poles, W. S, ot 
the magnet are secured two small mag- 
nets, C, C. one end ot the coil wire be- 
ing connected to line and the other to 
a contact point. 6. T!ie aniiature A 
is secured by a spring to an insulateil 
point. P. from whicli a wire passes 
through the firing fuse in the ground 
mine to earth. The other end of the 
carries a contact pc' 



III 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REPBRENCB BOOK. 



which, when the buoy is struck, en- 
sages with a contact point, b, which is 
connected to earth tfirough the inter- 
posed resistance of a 1,000-ohm resist- 

Oui' second engraving shows the au- 
tomatic indicator or shutter, which is 
placed in the firing station on shore. 

■Now let us follow more. closely the 
operation of blowing op the hostile 



magnets. 6, 6, aod releases the pivoted 
shutter, 4, ringing the bell and throw- 
ing the signal battery line L into cir- 
cuit with the line to the firing battery, 
P. it. The operator now places the 
plug, P, in place, and sends the whole 
force of the main current into the tine, 
and as this has sufficient force to paas 
the resistance and ignite the fuse, the 
ground mine is instantly exploded. In 




SaUTTEB AT 



ship. The instant the vessel strikes 
the buoy, the suspended ball, it. 
swings to one side, draws aside the 
cord, pulls up armature A, into con- 
tact with b. and causes the signal-hat- 
tery current to pass by way of the 
1.000-olim reaistance-coil down through 
the ground fuse to earth. This cur- 
rent is too weak to ignite the fuse. 
At the same time the armature a (in 
the firing station >, is attracted to the 



.. e of the 

kind that is claimed to have snub the 
■petropavlovsk," the instant the float- 



in? f 



' the 



ship, there is an ei plosion 
charge, which is carried in the float- 
ing rase, if the water is very deep, or 
in the ground mine at the bottom if 
the water, is sufficiently shallow to 
hring the mine within striking distance 
of the ship's bottom. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



A GROUP OP NAVY PROJECTILES. 

slant of striking; the latter ia set 
explode tbe abell a certain length 
time after the shell has left the 
UKzle of the gUD. 

Shrapnel is the modern form of the 
d case shot, which consisted of a large 
imber of balls put up io a case or 



The projectiles in use by our navy 
ma; be classed aa aolid shot, shell aud 
ihrapuel. Although some excellent 
solid shot is still manufactured, such 
HB the Johnson fluid compressed shot, 
solid ahot have given place to shell as 
tbe standard projectiles of the navy. 



GROUP OF COMMON SHELL AT THE WASHINGTON NAVY YARD. 



Shell is formed with a 

ity of considerable dii , ._. 

which is placed a charge of powder 
or high eiploslve. It is provided with 
a fuae for the ignition of the charge, 
which is of the percuaaioa or time- 
fuse type. The former acts at the 



envelope, which merely served to hold 
them logetlier until they left tbe muz- 
x]e of the gun. In the case of shrap- 
nel the envelope is made sufficientl.v 
Itong to bear (he shock of discharge,- 



and a time-fuse ii 
The l>est s 



. .vided. 
ir-pierciug orojec tiles 



88 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



are now made of chrome steel, the 
small admixture of chromium serving 
to impart to the steel a remarkable 
amount of toughness. The projectiles 
are cast, forged, and carefully an- 
nealed and tempered, the hardening 
being confined to the point or nose. 
The latter is ogival in form, the point 
being struck with a radius which is 
two or three times the diameter of the 
shell. The point has to be sharply 
pointed to insure its penetration of 
the hard face of the armor, but if it 
is made too fine, it will lack the neces- 
sary resisting power and will be frac- 
tured before it can get through. The 
best proportion of radius is found to 
lie between two and three times the 
diameter. 

There are two kinds of arfhor-pierc- 
ing projectiles. The first is made solid, 
or practically so, a small core being 
formed to give the best resiilts in the 
forging process ; the other type is 
known as semi-armor-piercing. It is 
formed hollow, with a core of moder- 
ate dimensions, large enough to hold 
an explosive charge that will insure 
the bursting of the thick walls of the 
projectile. It is made of chrome steel, 
and requires in its manufacture to be 
treated with great care to secure the 
combined hardness and toughness to 
enable it to pierce solid armor without 
fracturing and carry its explosive 
charge intact into the interior of the 
ship. When such shell is filled with 
common powder the heat engendered 
by passing through the armor is de- 
pended on to explode the shell just 
within the ship ; no fuse is used. 

The object at which projectile mak- 
ers are aiming just now is to make a 
shell which can carry a charge through 
the best armor and burst on the inner 
side of the armor. It is already pos- 
sible to put solid shot through plate 
that is as much as one and one-half 
the diameter of the shot in thickness, 
and the success of the projectile mak- 
ers is such as to make it likely that 
before long a bursting shell can be 
made to perform the same feat. 

It will be evident that penetration 
of the armor belt by a shell will be 
vastly more destructive to the ship 
than penetration by solid shot. The 
damage wrought by the latter will be 
confined to its direct path, where the 
zone of destruction of a shell will be 
almost as extensive, if it is of the 
larger calibres, as the whole area of the 
deck on which it strikes. The effects, 
moreover, will be greatly augmented 
if a high-explosive, bursting charge be 



substituted for common powder, al- 
though the sensitiveness of such 
charges renders it very difficult to 
carry them through armor plate and 
burst them on the inside. Excellent 
results, however, have been achieved 
in this direction against armor of mod- 
erate thickness. 

The group of shells shown in our 
engraving includes one of each of the 
sizes used on our warships, from the 
4-inch 33-pound shell up to the 13- 
inch 1,100-pound shell of our largest 
guns. They are all of the class known 
as **common shell," and are used 
against fortifications and earthworks 
and against the unarmored or lightly 
armored portions of warships. They are 
usually formed of cast-iron, though 
sometimes of cast-steel, and the in- 
terior cavity is large, enabling a big 
bursting charge to be carried. Unlike 
the forged chrome steel shell, they are 
unfit for armor-piercing, not having 
the necessary strength to carry them 
through the plates. 

The particulars of these shells are 
given in the following table : 



Diameter. 


Length. 


4-inch 


1 foot 4 inches. 


5 " 


1 •♦ 


3 




6 " 


1 '♦ 


9 




8 •• 


2 *• 


6 




10 •• 


3 •' 







12 •• 


3 " 


8 




13 •• 


4 " 








Bursting 
Charge. 



2 pounds. 

3 *• 
4 

10 
22 
42 
70 



It will be noticed that the point of 
the shell is cut off. It is here that 
the percussion fuse is inserted. The 
fuse consists of a hollow threaded brass 
case, which is screwed into a hole 
bored through into the interior of the 
shell. Inside the case is a cylindrical 
lead plunger, in the center of which 
is a fulminate and a priming charge. 
When the gun is fired, the plunger 
moves to the rear of the fuse, and at 
the moment when the shell strikes an 
obstruction it flies forward, the ful- 
minate striking a small anvil on the 
fuse cap. This ignites the primer, the 
flame of which enters the shell and 
explodes it. 



Turkestan is a general government of 
Central Asia. It comprises the khan- 
ates and deserts annexed by Generals 
Tchernaieff and Kaufmann between 
18()0 and 1875, and now known as the 
provinces of Saraarcand, Ferghana, 
and Syr Daria. Area about 257,134 
square miles, with 3,900,000 inhabi- 
tants. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



OUR NAVY GUNS IN THE CIVIL WAR AND TO-DAY, 

I 



Naval ordnance bas made greater 
strides lu Ihe forty yeara that have 
iutervened sinee the Civil War than 
ID several ceutQries preceding. Aa 
proof of this it is enough to loob at 
(he striking compar]Hou shown in th^ 
accompanying cut. The smailer illus- 
tration represents a Parroit ICK) 
pounder of 18<i2, superimposed upon a 
modern lUO-pouuder, or to be correct, 
a G-inch 50-caiibre rapid-fire rifle ol 
the year 1900 ; the lower diagram 
represents a 15-inch smooth-bore of the 
Civil War, superimposed upon a 12- 
inch breech-loadiDg 45-falibre rifle ot 
to-day. The comparison might be car- 
ried out to greater length throughout 
all the various calibres that constitute 
the batteries of naval ships: but we 
have chosen to compare t'le main bat- 
tery of the moDitor with the main bat- 
tery of the modern battleship, and what 
might be called the sei-ondary battery 
of the frigates of 1862 with the stand- 
ard secondary battery gun of the bat- 
tleship of to-day. 

The heaviest piece carried in Che 
Civil War was Ihe 15-inch smooth- 
bore. This guu weighed 42.000 
pounds ; its length over all was 
15 feet 1 inch ; its maximum diam- 
eter at the breech was 4 feet, and with 
un Oltliuary charge of .H5 pounds of 
black cannon powder, it fired a spheri- 
cal shell weighing 8130 pounds. Ac' 
cording to the ordnance regulations, 
under extraordinary conditions, these 
guns might be fired 20 rounds "at 
ironclads at close quarters." using 1(K) 
pounds of hexagonal or cubical powder 
and a solid shot weighing 450 pounds. 
Under these conditions the most re- 
spectable muzzle velocity of 1,000 foot- 
seconds was obtained, with a corre- 
sponding muzzle energy of 7,997 foot- 
tons. It would be interesting to know 
what the powder pressure was under 
these conditions, for the velocity and 
energy are something truly remark- 
able for a cast-iron gun. It is little 
wonder that only 20 rounds were al- 
lowed under the severe stresses im- 
posed by these batlistics. 

Now. compare these results with the 
roost powerful gun in our navy to-day, 
namefy, the 12-inch 45-calihre rifle, 
which weighs 53.-1 tons, has a total 
length of 45 feet, and with a charge 
of 360 pounds of smokeless powder 
Rres an 850-pound shell with a muz- 
zle velocity of 2.S00-foot seconds and 
a muzzle energy of 46,246 foot-tons. 
The true basis of comparison of the 



1 < 

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do 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



relative efficiency of the two guns is 
the amount of energy developed per 
ton of the weight of the gun, and on 
this basis we find that the old 15-inch 
smooth-bore gun when fired with 100 
pounds of powder developed 427 foot- 
tons of energy per ton of gun, as 
against 872 foot-tons of energy de- 
veloped by the modern 12-inch rifle. 

If we take account of the durability 
of a gun the advantage will be stronger 
on the aide of the modem piece, for 
whereas the 15-inch smooth-bore was 
limited to twenty rounds under the 
given conditions, the modern 12-inch 
rifles, judging from the small amount 
of erosion developed with nitro-cellu- 
lose powders, should have a useful life 
of at least half a thousand rounds. 
Moreover, it must be remembered that 
the modern elongated shell will hold its 
velocity much longer than the old 
spherical shell of the smooth-bore, and, 
consequently, the respective muzzle ve- 
locities and energies are no criterion 
of the respective efficiencies of the 
guns. 



The gun of 1862 that answers to the 
modern secondary battery, 6-inch rifle, 
is the Parrott muzzle-loading rifle, a 
cast-iron gun which was strengthened 
at the breech over the powder cham- 
ber by shrinking thereon an iron hoop. 
The bore of the gun was 6.4 inches. 
It weighed 4.35 tons, was 12 feet 4 
inches in length and with a charge of 
ten pounds of powder it fired a 100- 
pound shell with an initial velocity of 
1,080 foot-seconds and a muzzle energy 
of 810 foot-tons. Compare this with 
the modern 6-inch rifle, which weighs 
8.5 tons, is 25 feet in length, and with 
a charge of 40 pounds of smokeless 
powder fires a 100-pound shell with an 
initial velocity of 2,900 feet per sec- 
ond and an initial energy of 5,838 foot- 
tons. 

Compared on the basis of energy per 
ton of gun, we find that the 100-pound- 
er Parrott muzzle loader developed 186 
foot-tons of energy per ton of gun, 
whereas the modern 6-inch breech- 
loading rifle develops 784^ foot-tons 
of energy per ton of gun. 



THE PAY OF NAVAL AND MARINE CORPS. 



An Admiral receives $13,500 wheth- 
er on sea duty or on shore duty. The 
first nine Rear-Admirals receive $7,- 
500 while on sea duty, and $6,375 on 
shore duty. The second nine receives 
$5,500 on sea duty and $4,675 on shore 
duty. A Brigadier-General Command- 
ant of Marine Corps, receives $5,500. 
The Chiefs of the various Naval Bu- 
reaus receive $5,500. Captains of the 
Navy receive $3,500 while on sea duty 
and $2,975 while on shore duty. The 
Judge Advocate General and Colonels, 
Marine Corps, line and staff, receive 
$3,500. Commanders of the Navy re- 
ceive $3,000 while on sea duty, and 
$2,550 while on shore duty. Lieut.- 
Colonels, Marine Corps, line and staff, 
receive $3,000. Lieut.-Commanders of 
the Navy while on sea duty receive 
$2,500, and while on shore duty $2,125. 
Majors of the Marine Corps, line and 
staff, receive $2,500. Lieutenants of 
the Navy receive $1,800 while on sea 
duty and $1,530 while on shore duty. 
Captains of the Marine Corps, if they 
are of the line, receive $1,§00, and if 
they are of the staff, $2,000. Lieu- 
tenants of the junior grade receive 
$1,500 while on sea duty and $1,275 
While on shore duty. First Lieutenant 
and leader of the band of the Marine 
Corps receive $1,500. Ensigns of the 
Navy receive $1,400 on sea duty and 
$1,190 on shore duty. Second Lieu- 



tenants of the Marine Corps, Chief 
Boatswains, Chief Gunners, Chief Car- 
penters and Chief Sailmakers receive 
$1,400. Midshipmen in other than 
practice ships receives $950. At the 
Naval Academy and elsewhere $500. 
Chaplains receive $2,500 on sea duty, 
$2,000 on shore, and $1,900 on leave or 
waiting orders. Professors of Mathe- 
matics and Civil Engineers receive 
$2,400 and $1,500 when on leave of 
absence or waiting orders. Naval Con- 
structors receive $3,200, and while on 
leave of absence or waiting orders, 
$2,200. Assistant Naval Constructors 
receive $2,000, and $1,500 while on 
leave or waiting orders. The warrant 
officers, boatswains, gunners, carpen- 
ters, sailmakers, pharmacists and war- 
rant machinists receive $1,200 while on 
sea duty and $900 while on shore, $700 
on leave of absence or waiting orders. 
Mates who were in service August 1, 
1904, receive $1,200 for sea duty, $900 
for shore duty, $700 on leave. Those 
appointed since receive $900, $700 and 
$500 respectively. The monthly pay 
of petty officers and enlisted men is : 
Chief petty officers, $50 to $70 ; petty 
officers, first-class, $36 to $65; petty 
officers, second-class, $35 to $40 ; third- 
class petty officers, $30 ; first-class sea- 
men, $21 to $35 ; second-class seamen, 
$15 to $30; third-class seamen, $9 to 
$22. 



CHAPTER IT. 



THE ARMY OF THE UI^TED STATES. 



■ Twice in the history of the world 
we have had an example of large bod- 
ies of men who were not producers who 
disturbed economic conditions by liv- 
ing at the public expense. We refer 
to the enormous monasteries in the 
middle ages and to the standing armies 
in Europe to-day. It seems to be es- 
sential to the maintenance of the in- 
tegrity of a number of the countries 
of Europe to keep a large standing 
army — an army which takes some 
of the best years of the life of its citi- 
zens, as service is obligatory to all. 
These armies are supported at an 
enormous expense by systems of tax- 
ation which affect the poorest as well 
as the richest. 

The question of the standing ar- 
mies of Europe is a problem which is 
rapidly increasing in seriousness, and 
there does not appear as yet to be any 
solution of the difficulty. 

For our protection we have to re- 
ly upon : 

1. The Regular Army, which rep- 
resents and is under the pay of the 
federal government, and which is offi- 
cered : 1. By graduates of the United 
States Military Academy, who at pres- 
ent are largely in the minority. 2. By 
the promotion of meritorious enlisted 
men of the Army. 3. By the appoint- 
ment of civilians, six of whom are an- 
nually selected from the best cadet- 
schools of the country. The last class 
is at present most largely represented. 

The officers receive commissions at 
the hands of the President. 

2. The organized militia or Na- 
tional Guard, which is composed ex- 
clusively of State troops, and, except 
when called into the service of the 
United, States, is under the command 
of tKe Governors of the respective 
States. The officers of higher grade 
are appointed by the Governors, but 
the other officers, from Colonel down, 
are generally selected by ballot by the 
troops themselves. The National 
Guard is intended primarily for home 
defense. 



91 



3. The Volunteers, which form a 
branch of the service only to be found 
in time of war. They are such as 
offer their services upon the call of 
the President, and are officered either 
by West Point graduates, by officers of 
the National Guard, or civilian ap- 
pointees. 

Under the conditions existing in the 
late war with Spain, members of the 
National Guard were not called upon 
to serve in their capacity as State 
troops, but were invited to enlist in 
the volunteer service. 

The term of enlistment in the regu- 
lar service is for a period of three 
years, which term is fixed and not 
terminable by the ending of the war. 
In the volunteer service the period of 
enlistment is two years, but this term 
may be shortened by the ending of hos- 
tilities. 

A certain proportion of the officers 
of the regular army are graduates of 
the United States Military Academy 
at West Point, New York. 

By Acts of Congress approved June 
(>, 1900, June 28, 1902, and March 3, 
1903, the Corps of Cadets as now con- 
stituted consists of one from each Con- 
gressional district, one from each Ter- 
ritory, one from the District of Col- 
umbia, one from Porto Rico, two from 
each State .at large, and forty from the 
United States, at large, all to be ap- 
pointed by the President and, with the 
exception of the forty appointed from 
the United States at large, to be actual 
residents of the Congressional or Ter- 
ritorial districts, or of the District of 
Columbia, or of the States, respective- 
ly, from which they are appointed. Un- 
der these Acts, and under the appor- 
tionment of Members of Congress ac- 
cording to the 12th Census, the maxi- 
mum number of cadets is 522. 

The total number of graduates from 
1802 to 1903, inclusive, is 4,214 ; 124 
members graduated June 15, 1904. 

Foreign governments can have ca- 
dets educated at the academy by au- 
thorization of Congress. 



92 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



98 



GROUP OF OFFICERS AND MEN SHOWING UNIFORMS WORN IN 

UNITED STATES ARMY. 



1. Major of Engineers in olive-drab uniform. 

2. Captain of Ordnance in olive-drab uniform . 

3. Private of Cavalry in olive-drab uniform. 

4. First Sergeant of Artillery in olive-drab 

uniform. 

5. Private of Infantry in olive-drab uniform 

and clothing roll. 

6. First Sergeant of Cavalry in olive-drab 

uniform. 

7. Corporal of Post Artillery in olive-drab 

imiform and overcoat. 

8. Post Quartermaster-Sergeant in olive- 

drab uniform. 

9. Trumpeter of Cavalry, mounted, in full- 

dress uniform. 

10. Colonel of Infantry, moimted, in full-dress 

uniform. 

11. Major-General, mounted, in full-dress 

uniform. 

12. Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery, Aide-de- 

Camp, mounted, in full-dress uniform. 



IZ. First Sergeant of Infantry, in full-dress 
uniform. 

14. Captain of Cavalry, dismoimted, in full- 

dress uniform. 

15. Brigadier-General, dismounted, in dress 

uniform. 

16. Major, Medical Department, dismounted, 

dress imiform and cape. 

17. Corporal of Engineers, full-dress uniform. 

18. Private of Cavalry, full-dress uniform. 

19. Sergeant of Artillery in full-dress uniform. 

20. Post Commissary-Sergeant, dress uniform. 

21. Lieutenant of Cadets, U. S. Military Acad- 

emy, full-dress uniform. 

22. Major, Quartermaster's Department, in 

full-dress uniform. 

23. First-class Sergeant, Signal Corps, in full- 

dress uniform. 

24. Captain Coast Artillery, in dress uniform 

and overcoat. 



The commander-in-chief is, ex-officio, 
of course, the President of the United 
States. 

Like the grades of Admiral and 
Vice-Admiral, the army also has two 
grades — General and Lieutenant-Gen- 
eral. We have had only four Gen- 
erals, Washington, Grant, Sherman 
and Sheridan. A general is supposed 
to command an army. An army is a 
large and organized body of soldiers 
generally composed of infantry, artil- 
lery and cavalry, completely armed and 
provided with necessary stores, etc., 
and the entire force is under the direc- 
tion of one general, who is called the 
"general-in-chief." The army is sub- 
divided as follows ; the grades of rank 
and commands appropriate to each 
grade are given. 

An "army" is divided into two or 
more corps commanded by a Major- 
General. A "corps" is "the largest 
tactical unit of a large army. A corps 
is usually organized with separate 
staff, infantry, cavalry, and artillery 
regiments, as well as auxiliary servi- 
ces, so that it is really a small army 
complete in itself. A corps is usually 
composed of three divisions, each com- 
manded by a Major-General or a Brig- 
adier-General. A "corps** is also any 
body or department of an army which 
is not detached, but has its own or- 
ganization and head, as the "Corps of 
Engineers." Each "division" is com- 
posed of three brigades, and there may 
be an independent brigade of cavalry 



or artillery called the divisional cav- 
alry or artillery. 

A "brigade" consists of three regi- 
ments, though there may be more, and 
it is commanded by a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral, and sometimes by a Colonel. A 
"regiment," which is the administra- 
tive unit, is commanded by a Colonel, 
and it is divided into twelve compa- 
nies, each composed, under the pres- 
ent law, of a maximum of 150 men for 
the infantry, 100 men for the cavalry, 
a total of 18,920 for the artillery 
corps, and 150 men for the engineers. 
A "company" is commanded by a Cap- 
tain. Two or more companies form 
a "battalion," and the battalion is 
commanded by a Major. 

The relative rank between the offi- 
cerj3 of the army and navy is as fol- 
lows : General with Admiral ; Lieu- 
tenant-General with Vice- Admiral ; 
Major-General with Rear-Admiral ; 
Brigadier-General with Commodore ; 
Colonel with Captain ; Lieutenant-Col- 
onel with Commander ; Major with 
Lieutenant-Commander ; Captain with 
Lieutenant ; First Lieutenant with 
Lieutenant (junior grade) ; Second 
Lieutenant with Ensign. 

The pay of the officers in active ser- 
vice is as follows : Lieutenant-Genera I, 
$11,000; Major-General, $7,500 ; Brig- 
adier-General, $5,500 ; Colonel, $3,500 ; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, $3,000 ; Major, 
$2,500; Mounted Captain, $2,000; 
Captain on foot, $1,800; regimental 
Adjutant, $1,800; regimental Quar- 



94 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



termaster, $1,800; First Lieutenant, 
mounted, $1,600; First Lieutenant on 
foot, $1|500 ; Second Lieutenant, 
mounted, $1,500; Second Lieutenant 
on foot, $1,400. All of the officers 
from the Colonel down receive addi- 
tional amounts after five, ten, fifteen 
end twenty years* service, but there is 
a limit to this amount ; thus the maxi- 
mum pay of a Colonel is $4,500 per 
annum. The pay of a private, wheth- 
er artillery, cavalry or infantry, is $13 
per month for the first and second 
years, $14 for the third year, $15 for 
the fourth year, $16 for the fifth year. 
After five years' continuous service 
they receive $2 per month extra. For 
service in the insular possessions 20 
per cent, is added to the pay of officers 
and enlisted men. 

The present strength of the regular 
army is about 3,800 officers and 60,000 
enlisted men ; 13,000 of them are in 
the Philippines. This does not include 
4,800 scouts, who are paid from the 
Philippine treasury proper. 

The policy of the United States in 
having a small military establishment 
has led to the organization of a large 
body of reserves, which are known as 
the organized militia or "National 
Guard." According to the latest ac- 
counts received at the office of the Ad- 
jutant-General in 1903 there were in 
the National Guard of the various 
States and Territories 9,184 commis- 
sioned officers and 107,422 non-com- 
missioned officers, privates, musicians, 
etc., making a total of 116,606. 

Under the Act of Congress approved 
January 31, 1903, the militia consists 
of every able-bodied male citizen of the 
United States who is more than eight- 
een and less than forty-five years of 
age, and is divided into two classes — 
the organized militia or National 
.Guard, and the remainder to be known 
as the reserve militia. It is entirely 
optional whether eligible citizens 
join the National Guard or not, 
and they elect their own officers, but it 
is safe to say that this body of reserves 
is recruited from the best and most 
patriotic element of the population of 
the United States. Congress makes 
an appropriation each year for the sup- 
port of the militia in the vari'ous 
States, and the States also contribute, 
help and build armories, as the regi- 
ments are really intended to defend 
their own States primarily, although 
in time of war they furnish an excel- 
lentlv drilled body of volunteers. In 
learly every city of any great size 



there is one or more armories, and in 
the smaller cities and towns there are 
separate companies which have armo- 
ries or drill halls. The militia in each 
State is divided into brigades, regi- 
ments and companies. Under the act 
of Congress above named the Presi- 
dent of the United States has the pow- 
er to call upon any of the military or- 
ganizations of the States for national 
defense, but the troops are usually 
utilized by the Governor of the State 
for enforcing the State laws. 

The experience of the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war demonstrated the need of 
what is known in foreign armies as a 
General Staff Corps. Accordingly, 
under the Act of Congress approved 
February 14, 1903, a Chief of Staff 
was authorized, to take the place of 
the commanding general of the army, 
and a General Staff Corps whose du- 
ties are defined as follows : To prepare 
plans for the national defense and for 
the mobilization of the military forces 
in time of war ; to investigate and re- 
port upon all questions affecting the 
efficiency of the army and its state of 
preparation for military operations ; 
to render professional aid and assist- 
ance to the Secretary of War and to 
general officers and other superior 
commanders, and to act as their agents 
in informing and co-ordinating the ac- 
tion of the different officers who, un- 
der the terms of the act, are subject 
to the supervision of the Chief of 
Staff ; and to perform such other mili- 
tary duties not otherwise assigned by 
law, as may from time to time be pre- 
scribed by the President. 

Under this act a number of officers 
were detailed in the General Staff for 
a period of four years, and the corps 
was organized into three divisions, 
each under a superior officer, with the 
following duties : The first division has 
charge of army administration, disci- 
pline, drill, and equipment ; the sec- 
ond division is the division of military 
information, and in addition has 
charge of military maps, military at- 
taches and the War Department li- 
brary : the third division is termed the 
technical division, and includes the 
devising of plans for defense and of- 
fense, the matter of sites for fortifica- 
tions, the question of military edu- 
cation, and the Army War College. 

This article has been revised by 
Captain C. D. Rhodes, U. S. A., of 
the General Staff Corps, under the di- 
rection of Major W. D. Beach, U. S. A., 
Chief of Staff, Second Division. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



95 



INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE APPOINTMENT AND ADMISSION 

OF CADETS TO THE UNITED STATES 
MILITARY ACADEMY. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

IIovv Made. — Each Congressional 
District and Territory — the District of 
Columbia and also Porto Rico— is en- 
titled to have one Cadet at the Acade- 
my. Each State is also entitled to 
have two Cadets from the State at 
large, and forty are allowed from the 
United States at large. The ap- 
pointment from a Congressional Dis- 
trict is made upon the recom- 
mendation of the Congressman 
from that district, and those from a 
State at large upon the recommenda- 
tions of the Senators of the State. 
Similarly the appointment from a Ter- 
ritory is made upon the recommenda- 
tion of the Delegate in Congress. Each 
person appointed must be an actual 
resident of the State, District or Ter- 
ritory from which the appointment is 
made. 

The appointments from the United 
States at large, from the District of 
Columbia and from Porto Rico are 
made by the President of the United 
States upon his own selection. The 
appointment of the Cadet from Porto 
Rico is made by the President on the 
recommendation of the Resident Com- 
missioner. 

Manner of Making Applications. — 
Applications may be made at any 
time, by letter to the Adjutant Gen- 
eral, U. S. Army, Washington, D. C, 
to have the name of the applicant 
placed upon the register that it may 
be furnished to the proper Senator, 
Representative, or Delegate, when a 
vacancy occurs. The application must 
exhibit the full name, date of birth, 
and permanent abode of the applicant, 
with the number of the Congressional 
District in which his residence is sit- 
uated. 

Date of Appointments. — Appoint- 
ments are required by law to be made 
one year in advance of the date of ad- 
mission, except in cases where, by rea- 
son of death or other cause, a vacancy 
occurs which cannot be provided for 
by such appointment in advance. 
These vacancies are filled in time for 
the next examination. 

Alternates. — For each candidate ap- 
pointed there may be nominated two 
alternates. The principal and each al- 
ternate will receive from the War De- 
partment a letter of appointment, and 



must appear for examination at the 
time and place therein designated; 
those previously accepted by Academic 
Board on certificate or mentally quali- 
fied, appearing for physical examina- 
tion only. 

The fitness for admission to the 
Academy of the principal and the al- 
ternates will be determined as pre- 
scribed in paragraphs 19, 20 and 21, 
Regulations U. S. Military Academy. 

Should the principal and alternates 
not qualify for admission under 
the provisions of paragraph 21, they 
will still be entitled to appear for 
the examination prescribed in para- 
graph 19; but if the principal fails 
to appear for that examination 
or, appearing, fails to qualify, 
then the qualifications of the al- 
ternates will be considered and if only 
one has met the requirements he will 
be admitted; if both alternates have 
met the requirements the better quali- 
fied will be admitted. 

The alternates, like the principal, 
should be designated as nearly one 
year in advance of the date of admis- 
I sion as possible. 

ADMISSION OF CANDIDATES. 

The following are extracts from the 
regulations of the Military Academy 
relating to the examination of candi- 
dates for admission and will be strict- 
ly adherfid to : 

19. Candidates selected for appoint- 
ment, unless accepted under the pro- 
visions of paragraph 21, shall appear 
for mental and physical examination 
before boards of army officers to be 
convened at such places as the War 
Department may select, on the first of 
May, annually, except when that day 
comes on Sunday, in which case the 
examination shall commence on the 
following Tuesday. Candidates who 
pass successfully will be admitted to 
the Academy without further examina- 
tion upon reporting in person to the 
Superintendent at West Point before 
12 o'clock noon on the 15th day of 
June of the same year. 

20. Each candidate before he shall 
^ be admitted to the Academy as a Ca- 
det must show, by the examination 
provided for in paragraph 19 or by the 
methods prescribed in paragraph 21, 



96 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



that he is well versed in the following 
prescribed subjects, viz. : Reading, 
writing, spelling, English grammar, 
English composition, English litera- 
ture, arithmetic, algebra through 
quadratic equations, plane geometry, 
descriptive geography, and the ele- 
ments of physical geography, espec- 
ially the geography of the United 
States, United States history, the out- 
lines of general history, and the gen- 
eral principles of physiology and 
hygiene. 

21. The Academic Board will con- 
sider and may accept in lieu of the 
regular mental entrance examination : 

1st. The properly attested exami- 
nation papers of a candidate who re- 
ceives his appointment through a pub- 
lic competitive written examination 
covering the range of subjects pre- 
scribed in paragraph 20. 

2d. The properly attested certificate 
of graduation from a public high 
school or a State normal school in 
which the course of study, together 
with the requirements for entrance, 
shall cover the range of subjects pre- 
scribed in paragraph 20. 

3d. A properly attested certificate 
that the candidate is a regular student 
of any incorporated college or uni- 
versity, without condition as to any 
subject mentioned in paragraph 20. 

Application for consideration of pa- 
pers or certificates shall be made by 
each candidate and alternate immedi- 
ately after he receives his appoint- 
ment. No application will be re- 
ceived after March 15 preceding the 
regular examination prescribed in 
paragraph 19. 

Candidates accepted as qualified 
mentally under the provisions of this 
paragraph shall appear for physical ex- 
amination at the time and place desig- 
nated in their letters of appointment. 

Immediately after reporting to the 
Superintendent for admission, and be- 
fore receiving his warrant of appoint- 
ment, the candidate is required to sign 
an engagement for service in the fol- 
lowing form, and in the presence of the 
Superintendent, or of some ofiicer 
deputed by him : 

^ "I, , of the State (or Ter- 
ritory) of , aged years 



months, do hereby engage (with 
the consent of my parent or guardian) 
that, from the date of my admission 
as a Cadet of the United States Mili- 



tary Academy, I will serve in the 
Army of the United States for eight 
years, unless sooner discharged by com- 
petent authority. 

"In the presence of ." 

The candidate is then required to 
take and subscribe an oath or affirma- 
tion in the following form : 

"I, , do solemnly swear 

that I will support the Constitution of 
the United States, and bear true alle- 
giance to the National Government; 
that I will maintain and defend the 
sovereignty of the United States, para- 
mount to any and all allegiance, sov- 
ereignty, or fealty I may owe to any 
State or country whatsoever ; and that 
I will at all times obey the legal or- 
ders of my superior officers, and the 
rules and articles governing the Ar- 
mies of the United States. 

"Sworn and subscribed, at , this 

day of nineteen hundred 



and 



before me. 



Qualifications. — No candidate shall 
be admitted who is under seventeen, 
or over twenty-two years of age, or 
who is deformed, or afflicted with any 
disease or infirmity which would ren- 
der him unfit for the military service, 
or who has, at the time of presenting 
himself, any disorder of an infectious 
or immoral character. Accepted can- 
didates if between seventeen and 
eighteen years of age should not fall 
below five feet three inches in height 
and one hundred pounds in weight ; if 
between eighteen and nineteen years, 
five feet three and one-half inches in 
height and one hundred and five 
pounds in weight ; if over nineteen, 
five feet four inches in height and one 
hundred and ten pounds in weight. 
Candidates must be unmarried. 

Each candidate must on reporting 
at West Point present a certificate 
showing successful vaccination with- 
in one year; or a certificate of two 
vaccinations, made at least a month 
apart, within three months. 

A circular of information as to the 
physical and mental examination can 
be had by addressing the Secretary of 
War, Washington, D. C. 



ACADEMIC DUTIES. 

The academic duties and exercises- 
commence on the first of September 
and continue until the first of June. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



97 



Examinations of the several classes 
are held in December and June, and, 
at the former, such of the new Cadets 
as are found proficient in studies and 
have been correct in conduct are given 
the particular standing in their class 
to which their merits entitle them. Af- 
ter each examination, Cadets found de- 
ficient in conduct or studies are dis- 
charged from the Academy, unless the 
Academic Board for special reasons in 
each case should otherwise recommend. 
Similar examinations are held every 
December and June during the four 
years comprising the course of study. 

Military Instruction. — From the ter- 
mination of the examination in June 
to the end of August the Cadets live in 
camp, engaged only in military duties 
and exercises and receiving practical 
military instruction. 

Except in extreme cases, Cadets are 
allowed but one leave of absence dur- 
ing the four years* course ; as a rule 
the leave is granted at the end of the 
first two years' course of study. 



PAY OF CADETS. 

The pay of a Cadet is $500 per 
year and one ration per day, or com- 
mutation therefor at thirty cents per 
day. The total is $009.50, to com- 
mence with his admission to the 
Academy. The actual and necessary 
traveling expenses of candidates from 
their homes to the Military Academy 
are credited to their accounts after 
their admission as Cadets. There is 
no provision for paying the expenses of 
candidates who fail to enter and they 
must be prepared to defray all their 
own expenses. 

No Cadet is permitted to receive 
money, or any other supplies, from his 
parents, or from any person whomso- 
ever, without the sanction of the 
Superintendent. A most rigid observ- 
ance of this regulation is urged upon 
all parents and guardians, as its vio- 
lations would make distinctions be- 
tween Cadets which it is the especial 
desire to avoid ; the pay of a Cadet is 
sufficient, -with proper economy, for his 
support. 

Each Cadet must keep himself sup- 
plied with the following mentioned ar- 
ticles, viz. : 

Two pairs of uniform shoes : six 
pairs of uniform white gloves ; two 
sets of white belts ; *eight white 
shirts ; ♦four night shirts ; twelve 
white linen collars ; twelve pairs of 
white linen cuffs ; *eight pairs of 



socks ; *eight pairs of summer draw- 
ers ; *six pairs of winter drawers ; 
♦twelve pocket handkerchiefs ; *twelve 
towels ; two clothes bags, made of tick- 
ing ; *one clothes brush ; ♦one hair- 
brush : ♦one tooth brush ; ♦one comb ; 
one mattress ; one pillow ; four pillow- 
cases ; eight sheets, two blankets, and 
one quilted bed cover ; one chair ; one 
tumbler ; ♦one trunk ; one account 
book ; one wash basin. 

Candidates are authorized to bring 
with them the articles marked ♦. 

Cadets are required to wear the pre- 
scribed uniform. All articles of their 
uniform are of a designated pattern, 
and are sold to Cadets at West Point 
at regulated prices. 



DEPOSIT PRIOR TO ADMISSION. 

Immediately after being admitted to 
the Institution, Cadets must be provid- 
ed with an outfit of uniform, the cost 
of which will be about $100, which 
sum must he deposited with the Treas- 
urer of the Academy before the candi- 
date is admitted. It is best for a can- 
didate to take with him no more 
money than will defray his traveling 
expenses, and for the parent or guar- 
dian to send to **The Treasurer of the 
U. S. Military Academy,** the re- 
quired deposit of $100. This amount 
is sufficient to equip a new Cadet with 
uniform and to supply him with all 
articles and books. 



PROMOTION AFTER GRADUATION. 

The attention of applicants and can- 
didates is called to the following pro- 
visions of an Act of Congress ap- 
proved May 17, 1886, to regulate the 
promotion of graduates of the United 
States Military Academy : — 

"That when any Cadet of the United 
States Military Academy has gone 
through all its classes and received a 
regular diploma from the Academic 
Staff, he may be promoted and com- 
missioned as a second lieutenant in any 
arm or corps of the army in which 
there may be a vacancy and the duties 
of which he may have been judged 
competent to perform ; and in case 
there shall not at the time be a va- 
cancy in such arm or corps, he may, 
at the discretion of the President, be 
promoted and commissioned in it as an 
additional second lieutenant, with the 
usual pay and allowances of a second 
lieutenant, until a vacancy shall hap- 



pen. 



>> 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPBRBNCB BOOK. 



THE NEW SPRINGFIELD MAGAZINE RIFLE. 



i 



i it 

s is 
£ ti 



i 



Tbe new SprinsGeld magaziDe rifle, 
which has undergone its prelimiuary 
tests with very gratifying results, will 
lake the place of the Krae-Jorgensen, 
whk'h now. for several years, has been 
doiog excellent service in the United 
States Army. We present a photo- 
graph of the gun, which will be known 
as Springfield Klagazine Rifle Model 
1902. and also a line-drawing which 
shows several sectional views of the 
gun. By means of the carefully let- 
tered parts a good idea is obtained of 
the details of the gun. The weapon is 
sapplied with a cleaning rod. which 
can be partially pulled from its place 
l>elow (he barrel, and held with a catch 
so as to form a bayonet. The great 
advantage of the rod bayonet is that 
' 'ightens tbe weight made up of the 
^ I, bayonet and bayonet's scabbard, 
and. by dispensing with tlie latter two 
a seiiarate articles to carry, permits 
ie soldier to carry with him an en- 
.-'enching tool of sufficient size and 
weight to l>e serviceable. While there 
s some diversity of opinion as to tlie 
/alue of the rod bayonet, which is con- 
sidered to be less effective than the 
type now in use. it still is of value 
as converting the mualiet into a pike. 
Moreover, in view of tbe growing value 
of the entrenching tool and the ever- 
decreasing opportunities for the use of 
the bayonet, tbe sutistitution of an en- 
trenching tool for the latter Is certain- 
ly in line with the recent development 
of field operations. Tlie piece is cen- 
trally fed by means of clips, each of 
which holds Ave cartridges ; and it will 
be noticed that the bolt has two lugs 
instead of one as in the old gun. In 
eceut report of tlie Chief of Ord- 
ice the trials of the piece are spoken 
. . as having given "very satisfactory 
results." The chief points of difference 
from the Krag-Jorgensen are this use 
of two lugs in place of one for holding 
the holt against tbe rearward pressure 
of the powder — the increased strength 
so obtained being sufficient to allow 
' an increase of velocity with the 
ie weight of bullet, from 2,000 feet 
second in the Krag-Jorgensen to 
_._ JO feet per second in the new piece, 
the resulting increase in muzzle energy 
being from 1,052 foot-pounds to 2,5S-.i 
foot-pounds. The Krag-.Torgenaen is 
capable of penetrating 45.8 inches of 
white pine at a distance of 53 feet, 
whereas the new weapon [wnetrates 
r.4.7 inches at the same distance. The 
striking energy at 1,000 yards has been 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 9B 




100 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



raised from 39() foot-pounds to 448; 
Other data regarding the new piece are 
as follows : The caliber is O.JiO ; the 
rifling is made up of four grooves of a 
depth of 0.004 inch, the twist being 
one turn in 10 inches. The bullet 
weighs 220 grains, which is the same 
as that of the Krag-Jorgensen, but the 
powder charge has been raised from 
37.6 to 43.3 grains. In spite of the 
considerable increase in its power the 
weapon has been greatly reduced in 
weight ; for while the present service 
magazine rifle weighs 10.64 pounds, 
and the Mauser 10.5 pounds, and the 
German military rifle 11.54 pounds, the 
new weapon weighs only 9.47 pounds. 
It follows, as a matter of course, that, 
with such high velocity and fairly 
heavy bullet, the trajectory is corre- 



spondingly flat, the maximum ordinate 
of the 1,000 yard trajectory being only 
20.67 feet as against 25.8 feet for the 
Krag-Jorgensen, 24.47 for the Mauser 
and 23.73 for the German military 
rifle. 

In addition to those mentioned above 
there are other improvements, such as 
housing of the magazine in the stock 
directly below the chamber, instead of 
having it project at the side of the 
gun, and there are many changes of 
detail which both improve the rifle 
and cheapen and accelerate its pro- 
duction. 

In closing it should be mentioned 
that the new gun is considerably short- 
er than any existing rifle, and is only 
slightly longer than the military car- 
bine. 



NEW SPRINGFIELD MAGAZINE RIFLE COMPARED WITH THE 

KRAG-JORGENSEN, THE MAUSER AND THE 

GERMAN MILITARY RIFLE. 



Data. 



Caliber inch. . 

Rifling: 

Number of grooves 

Depth of grooves inch . . 

Twist, one turn in inches . . 

Weight of bullet grains . . 

Weight of charge grains . . 

Weipht of complete cartridge grains . . 

Initial velocity, feet per second 

Remaining velocity at 1,000 yards 

Muzzle energy foot-pounds . . 

Striking energy at 1,000 yards, .foot-pounds. . 

Penetration in white pine at 53 feet, .inches. . 

Weight of rifle, including bayonet and scab- 
bard pounds . . 

Weight of rifle, including bayonet, scabbard, 
and 100 cartridges pounds . . 

Capacity of magazine. rounds. . 

Maximum ordinate of 1000 yd. trajectory, feet. . 



Springfield 


Service 


Mauser 


German 




Magazine 


7 Mm. 


Military 


iTme. 


mfle. 


Rifle. 


Rifle. 


0.30 


0.30 


0.275 


0.311 


4 


4 


4 


4 


0.004 


0.004 


0.0049 


0.004 


10 


10 


8.66 


9.45 


220 


220 


173 


226.82 


43.3 


37.6 


38.58 


41.2 


451.15 


438.85 


385.63 


430.24 


2300 


2000 


2200 


2145 


958 


901 


895 


906 


2581.6 


1952 


1857.4 


2135 


447.9 


396.2 


307.4 


413 


64.7 


45.8 
10.64 


50.8 
10.5 




9.47 


11.54 


15.91 


16.91 


16.18 


17.68 


5 


5 


5 


5 


20.67 


25.8 


24.47 


23.73 



THE SIXTEEN-INCH GUN. 



The great 16-inch 126-ton gun, built 
for the United States at the Water- 
vliet arsenal, is 49% feet long, over 
feet in diameter at the breech, and it 
has an extreme range of over twenty 
miles. Its projectile weighs 2,370 
pounds, and costs $865 to fire the gun 
once. The map on page 102 will 
give graphic illustration of the range 
of this gun. If fired at its maximum 
elevation from the battery at the south 
end of New York in a northerly direc- 
tion, its projectile would pass over the 
city of New York, over Grant*s Tomb, 
Spuyten Duyvil, Riverdale, Mount St. 



Vincent, Ludlow, Yonkers, and would 
land near Hastings-on-the-Hudson, 
nearly twenty miles away, as shown in 
our map. The extreme height of its 
trajectory would be 30,516 feet, or 
nearly six miles. This means that if 
Pike's Peak, of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, had piled on top of it Mont 
Blanc, of the Eastern Hemisphere, this 
gun would hurl its enormous projectile 
so high above them both as to still 
leave space below its curve to build 
Washington's Monument on top of 
Mont Blanc, as shown. The model, 
page 101, was exhibited at St. Louts. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



102 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



l¥llMTOff>^OJlCTUf Z.370 PlfS. 
PO¥¥0£fi CHASei 970 f09. 




RANGE OF SIXTEEN-INCH GTJN. 
Height of parabola, 5J miles. Weight of projectile, 2,370 pounds. 

Powder charge, 576 pounds. 




RADIUS OF ACTION OF SIXTEEN-INCH GXJN. 



104 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



FOREIGN ARMIES. 

The latest particulars relating to the military power of the countries of Europe, Abyssinia, 
China, Egypt, Japan, Mexico, etc., from Hazell's Annual for 1904, will be found below. 



ABYSSINIA. 

The organization is feudal in character, and 
the constitution is by provinces, each governor 
or Has having a standing force as garrison 
and at call in case of war, and a xjonsiderable 
number of retainers not embodied. The garri- 
son forces united constitute the new army of 
Menelik, and are estimated at 70,000 men. 
The central control is weak, and there are no 
organized divisions into the three arms, as in 
Europe; but the forces are readily grouped, the 
mounted men forming an irregular cavalry, 
and have great mobility. Practically every 
man has a sword and a rifle, but the firearms 
are extraordinarily varied, and the mounted 
troops also carry a javelin or spear. They do 
not exceed 5,000 altogether. The guns are 
modtly adapted for mountain work, there being 
about 50 modern and 30 old ones. The un- 
embodied retainers, who may be likened to a 
militia, number about 140,000 men. 

ARGENTINA. 

The army is sanctioned by an annual vote, 
as in Great Britain. The standing force and 
reserve consist of 120,000 men (18 battalions 
of Infantry, 12 regiments of cavalry, 8 of 
artillery, and 4 battalions of engineers). Out- 
side these are the National and Territorial 
Guard, which have little training. Compul- 
sory military service (25 years in all) was 
adopted in 1901 , and it is believed that 500,000 
men could be mobilized in case of war. 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

The active army of the Dual Monarchy is an 
organization common to both kingdpms, and 
has its Ersatz, or supplementary Reserve, 
with local forces for Bosnia and Herzegovina 
attached. There are fifteen army corps, and 
certain troops in the military districts of Zara 
in Dalraatia. In addition are the Austrian 
Landwehr and Landsturm and the Hungarian 
(or Transleithan) Landwehr and Landsturm, 
known as the Honved. 

During 1903 the army question rose to great 
prominence between the national parties in 
Austria and Hungary, and certain concessions 
were made to the latter in regard to the 
language of command, regimental colors, and 
other matters, but these do not affect the 
unity of the army. 

The fifteen army corps comprise 5 cavalry 
divisions and 31 infantry divisions of the act- 
ive army, and on mobilization a Landwehr 
division would be attached to each. There are 
466 battalions of infantry (102 regiments of 
the line, 4 of Tyrolese rifles and 4 Bosnian, and 
26 battalions regular rifles. The cavalry on a 
peace footing comprises 252 squadrons (15 
regiments of Dragoons, 11 of Uhlans, and 16 
of Hussars), and the artillery 251 batteries. 



exclusive of 18 battalions of fortress artillery 
and 15 of pioneers. The field artillery is 
formed in 14 brigades, and a group of 3 
mountain batteries in the Tyrol. On a peace 
footing there are 224 field batteries, 16 horse 
batteries, 11 mountain batteries, 56 ammu- 
nition columns (in skeleton), and 56 depots. 
The war strength would give a total of 328 
batteries (exclusive of fortress units), with a 
total of 2,464 guns. The Austrian and Hun- 
garian cavalry have won the admiration of 
European sol(liers, and the Empire unquestion- 
ably possesses a thoroughly practical mounted 
arm fit for service at a moment's notice. 

The following table shows the total strength 
of the forces in 1903; but if is believed that by 
embodying all classes of the Landsturm the 
dual monarchy could put 3,(X)0,000 men in the 
field. 



Forces. 


Peace. 


War. 


Field Army 

Landwehr and Honved . 

Reserve troops 

Fortress troops 

Transport Staff, etc . . . 
Landsturm 


266,000 

61,000 

6,000 

. 7,000 
16,000 


687,000 

237,000 

192,000 

31,000 

393,666 








346,000 


1,540,000 



The 'Honved (national Hungarian army) is 
subject in war time only to the commander- 
in-chief, and in peace time only to the Royal 
Hungarian jurisdiction. 

BELGIUM. 

The Belgian army was recently reorganized 
as the outcome of a popular agitation, leading 
to the appointment of a mixed commission 
which prepared a scheme. The main feature 
was the adoption of volunteer enlistment, with 
the purpose of bringing about a progressive 
decrease in the annular levy by subscription. 
Special advantages were offered, but the re- 
sult has been very disappointing. 

The establishment on Oct. 1st, 1903, when 
the recruits were embodied, was 42,000 men, 
but there was a deficiency of 7 ,000, owing to 
substitutes not having been found for men who 
had been absolved from service. The regi- 
ments were in some places so weak that train- 
ing was impossible. The nominal liability 
is eight years with the colors and five in the 
reserve, and the recruit contingent is 13,300, 
the volunteers being in addition. 

The composition is as follows: Cavalry — 
2 regiments of qhasseurs, 2 of guides, and 4 
of lancers. Each regiment consists of 4 
squadrons active and 1 re.serve. To the above 
have to be added the gendarmerie (over 1 ,700 



SCIENTIFIC . AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



men). Artillery — 4 field and 4 fortress 
regiments (in all 204 guns). Engineers — 1 
regiment of 3 battalions, a reserve battalion, 
and 5 special technical companies. I nfantry — 
14 regiments of the line, of 4 battalions of 4 
companies each, 3 active and 1 reserve bat- 
talion; 1 regiment of grenadiers, similarly 
organized; 1 regiment of carbineers of 6 bat- 
talions (4 active and 2 reserve), and 3 regi- 
ments of chaaaeura-d-pted. 

The Civic or National Guard is under the 
Minister of the Interior in peace time, and 
numbers approximat-ely 45,000 men reckoned 
as "active," and 100,000 "non-active." The 
effect of the new law cannot yet be estimated 
fully. 

BRAZIL. 

Gradual progress is being made in the re- 
organisation of the army, but much remains 
yet to be done. The strength and organiza- 
tion, given in the official Revista Miliiar, is as 
follows: staff, 28; engineer corps, 66; general 
staff corps, 124; medical staff, 163; artillery 
8taff, 62; 6 regiments of artillery, 2,562; 6 
battalions of artillery, 2,100; 2 battalions of 
engineers, 862; 14 cavalry regihients, 6,020; 
1 transport corps, 292; 40 infantry battalions, 
17,840; total. 30,1 19. The troops are divided 
into seven military districts, the mos>t import- 
ant being Rio Grande do Sul (11,226 men). 

BULGARIA. 

Military ser\nce is popular, and the peasantry 
have a great deal of excellent military spirit. 
The officer is also efficient, and the Govern- 
ment has taken very great care in selection 
and training, the Russian army being the 
pattern. 

The forces are divided into three categories: 
the regular army, the reserve and the militia, 
and all Bulgarians are liable for personal 
service, with few exceptions, from the age of 
20 to 45, substitution not being permitted. 
The country is divided into six divisional 
districts, and ¥he annual contingent is about 
18,000 men. 

The peace strength is: infantry, 1,300 officers 
and 28,550 men; cavalry, 200 officers and 3,850 
men ; field artillery, 280 officers and 5,020 men ; 
mountain artillery, 45 officers and 900 men; 
fortress artillery, 65 officers and 950 men; 
engineers, 18 officers and 1,900 men; transport, 
20 officers and 160 men : total, 1900 officers and 
41,330 men. 

The total war strength is 3,810 officers, 202,- 
500 men, and 29,200 horses. In addition 
Bulgaria can count upon at least 20,000 Komi- 
tajia, a force of semi-trained and experienced' 
guerillas. The infantry arm is the 8 mm. 
Mannlicher rifle. 

CHILE. 

The army does not exceed 6,000 men, in 
accordance with the law of Feb. 2d, 1892, 
\nd the formations are: 7 regiments of in- 



fantry, 4 of cavalry, 3 of artillery, and a corps 
of engineers. The National Guard numbers 
over 60.000 men. 

CHINA. 

The Chinese army came under close ob- 
servation during the Boxer Rebellion, and, 
although in many ways it gave proof of want 
of organization, it was recognized that in ar- 
mament, training, and the things that go to 
make up the efficiency of the army, remark- 
able progress had been made. General Frey 
who commanded the French forces in China, 
says it is a mistake to hold that the Chinese 
Government has any repugnance to the crea- 
tion of military forces. The Emperor is said 
to have issued an order extoUing military 
discipline and disavowing any purpose of dis- 
armament, and training is going on under 
Japanese officers. The Black Flags are now 
a force of real value. 

It was never easy to ascertain facts concern- 
ing the (llhinese forces. They may be divided 
into the old armies, comprising the Imperial 
or Banner troops; the new armies, composed 
of troops of comparatively recent formation 
(since the war with Japan) ; and the Mongolian 
and Thibetan Militias, which in peace time 
only exist on paper. 

The elit€ of the old armies is composed of 
the Shen-Che-Ying or Black Flag troops, and 
the Pa-Ki or Eight-Banner men. The former 
are said to number 50,000 men with the colors. 
Next in importance to the Black Flags come the 
Banner men of the army of Manchuria, com- 
posed of soldier-like troops, but sgme of them 
still armed with bows and arrows, or with the 
old jingal. The Banner men have been 
estimated at something like 300,000. Service 
with the Manchus is hereditary, and the Banner 
men are still the chief support of the Ta-tsing 
dynasty. The army of Manchuria must be 
profoundly affected by the Russian occupa- 
tion of the country. The Luh-Ying or Green 
Flags, with a paper strength of 500,000 men, 
scattered through the empire, possess little 
military value, and as now organized can be 
of no real service. 

The new armies consist of enrolled or con- 
script armies (irregulars), strength about 
100,000 men, raised at the initiative of the 
viceroys and governors of provinces in the 
event of revolution or of war with Europeans ; 
and the active armies, dressed like Europeans, 
and formed of the best men drawn from the 
Green Flag Army — strength 210,000 men. 
These troops occupy important strategic 
points, and are under the orders of the pro- 
vincial authorities. The best of them are in 
the province of Chi-Li, where the army was 
reorganized by Yun-Hu and Lu-Chang. 

Before the Boxer troubles. Major A. E. J. 
Marshall, of the British Army, one of the best 
authorities, summed up the number and dis- 
position of the whole available force of China 
thus: 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



107 



ughting troopb. 

Manchurian Field Force 50,000 

Manchurian Irregulars 50,000 

Fifjphting Braves 125,000 

Chien-Chun, or Disciplined Troops. . . 10,000 

205,000 



RESERVES UNDER ARMS. 

Peking Field Force 13,000 

Banner Troops in Peking 75,000 

fanner Troops in Provinces 95,000 

Puh-Ying. or Green Flags 506,000 

689,000 

DENMARK. 

Service is obligatory on aU able-bodied men 
who have reached the age of 22. Terms of 
service, eight years with the colors and eight 
in the extra reserve. A reorganization of the 
Danish army was introduced in 1894, and the 
late War Minister, General Bahnson, calculated 
that the contingent brought under training 
7,947 men yearly. The service in the various 
branches of the army is 16 years; but, rtekon- 
ing 14 years only, and allowing for waste, the 
General concludes that by the year 1910 Den- 
mark will be able to mobilize 83,000 men, of 
whom 58,500 will be infantry, 5,000 cavalry, 
6,800 field artillery, and 8,600 fortress artillery. 
The really effective force would be about 70,- 
000. At present the peace strength (31 bat- 
talions, 16 squadrons, and 12 field batteries, 
with fortress artillery and engineers) is 13,750, 
increased on mobilization to 50,000. 

EGYPT. 

The Egyptian army, under strong leader- 
ship and the command of British officers, has 
shown excellent quality. All the inhabitants 
are liable for service — six years in the army, 
five in the police, and four in the reserve, and 
there are always about 150,000 young men on 
the rolls for conscription; but the burden is 
very light, and the men are all selected. The 
cavalry are recruited from the fellaheen of 
the Delta. The infantry battalions are drawn 
mostly from the fellaheen, but several are 
Soudanese blacks. The first are filled by 
conscription, and have about 800 men each, 
mostly fellaheen, in 6 companies. The in- 
terior economy and drill of the recruits is ex- 
cellent, and the musketry good. The arm is 
the Martini-Henry. In the Soudanese bat- 
talions the service is voluntary. This force 
was raised largely from the Khalifa's black 
riflemen, but men from Lower Egypt have been 
enlisted. 

The artillery is the force that shows most 
markedly the impress of the European train- 
ing. The horse battery has Syrian horses and 
light Krupp guns. The field batteries have 
Krupp mountain guns carried by mules, with 
a second line of camels. There is also a bat- 
talion of garrison artillery, organized as in our 
service. 



The Egyptian Army has been reduced re- 
cently, owing to the smaller demand for its 
services, and some of the Soudanese have been 
disbanded. About 8,000 men have left the 
colors. The command is vested in Major- 
Gen. Sir Reginald Wingate, with the title of 
Sirdar. 

The British forces in Egypt are 4 regiments 
of infantry, 1 of cavalry, 2 field batteries, and 
detachments of fortress artillery and engineers, 
with a strength of 5,482 in 1903-4. 

FRANCE. 

The French army is administered by the 
War Departments, or Ministry of War, with 
General Andre at its head, assisted by a mili- 
tary cabinet and the chiefs of various bureaux. 
The chief of the general staff of the army is 
responsible to the Minister, and controls the 
directorates of infantry, cavalry, engineers, 
artillery, finance, etc. 

In 1904 the effectives with the colors are 
estimated as follows: 29,000 officers, 520,831 
men, and 142,474 horses, being a diminution of 
76 officers and 6,228 men as compared with 
1903. The establishment will be 515,600 
men. The smaller number embodied results 
from the contingent being less than in previous 
years. 

The Active Army is constituted as follows: 
652 battalions of infantry, 30 battalions of 
chasseurs, 10 foreign, 20 zouaves, 24 Algerian 
tirailleurs, 1 Saharan tirailleurs, and 5 
African light infantry: total, 742 battalions, 
13,370 officers, 24,432 non-commissioned 
officers, 342,068 men: total, 379,890. The 
cavalry form 31 regiments of dragoons, 21 of 
chasseurs, 14 of hussars, 13 of cuirassiers, 

6 of chasseurs d'Afrique (all of 5 squadrons), 
and 4 of Spahis, variously constituted, num- 
bering in all 448 squadrons, 3,891 officers, 
4,552 non-commissioned officers, 64,756 men: 
total, 73,199, and 61,028 horses. The organi- 
zation of the artillery is as follows: field bat- 
teries, 434; horse batteries, 52; mountain bat- 
teries, 22; foot (or fortress) batteries, 112: 
in all, 620; officers and men, 77,213. The 
engineers (including railway troops) number 

7 regiments, 20 battalions and 3 railway com- 
panies) with telegraphists, ballooning troops, 
etc., officers and men, 13,426; and the military 
train has 20 squadrons (comprising 72 com- 
panies), officers and men, 8,167. 

In relation to the organization given above, 
it must be noted that owing to the class em- 
bodied in November, 1903, consisting only of 
196,000 men, as compared with 238,000 en- 
rolled in the previous year, it has been decided 
to abolish 68 companies of the fourth battal- 
ions of regiments which had not been com- 
pletely formed. These fourth battalions 
were raised in 1897, and could only be proper- 
ly organized in 93 out of 145 subdivisional 
regiments. In consequence of the latest 
abolition there remain only 65 fourth battal- 



1()8 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ions, not including the 18 belonging to dis- 
trict regiments, which are all up to strength. 

The forces are organized in 20 army corps, 
exclusive of the Paris garrison; their 
headquarters being at Lille, Amiens, Rouen, 
Le Mans, Orleans, Chalons-sur-Mame, Besan- 
con, Bourges, Tours, Rennes, Nantes, Limoges 
Clermont-Ferrand, Lyons, Marseilles, Mont- 
pelier, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Algiers, Nancy. 

A proposal is before the French parliament 
for reducing the period of service with the 
colors to two years, and it is the general opin- 
ion that the measure will become law. It is 
proposed to embody a considerable number of 
re-enlisted men in order to make good the 
deficiency that will arise. 

Under the existing rules every Frenchman 
should serve three years in the active army, 
ten years in the reserve of the active army, six 
years in the territorial army and six years in 
the reserve of the territorial army. For 
administration, training and mobilisation, the 
units of the territorial army, as well as the 
active reserve, are attached to the correspond- 
ing units of the active army. The reserve 
troops are: 145 infantry regiments, 30 
chasseur battalions, 38 cavalry regiments 
formed with the line and light cavalry regi- 
ments of the corps cavalry brigades, 41 other 
squadrons formed with the divisional cavalry 
regiments, and 216 batteries of field artillery. 
12 to each artillery brigade. The territorial 
forces are 145 battalions of infantry, 7 of rifles, 
10 of zouaves, 40 battery groups of field 
artillery and 16 of foot artillery, 21 battalions 
of engineers, and 19 squadrons of train. There 
are special dispositions in regard to some army 
corps, and a large number of battalions and 
independent companies are employed in the 
customs and forest service. In regard to the 
localization of the troops, it should be noted 
that a large force is quartered on the German 
frontier, where the 6th corps has been divided 
into two, and a new corps thus created. The 
reserve of the active army includes about 
1,320,000 men, and the Territorial Army and 
its reserve about 2,270,000. 

It has been estimated that the French army, 
with its various reserve and territorial forces, 
includes 3,500,000 tramed men on a war foot- 
ing, and that 4,000,000 untrained men might 
be embodied. 

The French colonial army has been brought 
under the authority of the Ministry of War, 
and comprises 6 brigades of infantry, 12 bat- 
talions of field artillery, 6 mountain batteries, 
and 12 garrison batteries. 

In Madagascar and Indo-China are 10 bat- 
talions of French and 18 battalions of native 
infantry, and 4 field, 6 mountain, and 5 garri- 
son batteries; in West Africa, 2 French and 8 
native battalions, 2 mountain and 3 garrison 
batteries; in Martinique, 7 French and 10 
native battalions, and 2 field, 3 mountain and 
B garrison batteries; and in various other sta- 



tions some 6 French and 3 native battalions, 
with 1 mountain and 5 garrison batteries. 
For some time past France has been strength- 
ening her military forces in French Indo- 
China, where there are now at disposal 3 
brigades of troops in actual existence, with a 
reserve brigade. The approximate strength 
of the native forces in the colony is as follows: 

French infantry, 3 regiments. . . . 3,000 men 
Foreign Legion, 4 battalions .... 3,000 
Native infantry, 6 regiments .... 18,000 
"Milice indigene" (native con- 
stabulary) 10,000 " 

Total of infantry 34,000 " 



GERMAKT. 

The administration and command of the 
army is exercised through the great general 
stafiF, a most powerful and efficient organiza- 
tion, by which the work of the army is pre- 
pared for in peace and molded in war. It is 
at once a close and yet flexible organization, 
which permeates the whole structure of the 
army, consisting for Prussia of about 200 offi- 
cers. Nearly 100 of these are detached on 
service with the staffs of corps or divisions, 
while the remainder constitute the great gen- 
eral staff in Berlin. There is constant inter- 
change between regimental work and staff 
work, and between the latter locally and with 
the headquarters staff in Berlin. Scarcely 
any regimental officer rises high in his corps 
without having been called to staff service; 
so that the ideas of the staff are based upon 
practical experience, and react upon the whole 
army, to which they come as a kind of tradition 
of duty and policy, sharpening and directing 
the life and work of the army. Recently the 
inspection of the cavalry and artillery has 
been improved. 

The forces are organized in 22 army corps, 
and comprise 625 battalions of infantry, 482 
squadrons of cavalry, 754 batteries of artil- 
lery, 38 battalions of foot artillery, 26 bat- 
talions of pioneers, 11 battalions of Army 
Service troops, and 23 battalions of train, 
with a peace strength of 495,500 rank and file, 
exclusive of one-year volunteers. The estab- 
lishment is given as 620,918. The contingent 
annually embodied approaches 275,000 men. 
The service in the standing army is of six 
years, two of these with the colors in the in- 
fantry and three in the cavalry and horse ar- 
tillery, and the rest in the reserve. After 
quitting the reserve of the Active Army the 
soldier passes five years in the Landwehr and 
seven in its reserve. The recruiting service of 
the Guard, coniating of the tallest and finest- 
looking men, is carried out by a committee, 
consisting of officers specially nominated for 
the purpose. Under the system of recruiting 
there are always more men than are necessary 
to keep up the army strength, the surplus 
constituting the Ersatz Reserve. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



109 



The strength upon mobilization is estimated 
at 2,310,000 infs^ntry. 151,000 cavalry, 329,000 
artillery, 78,000 technical troops, 168,000 oth- 
er formations, making a total of 3,036,000 
trained men. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

Under the new system, the British Army 
has been organized in Army Corps. It was 
designed to form six of these, but up to the 
present time only four have been constituted. 

The organization of a British Army Corps is 
as follows: — Infantry, 25 battalions; artillery, 
150 guns — viz., 18 batteries of field artillery, 
two batteries horse artillery, three batteries of 
howitzers, and three batteries of 4.7-in. guns. 
These last batteries have only four guns each, 
all the others six. The cavalry of an Army 
Corps includes two regiments, one immediate- 
ly attached to the Divisions, the other to the 
Special Corps troops, and, in addition, for 
purposes of peace organization, there is a 
cavalry brigade of three regiments in each 
Army Corps command. 

The local organization of the Army Corps 
districts does not supersede that of the older 
regimental districts, of which there are 67, 
each under the command of a colonel. The 
regimental district is the recruiting ground of 
a territorial regiment, with which are linked, 
as junior battalions, the militia and volunteer 
corps within the area; and the reserve men are 
pensioners of their respective territorial regi- 
ments. The Royal Artillery, through 9 re- 
cruiting areas, and the Royal Engineers, 
through the commanding Royal Engineer in 
each district, have also a territorial organiza- 
tion; but this is not the case with the Cavalry, 
which has special recruiters or staflf officers 
located in various districts. In theory, one 
battalion of each Infantry regiment is at 
home, as a feeder for the other abroad; but 
in practice this system has never been uni- 
formly maintained, and was completely dis- 
loca|:ed by the war in South Africa. The 
Army Service and several departmental corps 
are part of the organization. 

The following is the organization of the 
Regular Army according to the units of each 
arm of the service. The strength is given 
below: 

Household Cavalry .... Regiments 3 

Cavalry of the Line. ... do 28 

Horse Artillery Batteries 30 

Field Artillery do 158 

Mountain Artillery .... do 11 

Garrison Artillery Companies 111 

Royal Engineers do 100^ 

Foot Guards Battalions 10 

Infantry of the Line. ... do 161 

Army Service Corps. . . . Companies . 72 

R. A. Medical Corps ... do 56 

Army Ordnance Corps . do 24 

In addition to these are Colonial Corps and 
Indian Infantry in Egypt, Barbados, Jamaica, 
Bermuda, Malta, West Africa, Mauritius, 
Ceylon, China, and Hong Kong, the Straits 
Settlements, etc. 



The Army Reserve is a vital element in the 
Army organization, the Reserve men being 
liable by the terms of their agreement to gen- 
eral service with the arms in which they were 
enrolled with the colors. The Reserve was 
profoundly affected by the war in South Africa, 
and the general mobilization of the force 
showed that the force could be relied upon. 
Reservists, who have served their period with 
the colors, and who are of the best soldiering 
age, and available for service if required, are an 
excellent set of men. The reserve men are 
pensioners of the respective territorial regi- 
ments, and look to the officer commanding the 
district as their commanding officer. 

The establishment as at present authorize<l 
is 80,000. Subsequently to the war men have 
been drafted in large numbers to the Reserve, 
and the numbers increased by 18,288 between 
Jan. 1st and April 1st, 1903. The Reserve 
comprises Sections A, B, C and D, the B sec- 
tion being the most important, comprising 
all who have enlisted for short service and have 
discharged their active duties. The following, 
was the strength of the several sections on 
Jan. 1st, 1903: A, 328; B, 28,759; C, 697; D, 
3081: total. 32,865. 

A new scheme for the enlistment of railway 
employ^ into the Reserve, through the agency 
of the Engineer and Railway Volunteer Staff 
Corps, and under the direct supervision of the 
commandant of that corps, has borne fruit, 
and bids fair to be a success. 

A further reserve force connected with each 
regimental district is the Militia Reserve, to be 
embodied with the Militia upon mobilization. 

MILITIA. 

During the Boer War the Militia, though it 
was kept in the background, accomplished 
what no other branch of the army could do. 
Without external aid it provided a large num- 
ber of organized and completed battalions for 
home, foreign, and active service, thus main- 
taining its old traditions, and demonstrating 
its high value among the military forces of the 
Crown. The service upon the lines of com- 
munication was most arduous. The Militia 
is a force of very old standing, the purpose of 
which is to provide a body of trained men, 
available in case of need or of imminent nation- 
al danger, to supplement, support, or relieve 
the regular army at home and on the Medi- 
terranean stations. There are in all 124 In- 
fantry battalions attached to the Line regi- 
ments, 32 corps of Garrison Artillery, 3 Field 
Batteries, 2 fortress corps of Engineers, 10 
divisions of Submai-ine Miners, and 2 com- 
panies of the Medical Staff Corps. The Malta 
regiment, some colonial corps, and 8 Channel 
Island regiments are in addition. It has often 
acted as a feeder to the Regular Army, and, 
under the territorial system, this has come to 
be regarded as its chief function. A very large 
number of militia recruits are every year 
1 transferred to the line — as many, indeed, as 



110 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



one-third of the whole number enlisted — and 
the force is a channel through which many 
commissions are annually gained in the regu- 
lar Army. This system is to be continued. 
Great dissatisfaction was felt owing to the re- 
tention of Militia battalions for so long a period 
in South Africa, whereby a real hardship was 
inflicted upon officers and men, and the feeling 
is general in the force that it is neglected. 

The Militia recruit is enlisted for six years, 
and may re-engage if under 45 years of age 
for a further period of four years. Recruits 
are liable, at any time after enlistment, to be 
assembled for preliminary drill for such period, 
not exceeding six months, as may be directed, 
from time to time by the Secretary of State 
for War. Brigades and regiments are called 
out annually for 27 days' training, which may 
be extended to 56 days if deemed expedient. 

The Lord-Lieutenant of a county recom- 
mends to the consideration of the Secretary of 
State for War, for submission to His Majesty, 
the names of candidates for first appointment 
to Commissions, commanding officers being 
directed to assist him in the selection if called 
upon. For subaltern officers in the Militia, 
candidates must be seventeen years of age or 
upwards. The appointment of officers as 
captains and field officers is recommended by 
the Militia commanding officer direct. 

The New Militia Reserve, to be formed as a 
•'Reserve Division of the Militia," was author- 
ized by a Royal Warrant (Feb. 4th, 1903), 
under the Militia and Yeomanry act, 1892, and 
has an establishment of 50,000. It is intend- 
ed to raise the force in round numbers from 
100,000 to 150,000, and, in order to stimulate 
recruiting, men joining from the garrison 
Regiment receive $30 annually, and other men 
$22.50, with quarters and rations during train- 
ing. The arrangements for musketry training 
are to be increased. Men of the Reserve Divi- 
sion are liable to serve with the Militia when- 
ever that force is embodied by proclamation. 

The services of the Imperial Yeomanry in 
South Africa, in the organizations of which the 
old Yeomanry Cavalry played a very large 
part (although in the actual composition of the 
force the regular yeomen formed only about 
one-fifth of the total strength), caused the 
military authorities to reorganize the force. 
An Army Order of April 17th, 1901, provided 
that it should, in future, be entitled the ** Im- 
perial Yeomanry," and that the brigade organ- 
ization should be abolished, and the force be 
organized in regiments of four squadrons, with 
a regimental staff and a machine-gun section. 
The order included rules as to efficiency, drills, 
and pay. During the period of training, and 
under conditions laid down, the daily pay, 
including ration allowance, varies from $1.35 
in the case of a private to $2.38 in the case of a 
regimental sergeant-major, with Is. additional 
when a non-commissioned officer acts as 
quartermaster. It was also announced that 
after Oct. 31st, 1901, all corps of Volunteer 



light horse- and Volunteer companies of 
mounted infantry would be disbanded or 
merged into squadrons of the Imperial 
Yeomanry. The number of regiments so far 
constituted is 52. A Committee on the or- 
ganization of arms and equipment of the Yeo- 
manry Force reported upon the subject in 
January, 1901, and it was decided, under the 
new Army scheme, to provide the Yeomanry 
with rifles, to give them extra pay as indicated 
above, with horse allowance of $25 and to 
raise the force to 35,000 as Imperial Yeomanry 
intended to furnish mounted troops for home 
defense, while Colonial Yeomanry are to be 
affiliated for Imperial services. There is a 
school for instruction for officers of Imperial 
Yeomanry, with a lieutenant-colonel as com- 
mandant and a staff of 66. 

THE VOLUNTEERS. 

Volunteer corps are raised under the Volun- 
teer Act 1863 (26 & 27 Vict., c. 65). They are 
subject to the provisions of that Act and any 
Acts amending it, and likewise to all regula- 
tions made with regard to Volunteer corps. 
The Volunteer (Military Service) Act of '96 
provides that whenever an order for the em- 
bodiment of the Militia is in force, any member 
of a Volunteer corps may offer himself for 
actual military service, and if the services of 
such members of any corps are sufficient to 
enable them to be separately organized are 
accepted, then those members may be called 
out either as a corps or as part of a corps. 
Under the Volunteers Act 1900 new regulations 
were made as follows: — I. A member of a 
Volunteer corps may contract to come out for 
actual military service in Great Britain when- 
ever summoned, and to serve_ for a period not 
exceeding one month in the absence of a Royal 
Proclamation calling out the Volunteers gen- 
erally. II. A member of a Volunteer corps 
may contract to proceed upon active service 
to any part of the world in a unit or company 
formed of Volunteers, on special conditions as 
defined by the terms of his contract. 

The Volunteers, like the Militia, form junior 
battalions attached to the line regiments in 
their respective districts. Their own organ- 
ization as a cohesive and independent fighting 
force is still imperfect, and the new Army 
scheme proposes a much higher level of effi- 
ciency and an improved organization. 

Like the Militia, the Volunteers hold a con- 
siderable place in the new Army scheme of 
1901-2, and now enter into the composition of 
the fourth Army Corps. The force numbers 
223 battalions, and of these 27 are included in 
the Army Corps scheme. The Volunteers are 
to be specially trained for its work with the 
Army C^orps and for positions round London, 
while increased drill and rifle shooting are to 
contribute to efficiency. The Government 
programme for reorganizing the Army,present- 
ed in February, 1900, included the providing 
for extended training in camp during the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Ill 



summer and for the supply of regimental 
transport and caused very considerable di£S- 
culty and dissatisfaction. The view of the 
War Office is that if Volunteers cannot con- 
form to the new regulations, they must face 
some reduction of numbers, since it would be 
more to the purpose of the Government to get 
a smaller body of efficient men upon which it 
could rely. A controversy has raged round 
this point, and it was contended by many 
Volunteers that the most zealous among them 
could not conform to the requirements. The 
returns of Nov. 1st, 1902, showed a con- 
siderable decline in numbers as compared with 
the previous year (268,550 as compared with 
288,476), and a decrease in the percentage of 
efficients to the enrolled strength (95.49 as 
compared with 97.43), and in numbers present 
at inspections (77.48 as compared with 83.93). 
The decline has been continued. Particulars 
are given below. 

EFFECnVES AND DISTRIBUTION. 

Establishment and Strength of Army, Army 
Reserve, Militia, Imperial Yeomanry, and 
Volunteers on Jan. 1st, 1903 (all ranks). 



Forces. 


Normal 
Estab- 
lishment 


Actual 
Strength 


Want- 
ing to 
com- 
plete 


Army, Regular: 
Forces, Regi- 
mental Estab- 
lishments 

General and 
Departmental 
Staff and Mis- 
cellaneous Es- 
tablishments. . 

Army Reserves, 

Qass I 

Militia 

Militia Reserve 
(New) 

Channel Islands 
and Colonial 
MUitia 

Imperial Yeom'n- 
ry at Home 

Volunteers 

Bermuda Rifle 
Volunteers 


284,378 

2,400 

80,000 
131,737 

50,000 

6,002 

35.164 
346,450 

319 


*324,663 

2,400 

32,865 
108.568 

t 

5,068 

22,942 
250,990 

233 


47,135 
23,169 

50,000 

934 

12,222 
95,460 

86 


General total. . 


936,450 


747,719 


188.731 



ACTUALi STRENGTH OF THE REGULAR ARMT BY 

ARMS. 

Household Cavahy 1,490 

Cavalry of the Line 29,297 

Imperial Yeomanry 1,610 

Royal Horse Artillery and Royal 

Field Artillery 34,959 

Royal Garrison Artillery 23,174 

Royal Engineers 13,757 

Foot Guards 9,966 

Infantry of the Line 176,580 

Colonial Corps and Indian Infantiy 
borrowed for garrison and expedi- 
tionary purposes 15,503 

'•■Parliament in 1902 sanctioned 200,300 ex- 
cess numbers. 
tNot formed on Jan. 1st, 1903. 



Army Service Corps 

Royal Army Medical Corps. 

Army Ordnance Corps 

Army Pay Corps 

Army Post Office Corps .... 



8,443 

6,020 

, 2,638 

853 

362 

It appears from the Creneral Annual Return 
of the Army that in the year ending Dec. 31st, 
1902, 51,677 recruits joined (2.317 for long 
service, 49,360 for short service), as compared 
with 47,039 in 1901. 

THE STRENGTH OF THE ARMT RESERVE 

from 1898 to 1903 has been as follows.*— 1898, 
82,063; 1899, 78,839; 1900, 24,388; 1901, 
5,434 ; 1 902, 2,573 ; 1903, 32,865. The reduced 
numbers since 1901 have been due to Reserv- 
ists being embodied with the Regulars for the 
war. The establishment is 80,000, and on 
April 1st, 1903, the strength had increased to 
51,153, leaving 28,847 wanting to complete 
the establishment. It is impossible to give 
satisfactory details, there being a large number 
of men on gratuity furlough, eventually to be 
transferred to the Reserve. 

CHANGES IN ESTABLISHMENT AND EFFECTIVE 
OF THE MILITIA 

during the last seven years, exclusive of the 
permanent staff: 



Date. 



1st Jan., 1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 



Effective 


Estab- 


strength 


lishment 


108,350 


126,723 


107,878 


126,609 


105,531 


125,435 


103,647 


124,481 


98,130 


123,137 


92,741 


124,252 


102,845 


123,993 


131.737 


108,568 



Wanting 
to com- 
plete 

18,373 
18,731 
19,904 
20,834 
25,007 
31,511 
21,148 
23.160 



The figures from 1900 onwards do not in- 
clude Militia Reservists called out on perma- 
nent service with the Line. Recruiting in 
1902 showed a material increase— 41,486, as 
compared with 37,644 in the previous year. 
Returns are not available for 1903. 

The new Militia Reserve has an estabhshed 
strength of 50,000. Its folmation began in 
1903, but particulars are not available of the 
effective attained. 

ENROLLED STRENGTH OF THE IMPERIAL 

YEOMANRY 

in 1902, 21,840, and the number present at the 
inspection 19,570. The establishment being 
35,164, the number wanting to complete was 
13,324. On Jan. 1st, 1903, the enrolled strength 
had increased to 22,945, the recruits number- 
ing 8,845, and the net increase during the year 
1902 having been 5,546. These figures are 
exclusive of Imperial Yeomanry in South 
Africa (2,449 raised in 1902), who are included 
in the strength of the Regular Army, and cer- 
tain regiments not yet formed are included in 
the establishment. On Jan. 1st, 1903, the 
establishment of the recruits formed was 30,- 
992, and the strength 22,942. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



The eouditioiie afTectiog unfsvorKbly 
rtrength of the ValuntBera have b«n gi' 
above. TV wtabliahment is 346,150, aad 
actual stran^h by the latent return (Jui 

pleto. The enrolled strength has been 
follows sinoe the eetabtbhment of the foj 
■60, 118.146; '61. 161,Z3»: '62, U 
•03, 162.935; '64, 170.544; '65. li 
'66, 181.565; '67, 187.864: '68, It 
'80, 19S.2S7; TO. ie3.R03; 71, 1( 
"72, 178,278; 73, 171.837: '74, 13 
76. 181,080; 76, 185,501; 77, It 
■74 203,213; 78, 206.265; '80, 2C 
■81, 208.308: '82. 207,336; 'S3. 2t 
'84. 215.015; '85. 224,012; '86, 2! 
'87, 228,038: '88, 226,469: 'SS. 2S 
'90 221,048; '81, 222,046; '92, 2! 
'63, 227,741; '94. 231,328; '95, 23 
'86 236,059; '97. 231.786; '98, 23 
'90, 229354; 1900, 27 
1901, 288,476; 1902. 268,550. The Iil... 
turn mentioned above 1250,900) shone a f 
thee fatlina off of 17,560, and it in belie' 
that the diminution has not ceased. 1 
ehortage of officers on Jbd. 1st, 1903, was 18 



mean BtienRth n 
186 e-gun batterii 



foUow! 



With thecolora . . . , , 248,111 

On unlimited leave . 486,290 

Mobile MilLlia 320,170 

Territorial Militia 2,275,631 

TotflL . 3,330,202 

There are about 1,250 guns with the Regular 
Forces and 378 with the Mobile Militia, 



ever, spending ten year 

Guard and eight in its i«s< 

The Standing Army r 



1 the Nationi 
ions of light ii 



three regimenis of field artillery. 



1880 officers and 25,01] 



-ves, the Territorial Army, the National 
■Aa and the mililia of certain of the islands. 
The Permanent Army is available for foreign 
ice, tbe Territorial Army for home 
nae, and the militia for auxiliary npera- 



al period is 12 
months in the 



Thei 



nands. The total n 



)L highlanders are by far tt 



The Italian ai 
Army, the Mobilt 
Militia. There ai 
ing 2 infantry di 



12 ai 



cept tl 



e three. The o^aniia- 

mentg of line infantry <28S battalions), 12 regi- 
ments of beraaglieri (36 battalions) and 7 
Alpine regiments (22 battalions). The 
slrenglh varies considerably, the company 



100 »r 



with a 



□ froi 



itingent, and the 

years and 4 months in the 
o the Militia. 

is supreme head of the army, 
tairs are directed thmugh the 
War Minister and the Chief of the General 
Staff by the Superior War Council. In order 
' aetion between the various 



I of the I 



', then 



ng of the War Minister, the Naval Min- 
. the chiefs of the General Staff and the 
Naval Staff and the Direolflr-General of Mill- 





e details of t 


e effecti 


ng(h of the an 


y on a war 






ps in the isla 


nd of F« 



ments of 6 batteries with 6S4 guns; forti 
artillery, 20 battalions: engineers, 13 sap 
battalions and I railway battalion; transfu 
13 battalions: total. 203 battalions, 55 squ 
rons, 684 guns; or 7,500 officers, 193,790 m 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



113 



61,390 horses. Depot troops: 52 battalions, 
17 squadrons, 26 companies, 19 batteries; or 
1,000 officers, 34,600 men, 9,000 horses, 114 
guns. Territorial Army: 130 battalions, 26 
squadrons, 312 guns, 3,200 officers, 118,530 
men, 11,860 horses. Militia: 35 officers, 1,180 
men, 210 horses. Grand total, 386 battalions, 
26 companies, 99 squadrons, 1,116 guns, 
11,735 officers, 348,100 men and 84,460 
horses. The total fully trained force, accord- 
ing to the St. Petersburg Gazette, is 509,960. 
The Military College and Academy train ac- 
complished officers of great intelligence. They 
were pronounced by General Grant to be 
among the foremost of the kind in the world. 
The barracks and gymnasia are of the best 
type, and every care is paid to the physical 
development of the men. 

MEXICO. 

The Mexican army consists in peace time of 
3,500 officers, 31,000 men, and 11,000 horses 
or mules. It was proposed to introduce per- 
sonal or obligatory service, but the plan has 
been postponed, and the army is recruited by 
voluntary engagement of 3, 4 and 5 years, with 
special levies drawn by lot. The passage of 
the forces to a war footing has been defined by 
law, and provision is made for mobilizing the 
first and second reserve, including the rural 
and urban police, the national guard and other 
forces. 

The following is the strength: Regular army, 
2,700 officers, 61,000 men; reserves, 1,000 offi- 
cers, 155,000 men; total, 3,700 officers, 186,000 
men, with 32,000 horses and 12,000 mules. 

MOROCCO. 

The Sultan's forces comprise about 30,000 
excellent men of all arms, under command for 
training of Kaid Syr Harry Maclean. The 
infantry arm is the Martini. 

THE NETHERLANDS. 

Holland has at present no standing army, 
but a cadre of officers and non-commissioned 
officers (establishment about 2,200) for train- 
ing the forces embodied. 

The Landwehr, which has replaced the old 
Schutterij, received its first contingent re- 
cently, and the country has been divided into 
48 Landwehr districts. The corresponding 
battalions cannot, however, be formed before 
1909. The Landwehr and Landsturm to 
which men are to be transferred will have a 
peace strength of about 20,000, and a volunteer 
establishment in time of war, the militia to be 
increased to 12,300, to be permanently em- 
bodied, with 5,200 more to be called up for 
short periods; and the reorganization is being 
proceeded with. The total armed strength js 
estimated at 69,000. 

The army of the Dutch East Indies numbers 
about 35,000 officers and men, recruited vol- 
untarily, one-half of the men natives, and a 



plan of mobilization for war has recently been 
adopted. 

PORTUGAL 

The army was reorganized on October 1, 
1899. The peace footing is 62,427, including 
33,420 militia. The infantry of the line are 
18,000, the cavalry 3,032, the dragoons 1,804, 
the light troops 1,012, the field artillery 
3,375 and the horse artillery 479. The total 
number of guns is 448. The war footing is 
100,264 including 52,675 militia. 

A new law was introduced in September, 
1895, by which the service is three years with 
the colors, five with the first re.serve and four 
with the second. There is in addition a colo- 
nial army of 9,000. The rules of exemption 
are most liberal, a sum of money paid to the 
Government being accepted as an equivalent. 

ROUMANIA. 

The armed forces of Roumania consist of 
the Regular Army, the Militia, and the Opol- 
tch^nie. In peace time there only exist cadres 
for the regular army, which is divided into per- 
manent and territorial troops. The period of 
service for the permanent troops is three 
years, and for the territorial troops five years 
for the infantry and four for the calvary; but 
in this latter force the soldier at first only puts 
in three months of continuous service; he is 
then sent to his home and called up, in his 
turn, for one week each month. 

The effective of the army in war is as fol- 
lows: Infantry: 8 rifle battalions; 34 infantry 
regiments (102 battalions; altogether 2,250 
officers, 126,000 men, and 4,700 horses). 
Cavalry: 6 Roahiori regiments (24 squadrons, 
forming an independent division); 11 Caal- 
rashi regiments (44 squadrons); total, 530 
officers, 13,200 men, 12,100 horses. Artillery: 
12 regiments (75 batteries, 450 guns; 40 am- 
munition columns; 2 fortress artillery regi- 
ments) ; total, 930 officers, 26,900 men, 22,800 
horses. Engineers: 12 sapper companies, 4 
telegraph, 4 pontoon, knd 4 railway com- 
panies: total, 140 officers, 6,200 men, 1,500 
horses. Grand total, 2,850 officers, 169,800 
men, and 41,400 horses. If to these are added 
the transport, auxiliary troops, 32 militia regi- 
ments, etc., the numbers will amount to 7,500 
officers, 314,000 men, and 65,000 horses. 



RUSSIA. 

The huge Russian army makes continual 
progress, and its varied composition and little- 
known development make it very difficult to 
describe. It may be said to consist of several 
armies: the European, the Caucasian, the Tur- 
kestan, and the Amur force; the first of these 
organized like other European armies, and the 
constitution of the others varying in confor- 
mity with local requirements. Moreover, the 
strength of each varies acconling to the neces- 
sities of the situation, the troops being on the 



114 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ordinary peace footing, on the higher peace 
establishment as in the frontier districts, or on 
the war footing as in Asiatic Russia. There 
are 13 greater military districts, the Trans- 
caspian district, and the territorial region of 
the Don Cossacks. There are 25 army corps in 
Europe and the Caucasus, 2 in Turkestan, and 
2 in the Amur district. 

The peace strength has been given as follows : 

Europe and the Asiatic 
Caucasus. Russia. 

Infantry 627,000 men. 83,000 men. 

Cavalry 116,000 " 14.000 " 

Artillery 138,000 " 15,000 " 

Engineers 34,000 " 8,000 " 

Army services . . 34,000 " 6,000 ** 

Total 949,000 " 124,000 " 

Of these forces the active army numbers 
731,000 in Europe and the Caucasus, and 
87,000 in Asiatic Russia. Baron von Tettau, 
in a volume on the Russian Army (1902), gives 
the peace strength, including Cossacks and 
Frontier Guards, as 1,100,000. 

It must be understood that in regard to the 
preceding estimate and in what follows con- 
cerning the distribution of the Russian forces, 
considerable doubt exists. The troops were 
moved secretly in view of the war with 
Japan, and very various statements have 
been made as to the force actually available 
in the Far East. 

An Imperial order of November 12, 1903, 
gave instructions for the formation of 2 new 
brigades. 

The Cossack forces have a special constitu- 
tion. Every Cossack becomes liable to serve 
as soon as he has completed his eighteenth 
year. For the first three years, which are 
looked on as "preparatory," his service is, 
however, purely local ; but for the next twelve 
years he is considered as belonging to the 
"front" category. This category consists of 
three bans, the first of which is formed of men 
actually serving, and the two others of men 
who have been granted unlimited leave. The 
last five years are speAt in the Reserve cate- 
gory. There is, however, a still further cate- 
gory, for which no limit of age is fixed: this 
comprises all able-bodied Cossacks not other- 
wise classified. These have to supply and 
maintain their own horses, besides providing 
their own clothing and equipment. The 
peace effective of the Cossacks is stated to be 
65,930, with 52,400 horses, but it is probable 
that not more than 54,000 are permanently 
with thecolors. The war strength is given as 
182,065, including 4,275 officers, and there are 
173,150 horses. This gives a percentage of 
13.2 to the male population liable to Cossack 

service. 

In the Russian Empire considerably over a 
million men annually attain the age for joining 
the army. In 1902 the number liable to 
serve was 1,122,000, and 315,832 were em- 
bodied in the standing army. Seventy per 



cent, of the men so entered are illiterates. 
About 5,000 enlist annually as volunteers, and 
16,000 join the Cossacks. The period of 
liability to personal service lasts from the 
twenty-first to the forty-third year of age. 
Those who join the standing army spend five 
years with the colors (four in the infantry), 
thirteen in the reserve, and the remainder in 
the Opoltch^nie, or militia. In some in- 
stances, however, the War Minister has 
power to retain men for a longer period with 
the colors; whilst, on the other hand, this 
period is shortened by one, two, three, or four 
years for those possessing a superior educa- 
tion. The Opoltchdnie, which has been de- 
veloped from a simple militia into a first re- 
serve formation, now embraces two different 
classes: (1) Men between 21 and 43 years of 
I age, who have never served; (2) men who 
'■ have completed 5 years' service with the 
colors and 13 years in the reserve. The ages 
of the men vary between 39 and 43 years. 
I The Finnish Military Service Law, whereby 
the Finnish army has. lost the independence 
guaranteed by treaty, was promulgated on 
August 1, 1901. The oflBces of Finnish com- 
mander-in-chief and staff have been abolished. 
The war strength of the Russian forces con- 
sists of about 56,500 oflicers and 2,855,000 
men, including 1,792,000 infantry and 196,000 
cavalry. These form the active army of all 
classes. To these figures must be added the 
available reserves, estimated at 1,064,000; 
frontier battalions, 41,000; Cossacks, 142,000. 
There are besides these the Territorial Re- 
serves, some 2,000,000 men, and the Opol- 
tch^nie, 1,300,000, which could be employed 
in case of emergency. Gen. Redigers, a well- 
known authority, estimates the trained re- 
serve to be 2,700,000. It is expected that 
under new organization the Opoltch^nie, or 
militia, in time of war will form 40 infantry 
divisions, 640 battalions; 20 regiments of 
cavalry, 80 squadrons; 80 batteries of artil- 
lery, and 20 battalions of sappers; but owing 
to the vast distances to be covered, and the 
want of railway accommodations, the mobili- 
zation of this great force would be neither 
easy nor rapid. In regard to the embodi- 
ment of the reserve force in the event of war, 
great advances have been made by the estab- 
lishment of brigade commands and the organi- 
zation of reserve brigades. 

8ERVIA. 

The military forces consist of the national 
army and the militia (Opoltch^nie). 

The national army is divided into three 
levies: 1st, men from 20 to 30 years of age, 
and containing permanent cadres and a re- 
serve; 2nd, men from 31 to 37 years; and 
3rd, men from 38 to 45 years, with no con- 
stituted cadres in peace time. 

The militia consists of men from 17 to 50 
years of age not in the national army. No 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



115 



substitution or buying off is allowed. The 
annual contingent is usually about 20,500 
conscripts, of whom 6,000 are generally unfit 
for service. 

The p>eace effective is difficult to calculate, 
because, for economic reasons, it is usual to 
send down men before their proper date for 
release. The units are strongest in the spring, 
and from then gradually dwindle away until a 
company barely consists of more than 10 or 15 
men. The army is a species of semi-militia. 

The war effective, according to official tables, 
the accuracy of which must be accepted with 
caution, amounts to 8,110 officers, 331,900 
men, 420 guns, and 39,070 horses. The num- 
ber of actual combatants would be about 
228,000, but a very large proportion are of 
the 2d and 3d levies, with little or no training. 

SPAIN. 

Under the terms of an order of January 29, 
1903, the army has been reorganized on the 
basis of an effective of 80,000 men ; the second 
battalions of the infantry regiments and the 
fourth squadrons of the cavalry being reduced 
to skeleton formations. There are in all about 
23,000 officers provided for the old establish- 
ment, but the supernumeraries are on half-pay, 
and their places are not being filled. There 
are eight captain-generalcies, but the eight 
army corps are replaced by divisions, and 
further reductions are being introduced. The 
headquarters are respectively: 1st, Madrid; 
2nd, Seville; 3rd, Valentia; 4th, Barcelona; 
5th, Saragossa; 6th, Burgos; 7th, Valladolid; 
8th, Corunna. 

The following is the constitution, by units, 
of the army: Infantry, 56 regiments, 20 bat- 
talions of Chasseurs, 4 African regiments, 2 
regiments in the Balearic Islands, 2 regiments 
in the Canaries, recruiting cadres, etc. The cav- 
alry, 28 regiments, and 3 squadrons for foreign 
possessions. Artillery, 13 field, 1 siege and 

3 mountain regiments (all with four 6-gun bat- 
teries), 14 fortress battalions, 1 central gun- 
nery school, 1 central remount committee, and 

4 complies of artificers. The engineer corps 
consists of 4 regiments of sappers and miners, 
1 pontoon regiment, 1 telegraph battalion, 1 
railway battalion, 1 topographical brigade, 1 
company of artificers, and 8 reserve depots, 
with 5 separate companies of sappers and 
miners for the Balearic Islands, etc. For 
recruiting purposes the Peninsula has 116 dis- 
tricts, the Canaries and Balearics have 2, and 
Ceuta and Melilla have 2. The total armed 
strength is estimated to be 500,000. 

SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

Sweden. — The Swedish army underwent a 
reorganization in 1901, which is progressive 
and will have its full effect in 1914. General 
personal service has been adopted, with short 
periods with the Colors : one year for service in 
the cavalry and artillery, and eight months for 



the infantry. The army will be substantially 
increased in strength. The 24 existing infantry 
regiments are to have a third battalion each, 
and 3 fortress regiments of similar strength 
are to be raised. Some of the new formations 
have already been brought into existence. 

On a peace footing there are 2,606 officers^ 
1,797 non-commissioned officers, 6,947 cor- 
porals and others, 557 cadets, 7,792 volunteers, 
and 22,332 men, being a total of 40,031. The 
artillery are to receive Krupp quick-firing 
guns, of which the pattern is still under trial 
in an experimental battery. There are 4 
corps of engineers. Steps are also to be taken 
to increase the body of reserve officers. One 
great object in the recent change is to give 
a more homogeneous character to the forces. 
The plans for mobilization of the reserves have 
been improved, and a Landsturm is being 
organized. 

Norway. — The force now availabe for ser- 
vice beyond the frontier numbers, with officers 
and men, 25,109; but the total armed strength 
is estimated to be 38,000, There is, however, 
the defect that there is no reserve of the line to 
fill up the gaps which might arise during a war, 
without taking men from the militia (Land- 
vaern). Besides the troops of the line there 
exists the militia or Landvaern for the defense 
of Norway, in case the troops of the line should 
be taken over to Sweden. 

SWITZERLAND. 

The federal forces do not constitute a 
standing army, the principle being that of a 
militia, and the liability to serve twelve years 
in the Elite, twelve in the Landwehr, and six 
in the Landsturm. During the twelve years in 
the Elite (ten for the cavalry) the aggregate 
service is 141 days in the infantry, 146 in the 
engineers, 160 in the cavalry, and 163 in the 
artillery. 

The total military strength consists of: Elite 
(20 to 32 years of age): 96 battalions of in- 
fantry, 8 battalions of rifles, 24 squadrons of 
dragoons, 48 field batteries of 6 guns, 2 moun- 
tain batteries, 10 position batteries, and 12 
companies of light horse. Landwehr (32 to 44 
years of age) : 96 battalions of infantry, 8 bat- 
talions of rifles, 24 squadrons of dragoons, 8 
field batteries, and 15 position batteries. An 
aggregate total, in round numbers, of 200,000 
men, of whom 130,000 are in the first 12 classes 
of the Elite, formed into 4 army corps. In 
addition, the Landsturm can furnish fully 
300,000, giving an armed strength of 500,000, 
maintained at a cost of about S5,(X)0,000 a 
year for a total population of 3,500,000. 

turkey. 
The Turkish military forces are organized on 
the territorial system, the whole empire being 
divided into seven territorial districts. By the 
recruiting law all Mussulmans are liable to mili- 
tary service. Christians and certain sects pay 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



an exemption tax. The nomad Arabs, although 
liable to service by law, furnish no recruits, 
and many Kurds evade service. The conscrip- 
tion therefore falls somewhat heavily on the 
Osmanlis, or Turks proper. 

The men liable to service are divided into — 

(1) Nizam, or regular army, and its reserve; 

(2) Redif, corresponding to Landwehr; and 

(3) Mustahfiz, or Landsturm. There are also 
660 Ilaveh battalions, mostly skeleton forma- 
tions, in which men supplementary to the 
establishments are enrolled. Liability to ser- 
vice until recently commenced at twenty years 
of age, and lasted for twenty years — i.e., with 
colors of the Nizam, four years ; in the reserve 
of the Nizam, two years; in the Redif, four 
years in first class and four years in second 
class; and in the Mustahfiz, six years. An 
Irad^ issued in November, 1903, increases the 



total Nizam serviceto nine years and the Redif 
service to nine years, it being ^timated that 
this will add 250,000 men to the army. The 
cavalry are set down at 55,300; the artillery 
(174 field and 22 mountain batteries) at 54,720 
— 1,356 guns; the engineers at 7,400;- infantry, 
583,200; total, 700,620. The Nizam has 320 
battalions, 203 squadrons, and 248 batteries, 
and the Redif 374 battalions, 666 supplemen- 
tary battalions (incomplete), and 48 squad- 
rons. An irregular "Hamidieh" cavalry has 
been raised among the Kurds, and has 266 
squadrons. 

The total war strength is estimated to be: 
46,400 officers, 1,531,600 men, 1,530 guns, and 
109,900 horses. The Ottoman army has been 
trained and reorganized largely by German 
officers, and is composed of the best fighting 
material, as the war with Greece proved. 



CHAPTER Y. 



THE RAILROADS OP THE WORLD. 



In the Railroad Gazette (New 
York) for May 30, 1902, there ap- 
peared exhaustive tables, compiled 
from the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen 
of Prussia, of the railroads of the 
world in the year 1900 and in previ- 
ous years. With the help of these 
tables the Railroad Gazette, in its is- 
sue for June 6, makes the following 
comparative statements : 

The mileage built in each decade has 
been for the world : Ten years to 
3840, 4,772; 1850, 19,198; 1860, 43,- 
160; 1870^ 63,255; 1880, 101,081; 
1890, 152,179 ; 1900, 107,421. 

The mileage built before 1830, in- 
significant in amount, is included with 
the 4,772 miles credited above to the 
following decade. 

Of the total of 491,066 miles com- 
pleted at the end of the century more 
than one-half had been built since 
1880 and nearly three-fourths since 
1870. The total built in the forty 
years down to 1870 (130.385 miles) 
was one-seventh less than the construc- 
tion in the single decade ending with 
1890. It is notable, however, that in 
the last decade of the century 44,758 
miles less were built than in the pre- 
ceding ten years. This is one of the 
indications that the civilized and pro- 
ductive industrial countries of the 
world are now generally well equipped 
with these instruments of transporta- 
tion. Europe (except Russia) and 
North America have immediate need 
of no large additions to their mileage. 
There is still abundant room for rail- 
roads in Asia, Africa and South 
America, but the slow growth of indus- 
tries of these continents, two of which 
are over rather than under populated, 
but whose population is to a great ex- 
tent a bar to progress such as Europe 
and North America have had in the 
past century, gives no promise of rapid 
railroad extension. 

Nevertheless, the most notable de- 
velopment of the last decade has been 
the greater activity in Asia and Afri- 
ca. In Asia, until after 1890, there 



was scarcely any railroad except in 
British India, a very little in Asia 
Minor, a beginning in Russia and Ja- 
pan. But the 20,960 miles in Asia in 
1890 had become 37,477 miles in 1900, 
and the 6,113 miles in Africa, 12,501. 
The additions, considering the size of 
the continents, are small ; but they are 
only beginnings, and considerable new 
additions have been made since 1900, 
chiefly the Siberian Railroad in Asia 
and the Uganda in Africa. It is prob- 
ably not generally known that even in 
this last decade it is India and not 
Russia which leads in railroad con- 
struction in Asia ; India had added 
6,982 miles (42 per cent) to the 16,- 
781 it had in 1890, Vhile the additions 
in Asiatic Russia were but 4,622 
miles. 

In Europe more railroad was built 
from 1890 to 1900 than in the previ- 
ous decade, but less than from 1870 to 
1880. The increase in the last decade 
was wholly due to Russia, where it 
was 10,659 miles, against 4,413 miles 
in the previous decade. In the rest of 
Europe 29,700 miles were built from 
1880 to 1890, and only 26,418 in the 
following decade. 

The most notable change in the last 
decade, however, is the decrease in 
construction in North America, which 
was so long the great field for railroad 
construction. With 2,834 miles built 
in 1840, the increase in mileage for 
successive decades has been : 1840- 
1850, 9,099; 1850-1860, 23,644; 1860- 
1870, 22,887 ; 1870-1880, 45,629 ; 1880- 
1890, 85,766; 1890-1900, 33,856. 

Thus the new construction on this 
continent in the last decade was 60 per 
cent less than from 1880 to 1890, and 
even 20 per cent less than from 1870 
to 1880. The decrease in the last de- 
cade was common to Canada and 
Mexico, as well as to the United 
States. It was altogether healthy. 
But this country and Canada, at 
least, are richer to-day than they 
would have been if they had built 
as much railroad in the last decade as 



117 



I 

11. 

i; 

I! 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBRENCB BOOK. 



3 



120 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



in the one preceding it. Fully $2,- 
000,000,000 more than has actually 
been expended for new railroads would 
have been required : and the indica- 
tions are that the capital thus saved 
has been most profitably employed in 
productive industries which give the 
railroads traffic to carry. 

South and Central America (in- 
cluding West Indies) do not cut much 
of a figure in the railroad world, hav- 
ing now altogether only 29,071 miles, 
or less than Asia. Two-thirds of the 
South American mileage is in Argen- 
tina and Brazil. 

Australia also has slackened its pace 
in railroad construction. It has room 
for more roads, but not people enough 
as yet to support them, and it grows 
slowly. It had 1,097 miles in 1870, 
added 3,780 by 1880, 6,863 more by 
1890, and only 3,185 in the last decade 
of the century. Australia now has 
14,925 miles. 

The last annual return from the 
same source, published in June, 1903, 
shows the world's railroad mileage at 
the end of 1901. 

Europe, 181,760 miles. 



Mileage of 

Principal 

Countries. 

Germany 32,943 

Russia 32,130 

France 27,285 

Austro-Hung'y 23,432 
Great Britain 
and Ireland.. 22,164 

Italy 9,881 

Spain 8,447 

Sweden 7,242 

Belgium 4,047 

Switzerland. . . 2,443 



Mileage of 
Principal 
Countries. 
Holland 2,035 

Roumania. . . . 1,982 
Turkey (includ- 
ing Bulgaria 
and Roumelia) 1,963 

Denmark 1,917 

Portugal 1,492 

Norway 1,313 

Greece 607 

Servia 361 



Total America (North and South), 256,643 

miles. 



United States . 198,346 
British North 

America. . . . 18,397 
Argentina. . . . 10,479 



Mexico 9,660 

Brazil 9,248 

Chili 2,896 



Total Asia, 42,067 miles. 

British India. . 25,515 ' Japan 4,093 

Siberia and Dutch Indies. . . 1,392 
Manchuria. . 5,697 China 772 

Total Africa, 14,270 miles. 



British South 
and Central 
Africa 5,504 



Algiers and 

Tunis 3,060 

Egypt 2,903 



Total Australia and New Zealand, 15,470 

miles. 

Grand Total of Worid's Railroads, 510,470 
miles. 



TYPES OF AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVES. 



040^0 



* wMCtL awrrcMCW 



060^ nnn 



OOOO 



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— Encyclopedia Americana. 



RAILWAY SIGNALS. 



One blast of 



the whistle means 
"stop at once," or what is known 
as "down brakes"; two blasts of 
the whistle mean "off brakes"; 
three blasts of the whistle mean 
"back up"; a continuous blast means 
"danger." A semaphore signal at 
right angles to the post indicates dan- 
ger ; when the semaphore drops to 
an angle it is a signal to proceed. A 
red lantern indicates danger, as does 
a red flag ; a green lantern or a green 
flag indicates "caution." Lanterns 
which are swung at right angles across 
the tracks mean "stop" ; a lantern 
raised and lowered means 
when lanterns are swung in 
it means "back the train." 



"start" ; 
a circle 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



121 



THE RAILROAD SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES.* 



If one were called upon to name the 
field of engineering: in which the vast 
scale upon which things are done in 
this country is most strikingly shown, 
he would be safe in pointing to the 
colossal railroad system of the United 
States. In respect of the total length 
of track, the total number of locomo- 
tives and cars, the veritable army of 
employees, and the gross value of 
capital invested, our railway system is 
so huge that it stands absolutely in a 
class by itself among the railroad sys- 
tems of the world. It is equally true 
that in respect of the character of its 
track, rolling stock, its general equip- 
ment, and methods of operation, it is 
marked by national characteristics 
which distinguish it far more sharply 
from the great European and Asiatic 
roads, than they are distinguished 
from each other. 

In attempting to impress upon the 
mind the magnitude of the properties 
and the operations represented by the 
statistics of such huge interests as the 
railroads of the United States, where 
the figures run into the millions and 
billions, it is necessary to translate 
these figures into concrete terms and 
refer them to some widely known 
standard of measurement, whether of 
distance, weight, or bulk. On the fol- 
lowing pages, our artist has endeavored 
— and we think very successfully — to 
transform the statistics of our rail- 
roads into concrete form by taking as 
a unit of measurement the greatest 
single constructive work of man, the 
great Pyramid of Egypt, with whose 
dimensions every voting American 
citizen is perfectly familiar, or, if he is 
not, ought to be. From time immemo- 
rial the great Pyramid, being one of 
the original seven wonders of the 
world, has been a favorite standard of 
comparison with other gre^t construc- 
tive works. It measures some 756 feet 
on the base by 481 feet in height, and 
contains about 91^ million cubic feet. 
Now, before we can use even this well- 
known standard and be sure that it 
will convey its full impression to the 
average reader, we must compare the 
Pyrafaaid itself with some big and well- 
known structure, and for this purpose 
our artist has drawn the Capitol of 
Washington at the side of the Pyra- 
mid, both on the same scale. If it 
were possible to take a shell of the 
Pyramid, composed merely of the outer 



layer of stone, and place it over the 
Capitol, it would practically shut it 
out from view, and the apex of the 
Pyramid would extend 200 feet above 
the highest point of the Capitol dome. 

The total length of the railroads in 
operation in the United States at the 
close of the fiscal year 1901 was 195,- 
887 miles, this total not including 
track in sidings, etc. If these rail- 
roads could be stretched out in one 
continuous line, they would ba suflfi- 
cient to girdle the earth at the equator 
more than eight times ; or, if started 
from the earth and stretched outward 
into space, they would reach four- 
fifths of the distance from the earth to 
the moon. 

Steel Rails. — Now, to arrive at an 
estimate of what it has taken in ma- 
terial to build this length of railroad, 
let us assume that a fair average size 
of rail is one weighing 75 pounds to 
the yard. Much of the track in the 
Eastern States weighs 80, 90 and 100 
pounds to the yard, w^hile most of the 
track west of the Mississippi weighs 
70, t)0 and in some instances as low as 
56 pounds to the yard. On this basis 
it is an easy calculation to determine 
that the total weight of these rails is 
over 25,000,000 tons ; and if the mass 
were melted and cast in solid pyra- 
midal form it would contain 105,540,- 
000 cubic feet, and would be over 
15 per cent larger than the great 
Pyramid itself. If the rails were cast 
in one rectangular block, it would 
form a mass 436 feet square on the 
base and equal in height to the Wash- 
ington Monument, which towers 550 
feet above its base. 

Railroad Ties. — The railroad ties 
used in this country vary in size from 
a tie 8 inches wide, 6 inches deep and 
9 feet long to ties as much as 12 inches 
in width and 8 inches in depth. A 
fair average would be a tie 10 inches 
in width and 7 inches in depth and 9 
feet long, and a good average spacing 
would be 24 inches, center to . center 
of the ties, or say 2,600 to the mile. 
On this basis we find that, could all 
these ties be gathered together on the 
Nile desert and piled one upon an- 
other into a pyramid of the same pro- 
portions as that at Gizeh, it would 
form a mass twenty-four times as great 
as the Pyramid of the Pharaohs, meas- 
uring 2,200 feet on its base and reach- 
ing 1,390 feet into the air. 



♦Reprinted from the ** Transportation Number" of the Scientific American,, Dec. 13. 1902, 
therefore the figures and the comparisons are for that year. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPBRBNCE BOOK. 






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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Rock and Gravel Ballast. — After the 
ties and rails have been laid in the 
construction of a railroad the ballast 
cars pass over it and unload their 
broken rock or gravel, which is tamped 
beneath and filled around the ties to 
form a solid but well-drained founda- 
tion. On some of our Eastern .roads 
the depth of the ballast will exceed 
18 or 20 inches; on the other hand, 
some of the Western roads have nono 
at all, although of late years a vast 
advance has been made in the ballast 
ing of the more cheaply constructed 
systems. Assuming an average depth 
of 12 inches of ballast, we find that 
if the railroad builders of the United 
States had concentrated their efforts, 
as did the Egyptians of old, on a sin- 
gle structure on the banks of the Nile, 
they would, in a period of years not 
much greater than that required to 
build the Pyramid, have raised a pyra- 
mid of their own 135 times greater in 
bulk than the tomb of Cheops. This 
vast pile would measure 3,900 feet on 
each side at the base, and would lift 
its head nearly half a mile into the 
air, or to be exact, just 2.500 feet. 
Were the spirit of the great Cheops 
to return to earth, and attempt to 
pace off the distance around the base, 
it would have to step out some 5,000 
paces, or say three miles, to make the 
circuit ; and should it climb to the 
summit, it would have to make a jour- 
ney of about three-quarters of a mile. 
So much for the roadbed and the 
track. Now let us turn our attention 
to the equipment. 

Locomotives. — At the close of the 
fiscal year 1901, there were in service 
on the United States railroads 39,729 
locomotives. Assuming that the av- 
erage locomotive fills a block 10 feet 
wide by 15 feet high by 50 feet long, 
and that all these locomotives could be 
brought into review at Gizeh and there 
piled up into one great block, a loco- 
motive that would fill that block would 
be 510 feet in height and 1,700 feet, 
or, say, a third of a mile, in length, its 
smokestack towering 29 feet above the 
summit of the Pyramid. 

Passenger Cars. — There are 35,800 
passenger, mail and baggage cars on 
our railroads, and a typical car repre- 
senting the space occupied by these 
would be 500 feet high and 1,950 feet 
in length, and it would take 3 1-2 great 
Pyramids to equal it in bulk. 

Freight Cars. — As far as the equip- 
ment is concerned it is in the extraor- 
dinary number of the freight cars em- 
ployed that we get the best idea of 



the great scale upon which our rail- 
roads are operated. The total number 
of cars is 1,409,472. They vary, of 
course, considerably in size, capacity 
and type, there being in addition to the 
familiar box car, the coal cars of va- 
rious size and type, the freight cars, 
and a small number of miscellaneous 
cars for railroad construction and 
other purposes. A single box car repre- 
senting the space occupied by all these 
freight cars would be two-thirds of a 
mile in length and one-quarter of a 
mile in height. The Pyramid of Che- 
ops would reach about to the floor of 
the car. Were the Eiffel Tower set 
alongside of it, it would reach only 
two-thirds of the distance to its roof, 
while the whole Brooklyn Bridge, with 
its anchorages, could be placed bodily 
inside the car, and if the foundations 
of its piers rested upon the car floor, 
the summit of its towers would still 
reach only half way to the roof of the 
car. 

Employees. — It requires over one mil- 
lion employees for the maintenance and 
operation of our railroads. Of these 
nearly one-half are engaged upon the 
track and roadbed, in proportions 
made up as follows : There are 33,- 
817 section foremen, each of whom has 
a stretch of a few miles of track under 
his charge, and a gang of from five to 
eight or ten section men, his duties be- 
ing those of maintaining the track in 
proper level and line, seeing that the 
track bolts are kept tight, the joints in 
good order, and that the roadbed is 
properly trimmed, graded and drained. 
The total number of trackmen em- 
ployed in the section gangs, as they 
are called, is 239,166. There are also 
47,576 switchmen, flagmen and watch- 
men, who are engaged in switching 
work at the yards, in guarding the 
level crossings, and in patrolling the 
track. There are also over 7,423 men 
employed on work trains and other 
work incidental to track maintenance. 
In addition to these there are 131,722 
laborers engaged in construction and 
repair and maintenance work of va- 
rious kinds, making a total engaged 
on track work and general labor con- 
nected therewith of 459,704 men. Car- 
rying out our system of comparison 
with some standard of bulk, we have 
chosen the Park Row Building, New 
York, which has a total height of 390 
feet. If this army of trackmen and 
laborers were combined in one typical 
giant, he would be some 385 feet in 
height and of proportionate weight and 
bulk. The next largest item is the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



machinists, of which there are 34,698, 
the carpenters, of which there are 48,- 
946, and various other shopmen en- 
gaged in the repair and general main- 
tenance of the rolling stock to the 
number of 120,550, making a total 
number of skilled and unskilled men 
in the railroad shops of 204,194. The 
next largest total is that of the sta- 
tion agents, baggage masters, porters, 
etc., there being 32,294 station agents 
and 94,847 baggage masters, porters, 
etc. Then follow the conductors and 
brakemen, 32,000 of the former and 
84,493 of the latter. There are 92,- 
458 enginemen and firemen, 45,292 of 
the former and 47,166 of the latter. 
Employed in the general offices of the 
various railroad companies, in per- 
forming the vast amount of clerical 
work required, there are 39,701 clerks, 
while sheltered under the same roof 
is a body of men upon whom as much 
as or more than any other in the whole 



army of railroad employees falls the 
responsibility of the safety of trains 
ancl passengers — the telegraph opera- 
tors and dispatchers, of whom there 
are altogether 26,606. The smallest in 
number, but controlling the whole of 
this vast organization, are the general 
officers, presidents, vice-presidents, 
treasurers, secretaries, etc., of whom 
there are 4.780. 

Money Value. — Perhaps, after all, 
the most remarkable figures are those 
which show the total value of the rail- 
road system of the United States, 
which expressed in figures is 13,308,- 
029,032 dollars. If this sum were rep- 
resented in ten-dollar gold pieces, and 
these pieces were set on edge, side by 
side, they would reach more than half 
way from New York to San Fran- 
cisco, or 1,700 miles. Or, were this 
coin melted and run into a single cast- 
ing, it would form a column 15 feet 
in diameter and 259 feet in height. 



ABSTRACT OF STATISTICS OF RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED STATES 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 



From summaries which appear in 
the Sixteenth Statistical Report of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, pre- 
pared by its statistician as the com- 
plete report for the year ending June 
30, 1903, this information is obtained : 

MILEAGE AND CAPITALIZATION OF 

BOADS. 

The total single-track railway mile- 
age in the United States on June 30, 
1903, was 207,977.22 miles, having in- 
creased 5,505.37 miles in the year end- 
ing on that date. This increase ex- 
ceeds that of any previous year since 
1890. The nineteen states and terri- 
tories for which an increase in mileage 
exceeding 100 miles is shown are Ar- 
kansas, California, Georgia, Illinois, 
Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mis- 
sissippi, Missouri, North Carolina, 
North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Texas, 
Washington, West Virginia, Wiscon- 
sin, Indian Territory, New Mexico, 
and Oklahoma. Most of the railway 
mileage of the country, excepting that 
of street lines, is covered by reports 
rendered to the Commission by the car- 
riers. 

For the year under consideration the 
operated mileage concerning which sub- 
stantially complete returns were made 
was 205,313.54 miles, including 5,902.87 
miles of line on which trackage privi- 
leges were exercised. The aggregate 



length of railway mileage, including 
tracks of all kinds, was 283,821.52 
miles, being classified as follows: 
Single track, 205,313.54 miles; sec- 
ond track, 14,681.03 miles; third 
track, 1.303.53 miles; fourth track, 
963,36 miles; and yard track and 
sidings, 61,500.06 miles. Thus it ap- 
pears that there was an increase of 
9.626.16 miles in the aggregate length 
of all tracks, of which 3,339.13 miles, 
or 34.69 per cent, were due to the ex- 
tension of yard track and sidings. 

The number of railway corporations 
included in the report was 2,078. Of 
this number 1,036 maintained operat- 
ing accounts, 805 being classed as in- 
dependent operating roads and 231 as 
subsidiary roads. Of roads operated 
under lease or some other form of con- 
tract, 316 received a fixed money rent- 
al, 150 a contingent money rental, and 
275 were operated under conditions 
not readily classified. In the course 
of the year railway companies owning 
11,074.19 miles of line were reorgan- 
ized, merged, consolidated, etc. For 
the year 1902 the corresponding item 
was 7,385.99 miles. 

The length of mileage operated by 
receivers on June 30, 1903, was 1,- 
185.45 miles, showing a decrease of 
289.87 miles as compared with the 
previous year. The number of roads 
in the hands of receivers was the same 
as at the close of the previous year, 9 



< t. ! 



i m 



ill! 

fill 
Mill 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



roads having been taken from the 
hands of receivers and a like number 
having been placed in charge of the 
courts. 

EQUIPMENT. 

On June 30, 1903, there were in 
the service of the railways 43,871 loco- 
motives, the increase being 2,646. As 
classified, these locomotives were : Pas- 
senger, 10,570; freight, 25,444; 
switching, 7,058. There were also 799 
not assigned to any class. 

The total number of cars of all 
classes was 1,753,389, this total hav- 
ing increased 113,204 during the year. 
The assignment of this rolling stock 
was, to the passenger service, 38,140 
cars; to the freight service, 1,653.782 
cars; the remaining 61,467 cars being 
those employed directly by the rail- 
ways in their own service. Cars used 
by the railways that were owned by 
private companies and firms are not 
included in this statement. The aver- 
age number of locomotives per 1,000 
miles of line was 214, showing an in- 
crease of 8. The average number of 
cars per 1,000 miles of line was 8,540, 
showing an increase of 345 as com- 
pared with the previous year. The 
number of passenger-miles per pas- 
senger locomotive was 1.978,786, show- 
ing an increase of 70,476 miles. The 
number of ton-miles per freight loco- 
motive was 6,807,981, showing an in- 
crease of 141,482 miles as compared 
with June 30, 1902. 

The aggregate number of locomo- 
tives and cars in the service of the 
railways was 1,797,260. Of this num- 
ber 1,462,259 were fitted with train 
brakes, indicating an increase during 
the year of 155,414, and 1,770,558 
were fitted with automatic couplers, 
indicating an increase of 122,028. 
Practically all locomotives and cars in 
passenger service had train brakes, 
and of the 10,570 locomotives in that 
service. 10110 were fitted with auto- 
matic couplers. Only a few cars in 
passenger service were without auto- 
matic couplers. With respect to 
freight equipment it appears that most 
of the freight locomotives had train 
brakes and 98 per cent of them auto- 
matic couplers. Of 1,653.782 cars in 
freight service on June 30. 1903, 1.- 
352,123 had train brakes and 1,632,330 
automatic couplers. In this report 
there have been continued several sum- 
maries, first presented in the report for 
1902, to show the general type of 
efficiency of locomotives and the ca- 
pacity of freight cars. 



In these summaries locomotives are 
classified under the heads of single-ex- 
pansion locomotives, four-cylinder com- 
pound locomotives, and two-cylinder 
compound or cross-compound locomo- 
tives. Each of these classes of locomo- 
tives is further classified according to 
the number of drivers, and the number 
of pilot wheels and trailers. 

Freight cars are first classified as 
box cars, flat cars, stock cars, coal 
cars, tank cars, refrigerator cars, and 
other cars. The cars in these classes 
are . further distributed among the 
requisite number of subclasses, the 
lowest of which. Class I, being for cars 
having capacities in the 10,000 of 
pounds; Class II for cars in the 20,- 
000 of pounds, the other classes suc- 
cessively increasing in the same ratio. 



EMPLOYEES. 

The number of persons on the pay 
rolls of the railways in the United 
States, as returned for June 30, 1903, 
was 1,312,537, or 639 per 100 miles of 
line. These figures, when compared 
with the corresponding ones for the 
year 1902, show an increase of 123,222 
in the number of employees, or 45 per 
100 miles of line. The classification 
of employees includes enginemen, 52,- 
993 ; firemen, 56,041 ; conductors, 39,- 
741, and other trainmen, 104,885. 
There were 49.961 switch tenders, 
crossing tenders, and watchmen. With 
regard to the four general divisions of 
railway employment it appears that 
general administration required the 
services of 45,222 employees ; mainte- 
nance of way and structures, 433,648 
employees ; maintenance of equipment, 
253,889 employees, and conducting 
transportation, 576,881 employees. 
This statement disregards a few em- 
ployees of which no assignment was 
made. 

The usual statement of the average 
daily compensation of the 18 classes of 
employees for a series of years is con- 
tinued in the* present report, which 
shows also the aggregate amount of 
compensation paid to more than 97 per 
cent of the number of employees for 
the year 1903 and more than 99 per 
rent for the six years preceding. The 
amount of wages and salaries paid to 
emplovees during the year end'ng June 
30. 1903, as reported, was $757,321,- 
415; but this amount, as compared 
with the total reported for the year 
1902, is understated for want of re- 
turns by $18,000,000 at least. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



129 



CAPITALIZATION OF RAILWAY PBOPEBTY. 

The par value of the amount of 
railway capital outstaDdinj? on June 
30, 1903, was ifl2,599,990,258, 
which represents a capitalization 
of $03,186 per mile for the rail- 
ways of the United States. Of 
this capital, $6,155,559,032 ei^isted as 
stock, of which $4,876,961,012 was 
common and $1,278,598,020 preferred, 
and the remaining part, $6,444,431,226, 
as funded debt, which consisted of 
mortgage bonds, $5,426,730,154; mis- 
cellaneous obligations, $640,704,135 ; 
income bonds, $234,016,821, and equip- 
ment trust obligations, $142,980,116. 
Current liabilities are not included in 
railway capital for the reason that this 
class of indebtedness has to do with 
the operation rather than with the 
construction and equipment of a road. 
Current liabilities for the year amount- 
ed to $864,552,960, or $4,211 per mile 
of line. 

Of the total capital stock outstand- 
ing, $2,704,821,163, or 43.94 per cent, 
paid no dividends. The amount of 
dividends declared during the year was 
$196,728,176. being equivalent to 5.70 
per cent on dividend-paying stock. For 
the year ending June 30, 1902, the 
amount of dividends declared was 
$185,391,655. Of the total amount of 
stock outstanding, $6,155,559,032, 6.59 
per cent paid from 1 to 4 per cent; 
13.51 per cent from 4 to 5 per cent; 
10.34 per cent from 5 to 6 per cent ; 
11.39 per cent from 6 to 7 per cent, 
and 9.10 per cent from 7 to 8 per cent. 
The amount of funded debt (omitting 
equipment trust obligations) that paid 
no interest was $272788.421, or 4.33 
per cent. Of mortgage bonds, $194,- 
295,524, or 3.58 per cent, of miscel- 
laneous obligations, $7,377,925, or 1.15 
per cent, and of income bonds, $71,- 
114,972, or 30.39 per cent, paid no in- 
terest. 



PUBLIC SEBVICE OF RAILWAYS. 

The number of passengers reported 
as carried by the railways in the year 
ending June 30, 1903, was 694.891,535, 
indicating an increase of 45,01 3. 030 as 
compared with the year ending June 
30, 1902. The passenger-mileage, or 
the number of passengers carried 1 
mile, was 20.91.5,763,881, having in- 
creased 1.225,826 261. 

The number of tons of fre'ght re- 
ported as carried (including freight 
received from connecting roads and 
other carriers) was 1,304,394,323, 



which exceeds the tonnage of the pre- 
vious year by 104,078,536 tons. The 
ton-mileage, or the number of tons car- 
ried 1 mile, was 173 222,278,993, the 
increase being 15,932,908,940. The 
number of tons carried 1 mile per mile 
of line was 855,447, which figures in- 
dicate an increase in the density of 
freight traflSc of 62,096 ton-miles per 
mile of line. 

The average revenue per passenger 
per mile for the year mentioned wa^ 
2.006 cents, the average for the pre- 
ceding year being 1.986 cents. The 
average revenue per ton per mile was 
0.763 cent. This average for the pre- 
ceding year was 0.757 cent. Earnings 
per train mile show an increase both 
for passenger and freight trains. The 
average cost of running a train 1 mile 
appears to have increased between 8 
and 9 cents. The ratio of operating 
expenses to earnings, 66.16 per cent, 
also increased in comparison with the 
preceding year, when it was 64.66 per 
cent. 

A summary of freight traffic, classi- 
fied on the basis of a commodity classi- 
fication embracing some thirty-eight 
items, is continued for the year under 
review. 

EABNINGS AND EXPENSES. 

The gross earnings of the railways in 
the United States from the operation 
of 205,313.54 miles of line were, for 
the year ending June 30, 1903, $1,900,- 
846,907, being $174,466,640 greater 
than for the previous year. Their 
operating expenses were $1,257,538,- 
852, or $141,290,105 more than in 
1902. The following figures give gross 
earnings in detail, with the increase 
or the decrease of the several items as 
compared with the previous year : Pas- 
senger revenue, $421 ,704,592 — increase, 
$28,741,344; mail, $41,709,396— in- 
crease, $1,873,552; express, $38.331,- 
964 — increase, $4,078,505; other earn- 
ings from passenger service, $9,821,- 
277— increase. $962,508; freight reve- 
nue, $1,338.020,026— increase, $130,- 
791,181 ; other earnings from freight 
service, $4.467,025— decrease. $379.- 
693 ; other earnings from operation, 
including unclassified items, $46,792,- 
627 — increase, $8,399,243. Gross 
earnings from operation per mile of 
line averaged $9,258, the correspond- 
ing average for the year 1902 being 
$6.^S less. 

The operating expenses were as- 
signed to the four general divisions of 
such expenses, as follows : Mainte- 



180 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



nance of way and structures, $206,421,- 
774 ; maintenance of equipment, $240,- 
429,742 ; conducting transportation, 
$702,509,818; general expenses, $47,- 
767,947; undistributed, $409,571. Op- 
erating expenses were $6,125 per mile 
of line, having increased $548 per mile 
in comparison with the preceding year. 
The statistical report contains an 
analysis of the operating expenses for 
the year according to the fifty-three 
accounts prescribed in the official 
classification of these expenses, with 
the percentage of each item of the ex- 
penses as classified for the years 1897 
to 1903. 

The income from operation, or the 
net earnings, of the railways * amount- 
ed to $643,308,055. This item, when 
compared with the net earnings of the 
year 1902, shows an increase of $33,- 
176,535. Net earnings per mile for 
1903 averaged $3,133; for 1902, $3,- 
048, and for 1901, $2,854. The 
amount of income obtained from other 
sources than operation was $205,687,- 
480. In this amount are included the 
following items : Income from lease 
of road, $109,696,201 ; dividends on 
stocks owned, $40,081,725 ; interest on 
bonds owned, $17,696,586, and miscel- 
laneous income, $38,212,968. The to- 
tal income of the railways, $848,995,- 
535 — that is, the income from opera- 
tion and from other sources — is the 
amount from which fixed charges and 
similar items of expenditure are de- 
ducted to ascertain the sum available 
for dividends. Deductions of such na- 
ture totalized $552,619,490, leaving 
$296,376,045 as the net income for the 
year available for dividends or surplus. 

The amount of dividends declared 
during the year (including $420,400. 
other payments from net income) was 
$197,148,576, leaving as the surplus 
from the operations of the year ending 
June 30, 1903, $99,227,469, that of 
the previous year having been $94,855,- 
088. The amount stated above for de- 
ductions from income, $552,619,490, 
comprises the following items : 
Salaries and maintenance of organi- 
zation. $430,427 ; interest accrued on 
funded debt, $283,953,124; interest on 
current liabilities, $9,060,645; rents 
paid for lease of road, $112,230,384; 
taxes, $57,849,569; permanent im- 
provements charged to income account, 
$41,948,183; other deductions, $47,- 
147,158. 

It is per^japs appropriate to mention 
that the foregoing figures for the in- 
come and expenditures of the railways, 
^ing compiled from the annual re- 



turns of leased roads as well as of op- 
erating roads, necessarily include du- 
plications in certain items of income, 
and also of expenditure, since, in gen- 
eral, the income of a leased road is the 
rent paid by the company which op- 
erates it. 

RAILWAY AGGIDEXTS. 

The statement of accidents to per- 
sons in the summaries in the statisti- 
cal report under consideration are pre- 
sented under the two general classes 
of accidents resulting from the move- 
ment of trains, locomotives, or cars, 
and of accidents arising from causes 
other than those resulting from the 
movement of trains, locomotives, or 
cars. These classes include all the 
casualties returned by the carriers in 
their annual reports to the Commis- 
sion, whether sustained by passengers, 
employees, trespassers, or other per- 
sons, and for a number of reasons they 
are not in all respects comparable with 
others in the bulletins that are based 
on monthly reports. 

The total number of casualties to 
persons on the railways for the year 
ending June 30, 1903, was 86,393, of 
which 9,840 represented the number 
of persons killed and 76,553 the num- 
ber injured. Casualties occurred 
among three general classes of rail- 
way employees, as follows : Train- 
men, 2,070 killed and 25,676 injured; 
switch tenders, crossing tenders and 
watchmen, 283 killed. 2,352 injured ; 
other employees, 1,253 killed, 32,453 
injured. The casualties to employees 
coupling and uncoupling cars were, 
employees killed, 281 ; injured, 3,551. 
For the year 1902 the corresponding 
figures were, killed, 167; injured, 2.- 
864. The casualties connected with 
coupling and uncoupling cars are as- 
signed as follows : Trainmen killed, 
211 ; injured, 3,023 ; switch tenders, 
crossing tenders and watchmen killed, 
57 ; injured, 416 ; other employees 
killed, 13; injured, 112. 

The casualties due to falling from 
trains, locomotives, or cars in motion 
were : Trainmen killed, 440 ; injured, 
4,191 ; switch tenders, crossing tenders 
and watchmen killed, 39; injured, 
461 ; other employees killed, 72 ; in- 
jured, 536. The casualties due to 
jumping on or off trains, locomotives, 
or cars in motion were : Trainmen 
killed, 101 ; injured, 3.133 ; switch 
tenders, crossing tenders and watch- 
men killed, 15; injured, 279; other 
employees killed, 82; injured, 508. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



181 



The casualties to the same three 
classes of employees in consequence of 
collisions and derailments were : 
Trainmen killed, 648; injured, 4,526; 
switch tenders, crossing tenders and 
watchmen killed, 17 ; injured, 137 ; 
other employees killed, 128 ; injured, 
743. 

The number of passengers killed in 
the course of the year 1903 was 355, 
and the number injured 8,231. In the 
previous year 345 passengers were 
killed and 6,683 injured. Tliere were 
173 passengers killed and 4,584 injured 
because of collisions and derailments. 
The total number of persons, other 
than employees and passengers, killed 
was 5,879; injured, 7,841. These fig- 
ures include the casualties to persons 
classed as trespassing, of whom 5,(X)0 
were killed and 5,079 were injured. 
The total number of casualties to per- 
sons other than employees from being 
struck by trains, locomotives, or cars, 
were 4,534 killed and 4,029 injured. 
The casualties of this class were as 



follows: At highway crossings, pas- 
sengers killed, 3 ; injured, 7 ; other 
persons killed, 895; injured, 1,474; at 
stations, passengers killed, 24; in- 
jured, 108; other persons killed, 390; 
injured, 501 ; at other points along 
track, passengers killed, 8; injured, 
14 : other persons killed, 3,214 ; in- 
jured, 1,925. The ratios of casualties 
indicate that 1 employee in every 364 
was killed, and 1 employee in every 22 
was injured. With regard to train- 
men — that is, enginemen, firemen, con- 
ductors, and other trainmen — it ap- 
pears that 1 trainman was killed for 
every 123 employed, and 1 was injured 
for every 10 employed. 

One passenger was killed for every 
1,957,441 carried, and 1 injured for 
every 84,424 carried. With respect to 
the number of miles traveled, how- 
ever, the figures show that 58,917,645 
passenger-miles were accomplished for 
each passenger killed, and 2,541,096 
passenger-miles for each passenger in- 
jured. 



INTERESTING FACTS CONCERNING RAILWAYS. 



Differences of Gauge. — It ia not really 
known what, if any, principle governed the 
determination in the firat instance of the 
gauge between the rails of 4 ft. 8^ ins., which 
is the standard railway grange of the world. 
It is supposed to have been adopted from the 
roads of the collieries in the north of England, 
whose uniform width necessitated the use of 
wagons having axles of an outside width of 
5 feet. In places these wagons ran on tram- 
ways, with a flange on the outer edge of the 
rail. Then came the edge rail, which trans- 
ferred the flange to the wheel. However, the 
same width of track was continued, but meas- 
ured from the inner edge of the rail it gave a 
gauge of 4 ft. 8i ins. When Stephenson was 
selected from these collieries to build the Liv- 
erpool and Manchester railway, he brought 
with him the gauge with which he was familiar. 

The 4 ft. Si ins. gauge is the standard one in 
Europe, with but few exceptions, and in North 
America, and throughout the world generally, 
though every country possesses lines of nar- 
rower gauges. European countries having a 
different gauge are Ireland, 5 ft. 3 ins., Russia, 
5 ft., and Spain, '5 ft. 6 ins. The standard 
gauge of India is 5 ft. 6 ins., while there are 
also a number of railways whose mileage 
amounts to 42 per cent, of the whole, built on 
the 3 ft. 3i ins. gauge. In New Zealand. Tas- 
mania, South Africa and the Sudan the stand- 
ard gauge is 3 ft. 6 ins. Australia has no 
standard gauge. In New South Wales the 
gauge is 4 ft. 8^ ins., in Queensland 3 ft. 6 ins., 
and in Victoria, 5 ft. 3 ins. 



CAPE TO CAIRO RAILWAY. 

The Cape to Cairo Railway, which was the 
late Mr. Rhodes's scheme for joining the 
south and north of Africa, a distance of nearly 
5,000 miles, is making rapid progress. North- 
wards from the Cape the line has been carried 
forward by the Chartered Company to the 
Wankie coal-fields, which are 200 miles north 
of Buluwayo (or 1,560 miles north from the 
sea), and some 70 miles south of the Victoria 
Falls. At the present rate of progress it is 
expected that the railway will reach the Vic- 
toria Falls about April, 1905. In the north 
the railway only runs as far as Khartoum, and 
in spite of the agreement with Abyssinia per- 
mitting the making of a line through its terri- 
tory, no extension south is likely in the present 
generation. 

Mr. Rhodes's idea was to fit the main lines 
with branches to the coast; there will be 
many of these in time. Two are finished, the 
'Uganda Railway (British) and the Beira-Sal- 
isbury line (Portuguese); others are planned, 
such as the Congo-Katanga Railway (Belgian) 
to Rhodesia and one through German East 
Africa. The Cape to Cairo telegraph is 
rapidly approaching completion; it has now 
reached (Central Africa. 



TRANS-SIBERIAN RAILWAY. 

The opening of the Trans-Siberian Mail 
route promises to accelerate the transmissiop 
of European letters to and from the north c 



132 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



China. A letter posted from Tientsin on the 
30th August, 1002, and forwarded by this 
route, was delivered in Liverpool on the 28th 
September — just 28 days later. The trans- 
mission of letters via Brindisi or via Van- 
couver usually takes from 36 to 40 days. 
Therefore, the Trans-Siberian Railway saves 
at least a week, which is a matter of great im- 
portance to commercial houses. Delivery is, 
however, erratic, and no working arrange- 
ment has yet been arrived at between the 
Post Offices of Great Britain and Russia. All 
that the former does is to forward letters 
marked "Via Siberia" by the Russian route; 
all others go by sea. 

On Sept. 27th, 1903, the mails to the Far 
East were despatched from Paris (Nord) for 
the first time via Berlin and Moscow. 

Moscow is the western terminus of the 
Trans-Siberian Railway, the main line of 
which extends thence to Dalny, a distance of 
5,403 mil(». The Manchuria-Dalny section, 
1,171 miles, embraces the following important 
junctions: Harbin, for Vladivostok via Gro- 
dekovo; Tachitchiao, for Pekin via Inkoo 
(Newchang), and Nangaline for Port Arthur. 

The most direct route from London to Mos- 
cow is via Dover, Ostend, Berlin, Alexan- 
drowo, Warsaw, and Brest Litewski. The 
distance is 1,800 miles, and the through jour- 
ney occupies 67 hours. 

The Coast terminals of the Trans-Siberian 
Railway, viz., Dalny, Vladivostok, and Port 
Arthur, are also ports of call with various 
steamship companies, whose boats are ar- 
ranged to connect with the train service gen- 
erally. Thus, the boats of the East China 
Railway Company ply between Dalny and 
Shanghai, Dalny and Npgasaki, and Dalny, 
Port Arthur, and Chifu, and between Vladi- 
vostok and Shanghai. The "Oiye" (Japan) 
I^ine call at Vladivostok and sail to and from 
all Japanese ports. The Russian Volunteer 
fleet has a steamship service between Odessa 
and Vladivostok, calling at Singapore, Port 
Arthur, and Nagasaki. The "Nipon Yusen- 
Kaisha"Company furnish boats between Kobe, 



Nagasaki, Fusan, Gensan, and Vladivostok, 
and between Kobe, Chifu, Dalny, Port Arthur, 
and Taku. The Hamburg-American Line 
gives a service between Hongkong and Vladi- 
vostok. 

Fares from London, via Dover, Ostend, and 
Alexandrowo: 

Ist 2d 
Class. Class 

ToDahiy $195 $135 

To Pekin 200 140 

To Port Arthur 200 140 

To Vladivostok 185 125 

To Shanghai 215 150 

To Nagasaki 215 150 

Trains are ferried across Lake Baikal, but 
the railway round the south of the lake is 
being built. The Manchurian Railway itself 
is in a very bad condition, owing to poor con- 
struction. Days and sometimes weeks of de- 
lay are common. The Siberian main line, 
now single, is to be doubled. 

New Trans-Canadian Railway. — The Grand 
Trunk Railway Company has secured the 
assent of the Dominion Parliament to the 
construction of a new railroad straight across 
Canada, from New Brunswick in the east te 
the Pacific Ocean in the west. The Govern- 
ment will themselves be the owners of the 
whole line from New Brunswick to Winnipeg, 
but the line is to be leased to and worked by 
the Grand Trunk Pacific. The Grand Trunk 
Pacific will be restricted in its possession and 
ownership of the road west of Winnipeg. 

Sahara Railway. — A project which is being 
much discussed in France is a railway across 
the Sahara. Three routes have been sug- 
gested, one from Igli to the Niger, one from 
Biskra, 214 miles southeast of Algiers, to the 
west shore of Lake Chad, and the third from 
Bizerta in Tunis to Lake Chad. M. Paul 
Bonnard, an expert in African affairs, recom- 
mends the latter, as it would connect the 
French possessions in North Africa with the 
French Congo, and thus become a trans- 
African railway. 

— Daily Mail Year Book. 



STREET AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1902. 



The statistics contained in this sec- 
tion cover all street and electric rail- 
ways in the United States that were 
in operation during any part of the 
year ending June 30, 1902. The term 
"street and electric railways" as here 
used includes all electric railways irre- 
spective of their length or location, 
and all street railways irrespective of 
their motive power. At the census of 
1890 the railroads that used motive 
power other than steam were confined 
almost exclusively to urban districts 
and were properly classed as "street 
railways," but the application of elec- 



tricity has enabled these roads to 
greatly extend their lines in rural dis- 
tricts, and a large proportion of the 
trackage is now outside the limits of 
cities, towns, or villages. That the 
use of electric power has been the 
principal factor in the development of 
these railways during the past few 
years is shown by the table which 
presents for the years 1890 and 1902, 
the number of companies and miles 
of single track in the United 
States, segregated according to char- 
acter of motive power which is em- 
ployed. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



133 



NUMBER OF COMPANIES AND MILES OF SINGLE TRACK GROUPED 
ACCORDING TO MOTIVE POWER: 1890 AND 1902. 



CHARACTER OF POWER. 



1902 



United States. 



JClectric. 
Animal. 
Cable. . . 
Steam . . 



Num- 
ber of 
com- 
pa- 
nies. 



849 




Miles of 
single 
track. 



♦22,589.47 



t21, 920.07 
259.10 
240.69 
169.61 



1890 



Num- 
ber of 
com- 
pa- 
nies. 



761 



126 

506 

55 

74 



Miles of 
single 
track. 



8,123.02 



1,261.97 

5,661.44 

488.31 

711.30 



PER CENT OF 
INCREASE. 



Num- 
ber of 
com- 
pa- 
nies. 



11.6 

492.9 

t86.8 
t52.7 
t87.8 



Miles of 
single 
track. 



178.1 



1,637.0 
t95.4 
i50.7 
}76.2 



* Includes 12.48 miles of track duplicated in reports of different companies, 
t Includes 6.06 miles operated by compressed air. 
X Decrease. 



At both censuses some companies 
reported the use of more than one kind 
of power, and in order to show the 
total number of companies for each 
class, they have been counted more 
than once ; therefore the total given in 
table above exceeds the actual number 
of separate companies. The increase 
in the length of track is confined en- 
tirely to the roads operated by electric 
power. The use of electric power was 
reported by 126 companies in 1890 
and 747 in 1902. The single track 
mileage operated by this power in- 
creased from 1,261.97 miles in 1890 



to 21,920.07 in 1902. A decided de- 
crease is shown in the number of 
companies and the trackage for each 
of the other classes of power. 

The length of single track, 22,589.47 
miles, reported for 1902, consists of 
16,651.58 miles of first main track, 
5,030.36 miles of second main track, 
and 907.53 miles of sidings and turn- 
outs. The second table reproduces 
the totals for the United States and 
shows the mileage of each of the dif- 
ferent classes of track and the per 
cent which each class forms of the 
total. 



SINGLE-TRACK MILEAGE AND PER CENT. WHICH EACH CLASS IS 

OF TOTAL: 1902. 



CLASS OF TRACK. 



Total. 



First main track 

Second main track. . 
Sidings and turnouts. 



Overhead trolley. . . 
Other electric power. 

Compressed air 

Animal 

Cable. 



Steam 

Trackage owned 

Trackage leased 

Operated under trackage rights 

Constructed and opened for operation during the year. 

On private right of way owned by company 

On private ri^ht of way not owned by company 

Located within city limits 

Located outside city limits. . 

Equipped with cast welded joints 



Single-track 
mileage. 



*22,589.47 



16.651.58 

5.030.36 

907.53 



21.302.57 

611.44 

6.06 

529.10 

240.69 

169.61 

19,038.33 

3.551.14 

660.92 

1.549.73 

3.424.96 

377.11 

1 13,208.24 

t6.855.58 

1.642.68 



♦Includes 12.48 miles of track duplicated in reports of different companies. 

t Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 

X Exclusive of the mileage of Massachusetts. 



Per cent 
of total. 



lOO.O 



73.7 

22.3 

4.0 



94 
2. 

1. 
1. 



84 
15 

2 

6.9 
15.2 

1.7 
65.8 
34.2 

7.3 



134 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Of the total single-track mileage, 
21,914.01 miles, or 97 per cent, were 
operated by electric power and 416.36 
miles, or 1.9 per cent, by other me- 
chanical traction, while only 259.10 
miles, or 1.1 per cent, were operated 
by animal power, as compared with 
69.7 per cent in 1890. Of the total 
trackage in use by all companies, 84.3 
per cent was owned by the operating 
companies and 15.7 per cent leased. 
The mileage of track constructed and 
opened for operation during the year 
covered by this report was 1,549.73 
miles, or*6.9 per cent of the total, but 
this does not cover all of the track un- 
der construction. A number of miles 
of track were in various stages of com- 
pletion, but it was impracticable to 
fix upon any stage of the work at 
which the trackage could be enume- 
rated other than that of actual com- 
pletion. The statistics concerning 
track located on private right of way 
refer particularly to rural electric rail- 
ways, many of which have bought or 
have had surrendered to them a sepa- 
rate roadbed, either adjoining or in- 
dependent of the highway, in the same 
manner as a steam railroad. It ap- 
pears from the reports that 3,424.96 
miles of single track were on private 
right of way owned by the company. 
Occasionally the railway is built on a 
private right of way not owned by the 
company, an example of which would 
be a toll bridge owned by a bridge com- 
pany, to whom payment for the privi- 
lege of using it was made. There were 



377.11 miles of single track on right of 
way of this character. 

The inquiries concerning the loca- 
tion of track, whether within or with- 
out city limits, were made with the 
intention of ascertaining the relative 
length of track operated in urban and 
rural districts, respectively. In a num- 
ber of cases it was impossible to de- 
termine exactly the trackage that 
should be assigned to these two sub- 
divisions. In some instances the track 
was within or passed through thickly 
settled communities that were not or- 
ganized as cities or towns, and there- 
fore had no legal limits, and it was 
difficult to obtain the length that 
should be considered as within the ur- 
ban district. In the New England 
states densely populated communities 
are legally part of the town govern- 
ment, which includes also rural dis- 
tricts. Many companies in Massachu- 
setts reported that it was impractica- 
ble to make the distinction, and ac- 
cordingly the trackage for that state 
has not been included in this classifica- 
tion. For the United States, exclusive 
of Massachusetts, 13,208.24 miles of 
single trackage, or 65.8 per cent of the 
total, were reported as within urban 
limits and 6,855.58 miles, or 34.2 per 
cent, as outside of such limits. 

The increase in the trackage is due 
net only to the establishment of new 
companies, but very largely to the ex- 
tension of the lines of established com- 
panies. 



COMPANIES GROUPED ACCORDING TO LENGTH OF LINE: 

1890 AND 1902. 



LENGTH OP ROAD BED. 



1902 



Number 
of com- 
panies. 



Total 

Under 10 miles 

10 to 20 miles 

Over 20 to 30 miles 

Over 30 to 40 miles 

Over 40 to 50 miles. . . ■. 

Over 50 to 60 miles 

Over 60 to 70 miles 

Over 70 to 80 miles 

Over 8iP to 90 miles 

Over 90 to 100 miles 

Over 100 miles 

* Operating companies. 

t Exclusive of 15 lessor companies. 

X Exclusive of 663.94 miles estimated in 1890. 



*817 



394 

219 

76 

34 

25 

16 

12 

7 

6 

3 

25 



Length of 
line. 



16,651.58 



1,957.16 

3,148.94 

1,878.54 

1,197.83 

1,117.05 

892.86 

785.22 

532.46 

515.30 

277.12 

4,349.10 



1890 



Number 
of com- 
panies. 



t691 



557 
99 
16 
7 
4 
2 
2 
1 
1 



Length of 
line. 



t5, 119.53 



2,304.49 

1,353.42 

400.39 

251.74 

178.04 

101.57 

130.33 

76.48 

84.42 



238.65 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



135 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, ALL COMPANIES: 1890 AND 1902. 



ITEMS. 



Number of companies 

Cost of construction and equipment 

Capital stock issued 

Funded debt outstanding 

Earnings from operation 

Operating expenditures 

Percentage operating expenses of earnings. . . 

Number of passenger cars 

Number of fare passengers carried 

Number of employees* 

* Exclusive of salaried officials and clerks. 







Per cent 


1902 


1890 


of 
increase. 


987 


706 


39.8 


$2,167,634,077 


$389,357,289 


456.7 


$1,315,572,960 


$289,058,133 


355.1 


$992,709,139 


$189,177,824 


424.7 


$247,553,999 


$90,617,211 


173.2 


$142,312,597 


$62,011,185 


129.5 


67.5 


68.4 




60,290 


32,505 


*85.5 


4.809,554.438 


2,023,010,202 


137.7 


133,641 


70.764 


88.9 



The "length of line" as given in the 
report means the length of the road- 
bed, or, in the case of a railway lying 
entirely within city limits, the length 
of street occupied. In determining 
the length of single track, switches and 
sidings are included, and double track 
is reckoned as two tracks. The in- 
crease in the length of line during the 
period of twelve years amounted to 
11,532.05 miles, or 225.3 per cent, as 
compared with an increase of 14,466.45 



miles, or 178.1 per cent, in the length 
of single track. Single-track roads are 
characteristic of rural districts, and 
the fact that the percentage of increase 
in length of line is greater than in 
length of single track is due princi- 
pally to the great development of in- 
terurban single-track lines since 1890. 
The average length of line per 
operating company in 1890 was 7.41 
miles as compared with 20.38 miles in 
1902. The average operating com- 



RELATION OF STREET AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS TO POPULATION 

1890 AND 1902. 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS. 



United States. 



Increase. . . 
North Atlantic . 

Increase. . . 
South Atlantic . 



Increase. . 
North Central. 



Increase. . 
South Central. 

Increase. . 
Western 



Increase. 



Year. 



1902 
1890 



1902 
1890 



1902 
1890 



1902 
1890 



1902 
1890 



1902 
1890 



Population.* 



75.994,575 
62.622,250 



13,372,325 



21,046,695 
17,401,545 



3,645,150 

10,443,480 
8.857.920 



1,585,560 

26,333,004 
22,362,279 



3,970,725 

14,080,047 
10,972,893 



3.107.154 

4.091,349 
3,027,613 



1.063,736 



Total number 
of fare passen- 
gers carried. 



4,809,554,438 
2,023,010,202 



2,786,544,236 



2,618,528.979 
1,141,187,460 



1,477,341,519 

332,541.075 
101.647.174 



230.893,901 

1 .344,000,951 
538,309,887 



805,691,064 

210,103.861 
98,005,026 



112,098,835 

304,.379.572 
143.860.655 



160,518,917 



Average 
number 
of rides 
per in- 
habitant. 



* Population shown for 1902 is that reported at the census of 1900. 



63 
32 



31 



124 

66 



58 

32 
11 



21 

51 
24 



27 

15 
9 



6 

74 
48 



26 



136 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REJPERENCE) BOOK. 



pany in 1902 controlled almost three 
times the length of line that was con- 
trolled by the average company in 
1890. In 1890 there were only 8 com- 
panies operating more than 50 miles 
of line, and in 1902 the number of 
such companies had increased to 69. 
Of the total number of companies re- 
ported for 1890, 94.9 per cent operated 
less than 20 miles of line each, and 
their combined length of line amounted 
to 71.5 per cent of the total in the 
United States ; in 1902 corresponding 
percentages were 75 and 30.7, respec- 
tively. Thus, while there are still a 
large number of companies that op- 
erate less than 20 miles of track, the 
portion of the total length of line 



operated by them is not half as great 
as in 1890. 

The extent to which street and elec- 
tric railways are used, and the in- 
crease in their use as measured by the 
average number of rides per inhabi- 
tant, are shown below. 

From this table it appears that the 
most extejisive use of street and elec- 
tric railways is in the North Atlantic 
states, where the average number of 
rides per inhabitant in 1902 was 124 ; 
the Western states come next with an 
average of 74. The greatest increase 
in this respect is shown for the South 
Atlantic states, where the average was 
almost three times as great in 1902 as 
it was in 1890. 



NUMBER OF OPERATING AND LESSOR COMPANIES BY STATES AND 

TERRITORIES: 1902. 



States and Territoribs 



United States . . 

Alabama 

Arisona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 



Total. 


Operat- 




ing. 


987 


817 


9 


9 


2 


2 


7 


7 


35 


35 


9 


8 


27 


23 


3 


3 


8 


8 


6 


6 


10 


10 


1 


1 


58 


60 


27 


27 


22 


22 


12 


12 


12 


12 


8 


8 


20 


19 


12 


10 


93 


75 


24 


24 


5 


5 



States and Territories. 



Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire. 
New Jersey .... 
New Mexico. . . 

New York 

North Carolina. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . 
Rhode Island. . 
South Carolina . 
South Dakota. . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington. . . . 
West Virginia. . 
Wisconsin 



Total. 



Operat- 
ing. 



5 

17 
5 
4 

13 

30 

1 

119 

7 

67 
6 
196 
8 
7 
1 
8 

17 
3 
9 

21 
8 
8 

17 



5 

16 
5 
4 
7 

26 
1 

96 
7 

63 
6 

98 
8 
7 
1 
8 

17 
3 
9 

21 
8 
8 

17 



Accidents. — The following state- 
ment reproduces the totals concerning 
the number of persons killed and in- 
jured in the United States for the year 
1002: 



Persons. 



Total. . . 

Passengers. 
Employees. 
Others. . . . 



Killed. 



1,218 



265 
122 
831 



Injured. 



47,429 



26,690 

3,699 

17.040 



"Others" referred to in this 
statement, include persons on foot or 
riding in vehicles other than street 
cars who were killed or injured in col- 
lision with street cars. The number 
of persons reported as killed, 1,218, 
and injured, 47,429, form only an in- 
appreciable percentage of the total 
number of passengers carried. — From 
a Bulletin published by the Census 
Bureau. 



CHAPTER VI. 



POPULATION" OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Th» popnlBtion of tbe United States, 
according to tbe Twelfth CeuauB, whb 
75,991,575. divided as follows: 38,- 
S16,448 males. 37.178,127 females. Of 
the total, 65,653,299 were native bom, 
and 10,341.276 foreiga born. Tbe 



White, 66.809,196 : negroes. 8,833,994 ; 
Indians 237,19(i. but this figure does 
not include the population of Indian 
territory or on Indian reservations; 
Chinese, 8ft,S*i3; Jai>aneee. 24,320. 



StaMt and Tsmtories. 


1790. 


- 


964,201 


ijeijos 


'■"is 

1,128,179 


























40,440 
269:493 










379.994 
34:277 

7a;oso 

1«0.424 
1,067,286 


















1 
3,1 


1 

422 

i 






leloea 


2SI,002 


















o^» 


82,M8 


162,686 


'■fffs; 








l!350|428 








S,64I 








1. 96 
1, 96 

'■• 1 

1, 90 

2. 89 

2. 84 

! 1 










1.ISS,684 

6^:279 
687,040 
1.231,066 

ii 

1.182,012 


1.624,615 
996,096 

ss 

934,943 

'Si 
'11 

62:266 
346.991 

'119:565 
3,19S:062 














73.677 


220.S5i 










3ie!T28 
378.787 


iai.719 
422^846 










■f^^'^ 














8.8*0 




iwoun 




■!?!« 






28.841 

'■11 

2,339:S11 












Iffl 


183,SS8 










340.120 


689.051 




otth Catolfna. 








45,366 










834 
506 

i 










'ill 

703,708 


174,768 

'SSI 






434.373 
68,82S 
24B.073 


ill 








asa-:;--^- 


■««s 




35,691 


105.602 


■as 


13S 















276.749 



t Included in tbe populatioo ol 



138 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION OF EACH STATE AND TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES— 

Continued. 



States and Territories. 


1790. 


1800. 


1860 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


V ertiiont 


86,425 
747,610 


154,465 
880,200 


315.098 

1,696.318 

11,594 


332,286 

1,512,665 

75,116 

618,457 

1,315,497 

20,789 


332,422 

1,655,980 

349,390 

762,794 

1,686,880 

60,706 


343,641 


Virginia 


1,864,184 


Wftshinart-'^Ti 


518,103 


West Vinrinia 






968,800 


Wisconsin 






776,881 


2,069,042 


Wvominir 






92,631 


Persons on public ships 
in the service of the 
United States or sta- 
tioned broad 








♦91,219 
















Total United States, 


3.929,214 


5,308,483 


31,443,321 


50,165,783 


62,622,260 


75,693,734 


Alaska 










32,052 

89,990 

180,182 

145.282 


63,692 


Hawaii 










164,001 


Indian Territory 










302,060 


Indians on Reservations 










(t) 












Total 












76.303.387 

















♦Includes 6,394 negroes 



t Included in the population of the several States. 

[From Reports of the Census.} 



The figures of the Bureau of Statis- 
tics vary somewhat from those of the 
Census, and their table given farther 
on is later than the Census figures. 
The census of the Philippine Islands 
taken 1904, gives the population as 7,- 
635,426, of which 647,740 are classi- 



fied as wild and . uncivilized. Luzon 
contains 3,798,507 persons; Panay 
has 743,646 people; Mindanao is 
fourth with 499,634 inhabitants; 
Jolo follows with 44,718 people, of 
whom only 1,270 are civilized. The 
population of Manila is 219,028. 



OFFICIAL CENSUS OF THE UNITED STATES, BY COUNTIES, 

FOR 1900. 



Autauga 17,915 

Baldwin 13,194 

Barbour 35,162 

Bibb 18,498 

Blount 23,119 

Bullock . . 31,944 

Butler 25,761 

Calhoun 34,874 

Chambers .... 32,554 

Cherokee 21,096 

Chilton 16,522 

Choctaw 18,136 

Clarke 27,790 

Clay 17,099 

Cleburne 13,206 

Coffee 20,972 

Colbert 22,341 



ALABAMA. 

AREA, 60,722 SQUARE MILES. 



Conecuh 17,514 

Coosa 16,144 

Covington. . . . 15,346 

Crenshaw 19,668 

Cullman 17,849 

Dale 21,189 

Dallas 54,657 

Dekalb 23,558 

Elmore 26,099 

Escambia .... 11,320 

Etowah 27,361 

Fayette 14,132 

Franklin 16,611 

Geneva 19,096 

Greene 24,182 

Hale 31,011 

Henry 36,147 



Jackson 30,608 

Jefferson 140,420 

Lamar 16,084 

Lauderdale. . . 26,669 

Lawrence .... 20,124 

Lee 31,826 

Limestone. . . . 22,387 

Lowndes 35,651 

Macon 23,126 

Madison 43,702 

Marengo 38,315 

Marion 14,494 

Marshall 23,289 

Mobile 62,740 

Monroe 23,666 

Montgomery. . 72,047 

Morgan 28,820 



Perry 

Pickens. . . . 

Pike 

Randolph . . 
Russell .... 

St. Qair 

Shelby 

Sumter . . . . 
Talladega . . 
Tallapoosa . 
Tuscaloosa . 

Walker 

Washington 
Wilcox .... 
Winston . . . 



31,783 
24,402 
29,172 
21,647 
27,083 
19,425 
23,684 
32,710 
35,773 
29,675 
36,147 
25,162 
11,134 
35,631 
9,664 



Total 1,828,697 



Apache 8,297 

Cochise 9,251 

Coconino 5,514 

Gila 4,973 



ARIZONA. 

AREA, 113,916 SQUARE MILES. 



Graham 14,162 

Maricopa 20,457 

Mohave 3,426 

Navajo 8,829 



Pima 14,689 

Pinal....- 7,779 

Santa Cruz . . . 4,545 

Yavapai 13,799 



Yuma 4,146 

San Carlos In- 
dian Reserv'n.- 3,066 



Total 122,931 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



140 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ARKANSAS. 

AREA, 52,198 BI^UARE MILES. 



Arkaiisa3 12.973 

Ashley 19,734 

Baxter 9,298 

Benton 31,611 

Boone 16,396 

Bradley. 9,651 

Calhoun 8,539 

Carroll 18,848 

Chicot 14,528 

Qark 21,289 

aay 15.886 

Cleburne 9,628 

Cleveland 11,620 

Columbia .... 22,077 

Conway 19,772 

Craighead. . . . 19,505 

Crawford 21,270 

Crittenden . . . 14,529 

Cross 11,051 



Dallas 

Desha 

Drew 

Faulkner 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Garland 

Grant 

Greene 

Hempstead. . . 
Hot Spring . . . 

Howard 

Independence. 

Izard 

Jackson 

Jefferson. . . . . 
Johnson . . . . . 
Laiayette ... 
Lawrence . . . , 



11,518 
11,511 
19,451 
20,780 
17,395 
12,917 
18,773 
7.671 
16,979 
24,101 
12,748 
14.076 
22,557 
13,506 
18.383 
40,972 
17.448 
10,594 
16,491 



Lee 

Lincoln 

Little River . 

Logan , 

Lonoke .... 
Madison . . . . 
Marion .... 

Mjller 

Mississippi . , 

Monroe 

Montgomery . 

Nevada 

Newton 

Ouachita. . . . 

Perry 

Phillips 

Pike 

Poinsett . . . . 
Polk 



19,409 
13,389 
13,731 
20,563 
22,544 
19,864 
11,377 
17,558 
16,384 
16,816 

9,444 
16,609 
12,538 
20.892 

7,294 
26,561 
10.301 

7,025 
18,352 



Pope 21,715 

Prairie 11,875 

Pulaski 63,179 

Randolph 17,156 

St. Francis ... 17,157 

Saline 13,122 

Scott 13,183 

Searcy 11,988 

Sebastian 36.935 

Sevier 16,339 

Sharp 12,199 

Stone 8,100 

Union 22,495 

VanBuren .. . 11,220 

Washington . . 34,256 

White 24,864 

Woodruff .... 16,304 

YeU 22,750 



Total 1,311,564 



CALIFORNIA. 

AREA, 188,981 SQUARE MILES. 



Alameda 130,197 

Alpine 509 

Amador 11,116 

Butte 17,117 

Calaveras .... 11,200 

Colusa 7,364 

Contra Costa . 18,046 

Del Norte 2.408 

Eldorado 8,986 

Fresno 37,862 

Glenn . 5,150 

Humboldt 27,104 

Inyo 4,377 

Kern 16,480 

Kings 9,871 



Lake 

Lassen 

Los Angeles . 
Madera .... 

Marin 

Mariposa. . . 
Mendocino . 
Merced .... 

Modoc 

Mono 

Monterey . . 

Napa 

Nevada. . . . 
Orange .... 
Placer 



6,017 

4,511 

170,298 

6,364 

15,702 

4,720 

20.465 

9,215 

5,076 

2,167 

19.380 

16,451 

17,789 

19,696 

15,786 



Plumas 

Riverside .... 

Sacramento . . 

San Benito . . . 

San Bernar- 
dino 

San Diego. . . . 

San Francisco. 

San Joaquin. . 

San Luis Obis- 
po 

San Mateo . . . 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Clara . . 

Santa Cruz . . . 



4,657 
17,897 
45,915 

6,633 

27,929 

35,090 

342,782 

35,452 

16,637 
12,094 
18,934 
60,216 
21,512 



Shasta 17,318 

Sierra 4,017 

Siskiyou 16,962 

Solano 24,143 

Sonoma 38,480 

Stanislaus. . . . 9,550 

Sutter 5,885 

Tehama 10,996 

Trinity 4,383 

Tulare 18,375 

Tuolumne. ... 11,166 

Ventura 14,367 

Yolo 13,618 

Yuba 8,620 



Total 1,485,053 



COLORADO. 

AREA, 104,500 SQUARE MILES. 



Arapahoe . 
Archuleta . 

Baca 

Bent 

Boulder. . . 
Chaffee . . . 
Cheyenne . 
Clear Creek. 
Conejos. . . 
Costilla . . . 
Custer .... 

Delta 

Dolores . . . 
Douglas . . . 
Eagle 



153,017 

2,117 

759 

3,049 

21,544 

7,085 

501 

7,082 

8,794 

4,632 

2,937 

. 5,487 
1,134 
3,120 
3,008 



Elbert 

El Paso . . . 
Fremont . . 
Garfield. . . 
Gilpin . . . . 
Grand . . . . 
Gunnison . 
Hinsdale. . 
Huerfano . 
Jefferson. . 
Kiowa. . . . 
Kit Carson 

Lake 

La Plata . . 
Larimer. . . 



3,101 

31,602 

15,636 

5,835 

6,690 

741 

5,331 

1,609 

8,395 

9,306 

701 

1,580 

18,054 

7,016 

12,168 



I.ias Animas 
Lincoln . . . . 

Logan 

Mesa 

Mineral . . . . 
Montezuma 
Montrose. . . 
Morgan . . . . 

Otero 

Ouray 

Park 

Phillips . . . . 

Pitkin 

Prowers. . . . 
Pueblo 



21,840 
926 
3,292 
9,267 
1,913 
3,058 
4,535 
3,268 

11,522 
4,731 
2,998 
1,583 
7,020 
3,766 

34,448 



Rio Blanco 
Rio Grande 
Routt .... 
Saguache . 
San Juan. . 
San Miguel 
Sedgwick . 
Summit. . . 

Teller 

Washington 
Weld .... 
Yuma . . . 



1,690 
4,080 
3,661 
3,853 
2,342 
6,379 
971 
2,744 

29,002 
1,241 

16,808 
1,729 



Total 



.639,700 



Fairfield 184,203 

Hartford 195,415 

Total 



CONNECTICUT. 

AREA, 4,674 SQUARE MILES. 



Litchfield . 
Middlesex. 



63,672 
41,760 



New Haven . 
New London , 



269,163|Tolland. 
82,758|Windham 



24,623 

46,861 

.908,366 



Kent 32,762 

Total 



DELAWARj:. 

AREA, 2,120 SQUARE MILES. 

I Newcas'tle. . . . 109,697 | 



Sussex 42,276 

184,735 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK, 141 



'^as.STSiav'Baar" 




142 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



DISTRICTT OF COLUMBIA. 

AREA, 60 SQUARE MILES. 

The District 278,718 



FLORIDA. 



Alachua 32,245 

Baker 4,516 

Bradford 10,295 

Brevard 5,158 

Calhoun 5,132 

Citrus 5,391 

Qay 5,635 

Columbia .... 17,094 

Dade 4,955 

De Soto 8,047 

Duval 39.733 

Escambia 28,313 

Total 



AREA, 

Franklin 

Gadsden 

Hamilton . . . . 
Hernando. . . . 

Hillsboro 

Holme& 

Jackson 

Jefferson 

Lafayette . . . . 

Lake 

Lee 

Leon 



59,268 

4,890 

15,294 

11,881 

3,638 

36,013 

7,762 

23,377 

16.195 

4,987 

7,467 

3,071 

19,887 



SQUAllE iklLEd: 

I>evy 

Liberty 

Madison .... 
Manatee .... 

Marion 

Monroe 

Nassau 

Orange 

Osceola 

Pasco 

Polk 

Putnam 



8,603 

2.956 

15,446 

4,663 

24,403 

18,006 

9,654 

11,374 

3.444 

6,054 

12,472 

11,641 



St. John 9,165 

Santa Rosa. . . 10,293 

Sumter 6,187 

Suwanee 14,554 

Taylor 3,999 

Volusia 10,003 

Wakulla 5.149 

Walton 9,346 

Washingon. . . 10,154 



,628,542 



GEORGIA. 

AREA, 58,000 SQUARE MILES. 



Appling 12,336 

Baker 6,704 

Baldwin 17,768 

Banks 10,545 

Bartow 20,823 

Berrien 19,440 

Bibb 50,473 

Brooks . , 18,606 

Bryan 6,122 

Bulloch 21,377 

Burke 30,165 

Butts 12,805 

Calhoun 9,274 

Camden 7,669 

Campbell .... 9,518 

Carroll 26,576 

Catoosa 5,823 

Charlton 3,592 

Chatham 71,239 

Chattahoochee 5,790 

Chattooga. . . . 12,952 

Cherokee 15,243 

Clarke 17,708 

Clay 8,568 

Qayton 9,598 

Clinch 8,732 

Cobb 24,664 

Coffee 16,169 

Colquitt 13,636 

Columbia .... 10,653 

Coweta 24,980 

Crawford 10,368 

Dade 4,578 

Dawson 5,442 

Decatur 29,454 



Dekalb ... 
Dodge . . . . . 

Dooly 

Dougherty , 
Douglas. . . . 

Early 

Echols 

Effingham. . 

Elbert 

Emanuel. . 
Fannin ... 
Fayette. . . 

Floyd 

Forsyth. . . 
Franklin . . 

Fulton. 

Gilmer. ... 
Glascock. . 
Glynn .... 
Gordon . , . 
Greene. ... 
Gwinnett . , 
Habersham, 

Hall 

Hancock. . , 
Haralson. . 
Harris .... 

Hart 

Heard . . . . , 
Henry . . . . , 
Houston . . 

Irwin 

Jackson. . . 
Jasper .... 
Jenerson. . 



21,112 
13,975 
26,567 
13,679 

8,745 
14,828 

3,209 

8,334 
19,729 
21,279 
11,214 
10,114 
33,113 
11,550 
17,700 
117,363 
10,198 

4,516 
14,317 
14,119 
16,542 
25,585 
13,604 
20,752 
18,277 
11,922 
18,009 
14,492 
11,177 
18,602 
22,641 
13,645 
24,039 
15,033 
18,212 



Johnson . . . . 

Jones 

Laurens 

Lee .- 

Liberty 

Lincoln 

Lowndes. . . 
I^umpkin . . . . 
McDuffie. . . . 
Mcintosh. . .. 

Macon 

Madison . . . . 

Marion. .. . . . 

Meriwether. . 

Miller 

Milton 

Mitchell 

Monroe 

Montgomery. 

Morgan 

Murray 

Muscogee. . . . 

Newton 

Oconee 

Oglethorpe. . 
Paulding . . . . 

Pickens 

Pierce 

Pike 

Polk 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Quitman. . . . 

Rabun 

Randolph . . . 



11,409 

13,358 

25,908 

10,344 

13,093 

7,156 

20,036 

7,433 

9,804 

6,537 

14,093 

13,224 

10,080 

23.339 

6,319 

6.763 

14,767 

20,682 

16,359 

15,813 

8,623 

29,836 

16,734 

8,602 

17,881 

12,969 

8,641 

8,100 

18,761 

17,856 

18,489 

13,436 

4,701 

6,285 

16,847 



Richmond. . 
Rockdale. . . 

Schley 

Screven. . . . 
Spalding. . . 
Stewart. . . . 

Sumter 

Talbot 

Taliaferro. . , 

Tattnall 

Taylor 

Teffau- 

Terrell 

Thomas. . . . 

Towns 

Troup 

Twiggs 

Union 

Upson 

Walker. .... 

Walton 

Ware 

Warren. . . . 
Washington. 

Wayne 

Webster. . . . 

White 

Whitfield. . . 

Wilcox 

Wilkes 

Wilkinson. . 
Worth 



63,736 

7,515 

5,499 

19.252 

17,619 

15,856 

26.212 

12,197 

7,912 

20,419 

9,846 

10.083 

19.023 

31,076 

4,748 

24.002 

8,716 

8,481 

13,670 

15,661 

20,942. 

13,761 

11.463 

28,227 

9,449 

6,618 

5,912 

14,509 

11,097 

20.866 

11,440 

18,664 



Total 2,216,331 



Ada 11,559 

Bannock 11,702 

Bear Lake. . . . 7,051 

Bingham 10,447 

Blame 4,900 

Boise 4,174 



IDAHO. 

AREA, 86,294 SQUARE MILES. 



Canyon 7,497 

Cassia 3,951 

Custer 2,049 

Elmore 2,286 

Fremont 12,821 



Kootenai . . 

Latah 

Lemhi. . . . 
Lincoln. . . 
Nea Perces. 



Idaho 9,121 Oneida 



10,216 

13,451 

3,446 

1,784 

13,748 

8,933 



Owyhee 3,804 

Shoshone 11,950 

Washington. . . 6,882 



Total 161,772 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



143 



y>-v 



O 



I ^lnl-2 



«o 



a).s. 



Wll^f 



«; 



«» 



las 



< 



n^ 




1 


o 


•>l 


« 


<s 


«*- 


>? 


Q) 


"C 


«> 


3cr 




«i 


»rf 






'^ 




^ 


'^ 


s 


.*»^- 


^ 


N 


-JS^ 


^ 


«^^ 




1 





o 
o 

n 











>* 




** 


^P 


K^ 


§ 




Si 


CC) 





is 

ID 



«^* 












S^N 



□ 




sr 

[a 



4- 



□ 




lin 



lO 



u> 



^^^ 




•^ 




1 


Q 
§ 
W 
« 


1 




■ J» 


ITS' 


S 


rJ 


55 




A 






o 

QQ 

8 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 









































































































la.sn 




















SISK;;::: i 




















- T^i'v 






■fiff. 




















&^e.-;.-: 








































































SSSST:: 








auc::: 


























Totsl- , 















INDIANA. 












ARE 


. 33.809 SOUABE HILE8 






Adams 


22,232 


FninkliQ. . . 








Rush 
























































































































































































































iSfc™..;; 






















































































s:r 








[X'— 
































Ripley 


10,88! 














2,516.492 






IOWA, 














Adair. 










2a.05j 












































































































































Fayette 


















I7'7S. 


nSmb^idi:: 




MT 





































SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



li^iat 






i8,ar- 



9 Pocal 
1 Polk.... 
4 PottawBt 
e Poweshiel 
RinEEold, 

6 Btto ,.,„. 

8 Stott 51,558 

" "■ "■ , 17.932 

. 23,337 



.4 Taylor. . 



Union 19,928 

V«nBut*n.,.. 17,384 

Wapsllo 35.426 

Warren 20,376 

Waahincton.. . 20,718 

Whthb 17,491 

Wibster 31.757 

Winncbs^o. . . 12.725 



24.51 



13,784 





















Etooks 




































































































8I^°-:::;: 






















































Il« 


52:u.u..:: 
































Doughs 
















































Ellsworth 








Total , . . 




1, 



Allen 

Anderson 

Ballard 

Barren 

Bath 

Bell.... 

Boyle'.'.'.!!!!! 

Breathitt 

Breeliinridge . . 

Bullitt 

Butler. ... ... 

Caldwell 

Csllowftv 

Campbell 

CsrlWe 

Carroll 

Carter. 



KENTUCKY. 

AREA, 37,680 situ ABB UIl 

'. 15,144 Creanun.. 

tian 37,962 Hancock. . 

16,694 Hardin.... 

. , 15,364 Harlan.,. 

i7 ainton 7.871 Harrison. . 

• '^■--Bnden 15,191 Hart 



ing 17,074 JesWDiine, . 

.1 15.562 Johnson. . , 

i2 Franklin 20,852 Kenton. . . 



13,239 Laurel. . 



. 15,432 Letcher 9.172 

8.914 Lewis 17,868 

. 22.937 Lincoln 17.059 

9,S3S LivinguKin. . . . 11,3S4 

. 18,570 Logan. 25,994 

. 18.390 Lyon 9.319 

. 32.907 McCrackeo.. . , 28.733 

. 14.R20 McLean 12,448 

. 11.745 Madison 25,607 

. 30.9S5 Magoffin 12,006 

. 10,561 MvioQ 16,290 

. 232,519 Marshall 13,692 

. 11,925 Martin G.780 

, 13.730 Mason. 20.446 

. 63.691 Meade 10.533 

8,704 Menifee. 6.818 

. 17,372 Meroer 14.426 

. 10,764 HfltcalF 9,978 

. 17,592 Monroe. 13.053 

. 19,612 MontgomeTy.. 12,034 

7.988 MoFKM 12.79' 

6,753 Muhlenberg. ... 20,74 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBHENCB BOOK. 















Pike 






1S.34C 




. 29,970 
























".■S 


s^--------^ 




5!|gS^-r:::; 




















































P«ry- 


. 8,37( 




18,076 




21,3! 




















LOUISIANA. 
















A»dia 


;; 


CaatCfliToll.. 




OuMhiU- .... 
























irar": 






















SSfe,:::: 




















































































































































































Rouge.. 
















Total. . 











UAINE. 

AHEA, 31,766 841TAHE HIUB. 

Androncogg'n . 54.2421 Hapoocli 37,241 lOrford 32,238 1 SomersBt 33,8j 

Aroostook. .. . 60,744 KennebeF 59.117 PenobKot 76.246 WaJdo 24.1! 

CumberlKad, . .100,689 Knoi 30,406 PiscaUquia. . . 16,949 WsshingtoD.. . 45.2; 

Fmaklia 18,444] Lineal a 19,669 1 Sacadahoc 20,330|Yori[. S4,8« 

Total 694,4f 

MARYLAND. 



5 Somereet. 25.923 

16 Talbot 20.342 

il Waahington... 45.133 

IS Wicomico. . . . 22.852 

rt Wonxwtor. . . . 20.865 



.357,030 1 Middlesex.. 



:l Cass 20,876 I 

Charlevoii 13,956 F 

4 Cheboygan, . . 15,516 E 



H) Gladwin. . . 
16 Cogebic. . . 
13 Grand Trat 
II Gratiot. ... 
10 Hillsdale. . 
18 Houghton, 
tl Huron. . . , 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



^1 



^ s 

1 i 



1: 
II 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



Kalkuka. 



Total. , 



MMonib 33,2' 



Montmoreney 






■ Ri-i?i 




















































































8,821 





















































. i; ,49 










^.■.: :;: 
















E?^-"-- 


■ !5'?« 



i^rlSau] 



^uibuilt..... 22,065 



Lyon 

McLeod. . . 
Manhall. . . 

Meeker. '. '. 
MillelMs... 



MuiTAy. . , , 

Nicollet.. . 
Nobles. ... 



Hod Lake... 
Redwood... 

Kenville.... 






Chickasaw. . 
Cboct«*. . . . 
Clubome. . . 
Qorke 

Cu^'oma: '. '. 

De^Soio. ?'. '. 
Greene. ,■.',■.■ 



iHE«, 47.156 


B4DAIIB HILU. 






































. 52. 77 






unflower 
















SSST": 
























iX^i,::. 






































K'JSSiw. 




ES?-.;::;;; 




?Sr^:::::: 1 


























Si'Br.-,-.: 




















14,316 





SCIENTIFIC AHBRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 







MI8S0URI. 








ASU 












Dallu 






































































































































































































































































^^a ■ ■ ■ 










Cbanlon 










22.192 








































































Cooper 










































Total. .. 












MONTANA. 








iBIi, 


113,776 BqnARD uiLU 


























fKCj;::; 










































































2,44; 


Uwi»«idaark8ie.l71 


Sweet GrsM.. 








Total .. 














NEBRASKA. 










75,995 BDITAKB UILES. 






















































































































































GATfield.' '.'.'.'. 




Mol^areon ! '. 






8,SM 




iG,7a 


i^m 






















































































a, 


















|S..:: 








a»::::; 














































































Total. . . 









SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 







NEVADA 










E4. 122.090 eoDABB mum. 










... 1.9S4LroB 


























. 1.B72 LiooolQ . . 


... 3,2M8to«y 


3.073 


















NEW HAMP8HIHE. 


























































NEW JERSEY. 










XA. 3,820 BQCABB muM. 








, 46,402 




. , . 359.05; 




82.0BT Siwoi. ... 












































CBpeM»y . . 






... 95,36; 


8alem 


































NEW MEXICO. 








ABBA, 121.201 HQDABE lOLBg. 












































Eddy. 


. 3.229 OW™. . . . 




3,158 




Total .. 








...195.310 



Essex 

FiBoklin. . . . 
TotaL .. 



S SuBtDgs. . . . 
Bcbeoectady, 
i Schoharie . . . 
Schuyler. . . . 



Suffolk 77,SS2 

SullivBD .... 32,300 

Tioga., 27,981 

UlaMr ...'.'.'. 88,422 

Washii^ton - 46'624 



Dhester . 183,375 



25.665 Burke 

10.900 CabarrUB. . 
7.7GS Caldwell . . 

loisSl Carteret'.' '. 



Dulpin 22, 



I^uiklia 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



161 



€§ffnef*i€« 



Hip Grande 



\£39,000 



Ofirtceo 

t^mtrmfSfP ^^7-«^ ^^^^^ "' 



^iasiisippi 



ColorO'de 

t,Kn»Tn ft to 



WO 



tf»tm»r« 




Colunthic^ 

























LBMSTM tSOO ft- 






JfiO M. 




JSurtp0 









^^^'''^ttieater msi. eo0 
SOS fn 



^m M Dart a 









fiCC 






teffM 



»ttM 



Rhine 

n.ooo 

Ural 
9 to ft. Pefchera 



''^2:ry-—' f*f. t oo 



t.»m%Tm nSS H 



Dctt 

/t,*.OO0 



Z00.000 



*»rO MM.€» 



AMAL L. 






• rrgtrtf 

o/t.At*eA JJ /. OOP 

L Kf TM ft*e tfn.u 



LtNOTM 

trao M. 



£t4fihr49iei 



Indus 



I9TS f*. 



mAA-mA^rm^ Ci'Ci.t%€ieS 



K€H9Tm fttf M. 



ncatxff i/e 



Ztitnpopo 



Set%effal 

Ir9c M. «^i.«/» 
ftO.OOO 




*MA/mrM ZSrc M. 



ttrt ft. -^-^^^^ 



i/ian^-tse-fCianp 



Orange 

37/,000 f9ft. 




t.KM9Ttl 3i9f 



t^KMtrtt 
*At» 



Zoffnhezi 



tMtL HA 



Jltndor 




t.aM9T0 jet to AL 



t,£N6TM ZtO« ff. 



Lena 

».en9TH t.tOO ft. Ofi.ARCA 



Ofi.A/feA 



ai 




Danuie 

oA.AA€A J/S.0O0 ^ 
vzzazmz22zaz2az2m 

*.Mtt9tM trto ft. 

QAAtmA^M. AAtA 



2/enisei wmtrt v/cc 

■i.mf*»rf* JZSO ft. *"*■ ^^^* ■ ,^i~.<— 



^ile 




eij 



onAiNAo e ahea ttAMAt 

> 




t,KMOrtt M.A9S Hn£t 



\*»t~rtovTM tree M.J 



O ft 




Conge 

o^AiffAee AtttA 



UBAAei 



LOftorft 4t.ttf ftitas 



RIVERS OF THE WORLD. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 









Halif iH .... 




MutiHin .... 




















30,88BjTyTTell 


















I!« 


Mi"^-- 


1^197 














































































tS:iSS«b/,;::: 












ar--.;:: 
















. la.HMlPeodet 
































NORTH DAKOTA. 










72,000 eguAHE miles. 






















S'fc.-:: 




































S™'- 




kEs- 




SSSS;::: 




Sfc.;.;: 


























1";^°' 




































3.770 Nelson 


























OHIO. 










30.604 eqCARE mili^. 








■- 


Fairfield 


34.2K 


Licking 




























































































































































































HS-TaW.-.;- 


































































































































































,157,545 






OKLAHOMA. 








, 2,960 8QUAHE «tI.EB. 






Beaver 


. 3.05UC»rSBW 


22.07f 


Noble 


14,011 




34,975 










































































. 8,8191 Loaan 























SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBFBRBNCB BOOK. 







OREGON. 
































. IS.OTO 










































































3;ee4 


fitr" 


■ r,s 




S« 






























■-*.(■ 




Lincoln, . . . 


. . 3.575 


UomtiUfl. . . . 












PENNSYLVANIA, 








AHEA. 46.000 aQDARE MILES 












L«wl»»anna. 




Philadelphia 




























































































ifflZ".;. 


















































































































































































RHODE ISLAND. 










EA. 1.306 aOUAHE yiLEB 










, 32.5991 ProvideiH*,. 


3S8,SS3| Wuhinston. 


. M.1M 


























SOUTH CAROLINA. 










A, 2S.385 SDVAIIE HII-Ef 














28.3431 Oconee. 






















SSfc.-.; 






































































































SOUTH DAKOTA. 








ABE*. 7S,B32 aOUABE HILEB 










DavisoD. . . 




Hyde 




















































































































C^JS^'ik' 














































cSSdiiitoii' 























































SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CUy 
Cwka 
Coffee 
Crockett 

Cumberlwid 

D»»tui 
DekBtb 

Fayette 



TENNESSEE. 

„ 45.G00 MDIBE H 



CallaluD 



^ Co^roi 



ColUe . . 

Craokett' 

■forty.. 



Grefil 13.343 



lopkius 27.950 






Medins 7,783 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK 



am erica 







•'too.ooo "UtfJIf 

O • "J™ 

(idauttckeu} .. 



-G 









POPULATION OF THE WORLD. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 







TEXAS-ConMnuBf. 






















































































OrangB 

FsloPinto. ... 
































































































































i 


Shelby. . , , 




Upflhur,,. . 




Wood 


. n'.04B 








































































e,4» 


















,3.048.710 



Waahinjton. 



. 30.198 OrleuiK. . 
. 4,462 Rutlud. . 
. 12.28a| WsBbinsli 



AppomaUoi.. 

Bedford. 30,a56 F 

Bland ■ 






3 Mecklenburg. . 
Middlesex. . . . 
3 Montgomery. . 
2 NsnHmond, . . 






W5 Page. . . . 

„.... _.M7 Patrick,, 

7 lileorWight, , 13,102 Pi ttnylva 



3 Henry. . 
e Higblani 



14,123! King and Que. 



5 Southampton , 
S SpottsylvBnia, 
1 Stafford 



i WeHtmoreland 
1 Wi» 



Total 1,854,16 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 







WASHINGTON. 










A, 69,9M 8QU*BB MILES, 






















































































































































ToUl . 











Calhoun . 
Ofty. . . . 
DoddHds 



WEST VIRGINIA. 

.. 23.000 BQITABE UlL 

I )3 Mineral . . . 

. ) 19 Mingo . . , . 



t7 Monroe 13,130 

15 Morgan 7.J94 

16 Nicbolsg 11,403 



»^o«« 



, 11 17 Poeahonta*. . . 8,572 
. 3! to Preston 22,727 



Tayior. 14,978 

Kier. .'.'.'.'.'.'. 18.2S2 

_ shur 14.6« 

■" - 23,eifl 



Wood 34.452 



Aehland'.' '. 
Bayfield .' . 



EauOiiin, . 
Total. . 



WI8CON8IN. 



Fond du Lac. , 



LafavetlB , 
Liui^ade, , 



g.-.'E".:: 



Portage 29,483 



Vil»B 

Walwortb. . 
Waahburn. 
Waabiugton 



HOW THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES ARE SHELTERED. 
person each, 10,: 



In tlie Census year 1900 there wen 
14,430,145 dwelliogs, accommodatin) 
16,187,715 familiea. Of this Dumbei 
611,435 dwellings accommodated oni 



)8,932 sheltered two 
.- , 2,999,687 accommo- 
dated seven to ten persons each, a ad 
<iU0,091 eleven persons and over. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AREA AND POPULATION OF STATE; 1900. 



Rank 



United Staue. . 3,S67,S63 . 



Arlunsu '.'.'.'.'. 
Culilorqia .... 

Colorado 

Connocticm 

Diatrict lif Co- 



Rhode lelaod. . 



316.146 

*. 157.545 
398.331 
413,536 

6,302.115 



A^a... 
HavBii. . . 
HUitary i 



IM.DOl 
91.219 



POPULATION LIVING IN CITIES WITHIN SPECIFIED LIMITS OF 
SIZE AND IN COUNTRY DISTRICTS: 1900. 





rOP..*^OK. 


DiviMOUK. 


Total. 


Incitie,of- 








At least 
100,000. 


25,000 tfl 


8.000 to 


4.000 to 
8,000. 


4.000. { 




76,212,188 


14,208.347 


6.549.271 


5.286.375 












c..,— 


75,994.575 


14.208.347 


5.509,965 


5.273.8E7 


3,380,193 


2,211.019 45,411.184 


N. Atlantio div. 


21,046,665 

s'i-i 

4;09i;349 


ii 


11 


'47S|068 

'fi'i 


'11 


lS3!ll2' 8!2I0!S4S 



SCIBNTIFIC AMBRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION OF CITIES HAVING AT LEAST 2E,000 INHABITANTS 
IN 1900. 



Aknm, Ohio 

Albany. N. Y 

AUegheny, P». 

Alhintown,PL 

AltooDa.Pii. 

Atluit*. Ga. 

AtluitiE City, N. J. . 

Auburn, N.Y 

AnKUflta. Gil ...... 

B^imore. Md. . 
Bay City, Micb. 



Bin^mtoD. N' Y. *. 

Birmiticbun, Ala 

Boston, Hue. ... , . , 
BridgepDrt, Conn. . . 

Br»kt«n, Mso. 

Buffalo. N. Y 

Butte, Mont , 

Csmbridge, Maaa. . . . 

Caoiden. N. J 

Cuiton, Ohio 

Csdor RspidB. Iowa. 

ChattaoDnnt, Tenn. . 

CI>ebea,Uws. 

Chester, Ps. 

CfaiCMO, III 

CindDiiati.Ohio. .. 
Qevsland, Ohio. . . , 
Cohimbue, Ohio. . , . 
Council Bluffs. Iowl 

Covington, Ky. 

IWlM.Tex 

Dayton, Sio. ..','.'. 

Denver, Colo. 

Dee Moines, lows. . 

Detrmt. Mich 

Dubuque. Iowa 



tubuque. Ii 
mluth. Mil 



Elmira.N.Yl.. ■.■.■.■.■.; 

Erie, Pa 

Evanaville. Ind 

Pall River. Hsss. 

Filehboni. Mara. 

Fort Wayne. Ind 

Fort Worthj_Teic 

Galventon, Tex 

Gloucester. MaH 

Grand Rapids, Mieh. . 

HarriBbunt, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverhill. Ma» 

Hoboken, N.J 

Holyoke. Mass 



riliiYeni" 
eeeTwia... 



Lawrenee, Hags 



Newcastle, Pa 

New Haven, Conn. . 
New OHeans. La. . . 



Oahkoab, Wia!'. !!! 

PaHBRicN.J 

Pat«reon, N. J 

Pawtucket, B. I. . . 

Peoria, III 

Philadelphia. Pa. . 

PittBbure, Pa 

Portland; Me 

Portland, Oreg. . . . 
Providence, R. I... 

PueMo, Col 

Quincy, III , 

Racine, Wis 

Reading, Pa. 



e 1800 to 1900. 37.1; 1880 to IS90, 31,2. 



180 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION OF CTTIES HAVING AT LEAST 25,000 INHABITANTS IN 1900— 

Continued. 



Cities. 



Saginaw, Mich 

St. Jofleph, Mo 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salem, Mass 

Salt Lake aty, Utah 
San Antonio, Tex. . . 
San Francisco, Cal. . 

Savannah, Ga , 

Schenectady, N. Y. . 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Sioux City, Iowa. . . 
Somerville, Mass. . . . 
South Bend, Ind. . . . 
South Omaha, Nebr. 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, 111 

Springfield, Mass. . . . 
Sprin^eld, Ohio. . . . 
Superior, Wis 



Rank 




in 
Popu- 
la- 


Popula- 
tion. 


tion. 




89 


42.345 


34 


102,979 


4 


575.238 


23 


163,065 


111 


35,956 


70 


53,531 


71 


53,321 


9 


342,782 


69 


54,244 


127 


31,682 


38 


102,026 


48 


80,671 


124 


33,111 


61 


61,643 


110 


35,999 


166 


26.001 


106 


36,848 


117 


34,159 


60 


62,059 


102 


38,253 


129 


31,091 




Syracuse, N. Y. . . . 
Tacoma, Wash .... 
Taunton, Mass. . . . 
Terre Haute, Ind . . 

Toledo, Ohio 

Topeka, Kans 

Trenton, N. J 

Troy, N. Y 

Utica.N. Y 

Washington, D. C. 
Waterbury, Conn. . 
Wheeling, W. Va. . 
Wilkesbarre, Pa. . . 
Williamsport^a. . 
Wilmington, Del. . . 
Woonsocket, R. I. . 
Worcester, Mass. . . 
Yonkers, N. Y. . . . 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



lank 
in 

*ODll- 


Popula- 


la- 
tion. 


tion. 


30 


108.374 


104 


37,714 


131 


31,036 


107 


36,673 


26 


131,822 


122 


33,608 


53 


73,307 


62 


60,651 


66 


56,383 


15 


278,718 


81 


45,859 


98 


38.878 


75 


61,721 


142 


28,757 


51 


76,608 


147 


28,204 


29 


118,421 


79 


47,931 


120 


33,708 


84 


44,885 



DEATH RATES FROM CERTAIN CAUSES, FOR THE REGISTRATION 

AREA. 1900. 



n— .=^ Death rate 

^»"^- per 100,000. 

Pneumonia 191 . 9 

Consumption* 190 . 5 

Heart Diseasef 134.0 

Diarrheal diseases} 85 . 1 

Diseases of the kidneysH 83 . 7 

Apoplexy 66 . 6 

Cancer 60 . 

Old age 54 . 

Bronchitis 48 . 3 

Cholera infantum 47 . 8 

Debility and atrophy 45 . 5 

Inflammation of the brain and menin- 
gitis 41.8 

Diphtheria 35. 4 

Typhoid fever 33.8 

Premature birth 33 . 7 

Convulsions 33 . 1 

Paralysisfi 32.8 

Inanition 27 . 3 

Influensa 23. 9 

Diseases of the li ver^ 22 . 7 



P_,,„ Death rate 

. *"^- per 100,000. 

Diseases of the stomach** 20 . 

Diseases of the brain 18. 6 

Peritonitis 17.5 

Unknown causes 16.8 

Measles 13 .2 

Railroad accidents 13.2 

Whooping cough 12. 7 

Suicide 11.8 

Scarlet fever 11.5 

Hydrocephalus 11 .0 

Drowning 11.0 

Septicemia 10.0 

Appendicitis 9.9 

Croup 9.8 

Diabetes 9.4 

Burns and scalds 8.8 

Malarial fever 8.8 

Cerebro-spinal fever 7.1 

Dropsy 6.9 

Rheumatism 6.8 

Gunshot wounds 3.8 



* Including general tuberculosis, 
t Including pericarditis. 

t Including cholera morbus, colitis, diarrhea, dysentery, and enteritis- 
!l Including Bright's disease. 
§ Including general paralysis of the insane. 

^ Including jaundice, and inflammation and abscess of the liver. 
♦* Including gastritis. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



161 



FOREIGN BORN POPULATION CLASSIFIED BY PRINCIPAL COUN- 
TRIES OF BIRTH: 1900. 



Country of Birth. 

Austria 276.907 

Bohemia 156,891 

Canada (English) 784,741 

Canada (French) 395,066 

China 81,534 

Denmark 163,805 

England 840,513 

France 104,197 

Germany 2,663,418 

Holland 104,931 

Hungary 145,714 

Ireland 1,615,459 



Italy. . 
Mexico. 



Country of Birth. 



.... 484,027 
103,393 

Norway 336,388 

Poland. 383,407 

Russia 

Scotland. . . 
Sweden. . . . 
Switzerland. 
Wales. 



423,726 
233,524 
572,014 
115,593 
93,586 
Other countries 273,442 

Total 10,341,276 



POPULATION AT LEAST 10 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL 
OCCUPATIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND SPECIFIED • 

OCCUPATIONS: 1900. 



Occupation. 



All occupations. 



Agricultural pursuits 



Agricultural laborers 

Dairymen and dairy women 

Farmers, planters, and overseers . . 
Gardeners, florists, nurserymen, etc. 

Lumbermen and raftsmen 

Stock raisers, herders, and drovers . 
Turpentine farmers and laborers . . 

Wood choppers 

Other agricultural pursuits 



Professional service 



Actors, professional showmen, etc .... 
Architects, designers, draftsmen, etc . . 

Artists and teachers of art 

Cleri^men 

Dentists 

Electricians 

Engineers (civil, etc.) and surveyors . . 

Journalists 

Lawyers ^ 

Literary and scientific persons 

Musicians and teachers of music 

Officials (government)* 

Physicians and surgeons 

Teachers and professors in colleges, etc. 
Other professional service 



Total. 
29,074,117 



10,381,765 



4,410,877 
10,875 

5,674,875 
61,788 
72,020 
84,988 
24,737 
36,075 
5,530 



1.258,739 



34,760 
29,524 
24,873 

111.638 
29,644 
50,717 
43,239 
30,038 

114,460 
19,066 
92.174 
86,607 

132,002 

446,133 
13,864 



Domestic and personal service I 5,580,657 



Barbers and hairdressers 

Bartenders 

Boarding and lodging house keer>ers 

Hotel keepers 

Housekeepers and stewards 

Janitors and sextons 

Laborers (not specified) 

Launderers ana laundresses 

Nurses and midwive*} 

Restaurant keepers 

Saloon keepers 

Servants and waiters 

Soldiers, sailors, and marines (United States) 

Watchmen, policemen, firemen, etc 

Other domestic and personal service 



131,116 
88,817 
71,281 
54,797 

155,153 

56,577 

2,629.262 

385,965 

120.956 

33,844 

83,746 

1,560,721 

43,235 

130,590 
34,597 



Male. 



23.754,205 



9,404,429 



3,747,668 

9,983 

5,347,169 

58.928 

71,920 

83,056 

24,456 

35,962 

5,287 



828,163 



27,903 
28,483 
13.852 

108.265 
28,858 
50,308 
43.155 
27.845 

113,450 
13,082 
39,815 
78,488 

124.615 

118,519 
11,525 



3,485,208 



Female. 



5.319,912 



977,336 



663.209 

892 

307,706 

2,860 

100 

1,932 

281 

113 

243 



430,576 



6,857 

1,041 

11.021 

3,373 

786 

409 

84 

2,193 

1,010 

5.984 

52,359 

8,119 

7,387 

327,614 

2,339 



2,095,449 



125,542 


5,574 


88,377 


440 


11,826 


59,455 


46,264 


8,533 


8,224 


146,929 


48.544 


8,033 


2,505,287 


123.975 


50.683 


335.282 


12.265 


108.691 


28,999 


4.845 


81.660 


2.086 


276,958 


1,283,763 


43.235 




129,711 


879 


27,633 


6,96^ 



* Includes officers of United States Army and Navy. 



162 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION AT LEAST 10 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCX^UPA- 
TIONS, CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS; 1900— Continued. 



Occupation. 




Trade and transportation 



Agents 

Bankers and brokers 

Boatmen and sailors 

Bookkeepers and accountants 

Qerks and copyists 

Commercial travelers 

Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, etc 

Foremen and overseers 

Hostlers 

Hucksters and peddlers 

Livery stable keepers 

Merchants and dealers (except wholesale) 

Merchants and dealers (wholesale) 

Messengers and errand and office boys .... 

Officials of banks and companies 

Packers and shippers 

Porters and helpers (in stores, etc.) 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Steam nulroad employees. 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Street railway employees 

Telegraph and telephone linemen 

Telegraph and telephone operators 

Undertakers 

Other persons in trade and transportation 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. 



Building tradet. 

Carpenters and joiners 

Masons (brick and stone) 

Painters, glaziers, and varnishers 

Paper hangers 

Plasterers 

Plumbers and gas and steam fitters 

Roofers and slaters 

Mechanics (not otherwise specified) 

Chemicals and allied products. 

Oil well and oil works employees 

Other chemical workers 

Clay, glass, and stone products. 

Brick and tile makers, etc 

Glass workers 

Marble and stone cutters 

Potters 

Fishing and mining. 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Miners and quarrymen 

Food and kindred products. 

Bakers 

Butchers 

Butter and cheese makers 

Ck)nfectioners 

Millers 

Other food preparers 

Iron and steel and their products. 

Blacksmiths 

Iron and steel workers 

Machinists 

Steam boiler makers 

Stove, furnace, and grate makers 

Tool and cutlery makers 

Wheelwrights 

Wire workers 



Female. 



4,766,964 


4,263,617 


503,347 


241,162 


230,606 


10,556 


73,277 


72,984 


293 


78,406 


78,253 


153 


254.880 


180.727 


74,153 


630,127 


544,881 


85,246 


92.919 


91,973 


946 


538,933 


538,029 


904 


55,450 


54,032 


1,418 


64,929 


64,850 


79 


76,649 


73,734 


2,915 


33,656 


33,466 


190 


790.886 


756,802 


34,084 


42,293 


42,032 


261 


71,622 


64,959 


6,663 


74,072 


72,801 


1,271 


59,545 


39.557 


19,988 


54,191 


53.625 


566 


611,139 


461,909 


149,230 


582,150 


580,462 


1,688 


112,364 


26.246 


86,118 


68.919 


68.873 


46 


14.757 


14.757 




75.015 


52.459 


22,556 


16.189 


15,866 


323 


53.434 


49,734 


3,700 


1 7,085,992 

1 


5,772,788 


1,313,204 


600,252 


599,707 


545 


160,805 


160.638 


167 


277,541 


275.782 


1,759 


21,990 


21.749 


241 


35,694 


35.649 


45 


97.785 


97.659 


126 


9,067 


9,065 


2 


9,392 


9,351 


41 


24,626 


24,573 


53 


14,814 


12,035 


2,779 


49.933 


49,455 


478 


49,998 


47,377 


2,621 


54.460 


54,317 


143 


16,140 


13,200 


2,940 


68.177 


67,715 


462 


563,866 


562,501 


1,365 


79,188 


74,860 


4,328 


113,956 


113,578 


378 


19,241 


18,593 


648 


31,194 


21,980 


9,214 


40.548 


40,362 


186 


28,782 


23,640 


5,142 


226,477 


226,284 


193 


290,611 


287,241 


3,370 


283,145 


282,574 


571 


33,046 


33,038 


8 


12,473 


12,430 


43 


28,122 


27,376 


746 


13,505 


13,495 


10 


18,487 


16,701 


1,786 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



163 



POPULATION AT LEAST 10 YEARS OF AGE ENGAGED IN GAINFUL OCX)UPA- 
TIONS. CLASSIFIED BY SEX AND SPECTFIED OCCUPATIONS: 1900— Continued. 



Occupation. 



Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits. — {Continued). 
Leather and its finished products. 

Boot and shoe makers and repairers 

Harness and saddle makers and repairers 

Leather curriers and tanners 

Trunk and leather-case makers, etc 

Liquors and beverages. 

Bottlers and soda water makers, etc 

Brewers and maltsters 

Distillers and rectifiers 

Lumber and its remanufactures. 

Cabinetmakers . . ; 

Coopers 

Saw and planing mill employees 

Other woodworkers 

Metals and tneUd products other than iron and steel. 

Brass workers 

Clock and watch makers and repairers 

Gold and silver workers 

Tinplate and tinware makers 

Other metal workers 

Paper and printing. 

Bookbinders 

Box makers (paper) 

Engravers 

Paper and pulp mill operatives 

Printers, lithographers, and pressmen 

Textiles. 

Bleachery and dye works operatives 

Carpet factory operatives 

Cotton mill operatives 

Hosiery and knitting mill operatives 

Silk mill operatives 

Woolen mill operatives 

Other textile mill operatives 

Dressmakers 

Hat and cap makers 

Milliners 

Seamstresses 

Shirt, collar, and cuff makers 

Tailors and tailoresses 

Other textile workers 

Miscellaneous industries. 

Broom and brush makers . 

Charcoal, coke, and lime burners 

Engineers and firemen (notjocomotive) 

Glove makers 

Manufacturers and officials, etc 

Model and pattern makers 

Photographers 

Rubber factory operatives 

Tobacco and cigar factory operatives 

Upholsterers 

Other miscellaneous industries 



208,912 

40,101 

42,671 

7,051 

10,519 

20.962 

3,144 

35,619 

37,200 

161,624 

111,273 

26,760 
24,120 
26,112 
70,505 
56,602 

30,278 
21,098 
11,151 
36,328 
155,117 

22,278 
19,388 

246,004 
47,120 
54,460 
73,196 

104,619 

346,884 
22,733 
87,859 

150,942 
39,432 

229,649 
29,967 

10,220 
14,448 

223,495 
12,271 

243,082 
15,073 
26,941 
21,866 

131.452 
30,821 

471,300 




169.393 

39,506 

40,917 

5.472 

9,725 

20,687 

3,114 

35,552 

37,087 

161,251 

104,468 

25,870 
19,305 
19,732 
68,730 
54,282 

14,646 

3,796 

10.698 

26.904 

139.166 



39.519 

595 

1.754 

1.579 

794 

275 

30 

67 

113 

373 

6.805 

890 
4,815 
6,380 
1,775 
2,320 

15.632 

17.302 

453 

9.424 

15,981 



20.493 


1,785 


10.371 


9,017 


125,788 


120,216 


12.630 


34,490 


22.023 


32,437 


42.566 


30,630 


53.437 


51,182 


2.090 


344,794 


15,110 


7,623 


1,739 


86,120 


4,837 


146,105 


8.491 


30,941 


160.714 


68,935 


8.925 


21,042 


8.643 


1.677 


14,405 


43 


223,318 


177 


4,503 


7.768 


239,649 


3.433 


14,869 


204 


23,361 


3.580 


14,492 


7.374 


87,955 


43.497 


28.663 


2,158 


380.490 


90,810 



— From Reports of the Twelfth Census. 



The annals of the Pasteur Institute state 
that during the year 1902 the number of per- 
sons under treatment for hydrophobia in Paris 
was 1,106, of whom only three died, one of 
whom had not completed the treatment when 
he succumbed to hydrophobia; so that in 
reality there were only two deaths. Of the 
1,106 persons under treatment, nine were 
English, two Spaniards, two Russians, and 



one each Greek, Dutch, and Swiss — making 
16 foreigners to 1,089 fVench. The diminu- 
tion in the number of French patients, as 
compared with several preceding years, is ex- 
plained by the opening of anti-rabic institutes 
at LJls, Marseilles, Montpellier, Lyons, and 
Bordeaux, to one or other of which- persons 
residing in the neighborhood of those towns- 
have been sent instead of going to Paris. 



SCIENTIFIC AUBRICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



lu 1UU2 (he area ot Iniliaii reser- 
vations iQ the fniled Slates was 75,- 
I48.tM3 acres or 117,420 square mileH. 
and the population In 1000 was 270.- 
544, but in 1003 the number had 
dwindled to 263.233. ludian Territory 
lit occupied by 76^86 Indian inhabi- 



tants, while 43,746 live in Arizona 
and 13,799 in Oklaboma, and 19.477 in 
South Dakota. The rensua gives the 
Indian population in Indian Territory 
in 1900 aa 302,000, and tbe Indian 
population elsewhere is included in tbe 
eenauB of the Statea. 



NUMBER OF PENSIONERS ON THE ROLLS, FIRST PAYMENTS, AND 

AMOUNTS OF DISBURSEMENTS FOR PENSIONS 

FROM 1861 TO 1903. 





Number o 




the rolls. 


Total 




"^siT^r 


















Widows, etc. 


Totel. 


































































































































267 

















paid to soldiers, their widows, mi 

out'n«ard toJiMbiiity)." '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

outreaardtodissliihty) 

without neard to disability) 


170.000,000.00 
2,878:240:400;i7 
















S3,03S.623.600.I6 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



165 



IMMIGRATION. 

NUMBER AND NATIONALITY OF IMMIGRANTS ARRIVED IN THE UNITED 
STATES DURING THE YEARS ENDING JUNE 30, 1889, 1899, AND 1903. 



Countries. 


1889. 


1899. 


1903. 


Countries. 


1889. 


1899. 1903. 


Austria-Hungary : 
Bohemia 


3.085 
10,967 

20,122 






Azores 


1,967 

4 
12 


1 


Greenland, Iceland 
and the Faroe 
Islands 

Europe not speci- 




Hungary ...... 

Other Austria 


62,491 


206,011 


■ 


(except Poland) 


6 










5 


Total 

T^aI ATI 11 m 


34,174 

2,562 
8,699 
5,918 

99,538 

' 13 

158 

24,848 

459 


62,491 

1,101 

2,690 

1,694 

17,476 


206,011 

3,450 

7,158 

5,578 

40,086 


Total Europe. 


434,790 


297,349 


814,607 


Denmark 

France 

Germany 

Gibraltar 


British North 

America 

Mexico 

Central America . . 


• • • • > 


1,322 
161 
159 


1,058 
528 
678 


Greece 


2,333 
t 77,419 


14,090 
230,622 


Bermuda 21 




Ital^, continental . 
Sicily and Sar- 
dinia 

Malta 


West Indies and 

Miquelon 

South America . . . 


4,923 
427 


2,585 
89 


8.170 
589 


Netherlands 


6,460 

13,390 

4,922 

57 

893 

31,889 

2,027 

526 

35.415 

7,070 

252 

68,503 

65,557 

18,296 

1,181 

153,537 


1,029 
6,705 


3,998 
24,461 


Total America 
China 


t5,459 


4,316 


11.023 


Poland 


118 


1,660 
2.844 
4,468 


2,209 

19,968 

7,789 


Portuffal 


2,054 
1,606 

[ 60,982 

385 

12,797 

1,326 

132 

10,402 

31,673 

1,724 

1,324 


9,317 
9,310 

136,093 

2,080 

46,028 

3,983 

3,290 

26,219 

35,310 

6,143 

1,275 


Japan 


640 
967 


Roumania. 

Ruflsia (except 

Poland) 

Finland 

Spain 


Otner Asia 

Total Asia . . . 

Total Oceania. . . . 

Total Africa 

All other countries 

Total immigrants 


1,725 


8,972 


29,966 


2,196 

187 

70 


si 

1,027 


1,349 


Sweden 


176 


Switzerland 

Turkey in Europe* 
United Kingdom : 

England 

Ireland 

Scotland 

Wales 


25 


444,427 


311,715 


857,046 


* Includes Servia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro, 
t Immigrants from British North America 




Total United 
Kingdom. . 


45,123 68,947 


and Mexico not reported. 

— Statistical Abstract of United States. 



LABOR'S DEATH ROLL. 



No less than 4,513 lives were lost in 1902 
while in the ordinary pursuit of their calling 
in the United Kingdom. 112,133 persons 
were injured in the same period. The per- 
centage of deaths from ciifferent causes in 
coal mining was ( 1 ) On the surface, 11.3; ( 2 ) 
Miscellaneous underground, 28.3; (3) In the 
shafts, 9.9; (4) By falls of ground, 44.1 ; (5) 
By explosions, 6.4. 



Factories 

Mines 

Quarries 

Snipping (Merchant Vessels) 

Railway service 

Workshops 

Laundries 

Docks, wharves, and quays 

Warehouses 

Buildings 

Railway service (contractors* servants). 
Under notice of Accidents Act, 1894. . . . 
Shipping (Fishing vessels, etc.) 



Total. . . 



Number 
Employed 
According 
to Latest 

Returns. 



1 



3,929,213 

855,603 

97,108 

230.161 

575.834 



f 



J 



9i 



< 



[ 



Killed. 



1898. 



575 
941 
134 
1,139 
522 
2 

"89' 
16 
45 
20 
56 
271 



3,810 



1902. 



837 

1,053 

119 

1,397 

468 

9 

1 

129 

42 

89 

17 

62 

290 



4,513 



Injured. 



1898. 



49,290 

4,408 

1,434 

2,354 

12,826 

135 

217 

4,070 

2,507 

616 

153 

1,491 

132 



79,633 



1902. 



77,118 

3,999 

1,190 

2.228 

13,735 

224 

355 

4,906 

4,235 

2,412 

123 

1,451 

157 



112,133 



—''Daily Mail" Year Book, 



166 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 




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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



TERRITORIAL EXPANSION. 



There have been sixteen additions to 
the original territory of the Union, in- 
cluding Alaska, the Hawaiian, Philip- 
pine and Samoan Islands and Guam, 
in the Pacific, and Porto Rico, in the 
West Indies ; and the Panama strip ; 
and the total area of the United States, 
including the noncontiguous territory, 



is now fully five times that of the orig- 
inal thirteen colonies. 

The additions to the territory of the 
United States subsequent to the peace 
treaty with Great Britain of 1783, are 
shown by the following table, prepared 
by the General Land OflSce of the In- 
terior Department : 



ADDITIONS TO THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES 

FROiM 1800 TO 1904. 



Territorial Division. 



Louisiana purchase . . . 

Florida 

Texas 

Oregon Territory 

Mexican cession 

Purchase from Texas. . 
Gadsden purchase . . . . 

Alaska 

Hawaiian Islands 

Porto Rico 

Guam 

Philippine Islands . . . . 

Samoan Islands 

Additional Philippines . 

Panama Canal 

Panama Canal strip . . . 



Year. 



1803 
1819 
1845 
1846 
1848 
1850 
1853 
1867 
1897 
1898 
1898 
1899 
1899 
1901 
1903 
1904 



Total 



Area added. 



Square miles. 
875,025 
70,107 
389,795 
288,689 
523,802 

(t) 

36,211 

599,446 

6,740 

3,600 

175 

143,000 

73 

68 



2,936,731 



Purchase 
price. 



Dollars. 
15,000,000 
♦6,489,768 



1 18,250,000 

10,000,000 

10,000,000 

7,200,000 



20,000,000 

"166,000 
40,000,000 
10,000,000 



137,039,768 



* Includes interest payment. 

t Of which $3,250,000 was in payment of claims of American citizens against Mexico. 

i Area purchased from Texas amounting to 123,784 square miles is not included in the column 
of area added, because it became a part of the area of the United States with the admission of 
Texas. 



AREA AND POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



The following table, published by 
the United States Census OflSce, shows 
the gross area and population of the 



Year. 



1790 
1800 
1810 
1820 
1830 
1840 



Area. 

Square miles. 
827,844 
827,844 
1,999,775 
2,059,043 
2,059,043 
2,059,043 



Population. 



3,929,214 
5,308,483 
7,239.881 
9,633,822 
12,866.020 
17,069,453 



United States at each of the decennial 
censuses from 1790 to 1900, exclusive 
of all noncontiguous territory. 



Year. 



1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 
1890 



Area. 



Square miles. 
2,980,959 
3,025,600 
3,025,600 
3,025.600 
3,025,600 



1900 1 3,025,600 



Population. 



23,191,876 
31,443,321 
38,558,371 
50,155,783 
62,622,250 
75,994,575 



CHAPTER VII. 



EDUCATION, lilBBARIES, PRINTING AND FUBUSHINO. 



THE VALUE OF AN EDUCATION. 



In the annual report of the United 
States Commissioner of Education 
appears a sheet of statistics showing 
to what extent higher education af- 
fects success in life. Particularly it 
shows the pre-eminence of the A.B. 
degree man among the successful, and 
the inconspicuousness of the self-edu- 
cated. 

The standard of success to which 
the educational statistics are applied 
is that which constitutes eligibility to 
the ranks of the 10,000 or so persons 
included in "Who's Who in America" 
— that is, according to the editors, "the 
most notable in all departments of 
usefulness and reputable endeavor." 
These men have all reported the scope 
and method of their education. 

The United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation divides the 14,794,403 males 
over 30 years old in the United States 
according to the last census into four 
educational classes, as follows: 

Class I. Without education 1,757,023 

Class II. With only com- 
mon school training or 
trained outside of organ- 
ized schools 12,054,335 

Class III. With regular 
high school training add- 
ed 657,432 

Class IV. With college or 

higher education added. . 325,613 

Omitting those few who are under 
30 years old, says this report, the 
statements from 10,704 notables s}iow 
that they include: Without educa- 
tion, none : self-taught, 24 ; home 
taught, 278; with common school 
training only, 1,066; with high school 



Professor Ramsay, of University 
College, London, in a letter to the 
"Times," points out the remarkable 
part which Technical Education plays 
in German trade. 

"A German company employs no 
fewer than 70 chemists ; it is one whidi 
manufactures no product of which it 
sells less than one hundred tons a year. 



training, 1,627 ; with college training, 
7,709, of whom 6,129 were graduates. 
That is: 

From 1800 to 1870 the uneducated 
boy in the United States failed en-, 
tirely to become so notable in any de- 
partment of usefulness and reputable 
endeavor as to attract the attention of 
the "Who's Who" editors, and that 
only 24 self-taught men succeeded. 

A boy with only a common school 
education had, in round numbers, one 
chance in 9,000. 

A high school training increased this 
chance nearly twenty- two times. 

College education added gave the 
young mkn about ten times the chance 
of a high school boy and 200 times the 
chance of the boy whose training 
stopped with the common school. 

The A.B. graduate was pre-emi- 
nently successful, and the self-educa- 
ted man was inconspicuous. 

"From the nature of the case," con- 
cludes the compiler, "it cannot be 
claimed that these classifications are 
exact, but they are based upon the 
fullest statistics ever obtained, and the 
necessary estimates have been made by 
government experts. It is also doubt- 
less true that other circumstances con- 
tributed to the success of these trained 
men, but after all reasonable allow- 
ances are made the figures force the 
conclusion that the more school train- 
ing the American boy of that period 
had, the greater were his chances of 
distinction. 

"It is unnecessary to extend this 
inquiiT to woman," he says, in conclu- 
sion. "Education is practically her 
only door to eminence. 



Of the seventy chemists required, 20 
are employed in analyzing the raw ma- 
terials and intermediate and finished 
products ; 25 are engaged in superin- 
tending the processes of manufacture, 
and the remaining 25 are exclusively 
employed in scientific work to improve 
the present processes of manufacture." 
— Daily Mail Year Book. 



171 



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174 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



POPULATION, ENROLLMENT, AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE, 

NUMBER, AND SEX OF TEACHERS. 





i 

Estimated 
Total 
Popula- 
tion in 
1902. 


Pupils En- 
rolled in 
the Ele- 
mentary 
and Sec- 
ondary 
Common 
Schools. 


Per 
Cent, 
of the 
Popu- 
lation 

En- 
rolled 


Average 
Daily 

Attend- 
ance. 


Number of Teachers. 


Division. 


Male. 


Female. 


Totol. 


The United Stotes 


78,544 816 


15,925,887 


20.28 

17.12 
21.31 
21.45 
21.80 
20.15 


10,999,273 


122,392 


317,204 


439,596 


North Atlantic Division . 
South Atlantic Division. . 
South Central Division. . 
North Central Division. . 
Western Division 


21,802,750 
10,696,435 
14,715,700 
26,912,400 
4,417,531 


3,733,683 
2,279,290 
3,156,590 
5,866,396 
889,928 


2,741,360 
1,445,797 
2,097,819 
4,101,022 
613,275 


18,069 
19,567 
30,652 
48,152 
5,952 


90,003 
31,818 
34.848 
139,691 
20,844 


108,072 
51,385 
65.500 

187,843 
26,796 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF DAYS TAUGHT, SALARIES OF TEACHERS, 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY, AND STATE AND 

LOCAL TAXATION, 1901-2. 



Division. 


Aver- 
age 
Num- 
ber of 
Days 
the 
Schools 
were 
Kept. 


Average 
Monthly Sal- 
aries of 
Teachers. 


Value of 
Public 
School Prop- 
erty. 


Raised 

from State 

Taxes. 


Raised- 

from I^iocal 

Taxes. 


Raised 

from Other 

Sources, 

State and 

Local, etc. 




Males. 


Fe- 
males. 


The United States. . 


145 


S49.05 

■ 


$39.77 


$601,571,307 


$38,330,589 


$170,779,586 


$29,742,141 


North Atlantic Div . 

S. Atlantic Div 

S. Central Division. . 
N. Central Division.. 
Western Division. . . 


177.3 
115.8 
100.6 
;56.5 
143.9 


59.01 
30.50 
44.28 
50.85 
65.90 


40.17 
28.60 
36.88 
39.60 
63.73 


243.150.033 
25,109,903 
29,875,383 

250,303,396 
53,132,592 


12,831,775 
5,148,670 
6,398,383 
8,374,009 
5,577,752 


69,984,121 

7,842,256 

6,869,991 

74,215,693 

11,867.525 


10,847,513 
1,150,494 
1,147,567 

14,781,748 
1,814,819 



Statistics of City School Systems, 1901-2. 

ENROLLMENT, AVERAGE ATTENDANCE, LENGTH OF SCHOOL 

TERM, NUMBER OF TEACHERS, AND EXPENDITURES 

IN CITIES OF 8,000 INHABITANTS AND OVER. 



Division. 


Num- 
ber of 
City 
School 

Sys- 
tems. 


Enroll- 
ment in 

Public 

Day 

Schools. 

4,174,812 


Average 
Daily 

Attend- 
ance. 


Aver- 
age 
Length 

School 
Term. 


Numl 
Teache 

Super 

Male. 


t)er of 
iTs and 
(risors. 

Fe- 
male. 


Expendi- 
ture for 
Supervi- 
sion and 

Teaching. 


Expendi- 
ture for all 
Purposes 
(Payment 
of Loans 
and Bonds 
Excepted). 


United States . . . 


580 


3,159,441 


187.3 


9,461 


86,308 


$66,561,505 


$111,159,665 


N. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Central Div. . . 
N. Central Div. . 
Western Div. . . . 


242 
44 
51 

205 
38 


2,046,001 
292,143 
223,538 

1,371,398 
241,732 


1,537,500 
205,948 
167,816 

1,066,804 
181,373 


188.4 
181.7 
181.5 
187.6 
186.5 


4,343 
809 
628 

3,135 
546 


42.626 
5,492 
4,149 

28,909 
5,132 


35,543,105 
3,436,613 
2,483,299 

20,729,416 
4,369,072 


59,950,666 
6,398,312 
3,539,463 

35,112,492 
7,158,732 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



176 



Statistics of Secondary Education, 1901-2. 

INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS AND 
IN PRIVATE HIiGH SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES. 





Num- 
ber. 


Public High Schools. 


Num- 
ber. 

• 


Private Secondary Schools. 


Division. 


Secondary 
Teachers. 


Secondary 
Students. 


Secondary 
Teachers. 


Secondary 
Students. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. is;. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


United States. . . 


6,292 


10,958 


11.457 

4,333 
568 
755 

5,084 
717 


226,914 


323,697 


1,835 


4.073 5.830 51,536 


53,154 


N. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Atlantic Div. . 
S. Central Div. . . 
N. Central Div. . . 
Western Div. . . . 


1,476 
436 
702 

3,333 
345 


2,960 

691 

1,037 

5,535 

735 


75,888 
11,024 
16.450 
109,736 
13.816 


105,143 
16,937 
24,004 

156,714 
20,899 


650 
350 
364 
343 
128 


1,885 
629 
589 
704 
266 


2,529 
852 
735 

1,295 
419 


20,900 
9,098 
9,8a'> 
8,680 

I 3,053 


18.893 
9.610 
9.541 

11,248 
3,862 



Statistics of Higher Education, 1901-2. 

INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE NORMAL 

SCHOOLS OF THE UNITED STATES. 





Num- 
ber. 


Public Normal Schools. 


Num- 
ber. 


Private Normal Schoob. 


Division. 


Teachers of 

Normal 

Students. 


Students in 
Normal 
Course. 


Teachers of 

Normal 

Students. 


Students in 
Normal 
Course. 




Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 

345 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


United SUtcs 


173 


1,024 


1,463 


12,209 


37,194 


109 


445 


7,484 


8,181 


N. Atlantic Div.. .. 
S. Atlantic Div. . . . 
S. Central Division 
N. Central Division 
Western Division . . 


62 
25 
24 
40 
22 


325 
124 
132 
315 

128 


661 
197 
110 
366 
129 


3,255 
1,013 
1,868 
5^341 
732 


13,987 
3,070 
3,393 

13,566 

3,178 


7 

28 
27 
46 

1 


60 

53 

83 

245 

4 


88 

79 

64 

107 

7 


307 

603 

1,129 

5,431 

14 


961 

955 

1,148 

5,054 

63 



INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN COEDUCATIONAL COLLEGES 

AND UNIVERSITIES AND IN COLLEGES 
FOR MEN ONLY, 1901-2. 



y 


Num- 
ber of 
Insti- 
tu- 
tions. 


Professors 


Students. 


Division. 


and 
Instructors. 


Preparatory. 


Colleg^te. 


Resident 
Graduate. 






Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 


Total 
Income. 


United States. 


464 


9,329 


1,907 


32,094 


14,508 


62,430 21,051 


3,895 


1,456 


$25,112,169 


N. Atlan. Div. 
S. Atlan. Div. 
8. Central Div 
N. Central Div 
Western Div. . 


85 
73 
77 
190 
39 


3.000 
1,050 

878 
3,583 

818 


164 
169 
305 
1,085 
184 


6,408 
3,465 

5,761 

13,871 

2,589 


960 
1,532 
3,026 
7,188 
1,802 


22.903 
6,629 
6,467 

21,993 
4,438 


2,629 

1,081 

2,472 

12,043 

2.826 


1,696 
452 
155 

1,376 
216 


444 

36 

69 

700 

207 


9,382,226 
2,115,295 
2,172,238 
8,944,906 
2,497,504 



176 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN SCHOOLS OF TECHNOLOGY AND 

INSTITUTIONS CONFERRING ONLY THE 
B. S. DEGREE, 1901-2. 





Num- 
ber 
of In- 
stitu- 
tions. 


Professors 


Students. 






and 
Instructors. 


Preparatory. 


Collegiate 


Resident 
Graduate. 


Total 


Division. 


Male. 
1.292 


• 

Fe- 
male. 


Male. 
3,058 


Fe- 
male. 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 

1,148 


Male. 


Fe- 
male. 

54 

5 



4 

37 

8 


Income. 


United States . 


43 

10 
8 
5 

11 
9 


132 


673 


11,667 


141 

22 
30 
25 
51 
13 


$4,796,613 


N. Atlan. Div. 
8. Atlan. Div. . 
S. Cent. Div .. 
N. Cent. Div. . 
Western Div. . 


385 
250 
112 
362 
183 


13 



4 

74 

41 


267 
291 
804 
1023 
673 


8 



129 

230 

306 


3,022 
2,255 
1,258 
4,115 
1,017 


91 
1 

57 
683 
316 


1,645,180 
796,580 
425,642 

1,275,480 
653,731 



INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS IN COLLEGES AND SEMINARIES 
FOR WOMEN WHICH CONFER DEGREES, 1901-2. 



Division. 


Number 
of Insti- 
tutions. 


Professor* and 
Instructors. 


Female Students. 


Total 


Male. 
670 


Female. 


Prepar- 
atory, 


ColleKi- 
ate. 


Gradu- 
ate. 


Income. 


United States 


131 


1,767 

459 
517 
472 
269 
50 


7,610 


16.534 


326 


$3,954,462 


North Atlantic Div. . . . 
South Atlantic Div. . . . 

South Central Div 

North Central Div 

Western Division 


19 
45 
46 
19 

2 


295 

203 

107 

57 

8 


1,281 
2,006 
2,675 
1,423 
225 


5,376 
5,236 
4,377 
1,493 
52 


157 

77 
65 
26 

1 


1,888,799 

906,852 

646,048 

467,763 

47,000 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS 

FOR 1901-2. 



Division. 



United States. 



N. Atlantic Division. 
S. Atlantic Division. 
S. Central Division . 
N. Central Division . 
Western Division . . 



Theological. 


Schools. 


TiHW. 


Stu- 
dents. 


Medical. 


Schools. 


In- 
struct- 
ors. 


Stu- 
dents. 


In- 
struct- 
ors. 


Schools. 


In- 
struct- 
ors. 

5,029 


148 


1,034 


♦7,343 


102 


1,155 


tl3,912 


154 


52 
19 
14 

58 
5 


448 
128 

75 
357 

26 


2,915 
903 
534 

2,910 
81 


18 
21 
17 
39 

7 


275 
159 
126 
537 

58 


4,598 
2,138 

796 
5,851 

529 


26 
23 
26 
67 
12 


1,136 
574 
544 

2,412 
363 



Stu- 
dents. 

26,821 

6,514 
3,609 
4,905 
10,693 
1,100 



* 108 of these were women . 



1 165 of these were women. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



177 



GENERAL SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PROFESSIONAL AND 

ALLIED SCHOOLS FOR 1901-2. 



Class. 



Schools. 



Instruct- 
ors. 



Students. 



Theological 

Law 

Medical 

Dental 

Pharmaceutical. 

Veterinary 

Nurse training 

Total 

Medical schools included above: 

Regular 

Homeopathic 

Eclectic and physio-medical 

Total 



Graduates. 



148 

102 

154 

56 

59 

11 

545 



1,075 



123 
20 
11 



154 



1.034 
1.155 
5,029 
1,197 
590 
174 



9,179 



4,084 
649 
296 



5.029 



7,343 

13,912 

26,821 

8,420 

4,427 

576 

13.252 



74,751 



24,447 
1,551 

823 



26,821 



1.656 
3,524 
5,069 
2,288 
1,379 
141 
4,015 



18,072 



4,576 
342 
151 



5,069 



ENROLLMENT IN SPECIAL SCHOOLS IN 1901-2. 

City; evening schools (estimated) 207,162 

Business schools 137,247 

Schools for defectives 28,827 

Reform schools 35,247 

Government Indian schools 24,120 

Indian schools (five civilized tribes) 13,864 

Schools in Alaska supported by the Government 1,741 

Schools in Alaska supported by incorporated municipalities (partly estimated) 1,7(X) 

Orphan asylums and other benevolent institutions 15,000 

Private kindergartens * 105,932 

Miscellaneous (including schools of music, oratory, elocution, cookery, and various 

special arts 50,000 

Total 620,840 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

VOLUMES AND PAMPHLETS ADDED AND BOOKS ISSUED. 







Volumes Added 


Pamphlets 


Books Issued for 
Home Use. 


Books Issued 




Periodicals. 


During the 


Added During 


for Use in 






Year. 


the Year. 


Library. 


Division. 




- 


P3 . 








^ 










$? 


Num- 


S? 


Num- 


s^ 


Num- 


8? 


Num- 


s? 


Num- 




rari 
ort] 


ber. 


rari 
ort] 


ber. 


rar 
ort 


ber. 


rari 
ort] 


ber. 


rari 
orti 


ber. 




.Q a 




^ Q. 




.D a 




.D Q, 




.Q ft 






.>4 




'a 

3,684 




;3 




h3 

2,405 
1,347 




783 

386 




United States . . 


3,036 


209,412 


2,156,992 
1,128,085 


1,455 
580 


549,326 


48,410,128 
27,105,291 


9,609,632 


N. Atlantic Div. 


1,352 


118.731 


1,787 


269,322 


3,979,467 


S.Atlantic Div. . 


245 


19,639 


265 


175,323 


122 


67,117 


117 


1,726.203 


48 


802,769 


S. Central Div.. 


191 


6,034 


202 


73,320 


118 


29,914 


75 


420.470 


44 


165,555 


N Central Div. . 


1,010 


51,258 


1,161 


630,959 


508 


139,820 


711 


16,358.076 
3,800,088 


243 


3,754,728 


Western Div. . . 


238 


13,750 


269 


194,305 


127 


43,153 


155 


62 


907,113 



178 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

BUBCMAET OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY. AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

SOURCEH OF sun 







'B^' 








r-nr 










'-•■- 


«. 


Divirion 






i 




^ 






i 




i 








1 


1 


!■* 


a. 


P 


1 


1 




¥ 


1 


1 


UniUHl Stats 


1.010 


SB2 


3.751 


2.375 1 2,870 


m 


2.734 


1.735 1 au 


447 


I.I4S 


3.7S8 
















































































































2HB 


203 


177 




m 


124 




20 







UDited SutOB 1.07» 1.725 OSfl 



N.Atlsn-Div 


1 172 



















74 S7 II I 2 






03 35 43 t15 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OP PUBLIC, SOCIETY. AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

CLASSIFICATION AUCOWDINO TO SIZE. 



500.000 300.000 100.000 SO.OOO 25,0C 
and to to to to 

over. I 499.999. 299,9M. 99.999. 49,9« 



10.000 5.000 



United Stawa . 
N. Atlantic DLt. I 



47 


90 


193 


52« 


860 


3,654 














* 




23 


20 




287 


'4 




it 






273 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPERENCB BOOK. 



180 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF STATISTICS OF PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL 
LIBRARIES OF 1,000 VOLUMES AND OVER IN 1900. 

DISTRIBUTION OF LIBRARIES AND VOLUMES. 



Division. 


Libraries. 


Volumes. 


Population. 

Census of 

1900. 


Number of 

People per 

Library. 


Books per 
100 of Pop- 
ulation. 


United States 


5.383 


44,591.851 


75.997,687 


14,118 • 


59 


North Atlantic Div 

South Atlantic Div. . . . 

South Central Div 

North Central Div. . . . 
Western Division 


2,473 
421 
374 

1,728 

387 


23,410.577 
5.303,237 
1.886,731 

11,211,710 
2,779,596 


21,045,748 
10.445,486 
14,079,861 
26.335,243 
4,091,349 


8,510 
24,811 
37,647 
15,240 
10,572 


111 
51 
13 
43 

68 



— Frojn Reports of the Bureau of Education. 



\ 


% 


1 


1 


\ 


\ 


1 














/ 


aoMaooA 








/ 


/ 




saeo^MA 






/ 


/ 






4AMaMA 


/ 


/ 








/ 


MffOtLpfl^ 


/ 








/ 


/ 


tOMOiUL 








/ 


/ 




/AoaaeoA 







/ 




• 





n.S3SL97S r»fvmn 






$.576,444 ¥Mumn- 
*M€tffS85fol890. 



S,689,706 tb/umes 
•<U9it 1890 U IB9S. 

t,22J. lis Mumtt tdthtf U7S fo /SM 



f/.487.77S Mm** in IB75. 



THE RELATION OF LIBRARIES TO 
POPULATION. 



in 5,383 libraries there were in 
1900, 44,591,851 volumes. 



PRINTING AND PUBLISHING. 



There were 18,226 publications re- 
ported to the census authorities, while 
3,046 publications failed to report. 
This would give a remarkable total of 
21,272 periodicals, and the aggregate 
circulation of those reporting was 114,- 
229,334 per issue, while the aggregate 
number of copies issued during the 
census year was 8,168,148,749. 



The average capital of those en- 
gaged in the printing business is $12,- 
574 ; the average value of their prod- 
ucts ia $14,569. These figures compared 
with those of a previous decade show 
that in a period of ten years an in- 
creased capital is required to produce 
the same or even a smaller value of 
products; this is largely caused by an 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN EEFERBNCB BOOK. 



i 

1 IP 

£ 2-Ss 

liiij 

Zi^ Tag" 

la 111 
la I I 

Sb. S = 8 

Ed -rge 



! Ill 



1 



t 3 •55*= 

s ! 'Hi 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Increase in wages and a detreaae in 
working hours. In 1850 a compositor 
in New York reteived $9 per week : 
ordinary job coropositorB now receive 
$19.50 per week, and operators on ma- 
chiDex [ram ^24 to $27, depending on 
the time of day oi' niglit they take 
their shift. In the opinion of many 
large operators, the numlier o( wage 
earners has actually increased rather 
than diminished. The introduction of 
machine composition has been of decid- 
ed benefit to the employee, offering a 
new field for endeavor. There are few 
unemployed men in the printing trade, 
HH is shown by the fact that when in 
1900 the Typographical Union wan 



Character of publication : 

News, politics, and family read- 
ing 1 

Religion 

Agriculture, horticulture, dairy- ' 
ing, and Btock-raisiug 

Commerce, Qoance, itisurance, 
railroads, and trade 

General literature, including 
magazines 

Medicine and surgery 

I^w 

Science and mechanics 

Fratwnal organizations 

Education and history 

Society, art, music and fashion 

Miscellaneous 




DIAGBAM BHOWINQ 



called upon to supply 150 men (or a 
special job of city printing, only 100 
could be obtained, and these with difii- 

A classified list of periodicals is giv- 
en below, showing how the list is di- 
vided ; 

Period of issue : 

Dally 2,22fi 

Tri-weekty IJ2 

Semi-weekly tRT 

Weekly 12,0TI» , 

Monthly I,ft17 

Quarterly 237 

All other classes 2G8 

Total 18,220 



Out of the 18,226 publications, 
2,22fl are dailies, with a circulation of 
15,102.156 ; 62 are tri-weekly, with a 
circulation of 228,610; 637 are semi- 
weekly, with a circulation of 2,832.- 
8G8 ; 12.979 papers are issued weekly, 
with a circulation of 39.852.052. 
lliere are 1,817 monthly publications, 
whose circulation is 30.519,897. The 
quarterly publications are mostly de- 
voted to_special subjects, and only 



annual and yearly publications num- 
ber 26S, and have a circulation of 5,- 
rhll.32!l. Out of 18.226 publicationa, 
17,194 were printed in English. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 188 




184 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



In 1900, cities of 201,000 inhabi- 
tants and over contained 79 per cent 
of the separate job-printing establish- 
ments of the country, and 97.7 per 
cent of the total job product ema- 
nated from them. 



Ayer's Newspaper Directory for 
1904 gives later figures, viz. : Daily, 
2,457 ; tri-weekly, 5(> ; semi-weekly, 
(ia4; weekly, 10,935; fortnightly, 65; 
semi-monthly, 285; monthly. 2,698; bi- 
monthly, 53 ; quarterly, 192 ; miscel- 
laneous, 10. Total, 23,385. 



QUANTITY AND COST OF PAPER USED. 



Kinds. 



News 

Book and periodical. 
Job printing 



Pounds 



956,335.921 

202,196,263 

74,510,064 



Total 1,233,142,248 



Cost. 



$22,197.0^0 
9.356,490 
6,270.306 

$37,823,856 



Average 
cost per 

pound. 

cents. 

2.3 
4.5 

8.4 



3.1 



Our figures show the quantity and 
cost of paper used and the average cosr 
per pound in 1900. 

In this 4:able is presented a division 
of the paper used in 1900, according 
to the several classes of products 
which, combined, produced the total 



value of products of newspaper and 
periodical establishments. About one 
and a quarter billions of pounds was 
used during the year in which the cen- 
sus was undertaken. This large quan-. 
tity was utilized in the following pro- 
portions : 



Per cent. 

News 77.6 

Book and periodical 16.4 

Job printing 6.0 



LIBRARIES OF THE WORLD. 
The following is a list of the principal Libraries of the world: 



Library. 



City. 



No. of Vols. 



Bibliothfeque nationale 

British Museum 

Imper. publicnaja biblioteka 

Koni^iche bibliothek •. 

Library of Congress , . . . 

Kon. Hof- u. Staatsbibliothek 

K. u. k. Hofbibliothek 

Universitats- u. landesbibliothek 

Public Library 

Publicnyj i Rumjancovskij musej 

Public Library — Astor, Lenox, and Tilden Foundation. 

Biblioteca nacional 

Bodleian Library 

K. k. Universitats-bibliothek 

Harvard University Library 

Cambridge University Library 

Det store kongelige bibliothek 

Universitats-bibliothek 

Universiteit bibliotheek 

Kon. bibliotheek 



Paris 2,602,000 

London 2,003,000 

St. Petersburg 1,329,000 

Berlin 1,200,000 

Washington 1,000,000 

Munich 1,000,000 

Vienna 900,000 

Strasburg 814,000 

Boston 812,260 

Moscow 800,000 

New York City. 787,700 

Madrid 600,000 

Oxford 600,000 

Vienna 596,526 

Cambridge (U. S.) 575,889 

Cambridge (Eng.) 550,000 

Copenhagen 550,000 

Gottingen 506,814 

Amsterdam 500,000 

The Hague 500,000 



THE RAPID EXTENSION IN THE GATHERING OF NEWS. 



In 1886 the New York World re- 
ported the battle of Majuba Hill in six 
lines, but so rapid was the extension 
of news gathering that, fourteen years 
later, events in the same quarter of 
the globe were reported to the great 
American dailies by cable as fully as 
though close at hand. The destruction 
of St. Pierre, Martinique, in 1902, by 



an eruption of Mont Pelee, may be 
mentioned as an illustration of this 
tendency. 

The cablegrams which detailed that 
great disaster reached American news- 
papers by way of Brazil, the Azores 
and Great Britain, costing the recipi- 
ents from $2 to Jj>4 per word, with fees 
for precedence. 



CHAPTER Vm. 



TKLEGBAPHS, TELEPHONES, SUBMAHINE CABIjES, 
WIBEIiESS TBIiEGBAPnY, AND SIGNALINO. 



LAND LINES OF THE WORLD. 



„,Kr„s.i.r?hri5Jd;"i 


rrected 


pV&^ 


been able to obU 
ember M. IWB: 


oof the 


Land liD» 


of tele- 




Length 


f Lines 


in Miles. 


Milee. 


Pneii- 




a™.. 


Under- 
ground. 


Total. 


Aerial. 


Under- 
ground. 


Total. 


(Yd».). 




1.595 
4,041 

■if 
1 

8! 

i 

so 

i 

4 .02 
24.§| 


""m 
i' 

15 

i 


1.59S 

"1 

I 
i 

i 

7,626 
SJIK 

m 

693 


1,595 


i;579- 


70;933 











21,318 


253 












If 

I8i;sg3 




1.234 
181,883 
















riiish India (IndU Office). .. 






ts 

34.79 


::■* 


s 

80,95! 








S^^?air'-; 


















1,350 


".350 










".S 


472 


13,010 














19«;fl57 
10.417 

13.422 
276,684 

sisgo 

,1S;S 

1.392 
2,079 


' "l3]8M 
166 

2,498 


10.755 
1.392 






188338 


^ivSsr&.S;- 




Great Bri'tainandli^aod.' ! ', 


IK 










Indo-EuropeBn Persian ciiit 
8v3l«m (Mekran CobhO. . . . 




iS^-E-'Evv. 





d 39.031 miles of conductor 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



; WORLD — Cantinued. 





L^gth 


of Line« 


■iHil«. 


Ladgtb 


pf Condu 


ctorein 


Poeu- 




Aerial. 


Uoder- 
ground 


Total. 


Aeii^. 


Under- 
ground. 


Total. 


(Yd..). 


Malay States (FedemUd) 


»8B 

i 
i 

i 

1 

J 

3.IHr7 
B50 


■■■■«■ 
11 

"m 
»■ 

Ml 


»«9 

11 


a 

41678 




4!e78 


















S3.B71 
22,672 

"i 

11 

IT,e09 
I2.fi 12 

":i 
'if 

B,'ll8 


4.940 

11 

* ■ *»23 

3. 


58.617 
22,672 
2:326 
2.306 

'B 
"is 

'iS 

■s 

2,54! 
39,519 

■.ffi 

200,186 
3.796 












SEE™™°";:::::: 
































































tlnit«d StBtes a! Amerio*: 
CommcKiBl Cable Co 

Vi.«.«.-g.Uj^fc.^..... 


4,900 

■■3;697 






Total 


B22.342 


11.367 


933.709 


a.3S7.Tl« 


184.438 


3.572,164 


879.835 



ora belonging to the Feruviac 
I and 2,320 miles of eonductora 
— Eledjval Trade* Direfi&ry. 



MILEAGE OF LINES AND WIRES, NUMBER OF OFFICES, AND 
TRAFFIC OF THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH COMPANY. 



















Ayenwenar 


Ending 


Hil«»of 
Line. 


«^of 


tr„; 






ExpeDBBa 








Bent. 








TqU. 


Cost. 
















































































































20.B53.215l 8,214.472 







9 (probably 10,000.000) sent < 



T under railroad 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



187 



The greatly increased mileage since 
1880 is principally due to the fact that 
in 1881 the Western Union Telegraph 
Company absorbed by purchase all the 
lines of the American Union and the 
Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Corn- 



cable companies, operating eight At- 
lantic cables, and guarantees 5 per cent 
annual dividends on the stock of the 
American Telegraph and Cable Com- 
pany ; amount $14,000,000. 
Besides the ^bove, there are new 



THE MORSE TELEGRAPH CODE. 
(Used in the United States.) 



A- « 

t— ■ 






M-^^—^N 0' 

-— jr- K- 



(/- - 



r 



9 



7 — 



P£/*IOO - - — — - . COMHAm^m.^ - -^ COLON {K.O.)'m— - — - - SEMICOLON'^ ^— - ^— - 

OR (S. /.^ - - - - - 
INTgKROtATlON'-^ - - — - EXCLAMATION'— — — » - /^ARACRA^N .— — — » — 

fiAReMTN£Sl9~ '•^ '■"m ^^ OR AT BC0INMIM9 (R N.)» ■m. ^ ^ ^ ._ • OR AT CNO (PiY.) - " ^ » " -- -- 

QUOTATION .— ..— .^.— OR AT BCOINmMO (QN.)^ -^^— — ^— ^ OR AT £ND (QJJ 

QV9TATI0tl WITMIH quOTATIOm (9-X.)m — -^ — - — « • . OASM (o. *;)— - - - .— — - 

tniOKHLHtt--^ - - - — - OR Ar-WBOifUtlHM. (v.X.J- - — - — - - OR AT €NO (v.J.) - - — — - — - 

NY^NeN(M.)(.)^ - . . - ««* - . DOLLAR SIOn(s.X.) - - - - — — - - OtClMAL ROINT'-^— — — 



THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH CODE. 

(The Cable Code.) 

mUepttel at LonUoH- ■f903 
/ £ 3 •* S 



Bar ^/J»r ^rmetict% 

COMMA • — • • ^^ — - 
tXCLAMATlON '•^ — • 



«— — ^ — ^ -^— — ^. ^KMtOO — — — — — — 9£MlC<H.OM — — 

eoLOM — — ^ — ^ — — — tuTemmoBArtoM — — — •— — -• mqval • 

— ^— MY^HtM OA OASH — - - — - — ^AAKMTMeJlS — - — 



MAmOH' 



cmoa* 



9vorArtOM- -— - - ^-1- i/MO£ACM»e - — — — — — 
iMviTATiOM TO rmAn/aMir ^-^ ~ — ^ iv^t/r • '— ~ ~ • 

•TAtfr/ r*</# M««</ cnly in rtptUt iona an el in tmxl -u^rifttn entirely tnfi^t4res 

« 



panies, the former having previously 
in operation over 12,000 miles of line 
and the latter 8,706 miles. Capital 
stock of the Western Union, $100,000,- 
000. 

The Western Union has exclusive 
contracts with several international 



lines of telegraph which have complied 
with the Ignited States telegraph act 
of 18()(), and are operating wires with 
or without connection with railway 
companies in many parts of the coun- 
try. — Statistical Abstract of the United 
States, 



183 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MILEAGE OP LINES AND WIRES, NUMBER OP OFFICES. AND 
MESSAGES SENT, OP THE POSTAL TELEGRAPH 

CABLE COMPANY. 





Year. 


-Miles of 
Poles and 

Cable 

Operated 

but not 

Owned. 


Miles of 

Poles and 

Cable 

Owned. 


MUesof 
Wires. 


Offices. 


Messages. 

1 


1385.. 
1897 . . 
1903.. 




"'i6,bii" 

21,319 


2,811 
21.098 
27.482 


23.587 
178,438 
276,245 


260 

9,875 

19.977 


1,428,690 
13.628,064 
21,600,577 



The aggregate mileage of telegraph 
lines which carry varying numbers of 
wires, according to the business re- 
quirements of the localities through 
which they run, in the United States 



open for public business exceeds 210,- 
000 miles, besides railways. Govern- 
ment, private and telephonic lines ; 
the length of the latter not being ascer- 
tainable. 



STATISTICS OF THE AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH 

COMPANY AND OPERATING COMPANIES ASSOCIATED 

WITH IT ON JANUARY 1, FROM 1897 TO 1903. 



Data. 



Exchanges 

Branch officex 

Miles of wire: 

On poles 

On Duilding.^ 

Underground 

Submarine 

Total miles of exchange service wire 

Total circuits 

Total employees 

Total subscribers 

Length of wire operated miles. . 

Instruments in hands of licensees under rental at 

beginning of year No. . . 

Daily exchange connectioi^ " . . 

Average daily calls per subscriber '* . . 

lieceive'l in rentals of telephones dollars . . 

Dividends paid stockholders * ' 

Capital " 

Gross earnings ' * 

Net earnings * * 

1 Information not collected separately. 



1897. 



967 
832 

286,632 

12,594 

234,801 

2,818 
536,845 
204,645 
14,425 
325,244 
805.711 

772,627 
2,630,071 

8.3 
1,597,959 
3,082,949 

S! 130,845 
4,169,675 




1.239 
1,187 

509,036 

15,087 

489,250 

3,404 

1.016,777 

422,620 

25,741 

632,946 

1,518.609 

1,580,101 
5.173,803 

8.2 
2,427,038 
4.078,601 
89,100,500 
9,534.499 
5,486,058 



1.514 
1,861 

1,109,017 

1.328.685 

6.048 

2.443.750 

742,654 

50.350 

1,277.983 

3,281,662 

3.150,320 

9.322,951 

7.3 



TELEGRAPHIC TIME SIGNALS SENT OUT AT NOON DAILY, 
EXCEPT SUNDAYS AND HOLIDAYS. BY THE U. S. 

NAVAL OBSERVATORY. 



The time service of the TT. S. Naval 
Observatory has continued regularly to 
send out daily telegraphic time signals 
at noon, seventy-fifth meridian time, 
with an average error for the year of 
only Os 15. The widespread impor- 



tance of this service is shown by the 
fact that it furnishes absolute standard 
time not only for navigators at all the 
principal seaports, but for the entire 
country except the Pacific Coast, which 
gets a similar signal from the Naval 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ObservaCor; at tbe Mare Island Yard. 
Moreover, all of this invsluable ser- 
vice is rendered to the country at no 
expense whatever to the GovemmeDt, 
inaamuch as it is merel; incidental to 
the work end facilities required for 
the rating of chronometers for naval 
vesselB. 

To illustrate the wide distribution 
of this time signal, it is of interest 1o 
record the fact that it goes out daily 
over the wires of the Western Ucion 
Telegraph Company, the Postal Tele- 
graph Company, the American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company, the 
electrical department of tbe District of 
Co Iambi a, and the National Electric 
Supply Company. There are now 18 
Government time-balls and some 40,- 
OOO public and private clocfes corrected 
daily by naval time signals. 

The entire series of noon signals 
sent out daily over the wires is shown 
graphically in tbe accompanying dia- 
gram. This represents the signals as 
they would he recorded on a chrono- 
graph, where a pen draws a line upon 
a sheet of paper moving along at a 
uniform rate beneath it, and is actuat- 
ed by an electro-magnet so as to make 
a iOK at every tick ot the transmitting 
The electric connections of the 






juch a 



. . . shown by tbe breaks in the 
record. These breaks enable anyone 
who is listening to a sounder in a tele- 
graph or telephone office to recognize 
tbe middle and end of each minute, 
especially the end of the last minute, 
when there is a longer interval that is 
followed by the noon signal. During 
this last long interval, or lO-aeeond 
break, those who are in charge of lime 
balls and of clocks that are corrected 
electrically at noon throw their local 
lines iuto circuit so that the noon sig- 
nal drops the time balls and corrects 
the clocks. 

This series of noon signals is sent 
continuously over the wires all over 
tbe United States for an interval of 
five minutes immediately preceding 
noon. For the country east of the 
Rocky Mountains the signals are sent 
out by the Observatory at Washing- 
ton and end at noon of the 75th meri- 
dian, standard time, corresponding to 
11 a. m. of the Mth meridian and 10 
a. m. of tbe 105th meridian. For the 
country west of the Rocky Mountains 
they are sent out hv the Observatory at 
the Mare Island Navy Yard, Califor- 
nia, and end at noon of the 120th meri- 
dian, the standard time meridian of the 
PaciGc Coast. The transmitting clock 





1 


'S -A 


-■■ 


\ I 




?'* 


: ' i 


8 




9 - - 


■-] 




\i 








:' 

- •- r 




^ 






; ■• ■• 


...II 



190 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



that »eDd» out the si^^naUi is corrected 
very accurately, shortly before noon, 
from the mean of three standard clocks 
that are rated by star sights with a 
meridian transit instrument. The 
noon signal is seldom In error to an 
amount greater than one or two tenths 
of a second^ altboogh a tenth more 



may be added by the relays in use on 
long telegraph lines. Electric trans- 
mission over a continuous wire is 
practically instantaneous. For time 
signals at other times than noon, simi- 
lar signals can be sent out by tel^raph 
or telephone from the same clock that 
sends out the noon signal. 



STANDARD TIME 



The desirability of using a uniform 
standard of time, independent of local 
time, was rec:ognized at a very early 
date. The differences of local time 
arise from the use of solar motion as 
a time-measurer. We call the time noon 
when the sun is opposite the meridian 
of the place where we are living, and 
in consequence of the sun's motion 
from east to west, the more easterly 
of two places will have the earlier 
time, the difference in hours being ex- 
actly l-15th of the longitudinal differ- 
ence in degrees. In other words, 15 
degrees of longitude correspond to a 
time difference of one hour. Peculiar 
difficulties were encountered in this 
country on account of its vast longi- 
tudinal extent, and the inconvenience 
l>€came very serious with the exten- 
sion of the railroad and telegraph sys- 
tems. 

The movement which resulted in the 
adoption of the present time system 
may be said to have originated in a 
report on the subject by the Ameri- 
can Meteorological Society, which was 
submitted at a meeting of the General 
Time Convention held on Oct. 18, 
1881, proposing a single standard for 
the whole country and suggesting the 
hour theory as an alternative proposi- 
tion. The matter was referred to the 
secretary, Mr. W. T. Allen, and com- 
munications were invited from parties 
interested. The proposal to fix one 
standard of time for the whole country 
was supported by many competent au- 
thorities ; but, although there was 
much to recommend it from a scien- 
tific point of view, it was found to be 
impracticable on account of the many 
discrepancies which would occur be- 
tween time by the clock and solar 
time. The system which found most 
favor, and was finally adopted, pro- 
posed the division of the country into 
four time sections, each of 15 degrees 
longitude (7^2 degrees or 30 minutes 
on each side of the meridian), com- 
mencing with the 75th meridian. In- 
side each of these sections time was to 



be uniform, the time of each section 
differing from that next to it by ex- 
actly one hour. A scheme was drawn 
up in accordance with these principles, 
and at a meeting of the convention 
held in April, 1883, the following reso- 
lutions were adopted : 

(1.) That all roads now using Bos- 
ton, New York, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more, Toronto, Hamilton, or Wash- 
ington time as standard, based upon 
meridians east of those points or ad- 
jacent thereto, shall be governed by the 
75th meridian or Eastern time (4 min- 
utes slower than New York time.) 

(2.) That all roads now using Co- 
lumbus, Savannah, Atlanta, Cincin- 
nati, Louisville, Indianapolis, Chicago, 
Jefferson City, St. Paul, or Kansas 
City time, or standards based upon 
meridians adjacent thereto, shall be 
run by the 90th meridian time, to be 
called Central time, one hour slower 
than Eastern time and 9 minutes slow- 
er than Chicago time. 

(3.) That west of the above-named 
sections the roads shall be run by the 
105th and the 120th meridian times 
respectively, two and three hours 
slower than Eastern time. 

(4.) That all changes from one hour 
standard to another shall be made at 
the termini of roads or at the ends of 
divisions. 

The advantages of this method of 
reckoning time are obvious. Every 
town, instead of regulating its business 
by its own local time, uses the time of 
the nearest of the standard meridians, 
and the difference in time in actual use 
in any two cities will be an exact num- 
ber of hours, instead of a number of 
hours, minutes and seconds. A trav- 
eler, therefore, wishing to reset his 
watch, need only change the hour, 
without paying any attention to the 
minutes. Having proceeded, e. g., 
from New York to any town within 
the Central time zone, he has simply 
to set his watch one hour slow of New 
York time, and need not compare it 
with any of the local clocks. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 191 




SCIENTIFIC AMEgtICAN RBFEglENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



193 



SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHS.* 



The submarine telegraphs of the 
world number 1,815. Their aggregate 
length is nearly 221.292,441 miles; 
their total cost is estimated at $300,- 
000,000, and the number of messages 
annually transmitted over them at 
more than 6,000,000. All the grand di- 
visions of the earth are now connected 
by their wires, and from country to 
country and island to island the 
thoughts and words of mankind are 
instantaneously transmitted. Darkest 
Africa now converses daily with en- 
lightened Europe or America, and the 
great events of the morning are known 
in the evening throughout the inhabi- 
ted world. In August, 1902, authority 
was granted to the Commercial Pacific 
Cable Company of the United States 
to construct a cable line from the Pa- 
cific coast of the United States to the 
Hawaiian Islands, Guam, and the 
Philippine Islands, and the Asiatic 
coast, with a branch line to Japan. 
The first message was sent over it 
July 4, 1903. 

Tlie British Pacific cable was com- 
pleted on October 3l8t and was oi)ened 
for traflSc on December 8th, 1902. The 
cable is "all British,*' and runs from 
Vancouver, on the west coast of Can- 
ada, to Fanning Island, Fiji, and Nor- 
folk Island in the Pacific, and thence 
by means of two cables to New Zea- 
land and Queensland respectively. Its 
total length is about 7,800 miles. 

The developments in the construc- 
tion, laying and operating of subma- 
rine cables and in their availability for 
general public use have quite kept pace 
with their extension throughout the 
civilized world. From a mere gutta- 
percha coated wire the submarine con- 
ductor of electricity has developed in a 
half century into a great cable having 
a central copper core surrounded by 
numerous layers of non-conducting 
material and protected by a steel wire 
wound spirally about it, and in turn 
further protected by waterproof and 
insect-proof wrappings. From a steam- 
er-towed ocean barge the facilities for 
laying have developed to a fleet of 
nearly fifty steam vessels, with every 
facility for laying, picking-up, splicing, 
and repairing the cable lines. From a 
speed rate of three words per minute, 
which was made on the first trans-At- 
lantic cables, the speed of transmission 
has been accelerated to fifty words per 
minute, and even more than that, with 



the automatic transmitters now coming 
into use with cable lines, while by the 
duplexing of the cables their carrying 
capacity is doubled. From a cost to 
the sender of $100 per message, which 
was originally charged on the first 
trans- At Ian tic cables, the rate from 
New York to London and the great 
cities on the continent of Europe has 
fallen to 25 cents per word. From 
several hours required for the trans- 
mission of a message and receipt 
of a response, the time has been so re- 
duced that messages from the Execu- 
tive Mansion to the battlefield at San- 
tiago were sent and a response received 
within twelve minutes, while a message 
sent from the House of Representa- 
tives in Washington to the House of 
Parliament in London in the chess 
match of 1898 was transmitted and the 
reply received in thirteen and one-half 
seconds. 

The effect of this ready and inexpen- 
sive method of transmitting thoughts 
and words from continent to continent 
throughout the civilized world is ap- 
parent in the rapid development of in- 
ternational commerce since it began. 
The first successful cable line between 
the United States and Europe was 
put into operation in 1866. In that 
year our commerce with Europe 
amounted to $652,232,289 ; in 1876, to 
$728,959,053: in 1886. to $898,911,- 
504; in 1896, to $1,091,682,874, and 
in 1898, to $1,279,739,936, while our 
commerce with the whole world, which 
in 1866 amounted to $783,671,588, had 
by 1902 reached the enormous sum of 
$2,285,000,000. 

During the last seven years Ger- 
many has laid 7,375 miles of ocean 
cables, at a cost of about $6,- 
000,000. In 1898 a cable, 73 miles 
long, was laid between Sassnitz and 
Trelleborg, and German Southwest 
Africa was connected with the exist- 
ing cable system by a line 154 miles 
long; and in 1900 the first German- 
American cable was laid between Em- 
den and New York, by the Azores, a 
distance of 4,813 miles. About the 
same time the first German cables 
along the Chinese coast were laid ; one 
of these was from Tsin-tau (Kiao- 
chau) to Chifu, 285 miles long, and 
the second connected the former place 
with Shanghai and is 438 miles. In 
1901 a fifth cable connecting Germany 
and England was laid, as well as a 



* From the Summary of Commerce and Finance for July, 1902, The figures are now some- 
what larger. 



194 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



telephone cable from Fehmarn to La- 
land. A second German cable to New 
York by the Azores has been com- 
menced and will be completed before 
the end of 1904, wiiile a line to Vigo, 
1,300 miles in length, has been made. 
Germany is contemplating an extension 
of her cables by constructing lines be- 
tween Alenado and Guam, in the Car- 
oline Islands, and the Pelew Islands 
and Shanghai. 

An International Telegraph Con- 
ference opened in London, May 26th, 
1903, all the States adhering to the 
International Telegraph Convention 
being represented. The Conference re- 



vised the rules as to the use of code 
and cipher language in international 
telegraphy. The decision of the last 
Conference, that code telegraphy 
should, after a certain date, be limited 
to the words contained in the official 
vocabulary prepared by the Interna- 
tional Telegraph Bureau, has been re- 
scinded. In future, any combination 
of letters not exceeding ten in number 
will be passed as a code word, provided 
that it is pronounceable according to 
the usage of any of the languages to 
which code words have hitherto been 
limited — namely, English, French, Ger- 
man, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portu- 



SUMMARY OF CABLES OWNED BY GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATIONS. 

Partly extracted from the Official Documents issued by the International Bureau of 
Telegraphic Administrations, Berne. With "The Electrician's" corrections to date and 
additions. 



Coimtry. 



Argentine Republic. 

Austria 

Bahamas 

Belgium 

Brazil 



British Guiana 

British India, Indo-European Telegraph Department 

Government Administration 

Bulgaria , 

Canada 

Ceylon and India (Joint) 

China 

Denmark 

Dutch Indies 

France and Algeria 

France (West Africa) 

French Indo-China (CJochin China, Tonquin, and Amoy) 

Germany 

Great Britain and Ireland 

Greece 



Holland 

Inter-Colonial System 

Italy 

Japan 

Macao 

New Caledonia 

New South Wales 

New Zealand 

Norway 

Portugal 

Queensland 

Russia in Europe, and the C^aucasus. 

Russia in Asia 

Senegal 

South Australia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Tasmania 

Turkey in Europe and Asia 

Victoria 

Western Australia 



Total. 



No. of 
Cables 


Length in Nautical Miles. 


with One 






or More 


Of 


Of 


Cores. 


Cables. 


0)nductor8. 


13 


59.824 


138.544 


47 


224 250 


235.339 


1 


211.000 


211.000 


12 • 


54.514 


279.850 


23 


37.779 


66.414 


5 


84.000 


95.000 


157 


2,168.013 


1,711.885 


1 


0.538 


0.538 


26 


334.750 


334.750 


2 


66.300 


66.300 


1 


113.000 


113.000 


156 


171. 100* 


880.300 


7 


891.490 


891.490 


156 


4,913.824 


5,847.200 


3 


1,567.238 


1,567.238 


2 


1,697.326 


1,697.326 


189 


2,796.695 


5,654.977 


1177 


2,265.830 


7,551.994 


46 


54.931 


54.931 


32 


241.543 


780.449 


5 


7,837.770 


7,837.770 


36 


1,063.088 


1,112.458 


103 


2,154.883 


2,851.173 


1 


1.930 


1.930 


1 


1.000 


1.000 


147 


61 . 789 


108.459 


16 


285.682 


290.466 


322 


291.489 


375.787 


4 


115.050 


115.050 


19 


52.100 


67.520 


12 


328.282 


408.387 


1 


70.157 


70.157 


1 


3.000 


3.000 


3 


49.360 


49.360 


15 


1,771.346 


1,771.346 


117 


208.488 


368.431 


2 


9.827 


13.400 


4 


4.750 


19.000 


21 


346.558 


368.734 


1 


4.500 


4.500 


1 


3.750 


3.750 


1,378 


32,609.748 


44,006.813 



Including half of Cables owned jointly with other Administrations. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



195 



guese, and Latin. Other combinations 
of letters will be counted at five let- 
ters to the word, the prohibition of let- 
ter cipher which has hitherto prevailed 
being removed. These alterations, to- 
gether with a number of other changes 



in the detailed regulations, take effect 
on July 1st, 1904. The above informa- 
tion is taken from Reports of the Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Department of 
Commerce and Labor, and Hazell's 
Annual. 



SUMMARY OF CABLES OWNED BY PRIVATE COMPANIES. 



Private Companies. 



African Direct Telegraph Company 

Amazon Telegraph Company 

Anglo-American Telegraph Company 

Black Sea Telegraph Company 

Canadian Pacific Kailroad Company 

Central and South American Telegraph Company 

Commercial Cable Company 

Commercial Pacific 

Compagnie Frangaise dee C&hles Tdldgraphiques , 

Cuba Submarine Telegraph Company 

Deutsch Atlantische Telegraphen-Gesellschaft. . 

Deutsche See-Telegr&phen-Gesellschaft 

Direct Spanish Telegraph Company 

Direct United States Cable Company , 

Direct West India Cable Company 

Eastern Telegraph Company 

Eastern Extension, Australasia and China Telegraph Company. 

Europe and Azores Telegraph Company 

Eastern and South African Telegraph Company 

Great Northern Telegraph Company 

Halifax and Bermuda Cable Company 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha and Telegraph Works Company. . , 

Indo-European Telegraph Company 

Mexican Telegraph Company 

Pacific and European Telegraph Company. 

River Plate Telegraph Company 

South American Cable Company 

Spanish National Submarine Telegraph Company 

United States and Hajrti Telegrapn and Cable Company 

West African Telegraph Company 

West Coast of America Telegraph Company 

West India and Panama Telegraph Company 

1 Western Telegraph Company 

Western Union Telegraph Company 



Total. 



No. of 

Cables 

with One 

or More 

Cores. 



10 

15 

14 

1 

9 

15 

11 

4 

32 

10 

3 

1 

3 

2 

2 

139 

34 

2 

14 

28 

1 

2 

3 

3 



3 
2 
1 
1 
6 
7 
24 
27 
8 



437 



Length of 

Cables 

in Nautical 

Miles. 



3,031.000 

1.326.000 

9,507 

337 

53 

7,600 

13,212 

7,846 

12,102 

1,162 

6,057.868 

1,111.979 

723 

3.099 

1,265 

39.749 

24,802 

1,053.150 

9,068.052 

7,003.000 

849.960 

137.678 

22.000 

1,529.000 



660 
147 
940 
500 
310 
747 
423 
000 



460 
958 
300 
360 
240 



138.000 
2,065.224 

927.770 
1.389.000 
1,470.867 
1,975.100 
4,639.000 
17.283.000 
7.351.000 



188,682.693 



^ Including London Platino-Brazilian and Montevidean and Brazilian Companies. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



Ownership. 



Government Administrations. 
Private Companies 



Total. . .. 



No. of 

Cables 

with One 

or More 

Cores. 




1.815 



Length of 

Cables in 

Nautical 

Miles. 



32.609.748 
188,682.693 



221,292.441 



— Electrical Trades Directory. 



196 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFEEE!NCE BOOK. 




SUBMARINE CABLES AND 

^For explanation of letlen and numban 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE. 
flhowa OQ tbo above msp, sH pftfC 



198 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION PERTAINING TO SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH 
LINES, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION, 1902. 



Lea^h of first successful cable, 

miles 25 

Length of first successful Atlan- 
tic cable, miles 2,134 

Lensth of direct United States 
cable ( BallinskelliKs Bay, Ire- 
land, to Halifax, Nova Scotia), 
miles 2,664 

Length of French cable (Brest, 
France, to Cape Cod, Massa- 
chusetts), miles 3,250 

Distance from San Francisco to 

Hawaii, miles 2,069 

Distance from Hawaii to Wake 

Island, miles 2,040 

Distance from Wake Island to 

Guam, miles 1,290 

Distance from Guam to Manila, 

miles 1,620 

Distance from Manila to Asiatic 

Coast, miles 630 

Depth of water in which first suc- 
cessful cable was laid, feet. . . . 120 
Depth of Atlantic cable lines, feet. 14,000 
Greatest depth at which cable 

has been laid between Haiti 

and Windward Islands, feet . . 18,000 

Greatest depth between San 

Francisco and Hawaii, feet. . . 18,300 

Greatest depth between Hawaii 

and Manila (estimated), feet. . 19,600 

Capital of first Atlantic cable 

company $1,760,000 

Contract price of cable for first 

Atlantic line $1,126,000 

Contract price of cable for first 

successful Atlantic cable line . . $3,(X)0,000 
Present cost per mile of cable 

(estimate by Bright) $750 

Cost of laying per mile, average . . $376 

Number of words per minute sent 

on first line 3 

Number of words per minute on 

first successful Atlantic cable 

line at beginning. • 8 

Nimiber of words per minute on 

first successful Atlantic cable 

line after experimental stage . . 15 

Present rate of speed (without 

duplex) 25 



50 

90 

16 
13 
25 



$100 

$50 

$1 

$0.26 

193.000 



Present rate by automatic sys- 
tem (without duplex) 

Increased use of wire by duplex- 
ing, per cent. 

Number of cables laid across the 
North Atlantic 

Number now working 

Average life of cable, years 

Original rates for messages, first 
Atlantic lines (minimum 20 
words or less) 

On first reduction (minimum, 20 
words or less) 

Original word rate, without mini- 
mum 

Present word rate, without mini- 
mum 

Length of telegraph cables of the 
world, miles 

Length of land lines of the world 
(1898) (estimate by Bright), 
miles See page 185 

Cost of cable lines of the world 

(estimate by Bright) $250,000,000 

Cost of land lines of the world 

(estimate by Bright) $310,000,000 

Total length of telegraph wires, 
land and cable (estimate by 
Bright), miles 

Number of cable messages sent 
annually (estimate by Bright). 

Per cent of world's lines built by 
governments 

Per cent built by private enter- 
prise 

Time of message and answer, 
Washington to Santiago battle- 
field ana return, minutes 

Time of message, Washington to 
London and reply in chess 
match of 1898, seconds 

dumber of cables owned by 
nations 

Length of cables owned by 
nations, miles 

Number of cables owned by pri- 
vate companies 

Length of cables owned by pri- 
vate companies, miles 

Longest single line without inter- 
mediate landing, miles 3,250 



2,300,000 

6,000,000 

10 

90 



12 



1,380 

21,528 

370 

171,679 



a h c d e J 



THE CABLE ALPHABET. 

n I J A ^ m n or p 




The cut above shows the Morse (Uode as recorded by a syphon recorder. Sjrphon 
recorders are used for receiving cable messages. It will be observed that the spaces are 
represented by horizontal lines, dots by loops above the space lines, and dashes by loops 
below the space lines. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



199 



SUBMARINE CABLES AND INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE. 



The International Date Line is an 
imaginary line drawn through the Pa- 
cific Ocean irregularly, but trending 
generally in a north and south direc- 
tion. The islands of the Pacific Ocean 
are separated in such a way that all 
those which lie to the east of it carry 
the same date as the United States, 
while all those on the west of it use 
the same date as Japan and Australia. 
Our map on pages 19G and 197 shows 
this date line. 



The submarine cable connections 
that are marked with letters represent 
the telegraph cables that are owned 
and operated by sovereign states. 
Those that are marked with numbers 
represent telegraph cables that are 
owned and operated by private com- 
panies. The explanation of the names 
of the countries that the letters rep- 
resent and of the names of the com- 
panies that the numbers stand for is 
subjoined : 



A. Austria. 

B. Belgium. 

Br. Great Britain. 

C. China. 

C. C. Cochin China. 

D. Denmark. 
F. France. 



GOVERNMENTS. 

G. Germany. 

Gr. Greece. 

I. Italy. 

J. Japan. 

M. Mexico. 

N. Netherlands. 



PRIVATE COMPANIES. 



Sw. Sweden. 
T. Turkey. 
U.S. United States. 
P. Portugal. 
R. Russia. 
S. Spain. 



1. l;irect Spanish Telegraph Company. 

2. Halifax and Bermuda Cable Company. 

3. Spanish National Submarine Telegraph 

Comi>any. 

4. West African Telegraph Company. 

5. Black Sea Telegraph Company. 

6. Great Northern Telegraph Company. 

7. Eastern Telegraph Company. 

8. Eastern and South African Telegraph 

Company. 

9. Eastern Extension, Australasia, and 

China Telegraph Company. 

10. Anglo-American Telegraph Company. 

11. Direct United States Cable Company. 

12. Compagnie Frangaise des C&bies Teld- 

graphioues. 

13. Western Union Telegraph Company. 

14. The Commercial Cable Company. 

15. Brazilian Submarine Telegraph Com- 

pany. 



16. African Direct Telegraph Company. 

17. Cuba Submarine Telegraph Company. 

18. West India and Panama Telegraph 

Company. 

19. Deutsche See-Tclegraphen-Gesellschaft 

20. Western and Brazil Telegraph Com- 

pany. 

21. River Plate Telegraph Company. 

22. Mexican Telegraph Company. 

23. Central and South American Telegraph 

Company. 

24. West Coast of America Telegraph Com- 

pany. 
26. South American Cable Company. 

26. Europe and Azores Telegraph Company. 

27. United States and Hayti Telegraph and 

Cable Company. 

28. Direct West India Cable Company. 

29. The Pacific Commercial Cable Com- 

pany. 



WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 



Wireless telegraphy is, in theory, 
closely allied to heliography, or signal- 
ing with flashes of light. The light 
used, however, is produced electrically 
and is invisible to the naked eye, owing 
to the fact that it is made up of very 
long waves, called Hertzian waves, 
which vibrate too slowly to affect the 
retina. The eye can only discern 
waves which make from 4,000 billions 
to 7,000 billions vibrations per min- 
ute. However, the Hertzian ray re- 
sembles light in that it can be reflected 
by a metallic plate and can be refract- 
ed by a prism of pitch, can be brought 
to a focus with a pitch lens, and may 
be polarized. Owing to the great 
length of the Hertzian waves, almost 
all substances are transparent to them. 
The Hertzian waves were discovered 
by Professor Heinrich Hertz, a young 



German philosopher, during his ex- 
periments with the spark discharge of 
Leyden jars and of the Ruhmkorff coil 
in 1886 and 1887. 

He found that when a spark leaped 
the gap between the terminals, electric 
oscillations took place in these termi- 
nals which set up magnetic waves in 
the surrounding space, capable in turn 
of setting up similar oscillations in 
any adjacc'nt conductor lying at an 
angle to them. The waves were detect- 
ed by using a "resonator," which was 
merely a circle or a rectangle of cop- 
per wire formed with a gap in one side. 
When the induction coil was in opera- 
tion and the resonator was held near 
the coil, a tiny stream of sparks would 
leap across the resonator gap. To bet- 
ter understand this phenomenon take 
as a crude example two vertical rods 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



I wjuwiziivMrj (tifi 



STATION. 

wavex in the water just aa the electric 
oacil Nation produces waves in the 
ether. These spread out in all directions 
and on reaching the other float cause 



it to oscillate up and down, just aa the 
magnetic waves produce electric os- 
cillations in the resonator. 

Without going into a detailed his- 
tory of the development of wireless 
telegraphy from Ilez'tz's eiperimeots, it 
may be stated that the essential differ- 
ence between the apparatus used by 
Hertz in his experiments and the sev- 
eral systems now commonly in use lies 
in the receiver. The transmitter is 
practically the same. A vertical wire 
called the antenna is connected to one 
terminal of the coil, and the other ter- 
minal is connected with the earth, the 
purpose being to inci'ease the electrical 
capacity of the terminal rods and pro- 
duce larger waves. Instead oE produc- 
ing the oscillations by means of an in- 
duction coil, they are now ordinarily 
produced by a dynamo and a step-up 
transformer except for telegraphing 
over short distances. But even with 
these changes we would not be able to 
telegraph over any appreciable distance 
if dependent n|)OQ the Hertz resonator 
for receiving a message, for, owing to 
the fact that the waves spread out in 
all directions from the transmitting 
antenna, the receiving antenna is acted 
upon by a very small proportion of 
the power expended by the transmitter, 
and this proportion decreases very rap- 
idly as the distance between the trans- 
mitter and the receiver increases. In 
order then to detect the rays at long 
distances, a very sensitive instrument 
called the "coherer" has been invent- 
ed. The colierer in its usual form 
consists of a glass tube with two metal 
pistons fitted therein between which a 
quantity of nickel filings is placed. 
The latter forms an imperfect electri- 
cal contact between the pistons, and 
takes the place of the spark gap in 
the receiving antenna. When the os- 
cillations are set up in the antenna by 
the Hertzian waves, due to their high 
pressure or voltage, they break through 
the imperfect contact of the coherer, 
causing the filings thecein to cohere or 
string together and thus produce a 
much better electric path through the 
coherer. The action is microscopic 
and cannot he detected with the naked 
eye. However, the coherer, aside from 
being a part of the antenna circuit, is 
also made a part of a local battery cir- 
cuit, which contains a telegraph re- 
ceiver, and whenever the electric os- 
cillations open a good patli through 
the filings for the local circuit, tne 
telegraph instrument will he energized 
by the local battery only. In order 
to brenk this path after the oscillations 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



301 



have ceased, or, in other words, to 
caose the filings to decohere, they are 
constantly jarred apart by means of 
the "tapper," which is in reality an 
electric bell with the gong removed 
and the clapper striking the coherer 
tube instead. Carbon granules may be 
substituted for metallic filings, and in 
this case no tapper is necessary, the 
coherer being self-restoring. 

In transmitting messages a tele- 
graph key in the primary circuit of the 
induction coil is operated according to 
the usual Morse code, and this causes 
sparks to leap the spark gap at corre- 
sponding intervals. These signals will 
then be transmitted by the Hertzian 
waves to the receiving station, where 
they will be recorded by the telegraph 



I 



SPARK 
GAP 




TRANSMITTING KEY 



GROUNO 



TRANSMITTER. 

receiver. The coherer is not by any 
means the only wave detector in use. 
Every wireless telegraph company has 
one or more different types of detect- 
ors, but for the most part they are all 
based on the principle of the imperfect 
contact. Marconi's "magnetic detect- 
or" is a notable exception. The pres- 
ent efforts of inventors in the field of 
wireless telegraphy are directed mainly 
to the development of a system which 
will not allow one equipment to inter- 
fere with or suffer interference from 
any other equipment. This is essential 
in order to prevent unauthorized per- 
sons from intercepting and reading the 
messages. They aim to effect this re- 
sult by synchronizing or tuning the 
transmitting and receiving stations so 
that they will give oscillations and re- 
spond to oscillations pf a certain pe« 



riodicity only. Up to the present time 
these efforts have met with only par- 
tial success. 



PRINCIPAL 



SYSTEMS OF 
TELEGRAPHY. 



WIRELESS 



The best known systems of wireless 
telegraphy in the United States are the 
Marconi, the De Forest and the Fes- 
senden systems, and one or two sys- 



I 



COHERER 

-G 



^ 



LOCAL 
CIRCUIT 




iM«w^-*t£L, 



BATTERY 



TELEPHONE 



GROUND'^ 

REGEIYEB. 

tems used by the Government. In 
England, aside from the Marconi sys- 
tem, are the Lodge-Muirhead and the 
Orling-Armstrong systems. The Slaby- 
Arco and the Braun-Siemens-Halske 
systems are used in Germany. In 
France, Branley, Rochefort, Tissot 
and Captain Ferrie have made impor- 
tant developments, and in Russia Po- 
poff early invented a system very simi- 
lar to that of Marconi. 

THE MARCONI SYSTEM. 

The Marconi system, developed by 
Signor Guglielmo Marconi, a young 



202 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Italian inventor, is the pioneer sys- 
tem of Hertzian wave telegraphy. In 
1896 Marconi accepted an invitation 
from the British Telegraph Depart- 
ment to make experiments with his 
system in England. In the spring of 

1899 the first wireless message was 
transmitted across the English channel. 
On November 15, 1,899, the first daily 
newspaper ever published on an At- 
lantic liner was issued on the steamer 
St. Paul, containing news transmitted 
from shore by wireless telegraphy. In 

1900 the system was adopted by the 
British Admiralty and installed on 
their battleships and cruisers. On De- 
cember 12, 1901, Marconi succeeded in 
sending the signal for the letter "S" 
across the Atlantic from Poldhu, Corn- 
wall, to St. John's, Newfoundland. 
But his experiments were interrupted 
by a cable company which owned a 
monopoly of all telegraph communica- 
tions with Newfoundland. In March, 



1902, Marconi crossed the Atlantic on 
the "Philadelphia," which had been 
equipped with his instruments, and 
was able to receive intelligible mes- 
sages at a distance of 1,551 miles from 
the Poldhu station. In October of the 
same year Marconi sailed from Eng- 
land to Nova Scotia, and received 
messages from his Poldhu sta^tion 
throughout the voyage. On January 
18, 1903, the first wireless message 
from the United States to England 
was sent by President Roosevelt to 
King Edward. In March, 1903, the 
Marconi Company undertook to fur- 
nish the London "Times" with daily 
wireless despatches from the United 
States, but they were discontinued 
after a couple of despatches had been 
sent. The Italian Government, in 

1903, voted $160,000 for the erection 
of a Marconi station in Italy to com- 
municate with this country. 



STATIONS EQUIPPED WITH MARCONI APPARATUS. 



Country. 



Belgium. 
Canada . 



China. . . , 
Germany. 



Great Britain and Ire- 
land (List incom- 
plete) 



HoUand. 



Italy (List incomplete) - 



Montenegro. . 
United States. 



Location. 



Nieuport 

Table Head, Cape Breton. 

Pekin 

Tientsin 

Hongkong 

Borkum Isle 

Borkum Riff 

Caister 

Chelmsford 

Fraserburgh 

Frinton 

Haven, Poole Harbor. . . . 

Holyhead 

Poldhu 

Withernsea 

Fastnet Rock 

Malin Head 

Inishtrahull 

Culver Cliff 

Dover 

Plymouth 

Portland 

Portsmouth 

Rane Head 

Roches Point 

Scilly Islands 

Sheerness 

Amsterdam 

Darignano 

Genoa 

Gulf of Aranci 

Maddalena 

Monte Mario 

Palmaria 

Pisa 

Punta di Bela 

Rome 

San Vito 

Bari 

Antivari 

Great Neck, Long Island. 



Operated by 



Belgian Government 

Marconi W. T. Co. of Canada 

Italian Government 
it « i 

British Government 

North German Lloyd S. S. Co. 

•< »t «t tc 

Marconi W. T. Co., Limited 



• < 
i < 



• « 

( • 
< « 
« • 



« ( 

• c 

• ( 



Lloyds 

( « 
British Government 



• < 
« < 
t > 



• « 
« • 
»« 

« 4 
< 1 



Marconi W. T. Co., Limited 
Italian Government 



• * 
« 1 

1 1 
( • 

c t 



1 1 

4 t 

4 4 

4 1 

4 i 

4 4 

t 4 



Marconi W. T. Co., Limited 
Marconi W. T. Co., Limited 
Private 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



203 



On the preceding page is a list of 
stations equipped with Marconi ap- 
paratus and operated under arrange- 
ment with stations owned and con- 
trolled by Marconi Wireless Telegraph 
Company of America and affiliated 
Marconi companies. 

There are also wireless telegraph 
stations equipped with Marconi appa- 
ratus and operated by the British Gov- 
ernment at Bermuda, Gibraltar and 
Malta. 

The following is a list of wireless 
telegraph offices on shore owned and 
controlled by Marconi Wireless Tele- 
graph Company of America and af- 
filiated Marconi companies : 

Babylon Long Island, New York, 

U. S. A. 

Belle Isle .Gulf of St. Lawrence.Canada. 

Chateau Bay . . .Canadian Labrador. 
Crookhaven . .. . County Cork, Ireland. 

Fame Point Province Quebec, Canada. 

Heath Point Province Quebec, Canada. 

Liverpool Lancashire, England. 

Lizard Point. . . .Cornwall, England. 
New York City. .Pier 14, North River, New 

York Citv, U. S. A. 

Niton Isle of Wignt, England. 

North Foreland. Kent, England. 

Rosslare County Wexford, Ireland. 

Sagaponack Long . Island, New York, 

U. S. A. 
Siasconset Nantucket Island, Massa- 
chusetts, U. S. A. 
South Wellfleet. .Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 

U. S. A. 

The following points are in course 
of construction : 

Canso Nova Scotia. 

Cape Race Newfoundland. 

Point Amour. . .Canadian Labrador. 
Sable Island. . . .Canada. 

The following is a list of Transat- 
lantic liners equipped with Marconi 
apparatus : 

Allan Line. — Bavarian, Parisian, Tunisian. 

American Line. — New York, Philadel- 
phia, St. Louis, St. Paul. 

Atlantic Transport Line. — Minneapolis, 
Minnehaha, Minnetonka. 

CoMPAGNiE Generals Transatlantique. 
— La Bretagne, La Champagne, La Lorraine, 
La Savoie, La Touraine. 

CuNARD Line. — Aurania, Campania, Car- 
pathia, Etruria, Ivernia, Lucania, Pannonia, 
Saxonia, Umbria. 

Hamburg-American Line. — Auguste Vic- 
toria, Bliicher, Deutschland, Ffirst Bis- 
marck, Moltke. 

Holland-American Line.* — Amsterdam, 
Maasdam, Noordam, Potsdam, Rhyndam, 
Rotterdam, Statendam. 

Italian Royal Mail Line. — Lombardia, 
Sardegna. 

North German Lloyd Line. — Grosser 
Kurfurst, Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, Kaiser 
Wilhelm IT, Kaiserin Maria Theresia, Kron- 
prinz Wilhelm. 

Red Star Line. — Finland, Kroonland, 
Vaderland, Zeeland. 

*In course of equipment. 



All commissioned ships of British 
and Italian Royal Navies are equipped 
with the Marconi apparatus. 



THE DE FOBEST SYSTEM. 

The American De Forest Wireless 
Telegraph Company has developed 
from the inventions' of Dr. Lee.de For- 
est, a young Yale graduate. His system 
differs from that of Marconi chiefly 
in the receiver. At first an instrument 
called the "anti-coherer,*' or "respond- 
er," was used in place of the coherer. 
The action of this instrument was just 
the reverse of the coherer, that is, a 
good path was normally provided for 
the local circuit, but this path was 
broken by the electric oscillations in 
the antenna. The anti-coherer was 
later replaced by another instrument, 
which acts electrolytically to a large 
extent. This instrument, like the co- 
herer, normally offers a resistance to 
the current in the local circuit, but this 
resistance is broken down by the elec- 
tric oscillations in the antenna. An- 
other difference between the systems 
lies in the fact that the De Forest com- 
pany uses a telephone receiver in the 
local circuit instead of the telegraph 
receiver for receiving the signals. Sig- 
nals by the De Forest system can be 
transmitted at the rate of twenty-five 
to thirty words per minute. The De 
Forest Company has established a 
score of stations along the Atlantic 
coast, and several along the Great 
Lakes. Late in 1903 the De Forest 
Company entered into a contract with 
the London "Times" to furnish news 
of the Russo-Japanese war. The 
steamer "Haimun" was equipped with 
wireless telegraph apparatus, and ren- 
dered valuable service in reporting 
naval operations and engagements. 
These reports were sent by wireless 
telegraphy to Wei-hai-Wei and thence 
by cable to London. In July, 1904, 
the United States Government closed 
a contract with the De Forest Com- 
pany for a series of stations- in the 
West Indies and Panama. These, it 
is stated, are to form links in a chain 
of De Forest stations which will con- 
nect New England with Japan, China 
and the Philippines. The chain is to 
follow the Atlantic coast to Key West, 
and thence run via Porto Rico to 
Panama. From Panama it will follow 
the Pacific coast to Seattle, thence via 
the Aleutian Islands to Japan, Wei- 
hai-Wei, China and the Philippines, re- 
turning to San Francisco through 
Guam and Hawaii. Under the terms 



204 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



cf the contract, commercial messages 
are to be interchangeable between all 
stations equipped with the De Forest 
system, whether operated by the Gov- 
ernment or the De Forest Company. 



The following is a list of wireless 
telegraph stations, equipped with De 
Forest apparatus, and now complete 
and in operation for ttie transmission 
of wireless messages : 



Station. 



Buffalo 

Cape Hatteras 

Chicago 

Cleveland 

Dallas 

Fort Worth 

Havana 

Highlands of Navesink 

Key West 

New York 

Providence 

Quogue 

Louisiana Purchase £x- ) 
position Tower (and >- 
9 other stations) ) 

Springfield 

Toronto 

Washington 

Block Island 

Point Judith 

Bocas del Toro 

Port Limon 

Cape Nome. 

St. Michael's 

Fuur stations 

Farraione Islands ( 4 sta- ( 
tions) j 

Wei-hai-wei 



Location. 



New York 

North Carolina. 

Illinois (3 stations) 

Ohio 

Texas 

Texas 

Cuba 

New Jersey 

Florida 

New York City, 42 Broadway , 

Rhode Island , 

Long Island, N. Y 

St, Louis, Mo 



Operated by 



De Forest Company 



Illinois 

Canada 

District of Coliunbia. 
Rhode Island 



1 1 
t « 

• t 

« • 

. ft 
ft ft 



Panama. . . 
Costa Rica. 
Alaska. . . . 



Artillery Districts. 



Pacific Coast 
China 



Providence Journal Company 
United Fruit Company 
Signal Corps, U. S. Army 



U. S. Weather Bureau 
London Times. 



The following steamers are equipped with De Forest apparatus: 



Steamer. 



Location. 



Str. Wolvin Great, Lakes 

* * Haimun China Sea. . 

Tug Savage North Atlantic ports , 



Operated by 



U. S. Steel Corporation 
London Times 
B. <fe O. Ry. 



The following De Forest stations have been erected or are in course of 
erection : 



Station. 



Atlantic City 

Baltimore 

Boston 

Cape Flattery 

Cape May 

Detroit 

Kansas City 

Lewes 

Mobile 

Newburgh 

New Haven 

Port Huron 

Poughkeepsie 

Seattle 

Sedalia 

Guantanamo 

Panama 

Pensaccla 

Porto Rico 

Azores Islands (5 stations") 



Location. 



Operated by 



New Jersey De Forest Comoany 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Washington 

New Jersey 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Delaware 

Alabama 

New York 

Connecticut 

Michigan 

New York 

Washington 

Missouri 

Cuba U 

Panama 

Florida 

West Coast 



S. Government 



Eastern Telegraph and Cable Co. 



Steamers. — Six vessels of the United States Navy. 



FLAGS AND PENNANTS TO BE USED IN THE INTERNATIONAL CODE. 



<^ 




c? 



CJ 



1 




B 






K 







l>- 






M 




O 



U 




"Code Flag" and 
"Answbrino Pbnnaht." 



When used as the "Code 
Flag " it is to be hoisted under 
the ensijirn. 



When used as the "An- 
swering Pennant" it is to be 
hoidted at the masthead or 
whore best seen. 



!^- 



N 





o 





W 





To open coimuunicAtion by the old Code, 
Hhow the enaiifn with the peniutnt under it. 



^ 



H 





I 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



205 



INTERNATIONAL WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY CONFERENCE. 



On account of the rival systems in use 
in this country and the different coun- 
tries of Europe, it was decided to hold 
an international conference, at which 
rules could be formulated to control 
them. The conference met at Berlin 
in August, 1903. The following rules 
were adopted, applying to the exchange 
of messages between vessels at sea and 
coast stations : 

Any fixed station whose field of ac- 
tion extends to the sea is styled a 
coast station. 

Coast stations are bound to receive 
and transmit telegrams originating 
from or intended for vessels at sea 
without any distinction of wireless 
telegraph system used by the latter. 

Contracting parties shall publish 



any technical information likely to fa- 
cilitate or expedite communication be- 
tween coast stations and ships at sea. 

The wireless station must, unless it 
should be absolutely impossible, accept 
in preference requests for help that 
may come from vessels. 

The service of wireless telegraph sta- 
tions must be organized as far as prac- 
ticable so as not to interfere, with the 
service of other stations. 

The protocol was signed by the 
United States, Germany, Austria, 
Spain, France and Russia. Great 
Britain and Italy were unable to sign. 
The general feeling of the conference 
was decidedly against monopolization 
of the wireless telegraph business by 
any one company. 



NEW INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SIGNALS. 



The new International Code of Sig- 
nals came into use on January 1, 1901, 
and its distinguishing sign will hence- 
forward be the code pennant hoisted in 
the ordinary way. 

Illustrations of the new signals are 
given in the plate, together with rules 
for signals of distress in the text. 

It is not now necessary to tie the 
fly of the Code Pennant to the hal- 
yards, as was previously required when 
beginning to signal. When hoisted 
under the ensign, it denotes a signal 
taken from the International Code. 
When hoisted by itself at the mast- 
head it is the Answering Pennant. 



Communication may then be com- 
menced, and any message following in 
this page, or found under the heading 
"Danger or Distress" in the Interna- 
tional Code Signal Book, may be ex- 
changed, strictly following the Inter- 
national Commercial Code and the in- 
structions given above. 

The International Code Signal de- 
scribed above, asking to open com- 
munication, should be shown in every 
case of distress by the shore sta- 
tion, for it may be that the vessel has 
the International Code, but, until see- 
ing this signal, will not know that she 
can use it. 



SIGNALS ADOPTED FROM AND TO 
MERCIAL CODE SIGNAL BOOK 

^ j- In distress; want immediate assistance. 

Q y We are coming to your assistance. 

E {Do not attempt to land in your own 
Y ) boats. 

J > Damaged rudder; can not steer. 

J j- Engines broken down ; I am disabled. 

jy y You are standing into danger. 

nr r Heavy weather coming; look sharp. 

r Bar is impassable. 

E yCf*st oft. 
D i 

^ I 

1 >Make fast — to — 

F i 



BE FOUND IN INTERNATIONAL COM- 
OF 1899, REFERRED TO ABOVE. 

W| 

F y Slack away. 

Q ) 

rj. j- Shift your berth. Your berth is not safe, 
p j- Hold on until high water. 

j^ J- Remain by the ship. 

A I 

g > Abandon the vessel as fast as possible. 

j^ r Landing is impossible. 

p y Look out for rocket line (or, line). 

K I Endeavor to send a line by boat (ca.sk, 
A j kite, raft, etc.). 

C I No assistance can be rendered ; do the 
X ) best you can for yourselves. 

K I Lookout will be kept on the beach all 
G (■ night. 



206 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CODE SlGiJALS— Continued. 



K 
E 

K 
C 

A 

D 

N 
M 

N I 



) Lights, or Fires will be kept at the best 
f place for coining on shore. « 

j- Keep a light burning. 

Do not abandon the vessel until the tide 
has ebbed. 



O 

Y 

F 

Y 

L 

Y 

G 

Y 
P 



f 



I am on fire. 

I am sinking (or^ on fire) ; send all avail- 
able boats to save passengers and crew. 



f } Want »aai8tanoe; mutiny. 

j- Want immediate medical assistance. 

) Want a boat immediately (if more than 
) one, number to follow). 

I Want a tug {if more than one, number to 
) follow). 



A 
G 

P 
T 

V 
G 

D 
U 

W 

C 

X 

N 
C 
X 

C 

D 



!■ I must abandon the vessel. 

r Want a pilot. 

' What is name of ship or Signal Station 
f in sight? 

i Repeat ship's name ; your flags .were not 
) made out. 

(signal not understood, though the flags 
r are distinguished. 



( 



I can not make out the flags (or, signals). 

Assent — Yes. 
Negative — No. 



DISTRESS SIGNALS. 

(Article 31 of International Rules.) 



When a vessel is in distress and requires 
assistance from^ other vessels or from the 
shore the following shall be the signals to be 
used or displayed by her, either together or 
separately, namely: 

In the daytime — 

(1) A gun or other explosive signal fired at 
intervals of about a minute 

(2) The International Code signal of dis- 
tress indicated by N C. 

(3) The distance signal, consisting of a 
square flag, having either above or below it a 
ball or anything resembling a ball. 

(4) The distant signal, consisting of a cone, 



point upward, having either above it or below 
it a ball or an^'thing resembling a ball. 
^ (5) A contmuous sounding with any fog- 
signal apparatus. 
At night — 

(1) A gun or other explosive signal fired at 
intervals of about a minute. 

(2) Flames on the vessel (as from a burn- 
ing tar barrel, oil barrel, and so forth). 

(3) Rockets or shells throwing stars of any 
color or description, fired one at a time, at 
short intervals. 

(4) A continuous sounding with any fog- 
signal apparatus. 



LIST OF WEATHER BUREAU STATIONS ON ^HE UNITED STATES 

SEACQAST TELEGRAPHIC LINES. 



Atlantic Ck)A8T. 

Nantucket, Massachu.setts. 

Narragar'sett Pier, Rhode Island. 

Block Island, Rhode Island. 

Norfolk, Virginia. 

Cape Henry, Virginia. 

Currituck Inlet, North Carolina. 

Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 

Hatteras, North Carolina. 

Sand Key, Florida. 
Pacific Coast. 

Tatoosh Island, Washington. 

Neah Bay, Washington. 

East Qallam, Washington. 

Twin Rivers, Washington. 

Port Crescent, Wa.shington. 

North Head, Washington. 

Point Reyes Light, California. 

San Fransis^o, California. 

Southeast Farallone, California. 
Lake Huron. 

Thunder Bay Island, Michigan. 

Middle Island, Michigan. 

Alpena, Mishigan. 

Of the above stations the following, and 
also Juoiter, Florida, are suoplied with Inter- 
national Code Signals, and communication 
can be had therewith for the purpose of ob- 



taining information concerning the approach 
of storms, weat|ier conditions m general, and 
for the purpose of sending telegrams to points 
on commercial lines: 

Nantucket, Massachusetts. 
Bio3k Island, Rhode Island. 
Cane Henry, Virginia. 
Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 
Sand Key, Florida. 
Tatoosh Island, Washington. 
Hatteras, North Carolina. 
Neah Bay, Washington. 
Point Reyes Lii^ht, California. 
Southeast Farallone, California. 

Any message signaled by the International 
Code, as adopted or used by England, France, 
America, Denmark, Holland, Sweden, and 
Norway, Russia, Greese, Italy, Germany, 
Austria, Spain, Portugal, and Brazil, re- 
ceived at thesa telegraphii signal stations, 
will b3 transmitted and delivered to the ad- 
dress on payment at the station of the tele- 
grapii? cna'-ge. All mfissages received from 
or addressed to the War, Navy, Treasury, 
State, Interior, or other official department 
at Washington, are telegraphed without 
charge over the Weather Bureau lines. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



207 



SPECIAL DISTANT SIGNALS. 

Made by a single hoist followed by the STOP signal. Arranged 

numerically for reading off a signal. 



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208 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 






3 3 2 Enemy is closing with y9U, 
or. You are closing with 
the enemy. 

8 4 2 Keep a good look-out, as it 
is reported that enemy's 
men-of-war are going about 
disguised as merchantmen. 



4 12 Proceed on your voyage. 



The information relative to the In- 
ternational Code is taken from the 
thirty-fifth annual list of the merchant 
vessels of the United States and is 
published by the Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, Department of Commerce and 
Labor. 



THE POLLOWINO DISTANT SIGNALS MADE WITH FLAG AND BALL. OR PENNANT AND 
BALL. HAVE THE SPECIAL SIGNIFICATION INDICATED BENEATH THEM. 



You are nmning into 
danger. 


> 

Fire, or, Leak: vant im- 


r 

Short of provieiom. 
Starving. 


r 

Aground; want immedi- 
ate aiBistanoe. 



SEMAPHORES. 

There are many semaphores established on 
the French, Italian, Portuguese, and some on 
the Spanish and Austrian coasts, where only 
the international Code of Signals Is now used. 
Where practicable these semaphores have 
means of communicating by telegraoh with 
eazh other and with the chief metropolitan 
lines and foreign stations. 

^ Passing ships are able to exchange commu- 
nication with the semaphores, and when re- 
auired their messages are forwarded to their 
estination according to the fixed tariff. On 
the coasts of Great Britain there are signal 
stations which offer the same facilities to 
passing vessels. 

BOAT SIGNALS. 

The Symbols for Boat Signals are — 
^ 1. Two square flags, or handkerchiefs, or 
pieces of cloth. 

2. Two long strips of cloth, or parts of a 
plank, or pieces of wood longer than broad. 



3. Two balls or hats, or round bundles, or 
buckets. 

With these any of the Distance Signals can 
be made — holding the Symbol at arm's 
length: and the Signal is to be made from 
right to left and read from left to right, thus : 



Equivalent to 
Ball above Pen- 
nant, or, "You 
ore running into 
danger." 



In making Boat Signals it is important to 
use only the proper means to attract atten- 
tion, and to avoid those that may occasion 
confusion or misinterpretation. 




CYCLONES. 



[Pilot Chart, Hyd 

"Rule 1. — // the squalU freshen without any 
shift of mind, you are on or near the storm 
track: heave to on the starboard tack and 
watch for some indications of a shift, observ- 
ing the low clouds particularly; if the barom- 
eter fall decidedly (say half an inch) without 
any shift, and if wind and sea permit, run off 
with the wind on the starboard quarter and 
keep your compass course. 

"Rule 2.—// the vnnd shift to the right, you 
are to the right of the storm track, put the 
ship on the starboard tack and make as much 
headway as possible until obliged to lie- to 
(starboard tack). 



rogr&phic Office.] 

"Rule 3. — // the vnnd shift to the left, you 
are to the left of the storm track: bring the 
wind on the starboard quarter and keep your 
compass course if obliged to lie-to, do so on 
the port tack. 

"General Rules, Good for all North- 
ern Hemisphere Storms. — In scudding 
always keep the wind well on the starboard 
quarter, in order to run out of the storm. 
Always lie- to on the coming-up tack. Use oil 
to prevent heavy seas from breaking on 
board." 



LIFE-SAVING SIGNALS. 



The following signals recommended by the 
late Intemationai Marine Conference for 
adoption by all institutions for saving life 
from wrecked vessels, have been adopted by 
the Life-saving Service of the United States . 

1. Upon the discovery of a wreck by night, 
the life-saving force will bum a red pyro- 



technic light or a red rocket to signify, "You 
are seen: assistance will be given as soon as 
possible." 

2. A red flag waved on shore by day, or a 
red light, red rocket, or red Roman candle 
displayed by night, will signify, "Haul away." 

3. A white flag waved on shore by day, or a 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



20& 



white light slowly swung back and forth, or a 
white rocket or white Roman candle fired by 
night, will signify, "Slack away." 

4. Two flags, a white and a red, waved at 
the same time on shore by day, or two lights, 
a white and a red, slowly swung at the same 



time, or a blue pyrotechnic light burned by 
night, will signify, "Do not attempt to land 
in your own boats; it is impossible. 

5. A man on shore beckoning by day, or 
two torches burning near together by night, 
will signify, "This is the best place to land." 



THE WEATHER BUREAU. 



The Weather Bureau furnishes, 
when practicable, for the benefit of all 
interests dependent upon weather con- 
ditions, the "Forecasts" which are pre- 
pared daily at the Central Ofl5ce in 
Washington, D. C, and certain des- 
ignated stations. These forecasts are 



telegraphed to stations of the Weather 
Bureau, railway officials, postmasters 
and many others, to be communicated 
to the public by means of flags or 
steam whistles. The flags adopted for 
this purpose are five in number, and of 
the forms and colors indicated below : 



No. 1. 
White Flag. 



CiMrorftIr 
wMthtr. 



EXPLANATION OF WEATHER FLAGS. 



No. 2.- 
BliM Flag. 



No. 3. 

White and BiM 
FUg. 




Rain or 
Snow. 




Local Rain 
or Snow. 



No. 4. 

Black Trbagulir 

Flag. 




TomiMntura. 



No. 5. 
White Flag with black 
' t^van m eantar. 



CoidWivti 



When number 4 is placed above 
number 1, 2 or 3 it indicates warmer ; 
when below, colder ; when not dis- 
played, the temperature is expected to 



remain about stationary. During the 
late spring and early fall the cold- 
wave flag is also used to indicate an- 
ticipated frosts. 



EXPLANATION OF WHISTLE SIGNALS. 



A warning blast of from fifteen to ' 
twenty seconds duration is sounded to 
attract attention. After this warning 
the longer blasts (of from four to six 
seconds duration) refer to weather, 
and shorter blasts (of from one to 
three seconds duration) refer to tem- 
perature ; those for weather are sound- 
ed first. 

Blasts. Indicate. 

One long Fair weather. 

Two long Rain or snow. 

Three long Local rain or snow. 

One short Lower temperature. 

Two short Higher temperature. 

Three short Cold wave. 

By repeating each combination a 
few times, with intervals of ten sec- 
onds, liability to error in reading the 
signals may be avoided. 

As far as practicable the forecast 
messages will be telegraphed at the ex- 
pense of the Weather Bureau ; but 
if this is impracticable, they will be 
furnished at the regular commercial 
rates and sent "collect." In no case 
will the forecasts be sent to a second 
address in any place except at the ex- 
pense of the applicant. 

Persons desiring to display the flags 
or sound the whistle signals for the 
benefit of the public should communi- 



cate with the Weather Bureau offi- 
cials in charge of the climate and crop 
service of their respective States, the 
central stations of which are as fol- 
lows : 

Montgomery, Ala. ; Phoenix, Ariz. 
Little Rock, Ark. ; San Francisco 
Cal. ; Denver, Colo. ; Jacksonville 
Fla. ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Boise, Idaho 
Springfield, 111. ; Indianapolis, Ind. 
Des Moines, Iowa ; Topeka, Kan. 
Louisville, Ky. ; New Orleans, La. 
Baltimore, Md. (for Delaware and 
Maryland) ; Boston, Mass. (for New 
England) ; Lansing, Mich.; Minneapo- 
lis, Minn. ; Vicksburg, Miss. ; Colum- 
bia, Mo. ; Helena, Mont. ; Lincoln, 
Nebr. ; C5arson CJity, Nev. ; New 
Brunswick, N. J. ; Santa Fe, N. Mex. ; 
Ithaca, N. Y. ; Raleigh, N. C. ; Bis- 
marck, N. Dak. ; Columbus, Ohio ; 
Oklahoma, Okla. (for Oklahoma and 
Indian Territories) ; Portland, Oreg. ; 
Philadelphia, Pa. ; Columbia, S. C. ; 
Huron, S. Dak. ; Nas'hville, Tenn. ; 
Galveston, Tex. ; Salt Lake City, 
Utah ; Richmond, Va. ; Seattle, 
Wash. ; Parkersburg, W. Va. ; Mil- 
waukee, Wis. ; Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Willis L. Moore, 
Chief U. S. Weather Bureau. 



CHAPTER IX. 



PATENTS, TRADE MARKS, COPYRIGHTS. 



PATENTS IN RELATION TO MANUFACTURES. 



The value of our patent system is 
eloquently outlined by Senator Piatt, 
of Connecticut. In speaking on a bill 
for the reorganization of the Patent 
OflSce, he said : 

"To my mind, the passage of the 
act of 1836 creating the Patent Office 
marks the most important epoch in the 
history of our 'development — I think 
the most important event in the his- 
tory of our Government from the Con- 
stitution until the Civil War. The es- 
tablishment . of the Patent Office 
marked the commencement of that 
marvelous development of the re- 
sources of the country which is the ad- 
miration and wonder of the world, a 
development which challenges all his- 
tory for a parallel ; and it is not too 
much to say that this unexampled 
progress has been not only dependent 
upon, but has been coincident with, the 
growth and development of the patent 
system of this country. Words fail in 
attempting to portray the advance- 
ment of this country for the last fifty 
years. We have had fifty years of 
progress, fifty years of inventions ap- 
plied to the every-day wants of life, 
fifty years of patent encouragement, 
and fifty years of a development in 
wealth, resources, grandeur, culture, 
power which is little short of miracu- 
lous. Population, production, business, 
wealth, comfort, culture, power, gran- 
deur, these have all kept step with the 
expansion of the inventive genius of 
the country ; and this progress has 
been made possible only by the inven- 
tions of its citizens. All history con- 
firms us in the conclusion that it is 
the development by the mechanical arts 
of the industries of a country which 
brings to it greatness and power and 
glory. No purely agricultural, pas- 
toral people ever achieved any hgh 
standing among the nations of the 
earth. It is only when the brain 
evolves and the cunning hand fashions 
labor-saving machines that a nation 
begins to throb with new energy and 



life and expands with a new growth. 
It is only when thought wrings from 
nature her untold secret treasures that 
solid wealth and strength are accumu- 
lated by a people." 

When the Japanese Government was 
considering the establishment of a pat- 
ent system, they sent a commissioner 
to the United States and he spent 
several months in Washington, every 
facility be^ng given him by the Com- 
missioner of Patents. One of the ex- 
aminers said : "I would like to know 
why it is that the people of Japan 
desire to have a patent system." 

"I will tell you," said Mr. Taka- 
hashi. "You know it is only since 
Commodore Perry, in 1854, opened the 
ports of Japan to foreign commerce 
that the Japanese have been trying to 
become a great nation, like other na- ' 
tions of the earth, and we have looked 
about us to see what nations are the 
greatest, so that we could be like 
them ; and we said, *There is the 
United States, not much more than a 
hundred years old, and America was 
not discovered by Columbus yet four 
hundred years ago' ; and we said, 
'What is it that makes the United 
States such a great nation V* And we 
investigated, and we found it was pat- 
ents, and we will have patents." 

The examiner, in reporting this in- 
terview, added : "Not in all history 
is there an instance of such unbiased 
testimony to the value and worth of 
the patent system as practiced in the 
United States." 

The demonstration thus given the 
commercial world during the last half 
century of the effect of beneficent 
patent laws has led to their modifica- 
tion in all the chief industrial coun- 
tries, and the salient feature of our 
system — a preliminary examination as 
to novelty and patentability prior to 
the grant of a patent — -has in late 
years been incorporated into the pat- 
ent systems of many foreign countries, 
as, for instance, Austria, Canada, Den- 



211 



212 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



mark, Germany, Japan, Norway, Rus- 
sia, Sweden, and Switzerland. 

The discoverer of new products of 
value in the arts and the inventor of 
new processes, or improved machines, 
adds to public wealth, and his right to 
the product of his brain is now recog- 
nized by the laws of all civilized na- 
tions. The word "patent" had its 
origin in royal grants to favored sub- 
jects of monopolies in trade or manu- 
facture ; but now the word is used in 
a restricted sense to cover improve- 
ments in inventions. A few patents 
for inventions were granted by the 
provincial governments of the Ameri- 
can colonies and by the legislatures of 
the States, prior to the adoption of the 




PRINCIPAL FIELDS OF INVENTIVE 
ENDEAVOR. 

Federal Constitution. On the 5th of 
September, 1787, it was proposed to 
incorporate in a constitution a patent 
and copyright clause. The germinat- 
ing principle of this clause of the 
Constitution has vitalized the nation, 
expanded its powers beyond the wild- 
est dreams of its fathers, and from it 
more than from any other cause, has 
grown the magnificent manufacturing 
and industrial development which we 
to-day present to the world. 

In the early days the granting of a 
patent was quite an event in the his- 
tory of the State Department, where 
the clerical part of the work was then 
performed. It would be interesting to 
see Thomas Jefferson, the Secretary of 
War, and the Attorney-General, criti- 
cally examining the application and 
scrutinizing each point carefully and 
rigorously. The first year the major 



ity of the applications failed to pass 
the ordeal, and only three patents were 
granted. In those days ev<?ry step in 
the issuing of a patent was taken with 
great care and caution, Mr. Jefferson 
always seeking to impress upon the 
minds of his officers and the public 
that the granting of a patent was a 
matter of no ordinary importance. 
Prior to 1836 there was no critical 
examination of the state of the art 
preliminary to the allowance of a 
patent application. Since the act of 
1836 there have been various enact- 
ments modifying and improving the 
law in matters of detail. In 1861 the 
term for a patent was increased from 
fourteen to seventeen years, and in 
1870 the patent law was revised, con- 
solidated and amended ; but in its sa- 
lient features the patent system of to- 
day is that of the law of 1836. The 
subject of patents is admirably treat- 
ed by Mr. Story B. Ladd, of the Cen- 
sus Office, and we are indebted to 
Bulletin No. 242 for most interesting 
matter herewith presented. 

The growth of the number of pat- 
ents granted in the United States to 
citizens of foreign countries, is a strik- 
ing feature, and shows the high es- 
teem in which this country is held by 
the world at large as a field for the 
exploitation of invention. The per 
cent, of patents to foreign inventors 
has more than doubled during each 
period of twenty years since 1860. 

The majority of these foreign pat- 
entees are citizens of the great manu- 
facturing countries ; four-fifths of 
them are from England, France, Ger- 
many, and Canada ; the number from 
the latter country being largely aug- 
mented by reason of her proximity to 
the United States. The patents to 
foreign inventors, 1890-1900, were dis- 
tributed as follows : 



Country. 



Canada 

England 

France 

Germany 

All other countries. 



Total to citizens of 
foreign countries. . 



Number 

of 
Patents. 



3,135 
7,436 
2.163 
6,788 
4.561 



23,083 



Per Cent. 



14.0 
32.0 
9.0 
25.0 
20.0 



100.0 



This marked growth in the number 
of patents to aliens is explained by the 
very liberal features of our patent 
system. Foreigners stand here on an 
equal footing with citizens of this 
country, and they are neither sub- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



213 



jected to i*estrictions in the matter of 
annuities or taxes payable after the 
grant of a patent, nor required to 
work an invention in this country to 
maintain it in force, as is the case in 
most foreign countries. 

Moreover, the thorough examination 
made by our Patent Office as to the 
novelty of an invention prior to the 
allowance of an application for a pat- 
ent — an examination that includes not 
only the patents and literature of our 
own country bearing on the art or in- 
dustry to which the invention relates, 
but the patents of all patent-granting 
countries and the technical literature 
of the world — and the care exercised 
in criticising the framing of the claims 
have come to be recognized as of great 
value in the case of inventions of 
merit^ and hence the majority of for- 
eign inventors patenting in this coun- 
try take advantage of this feature of 
our patent system, and secure the ac- 
tion of the Patent Office on an appli- 
cation for a patent before perfecting 
their patents in their own and other 
foreign countries, taking due precau- 
tion to have their patents in the dif 
ferent countries so issued as to se- 
cure the maximum term in each, so far 
as possible. This practice holds now 
in the case of probably nine-tenths of 
the alien inventions patented in this 
country. 

The working of an invention has 
never been required under our patent 
laws, though in most foreign coun- 
tries, with the exception of Great Brit- 
ain, an invention must be put into 
commercial use in the country 
within a specified period or the pat- 
ent may be declared void. In the case 
of patents for fine chemicals and like 
products, which require a high order 
of technical knowledge and "bility for 
their inception, and skilled workmen 
for their manufacture, the effect of this 
requirement, that the industry must be 
established within the country, has 
been most salutary in building up 
chemical industries within the home 
country, to some extent at the ex- 
pense of other countries where the 
working of a patent is not obligatory. 
This shows most strongly in the case 
of carbon dyes and in the patents for 
chemicals of the class known as car- 
bon compounds, which includes nu- 
merous pharmaceutical and medicinal 
compounds of recent origin, aldehydes, 
alcohols, phenols, ethers, etc., and 
many synthetic compounds, as vanil- 
lin, artificial musk, etc. 

There are many extensive industries 



which are entirely the creation of pat- 
ents, and can be readily differentiated 
from the great mass of manufactures ; 
for example, certain industries based 
upon chemical inventions and discov- 
eries, as oleomargarine, which now em- 
ploys $3,023,646 of capital, and sup- 
plies products to the value of $12,499,- 
812; glucose, which uses $41,011,345 
of capital, and gives products to the 
value of $21,693,656; wood pulp, 
which, starting with the ground-wood 
pulp patent of Voulter, in 1858, and 
following with the soda fiber and sul- 
phite fiber processes, is now the chief 
material employed in paper manufac- 
ture, with products aggregating $18,- 
497,701 ; high explosives, which, start- 
ing with the nitroglycerin patent of 
Nobel, in 1865, now includes dynamite, 
the pyroxylin explosives, and smoke- 
less powder, with products aggregating 
$11,233,396 ; while the electrical indus- 
tries, which now touch all fields of in- 
dustrial activity, power and transpor- 
tation, lighting and heating, electro- 
chemical processes, telegraphy and 
telephony, employ directly and indi- 
rectly capital extending into the bil- 
lions, and are the creation of patents. 
The rubber industry was insignifi- 
cant prior to the discovery by Charles 
Goodyear of the process of vulcaniza- 
tion, while now the products in the 
shape of rubber and elastic goods and 
rubber boots and shoes amount to $93, 
716,849. Bicycles and tricycles em- 
ploy $29,783,659 of capital, with prod- 
ucts valued at $31,915,908. Manu- 
factured ice employs $38,204,054 of 
capital, with a return in products of 
$13,874,513. 

Phonographs and graphophones, 
starting in 1877, now show the use of 
$3,348,282 of capital, and products to 
the value of $2,246,274. Photography, 
including the manufacture of materi- 
als and apparatus as well as the prac- 
tice of the art — all the outcome of in- 
vention — is now represented by 7,706 
establishments, with a combined capi- 
tal of $18,711 339, and products to the 
value of $31,038,107. The manufac- 
ture of sewing machines employs $18,- 
739,450 of capital, and supplies prod- 
ucts to the value of $18,314,490. The 
manufacture of typewriters and sup- 
plies, within three decades, has be- 
come an industry that employs $8,- 
400,431 of capital, and gives products 
to the value of $6,932,029. These are 
but examples of what may be consid- 
ered as patent-created industries. 

If we attempt to enumerate the in- 
dustries which, existing prior to the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN KEFERBNCB BOOK. 



periixl of patent growth, have been 
revolutionized by inventions, a cata- 
lo^e of all of the oJd industriea is 
virtually required. The returns for 
the manufacture of agricultural im- 
plementa for the present censua 
show 715 establishments, with a capi- 
tal ^f <ii^TTiiToi^i .\.i„» employ- 



a patented improvement which has 
produced a new or better article, or 
cheapened the cost of manufacture. 

The great iron and steel industry 
as it eiists to-day is the product of 
countless inventions wtiich permeate 
every branch thereof, and include 
many revolutionizing inventions, as, 
for example, the Bessemer process. 



il 



M 
n 



ceive S2,450,880 in wages, and manu- 
factured products to the value of $101.' 
207.428; and, in the entire range of 
agricultural implements and machines 
now manufactured, every one. from 
hoe or spade to combined harvester 
and thrasher, has been, ether in the 
implement or machine itself, or in the 
process of manufacture, the subject of 



The blast furnaces, rolling mills and 
forges and btoomeries, reported at the 
present census comprise G(t8 establish- 
ments, with a capital of $573,391,663, 
employing 222,480 wage-earners, with 
?I20,820.276 paid in wages, and sup- 
plvinz products to the value of $803,- 
nc.8 273. A prohibition of the use of 
the patented inventions of the last half 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



215 



century would stop every one of these 
establishments. 

The same may likewise be said of 
the textile industry, the manufactures 
of leather, of lumber, chemicals, etc., 
and the railway system in its entirety, 
from the rail to the top of the smoke- 
stack, and from the pilot to the rear 
train light or signal, is an aggregation 
of American inventions. 

Without attempting to touch upon 
the industries which have been revo- 
lutionized or expanded by patents, the 
summaries which follow aim to show 
the growth of patents which have gen- 
erally sprung from industries. 

The closing decades of the nine- 
teenth century have witnessed the 
most extraordinary development of 



manufactures and commerce known in 
our history. Industrial demand and 
invention go hand in hand. They act 
and react, being interdependent. Any 
change in industrial conditions creat- 
ing a new demand is at once met by 
the invention of the means for supply- 
ing it, and through new inventions new 
industrial demands are every year be- 
ing created. Thus through the process 
of evolution the industrial field is 
steadily expanding, and a study of the 
inventions for any decade will point 
out the lines of industrial growth for 
the succeeding decade. 

The following figures give an idea 
of the development of American inven- 
I tions during the past fifty-four years : 



NUMBER OF PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS ISSUED DURING EACH CALENDAR 
YEAR, AND NUMBER OF LIVE PATENTS AT THE BEGINNING 

OF EACH CALENDAR YEAR. 



Year. 



1850. 
1851. 
1852. 
1853. 
1854. 
1855. 
1856. 
1857. 
1858. 
1850. 
1860. 
1861. 
1862. 
1863. 
1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1865. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 



Number 




of Patents 


Number 


Issued Dur- 


of Live 


ing the 
Year. 


Patents. 


884 


6,987 


757 


7,769 


890 


8,099 


846 


8,474 


1,759 


8.928 


1,892 


10,251 


2,315 


11,673 


2,686 


13,518 


3,467 


15,714 


4,165 


18,714 


4,363 


22,435 


3,OiO 


26,252 


3,221 


28,795 


3,781 


31,428 


4,638 


34,244 


6,099 


38,034 


8,874 


43,415 


12,301 


51,433 


12,544 


62,929 


12,957 


73.824 


12,157 


85,005 


11,687 


94,910 


12,200 


104,022 


11,616 


112,937 


' 12,230 


120,551 


13,291 


128,547 


14,172 


141,157 



Year. 



1877. 

1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 
189^^. 
1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 



Number 
of Patents 
Issued Dur- 
ing the 
Year. 



Number 
of Live 
Patents. 



12,920 


155,200 


12,345 


168.011 


12,133 


177,737 


12 926 


186,408 


15,548 


195,325 


18.135 


206,043 


21,196 


218,041 


19,147 


230,360 


23,331 


237,204 


21,797 


247,991 


20,429 


256.S31 


19,585 


265,103 


23,360 


273,001 


25,322 


284.161 


22,328 


297,867 


22,661 


307,965 


22,768 


317,335 


19,875 


325,931 


20,883 


332,886 


21,867 


341,424 


22,098 


351,158 


20,404 


360,330 


23,296 


365,186 


24,660 


370,347 


25,558 


373,811 


27,136 


380,222 


31,046 


393.276 



The theory of the patent law is sim- 
ple. The country is enriched by inven- 
tions, and offers for them a small 
premium ; this premium is a Feventeen 
years' monopoly of their fruit — no 
more, no ]less. Having purchased the 



invention for this insignificant price, 
the purchase is consummated by the 
publication in the patent records of the 
details of the invention, so that he who 
runs may read. The whole thing is 
a strictly business transaction, and 



216 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



this character is emphasized by the 
fact that the ioventor is required to 
pay for the clerical and expert labor 
required to put his invention into 
shape for issuing. His patent fees are 
designed to cover this expense, and do 
so, with a considerable margin to 
•spare. Thus the people of the United 
States are perpetually being enriched 
by the work of inventors, at absolutely 
no cost to themselves. 

The inventor does not work for love 
nor for glory alone, but in the hopes 
of a return for his labor. Glory, and 
love of his species, are elements actuat- 
ing his work, and in many cases he 
invents because he cannot help himself, 
because his genius is a hard task mas- 



ter and keeps him at work. But none 
the less, the great incitement to inven- 
tion is the hope of obtaining a valua- 
ble patent, and without this induce- 
ment inventions would be few and far 
between, and America would, without 
the patent system, be far in arrears 
of the rest of the world, instead of 
leading it, as it does to-day. The few 
pregnant sentences of the patent stat- 
utes, sentences the force of whose 
every word has been laboriously ad- 
judicated by our highest tribunal, the 
Supreme Court of the United States, 
are responsible for America's most 
characteristic element of prosperity, 
the work of her inventors, to whom be- 
longs the credit. 



DISTINGUISHED AMERICAN INVENTORS. 



Benjamin Franklin ; b. Boston, 
1706; d. 1790; at 12, printer's appren- 
tice, fond of useful reading; 27 to 40, 
teaches himself Latin, etc., makes va- 
rious useful improvements ; at 40, 
studies electricity ; 1753, brings elec- 
tricity from clouds by kite, and invents 
the lightning rod. 

Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton- 
gin ; b. Westborough, Mass., 1765 ; d. 
1825; went to Georgia 1792 as teach- 
er; 1793, invents the cotton-gin, prior 
to which a full day's work of one per- 
son was to clean by hand one pound 
of cotton ; one machine performs the 
labor of five thousand persons ; 1800, 
founds Whitneyville, makes firearms, 
by the interchangeable system for the 
parts. 

Robert Fulton; b. Little Britain, 
Pa., 1765 ; d. 1825 ; artist painter ; in- 
vents steamboat 1793 ; invents subma- 
rine torpedoes 1797 to 1801 ; builds 
steamboat in France 1803 ; launches 
passenger boat Clermont at N. Y. 
1807, and steams to Albany; 1812, 
builds steam ferryboats ; 1814, builds 
first steam war vessel. 

Jethro Wood, inventor of the mod- 
ern cast-iron plough ; b. White Creek, 
N. Y., 1774; d. 1834; patented the 
plough 1814 ; previously the plough 
was a stick of wood plated with iron ; 
lawsuits against infringers consumed 
his means ; Secretary Seward said : 
*'Xo man has benefited the country 
pecuniarily more than Jethro Wood, 
and no man has been as inadequately 
rewarded." 

Thomas Blanchard ; b. 1788, Sutton, 
Mass. ; d. 1864 ; invented tack machine 
1806 ; builds successful steam carriage 
1825; builds the stern-wheel boat for 



shallow waters, now in common use on 
Western rivers ; 1843, patents the 
lathe for turning irregular forms, now 
in common use all over the world for 
turning lasts, spokes, axe-handles, 
gun-stocks, hat-blocks, tackle-blocks, 
etc. 

Ross Winans, of Baltimore ; b. 1798, 
N. J. ; author of many inventions re- 
lating to railways; first patent, 1828; 
he designed and patented the pivoted, 
double truck, long passenger cars now 
in common use. His genius also as- 
sisted the development of railways in 
Russia. 

Cyrus H. McCormick. inventor of 
harvesting machines; b. Walnut Grove, 
Va., 1809; in 1851 he exhibited his in- 
vention at the World's Fair, London, 
with practical success. The mowing 
of one acre was one man's day's work ; 
a boy with a mowing machine now cuts 
10 acres a day. Mr. McCormick's 
patents made him a millionaire. 

Charles Goodyear, inventor and pat- 
entee of the simple mixture of rubber 
and sulphur, the basis of the present 
great rubber industries throughout the 
world ; b. New Haven, Conn., 1800 ; in 
1839, by the accidental mixture of a 
bit of rubber and sulphur on a red-hot 
stove, he discovered the process of vul- 
canization. The Goodyear patents 
proved immensely profitable. 

Samuel F. B. Morse, inventor and 
patentee of electric telegraph ; b. 
Charlestown, Mass., 1791; d. 1872; 
artist painter ; exhibited first drawings 
of telegraph 1832; half-mile wire in 
operation 1835 ; caveat 1837 ; Congress 
appropriated $30,000 and in 1844 first 
telegraph line from Washington to 
Baltimore was opened ; after long con- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



217 



tests the courts sustained his patents 
and he realized from them a large for- 
tune. 

Elias Howe, inventor of the modern 
sewing machine; b. Spencer, Mass., 
1819; d. 1867; machinist; sewing ma- 
chine patented 1846 ; from that time 
to 1854 his priority was contested and 
he suffered from poverty, when a deci- 
sion of the courts in his favor brought 
him large royalties, and he realized 
several millions from his patent. 

James B. Eads ; b. 1820 ; author and 
constructor of the great steel bridge 
over the Mississippi at St. Louis, 1867, 
and the jetties below New Orleans, 
1876. His remarkable energy was 
shown in 1861 when he built and de- 
livered complete to the Government, all 
within sixty-five days, seven iron-plat- 
ed steamers, 600 tons each ; subse- 
quently other steamers. Some of the 
most brilliant successes of the Union 
arms were due to his extraordinary 
rapidity in constructing these vessels. 

Prof. Joseph Henry ; b. Albany, N. 
Y., 1799 ; d. 1878 ; in 1828 invented the 
present form of the electro-magnet 
which laid the foundation for practi- 
cally the entire electrical art and is 
probably the most important single 
contribution thereto. In 1831 he dem- 
onstrated the practicability of the elec- 
tric current to effect mechanical move- 
ments and operate signals at a distant 
point, which was the beginning of the 
electro-magnetic telegraph ; he devised 
a system of circuits and batteries, 
which contained the principle of the 
relay and local circuit, and also in- 
vented one of the earliest electro-mag- 
netic engines. He made many scien- 
tific researches in electricity and gen- 
eral physics and left many valuable 
papers thereon. In 1826 he was a 
professor in the Albany Academy ; was 
Professor of Natural Philosophy at 
the College of New Jersey in 1832, and 
in 1846 was chosen secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washing- 
ton, where he remained until his death. 
Prof. Henry was probably the greatest 
of American physicists. 

Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, the in- 
ventor of the telephone; b. 1847 at 
Edinburgh, Scotland, moved to Can- 
ada 1872 and afterward to Boston; 
here he became widely known as an in- 
structor in phonetics and as an au- 
thority in teaching the deaf and dumb ; 
in 1873 he began the study of the 
transmission of musical tones by tele- 
graph ; in 1876 he invented and pat- 
ented the speaking telephone, which 
has become one of the marvels of the 



nineteenth century and one of the 
greatest commercial enterprises of the 
world; in 1880 the French Govern- 
ment awarded him the Volta prize 'of 
$10,000 and he has subsequently re- 
ceived the ribbon of the Legion of 
Honor from France and many honor- 
ary degrees, both at home and abroad ; 
Dr. Bell still continues his scientific 
work at his home in Washington and 
has made valuable contributions to the 
phonograph and aerial navigation. 

[Prof. Bell is now generally known 
as Dr. Bell, out of respect for his 
honorary degree.] 

Thomas A. Edison ; b. 1847, at Mi- 
lan, Ohio ; from a poor boy in a coun- 
try village, with a limited education, 
he has become the most fertile inventor 
the world has ever known ; his most 
important inventions are the phono- 
graph in 1877, the incandescent elec- 
tric lamp, 1878 ; the quadruplex tele- 
graph, 1874-1878: the electric pen, 
1876; magnetic ore separator, 1880, 
and the three-wire electric circuit, 
1883; his first patent was an electric 
vote-recording machine, taken in 1869, 
since which time more than 700 pat- 
ents have been granted him ; early in 
life Edison started to run a newspaper, 
but his genius lay in the field of elec- 
tricity, where as an expert telegrapher 
he began his great reputation ; his 
numerous inventions have brought 
him great wealth ; a fine villa in Llew- 
ellyn Park, at Orange, N. J., is his 
home, and his extensive laboratory 
n^r by is still the scene of his con- 
stant work ; he is the world's most 
persevering inventor. 

Captain John Ericsson; b. 1803 in 
Sweden ; d. in New York, 1889 ; at 10 
years of age, designed a sawmill and 
a pumping engine ; made and patented 
many inventions in England in early 
life ; in 1829 entered a locomotive in 
competition with Stephenson's Rocket ; 
in 1836 patented in England his 
double-screw propeller and shortly 
after came to the United States and 
incorporated it in a steamer; in 1861, 
built for the United States Govern- 
ment the turret ironclad Monitor; was 
the inventor of the hot-air engine 
which bears his name ; also a torpedo 
boat which was designed to discharge 
a torpedo by means of compressed air 
beneath the water ; he was an indefati- 
gable worker and made many other in- 
ventions ; his diary, kept daily for 40 
years, comprehended 14,000 pages. 

Charles F. Brush ; b. near Cleveland, 
Ohio, 1849 ; prominently identified 
with the development of the dynamo, 



218 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the arc light and the storage battery, 
in which fields he made many impor- 
tant inventions ; in 1880 the Brush 
Company put its electric lights into 
New York City and has since extended 
its installations into most of the cities 
and towns of the United States ; in 
1881, at the Paris Electrical Exposi- 
tion, he received the ribbon of the Le- 
gion of Honor. 

George Westinghouse, Jr. ; b. at 
Central Bridge, N. Y., 1846; while 
still a boy he modeled and built a 
steam engine ; his first profitable inven- 
tion was a railroad frog; his most no- 
table inventions, however, were in 
railroad airbrakes, the first patents 
for which were takan out in 1872 ; the 
system now known by his name has 
grown to almost universal adoption 
and constitutes a great labor saving 
and life saving adjunct to railroad 
transportation ; Mi. Westinghouse, 
whose home is at Pittsburg, was one 
of the earliest to develop and use nat- 
ural gas from deep wells ; in late years 
he has made and patented many in- 
ventions in electrical machinery for 
the development of power and light, 
and has commercially developed the 
same on a large scale. 

Ottmar Mergenthaler ; b. 1854, at 
Wtirtemberg, Germany ; d. 1899 ; in- 



ventor of the linotype machine; his 
early training as a watch and clock 
maker well fitted him for the painstak- 
ing and complicated work of his life, 
which was to make a machine which 
would mold the type and set it up in 
one operation ; in 1872 Mergenthaler 
came to Baltimore and entered a ma- 
chine shop, in which he subsequently 
became a partner; the first linotype 
machine was built in 1886 and put to 
use in the composing room of the New 
York Tribune; to-day all large news- 
paper ' and publishing houses are 
equipped with great batteries of these 
machines, costing over $3,000 each, 
and each performing the work of five 
compositors. 



The first recorded patent granted by 
the United States Government bears 
date July 31, 1790, issued to Samuel 
Hopkins, for making pot and pearl 
ashes. Two other patents were grant- 
ed in that year. In the following year, 
1791, thirty-three patents were grant- 
ed. Among them were six patents to 
James Rumsay and one to John Fitch 
for inventions relating to steam en- 
gines and steam vessels. For the sin- 
gle year of 1876 the number of pat- 
ents and caveats applied for was al- 
most 20.000. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS. 



Below is given in chronological or- 
der a list of important inventions be- 
ginning with the 16th century, with 



the title of the invention, the year it 
was made, the name of the inventor 
and his nativity : 



Inventions. 



Discoveries of electrical phenomena 

Won the title of "founder of the science of 
electricity." 

Screw printing-press 

Spirally grooved rifle barrel 

Iron furnaces 

The use of steam 

The first authentic reference in English liter- 
ature to the use of steam in the arts. 
Bay Psahn Book, first book published in the 

Colonies 

Barometer 

Steam engine, atmospheric pressure 

Machine for generating electricity 

First paper mill in America • 

First steam engine with a piston 

The manufacture of nlate glass established 
First to discover difference between electric 

conductors and insulators 

The first practical application of the steam 

engine 

First newspaper in America, "Boston News 

Letter" 

First to produce electric spark 




1560 
1603 

1620 
1620 
1621 
1630 



1640 

1643 

1663 

1681-6 

1690 

1690 

1695 

11696 

11736 

1702 

1704 
11708 
11716 



Inventor. 



WUliam Gilbert 



Blaew 
Koster 
Lord Dudley 
David Ramseye 



Torricelli 

Thomas Newcomen 
Otto von Guericke 
William Rittenhouse 
Denys Papin 



Stephen Gray 

Thomas Savery 

John Camobell 
Dr. J. Wall 



Nativity. 



England 



Germany 
England 
England 
England 



Mass. 

Italy 

England 

Getmany 

Penna. 

Frauce 

France 

England 

England 

Mass. 
England 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



219 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS— Con/tnr^of. 



Inventions 




Thermometer , 

Electrometer, the well-known pith ball. 



The "Franklin" printing-press. 
Electrical glass plate machine. . 



Stereotyping 

First to discover that electricity is of two kinds. 

Flying shuttle in weaving. . . . •. 

Rotary 3-color printing-press (multi-color), . . . 

Electnc or Leyden Jar 

Substitution of coke for coal in melting iron . . . 

Lightning conductor 

Spinning jenny 

Pianoforte, played in public in England in ... . 

Drawing rolls in a spinning machine 

The introduction of the "Hollander" or beat- 
ing engine for pulping rags in the manufac- 
ture of paper 

The mule spinner 

Cut nails 

Circular wood saw 

Embryo bicycle 

Steam engine, the basis of the modem engine . . 

Gas balloon 

Puddling iron 

Plow, with cast-iron mold board, and wrought- 
and cast-iron shares 

Power loom 

First steamboat in the United States 

Steam road wagon (first automobile) 

Grain threshing machine 

Hobby horse, forerunner of bicycle 

Rotary steam power printing-press, the first 
idea of 

Wood planing machine 

Gas first used! as an illuminant 

Cotton pn. 

Art of lithography 

Machine for making continuous webs of paper . 

Electric battery discovered 

Steam coach 

Wood mortising machine 

Pattern loom 

First fire-proof safe 

Steamboat on the Clyde, "Charlotte Dimdas". 

First photographic experiments 

Planing machine 

The application of steam to the loom 

Steel pen 

Steam locomotive on rails 

Application of twin-screw propellers in steam 
navigation 

Process of making malleable-iron castings 

First life preserver 

Electro-plating. 

Knitting machine, the latch needle in the . . . . 

Steamboat navigation on the Hudson River. . . 

Percussion or detonating compound 

First street gas lighting in England 

Band wood saw 

Voltaic arc 

First steamboat to make e trip to sea, the 
"Phoenix" 

Multi-wire telegraphy 

Revolving cylinder printing-press 

Breech-loading shotgun 

Storage battery .' 

Dry pile (prototype of dry battery) 

First practical steam rotary printing-press, 
paper printed on both sides 



1709 

J1718 

1l772 

1725 

(1727 

I 1772 

1731 

1733-9 

1733 

1743 

1745 

1750 

1752 

1763 

1767 

1769 



1773 
1774 
1775 
1777 
1779 
1782 
1783 
1783-4 

1784 
1785 
1786 
1787 
1788 
1790 

1790 
1791 
1792 
1794 
1796 
1800 
1800 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1801 
1802 
1802 
1802 
1803 
1803 
1804 

1804 

1804 

1805 

1805 

1803 

ICOJ 

1Z07 

1807 . 

1303 

1808 

180S 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1812 

1814 



Inventor. 



Fahrenheit 
John Cantor 

Benjamin Franklin 
Martin de Planta 

William Ged 
Cisternay du Fay 
John Kay 
Piatt & Keen 
Kleist 

Abraham Darby 
Benjamin Franklin 
James Hargreaves 

Richard Arkwright 



Samuel Crampton 

Jeremiah Wilkinson 

Miller 

Branchard & Magurier 

James Watt 

J. E. & J. M. Montgolfier 

Henry Cort 

James Small 
James Cartwright 
John Fitch 
Oliver Evans - 
Andrew Meikle 



Wm. Nicholson 
Samuel Bentham 
Wm. Murdoch 
Eli Whitney 
Alois Senefelder 
Louis Robert 
Volta 

Richard Trevithick 
M. J. Brunei 
M. J. Jacquard 
Richard Scott 
William Symington 
Wedgwood & Davy 
J. Bramah 
William Horrocks 
Wise 
Richard Trevithick 

John Stevens 

Lucas 

John Edwards 

Luigi Brugnatelli 

Jeandeau 

Robert Fulton 

A. J. Forsyth 

F. A. Winsor 

Newberry 

Sir Humphry Davy 

John Stevens 
Sommering 
Frederick Kcenig 
Thornton & Hall 
J. B. Ritter 
Zamboni 

Frederick Koenig 



Nativity. 



Danzig 
England 

Utd. States 
France 

Scotland 

France 

England 

England 

Germany 

England 

Utd States 

England 

England 

England 



England 

Utd. States 

England 

France 

Scotland 

France 

England 

Scotland 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 
England 

England 

England 

England 

Utd. States 

Germany 

France 

Italy 

England 

England 

France 

England 

England 

England 

England 

England 

England 

England 

Utd. States 

England 

England 

Italy 

France 

Utd. States 

Scotland 

England 

England 

England 

Utd. States 

Germany 

Germany 

IHd. States 

Germany 

Italy 

Germany 



220 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS— Con/inucd. 



Inventions. 



First locomotive in United States 

First circular wood saw made in this country . . 

Heliography 

Kaleidoscope. . 

Miners' safety lamp 

Dry gas meter 

Knitting machine 

' * Draisine " bicycle 

* 'Columbian " press, elbowed pulling bar, num- 
ber of impressions per hour, 50 

Stethoscope 

Electro-magnetism discovered 

Lathe for turning irregular wood forms 

The theory of electro-clynamics first propounded 

Electroscope 

The conversion of the electric current into me- 
chanical motion 

Galvanometer 

Multi-color printing 

Calculating machine 

Discovery of thermo-electricity 

Liquefaction and solidification of gas 

Water gas, discovery of 

Portland cement 

Electro-magnet 

First passenger railway, opened between Stock- 
ton and Darlington, England 

Electrical spur wheel 

First railroad in United States, near Quincy, 
Mass 

The law of galvanic circuits formulated 

Friction matches 

The reduction of aluminum 

Law of electrical resistance 

Improved rotary printing-press, London Times, 
5,000 impressions per hour 

Hot air blast for iron furnaces 

Wood planing machine 

Spool electro-magnet 

Tubular locomotive boiler 

Spinning ring frame 

The ''Washington" printing-press, lever mo- 
tion and knuckle joint for a screw, number 
of impressions per hour, 200 

First steam locomotive in United States, 
* 'Stourbridge Lion" 

Double fluid galvanic battery 

First portable steam fire engine 

Magneto-electric induction 

Chloroform 

First conception of electric telegraph 

First magneto-electric machines 

Rotary electric motor 

Chloral-hydrate 

Locomotive, "Old Ironsides," built 

Link-motion for locomotives 

Adoption of steam whistle for locomotives. . . 

Reciprocating saw-tooth cutter within double 
guard fingers for reapers 




"McCormick" reaper. 

Rotary electric motor 

Carbolic acid discovered 

Horseshoe machine 

Constant electric battery 

Acetylene gas discoverea 

The revolver; a device ' 'for combining a num- 
ber of long barrels so as to rotate upon a spin- 
dle by the act of cocking the hammer" 

The screw applied to steam navigation 



The galvanizing of iron. 



1814 
1814 
1814 
1814 
1815 
1815 
1816 
1816 

1817 
1819 
1819 
1819 
1820 
1820 

1821 
1822 
1822 
1822 
1823 
1823 
1823 
1825 
1825 

1825 
1826 

1826 
1827 
1827 
1827 
1827 

1827 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 
1828 



1829 

1829 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1831 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1832 
1833 

1833 
1834 
1834 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1836 



1836 
1836 
1841 
1837 



Inventor. 



George Stephenson 
Benjamin Cummings 
Jos. N. Niepce 
Sir David Brewster 
Sir Humphry Davy 
S. Clegg 
Brunei. 
Baron von Drais 

George Clymer 

Laennec 

H. C. Oersted 

Thomas Blanchard 

Andre Ampfere 

Bohenberg 

Michael Faraday 
Schweigger 
P. Force 

Charles Babbage. 
Prof. Seebeck 
Michael Faraday 
Ibbetson 
Joseph Aspdin 
Sturgeon 



Barlow 



George S. Ohm 
John Walker 
Friedrich Wohler 
George S. Ohm 

Cowper & Applegarth 
J, B. Neilson 
William Woodworth 
Joseph Henry 
S(^quin 
John Thorp 



Samuel Rust 



A. C. Becquerel 

Brathwaite & Ericsson 

Michael Faraday 

G. J. Guthrie 

Prof. S. F. B. Morse 

Saxton 

Wm. Sturgeon 

Justus von Liebig 

M. W. Baldwin 

Sir Henry James 

George Stephenson 

Obed Hussey 
Cyrus H. McCormick 
M. H. Jacobi 
Runge 
H. Burden 
J. P. DanicU 
Edmund Davy 



Samuel Colt 
John Ericsson 

Henry Craufurd 



Nativity. 



England 

Utd. States 

France 

England 

England 

England 

England 

Germany 

Utd. States 

France 

Germany 

Utd. States 

France 

Germany 

England 

Germany 

Utd. States 

England 

England 

England 

England 

England 

England 



England 



Germany 
Utd. States 
Germany 
Germany 

England 
Scotland 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
France 
England 



Utd. States 



France 

England 

England 

Scotland 

Utd. States 

Utd. States 

England 

Germany 

Utd. States 

England 

England 

Utd. States 

Utd. States 

Russia 

Germany 

Utd. States 

England 

England 



Utd. States 
I Utd. States 

England 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



221 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS— ConHnwed. 



Inventions. 



Indicator-telegraph 

Photographic carbon printing 

Babbitt metal 

Vulcanization of rubber 

The first boat electrically propelled 

Daguerreotype 

(First to produce a direct photographic posi- 
tive in the camera by means of hishly polished 

silver surfaced plate exposed to the vapors of 

iodine and subsequent development with mer- 
cury vapor.) 

Making photo-prints from paper negatives 

(First production of positive proofs from 

negatives.) 

Photographic portraits (Daguerreotype 
process.) 

First incandescent electric lamp 

Celestial photography 

Artesian well 

Pneumatic caissons. 

Pianoforte automatically played 

Water sas, utilization of. 

Steam hammer 

Typewriting machine 

First telegram sent 

The use of nitrous oxide gas as an ansesthetic . . 

The electric arc light (gas retort carbon in a 
vacuum) 

First telegraphic message, Washington, Balti- 
more 

Automatic adjustment of electric arc light car- 
bons 

Double cylinder printing-press 

Pneumatic tire 

Sewing machine 

Printing telegraph 

Suez canal started 

Ether as an ansesthetic 

Electric cautery 

Artificial limbs. . 

Gun cotton 

First pianoforte keyboard player 

Chloroform in surgery 

Nitro-glycerine 

Time-lock 

Hoe's lightning press, capable of printing 20,000 
impressions per hour 

Match-making machinery 

Breech gun-lock, interrupted thread 

Magazine gun 

Steam pressure gauge 

Lenticular stereoscope 

Latch needle for knitting machine 

• 'Corliss " engine 

Printing-press, curved plates secured to a ro- 
tating cylinder 

Mercerized cotton 

Collodion process in photography 

American machine-made watches 

Electric locomotive 

Self-raker for harvesters 

Breech-loading rifle 

Icemaking machine 

Ophthalmoscope 

The RuhmkorflF coil 

Fire-Blarm telegraph 

Reticulated screen for half-tone photographic 
printing 

Soda process of making pulp from wood 

Laws of magneto-electric induction 

Laws of electro-statics 



Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


1837 


Cooke & Wheatstonc 


England 


1838 


Mungo Ponton 


France 


1839 


Isaac Babbitt 


Utd. States 


1839 


Charles Goodyear 


Utd. States 


1839 


Jacobi 


Germany 


1839 


Louis Daguerre 


France 


1839 


Fox Talbot 


England 


1839 


Profs. Draper <& Morse 


Utd. States 


1840 


Grove 


England 
Utd. States 


1840 


Draper 


1840 




Paris 


1841 


M Triger 


France 


1842 


M. Seytre 


France 


1842 


Selligne 


France 


1842 


James Nasmyth 


Scotland 


1843 


Charles Thurber 


Utd. States 


1844 


Prof. S. F B. Morse 


Utd. States 


1844 


Dr. Horace Wells 


Utd. States 


1844 


I^on Foucault 


France 


1844 


Prof. S. F. B. Morse 


Utd. States 


1845 


Thomas Wright 


England 
Utd. States 


1845 


H. Hoe & Co. 


1845 


R. W. Thomp.son 


England 
Utd. States 


1846 


Elias Howe 


1846 


House 


Utd. States 


1846 


De Lesseps 


France 


1846 


Dr. Morton. 


Utd. States 


1846 


Crusell 


Russia 


1846 






1846 


Schonbein 


Germany 


1846 


Debain 


France 


1847 


Dr. Simpson 


Scotland 


1847 


Sobrero 




1847 


Savage 


Utd. States 


1847 


Richard M. Hoe 


Utd. States 


1848 


A. L.Dennison 


Utd. States 


1849 


Chambers 


Utd. States 


1849 


Walter Hunt. 


Utd. States 


1849 


Bourdon 


France 


1849 


Sir David Brewster 


England 
Utd. States 


1849 


J. T. Hibbert 


1849 


G. H. Corliss 


Utd. States 


1849 


Jacob Wonns 


France 


1850 


John Mercer 


England 


1850 


Scott Archer 


England 


1850 




Utd. States 


1851 


Dr Page 

W. H. Seymour 


Utd. States 


1851 


Utd. States 


1851 


Maynard 
J. Gorrie 


Utd. States 


1851 


Utd. States 


1851 


Helmholtz 


Germany 


1851 


RuhmkorflF 


Germany 


1852 


Channing & Farmer 


Utd. States 


1852 


Fox Talbot 


England 
Utd. States 


1853 


Watt & Burgess 


1853 


Michael Faraday 


England 


1853 


Michael Faraday 


England 



222 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS— Conitnued. 



Inventions. 




Electrolysis 

Duplex telef^raph 

Photographic roll films 

Diamond rock drill 

Four-motion feed for sewirg machines 

Magazine firearm 

Fat decomposed by water or steam at high tem- 
perature, since largely used in soap making. . 

Safety matches 

Iron-clad floating batteries first used in Cri- 
mean war 

Cocaine 

Process of making steel, blowing air through 
molten pig iron 

Dryplate photography 

Bicycle 

Sleeping car 

Aniline dyes 

Printing machine for the blind (contains ele- 
ments of the present typewriting machine) . . 

Regenerative furnace 

Refining engine in paper pulp making 

Coal-oil first sold in the United States 

First sea-going iron-clad war vessel, the 
**Glorie'\ 

Ground wood pulp 

Inclined elevator and platform in the reaper. . . 

Cable car 

Breech-loading ordnance 

Feed injector Tor boilers 

First Atlantic cable 

Great Extern launched 

Storage or secondary battery 

Singing telephone. ^ 

Ammonia absorption ice machine 

Improved stereotyping process 

Shoe-sewing machine 

Dnven well, a tube with a pointed perforated 
end driven into the ground 

Passenger elevator 

BM-bcd-wire fence introduced 

Calcium carbide produced 

Revolving turret for floating battery 

First iron-clad steam battery, ' 'Monitor" 

Gatling gun 

SiQokeTess gunpowder 

Pneumatic oianoforte player (regarded as first 
to strike keys by pneumatic pockets) 

Explosive gelatine 

Rubber dental plate , 

Automatic grain-binding device 

Process of making fine steel 

Antiseptic surgery 

Web-feeding printing-press 

Automatic shell ejector for revolver 

Open-hearth steel process 

Compressed air rock drill 

Torpedo 

Dynamo electric machine 

Sulphite process for making paper pulp from 
wood 

Dynamo electric machine 

Disappearing gun Carriage 

First practical typewriting machine 

Dynamite 

Oleomargarine 

Water heater for steam fire engine 

Sulky plow 

Railway air-brake 

Tunnel shield (operated by hydraulic power). . 

A curved spring tooth harrow 



1858 
1853 
1854 
1854 
1854 
1854 

1854 
1855 

1855 
1855 

1855 
1855 
1855 
1856 
1856 

1856 
1856 
1856 
1857 

1857 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1860 
1860 
1861 
1861 

1861 
1861 
1861 
1862 
1862 
1862 
1862 
1863 

1863 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1865 
1865 
1865 
1865 
1866 
1866 
1866 
1866 

1867 
1866 
1868 
1868 
1868 
1868 
1868 
1868 
1869 
1869 
1869 



Inventor. 



Michael Faraday 

Gintl 

Melhuish 

Herman 

A. B. Wilson 

Smith & Wesson 

R. A. Tilghman 
Lundstrom 



Gaedeke 

Sir Henry Bessemer 
Dr. J. M. Taupenot 
Ernst Michaux 
Woodruff 
Perkins 

Alfred E. Beach 
Wm. Siemens 
T. Kingsland 
Messrs. Stout & Hand 



Henry Voeltcr 
J. S Marsh 
E. A. Gardner 
Wright & Gould 
GifTard 
Cyrus Field 

Gaston Plants 
Philip Reis 
F P. E. Carr^ 
Charles Craske 
George McKay 

Col. N. W. Green 
E. G. Otis 

Frederich Woehler 
Theodore Timby 
John Ericsson 
Dr. R. J. Gatling 
J. F. E. Schultze 

M. Foumeaux 

A. Nobel 

J. A. Cummings 

Jacob Behel 

Martin 

Sir Joseph Lister 

William Bullock 

W. C. Dodge 

Siemens-Martin 

C. Burleigh. 

Whitehead 

WUde 

Tilghman 
Siemens 
Moncrief 
C. L. Sholes 

A. Nobel 
H. Mege 

W. A. Brickell 

B. Slusser 

George Westinghouse 
Alfred E. Beach 
David L. Garver 



Nativity. 



England 
Austria 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Sweden 



Germany 

England 

France 
Utd. States 
England 

Utd. States 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 

France 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
France 
Utd. States 

France 
Germany 
France 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 

Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Prussia 

France 
France 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
England 

Utd. States 
Germanv 
England 
Utd. States 
France 
France 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



223 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS— Con<tnt*a/. 



Inventions. 



Dynamo-electric machine 

Celluloid 

Rebounding gun-lock 

The Goodyear welt shoe-sewing machine 

Photographic gelatino-bromide emulsion (basis 
of present rapid photography) 

Continuous web pnnting-press 

Grain binder 

Compressed air rock drill 

Positive motion weaving loom 

Theory that light is an electric phenomenon. . . 

Automatic air Drake 

Automatic car coupler 

The photographic platinotype process 

(Prints by this process are permanent.) 

QuadrupUx telegraph. 

Twine binder for harvesters 

Gelatino-bromide photographic emulsion (sen- 
sitiveness to light greatly increased by the 
application of heat). 

Self-binding reaper 

Barbed-wire machine 

Siphon recorder for submarine telegraphs . . . . . 

Store cash carrier 

Illuminating water gas. 

Roller flour mUls 

Middling purifier for flour 

Ice-making machine 

Speaking telephone 

Electric candle 

(The first step towards the division of the 

electric current for lighting.) 

Continuous machine for making tobacco cigar- 
ettes 

Steam f sed saw mills 

The first Portland cement plant in U. S 

Phonograph 

Gas engine 

Carbon microphone 

Telephone transmitter of variable resistance. . 

Carbon filament for electric lamp 

( Beginning of the incandescent vacuum elec- 
tric light.) 

Rotary disk cultivator 

Decided advance in the "expression" of self- 
playing pianofortes 

Automatic grain binder 

Cathode rays discovered 

Electric railway 

Steam plow 

Magazine rifle 

"Blake" telephone transmitter. . 

Hammerless gun 

Storage battery or accumulator 

Typhoid bacillus isolated 

Pneumonia bacillus isolated 

Button-hole machine 

Improvement in "expression" of self-playing 
pianofortes 

Hand photographic camera for plates 

Tuberculosis bacillus isolated 

Hydrophobia bacillus isolated 

Cholera bacillus isolated 

Diphtheria bacillus isolated 

Lockjaw bacillus isolated 

Antipyrene 

Linotype machine 

The rear-driven chain safety bicycle 

Chrome tanning of leather 

Process of reducing aluminimi 

Gas burner 



Date. 


Inventor. 


Nativity. 


1870 


Gramme 


France 


1870 


J. W. A Isaac Hyatt 


Utd. States 


1870 


L. Hailer 


Utd. States 


1871 


Goodyear 


Utd. States 


1871 


R. L. Maddox 


England 
Utd. States 


1871 


Hoe A Tucker 


1871 


S. D. Locke 


Utd. States 


1871 


S. Ingersoll 


Utd. States 


1872 


J. Lyall 


Utd. States 


1872 


Clerk Maxwell 


England 
Utd. States 


1872 


George Westinghouse 


1873 


E. H. Janney 


Utd. States 


1873 


Willis 


England 


1873 


T. A. Edison 


Utd. States 


1873 


M. L. Gorham 


Utd. States 


1873 


CJharles Bennett 


England 
Utd. States 


1873 


Locke & Wood 


1874 


Glidden & Vaughan 


Utd. States 


1874 


Sir William Thompson 


England 
Utd. States 


1875 


D. Brown 


1875 


T. S. C. Lowe 


Utd. States 


1875 


F. Wegmann 


Utd. States 


1875 


Geo. T. Smith 


Utd. States 


1875 


R. P. Pictet 


Switzerland 


1876 


Alex. G. Bell 


Utd. States 


1876 


Paul Jablochkofif 


Russia 


1876 


Russell 


Utd. States 


1876 


D. C. Prescott 


Utd. States 


1876 




0>play, Pa. 
Utd. SUtes 


1877 


T. A. Edison 


1877 


N. A. Otto 


Utd. States 


1877 


T. A. Edison 


Utd. States 


1877 


Emil Berliner 


Utd. States 


1878 


T. A. Edison 


Utd. States 


1878 


Mallon 


Utd. SUtes 


1878 


Gaily 


Utd. States 


1879 


J. F. Appleby 


Utd. States 


1879 


Sir Wm. Crookes 


England 


1879 


Siemens 


Germany 


1879 


W. Foy 


Utd. States 


1879 


Lee 


Utd. States 


1880 


Blake 


Utd. States 


1880 


Greener 


Utd. States 


1880 


Camille A. Faure 


France 


1880 


Eberth & Koch 


Germany 


' 1880 


Sternberg 


Utd. States 


1881 


Reece 


Utd. States 


1882 


Schmaele 


Utd. States 


1881 


Wm. Schmid 


Utd. States 


1882 


Robert Koch 


Germany 


1882 


Louis Pasteur 


France 


1884 


Robert Koch 


Germany 


1884 


Loeffier 


Germany 


1884 


Nicolaier 


France 


1884 


Kuno 


Utd. States 


1884 


Ottmar Mergenthaler 
George W. Marble 
Schultz 


Germany 


1884 


Utd. States 


1884 


Utd. States 


1885 


Cowles 


England 


1885 


Carl Welsbach 


Germany 



224 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



PROGRESS OF INVENTIONS— Con/tnt*ed. 



Inventions. 



Hydraulic dred^ 

First electric railway in United States, Hamp- 
den and Baltimore, Md 

Contact device for overhead electric trolley. . . 

Graphophone 

Electric welding 

Combined harvester and thresher 

Band wood saw 

Cyanide process of obtaining gold and silver. . 

System of polyphase electric currents 

Incandescent ^aa light 

(The formation of a cone-shaped interwoven 

mantle of thread coated with a refractory rare 

earth and rendering the same incandescent by 

the heat rays of a Bunsen gas burner regardless 

of how the gas is produced.) 

Process of annealing armor plate 

"Kodak" snap-shot camera 

(Constructed to use a continuous sensitized 

ribbon film.) 

Process of making artificial silk 

Hertzian waves or electric-wave radiation .... 

First rotary cement kilns in U. S 

Nickel steel 

Process for making aluminum. 

Electric plow 

Improved linotype machine 

Bicycles equipped with pneumatic tires 

Krag-Jorgensen magazine rifle 

"Coherer" for receiving electric waves 

Rotary steam turbine 

Cement-lined paper-pulp digester 

Round bale cotton press 

Microphone 

Power loom 

Ck)mmercial application of formic-aldehyde. . . 

Shoe-last lathe, for different lengthsf 

Kinetoscope 

Process for making carborundum 

Calcium carbide produced in electric furnace. . 

Process for liquefying air 

Electric locomotive, B. & O. Bell Tunnel 

X-rays 

Acetylene gas from calcium carbide 

System of wireless telegraphy 

Foundation laid of science of radio-activity, 
i.e., emanation of penetrating rays^from lumi- 
nescent bodies * 

Use of ultra-violet rays in treating diseases. . . 

Nernst electric light 

(Method of rendering a clay compound ca- 
pable of conducting electricity and thence be- 
coming brilliantly incandescent without a 

vacuum.) 

Mercury vapor electric light 

(An artificial light composed strictly of the 

ultra-blue violet rays of the spectrum obtained 

by passing an electric current through a partial 

vacuum tube filled with mercury vapor, the 

latter acting as a conductor. Possesses re- 
markable actinic power for photographic pur- 
poses. ) 

Air-ship 

Automobile mower 

The first passenger steam turbine ship, "Ed- 
ward VII." 

The first oil-burning steamship built in the 
United States, "Nevada" 

English Pacific cable, Canada- Australia 

American Pacific cable 

Berlin-Zossen Road, 130^^ miles an hour 



Date. 

1885 

1885 
1885 
1886 
1886 
1886 
1887 
1887 
1887 
1887 



Inventor. 



1888 
1888 



1888 
1888 
1889 
1889 
1889 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1890 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1893 
1893 
1893 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1895 
1896 



1896 
1896 
1897 



1900 



1901 
1901 

1901 

1902 
1902 
1903 
1903 



Bowers 



C. J. Van Depoele 
Bell & Tainter 
Elihu Thompson 
Matteson 

D. C. Prescott 
McArthur & Forrest 
Nicola Tesla 

Carl A. Von Welsbach 



Harvey 

Eastman & Walker 



H. DeChardonnet 
Heinrich Hertz 

Schneider 
Chas. M. Hall 
W. Stephens 
Ottmar Mergenthaler 

Krag-Jdrgensen 
Edouard Branly 
C. A. Parsons 
G. F. Russell 
Brown 

Emile Berliner 
Northrup 
J. J. A. Trillat 
Kimball 
T. A. Edison 
E. G. Acheson 
, Thos. L. Willson 
Carl Linde 

Prof. W. C. Roentgen 
Thomas L. Willson 
G. Marconi 



Henri Becquerel 
Niels R. Finsen 
Walter Nernst 



Peter Cooper Hewitt 



Nativity. 
Utd. States 



Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Austria 



Utd. States 
Utd. States 



France 
Germany 
Coplay, Pa. 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Germany 

Utd. States 
England 
England 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
France 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Utd. States 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Germany 
Utd. States 
Italy 



France 

Denmark 

Germany 



Utd. States 



M. Santos-Dumont 
Deering Harvester Co 

Denny & Brothers 



Utd. States 
Germany 
— Encyclopedia Americana, 



France 
Utd. States 

England 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



225 



GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING PATENTS. 



What is a Patent? — The term 
patent or letters patent is derived from 
litterae patentes, signifying that which 
is open or disclosed in contradistinc- 
tion to lettre de cache, that which 
is sealed or secret. This term is the 
keynote of the whole principle upon 
which the patent system is built up, 
namely, disclosure. The disclosure 
must be honest, absolute and unre- 
served. The penalty for mental crook- 
edness or for ignorance in giving out 
fully and freely the nature of the in- 
vention is severe and direct and is 
nothing less than forfeiture of the pat- 
ent itself. The reason for this is per- 
fectly logical and arises from the very 
meaning, spirit and nature of the re- 
lationship existing between the pat- 
entee and the government. The term 
of a patent is 17 years. During this 
term of 17 years the patentee obtains 
a monopoly under which he secures ex- 
clusive right of manufacture, use and 
sale. The patent itself, however, is in 
the nature of a contract between the 
patentee and the government, presu- 
mably for their mutual benefit. The 
government grants to the inventor the 
exclusive right of manufacture and 
sale for 17 years on condition that the 
inventor shall disclose fully the nature 
of his invention or discovery, and shall 
allow the public the unrestricted use 
of the invention after this term has 
expired. If he fail in making full dis- 
closure, he has not lived up to the 
terms of the implied contract and the 
patent thereby becomes null and void. 
It sometimes happens that an inventor 
discloses freely part of the invention, 
but cunningly conceals some essential 
step in the process, but if the case is 
tested within the courts and the real 
facts are brought to light, the patent 
will be declared invalid. At the end 
of the term of 17 years the patent be- 
comes public property, and the article 
may be freely manufactured by any 
one. It can never thereafter, as in so 
many cases in the Middle Ages, be- 
come a lost art. 

Who May Obtain a Patent? — In 
order to secure a valid patent, the ap- 
plicant must declare upon oath that he 
believes himself to be the true, original 
and first inventor or discoverer oi the 
art, machine, manufacture, composi- 
tion or improvement for which he so- 
licits a patent ; that he does not know 
and does not believe that the same was 
ever before known or used ; and that 
the invention has not been in public 



use or on sale in the United States for 
more than two years before the appli- 
cation was filed, and that the inven- 
tion has not been described in any 
printed publication for more than two 
years prior to the filing of the appli- 
cation. Any one who can subscribe to 
the above conditions may apply for a 
patent, irrespective of race, color, age, 
or nationality. Minors and women 
and even convicts may apply for pat- 
ents under our law. The rights even 
of a dead man in an invention are not 
lost, for an application may be filed in 
his name by his executor or adminis- 
trator, and the rights of his heirs 
thereby safeguarded. The patent in 
this case would issue to the executor 
or administrator and would become 
subject to the administration of the 
estate like any other property left by 
the deceased. Even the rights of an 
insane person may not be lost, as the 
application may be filed by his legal 
guardian. If foreign patents for the 
same invention have been previously 
issued, having been filed more than 12 
months before the filing of the United 
States application, the patent would 
be refused. The applicant must state 
his nationality. It often happens that 
two or more individuals have jointly 
worked upon the invention, and in this 
case the several inventors should joint- 
ly apply for the patent. Should they 
not so apply, the patent when issued 
would be invalid. If they are merely 
partners, however, and not co-invent- 
ors, they should not apply jointly for 
a patent, as the inventor alone is en- 
titled to file the application. He may, 
however, assign a share in the patent 
to his partner, coupled with the re- 
quest tnat the patent should issue to 
them jointly. It is of the greatest im- 
portance that these distinctions should 
be clearly understood ; otherwise, ' the 
patent may be rendered invalid. 

What Mat be Patented? — Any 
new and useful art, machine, manufac- 
ture or composition of matter, or any 
new and useful improvements thereon. 
The thing invented must be new and 
useful. These are conditions precedent 
to the granting of a patent. Of these 
two conditions by far the more import- 
ant is the former, and it is concerning 
the interpretation of this word ''new^' 
and its bearing upon the invention 
that the principal work and labor in- 
volved in passing an application safely 
through the Patent Office is involved. 
When the invention has been worked 



226 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



out by the inventor and he is pre- 
pared to file his application, his attor- 
ney prepares the ne^escary papers, as 
provided for by law, namely : An 
Oath, a Petition, a Specification con- 
sisting of a description of the inven- 
tion and concluding w.th claims which 
specifically set forth what the inventor 
claims to be the novel features of the 
invention, and drawings which are pre- 
pared and filed with the case, and in 
due course the application is ready 
for examination in the Patent Ofiice. 
The question of whether the invention 
is new is then considered, and the bur- 
den of proof that the invention is not 
new rests upon the Patent Office. The 
examination consists in searching 
through the files of the Patent Office 
among the patents that have been al- 
ready issued, and through sich litera- 
ture as may bear upon the subject. 
If any reference is discovered that an- 
ticipates the invention, as defined by 
the claims of the specification, the ap- 
plicant is informed of the fact, and he 
is allowed to amend his parers and 
narrow the claims so as to avoid the 
prior patents, if possible. If his at- 
torney considers the position of the 
Patent OflSce untenable, he naay pre- 
sent arguments to show wherein he be- 
lieves that the inventor is entitled to a 
patent. It is thus seen that the ques- 
tion of whether an invention is new is 
one of fact, and one of the greatest 
importance, and upon the showing that 
the inventor is able to make during 
the prosecution of the case, depends 
largely the future success of the pat- 
ent. The evidence adduced in proving 
that the invention is not new must be 
tangible and accessible. A patent 
would not be refused or overturned on 
a mere mental concept. There must 
be some evidence of a substantial char- 
acter that serves to show that the 
earlier idea was reduced to practice 
or at least that there was such a de- 
scription or drawing made, as would 
be sufficient for one skilled in the art to 
reduce the invention to practice. If it 
has not been actually reduced to prac- 
tice, it must be a concrete not an ab- 
stract idea. 

It is essential that the application 
for a patent should be filed before the 
invention has been in public use or on 
sale for a period of two years. If the 
inventor has publicly used or sold his 
invention for a period of two years, it 
becomes public property and he can- 
not reeain the right to obtain a pat- 
nt. He may. however, make models 
id experiment with his invention for 



a much longer period, provided he does 
not disclose his invention to the pub- 
lic or put it into actual use or on sale 
for a period of two years. The word 
"useful" is not one which usually 
gives either the Patent Office or the 
inventor a great deal of trouble, as 
any degree of utility, however insignifi- 
cant, will serve to entitle the invent- 
or to a patent. It has often hap- 
pened that an invention which ap- 
pears, at the time the patent is ap- 
plied for, to have no special utility, in 
later years, owing to new discoveries 
or improvements in the arts, is found 
to possess the greatest merit and 
value. Unless an invention is posi- 
tively meretricious, therefore, it is 
difficult to assume that it either has no 
utility or never will have any. Pat- 
ents are granted for "any new and 
useful art, machine, manufacture or 
composition of matter, or any improve- 
ment thereon." It is seen from the 
terms of the statute that almost any 
creature of the inventive faculty of 
man becomes a proper subject for a 
patent. The exceptions are very few. 
Patents will not be granted, for ex- 
ample, for any invention that offends 
the law of nature. Under this cate- 
gory may be mentioned perpetual mo- 
tion machines. In case an application 
of this character is presented, the 
Commissioner politely informs • the 
applicant that the matter cannot be 
considered until a working model 
demonstrating the principle of the in- 
vention has been deposited in the Pat- 
ent Office. Inventions of an immoral 
nature will not be considered. Medi- 
cines and specifics are not now proper 
subjects for letters patent, unless some 
important new discovery is involved. 

Patented Articles Must be 
Marked. — Articles manufactured and 
sold under a patent must be so marked 
that the public shall have notice that 
the article is a patented one. This 
notice consists of the word "Patented," 
together with the date when the patent 
was issued or the Serial Number of the 
patent. Damages in an infringement 
suit cannot be recovered unless the 
defendant has received such notice 
that the article is patented. The term 
of a United States patent is 17 years. 
This term cannot be extended except 
by special Act of Congress. It is 
many years since a bill seeking an ex- 
tension of the term of a patent has 
been passed by Congress. 

Appeals. — If an application for a 
patent has been rejected, the applicant 
may appeal from the Primary Examin- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



227 



er to the Board of Examiners-in-Chief. 
He may further carry the appeal to 
the Commissioner of Patents, and in 
case he is not satisfied with the lat- 
ter decision, he may carry the appeal 
finally to the Court of Appeals of the 
District of Columbia. 

Interi-erence. — If two or more in- 
dividuals shall have invented the same 
thing at or about the same time, inter- 
ference proceedings may be instituted 
to determine which applicant is the 
original or first inventor. Interference 
proceedings are instituted between ap- 
plicants whose applications are pend- 
ing or between a pending application 
and a patent already issued, provided 
the latter patent has not been issued 
for more than two years prior to the 
filing of the conflicting application. 
The proceedings are conducted before 
the Examiner of Interferences. Ap- 
peal may be taken from the Examiner 
of Interferences to the Board of Ex- 
aminers-in-Chief, and from the Board 
of Examiners-in-Chief to the Commis- 
sioner, and thence to the Court of Ap- 
peals of the District of Columbia. Not 
all the claims for a patent are neces- 
sarily involved, only such as cover the 
particular feature of the invention 
which is declared to be in interference. 
The unsuccessful applicant by elimi- 
nating the claims or claim in contro- 
versy may procure allowance of the 
other claims not objected to, and have 
the patent issued. In determining the 
question of priority of invention, wit- 
nesses are examined and the proceed- 
ings are conducted much in the same 
manner as in a suit at law. The first 
step in the proceeding consists in filing 
with the Commissioner a Preliminary 
Statement made under oath, giving the 
date at which the invention was first 
conceived and reduced to some tangi- 
ble form, such as the making of drav^- 
ings, the construction of a model, or 
the disclosing of the invention to an- 
other. The object of the subsequent 
examination and cross-examination is 
to substantiate the date of invention 
as claimed by the applicants respec- 
tively, and to establish the priority of 
invention. 

iNFRiNGEisfENT. — In case of an ac- 
tion for the infringement of a patent, 
the importance of the question of nov- 
elty appears from the special pleadings 
which the defendant may enter, which 
are as follows : 

1. That for the purpose of deceiving 
the public the description and specifi- 
cation filed by the patentee in the Pat- 
ent Office was made to contain less 



than the whole truth relative to his 
invention or discovery, or more than is 
necessary to produce the desired effect ; 
or, 

2. That he had surreptitiously or 
unjustly obtained the patent for that 
which was in fact invented by another, 
who was using reasonable diligence in 
adapting and perfecting the same ; or, 

3. That it had been patented or de- 
scribed in some printed publication 
prior to his supposed invention or dis- 
covery thereof; or, 

4. That he was not the original and 
first inventor or discoverer of any 
material and substantial part of the 
thing patented; or, 

5. That it has been in public use 
or on sale in this country for more 
than two years before his application 
for a patent, or had been abandoned 
to the public. 

Damages for infringement of a pat- 
ent may be recovered by action on the 
case in the name of the patentee or 
his assignee. The courts having juris- 
diction over such cases have the 
power (1) to grant injunctions against 
the violation of any right secured by 
the patent; (2) to allow the recovery 
of damages sustained by the complain- 
ant through such infringement. In 
such a case the defendant is compelled 
to furnish an accounting showing the 
amount of the articles manufactured 
and sold and the profits derived from 
such sale. 

Design Patents. — Design patents 
are issued for any new or original de- 
sign, whether it be a work of art, 
statue, bas-relief, design for prints or 
fabrics, or for any new design or 
shape or ornament in any article of 
manufacture. The scope of the de- 
sign patent was formerly very broad, 
but recent decisions and enactments 
have greatly restricted its availability 
and a design patent cannot now be ob- 
tained unless it possesses some inher- 
ent artistic quality. Mere utility is 
not sufficient to entitle a new design 
to letters patent. The terms of design 
patents are 3 1-2, 7 or 14 years. 

Caveats. — Any one who has made 
a new invention or discovery, which is 
not yet completed or perfected, may 
file in the Patent Office a caveat, de- 
scribing his invention, said caveat 
serving as notice to the Patent Office 
that the caveator is in possession of a 
certain invention partly developed, for 
which later he proposes to file an ap- 
plication for a patent. The caveat is 
filed by the Commission in the secret 
archives of the Patent Office, and is 



228 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



operative for a term of one year. The 
term may be prolonged from year to 
year by the payment of a small fee. 
The caveat should not be confounded 
with a patent, for it gives the inventor 
no real protection or monopoly. It 
simply entitles him to notice in case 
another inventor files an application 
for the same invention. In this event 
the caveator is entitled to three 
months* grace within which to file his 
patent application, whereupon an in- 
terference will be declared between the 
two inventions. 

Assignments. — A patent or any in- 
terest therein may be sold or assigned 



like any other piece of property. An 
inventor may sell or assign his in- 
terest or a part interest in his inven- 
tion, either before the application is 
filed or while the application is still 
pending. Under these circumstances 
the patent may be issued to the as- 
signee or to the inventor and assignee 
jointly. The patent, if already issued, 
may be assigned by the owner whether 
he be the inventor or assignee. The 
conveyance is effected by an instru- 
ment in writing stating the conditions 
under which the patent is assigned, 
and the assignment should be recorded 
in the Patent OflBce. — Enc. Americana. 



ABSTRACTS OF DECISIONS. 



Where an inventor has completed 
his invention, if he neither applies for 
a patent nor puts it to practical use, 
a subsequent inventor who promptly 
applies is entitled to the patent, and 
the first one is deemed to have aban- 
doned his rights. Pattee v. Russell, 
3 O. G., 181 ; Ex parte Carre, 5 O. G., 
30; Johnson v. Root, 1 Fisher, 351. 

As between two rival inventors, the 
test of priority is the diligence of the 
one first to conceive it. If he has been 
diligent in perfecting it, he is entitled 
to receive the patent. If he has been 
negligent, the patent is awarded to 
his opponent. Robinson on Patents, 
Sec. 375. 

The construction and use in public 
of a working machine, whether the in- 
ventor has or has not abandoned it, 
excludes the grant of a patent to a 
subsequent inventor. An abandon- 
ment in such case inures to the bene- 
fit of the public and not to the bene- 
fit of a subsequent inventor. Young v. 
Van Duser, 1(5 O. G., 95. 

A mere aggregation or combination 
of o!d devices is not patentable when 
the elements are unchanged in func- 
tion and effect. They are patentable 
when, "by the action of the elements 
upon each other, or by their joint ac- 
tion on their common object, they per- 
form additional functions and accom- 
plish additional effects." Robinson on 
Patents, Sec. 154. 

A change of shape enabling an in- 
strument to perform new functions is 
invention. Wilson v. Coon, 18 Blatch. 
532; Collar Co. v. White, 7 O. G., 
690, 877. 

A patent which is simply for a meth- 
od of transacting business or keeping 
accounts is not valid. U. S. Credit 
System Co. v. American Indemnity 
Co., GS O. G., 318. 



The law requires that manufactur- 
ers of patented articles give notice to 
the public that the goods are patented 
by marking thereon the date of the 
patent or giving equivalent notice. 
When this law is not complied with, 
only nominal damages can be recov- 
ered. Wilson V. Singer Mfg. Co., 4 
Bann. & A. 637; McCourt v. Brodie, 
5 Fisher, 384. 

To prevent fraudulent impositions 
on the public it is forbidden that un- 
patented articles be stamped "Pat- 
ented," and where this is done with 
intention to deceive, a penalty of one 
hundred dollars and costs for each 
article so stamped is provided. Any 
person may bring action against such 
offenders. Walker v. Hawxhurst, 5 
Blatch. 494; Tompkins v. Butterfield, 
25 Fed. Rep. 556. 

A patentee is bound by the limita- 
tions imposed on his patent, whether 
they are voluntary or enforced by the 
Patent Office, and if he accepts claims 
not covering his entire invention he 
abandons the remainder. Toepfer v. 
Goetz, 41 O. G., 933. 

Claims should be construed, if pos- 
sible, to sustain the patentee's right to 
all he has invented. Ransom v. Mayor 
of N. Y. (1856), Fisher, 252. 

The assignor of a patented invention 
is estopped from denying the validity 
of his own patent or his own title to 
the interest transferred. He cannot 
become the owner of an older patent 
and hold it against his assignee. Rob- 
inson on Patents, Sec. 787, and notes. 

Any assignment which does not con- 
vey to the assignee the entire and un- 
qualified monopoly which the patentee 
holds in the territory specified, or an 
undivided interest in the entire mo- 
nopoly, is a mere license. Sanford v. 
Messer, 2 O. G., 470. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



229 



FOREIGN PATENTS. 



Canada, Dominion of. — ^The laws 
of Canada follow somewhat closely the 
practice in the United States. The 
term of a patent is 18 years. The gen- 
eral practice, however, is to divide the 
fees, making payment only for a term 
of six years at one time. Applications 
are subjected to examination as to 
novelty and usefulness, as in the 
United States. The application must 
be filed in Canada not later than dur- 
ing the year following the issue of the 
United States or other foreign patent. 
If the inventor neglects to file his ap- 
plication within the 12 months, the 
invention becomes public property. It 
is not permissible to import the pat- 
ented article into the Dominion after 
12 months from the date of the Cana- 
dian patent. Within two years from 
said date the manufacture and sale of 
the article under the patent must have 
been begun. These exactions may be 
relaxed under certain conditions. 

Great Britain. — The term of the 
patent is 14 years. After January, 
1905, an examination will be made in 
Great Britaiii to ascertain whether 
the invention has been disclosed in the 
specifications of British patents grant- 
ed within fifty years of the filing of the 
British application. While this will be 
the extent of the examination by the 
Patent Office, it will be sufficient to 
invalidate a British patent to show in 
court that the invention was published, 
or was in public use, in Great Brit- 
ain before the priority of the British 
application. In Great Britain the true 
inventor should apply for the patent in 
his own name ; but if the invention has 
been conceived in a foreign country, 
the first introducer may obtain the pat- 
ent whether he be the true inventor or 
not. Under these circumstances, there- 
fore, a foreign assignee may apply for 
the patent in his own name without 
the true inventor being known. After 
the fourth year there are annual taxes, 
gradually increasing in amount. The 
patent becomes void if the tax is not 
paid. No time is set within which the 
manufacture of the invention must be 
commenced, but after three years if the 
manufacture has not been begun, the 
patentee may be compelled to grant li- 
censes, or the patent may be declared 
invalid. 

France. — The term of a patent is 
15 years. There is no examination as 
to novelty, and the patent is granted 
to the first applicant, whether or not 
he be the true inventor. The life of 



the patent depends upon the payment 
of annual taxes. The patent must be 
worked in France within three yeai*s 
of the filing of the application. If these 
conditions are not complied with, the 
patent becomes public property. 

Germany. — The term of a patent is 
15 years. The patent is issued to the 
first applicant, but if he is not the true 
inventor he should, before filing the 
application, obtain the written consent 
of the inventor. The application is 
subjected to a rigid examination. The 
patent is subject to an annual progres- 
sive tax, and must be worked within 
a period of three years. 

Austria. — The term of a patent is 
15 years. The practice is somewhat 
similar to the practice in Germany, 
although the examination is generally 
not so exacting. The patent is subject 
to an annual tkx and it must be 
worked within a period of three years. 

Hungary. — The term of a patent is 
15 years. The laws are similar to 
those of Germany. There is a progres- 
sive annual tax and the patent must be 
worked within a period of three 
years. 

Belgium. — The term of a patent is 
20 years. The first applicant obtains 
the patent whether or not he is the 
true inventor. There is a small an- 
nual tax, and the patent should be 
worked within three years or within 
one year of the working elsewhere. 

Italy. — The term of a patent is 15 
years. The patent is granted to the first 
applicant. The patent is subject to an 
annual tax, and the working must take 
place within three years. 

Russia. — Tlie term of the patent is 
15 years. The patent is subject to the 
payment of annual taxes and must be 
worked within five years. 

Spain. — The term 'of the patent is 
20 years, subject to the payment of an- 
nual taxes. It must be worked within 
three years. The patent is issued to 
the first applicant, whether or not he 
be the true inventor. 

Switzerland. — The term of the 
patent is 15 years, subject to an an- 
nual tax. Working must take place 
within three years. Only the true in- 
ventor or his assignee can obtain a 
patent. 

Norway. — Term of patent is 15 
years, subject to a small annual tax. 
The patent must be worked within 
three years. The application must be 
filed in the name of the true inventor 
or his legal representative. Applica- 



230 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



tion must be filed within six months of 
the publication of any prior patent. 

Sweden. — Term of patent is 15 
years, subject to payment of an an- 
nual tax. The conditions are very 
similar to the laws of Norway, but the 
application should be filed before the 
issuing of a prior foreign patent. 

Denmark. — The laws are similar to 
those of Sweden. 

Portugal. — The term varies from 
1 to 15 years, the fees payable depend- 
ing upon the term of the patent. 

HoLXAND has no patent laws. 

Australasia. — The Australasia 
patent protects an invention in Vic- 
toria, New South Wales, Queensland, 
South Australia, Tasmania and West- 
ern Australia, but not in New Zealand, 
which has its own patent laws. The 
term of the Australia patent is 14 
years, a tax being due before the ex- 
piration t)f the seventh year. When 
the patent is not worked the patentee 
may be required to give license for a 
reasonable consideration. 

New Zealand. — The term of the 
patent is 14 years, taxes being due be- 
fore the end of the fourth and sev- 
enth years. There are no require- 
ments as to working. 

British India. — The patent is 
granted for 14 years, and closely fol- 
lows the British practice. The appli- 
cation should be filed within one year 
of the issue of the patent in any other 
country. 

Porto Rico. — It is possible to pro- 
cure protection for industrial property 
by registering a certified copy of the 
United States patent with the Civil 
Governor and complying with the other 
legal formalities. 

Philippines. — ^The modus operandi 
is the same as that just described as 
applying to Porto Rico. 

Cuba. — Since Cuba has become an 
independent republic it has established 
a patent system. The term of the pat- 



ent is 17 years. Working should be 
established within one year. No taxes 
after the issue of the patent. 

Mexico. — The term is 20 years. 
There are no taxes after the issue of 
the patent. 

South American Republics. — 
Patents are issued by all the South 
American republics. The principal 
countries in which patent protection 
is sought are Brazil, in which the laws 
are quite favorable to foreigners, Chile 
and Argentina. Patents are also fre- 
quently secured in Venezuela, Peru, 
Ecuador, Colombia and Paraguay, but 
only for certain classes of invention, 
owing to the expense involved in pro- 
curing the patents. 

South Africa. — Patents are obtain- 
able in four important states, Cape 
Colony, Transvaal, Congo Free State 
and Orange Free State. 

Japan has recently enacted a sys- 
tem of patent laws on a liberal basis. 

China has no patent laws nor pat- 
ent office. 

The conditions under which foreign- 
ers may file applications in the coun- 
tries having patent laws vary great- 
ly, and no attempt has been made 
to specify under what conditions ap- 
plications may be filed. In most coun- 
tries, however, the issuance of a prior 
foreign patent will either defeat the is- 
suance of the patent subsequently ap- 
plied for in another country, or will 
render the patent invalid even if it is 
issued. Great care should be taken, 
therefore, to avoid having a foreign 
patent issue at such a time as to en- 
danger the life of the patent at home. 
The many dangers and difficulties 
which have arisen from the differing 
laws and the varying practice in dif- 
ferent countries have led to the es- 
tablishment of rectifying provisions 
which lessen these various disparities 
and rendering them innocuous. 

— Encyclopedia Americana. 



PATENT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



[The Constitutional Provision. — 
The Congress shall have power * * * 
to promote the progress of Science 
and Useful Arts, by securing for limit- 
ed Times to Authors and Inventors 
the exclusive Right to their respective 
W'ritings and Discoveries.] 

statutes. 

organization of the patent office. 

Title XI, Rev. Stat, p. 80: 
Sec. 475. There shall be in the De- 
partment of the Interior an office 



known as the Patent Office, where all 
records, books, models, drawings, speci- 
fications, and other papers and things 
pertaining to patents shall be safely 
kept and preserved. 

Sec. 47(i. There shall be in the 
Patent Office a Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, one Assistant Commissioner, and 
three examiners-in-chief, who shall be 
appointed by the President, by and 
with the advice and consent of the 
Senate. All other officers, clerks, and 
employees authorized by law for the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



231 



Office shall be appointed by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior, upon the nomi- 
nation of the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents. 

COURTS. 

Sec. 629. The circuit courts shall 
have original jurisdiction ♦ ♦ ♦ 
of ■ all suits at law or in equity 
arising under the patent copyright 
laws of the United States. 

Title XIII, Rev. Stat., p. 169: 

Sec. 893. Copies of the specifica- 
tions and drawings of foreign letters 
patent certified as provided in the pre- 
ceding section, shall be prima facie 
evidence of the fact of the granting 
of such letters patent, and of the date 
and contents thereof. 

See. 894. The printed copies of 
specifications and drawings of patents, 
which the Commissioner of Patents is 
authorized to print for gratuitous dis- 
tribution, and to deposit in the capi- 
tols of the States and Territories, and 
in the clerks* offices of the district 
courts, shall, when certified by him 
and authenticated by the seal of his 
office, be received in all courts as evi- 
dence of all matters therein contained. 

Sec. 1537. No patented article 
connected with marine engines shall 
hereafter be purchased or used in con- 
nection with any steam vessels of war 
until the same shall have been sub- 
mitted to a competent board of naval 
engineers, and recommended by such 
board, in writing, for purchase and 
use. 

l^TLE XVII, Rev. Stat., p. 292: 

Sec. 1673. No royalty shall be paid 
by the United States to any one of its 
officers or employees for the use of any 
patent for the system, or any part 
theeof, mentioned in the preceding 
section, nor for any such patent in 
which said officers or employees may be 
directly or indirectly interested. 

PATENTS. 

Title LX, Rev. Stat., 1878, chap. 
1, p. 945: 

Sec. 4883. All patents shall be is- 
sued in the name of the United States 
of America, under the seal of the Pat- 
ent Office, and shall be signed by the 
Commissioner of Patents, and they 
shall be recorded, together with the 
specifications, in the Patent Office in 
books to be kept for that purpose. 

Sec. 4884. Every patent shall con- 
tain a short title or description of 
the invention or discovery, correctly 
indicating its nature and design, and a 



grant to the patentee, his heirs or as- 
signs, for the term of seventeen years, 
of the exclusive right to make, use, and 
vend the invention or discovery 
throughout the United States and the 
Territories thereof, referring to the 
specification for the particulars there- 
of. A copy of the specification and 
drawings shall be annexed to the pat- 
ent and be a part thereof. 

Sec. 4885. Every patent shall bear 
date as of a day not later than six 
months from the time at which it was 
passed and allowed and notice thereof 
was sent to the applicant or his agent ; 
and if the final fee is not paid within 
that period the patent shall be with- 
held. 

Sec. 4886. Any person who has in- 
vented or discovered any new and use- 
ful art, machine, manufacture, or com- 
position of matter, or any new and 
useful improvements thereof, not 
known or used by others in this coun- 
try, before his invention or discovery 
thereof, and not patented or described 
in any printed publication in this or 
any foreign country, before his in- 
vention or discovery thereof, or more 
than two years prior to his applica- 
tion, and not in public use or on sale 
in this country for more than two 
years prior to his application, unless 
the same is proved to have been aban- 
doned, may, upon payment of the fees 
required by law, and other due pro- 
ceeding had, obtain a patent therefor. 

The Secretary of the Interior and 
the Commissioner of Patents are au- 
thorized to grant any officer of the 
Government, except officers and em- 
ployees of the Patent Office, a patent 
for any invention of the classes, men- 
tioned in section 4886 of the Revised 
Statutes when such invention is used 
or to be used in the public service, 
without the payment of any fee : 
Provided, That the applicant in his 
application shall state that the in- 
vention described therein, if patented, 
may be used by the Government, or any 
of its officers or employees in prose- 
cution of work for the Government, or 
by any other person in the United 
States, without the payment to him 
of any royalty thereon, which stipula- 
tion shall be included in the patent. 

Sec. 4887. No person otherwise en- 
titled thereto shall be debarred from 
receiving a patent for his invention or 
discovery, nor shall any patent be de- 
clared invalid by reason of its having 
been first patented or caused to be 
patented by the inventor or his legal 
representatives or assigns in a foreign 



282 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



country, unless the application for said 
foreign patent was filed more than 
twelve months, in cases within the pro- 
visions of section 4886 of the Revised 
Statutes, and four months in cases 
of designs, prior to the filing of the 
application in this country, in which 
case no patent shall be granted in 
this country. 

An application for patent for an in- 
vention or discovery or for a design 
filed in this country by any person 
who has previously regularly filed an 
application for a patent for the same 
invention, discovery, or design in a 
foreign country which, by treaty, con- 
vention, or law, affords similar privi- 
leges to citizens of the United States 
shall have the same force and effect 
as the same application would have 
if filed in this country on the date on 
which the application for patent for 
the same invention, discovery, or de- 
sign was first filed in such foreign 
country, provided the application in 
this country is filed within twelve 
months in cases within the provisions 
of section 4880 of the Revised Stat- 
utes, and within four months in cases 
of designs, from the earliest date on 
which any such foreign application 
was filed. Hut no patent shall be 
granted on an application for patent 
for an invention or discovery or a de- 
sign which had been patented or de- 
scribed in a printed publication in 
this or any foreign country more than 
two years before the date of the ac- 
tual filing of the application in this 
country, or which had been in public 
use or on sale in this country foi' 
more than two years prior to such 
filing. 

Sec. 4888. Before any inventor or 
discoverer shall receive a patent for 
his invention or discovery, he shall 
make application therefor, in writing, 
to the Commissioner of Patents, and 
shall file in the Patent Office a writ- 
ten description of the same, and of 
the manner and process of making, 
constructing, compounding, and using 
it, in such full, clear, concise, and ex- 
act terms as to enable any pei*son 
skilled in the art or science to which 
it appertains, or with which it is most 
nearly connected, to make, construct, 
compound, and use the same ; and in 
case of a machine, he shall explain 
the principle thereof, and the best 
mode in which he has contemplated 
applying that principle, so as to dis- 
tinguish it from other inventions ; and 
he shall particularly point out and 
distinctly claim the part, improvement. 



or combination which he claims as his 
invention or discovery. The specifica- 
tion and claim shall be signed by the 
inventor and attested by two wit- 
nesses. 

Sec. 4889. When the nature of the 
case admits of drawings, the applicant 
shall furnish one copy signed by the 
inventor or his attorney in fact, and 
attested by two witnesses, which shall 
be filed in the Patent Office ; and » 
copy of the drawing, to be furnished 
by the Patent Office, shall be attached 
to the patent as a part of the specifi- 
cation. 

Sec. 4890. When the invention or 
discovery is of a composition of mat- 
ter, the applicant, if required by the 
Commissioner, shall furnish specimens 
of ingredients and of the composition, 
sufficient in quantity for the purpose 
of experiment. 

Sec. 4891. In all cases which ad- 
mit of representation by model, the 
applicant, if required by the Commis- 
sioner, shall furnish a model of con- 
venient size to exhibit advantageously 
the several parts of his invention or 
discovery. 

Sec. 4892. The applicant shall 
make oath that he does verily believe 
himself to be the original and first in- 
ventor or discoverer of the art, ma- 
chine, manufacture, composition, or 
improvement for which he solicits a 
patent ; that he does not know and 
does not believe that the same was 
ever before known or used ; and shall 
state of what country he is a citizen. 
Such oath may be made before any 
person within the United States au- 
thorized by law to administer oaths, 
or, when the applicant resides in a 
forengn country, before any minister, 
charge d'affaires, consul, or commer- 
cial agent holding commission under 
the Government of the United States, 
or before any notary public, judge, or 
magistrate having an official seal and 
authorized to administer oaths in the 
foreign country in which the applicant 
may be, whose authority shall be 
proved by certificate of a diplomatic 
or consular officer of the United 
States. 

Sec. 4893. On the filing of any 
such application and the payment of 
the fees required by law, the Commis- 
sioner of Patents shall cause an exam- 
ination to be made of the alleged new 
invention or discovery ; and if on such 
examination it shall appear that the 
claimant is justly entitled to a patent 
under the law, and that the same is 
sufficiently useful and important, the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



233 



Commissioner shall issue a patent 
therefor. 

Sec. 4894. All applications for pat- 
ents shall be completed and prepared 
for examination within one year after 
the filing of the application, and in de- 
fault thereof, or upon failure of the 
applicant to prosecute the same with- 
in one year after any action therein, 
of which notice shall have been given 
to the applicant, they shall be regarded 
as abandoned by the parties thereto, 
unless it be shown to the satisfaction 
of the Commissioner of Patents that 
such delay was unavoidable. 

Sec. 4895. Patents may be granted 
and issued or reissued to the assignee 
of the inventor or discoverer ; but the 
assignment must first be entered of 
record in the Patent OflSce. And in 
all cases of an application by an as- 
signee for the issue of a patent, the 
application shall be made and the 
specification sworn to by the inventor 
or discoverer ; and in all cases of 
an application for a reissue of any 
patent, the application must be made 
and the corrected specification signed 
by the inventor or discoverer, if he 
is living, unless the patent was is- 
sued and the assignment made before 
the eighth day of July, 1870. 

Sec. 4896. When any person, hav- 
ing made any new invention or dis- 
covery for which a patent might have 
been granted, dies before a patent is 
granted, the right of applying for and 
obtaining the patent shall devolve on 
his executor or administrator, in trust 
for the heirs at law of the deceased, 
in case he shall have died intestate ; 
or if he shall have left a will disposing 
of the same, then in trust for his de- 
visees, in as full manner and on the 
same terms and conditions as the same 
might have been claimed or enjoyed 
by him in his lifetime; and when the 
application is made by such legal rep- 
resentatives, the oath or affirmation 
required to be made shall be so varied 
in form that it can be made by them. 
The executor or administrator duly au- 
thorized under the law of any foreign 
country to administer upon the estate 
of the deceased inventor shall, in case 
the said inventor was not domiciled in 
the United States at the time of his 
death, have the right to apply for and 
obtain the patent. The authority of 
such foreign executor or administrator 
shall be proved by certificate of a 
diplomatic or consular officer of the 
United States. 

Sec. 4897. Any person who has an 
interest in an invention or discovery. 



whether as inventor, discoverer, or as- 
signee, for which a patent was order- 
ed to issue upon the payment of the 
final fee, but who fails to make pay- 
ment thereof within six months from 
the time at which it was passed and 
allowed, and notice thereof was sent 
to the applicant or his agent, shall 
have a right to make an application 
for a patent for such invention or dis- 
covery the same as in the case of an 
original application. But such second 
application must be made within two 
years after the allowance of the ori- 
ginal application. But no person 
shall be held responsible in damages 
for the manufacture or use of any 
article or thing for which a patent 
was ordered to issue under such re- 
newed application prior to the issue 
of the patent. And upon the hear- 
ing of renewed applications pre- 
ferred under this section, abandon- 
ment shall be considered as a question 
of fact. 

Sec. 4898. Every patent or any in- 
terest therein shall be assignable in 
law by an instrument in writing, and 
the patentee or his assigns or legal 
representatives may in like manner 
grant and convey an exclusive right 
under his patent to the whole or any 
specified part of the United States. 
An assignment, grant, or conveyance 
shall be void as against any subse- 
quent purchaser for mortgagee or a 
valuable consideration, without notice, 
unless it is recorded in the Patent 
OflSce within three months from the 
date thereof. 

If any such assignment, grant, or 
conveyance of any patent shall be ac- 
knowledged before any notary public 
of the several States or Territories or 
the District of Columbia, or any com- 
missioner of the United States Circuit 
Court, or before any secretary of le- 
gation or consular officer authorized 
to administer oaths or perform nota- 
rial acts under section 1750 of the 
Revised Statutes, the certificate of 
such acknowledgment, under the hand 
and official seal of such notary or oth- 
er officer, shall be prima facie evidence 
of the execution of such assignment, 
grant or conveyance. 

Sec. 4899. Every person who pur- 
chases of the inventor or discoverer, 
or, with his knowledge and consent, 
constructs any newly invented or dis- 
covered machine, or other patentable 
article, prior to the application by the 
inventor or discoverer for a patent, 
or who sells or uses one so constructed, 
shall have the right to use, and vend 



234 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



235 



to others to be used, the specific thing 
so made or purchased, without liability 
fhprpfoi* 

Sec. 4900. It shall be the duty of 
all patentees, and their assigns and 
legal representatives, and of all per- 
sons making or vending any patented 
article for or under" them, to give suflS- 
cient notice to the public that the same 
is patented either by fixing thereon 
the word "patented," together with the 
day and year the patent was granted ; 
or when, from the character of the ar- 
ticle, this cannot be done, by fixing to 
it, or to the package wherein one or 
more of them is inclosed, a label con- 
taining the like notice; and in any 
suit for infringement, by the party 
failing so to mark, no damages shall 
be recovered by the plaintiff, except on 
proof that the defendant was duly 
notified of the infringement, and con- 
tinued, after such notice, to make, 
use, or vend the article so patented. 

Sec. 4901. Every person who, in 
any manner, marks upon anything 
made, used, or sold by him for which 
he has not obtained a patent, the 
name or any imitation of the name of 
any persons who has obtained a pat- 
ent therefor, without the consent of 
such patentee, or his assigns or legal 
representatives ; or 

Who, in any manner, marks upon or 
afi&xes to any such patented article 
the word "patent" or "patentee," or 
the words "letters patent," or any 
word of like import, with intent to imi- 
tate or counterfeit the mark or device 
of the patentee, without having the 
license or consent of such patentee or 
his assigns or legal representatives ; 
or 

Who, in any manner, marks upon or 
affixes to any unpatented article the 
word "patent" or any word importing 
that the same is patented, for the pur- 
pose of deceiving the public, shall be 
liable, for every such offense, to a 
penalty of not less than one hundred 
dollars, with costs ; one-half of said 
penalty to the person who shall sue 
for the same, and the other to the use 
of the United States, to be recovered 
by suit in any district court of the 
United States within whose jurisdic- 
tion such offense may have been com- 
mitted. 

Sec. 4902. Any person who makes 
any new invention or discovery and 
desires further time to mature the 
game may, on payment of the fees re- 
quired by law, file in the Patent Office 
a caveat setting forth the design there- 
of and of its distinguishing charac- 



teristics and praying protection of his 
right until he shall have matured his 
invention. Such caveat shall be filed 
in the confidential archives of the office 
and preserved in secrecy, and shall be 
operative for the term of one year 
from the filing thereof ; and if appli- 
cation is made within the year by any 
other persons for a patent with which 
such caveat would in any manner in- 
terfere the Commissioner shall deposit 
the description, specification, drawings, 
and model of such application in like 
manner in the confidential archives of 
the office, and give notice thereof by 
mail to the pei*son by whom the ca- 
veat was tiled. If such person desires 
to avail himself of his caveat he shall 
file his description, specifications, 
drawings, and model within three 
months from the time of placing the 
notice in the post-office in Washington, 
with the usual time required for trans- 
mitting it to the caveator added there- 
to, which time shall be indorsed on the 
notice. 

Sec. 4903. Whenever, on examina- 
tion, any claim for a patent is re- 
jected, the Commissioner shall notify 
the applicant thereof, giving him brief- 
ly the reasons for such rejection, to- 
gether with such information and ref- 
erences as may be useful in judging of 
the propriety of renewing his applica- 
tion or of altering his specification ; 
and if, after receiving such notice, 
the applicant persists in his claim 
for a patent, with or without alter- 
ing his specifications, the Commission- 
er shall order a re-examination of the 
case. 

Sec. 4904. Whenever an applica- 
tion is made for a patent which, in 
the opinion of the Commissioner, 
would interfere with any pending ap- 
plication, or with any unexpired pat- 
ent, he shall give notice thereof to the 
applicants, or applicant and patentee, 
as the case may be, and shall direct the 
primary examiner to proceed to deter- 
mine the question of priority of inven- 
tion. And the Commissioner may is- 
sue a patent to the party who is ad- 
judged the prior inventor, unless the 
adverse party appeals from the deci- 
sion of the primary examiner, or of the 
board of examiners-in-chief, as the case 
may be, within such time, not less than 
twenty days, as the Commissioner 
shall prescribe. 

Sec. 4905. The Commissioner of 
Patents may establish rules for taking 
affidavits and depositions required in 
cases pending in the Patent Office, and 
such affidavits and depositions may be 



236 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



taken before any officer authorized by 
law to take depositions to be used in 
the courts of the United States or of 
the State where the officer resides. 

Sec. 4906. The clerk of any court 
of the United States, for any district 
or Territory wherein testimony is to 
be taken for use in any contested case 
pending in the Patent Office, shall, 
upon the application of any party 
thereto, or of his agent or attorney, 
issue a subpoena for any witness re- 
siding or being within such district or 
Territory, commanding him to appear 
and testify before any officer in such 
district or Territory authorized to take 
depositions and affidavits, at any time 
and place in the subpoena stated. But 
no witness shall be required to attend 
at any place more than forty miles 
from the place where the subpoena is 
served upon him. 

Sec. 4907. Every witness duly sub- 
poenaed and in attendance shall be al- 
lowed the same fees as are allowed to 
witnesses attending the courts of the 
United States. 

Sec. 4908. Whenever any witness, 
after beii]^ duly served with such sub- 
poena, neglects or refuses to appear, 
or after appearing refuses to testify, 
the judge of the court whose clerk is- 
sued the subpoena may, on proof of 
such neglect or refusal, enforce obedi- 
ence to the process, or punish the dis- 
obedience, as in other like cases. But 
no witness shall be deemed guilty of 
contempt for disobeying such subpoena, 
unless his fees and traveling expenses 
in going to, returning from, and one 
day's attendance at the place of exam- 
ination, are paid or tendered him at 
the time of the service of the subpoena ; 
nor for refusing to disclose any secret 
invention or discovery made or owned 
by himself. 

Sec. 4909. Every applicant for a 
patent or for the reissue of a patent, 
any of the claims of which have been 
twice rejected, and every party to an 
interference, may appeal from the de- 
cision of the primary examiner, or of 
the examiner in charge of interferences 
in such case, to the board of examin- 
ers-in-chief ; having once paid the fee 
for such appeal. 

Sec. 4910. If such party is dissat- 
isfied with the decision of the examin- 
ers-in-chief, he may, on payment of 
the fee prescribed, appeal to the Com- 
missioner in person. 

Sec. 4911. If such party, except a 
party to an interference, is dissatis- 
fied with the decision of the Commis- 
sioner, he may appeal to the Supreme 



Court of the District of Columbia, 
sitting in banc. 

Sec. 491Z. When an appeal is 
taken to the Supreme Court of the' 
District of Columbia, the appellant 
shall give notice thereof to the Com- 
missioner, and file in the Patent Office 
within such time as the Commissioner 
shall appoint, his reasons of appeal, 
specifically set forth in writing. 

Sec. 4913. The court shall, before 
hearing such appeal, give notice to the 
Commissioner of the time and place of 
the hearing, and on receiving such no- 
tice the Commissioner shall give no- 
tice of such time and place in such 
manner as the court may prescribe, to 
all parties who appear to be interested 
therein. The party appealing shall 
lay before the court certified copies of 
all the original papers and evidence in 
the case, and the Commissioner shall 
furnish the court with the grounds of 
his decision, fully set forth in writing, 
touching all the points involved by the 
reasons of appeal. And at the request 
of any party interested, or of the 
court, the Commissioner and the exam- 
iners may be examined under oath, in 
explanation of the principles of the 
thing for which a patent is demanded. 

Sec. 4914. The court, on petition, 
shall hear and determine such appeal, 
and revise the decision appealed from 
in a summary way, on the evidence 
produced before the Commissioner, at 
such early and convenient time as the 
court may appoint ; and the revision 
shall be confined to the points set 
forth in the reasons of appeal. After 
hearing the case the court shall return 
to the Commissioner a certificate of its 
proceedings and decision, which shall 
be entered of record in the Patent 
Office, and shall govern the further 
proceedings in the case. But no opin- 
ion or decision of the court in any 
such case shall preclude any person 
interested from the right to contest the 
validity of such patent in any court 
wherein the same may be called in 
question. 

Sec. 4915. Whenever a patent on 
application is refused, either by the 
Commissioner of Patents or by the 
Supreme Court of the District of Co- 
lumbia upon appeal from the Com- 
missioner, the applicant may have 
remedy by bill in equity ; and the 
court having cognizance thereof, on 
notice to adverse parties and other due 
proceedings had, may adjudge that 
such applicant is entitled, according to 
law, to receive a patent for his inven- 
tion, as specified in his claim, or for 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



287 



any part thereof, as the facts in the 
case may appear. And such adjudica- 
tion, if it be in favor of the right of the 
applicant, shall authorize the Commis- 
sioner to issue such patent on the ap- 
plicant filing in the Patent OflSce a 
copy of the adjudication, and other- 
wise complying with the requirements 
of law. In all cases where there is 
no opposing party, a copy of the bill 
shall be served on the Commissioner ; 
and all the expenses of the proceeding 
shall be paid by the applicant, whether 
the final decision is in his favor or 
not. 

11. S., U. S., Sup., Vol. 2, c. 74, 
Feb. 9, 1893. Be it enacted, etc., That 
there shall be, and there is hereby, 
established in the District of Colum- 
bia a court, to be known as the court 
of appeals of the District of Colum- 
bia. 

Sec. G. That the said court of ap- 
peals shall establish a term of the 
court during each and every month in 
each year excepting the months of 
July and August. 

Sec. 8. That any final judgment or 
decree of the said court of appeals 
may be re-examined and aflSrmed, re- 
versed, or modified by the Supreme 
Court of the United States, upon writ 
of error or appeal, in all causes in 
which the matter in dispute, exclusive 
of costs, shall exceed the sum of five 
thousand dollars, in the same manner 
and under the same regulations as 
heretofore provided for in cases of 
writs of error on judgment or appeals 
from decrees rendered in the supreme 
court of the District of Columbia ; 

And also in cases, without regard to 
the sum or value of the matter in dis- 
pute, wherein is involved the validity 
of any patent or copyright, or in which 
is drawn in question the validity of a 
treaty or statute of or an authority 
exercised under the United States. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and 
House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress 
assembled. That in any case heretofore 
made final in the court of appeals of 
the District of Columbia it shall be 
competent for the Supreme Court to 
require, by certiorari or otherwise, 
any such case to be certified to the 
Supreme Court for its review and de- 
termination, with the same power and 
authority in the case as if it had been 
carried by appeal or writ of error to 
the Supreme Court. 

Sec. 9. That the determination of 
appeals from the decision of the Com- 
missioner of Patents, now vested in 



the general term of the supreme court 
of the District of Columbia, in pur- 
suance of the provisions of section 780 
of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States, relating to the District of Co- 
lumbia, shall hereafter be and the same 
is hereby vested in the court of ap- 
peals created by this act ; 

And in addition, any party ag- 
grieved by a decision of the Commis- 
sioner of Patents in any interference 
case may appeal therefrom to said 
court of appeals. 

Title DX, Rev. Stat., 1878, p. 950 : 
Sec. 4916. Whenever any patent is 
inoperative or invalid, by reason of a 
defective or insuflScient specification, 
or by reason of the patentee claiming 
as his own invention or discovery 
more than he had a right to claim as 
new, if the error has arisen by inad- 
vertence, accident, or mistake, and 
without any fraudulent or deceptive 
intention, the Commissioner shall, on 
the surrender of such patent and the 
payment of the duty required by law, 
cause a new patent for the same inven- 
tion, and in accordance with the cor- 
rected specification, to be issued to the 
patentee, or, in case of his death or 
of an assignment of the whole or any 
undivided part of the original patent, 
then to his executors, administrators, 
or assigns, for the unexpired part of 
the term of the original patent. Such 
surrender shall take effect upon the is- 
sue of the amended patent. The Com- 
missioner may, in his discretion, cause 
several patents to be issued for dis- 
tinct and separate parts of the thing 
patented, upon demand of the appli- 
cant, and upon payment of the re- 
quired fee for a reissue for each of 
such reissued letters patent. The 
specifications and claim in every such 
case shall be subject to revision and 
restriction in the same manner as ori- 
ginal applications are. Every patent 
so reissued, together with the cor- 
rected specifications, shall have the 
same effect and operation in law, on 
the trial of all actions for causes 
thereafter arising, as if the same had 
been originally filed in such correct- 
ed form ; but no new matter shall be 
introduced into the specification, nor 
in case of a machine patent shall the 
model or drawings be amended, except 
each by the other ; but when there is 
neither model nor drawing, amend- 
ments may be made upon proof satis- 
factory to the Commissioner that such 
new matter or amendment was a part 
of the original invention, and was 
omitted from the specification by inad- 



288 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



vertence, accident, or mistake, as 
aforesaid. 

Sec. 4917. Whenever, through in- 
advertence, accident, or mistake, and 
without any fraudulent or deceptive 
intention, a patentee has claimed more 
than that of which he was the original 
or first inventor or discoverer, his pat- 
ent shall be valid for all that part 
which is truly and justly his own, pro- 
vided the same is a material or sub- 
stantial part of the thing patented ; 
and any such patentee, his heirs or as- 
signs, whether of the whole or any 
sectional interest therein, may, on pay- 
ment of the fee required by law, make 
disclaimer of such parts of the thing 
patented as he shall not choose to 
claim or to hold by virtue of the pat- 
ent or assignment, stating therein the 
extent of his interest in such patent. 
Such disclaimer shall be in writing, 
attested by one or moi*e witnesses, and 
recorded in the patent office ; and it 
shall thereafter be considered as part 
of the original specification to the ex- 
tent of the interest possessed by the 
claimant and by those claiming under 
him after the record thereof. But no 
such disclaimer shall affect any action 
pending at the time of its being filed, 
except so far as may relate to the 
question of unreasonable neglect or 
delay in filing it. 

Sec. 4918. Whenever there are in- 
terfering patents, any person interest- 
ed in any one of them, or in the work- 
ing of the invention claimed under 
either of them, may have relief against 
the interfering patentee, and all par- 
ties interested under him, by suit in 
equity against the owners of the in- 
terfering patent ; and the court, on 
notice to adverse parties, and other 
due proceedings had according to the 
course of equity, may adjudge and de- 
clare either of the patents void in 
whole or in part, or inoperative, or in- 
valid in any particular part of the 
United States, according to the inter- 
est of the parties in the patent or the 
invention patented. But no such 
judgment or adjudication shall affect 
the right of any person except the par- 
ties to the suit and those deriving title 
under them subsequent to the rendition 
of such judgment. 

Sec. 4919. Damages for the in- 
fringement of any patent may be re- 
covered by action on the case, in the 
name of the party interested either as 
patentee, assignee, or grantee. And 
whenever in any such actiop a verdict 
is rendered for the plaintiff, the court 
may enter judgment thereon for any 



sum above the amount found by the 
verdict as the actual damages sustain- 
ed, according to the circumstances of 
the case, not exceeding three times the 
amount of such verdict, together with 
the costs. 

Sec. 4920. In any action for in- 
fringement the defendant may plead 
the general issue, and, having given 
notice in writing to the plaintiff or his 
attorney thirty days before, may prove 
on trial any one or more of the fol- 
lowing special matters : 

First. — That for the purpose of de- 
ceiving the public the description and 
specification filed by the patentee in 
the Patent Office was made to contain 
less than the whole truth relative to 
his invention or discovery, or more 
than is necessary to produce the de- 
sired effect ; or, 

Second. — That he had surrepti- 
tiously or unjustly obtained the patent 
for that which was in fact invented by 
another, who was using reasonable 
diligence in adapting and perfecting 
the same ; or. 

Third. — That it has been patented 
or described in some printed publica- 
tion prior to his supposed invention or 
discovery thereof, or more than two 
years prior to his application for a 
patent therefor; or, 

Fourth. — That he was not the ori- 
ginal and first inventor or discoverer 
of any material and substantial part 
of the thing patented ; or. 

Fifth. — That it had been in public 
use or on sale in this country for more 
than two years before his application 
for a patent, or had been abandoned 
to the public. 

And in notices as to proof of previ- 
ous invention, knowledge, or use of the 
thing patented, the defendant shall 
state the names of the patentees and 
the dates of their patents, and when 
granted, and the names and residences 
of the persons alleged to have invented 
or to have had the prior knowledge of 
the thing patented, and where and by 
whom it had been used ; and if any one 
or more of the special matters alleged 
shall be found for the defendant, judg- 
ment shall be rendered for him with 
costs. And the like defenses may be 
pleaded in any suit in equity for re- 
lief against an alleged infringement ; 
and proofs of the same may be given 
upon like notice in the answer of the 
defendant, and with the l!ke effect. 

Sec. 4921. The several courts vest- 
ed with jurisdiction of cases arising 
rnder the patent laws shall have pow- 
er to grant injunctions according to 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



289 



the course and principles of courts of 
equity, to prevent the violation of any 
right secured by patent, on such terms 
as the court may deem reasonable ; and 
upon a decree being rendered in any 
such case for an infringement the com- 
plainant shall be entitled to recover, in 
addition to the profits to be accounted 
for by the defendant, the damages the 
complainant has sustained thereby ; 
and the court shall assess the same or 
cause the same to be assessed under its 
direction. And the court shall have 
the same power to increase such dam- 
ages, in its discretion, as is given to 
increase the damages found by ver- 
dicts in actions in the nature of ac- 
tions of trespass upon the case. 

But in any suit or action brought 
for the infringement of any patent 
there shall be no recovery of profits or 
damages for any infringement com- 
mitted more than six years before the 
filing of the bill of complaint or the 
issuing of the writ in such suit or 
action, and this provision shall apply 
to existing causes of action. 

Sec. 4922. Whenever, through in- 
advertence, accident, or mistake, and 
without any wilful default or intent to 
defraud or mislead the public, a pat- 
entee has. in his specification, claimed 
to be the original and first inventor or 
discoverer of any material or substan- 
tial part of the thing patented, of 
which he was not the original and first 
inventor or discoverer, every such pat- 
entee, his executors, administrators, 
and assigns, whether of the whole or 
any sectional interest in the patent, 
may maintain a suit at law or in 
equity, for the infringement of any 
part thereof, which was bona fide his 
own, if it is a material and substan- 
tial part of the thing patented, and 
definitely distinguishable from the 
parts claimed without right, notwith- 
standing the specifications may em- 
brace more than that of which the 
patentee was the first inventor or dis- 
coverer. But in every such case in 
which a judgment or decree shall be 
rendered for the plaintiff, no costs 
shall be recovered unless the proper 
disclaimer has been entered at the 
Patent Office before the commence- 
ment of the suit. But no patentee 
shall be entitled to the benefits of this 
section if he has unreasonably neg- 
lected or delayed to enter a dis- 
claimer. 

Sec. 4923. Whenever it appears 
that a patentee, at the time of making 
his application for the patent, believed 
himself to be the original and first in- 



ventor or discoverer of the thing pat- 
ented, the same shall not be held to 
be void on account of the invention or 
discovery, or any part thereof, having 
been known or used in a foreign coun- 
try, before his invention or discovery 
thereof, if it had not been patented or 
described in a printed publication. 

DESIGNS. 

Sec. 4929. Any person who has in- 
vented any new, original, and orna- 
mental design for an article of manu- 
facture, not known or used by others 
in this country before his invention 
thereof, and not patented or described 
in any printed publication in this or 
any foreign country before his inven- 
tion thereof, or more than two years 
prior to his application, and not in 
public use or on sale in this country 
for more than two years prior to his 
application, unless the same is proved 
to have been abandoned, may, upon 
payment of the fees required by law 
and other due proceedings had. the 
same as in cases of invention or dis- 
coveries covered by section 4886, ob- 
tain a patent therefor. 

Sec. 4930. The Commissioner may 
dispense with models of designs when 
the design can be suflSciently repre- 
sented by drawings or photographs. 

Sec. 4931. Patents for designs may 
be granted for the term of three years 
and six months, or for seven years, or 
for fourteen years, as the applicant 
may, in his application, elect. 

Sec. 4932. Patentees of designs is- 
sued prior to the second day of March, 
1861, shall be entitled to extension of 
their respective patents for the term 
of seven years, in the same manner 
and under the same restrictions as are 
provided for the extension of patents 
for inventions or discoveries issued 
prior to the second day of March, 
1861. 

Sec. 4933. All the regulations and 
provisions which apply to obtaining 
or protecting patents for inventions or 
discoveries not inconsistent with the 
provisions of this Title, shall apply to 
patents for designs. 

CHAPTER 105.— An Act to Amend 
THE Law Relating to Patents, 
Tbade-mabks, and Copyrights. 

Be it enacted, etc.. That hereafter, 
during the term of letters patent for 
a design, it shall be unlawful for any 
person other than the owner of said 
letters patent, without the license of 
such owner, to apply the design se- 



240 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



cured by such letters patent, or any 
colorable imitation thereof, to any 
article of manufacture for the pur- 
pose of sale, or to sell or expose for 
sale any article of manufacture to 
which such design or colorable imita- 
tion shall, without the license of the 
owner, have been applied, knowing 
that the same has been so applied. 
Any person violating the provisions, or 
either of them, of this section, shall be 
liable in the amount of two hundred 
and fifty dollars ; and in case the total 
profit made by him from the manufac- 
ture or sale, as aforesaid, of the arti- 
cle or articles to which the design, or 
colorable imitation thereof, has been 
applied, exceeds the sum of two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, he shall be fur- 
ther liable for the excess of such prof- 
it over and above the sum of two hun- 
dred and fifty dollars ; and the full 
amount of such liability may be re- 
covered by the owner of the letters 
patent, to his own use, in any circuit 
court of the United States having ju- 
risdiction of the parties, either by ac- 
tion at law or upon a bill in equity for 
an injunction to restrain such in- 
fringement. 

Sec. 2. That nothing in this act 
contained shall prevent, lessen, im- 
peach, or avoid any remedy at law or 
in equity which any owner of letters 
patent for a design, aggrieved by the 
infringement of the same, might have 
had if this act had not been passed ; 
but such owner shall not twice re- 
cover the profit made from the in- 
fringement. 

FEES. 

Sec. 4934. The following shall be 
the rates for patent fees : On filing 
each original application for a patent, 
except in design cases, $15.00. On 
issuing each original patent, except in 
design cases, $20.00. In design cases : 
For three years and six months ; 
$10.00 ; for seven years, $15.00 ; for 
fourteen years, $30.00. On filing each 
caveat, $10.00. On every application 
for the reissue of a patent, $30.00. 
On filing each disclaimer, $10.00. On 
an appeal for the first time from the 
primary examiners to the examiners- 
in-chief, $10.(X). On every appeal 
from the examiners-in-chief to the 
Commissioner, $20.00. For certified 
copies of patents and other papers, in- 
cluding certified printed copies, 10 
cents per hundred words. For record- 
ing every assignment, agreement, pow- 
er of attorney, or other paper, of three 
hundred words or under, $1.00 ; of over 



three hundred and under one thousand 
words, $2.00 ; of over one thousand 
words, $3.00. For copies of drawings, 
the reasonable cost of making them. 

Sec. 4935; Patent fees may be paid 
to the Commissioner of Patents, or to 
the Treasurer, or any of the assistant 
treasurers of the United States, or to 
any of the designated depositaries, na- 
tional banks, or receivers of public 
money, designated by the Secretary of 
the Treasury for that purpose; and 
such officer shall give the depositor a 
receipt or certificate of deposit there- 
for. All money received at the Patent 
Office, for any parpose, or from any 
source whatever, shall be paid into the 
Treasury as received, without any de- 
duction whatever. 

Sec. 4930. The Treasurer of the 
United States is authorized to pay 
back any sum or sums of money to 
any person who has through mis- 
take paid the same into the Treas- 
ury, or to any receiver or deposi- 
tary, to the credit of the Treas- 
ury, as for fees accruing at the Patent 
Office, upon a certificate thereof being 
made to the Treasurer by the Com- 
missioner of Patents. 

PATENT BIGHTS VEST IN ASSIGNEE IN 
BANKRUPTCY. 

Sec. 5046. All property conveyed 
by the bankrupt in fraud of his credit- 
ors ; all rights in equity, choses in 
action, patent rights, and copyrights; 
all debts due him, or any person for 
his use, and all liens and securities 
therefor; and all his rights of action 
for property or estate, real or personal, 
and for any cause of action which he 
had against any person arising from 
contract or from the unlawful taking 
or detention, or injury to the property 
of the bankrupt ; and all his rights of 
redeeming such property or estate ; to- 
gether with the like right, title, power, 
and authority to sell, manage, dispose 
of. sue for, and recover or defend the 
same, as the bankrupt might have had 
if no assignment had been made, shall, 
in virtue of the adjudication of bank- 
ruptcy and the appointment of his as- 
signee, but subject to the exceptions 
stated in the preceding section, be at 
once vested is Lin] such assignee. 

Sec. 70. Title to Property. The 
trustee of the estate of a bank- 
rupt, upon his appointment and 
qualification, and his successor or 
successors, if he shall have one 
or more, upon his or their appoint- 
ment and qualification, shall in turn 
be vested by operation of law with the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



241 



title of the bankrupt, as of the date he 
was adjudged a bankrupt, except in 
so far as it is to property which is 
exempt, to all (1) documents relating 
to his property; (2) interests in pat- 
ents, patent rights, copyrights, and 
trade-marks. 

LABELS. 

(:!H AFTER 301.— An Act to Amend 
THE Law Relating to Patents, 
Trade-marks, and Copyrights. 

Be it enacted, etc, [Section 1], That 
no person shall maintain an action for 
the infringement of his copyright un- 
less he shall give notice thereof by in- 
serting in the several copies of every 
edition published, on the title page or 
the page immediately following it, if it 
be a book ; or if a map, chart, musical 
composition, print, cut, engraving, 
photograph, painting, drawing, cHromo, 
statue, statuary, or model or design 
intended to be perfected and completed 
as a work of the fine arts, by inscrib- 
ing upon some visible portion thereof, 
or of the substance on which the same 
shall be mounted, the following words, 
viz. : "Entered according to act of 

Congress, in the year , by A. B., 

in the office of the Librarian of Con- 
gress, at Washington" ; or, at his op- 
tion, the word "Copyright," together 
with the year the copyright was en- 
tered, and the name of the party by 
whom it was taken out, thus : "Copy- 
right. IS—, by A. B." 

Sec. 2. That for recording and cer- 
tifying any instrument of writing for 
the assignment of a copyright, the 
Librarian of Congress shall receive 
from the persons to whom the service 
is rendered, $1.00 ; and for every copy 
of an assignment, $1.00 ; said fee to 
cover, in either case, a certificate of 
the record, under seal of the Libra- 
rian of Congress ; and all fees so re- 
ceived shall be paid into the Treasury 
of the United States. 

Sec. 3. That in the construction of 
this act, the words "engraving," "cut," 
and "print." shall be applied only to 
pictorial illustrations or works con- 
nected with the fine arts, and no prints 
or labels designed to be used for any 
other articles of manufacture shall be 
ei4tered under the copyright law, 
but may be registered in the 
Patent Office. And the Commission- 
er of Patents is hereby charged 
with the supervision and control 
of the entry or registry of such 
prints or labels, in conformity with 
the regulations provided by law as to 
copyright of prints, except that there 



shall be paid for recording the title of 
any print or label not a trade-mark, 
$6.00, which shall cover the expense 
of furnishing a copy of the record un- 
der the seal of Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, to the party entering the same. 

Sec. 4. That all laws and parts of 
laws inconsistent with the foregoing 
provisions be, and the same are here- 
by repealed. 

Sec. 5. That this act shall take ef- 
fect on and after the first day of Au- 
gust, 1874. 

TRADE-MARKS. 

[The Constitutional Provision, — The 
Congress shall have power ♦ ♦ ♦ 
(3) to regulate commerce with foreign 
nations, and among the several States, 
and with the Indian tribes. Art. I, 
sec. 8.] 

THE statute of 1876. 

CHAPTER 274.— An Act to Pun- 
ish THE Counterfeiting of Trade- 
Mark Goods and the Sale or 
Dealing in of Counterfeit Trade- 
Mark Goods. 

Be it enacted, etc. [Section 1], That 
every person who shall, with intent to 
defraud, deal in or sell, or keep or 
offer for sale, or cause or procure the 
sale of, any goods of substantially the 
same descriptive properties as those 
referred to in the registration of any 
trade-mark, pursuant to the statutes of 
the United States, to which, or to the 
package in which the same are put up, 
is fraudulently affixed said trade-mark, 
or any colorable imitation thereof, cal- 
culated to deceive the public, knowing 
the same to be counterfeit or not the 
genuine goods referred to in said regis- 
tration, shall, on conviction thereof, 
be punished by fine not exceeding 
$1,000 dollars, or imprisonment not 
more than two years, or both such fine 
/and imprisonment. 

Sec. 2. That every person who 
fraudulently affixes, or causes or pro- 
cures to be fraudulently affixed, any 
trade-mark registered pursuant to the 
statutes of the United States, or any 
colorable imitation thereof, calculated 
to deceive the public, to any goods, of 
substantially the same descriptive 
properties as those referred to in said 
registration, or to the package in 
which they are put up, knowing the 
same to be counterfeit, or not the 
genuine goods, referred to in said regis- 
tration, shall, on conviction thereof, 
be punished as prescribed in the first 
section of this act. 

Sec. 3. That every person who 
fraudulently fills, or causes or pro- 



242 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



cures to be fraudulently filled, any 
package to which is affixed any trade- 
mark, registered pursuant to the stat- 
utes of the United States, or any col- 
orable imitation thereof, calculated to 
deceive the public, with any goods of 
substantially the same descriptive 
properties as those referred to in said 
registration, knowing the same to be 
counterfeit, or not the genuine goods 
referred to in said registration, shall, 
on conviction thereof, be punished as 
prescribed in the first section of this 
act. 

Sec. 4. That any person or per- 
sons who shall, with intent to defraud 
any person or persons, knowingly and 
wilfully cast, engrave, or manufacture, 
or have in his, her, or their possession, 
or buy, sell, offer for sale, or deal in, 
any die or dies, plate or plates, brand 
or brands, engraving or engravings, on 
wood, stone, metal, or other substance, 
moulds, or any false representation, 
likeness, copy, or colorable imitation of 
any die plate, brand, engraving, or 
mould of any private label, brand, 
stamp, wrapper, engraving on paper 
or other substance, or trade-mark, reg- 
istered pursuant to the statutes of the 
United States, shall, upon conviction 
thereof, be punished as prescribed in 
the first section of this act. 

Sec. 5. That any person or persons 
who shall, with intent to defraud any 
person or persons, knowingly and wil- 
fully make, forge, or counterfeit, or 
have in his, her, or their possession, or 
buy, sell, offer for sale or deal in, any 
representation, likeness, similitude, 
copy, or colorable imitation of any pri- 
vate label, brand, stamp, wrapper, en- 
graving, mould, or trade-mark, regis- 
tered pursuant to the statutes of the 
United States, shall, upon conviction 
thereof, be punished as prescribed in 
the first section of this act. 

Sec. G. That any person who shall, 
with intent to injure or defraud the 
owner of any trade-mark, or any other 
person lawfully entitled to use or pro- 
tect the same, buy, sell, offer for sale, 
deal in or have in his possession any 
used or empty box, envelope, wrapper, 
case, bottle, or other package to which 
is afiixed, so that the same may be 
obliterated without substantial injury 
to such box or other thing aforesaid, 
any trade-mark, registered pursuant to 
the statutes of the United States, not 
so defaced, erased, obliterated, and de- 
stroyed as to prevent its fraudulent 
use. shall, on conviction thereof, be 
punished as prescribed in the first sec- 
tion of this act. 



Sec. 7. That if the owner of any 
trade-mark, registered pursuant to the 
statutes of the United States, or his 
agent, make oath, in writing, that he 
has reason to believe, and does believe, 
that any counterfeit dies, plates, 
brands, engravings on wood, stone, 
metal, or other substance, or moulds of 
his said registered trade-mark, are in 
the possession of any person, with in- 
tent to use the same for the purpose 
of deception and fraud, or make such 
oaths that any counterfeits or colorable 
imitations of his said trade-mark, label, 
brand, stamp, wrapper, engravings on 
paper or other substance, or empty 
box, envelope, wrapper, case, bottle, or 
other package, to which is afiSxed said 
registered trade-mark not so defaced, 
erased, obliterated, and destroyed as 
to prevent its fraudulent use, are in 
the possession of any person, with in- 
tent to use the same for the purpose 
of deception and fraud, then the sev- 
eral judges of the circuit and district 
courts of the United States, and the 
commissioners of the circuit courts 
may, within their respective jurisdic- 
tions, proceed under the law relating 
to search-warrants, and may issue a 
search-warrant authorizing and direct- 
ing the marshal of the United States 
for the proper district to search for 
and seize all said counterfeit dies, 
plates, brands, engravings on wood, 
stone, metal, or other substance, 
moulds, and said counterfeit trade- 
marks, colorable imitations thereof, 
labels, brands, stamps, wrappers, en- 
gravings on paper, or other substance, 
and said empty boxes, envelopes, wrap- 
pers, cases, bottles, or other packages 
that can be found ; and upon satisfac- 
tory proof being made that said coun- 
terfeit dies, plates, brands, engravings 
on wood, stone, metal, or other sub- 
stance, moulds, counterfeit trade- 
marks, colorable imitations thereof, 
labels, brands, stamps, wrappers, en- 
gravings on paper or other substance, 
empty boxes, envelopes, wrappers, 
cases, bottles, or other packages, are 
to be used by the holder or owner for 
the purposes of deception and fraud, 
that any of said judges shall have full 
power to order all said counterfeit 
dies, plates, brands, engravings on 
wood, stone, metal, or other substance, 
moulds, counterfeit trade-marks, col- 
orable imitations thereof, labels, 
brands, stamps, wrappers, engravings 
on paper or other substance, empty 
boxes, envelopes, wrappers, cases, bot- 
tles, or other packages, to be publicly 
destroyed. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



243 



Sec. 8. That any person who shall, 
with intent to defraud any person or 
persons, knowingly and wilfully aid or 
abet in the violation of any of the 
provisions of this act, shall, upon con- 
viction thereof, be punished by a fine 
not exceeding five hundred dollars, or 
imprisonment not more than one year, 
or both such fine and imprisonment. 

[August 14, 1876.] 

THE STATUTE OF 1881. 

CHAPTER 138.— An Act to Au- 
thorize THE Registration of 
Trade-Marks and Protect the 

Same. 

Be it enacted, etc. [Section 1], That 
owners of trade-marks used in com- 
merce with foreign nations or with the 
Indian tribes, provided such owners 
shall be domiciled in the United States 
or located in any foreign country, or 
tribes, which, by treaty, convention, or 
law, affords similar privileges to citi- 
zens of the United States, may obtain 
registration of such trade-marks by 
complying with the following require- 
ments : 

First. — By causing to be recorded in 
the Patent Office a statement specify- 
ing name, domicile, location, and citi- 
zenship of the party applying ; the 
class of merchandise, and the particu- 
lar description of goods comprised in 
such class to which the particular 
trade-mark has been appropriated ; a 
description of the trade-mark itself, 
with facsimiles thereof, and a state- 
ment of the mode in which the same is 
applied and affixed to goods, and the 
length of time during which the trade- 
mark has been used. 

Second. — By paying into the Treas- 
ury of the United States the sum of 
$25.00, and complying with such regu- 
lations as may be prescribed by the 
Commissioner of Patents. 

Sec. 2. That the application pre- 
scribed in the foregoing section must, 
in order to create any right whatever 
in favor of the party filing it. be ac- 
companied by a written declaration 
verified by the person, or by a member 
of a firm, or by an oflScer of a cor- 
poration applying, to the effect that 
such party has at the time a right to 
the use of the trade-mark sought to be 
registered, and that no other person, 
firm, or corporation has the right to 
such use, either in the identical form 
or in any such near resemblance there- 
to as might be calculated to deceive ; 
that such trade-mark is used in com- 
merce with foreign nations or Indian 
tribes, as above indicated ; and that the 



description and facsimiles presented 
for registry truly represent the trade- 
mark sought to be registered. 

See. 3. That the time of the re- 
ceipt of any such application shall be 
noted and recorded. But no alleged 
trade-mark shall be registered unless 
the same appear to be lawfully used 
as such by the applicant in foreign 
commerce or commerce with Indian 
tribes, as above mentioned, or is with- 
in the provision of a treaty, conven- 
tion, or declaration with a foreign 
power ; nor which is merely the name 
of the applicant ; nor which is identi- 
cal with a registered or known trade- 
mark owned by another, and appro- 
priate to the same class of merchan- 
dise, or which so nearly resembles 
some other person's lawful trade-mark 
as to be likely to cause confusion or 
mistake in the mind of the public, or 
to deceive purchasers. In an applica- 
tion for i-egistration the Commissioner 
of Patents shall decide the presumptive 
lawfulness of claim to the alleged 
trade-mark ; and in any dispute be- 
tween an applicant and a previous 
registrant, or between applicants, he 
shall follow, so far as the same may be 
applicable, the practice of courts of 
equity of the United States in analo- 
gous cases. 

Sec. 4. That certificates of regis- 
try of trade-marks shall be issued in 
the name of the United States of 
America, under the seal of the De- 
partment of the Interior, and shall 
be signed by the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, and a record thereof, together 
with printed copies of the specifica- 
tions, shall be kept in books for that 
purpose. Copies of trade-marks and 
of statements and declarations filed 
therewith and certificates of registry 
so signed and sealed shall be evidence 
in any suit in which such trade-marks 
shall be brought in controversy. 

Sec. 5. That a certificate of regis- 
try shall remain in force for thirty 
years from its date, except in cases 
where tha trade-mark is claimed for 
and applied to articles not manufac- 
tured in this country, and in which it 
receives protection under the laws of a 
foreign country for a shorter period, 
in which case it shall cease to have 
any force in this country by virtue of 
this act at the time that such trade- 
mark ceases to be exclusive property 
elsewhere. At any time during the 
six months prior to the expiration of 
the term of thirty years such registra- 
tion may be renewed on the sam^^ 
terms and for a like period. 



244 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



Sec. 6. That applicants for regis- 
tration under this act shall be credited 
for any fee or part of a fee hereto- 
fore paid into the Treasury of the 
United States with intent to procure 
protection for the same trade-mark. 

Sec. 7. That registration of a 
trade-mark shall be prima facie evi- 
dence of ownership. Any person who 
shall reproduce, counterfeit, copy, or 
colorably imitate any trade-mark regis- 
tered under this act and affix the same 
to merchandise of substantially the 
same descriptive properties as those 
described in the registration shall be 
liable to an action on the case for 
damages for the wrongful use of said 
trade-mark at the suit of the owner 
thereof; and the party aggrieved shall 
also have his remedy according to the 
course of equity to enjoin the wrong- 
ful use of such trade-mark used in 
foreign commerce or commerce with 
Indian tribes, as aforesaid, and to re- 
cover compensation therefor in any 
court having jurisdiction over the per- 
son guilty of such wrongful act ; and 
courts of the United States shall have 
original and appellate jurisdiction in 
such cases without regard to the 
amount in controversy. 

Sec. 8. That no action or suit shall 
be maintained under the provisions of 
this act in any case when the trade- 
mark is used in any unlawful business 
or upon any article injurious in itself, 
or which mark has been used with the 
design of deceiving the public in the 
purchase of merchandise, or under any 
certificate of registry fraudulently ob- 
tained. 

Sec. 9. That any person who shall 
procure the registry of a trade-mark, 
or of himself as the owner of a trade- 
mark, or an entry respecting a trade- 
mark, in the office of the Commission- 
er of Patents, by a false or fraudulent 
representation or declaration, orally 
or in writing, or by any fraudulent 
means, shall be liable to pay any dam- 
ages sustained in consequence thereof 
to the injured party, to b^ recovered 
in an action on the case. 

Sec. 10. That nothing in this act 
shall prevent, lessen, impeach, or 
avoid any remedy at law or in equity 
which any party aggrieved by any 
wrongful use of any trade-mark might 
have had if the provisions of this act 
had not been passed. 

Sec. 11. That nothing in this act 
shall be construed as unfavorably af- 
fecting a claim to a trade-mark after 
the term of registration shall have ex- 
pired ; nor to give cognizance to any 



court of the United States in an 
action or suit between citizens of the 
same State, unless the trade-mark in 
controversy is used on goods intended 
to be transported to a foreign country, 
or in lawful commercial intercourse 
with an Indian tribe. 

Sec. 12. That the Commissioner of 
Patents is authorized to make rules 
and regulations and prescribe forma 
for the transfer of the right to use 
trade-marks and for recording such 
transfers in his office. 

Sec. 13. That citizens and residents 
of this country wishing the protection 
of trade-marks in any foreign coun- 
try the laws of which require registra- 
tion here as a condition precedent to 
getting such protection there may reg- 
ister their trade-marks for that pur- 
pose as is above allowed to foreigners, 
and have certificate thereof from the 
Patent Office. 

Approved, March 3, 1881. 

CHAPTER 393.— An Act Relating 
TO THE Registration of Trade- 
marks. 

Be it enacted, etc. — That nothing 
contained in the law entitled "An act 
to authorize the registration of trade- 
marks and protect the same," approved 
March 3, 1881, shall prevent the regis- 
try of any lawful trade-mark rightful- 
ly used by the applicant in foreign 
commerce or commerce with Indian 
tribes at the time of the passage of 
said act. Approved, August 5, 1882. 

Sec. 2496. No watches, watch- 
cases, watch-movements, or parts of 
watch-movements, or any other arti- 
cles of foreign manufacture, which 
shall copy or simulate the name or 
trade-mark of any domestic manufac- 
ture t manufacturer], shall be admitted 
to entry at the custom-houses of the 
United States, unless such domestic 
manufacturer is the importer of the 
same. And in order to aid the officers 
of the customs in enforcing this pro- 
hibition, any domestic manufactui-^r 
who has adopted trade-marks may re- 
quire his name and residence and a de- 
scription of his trade-marks to be re- 
corded in books, which shall be kept 
for that purpose in the Depa^rtment of 
the Treasury, under such regulations 
as the Secretary of the Treasury shall 
prescribe, and may furnish to the De- 
partment facsimiles of such trade- 
marks; and thereupon the Secretary 
of the Treasury shall cause one or 
more copies of the same to be trans- 
mitted to each collector or other prop- 
er officer of the customs. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



245 



HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PATENT SYSTEM. 



The century just closed stands out 
pre-eminently as the century of in- 
vention. It is therefore a fitting time 
briefly to refer to the origin, estab- 
lishment, and development of our pat- 
ent system, to call to mind the debt the 
United States owes to inventors, and 
at the same time to point out the ad- 
vantages that have followed ' the far- 
seeing wisdom of the framers of the 
Federal Constitution in incorporating 
in that instrument paragraph 8 of 
section 8 of Article I. of the Consti- 
tution, which gave to Congress the 
power "To promote the progress of 
science and the useful arts by securing 
for limited times to authors and invent- 
ors the exclusive rights to their re- 
spective writings and discoveries." 

One hundred years ago the population 
of the United States was less than 
6,000,000, and there was not a single 
city within our borders having a popu- 
lation of 75,000. The population of 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
and Boston was less than the present 
population of Minneapolis. The lat- 
ter city and its sister city of St. Paul, 
Chicago, Omaha, and Kansas City 
were unknown. Not a steam pro- 
pelled vessel was in use, nor was there 
a mile of railroad in the United States. 
The electric telegraph and telephone 
were unknown. Our exports con- 
sisted of agricultural products. There 
was scarcely any well-developed line of 
manufacture, and our wants in that 
line were supplied by imports. It had 
been the policy of England to suppress 
manufacturing in its colonies. In 
1634 a law was passed in Virginia for 
the encouragement of textile manu- 
factures, but it was promptly annulled 
by England. In 1731 she enacted a 
law prohibiting the carriage of woolen 
goods and hats from one colony to an- 
other. In 1750 a woollen hat factory 
in Massachusetts was declared to be a 
nuisance and suppressed. No carpets 
were made in the colonies until after 
1776, except rag carpets. In 1800 
carpets were in this country a luxury. 
Even up to 1850 there was not a 
power loom for carpet making in the 
United States. 

What is true in the textile art is 
equally true of most of the other arts. 

Though the country was an agricul- 
tural one, little progress had been 
made in the manufacture of agricul- 
tural implements. It was not until 
1819 that an iron plow was produced 
in this country. The reaper appeared 



in 1833 and a successful thresher not 
until 1850. Up to the time of the 
Civil War there is no question but 
that the country continued to be an 
agricultural one. It is true that dur- 
ing the first sixty years of the last 
century our manufactures steadily and 
rapidly increased in kind and in extent, 
but our population inci^ased even 
more rapidly, so that we consumed 
what we manufactured and were still 
largely dependent upon the import of 
manufactured articles. But in the 
last few years a great reversal, not 
only in sentiment but in conditions, 
has occurred ; the commercial relations 
of the United States with the great 
trading nations of the world have rap- 
idly changed, so that the excess of im- 
ports of manufactured articles has 
turned into an excess of exports of 
such articles. 

One need not look far for the cause 
of this. It lies in the economy of 
manufacture arising from the use of 
labor-saving devices, mainly the inven- 
tion of our own people, which has en- 
abled us to compete in many lines of 
manufacture, notwithstanding the 
higher scale of wages paid in this 
country, with similar articles manufac- 
tured by any or all nations. To em- 
ploy these devices to the best advan- 
tage requires the intelligence of the 
American workmen, and the result is 
due to the combination of witty inven- 
tions and thinking men. Witless men 
behind witty machines would be of no 
use. To the patent system more than 
to any other cause are we indebted for 
the industrial revolution of the cen- 
tury. 

President Washington realized the 
importance of formulating a law to 
stimulate inventions, and in his first 
annual message to Congress, in 1790, 
said : 

"I can not forbear intimating to 
you the expediency of giving effectual 
encouragement as well to the intro- 
duction of new and useful inventions 
from abroad as to the exertion of skill 
and genius in producing them at 
home." 

Congress was quick to act, and on 
April 10, 1790, the first law upon the 
subject was enacted. It constituted 
the Secretary of State, the Secretary 
of War, and the Attorney-General a 
board to consider all applications for 
patents. Owing to the fires that have 
destroyed the early records of the 
Patent Office, some question has arisen 



246 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



as to the number of patents issued 
under this act ; but from the best in- 
formation obtainable I place the num- 
ber at fifty-seven. The first patent 
issued was to Samuel Hopkins, July 
31, 1790, for making pot and pearl 
ashes. 

The act of 1793 superseded the act 
of 1790, and remained in force as 
amended from time to time until the 
net of 1830 was passed. The act of 
1793 was the only act ever passed in 
this country which provided for the is- 
suance of Letters Patent without the 
requirement of an examination into 
the no-velty and utility of the inven- 
tion for which the patent was sought. 

The act of 1836, with modifications, 
remained in force until the revision of 
the patent laws in 1870. This revi- 
sion was largely a consolidation of the 
statutes then in force. 

Under the revision of the statutes 
of the United States in 1874 the Act 
of 1870 was repealed ; but the revision 
substantially re-enacted the provisions 
of the act of 1870. 

Under the acts of 1790 and 1793 
Letters Patent were granted for a 
term of fourteen years. There was no 
provision for extension ; but while the 
act of 1793 was in force Congress ex- 
tended some thirteen patents. 

The act of 1836 provided that Let- 
ters Patent should be granted for a 
term of fourteen years, and provision 
was made for an extension for a term 
of seven years upon due application 
and upon a proper showing. Until 
1848 petitions for extensions were 
passed upon by a board consisting of 
the Secretary of State, the Commis- 
sioner of Patents, and the Solicitor of 
the Treasury. After that time power 
was vested solely in the Commissioner 
of Patents. 

The patent act of March 2, 1861 
(section 16), provided that all patents 
thereafter granted should remain in 
force for a term of seventeen years , 
from the date of issue, and the ex- ' 
tension of such patents was pro- 
hibited. 

The consolidated patent act of 1870, 
while providing that patents should be 
granted for a term of seventeen years, 
also provided that patents granted 
prior to March 2, 1861, might, upon , 
due application and a proper showing, 
be extended by the Commissioner of 
Patents for a term of seven years from 
the expiration of the first term. 

By the revision of the patent laws 
in 1874 the prohibition against the ex- 
tension of patents was dropped, and 



since that time Congress has had the 
power to extend Letters Patent. Con- 
gress extended five patents granted un- 
der the act of 1836, and in nine in- 
stances authorized patentees to apply 
to the Commissioner of Patents for ex- 
tension of their patents. So far as I 
have been able to discover, no patent 
granted for a term of seventeen years 
has been extended by Congress. 

It was not until 1842 that the 
statute was passed authorizing the 
grant of patents for designs. Under 
that act design patents were granted 
for seven years. Subsequently provi- 
sions were made for granting them for 
terms of three and one-half, seven, and 
fourteen years, at the election of the 
applicant. 

By the act of March 2, 1861, the 
Board of Examiners-in-Chief was es- 
tablished. Prior to that time, and 
during the incumbency of Commission- 
er Holt, temporary boards of examin- 
ers to decide appeals had been appoint- 
ed by him, and later on he created a 
permanent board of three examiners 
who were to decide on appeal rejected 
cases and submit their decisions to 
him for approval. 

The act of 1870 made the first pro- 
vision for an Assistant Commissioner 
and an Examiner of Interferences. 
Another provision in that act was the 
power given the Commissioner, sub- 
ject to the approval of the Secretary 
of the Interior, to establish regula- 
tions for the conduct of proceedings 
in the Office. 

On January 1. 1898, an act passed 
March 3, 1897, went into force. 
Some of the provisions of this act 
were that applications for patents 
should be completed and prepared for 
examination within one year after the 
filing of the application and that the 
applicant should prosecute the same 
within one year after an action there- 
on or it should be regarded as aban- 
doned (prior to that time two j'ears 
was the limit) ; that an inventor 
should be debarred from receiving a 
patent if his invention had been first 
patented by him or his legal represen- 
tatives or assigns in a foreign coun- 
try, provided the application for the 
foreign patent had been filed more 
than seven months prior to the filing 
of the application in this country, and 
that if the invention for which a pat- 
ent was applied for had been patented 
or described in any printed publication 
in this or any foreign country for 
more than two years prior to the ap- 
plication a patent could not issue. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



247 



The first provision tot affording ac- 
commodations for the Patent OflSce 
was in 1810, when Congress authorized 
the purchase of a building for the 
General Post-office and for the office 
of the Keeper of Patents. Tl^e build- 
ing purchased was known as "Blod- 
gett*s Hotel," and stood on the site 
now occupied by the south front of 
the building until recently occupied by 
the Post-office Department, and now 
used by several bureaus of the Interior 
Department. The east end of this 
building was used for the records, mod- 
els, etc., of the Patent Office. This 
building was destroyed by fire Decem- 
ber 13, 1836. On July 4, 1836, an act 
was passed appropriating $108,000 for 
the erection of a suitable building for 
the accommodation of the Patent 
Oflice, and within that month the 
erection of the building was begun. 

It was the present south front of the 
Patent Office, excluding the south ends 
of the east and west wings. The base- 
ment (which is now the first or ground 
floor) was to be used for storage and 
analogous purposes, the first or por- 
tico floor for office rooms, and the sec- 
ond floor was to be one large hall with 
galleries on either side, and to have 
a vaulted roof. This hall was to be 
used for exhibition purposes, for the 
display of models of patented and un- 
patented inventions, and also as a na- 
tional gallery of the industrial arts 
and manufactures. 

During the erection of the Patent 
Office building temporary quarters 
were provided in the City Hall. In 
the spring of 1840 the building was 
completed and the Office moved into it. 
The sum of $422,011.65 was expend- 
ed on this building. The patented 
models were then classified and ex- 
hibited in suitable glass cases, while 
the national gallery was arranged for 
exhibition of models and specimens. 

By the act of March 3, 1849, the 
Interior Department was established 
and the Patent Office attached thereto. 
This same act appropriated $50,000 
out of the patent fund to begin the 
east or Seventh street wing, which was 
completed in 1852 at a cost of $600,- 
000, $250,000 of which was taken 
from the revenue of the Patent Office. 
In 1852 the plans for the entire build- 
ing, as it now stands, were prepared. 
The west wing was completed in 1856 
and cost $750,000. Work on the north 
or G street wing was begun the same 
year. In 1867 this wing was finished 
at a cost of $575,000. The entire 
building cost $2,347,011.65. 



Since July 28, 1836, 667,173 pat- 
ents for inventions, and since 1842 
34,018 patents for designs have been 
issued by this office. Many of these 
patents are for minor improvements, 
but among them may be found a very 
large number covering the most re- 
markable and valuable inventions, 
which have added untold sums to the 
world's wealth, revolutionized the old 
arts, created new ones, brought old- 
time luxuries within the reach of all, 
and made life doubly worth living. 
These contributions have come from 
men and women, white and colored. 
To many inventors more than a hun- 
dred patents have been issued. The 
following are some of the inventors 
who have received more than that 
number between 1872 and 1900, both 
years inclusive: 

Thomas A. Edison 742 

Francis H. Richards 619 

Elihu Thomson 444 

Charles E. Scribner 374 

Luther C. Crowell 293 

Edward Weston 280 

Rudolph M. Hunter 276 

Charles J. Van Depoele (de- 
ceased ) 245 

George Westinghouse. 239 

John W. Hyatt 209 

Freeborn F. Raymond, 2d 182 

Sydney H. Short 178 

Rudolf Bickemeyer (deceased).. 171 

Milo G. Kellogg 159 

Walter Scott 156 

Arthur J. Moxham 150 

Cyrus W. Saladee 148 

Louis Goddu 146 

Hiram S. Maxim 146 

George D. Burton 144 

Lewis H. Nash 142 

Edwin Norton 141 

Abbot Augustus Low 137 

Philip Diehl : 137 

James C. Anderson 135 

Edward J. Brooks 133 

Elmer A. Sperry 132 

Peter K. Dederick 128 

Hosea W. Libbey 127 

James F. McElroy 121 

William N. Whiteley 121 

Horace Wyman 118 

Frank Rhind 117 

Louis K. Johnson 114 

Warren H. Taylor 112 

James M. Dodge Ill 

George H. Reynolds 110 

Talbot C. Dexter 109 

James H. Northrop 102 

From 1790 to March 1, 1895, some 
5,535 patents were granted to wom- 



248 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



en. It is a fair estimate that out of 
every 1,000 patents one is granted to 
a woman. As a rule women take out 
but one patent, although there are 
many exceptions. While the majority 
of patents granted them are for im- 
provements in wearing apparel and in 
articles for household use, they have 
invented and received patents for add- 
ing machines, windmills, horseshoes, 
agricultural implements, and fire es- 
capes. 

To some 165 colored inventors about 
400 patents have been issued. Twen- 
ty-eight patents have been issued to 
one and to another 22. So far as the 
records show, Henry Blair, of Mary- 
land, was the first colored patentee. 
In 1834 he received a patent for a 
corn planter, and in 1836 one for a 
cotton planter. The character of their 
inventions follows lines suggested by 
their employment. Employed in the 
field and in the house, improvements 
in agricultural implements and arti- 
cles of domestic use predominate. The 
sphere of their inventive effort has 
widened with the added opportunities 
afforded them to engage in mechanical 
vocations. They have made contribu- 
tions to the electric arts and steam 
engineering, and many improvements 
in railway appliances and paper-bag 
machines. Before the Civil War the 
master of a slave living in Mississippi 
made application for a patent, but the 
Attorney-General held m an opinion 
reported in vol. 9, Attomey-Generars 
Opinions, page 171, that an invention 
of a slave, though it be new and use- 
ful, could not be patented. 

In May. 1802, President Jefferson 
appointed Dr. William Thornton as a 
clerk at $1,400 per year, to have 
charge of the issuance of patents. He 
took the title of Superintendent, and 
continued to act in that capacity un- 
til his death, March 28, 1828. He 
was succeeded by Dr. William P. 
Jones, who acted until his removal in 
the early part of President Jackson's 
administration. John D. Craig fol- 
lowed Dr. Jones, and in 1834 he was 
succeeded by B. F. Pickett, who served 
but a brief period. The last Superin- 
tendent was Henry L. Ellsworth, who 
became the first Commissioner under 
the act of 1836, and served until 1845. 
The other Commissioners under that 
act were : 

Edmund Burke. May 4, 1845. 
Thomas Ewbank, May 9, 1849. 
Silas H. Hodges, November 8, 1852. 
Charles Mason, May 16, 1853. 



Joseph Holt, September 10, 1857. 
William D. Bishop, May 27, 1859. 
Philip F. Thomas, February 16, 1860. 

D. P. Holloway, March 28, 1861. 
T. C. Theaker, August 17, 1865. 
Elisha Foote, July 29, 1868. 
Samuel S. Fisher, April 26, 1869. 

Commissioner Fisher continued as 
Commissioner for a short time under 
the act of 1870. Other Commission- 
ers under that act have been : 

M. D. Leggett, January 16, 1871. 
John M. Thacher, November 4, 1874. 
R. H. Duell, October 1, 1875. 
Ellis Spear, January 30, 1877. 
H. E. Paine, November 1, 1878. 

E. M. Marble, May 7, 1880. 
Benjamin Butterworth, November 1, 

1883. 
M. V. Montgomery, March 23, 1885. 

B. J. Hall, April 12, 1887. 

C. E. Mitchell, April 1, 1889. 
William E. Simonds, August 1, 1891. 
John S. Seymour, March 31, 1893. 
Benjamin Butterworth, April 7, 1897. 
Charles H. Duell, February 3, 1898. 

F. I. Allen, April 11, 1901. 

Commissioner Fisher was the first 
to publish his decisions and to have 
the copies of the specifications and 
drawings made by photo-lithography. 
He also instituted the practice of re- 
quiring competitive examinations for 
entrance to and promotions in the 
examining force of the ofiice. 

Beginning in 1843 and annually 
thereafter the Patent Ofiice reports 
were published, which, until 1853, con- 
tained merely an alphabetical index of 
the names of the inventors, a list of 
the expired patents, and the claims of 
the patents granted during the week. 
In 1853 and afterward small engraved 
copies of a portion of the drawings 
were added to the reports to explain 
the claims. 

The act of 1870 authorized the Com- 
missioner to print copies of the claims 
of the current issues of patents and 
of such laws, decisions, and rules as 
were necessary for the information of 
the public. In conformity with this 
provision there was published weekly 
a list giving the numbers, titles, and 
claims of the patents issued during 
the week immediately preceding, to- 
gether with the names and residences 
of the patentees. This list was first 
published under the name of The 
Ofllicial Gazette of the United States 
Patent Ofiice, on January 3, 1872. 
In July, 1872, portions of the draw- 
ings were introduced to illustrate the 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



249 



claims in the patented cases. The 
Official Gazette has now become one 
of the nn)st valuable and important of 
Government publications.. Each Sena- 
tor and Representative is authorized to 
designate eight public libraries to re- 
ceive this publication free. One copy 
is also furnished free to each member 
of Congress. It is also sent all over 
the world in exchange for similar pub- 
lications by other Governments, and 
its paid subscription list is constantly 
increasing. 

The American patent system is 
known, and spoken of as the "exam- 
ination system," in contradistinction 
to the English system, which has 
been mainly followed by other nations. 
The examination system is the ideal 
system, provided the examination can 
be made with sufficient care to mini- 
mize the likelihood of the issue of pat- 
ents for inventions not of a patentable 
nature. The field of search, however, 
yearly increases, and it becomes more 
and more difficult through lack of time 
to make a perfect examination. Some- 
thing more than two million domestic 
and foreign patents have been issued 
while the number of scientific publi- 
cations has enormously increased. It 
is only by means of a perfect classifi- 
cation that this great mass of matter 
can be so divided as to be convenient- 
ly accessible for use in the examination 
of any individual case. 

Of our patent system it has been 
well said : 

"It is generally recognized by the 
most profound students of our insti- 
tutions, both at home and abroad, that 
no one thing has contributed more to 
the pre-eminence of this country in the 
industrial arts and in manufactures 
than the encouragement given by our 
Constitution and laws to inventors and 
to investors in patent property." 

The system is by no means perfect ; 
but it is generally acknowledged that 
the patent laws of the United States 
are more liberal than those of any oth- 
er country, and that the examination, 
imperfect though at times it be, gives 
a value to a United States patent not 
possessed by a patent issued by a coun- 
try not having an examination system. 
It is undoubtedly true that the prac- 
tice before the Patent Office lacks sta- 
bility and uniformity by reason of the 
frequent changes of Commissioners, 
which prevents the establishment of 
definite policies. The salaries paid to 
the (Commissioner and Assistant Com- 
missioner, to the examiners in chief, 
and to the examiners of the various 



grades are inadequate. It is also true 
that too many appeals are permitted, 
and interference proceedings are ren- 
dered onerous and complicated by the 
number of motions and appeals pro- 
vided by the laws and rules. The 
most serious defect, however, follows 
from the power to keep applications in 
the Office for indefinite times through 
delays in amending the same. The act 
of March 3, 1897, was intended to 
prevent or check this evil ; but it has 
failed of its purpose. At the present 
time about 75 per cent of the patents 
granted are issued within one year 
after being filed, and were it not for 
the fact that applications are unduly 
delayed at least 90 per cent would 
issue within that time. The rights of 
the public would be protected and very 
seldom would an injustice be done to 
an inventor if provision was incorpo- 
rated into the patent laws providing 
that unless an application became in- 
volved in an interference it should not 
be permitted to remain in the Patent 
Office more than three yeara without 
abridging its life of seventeen years. 

The records of the Office show that 
there were pending in 1900, 4,829 
applications, filed prior to Janu- 
ary 1, 1898. Three of these ap- 
plications were filed in 1880, 
one in 1881. four in 1882, three 
in 1884, three in 1885, thirteen in 1886, 
seven in 1887, thirteen in 1888, nine- 
teen in 1889, twenty-three in 1890. 
forty-five in 1891, sixty-four in 1892, 
one hundred and three in 1893, one 
hundred and fifty-four in 1894, three 
hundred and sixty-eight in 1895, nine 
hundred and ninety-two in 1896, and 
three thousand and eleven in 1897. 

It will be seen, therefore, that an 
application may be kept alive indefi- 
nitely, if it be desired. While the list 
above given embraces only such appli- 
cations as wei*e filed under the law as 
it existed prior to January 1, 1898, 
yet ten years later a similar list 
will' undoubtedly be given, provided the 
statutes are not amended, for the only 
difference lies in the fact that amend- 
ments now have to be made within a 
year after the official action instead of 
two years under the prior act. A law 
which permits this should be cor- 
rected. 

It should continue to be the policy 
of the government of a nation whose 
inventors have given to the world the 
cotton-gin and the reaper, the sewing 
machine and the typewriter, the elec- 
tric telegraph and telephone, the ro- 
tary web perfecting printing press and 



250 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



the linotype, the incandescent lamp 
and the phonograph, and thousands of 
other inventions that have revolution- 
ized every industrial art, to encourage 
invention in every lawful way and to 
provide that, so far as may be neces- 
sary, the money paid to the Govern- 
ment by inventors be used for their 
benefit. The wisdom of the policy has 
been demonstrated. 

The world owes as much to invent- 
ors as to statesmen or warriors. To 



them the United States is the greatest 
debtor, so much have they advanced 
American manufactures. Their labor- 
saving machinery does work that it 
would take millions of men using hand 
implements to perform. In this cen- 
tury the debt will be piled still higher, 
for inventors never rest. — Abstract of 
report for 1900. 

C. H. DUELL, 
Commissioner of Patents. 



THE COPYRIGHT LAW OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CONSTITUTION, 1787. 

Art. 1, Sec. 8. The Congress shall 
have, power * * * To promote the 
progress of science and useful arts, by 
Securing for Limited Times to Au- 
thors and Inventors the Exclusive 
Right to their Respective Writings 
and Discoveries. 

-ACTS OF CONGRESS. 

Sec. 4948. All records and other 
things relating to copyrights and re- 
quired by law to be preserved, shall be 
under the control of the Librarian of 
Congress, and kept and preserved in 
the Library of Congress. 

[The Appropriation Act approved 
February 19, 1897, provides for the 
appointment of a "Register of Copy- 
rights, who shall, on and after July 1, 
1897, under the direction and super- 
vision of the Librarian of Congress, 
perform all the duties relating to copy- 
rights, and shall make weekly deposits 
with the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and make monthly reports to the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, and to the 
Librarian of Congress, and shall, on 
and after July 1, 1897, give bond to 
the Librarian of Congress, in the sum 
of $20,000, with approved sureties, for 
the faithful discharge of his duties."] 
Sec. 4949. The seal provided for 
the office of the Librarian of Congress 
shall be the seal thereof, and by it all 
records and papers issued from the 
office, and to be used in evidence shall 
be authenticated. 

Sec. 4950. The Appropriation Act, 
approved February 19, 1897, provides : 
"The Librarian of Congress shall on 
and after July 1, 1897. give bond, pay- 
able to the United States, in the sum 
of $20,000, with sureties approved by 
the Secretary of the Treasury, for the 
faithful discharge of his duties ac- 
cording to law." 

Sec. 4951. The Librarian of Con- 
ess shall make an annual report to 



Congress of the number and descrip- 
tion of copyright publications for 
which entries have been made during 
the year. 

Sec. 4952. The author, inventor, 
designer, or proprietor of any book, 
map, chart, dramatic or musical com- 
position, engraving, cut, print, or 
photograph or negative thereof, or of 
a painting, drawing, chromo, statue, 
statuary, and of models or designs in- 
tended to be perfected as works of the 
fine arts, and the executors, adminis- 
trators, or assigns of any such person 
shall, upon complying with the provi- 
sions of this chapter, have the sole 
liberty of printing, reprinting, pub- 
lishing, completing, copying, executing, 
finishing, and vending the same ; and, 
in the case of dramatic composition, of 
publicly performing or representing it, 
or causing it to be performed or repre- 
sented by others ; and authors or their 
assigns shall have exclusive right to 
dramatize and translate any of their 
works for which copyright shall have 
been obtained under the laws of the 
United States, 

In the construction of this act the 
words "engraving," "cut," and "print," 
shall be applied only to pictorial illus- 
trations or works connected with the 
fine arts, and no prints or labels de- 
signed to be used for any other articles 
of manufacture shall be entered under 
the copyright law, but may be regis- 
tered in the Patent Office. And the 
Commissioner of Patents is hereby 
charged with the supervision and con- 
trol of the entry or registry of such 
prints or labels, in conformity with 
the regulations provided by law as to 
copyright of prints, except that there 
shall be paid for recording the title of 
any print or label, not a trade-mark, 
$0.00, which shall cover the expense of 
furnishing a copy of the record, under 
the seal of the Commissioner of Pat- 
ents, to the party entering the same. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



261 



Sec. 4953. Copyrights shall be 
granted for the term of twenty-eight 
years from the time of recording the 
title thereof, in the manner hereinaf- 
ter directed. 

Sec. 4954. The author, inventor, or 
designer, if he be still living, or his 
widow or children, if he be dead, shall 
have the same exclusive right contin- 
ued for the further term of fourteen 
years, upon recording the title of the 
work or description of the article so 
secured a second time, and complying 
with all other regulations in regard to 
original copyrights, within six months 
before the expiration of the first term 
And such person shall, within two 
mouths from the date of said renewal, 
cause a copy of the record thereof to 
be published in one or more newspa- 
pers, printed in the United States, for 
the space of four weeks. 

Sec. 4955. Copyrights shall be as- 
signable in law by any instrument of 
writing, and such assignment shall be 
recorded in the office of the Librarian 
of Congress within sixty days after its 
execution ; in default of which it shall 
be void as against any subsequent pur- 
chaser or mortgagee for a valuable 
consideration, without notice. 

Sec. 495G. No person shall be en- 
titled to a copyright unless he shall, on 
or before the day of publication, in 
this or any foreign country, deliver at 
the ofSce of the Librarian of Congress, 
or deposit in the mail within the 
Ignited States, addressed to the Libra- 
rian of Congress, at Washington, D. C, 
a printed copy of the title of the book, 
map, chart, dramatic or musical com- 
position, engraving, cut, print, photo- 
graph, or chromo, or a description of 
the painting, drawing, statue, statuary, 
or a model or design, for a work of 
the fine arts, for which he desires a 
copyright ; nor unless he shall also, 
not later than the day of the publi- 
cation thereof, in this or any foreign 
country, deliver at the office of the 
Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 
D. C, or deposit in the mail within 
the United States, addressed to the 
Librarian of Congress, at Washington, 
D. C, two copies of such copyright 
book, map, chart, dramatic or musical 
composition, engraving, chromo, cut, 
print or photograph, or in case of a 
painting, drawing, statue, statuary, 
model or design for a work of the fine 
arts, a photograph of the same: Pro- 
vided, That in the case of a book, pho- 
tograph, chromo, or lithograph, the 
two copies of the same required to bo 
delivered or deposited as above, shall 



be printed from type set within the 
limits of the United States, or from 
plates made therefrom, or from nega- 
tives, or drawings on stone made with- 
in the limits of the United States, or 
from transfers made therefrom. Dur- 
ing the existence of such copyright the 
importation into the United States of 
any brook, chromo. lithograph, or pho- 
tograph, so copyrighted, or any edition 
or editions thereof, or any plates of 
the same not made from type set, nega- 
tives, or drawings on stone made with- 
in the limits of the Unrted States, shall 
be, and is hereby prohibited, except in 
the cases specified in paragraphs 512 
to 516, inclusive, in Section 2 of the 
act entitled An act to reduce the 
revenue and equalize the duties on im- 
ports and for other purposes, approved 
October 1, 1890 ; and except in the 
case of persons purchasing for use and 
not for sale, who import subject to the 
duty thereon, not more than two cop- 
ies of such books at any one time ; 
and, except in the case of newspapers 
and magazines, not containing in 
whole or in part matter copyrighted 
under the provisions of this act, un- 
authorized by the author, which are 
hereby exempted from prohibition of 
importation ; 

Provided, nevertheless. That in the 
case of books in foreign languages, of 
which only translations in English are 
copyrighted, the prohibition of impor- 
tation shall apply only to the trans- 
lation of the same, and the importation 
of the books in the original language 
shall be permitted. 

feec. 4057. The Librarian of Con- 
gress shall record the name of such 
copyright book, or other article, forth- 
with in a book to be kept for that pur- 
pose, in the words following : "Lib- 
rary of Congress, to wit : Be it re- 
membered that on the day of 

, A. B.. of , hath deposited in 

this office the title of a book (map^ 
chart, or otherwise, as the case may 
be. or description of the article), the 
title or description of which is in the 
following words, to wit: (here insert 
the title or description), the right 
whereof he claims as author (origina- 
tor, or proprietor, as the case may be), 
in conformity with the laws of the 
United States respecting copyrights. 
C. D., Librarian of Congress." And 
he shall give a copy of the title or 
description under the seal of the Li- 
brarian of Congress, to the proprietor, 
whenever he shall require it. 

Sec. 4058. The Librarian of Con- 
gress shall receive from the persons to 



252 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



whom the services designated are ren- 
dered, the following fees : 1. For re- 
cording the title or description of any 
copyright book or other article, 50 
cents. 2. For every copy under seal 
of such record actually given to the 
person claiming the copyright, or his 
assigns, 50 cents. [3. For recording 
and certifying any instrument of writ- 
ing for the assignment of a copyright, 
$1.00. 4. For every copy of an as- 
signment, $1.00. J All fees so received 
shall be paid into the treasury of the 
United States:. Provided, That the 
charge for recording the title or de- 
scription of any article entered for 
copyright, the production of a person 
not a citizen or resident of the United 
States, shall be $1.00, to be paid as 
above into the treasury of the United 
States, to defray the expenses of lists 
of copyrighted articles as hereinafter 
provided for. 

And it is hereby made the duty of 
the Librarian of Congress to furnish 
to the Secretary of the Treasury copies 
of the entries of titles of all books and 
other articles wherein the copyright 
has been completed by the deposit of 
two copies of such book printed from 
type set within the limits of the United 
States, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this act, and by the deposit 
of two copies of such other article 
made or produced in the United 
States ; and the Secretary of the 
Treasury is hereby directed to prepare 
and print, at intervals of not more 
than a week, catalogues of such title- 
entries for distribution to the collect- 
ors of customs of the United States, 
and to the postmasters of all post- 
offices receiving foreign mails, and 
such weekly lists, as they are issued, 
shall be furnished to all parties desir- 
ing them, at a sum not exceeding five 
dollars per annum, and the Secretary 
and the Postmaster-General are here- 
by empowered and required to make 
and enforce such rules and regulations 
as shall prevent the importation into 
the United States, except upon the 
conditions above specified, of all arti- 
cles prohibited by this act. 

Sec. 4959. The proprietor of every 
copyright book or other article shall 
deliver at the office of the Librarian of 
Congress, or deposit in the mail, ad- 
dressed to the Librarian of Congress, 
at Washington, I). C. a copy of every 
subsequent edition wherein any sub- 
stantial changes shall be made: Pro- 
vided, however. That the alterations, 
revisions, and additions made to books 
by foreign authors, heretofore pub- 



lished, of which new editions shall ap- 
pear subsequently to the taking ef- 
fect of this act, shall be held and 
deemed capable of being copyrighted 
as above provided for in this act, un- 
less they form a part of the series in 
coui*se of publication at the time this 
act shall take effect. 

Sec. 4960. For every failure on the 
part of the proprietor of any copy- 
right to deliver, or deposit in the mail, 
either of the published copies, or de- 
scription, or photograph, required by 
sections 4956 and 4959, the proprietor 
of the copyright shall be liable to a 
penalty of $25.00, to be recovered by 
the Librarian of Congress, in the name 
of the United States, in an action 
in the nature of an action of debt, 
in any district court of the United 
States within the jurisdiction of 
which the delinquent may reside or be 
found. 

The following act in relation to the 
deposit of copies was approved March 
3, 1893 : "That any author, inventor, 
designer, or proprietor of any book, or 
other article entitled to copyright, who 
has heretofore failed to deliver in the 
office of the Librarian of Congress, or 
in the mail addressed to the Librarian 
of Congress, two complete copies of 
such book, or description or photo- 
graph of such article, within the time 
limited by title 60, chapter 3, of the 
Revised Statutes, relating to copy- 
rights, and the acts in amendment 
thereof, and has complied with all oth- 
er provisions thereof, who has, before 
the first day of March, 1893, delivered 
at the office of the Librarian of Con- 
gress, or deposited in the mail ad- 
dressed to the Librarian of Congress 
two complete printed copies of such 
book, or description or photograph of 
such article, shall be entitled to all 
the rights and privileges of said title 
sixty, chapter three, of the Revised 
Statutes and the acts in amendment 
thereof. 

Sec. 4961. The postmaster to whom 
such copyright book, title, or other ar- 
ticle is delivered, shall, if requested, 
give a receipt therefor; and when so 
delivered he shall mail it to its des- 
tination. 

Sec. 4962. No person shall main- 
tain an action for the infringement of 
his copyright unless he shall give no-, 
tice thereof by inserting in the several 
copies of every edition published, on 
the title-page, or the page immediately 
following, if it be a book ; or if a map, 
chart, musical composition, print, cut, 
engraving, photograph, painting, draw- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



253 



ing, chromo, statue, statuary, or 
model or design intended to be per- 
fected and completed as a work of the 
iBne arts, by inscribing upon some 
visible portion thereof, or of the sub- 
stance on which the same shall be 
mounted, the following words, viz. : 
"Entered according to act of Congress, 
in the year — -— , by A. B., in the office 
of the Librarian of Congress, at AVasli- 
ington" ; or, at his option, the word 
*'Copyright," together with the year 
the copyright was entered, and the 
name of the party by whom it was 
taken out, thus: "Copyright, 18 — , 
by A. B." 

That manufacturers of designs for 
moulded decorative articles, tiles, 
plaques, or articles of pottery or metal 
subject to copyright may put the copy- 
right mark prescribed by Section 4902 
of the Revised Statutes, and acts addi- 
tional thereto, upon the back or bot- 
tom of such articles, or in such other 
place upon them as it has heretofore 
been usual for manufacturers of such 
articles to employ for the placing of 
manufacturers, merchants, and trade- 
marks thereon. 

Sec. 4963. Every person who shall 
insert or impress such notice, or words 
of the same purport, in or upon any 
book, map, chart, dramatic or musical 
composition, print, cut, engraving or 
photograph, or other article, whether 
such article be subject to copyright or 
otherwise, for which he has not ob- 
tained a copyright, or shall knowingly 
issue or sell any article bearing a no- 
tice of a United States copyright 
which has not been copyrighted 
in this country ; or shall import 
any book, photograph, chromo, or 
lithograph or other article bearing 
such notice of copyright or words 
of the same purport, which is 
not copyrighted in this country, shall 
be liable to a penalty of $100, recov- 
erable one-half for the person who 
shall sue for such penalty, and one-half 
to the use of the United States ; and 
the importation into the United States 
of any book, chromo, lithograph, or 
photograph, or other article bearing 
such notice of copyright, when there 
is no existing copyright thereon in the 
United States, is prohibited ; and the 
circuit courts of the United States sit- 
ting in equity are hereby authorized to 
enjoin the issuing, publishing, or sell- 
ing of any article marked or imported 
in violation of the United States copy- 
4*ight laws, at the suit of any person 
coQiplaining of such violation: Pro- 
vided, That this act shall not apply to 



any importation of or sale of such 
goods or articles brought into the 
United States prior to the passage 
hereof. 

Sec, 4904. Every person who, after 
the recording of the title of any book 
and the depositing of two copies of 
such book as provided by this act, 
shall, contrary to the provisions of 
this act, within the term limited, and 
without the consent of the proprietor 
of the copyright first obtained in writ- 
ing, signed in presence of two or more 
witnesses, print, publish, dramatize, 
translate, or import, or, knowing the 
same to be so printed, published, dram- 
atized, translated, or imported, shall 
sell or expose to sale any copy of such 
book, shall forfeit every copy thereof 
to such proprietor, and shall also for- 
feit and pay such damages as may be 
recovered in a civil action by such 
proprietor in any court of competent 
jurisdiction. 

Sec. 4905. If any person, after the 
recording of the title of any map, 
chart, dramatic or musical composi- 
tion, print, cut, engraving, or photo- 
graph, or chromo, or of the descrip- 
tion of any painting, drawing, statue, 
statuary, or model or design intended 
to be perfected and executed as a 
work of the fine arts, as provided by 
this act, shall, within the term limited, 
contrary to the provisions of this act, 
and without the consent of the proprie- 
tor of the copyright first obtained in 
writing, signed in presence of two or 
more witnesses, engrave, etch, work, 
("opy* print, publish, dramatize, trans- 
late, or import, either in whole or in 
part, or by varying the main design, 
yvith intent to evade the law, or know- 
ing the same to be so printed, pub- 
lished, dramatized, translated, or im- 
ported, shall sell or expose to sale any 
copy of such map, or other article, as 
aforesaid, he shall forfeit to the pro- 
prietor all the plates on which the 
same shall be copied, and every sheet 
thereof, either copied or printed, and 
shall further forfeit $1.00 for every 
sheet of the same found in his posses- 
sion, either printing, printed, copied, 
published, imported, or exposed for 
sale ; and in case of a painting, statue, 
or statuary, he shall forfeit $10.00 for 
every copy of the same in his posses- 
sion, or by him sold or exposed for 
sale : Provided, however, That in case 
of any such infringement of the copy- 
right of a photograph made from any 
object not a work of fine arts, the sum 
to be recovered in any action brought 
under the provisions of this section 



254 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



shall be not less than $100, nor more 
than $5,000, and : Provided, further, 
That in case of any such infringement 
of the copyright of a painting, draw- 
ing, statue, engraving, etching, print, 
or model or design for a work of the 
fine arts, or of a photograph of a work 
of the fine arts, the sum to be recov- 
ered in any action brought through the 
provisions of this section shall be not 
less than $250, and not more than 
$10,000. One-half of all the foregoing 
penalties shall go to the proprietors of 
the copyright and the other half to the 
use of the United States. 

Sec. 4900. Any person publicly per- 
forming or representing any dramatic 
or musical composition for which a 
copyright has been obtained, without 
the consent of the proprietor of said 
dramatic or musical composition, or 
his heirs or assigns, shall be liable for 
damages therefor, such damages in all 
cases to be assessed at such sum, not 
less than $100 for the first, and $50 
for every subsequent performance, as 
to the court shall appear to be just. 
If the unlawful performknce and rep- 
resentation be wilful and for profit 
such person or persons shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
be imprisoned for a period not exceed- 
ing one year. Any injunction that 
may be granted upon hearing after 
notice to the defendant by any circuit 
court in the United States, or by a 
judge thereof, restraining and enjoin- 
ing the performance or representfition 
of any such dramatic or musical com- 
position may be served on the parties 
against whom such injunction may be 
granted anywhere in the United 
States, and shall be operative and may 
be enforced by proceedings to punish 
for contempt or otherwise by any other 
circuit court or judge in the United 
States : but the defendants in said ac- 
tion, or any or either of them, may 
make a motion in any other circuit in 
which he or they may be engaged in 
performing or representing said drama- 
tic or musical composition to dissolve 
or set aside the said injunction upon 
such reasonable notice to the plaintiff 
as the circuit court or the judge be- 
fore whom said motion shall be made 
shall deem proper; service of said mo- 
tion to be made on the plaintiff in 
person or on his attorneys in the ac- 
tion. The circuit courts or judges 
thereof shall have jurisdiction to en- 
force said injunction and to bear and 
determine a motion to dissolve the 
same, as herein provided, as fully as if 
the action were pendini? or brought in 



the circuit in which said motion is 
made. 

The clerk of the court, or judge 
granting the injunction, shall, when 
required so to do by the court hearing 
the application to dissolve or enforce 
said injunction, transmit without de- 
lay to said court a certified copy of all 
the papers on which the said injunc- 
tion was granted that are on file in 
his office. 

Sec. 4967. Every person who shall 
print or publish any manuscript what- 
ever, without the consent of the au- 
thor or proprietor first obtained shall 
be liable to the author or proprietor 
for all damages occasioned by such 
injury. 

Sec. 4968. No action shall be main- 
tained in any case of forfeiture or 
penalty under the copyright laws, un- 
less the same is commenced within two 
years after the cause of action has 
arisen. 

Sec. 4969. In all actions arising 
under the laws respecting copyrights 
the defendant may plead the general 
issue, and give the special matter in 
evidence. 

Sec. 4970. The circuit courts, and 
district courts having the jurisdiction 
of circuit courts, shall have power, 
upon bill in equity, filed by any party 
aggrieved, to grant injunctions to pre- 
vent the violation of any right secured 
by the laws respecting copyrights, ac- 
cording to the course and principles of 
courts of equity, on such terms as the 
court may deem reasonable. 

Sec. 4971. 

[Revised Statutes, title 13, The 
Judiciary, provides as follows : Chap. 
7 (sec. 629). The circuit courts shall 
have original jurisdiction as follows: 
* * ♦ Ninth. Of all suits at law 
or in equity arising under the patent 
or copyright laws of the United States. 
A writ of error may be allowed to re- 
view any final judgment at law, and 
an appeal shall be allowed from any 
final decree in equity hereinafter men- 
tioned, without regard to the sum or 
value in dispute : First. Any final 
judgment at law or final decree in 
equity of any circuit court, or of any 
district court acting as a circuit 
court, or of the supreme court of the 
District of Columbia, or of any Ter- 
ritory, in any case touching patent 
rights or copyrights. (Rev. Stat., 
1878, p. 130.) Chap. 12 (sec. 711). 
The jurisdiction vested in the courts 
of the United States in the cases and 
proceedings hereafter mentioned, shall 
be exclusive of the courts of the sev- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



255 



eral States : ♦ ♦ ♦ Fifth. Of all 
cases arising under the patent-right or 
copyright laws of the United States. 
(Rev. Stat., 1878, pp. 134, 135.) 
Chap. 18 (sec. 972). In all recoveries 
under the copyright laws, either for 
damages, forfeiture, or penalties, full 
costs shall be allowed thereon. (Rev. 
Stat., 1878, p. 183.)] 

The act approved March 3, 1891 
(51st Congress, 1st session, chap. 565: 
26 Statutes at Large, pp. 1106-1110), 
in addition to the amendments, noted 
above, of sections 4952, 4954, 4956, 
4958, 4959, 4963, 4964, 4965, and 
4967, provides further as follows : 

"That for the purpose of this act 
each volume of a book in two or more 
volumes, when such volumes are pub- 
lished separately, and the first one 
shall not have been issued before this 
act shall take effect, and each num- 
ber of a periodical shall be considered 
an independent publication, subject to 
the form of copyrighting as above." 
(Sec. 11.) 

"That this act shall go into effect on 
the first day of July, 1891." (Sec. 
12.) 

"That this act shall x)nly apply to 
a citizen or subject of a foreign state 
or nation when such foreign state or 
nation permits to citizens of the 
United States of America the benefit 
of copyright on substantially the same 



basis as its own citizens ; or when 
such foreign state or nation is a party 
to an international agreement which 
provides for reciprocity in the grant- 
ing of copyright, by the terms of which 
agreement the United States of Amer- 
ica may at its pleasure become a party 
to such agreement. The existence of 
either of the conditions aforesaid shall 
be determined by the President of the 
United States, by proclamation made 
from time to time as the purposes of 
this act may require." (Sec. 13.) 

[An Act providing for the public 
printing and binding and the distribu- 
tion of public documents (January 12, 
1895, 53d Congress, 3d session, chap. 
23, sec. 52: 28 Statutes at Large, p. 
608). provides as follows: The Pub- 
lic Printer shall sell, under such regu- 
lations as the Joint Committee on 
Printing may prescribe, to any person 
or persons who may apply, additional 
or duplicate stereotype or electrotype 
plates from which any Government 
publication is printed, at a price not to 
exceed the cost of composition, the 
metal and making to the Government 
and 10 per centum added : Provided, 
That the full amount of the price shall 
be paid when the order is filed : And 
provided, further. That no publication 
reprinted from such stereotype or elec- 
trotype plates and no other Govern- 
ment publication shall be copyrighted.] 



CHAPTER X. 



MANTnFACTUHEe, EXPORTS AND IMPORTS. 



LOCALIZATION OF SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES, BY STATES: 1900. 



82 New York. . 



Safes sod vsiills . . 
ijquois, vinous. , . 



.^S^d! : 



8ilvBrw»re. 

Salt 

Cotton sooda. . . . . 

Leather, tanned, oi 
Fur hats 



New ?ork. " 



Rbode iBland.. 



268 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MANUFACTURING IN THE UNITED STATES— 



Qass. 



Total. 



Hand trades 

Governmental establishments . . . . 
Educational, eleemosynary, and 

penal institutions 

Establishments with a product of 

less than $500 

All other establishments 



Number 

of Estab- 

Ush- 

mentfl. 



Capital. 



640,056 

215.814 
138 

381 



$9,858,205,501 
392,442,255 



Proprie- 
tors and 

Firm 
Members 



Wage-earners. 



708,623 
242,154 



Average 
Number. 



5,370,814 
559,130 



127,346 ! 44,371,111 I 136,054 
296,377 I 9,421,392,135 I 330,415 



64,671 
4,747,013 



Total Wages 



$2,323,055,634 
288,118,421 



2.117,466 
2.032,819,747 



Statistics for governmental establishments, educational, eleemosynary, and penal insti- 



MANUFACTURING IN THE UNITED STATES 

[Twelfth Census, 



Items. 



Date of Census 



1900.1 



Number of establishments 

Capital 

Salaried officials, clerks, etc., number . . . 

Salaries 

Wage-earners, average number 

Total wages 

Men, at least 16 years of age 

Wages 

Women, at least 16 years of age 

Wages 

Children, under 16 years 

Wages 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Cost of materials used 

Value of products, incl. custom work, etc. 



512,276 

$9,831,486,500 

397,092 

$404,112,794 

5,314,539 

$2,327,295,545 

4,114,348 

$2,019,954,204 

1,031,608 

$281,679,649 

168,583 

$25,661,692 

$1,027,865,277 

$7,346,358,979 

$13,010,036,514 



1890. 



1880. 



355,405 

$6,525,050,759 

» 461,001 

2 $391,984,660 

4,251,535 

$1,891,209,696 

3,326,964 

$1,659,215,858 

803.686 

$215,367,976 

120,885 

$16,625,862 

$631,219,783 

$5,162,013,878 

$9,372,378,843 



253,852 
$2,790,272,606 
(3) 
(3) 

2,732,595 

$947,953,795 

2,019,035 

(3) 
531,639 

(3) 
181,921 

(») 

(») 
$3,396,823,549 
$5,309,579,191 



1 Includes, for comparative purposes, 85 governmental establishments in the District of 
Columbia having products valued at $9,887,355, the statistics for such establishments for 1890 
not being separable. 

2 Includes proprietors and firm members, with their salaries; number only reported in 
1900, but not included in this table. 

3 Not reported separately. 
* Decrease. 

fi Not reported. 

NoTE.-^Exact comparisons between the censuses shown in this table are difficult and 
sometimes impossible on account of changes which have taken place from census to census in 
the form of inquiries contained in the schedules, in the industries canvassed, and in the methods 
of compilation, (^comparisons between the censuses of 1890 and 1900 are more exact than has 
ever before been the case; but even between these two censuses there are certain important 
differences in the forms of inquiry, or the methods of handling the statistics in compilation, 
to which careful attention should be paid. 

1. Capital. — It cannot be assumed that any true comparability exists between the sta-? 
tistics on this subject elicited prior to 1890. AIT the census of 1880 the question read: ' 'Capital 
(real and personal) invested in the business." At the census of 1890 live capital, i.e., cash on 
hand, bills receivable, unsettled ledger accounts, raw materials, stock in process of manufac- 
ture, finished products on hand, and other sundries, was for the first time included as a separate 
and distinct item of capital, and the capital invested in realty was divided between land, 
buildings, and machinery. The form of this inquiry at the census of 1890 and 1900 was so 
similar that comparison may be safely made. 

2. Salaried Officials. — No comparison of the statistics of the number and salaries or 
salaried officials of anv character can be made between the reports of any censuses. Not until 
the census of 1890 did the census begin to differentiate sharply between saJaried officials, i.e., 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



259 



SUMMARY FOR ALL ESTABLISHMENTS: 1900. 



Miscellaneous 
Expenses. 


Cost of Materials Used. 


Total. 


Purchased in 
Raw State. 

$2,391,668,276 

8,851,162 
60,576 

1,037,343 

1.431,529 

2,380.287,666 


Purchased in 
Partially Man- 
ufactured 
Form. 


Fuel, 

Freight, 

etc. 

$322,902,536 

11,375,210 
249,495 

288,484 

26.825 
310.962.522 


Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repairing. 


$1,030,110,125 
124,623,253 


$7,363,132,083 

482,736,991 
6,917,518 

* 3,690,916 

8,895,774 
6,860,890,884 


$4,648,561,271 

462,510,619 
6,607,447 

2,365,089 

7,437.420 
4,169,640.696 


$13,058,562,917 

1,183,615,478 
22,010,391 




6,640,692 




2,524.681 
902,962,191 


29,762,675 
11,816,533,681 



tutions, and establishments with a product of less than $500. are included in Table only. 



—COMPARATIVE SUMMARY: 1850 TO 1900. 
Vols. VII. and VIII. 



Date of Census. 


Per Cent of Increase. 


1870. 


1860. 


1850. 


1890 

to 

1900. 


1880 

to 

1890. 

40.0 
133.8 


1870 

to 

1880. 


1860 

to 

1870. 

79.6 
109.8 


1850 

to 

1860. 


252,148 
$2,118,208,769 

(3) 

(3) 

2,053.996 

$775,584,343 

1,615.598 

(3) 

323,770 

(3) 
114,628 

(3) 

(«) 
$2,488,427,242 
$4,232,325,442 


140,433 
$1,009,855,715 
(3) 
(») 

1,311,246 
$378,878,966 
1,040,349 
(3) 

270,897 
(3) 

(3) 

(«) 
$1,031,605,092 

$1,885,861,676 


123.025 
$533,245,351 

(») 

957,059 

$236,755,464 

731.137 

(3) 
225.922 

(3) 
(3) 
(3) 

(») 
$555,123,822 
$1,019,106,616 


44.1 
50.7 
M3.9 
3.1 
25.0 
23.1 
23.7 
21.7 
28.4 
30.8 
39.5 
54.3 
62.8 
42.3 
38.8 


0.7 
31.7 


14.1 
89.4 










55.6 
99.5 
64.8 


33.0 
22.2 
25.0 


56.6 

104.7 

55.3 


37.0 
60.0 
42.3 


51.2 


64.2 


19.5 


19.9 


*33.6 


58.7 


















52.0 
74.5 


36.5 
26.9 


141.2 

124.4 


85.8 
85.1 



employees engaged at a fixed compensation per annum, and the wage-earning class, i.e., em- 
ployees paid by the hour, the day, the week, or the piece, for work performed and only fof 
such work. Prior to 1890 such sidari^d officials, if returned at all, were returned with the 
wage-earners proper. At the census of 1890 the number and salaries of proprietors and firm 
members actively engaged in the business, or in supervision, were reported, combined with 
clerks and other officials. Where proprietors and firm members were reported without sala- 
ries, the amount that would ordinarily be paid for similar services was estimated. At the 
census of 1900 the nimiber of proprietors and firm members actively engaged in industry or 
in supervision was ascertained, but no salaries were reported for this class, salaries, as a matter 
of fact, being rarely paid in such cases, proprietors and firm members depending upon the 
earnings of the business for their compensation. 

3. Employees and Wages. — At the censuses of 1850 and 1860 the inquiries regarding em- 
ployees and wages called for "the average number of hands employed: male, female," "the 
average monthly cost of male labor," and "the average monthly cost of female labor." At 
the census of 1870 the average number of hands employed was called for, divided between 
"males above 16 years, females above 15 years, ana children and youth," and the "total 
amount paid in wages during the year " was first called for. The inquiries at the census of 
1880 were like those of 1S70, though more extended for some of the selected industries. 

At the census of 1890 the average number of persons employed during the entire year was 
called for, and also the average number employed at stated weekly rates of pay, and the 
average number was computed for the actual time the establishments were reported as being 
in operation. At the census of 1900 the greatest and least numbers of employees were reported 
and al-*o the average number employed during each month of the year. The average number 
of wage-earners (men, women, and children) employed during the entire year was computed 
in the Census Office by using 12, the number of calendar months, as a divisor into the total 
of the average numbers reported for each month. This difference in the method of ascertain- 



2eo 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ing the average number of wage-earners during the entire year resulted in a variation in the 
average number as between the two censuses. 

Furthermore, the schedules for 1890 included in the wage-earning class * 'overseers, and 
foremen or superintendents (not p^neral superintendents or managers)," while the census of 
1900 separates from the wage-eammg class such salaried employees as general superintendents, 
clerks, and salesmen. It is probable that this change in the form of the question has resulted 
in eliminating from the wage-earners, as reported by the present census, many high-salaried 
employees included in 1890. 

4. Miscellaneous Expenses. — This item was not shown at any census prior to that of 1890. 
Comparison between the totals reported can safely be made between the last two censuses. 

5. Materials. — The same statement is true regarding the materials used in manufactures. 
With the exception of the schedules on which a few selected industries were reported at the 
census of 1880. the question concerning materials was as follows: "Value of materials used 
(including mill supplies and fuel)." At the census of 1890 the schedule contained separate 
questions as to the kind, quantity, and cost of the principal materials, and the cost of "mill 
supplies," "fuel," and "all other materials." The amounts paid for rent ot power and heat 
were also included under this head in 1890. It is probable that some of the items included 
the cost of materials at the census of 1880 were included in "miscellaneous expenses" at the 
inquiries of 1890 and 1900. 

6. Products. — These statistics are comparable beginning with the census of 1870. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900. 
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII. page 3, and Vol. VIII. page 18.] 





Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 


Capital. 


Wage-earners. 


Cost of 

Materials 

Used. 


Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 


Industry. 


Average 
Num- 
ber 


Total Wages. 


Total 


512,191 


$9,813,834,390 


5,306,143 


$2,320,938,168 


$7,343,627,875 


$13,000,149,159 


Agricultural im- 
plements 

Ammunition 

Artificial feathers 
and flowers 

Artificial limbs. . . 

Artists' materials.. 

Awnings, tents, 
and sails 

Axle prease 

Babbitt metal and 
solder 

Bags, other than 
oaoer 


715 
33 

227 
87 
21 

858 
29 

51 

78 
' 63 

191 

550 
23 

105 

7 

18 

6,328 

312 

75 
121 

51,771 
65 

15 


167,707,951 
6,719,081 

3,633,869 
290,104 
376,736 

4,342,728 
577,195 

3,115,568 

7,696,732 
6,900,291 

8,337,723 

2,989,568 
1,038,305 

7,410,219 

526,059 

5,493,885 

6,760,070 

29,783,659 

884,901 
2,718,504 

54,976,341 
415.119 

782,247 


46,582 
5,231 

5,333 
249 
200 

4,400 
127 

535 

4,039 
2,029 

1,938 

4,396 
663 

1,667 

254 

1,771 

5,749 

17,525 

455 
1,250 

36,193 
220 

85 


22,450,880 
2,560,954 

1,561,763 

146,620 

79,267 

2,038,613 
55,238 

294,584 

1,133,128 
683,783 

717,000 

1,280,511 
307,991 

913,937 
64,102 

918,191 

2,505,974 

8,189,817 

278,218 
424,174 

17,974,264 
79,380 

46,107 


43,944,628 
7,436,748 

2,765,151 
126,062 
249,107 

6,480,685 
360,411 

7,998,369 

16,849,311 
4,659,001 

7,126,967 

1,398,374 
602,856 

7,500,413 

452,430 

4,075,702 

5,224,886 

16,792,051 

730,046 
2,186,809 

24,701,632 
244,970 

105,712 


101,207,428 
13,027,635 

6,297,805 
749,854 
497,046 

11.728.843 
718,114 

9,191,409 

20,123.486 


Bags, paper 

Baking and yeast 

powders 

Baskets, & rattan 

and willow ware. 
Bells 


7,359,975 

14,568,380 

3,851,244 
1,247,730 


Belting and hose, 
leather 

Belting and hose, 
linen 

Belting and hose, 
rubber 

Bicycle and tricy- 
clie repairing. . . . 

Bicycles and tri- 
cycles 

Billiard tables and 
materials 

Blacking 

Blacksm i t h i n g 
and wheel 
wrighting 

Bluing 

Bone, ivory, and 
lamp black 


10,623,177 

717,137 

6,169,044 

13.766,033 

31,915,908 

1,650,868 
4,504,965 

85,971,630 
575,804 

359,787 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



261 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: I90(y— Continued. 



Industry. 



Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



Bookbinding and 
blank-book 
making 

Boot and shoe cut 
stock 

Boot and shoe 
findings 

Boot and shoe 
uppers 

Boots and shoes, 
custom work 
and repairing. . . 

Boots and shoes, 
factory product 

Boots and shoes, 
rubber 

Bottling . . 

Boxes, cigar 

Boxes, fancy and 
paper 

Boxes, wooden 
packing 

Brass 

Brass and copper, 
rolled 

Brass castings and 
brass finishing. . 

Brassware 

Bread and other 
bakery products 

Brick and tile. . . . 

Bridges 

Bronze castings. . . 

Brooms and 
brushes 

Butter, rework'g .. 

Buttons 

Calcium lights. . . . 

Cardboard 

Card cutting and 
designing 

Carpentering 

Carpets and rugs, 
other than rag. . 

Carpets, rag 

Carpets, wood. . . . 

Carriage and 
wagon materials 

Carriages and 
sleds, children's. 

Carriages and 
wagons 

Cars and general 
shop construe 'n 
and repairs by 
steam railroad 
companies 

Cars, railroad and 
street, and re- 
pairs, not in- 
cluding estab- 
lishments oper- 
ated bv steam 
railroaa com- 
panies 

Celluloid and cel- 
luloid goods ( 1890) 

Charcoal 



954 
342 
186 
132 

23,560 

1,600 

22 

2,064 

315 

729 

896 
10 

19 

442 
204 

14,917 

5,423 

196 

21 

1,526 

10 

238 

19 

5 

43 
21,315 

133 

1,014 

31 

588 

77 

7,632 



1,295 



193 

12 
183 



Capital. 



$12,744,628 

7,003,080 

3,277,958 

273,796 

9,262,134 

101,795,233 

33,667,533 
16,620,152 

3,288,272 

14,979,305 

21,952,757 
503,367 

15,629,766 

21,925,039 
12,194,715 

81,049,553 

82,086.438 

16,768.948 

881,769 

9,616,780 

255,525 

4,212,568 

95,114 

1,168,495 

337.642 
71,327,047 

44,449,299 
975,190 
412,357 

19,085,775 

2,906,472 

118,187,838 



119,473,042 



106,721,188 

3,158,487 
811,225 



Wage-earners. 



Average 
Num- 
ber 



15,971 

6,155 

2,993 

256 

9,698 

142,922 

14,391 
7.680 
4,609 

27,653 

22,034 
162 

6,759 

11,964 
7,668 

60,271 

61,979 

12,181 

621 

10,349 

148 

8,685 

55 

626 

325 
123,985 

28,411 

1,504 

608 

15,387 

2,726 
62,540 



173,595 



Total Wages. 



44,063 

939 

1,786 



$6,671,666 

2,230,691 

1,127,784 

125,627 

4,128,361 

59,175,883 

6,426,579 
3,589,447 
1,439,599 

8,151,625 

7,827,955 
98,796 



Cost of 

Materials 

Used. 



6,070,762 
3,550,074 i 

27,893,170 

21,883,333 

6,711.260 

372,797 

3,788,046 
67,747 

2.826,238 

24,418 

264,427 

135,130 
71,049,737 

11,121,383 
492,656 
362,112 

5,987,267 

1,090,296 

29,814,911 



96,006,570 



23,342,763 

447,120 
431,381 



$7,702,543 

17,800,282 

4,627,048 

401,680 

8,288,664 

169,604,054 

22,682,543 

28,087,823 

3,061,193 

11,765,424 

22,807,627 
1,152,635 



3,512,781 30,000,632 



18,871,141 
9,830,319 

95,221,915 

11,006.148 

16,258,561 

1,339,722 

9,546,854 

1,345.418 

2,803,246 

34,982 

705,527 

312,760 
142,419,410 

27,228,719 
681,311 
418,343 

13,048,608 

1,996,070 

56,676,073 



109,472,353 



Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 



$20,790,858 

23,242,892 

7,145,820 

700,225 

26,550,678 

261,028,580 

41,089,819 

41,640,672 

5,856,915 

27,316,317 

38,216,384 
1,419,817 

37,536,325 

30.343,044 
17,140,075 

175,657,348 

51,270.476 

30.151,624 

2,229,329 

18,490,847 

2,114,935 

7,695,910 

118,666 

1,270,416 

618,488 
316,101,758 

48.192,351 
1,993,756 
1,056,702 

25,027,173 

4,289.695 

121,537,276 



218,118,658 



70,046,354 

856,180 
405,339 



107,186,359 

2,575,736 
1,133,638 



262 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900--Con/tn«ed. 



Industry. 



Cheese. butter, 
and condensed 
milk 

Chemicals 

China decorating . 

Chocolate and co- 
coa products. . . 

Cleansing and pol- 
ishing prepara- 
tions 

Qoth. sponging 
and refinishing. . 

Clothing, horse. . . 

Clothing, men's .. 

Clothing, women's 
dressmaking 

Clothing, wom'n's, 
•factory product. 

Coffee and spice, 
roasting and 
grinding 

Coffins, burial 
cases, and un- 
dertakers' goods 

Coke 

Collars and cuffs, 
paper (1890). . . 

Combs 

Confectionery. . . . 

Cooperage 

Copper, smelting 
and refining .... 

Cordage and twine 

Cordials & syrups 

Cork, cutting 

Corsets 

Cotton, comprees- 
ing 

Cotton, ginning .. . 

Cotton goods .... 

Cotton waste ... 

Crucibles 

Cutlery and edge 

vOOlS* • 

Dentistry .Mechan 
ical (1890) .... 

Dentists' materials 

Druggists' prepa- 
rations, not in- 
eluding pre- 
scriptions 

Druf; grinding .... 

Dyeing and clean- 
ing 

Dyeing and finish- 
ing textiles 

Dye stuffs and ex- 
tracts 

Electrical appara- 
tusand supplies. 

Electrical con- 
struction and 



Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 




repairs , 

Electroplating. . . , 
Emery wheels . . . 
Enameling and 

enameled goods. 



9.355 
459 
169 

24 



154 
46 

46 

26 

28.014 

14.479 

2.701 

458 



217 
241 

3 

34 

4,297 

2,146 

47 

105 

39 

62 

216 

111 

11.369 

1,055 

26 

11 

309 

3.214 
68 



250 
26 

1,810 

298 

77 

580 



1.162 

422 

34 

129 



Wage-earners. 



$36,508,015 

89,091.430 

372,017 

6.890.732 



943,328 
8.792,653 

288,894 

653,545 

173.034,543 

13.815.221 

48.431,544 

28.436,897 



13.585.162 
36.502,679 

237,764 

832,791 

35,155,361 

22,568.873 

53.063,395 

29,275.470 

1,153.006 

2.683,683 

7,481,048 

8.323.558 

23.228,130 

467,240,157 

2,560,759 

1,843,616 

16,532,383 

4,019,637 
2,112,236 



16.320,120 
2.837,911 

4.673.211 
60,643,104 

7,839,034 
83,130,943 



5.438,087 
1,460,692 
1,489,527 

9,184,178 



Average 
Num- 
ber. 



Total Wages. 



Cost of 

Materials 

Used. 



12,865 

19,054 

360 


$6,170,670 

9,401.467 

148,004 


$109,151,205 

34,564.137 

261,819 


1,314 


525,875 


6,876.682 


508. 
6,037 


209,438 
2,650.703 


965.242 
3.028,606 


534 

575 

191,043 


268.191 

176,687 

79,434.932 


17,490 

847.846 

197.742,067 


45,595 


14,352,453 


16.503.754 


83.739 


32,586,101 


84.704,592 


6,387 


2,486,759 


55.112,203 


6.840 
16.999 


3,077,481 
7,085,736 


6.945.348 
19,665,532 


82 

1,399 

33.583 

22,938 


35,125 

572.467 

10.867,687 

9.200.303 


223.077 

951.514 

45,534.153 

23,299,312 


11,324 

13.114 

362 

2.340 

12,729 


8.529,021 

4.113,112 

116.917 

687.796 

3.791.509 


122,174,129 

26,632,006 

1,505.096 

2,403,829 

6.555,467 


2,742 

14.135 

302.861 

1.116 

671 


73S.288 

1.930,039 

86.689,752 

336,827 

250.654 


353.910 

3.912.303 

176.551,527 

4.950.490 

1,673,290 


12.069 


5,673.619 


5,116.042 


1,486 
1,017 


768,401 
508,603 


1.475.255 
2,109,231 


5,766 
644 


2,041,061 
291,823 


11,022,417 
3,315.228 


5,424 


2,271,066 


1.434.292 


29,776 


12.726.316 


17.958,137 


1,647 


787.942 


4,745,912 


40,890 


20,190.344 


48,916.440 


5,949 

2,275 

546 


3.312,126 

1,036.750 

303,091 


7,673,507 
836,726 
508,753 


7,675 


2.259,003 


5,466,971 



Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 



$131,199,277 

62.676,730 

693,800 

9.666,192 



2,193,019 
7,157,856 

566.000 

1.305,164 

415,256,391 

48.356,034 

159,339.539 

69,527.108 



13.952,308 
35.585.445 

301,093 

1,976,129 

81,290,543 

40,576,462 

165,131,670 

37.849.651 

2.107,132 

4,392,364 

14,878,116 

2,629,590 

14.748,270 

339.200.320 

5.880,024 

2,607.308 

14,881.478 

7.864.299 
3,721,150 



23,192,785 
4,308,144 

7,567,358 
44,963.331 

7,350,748 
91.348,889 



15,907.420 
3.007,455 
1,381,675 

9,978.509 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



263 



CJGMPARATIVE SUMMARY. BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900— Continued. 



Indufitry. 



Engravers' ma- 
terials 

En^ravin^ and 
die-sinking 

Engraving, steel, 
including plate 
printing. 

Engraving, wood. 

Envelopes 

Explosives 

Fancy articles, not 
elsewhere spec- 
ified 

Felt goods 

Fertilizers. 

Files 

Firearms 

Fire extinguish- 
ers, chemical. . . 

Fireworks 

Fish, canning and 
preserving. . ; . . 

Flags and banners 

Flavoring extracts 

Flax, dressed 

Flouring and grist 
mill products . . 

Food preparations 

Foundry and ma- 
chine shop prod- 
ucts 

Foundry supplies. 

Fruits and vege- 
tables, canning 
and preserving. . 

Fur goods 

Furnishing goods, 
men's 

Furniture, includ- 
ing cabinetmak- 
ine, repairing, & 
upholstering . . . 

Furs, dressed 

Galvanizing 

Gas and lamp fix- 
tures 

Gas and oil stoves 

Gas, illuminating 
and heating .. . . 

Gas machines and 
meters 

Glass 

Glass, cutting, 
staining, and or- 
namenting . . . . 

Gloves and mit- 
tens 

Glucose 

Glue 

Gold and silver, 
leaf and foil. . . . 

Gold and silver, 
reducing and re- 
fining, not from 
the ore 

Graphite and 
graphite refin- 
ing 



Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 




12 
414 



286 

145 

51 

97 



392 
36 

422 
86 
32 

17 
46 

312 

36 

352 

4 

25,258 

644 



9,324 
30 



1,808 
994 

470 



7,972 
92 

28 

223 
35 

877 

114 
355 



417 

394 

8 

61 

93 



57 



11 



Wage-earners. 



(104,741 
790,461 



5,061,520 

231,817 

5,612,509 

19,465,846 



5,081,806 
7,125,276 
60,685,753 
3,857,647 
6,916,231 

136,933 
1,086,133 

16,310,987 

666,033 

3,319,716 

71,496 

218,714,104 
20,998,102 



665,038,245 
981,817 



27,743,067 
13,373,867 

20,163,222 



117,982,091 i 
798,030 
1.775,770 

10,009,239 
3,766,065 

567,000,506 

4,605,624 
61,423,903 



4,013,534 

9,089,809 
41,011,345 

6,144,407 

1,086,854 



1,944,124 



411,128 



Average 
Num- 
ber. 



79 
1.034 



3,299 

337 

2,984 

4,502 



5,718 
2,688 
11,581 
3,160 
4,482 

64 
1,638 

11,318 

509 

1,254 

211 

37,073, 
8,154 



350,327 

278 



36,401 

8,588 

30,216 



100,018 
835 
535 

7.642 
2,471 

22,459 

2,167 
52,818 



4,931 

14,345 

3,288 
1,618 

1,163 



219 



137 



Total Wages. 

$46,064 
572,874 



2,006,824 

206,537 

1,150.463 

2,383,756 



1,921,578 
1,024,835 
4,185,289 
1,277,199 
2,542,366 

32,828 
506,990 

2,986,996 

148,933 

478,975 

46,000 

17.703,418 
3,051,718 



182,232,009 
135,877 



8,050,793 
4,273,192 



42,638,810 
478,190 
229,406 

3,504,301 
1,138,442 

12.436,296 

1,185,959 
27,084,710 



2,403,591 

4,182,518 

1,755,179 

685,096 

498,692 



141,400 



64,376 



Cost of 

Materials 

Used. 



$143,270 
225,637 



1,206,462 

63,272 

3,665,275 

10,334,974 



4,061,400 
3,801,028 
28,958,473 
1,166,414 
1,305,421 

70,874 
627,761 

11,644,118 

547,165 

3,294,380 

91,032 

475,826,345 
23,675,165 



286,357,107 
628,160 



37,524,297 
15,113,365 



Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 



9,680,077 ; 23,404.969 



65,499,877 

519,699 

1,677,584 

5,013.597 
2,501,568 

20,605,356 

1,943,769 
16,731,009 



3,540,097 

9,483.130 

15.773,233 

3,767,023 

1,604,013 



10,932,361 



216,560 



$289,339 
1,683,690 



5,068.558 

616,166 

6,299,330 

17,125,418 



9,046,342 
6,461,691 
44,657,385 
3.403.906 
5,444,659 

217,833 
1,785,271 

18.432,613 

1,038,052 

6,314,552 

158,650 

560,719,063 
38,457,651 



644,990,999 
1,128,856 



56,668,313 
27.735,264 

43,902,162 



153,168,309 
1,400,455 
2,470,703 

12,577,806 
4,579,700 

75,716,693 

4,392,730 
56,539,712 



8,776,006 

16,926,156 

21,693,656 

5,389,006 

2,666,224 



11,811,537 



429,173 



264 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900— Continued. 



Industry. 



Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



Grease and tallow. 

Grindstones 

Hairwork 

Hammocks 

Hand knit goods. . 

Hand stamps 

Hardware 

Hardware, sad- 
dlery 

Hat and cap ma- 
terials 

Hats and caps, not 
including wool 
hats 

Hones and whet- 
stones 

Hooks and eyes. . . 

Horseshoes, fac- 
tory product. . . 

Hosiery and knit 
goods 

House furnishing 
goods, not else- 
where specified . 

Ice, manufact'd .. 

Ink 

Instruments, pro- 
fessional and 
scientific 

Iron and steel. . . . 

Iron and steel, 
bolts, nuts, 
washers, and 
rivets 

Iron and steel, 
doors and shut- 
ters 

Iron and steel, 
forgings 

Iron and steel, 
nails and spikes, 
cutand wrought, 
including wire 
nails 

Iron and steel, 
pipe, wrought. . 

Ironwork, archi- 
tectural and or- 
namental 

Ivory and bone 
work 

Japanning 

Jewelry 

Jewelry and in- 
strument cases. . 

Jute and jute 
goods 

Kaolin and other 
earth grinding. . 

Kindling wood. . . 

labels and tags. . . 

Lamps and re- 
flectors 

Lapidary work. . . 

Lard, refined 

Lasts 

Lead, bar, pipe, 
and sheet 



289 
25 

397 
13 
86 

268 

381 

80 
70 



816 

18 
9 

6 

921 



210 
775 
104 



265 
668 



Wage-earners. 



Capital. 



13 
91 

102 
19 

672 

70 

38 

908 

63 

18 

145 

85 
47 

156 
60 
19 
65 

34 



$7,080,692 

903,348 

1,009,908 

308,254 

205,488 

1,203,910 

39,311,745 

3,335,274 

1,744,419 

25,095,798 

216,836 
1,382,394 

344,151 

81,860,604 



10,638,248 

38,019,507 

3,821,514 



4,491,627 
573,391,663 



Average 
Num- 
ber. 


Total Wages. 


2,046 

1,167 

1,101 

339 

304 

1,052 

26,463 


$1,069,683 
407,153 
375,156 
101,626 
75,870 
490,036 

11,422,758 


2,940 


1,217,202 


1,371 


434,148 


31,425 


14,144,552 


189 
300 


72,879 
127,518 



72 10,799,692 



261,958 
9,677,193 



10,751,359 
18,343,977 

33,062,409 

939,714 

117,639 

28,120,939 

547,753 

7,027,293 

12,212,341 

1,775,272 

848,115 

6,375,474 
3,087,390 
1,335,759 
1,484,966 

3,949,330 



167 
83,387 



5,212 
6,880 

787 



2,786 
222,490 

7,660 

117 
4,688 



4,477 
5,536 

20,646 

1,334 

160 

20,676 

819 

4,506 

2,094 

1,525 

754 

4,725 
498 
499 

1,131 

605 



Cost of 

Materials 

Used. 



90,527 
24,358,027 



1,837,552 

3,402,745 

412,140 



1,433,715 
120,820,276 



2,991,857 

85,683 
2,559,433 



2,042,250 
2,495,898 

11,111,226 

529,051 

75,453 

10,746,375 

322,566 

1,181,790 

820,678 
566,635 
289,273 

2,076,980 
498,715 
237,930 
649,654 

321,598 



$8,761,857 
263,811 
673,004 
242,950 
124,009 
522,659 

14,605,244 

1,690,168 
2,797,756 

24,421,052 

64,278 
255,427 

172,237 

51,071,859 



9,198,803 
3,312,393 
2,109,142 



1,385,292 
522,398,932 



8,071,071 

115,718 
5,213,550 



8,561,571 
15,523,858 

31,140,636 

930,224 

55,305 

22,356,067 

435,717 

3,015,362 

1,651.335 
735,844 
387,517 

3,497,236 

4,655,765 

7,496,845 

526,670 

6,279,497 



Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 



$11,969,821 

1,088,909 

1,952,792 

480,114 

352,226 

1,937,628 

35,846,656 

4,149,489 

3,849.116 

49.205,667 

196,323 
499,543 

387,619 

95,482,566 



14,280,575 

13,780,978 

4,372,707 



4,896,631 
803,968,273 



13,978,382 

319,629 
10,439.742 



14,777,299 
21,292.043 

53,508,179 

1,873,357 

215,506 

46,501,181 

1,156,977 

5,383,797 

3,722,151 
1,784,690 
1,104,652 

8,341,374 
5,786,281 
8,630,901 
1,879,742 

7,477,824 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



265 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY. BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900— Continued. 



Industry. 



Lead, smelting 
and refining .... 

Leather board. . .. 

Leather goods .... 

Leather, tanned, 
curried, and fin- 
ished 

Lime and cement . 

Linen goods 

Liquors, distilled. 

Liquors, malt. . . . 

Liquors, vinous. . . 

Lithographing 
and engraving. . 

Lock and gun- 
smithing 

Looking-glass and 
picture frames . . 

Lumber and tim- 
ber products . . . 

Lumber, planing 
mill products, 
including sash, 
doors, and blinds 

Malt 

Mantels, slate, 
marble, and 
marbleized 

Marble and stone 
work 

Masonry, brick 
and stone 

Matches 

Mats and matting 

Mattresses and 
spring beds 

Millinery and lace 
goods 

Millinery, custom 
work 

Millstones 

Mineral and soda 
waters 

Mirrors 

Models and pat- 
terns 

Mucilage & paste. 

Musical i n s t r u- 
ments and ma- 
terials, not spec- 
ified 

Musical i n s t r u- 
ments, organs, 
and materials. . . 

Musical instru- 
ments, pianos 
and materials. . . 

Needles and pins. . 

Nets and seines. . . 

Oakum 

Oil, castor 

Oil, cotton seed 
and cake 

Oil, essential 

Oil. lard 

Oil, linseed 

Oil, not elsewhere 
specified 



Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



Capital. 



39 

3 

313 



1,306 

1,000 

18 

967 
1,509 

359 

263 

2,103 

1,629 

33,010 



4.204 
146 



36 

6,070 

8,333 

22 

9 

797 

591 

16,151 
3 

2,816 
103 

532 
. 117 



229 



129 



261 

43 

19 

7 

3 

369 
70 

7 
48 

193 



Wage-earners. 



Average 

Num- 
ber. 



$72,148,933 

49,500 

5,467,294 



173,977,421 

48,833,730 

5,688,999 

32,551.604 

415,284,468 

9,838,015 

22,676,142 

2,250,300 

7,747,382 

611,429,574 



110,271,631 
39,288,102 



811,995 

67,509,533 

48,070.239 

3,893,000 

994,155 



8,298,772 


7,959 


10,764,813 


16,871 


27,740,386 
49,238 


33,298 
37 


20,518,708 
3,184,426 


8,985 
2,555 


2.250,484 
1,265,426 


2,608 
480 


3,896,101 


2,405 


5,011.987 


3,435 


38,790,494 

3,235,158 

1,160,782 

416,199 

539,221 


17,869 

2,353 

748 

171 

49 


34,451,461 
612,657 
369,773 

15,460,512 


11,007 
199 

78 
1,328 



9,441.984 



8,319 

71 

6,253 



52,109 

19,107 

3,283 

3,722 

39,532 

1,163 

12,994 

1,553 

7,712 

283,179 



73,627 
1,990 



449 

54,370 

93,568 
2,047 
1,197 



1,353 



Total Wages. 



$5,088,684 

24,350 

2,256,280 



22,591,091 
7,749,815 
1,036,839 
1,733,218 

25,826,211 
446,055 

6,882,168 

769,351 

3,370,072 

104,563.603 



32,685.210 
1,182,513 



291,050 

28,663,241 

53,152,258 
612,715 
237,282 

3,213,268 

5,817,855 

9,570.536 
20,957 

4,169,113 
1,231,689 

1,565,728 
205,082 



1,232,039 
1,720,727 



9,818,996 

939,846 

222,146 

51,343 

29,068 

3,143,459 

69,100 

42,205 

693,311 

679,730 



Cost of 

Materials 

Used. 



$144,195,163 

49,451 

6,162,148 



155,000,004 
11,041,577 

2,550,517 
15,147,784 
51,674,928 

3,689,330 

7 886,045 

929,700 

6,887,331 

317,832,865 



99,927,707 
14,816,741 



487,965 

30,443,297 

87,280,964 

3,420,740 

516,137 



Value of Prod- 
ucts, Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 



9,807,859 



$175,466,304 

108,734 

11,717,401 



204,038,127 

28,689,135 
4,368,159 

96,798,443 

237,269,713 

6,547,310 

22,240,679 

3,703,127 

15,570,293 

566,621,755 



168,343,003 
19,373,600 



1,153,540 

85,101,591 

203,593,634 
6,006,937 
1,165,330 



10,444,009 


18,463.704 


15,654,295 


29,469,406 


36,455,043 
30,995 


70,363,752 
75,922 


8,801,467 
4,995,671 


23,874,429 
8,004,301 


825,111 
1,657,342 


3,836,518 
2,629,299 


1,205,337 


3,394.734 


2,220,165 


5,691.504 


15,147,520 
972,570 
865,908 
283,862 
293,408 


35,324,090 

2,738,439 

1,476,022 

440,237 

395,400 


45,165,823 
596.112 
971.647 

24,395,775 


58,726,632 

850,093 

1,221,841 

27,184,331 



17,089,799 



266 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY 


SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 19W— Continued. 




Num- 




Wage-earners. 




Value of Prod- 




ber of 








Cost of 


ucts, Including 
Custom Work 


Industry. 


Estab- 


Capital. 


Average 




Materials 




lish- 
ments. 




Num- 
ber. 


Total Wages. 


Used. 


and Repair- 
ing. 


Oil, resin 


8 


$284,110 


90 


S53,596 


$535,320 


$738,680 


Oilcloth, enamel'd 


9 


1,702,904 


512 


300,878 


2,696,412 


3,695,615 


Oilcloth, floor. . . . 


18 


7,176,198 


2,718 


1,327,235 


4,853,260 


7,807,105 


Oleomargarine. . . 


24 


3,023,646 


1,084 


534,444 


7,639,501 


12,499,812 


Optical goods. . . 


350 


5,567,809 


4.341 


1,935,219 


3,233.430 


7,790,970 


Ordnance and ord- 














nance stores .... 


4 


3,468.713 


989 


615,280 


802,706 


2,239,797 


Oysters, canning 














and preserving .. 


39 


1,240.696 


2,779 


630,016 


2.608,757 


3.670.134 


Painting and pa- 














per hanging. . . . 


16.939 


27,217,086 


59,191 


34,822,819 


26,304,784 


88,396,852 


Paints. . 


419 


42,601,782 


8,151 


3,929,787 


33,799,386 


60,874,995 


Paper and wood 














pulp 


763 


167,507.713 


49,646 


20,746,426 


70,530,236 


127,326,162 


Paper goods, not 
elsewhere spec- 


























ified 


190 


11,370,585 


6,117 


2,242,702 


9.819.820 


16,785,269 
10,663,209 


Paper hangings. . . 


51 


8,889.794 


4,172 


2,074,138 


6,072,809 


Paper patterns. . . 


16 


256.075 


836 


262,559 


124.854 


663,653 


Patent medicines 














and compounds. 


2,026 


37,209.793 


11,809 


4,407,988 


18,185.513 


59,611,335 


Paving and pav- 
ing materials. . . 














1,729 


37,888.412 


34.090 


14,570,408 


20,152,477 


40,447,719 


Pencils, lead 


7 


2,227,400 


2,162 


683,281« 


1,030,917 


2,222,276 


Pens, fountain and 














stylographic. . . . 


23 


590,629 


318 


141,012 


351,932 


906,454 


Pens, gold 


22 


496,246 


378 


229,679 


312,537 


799,078 


Pens, steel 


3 


357,460 


473 


138,433 


52,466 


294.340 


Perfumery and 














cosmetics 


266 


3,499,168 


1,768 


569,286 


3.136,853 


7,095.713 


Petroleum refining 
Phonographs and 
grapnophones .. 


67 


95,327,892 


12,199 


6,717,087 


102.859,341 


123,929,384 














11 


3,348,282 


1,267 


608,490 


827,529 


2,246.274 


Photographic ap- 














paratus 


4S 


1,849,724 


1,961 


779,890' 


595,925 


2,026.063 


Photographic ma- 
terials 














105 


3,668,026 


1,483 


662.958 


2,782,285 
6,841,853 


5.773,325 
23,238,719 


Photography 

Photolithograph - 


7,553 


13,193,589 


8,911 


\^\^mt • V ^* V^ 

4,013,018 














ing and photo- 














engraving 

Pickles, preserves, 


204 


1,999,921 


2,698 


1,766,578 


728,743 


4,226.106 














and sauces 


474 


10,656,854 


6,812 


2,161,962 


12,422,432 


21,507,046 


Pipes, tobacco. . . . 


98 


1,111,144 


1,585 


737,647 


1,106,299 


2,471,908 


Plated and britan- 














nia ware 


66 


16,486.471 


6,392 


3,088,224 


5,875,312 


12,608,770 


Plumbers' s u p - 














plies 


174 


13,598,528 


8,024 


3.930.594 


7.289,867 


14,771,185 


Plumbing.and gas 








%^ f *r ^^^^ y ^^ %r M 


and steam fitti'g 


11,876 


47.111,264 


53,916 


31,873,866 


65,334,689 


131,852,567 


Pocketbooks 


68 


991,876 


1,653 


588,595 


1,278,226 


2,495,188 


Pottery, terra cot- 














ta, and fire-clay 














products 


1.000 


65,951.885 


43,714 


17,691,737 


11,915,236 


44,263,386 


Printing and pub- 














lishing 


22,312 


292.517,072 


162,992 


84,249,954 


86,856,290 


347,055 050 


Printing materials 
Pulp, from fiber 


70 


905,603 


560 


232,799 


406,357 


1,088,432 














other than wood 


3 


479,158 


121 


28,462 


42.204 


103,204 


Pulp goods 


22 


2.316.985 


691 


283.835 


646,639 


1,267,013 


Pumps, not in- 














cluding steam 








• 






pumps 


130 


1,260,710 


632 


247,193 


637.768 


1,341 713 


Refrigerators 


95 


4,782,110 


3,329 


1,287.488 


2.476,618 


6,317.886 


Regalia and so- 














c i e t y banners 














and emblems. . . 


120 


1,795,858 


1,586 


476,580 


1.608.416 


3.077.945 


Registers, car fare 


5 


104,408 


52 


25.775 


17,403 


80,865 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFBRENCB BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUHHARY. BY SPECIFIED INDU3TRIE9: IM»-C<>R(tRU(J. 



Registcra, c>uh .. . 

poliRhiDg 

RooSng Mid roof- 

ine nutterialt. . . 
Rubber and elss- 

Rul«, [vo^*Md 
Sadilleiy »nd hai^ 
Safes and vaultB. . 

Salt 

Sand and emery 

Scalef'uid bai- 

Scnvs. '.'.'. '....'.'. 
Sewing: machine 

SewlJg^mailhinw 

ShipbuildiDg 

Shoddy. 

Silk and ulk goods 
Silveramithinc. . . 

Slaughterini'and 

™oTioclSd?ng"i|: 

Soap and candles 
Soda water ap- 

Sportinc goods, - 

Stamped ware .. 

Starch 

Stationery good 

Steam fittings ac 

Steam" piiking ', 
Stencils an 

electrotyoing. 
Straw goodfi, n< 

etsewWe spec 

fied. . 

Sugar and molai 

9M, beet... . 

Sursif'al opplianr 

Taxidermy 

Unandtemeplsl 



13 »s,i3T,ee£ 






isi? 


i.m. 


2,051 


1.003, 


310 


lU, 


lo.nss 


0.213, 

!1S 



2S.070 
20.111,719 





u^?In,dudi^ 
andRepaS^ 


»»03,834 


»S,S94,SO0 


7.S7B,S22 


8.723.728 


H.a24,7Se 


29,916.592 


33,4S5,W)4 


52,627.030 


7S,857 


207,757 


33,127,926 

i.eso.us 

3,33S,»i2 


319271867 
7,966,897 


681.210 
2.00O.2I7 


o:443|748 


l.S33,37fl 
1.720,455 


5.239,788 


1.533.S80 


2,815.142 


220,637 


710,123 


W^M 


74:578: S8 


m 


■III 

ioIssa: 21 


686,860381 


790,252,58* 


33;n3;230 


7,784.605 
53,231.017 


im"^ 


3,«33:39« 


l:g:| 


,i:S:ffl 

9.232,984 


2,128.445 


5,065,869 


■!SS 


22,084,860 
3,493,710 


140,711 


873.784 


766.603 


3.772,025 


12,933 


36,985 


4,803,790 


7.323,857 


'm'.03H 
26,728,150 


240,969,905 
3.932.353 



268 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COMPARATIVE SUMMARY, BY SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES: 1900— Continued. 



Industry* 



Tinfoil 

Tinsmithing, cop- 
persm i t h i n g, 
and sheet-iron 
working 

Tobacco, chewing, 
smoking, and 
snuff 

Tobaoco, cigars 
and cigarettes. . 

Tobacco, 8 t e m - 
ming and re- 
handling 

Tools, not else- 
where specified. 

Toys and games . . 

Trunks and valises 

Turpentine and 
rosin 

Type founding. . . 

Typewriter r e - 
pairing 

Typewriters and 
supplies 

Umbrellas and 
canes 

Upholstering ma- 
terials 

Varnish 

Vault lights and 
ventilators 

Vinegar and cider. 

Washing machi'es 
and clothes 
wringers 

Watch and clock 
materials 

Watch cases 

Watch, clock, and 
jewelry repair- 
ing 

Watches 

Whalebone and 
rattan 

Wheelbarrows. . . . 

Whips 

Windmills i 

Window shades. . . 

Wire 

Wirework, includ- 
ing wire rope 
and cable 

Wood, preserving. 

Wood, turned ana 
carved 

Wooden ware, not 
elsewhere speci- 
fied 

Wool hats 

Wool pulling 

Wool scouring .... 

Woolen goods .... 

Worsted goods. . . 

Zinc, smelting 
and refining .... 

All other indus- 
tries 



Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



15 

12,466 

437 
14,539 

276 

448 
170 
391 

1,503 

22 

85 

47 

261 

270 
181 

14 
1,162 

118 

20 
30 



12,229 
13 

3 
15 
60 
68 
207 
29 



597 
21 

1,171 



104 

24 

31 

25 

1,035 

186 

31 




$2,094,327 



55,703,509 

43,856,570 
67,706,493 

12,526,808 

13,690,047 
3,289,445 
7,046,649 

11,847,495 
2,269,370 

134,123 

8.400.431 

4.677,917 

7,593,598 
17,550,892 

120,750 
6,187,728 

2,404,569 

367,291 
8,119,292 



12,741,973 
14,235.191 

56.200 
513.467 
1.893,703 
4,308,666 
5,507,842 
4,242,173 



16,374,629 
1,229,746 

10,278,418 



3.824,512 

2,050,802 

944,715 

1,061.123 

124,386,262 

132,168,110 

14,141.810 

447.959 



Wage-earners. 



Average 
Num- 
ber. 



Total Wages. 



582 



45.575 

29.161 
103.462 

9,654 

7,615 
3,330 
7,084 

41,864 
1,424 

185 

4,340 

5,695 

5,098 
1,546 

138 
1,801 

1,509 

331 
3,907 



8,380 
6,880 

14 
321 
1,287 
2,045 
2,012 
1,603 



9,255 

478 

11,569 



3,206 

2,108 

475 

720 

68,893 

57,008 

4,869 I 

132 1 



$227,774 



22,155.039 

7.109.821 
40,925,596 

1,817,067 

3,781,763 
1.123.593 
2.834.892 

8.393.483 
803.470 

116.220 

2.403,604 

1,889,673 

1,715,073 
995,803 

81.184 
720,316 

548,707 

152,234 
1,924,847 



4.683.086 
3,586,723 

7,856 
127,398 
478,176 
940,474 
871,532 
859,645 



3,934,525 
205,105 

4,375,345 



1,073,303 

937.855 

247,950 

338.606 

24,757,006 

20,092,738 

2,355,921 

58,661 



Cost of 

Materials 

Used. 



$1,074,192 



50,329,282 

35,038,287 
57,946,020 

14,198,349 

4,657,200 
1,668,199 
6,045,387 

6,186,492 
863,689 

110,603 

1,402,170 

8,457,167 

5,881,621 
10,939,131 

140,719 
3,272,565 

2,174,762 

105,549 
4,393,647 



4,432,108 
1,291,318 

98.875 
180.036 
1.278.324 
2.172.098 
6,046,062 
7,014.319 



10.858,229 
1.825,355 

6,835,492 



1,468.383 

2,042,202 

63,975 

193.826 

71,011,956 

77,075,222 

13,286,058 

299,339 



Value of prod- 
ucts. Including 
Custom Work 
and Repair- 
ing. 



$1,593,169 



100,310,720 

103,754,362 
160.223,152 

19,099,032 

13,360,920 

4,024,999 

12,693.225 

20,344.888 
2.842,384 

367.176 

6.932.029 

13.855.908 

10.048,164 
18,687,240 

338,111 
6,454,524 

3.735,243 

345,347 

7,783,960 



20,235,039 
6,822,611 

135,000 

454.441 

2.734.471 

4.354.312 

8.868.259 
9.421.238 



19.942.882 
2.395.748 

14.338.503 



3.585.542 

3,591.940 

531.287 

889,809 

118.430.158 

120.314,344 

18.188,498 

603.449 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



269 



INDUSTRY GROUPS RANKED BY CAPITAL, NUMBER OF WAGE- 
EARNERS, WAGES, AND GROSS AND NET VALUE 

. OF PRODUCTS: 1900. 



[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, page clxiv, and Vol. VIII, page 18.] 



Industry Group. 



Total 

Food and kindred products. . . . 

TextUes 

Iron and steel and their prod- 
ucts 

Lumber and its remanufact'res. 

Leather and its finished prod- 
ucts 

Paper and printing 

Liquors and beverages 

Chemicals and allied products. . 

Clay, glass, and stone products. 

Metals and metal products, 
other than iron and steel. . . . 

Tobacco 

Vehicles for land transportati'n 

Shipbuilding 

Miscellaneous industries 

Hand trades 



Number 
of Estab- 
lishments. 



Rank. 



512,191 



61,266 
30,048 

13,896 
47,054 

16,989 

26,747 

7,861 

5,443 

14,809 

16,305 
15,252 
10.112 
1,116 
29,479 
215,814 



2 
4 

11 
3 

7 
6 

13 
14 
10 

8 
9 
12 
15 
5 
1 



Capital. 



$9,813,834,390 



937.686,610 
1.366,604,058 

1,528,979,076 
945,934,565 

343,600,513 
557,610,887 
534,101,049 
498,282.219 
350,902,367 



Hank. 



Average 
Number 
of Wage- 
earners. 



Rank. 



5,306,143 



5 
2 

1 
4 

13 
6 
7 
8 

12 



410,646,057 


9 


124,089,871 


14 


396,671.441 


10 


77,362,701 


15 


1,348,920,721 


3 


392,442,255 


11 



! 311,717 
1,029,910 

'' 733,968 
546,872 

238,202 
297,551 
63,072 
101,489 
244,987 

190,757 
142,277 
316,157 
46,781 
483,273 
559,130 



7 
1 

2 
4 

10 

8 

14 

13 

9 

11 

12 

6 

15 
5 
3 



Value of Products. 



Industry Group. 



Wage:^ 



Rank. 



(jiross. 



Rank. 



Total $2,320,938,168 



$13,000,149,159 



Food and kindred products 

Textiles 

Iron and steel and their 
products I 

Lumber and its remanu- ; 
factures , 

Leather and its finished ' 
products 

Paper and printing 

Liquors and beverages 

Chemicals and allied' prod- 
ucts 

Clay, glass, and stone prod- 
ucts i 

Metals and metal products, 
other than iron and steel . 

Tobacco 

Vehicles for land transpor- 
tation 

Shipbuilding 

Miscellaneous industries. . . 

Hand trades 



128,667,428 
341,734,399 

381,875,499 

212,124,780 

99,759,885 
140,092.453 
36,946,557 ' 

43,850,282 , 

109,022,582 

96,749.051 
49,852,484 

164,559,022 

24,839,163 

202,746,162 

288,118,421 



8 
2 

1 

4 

10 

7 
14 

13 

9 

11 
12 

6 

15 

5 

3 



2,273,880,874 1 

1,637,484,484 3 

1,793,490,908 

1,030,695,350 5 

583,731,046 9 
606,317,768 i 8 

425,504,167 12 

552,797,877 10 

293,564,235 13 

748,795,464 7 

283,076,546 14 

508.524,510 11 

74,578,158 15 

1,004,092,294 6 

1,183,615,478 ' 4 



Net. 



Rank. 



$8,367,997,844 



1,750,811,817 
1,081,961,248 

983,821.918 

547,227,860 

329,614,996 
419,798,101 
349,157,618 

372,538,857 

245,447,118 

371,154,446 
264,052,573 

250,622,377 

42,492,518 

638,191.538 

721,104,859 



1 

2 

3 

6 

11 

7 

10 

8 

14 

9 
12 

13 

15 

5 

4 



SCIBNTinC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



BANK OF INDUSTRIES WITH PRODUCTS 
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII. pHge 



Foundry anS mac 



Printmsantl publishing .'.'.'..'..'.: 

Woolen manulactures . , . , 

Buota and shoes. Factory product , . 
Sugu- and unolasaes, refining 



eutncd. and finished. , 



Bread and other bak 



and blinds 

Copper, eineUlng and refininj. . . 
Tobaeco. cigars, and cigarettes. . 
Clothing, women's, faclnry produ 
Fumituffi. includinir cabinetnia] 

PlSmWng. ^§ gi 






Carri 



and wood pulp. . 



ondense. 



Cars, railroad and street, and repairs, not in< 
tabliBbrnenta operated by steam railroad cc 

Agricllltutal impiements. 



Hosi 



!, distilled. . 



Saddlery and harness. . 
Frtiits and ve^tables, c 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



271 



VALUED AT OVER $50,000,000: 1900. 
clxiii, and Vol. VIII, page 18.] 



Average 








Value of Products. 




Number 


Rank. 


Wages. 


Rank. 










of Wage- 










earners. 


4 




2 


Net. 


Rank. 


Gross. 


Rank. 


222,490 


$120,820,276 


$432,687,119 


3 


$803,968,273 


1 


69,441 


17 


33,923,253 


15 


684,119,221 


1 


790,252,586 


2 


350,327 


1 


182,232,009 


1 


377,812,876 


4 


644,990,999 


3 


283,179 


3 


104,563.603 


3 


307.838,590 


5 


566,621,755 


4 


37,073 


34 


17,703,418 


35 


540,052,649 


2 


560,719,063 


5 


191,043 
162,992 


5 


79,434,932 


7 


220,140,823 


8 


415,256,391 


6 


7 


84,249,954 


6 


264.859.062 


7 


347,055,050 


7 


302,861 


2 


86,689,762 


5 


296,633,150 


6 


339,200,320 


8 


123,985 


10 


71,049,737 


8 


176,611,706 


12 


316,101,758 


9 


159,108 


8 


57,933,817 


10 


218,637,292 


9 


296,990,484 


10 


142,922 


9 


59,175,883 


9 


93,701,767 


19 


261,028,580 


11 


14,262 


45 


6,945.811 


46 


49,216,847 


40 


240,969,905 


12 


39,532 


33 


25,826,211 


23 


202,582,268 


10 


237,269,713 


13 


173,595 


6 


96,006,570 


4 


111,622,240 


16 


218,113,658 


14 


52,109 


26 


22,591,091 


27 


186,389,057 


11 


204.038,127 


15 


93,568 


13 


53,152,258 


11 


125,356,555 


14 


203,593,634 


16 


60,271 


21 


27,893,170 


21 


89,262.303 


23 


175,657,348 


17 


8,319 


52 


5,088,684 


49 


97,425,341 


18 


175,466,304 


18 


73,627 


16 


32,685.210 


16 


74,205,166 


28 


168,343,003 


19 


11,324 


49 


8,529.021 


42 


76,502,702 


26 


165,131,670 


20 


103,462 


11 


40,925,596 


13 


152,300,012 


13 


160,223,152 


21 


83,739 


14 


32,586,101 


17 


75,315,179 


27 


159,339.539 


22 


100,018 


12 


42,638,810 


12 


91,151,488 


22 


153,168.309 


23 


53,916 


24 


31,873,866 


18 


68,035,688 


30 


131,852,567 


24 


12,865 


46 


6.170,670 


48 


124,008,573 


15 


131,199,277 


25 


49,646 


27 


20,746.426 


32 


77,954,480 


25 


127,326,162 


26 


12,199 


47 


6.717.087 


47 


107,512,092 


17 


123,929,384 


27 


62,540 


19 


29,814,911 


19 


67,172,479 


31 


121,537,276 


28 


65,416 


18 


20,982,194 


31 


86,483,994 


24 


107,256,258 


29 


44,063 


31 


23,342.763 


26 


39,326,856 


47 


107,186,359 


30 


29,161 


39 


7,109,821 


45 


92,915,542 


20 


103,754,362 


31 


46,5S2 


29 


22,450.880 


28 


60,535,599 


36 


101,207,428 


32 


45.575 


30 


22.155,039 


29 


51,638,038 


38 


100,310,720. 


33 


3.722 


55 


1,733,218 


55 


91,451.293 


21 


96,798,443 


34 


83.3S7 


15 


24,358,627 


25 


54,544,999 


37 


1 95,482,566 


35 


40,890 


32 


20,190.344 


33 


44,583,830 


41 


91,348,889 


36 


59,191 


22 


34,822,819 


14 


62,541,861 


35 


88,396,852 


37 


36,193 


36 


17,974,264 


34 


63,764,914 


34 


85,971,630 


38 


54,370 


23 


28,663,241 


20 


69,097,079 


29 


85.101,591 


39 


33,583 


37 


10,807,687 


38 


44,179,706 


42 


81.290,543 


40 


22,459 


41 


12,436,296 


36 


64,276,431 


33 


, 75,716,693 


41 


46,781 


28 


24,839.163 


24 


42,492,518 


46 


74,578,158 


42 


33,298 


38 


9,570,536 


40 


34,529,813 


51 


70,363,752 


43 


6,387 


54 


2,486,759 


54 


64,741,832 


32 


69,527,108 


44 


19,054 


44 


9,401,467 


41 


36,918,124 


48 


62,676,730 


45 


24,123 


40 


10,725,647 


39 


30,677,173 


52 


62,630,902 


46 


11,809 


48 


4,407,988 


50 


43,819,968 


44 


' 59.611,335 


47 


11,007 


50 


3,143.459 


53, 


43,196,446 


45 


58,726,632 


48 


36,401 


35 


8,050,793 


44 


36,668.635 


49 


56,668,313 


49 


52,818 


25 


27,084,710 


22 


43,905,999 


43 


56,539,712 


50 


20.646 


42 


11,111.226 


37 


23,398.179 


54 


53,508,179 


51 


9,487 


51 


3,754,767 


52 


24,228,062 


53 


53,231.017 


52 


20,405 


43 


8.082.738 


43 


35,278.808 


50 


52,627,030 


53 


61.979 


20 


21.883.333 


30 ' 


50,312.022 


39 


51,270,476 


54 


8,151 


53 


3.929,787 


51 1 


i 18.545,525 


55 


50,874,995 


55 



372 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 

ESTABLISHMENTS AND PRODUCTS CLASSIFIED BY CHARACTER 

OF ORGANIZATION. BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES: 1900.* 

ITwelflh Cermui, Vol. VII. pagM I»vi and MJ.] 

Character of Organiaation. 



Total 



Food and kindred producU 6t.2m 

ToitilBB 30.(M8 

Iron and 3t«flL and their productH. , . , , , 13.396 

Lumber »od its remanulacturos 47.0S1 

[gather and iu finiebed producis. . , . . 16.eS9 

Paper and nrinling. 28.747 

Liquon and beveraces 7.881 

Chetpicala and a]li»d products 5.413 

Clay, glass, and Btone products 14.809 

MetiUa and metal products, otber than 

iron and steel IB.30S 

Tobacco IS.Z52 

Vehicles for land CraosporUtioD 10.112 

Shipbuilding. l.llfl 

Miscellaneous industries 29.478 

Hand trades 215.814 



191 1 13,000,1 49. ise 



79.919,991 
43,223.011 

12.892,138 



Pood and kindred products. .. 
Iron and sUel and their prod- 
Leather and its 6nisbed prod- 

pa'^^r'^dprintiBitV.'.;:;::: 

Liquors and beverages. ..... 

Chemicsls and allied products. 

Clay, glass, and stone products 

Metal and metal products, 

other Chan iron and steel. . . . 

Tobacco.. ,. 

Shipbi^dmg" . , ™"'^, , , ' ," 

Miscellaneous industries. 

Hand trades. 



'1 


)D5 


1 


329 


2 


990 


i 


i 


i 

2! 


1 

890 



































2,132 


157,338. 






















2,IW1 


100. 46, 



nitt^ wherever they disclosed the products 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



278 



ESTABLISHMENTS CLASSIFIED BY NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES, NOT 
INCLUDING PROPRIETORS AND FIRM MEMBERS: 1900. 

[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages Ixxiii and 582.J 



Industry Group. 



Total. 



Food and kindred prod- 
ucts 

Textiles 

Iron and steel and their 
products 

Lumber and its reman u- 
faotures . . . 

Leather and its finished 
products 

Paper and printing 

Liquors and beverages. .. 

Chemicals and allied 
products 

Clay, glass, and stone 
products 

Metals and metal prod- 
ucts, other than iron 
and steel 

Tobacco 

Vehicles for land trans- 
portation 

Shipbuilding 

Miscellaneous industries. 

Hand trades 



Total 
Num- 
ber of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments. 



512,191 



61,266 
30,048 

13.896 

47,054 

16.989 

26,747 

7,861 

5,443 

14.809 



16.305 
15.252 

10.112 

1,116 

29,479 

215,814 



Number of Establishments Reporting. 



No. 
Em- 
ploy- 
ees. 



Under 
5. 



5 

to 

20. 



110,509 

14,611 
1.300 

783 

2.069 

5,028 

2,400 

671 

643 

1,022 



2.950 
3.637 

1,183 

198 

5,191 

68.823 



232,716 



112,120 



34,759 
11.036 

3.102 

16.836 

8.163 

12,6281 

4.185 

1.607 

3.876 



8.029 
7,273 

3,772 

211 

10,403 



8,129 
9,722 

4,349 

20.039 

1,644 
7,962 
2,070 

1,689 

6.121 



3.542 
3,004 

3,080 
361 



21 
to 
50. 



32,403 



1.888 
3,458 

2,186 

4,814 

857 

2.139 

569 

806 

2.186 



951 
672 

829 
152 



51 

to 

100. 



11.658 



8.026! 3,123 
1106,8362 32,382 8 7.773 



912 

1.828 

1.395 
1.892 

560 

874 
228 

390 

857 



386 
309 

467 

83 

1,477 



101 

to 

250. 



8,475 



251 

to 

500. 

2,804 



696 
1,620 

1,244 

1,128 

472 
565 
103 

224 

562 



291 
233 

416 

56 

865 



161 
669 

513 

218 

196 
143 

27 

64 
134 



85 
85 

229 

29 

251 



501 

to 

1000. 



1,063 



1 Includes establishments with 1 to 5 employees. 

2 Includes establishments with 6 to 20 employees. 
8 Includes establishments with over 20 employees. 



81 
295 

221 

51 

50 
30 

6 

10 

42 



51 

28 

88 
17 
93 



Over 
1000. 



443 



29 
120 

103 

7 

19 
6 
2 

10 

9 



20 
11 

48 

9 

50 



AMERICAN IRRIGATION. 

There are in the United States some 
500,000,000 acres in what is known 
as the Arid Belt. These are not avail- 
able for agriculture until they have 
been irrigated. "It is now estimated 
that at least 15,000,000 acres will be 
added to the available domain of the 
country during the first ten years'* 
following the enactment of a new law, 
"while the authorities in charge of the 
work insist that under its operations 
it will be possible to bring into actual 
cultivation and use some years earlier 
than had been anticipated the 100,000 
square miles included in the original 
estimate." 

The new law referred to "repealed 
the previous enactment permitting 



single individuals to take up land to 
the amount of 160 acres under the 
Homestead timber culture and pre- 
emption systems, making 480 acres in 
all." It provided, among other things, 
that 160 acres should be the maximum. 
—London "Times," October 31, 1903. 

POPULATION OF EUROPE. 
The population of Europe has been 
carefully estimated at recent dates by 
MM. Levasseur and Bodio with these 
results : 

YEAR. POPULATION. 

1900 401,098 000 

1880 346,700,000 

1880 331,000,000 

1878 325,700,000 

1860 289,000,000 

—Daily Mail Year Book. 



274 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



COST OF MATERIALS USED IN EACH OF THE FIFTEEN GROUPS 

OF INDUSTRIES: 1900. 

[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII. page cxxxvii.] 





1 
Cost of Materials Used. 


1 

J Per Cent of Cost of 

; Materials to Gross 

Value of Products. 


Per Cent 
of Cost of 

Materials 
Purchased 








Industry Group. 


Purchased 
in Raw 
State. 


Purchased 
in Partially 

Manufac- 
tured Form. 


Fuel, 

Freight, 

etc. 


lPurcha.sed 
in Partial- 
ly Manu- 
factured 
Form. 


Purchased 

in Raw 

State. 


in Raw 
State of 
Net Value 
of Prod- 
ucts. 


Total 


$2,389,138,828 


$4,632,151,315 


$322,337,732 

35,148,815 
26,372,330 

102,747,734 

13,440,897 

6,625,557, 
16,241,912, 

8.531,116 

21,422,432 

27,526,258 

20,601.039 
1,449,172 

8,966,610 
1,401,132 

20,487,518 
11.375.210 


35 6 


18.4 


28.6 








Food and kindred 

products 

Textiles 


1,279,450,388 
314,089.230 

74,781,646 

64,502,232 

134,809.625 
11,396,844 

37,340,408 

154,470,332 

18,971,906 

98.737,311 
86,709,511 

1,342,802 


523,069,057 
555,523,236 

809.668,990 

483.467,490 

254,116.050 
186,519,667 

76,346,549 

180,259,020 

48,117,117 

377,641,018 
19,023,973 

257,902,133 
32,035,640 

365.900.756 
462,510.619 


! 

23.0 
33.9 

46.9 

43.5 
30.8 

17.9 

32.6 

16.4 

50.4 
6.7 

50.7 
43.0 

36.4 
39.1 


56.3 
19.2 

4.2 

6.3 

23.1 
1.9 

8.8 

27.9 

6.5 

13.2 
30.6 

0.3 


73.0 
29.0 


Iron and steel and 
their products. . . . 

Lumber and its re- 
manufact ;res. . . . 

lieather and its fin- 
ished products. . . . 

Paper and printing. . 

Liquor and bever- 
ages 


7.6 
11.8 

40.9 

2.7 

10.7 


Chemicals and al ied 
products 

Clay, glass, and stone 
products 

Metals and metal 
products, other 
than, iron and 
steel 


41.5 
7.7 

26.6 


Tobacco 


32.8 


Vehicles for land 

transoortation. . . 

Shiobuilding 


0.5 


Miscellaneous in- 
dustries 


103,685,431 
8,851,162 


10.3 
0.7 


16.2 


Hand trades 


1.2 



TOURISTS IN SWITZERLAND. 

The following figures with regard 
to tourists in Switzerland have been 
compiled by Herr Freuler, of Zurich. 

Money paid annually by visitors to 
hotel proprietors — between $15,000,000 
and $20,000,000 ; paid to railway com- 
panies, etc., $3,375,000; gross profit 
is estimated at $12,375,000, from 
which $8,000 has to be taken for de- 
preciation and improvements. The 
capital outlay is estimated at $120,- 
000,000. 

There are some 1,896 hotels and 
pensions, etc., with 104,800 beds ; 945 
are only open in the season, 951 are 
open ail the year, 22.000 people find 
_egular employment in these hotels, 
and 5,000 irregularly, with wages 
totaling 9 to 11 million francs and 
gratuities amounting to 3 1-2 to 4 
million francs. — " Daily Mail " Year 
Book. 



JURA TUNNEL. 

The Grand Council of the Canton 
of Berne, in the year 1903, agreed to 
grant a subvention for the construc- 
tion of the projected Jura Tunnel for 
a line between Soleure and Munster, 
which will give access to the proposed 
tunnel through the Bernese Alps for 
communication with the Simplon Tun- 
nel. An agreement has also been ar- 
rived at between the Federal Council 
and the Simplon Tunnel Company by 
which the latter will receive an in- 
creased amount for the construction 
of the Simplon Tunnel, but will not 
be liberated from its obligation to con- 
struct a second tunnel. The companj' 
agrees to transfer the tunnel to the 
Federal Government. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



275 



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1880. 




1890. 



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1900. 




' DIVISION OF INDUSTRIES. — SEGMENTS 
ARE BASED ON PRODUCTION IN 
THE CENSUS YEAR 1890. 



276 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE DURING 

THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 
(Bureau of Statistics). 



Articles. 



Agricultural Implements: 

Mowers and reapers, and parts of. . 
Plows and cultivators, and parts of. 
All other, and parts of 



Total. 



Aluminum, and manufactures of. 

Animals: 

Cattle 



Hogs. 



No. 
No. 



Horses No. 

Mules No. 

Sheep No. 

All other, including fowls 



Total. 



Art works : Paintings and statuary 

Asbestos, and manufactures of 

Asphaltum, and manufactures of 

Baobitt metal 

Bark, and extract of, for tanning 

A^COS ^r & jl* ••••... 

Billiard balls 

Bird skins 

Blacking : 

Stove polish 

All other 

Bones, hoofs, horns, and horn tips, strips, and waste 

Books, maps, engravings, etchings, and other pointed matter 
Brass, and manufactures of 



lb». 



Breadstuffs: 

Barley bush. 

Bread and biscuit lbs. 

Buckwheat bush. 

Com bush. 

Corn meal bbls. 

Oats bush. 

Oatmeal lbs. 

Rye bush. 

Rye flour bbls. 

Wheat bush. 

Wheat flour bbls. 

Preparations of, for table food 

-All other, for animal feed — 

Bran, middlings, and mill feed tons. 

Dried grains and malt sprouts tons. 

All other 



Quantities. 



402,178 

4.031 

34.007 

4,294 

176,961 



70,811 



8,429.141 

11,104,575 

117,953 

74,833.237 

451,506 

4,613,809 

67,823.935 

5,422,731 

3,757 

114,181,420 

19,716,484 



49.513 
73.104 



Values. 



Dollars. 
10,326,641 
3,169,961 
7,510,020 



21,006.622 
133,256 



29.848,936 

40.923 

3.152,159 

521,725 

1,067,860 

149,590 



34,781,193 

512,558 

133,427 

104.586 

44,635 

239,786 

21,337 

4.228 

650 

198.152 

511,136 

193,817 

4,442.653 

2.000.432 



4.662.544 

589,536 

75,713 

40,540,637 

1.382,127 

1.850,728 

1,839,106 

3,143,910 

12.818 

87.795,104 

73,756,404 

2,667,409 

945.053 

1,320,065 

661.131 



Total I 221.242.285 



Bricks: 

Building M. 

Fire 



3,725 



Total. 



Bristles 

Broom corn 

Brooms and brushes 

Candles lbs. 

Carbon 



6.323.554 



26.310 
403,598 



429,908 

515 

211,253 

283,994 

514,753 

44,494 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



277 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Con/tnued. 



Articles. 



Carriaoeb, Cars, Other VEHiciiES, and Parts of: 

Automobiles, and parts of 

Cars, passenger and freight, and parts of — 

For steam railways 

For other railways 

Cycles, and parts of * 

Ail other carriages and parts of 




Values. 



Total 



Celluloid, and manufactures of 

Cement bbls. 

Chalk, crayons, etc 

Charcoal 



Dollars. 
1,207,065 

2,687,303 

915,273 

2,132,629 

3.556,925 



Chewing gum. . 



Chemicals, Druqs, Dyes, and Medicines: 
Acids , 



Ashes, pot and pearl lbs. . . 

Baking powder lbs. . . 

Copper, sulphate of lbs. . . 

Dyes and dyestuffs 

Gmseng lbs. . . 

Lime, acetate of lbs. . . 

Medicines, patent or proprietary 

Roots, herbs, and barks, not elsewhere specified 

Washing powders or mixtures, etc lbs. . . 

All other 



Total. 

Cider. . . . 
Clays: 
Fire 



, galls. 



All other 

Clocks and Watches: 
Clocks, and parts of . . 
Watches, and parts of. 



Total. 



Coal and Coke: 
Coal- 
Anthracite tons. . 

Bituminous tons. . 



Total coal 

Coke tons. . 

Coal tar bbls. . 

Cocoa, ground or prepared, and chocolate » . . . . 

Coffee : 

Raw or green lbs. . 

Roasted or prepared lbs. . 

Coins, United States: 

Copper 

Nickel 



Copper and Manufactures of: 

Ore tons. 



271,272 



1,193,258 

1,178,540 

18,101,320 



151,985 
59,449,811 



6,322,357 



598,119 



4,834 



29,233,837 
535,108 



12.868 



Ingots, bars, plates, and old. 
11 ol 



lbs. 



Air other manufactures of. 

Total, not including ore 

Copper residue lbs. 

Cork, manufactures of 



297,056,122 



522,280 



10,499,195 

249,488 
419,361 

37,238 
5,118 

27.242 



219,568 
60,376 
397,965 
736,137 
619,645 
796,008 
987,067 

3,407.696 
320.122 
352,537 

5,800,480 



13,697,601 

84,084 

4,402 
149,897 

1,091,724 
1,041,805 

2,133,529 



1.388,653 
5,210.322 


6,732,571 
14,473,927 


6,598,975 


21,206,498 


380.038 


1,912,459 



15,531 
213,476 

3,295,968 
89,899 

41 
2,650 



927,417 



37,354,061 
2,313,135 



39,667,196 ^^ 



42,385 
33,84^ 



278 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



Articles. 



Cotton, and Manufactures of: 
Unmanufactured — 

Sea Island ( bales. . 

) lbs. . . 

Upland and other J bales. . 

I lbs. . . 

Total unmanufactured \ bales. . 

) lbs. . . 

Waste lbs, . 

Manufactures of — 
aoths— 

Colored yds. . 

Uncolored yds. . 

Total cloths 



Quantities. 



51,688 
20.205,080 
6,886,591 
; 3,522,837.942 



6,938,279 
3,543.043,022 

26,098,947 



Values. 



Dollars. 

{• 4,038,370 
[312,142,059 

[316.180,429 



169,511,667 
325,867.530 



495,379,197 



Wearing apparel 

Waste, cop and mill lbs. 

All other 



22.997.428 



Total manufactures. 



Curios, antiques, etc. 
Dental goods 



Earthen, Stone, and China Ware: 

Earthen and stone ware 

China ware 



Total. 



Eggs. 

Egg yolks 

Emery, and Manufactures of: 



, doz. . 



1,517.189 



Emery 



Manufactures of — 

Cloth 

Paper 

Wheels 




Feathers 

Fertilizers: 

Phosphates, crude tons. . . 

All other tons, . . 

Fibres, VEOBTABiiE. and Textile Grasses. Manufactures of: 

Bags ,•,••• 

Cordage lbs. . . 

Twine .• 

All other 

Total 

Fresh, other than salmon lbs. . . 1,568.753 

Dried, smoked, or cured— 

Cod, haddock, hake, and pollock lbs. . . 3,043,497 

Herring lbs. . . 1,202,680 

All other lbs. . . 467,525 

Pickled- 
Mackerel bbls. . . 524 

All other bbls. . . 19,167 

Salmon — ,. *«„i,„„„. 

Canned lbs. . . 50,353,334 

All other, fresh or cured. \- v \;a'^' 

Canned fish, other than salmon and shellfish 

Caviare 



884,842 



8,443.148 
16.909,436 



25.352.584 



2.600,136 
1.294.064 
2.969.520 



32,216,304 

1.698 
401.761 



519,159 
63,900 



583,059 

325.571 
48.108 

19,975 

9.654 

1.389 

216.345 

141,257 

6;344.224 
380.077 



387.840 

935.587 

3.331,101 

636,420 



5,290.948 



60.692 

148.557 
33.632 
23.020 

7.360 
74.346 

4,350«791 

869.352 

105,228 

39,278 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



379 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Con^nued. 



Articles. 



Quantities. 



Fish — ( Continued). 
SheUfish— 

Oysters 

All other 

All other fish and fish products. . 



Total. 



Flowers, cut. . , 
Fly paper. . . . , 



Frhits and Nuts: 
Fruits — 

Apples, dried lbs . . 

Apples, green or ripe bbls. . . 

Apricots, dried lbs. . . 

Oranges 

Prunes lbs. . . 

Raisins lbs. . . 

All other green, ripe, or dried 

Preserved — 

Canned 

All other 

Nuts 



39,646,297 
1,656.129 
9,190,081 



66,385,215 
4.280,028 



Total. 



Furniture of metal. 

Furs and far skins 

Ginger ale doz. qts. 

Glass and Glassware: 

Window glass 

All other 



Total. 



1,501 



Glucose or grape sugar lbs. . 

Glue lbs. . 

Goldbeaters' skins 

Graphite 



126.239,981 
2,569.164 



Grasses, dried (Pampas plumes, etc.). . . 
Grease, grease scraps, and all soap stock. 



Gunpowder and Other Explosives: 

Gunpowder lbs. 

All other explosives 



Total. 



Hair, and manufactures of 

Hay tons. 

Hides and skins, other than furs lbs. 

Honey 



1.112,490 



50,974 
12.859,549 



lbs. 



Hops. 

Household and personal effects. 

Ice tons. 



India Rubber, Manufactures of: 

India rubber, reclaimed 

India rubber, scrap and old 

Belting, hose, and packing 

Boots and shoes pairs. . 

All other 



7,794,705 
"19,626' 



2,307,401 



Total. . 

Ink: 

Printers'. 
All other. 



Values. 



Dollars. 
630,935 
296,307 

77,776 



6,717,274 

5,290 
38,579 



2,378.635 

4,381.801 
713,887 
465,397 

3,512,507 
284,530 

4,215,034 

1,739,571 

66,757 

299,558 

18,057,677 

124,856 

6.188.115 

1.911 



59.519 
2,091.180 



2.150.699 

2.460.022 

253.768 

1 140 

12,246 

15,294 

2,926,565 



151,658 
2,302,852 



2,454,510 

616,133 

828,483 

1,224,409 

64,220 

1,909,951 

2,652,783 

41,073 



93.265 

404.586 

819.985 

1.056.491 

2.299.875 

4,674.202 



220,544 
138.103 



280 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Coti^inued. 



Articles. 



Instruments and Apparatus for Scientific Purposes: 
Electrical appliances, including telegraph and telephone in- 
struments 

All other 




Values. 



Iron and Steel., and Manufactures of: 

Iron ore tons. 

Pig iron — 

Ferro-manganese tons. 

All other tons. 

Scrap and old, fit only for remanufacture tons. 

Bar Iron lbs. 

Bars or rods of steel — 

Wire rods lbs. 

All other lbs. 

Billets, ingots, and blooms tons. 

Hoop, band, and scroll lbs. 

Rails for railways — 

Iron tons. 

tons. 



Steel 

Sheets and plates — 

Iron lbs. . 

Steel lbs. , 

Tin plates, teme plates, and taggers tin lbs. 

Structural iron and steel tons. 

Wire lbs. . 

Builders' hardware, saws, and tools — 

Locks, hinges, and other builders' hardware 

Saws 



Tools, not elsewhere specified 

Car wheels No. 

Castings, not elsewhere specified 

Cutlery — 

Table 



77.220 

18,198 

6,043 
40,583.205 

71,360.171 

30,447.664 

2,127 

3,740,234 

81 
22,896 

6,491,690 

31,680,206 

1,555,146 

32,952 

224,153,085 



22,106 



All other 

Firearms 

Machinery, machines, and parts of — 

Cash registers No. 

Electrical machinery 

Laundry machinery 

Metal working machinery 

Printing presses, and parts of 

Pumps and pumping machinery 

Sewing machines, and parts of 

Shoe machinery 

Steam engines, and parts of — 

Fire No. . 

Locomotive No. , 

Stationary No. , 

Boilers, and parts of engines 

Typewriting machines, and parts of 

All other 

Nails and spikes — 

Cut lbs. . 

Wire lbs. . 

All other, including tacks lbs. 

Pipes and fittings 

Safes No. 

Scales and balances 

Stoves, ranges, and parts of 

All other manufactures of iron and steel 



16,786 



10 

289 

1,459 



16,129.436 

62,997.105 

5,556.014 



2.933 



Total, not- including ore. . . 



Ivory, manufactures of, and scrap 

Jewelers' ashes and sweepings 

Jewelry, and other Manufactures of Gold and Silver: 

Jewelry ^ 

All other manufactures of gold and silver 

Lamps, chandeliers, and all other devices for illuminating purposes. 



Dollars. 
4,206,617 
2,923,891 



266,982 



362,068 

96.107 
721,284 

1,059,130 

802,173 

68,064 

78,745 

3,154 

710,886 

191.332 

734.151 

66.010 

1,963.797 

5.172,140 

7.461.594 
413,679 

4,189,551 
156,601 

1,916,091 

69.848 

253.662 

1.002.410 

1.475.199 
5,779.459 

512.108 
2,826,111 
1,050.773 
2,715.553 
5,105,852 

719,797 

19,650 

3,219,778 

725,294 

2,485,226 

3,966,741 

20,387,065 

347,007 

1,245,946 

290,862 

5,431,459 

184,706 

650,250 

961,562 

9,048,992 

96,642,467 

68,816 
174,158 

939,797 

353,224 

1,133,290 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



281 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Continued. 



Articles. 



Lead, and Manufactures of: 

Pigs, bars, and old lbs. 

Type lbs. 

All other manufactures of 



Quantities. 



308,807 
407,647 



Leather, and Manufactures of: 

Sole leather lbs. . . 

Upper leather — 

Kid, glazed 

Patent or enameled 

Splits, buff, grain, and all other upper 

All other leather 

Manufactures of — 

Boots and shoes pairs. . . 

Harness and saddles 

All other 



Total. 



Lime bbls. 

Malt bush. 

Marble and Stone, and Manufactures of: 

Unmanufactured. 

Manufactures of — 

Roofing slate 

All other 



Total. 



Matches 

Metal polish 

Mica 

Mineral specimens. . 
Moss and seaweeds. 
Mucilage 



Musical. Instruments: 

Organs ^ No. . 

Pianofortes. No. . 

All other, and parts of 

Total 

Natural history specimens 



Naval Stores: 

Rosin bbls. , 

Tar , bbls. . 

Turpentine and pitch bbls 

Turpentine, spirits of galls. 



Total. 



Nickel: 

Oxide and matte lbs. 

Manufactures of . 

Notions, not elsewhere specified 

Nursery stock 

Oakum 



Oil Cake and Oil-cake Meal: 

Corn-oil cake lbs. . 

Cotton-seed lbs. . 

Flaxseed or linseed lbs, . 

Total 

Oilcloths : 

For floors 

All other 



37,428,437 



4,197,566 



39,658 
347,147 



15,986 
2,019 



2,396,498 

18,622 

15,972 

16,378,787 



2,997,400 



8,093.222 

1 100,392,988 

570.908,149 



1.679,394,359 



Values. 



Dollars. 
15,527 
137,875 
299.300 



6.920.467 

1,995,200 

122,782 

13,493,499 

982.251 

6,665,017 

373,677 

1.064,496 



31.617,389 

32,694 
252,801 



194,879 

628,612 
641,753 



1.465,244 

56,330 
32,274 
4,615 
10.306 
46.499 
12,563 



1,137,713 
419.029 

1,824,767 



3.381,509 
13,119 



4,817,052 
50,802 
36,379 

8,014,322 



12,918,708 



864,221 

97,787 

186,653 

158,959 

26,740 



95,568 

12,732,497 

7,011,214 



19,839,279 



56,902 
164,515 



282 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Conrtntted. 



Articles. 



Oils: 

Animal — 

Fish galls. . . 

Lard galls. . . 

Whale galls. . . 

All other galls. . . 

Total animal 

Mineral, crude, including all natural oils, without regard to 
gravity galls. . . 

Mineral, refined or manufactured — 

Naphthas, including all lighter products of distillation . galls. . . 

Illuminating galls. . . 

Lubricating, and heavy paraffin galls. . . , 

Residuum, including tar, and all other, from which the light i 
bodies have been distilled bbls. . . i 



Quantities. 



1.293,393 

356,658 

19,032 

221,669 



1,890.812 



134,892,170 



13.139.228 

699,807.201 

93,318,257 

542.893 



Total refined or manufactured 



Vegetable — 

Com galls. . 

Cotton seed galls. . 

Linseed galls. . 

Volatile or essential — 

Peppermint lbs. . 

All other 

All other vegetable 

Total vegetable 



Paints, Pigments, and Colors: 

Carbon black, gas black, and lamp black 

Zinc, oxide of lbs. 

All other 

Total 



Total. 



Pens and penholders 

Perfumery and cosmetics 

Photographic materials 

Plaster, builders' 

Plaster of Paris 

Plated ware 

Platinum, and manufactures of, and scrap. 



Provisions, Comprising Meat and Dairy Products: 
Meat products — 
Beef products — 

Beef, canned lbs. . 

Beef, fresh lbs. . 

Beef, salted or pickled lbs. . 

Beef, other cured lbs. . 

Tallow lbs. . 

Hog products — 

Bacon lbs. . 

Hams lbs. . 

Pork, canned lbs. . 

Pork, fresh lbs. . 

Pork, salted or pickled lbs. . 

Lard ^ lbs. . 



3.788.035 

35.642,994 

182.330 

13,033 



11,091,960 



Paper, and MANurAcruREs of: 

Paper hangings 

Printing paper lbs. . . 97,880,037 

Writing paper and envelopes 

All other 



Paraffin and paraffin wax lbs. . . i 201,325.210 

Paste 

Pencils. 



76.307.114 

254.795.963 

52.801.220 

1.126.032 

27.368.924 

207.336,000 

214,183,365 

13,590,897 

20,966.113 

95.287,374 

.490,755,821 



Values. 



Dollars. 

377.551 

306.334 

13,174 

159,505 



856,564 



6,329.899 



1,225.661 
47.07^.931 
12.052.927 

566.115 



60.923.634 



1.467.493 

14.211.244 

98,116 

34.943 
252,770 
169.796 

16.234,362 



299.587 

446.786 

1.604.564 

2,350,937 



256,243 
2,613,117 

901,700 
3.408.954 

7,180,014 

9.411,294 

5,631 

186.363 

66,317 
390,502 
758.320 

50.427 

21.459 
662.708 

15,786 



7,916,928 

25,013.323 

3.814.671 

102.184 

1.623.852 

22,178,525 

25.712,633 

1,369,687 

2.035.491 

9.959,762 

50,854,504 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



d8d 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Con/iniied. 



Articles. 



Provisions, Comprising Meat, etc. — Continued. 

Lard compounds, and substitutes for (cottolene, lardine, 

etc.) lbs. . . 

Mutton lbs. . . 

Oleo and oleomargarine — 

Oleo, the oil lbs. . . 

Oleomargarine, imitation butter lbs. . . 

Poultry and game 

Sausage and sausage meats lbs. . . 

Sausage casings 

All other meat products — 

Canned 

All other 

Dairy products — 

Butter lbs. . . 

Cheese lbs. . . 

MUk 



Total. 



Quicksilver lbs. , 

Quills, crude and prepared 

Rags and paper stock 

Rice ; lbs. 

Rice bran, meal, and polish lbs. 

Rice root. 



Roofing felt and paper 

Root beer doz. ats. . . 

Salt Ids. . . 

Sand 



Quantities. 



46.130,004 
6,144,020 

126,010,339 
7,645.652 



5,264,648 



8,896,166 
18,987,178 



1,415,464 



532.092 
19,218,356 



949 
16,446,380 



Seedi: 

Clover lbs. 

Cotton lbs. , 

Flaxseed or limeed. bush. 

Timothy lbs. 

Other grass seeds 

All other 



Total. 



Shells 

Shoe findings. 



Silk: 

Manufactures of , 

Waste lbs. . 

Soap: 

Toilet or fancy 

All other lbs. 



Total. 



15,522,527 

51,622,370 

4,128,130 

18,289,917 



149,400 



46,590.354 



Spermaceti and spermaceti wax lbs. 

Spices 



Spirits, Wines, and Malt Liquors: 
Malt liquors — 

In bottles doz. qts. 

In other coverings galls. 



Total malt liquors. 



Spirits, distilled — 
Alcohol — 

Wood proof galls. , 

All other, including pure, neutral, or cologne spirits 

proof galls. , 

Brandy proof galls. 

Rum proof galls. 



197,966 



759,027 
400,072 



833,629 

120,697 

18.117 

1,096.719 



Values. 



Dollars. 
3,607,542 
532,476 

11.981,888 
798,273 

1,079,056 
585,088 

1,964,524 

1,831,940 
2,101,785 

1,604,327 

2,250,229 

921.026 



179,839,714 

762,201 

3,976 

89,710 

27,048 

122,589 



104,2£0 

834 

70,296 

73,956 



1,549,687 
532,732 

5.698.492 
853,829 
681,773 
238,770 



9,455,283 

94,766 
57,406 



412,415 
19,968 

573,588 
1,879,189 



2,452,777 

44,915 

36,787 



1,082.982 
95,758 



1,178,740 



452,892 

23,510 

19,213 

1,458,393 



284 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Con<in««d. 



Articles. 



Spirits, etc. — Continued. 

Whisky- 
Bourbon proof galls. 

Rye proof galls. 

All other proof galls. 



Total spirits, distilled 

Wine- 
In bottles doz. qts. , 

In other coverings galls. 

Total wines 

Total spirits, wines, and malt liquors 



Sponges lbs. 

Starch lbs. 

Stereotype and electrotype plates 

Straw, 



Straw and palm leaf, manufactures ot 

Sugar, Molasses, and Confectionery: 

Molasses galls. . 

Sirup galls. . 

Sugar — 

Brown lbs. . 

Refined lbs. . 



Total. 



Candy and confectionery. 



Teasels 

Teeth, artificial 

Theatrical eflfects, etc. 
Tins: 

Matte and scrap. . . 

Manufactures of. . . 



Tobacco, and Manufactures of: 
Unmanufactured — 

Ijeaf 

Stems and trimmings 

Total unmanufactured 



lbs. . 
lbs., 



Manufactures of — 

Cigars M. 

Cigarettes M. 

Plug lbs. 

All other 



Total manufactures. 



Toys 

Tripoli 

Trunks, valises, arid traveling bags 

Varnish galls. . . 

Vegetables : 

Beans and pease bush. . . 

Onions bush. . . 

Potatoes bush. . . 

Vegetables, canned 

All other, including pickles and sauces 



Total. . 



Quantities. 



169,369 

104,236 

48,014 



2.390,808 

5,232 
678.150 



Values. 



Dollars. 
203,137 
223,480 
62,358 



2,442,983 

24,624 
290,552 



315,176 



. 95,159 
27,759,599 



3,413.387 
12,265.295 

99,101 
10,421,055 



357,496,342 
10.687.742 

368,184,084 



1,966 
1,456.452 
7,335,640 



660,553 

232.841 
145,509 
843,075 



Vessels Sold Abroad: I 

Steamers No. . . 

Sailing vessels No. . . | 



123 



Total. 



123 



3.936.899 

50.306 
832.943 

37.419 

1.747 

480.569 

492.260 
1,714,899 

3,545 
358,537 

2,569,241 

535,412 

34,258 

4.715 

41.656 

6.611 
656.096 



34,972,033 
278.860 

35,250,893 



46,962 
2,281.531 
1.683.152 
1.182.151 

5,193.796 

281.591 

20,262 

188,875 

667,475 

530,875 
116,624 
552,533 
597.759 
745.697 

2,543.488 



196.164 
196.164 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



286 



SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC MERCHANDISE— Con/inuerf. 



Articles. 



Vinegar galls. 

Vulcanized fiber 

Wax, shoemakers' 

Whalebone lbs. 

White metal 

Wood, and Manufactures of: 

Timber and unmanufactured wood — 

Sawed M feet. . . 

Hewn cubic feet. 

Logs, and other 

Lumber — 

Boards, deals, and planks M feet. 

Joists and scantling M feet. 

Shingles M. , 

Shooks — 

Box 

All other No. 

Staves No. 

Heading 

All other 

Total unmanufactured 



Quantities. 



103,417 
113,204 



530,659 
3,291,498 



1,065,771 
46,894 
38,211 



566,205 
55,879,010 



Manufactures of — 

Doors, sash, and blinds 

Furniture, not elsewhere specified . 



Hogsheads and barrels, emptv 

Trimmings, moldings, and other house finishings 

Wooden ware 

Wood pulp lbs. 

All other 



Total manufactures 

Total wood, and manufactures of. 



Wool., and Manufactures of: 

Wool, raw lbs. 

Manufactures of — 

Carpets yds. 

Dress goods yds. 

Flannels and blankets 

Wearing apparel 

All other 

Total manufactures 



X 6£tS v« ••• •••<••■■••••>■> ■ *.. 

Zinc, and Manufactures of: 
Unmanufactured — 

Dross 

Ore tons. . . 

Manufactures of — 

Pigs, bars, plates, and sheets lbs. . . 

All other 



48,731 



3,539,071 



Total manufactures 

All other articles 

Total value of exports of domestic merchandise. 



Carried in cars and other land vehicles. 
Carried in American Vessels: 
Steam 



Sailing 

Carried in Foreign Vessels: 

Steam 

Sailing 



Values. 



Dollars. 

18,072 

9.331 

5,961 

507,552 



22,464,472 



7,462,111 

787,082 

4,506,728 

20,965,328 

647,920 

86,245 

779,777 
829,248 

4,740,680 
134,383 

3,732.782 

44,672,284 

1,727,387 
4,454,309 
175,020 
565,213 
886,080 
445,228 
4,818,014 



13,071,251 



518.919 



57.743.535 



71,818 



69,337 
7,719 



57,979 

6,442 

48,141 

1,290,853 

318,713 

1,722,128 
24,675 



674,262 
1,386,694 



186,192 
99.481 



285,673 

150,315 

1,392,231,302 

129,189,875 

77,671,627 
10,688,035 

1,114,951,632 
59,730,133 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



MERCHANDISE IMPORTED AND EXPORTED. AND THE ANNUAL 

EXCESS OF IMPORTS OR OF EXPORTS, 1860 TO 1903— 

SPECIE VALUES. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



287 



UNITED STATES TRADE IN 1903. 

INCREASED TRADE WITH CANADA — TRADE WITH GREAT BRITAIN AND THE EMPIRE. 



By Hon. O. P. Austin, Chief of the United States Bureau of Statistics. 



The commerce of the United States 
in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, 
has been the largest in the history of 
the country. This is true both of in- 
ternal and foreign commerce. In the 
case of foreign commerce it is easily 
shown from the oflScial figures of the 
imports and exports of the year. In 
the case of internal commerce, conclu- 
sions can be drawn from certain great 
facts of production, transportation, 
and importation for manufacturing 
purposes. 

The total foreign commerce of the 
year amounted to practically 2 1-2 bil- 
lions of dollars, and the internal com- 
merce to fully twenty billions of dol- 
lars. 

As already indicated, the measure- 
ment of the internal commerce of the 
country is not easy, but there are cer- 
tain great factors of production, trans- 
portation, and the activity of the man- 
ufacturing industry, which make pos- 
sible a fair statement of the internal 
commerce. 

The Census states the value of the 
great products of the country, such as 
manufactures, agricultural products, 
the products of the forests, the fisher- 
ies, etc. ; and by taking these great fac- 
tors as a basis and calculating for but 
a single transaction in each of them, we 
get a grand total of 20 billions of dol- 
lars value, a sum practically equal to 
the international commerce of the 
world. 

The last census showed the gross 
value of manufactures in 1900 to be 
13 billions of dollars ; the value of the 
agricultural products, nearly 4 bil- 
lions ; products of the mines, a billion 
dollars ; and adding to these the prod- 
ucts of the forests, fisheries and mis- 
cellaneous, and the cost of transporta- 
tion to the consumer, it becomes ap- 
parent that a single transaction in 
each article would bring the total up to 
20 billions of dollars. And all of the 
records of production and transporta- 
tion for 1903 show that its activities 
were even greater than those of the 
census year. Every factory was busy ; 
the railroads, even though equipped 
with additional carrying facilities, 
were working up to the limit of their 
capacity, and the reports of the Bu- 



reau of Statistics from the great lake- 
carrying trade showed a larger busi- 
ness than in any preceding year. 

This record of the freight movement 
on the Great Lakes is an important 
index to the activities of the country, 
both in production and manufacturing. 
The section of the country fronting on 
Lake Superior is a great producer of 
wheat and of iron ore and copper. So 
the record of movements of freight 
through the canals connecting Supe- 
rior with the lower lakes is an impor- 
tant indication of the demand of the 
great manufacturing section for iron 
and copper, and of the supply which 
that great region has of agricultural 
products for distribution to the world. 
The records of the Bureau of Statis- 
tics for the month of June and the 
portion of the navigation year ending 
with June shows a greater movement 
of freight through these canals than in 
any preceding year. 

That the iron furnaces and works of 
the country were working up to their 
highest capacity is shown by the fact 
that despite the high prices which pre- 
vailed, the consumers of the country 
were compelled to turn to foreign 
countries to obtain a part of the iron 
and steel which they required ; the im- 
ports of iron and steel being greater in 
1903 than in many years. 

The pig iron produced in the United 
States in the calendar year 1902 
amounted to 17,821,307 gross tons. 
This makes the pig-iron production of 
the United States in 1902 larger than 
that of any two other countries of the 
world. The pig-iron production of 
1902 is double that of 1896. and more 
than three times that of 1886. 

Yet, despite this unparalleled pro- 
duction, the importations of iron and 
steel were greater in value in the fiscal 
year 1003 than in ajiy year since. 1891, 
and with that single* exception, greater 
than in any year since 1883. The 
above facts regarding the production 
and importation of iron and steel are 
stated somewhat in detail because of 
the general belief that, in the United 
States at least, the consumption of iron 
and steel is a reliable index of the 
business activity of the country. If 



288 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



this be true, it may be safely asserted 
that the business of the year 1903 has 
exceeded in value that of any of its 
predecessors. 

Labor. — Another indication of the 
general activity was the difficulty re- 
ported everywhere in obtaining labor. 
This was especially noticeable during 
the harvest season. The crop was 
abundant, and the demand for labor 
far in excess of the supply, so 
much so that reports from the West 
showed that in some cases farmers 
flagged railroad trains and after stop- 
ping them passed through the trains 
soliciting the passengers to step off 
and accept employment in the harvest 
field. Curiously these incidents were 
reported especially from the State of 
Kansas, which a few years ago was 
the scene of the greatest discontent 
because of the crop shortage, heavy 
farm indebtedness, and general con- 
ditions of financial depression. But 
the same general reports of difficulty 
of obtaining labor, especially in the 
agricultural districts, came from all 
parts of the country. 

Immigration. — One effect of the 
prosperity and general demand for la- 
bor in the Ignited States in the past 
few years is noticeable in the in- 
creased immigration. The number of 
immigrants entering the United States 
in 1903 was larger than in any pre- 
ceding year. The total number of im- 
migrants entering the ITnited States 
in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903, 
was 857,056. This was 25 per cent, in 
excess of any preceding year, practi- 
cally twice as many as in 1900, and 
about four times as many as in 1898. 

The attractions in the United States 
seem to have resulted in a marked in- 
crease in the immigration from the 
United Kingdom, though the largest 
increase is from the countries of south- 
ern Europe and Russia. The arrivals 
from England in the fiscal year 1903 
were 26.219 against 13,571 in 1902; 
those from Scotland, 6,153 against 
2,560 in 1902; and those from Ire- 
land, 35,300 against 29,138 in 1902. 
From Germany the number was 40,- 
086 against 28,304 in the preceding 
year. The largest increase, however, 
was from Italy, Austria-Hungary, and 
Russia. The number from Italy was 
230 622, against 178,375 in the pre- 
ceding year ; from Austria-Hungary, 
206,011 against 171,889 in the pre- 
ceding vear : and from Russia, 136,093 
against 107,347 in 1902. 

The reviews of the statistics of im- 
migration which this unprecedented 



flood of arrivals has suggested show 
that the total number of immigrants 
arriving in the United States since 
1800 is over 21 millions, and the num- 
ber of persons of foreign birth now 
residing in the country, over 10 mil- 
lions. Notwithstanding the demand 
for labor in the agricultural sections, 
however, the bulk of this large im- 
migration remains in the cities. There 
is a great demand for labor in the 
manufacturing towns and cities, and 
they absorb a large proportion of the 
arrivals, while the mining regions also 
draw largely upon the new arrivals. 
This is especially true of the people 
from southern Europe and Russia, the 
chief additions to the agricultural pop- 
ulation being those from Norway, 
Sweden, and Germany. 

The foreign commerce of the year 
1903, as already indicated, was the 
largest in the history of the country. 
This statement, however, i-elates to the 
commerce as a whole, combining im- 
ports and exports under that term. 
In imports the figures of the year 
were the largest in the history of the 
country, but in exports the figures 
were slightly below the high record of 
1900. The total imports were $1,025,- 
000,000, and the total exports $1,420,- 
000,000. These figures, it will be ob- 
served, are stated in round millions, 
because they are more readily assim- 
ilated in this form. 

This increase of imports and de- 
crease of exports was doubtless due in 
both cases to the general prosperity 
and business activity already noted. 

Imports. — The increase in imports 
was chiefly in material for use in 
manufacturing, though there was a very 
considerable increase in importation of 
finished manufactures. This is quite 
natural in a time of business prosper- 
ity, when money is plentiful. The in- 
crease in importations of manufac- 
tures ready for consumption amounted 
to about 28 million dollars compared 
with the preceding year, and of dia- 
monds and other precious stones, about 
7 millions. In manufacturing mate- 
rial, however, the importations showed 
the greatest growth. In raw material 
for use in manufacturing the importa- 
tions of the year were 48 million dol- 
lars in excess of the preceding year, 
and in partly manufactured material 
for use in manufacturing, the increase 
was 23 millions, making the total in- 
crease in manufacturing materials im- 
ported over 70 million dollars as com- 
pared with the preceding year. 

The increase in partly manufactured 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



289 



materials was chiefly in pig-iron, plates 
and bars of iron, etc. The increase in 
raw materials was chiefly in raw silk, 
fibres, tin, chemicals, india-rubber, and 
other articles of this character. 

Exports. — In exports the reduction 
was doubtless due to the unusual home 
demand both for foodstuffs and manu- 
factures. Exports of iron and steel 
were 25 million dollars below those of 

1900, and those of agricultural prod- 
ucts were 70 millions below those of 

1901. Yet the iron and steel manu- 
facturing establishments of the coun- 
try were turning out more of their 
products than ever before, and the ag- 
ricultural production of 1903 was 
quite up to the usual total in most of 
the great staples. 

U. S. Colonial Trade. — One inter- 
esting development of the year 1903, 
and one which attracted some atten- 
tion because of its novelty, was the 
announcement that the commerce be- 
tween the United States and its non- 
contiguous territory amounted to 100 
million dollars in 1903. This was 
the first time that the country had 
a clear view of the value of its com- 
merce with the colonies, or noncon- 
tiguous territory, as they are general- 
ly designated. 

Soon after the annexation of the 
Hawaiian Islands and Porto Rico, 
they were made customs districts of 
the United States, and as there was no 
!aw authorizing the collection of the 
statistics of commerce between the 
customs districts, the persons engaged 
in that commerce refused to furnish 
statements of the value of their ship- 
ments to and from the islands. As a 
result the country was without any 
information regarding the value or 
growth in this commerce. 

The Bureau of Statistics, seeing the 
importance of some system by which 
this commerce could be measured, pre- 
pared a bill, which was passed by Con- 
gress, authorizing the collection of 
these statistics in the same manner as 
those of the commerce with foreign 
commerce. As a result, the country 
has now, for the first time since the 
annexation, a record of the commerce 
between the United States and all of 
its noncontiguous territory. This shows 
a grand total of 100 million dollars. 
Of this grand total of 100 millions, 
about 37 millions was merchandise 
shipped to the territory in question, 58 
millions merchandise receivpd from it, 
and nearly 5 millions gold bullion 
produced in Alaska territory. The ter- 
ritories included in this statement are 



Alaska, Porto Rico, the Hawaiian 
Islands, and the Philippines. It is a 
novel experience for the people of the 
United States, and they find it espec- 
ially interesting to observe their own 
territory furnishing them a market for 
37 million dollars' worth of merchan- 
dise, while their sales to the same ter- 
ritory in 1893 were less than 8 million 
dollars. 

U. S. A. AND Great Britain. — The 
development of the commerce of 1903, 
with reference to the United Kingdom 
and British territory in general, was 
of marked interest. The exports 
to the United Kingdom fell 24 million 
dollars, while the imports from that 
country increased 26 millions. This is 
especially interesting because of the 
fact that to practically all other Euro- 
pean countries the exports increased. 
The total exports to all Europe were 
1,039 million dollars against 1,008 mil- 
lions in 1902, but those to the United 
Kingdom were 524 millions against 
548 millions in 1902. To Germany 
there was an increase of 20 millions; 
to Russia an increase of 6 millions ; to 
France 6 millions, and to Netherlands 

3 millions. 

The chief falling off in the exports 
to the United Kingdom was in cotton 
and wheat. The falling off in cotton 
amounted to 4 millions, and that of 
«rheat 19 millions, though the latter 
was offset in part by an increase of 3 
millions in flour. 

Of the 2G millions increase in im- 
ports from the United Kingdom about 

4 millions was in coal, chiefly due to 
the coal strike in the early part of the 
year, and the remainder, manufactures 
of various sorts, especially iron and 
steel, of which the total imports ex- 
ceeded those of last year by 24 mil- 
lion dollars. 

U. S. A. AND British Colonies. — 
To practically all other parts of the 
British Empire the exports of the year 
showed an increase. Canada, despite 
the decrease in duty on products of 
Great Britain and the Colonies, made 
in 1897, 1898 and 1900. which was ex- 
pected to place the United States at a 
great disadvantage, increased her tak- 
ings of the products of the United 
States, 12 millions, the total exports 
to Canada in the fiscal year being 123 
million dollars. The imports from 
Canada also increased, being 55 mil- 
lions against 48 millions in 1903. 

Results of Canada's Tariff. — 
The first reduction in the Canadian tar- 
iff on products of the United King- 
dom and most of the Colonies occurred 



290 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



in April, 1897, a reduction of 12 ^^ per 
cent, in the tariff on merchandise from 
the United Kingdom and her Colonies, 
while there was no reduction on mer- 
chandise from the United States. On 
June 30th, 1898, another reduction 
of 12^ per cent occurred, and in 
1900 the reduction was made 33 1-3 
per cent. Yet, comparing the imports 
for consumption in 1902 with those of 
1896, as shown by the Canadian Sta- 
tistical Year Book, the imports from 
the United Kingdom have increased 
16 million dollars and those from the 
United States, 62 million dollars, 
while the figures of the United States 
for 1903 show .* further increase of 
about 13 millions in exports to Can- 
ada. 

Canada's Trade with the U. S. A. 
AND Great Britain. — In 1882, ac- 
cording to the Canadian Statistical 
Year Book above quoted, the imports 
of Canada from Great Britain were 
50 millions, and those from the Uni- 
ted States 48 millions. In 1902, 20 
years later, those from Great Britain 
were 49 millions, and those from the 
United States 120 millions, notwith- 
standing the fact that the* tariff on 
products from Great Britain had been 
reduced one-third as against those 
from the United States. 

Comparing 1902 with 1882, there is 
a slight reduction in the imports from 
the United Kingdom and an increase 
of about 150 per cent in those from the 
United States. Of the 123 million 
dollars* worth of exports from the 
United States to Canada in 1903, 



about 20 millions were manufactures 
of iron and steel ; 6 millions coal ; 8 
millions wheat, flour and corn ; 4 mil- 
lions agricultural implements ; 3 mil- 
lions cotton manufactures ; and the 
bulk of the remainder miscellaneous 
manufactures. 

The convenience of buying from the 
salesman who brings the samples to 
the door of the purchaser and orders 
whatever is wanted by telephone 
across the border with the assurance 
that the goods will be delivered the 
next day, if desired, apparently more 
than balances the difference of 33 1-3 
per cent in duty. 

U. S. A. Trade with the British 
Empire. — In general terms it may be 
said that the commerce between the 
United States and the British Empire 
in 1903 was over a billion dollars, of 
which 746 millions was exports and 
325 millions imports. Of the 746 mil- 
lions of exports to British territory 
524 millions was to the United King- 
dom ; 123 millions to Canada; 33 mil- 
lions to British Africa ; 32 millions to 
Australasia and New Zealand ; 10 
millions to the British West Indies; 
and 8 millions to Hongkong. Of the 
325 millions of imports from the Brit- 
ish Empire, 191 millions was from the 
United Kingdom ; 55 millions from 
Canada ; 50 millions from India ; 13 
millions from the West Indies ; and 
7 millions from Hongkong. 

Analysis of Commerce, 1893-1903. 
— The following tables present an. 
analysis of the commer'^e of the United 
States from 1893 to 1903 : 



ANALYSIS OF THE TRADE OF THE U.S.A. 
Imports into the United States. 
(According to Continents.) [In millions of dollars.] 





Europe. 


N. America. 


S. America. 


Asia. 


Oceania. 


Africa. 


Year. 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 




Dolls. 


Cent. 
52.91 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 
102 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 
10.11 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent 


1893 


458 


183 


21.21 


11.80 


87 


25 


3.00 


9 


.97 


1894 


295 


45.05 


166 


25.49 


100 


15.29 


66 


10.10 


21 


3.28 


3 


.79 


1895 


383 


52.41 


133 


18.29 


112 


15.32 


77 


10.61 


17 


2.39 


5 


.98 


1896 


418 


53.69 


126 


16.27 


108 


13.96 


89 


11.49 


24 


3.16 


11 


1.43 


1897 


430 


56.26 


105 


13.85 


107 


14.04 


87 


11.41 


24 


3.19 


9 


1.25 


1898 


305 


40.66 


91 


14.83 


92 


14.95 


92 


15.03 


26 


4.36 


7 


1.17 


1899 


353 


50.76 


112 


16.09 


86 


12.42 


107 


15.36 


26 


3.87 


10 


1.50 


1900 


440 


51.84 


130 


15.30 


93 


11.02 


139 


16.45 


34 


4.07 


11 


1.32 


1901 


429 


52.19 


145 


17.63 


110 


13.41 


117 


14.30 


11 


1.3S 


8 


1.09 


1902 


475 


52.61 


151 


16.73 


119 


13.26 


129 


14.35 


14 


1.57 


13 


1.48 


1903 


550 


53.63 


188 


18.42 


107 


10.47 


145 


14.21 


21 


2.05 


12 


1.22 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



291 



Exports from the U. S. A. 
(According to Continents). 





Europe. 


N. America. 


S. America. 


Asia. 


Oceania. 


Africa. 


Year. 


Mills. 


Per 


MUls. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


MiUs. 


Per 




DoUs. 


Cent. 
78.10 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 
32 


Cent. 
3.85 


Dolls. 


Cent. 
1.91 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


1893 


661 


119 


14.13 


16 


11 


1.32 


5 


.69 


1894 


700 


78.57 


119 


13.42 


33 


3.72 


20 


2.34 


11 


1.34 


4 


.61 


1895 


627 


77.76 


108 


13.45 


33 


4.15 


17 


2.15 


13 


1.62 


6 


.87 


1896 


673 


76.26 


116 


13.21 


36 


4.11 


25 


2.90 


17 


1.95 


13 


1.57 


1897 


813 


77.39 


124 


11.89 


33 


3.21 


39 


3.74 


22 


2.16 


16 


1.61 


1898 


973 


79.07 


139 


11.35 


33 


2.75 


44 


3.63 


22 


1.78 


17 


1.42 


1899 


936 


76.33 


157 


12.87 


35 


2.91 


48 


3.94 


29 


2.43 


18 


1.52 


1900 


1.040 


74.60 


187 


13.45 


38 


2.79 


64 


4.66 


43 


3.11 


19 


1.79 


1901 


1,136 


76.39 


196 


13.21 


44 


2.98 


49 


3.34 


35 


2.36 


25 


1.72 


1902 


1,008 


72.96 


203 


14.75 


38 


2.76 


63 


4.63 


34 


2.48 


33 


2.4^ 


1903 


1,029 


72.49 


215 


15.18 


41 


2.89 


67 


4.09 


37 


2.64 


38 


2.71 



Exports of Domestic Merchandise from the U. S. A., 1893 to 1903. 

(According to classes.) 



Year 
end- 
ing 


Manufac- 
tures. 


Agricultural 
Products. 


Products 
of the 

Mines. 


Products 

of the 

Forests. 


Products 

of the 
Fisheries. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
Products. 


Total. 


June 








1 


1 












30. 


MiUs. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. Per 


Mills.' Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 


Per 


Mills. 




Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. 
615 


Cent. 
74.05 


Dolls. 


Cent. 


Dolls. Cent. 


Dolls. 


Cent. 

.67 


Dolls. 
3 


Cent. 


Dolls. 


1893 


158 


19.02 


20 


2.41 


28 


3.38 


5 


.47 


831 


1894 


183 


21.14 


628 


72.28 


20 


2.35 


28 


3.22 


4 


.49 


4 


.52 


869 


1895 


183 


23.14 


553 


69.73 


18 


2.33 


28 


3.61 


5 


.67 


4 


.52 


793 


1896 


228 


26.48 


569 


66.02 


20 


2.32 


33 


3.91 


6 


.79 


4 


.48 


863 


1897 


277 


26.87 


683 


66.23 


20 


2.01 


40 


3.92 


6 


.63 


3 


.34 


1,032 


1898 


290 


24.02 


853 


70.54 


19 


1.60 


37 


3.13 


5 


.45 


3 


.26 


1,210 


1899 


339 


28.21 


784 


65.19 


28 


2.34 


42 


3.49 


5 


.50 


3 


.27 


1,203 


1900 


433 


31.65 


835 


60.98 


37 


2.76 


52 


3.81 


6 


.46 


4 


.34 


1,370 


1901 


412 


28.22 


943 


64.62 


37 


2.60 


54 


3.72 


7 


.53 


4 


.31 


1,460 


1902 


403 


29.77 


851 


62.83 


39 


2.90 


48 


3.55 


7 


.57 


5 


.38 


1,355 


1903 408 


29.32 


873 


62.72 


38 


2.79 


57 


4.15 


7 


.56 


6 


.46 


1,392 



Imports into the U. S. A., 1893 to 1903. 
(According to classes.) 



Year 
end- 
ing 
June 
30 


Food and 
Live Animals. 


Crude Articles 

for Domestic 

Industries. 


Articles Wholly 
or Partially 

Manufactured 

for Use as 

Materials in 

Mechanic Arts. 


Articles Manu- 
factured Ready 
for Consump- 
tion. 


Luxuries, and 

other Articles 

of Voluntary 

Use. 


Total. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 
Cent. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 
Cent. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 
Cent. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 
Cent. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


Per 
Cent. 


Mills. 
Dolls. 


1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 


269 
275 
226 
228 
254 
170 
207 
216 
213 
201 
218 


31.89 
43.33 
30.97 
30.13 
32.27 
29.08 
30.27 
26.02 
26.45 
22.26 
21.18 


218 
126 
187 
201 
207 
188 
218 
299 
270 
327 
375 


25.85 
19.89 
25.64 
26.57 
26.26 
32.16 
31.82 
36.04 
33.54 
36.27 
36.58 


94 
65 
83 
79 
69 
58 
60 
80 
74 
91 
114 


11.20 

10.32 

11.46 

10.46 

8.85 

9.91 

8.76 

9.70 

9.27 

10.09 

11.15 


153 
99 
140 
160 
165 
94 
110 
130 
135 
150 
170 


18.22 
15.60 
19.25 
21.09 
20.91 
16.15 
16.15 
15.72 
16.81 
16.66 
16.61 


108 

69 

92 

89 

92 

74 

89 

103 

112 

132 

147 


12.84 
10.86 
12.68 
11.75 
11.72 
12.70 
13.00 
12.51 
13.93 
14.72 
14.38 


844 
636 
731 
759 
789 
587 
685 
830 
807 
903 
1,025 



— Daily Mail Year Book. 



292 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



IMPORTS OF MERCHANDISE, BY PRINCIPAL ARTICLES AND 
CLASSES, IN ORDER OF MAGNITUDE IN 1903. 



Articles. 



1903. 



Sugar 

Chemicals, drugs, and dyes 

CoflFee 

Hides and skins 

Cotton, manufactures of 

Iron and steel, and manufac- 
tures of 

Silk, unmanufactured 

Fibres, vegetable, etc., manu- 
lactures of 

Silk, manufactures of 

Fibres, vegetable, etc., unman- 
ufactured 

Diamonds, and other precious 
stones 

India rubber and gutta-percha, 
crude 

Wood, manufactures of 

Fruits and nuts 

Tin, in bars, blocks, or pigs 

Wool, unmanufactured 

Tobacco, and manufactures of . . 

Wool, manufactures of 

Copper, and manufactures of . . . 

Spu*its, malt liquors, and 
wines 

Tea 

Furs, and manufactures of 

Oils 

Leather, and manufactures of. . 

Cotton, unmanufactured 

Coal, bituminous 

Earthen, stone, and china 
ware 

Fish 

Cocoa, crude, and leaves and 
shells of 

Glass and glassware 



Articles. 



Dollars. 

72,088,973 

64,351,199 

59,200,749 

58,031,613 

52,462,755 

I 
51,617,312 
50,011,050 

39,334,521 
35,963,552 

34,462,513 

31,479,223 

31,004,541 
28,746,271 
23,726,636 
23,618.802 
22,152,961 
20,579,120 
19,546,385 
17,505,247 

17,171,617 
15,659,229 
15,301,912 
12,283,957 
11,294,167 
10,892,591 
10.562,185 

10,512,052 
8,635,583 

7,820,087 
7,255,879 



Articles, the growth, etc., of the 

United States, returned 

Metals, and manufactures of . . . . 

Spices 

Paper, and manufactures of . . . . 
Provisions: Meat and dairy 

products 

Vegetables 

Animals 

Books, maps, engravings, etc . . . 

Art works 

Toys 

Lead, in ore 

Hats, bonnets, and hoods, and 

materials for 

Matting, for floors, etc 

Cement 

Copper ore 

Fertilizers 

Rice. 

Breadstuffs. 

Paper stock, crude. . 

Household and personal effects 

Seeds, 

Hair, and manufactures of 

Clocks and watches, and parts of 

Bristles 

Cork wood, or cork bark, and 

manufactures of 

Feathers and downs, crude, not 

dressed, etc 

Iron ore. 

Hay 

Jewelry, and manufactiu-es of 

fold and silver 
other articles 



1903. 



Dollars. 

7,170,573 
7,057,202 
4,815,125 
4,733,036 

4,703,536 
4,581,355 
4,533.845 
4,323.938 
4,310,315 
4,232,074 
4,073,099 

3,871,278 
3,780,050 
3,607,666 
3,385,524 
3,100,276 
3,061,473 
3,023,160 
3,015,084 
2,856,007 
2,831,279 
2,775,084 
2,672,310 
2.654,604 

2,567,580 

2,476,659 
2,351,278 
2,238,109 

2,007,433 
55,637.603 



Total ' 1,025.719,237 



— Foreign Commerce and Navigation, Bureau of Statistics. 



MOTIVE-POWER APPLIANCES. 
By Edward H. Sanborn, Expert Special Agent Twelfth Census. 



The 1,170 establishments covered 
by the report produced during the 
census year 40,538 steam boilers, rep- 
resenting an aggregate of 2,928,983 
horsepower, with a total value of $25,- 
063,445. Of steam engines of all types 
there were manufactured 29,120, rep- 
resenting 2,210,727 horsepower, and 
valued at $28,019,971. The number 
of internal-combustion engines, using 
gas, petroleum, or other vapors, pro- 
duced by these establishments was 18,- 
531, their aggregate horsepower was 
164,662, and their total value amount- 
ed to $5,579,398. There were also 
manufactured 2,680 water motors, in- 
cluding overshot and undershot wheels, 
turbines, and impact wheels, with an 
estimated total of 367.934 horsepower. 



and an aggregate value of $1,520,849. 
The totals for all primary powers, ex- 
clusive of steam boilers, were as fol- 
lows : Number of units, 50,331 ; ag- 
gregate horsepower, 2.743,323 ; total 
value, $35,120,218. The other prod- 
ucts of these 1,170 establishments 
amounted in value to $84,754,239 ; the 
amounts received for custom work and 
repairing reached a total of $26,664,- 
243, and the total output of all prod- 
ucts and all classes of work represent- 
ed a value of $172,202,145. 

The table shows the number, ag- 
gregate horsepower, and total value of 
each kind of motive-power appliances 
produced by these establishments dur- 
ing the census year. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



293 



NUMBER, AGGREGATE HORSEPOWER, AND VALUE OF PRIMARY POWERS: 1900 

Number of establishments 1,170 

Steam boilers: 



Fire tube — 

Number 35,802 

Aggregate horsepower 1,943,222 

Total value $18,037,451 

Water tube — 

Number 4,731 

Aggregate horsepower 985,761 

Total value $7,625,994 

Steam engines : 

Marine — 

Number 767 

Aggregate horsepower 396,047 

Total value $7,018,369 

Fixed cut-oflf throttling — 

Number 21,806 

Aggregate horsepower 658,111 

Total value $7,963,805 

High speed variable automatic 
cut-oflf — 

Number 3,823 

Aggregate horsepower 314,668 

Total value $3,282,787 



Low speed variable automatic 
cut-oflf — 

Number 2,724 

Aggregate horsepower 841,901 

Total value $9,755,010 

Internal-combustion engines: 

Number 18,531 

Aggregate horsepower 164,662 

Total value $5,579,398 

Overshot or undershot water wheels: 

Number 58 

Aggregate horsepower 1,257 

Total value $12,250 

Turbine water wheels : 

Number 1,665 

Aggregate horsepower 311,527 

Total value $1,232,090 

Impact water wheels : 

Number 957 

Aggregate horsepower 55,150 

Total value $276,509 

Primary powers, all kinds: 

Number 50,331 

Aggregate horsepower 2,743,323 

Total value $35,120,218 



POWER, COMPARATIVE SUMMARY: 1870 TO 1900. 
[Twelfth Census, Vol. VII, pages cccxvi, and 682.] 

Per Cent, of Increase. 



Power. 



Date of Census. 



1900. 



Total number of establishments. 512,191 
Total number of establishments 

reporting power 169,364 

Per cent of establishments 
reporting power to total 

number 33 . 1 

Total horsepower 11,298,119 

Avera^ horsepower per es- 
tablishment 

Steam engines: 

Niunber 

Horsepower 

Per cent of total horse- 
power 

Gas engines: 

Niunber 

Horsepower 

Per cent of total horse- 
power 

Water wheels : 

Number 

Horsepower 

Per cent of total horse- 
power 15 . 3 

Electric motors: 

Number 16,912 

Horsepower 310,729 

Per cent of total horse 

power 2.8 

Other power: 

Number 2,144 

Horsepower 54,490 

Per cent of total horse 

power 0.5 

Total rented horsepower 321,051 

Per cent of total horse- 
power 2.8 

Electric rented horsepower . 1 83, 682 
All other rented horse- 
power 



355,405 
100,726 



28 3 
5,954,204 

59.1 

91,403 
4,581,3a5 

76.9 

0) 
8,930 

0.1 

39 005 
1,726,661 1, 2551045 



21.1 

0) 
15,569 

0.3 

0) 

4,784 

0.1 

88,571 



66.7 

156,051 
8,741,338 

77.4 

14,884 
143,850 

1.3 

39,168 



1890. 



1880. 



253,852 
85,923 



33.8 
3,410,837 

39.7 

56,483 
2,185,458 

64.1 

0) 
0) 



137,369 



55,404 
1,225,379 

35.9 

(0 
0) 



0) 
0) 



1.5 






(') 



(0 
0) 



1870. 



252,148 
0) 



2,346,142 

29.3 

(0 
1,215,711 

51.8 

(») 
0) 



1890 

to 

1900. 



44.1 
68.1 



1880 

to 

1890. 



1870 

to 

1880. 



40.0 
17.2 



0.7 



0) 
1,130,431 

48.2 

0) 
0) 



89.8 

12.9 

70.7 
90.8 



74.6 

48.9 

61.8 
109.6 



45.4 
$26.9 

"79V8" 



1,510.9 



0) 



0) 



0) 
0) 



0.4 »29.6 
37.6' 2.4 



8.4 



1,895.8 



1,039.0 
262.5 



1 Not reported. * Average for all establishments. » Decrease. * Not reported separately 



294 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



METAL-WORKING MACHINERY IN THE UNITED STATES— KIND, 
QUANTITY, AND VALUE OF PRODUCTS: 1900. 



Number of establishments re- 
portiDg 

Hammers — ste'am, power, and 
drop: 

Number 

Value 

Forging machines, including bolt 
headers, and all other ma- 
chines for forging hot metal 
with dies and by pressure: 

Number 

Value 

Stamping, flanging, and forming 
machines for plate and sheet 
metal : 

Number 

Value 

Punching and shearing machines : 

Number 

Value 

Bending and straightening rolls : 

Number 

Value* 

Riveting machines : 

Number 

Value 



397 



857 
$671,287 



Lathes : 
Hand — 

Number 

Value 

Engine — 

Number 

Value 

Turret, including all automatic 
or semi-automatic lathes 
for making duplicate 



pieces — 
Number. . . 
Value 



821 
$424,774 



7,895 
$1,180,960 

5,269 
$1,219,605 

914 
$202,230 

202 
$139,295 



3,945 
$306,081 

12,089 
$4,451,867 



3,687 
$2,449,121 



Boring and turning mills or verti- 
cal lathes : 

Number 

Value 

Boring and drilling machinery, 
including all machines using 
drills or boring bars: 

Number 

Value 

Planers, including plate-edge 
planers: 

Number 

Value 

Slotters and shapers : 

Number 

Value 

Milling machines, including all 
machines using a milling 
cutter: 

Number 

Value 

Sawing machines : 

Number. 

Value 

Grinding and polishing machin- 
ery, including all machines 
using abrasive cutters: 

Number 

Value 

Bolt, nut, and pipe threading 
and tapping machines: 

Number 

Value 

Pneumatic hand tools: 

Number 

Value 

All other metal working machines, 

value 

All other products, value 

Amount received for custom 

work and repairing 

Total value of all products 



534 
$1,123,314 



22,890 
$2,779,983 



1,543 
$1,808,955 

3,076 
$1,136,350 



4,119 
$2,171,966 

2,846 
$222,563 



10.014 
$880,965 



2,088 
$698,362 

6,751 
$143,325 

$2,726,901 
$16,375,956 

$3,271,369 
$44,385,229 



— U. S. Census Bulletin. 



OUR IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTION. 



The statement that in 1902 forty 
per cent, of the pig iron in the world 
was produced in the United States 
gives one no very definite realization 
of the quantity of that product, though 
he be reminded on every hand by iron 
and steel ships, bridges, railroads, 
buildings, machinery, tools, nails, 
tacks, etc., ad nauseam, that this is 
the iron age. Even the statement that 
the United States last year mined over 
thirty million long tons of iron ore 
gives one no adequate impression of 
the vastness of this amount. On the 
other hand, if one should see the entire 
iron ore production of the year piled 
up in a single heap, he would readily 
comprehend this quantity by a com- 
parison of the pile with familiar ob- 
jects in the landscape. This shows us 
that it is large numbers instead of 



large quantities which confuse the 
mind ; for example, the statement that 
a wagon holds over 30,000,000 grains 
of coal would give a person a very hazy 
idea of the factual quantity specified, 
but he would immediately comprehend 
the quantity if told that it represent- 
ed two tons ; for a larger unit of 
weight would be used, thereby reduc- 
ing the count to a figure well within 
the mental grasp. Thus in trying to 
represent to our readers just how large 
are the quantities of materials used in 
the iron and steel industry, we have 
endeavored to choose larger units of 
measurement ; and finding that our 
standard measures are far too small 
for the purpose, we have resorted to 
the use of familiar landmarks as bases 
of comparison. 

As a unit of bulk, no larger single 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPBHBNCK BOOK. 



'h 






■<-! 



Copyrtatit, 19H. IJJ Mullll & Ho, ~ 

COMPARATIVE DIAGRAM SHOWING THE TOTAL ANNUAL AMOUNT OF RAW 
MATERIAIS OF THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED 
STATES, AS COMPARED WITH THE FINISHED PRODUCTS SHOWN ON 
PAGES Mfl, 297 AND 29g. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



._ maa produced than the 

old pyramid of Cheops, and large 
though it be, it ia all too Etnall wiiea 
used aa a unit by which to measure 
the gtupeadoua volume of material 
used ia our pig-iron produptiou of a 
single year. In the acoonipaoying il- 
lustration, the huge blast furnace 
shown at the left repreaents a furnace 
which would receive at a single charge 
all our iron ore production during the 
year 1!)02, together with the fuel and 
limestone uaed. The charge measures 
approximately two hillion cuhlc feet, 
or to use our proposed unit of bnltt, 
this would be etluivaleDt to twenty- 
four pyramids. As many individuals 
may have formed do adequate concep- 
tion of the size of the Great Pyramid, 
we have used as an additional basis 
of comparison the tallest building in 



iimn 400 feet square, the column would 
reach an altitude of 6,500 feet. No 
human monument is large enough to 
give us, by comparison with this col- 
umn, any idea of such a height. If 
the base of the column were situated 
at sea level, a person at the top could 
look down on the summit of Mount 
Washington, N. H., and it would over- 
top every mountain ia this country 
east of the Rockies. 

Our column of coal iQcludes both 
anthracite and bituminous. In the 
[flat two years there has been a con- 
siderable falling off in the use of an- 
thracite, while bituminous coal mixed 
with coke has shown a great increase 
over former years, so that our column 
would probably be made up of two 
parts bituminous to one part anthra- 
cite coal. Their combined bulk would 



the world namely the Park Ko» 
Building m Nen lork Thi^ building 
measures 390 feet in height and it 
would require thirteen such huilding'i 
placed one above the other to equal 
the height of our hypothetical blast 
furnace 



Of the contents of the blast furna e 
bv far the larger bulk is fuel though 
the weight of the iron ore is almost 
twice that of the fuel Ihe square col 
umns in oui illustration will serve to 
giie one some idea of the amount of 
fuel which was consumed in 1002 bv 
the blast furnaces of the tTiiited 
"States A fair estimate would be 
about 16000 000 tons of coke 1 GOO 
000 tons of coal and 300000 tons of 
harcoal Coke is so light that it the 
16 000 000 tons were built up in a col 



form a column 200 feet square by 
1 300 feet high — a midget in tompari 
son to the coke otumn but not so 
gniall after all when compared with 
the Park Roy. Building 

Charcoal which is the smallest item 
in £l e fuel statistics for 1902 or about 
one fifth of the number of tons of coal 
let forms a column nearly two thirds 
the height of the tool column or twice 
that of the Park Bow Building 

FLIX 

The amount of limestone used toi 
Huiing purposes last lear amounted 
to 9 400090 tons This would make a 
column 5 500 feet high with a cross 
"ection 200 feit square It may be in 
teresting to note here that ovster shelli 
are used in one of the furnaces hi 
Maryland in pla e " ' 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



The next column, which is ot s 
beight equal to that of the toke col- 
umn, is composed of 34,636,121 tons 
of iron ore. However, this represents 
in bulk only one-qoHiter that of the 



All the aboTe-meutioned materials 
were used last year to produce 17,- 
821,307 tons of pig iron. This makes 
a column twice the height of the Eiffel 
Towel', the tallest monument' to bumau 
skill in tbe world. 



into steel; 14,947,250 tons represent 
the total outpat for last year. 0( this, 
9.138,363 tons we_,re made by the Bes- ■ 



PRODUCTS. 

Of the finished products tor the 
year, 2,S47,1)33 tons represent the 
amount of iron and Kteel fovired into 
rails. If all this metal were rolled into 
a single rail of standard propoi'tions. it 
would measure approximately 81 feet 
high, and would be about a mile and 
onp-fifth long. The base would, of 
course, equal the height, and the tread 
would havi? a width of 43 feet. In our 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



iiinfitcation we have shown the relative 
projiortioiis of a locomotive of average 
size placed od this rail, 
tiext in quantity to the iroa and 



CopTTlsht, un, br Mann ± Co. 
PROPORTION OF FINISHiId PRO- 
DUCTS FORMED INTO PLATES 
AND SHEETS. 



Steel rail producCioQ is last year s out 
put of ptatea and sbeels 2bij54U0 
10118 of metal were thus con\eited 
This amouut, if rolled into a amglc 
sheet of No. 30 standai'd gnge wb cb is 
the tbiuDest aheet steel comiaetH.ially 
used, would cover 420 square miles or 
nearly twenty times the area of the isl 
and of Maaliartan. Tbe extent of 
this ai-ea ia illustrated in t) e ai.com 
panying sketch plan of New lork city 

The production of nails forms no 
small part of the finished products fui 
the year. Wire nails represent of 
course, a much larger part ot tbe out 
put. The totals are 10,'J82..4(. lOO- 
pound kegs of wire nails and 1 WS3 762 
100-pound kegs of cut nails follow 
ing tbe method in our two previous 
comparisons, we have represei ted each 
amouut by a single nail of standard 
proportions. The cut nail would ton 
er far shove the Park llow Building 
measuring almost exactly the height of 
the Washington Monument, while the 
wire nail would rise to nearly donble 
this height, overtopping the Eiffel 
■" and forming a solid column of 



CARRIAGES AND WAGONS. 



The manufacture of carriages snd 
nagnns has been carried on in the 
linited States practicaJly since the 
time of the early settlers. In the 
Census year 1900 there were 7,(132 es- 
tablishments, having a capital of $118.- 
187,838. The industry gave employ- 
ment to 6G.S42 persons (officials, 
clerks, wage-earners I and the salaries 
and wages were 1=3:1.888,843. The cost 
of materials used was ¥56,070,073. The 
value of products, including custom 
work and repairing, was $121,,'i37.276. 
The increase in product ot the Census 
,vear 1900 over Census year 1800 was 
?ia.85(i.835. 

The trend of the industry is toward 
the Central States, where land is 
cheaper, where suitable lumber is 



abundant and prices are therefore fa- 
vorable, and where also the develo|)ed 
railroad systems afford abundant 
means of transportation. The same 
rapid development of the industry is 
seen in certain of the Southern States, 
such as Xorth Carolina, Tennessee and 
Virginia, wbei'e lumber is cheap and 
where manufactures are fast gaining 
industrial pi-edominance. The Increase 
In Ma Eisachu setts. New .Jersey, New 
York and Pennsylvania is due partly 
to the growing use of the automobile, 
to the diminishing use of the bicycle, 
and materially fo the more perfect 
segregation of the "factory product" 
and that formerly classed as "custom 
work and repairing." 



PHONOGRAPHS AND TALKING MACHINES, 



_..e capital invested v 

ii48,282, and the industry ga 
ployment to 1,267 wage-earne 



144 salaried officials and clerks. The 
value of the product was $2,246,274. 
Tbe number of completed machines 
was 151.4ft3. the number of horns. 28,- 
423. and the numher of records pro- 
duced was 2.703,277. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



299 



VALUE OF EXPORTS OF AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, 1896 TO 1900, INCLUSIVE. 



Countries and Classes. 



Aggregate 

■Mowers, reapers, and parts of same: 
Total 

France 

Germany 

Russia 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Argentina 

British Australasia 

All other countries 

Plows, cultivators, and parts of same: 
Total 



France 

Germany 

Russia 

United Kingdom 

Canada 

Argentina. . . . , 

British Australasia 

All other countries 

other implements, and parts of 
same: 
Total 



1896. 



All 



France 

Germany 

Russia 

United Kingdom . , 

Canada 

Argentina 

British Australasia. 
All other countries. 



$5,176,776 



3,212,423 



360,577 
480,773 
387,316 
333,791 
132,945 
570,332 
195,533 
751,156 

746,604 



15,048 
6,402 
23,777 
43,105 
40,533 

161,347 
32,450 

423,942 



1,217 748 



91,359 

94,552 

65,236 

211,654 

186,166 

122,488 

57,739 

388,554 



1897. 



$5,240,686 



3,127,415 



494.469 
538,430 
265,442 
360,079 
248,359 
228,391 
302,586 
689,659 

590,779 



7,992 

11,206 

3,129 

36,142 

73,023 

104,072 

39,527 

315,688 



1,522.492 



121,495 
161,182 
253,495 
246,096 
143,455 
82,849 
148,872 
365,048 



1898. 



$7,609,732 



5,500,665 



1,146,551 
1,100,210 
409,368 
874,296 
440,878 
182,283 
421,975 
925,104 

927,250 



49,330 

15,450 

29,566 

74,763 

182,809 

151,737 

108,116 

315,479 



1,181,817 



56,286 
116,582 

19,653 
195,966 
157,728 

43,034 
167,474 
425,094 



1899. 



$12,432,197 



9,053,830 



1,678,865 
1,503,968 

863,476 
1,040,059 

934,962 
1,074,749 

358,862 
1,598.889 

1,545,410 



59,105 

38,898 

14,902 

69,737 

207,480 

440,996 

166,035 

548,257 



1,832,957 



43,689 
103,845 

59,848 
262,597 
378,612 
163,274 
243,775 
577,317 



1900. 



$16,099,149 



11,243,763 



2,652,795 

2,529,422 

710,066 

982,188 

1,192,458 

1,194,961 

466,397 

1,515,476 

2,178,098 



68,197 
227,378 

45,993 
179,950 
247,306 
388,903 
162,109 
858,262 



2,677.288 



189,583 
129,654 
271,671 
188,305 
571,442 
221,880 
269,776 
834,977 



— United States Treasury Department: Report on Commerce and Navigation, 1900. 



VALUE OF IMPLEMENTS ON FARMS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 1900. 



States and Territories. 



United States 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California , 

Colorado , 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory. . . . , 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts , 

Michigan. ■, 

Minnesota. 

Mississippi 



Value of 

Implements 

on Farms. 



$749,776,660 



$8,675,900 

690 

765,200 

8,750,060 

21,311,670 

4,746,755 

4,948,300 

2,150,560 

136,060 

1,963,210 

9,804,010 

3,295,045 

44.977,310 

27,330,370 

3.939,480 

57,960,660 

29,490,580 

15,301,860 

28,536,790 

8,802,720 

8,611,220 

8,828,950 

28,795,380 

30,099,230 

9,556,805 



States and Territories. 



Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska. ...... 

Nevada 

New Hampshire, 

New Jersey 

New Mexico. . . . 

New York 

North Carolina. 
North Dakota. . 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania. . 
Rhode Island. . , 
South Carolina. , 
South Dakota. . 

Tennessee , 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington. ... 
West Virginia. . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming , 



Value of 

Implements 

on Farms. 



$28,602,680 

3,671,900 

24,940,450 

888,560 

5,163,090 

9,330,030 

1,151,610 

56,006,000 

9,072,600 

14,055,560 

36,354,150 

6,573,015 

6,506,725 

50,917,240 

1,270,270 

6,629,770 

12,218,680 

15,232,670 

30,125,705 

2,922,550 

7,538,490 

9,911,040 

6,271,630 

5,040,420 

29,237,010 

1,366,000 



300 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES 
Compiled from "Territorial and (Commercial Expansion of the United Stat'ea." 



Area, Population, and Industries. 



Area and Population: 

Area^ 

Population ' 

Per square mile * 

Weal/th: 

Total 3 

Per capita 

Public-debt STATE^ktENT: 

Public debt, less cash in the Treasury * 

Per capita, less cash in Treasury 

Interest-bearing debt • 

Annual interest charge 

Per capita 

Coinage: 

Gold coined 

Silver coined. 

Commercial ratio of silver to gold 

Monet in Circulation: 

Gold in circulation 7 I 

Silver in circulation ^ j 

Gold certificates in circulation 

Silver certificates in circulation 

United States notes (^eenbacks) in circulation . . 

National-bank notes m circulation (October 31). 

Miscellaneous currency in circulation ^ 

Total money in circulation 

Per capita 

National Banks: 

Reporting nearest June 30 

Capital 

Loans and discounts 

Bank Clearings: 

New York 

Total United States 

Bank Deposits: 

National banks (individual) 

SaWngs banks 

State banks 

Loan and trust companies 

Private banks ^^ 

TotaJ bank deposits 

Depositors in savings banks 

Government Receipts: 

Net ordinary " 

Customs 

Internal revenue 

Government Expenditures: 

Net ordinary ^^ 

War 

Navy 

Pensions 



Ln 



Sq. miles. 

Number. 

Number. 



Dollars , 
Dollars . 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 

Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 

Dollars . 

Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 



Number. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 



Dollars , 
Dollars , 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Number. 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 

Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 



1800. 



827,844 

5.308.483 

6.41 



1850. 



82.976,294.35 

15.63 

82,976,294 

3,402,601 

0.64 

317,760 

224,296 

15.68 



2,980.959 
23,191.876 

7.78 

7.135,780,000 
307.69 

63,452.773.55 

2.V4 

63,452,774 

3,782,393 

0.16 

31.981.739 

1.866,100 

15.70 



» 16,000,0001 « 147,395,456 



10,500,000 

26,500,000 

5.00 



131.306,526 

278,761,982 
12.02 



43,431,130 

109.586,595 



10,848,749 

9,080,933 

809,397 

7,411,370 

2,560,879 

3,448,716 

64,131 



251.354 

43.592.889 
39.668,686 



37,165,990 
9,687,025 
7,904,725 
1,866,886 



1 Exclusive of Alaska and islands belonging to the United States. 

2 No official figures in other than census years. 

3 True valuation of real and personal property. 
* Estimated. 

« 1800 to 1840, outstanding principal of the public debt January 1 ; 1850 to 1855, out- 
standing principal of the public debt July 1. 

® Figures for the years 1800 to 1855 include the total public debt. 

7 Gold and silver cannot be stated seoarately prior to 1876. From 1862 to 1875, inclu- 
sive, gold and silver were not in circulation except on the Pacific coast, where it is esti- 
mated that the average soecie circulation was about $25,000,000, and this estimate is 
continued for the three following years under the head of gold. After that period gold 
was available for circulation. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN RBPBRENCE BOOK. 



IN ITS AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES. 
Isaued by the Bureau o( Ststistics, Depaitmsnt of ConuasKe and Labor. 



• Includes nolee of bank of Omted _._. 
IGSJ: fractioQBl currency IS63 to ISIS: Tre 
cettifieatei', aet of June 8, 1872. IS92 to 190 

'" IncludH Hll private banks from 1S7S 

""■Net ordinary receiotc" include n 
tax. public load!, and "miscellaneou!!." bu 



^1d and silver were not separal 






302 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Industries. 



Government Expenditures — Continued. 

Interest on public debt 

Pensioners 

Imports of Merchandise: 

Total 

Per capita ^ 

Exports of Merchandise: 

Total 

Per capita * 

Imports of Gold and Silver: 

Gold 

Silver 

Exports of Gold and Silver: 

Gold 8 

Silver^ 

Imports for Consumption, Grouped According 

TO Degree of Manufacture and Uses: 
Food and live animals 

Per cent of total 

Crude articles for domestic industries 

Per cent of total 

Articles manufactured whoUv or partially for use 
as materials in the mechanic arts 

Per cent of total 

Articles manufactured ready for consumption . . . 

Per cent of total 

Articles of voluntary use, luxuries, etc 

Per cent of total 

Total imports 

Domestic Merchandise Exported, Grouped Ac- 
cording TO Sources of Production: 
Agricultural products 

Per cent of total 

Manufactures 

Per cent of total 

Mining 

Per cent of total 

Forest 

Per cent of total 

Fisheries 

Per cent of total 

Miscellaneous 

Per cent of total 

Total domestic exports 

Imports by Grand Divisions of the World: * 
Europe 

Per cent of total 

North America 

Per cent of total 

South America 

Per cent of total 

Asia 

Per cent of total 

Oceania ^ 

Per cent of total 

Africa 

Per cent of total 

Exports by Grand Divisions of the World: ^. . 
Europe 

Per cent of total 

North America 

Per cent of total 



In 



Dollars. 
Number. 

Dollars. 
Dollars. 

Dollars. 
Dollars. 



Dollars . 
Dollars , 

Dollars , 
Dollars . 



Dollars , 
Dollars . 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 



Dollars . 
Dollars , 

Dollars . 
Dollars , 



Dollars , 
Dollars . 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 



Dollars , 
Dollars , 



Dollars , 
Dollars , 
Dollars . 



Dollars , 
Dollars , 



1800. 



3,402,601 



91,252,768 
17.19 

70,971,780 
13.37 



25,590,534 

80.37 

2,493,755 

7.83 



2,228,863 

7.00 

1,098,511 

3.45 

429,240 

1.35 

31,840,903 

46,857,960 
51.35 

32,116,092 
35.19 



11,560,810 

12.67 

142,969 

0.16 

551,496 

0.60 

41,348,088 
58.26 

27,208,618 
38.34 



1850. 



3.782,393 



173,509,526 

7.48 

144,375,726 
6.23 

1,776.706 
2.852,086 

4,560,627 
2.962,367 



32,718,076 
18.86 

18,105,147 
10.44 

30,857,522 
17.78 

65,887,552 
37.97 

25,941,229 

14.95 

173,509,528 



108,605,713 

80.51 

17,580,456 

13.03 

167,090 

0.12 

4,590,747 

3.40 

2,824,818 

2.10 

1,131,409 

0.84 

134,900,233 

124,954,302 

70.14 

24,136,879 

13.55 

16,647,637 

9.35 

10,315,486 

5.79 

1,401,340 

0.79 

682,151 

0.38 

113,862,253 

74.96 

24,722,610 

16.27 



J8 

in 



^ Based on total imports to 1860; after that on imports for consumption only. 

2 Based on total exports to 1860; after that on domestic exports only. 

3 Gold and silver cannot be separately stated in domestic exports before 1864, but it 
probable that the greater portion of the exports was gold. Gold and silver contained 
ore are included under gold and silver since 1894. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



303 



AREA. POPULATION, AND 


MATERIAL INDUSTRIER- 


-Continued. 




1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


1903. 


3.144.121 


129,235,498 


95,757,575 


36,099.284 


40.160,333 


28,656,349 


8.636 


198,686 


260,802 


537,944 


993,529 


996,686 


353,616.119 


435,958,408 


667,954,746 


789,310,409 


849,941,184 


1,026,719,237 


11.25 


11.06 


12.51 


12.35 


10.88 


12.64 


333.576.057 


392.771,768 


835,638,658 


857.828,684 


1.394.483,082 


1,420,141,679 


10.61 


9.77 


16.43 


13.50 


17.96 


17.32 


2,508,786 


12,056,950 


80,758,396 


12,943,342 


44,573,184 


44,982,027 


6,041,349 


14.362.229 


12,275,914 


21,032,984 


35,256,302 


24,163,491 


58.446.039 


33,635,962 


3.639,025 


17,274,491 


48,266,759 


47,090,695 


8,100,200 


24,519,704 


13,503,894 


34,873.929 


66,712,275 


44,250,259 


78,338,514 


139,213,092 


199,165,963 


288,600,646 


216,107,303 


212,067,293 


22.15 


32.65 


31.72 


32.13 


26.02 


21.04 


61,570,477 


66,909,565 


160,055,876 


178,436,512 


299,361,033 


383,634,293 


17.41 


15.69 


25.52 


23.06 


36.04 


38.06 


31,939,551 


53,658,296 


73.186,963 


84,700,568 


80,575,042 


97,194,094 


9.03 


12.59 


11.66 


10.94 


9.70 


9.64 


123,741,654 


119,298,235 


130,004,643 


154.469,354 


130,577,155 


169,259,497 


35.00 


27.98 


20.72 


19.96 


15.72 


16.79 


58,025,923 


47,266,822 


65.141,826 


107.468,732 


103.908,719 


145,814,933 


16.41 


11.09 


10.38 


13.91 


12.51 


14.47 


353,616,119 


426,346,010 


627,555,271 


773,674,812 


830.519,252 


1,007,960,110 


256,560,972 


361,188,483 


685,961,091 


629,820,808 


835,858,123 


873,322,882 


81.13 


79.35 


83.25 


74.51 


60.98 


62.73 


40,345,892 


68.279,764 


102,856,015 


151,102,376 


433,851,756 


407.526,159 


12.76 


15.00 


12.48 


17.87 


3L65 


29.28 


999,465 


5,026,111 


5,863,232 


22,297.755 


37,843,742 


39,311,239 


0.31 


1.10 


0.71 


2.64 


2.76 


2.81 


10,299,959 


14,897,963 


17.321,268 


29.473,084 


62,218,112 


57,836,896 


3.26 


3.27 


2.11 


3.49 


3.81 


4.16 


4,156,480 


2,835.508 


5.255,402 


7,468,385 


6,326,620 


7,805,538 


1.31 


0.62 


0.64 


0.88 


0.46 


0.56 


3,879,655 


2,980,512 


6.689.345 


5,141,420 


4,666,218 


6,429,588 


1.23 


0.66 


0.81 


0.61 


0.34 


0.46 


316,242.423 


455,208,341 


823.946,353 


845,293.828 


1,370,763,571 


1,392,231.302 


216,831,353 


249,540.283 


370,821,782 


449,987,266 


440,567,314 


547,226,887 


59.87 


53.98 


56.52 


57.14 


51.84 


53.35 


75,082,583 


126,544,611 


130,07T,225 


148,368,706 


130,036,221 


189,736,475 


20.73 


27.42 


19.47 


18.84 


15.30 


18.49 


35,992,719 


43,596,045 


81;, 120.922 


90,006,144 


93,666,774 


107,428,323 


9.94 


9.41 


12.30 


11.43 


11.02 


10.48 


26,201,603 


31,413,378 


67,008,793 


67,506,833 


139,842,330 


147,702,374 


7.24 


6.78 


10.02 


8.57 


16.46 


14.40 


3,495,226 


1,423,212 


c 14,130,604 


28.356,568 


34,611,108 


21,043,627 


0.96 


0.31 


2.13 


3.60 


4.07 


2.06 


3,798,518 


7 9,860,058 


3,789.420 


3,321,477 


11,218,437 


12,581,661 


1.05 


2.10 


0.56 


0.42 


1.32 


1.23 


310.272,818 


420,184,014 


719,433,788 


683,736,397 


1,040,167,763 


1,029,256,657 


77.54 


79.35 


86.10 


79.74 


74.60 


72.48 


53,325,937 


68,962,006 


69,437,783 


94,100,410 


187,694,625 


215,482,769 


13.33 

1 


13.03 


8.31 


10.98 


13.46 


15.16 



* In 1870 specie is included in totals, but excluded in following years, 
fi Hawaiian Islands not included since 1900. 
Includes "All other Spanish possessions. ' ' 
7 lodudes "All other countries. " 



304 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Induatries. 



Exports by Grand Divisions of the World — Cont'd. 

South Ainerica 

Per cent of total 

Asia 

Per cent of total 

Oceania ^ ■ . 

Per cent of total 

Africa 

Per cent of total 

Thansportation of Foreign Commerce: 
Imports — 

T>„ e^o i I^ American vessels 

^y sea ^ jjj foreign vessels 

Total 

Share carried in American vessels 

By land vehicles 

Total by land and sea 

Exports — 

Bv 8e& \ ^^ American vessels 

oy sea -j jj^ foreign vessels 

Total _ 

Share carried in American vessels 

By land vehicles 

Total by land and sea 

Foreign Commerce of Principal Customs Dis- 



In 



TRICTS: 

Boston \'^^Z.: 

New York \'^^oZ. l 

phi'deiphia U^^fS:: 

Baltimore i^^Sl: ! 

New Orleans U^^^S.' ! 

San Francisco US^Jg; ! 

Farm Statistics: 

Farms 

Persons engaged in agriculture 

Value of f9.rms and farm property 

Value of farm products 

Farm Animals: 

Total value 

Cattle 

Horses 

Sheep 

Mules 

Swine 

Production of Principal Commodities: 

Wool 

Wheat 

Com 

Cotton 

Cane-sugar 

Production of Principal Minerals: 

Precious metals — 

Gold 

Silver 

Coal « 

Petroleum 

Pig iron 



Dollars . 



1800. 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 



Dollars. . 
Dollars. . 
Dollars. . 
Per cent. 
Dollars. . 
Dollars . . 



Dollars . . 
Dollars. . 
Dollars. . 
Per cent. 
Dollars. . 
Dollars. . 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars , 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 



Number. 
Number. 
Dollars. . 
Dollars . . 



Dollars. 

Number. 

Nmnber. 

Number. 

Number. 

Number. 



Pounds. 
Bushels. 
Bushels. 
Bales. . . 
Tons . . . 



Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Tons . . . 
Gallons. 
Tons . . . 



1,177,846 

1.66 

14,112 

0.02 

1,110,374 
1.56 



1850. 



9,076,724 

5.98 

3,051.720 

2.01 

208,129 

0.14 

977,284 

0.64 



139.657.043 

38,481,275 

178,138,318 

78.4 



178.138,318 

99.615,041 

52,283,679 

151,998,720 

65.4 



151,998,720 



1.449,073 
3",967,343,*586 



155,556 



544.180.516 

17,778,907 

4,336,719 

21,773,220 

559.331 

30,354,213 

52,516.959 

100.485,944 

592,071,104 

2,333,718 

110,526 



50,000,000 

50,000 

3,358,899 



563,755 



^ Hawaiian Islands not included since 1900. 

2 Includes "All other Spanish possessions." 

s In'iludes * 'All other countries." 

* Gold values. 

^ Does not include value of products fed to live stock. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES— Continued. 



806 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Industries. 



Production of Principal Minerals — Continued. 

Steel 

Copper 

Total value all mineral production in U. S. . . . 
Manufactcrinq Industries of the U. S.: 

Manufacturing establishments ^ 

Average employees * 

Wages and salaries paid ^ 

Value of products * 

Manufactures of Iron and Steel: ^ 

Establishments 

Wages and salaries paid 

Value of products 

Imports 

Exports 

Tin Plates: 

Imports 

Production 

Manufactures of Cotton :3 

Establishments * 

Wages and salaries paid ^ 

Value of products * 

Exports 

Imports 

Cotton Movement: 

Domestic cotton taken by United States mills . . . 

Exports of domestic cotton < 

Raw cotton imported 

Manufactures of Wool:^ 

Establishments * 

Wages and salaries paid ^ 

Value of products * 

Imports 

Raw wool imported 

Manufactures of Silk: 

EiStablishments * 

Wages and salaries paid * 

Value of products * 

Imports 

Raw silk imported 

Imports of crude rubber 

Sugar: 

Imports "I 

Average cost per pound in foreign countries. . . . 
Wholesale prices of granulated, at New York . . . 

Total consumption 

Consumption per capita 

Coffee : 

Imports j 

Average import price per pound at New York. . . 

Consumption per capita *. 

Tea: 

Imports ] 

Average import price per pound at New York. . 

Consumption per capita ^ 

Railways: 

In operation 

Passengers carried 

Freight carried one mile 



In 



Tons... 
Tons... 
Dollars , 



Number. 
Number. 
Dollars. 
Dollars. , 



Number. 
Dollars. . 
Dollars. . 
Dollars . , 
Dollars. . 



Pounds. . 
Lbs., net. 



Number. 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 
Dollars . 



Bales. . . 
Poimds. 
Dollars . 
Pounds. 



Number. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Pounds. 



Number. 

Dollars . 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Pounds. 

Pounds. 



Pounds. 
Dollars . 
Cents. . . 
Cents. . . 
Tons . . . 
Pounds. 

Pounds. 
Dollars . 
Cents. . 
Pounds. 



Pounds. 
Dollars . 
Cents. . 
Pounds. 



Miles. . . 
Number. 
Tons 



1800. 



52,144 



4,239,987 



1850. 



650 



123,025 

957,059 

236,755,464 

1,019,106,616 



20,145,067 
1,953,702 



1,094 



61,869.184 

4,734,424 

20,108,719 

595,000 

635,381,607 

71,984,616 

269,114 

1,675 



48,608,779 
19,620,619 
18,695,294 

67 



1,809,476 
17,639,624 



218,430,764 

7,555,603 

3.46 



239,409 
23.1 

145,272,687 

11,234,835 

7.6 

5.60 

29,872,654 

4,719,232 

14.1 

1.22 

9,021 



^ No official figures in other than census years. 

2 1891, last six months. 

3 Does not include hosiery and knit goods. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



307 



AREA, POPULATION. AND 


MATERIAL INDUSTRIES- 


■Continued. 




1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 


1903. 




68,750 

12.600 

218,598,994 

252,148 

2,053,996 

775,584,343 

4,232,325,442 

808 

40,514,981 

207,208,696 

40,273,682 

13,483,163 

150,932,768 


1,247.335 

27.000 

369,319,000 

253.852 

2.732,595 

947.953.795 

5.369.579,191 

1.005 

55.476.785 

296.557.685 

71.266.699 

14.716.524 

379,902.880 


4.277.071 

115.966 

619.648.925 

355.415 

4.712.622 

2.283.216.529 

9,372.437,283 

719 

95,736,192 

478,687,519 

41,679,591 

25,542,208 

680.060.925 
8 2.236,743 

905 

69,489,272 

267,981,724 

9,999,277 

29,918,055 

2,325.000 

2.471,799,853 

250,968,792 

8,606,049 

1,693 
58,397,470 

270.527,511 
56.582.432 

105,431,285 

472 
17,762,441 
87,298,454 
38,686.374 
7.347,909 
33,842,374 

2.934,011,560 

96.094.532 

3.28 

6.27 

1.476,377 

52.8 

499,159,120 

78,267,432 

16.0 

7.83 

83,886,829 

12,317,493 

15.0 

1.33 

166,703 

520,439,082 

79.192.985,125 


10.188,329 

270.588 

1,063,620,548 

512,734 

5,719.137 

2.735.430.848 

13,039.279.566 

725 

134,739.004 

835,759.034 

20.478.728 

121.913,548 

147,963,804 
677,969,600 

1,055 

94,039,951 

339,200,320 

24,003.087 

41.296,239 

3,644,000 

3,100,583,188 

241,832,737 

67,398,521 

1.414 
64.389.312 

296.990.484 
16.164.446 

155.928,455 

483 
20.982.194 
107.256.258 
30.894.373 
13,043,714 
49,377,138 

4,018.086,530 

100.250.974 

2.49 

5.32 

2.219,847 
65.2 

787,991,911 

52,467,943 

6.7 

9.81 

84,845.107 

10.558.110 

12.4 

1.09 

194.334 

584.695,935 

141,162,109,413 




7,200 








140,433 

1.311.246 

378.878.966 

1.885,861,676 




















26.158.235 
5,870,114 


51,617,312 
96,642,467 

109.913.293 






1,091 

23,940.108 

115.681,774 

10.934.796 

33,215,541 

979,000 

1,767,686,338 

191,806,555 

2,005,529 

1,476 

11,699,630 

73,454.000 

43.141,988 

i*) 

139 

1.050.224 

6.607.771 

32,726,134 


956 

39,044,132 

177,489,739 

3,787.282 

23.380.053 

857.000 

958.558.523 

227.074.624 

1.698.133 

3,208 

35,928,150 

199.257.262 

34,490.668 

49,230,199 

86 

1,942,286 

12,210,662 

23,904,048 

583,589 

9,624,098 

1,196,773,569 

56.923.745 

4.95 

13.51 

607.834 

35.3 

235.256.574 

24.234.879 

10.3 

6.00 

47.408.481 

13,863.273 

29.4 

1.10 

52.922 


756 

45.614.419 

192.090.110 

9.981.418 

29.929,366 

1,795,000 

1,822,061.114 

211.535,905 

3,547,792 

2,330 
40,687,612 

238,085.686 
33,911,093 

128,131,747 

382 

9,146.705 

41.033,045 

32,188.690 

2,562.236 

16.826,099 

1,829,291,684 

80,087,720 

4.18 

9.80 

956.784 

42.9 

446.850.727 

60.360.769 

13.5 

8.78 

72.162.936 

19,782,631 

27.4 

1.39 

93.262 








32.216,304 
52,462,755 

3,924.000 

3.543.043.022 

316.180.429 

74,874,426 






19,546,385 
177,137,796 


35.963,652 
15 270 600 




55,010,571 

•4,216,108,106 

72,088,973 

1.71 

4 64 


694,838,197 

31,078,970 

4.38 


428,785 
30.5 

202.144.733 

21,883,797 

10.8 

5.79 

31,696,657 

8,915,327 

26.3 

0.84 

30.626 


2.549,643 
71.1 

915,086,380 

59,200,749 

6.5 

10.79 

108,674,905 

15,659,229 

14.5 

1.30 





















* Quantity not stated 

^ Does not include sugar from Hawaii and Porto Rico. 

® Consumption per capita based on net imports. 



308 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



SUMMARY OF PROGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES IN ITS 



Area, Population, and Industries. 



Railways — Continued. 

Freight rates p^ ton per mile 

Passenger cars 

Freight cars 

American Vessels: 

Built. 

Engaged in foreign trade. . 

Engaged in domestic trade 

Engaged in commerce of Great I^akes 

Vessels passing throiuh the Sault Ste. Marie Canal . 
Freight Rates on Wheat, Chicago to New York : 

Liake and canal ^ 

Lake and rail 

All rail 

Consumption of Wines and Liquors: 
Wines — 

Consumption 

Consumption per capita 

Malt liquors — 

Consumption 

Consumption per capita 

Distilled spirits — 

Consmnption 

Consumption per capita 

Total consumption of wines and liquors. . . 

Total consumption per capita 

Prices of Staple Commodities: ' 

Pig iron, No. 1, foundry, per ton 

Steel rails, standard sections, per ton 

Middling cotton, per pound *. . 

Standard sheetings, per yard 

Standard prints, per yard 

Wa«*hed Ohio fleece wool, July 1 — 

Fine 

Medium 

Coarse 

Commercial Failures: 

Reported 

Amount of liabilities 

Post-office Statistics: 

Post-offices 

Receipts of Post-office Department 

Telegraph messages sent ^ 

Newspapers and periodicals published 

Public Schools: 

Pupils enrolled 

Average daily attendance 

Salaries paid superintendents and teachers 

Total expenditures 

Students in Colleges, Universities, and 
Schools of Technology: 

Men 

Women 

Total 

Patents issued 

Immigrants arrived 




Cents. . 

Number. 

Number. 



Tons 

Tons 

Tons 

Tons 

Tonnage. 



Cts. per bu. 
Cts. per bu. 
Cts. per bu. 



Gallons. . 
Gallons. . 

Gallons. . 
Gallons. . 



Gallons. . . 
Gallons. . . . 
Proof galls . 
Proof galls . 



Dollars . 
Dollars , 
Cents. . 
Cents. . 
Cents. . 



Cents. 
Cents. 
Cents. 



Number. 
Dollars. 



Number. . 
Dollars . . . 
Number. . 
Number. . 



Number. 
Number. 
Dollars. . 
Dollars. . 



Number. 
Number. 
Number. 
Number. 
Number. 



1850. 



106,261 
669.921 
301,919 



279.255 
1,585,711 
1,949.743 

108,266 



6,315,871 
0.27 

36,563.009 
1.58 

51,833,473 
2.23 

94,712,353 
4.08 

20.88 



12.34 

7.87 

10.62 

45 
37 
30 



903 
280,804 



18.417 
5,499.985 



2,526 



993 
310,004 



^ Including canal tolls under 1882, but not Buffalo transfer charges. 

2 For domestic consumption; local rate for exports only 9.08 cents in 1900. 

3 At Philadelphia. 
* Net prices. 

<^ Western Union to 1885; includes Postal Telegraph 1885 to date. 
^ Figures from 1870 to date; from Ro well's Newspaper Directory. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



309 



AREA, POPULATION, AND MATERIAL INDUSTRIES— Continued. 



1860. 

1 


1870. 


1880. 


1890. 


1900. 

75 

26,786 

1,350,258 

393,790 

826,694 

4,338,145 

1.565,-587 

22,315,834 


1903. 








93 

21,664 

1,099,205 

294,122 

946,695 

3,477,802 

1.063,063 

8,454,435 




1 

t 




12,788 
544,185 

157,409 
1,352,810 
2,715,224 

605,102 
1,734,890 




i 

1 






1 

214,797 

2,546,237 

2,807,631 

467,774 

403.657 


276,953 

1,516,800 

2,729,707 

684,704 

690.826 


436.152 

888,776 

5,198,569 

1,902,698 

27,736,444 


24.83 


17.11 
22.0 
33.3 

12,225.067 
0.32 


12.27 
15.7 
19.9 

28,329,541 
0.56 


5.85 

8.5 

14.31 

28,956,981 
0.46 


4.42 

5.05 

2 9.98 

30,427,491 

0.40 


5.44 
6.17 




11.33 


11.059,141 
0.35 


39,413,201 
0.49 


; 101,346,669 
3.22 


204,756,156 
5.31 


414.220,165 
8.26 


855,792,335 
13.67 


1,221.500.160 
16.01 


1,449,879.952 
18.04 


89.968,651 

2.86 

202,374,461 

6.44 


79,895,708 

2.07 

296,876,931 

7.70 


63,526,694 

1.27 

506,076,400 

10.09 


87,829,562 

1.40 

972,578,878 

15.53 


97,248,382 

1.27 

1,349,176,033 

17.68 


117.252,148 

1.46 

1.606.545,301 

19.99 


22.75 


33.25 
106.75 
23.98 
14.58 
12.41 


28.50 

67.50 

11.51 

8.51 

7.41 


18.40 

31.75 

11.07 

7.00 

6.00 


19.98 

32.29 

9.25 

6.05 

5.00 


19.92 
28.00 


11.00 
8.73 
9.50 


11.18 
6.25 
5.00 


55 
50 
40 


46 
45 
43 


46 

48 
42 


33 
37 
29 


28i 

31 

27i 


3U 
3li 
27 


3,676 
79,807,000 


3,546 
88,242,000 


4,735 
65,752,000 


10,907 
189,856,964 


10,774 
138,495,673 


12,069 
155,444.185 


28,498 
8,518,067 


28,492 

19,772.221 

9,157,646 

6 5.871 


42,989 

33,315,479 

29,215,509 

9,723 


62,401 
60,882.097 
63,258,762 

16,948 


76,688 

102,354,579 

79,696,227 

20.806 


74,169 

134,224.443 

91,391,443 


4,051 


20,485 


. 


6,871,522 

4,077,347 

37,832,566 

63,396,666 


6,867,505 

6,144.143 

55,942,972 

78,094,687 


12,722,581 

8.153.635 

91,836,484 

140,506,715 


15.503,110 

10,632.772 

137,687,746 

214,964,618 




' 




, 




1 




1 






44.926 
10,761 
55,687 
26,292 
455,302 


72,159 
26,764 
98,923 
26.499 
448.572 
















7 38,227 

13,947 

457,257 




4,778 
8 150,237 


13.333 
» 387.203 


31,699 
857,046 



' Figures for the year 1880 are for the calendar year preceding the fiscal year, and 
include non-resident graduates; figures of later years are exclusive of non-resident grad- 
uate students. 

** Calendar year. 

^ Years ending June 30 to date. 



310 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CHAPTER XI. 



The Depahtments of the Federal Government, 



The following is a brief r6sum6 of the work carried on by the Depart- 
ments of the Government service, and in many cases the individual bureaus 
and divisions are noted. Information germane to the work of the bureaus, 
etc., is cheerfully given. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. 



The Attorney-General is the head of 
the Department of Justice and the 
chief law oflScer of the Government. 
He represents the United States in 
matters involving legal questions ; he 
gives his advice and opinion, when 
they are required by the President or 
by the heads of the other Executive 
Departments, on questions of law aris- 



ing in the administration of their re- 
spective Departments ; he exercises a 
general superintendence and direction 
over United States attorneys and mar- 
shals in all judicial districts in the 
States and Territories ; and he pro- 
vides special counsel for the United 
States whenever required by any De- 
partment of the Government. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE. 



The Secretary of State is charged, 
under the direction of the Presi- 
dent, with the duties appertain- 
ing to correspondence with the 
public ministers and the consuls 
of the United States, and with 
the representatives of foreign powers 
accredited to the United States ; and 
tO" negotiations of whatever character 
relating to the foreign affairs of the 
United States. He is also the medium 
of correspondence between the Presi- 
dent and the chief executives of the 
several States of the United States ; 
he has the custody of the Great Seal 
of the T-nited States, and countersigns 
and affixes such seal to all executive 
proclamations, to various commissions, 
and to warrants for the extradition of 



fugitives from justice. He is regard- 
ed as the first in rank among the mem- 
.^ers of the Cabinet. 

The Secretary of State is also the 
custodian of the treaties made with 
foreign States, and of the laws of the 
United States, He grants and issues 
passports, and exequaturs to foreign 
consuls in the United States are is- 
sued through his office. He publishes 
the laws and resolutions of Congress, 
amendments to the Constitution, and 
proclamations declaring the admission 
of new States into the Union. He is 
also charged with certain annual re- 
ports to Congress relating to commer- 
cial information received from diplo- 
matic and consular officers of the 
United States. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY. 



The Secretary of the Treasury is 
charged by law with the management 
of the national finances. He prepares 
plans for the improvement of the rev- 
enue and for the support of the public 
credit ; superintends the collection of 
the revenue, and directs the forms of 
keeping and rendering public accounts 
and of making returns ; grants war- 
rants for all moneys drawh from the 
Treasury in pursuance of appropria- 
tions made by law, and for the pay- 
ment of moneys into the Treasury ; 



and annually submits to Congress es- 
timates of the probable revenues and 
disbursements of the Government. He 
also controls the construction of pub- 
lic buildings ; the coinage and printing 
of money ; the administration of the 
Life-Saving, Revenue-Cutter, and the 
Public Health and Marine-Hospital 
branches of the public service, and fur- 
nishes generally such information as 
may be required by either branch of 
Congress on all matters pertaining to 
the foregoing. 



311 



312 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF WAR. 



The Secretary of War is head of the 
War Department, and performs such 
duties as are required of him by law 
or may be enjoined upon him by the 
President concerning the military ser- 
vice. He is charged by law with the 
supervision of all estimates of appro- 
priations for the expenses of the De- 
partment, including the military es- 
tablishment ; of all purchases of army 
supplies : of all expenditures for the 
support, transportation, and mainte- 
nance of the Army, and of such expen- 
ditures of a civil nature as may be 
placed by Congress under his direction. 
He also has supervision of the United 
States Military Academy at West 
Point and of military education in the 
Army, of the Board of Ordnance and 
Fortification, of the various battle- 
field commissions, and of the publica- 
tion of the official Records of the War 
of the Rebellion. He has charge of all 
matters relating to national defense 
and seacoast fortifications, army ord- 
nance, river and harbor improvements, 
the prevention of obstruction to navi- 
gation, and the establishment of har- 
bor lines, and all plans and locations of 
bridges authorized by Congress to be 
constructed over the navigable watei*s 
of the United States require his ap- 
proval. He also has charge of the es- 
tablishment or abandonment of mill* 
tary posts, and of all matters relating 
to leases, revocable licenses, and all 
other privileges upon lands under the 
control of the War Department. 

THE GENERAL STAFF. 

The General Staff Corps was organ- 
ized under the provisions of an act of 
Congress approved February 14, 1903. 
Its principal duties are to prepare 
plans for the national defense and for 
the mobilization of the military forces 
in time of war ; to investigate and re- 
port upon all questions affecting the 
efficiency of the Army and its state 
of preparation for military operations ; 
to render professional aid and assist- 
ance to the Secretary of War and to 
general officers and other superior 
commanders and to act as their agents 
in informing and co-ordinating the ac- 
tion of all the different officers who are 
subject to the supervision of the Chief 
of Staff, and to perform such other 
military duties not otherwise assigned 
by law as may be from time to time 
r)rescribed by the President. The 
^hief of Staff, under direction of the 



President, or of the Secretai^ of War 
under the direction of the President, 
has supervision of all troops of 
the line and of the Adjutant-Gen- 
ipral's, Inspector-General's, Judge- Ad- 
vocate-General's, Quartermaster's, Sub- 
sistence, Medical, Pay, and Ord- 
nance Departments, the Corps of En- 
gineers and the Signal Corps, and per- 
forms such other military duties not 
otherwise assigned by law as may be 
assigned to him by the President. Du- 
ties formerly prescribed by statute for 
the Commanding General of the Army 
as a member of the Board of Ord- 
nance and Fortification and of the 
Board of Commissioners of the Sol- 
diers' Home are performed by the 
Chief of Staff or some other officer des- 
ignated by the President. 



SOME OF THE MILITARY BUREAUS. 

The chiefs of the military bureaus 
of the War Department are officers of 
the Regular Army of the United States 
and part of the military establishment, 
viz. : 

The Adjutant-General's Depart- 
ment is the bureau of orders and rec- 
ords of the Army. Orders and instruc- 
tions emanating from the War De- 
partment and all regulations are issued 
by the Secretary of War through the 
Chief of Staff, and are communicated 
to troops and individuals in the mili- 
tary service through the Adjutant- 
General. His office is the repository 
for the records of the War Depart- 
ment which relate to the personnel of 
the permanent military establishment 
and militia in the service of the United 
"States, to the military history of every 
commissioned officer and soldier there- 
of, and to the movements and oper- 
ation of troops. The records of all ap- 
pointments, promotions, resignations, 
deaths, and other casualties in the 
Army, the preparation and distribu- 
tion of commissions, and the compila- 
tion and issue of the Army Register 
and of information concerning exami- 
nations for appointment and promo- 
tions pertain to the Adjutant-General's 
Office. The Adjutant-General is 
charged, under the direction of the 
Secretary of War, with the manage- 
ment of the recruiting service, the 
communication of instructions to offi- 
cers detailed to visit encampments of 
militia, and the dig:esting, arranging, 
and preserving of their reports; also 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



313 



the preparation of the annual returns 
of the militia required by law to be . 
submitted to Congress. 

The Quartermaster-General, aided 
by his assistants, provides transporta- 
tion for the Army ; also clothing and 
equipage, horses, mules, and wagons, 
vessels, forage, stationery, and other 
miscellaneous quartermaster stores 
and property for the Army, and of 
clothing and equipage for the mi- 
litia ; constructs necessary buildings, 
wharves, roads, and bridges at 
military posts, and repairs the same ; 
furnishes water, heating and light- 
ing apparatus ; pays guides, spies, and 
interpreters, and is in charge of na- 
tional cemeteries. 

The Chief of Engineers commands 
the Corps of Engineers, which is 
charged with all duties relating to 
construction and repair of fortifica- 
tions, whether permanent or tempo- 
rary; with all works of defense; with 
all military roads and bridges, and 
with such surveys as may be required 
for these objects, or the movement of 
armies in the field. It is also charged 
with the river and harbor improve- 
ments, with military and geographical 
explorations and surveys, with the 
survey of the lakes, and with any other 
engineering work specially assigned 
to the corps by acts of Congress or 
orders of the Secretary of War. 



The Chief of Ordnance commands 
the Ordnance Department, the duties 
of which consist in providing, preserv- 
ing, distributing, and accounting for 
every description of artillery, small 
arms, and all the munitions of war 
which may be required for the for- 
tresses of the country, the armies in 
the field, and for the whole body of the 
militia of the Union. In these duties 
are comprised those of determining the 
general principles of construction and 
of prescribing in detail the models and 
forms of all military weapons employ- 
ed in war. They comprise also the 
duty of prescribing the regulations for 
the proof and inspection of all these 
weapons, for- maintaining uniformity 
and economy in their fabrication, for 
insuring their good quality, and for 
their preservation and distribution. 

The Chief Signal Officer is charged 
with the supervision of all military 
signal duties, and of books, papers, and 
devices connected therewith, including 
telegraph and telephone apparatus and 
the necessary meteorological instru- 
ments for use on target ranges and 
other military uses ; the construction, 
repair, and operation of military tele- 
graph lines, and the duty of collecting 
and transmitting information for the 
Army by telegraph or otherwise, and 
all other duties usually pertaining to 
military signaling. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The Secretary of Agriculture is 
charged with the supervision of all 
public business relating to the agricul- 
tural industry. He appoints all the 
officers and employees of the Depart- 
ment, with the exception of the Assist- 
ant Secretary and the Chief of the 
Weather Bureau, who are appointed 
by the President, and directs the man- 
agement of all the bureaus, divisions, 
and offices embraced in the Depart- 
ment, lie exercises advisory super- 
vision over agricultural experiment 
stations deriving support from the Na- 
tional Treasury. He controls the im- 
port and export of cattle, including 
cattle-carrying vessels, and directs in- 
terstate quarantine when rendered nec- 
essary by contagious cattle diseases. 
His duties and powers include the 
preservation, distribution, and intro- 
duction of birds and animals, game 
birds and other wild birds and ani- 
mals in the United States, and the 
protection of wild game animals and 
wild birds in the district of Alaska. 



He is charged generally with carrying 
out the chief purpose of the Depart- 
ment, which is "to acquire and diffuse 
among the people of the United States 
useful information on subjects con- 
nected with agriculture, in the most 
comprehensive sense of that word, and 
to procure, propagate, and distribute 
among the people new and valuable 
seeds and plants." 



THE WEATHER BUREAU. 

llie Chief of the Weather Bureau, 
under the direction of the Secretary of 
Agriculture, has charge of the fore- 
casting of weather;* the issue of storm 
warnings ; the display of weather and 
flood signals for the benefit of agricul- 
ture, commerce, and navigation ; the 
gauging and reporting of rivers ; the 
maintenance and operation of seacoast 
telegraph lines, and the collection and 
transmission of marine intelligence 
for the benefit of commerce and navi- 
gation ; the reporting of temperature 



814 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



and rain-fall conditions for the cotton 
interests ; the display of frost and cold- 
wave signals : the distribution of me- 
teorological information in the inter- 
ests of agriculture and commerce, and 
the taking of such meteorological 
observations as may be necessary 
to establish and record the climatic 
conditions of the United States or 
as are essential for the proper execu- 
tion of the foregoing duties. 

THE BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

The Bureau of Animal Industry 
makes investigations as to the exist- 
ence of dangerous communicable dis- 
eases of live stock ; superintends the 
measures for their extirpation, and 
makes original investigations as to the 
nature and prevention of such dis- 
eases. It inspects live stock and their 
products slaughtered for food consump- 
tion ; has charge of the inspection of 
import and export animals, of the in- 
spection of vessels for the transporta- 
tion of export animals, and of the 
quarantine stations for imported neat 
cattle, other ruminants, and swine ; 
generally supervises the interstate 
movement of animals and reports on 
the condition and means of improving 
the animal industries of the country. 
It makes special investigations in re^ 
gard to dairy subjects, inspects and 
certifies dairy products for export, and 
supervises the manufacture and inter- 
state commerce of renovated butter. 

BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY. 

The Bureau of Chemistry makes in- 
vestigations of fertilizers, and agricul- 
tural products, and such analyses as 
pertain in general to the interests of 
agriculture. It investigates the com- 
position and adulteration of foods and 
the composition of field products in re- 
lation to their nutritive value and to 
the constituents which they derive 
from the soil, fertilizers, and the air. 
It inspects imported food products and 
excludes from entry those injurious to 
health. It inspects food products ex- 
ported to foreign countries where phy- 
sical and chemical tests are required 
for such products. It co-operates 
with the chemists of the agricultural 
experiment stations in all matters per- 
taining to the relations of chemistry 
to agricultural interests. It also co- 
operates with the other scientific di- 
visions of the Department in all mat- 
ters relating to chemistry, and con- 
ducts investigations of a chemical na- 



ture for other Departments of the Gov- 
•ernment at the request of their respect- 
ive Secretaries. 

BUREAU OF STATISTICS. 

The statistician collects information 
as to crop production and the numbers 
and status of farm animals, through 
a corps of county and township corre- 
spondents, traveling agents, and other 
agencies, and obtains similar informa- 
tion from foreign countries through 
special agents, assisted by consular, 
agricultural, and commercial authori- 
ties. He records, tabulates, and co- 
ordinates statistics of agricultural pro- 
duction, distribution, and consumption, 
the authorized data of governments, 
institutes, societies, boards of trade, 
and individual experts ; and issues a 
monthly crop report for the informa- 
tion of producers and consumers. 

DIVISION OF FOREIGN MARKETS. 

The division of foreign markets has 
for its object the extension of the ag- 
ricultural export trade of the United 
States. It investigates the require- 
ments of foreign markets, studies the 
conditions of demand and supply as 
disclosed by the records of production, 
importation, and exportation, inquires 
into the obstacles confronting trade ex- 
tension, and disseminates through 
printed reports and otherwise the in- 
formation collected. 

OFFICE OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. 

The OflSce of Experiment Stations 
represents the Department in its re- 
lations to the agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations, which are now in 
operation in all the States and Terri- 
tories, and directly manages the ex- 
periment stations in Alaska, Hawaii, 
and Porto Rico. It seeks to promote 
the interests of agricultural education 
and investigation throughout the Uni- 
ted States. It collects and dissemi- 
nates general information regarding 
the colleges and stations, and publishes 
accounts of agricultural investigations 
at home and abroad. It also indicates 
lines of inquiry, aids in the conduct of 
co-operative experiments, reports upon 
the expenditures and work of the sta- 
tions, and in general furnishes them 
with such advice and assistance as will 
best promote the purposes for which 
they were established. It is also 
charged with investigations on the nu- 
tritive value and economy of human 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



315 



foods and on irrigation and agricul- 
tural engineering, which are largely 
conducted in co-operation with the col- 
leges and stations. 

DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY. 

The entomologist obtains and dis- 
seminates information regarding inju- 
rious insects; investigates insects sent 
him in order to give appropriate reme- 
dies ; conducts investigations of this 
character in different parts of the 
country, and mounts and arranges 
specimens for illustrative and museum 
purposes. 

DIVISION OF BIOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The division of biological survey 
studies the geographic distribution of 
animals and plants, and maps the na- 
tural life zones of the country ; it also 
investigates the economic relations of 
birds and mammals, recommends meas- 
ures for the preservation of beneficial 
and the destruction of injurious spe- 
cies, and has been charged with carry- 
ing into effect the provisions of the 
Federal law for the importation and 
protection of birds, contained in the 
act of Congress of May 25, 1900. 

BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 

The Bureau of Forestry gives prac- 
tical assistance to farmers, lumber- 
men, and others in the conservative 
handling of forest lands ; investigates 
methods and trees for planting in the 
treeless West, and gives practical as- 
sistance to tree planters ; studies com- 
mercially valuable trees to determine 
their special uses in forestry ; tests the 
strength and durability of construction 
timbers and railroad ties ; investigates 
forest fires, grazing, and other forest 
problems ; and makes plans for practi- 
cal forestry in the national forest re- 
serves at the request of the Secretary 
of the Interior. 

BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 

The Bureau of Plant Industry stud- 
ies plant life in all its relations to ag- 
riculture. It includes vegetable patho- 
logical and physiological investigations, 
botanical investigations and experi- 
ments, pomological investigations, 
grass and forage plant investigations, 
experimental gardens and grounds, the 
Arlington experimental farm, Con- 
gressional seed distribution, seed and 
plant introduction, and tea-culture ex- 
periments. 



VEGETABLE PATHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIO- 
LOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

These investigations have for their 
objects the study of diseases of agri- 
cultural crops and economic plants, 
nutrition of plants, rotation of crops, 
and the general application of the prin- 
ciples of pathology and physiology to 
agriculture, the problems of crop im- 
provement, and the production of bet- 
ter varieties of agricultural plants and 
of crops resistant to disease by means 
of bn^eding and selection. 

BOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND EX- 
PERIMENTS. 

This oflSce investigates botanical 
problems, including the purity and 
value of seeds ; methods of controlling 
the spread of weeds and preventing 
their introduction into this country ; 
the injurious effects and antidotes in 
the case of poisonous plants ; the na- 
tive plant resources of the country, 
and other phases of economic botany. 

GRASS AND FORAGE PLANT INVESTIGA- 
TIONS. 

This ofllce studies the natural his- 
tory, geographical distribution, and 
uses of grasses and forage plants, as 
well as their adaptation to special 
soils and climates ; introduces prom- 
ising foreign varieties, and investigates 
the methods of cultivation of native 
and foreign sorts. 

POMOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS. 

I'his branch of the Bureau collects 
and distL'ibutes information in regard 
to the fruit interests of the United 
States ; investigates the habits and pe- 
culiar qualities of fruits; their adapt- 
ability to various soils and climates, 
and conditions of culture. It studies 
the methods of harvesting, handling, 
and storing fruits, with a view to im- 
proving our own markets and extend- 
ing them into foreign countries. 

EXPERIMENTAL GARDENS AND GROUNDS. 

This branch is charged with the 
care and ornamentation of the parks 
surrounding the Department build- 
ings ; with the duties connected with 
the conservatories and gardens, and 
with the testing and propagating of 
economic plants. It carries on inves- 
tigations for the purpose of determin- 
ing the best methods of improving the 



316 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



culture of plants under glass, and 
otber lines of investigation connected 
with intensive horticulture. 

CONGRESSIONAL SEED DISTRIBUTION. 

This office is charged with the pur- 
chase and distribution of valuable 
seed. The seeds are distributed in al- 
lotments to Senators, Representatives, 
Delegates in Congress, and the agri- 
cultural experiment stations, and also 
by the Secretary of Agriculture, as 
provided for by the law. 

SEED AND PLANT INTRODUCTION. 

This work has for its object the se- 
curing from all parts of the world of 
seeds and plants of new and valuable 
agricultural crops adapted to different 
parts of the United States. 

ARLINGTON EJPERIMENTAL FARM. 

The experiment farm is designed ul- 
timately to become an adjunct to all 
branches of the Department. It will 
carry on investigations in the testing 
of agricultural crops, fruits, and vege- 
tables. 

TEA CULTURE EXPERIMENTS. 

This branch of the Bureau has for 
its object the study of tea with a view 
to producing it in this country. Ex- 
periments are conducted in tea cul- 
ture, and methods of growing, curing, 
and handling the tea are being worked 
out. The work is carried on at Sum- 
merville, S. C, and at Pierce, Texas. 



BUREAU OF SOILS. 

Tlie Bureau of Soils has for its ob- 
ject the investigation of soils in their 
relation to crops, the mapping of soils, 
the investigation, mapping, and re- 
clamation of alkali lands, and investi- 
gations of the growth, curing, and fer- 
mentation of tobacco. 

OFFICE OF PUBLIC-ROAD INQUIRIES. 

The Office of Public-Road Inquiries 
collects information concerning the 
systems of road management through- 
out the United States, conducts and 
promotes investigations and experi- 
ments regarding the best methods of 
road making and road-making ma- 
terials, and prepares publications on 
this subject. 

DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS. 

The division of publications edits all 
publications of the Department, in- 
cluding Farmers* Bulletins and other 
agricultural reports ordered printed by 
the Congress, with the exception of 
those issued by the Weather Bureau. 
It supervises all printing, binding, and 
illustration work of the Department. 
It directs the distribution of publica- 
tions with the exception of those turn- 
ed over by law to the Superintendent 
of Documents for sale at the price 
fixed by him; issues, in the form of 
press notices, official information of in- 
terest to agriculturists, and distributes 
to agricultural and other periodicals 
and writers synopses of Department 
publications. 



THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



The Postmaster-General has the di- 
rection and management of the Post- 
office Department. He appoints all 
officers and employees of the Depart- 
ment, except the four Assistant Post- 
masters-General, who are appointed 
by the President, by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the Senate ; ap- 



points all postmasters whose compen- 
sation does not exceed $1,000; makes 
postal treaties with foreign Govero- 
menls, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the President, awards and ex- 
ecutes contracts, and directs the man- 
agement of the domestic and foreign 
mail service. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY. 



The Secretary of the Navy performs 
such duties as the President of the 
TTnited States, who is Commander in 
Chief, may assign him, and has the 
general superintendence of construc- 
tion, manning, armament, equipment, 
and employment of vessels of war. 

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION. 

The duties of the Bureau of Navi- 
gation comprise all that relates to the 



promulgation, record, and enforcement 
of the .Secretary's orders to the fleets 
and to the officers of the Navy, except 
such orders as pertain to the Office of 
the Secretary ; the education of officers 
and men, including the Naval A-^ade- 
my and technical schools for officers 
(^fx-^ept the War College and Torpedo 
School), the apprentice establishment, 
and schools for the technical education 
of enlisted men, and to the supervision 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REB^ERENCE BOOK. 



317 



and control of the Naval Home, Phila- 
delphia; the enlistment and discharge 
of all enlisted persons, including ap- 
pointed petty oflScers for general and 
special service. It controls all rendez- 
vous and receiving ships, and provides 
transportation for all enlisted persons 
and appointed petty officers ; estab- 
lishes the complement of the crews of 
all vessels in commission ; keeps the 
records of service of all squadrons, 
ships, officers, and men, and prepares 
the annual Naval Register for publica- 
tion ; has under its direction the prep- 
aration, revision, and enforcement of 
all tactics, drill books, signal codes, ci- 
pher codes, and the uniform regula- 
tions. 

BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS. 

.The duties of the Bureau of Yards 
and Docks comprise all that relates to 
the planning, construction, and main- 
tenance of all docks (including dry 
docks), wharves, slips, piers, quay 
walls, and buildings of all kinds, for 
whatever purpose needed, within the 
limits of the navy-yards, but not of 
hospitals and magazines outside of 
those limits, nor of buildings for which 
it does not estimate. It repairs and 
furnishes all buildings, stores and of- 
fices in the several navy-yards, and is 
charged with the purchase, sale, and 
transfer of all land and buildings con- 
nected with the liavy-yaa'ds ; has un- 
der its sole control the general admin- 
istration of the navy-yards ; provides 
and has sole control of all landings, 
derricks, shears, cranes, sewers, dredg- 
ing, railway tracks, cars, and wheels, 
trucks, grading, paving, walks, shade 
trees, inclosure walls and fences, ditch- 
ing, reservoirs, cisterns, fire engines, 
and apparatus, all watchmen, and all 
things necessary, including labor, for 
the cleaning of the yards and the pro- 
tection of the public property. 

BUREAU OF EQUIPMENT. 

The duties of the Bureau of Equip- 
ment comprise all that relates to the 
equipment of all vessels with rigging, 
sails, anchors, yeomen's stores, furni- 
ture not provided by other bureaus, 
navigation stores and supplies of all 
kinds, including nautical and navigat- 
ing instruments and books, stationery, 
and blank books for commanding and 
navigating officers ashore and afloat, 
binnacles, flags, signal lights, running 
lights, and standing lights on board 
vessels, including all electrical ap- 
paratus for lighting purposes and 
searchlights, logs, leads, lines, and 



glasses, log books, ships* libraries, il- 
luminating oil for all purposes, except 
that used in the engineer department 
of steamers, and fuel for steamers, the 
ropewalks, and the shops for making 
anchoi's and cables, rigging, sails, gal- 
leys, and cooking utensils, the Naval 
Observatory, Nautical Almanac, com- 
pass offices, and pilotage. It has un- 
der its control the Hydrographic 
Ofllce, the collection of foreign sur- 
veys, publication and supply charts, 
sailing directions, and nautical works, 
and the dissemination of nautical and 
hydrographic information to the Navy 
and mercantile marine. 

BUREAU OF ORDNANCE. 

The duties of the Bureau of Ord- 
nance comprise all that relates to the 
torpedo station, naval proving grounds, 
and magazines on shore ; to the manu- 
facture of offensive and defensive arms 
and apparatus (including torpedoes), 
all ammunition and war explosives ; 
procures all machinery, apparatus, 
equipment, material, and supplies re- 
quired by or for use with the above ; 
recommends the armament to be car- 
ried by vessels of the Navy : the ma- 
terial, kind, and quality of the armor : 
the interior dimensions of revolving 
turrets and their requirements as re- 
gards rotation. It fixes, A^ithin the 
carrying power of vessels as deter- 
mined by the Bureau of Construction 
and Repair, the location and command 
of the armament, and distributes the 
thickness of the armor; inspects the 
installation of the permanent fixtures 
of the armament and its accessories on 
board ship, and the methods of stor- 
ing, handling, and transporting am- 
munition and torpedoes ; designs and 
constructs turret ammunition hoists ; 
determines the requirements of all am- 
munition hoists, and the method of 
construction of armories and ammuni- 
tion rooms on board ship, and in con- 
junction with the Bureau of Construc- 
tion and Repair, determines upon their 
location and that of ammunition 
hoists. It installs the armament and 
its accessories which are not perma- 
nently attached to any portion of the 
structure of the hull, excepting tur- 
ret guns, turret mounts, and ammu- 
nition hoists, etc. ; has cognizance of 
all electrically operated ammunition 
hoists, rammers, and gun-elevating 
gear which are in turrets, of electric 
range finders, of electric training and 
elevating gear for gun mounts not in 
turrets, of electrically operated air 



318 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



compressors for charging torpedoes, 
and of all battle-order and range trans- 
mitters and indicators ; designs inter- 
nal arrangements of buildings at navy- 
yards where ordnance work is per- 
formed ; designs, erects, and maintains 
all shops and buildings constructed 
for its own purpose outside the lim- 
its of navy-yards. It is charged 
with the purchase, sale, and transfer 
of all land and buildings in connec- 
tion therewith, except at navy-yards, 
and with the preservation of public 
property under its control. It deter- 
mines upon and procures all the tools, 
stores, stationery, blank books, forms, 
material, means, and appliances of 
every kind required in its shops, in- 
cluding fuel and transportation. It 
superintends all work done under it, 
and estimates for and defrays from its 
own tunds the cost necessary to carry 
out its duties as above defined. 

BUREAU OF CONSTRUCTION AND RE- 
PAIR. 

The duties of the Bureau of Con- 
struction and Repair comprise the re- 
sponsibility for the structural strength 
and stability of all ships built for the 
Navy ; all that relates to designing, 
building, fitting, and repairing the 
hulls of ships, turrets, spars, capstans, 
windlasses, steering gear, and venti- 
lating apparatus, and, after consul- 
tation with the Bureau of Ordnance, 
and according to the requirements 
thereof as determined by that Bureau, 
the designing, construction, and in- 
stallation of independent ammunition 
hoists, and the installation of the 
permanent fixtures of all other am- 
munition hoists and their appurte- 
nances ; placing and securing armor 
after the material, quality, and 
distribution of thickness have been de- 
termined by the Bureau of Ordnance : 
placing and securing on board ship, to 
the satisfaction of the Bureau of Ord- 
nance, the permanent fixtures of the 
armament and its accessories as manu- 
factured and supplied by that Bureau : 
installing the turret guns, turret 
mounts, and ammunition hoists, 
and such other mounts as require 
simultaneous structural work in 
connection with installation or re- 
moval : care and preservation of 
ships in ordinary, and requisitioning 
for or manufacturing all the equipage 
and supplies for ships prescribed by 
the authorized allowance lists. The 
Bureau of Construction and Repair 
also, after conference with the Bureau 



of Ordnance, designs the arrangements 
for centering the turrets, the character 
of the roller paths and their supports, 
and furnishes the Bureau every oppor- 
tunity to inspect the installation on 
board of all permanent fixtures of the 
armament and accessories supplied by 
said Bureau. It has cognizance of ail 
electric turret-turning machinery and 
of all electrically operated ammunition 
hoists (except turret hoists), the same 
to conform to the requirements of the 
Bureau of Ordnance as to power, 
speed, and control. It also has cog- 
nizance of stationary electrically oper- 
ated fans or blowers for hull ventila- 
tion, boat cranes, deck winches, cap- 
stans, steering engines and telemotors 
therefor, and hand pumps not in the 
engine or fire rooms, and of electric 
launches and other boats supplied with 
electric motive power. It has charge 
of the docking of ships, and also de- 
signs the slips and the various build- 
ings and shops, so far as their internal 
arrangements are concerned, where its 
work is executed, and is charged with 
the operating and cleaning of dry 
docks. 

BUREAU OF STEAM ENGINEERING. 

The duties of the Bureau of Steam 
Engineering comprise all that relates 
to thcL designing, building, fitting out, 
repairing, and engineering of the steam 
machinery used for the propulsion of 
naval vessels, and will also include 
steam pumps, steam heaters and con- 
nections, and the steam machinery 
necessary for actuating the apparatus 
by which turrets are turned. 

MARINE CORPS. 

The Commandant of the Marine 
Corps is responsible to the Secretary 
of the Navy for the general eflSciency 
and discipline of the corps ; makes 
such distribution of oflScers and men 
for duty at the several shore stations 
as shall appear to him to be most ad- 
vantageous for the interests of the ser- 
vice ; furnishes guards for vessels of 
the Navy, according to the authorized 
scale of allowance ; under the direction 
of the Secretary of the Navy, issues 
orders for the movement of officers and 
troops, and such other orders and in- 
structions for their guidance as may 
be necessary ; and has charge and ex- 
ercises general supervision and con- 
trol of the recruiting service of the 
corps, and of the necessary expenses 
thereof, including the establishment of 
recruiting offices. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



319 



THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. 



The Secretary of the Interior is 
charged with the supervision of pub- 
lic business relating to Patents for In- 
ventions ; Pensions and Bounty Lands ; 
the Public Lands and Surveys ; the In- 
dians ; Education; railroads; the Geo- 
logical Survey ; the Hot Springs Res- 
ervation, Arkansas ; Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, Wyoming, and the Yose- 
mite, Sequoia, and General Grant 
parks, California ; forest reservations ; 
distribution of appropriations for agri- 
cultural and mechanical colleges in the 
States and Territories ; the custody 
and distribution of certain public docu- 
ments ; and supervision of certain hos- 
pitals and eleemosynary institutions in 
the District of Columbia. He also ex- 
ercises certain powers and duties in re- 
lation to the Territories of the TJnited 
States. 

COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS. 

The Commissioner of Patents is 
charged with the administration of the 
patent laws, and supervises all mat- 
ters relating to the issue of letters 
patent for new and useful inventions, 
discoveries, and improvements thereon, 
and also the registration of trade- 
marks, prints, and labels. He is by 
statute made the tribunal of last re- 
sort in the Patent Office, and has ap- 
pellate jurisdiction in the trial 'of in- 
terference cases, of the patentability 
of inventions, and of registration of 
trade-marks. He is aided by an 
assistant Commissioner, chief clerk, 
three examiners in chief, an examiner 
of interferences, and thirty-nine prin- 
cipal examiners. 

COMMISSIONER OF PENSIONS. 

The Commissioner of Pensions su- 
pervises the examination and adjudica- 
tion of all claims arising under laws 
passed by Congress granting bounty 
land or pension on account of service 
in the xVrmy or Navy during the Revo- 
lutionary War and all subsequent wars 
in which the United States has been 
engaged. He is aided by two Deputy 
Commissioners and the chief clerk of 
the Bureau, each of whom has super- 



vision over business arising in divi- 
sions of the Bureau assigned, under or- 
der of the Commissioner, to his imme- 
diate charge. 

COMMISSIONER OF THE GENERAL LAND 

OFFICE. 

The Commissioner of the General 
Land Office is charged with the survey, 
management, and sale of the public do- 
main, and the issuing of titles there- 
for, whether derived from confirma- 
tions of grants made by former govern- 
ments, by sales, donations, or grants 
for schools, railroads, military boun- 
ties, or public improvements. He is 
aided by an Assistant Commissioner 
and chief clerk. 

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION. 

The duties of the Commissioner of 
Education are to collect such statis- 
tics and facts as shall show the condi- 
tion and progress of education in the 
several States and Territories, and to 
diffuse such information respecting the 
organization and management of 
schools and school systems and meth- 
ods of teaching as shall aid the people 
of the United States in the establish- 
ment and maintenance of efficient 
school systems, and otherwise promote 
the cause of *»ducation throughout the 
country. 

DIRECTOR OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The Director of the Geological Sur- 
vey has charge of the classification of 
public lands and examination of the 
geological structure, mineral resources, 
.*ind products of the national domain, 
and th3 survey of forest reserves, in- 
cluding the prepai'ation of topographic 
and geologic maps; also the measure- 
ment of streams and determination of 
the water supply of the United States, 
including the investigation of under- 
ground waters and artesian wells ; 
and also the reclamation of arid lands, 
including the engineering operations 
to be carried on by the use of the recla- 
mation fund created by act of June 17, 
1902, from proceeds of sales of public 
lands. 



THE BOARD ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES. 



That uniform usage in regard to geo- 
graphic nomenclature and orthography 
shall obtain throughout the Executive 
Departments- of the Government, and 
particularly upon maps and charts is- 
sued by the various Departments and 
Bureaus, this Board is constituted. 



To it shall be referred all unsettled 
questions concerning geographic names 
which arise in the Departments, and 
the decisions of the Board are to be 
accepted by the Departments as the 
standard authority in such matters, — 
Organized September 4, 1890. 



320 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. 
(Incorporated by Act of Congress March 3, 1863.) 



Section 3 of the act of incorporation 
provides : "That the National Academy 
of Sciences shall hold an annual meet- 
ing at such place in the United States 
as may be designated, and the academy 
shall, whenever called upon by any de- 
partment of the Government, investi- 
gate, examine, experiment, and report 
upon .my subject of science or art, 
the actual expense of such investiga- 
tions, examinations, experiments, and 
reports to be paid from appropriations 
which may be made for the purpose ; 
but the academy shall receive no com- 
pensation whatever for any services 



to the Government of the United 
States." 

In accordance with this provision, 
the academy — which includes about 
one hundred members — has made many 
investigations and reports, at the re- 
quest of the legislative and executive 
branches of the Government. The an- 
nual reports are published by Congress 
as House and Senate documents. Two 
meetings are held each year. The an- 
nual meeting is held in April, at 
Washington ; the other in November, 
at such place as may be determined 
by the council. 



THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION. 



The purpose of the civil-service act 
(approved January 16, 1883), as de- 
clared in its title, is "to regulate and 
improve the civil service of the United 
States." It provides for the appoint- 
ment of three Commissioners, not more 
than two of whom shall be adherents 
of the same political party, and makes 
it the duty of the Commission to aid 
the President, as he may request, in 
preparing suitable rules for carrying 
the act into effect. The act requires 
that the rules shall provide, among 
other things, for open competitive ex- 
aminations for testing the fitness of 
applicants for the public service, the 
filling of classified positions by selec- 
tions from among those passing with 
highest grades, an apportionment of 
appointments in the Departments at 
Washington among the States and 
Territories, a period of probation be- 
fore absolute appointment, and the 
prohibition of the use of oflScial au- 
thority +0 coerce the political action of 
any person or body. The act also 
provides for investigations touching 
the enforcement of the rules promul- 
gated, and forbids, under penalty of 
fine or imprisonment, or both, the so- 
licitation by any person in the service 
of the United States of contributions 
to be used for political purposes from 
persons in such service, or the collec- 
tion of such contributions by any per- 
son in a Government building. 

THE CLASSIFIED SERVICE. 

It is estimated that in 1002 there 
were 235,854 positions in the executive 
civil service, of which 20,931 were in 
the executive oflSces at Washington 
and 214,923 were outside. About 120,- 



000 positions are classified subject to 
competitive examination under the civ- 
il service rules. Persons merely em- 
ployed as laborers or workmen and 
persons nominated for confirmation by 
the Senate are exempted from the re- 
quirements of classification. Within 
these limits certain classes of positions 
are excepted from examination, among 
them being employees at postoffices not 
having free delivery, Indians, attor- 
neys, pension examining surgeons, 
deputy collectors of internal revenue, 
oflSce deputy marshals, and a few em- 
ployees whose duties are of an impor- 
tant confidential or fiduciary nature. 

EXAMINATIONS. 

Examinations are held in every 
State and Territory twice a year. Full 
information respecting these examina- 
tions is to be found in a manual issued 
by the Commission in January and 
July of each year, for free distribu- 
tion. Th? examinations range in 
scope from technical, professional, or 
scientific subjects to those based wholly 
upon the age, physical condition, ex- 
perience, and character as a workman 
of the applicant, and in some cases do 
not require ability to read or write. 
To insure practical tests of fitness 654 
different kinds of examinations were 
held during the year ended June 30, 
1902, each of which involved different 
tests and more than half of which 
contained no educational tests, but 
consisted of certificates of employers or 
fellow workmen. During the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1903. 80,787 per- 
sons were examined, 04,439 passed, 
and 26,343 were appointed. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



321 



THE FILLING OF VACANCIES. 

A vacancy is filled from among the 
three persons of the sex called for 
standing highest on the appropriate 
register, the order being determined by 
the relative rating, except that the 
names of persons preferred under sec- 
tion 1754, Revised Statutes, come be- 
fore all others. Until the rating of 
all papers of an examination is com- 
pleted the identity of no applicant is 
known. A vacancy may also be filled 
by promotion, reduction, transfer, or 
reinstatement. 

MILTTARY PREFERENCE. 

Persons discharged from the mili- 
tary or naval service by reason of dis- 
ability resulting from wounds or sick- 
ness incurred in the line of duty and 
who receive a rating of at least 65 are 
certified first for appointment. All 
others are required to obtain a rating 
of 70 or more to become eligible. The 
rule barring reinstatement after a sep- 
aration of one year does not apply to 
any person honorably discharged after 
service in the civil war or the war with 
Spain, or his widow, or an army nurse 
of either war. 

THE PHILIPPINE CIVIL SERVICE. 

Appointments to the insular civil 
service of the Philippines are made un- 
der an act passed by the Philippine 
Commission and rules promulgated by 
the Governor of the islands. The mu- 
nicipal service of Manila is also classi- 
fied and subject to the provisions of 
the act and rules, which are similar to 
the United States act and rules. The 



United States Commission, under an 
Executive order, assists the Philippine 
Board by conducting examinations in 
the United States for the Philippine 
service and in all other practicable 
ways. These examinations are held 
only for positions for which compe- 
tent natives cannot be found, the na- 
tives being preferred for appointment. 
The United States rules permit the 
transfer of dassified employees who 
have served for three yeai's from the 
Philippine service to the Federal ser- 
vice. 

THE CIVIL SERVICE IN PORTO RICO AND 

HAWAII. 

The Federal positions in Porto Rico 
and Hawaii by act of Congress fall 
within the scope of the civil service act 
and are filled in the same ways as com- 
petitive positions in the United States. 
Tlie competitive system does not ex- 
tend to the insular and municipal po- 
sitions of the islands. 

UNCLASSIFIED LABORERS. 

Appointments of unclassified labor- 
ers in the Departments at Washing- 
ton under Executive order are required 
to be made in accordance with regu- 
lations to be approved by the heads of 
the several Departments and the Civil 
Service Commission. Such regula- 
tions have been adopted by several of 
the Departments, and the positions of 
laborers are being filled by the ap- 
pointment of those applicants who are 
rated highest in age, physical condi- 
tion, and industry and adaptability. 
The system is outside the civil service 
act and rules. 



THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION. 



This Commission, appointed under 
"An act to regulate commerce," ap- 
proved February 4, 1887, has authori- 
ty to inquire into the management of 
the business of all common carriers 
who are subject to the provisions of 
the act. These are all which are "en- 
gaged in the transportation of pas- 
sengers or property wholly by railroad, 
or partly by railroad and partly by wa- 
ter when both are used, under a com- 
mon control, management, or arrange- 
ment, for a continuous carriage or 
shipment, from one State or Territory 
of the United States or the District of 
Columbia to any other State or Ter- 
ritory of the United States or the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, or from any place 
in the United States to an adjacent 



foreign country, or from any place in 
the United States through a foreign 
country to any other place in the Uni- 
ted States, and also in the transporta- 
tion in like manner of property shipped 
from any place in the United States 
to a foreign country and carried from 
such place to a port of transshipment, 
or shipped from a foreign country to 
any place in the United States and 
carried to such place from a port of 
entry either in the United States or 
an adjacent foreign country." It has 
jurisdiction to inquire into and report 
upon the reasonableness of rates on in- 
terstate traffic, to decide questions of 
unjust discrimination and of undue 
preference, to prescribe the publicity 
to be given to joint tariffs, and to in- 



322 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



stitute and carry on proceedings for 
the enforcement of the provisions of 
the law. It has power to call for re- 
ports, to require the attendance of 
witnesses and the production of books 
and papers, to hear complaints of a 
violation of the act made against any 
such carrier, and to determine what 
reparation shall be made to a party 
wronged ; to institute inquiries on its 
own motion or at the request of State 
railroad commissions, and to report 
thereon ; and it is required to make 
an annual report, which shall be trans- 
mitted to Congress. 

The act of March 2, 1893, known as 
the "Safety Appliance Act,'' provides 
that within specified periods railroad 
cars used in interstate commerce must 
be equipped with automatic couplers 
and standard height of drawbars for 
freight cars, and have grab irons or 
handholds on the ends and sides of 
each car. 

A further provision of this act is 
that locomotive engines used in moving 
interstate traffic shall be fitted with a 
power driving wheel brake and appli- 
ances for operating the train brake 
system, and a sufficient number of cars 
in the train shall be equipped with 
power or train brakes. The act di- 
rects the Commission to lodge with the 



proper district attorneys information 
of such violations as may come to its 
knowledge. The Commission is au- 
thorized, from time to time, upon full 
hearing and for good cause, to extend 
the period within which any common 
carrier shall comply with the provi- 
sions of the statute. The act of March 
2, 1903, amended this act so as to 
make its provisions apply to Terri- 
tories and the District of Columbia, to 
all cases when couplers of whatever de- 
sign are brought together, and to all 
locomotives, cars, and other equipment 
of any railroad engaged in interstate 
traffic, except logging cars and cars 
used upon street railways, and also to 
power or train brakes used in railway 
operation. 

The act of March 3, 1901, "requiring 
common carriers engaged in interstate 
commerce to make reports of all acci- 
dents to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission," makes it the duty of 
such carrier monthly to report, under 
oath, all collisions and derailments of 
its trains and accidents to its passen- 
gers, and to its employees while on 
duty in its service, and to state the 
nature and causes thereof. The act 
prescribes that a fine shall be imposed 
against any such carrier failing to 
make the report so required. 



THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR. 



The Secretary of Commerce and La- 
bor is charged with the work of pro- 
moting the commerce of the United 
States, and its mining, manufacturing, 
shipping, fishery, transportation, and 
labor interests. His duties also com- 
prise the investigation of the organiza- 
tion and management of corporations 
(excepting railroads) engaged in inter- 
state commerce ; the gathering and 
publication of information regarding 
labor interests and labor controversies 
in this and other countries ; the ad- 
ministration of the Light House Ser- 
vice, and the aid and protection to 
shipping thereby ; the taking of the 
census, and the collection and publi- 
cation of statistical information con- 
nected therewith; the making of coast 
and geodetic surveys ; the collecting of 
statistics relating to foreign and do- 
mestic commerce : the insi)ection of 
steamboats, and the enforcement of 
laws relating thereto for the protec- 
tion of life and property : the super- 
vision of the fisheries as administered 
by the Federal Government ; the 
supervision and control of the Alaskan 
fur seah salmon, and other fisheries ; 



the jurisdiction over merchant vessels, 
their registry, licensing, measurement, 
entry, clearance, transfers, movement 
of their cargoes and passengers, and 
laws relating thereto, and to seamen of 
the United States ; the supervision of 
the immigration of aliens, and the en- 
forcement of the laws relating thereto, 
and to the exclusion of Chinese ; the 
custody, construction, maintenance, 
and application of standards of 
weights and measurements ; and the 
gathering and supplying of informa- 
tion regarding industries and markets 
fcr the fostering of manufacturing. 
He has power to call upon other De- 
partments for statistical data obtained 
by them. 

It is his further duty to make such 
special investigations and furnish such 
information to the President or Con- 
gress as may be required by them on 
the foregoing subject-matters and to 
make annual reports to Congress upon 
the work of said Department. 

BUREIU OF LABOR. 

The Bureau of Labor is charged 
with the duty of acquiring and diffus- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



323 



ing among the people of the United 
States useful information on subjects 
connected with labor in the most gen- 
eral and comprehensive sense of that 
word, and especially upon its relations 
to capital, the hours of labor, the 
earnings of laboring men and women, 
and the means of promoting their ma- 
terial, social, intellectual, and moral 
prosperity. 

It is especially charged to investi- 
gate the causes of and facts relating 
to all controversies and disputes be- 
tween employers and employees as they 
may occur, and which may happen to 
interfere with the welfare of the people 
of the several States. 

LIGHT-HOUSE BOARD. 

The Light-House Board has charge, 
under the superintendence of the Sec- 
retary of Commerce and Labor, of all 
administrative duties relating to the 
construction and maintenance of light- 
houses, light vessels, light-house de- 
pots, beacons, fog signals, buoys, and 
their appendages, and has charge of 
all records and property appertaining 
to the Light-House Establishment. 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. 

The Bureau of the Census is charged 
with the duty of taking the periodical 
censuses of the United States and of 
collecting such special statistics as are 
requii'ed by Congress, including the 
collection in 1905 of the statistics of 
manufacturing establishments conduct- 
ed under the factory system, and the 
collection annually of statistics of 
births and deaths in registration areas, 
statistics of the cotton production of 
the country as returned by the ginners, 
and (by transfer from the Bureau of 
Labor) statistics of cities of 30,000 or 
more inhabitants. Under the procla- 
mation of the President dated Septem- 
ber 30, 1902, the Bureau is charged 
with the compilation and tabulation of 
the returns of the Philippine census, 
taken as of March 2, 1903, under the 
direction of the Philippine Commis- 
sion. 

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY. 

The Coast and Geodetic Survey is 
charged with the survey of the coasts 
of the United States and coasts un- 
der the jurisdiction thereof and the 
publication of charts covering said 
coasts. This includes base measure, 
triangulation, topography, and hydro- 



graphy along said coasts; the survey 
of rivers to the head of tide-water or 
ship navigation ; deep sea soundings, 
temperature, and current observations 
along said coasts and throughout the 
Gulf and Japan streams ; magnetic ob- 
servations and researches, and the pub- 
lication of maps show^ing the va- 
riations of terrestrial magnetism ; 
gravity research ; determination of 
heights ; the determination of geo- 
graphic positions by astronomic obser- 
vations for latitude, longitude, and 
azimuth, and by triangulation, to fur- 
nish reference points for State sur- 
veys. The results obtained are pub- 
lished in annual reports, with profes- 
sional papers and discussions of results 
as appendices ; charts upon various 
scales, including sailing charts, general 
charts of the coast, and harbor charts ; 
tide tables issued annually, in advance ; 
Coast Pilots, with sailing directions 
covering the navigable waters ; No- 
tices to Mariners, issued monthly and 
containing current information neces- 
sary for safe navigation ; catalogues of 
charts and publications, and such 
other special publications as may be 
required to carry out the organic law 
governing the Survey. 



BUREAU OF STATISTICS. 

The Bureau of Statistics collects 
and publishes the statistics of our for- 
eign commerce, embracing tables show- 
ing the imports and exports, respect- 
ively, by countries and customs dis- 
tricts ; the transit trade inward and 
outward by countries and by customs 
districts; imported commodities ware- 
housed, withdrawn from, and remain- 
ing in warehouse ; the imports of mer- 
chandise entered for consumption, 
showing quantity, value, rates of duty, 
and amounts of duty collected on each 
article or class of articles ; th*» inward 
and outward movement of tonnage in 
our foreign trade and the countries 
whence entered and for which cleared, 
distinguishing the nationalities of the 
foreign vessels. The Bureau also col- 
lects and publishes information in re- 
gard to the leading commercial move- 
ments in our internal commerce, 
among which are the commerce of the 
Great Lakes ; the commercial move- 
ments in our internal commerce, 
among which are the commerce of the 
Great Lakes; the commercial mcve- 
ments at interior centers, at Atlantic, 
Gulf, and Pacific seaports ; shipments 
of coal and coke; ocean freight rates, 



324 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



etc. The Bureau also publishes daily 
and monthly the reports received from 
United States consuls and special re- 
ports on various subjects supplied by 
consuls on special request ; also, an- 
nually, the declared exports from for- 
eign countries to the United States 
furnished by consuls, and the annual 
report laid before Congress entitled 
''Commercial Relatione of the United 
States." 

STEAMBOAT-INSPECTION SEKVICE. 

The Steamboat-Inspection Service is 
charged with the duty of inspecting 
steam vessels, the licensing of the offi- 
cers of vessels, and the administration 
of the laws relating to such vessels 
and their officers for the protection of 
life and property. 

The Supervising Inspector-General 
and the supervising inspectors consti- 
tute a board that meets annually at 
Washington, and establishes regula- 
tions for carrying out the provisions 
of the steamboat-inspection laws. 

BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

The work of the Bureau of Fisheries 
comprises (1) the propagation of use- 
ful food fishes, including lobsters, oys- 
ters, and other shellfish, and their dis- 
tribution to suitable waters; (2) the 
inquiry into the causes of decrease of 
food fishes in the lakes, rivers, and 
coast waters of the United States, the 
study of the waters of the coast and 
interior in the interest of fish-culture, 
and the investigation of the fishing 
grounds of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pa- 
cific coasts, with the view of determin- 
ing their food resources and the devel- 
opment of the commercial fisheries ; 
(3) the collection and compilation of 
the statistics of the fisheries and the 
study of their methods and relations. 

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION. 

The Bureau of Navigation is 
charged with general superintendence 
of the commercial marine and mer- 
chant seamen of the Ignited States, ex- 
cept so far as supervision is lodged 
with other officers of the Government. 
It is specially charged with the de- 
rision of all questions relating to the 
issue of registers, enrollments, and li- 
censes of vessels and the filing of those 
documents, with the supervision of 
laws relating to the admeasurement, 
letters, and numbers of vessels, and 



with the final decision of questions 
concerning the collection and refund of 
tonnage taxes. It is empowered to 
change the names of vessels, prepares 
annually a list of vessels of the United 
States, and reports annually to the 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor the 
operations of the laws relative to navi- 
gation. 

BUREAU OF IMMIGRATION. 

The Bureau of Immigration is 
charged with the administration of the 
laws relating to immigration and of 
the Chinese exclusion laws. It super- 
vises all expenditures under the appro- 
priations for "Expenses of regulating 
immigration" and the "Enforcement of 
the Chinese exclusion act." It causes 
alleged violations of the immigration, 
Chinese exclusion, and alien contract- 
labor laws to be investigated, and 
when prosecution is deemed advisable 
submits evidence for that purpose to 
the proper United States district at- 
torney. 

BUREAU OF STANDARDS. 

The functions of the Bureau of 
Standards are as follows : The custody 
of the standards ; the comparison of 
the standards used in scientific investi- 
gations, engineering, manufacturing, 
commerce,, and educational institu- 
tions with the standards adopted or 
recognized by the Government; the 
construction, when necessary, of stand- 
ards, their multiples and subdivisions ; 
the testing and calibration of standard 
measuring apparatus ; the solution of 
problems which arise in connection 
with standards ; the determination of 
physical constants and properties of 
materials, when such data are of great 
importance to scientific or manufac- 
turing interests and are not to be ob- 
tained of sufficient accuracy elsewhere. 
The Bureau is authorized to exercise 
its functions for the Government of 
the Ignited States, for any State or 
municipal government within the Uni- 
ted States, or for any scientific society, 
educational institution, firm, corpora- 
tion, or individual within the United 
States engaged in manufacturing or 
other pursuits requiring the use of 
standards or standard measuring in- 
struments. For all comparisons, cali- 
brations, tests, or investigations, ex- 
cept those performed for the Govern- 
ment of the United States or State 
governments, a reasonable fee will be 
charged. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



325 



THE INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 



The International Bureau of the 
American Republics was established 
under the recommendation of the In- 
ternational American Conference in 
1890 for the purpose of maintaining 
closer relations between the several Re- 
publics of the Western Hemisphere. 
It was reorganized by the Interna- 
tional American Conference of 1901 
and its scope widened by imposing 
many new and important duties. A 
prominent feature of the new arrange- 
ment was the foundation of the Co- 
lumbus Memorial Library. The Inter- 
national Bureau corresponds, through 
the diplomatic representatives of the 
several Governments in Washington, 
with the executive departments of 
these governments, and is required to 
furnish such information as it pos- 



sesses or can obtain to any of the Re- 
publics making requests. It is the 
custodian of the archives of the Inter- 
national American Conferences, and is 
especially charged with the perform- 
ance of duties imposed upon it by 
these conferences. The International 
Bureau is sustained by contributions 
from the American Republics in pro- 
portion to their population. It pub- 
lishes a monthly bulletin containing 
the latest oflficial information respect- 
ing the resources, commerce, _ and gen- 
eral features of the American Repub- 
lics, as well as maps and geographical 
sketches of these countries, which pub- 
lications are considered public docu- 
ments and as such are carried free in 
the mails of all the Republics. — Con- 
gressional Directory. 



THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT 

OF SCIENCE. 



Any person may become a member 
of the association upon recommenda- 
tion in writing by two members or fel- 
lows, and election by the council, or by 
the special committee of the council 
resident in Washington and empow- 
ered to pass upon applications when- 
ever received. 

Tlie admission fee for members is 
five dollars, payable in advance. The 
annual dues for members and fellows 
ai*e three dollars, payable in advance. 
The fiscal year of the association be- 
gins January 1st, and members and 
fellows are entitled to all publica- 
tions issued, and to the privileges of 
all meetings held during the year for 
which they have paid dues. 

Fellows are elected by the council 
from such of the members as are pro- 
fessionally engaged in science. The 
election of fellows is by ballot and a 
majority vote of the members of the 
council at a designated meeting of the 



council. On the election of any mem- 
ber as a fellow, an additional fee of 
two dollars shall be paid. 

Any member or fellow who shall 
pay the sum of fifty dollars to the 
association, at any one time, shall be- 
come a life member, and as such shall 
be exempt from all further assess- 
ments, and shall be entitled to the 
proceedings of the association. All 
money thus received shall be invested 
as a permanent fund, the income of 
which, during the life of the mem- 
ber, shall form a part of the general 
fund of the association ; but, after his 
death, shall be used only to assist in 
original research, unless otherwise di- 
rected by unanimous vote of the 
council. 

Any person paying to the associa- 
tion the sum of one thousand dollars 
shall be classed as a patron, and shall 
be entitled to all the privileges of a 
member and to all its publications. 



326 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



CoptHcM, 1901, by Munn A Uo, 

NATIONAL DEBTS OF THE WORLD. 



CHAPTER Xn. 



POST OFFICE. 



POSTAL INFORMATION. 

Revised by the New York Post Office. 



There are four classes of mail mat- 
ter: 

First-Class Matter — All written 
matter, such as letters, postal cards, 
" post cards " and all matter in writ- 
ing, whether pen-written or typewrit- 
ten, and all matter sealed from inspec- 
tion, constitutes " First-class Matter," 
and is mailable at two cents an ounce, 
or fraction thereof. Letters, etc., may 
be sent to Canada, Cuba, the *' Canal 
Zone " at Panama, Guam, Tutuila 
(Samoa), Shanghai (China), Mexico, 
Porto Rico, Hawaii, and the Philip- 
pines. Postal cards are one cent each. 
Local or " drop " letters are two cents 
an ounce or fraction thereof, when 
mailed at letter carrier offices, or at 
offices where Rural Delivery Service 
has been established, addressed to 
patrons thereof who may. be served by 
rural carriers, and one cent for each 
ounce or fraction thereof at offices 
where free delivery by carrier is not 
established or at' rural-delivery offices 
when addressed to patrons who cannot 
be served by the carriers. 

Note — There is no *'drop" rate on 
third or ffturth-class matter : the post- 
age on which is uniform whether ad- 
dressed for local delivery or transmis- 
sion in the mails. 

The following articles are included 
in first-class matter : Assessment no- 
tices, autograph albums, blank books, 
with written entries, bank checks, 
blank forms filled out in writing, re- 
ceipts, visiting cards bearing written 
name, communications entirely in 
print with the exception of name of 
sender, diplomas, drawings or plans 
containing written words, letters or 
figures, envelopes bearing written ad- 
dresses, imitations or reproductions of 
hand or typewritten matter not mailed 
at the postoffice in a minimum num- 
ber of twenty perfectly identical cop- 
ies to separate addresses, legal and 



other blanks, old letters sent singly or 
in bulk, all sealed matter, stenographic 
or shorthand notes, and unsealed 
written communications. 

Second -Class Matter — This division 
includes newspapers and other periodi- 
cals, which are issued as often as four 
times a year. The rate of postage on 
second-class matter when sent by the 
publisher thereof and from the office 
of publication to .subscribers or as 
sample copies, or when sent from a 
news agency to actual subscribers or 
to other news agents for sale, is one 
cent a pound or fraction thereof, ex- 
cept when deposited in a letter carrier 
office for delivery by letter carriers, or 
mailed free within the county of publi- 
cation. Publishers to obtain this rate 
must have their periodicals entered at 
their local post-office. 

Third-Class latter — Embraces all 
printed matter generally. The rate of 
postage is one cent for each two ounces 
or fractional part thereof sent to a 
single address, to be fully prepaid by 
ordinary postage stamps affixed there- 
to. The following named articles are 
among those subject to third-class rate 
of postage : Almanacs, printed archi- 
tectural designs, blueprints, books 
(printed), bulbs, calendars printed on 
paper, cards printed on paper, Christ- 
mas cards, catalogues, check and re- 
ceipt books (blank), circulars, press 
(clippings, school copy books, printed 
engravings, samples of grain, imita- 
tion of hand or typewritten matter 
when mailed at the postoffice window 
in a minimum number of twenty iden- 
tical copies separately addressed, 
pi'inted labels, legal blanks, lithographs, 
maps, music books, photographs, 
plants, printed tags, roots, seeds, sheet 
music. 

Fourth - Class Matter — Embraces 
merchandise, samples, and in general 
all articles not included in the first. 



327 



328 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



second or third class. The rate of 
postage is one cent an ounce or frac- 
tion thereof sent to a single address, 
to be prepaid by ordinary stamps 
affixed. The following are among 
articles included in fourth-class mat- 
ter: Albums, photograph and auto- 
graph (blank), artificial flowers, bill- 
heads, blank books, blotters, botanical 
specimens, celluloid calendars, blank 
cards, celluloid, dried fruit, dried 
plants, electrotypes, geological speci- 
mens, maps printed on cloth, merchan- 
dise samples, merchandise sealed, 
metals, napkins, oil paintings, samples 
of cloth, samples of flour, soap wrap- 
pers, stationery. 

Prohibited Articles. — Many articles 
are excluded from the foreign mails, 
the regulations being different in the 
case of each country. Inquiries 
should be made of the postmaster. 
Many articles are also excluded from 
domestic mails when they are liable to 



destroy, efface, or injure the contents 
of the mail bags or the persons of those 
engaged in the postal service. When 
in doubt consult your postmaster. 

Withdrawal of Letters from the 
Mail. — It is not generally known that 
a letter can be withdrawn from the 
mail. For good and sufficient reasons 
and satisfactory identification a post- 
master may telegraph to a postmaster 
in another city, asking him to with- 
draw the letter, a description of which 
is telegraphed. Special care is then 
given in assorting letters, and when 
the letter is found it is returned to the 
postmaster of the city where it was 
mailed, who delivers it to the person 
mailing it on presentation of proper 
proof of ownership. All expenses 
must be borne by the person withdraw- 
ing a letter from the mail. A deposit 
of ^5 must be left with the post- 
master when the application is made. 
It is also possible to withdraw a for- 



POSTAL SERVICE 





Number of letters. 


Number of 
post cards. 

3 


Printed 
matter. 

4 


Commer- 
cial papers. 

5 


Domestic. 


Postage 
prepaid. 

1 


Not 

prepaid. 

2 


Argentine Republic . 

Australasia 

Austria 


159,386,020 

211,254,801 

440,675,600 

101,644,321 

787,467 

222,394,627 

3,739,812 

24,768,283 

1,820,831 

6,489,631 

74,223,431 

781.080 

12,060,000 

820,708,041 

1,557,679,710 

2,579.500,000 

118,121,668 

198,064,428 

205,076,343 

37,963,823 

80.455,526 

30,695,300 

22,561,727 

11.751.558 

300,822,581 

122,590,854 

76,920,350 

92.583,216 

3.732,031,938 
3.350,544 


See Col. 1 

See Col. 1 

4,180 400 

427,856 

4,226 

28,462,364 

186,854 

448 609 


3,588,504 

2,705,126 

264,989,700 

59,804,004 

24,170 

227,062,615 

6.042,720 

462,694 

69,726 

1,916.326 

4,764,940 

14,475 

590,000 

64,442,350 

1,062,679,460 

488,900,000 

85.193,768 

77.454,468 

483.021.736 

1.087,300 

54,492.724 

4,199,700 

9.543,240 

14,057,882 

97,701,412 

13,681,624 

37,739,367 

48,631.989 

740.087,805 
167,407 


152,515,894 

43,064,753 

55 221,700 

257,568,220 

340,629 

59,367,511 

8,955,534 

948,864 

1,328,214 

902,500 

4,354,662 

459.867 

9.400,000 

1,130.475,202 

957,361,710 

175,400,000 

36,897,440 

385,375,075 

156.514,420 

70,766,739 

164,793,766 

4,321,200 

24,145,500 

24,908,318 

80,444,160 

194,884,182 

11.363.997 

41.226,016 

3.306,582,333 
14.442,140 


See Col. 4 
38,227,430 


Belirium 


1,797,198 


Bolivia 


10,900 


British India 

Bulgaria 


See Col. 4 
90-,304 


Chill 


4,964 


Costa Rica .... 


366.104 


Cuba 


18,296 

99.418 

65,883 

300.000 

3.016.145 

30.259,540 

See Col. 1 

1,446,906 

4,670,035 

See Col. 1 

743,508 

540.113 

202,600 

83.762 

1,121,401 

5.476.878 


1,050,300 


Denmark . . 


• 


Dominican Reoublic 




Earvot 


80,000 


France 


43,811,675 


Germany 


8,460,270 


Great Britain 

Hungary 


809,800,000 


Italy 


9,341.668 


Japan 


3.286.535 


Mexico 


See Col. 4 


Netherlands 




Norway 


57,300 


Portugal 


477,787 


Roumania 


207,451 


Russia 


4.190.274 


Spain 


99.985 


Sweden 


296.513 
330,260 

139,151,837 


194,078 


Switzerland 




United States of 
America 




Uruguay . 


31,189 


362,042 



* Figures cover both 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



eign letKr from the mail, and i 
case the deposit is $25. Any 
pended balance is, of cou— - - ' 

FEES FOB MONEY ORDERS. 

Pnyalilein thel'niied States (whlcli 
includes (iuani, Mawaii. I'orto Kico 
and Tutuila. Samoa) ; also for Orders 
lUiyable in Canadn. Cuba, N'ewfound- 
laad. the United States Postal Agency 
at Shanghai (China), the Philippine 
Islands, Barbados, Grenada, Saint 
Lueia, and St. Vincent. 

For Orders for sums not exceeding 
f2.50, 3 cents. 

Over SS.oO and not eiceeding $5,00, 
5 cents. 

Over $5.00 and nol exreeding ?10.00, . 

Over' ?10.00 and not exceeding 
»2a00. 10 cents. 

Over $20.00 and not exceeding 
$30.00, 12 cents. 



Over S30.00 and 
S-iOm, 15 cents. 

Over S40.00 and 
$50.00. 18 cents. 

Over S50.00 and 
$00.00, 20 cents. 

Over $60.00 and 
?75.0O. 25 cfnts. 

Over $75.00 and 
$100.00. 30 cents. 



Note. — The maximum amou 
which a sinele Money Older n 
issued is $100. Wlien a larger 
to be sent additional Orders m 
obtained. Any number of Ordei 
l>e drawn on any Money O d 
but. if Orders are drawn 
$200 on any one day upo 
of the 4th class, notice of tb t 
letter (or Form tiOST) is to be p 
t the Department by th 



exceeding 
exceeding 



OF THE WORLD. 



330 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



333 



SUGGESTION TO THE PUBLIC ON POSTAL SUBJECTS. 



How TO Direct and Mail Letters. — Mali 
matter should be addressed legibly and com- 
pletely, giving the name of the postoflBce, 
county and State, and the postoffice box of 
the person addressed, if he has one; if to a 
city having a free delivery, the street and 
number should be added. To secure return 
to the sender in case of misdirection or insuffi- 
cient payment of postage, his name should be 
written or printed upon the upper left-hand 
corner of all mail matter; it will then be re- 
turned to the sender, if not called for at its 
destination, without going to the Dead Letter 
Office, and, if a letter, it will be returned 
free. 

Dispatch is hastened by mailing early, 
especially when large numbers of letters, news- 
papers or circulars are mailed at once. 

When a number of letters or circulars are 
mailed together, addressed to the same desti- 
nation, it is well to tie them in bundles with 
the addresses facing the same side. On letters 
for places in foreign countries, especially 
Canada and England, in which many post- 
offices have the same name as offices in the 
United States, the name of the country as 
well as postoffice should be given in full. 
Letters addressed, for instance, merely to 
** London," without adding "England," are 
frequently sent to London, Canada, and trice 
versa, thereby causing delay, and often serious 
loss.' Letters addressed to Burlington, N. S. 
(Nova Scotia), often go to Burlington, New 
York, on account of the resemblance between 
S and Y when carelessly written. 

Avoid Thin Envelopes. — Thin envelopes, 
or those made of weak or poor, unsubtantial 
paper, should not be used, especially for large 
packages. Being often handled, and sub- 
jected to pressure and friction in the mail 
bags, such envelopes are frequently torn 
open or burst, without fault of those who 
handle them. It is best to use Stamped 
Envelopes wherever it is convenient and 
practicable to do so. 



Registered Valuable Matter. — All val- 
uable matter should be registered. Registry 
fee is eight cents, which, with full postage, 
must be prepaid, and name and address of 
sender must be given on the outside of envel- 
ope or wrapper. Money should be sent by a 
money order or registered letter; otherwise 
it is liable to be lost. 

The Convenience of Letter Boxes. — 
Patrons in cities where letter carriers are 
employed are advised to provide letter boxes 
at places or private residences, thereby saving 
much delay in the delivery of mail matter. 

Affix Stamps Firmly. — Postage stamps 
should be placed upon the upp>er right-hand 
corner of the address side of all the mail 
matter, care being taken that they are 
securely affixed. 

General Suggestions. — A subscriber to a 
newspaper or periodical who changes his 
residence and postoffice should at once notify 
the publisher, and have the publication sent 
to his new address. 

Publishers and news agents mailing 
second-class matter in quantities, will facili- 
tate its distribution, and often hasten its 
dispatch, by separating such matter by States 
and Territories and the larger cities. 

Hotel Matter. — That is, matter addressed 
for delivery at hotels, should be returned to 
the postoffice as soon as it is evident that it 
will not be claimed. Proprietors of hotels, 
officers of clubs and boards of trade, or ex- 
changes, should not hold unclaimed letters 
longer than ten days, except at the request of 
the person addressed, and should re-direct 
them for forwarding, if the present address is 
known; otherwise they should be returned to 
the postoffice. 

Letters addressed to persons temporarily 
sojourning in a city where the Free Delivery 
System is in operation should be marked 
"Transient" or "General Delivery," if not 
addressed to a street and number or some 
other designated place of delivery. — Post 
Office Guide. 



THE UNITED STATES POST OFFICE. 
POSTAL REVENUE IN DETAIL FOR YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1903. 



The postal revenue from all sources was as 

follows: 

Sales of stamps, stamped en- 
velopes, newspaper wrap- 
pers, and postal cards .... $123,511,549.70 

Second-class postage (pound 

rates) paid in money 6,096,379.62 

Box rents 3,065,675.06 

Revenue from money-order 

business 2,239,908 . 24 



Letter postage paid in money, 
principally balances due 
from foreign postal admin- 
istrations 

Miscellaneous receipts 

Fines and penalties 

Receipts from unclaimed 
dead letters 



$186,426.83 
58,105.94 
46,476.04 

20,921.81 



Total receipts $134,224,443.24 



834 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



EXPENDITURES IN DETAIL. 



The expenditures of the postal service for 

the year are shown, by items, in the following 

statement : 

Transportation of mails on 
r&iiAOs*ciB« • ••••••••■••«• 

Compensation to postmasters 

Free-delivery service 

Compensation of clerks in 
I>ost-offices 

Railway mail service 

Rural free delivery 

Transportation of the mails 
on star routes 

Railway post-office car ser- 
vice 

Transportation of foreign 
mails 

Rent, light, and fuel for first, 
second, and third-class 
post-offices 

Comp>ensation to assistant 
postmasters at first and 
second-class post-offices . . 

Mail-messenger service ..... 

Transportation of mails — 
regulation, screen, or other 
wagon service 

Manufacture of stamped en- 
velopes _ 

Transportation of mails on 
steamboats 

Mail depredations and post- 
office inspectors 

Transportation of the mails, 
electric and cable cars. . . . 

Manufacture of postage 
stamps 

Mail bags and catchers 

Miscellaneous items at first 
and second class offices . . . 

Canceling machines 



$36,195,116.18 
21,631,724.04 
19,337,986.00 

17,140.651.11 

11.228,845.75 

8,011.635.48 

6,561,819.35 

5,033,464.22 

2,427,160.36 

2.360,968.91 



1.622.730.12 
1,091,259.98 



828.707.93 

724,787.37 

634,957.08 

543,976.55 

440,420.41 

336.437 . 10 
274.219.71 

256.620.98 
195.803.46 



Manufacture of postal cards. 

Balance due foreign coun- 
tries 

Registered package, tag, 
official, and dead-letter en- 
velop>e8 

Pneumatic-tube service .... 

Payment of money orders 
more than one year old. . . 

Wrapping twine 

Transportation of the mails, 
special facilities 

Blanks, blank books, etc., 
for money-order service . . 

Stationery for postal service . 

Postal laws and regulations . 

Printing facing slips, slide 
labels, etc 

Postmarking and rating 
stamps 

Mail locks and keys 

Wrapping paper 



Expenditures under 24 
smaller items of appropri- 
ation 



$188,865.98 
153,539.82 



150.754.82 
142,867.04 

141.390.68 
132,636.47 

122,347.18 

112,179.20 
68.760.66 
51,826.48 

46.862.47 

42.572.95 
42,534.33 
39.835.04 



138,316,264.21 



175,202.06 



Total expenditures for 

the year 

Add expenditures during the 
year on account of previous 
years 

Total expenditures dur- 
ing the year 

Excess of expenditures over 
receipts 



138,491,466.27 

293.021.70 

138,784,487.97 
4,560,044.73 



Receipts $134,224,443.24 



MONEY ORDER BUSINESS. 



Number of money-order of- 
fices in operation, 1902 . . . 

Number of money-order of- 
fices in operation, 1903 . . . 

Number of domestic money 
orders issued, 1003 



31,680 

34,547 

45,941,681 



Amount of domestic orders 

issued, 1903 $353,627,648.03 

Amount of orders paid and 

repaid, 1903 353,173,320.52 

Excess of receipts over ex- 
penses, paid from the pro- 
ceeds, 1903 1.904,887.63 



NUMBER OF POST OFFICES, EXTENT OF POST-ROUTES, AND REVENUE 

AND EXPENDITURES OF THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT. INCLUDING 

AMOUNTS PAID FOR TRANSPORTATION OF THE MAIL, 

1877, 1887, 1897, AND 1903. 



Year ending 
June 30— 


Post- 
offices. 


Extent 
of post- 
routes. 


1877 

1887 

1897 

1903 


Number. 

37.345 
55,157 
71.022 
74.169 


Miles. 

292.820 
373.142 
470.032 
506,268 



Revenue of 
the Depart- 
ment. 



Dollars. 

27,531,585 

48.837,610 

82,665,463 

134.224,443 



Expended for transporta^ 
tion of — 



Domestic mail.; Foreign mail. 



Dollars. 

18,774,235 
27,892.646 
48,028,094 
62,606,015 



Dollars. 

448.896 

402,523 

1.890,099 

2,580,700 



Total expendi- 
ture of the 
Department. 



Dollars. 

33,486,322 

53.006,194 

94,077.242 

138.784,488 



-From the Annual Reports of the Postmaster-GeneraL 



SCrBNTIPIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



RAILROAD MILEAGE UPON WHICH MAIL WAS CARRIED, ANNUAL COST AND 

AVERAGE COST PER MILE OF RAILROAD HAIL TRANSPORTATION. 

AND EXPENDITURE FOR RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE EMPLOYEES. 





roftdiiTn 
Deo' 31. 


iir 

sarried. 


Annual trans- 


Railroad mail trans- 


Railway Mail Service. 


ra 


cs? 


^^tof! 


'^rmi™ 


ployees. 


"E* 


1|;:; 


MiloB. 

184.591 


Mi)e». 
130:949 


Miles. 
8G,3£S,TI0 
189,689,866 
273,190,356 
333,491,684 


DpUarsi. 

8,0S3,936 
18.056,272 
33,876,521 


DoUsrs. 

:8| 


2,600 
7^602 


Dollars. 
2,484,846 
















—Prepared in the Office oE th 





CHAPTER Xni. 



INTERNATIONAIi INSTITUTIONS AND BUREAUS. 



THE NOBEL PRIZES. 



The Nobel Foundation is based upon 
the last will and testament of Dr. Al- 
fred Bornhard Nobel, engineer and in- 
ventor of dynamite, dated November 
27, 1895, the stipulations of which, 
respecting this fund, are as follows : 

"The rest of my fortune, that is, the 
capital realized by my executors, is to 
constitute a fund, the interest of which 
is to be distributed annually as a prize 
to those who have in the course of the 
previous year rendered the greatest ser- 
vices to humanity. The amount is to 
be divided into five equal parts, one of 
which is to be awarded to the person 
who has made the most important dis- 
covery in the domain of physical sci- 
ence ; another part to the one who has 
made the most valuable discovery in 
chemistry or brought about the great- 
est improvement ; the third to the au- 
thor of the most important discovery 
in the field of physiology or medicine ; 
the fourth to the one who has pro- 
duced the most remarkable literary 
work of an idealist tendency, and 
finally the fifth to the person who 
has done the best or the most in the 
cause of the fraternity of nations, for 
the suppression or the reduction of 
standing armies as well as for the for- 
mation and propagation of peace con- 
gresses. The prizes will be awarded 
for physics and chemistry by the 
Swedish Academy of Sciences; for 
works in physiology or medicine by the 
Caroline Institute of Stockholm ; for 
literature by the Stockholm Academy, 
and finally for the service in the cause 
of peace by a Committee of five mem- 
bers of the Norwegian Storthing. It 
is my express desire that the benefits 
of the foundation are to be open to all 
nationalities and sexes and that the 
prize be awarded to the one most wor- 
thy, whether Scandinavian or not." 

Each prize will amount to about 
$40,000, and the corporation will desig- 
nate a "Comit6 Nobel" composed of 
three or five members for each sec- 
tion, with headquarters at Christiania, 
Norway. 

The Swedish Academy of Sciences, 



Stockholm, awards the Physics and 
Chemistry Prizes; the Caroline Medi- 
cal Institute, Stockholm, awards the 
Prize for Physiology or Medicine ; the 
Swedish Academy in Stockholm 
awards the Literature Prize ; and the 
Peace Prize is awarded by a Commit- 
tee of five persons elected by the Nor- 
wegian Storthing. No consideration 
is paid to the nationality of the candi- 
dates, but it is essential that every 
candidate shall be proposed in writing 
by some qualified representative of sci- 
ence, literature, etc., in the chief coun- 
tries of the civilized world, such pro- 
posals to reach the Committee before 
the first of February in each year, the 
awards being made on the following 
10th of December. Nobel Institutes 
are to be established in each of the five 
departments, to carry out scientific in- 
vestigations as to the value of the dis- 
coveries and improvements, and to pro- 
mote the other objects of the Founda- 
tion. 

The first distribution of prizes took 
place in 1901, the awards being : Peace, 
MM. Dunant and Passy ; Medicine, 
Dr. Behring, of Marburg; Chemistry, 
Prof. J. H. van *t Hoff, Berlin; Phy- 
sics, Prof. Rontgen ; and Literature, 
M. Sully Prudhomme. 

The 1902 Prizes were awarded as 
follows : Literature, Prof. Theodor 
Mommsen, of Berlin ; Peace, MM. Du- 
commun and Gobat (Switzerland) ; 
Medicine, Major Ronald Ross, of the 
School of Tropical Medicine, Liver- 
pool ; Chemistry, Prof. Emil Fischer, of 
Berlin ; Physics, divided between Profs. 
Lorentz and Zeemann, of Holland. 

The 1903 Prizes were awarded thus : 
Peace, Mr. W. R. Cromer, M. P. ; Lit- 
erature, M. BjSrnson ; Medicine, Prof. 
Finsen, of Copenhagen ; Physics, Prof. 
Becquerel, of Paris, and Mme. Curi6, 
of Paris; Chemistry, Prof. Arrhenius, 
of Stockholm. 

All information can be obtained 
from Nobelstiftelsen, Stockholm, or 
as to the Peace Prize, from the Comity 
Nobel Norv^gien, Victoria Terrasse, 7, 
III., Christiania. 



337 



^8 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



THE ANTHONY POLLOK PRIZE. 



No doubt many inventors are won- 
dering what disposition has been made 
of the Anthony Pollok Prize. Com- 
munications which have been received 
by the editor from Paris state that, 
owing to the unsatisfactory results of 
the former competition, the founders 
of the prize were undecided as to 
what should be done. Before taking 
any steps it was thought advisable to 
make an investigation. The Inter- 
maritime Association in Paris sent out 
letters to the leading maritime asso- 
ciations, chambers of commerce and 
boards of trade of the principal mari- 



time cities of the world, asking for 
advice as to the best methods to be 
pursued in order to obtain more satis- 
factory results in a possible future 
competition. Many replies were re- 
ceived and a large number of sugges- 
tions made. 

A report containing the various rec- 
ommendations and suggested changes 
was submitted by the Intermaritime 
Association but a short time ago. 
The founders of the Anthony Pollok 
Prize intend shortly to pass upon the 
report and adopt resolutions for the 
final disposition of the prize. 



INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND BUREAUS. 



Feeling that a large majority of our 
readers may not have access to the 
sources of information from which the 
following data are drawn, we take the 
liberty of presenting them with the 
most interesting facts concerning the 
origin and composition of some of the 
International Institutions and Bu- 
reaus in which the United States as 
a power, and we as a people, are in- 
terested. 

I. THE PEBMANENT COURT OF ARBITRA- 
TION. 

This court, more popularly known 
as The Hague Tribunal, was consti- 
tuted by virtue of the convention for 
the pacific regulation of international 
questions, concluded at The Hague, 
July 29, 1899. (Office, Prinsegracht 
71, The Hague.) 

Administrative Council. — President : 
The Minister for Foreign Affairs for 
Holland. Members: The diplomatic 
representatives of all the signatory 
powers accredited to The Hague. 

Members of the Permanent Court of 
Arbitration. — Since the individuals 
themselves are constantly changing by 
ill health or death, we shall content 
ourselves by giving the signatory pow- 
ers alone, letting it suffice to say that 
these powers appoint their most dis- 
tinguished men, preferably lawyers, to 
the position. They are : Austria-Hun- 
gary, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, 
France, Germany, Great Britain,. 
Greece, Holland, Italy, Japan, Lux- 
emburg, Mexico, Portugal, Roumania, 

ussia, Servia, Spain, Sweden and 
rway, Switzerland, and the United 
tes. 



II. THE UNIVERSAL INTERN ATIOIfAL 
POSTAL UNION. 

The Universal Postal Union, found- 
ed by the Congress at Bern in 1874, 
constitutes a single territory for the 
reciprocal exchange of correspondence 
between the Postal Departments of 
the nations present at the Congress. 
Its scope has been further enlarged 
and developed by succeeding conven- 
tions and conferences at Bern (1876), 
Paris (1880), Lisbon (1885), Vienna 
(1891), and Washington (1897) ; to- 
day it comprises all the states and 
all the colonies having organized pos- 
tal systems, including nearly the 
whole world. 

To the chief convention of the 
Union, regulating the exchange of 
letters, postal cards, printed matter, 
official papers and samples have from 
time to time been added, special ar- 
rangements concluded between the 
most of the members having for their 
object the international interchange 
of letters and packages possessing a 
declared value» postal money orders, 
postal packages and collections, to- 
gether with a passport service and a 
department for the subscription to 
journals and other publications. 

A central office, created by the Con- 
gress at Bern, has its seat in that city 
and is known under the name of The 
International Bureau of the Universal 
Postal Union. It performs its labors 
under the supervision of the Swiss 
Postoffice Department. The ordinary 
annual expenses of this office were first 
fixed at 75,000 francs, later advanced 
to 100,000 and finally increased to 
125,000 francs, by the Congress of Vi- 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



339 



enna. The funds are provisionally ad- 
vanced by the Swiss Government, 
which is reimbursed by all the con- 
tracting parties in proportion to their 
importance. 

I'Tiis bureau is charged with col- 
lecting, co-ordinating, publishing and 
distributing information of whatever 
nature appertaining to internation- 
al postal affairs. Its duties are al- 
so to issue, upon the demand of any 
one of the members of the Union, a 
note upon questions in litigation, to 
examine into the demands for the 
modification of the acts of the Con- 
gress, to give notice of any adopted 
changes, and in general, to proceed 
with the studies and labors with which 
it is seized in the interest of the pos- 
tal union. It prepares a table of gen- 
eral statistics for each year; it edits 
a special journal "L*Union postale" in 
the German, French, and English lan- 
guages ; it prepares the work of the 
Congresses or Conferences, publishes 
and keeps up to date a dictionary of 
all the postofiices in the world, and at- 
tends to the balancing and liquidation 
of the accounts between the various 
postal administrations which have de- 
clared their willingness to make use of 
it as an intermediary. Tlie total 
amount of the liquidations in 1902 
reached the considerable sum of 49,- 
113,785.57 francs ($9,822,757.11). 
Throughout the territory controlled by 
the Union, 24,061,000,000 pieces were 
exchanged in 1901 ; of these 51.000,000 
were letters and packages having a de- 
clared value of 45,283,000,000 francs 
($9,056,600,000) ; 460,000,000 postal 
orders were sent, amounting to 24,- 
147,000,000 francs ($4,829,800,000) ; 
moreover, 2,275,000.()()0 journals were 
delivered through the postal bureau for 
subscriptions to such publications. 

III. INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF TELE- 
GRAPHS. 

This bureau is a central organ in- 
stituted in 1S68 by the International 
Telegraphic Conference at Vienna and 
placed by it under the high direction 
of the superior authorities of the Swiss 
Confederation. Its object is to form 
a permanent bond between the tele- 
graphic services of the different states 
which compose the Union, to facilitate 
the uniform application of the ar- 
rangements they have resolved upon, to 
collect and redistribute documents and 
information of mutual utility, to car- 
ry on such work and publications as 



are of interest to the service, notably 
to prepare work for the Conferences 
and publish their acts. This bureau 
has its seat in Bern, and its expenses 
are temporarily advanced by the Swiss 
Confederation, which is later reim- 
bursed by the members of the Union, 
of whom there at present 47, covering 
a superficial area of 62,100,000 square 
kilometers, (23,970,000 square miles), 
and comprising within its circuits a 
population of 866,000,000 souls. 

The recent Conference at London 
in 1903 simplified the matters of tar- 
iff and accounting very greatly. The 
participants in the benefits of this 
treaty are now : The whole of Europe, 
British India, the Dutch Indies, Cey- 
lon, the Portuguese colonies in Asia, 
Siam, French Cochin-China, Persia, 
Japan, Asiatic Russia, and Asiatic 
Turkey, Egypt, Tunis, Cape Colony, 
Natal, East African colonies, and the 
British protectorate of Uganda, Portu- 
guese East and West Africa, Madagas- 
car, Algiers and Senegal, the Repub- 
lics of Argentine, Brazil and Uruguay, 
the Australian Confederation, com- 
prising South and West Australia, 
New South Wales, Queensland, Tas- 
mania, Victoria, New Zealand and 
New Caledonia. Besides the countries 
above mentioned, the following are in- 
timately connected with the general 
system which encircles the globe : 
China, the Philippines, British Ameri- 
ca, the United States, almost all the 
Greater and Lesser Antilles, Central 
and South America, Morocco at Tan- 
gier, the Azores, Island of Madeira, 
the Canaries and Cape Verde Islands, 
as well as those of Ascension and St. 
Helena, the Eastern and Western 
coasts of Africa, together with the isl- 
ands of Seychelles, Maurice, Rodri- 
guez, Cocos, and so forth. 

It is estimated that the number of 
dispatches forwarded in 1901 by the 
countries above named amounted to 
more than 400,000,000. 

IV. INTERNATIONAL BUREAU OF 
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

By virtue of the Metric Convention 
signed at Paris, May 20, 1875, the 
States of Germany, Argentine Repub- 
lic, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Den- 
mark, Spain, United States, France, 
Italy, Peru. Portugal, Russia. Swe- 
den and Norway, Switzerland, and 
Venezuela, engaged to found and sus- 
tain, at common expense, an Interna- 
tional Bureau of Weights and Meas- 



840 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN REFERENCE BOOK. 



ures, of which the seat should be at 
Sevres, near Paris. It is furthermore 
stipulated in that Convention, that the 
Bureau should perform its labors un- 
der the surveillance of an international 
committee, itself subject to a general 
Conference of weights and measures 
composed of all the delegates from the 
contracting States. This convention 
became operative from the first of Jan- 
uary, 1876. 

v. INTERNATIONAL UNIONS FOB THE 
PROTECTION OF INDUSTRIAL, LITER- 
ARY AND ARTISTIC PROPERTIES. 

The Union for the Protection of In- 
dustrial Property was founded at 
Paris, March 20, 1883, by a conven- 
tion to which 19 States were parties. 
They were Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Hol- 
land, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway 
and Sweden, Portugal, Servia, Spain, 
Santo Domingo, Switzerland, Tunis, 
and the United States. The object 
of the union is to assure the protec- 
tion of inventions, designs and models 
of an industrial character, trademarks, 
firm names and indications of origin. 
This convention was completed and 
modified by an additional act signed 
at Brussels, December 14, 1900. 

Moreover, on April 14, 1891, agree- 
ments were signed at Madrid con- 
stituting restrictive unions, viz. : 1. 
International registration of manu- 
facturing and trademarks and the pro- 
tection of these marks in all the con- 
tracting countries by the single regis- 
tration at an International Bureau. 
The parties to this agreement were Bel- 
gium, Brazil, France, Holland, Italy, 
Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and 
Tunis. 2. The suppression of false 
indications of origin : Brazil, France, 
Great Britain, Portugal, Spain, Swit- 
zerland, and Tunis. The arrange- 
ment of 1891, concerning the interna- 
tional registration of Marks, was 
completed and modified by an addi- 
tional act signed at Brussels, Decem- 
ber 14, 1900. 

The Union for the Protection of 
Literary and Artistic Property, found- 
ed at Bern. September 9, 1886, com- 
prised fourteen states : Belgium, Den- 
mark, France, Great Britain, Ger- 
many, Haiti, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, 
Monaco, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, 
and Tunis. 

The object of this union is to assure 
effective protection to authors for 
their literary works, and to enable 



artists to enjoy the same security in 
their artistic productions throughout 
the whole territory covered by the 
union. This convention was completed 
and modified by an additional act 
and an interpretative declaration signed 
at Paris, May 4, 1896. Both of these 
unions are represented by a separate 
International Bureau established at 
Bern, and placed under the same direc- 
torate. 

VI. BUREAU FOR THE REPRESSION OF 
THE SLAVE TRADE ON THE AFRICAN 
COAST. 

This bureau was instituted in the 
execution of the General Act of the 
Conference of Brussels of the 2d of 
July, 1890, and attached to the De- 
partment for Foreign Affairs of Bel- 
gium. 

Article 81. — The Powers will com- 
municate to the greatest extent possi- 
ble and with the least possible delay : 

1. The text of the existing laWs 
and administrative regulations or 
edicts for the application of the 
clauses of the present General Act. 

2. Statistical information concern- 
ing the slave trade ; slaves taken and 
freed ; the traffic in arms and am- 
munition, and also in spirits. 

Article 82. — The exchange of these 
documents and circulars will be cen- 
tralized in a special bureau attached 
to the Department of Foreign Affairs 
at Brussels. 

Article 84. — The documents and 
circulars shall be collected and peri- 
odically published, and forwarded to 
all the signatory powers. 

Article 85. — The expenses of run- 
ning the bureau, of correspondence, of 
translation and printing, shall be met 
by all the signatory powers, and re- 
covered by the Department of Foreign 
Affairs at Brussels. 

VII. INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE 
PUBLICATION OF CUSTOMS TARIFFS. 

The International Union for the 
Publication of Customs Tariffs was 
founded by an international convention, 
July 5, 1890, and concluded between 
fi