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Entered as second class matter June 18, 1879, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 







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FLOATING BASE FOR BRITISH AIR FORCES IN THE NORTH SEA 



Vol. CXX, No. 1 
January 4, 1919 



Published Weekly by 

Scientific American Publishing Co. 

/ Mann & Co., New York, N. Y. 



Price 10 Cent* 

$5.00 a year 






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^Ae WH ITE Heavy Duti^Tr^ 

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X 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 




Grand Central Terminal, New York, with new 27-story Commodore Hotel on 
right. An average of 502 trains, 86,668 passengers and 30.000 non-passengers 
enter and leave this great railroad terminal in a single day. 

Transportation 

MOTOR VEHICLES are a vital part of Transportation, multiplying man's 
activities and broadening his efficiency. Their present-day utility is 
the result of constant improvement in tire building and may be increased or 
decreased according to the kind of service rendered by the tires. 
The taxicab that takes you to the train, the passenger car, the truck with 
big pneumatics for the long, speedy haul and the giant solid-tired monster 

for heavy duty work all of these may be made a better investment by 

equipping them with Fisk Tires. 

For sale in i 30 Branches and by Dealers Everywhere. 






Time 10 Re 





FiSK Pneumatic Truce TixiB 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 




Now that we have Peace, what 
are we going to do with it? 



To the Manufacturer: 

After the joys and celebrations of peace are forgotten, 
there remains the stern and difficult task of restoring your 
factory to a peace basis. Whether the factory has been 
making hand grenades or pianos, the war has imposed cer- 
tain restrictions which alter former conditions; and with 
the advent of peace, new conditions are met. In some cases 
increased facilities, due to munition work, call for new 
products to take the place of the abandoned mifitary ones. 
In others, the old-time products of former peace days, have 
been worn threadbare, and new ones are necessary. What 
are you going to make? 



To the Inventor: 

Your opportunity is at hand. You are being sought 
today for your ideas. Those patents which were granted 
you several years ago, and which have lain dormant in the 
pigeon holes of your desk or in the strong box at home, may 
now find a ready market if they have reasonable merit. 
For the increased manufacturing facifities of many American 
industries, brought about by inflated military production, 
are now seeking for something to make — something which 
can keep the wheels turning. The ammunition of today is 
ideas; and the batteries of lathes, planers, automatic ma- 
chinery and so on are standing by waiting for you. 



TO the end of bringing the manufacturer in touch with the inventor, so that one may 
obtain the ideas which the other desires to dispose of, the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 
has established a Reconstruction Department. Under that headingwill be published the re- 
quests of manufacturers for new ideas, stating their facilities and specific requirements, as 
well as the offerings of practical inventors. The department is to be a rialto for manufac- 
turers and inventors. It is but another feature which goes to make the SCIENTIFIC 
AMERIC AN ''The Journal of Practical Information — and Practical Service.'' 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN PUBLISHING CO., INC. 

Publishers of the Scientific American and the Scientific American Supplement 

Woolworth Building New York City 



.Y JOUINAL OF PIACTICAL K 



VOLUME CXXX 
NUMBER 1 



NEW YORK. JANUARY 4, 1919 



riO CENTS A COPY 
I $S.0O A YEAR 



The Coos County Forests 

IN Coos County, Oregon, on the western side of the 
Coast Range Mountains, through a primitive forest 
of fir and cedar the Lost River wends its way. In one 
of the most inaccessible parts which only the hardiest of 
"hikers" have penetrated the 
river makes a drop of nearly 
100 feet. The overhang- 
ing bank forms a deep cave 
before which the water forms 
a gauzy curtain. The di- 
minuitive spectators in the 
accompanying photographs 
give some idea of the height 
of the falls, and the size of 
the big cave. The few who 
have viewed Lost River Falls 
have seen nature just as the 
maker designed it. As yet 
it is untouched by man. 

Lost River empties into the 
East Fork of the Coquille 
River. This river also forms 
a cascade of rare beauty — 
the Cape Horn Falls. Here 
grows the myrtle tree, a very 
hardy tree, but one that can- 
not be transplanted. It fur- 
nishes a hard beautifully 
grained, high-priced wood, 
used in making nut bowls. 
The myrtle tree, although 
plentiful on the west side of 
the Coast Range is not to be 
foimd on the east side. 

-\ still loftier cascade is to 
be found in the Camas Creek, 
where there is a drop of 200 



feet. "'Toe Head Falls," as it is called, is located in the 
recesses of an almost unknown forest. The photograph 
shows two timber cruisers on the natural foot log in the 
foreground. The foot log is formed bv a fallen tree 
which holds in cheek a mass of floating debris. In this 




Photographs all by Kuth Far».'u 



Lost Falls as viewed from the natural cave below 



region beautiful fern fronds are to be found as tall as a 

man and taller. 

Despite the hardships of penetrating the primitive 

forests of Coos County, visitors will be amply repaid for 

their arduous efforts in the magnificent examples ot 
Nature's handiwork which 
abound in these wild regions. 

Mt. Katmai Explorations 

THE exploration of the 
Mt. Katmai region, in 
.\laska, under the auspices 
of the National Geographic 
Society, which is likely to be 
of several years' duration, 
was carried forward last 
summer by Messrs. J. Sayre 
and P. P. Hagelbarger. After 
a hazardous voyage, they ar- 
rived on June 10th at Nak- 
nek Lake, and they com- 
pleted their season's work in 
August. The topographic 
survey, begun in 1917, was 
extended to the shores of 
Bering Sea, adding about 
1,5(0 square miles to the 
map and completing a .sec- 
tion across the base of the 
-Alaska Peninsula from Kat- 
mai Bay to Kaknek Lake. 
Measurements of the tem- 
perature of volcanic vents 
were made with pyrometers 
supplied by the Carnegie 
Geophysical Laboratory, the 
highest temperature found 
being 430 deg. Cent. 




Where the Lost River makes a drop of nearly a 
hundred feet 



The feathery falls of Lost River. Note the figures 
on the log below the falls 



Toe Head Falls, 200 feet high, in the recesses of 
an almost unknown forest 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Founded 1845 

Published by Scientific American Publishing Co. 

New York, Saturday, January 4, 1919 

Munn & Co., 233 Broadway, New York 



Charles Allen Munn. President; Orson D. Munn, Treasurer 
Allan C. Hoffman, Secretary ; all at 233 Broadway 

Entered at the Post Ofllce of New York, N. Y.. as Second Class Matter 

Trade Mark Iticlstereil in the liulted States Patent Ofllce 

Copyright 1919 by S<lpnlinc American Publishing Co. 

Great Britjiiu rlKlits reser\'ed . 

Illustrated articles must not be reproduced without permission 

The objcrl of tliis journal is to record accurately and 
lucidly the latest scientific, mechanical and industrial 
news of the day. As a weekly journal, it is in a posi- 
tion to announce interesting developments before they 
are published elsewhere. 

The Editor is glad to have submitted to him timely 
articles suitable for these columns, especially when such 
articles are accompanied by photographs. 

Harmony of the Peace Conference Threatened 

WE showed, last week, that the end of the war 
finds the United States Navy in second 
position and equal in power to the three next 
navies combined. This very startling revelation must 
be borne in mind when considering any plans for future 
naval expansion. 

During the ten years preceding the outbreak of the 
European war, Congress had been conservative to the 
point of parsimony in its annual appropriations for the 
upkeep and increase of the Navy. The dangers of this 
policy were repeatedly pointed out in these columns, and 
when the war began, the Scientific American did what 
it could to explain the situation and make clear the 
absolute necessity of bringing the standing of our Navy 
back to second place. It is quite possible that neither 
Congress nor our people had appreciated the menace 
involved in Germany's naval program, which increased 
with the passing years; even if the German plan of world 
conquest had been revealed in those days, no one would 
have believed that it was anything more than an empty 
dream. But whatever lay back of German naval 
activity, the fact that our fleet was falling so far behind 
the German fleet in fighting strength, filled all careful 
students of the naval situation with deep concern. 

In 1916 a vast program of new construction was 
mapped out and passed by Congress; and although the 
ships of that program have not been built, owing to other 
and more imperative naval work demanded by the 
exigencies of the war it was an excellent provision and it 
would have brought us back to the second place. It still 
remains on our books as an authorized program to be 
carried out. 

But the astounding proposition is now made by the 
Secretary of the Navy, not only that this program should 
be completed, but that an additional program, equal in 
extent, should be approved by Congress. Those who 
are interested in naval affairs are confounded by such 
proposals being put forward at this time, and naturally 
ask the meaning of any such amazing increase of our 
navy. 

The explanation put forth by Secretary Daniels and 
Admiral Badger, that we need 32 new superdreadnoughts 
to police the seas in time of peace, is so puerile that it i.s 
difficult to take it seriously. Policing is done by gun- 
boats and light cruisers, not by superdreadnoughts. 

Moreover, it is evident that the announcement of 
such an enormous program places the United States in a 
most inconsistent, if not ridiculous position. Our 
President has gone before the Allied nations with an olive 
branch in one hand, a jjropoisal for a League of Nations 
in the other, and words of peace upon his lips; neverthe- 
less, while our President is thus advocating disarmament 
and the destruction of militarism, the Secretary of the 
Navy is calling for an enormous increase in the size of 
our navy with all the threat of militarism which that 
implies. The Secretary is in earnest; for he has made 
speeches advocating this plan on various occa.sions and in 
different parts of the country. Meanwhile our Press is 
discussing the desirability of taking the magnificent 
German fleet which has been surrendered to the Allies, 
and sinking it on the high seas, as the simplest method of 



disposing of what might become a cause of dissension 
among the Allies; although this assumption of existing 
jealously among the Allies is gratuitous, unwarranted, 
and in decidedly bad taste. 

We hesitate to believe that Mr. Daniels, who has al- 
ways been an advocate of peace, has suddenly become a 
disciple of militarism; but can any other construction be 
placed on his action? The Secretary of the Navy is no 
doubt a good Democrat. He is a member of the Cabinet 
of the Democratic administration, which for over 
half a century has advocated economy in govern- 
mental administration. Is Mr. Daniels true to these 
principles when he brings forward, at this time, a naval 
program which will add many billions to the public debt? 

This proposed fleet must be paid for by the people, 
and the Secretary calls upon every American citizen to 
meet his share of an expenditure which is as vast as it is 
needless. It would seem that the heavy sums which have 
been handled in the course of the war have so blunted the 
money sense of some of our Government officials, that they 
have forgotten that it is the individual taxpayers of the United 
States who must carry the burden and pay the price. 

Our President has very definitely announced that the 
advantages which the United States expects to gain 
from this war are of a purely moral and spiritual kind. 
Not the least of these is the sweeping away, once for all, 
of that long-discredited "whip-creation" spirit, which 
Mr. Daniels (unconsciously, of course) is fanning into 
flame by his advocacy of the biggest navy on earth. 

The Factory and the Home 

ABUCYRUS, Ohio, manufacturer recently brought 
to that city, by a great effort, 150 employees; 
after a few days 30 remained, the balance having 
decamped because they could find no comfortable homes. 
A prominent public service corporation near Philadelphia 
confesses to a labor turnover of 1,100 per cent; and 
while this is exceptional, a figure of 400 per cent is 
common. 

These conditions are widespread. During the past 
two or three years employers of labor in all our big 
industrial centers have experienced such difficulty in 
getting and keeping men that much attention has been 
focused upon the employment situation. Investigation 
has shown that one of the prime causes for the shifting 
population and large turnover of many plants is the 
utterly inadequate housing accommodations available 
for the workers. 

In years gone by, when wages were low and "labor 
turnover" meant nothing to the accountant of costs, 
there was always a long line of men waiting for a job; 
and because of this excess of supply over demand, a man 
was not so ready to throw up his job and look for another. 
He would put up with poor housing conditions for the 
sake of having any job at all. But today there is no 
longer the economic pressure upon the worker that 
forces him to sleep six or eight in a room hardly big 
enough for two, and to turn out of bed in the morning 
just in time for the night-shift man to take his place. 
So as fast as manufacturers bid for his services by 
putting up decent houses, he is going to leave the old 
unsanitary crowded quarters and go to the new village 
where he can live decently with his wife and family. 

The manufacturer will do well to bring himself to a 
realization of the fact that labor, in thus exacting decent 
living accommodations, is not holding up the community 
or the employer for something that is not its just due. 
The laborer is rather in the position of one who has been 
unable to get what was due him, and who now for the 
first time is free of that disability. Naturally enough 
he makes hay while the sun shines, here as well as in the 
matter of wages, but while wages may go back to a 
lower level, it is not conceivable that it will ever again 
be good form to herd workers in the disgraceful manner 
in which they have been herded in the |)ast. 

Indeed, apart from any consideration of this subject 
on the humanitarian or .sentimental side, the industrial 
employer is beginning to realize the tremendous im- 
portance of good living conditions in their relation to 
production. Many years ago he discovered that it 
paid to give his workers decent surroundings while at 
their work; and now he is discovering with equal force 
that it pays to see that they have a place to live in which 
a normal human being can take some pleasure in living. 

The manufacturer is finding out that men who are 
housed in unhygienic and unsanitary dwellings are not 
so healthy, not so efficient, lose more time through sick- 



ness, and are more stupid and more troublesome in the 
plant. Statistics compiled in Chicago and elsewhere 
show conclusively that the areas having maximum 
density of population coincide with those having the 
highest percentage of tuberculosis and other contagious 
diseases, as well as of crime and social evil. Indeed, 
it could not be otherwise. 

The output of a plant is seriously affected by the 
prevalence of sickness. With open privies and cesspools 
in every workman's backyard, and wells within 20 feet 
of these, typhoid is an ever present danger. With 
overcrowding and lack of opportunity for personal 
cleanliness, tuberculosis and other diseases flourish. 
We know one estimable lady who supports herself in a 
manufacturing town by taking in lodgers, and who 
accounts herself fortunate when, as is frequently the case, 
she secures a roomer who declares that he does not wish 
to use the bath tub. Her mistaken point of view, is 
well matched with that held by many employers, but, 
happily, every day by less. We are in fact coming to 
realize that people who live in pig-sties are likely to be 
and to act like pigs. If we want respectable and in- 
telligent men and women to work for us, we must see 
that they have decent, healthy and comfortable homes. 

It is for this reason that, more and more, employers 
are assuming responsibility of some sort in connection 
with housing accommodations for their workers. This 
need not always take the form of company-owned 
cottages or apartments — a form that is often resented, 
even when coupled with a scheme for ultimate sale to the 
tenant. It has many weak points to offset its obviously 
strong ones, and makes the maximum demand for ex- 
treme judgment in administration; but in many in- 
stances it is the only satisfactory solution. Indeed, in 
the twentieth century reaction from the nineteenth 
century idea that every man's life was his own to run 
and ruin as he pleased so long as he steered clear of 
actual crime, we are developing a race of people who deal 
so expertly in human relations that, after all, the dangers 
of paternalism and the probabilities of any system de- 
generating into peonage are minimized. 

Without hesitation, we say that every large plant 
located outside the very biggest centers of population 
should choose between three alternatives. One of these 
is regulating housing conditions from without, by bring- 
ing pressure to bear upon owners and local authorities. 
The second is similar regulation brought about by actual 
participation in the business of housing. The third is 
submission to a high turnover and a low class of workers. 
For today, unless an employer sees to it that his em- 
ployees have a respectable place to live in, he cannot get 
good men or keep any kind of man. 

And finally, if the emploj'er does not set his house in 
order of his own accord, it is up to us to make him do so; 
for our reconstruction program can be hampered by no 
factories that are running at half or quarter their rated 
capacity through ineffective labor conditions. Great 
Britain has spent $700,000,000 on industrial housing 
since the war began; with our late entrance we have 
spent $110,000,000, which is but a tithe of the capital 
that must eventually go into the improvement of our 
workers' homes. 

Fossils from the Canadian Rockies 

A LATE report on the explorations and field-work of the 
•^^ Smithsonian Institution in 1917 records a remarkable 
collection of fossils made by Secretary and Mrs. Walcott 
at the now well-known "Burgess Pass fossil quarry," 
near Field, British Columbia, discovered in 1910. In 
the course of 50 days' work the party took out a section 
of the quarry about 180 feet square, thus practically 
exhausting a site that has yielded the finest and largest 
series of Middle Cambrian fossils yet discovered, and 
the finest invertebrate fossils yet found in any formation. 
More than a ton and a half of specimens were trimmed 
out at the quarry, wrapped in bundles, carried by pack 
horses to camp and thence to the railway station at 
Field, whence they were shipped to Washington. Large 
blocks of hard shale were first blasted loose, then care- 
fully split with chisel and hammer to expose any fossil 
remains between the laminav The shale has preserved 
for some twenty million years animals that were as soft 
and non-resistant as jellyfish, worms, crabs, etc., not- 
withstanding all the vicissitudes these rocks have since 
undergone from the time they were simply hardened 
mud. They have been subjected to much pressure and 
profound chemical change, but the fossils remain perfect. 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



5 



Review of the Year 1918 

The World War 

THE closing months of the year now past witnessed 
the fall of the curtain upon the most stupendous of 
all the multiplied human tragedies which have moved 
across the stage of life since life began. 

War, at any time, even when its wounds and sorrows 
are tempered by forbearance and chivalry, is a dreaded 
thing, the threat of which, when it lifts its head over the 
verge of the world, makes the cheek blanch and the 
stoutest heart quail. This is true, even when nations 
which are enriched with the gifts and graces of civiliza- 
tion fight for causes which seem to each contestant to 
involve the fundamentals of right and morality. 

The horror and enormity of this war lie in the fact 
that it was an avowed attack upon Civilization itself — 
that the assault was carried on with a cynical and cal- 
culated disregard of every consideration of chivalry 
and mercy — and that, if it had won out, all the world's 
cherished and hardly won ideals of Justice, Freedom and 
Honor would have been thrown down, and the God of 
Brute Force would have been set up in their place. 

The cost to Germany and her allies of this monstrous 
raid upon the world was 3,350,000 dead and 12,070,000 
casualties. The assault was met and mastered by the 
forces of Civilization at a cost of 4,560,000 dead and 
19,525,000 casualties. The casualties on all sides 
reached a total, therefore, of 31,595,000. 

Increasingly, as the years roll by, the historians of the 
future will write it down that this stupendous conflict was 
fought out to make the world a safe place, not merely for 
Democracy, but for Civilization itself. 
Naval 

In any review of naval events during the past year, 
the outstanding fact is the crowning demonstration of 
the decisive value of the command of the sea. Mahan 
explained all that to us years ago. What a pity it is 
that he did not survive to witness the latest demonstra- 
tion of the truth of the principles he laid down in his 
great work "Seapower in History," and take his stand 
with Admirals Beatty, Sims, and Rodman on the bridge 
of the "New York", to survey the surrender of the 
German fleet. Wars can be won by blockade as well 
as by battle. It was blockade that brought Germany 
to her knees, and, as a substitute for battles, it is an 
altogether merciful and humane provision for bringing 
an enemy to terms. Also, it is an effective means, in 
time of war, of making sure that the freedom of the seas 
shall be unobstructed in times of peace. 

Although the war is over, not much information is yet 
available as to the warships and new material which 
have been developed abroad. Capital ships continue to 
increase in size, speed, and gun-power. The British 
have built some battle-cruisers of about thirty-two 
thousand tons displacement, 33 knots speed, carrying 
the 15-inch gun in their main batteries, and with moderate 
armor protection. Also, they have brought out an 
entirely new type of ship in the "Furious"; a sort of 
magnified destroyer, as long as the largest Atlantic 
liners, narrow, of shoal draft and heavily engined. The 
reputed speed is 40 knots and the reputed armament, as 
originally placed, was two 15-inch guns. Another novel 
type is the monitors, of which, we understand, some 
thirty have been built. They carry a pair of heavy 
12- to 15-inch guns, in a single turret. The speed is 
very low indeed, and they were built mainly to attack 
the German bases on the Belgian coast. They are 
practically useless today. The British appear to be 
satisfied with the 15-inch gun for the main armament 
of their battleships; the United States will use the 
50-calibre 16-inch gun in all future dreadnoughts, whether 
they be battleships or battle-cruisers. The first four 
battleships of the 1916 program and the six battle- 
cruisers will mount this fine piece, which fires a 2,200- 
pound shell with a velocity of 2,800 feet per second. 

The war has served as a fresh demonstration of the 
efficiency of the United States Navy. It found the 
navy, as usual, "on its toes." The best of our destroyers 
were at once dispatched to the submarine zone; 150 
new destroyers were ordered; guns were found for arm- 
ing our merchant ships, and skilled gun crews were 
sent to man them; 600,000 tons of enemy merchant 
ships, whose engines had been wrecked by the enemy, 
were repaired, manned, and quickly put into service as 
transports. A large fleet of patrol boats was organized; 
a large air force was enlisted and trained; a big fleet 



of new and powerful seaplanes was designed and put 
under construction; seaplane bases were established 
on the British and French coasts, and the personnel of 
the navy for manning our warships, transports and mer- 
chant ships was raised to 700,000 men. The close of 
the war finds our navy the second most powerful in the 
world, and equal in strength to that of the next three of 
the great naval powers combined. 
Military 
Unquestionably, the most novel and most effective 
of the new weapons of warfare developed during the 
great conflict, was the tank. Its first operations in 
1916, in the great British attack on the Somme, were 
necessarily tentative in character. As the war pro- 
gressed tank tactics developed in efficiency, and in the 

1917 attack at Cambrai, it came into its own by making 
a 10-mile breach through the German system of en- 
trenchments — this being the first time that an absolute 
break-through was accomplished. The campaign of 

1918 served to introduce the whippet or small "baby" 
tanks, and in the great counter-offensive operations of 
this year, both of the French and British and Americans, 
the tank established itself as the most effective weapon 
of the offense; in fact, German military commanders 
openly attributed the success of the Allied offensives to 
the employment of the tank in large numbers. 

The war has demonstrated the enormous military 
value of the machine-gun, especially as a weapon of 
defen-se. But for two American inventions, the machine- 
gun and the submarine, the German armies would have 
collapsed long before they did; and it is a fact, that by 
far the major part of the casualties of the war on land 
have been due to the heavy and light machine-guns. As 
regard.s artillery, the most remarkable development 
has been the use of guns of the very heaviest caliber in 
mobile field operations. Before the war, the six-inch 
howitzer was considered to be the heaviest piece that 
could be used in the field. Austria and Germany sur- 
prised the world with their 12-inch and 16-inch semi- 
mobile howitzers, and at the end of the war the heaviest 
and most powerful guns in existence, including the 
21-inch gun of the French, were in the field and following 
up the retreat of the German armies. Notable work 
in this direction was done by our army and navy, the 
navy having placed in the field several batteries of 
14-inch naval guns mounted on specially-designed rail- 
way carriages, and also a certain number of our 16-inch 
guns. These were used to good effect in shelling im- 
portant military roads and railway lines in the back 
areas of the enemy. 

Field and heavy artillery cannot be built over night; 
but the Ordnance Department of the army had be- 
gun the construction of a vast amount of ordance, in 
which was incorporated the ripe experience of our 
Allies during four years of war, and which included such 
improvements as had suggested themselves to our own 
expert artillerists. Had the war been extended into 
1919, the Germans would have been subjected to an 
overwhelming weight of artillery fire from guns of our 
own design and manufacture. • 

A weapon which excited widespread interest at the 
time was the 75-mile gun, with which the Germans 
shelled Paris. There is nothing novel in the principles 
employed in the design of this gun. Whatever may prove 
to be the details of its construction, it will be found to 
embody an unusually large powder chamber and an 
exceedingly long bore; the one to provide sufficient 
powder for a range of such great length, and the other to 
provide sufficient space or volume in which to develop 
the expansive energy of the gas. If any nation wished 
to do so, it would be perfectly feasible to build a gun 
with a range of 100 miles or over. So far as we know, 
the Allies have not, as yet, come into possession of any 
of these guns, and the particulars are not yet available. 
It is certain, however, that the Germans either built 
an entirely new piece of 75 to 100 calibers length, or 
sub-calibered a standard 15- or 16-inch gun by inserting 
a liner. 

Engineering 

During a war which was essentially a war of machinery, 
it was inevitable that projects of peace-time engineering 
would suffer. The accomplishments of the engineer 
have been more in the line of thoughtful investigation 
and planning than of actual construction. The New 
York State Barge Canal is supposed to have been finished, 
but this great work has been so completely the football 



of conscienceless politicians that it is difficult for the 
taxpayer to find out either just v/here his money has 
gone or what he has got for it. God send the day when 
public utilities will be taken entirely out of the hands of 
the politician and committed to the unhindered control 
of reputable and qualified non-political engineers — than 
whom no wiser, more honorable and more able class of 
men is to be found in the country. Hydraulic and 
reclamation work is very much in the air just now; the 
government talks of vast schemes of reclamation, and 
of the placing of our returned soldiers on the virgin and 
fruitful soil. Canada, with characteristic energy, has 
started upon a great enterprise for the development of 
300,000 hydro-electric horse-power from the Niagara 
River, and she proposes to secure an effective head of 305 
feet (instead of about one-half of that as in the case of 
power plants located at the Falls), by building her power 
plant at Queenston, below the rapids, where the river 
level is only two feet higher than the level of Lake 
Ontario. 

According to Dr. Waddell, the well-known consulting 
engineer, there is under serious consideration the con- 
struction of a combined ship, sanitation, and power canal 
from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. The total length would 
be 40 miles and the depth 30 feet. The total fall is 327 
feet. The object would be to transfer the largest lake 
vessels and barges from Erie to Ontario, to divert the 
sewage of Lackawanna, Buffalo, Tonawanda and other 
cities from Erie and the Niagara River, purify it and 
discharge the waters into Lake Ontario; and finally, to 
develop about 800,000 hydroelectric horse-power. The 
raising and lowering of ships would be done by huge lift- 
locks capable of handling 650-foot ships through a 
vertical height of 200 feet. 

The Quebec bridge was tested out in August of last 
year by running out two heavily laden freight trains, one 
on each track upon the central 1,800-foot span. The 
total load was 7,000 tons. The bridge stood the test 
successfully. In the field of transportation, the most 
notable piece of railroad construction was the completion 
last year of the "desert" railroad, which forms the closing 
link in Australia's first trans-continental line. It took 
five years, working under a scorching heat, in a country 
devoid of water and vegetation, to close this 1,000-mile 
gap. It is now possible to make a continuous railroad 
journey from Perth, Western Australia, to Brisbane, 
Queensland, a distance of 3,895 miles. 
Electricity 

Although electricity is a peaceful force rather than a 
military one, it has thrived and forged ahead during the 
past year of war. ^5 

The scarcity of coal in certain countries has given a 
tremendous impetus to hydro-electric developments; 
so that in Norway, for instance, hydro-electric power is 
now being employed to an unprecedented extent. And 
the generation of this cheap form of electric power has 
brought about the extensive application of electric current 
in industrial pursuits, particularly in the metallurgical 
field. Much has been done in establishing large alu- 
minum producing plants and electric steel works. As a 
result of this inexpensive and abundant electric energy, 
the electro-chemical industries have benefitted in no 
small way. 

To the electric welding art, the past twelve months 
have contributed much. All kinds of applications have 
been found for this method of joining metals together. 
Interesting researches have been carried out with 
regard to the electric welding of ships, instead of the 
usual riveting process. As yet the electric welding of 
ships is still in the experimental stage, although it is 
acknowledged to have certain important advantages 
over the existing method, particularly in the matter of 
labor. 

In the field of radio communication, the progress during 
the past year has been considerable. The radio telephone 
has been developed to a point of relative perfection, due 
to the use of the vacuum bulb generators in place of 
the former troublesome and uncertain arc generators. 
With the lifting of the veil of censorship, we learned 
of the wireless telephone for communicating between 
airplanes and ground stations, making possible the 
greatest precision in air fleet maneuvers. Indeed, at 
the recent aviation meet at Belmont Park, N. Y., the 
spectators were thrilled by the unison of movement of 
an entire fleet of airplanes; and it was several weeks 
(Continued on page 9) 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 





A pile of salvajje at Ration Dump H of the 77lh Division, and some men from 
Salvage Unit 18, Q. M. C, who handle salvage in this locality 



German machine-gun ammunition carrier and a collection of French machine-gun 
parts from a dump of Salvage Squad No. 1, Q. M. C. 



Where Nothing Goes to Waste 

Glimpses of the United States Army's Salvage 



A SALVAGE plant for the rec )very and proper use 
of waste material has been organized on a large 
scale by the Army near one of the large towns of France. 
N'o army in the world has anything like it, and not a day 
passes that representatives from some of the Allied 
(Jovernments do not inspect it and take notes on its 
operation. It has saved, not thousands, 
but millions of dollars for our Government. 
We will mention the various kinds of work 
which are carried on in some of the depart- 
ments of this vast salvage plant. 

For instance, the shoe department is one 
of the most important, and shoes and boots 
are brought in by thousands of pairs. 
They are first washed and disinfected, 
sorted, and then given out to be repaired, 
inspected and packed for shipment again. 
The production in this branch is about 
3,500 pairs per day. The total value of the 
output for one month was $449,599. 
About 80 per cent of all shoes received are 
repaired. New machinery is being con- 
stantly added to this department, and when 
it is completely organized, it is e.xpected 
that 7,000 pairs of shoes will be turned out 
daily. At the time of writing this branch 
employed two officers, seven non-commis- 
sioned officers, 114 enlisted men, 280 male 
and 249 female civilians. 

The depot has seven operating depart- 
ments, laundrj', clothing, shoes, rubber 
goods, harness and leather equipment, canvas and 
webbing, and metals. The laundry- alone employs 206 
workers, over half of whom are civilians. All sorts of 
new devices in machinerj- are used, save hand labor for 
washing, rinsing and drying; and more than 75,000 pieces 



Photographs Copyright, Committee on Public Information 

are turned out per day. The clothing is probably the 
most important department. Its production is limited 
almost entirely to breeches and blouses, underwear, 
bed sacks and blankets. The daily output is 10,000 
woollen breeches or blouses, 25,000 of underwear or bed 
sacks and 500 blankets, .\fter coining from the laundry 




Working old hats over into new hats and bedroom slippers 

the garments are examined and marked for repair, or if 
not reparable they are cut up for patches. The patches 
necessary for the reparable garments are cut entirely from 
the irreparable ones (15 per cent of the total), and then 
sent out to the various branches for the actual sewing, 



after which they are classified either for reissue to the 
troops in active service or for depot troops or labor bat- 
talions. About 1,600 women are employed in this 
branch, and 75 men. The value of the production for a 
month was S2, 040,8.31, while the operating costs came 
to the relatively insignificant total of $9.3,432. 

Not a scrap of anj'thing is wasted. 
Hospital slippers are made from old 
campaign hats that have been dis- 
carded. The question has often been 
asked as to what became of these hats. In 
fact they are of an excellent quality of felt, 
and no matter how old and worn they are, 
the felt is utilized in the soles of the slippers. 
The uppers are made from old woollen 
garments thrown aside as quite irreparable 
Overseas caps are another specialty made 
from old uniforms unfit for repair, and 
brassards are manufactured by the thou- 
sands for the various army services. Old 
garments are dyed green and marked "F 
W." to be used by the German prisoners 
of war. The old trench shoes that have 
already been mended and are now beyond 
repair, are cut up into shoestrings. No 
matter how worn the shoes are, there is 
always a piece of leather left in the uppers 
large enough to make several pairs of 
strings. 

The rubber goods branch also shows 
remarkable figures for saving. It handles 
primarily rubber boots and arctics, "slickers," ponchos 
and shelter halves; it produces about 3,000 garments and 
850 pairs of boots per day. The great feature of the de- 
partment is the new vulcanizing machine recently put into 
(Conlinucd on page 18) 





W abhertj and extractors at work cleaning discarded United States Army clothing 



French cobblers at work in an American .\rni> Sahago Depot 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 




Our Navy's largest aircraft — the N. C. 1 employed for coast guard work, which recently made a flight with fifty passengers 

Our Giant Aircraft 

Where We Stand in the Matter of Transatlantic Flight 



CopyriKht, Underwood & Undei 



The N. 



1 ■'KINGS move swiftly in the flying world. It seems 
but yesterday that we were awed at the size and 
power of the "America" — the flying boat built by 
Glenn H. Curtiss for Rodman Wanamaker, who was 
backing Lieut. John Cyril Porte, R.N., in his attempt 
to win the $50,000 prize offered by the London Daily 
Mail for the first transatlantic flight. Today there are 
hundreds of airplanes as large 
or larger than the" America"; 
in fact, flying boats of that 
general type have been in 
quantity production for 
some time past at our Naval 
Aircraft Factory. So the 
marvel of yesterday has 
become the commonplace 
of the present; which is 
another way of saying that 
this is the day of giant air- 
craft. 

Prior to the great war, the 
efforts of all aeronautic con- 
structors, with the exception 
of a Russian engineer, 
Sikorsky, were confined to 
relatively small planes. From 
a mihtary point of view, 
there was no need for huge 
airplanes; and, indeed, the 
smaller the type the more 
it appeared to be suited to 
war's requirements. During 
the war, however, the bel- 
ligerents soon came to appreciate the military value of 
aerial bombing, and soon set to work on fleets of bombing 
planes. Germany, in order to bomb English towns, 
constructed her Gothas and Friedrichshafens after the 
failure of her Zeppelins; Italy constructed her Caproni 
biplanes and triplanes for bombing Austrian military 
centers on the othei side of the Alps and far in enemy 
territory; Great Britain con- 
structed her Handley- Pages 
for the purpose of repaying 
the Germans in their own 
coin. France, on the other 
hand, did not take to long- 
distance bombardment, prob- 
ably because of her geo- 
graphical location which 
made her an easy target for 
German bombing fleets. To 
bomb the Germans, accord- 
ing to the French viewpoint, 
only served to provoke their 
bombing fleets to greater 
efforts. Finally, the United 
States set to work building 
huge planes of the Handley- 
Page and Caproni types for 
long-distance bombing. 

Another feature of the war 
which gave impetus to the 
big plane movement was the 
submarine warfare. When 
the value of aircraft in anti- 
U-boat operations became 
manifest, the Allied navies 



set to work developing seaplanes and flying boats 
capable of making long flights and carrying suitable 
armament, including depth bombs. Then it was 
that Great Britain went back to the "America" type 
of flying boat, and started with that huge type as a 
foundation. Today the British and American navies 
have large fleets of flying boats of the same general 




ii'liv 




C. 1 flying boat as viewed from the rear, the three engines 
and their four-bladed tractor screws 

type as the old "America," equipped with two Rolls- 
Royce or Liberty engines aggregating between 600 and 
800 horse-power, and capable of maintaining them- 
selves in the air and on the water for long periods. 

More recently our Navy has come into the possession 
of a still larger flying boat, designed and constructed by 
Glenn H. Curtiss, which may well be included in the 




Copyrlcbt. Underwood & Underwood 

Side view of 



the giant seaplane, showing the biplane tail with balanced elevators, 
at the end of the outriggers 



category of the largest heavier-than-air craft in existence. 
Several weeks past, this flying boat, officially known as 
the N. C. 1, made a flight off Rockaway, N. Y., carrying 
50 passengers with ease. Its lifting capacity is said to 
be five tons. 

The N. C. 1 is depicted in the accompanying illustra- 
tions, which serve to give a good idea of its magnitude 

and general design. It is 

equipped with three 12- 
cylinder Liberty engines, 
driving three four-bladed 
tractor screws. The wing 
spread is 126 feet. From 
prow to tail she is 70 feet 
long, and from the gunner's 
cockpit on the top wing to 
the keel is a distance of 25 
feet. The distance between 
the upper and the lower 
planes is 12 feet, which also 
happens to be the depth or 
chord of the planes. 

The seating arrangement 
is quite odd. In the center of 
the top wing is the observer- 
gunner's post, with nothing 
to interfere with his view 
and his shooting. The 

pilot's quarters, provided 
with two seats and two sets 
of controls, are located in a 
nacelle between the planes. 
Below the lower plane, seats 
for four are fixed, and below that the boat part of the 
plane has a capacity for a number of observers or passen- 
gers. As equipped for coast-guard duty, the plane 
carries 300 gallons of fuel, which is sufficient for many 
hours' flight. By doing away with the armament and 
other military equipment of the N. C. 1, its cruising 
range might be increased to 40 or 50 hours without 
difficulty. 

Given ideal weather and 
good seamanship, the N. C. 1 
or a similar craft ought to 
be able to make the trans- 
atlantic flight. In fact, it is 
generally held by those who 
know that such a flying boat 
can readily be prepared for 
the flight with every prospect 
of success. Because of its 
sturdy construction and its 
ability to aUght on fairly 
rough water, the flying boat 
possesses many advantages 
over the land type of air- 
craft. In this connection 
Mr. Glenn H. Curtiss has 
recently remarked that 
marine flying will be de- 
veloped quicker than land 
flying, because no new land- 
ing fields are required. Ter- 
minal facilities are already 
provided, for quiet harbors, 
rivers and small lakes are 
(.Continued on page IS) 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Peace Parley Problems 

What Should Be Done With the German Fleet 
By Hudson Maxim 



January 4, 1919 



IF a league of nations is to be practical or workable, it 
will be necessary for Great Britain and the United 
States to agree upon the size of their respective naval 
building programs, and to agree upon the size of their 
respective and prospective fleets. If we are unable to 
agree with Great Britain upon the division of the 
German fleet, we certainly can not hope to agree upon 
anything in the world, especially upon a more difficult 
matter still — that of the size of our respective future 
fleets. 

Such a league to enforce peace would not be a peace 
league, but a war-breeding league, if the two largest 
nations that are parties to it are to enter upon a race 
for naval supremacy. Such a race would in itself be 
war. The rivalry between Germany and Great Britain 
in fleet building was a war to the knife, and the actual 
war with the knife came in 1914 as the result of it. It 
seems the height of impolicy for us now to throw down 
the gauntlet to Great Britain and take up the race for 
naval supremacy where Germany left off'. 

We need no defense against Great Britain on the 
Atlantic, any more than we have needed or now need 
any defense on the Great Lakes. We do not need to 
fortify the seas to protect ourselves against Great Britain 
any more than we need to fortify the Great Lakes. 
With all her fleet and all her armies, Great Britain 
is utterly disarmed against us, because she would have 
nothing to win, nothing to gain, from any dissension or 
war with us, but everything to lose. 

Great Britain does not fear the loss of Canada to us, 
otherwise she would want to fortify the Great Lakes. 
If Great Britain should go to war with us, she would 
inevitably lose the Dominion of Canada to us and that 
would more than offset any possible advantage that she 
could gain from the prowess of a superior fleet. No 
power on earth could stand before the American army on 
this continent, if we profit by the lessons of this war and 
prepare according to our needs. 

In the event that we can not agree with Great Britain 
with respect to the division of the German fighting 
ships, why not sell them to some of the small nations 
who are building fighting ships and who would be glad 
to buy them? How about Brazil, Argentina, Chile, 
Peru? 

The money raised from these ships would go far 
toward reimbursing Great Britain for her losses and 
expenses in the war, and we should welcome an oppor- 
tunity to help Britain in this way — Britain, that for the 
first three years of the war saved our land from the 
threat of invasion and spoliation. 

Before the Great War, we used to talk in millions when 
we discussed naval and military appropriations and 
congressional expenditures; but since the war w-e have 
got so used to talking in billions that we have evidently 
lost much of our sense of proportion. A billion dollars 
represents a sum of money which to raise from the hun- 
dred million American people would require a tax equal 
to ten dollars for every man, woman and child in the 
country. The German fleet is certainly worth more than 
half a billion dollars. Now, think of the sheer folly of 
wantonly destroying property of such colossal value, 
while we go right on building new fighting ships. 

If our naval program is carried out, and we enter upon 
a race for naval supremacy with Great Britain, as con- 
templated, and keep up with Great Britain — because 
she will continue to build if we do — it means that the 
American people, within the next ten or fifteen years, 
will be obliged to bear a burden of taxation equal to 
fifty dollars a head for every man, woman and child in 
the country, amounting on the average to $250 per 
family, and there will be a colossal annual tax for the 
expense of upkeep, manning and running such a navy. 

Is there no way to protect the interests of the American 
people against such colossal folly? 

No one can accuse me of being a small-navy man. I 
am as strong for national defense as any man living. But 
the fact that the people of Great Britain and ourselves 
are mainly of the Anglo-Saxon breed, with common ideas 
and ideals, aims and ambitions, is the strongest possible 
element of security. We should league ourselves with 
Britain as our own States are leagued to one another, 
and there should be no more cause to fear Britain than 
for one of our States to fear another State. 

Great Britain's fixed habit of good behavior is the 
greatest guarantee of world peace. It is greater than 
any league of nations. 

It must be borne in mind that Great Britain has more 
navy than she needs at the present time, and while we 



may need some naval increase, we do not by any manner 
of means need a navy as large as that of Great 
Britain. 

We must bear in mind the fact that Great Britain is 
differently situated from the United States of America. 
If the continental area of the United States were to be 
cut apart into as many islands as there are states, and 
these islands spread over the seas of the earth, then we 
should be in a position largely like that of Great Britain, 
and we should then need a larger fleet than we now need, 
just as Britain needs a larger fleet than we need. Great 
Britain's life is her fleet. Our life is within our conti- 
nental confines, and our fleet is an auxiliary. 

We could, with a little time for adequate preparation, 
defend ourselves indefinitely against the world in arms, 
even though our fleet should be tiestroyed and all our 
outlying po.ssessions captured, and we should also be 
able to feed ourselves for an indefinite period, even 
though all connection with the outside world should be 
cut off. 

But Great Britain is situated otherwise. The British 
Isles and all her colonies would be absolutely at the 
mercy of any enemy that should be able to overcome her 
fleet. 

We do not need so much of a fleet as does the widely 
scattered British Empire. In case of war with Britain, 
which is now an absurd supposition, she could under no 
circumstances concentrate her entire fleet upon any point 
of our shores. We should still, therefore, have a pre- 
ponderance of fleet power where needed, a power suffi- 
cient to protect the Panama Canal even though our fleet 
should be incomparably smaller than that of Britain. 

We need a fleet in the Pacific Ocean of a size sufficient 
for our protection against any Asiatic Power or combi- 
nation of Powers. With such a fleet we should be able 
to protect our continental areas from aggression from 
any British fleet that might enter the Pacific. 

Although it is my opinion that war with Japan is now 
most unlikely, still I believe that we should have a fleet 
of sufficient size to make any war with Japan equally 
unlikely in the future. Japan is so situated today that 
she could only lose by a war with us. The Japanese are 
far too wise and practical to go to war with us. 

In conclusion, let me call attention to the pertinent 
fact that no American at the present time has the 
least fear of Great Britain. It is inconceivable that 
Great Britain should take advantage of her tremen- 
dous naval preponderance and her preponderance 
in fighting men and munitions of war to commit 
any acts of aggression against us, much less to go to 
war with us. 

Our comradeship with Great Britain in the war has 
bonded the two nations in strongest ties of obliga- 
tion, fellowship and admiration, and this bond should 
now be utilized and joined with the bond of a 
league to compel good behavior of all the nations of 
the world. 

It is time that the two great Anglo-Saxon nations 
should get together and stand for world welfare. 

Road vs. Load 

DURING the stress of the past 18 months our high- 
ways have been used and abused as never before; 
and they have not always stood up well under this treat- 
ment. The wear and tear of the constant passage, at 
maximum speeds, of heavy trucks heavily loaded, 
and even of trains of such trucks, has taken a severe 
toll from our road surfaces, which in many cases were 
not built for such a strenuous life. 

It has been obvious for some time that in mere self- 
defense we should have to limit the loads put upon our 
highways. It is all very well to say that the highways 
should be equal to the demands; but this is true only 
within proper limits. Every engineering structure has 
its maximum capacity; the Brooklyn Bridge will carry 
a given load and no more, the foundations of the Wool- 
worth Building will support a given weight, its walls will 
withstand a given wind-pressure, and no more. In cases 
like the last-named, we can calculate in advance the 
greatest load ever possible, and provide a margin of 
safety above it; but when the load is one imposed by 
human action, as in the instance of the bridge and the 
highway, we can never tell what demands will be made 
upon our structure by our successors, and so can never 
make certain that what we build shall continue to give 
service until it w'ears out naturally. 

To the extent that roads built for passenger and farm 
service are now being cut to pieces by through and local 



interurban freight traffic, the demand that such traffic 
be regulated is a reasonable one. To the extent that 
roads built to support the normal trucking of five years 
ago are being torn apart by five- and ten-ton trucks and 
long lines of trailers, that demand is reasonable. To the 
extent that no matter how strongly we build a road, a 
load can be imposed that will break it down, that demand 
is reasonable. But — in meeting that demand w^e must 
be reasonable toward traffic as well as toward the road- 
builder; having permitted the pendulum to swing too 
far in the interests of the former, we will never correct 
the situation by allowing it to go too far in the other 
direction. We want to stop it in the middle of its path, 
giving to all concerned their just due. 

A Committee of the Highway Transport Commission 
of the Council of National Defense has discussed the 
question of a uniform traffic law for federal adoption or 
for recommendation to the various states. At present 
such traffic laws as exist are so different in different 
neighboring states and different localities as to cause 
confusion and annoyance. If the Committee does not 
succeed in its efforts to bring order out of chaos, the 
continual enactment of further regulations by various 
local or state bodies may be expected. 

At the present time there seems to be a tendency, on 
the part of those interested, to favor a ma.ximum load 
of perhaps 12 or 14 tons per unit — the figure is immaterial. 
It seems to us that this is not the intelligent treatment 
of the case. Somebody has pointed out that the largest 
tank or crawling tractor can travel over ground that 
would be impassable for an ordinarily shod lady — because 
while the machine weighs many times what the lady 
does, it has so much bearing surface that it brings less 
weight upon each square inch of its supporting ground 
than does miladi in her French heels and pointed toes. 
It seems no more than just to recognize this principle 
in the matter of highway overloads. 

A weight that would smash cleanly through the road if 
supported on old-fashioned buggy wheels, and that would 
cause serious wear and tear if transmitted to the road- 
surface through the ordinary truck tires, w-ould be supn 
ported in perfect safety if it rolled along the highway on 
the traction belt of a crawler or even on the rollers of a 
.steam-roller. So the sensible test for limit loads would 
seem to be so much per tire inch. 

Of course there is a limit beyond which unit loads 
should not go — simply because there is a limit bej'ond 
which distribution cannot go. A load of 1,000 tons 
would be supported, without damage, by any roadway, 
if it were of sufficiently wide distribution. But no 1,000- 
ton load could be sufficiently widely distributed while 
remaining mobile, on wheels or substitutes therefor. So 
it would be proper enough to specif}' that no axle shall 
bear more than a certain load, and that no two 
axles shall be less than a certain number of inches 
apart. But this is as far as the restriction of unit loads 
should go. 

Again, experience has shown that a tire which is not 
subject to tractive strain need not be more than half as 
wide, for a given weight, as one that is subjected to trac- 
tion. Therefore, should a rigid recommendation be 
made for a certain limit weight per tire-inch, it would not 
be fair to the trailer owner who would then have to use 
bigger tires on his trailer than necessary. In fact, the 
tires themselves afford excellent argument in favor of 
this course. There is no better way to tell the relative 
damage done to the road by various classes of traffic than 
by assuming that the highway suffers in proportion as 
the tires suffer. In other words, if a dual 6-inch tire on 
a driving wheel and a single 6-inch tire on a non-tractive 
wheel wear out at the same time, it is safe to assume that 
the one has done about the same damage to the highway 
as the other. On this basis, the maximum weight per 
tire inch should be set at one figure for \vheels to w'hich 
power is applied, and at a higher figure for non-tractive 
wheels. 

Figures that have been suggested by one well-informed 
person are 800 and 1,200 pounds per tire inch for these 
two classes, respectively. From the same source comes 
the specific recommendation that no axle be permitted 
to carry more than nine tons, and that no a.\les be set 
closer than 100 inches. The important thing about all 
this, however, is not so much the figures as it is the idea-s 
involved. To all bodies that are contemplating legisla- 
tion designed to relieve our roads from the destruction 
that has been wrought upon them by excessive motor 
traffic, we earnestly commend the lines of thought set 
forth. 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



9 



Review of the year 1918 

(Continued frojn page 5) 

before we were told of the wireless telephone which 
permitted the orders to be issued from a ground station. 
Radio communication over long distances has been 
greatly improved by numerous inventions which, on 
the whole, remain military secrets. Static, the arch- 
enemy of long-distance wireless, has been definitely 
conquered, according to a recent announcement of the 
Marconi organization; and the tall masts and elevated 
antennae usually associated with radio have been replaced 
by low masts and antennae, marking a new era in this 
branch of communication . 

Not to be outdone by radio, the land lines have come in 
for a number of improvements, among them a new multi- 
ple.K system which permits of increasing many fold the 
present telephone and telegraph capacity of wires. 
Automatic telephony has come to the front in a big way; 
and because of the severe shortage of help, the largest 
telephone companies have had to consider the auto- 
matic telephone for use in the leading cities. 

In the field of electric illumination, the progress has 
been considerable. Flood-lighting has found new ap- 
plications in protecting munition plants and military 
works, aside from its esthetic applications which were 
more or less suspended during the war. The arc used 
in motion-picture projectors has been displaced by a 
nitrogen-filled incandescent lamp in projectors of limited 
power. 

Militarily, there was little achieved in the electrical 
field; for, as already stated, this force is a peaceful force. 
However, in the course of the past year the Germans 
introduced their crewless raiders in attacks on the 
British monitors operating off Flanders. Thus they 
put into practice an idea which was by no means new; 
but fortunately, thanks to the vigilance of the British 
crews, nothing came of the German scheme. On land 
electricity found such military uses as charged wire 
entanglements, improved X-ray outfits and portable 
lighting plants. 

Aeronautics 

The past year has been a great one for aeronautics. 
Vast strides were achieved in practically every branch 
of the flying art; and the twelve months of unprecedented 
effort were fittingly crowned by the fifteenth anniversary 
of the first flight by the Wright brothers, which took 
place in the sand dunes of Kitty Hawk, N. C, during 
December, 1903. 

Spurred on by the demands of the military leaders, 
the leading aeronautic constructors attained their divers 
goals just prior to the signing of the armistice. The swift 
pursuit planes for fighting purposes had been developed 
to a point where a speed of 125 to 150 mUes an hour was a 
fail accompli rather than a product of imagination. 
Giant planes of the long-distance bombing type were 
beginning to make their appearance in vast numbers. 
Germany had confstructed a number of Gotha-Lizenz 
planes capable of carrying five toilS of bombs for the 
purpose of bombing ports of debarkation in France. 
Great Britain had constructed giant Handley-Page 
machines fully as large as any German plane, for repay- 
ing Germany in its own coin. The Allies had con- 
structed entire fleets of small and medium-sized dirgibles 
for naval work, as well as numerous large and fast flying 
boats carrying thousands of pounds of explosive for the 
lurking U-boats. The armament of fighting planes had 
been developed to a high degree, so that some planes 
carried as many as six guns, and few had less than two. 

All in all, and from a military and naval point of view, 
the aeronautical constructors have quite fulfilled all ob- 
ligations. 

America's progress has been stupendous during the 
past 12 months. After many disappointments and set- 
backs, our aerial program at last got under way. Thou- 
sands upon thousands of Liberty motors and De Haviland 
two-seaters made their way to our battle lines in France, 
where thousands of pilots and other aerial personnel were 
ready to man them. Also, our aircraft constructors 
succeeded in turning out excellent copies of the British 
Handley-Page and the Italian Capronis, equipped with 
the Liberty motors. Our Navy completed the Naval 
Aircraft Factory in record time, and numerous giant fly- 
ing boats were dispatched to European waters for use 
against the U-boats. 

In all the lea ding countries aerial postal services have 
been introduced during the past year. The winged post- 
man is fast become quite commonplace, with one route 
after another being added to this latest network for 
handling mail. In the last month of the past year, 
reports have come from all the belligerent countries 
telling of the vast efforts being expended in converting 
the planes of war into planes of peace. All of which 
promises much for the commercial future of aeronautics. 

Chemistry 

Characteristic of the year's chemical advances Jias 
been the enormous development of chemical machinery. 



Reactions which in the laboratory proceed in test tubes 
have been put upon a commercial basis of quantity of 
production that would astound the chemist of a genera- 
tion ago, who would perhaps fail to recognize the opera- 
tions as those of chemistry at all, so altered is the method 
of attack. The year's developments have been so 
strongly along these lines that we must catalog them in 
terms rather of the factory than of the laboratory. 

The coal-tar chemist assures us that he has solved the 
last of his big problems of dye manufacture. The 
knowledge of principles and methods gained by the 
Germans has been so systematically withheld, and even 
falsified, that that knowledge cannot be said to have 
constituted part of the general body of science. The 
labors of the past three years, crowned by the results of 
1918, have made it such a part. 

In glass-making the year's developments are even 
more striking; glass is produced today superior to any- 
thing ever known, both for optical and for other use. 
Our ability to handle paper. Nature's composite, has 
been advanced far, so that this substance is finding a 
surprising variety of new uses. By an alliance between 
the chemist and the mechanical engineer the process of 
dehydration, which means so much in the world's food 
supply, has been put on a solid foundation. At the same 
time the chemist has made the world less dependent on 
a single cereal by showing us how to make good bread 
with a minimum of wheat. 

As a result of concentration upon the problems of gas 
warfare, a large and valuable body of knowledge has 
been built up with reference to the toxic effects of a 
wide variety of poisons, and the proper antidotal and 
preventive measures. At the same time a number of 
commercial gases have been developed and some old 
ones are being manufactured at a fraction of their former 
costs. 

Among the purely research activities completed during 
the year, we must mention two undertakings of the 
Bureau of Mines. The first brings cheaper radium 
closer to realization; the second identifies the character- 
istic property of selenium in a number of other metals 
and oxides, all of which show an electro-resistance vary- 
ing more or less markedly under the influence of light. 

Science 

Under this unclassified heading, perhaps the most 
important thing to chronicle is the acceptance of the 
motion picture as a new scientific instrument. Alone or 
coupled with the microscope, at normal or abnormal 
speeds, as a means of actual research or as an agent 
for proving results and spreading knowledge thereof, 
the moving film has this year proved its place; it now 
ranks with the camera and the microscope as one of the 
recognized optical tools of science. 

Perhaps in no field of science has the war stimulated 
such sudden and such notable advances as in that of 
the psychologist. He has had unprecedented op- 
portunity to observe the behavior of men under con- 
ditions of stress; and he has been called on to make 
tests, and perforce to devise machines and methods of 
test, on a scale never before contemplated. He has 
proved his technique to himself and to others, so that 
he now stands on a level of achievement and recognition 
that he could not have attained in years of normal 
activity. 

Other interesting developments of the year include 
quantitative spectrum analysis and magnetic analysis. 
The former makes available, as an accurate means of 
determining percentages, what has hitherto existed only 
as a means of preliminary qualitative test; the second 
opens up a broad field to the strength-of-materials 
engineer, who has seldom been able to devise a test that 
did not destroy the material subjected to it. 

Astronomy 

At first blush, one would be incHned to class the work 
of the astronomer among the non-essential occupations. 
To be sure, his studies take him far beyond the insignifi- 
cant speck of the universe which is our habitation. 
Nevertheless, tiny as is our earth, to us who dwell 
thereon, the events of the past four years have been of 
paramount importance. But in reviewing the recent 
work of astronomers we find that they have taken a very 
active part in the war. The astronomers of this country 
and of our AlUes have been very busy teaching in the 
navigation schools, testing optical instruments, improv- 
ing the work of the range finder, and even operating at 
the very Front. Despite the handicaps of war a con- 
siderable amount of research work has been done in the 
past year. Two comets were discovered, the first at 
Cape Town, by Reid, on June 12th, and the second by 
Schorr, at the Hamburg Observatory, on November 23d. 
As the result of patient research by Fowler on spectra of 
the sun, he arrived at the startling conclusion that there 
is water vapor and ammonia vapor in the sun's atmo- 
sphere. Heretofore, it had been supposed that the 
intense heat of this luminary would prevent the forma- 
tion of any chemical compounds; but this supposition 



needs revision in the light of Fowler's researches. Long 
photographic exposures, lasting 70 hours, have shown 
that the inner portion of the nebula of Andromeda 
rotates at a speed of 50 miles per second, from which it 
is estimated that the outer portion probably attains a 
speed of 200 miles per second. A small star near Alpha 
Centauri lays claim to being our nearest companion. 
Its distance has been estimated as between 4.1 and 4.3 
light years from us. It is a cool star, only one-thousandth 
part as bright as the sun. 

During the year there were three eclipses of the sun 
and one of the moon. The most important eclipse was 
that which took place on June 8th, when the shadow of 
the moon swept across the United States from Oregon to 
Florida, in a belt from 70 miles to 50 miles in width. It 
is the first total eclipse that we have had since May 
28th, 1900. By a remarkable coincidence, on the day 
of the eclipse a new star was discovered in the constel- 
lation of Aquila, which was the brightest star to make its 
appearance in the last three centuries. It reached the 
magnitude of 1.4, almost that of Sirius. Photographic 
records of that portion of the sky taken at Harvard 
University show that on June 3d it was of normal bright- 
ness. Owing to cloudy weather, that region was not 
photographed again until the 6th,*when the star appeared 
as of the sixth magnitude. On the 7th, its brightness 
had increased 200 times and it was clearly visible to the 
naked eye — in fact, there are reports of its having 
been seen, although the news was not transmitted to 
any of the astronomical observatories. On the nights 
of the 7th and 8th, its brightness had increased 100,000 
times and then it was so conspicuous an object that 
reports of its discovery were telegraphed to Harvard 
observatory from all parts of the country. Another 
nova was reported on February 4th in Monoceres which 
reached a magnitude 5.4 on January 1st, although its 
magnitude was 8.5 when discovered. In March, Wolff 
reported a faint object which at first was thought to be a 
comet, but it proved to be an asteroid with a period of 
four years. This tiny member of the solar family has a 
diameter of but two and a half miles. 

After having been greatly delayed by the war, the 
Smithsonian Institution has at last established a solar 
constant station at Calama, Chile, at an altitude of 
2,250 meters. 

Proposed Swiss National Trade-Mark 

A COPY of the regulations under which it is proposed 
■^*- by Swiss chambers of commerce to establish a 
Swiss national trade-mark under the name of S. P. E. S. 
(Syndicat pour I'Exportation Suisse) discloses the fact 
that the mark will be confined to firms two-thirds of 
whose capital is Swiss and to goods that are made in 
Switzerland exclusively by the Swiss. Thus any 
foreigners manufacturing in Switzerland will not be able 
to use this trade-mark for goods manufactured by them 
in Switzerland. The object of the trade-mark, it is 
stated, is not to place foreigners at a disadvantage, but 
to ensure that any articles bearing S. P. E. S. are to be 
really of Swiss manufacture. In addition, the mark 
is directed against German penetration, as numerous 
firms are known to be ostensibly Swiss, but in reality 
German. The president of the Geneva Chamber of 
Commerce states that the control of these will not be 
easy, but the committee is alive to the probability of 
improper use of the mark, and they consider that it will 
be necessary for Swiss manufacturers to bring cases of 
this character to official notice. No foreign firms are 
to be prevented from manufacturing in Switzerland; 
but not being Swiss, they are to be debarred from using 
the trade-mark. With regard to the possibility of the 
extensive misuse of the trade-mark ;by exporting mer- 
chants, it may be necessary to add the manufacturer's 
name to the trade-mark. This may not be acceptable 
to exporters, and if impracticable and the trade-mark 
fails as a result to protect Swiss manufacturers, it is con- 
sidered probable that the chambers of commerce con- 
cerned will propose its abolition. 

Preserve Your Papers: They Are of Permanent 
Value 

r)Y taking a little trouble, when a paper first comes 
■'-' to hand, it may be preserved to form a permanent 
and valuable addition to the reading matter with which 
everyone should be supplied. We furnish a neat and 
attractive cloth board binder, which wiU be sent by mail, 
prepaid, for $1.75. It has good strong covers, on 
which the name Scientific American or Scientific 
American Supplement is stamped in gold, and means 
by which the numbers may be securely held as in a 
bound book. One binder may thus be made serviceable 
for several years, and when the successive volumes as 
they are completed, are bound in permanent form, the 
subscriber ultimately finds himself, for a moderate cost, 
in possession of a most valuable addition to any hbrary, 
embracing a wide variety of scientific and general infor- 
mation, and timely and origiQal illustration. Save 
your papers. 



10 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 



The Dogs of War 

What the Canine Has Contributed Toward the Allied Victory 



THE dog may well be proud of his 
splendid record in the great war. For, 
while acknowledging the great services 
rendered by other military animals, such 
as the horse, mule, and carrier pigeon, the 
dog has the distinction of having served in 
the front-line trenches and even out in 
No Man's Land, where only the bravest 
dared venture. 

It was quite natural for the Belgians to 
employ dogs in military operations, as 
they had been doing in the days of peace. 
So early in the war the Belgian machine 
guns were mounted on light carts and drawn 
by trained dogs, with the result that the 
few machine guns available to the Belgian 
army accounted for more than their due 
share of German invaders, because of their 
extreme mobility. 

Otherarmies soon introduced trained dogs 
in their organization, using them as watch 
dogs and despatch carriers at first, and later 
for carrying food and ammunition to the first Une, as well 
as medical supplies to the wounded lying about the battle- 
fields. Indeed, the dogs have constituted a distinct 
and recognized branch of each of the leading armies, 
with recruiting bureaus, training camps, extensive 
quarters behind the lines, and elaborate hospitals. 

During the last days of the great war the French 
army had some 10,000 dogs in active service. These 
canines were employed as sentinels out in No Man's 
Land, where the keen senses of these four-legged com- 
batants gave warning of hostile prowlers long before 
they could be detected by the poilus. Dogs were also 
employed to guard prisoners; and, thanks to careful 
training in distinguishing the poilu from the Boche, 
canine guards were used to a considerable extent, thus 




Copyrigrht, Underwood & UDderwood 

One of the extensive kennel parks for the messenger dogs serving with the 
British armies in France 



relieving large numbers of French soldiers for more 
important duties. Still another use for the war dogs 
was in the carrying of despatches across territory under 
fire. As a liaison agent the dog was found to be without 
equal; for these four-legged couriers passed unfalter- 
ingly through barrages and areas under machine-gun 
fire, where it would have been worth a man's life. Even 
in gas-soaked territory the dog couriers were employed, 
being equipped with special gas masks for just such cir- 
cumstances. And then there is the all-important ques- 
tion of maintaining the supplies in front-line positions 
under enemy fire. Here again the dogs served ad- 
mirably in bringing up food and ammunition to the 
beleaguered troops. 

It has long been recognized that the question of main- 



taining supphes is one of the most diffi- 
cult to solve in the usual trench opera- 
tions. By the use of an intense artillery 
barrage, it is possible for an enemy to 
isolate any given bit of trench system 
almost as effectively as if his troops 
encircled it. Appreciating the possibilities 
of the war dog as a carrier of supplies in 
small quantities, the French worked on this 
form of supply service. Special harnesses 
and carrying pouches were developed for 
all kinds of supplies, and dogs were trained 
to carry various articles ranging from hot 
soup to hand grenades for the trench de- 
fenders. 

The results of some of these studies are 
shown in the accompanying group of 
photographs made at the French military 
kennels at Camp Satory. The first view 
depicts a canine soup carrier. This dog, 
by means of the special harness and the 
cans shown, can carry two cans of soup 
or other 'rod across No Man's Land or anywhere else. 

The second view shows a four-legged ammunition 
carrier, in this case provided with pouches holding the 
supply of grenades shown beside him. 

The third view shows a canine shell carrier, with his 
usual load of 20 shells for the 37-millimeter cannon. 
It will be recalled that in previous descriptions and 
discussions of this small cannon, which is a form of so- 
called accompanying artillery, the difficulty of maintain- 
ing a steady and adequate shell supply has been pointed 
out in these columns. Apparently the French have 
solved it with the dog shell-carrier. 

The poilu, who is a tremendous bread eater, receives 
his daily bread up in the front-hne trenches — German 
barrage or no barrage — thanks to the services of the dog 




January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



11 



shown in the fifth view. This dog carries 
13 loaves in one trip. Likewise the ma- 
chine guns, which simply devour cartridge 
belts or clips, must be supplied con- 
stantly if a position is to be held. And 
here is where the dog shown in the sixth 
view comes in for his share of service, 
carrying 250 rounds of ammunition at a 
time. In the center or fourth view ap- 
pears a row of kennels at Camp Satory. 

During the year 1017, over 5,000 French 
war dogs were treated for wounds and 
ailments, of which 4,196 were returned 
fit for duty at the front. The most skilled 
dog specialists of France are engaged in 
caring for the thousands of war dogs; 
and the medical and surgical facilities, as 
shown in the view to the right, leave 
little to be desired. 

The war dog has a distinct application 
in the reconstruction period of France and 
other countries. As a companion and 
guide for the blind soldier, the trained 
dog continues to serve the nation. For 
the wounded, there have been developed 
light two-wheeled carts drawn by one or 
two trained dogs; and it may be that 
vehicles of that kind will be the means of 
enabling many a crippled warrior getting 
about in the coming days of peace. For 
police duty the war dog is well fitted with 
practically no additional training; in fact, the first war 
dogs came from the police departments of Paris and 
other leading cities of France. 

It so happens that the writer has come into the 
po-ssession of facts and figures concerning the French war 
dogs only, but there can be no doubt that the British and 
the German armies have employed dogs just as ex- 
tensively and thoroughly. There has been no monopoly 
in the enlistment of dogs in the great mili- 
tary operations on all fronts; and once 
again the dog has proved to be man's 
greatest friend among all animals. 

Molded Airplane Propellers 

IT is customary to make airplane pro- 
pellers of laminated wood. Layers of 
veneer of various woods, carefully selected 
according to various qualifications of ten- 
sile and compressive strength and of 
toughness, are cemented together and built 
up into a solid block, out of which a pro- 
peller is carved. One disadvantage of this 
system is the fact that the propeller blade 
has a laminated surface and the edges of 
the laminations on the working face of the 
blade are required to strike the air as the 
propeller is revolved, and there is danger of 
splitting them apart. 

To overcome this objection, a molded 
propeller was designed and found consider- 
able use abroad, as well as a certain amount of limited 
use in this country during the war. In this type of 
propeller the laminations are twisted to the proper form 
and then are cemented together so that the working face 
of the propeller represents an uncut surface of veneer. 
The method of forming these propellers is illustrated in 
the accompanying engravings. The layers of veneer 
are laid upon a block of wood shaped to the form of the 




French orticial 

A war dog on the operating table at the military dog hospital. Camp Satory 



working face of the propeller. Between the lower three 
wooden layers, that is, the ones adjacent to the working 
face, there is an interlining of linen. The layers are 
cemented with a glue made of casein and lime. This is 
mixed in a high speed churn just before using and has to 
be applied within fifteen minutes of the time it is mixed. 
The cement is applied cold. The laminations of the 
propeller are firmly clamped by means of wooden blocks 




Stages in the construction of the molded propeller 

as shown in the photograph. In this position, the 
propeller is allowed to set. The glue is of such a nature 
that it will not be affected by heat or by moisture. The 
propellers may be boiled for hours without showing any 
tendency for the laminations to separate. After the 
cement has completely hardened, the back of the pro- 
peller is shaped by hand, but the working face is practic- 
ally untouched. The propeller is then given an impreg- 



nating bath to close the pores of the wood, 
and then pigskin rawhide is shrunk over 
the outer ends. The final operation is to 
varnish the propeller. 

By this means of construction it is 
possible to obtain a much narrower hub, 
and by setting two propellers at right 
angles, one to the other, a four-bladed 
propeller is obtained with a thickness of 
hub scarcely greater than that of the com- 
mon two-bladed propeller. 

The Current Supplement 

THERE are vast expanses of country in 
South America that have never been 
visited by white men, and about which 
little or nothing is definitely known. One 
such region lies in the interior of Venezuela, 
and is inhabited by tribes of the Motilone 
Indians, who have been reputed, even from 
the times of the early Spanish adventurers, 
as the most warlike and dangerous of any 
of the inhabitants of the continent. Last 
summer an American explorer succeeded 
in penetrating this region, where he spent 
some time with the natives; and an account 
of his adventurous observations will be 
told -in the Scientific American Supple- 
ment, the first instalment appearing in the 
current issue. No. 2244, for January 4th, 
under the title of The Macoa Indians of 
Venezuela. The narrative is accompanied by a number 
of original photographs taken by the author. Many 
plants and flowers owe their brilliant colors to pigments 
about which scientists have but slight knowledge; buc 
it has been discovered that these pigments serve other 
useful and necessary functions besides that of decoration. 
Some account of the subject will be found in a paper on 
The Anlhocyanin Pigments in Plants. The Oyster Feeds 
Both Man and Plants tells how the shells of 
these popular bi-valves are utilized as a 
valuable fertilizer, and it is accompanied 
by a number of photographs. Another 
interesting paper is on A Pitched Baseball. 
which explains, and illustrates, the ration- 
ale of its many freaks. Other articles of 
interest in this issue include Vibration: 
Mechanical, Musical and Electrical, Uni- 
formity in Aerographic Records, Dyes in 
Photography, The Probable Trend of Aero- 
plane Design, Coal Gas for Motor Vehicles 
in England, Dangers of Explosion with 
Inflammable Vapors, Tree Wasps and The 
Relations of Light and Health. 

South African Geographical Society 

THE South African Geographical 
Society, recently formed, contemplates 
a wide range of activities, and has already 
launched a magazine, the South African 
Geographical Journal. The society plans 
to establish a geographical museum and library contain- 
ing commercial and industrial specimens from all parts of 
the world, besides books, maps, etc. It also proposes to 
promote "floating exhibitions," whereby samples of 
commodities may be brought to South Africa from other 
countries and samples of South African products sent 
abroad. Geographical education is to be fostered, and 
it is hoped to establish traveling scholarships. 




rTiiiijHsi.-ttii;«i!iBiiPf 

-iU--t ■ mm ■ ■ ;, A ■ N 


'■V 







Cementing the propeller laminations in the press 



Removing the surplus wood from the back of the propeller 



12 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 



World Markets for American Manufactures 

Edited by LYNN W. MEEKINS 
A department devoted to the extension of American trade in foreign lands 



The Adaptable French Soldier 

IT has been proved more than once during the last 
four years that the French would rather fight than 
eat. But now that the "kamerad" chorus has ended 
the war, they have gone back to the farm and further 
glorified French soil by erasing shell-holes with plowed 
furrows from which bountiful crops will spring. Today 
the farms of France need implements and equipment of 
many kinds, from hoes to harvesting machinery. 

The French Departments, or political divisions, are 
taking active measures to promote the "back to the 
land" movement. This is being done bj- offering at- 
tractive inducements to the young farmer. In the 
Department of the Loire, for instance, a minimum of 
from 20 to 25 acres may be allotted to each man not 
over 35 years of age who will promise to remain 10 years 
at the head of his farm. He will be supplied with 
about $200 worth of modern implements and loaned 
additional equipment not exceeding S400 in value, for 
which he has 15 years to pay. In order to encourage 
large families, part of this ■will be canceled according 
to the number of children born after the farmer has taken 
possession of his allotment of land. French mills and 
factories need workmen, but the actual restoration of the 
country is squarely up to the farmer, and agriculture has 
replaced military service as a patriotic duty. 
t= Two Factors Limit the Market 

The American manufacturer of implements and ma- 
chinery, however, should not overestimate his op- 
portunities for stocking French farms with his products. 
In the first place, French manufacturers, more familiar 
with the different kinds of soil in their 
country, are meeting with much suc- 
cess in turning out the equipment 
best suited to it. That the domestic 
makers are not going to let the United 
States run away with the trade is 
shown by a statement of the President 
of the Syndicate of Implement Manu- 
facturers, who said that "if the Minis- 
try of Agriculture will lay down a 
set program, we will undertake to 
furnish French machines correspond- 
ing to the type of American machine 
indicated as a model, and of equal 
quality at an equal price, even if 
we have to make sacrifices to do it." 
In the second place, the French 
Government has no intention of 
countenancing extravagance, and to 
prevent the competitive bidding that 
would result in it, all buying is closely 
organized. 

The Paris representative of an 
American machinery corporation, who 
recently visited the United States, 
mentioned the "consortiums", or in- 
dustrial associations, for imisorting various lines. The 
farmer who needs a harvesting machine applies to the 
consortium dealing in farm implements. If it cannot 
be supplied by a French manufacturer, the organiza- 
tion will import it, and the American manufacturer 
may sell it through this means. 

Although the small tractor of about twenty horse- 
power will probably be the most useful machine on the 
French farm, the average size of which is considerably 
less than ours, there will be plenty of work for draft 
animals. Thousands of horses now being used by the 
American Army are likely to become available for ase on 
French farms before the next harvest. Many parts of 
the country — the Bordeaux district, for example, with 
its many vineyards and small estates — are favorable 
for the introduction and sale of horse-drawn cultivators, 
harrows, plows and other implements. Most sections 
of France, though, are calling for tractors, and this is 
the line offering the principal opportunity to the American 
manufacturer. 

Isles of Plenty 
" JT'S good to see the sugar bowl on the table again!" 

■■■ remarked a prominent exporter at luncheon the 
other day. "Just think for a moment what that 
signifies. We are receiving more sugar from abroad, 
and the welcome shijis that bring it can take more of 
our goods back to the sugar-producing countries, which 
are clamoring for them and have ample money to pay 
for them. With Cuba, nearby across the Straits of 
Florida, the United States is doing a vast amount of 



business; with the Dutch East Indies, far across the 
Pacific Ocean, we can build a large and profitable trade 
if we go after it. The latter market is of particular 
interest because it offers valuable raw materials — 
rubber, tin, vegetable oils and fibers — in exchange for 
all sorts of American manufactures. It is the world's 
third largest purchaser of cotton cloth; it needs con- 
siderable quantities of modern machinery for sugar 
plantations, for a rapidly growing oil industry, and for 
mining; and there is no limit to the prospect for the sale 
of medium-priced automobiles." 

The Dutch East Indies are among our most distant 
customers, and our business with them can never be of 
the mail-order variety. Nevertheless, it is comparatively 
easy to trade with them because most of the important 
firms have opened branch offices in the United States to 
buy our goods and to sell theirs, as the respective lines 
are non-competitive. It is a great advantage to both 
countries to conduct trade in this way. 

How Germany Obtained Elast Indian Businea* 
The Dutch have always been among the world's great 
traders. Before the war both the Netherlands and its 
East Indian possessions dealt chiefly with Germany. 
The reason for this is obvious. Germany's railroads 
extend to the border of Holland; its waterways traverse 
that country. It is as simple for Germany to deal with 
Holland as it is for the United States to trade with 
Canada, and Holland, of course, controls the trade 
of its colonies, which have an area 58 times as great 
as that of the mother country and a population more 
than six times as large. American trade with the Dutch 




Copyrlfirht WesUrn Newspaper UdIoo 



American three-horse harvester used in France 

East Indies used to pass through Holland, but the war 
interrupted communication between the Netherlands 
and the East Indies, so that although the mother country 
continued to be dependent largely upon Germany for 
its imports, the colonies had to lean upon the United 
States and Japan, each of which has increased its ex- 
ports to the islands about 300 per cent during the last 
two years. 

American exporters did not seek this large volume of 
business. They failed to study the requirements of the 
market and they did not push their lines systematically, 
so the Dutch colonial merchants came to us, and it will 
be decidedly to our advantage to make them welcome. 
Java a Market for Quality Goods 

Commercially, Java is four-fifths of the Dutch East 
Indies. It is the logical trade center for the archipelago. 
Batavia and Soerabaya are the principal ports. Sumatra 
and Borneo, however, should not be neglected by the 
representative of an .\merican firm visiting the islands. 
Although traveling expenses are high, averaging about 
$15 per day, the people of the Dutch East Indies want 
quality goods, and their patronage is well worth while. 
There is a particular demand for oil- mill machinery, the 
vegetable oil industry having become very important. 
Large extensions are proposed for the principal mills, 
which expect to increase their capacity from 135,000 
tons of copra annually to 200,000 tons within two years. 
With iron ore deposits in the island of Celebes estimated 
at 350,000,000 tons, a fine opportunity is offered to 
American manufacturers of mining machinery. 



The lack of an American merchant marine before 
the war enabled the Dutch to carry our shipments to the 
East Indies by way of HoUand. With our own ships, 
and with the development of sufficient interest among 
American exporters, we can retain and add to our 
present direct commerce. 

The "Shipment Sample" I« Important 
One American firm has built a successful business with 
the Dutch East Indies in this way. A representative 
was sent to that territory with a full line of samples. He 
showed the colonial merchants just what his firm had to 
offer, and he received surprisingly large initial orders. 
In making shipment, the method of packing specified 
by each customer was carefully followed. Reasonable 
credit was extended. Because h. was on the ground, 
the salesman learned of the value of the "shipment 
sample." This does not represent the goods to be 
shipped in the future, but it is taken directly from the 
actual shipment as it goes forward. When the con- 
signment arrives in the Dutch East Indies, the goods 
are sold from the "shipment sample," while the 
goods themselves remain in the warehouse. Need- 
less to say, endless diflSculty is caused if there is the 
sUghtest difference between the "shipment sample" and 
the goods. 

The president of one of the largest trading houses in 
Java recently arrived in the United States to make 
arrangements for the establishment of direct steamship 
lines between New York and the Dutch East Indies and 
between San Francisco and those colonies. He believes 
that the only two factors necessary for material ad- 
vances in American-Dutch East Indian 
commerce are cooperation and ships. 

Can We Sell Electrical Goods in 
France ? 

'T'HE world's coal supply has been 
* thrown out of gear by the events 
of the war, and the use of hydro- 
electric power has advanced rapidly. 
Electricity as a great labor-saving 
source will have much to do with the 
reconstruction of France and Belgium, 
and it would seem that American 
manufactures will be called upon for 
many electrical devices. An engineer 
who has made a close study of the 
French market for 25 years believes 
that material, if not radical, changes 
in their products must be made by 
American exporters who expect to 
dispose of their goods in France, 
where the methods of installation and 
the standards of quality are old-fash- 
ioned, to say the least. Ten years 
ago, this engineer said, there was not 
a single electrical wiring installation in 
France that would pass the requirements of the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters in the United States. 

"American methods and materials make the cost per 
outlet prohibitively high," said a French importer, "and 
that is the principal obstacle to the sale of American 
electrical supplies. Because carelessness is not a national 
trait with us, the fire losses due to electrical installations 
in France are not one-tenth as great as the losses from 
similar causes in the United States, in spite of our crude 
devices, so we naturally think that such devices are good 
enough. If Americans will make simpler and less perfect 
appliances which will be cheaper to produce, thereby 
lowering the selling price, the French market offers 
good prospects. The cost is the chief factor." 

This importer thinks that push-button switches of the 
American tj'pe would be regarded as luxuries, a cheap, 
rotating, single-power switch being favored for general 
use, and the English tumbling switch, retailing for about 
twenty cents, being employed in installations of higher 
grade. The modern cut-out box is unknown in France, 
where the average form of cut-out now used would 
probably not have been allowed in the United States 
even 15 years ago. The wiring of French fixtures is 
very inferior to American practices, iron or steel pipe 
conduits being unfamiUar to the French electrician. 

If competent salesmen, familiar with France and with 
the French language, are engaged to conduct a carefully 
planned educational campaign, useful results may be 
accomplished in bringing before the French public the 
merits of American goods. 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



13 



A Natural Derrick Mast 

IN connection with the recent unpleasantness, it was 
found necessary, as pointed out in the public prints 
from time to time, to get out from the forests of the 
American northwest a great deal of lumber with the 
utmost haste. One lumbering concern in the state of 
Washington hit on an ingenious expedient for saving 
time with each change of location — doubtless an ex- 
pedient that has been employed before, but never, we 
suspect, upon such a scale or in such a deliberate manner. 
Wherever it was necessary to have a derrick, search 
was instituted for a tree sufficiently tall and sufficiently 
straight and sufficiently strong to serve as derrick mast. 
This was usually found, and was then worked up in the 
shape shown in our photograph. As anyone can testify 
who has watched the process of erecting the mast for a 
derrick of the first class, a good deal of time was thereby 
saved, to say nothing of the expense. 

Growing Cotton for Tires 

THAT an affinity should exist between automobiles 
and cotton seems unbelievable, but the fact remains 
that one of the largest tire manufacturing companies 
in the world has found it necessary to go into the business 
of raising cotton of a superior quality in order to insure 
an adequate supply to meet the increasing needs of its 
factory. That this is true is but another example of 
the complex nature of modern business, where one 
industry is vitally dependent upon another apparently 
as far removed as the poles. In the manufacture of 
automobile tires one of the chief requisites is long-staple 
cotton, a variety that is exceedingly valuable and hard 
to get. Until a few years ago none of this variety was 
produced in this country, and the entire supply had to be 
imported from abroad, principally Egypt. The present 
production in the United States is about 18,000 bales and 
the consumption is many times that, 65,000 bales being 
used by one company alone. 

Some two years ago one large tire maker accordingly 
decided that it was necessary to embark in the cotton 
business. There was plenty of ordinary cotton raised 
throughout the South, but not the kind required in the 
manufacture of tires. For the latter it is necessary to 
have cotton whose fibers grow to unusual length, such 
as Sea Island and Egyptian varieties. To produce this 
long-staple cotton requires the continued observance 
of a number of conditions usually beyond the power 
of any one grower to maintain. It requires community 
growing to insure an adequate supply of pure seed, to 
keep out weed and insect enemies, to turn out from the 
gin a smooth sample without defects, and to establish 
a reputation for a consistently high quality of cotton. 
The principal advantage which the Egyptian growers 
have over those of other parts of the world is that they 
have absolutely definite standards or grades, which are 
known all over the world and which can be depended 
upon by all buyers to come rigidly up to specifications. 

Having determined upon 
the enterprise, the tire com- 
pany, after investigations, 
decided upon the Salt River 
Valley, in Arizona, as the 
scene of their operations. 
Here climatic conditions 
were favorable, an abundant 
water supply was assured by 
the great Roosevelt Dam 
nearby, and a sufficiently 
large acreage was available 
to insure the satisfactory 
working out of all necessary 
details. Some of the 35,000 
acres acquired had previously 
been cropped to alfalfa but 
a large portion was virgin 
desert which had to be re- 
claimed. A water system 
designed to reach every por- 
tion of the property is being 
installed and the land is 
planted to cotton as fast as 
it can be prepared. Thirteen 
hundred men are employed 
in construction work, and 
two model towns are being 
built to accommodate the 
thousands of workers who 
will be employed in the fields 
when the project is completed. 
Five gins have been erected 
to handle the product, and it 
is the intention of those in 
charge of the work to utilize 
every portion of the cotton 
plant. The lint will be used 
in the manufacture of tire 
fabric, the seed will be 




Using a big tree for a derrick mast 

crushed for oil and the by-products fed to stock. It is 
thought that even the stalks can be utilized in the man- 
facture of a substitute for paper pulp. 

The Salt River Valley project will be a cooperative 
one in every way. The company will partially finance 
local settlers who engage in cotton raismg under the 
prescribed conditions, and will provide for the marketing 
of the product. The continued production of a crop 
with a fixed high quality of fiber is a big problem and 
requires the cooperation of the grower, the ginner and 
the banker. The grower alone cannot eifect the stabiliza- 
tion of the cotton industry in his community. The 
ginner must devote his mill exclusively to the ginning of 
long-staple varieties, as otherwise pure seed and a uni- 
form fiber cannot be maintained. The banker must help 
because he must stand ready to lend his money to the 
producer during the long growing season. Furthermore, 
each grower must use every effort to keep out of the 
district the plant diseases and enemies so prevalent 
in ordinary cotton districts. 

In staple and rjuality of fiber the American-grown 
cotton is comparable with the best varieties produced in 
Egypt. In both countries the cost of production is 
about the same, for what the Egyptian saves in labor 
cost is made up by the American in the utilization of 




Plowing the fields for cotton to make tires 




A field of young cotton on the tire farm in Arizona 



labor-saving machines. The crop producing capabilities 
of the land are about the same in each case. A good 
production is a bale an acre, worth from S150 to $200. 
One of the great difficulties confronting the growers of 
the long-staple cotton in this country is to secure an 
adequate supply of pure seed. At the present time the 
supply is much below the demand and prices are higher 
than at any time in the history of the cotton in- 
dustry. 

Egyptian cotton in length of staple is intermediate 
between average Sea Island and average Upland (ordinary 
American) cotton. It has, however, certain character- 
istics which cause it to be in demand even in the United 
States, where, during recent years, Egyptian cotton has 
comprised about 80 per cent of all imported cottons. 
These special qualities are its fineness, strength, elasticity 
and great natural twist, which combined enable it to 
make very fine, strong yarns, suited to the manufacture 
of the better qualities of hosiery, for mixing with sUk 
and wool, and for the making of lace. It also mercerizes 
very well. 

Climatic conditions in Egypt differ radically from those 
existing in the cotton belt of the United States, but closely 
approximate those obtaining in Arizona and in southern 
California. The rainfall in Egypt is very small and is 
quite insufficient for the needs of the plant, very httle 
rain falling in the Nile Delta during the growing season; 
yet Egypt stands third in the cotton producing countries 
of the world.- Elaborate irrigation works supply the 
cotton fields with the necessary water, and this con- 
dition is almost duplicated in the long-staple districts of 
the Salt River Valley and the Imperial Valley in this 
country. The area devoted to cotton in Egypt is about 
1,800,000 acres and nine-tenths of it is in the Nile Delta. 
The delta soil is typically a heavy black alluvial clay, 
very fertile but difficult to work. The soil in the cotton 
districts of Arizona is, in many respects, similar to that 
of Egj-pt; and with climatic conditions, irrigation, type 
of soil, and other elements needed for successful cotton 
growing, almost identical with those found in Egypt, 
there is no reaison why the United States should not be 
able to produce all the long-staple cotton it consumes, 
within its own borders. 

Aside from the cotton raised, the utilization of the 
by-products obtained from the cotton seed, will greatly 
add to the financial returns of the growers, as a variety 
of valuable products are now obtained from the seed. 
For every pound of cotton produced for the market there 
are two pounds of cotton seed. Until a few years ago 
these seeds were considered as worthless and the problem 
of their disposal was a trying one. In the vicinity of every 
gin were huge piles of cotton seed, left to rot and produce 
an offensive odor. Some of it was used to fertilize the 
fields, but the great bulk was dumped into streams, 
burned, or otherwise wasted. But this is all changed 
now. The seed is either manufactured into vegetable 
oils and stock foods, or if it is left on the plantations, it is 
entirely utilized as feed for 
stock or for fertilizer. An 
analysis of ordinary Upland 
cotton seed shows that it is 
rich in nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid and potash. The 
Egyptian cotton seed is even 
more valuable for its chem- 
ical constituents. Compared 
with commercial fertilizers, 
it is estimated a ton of cot- 
ton seed is worth at least $10. 
The best grades of cotton 
seed oil are used as a sub- 
stitute for olive oil or lard 
and the poorer grades are 
employed in the manufacture: 
of soap, candles and phono- 
graph records. Recent ex- 
periments have shown that 
flour made from cotton seed, 
when mixed with wheat, 
makes a palatable and nu- 
tritious bread. Cotton seed 
meal or cake is one of the 
most valuable of stock foods 
and it has from three to four 
times more proteins, about 
twice as much fats, and seven 
times as much ash or bone 
material, as corn or oats. 
Even the cotton seed hulls 
which remain after the mill- 
ing process are utilized in- 
feeding stock, and in the 
vicinity of the big mills of 
the South it is customary to 
find large establishments for 
the feeding of thousands of, 
head of stock for market. 



14 



SCIENTIFrC AMERICAN 



January 4, 19H> 



The Heavens for January, 1919 

A Group of Stars of Extraordinary Proportions 
By Professor Henry Norris Russell, Ph.D. 



WITH the openinu of the new year men of science, 
like all others, are graduallj' settling down to 
their old pursuits and occupations; but it will be several 
months before this return to work is reflected in an 
increase in the now diminished volume of scientific 
papers; and one who, like the writer, gets an opportunity 
to look over the current literature only at longer inter- 
vals than usual, still finds himself surprised at the small 
amount of new material that comes in, month by month. 

This is very much as it should be, at the close of this 
overwhelmingly eventful year. Yet on second thought 
it is remarkable, not how little has been added to astro- 
nomical literature, but how much. And while this is 
true of the United States, it is still more conspicuously 
so in England. The number and the high quality of the 
papers which have been published by the Royal Astro- 
nomical Society of London, during this fourth year of the 
war, are truly amazing. In fairness to our defeated foes 
we must recognize too, that astronomical work of real 
value and considerable amount has been done in Germany 
during the same interval (and transmitted to the outside 
world through the good offices of Danish astronomers). 

Even astronomers of France and Belgium, driven from 
their observatories and their homes by the fury of in- 
vasion, have'(when unable to take up arms 
in defense of their country) found asylum 
in England or America and continued to 
carry on researches of the most excellent 
quality. But the matter of which we may 
well speak more particular]}' this month 
is the work of a neutral — and probably the 
most distinguished of all astronomers in 
neutral countries — Professor Kapteyn of 
Groningen in Holland. 

In a series of admirable papers pub- 
lished in the Astro physical Journal, this 
master of stellar astronomy has discu.ssed, 
with great fullness and ingenuit\', the 
stars of the "helium type" which are 
situated in the part of the heavens that 
includes the constellations of Canis Major 
and Orion. He has determined their 
distance, their true brightness, and their 
motions in space. This problem was more 
difficult in this case than in that of the 
stars in Centaurus and Scorpio, which he 
handled some years ago, for this time he 
had to deal with a group of stars which are 
moving almost straight away from us, and 
therefore appear to be standing almost still 
in the sky. 

The more obvious methods applicable 
to a group of stars with easily recognizable 
proper motion were therefore, not at his 
disposal; and it was only by a very ingen- 
ious combination of all the available data 
that Professor Kapteyn finally reached his 
goal. Complete success has at last crowned 
his efforts, and at the end of his monograph 
he gives a table of his results which amounts 
to a statement of the distance and true 
brightness of each of more than a hundred 
.stars. The bulk of these stars are likely 
to be of interest mainly to the technical 
student; but the conclusions regarding the 
distances, and so on, of the brighter ones are certainly 
of general significance, and may well be retailed here. 

Some Startling Figures 

The group under consideration includes all the con- 
spicuous stars of Orion, except the ruddy Betelguese, 
together with almost all those of Canis Major except 
Sirius. It has long been realized that these stars were 
remote and very brilliant objects; but the actual figures 
are decidedly impressive. Beginning in the northern 
part of Orion, and picking out the bright stars, we find 
that Gamma Orionis (in the giant's shoulder, as he is 
depicted on the old star maps), is at a distance of 370 
light years, and gives out about 2,100 times as much 
light as the Sun. The neighboring star Lambda Orionis 
is farther off (450 light years) and, though not very 
conspicuous to the eye, is in reality 500 times brighter 
than the Sun. 

The three stars of the belt are still more distant. 
With many others in the vicinity, they belong to an 
unmistakable cluster of very white and hot stars which 
centers itself upon the Great Nebula of Orion, and is 
therefore called by Kapteyn the "'Nebula Group." 
The average distance of this group, and doubtless of the 



Nebula itself, is 600 light years. Even tho.se stars of the 
cluster which appear faint to the naked eye are great suns. 
Thus Sigma Orionis (close to Zeta and below it) is 800 
times as bright as the Sun; Eta Orionis (below and to the 
left of Delta), gives out 1,000 times the Sun's light; and 
Iota Orionis, just below the Nebula, is 2,200 times as 
bright as the Sun. The three stars of the belt are 
brighter still. Delta being 3,000 times the Sun's lumi- 
nosity, Zeta nearly 4,000, and Epsilon, the middle one 
of the three, reaching the prodigious brilliancy of 6,000 
times that of the Sun. 

Kappa Orionis, in the lower part of the constellation, 
is 520 light years away, and 2,600 times as bright as the 
Sun. Beta Canis Majoris, which to the eye seems so 
small compared with its neighbor Sirius, is 450 light years 
away — more than 50 times the distance of Sirius — and 
2,400 times as bright as the Sun, or 100 times more 
luminous than Sirius, which owes its preeminence in our 
skies purely to the accident of proximity. 

There are several very bright stars in the group below 
Sirius, the brightest, Epsilon Canis Majoris, being 
nearlj' 600 light years away and 5,500 times as bright 
as the Sun. But the leader of all this starry host is 
Rigel, which, just as it appears brightest to us, is so in 




At 11 o'clock: 
At 1 OH o'clock: 
At 10 o'clock: 



Jan. 22 



At 9H o'clock: Jan. 29. 

NIGHT SKY: JANUARY AND FEBRUARY 

reality. The estimated distance of this enormous star 
is 420 light years, and the resulting figure for its 
luminosity is 12,000 times the brightness of the Sun. 
This makes it by far the brightest star of which we have 
definite knowledge — Epsilon Orionis and Epsilon Canis 
Majoris coming next, and then Antarcs, which is about 
3,500 times as bright as the Sun. By this we do not mean 
to say that Rigel is the brightest star in the heavens, but 
only that it has not yet been possible to determine the 
distance, and hence the brightness, of any brighter star. 
Alpha Cygni may be as bright, or brighter, and it is rather 
probable that Canopus is brighter still; while some of the 
Cepheid variables of unusually long period, according to 
Shapley's work, may also belong in this class. 

But a star 12,000 times brighter than the Sun is an 
extraordinary enough affair. It is hard to realize what 
the figure actually means. Perhaps the best idea can be 
obtained by those who are familiar with Rigel as a 
telescopic double star. Ten seconds of arc away from this 
star is a companion which, even in a fair-sized telescope, 
looks like the tiniest dot of Ught beside its dazzling 
primary, which exceeds it some 300-fold in brightness. 
Yet even this inconspicuous attendant is fO times as 
bright as the Sun, and nearly twice as bright as Sirius! 



The physical conditions which prevail in euch a re- 
markable object encourage lively speculation. From 
the spectrum of the star, which is of the type called B8, 
and indicates a surface temperature a little higher than 
that of Sirius, but not nearly as hot as the stars in the 
belt — from this it may be estimated that Rigel gives out 
perhaps 20 times as much light per square inch as does 
the Sun. If this is true its surface must be some 600 
times as great as that of the Sun, and its diameter about 
25 times that of the Sun, or a little more than twenty 
million miles. This would make it bulk about 15,000 
times as large as the Sun. What its mass may be we can 
only roughly guess; but according to the latest investi- 
gations, its great brightness would indicate an unusually 
great mass. One hundred times the Sun's mass might 
not be an unreasonable figure. This would make its 
mean density 1/100 that of the Sun, or about seven 
times the density of ordinary air. 

Though these figures are professedly little more than 
guesses, they probably give a fair idea of the nature of 
this amazing object — a huge ball of gas, fairly dense at 
the center, but highly rarefied at the edge, and furiously 
incandescent, even to its very outer limit, to a degree 
which we can hardly conceive. In front of such a star, 
and viewed by eyes capable of bearing its 
brightness, our Sun, so dazzling to us, 
would appear like a small black spot. 

The Heavens 

Orion, with the glorious stars of which 
we have just spoken, is now full south, high 
in the heavens, and displayed in his full 
effulgence. Canis Major is below, with 
Sirius apparently far outshining the vaster 
orbs which lie in the depths of space beyond. 
Canis Minor is on the left of Orion, and 
Gemini is above. Leo is well up in the 
East— Saturn being close to his brightest 
star, Regulus, so that the two look to the 
naked eye almost like a double star — and 
Hydra rises in the southeast. Ursa Major 
is coming up in the northeast; Draco and 
Ursa Minor are below the Pole, while 
Cepheus and Cassiopeia are descending in 
the northwest. 

Pegasus has just set, but Andromeda 
and Aries are still well up in the west. 
Perseus is higher; then Auriga, right over- 
head. Taurus is very high in the south- 
west, with Eridanus and Cetus below. 
The Planets 
Mercury is a morning star all through 
January, but is best visible in the early 
part of the month, about the time of his 
greatest elongation, which occurs on the 
7th, when he rises about 5.40 A. M. 
Though 23 degrees from the Sun, he is al- 
most as far south of the equator, and is 
consequently ill-placed for our observation. 
Venus is an evening star, and is slowly 
coming into view in the twilight. By the 
end of the month she sets at 6.30 P. M., 
and is conspicuous just after dark. 

Mars is an evening star in Capricornus 

and Aquarius, setting at 7 P. M., in the 

middle of the month. He appears as a reddish star of the 

second magnitude, and is brighter than any fixed star in 

the vicinity. 

Jupiter is in Gemini, and is visible all night long, being 
in opposition to the Sun on the night of January 1st. He 
is a splendid object, twice as bright as Sirius. 

Saturn is in Leo and rises at about 8.40 P. M. at the 
beginning of the month. At this time he is about 2 
degrees northwest of the bright star Regulus, which he 
much surpasses in brilliancy. During the month he 
moves about 1 ^2 degrees farther west, and by its close 
he rises at 6.30 P. M. 

Uranus is an evening star. On the 22d, he is in con- 
junction with Mars, being 22 degrees north of the latter. 
Neptune is in Cancer, and comes to opposition on the 
28th, but is observable only with telescopic aid. 

The Moon is new at 3 A. M. on the 2d, in her first 
quarter at 6 A. M. on the 9th, full at 4 A. M. on the 
16th, in her last quarter at 11 P. M. on the 23d, and 
new again at 6 P. M. on the 31st. She is nearest the 
Earth on the 11th, and farthest away on the 23d. She 
passes near Venus on the 2d, Mars on the 4th, Uranus 
on the 5th, Jupiter on the 14th, Neptune on the 16th. 
Saturn on the 18th, and Mercury on the 30th. 



o'clock: Feb. 6. 

4 o'clock: Feb. 1 

\t 8 o'clock: Feb. 21 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



15 





A skeleton from the fossil mine 
California's Fossil Mine 

CALIFORNIA is indeed a land of wonders and 
extremes. Not the least of its sights, though by 
no means the best known, is the asphaltum bed six 
miles west of the heart of Los Angeles, where for count- 
less ages have been preserved the bones of thousands 
of animals, most of them prehistoric in their origin. 
Various names have been given to these beds — the La 
Brea Beds, the Fossil Gardens, the Hancock Brea 
Deposits, the Death Trap, the Fit, the Bone Field, and 
half a dozen others. 

The deposits are by no means of recent discovery; 
they have in fact been known for over a centur}'. The 
earliest record found is that of the Mission fathers, who, 
writing in 1769, state that the tar was used for calking 
the boats and for roofing. Later the natives and the 
settlers of the region employed it for roofing, for fuel 
and for paving, and in Los Angeles the roofs of some of 
the first adobe houses were covered with the asphaltum 
brought from La Brea springs. At various times during 
this period bones were reported to have been found, but 
it was supposed that these were only those of the ranch 
animals; in fact, this was the opinion of no less an author- 
ity than the State Geologist in 1865. 

When the holders of the title under the original 
Spanish grants sold the property to American interests, 
it is interesting to learn that the curious little tar springs 
appearing at various places on the ranch were considered 
injurious to the property. It was not then dreamed 
that the whole region was rich in petroleum, or that 
scarcely a mile to the north were to be located some of 
the richest oil prospects of all time. 

After the Civil War the demand for tar rose, and soon 
carloads were dug from these beds and sold; but so many 
bones were found mi.xed with the tar that the market 
for it ceased. The big hole left by the digging soon 
filled with water and tar and oil, and a lake was formed. 
Gas bubbles can always be seen breaking on the sur- 
face of this lake. 

As early as 1875 the deposits were recognized as pre- 
historic, and a selection of bones identified as those of an 
extinct species of tiger. But it was not until 1908 that 
the work of excavation began. In June of that year, 
Mrs. Erskine M. Ross, then owner of the ranch, gave the 
Southern California Academy of Sciences the privilege 
of excavating fossils. From that time on, several schools 
and scientific foundations were accorded similar privileges 
for a certain number of months. Many of the fossils 
were placed in the museum at Exposition Park i i Los 
Angeles, where they are on Dublic exhi- 
bition. The bones as dug out are invari- 
ably in an excellent state of preservation, 
the oil having penetrated them thoroughly. 

The animals that fell victims to this 
perpetual, silent death trap represent all 
geologic ages from the Pleiocene down to 
the present time; the trapping of unwary 
animals is in fact going on all the time. 
The best authorities tell us that the 
tragedies took place somewhat after this 
fashion: 

The outpourings of the tar springs often 
formed pools or even streams which, as the 
dust and gravel carried by the prevailing 
west winds settled and became mixed with 
the tar, acquired all the appearance of a 
hard surface. Sooner or later rain would 
fall and collect on the top. It was then 
that the unwary elephant or saber-tooth 
tiger or camel or bird, .seeing the water, 
came to drink. Not until the victim tried 
to leave the miry pool did he discover him- 
self to be trapped. The more he then 



The tar pit in which California's extinct fauna is recorded 



struggled, the more firmly imbedded he became; until 
finally he was unable longer to move. In a short time 
he sank deeper and deeper in the soft tar, until after a 
few days he was completely lost to sight. As this pro- 
cess has gone on for ages, many animals of every con- 
ceivable description — bears, condors, saber-tooth tigers, 
elephants, the giant sloth, bison, peacocks, and a host of 
birds and smaller quadrupeds — came to be embedded 
here almost in a solid mass of bones. As late as the '80s 
colts were known to have been thus lost in the mire, and 
skunks and birds are trapped there today. In fact, the 
pits may be said to constitute a natural mausoleum. 




Stealing the perfume from a dish of flowers 

in which is preserved a long and graphic record of 
the animals that have inhabited Southern California 
through past ages of geolgie time. 

So nearly do the fossils found here represent some of 
the present-day African and Asiatic species that some 
scientists are inclined to accept them, if not as proof, 
at least as evidence that these continents were at one 
time connected with the American continent. Be that 
as it may, the beds and the fossils from them will always 
be of prime interest to the student of natural history, 
paleontology or geology; and so far as can now be seen, 
there exists here an inexhaustible storehouse of relics of 
the past. 




The lizard whose eggs are worth more than those of the hen 



Simple Perfume Making 

T^EW people know how easy it is to capture the frag- 
'^ ranee of real flowers. The first step in the plan is to 
secure a glass funnel. The small end of this instead of 
opening should be drawn out to a fine point. Some 
means must be adopted to maintain the funnel in an 
unright position. A little stand made of wooden up- 
rights and wire is shown in the photograph. Any kinds 
of highly scented flowers, such as roses, may be gathered; 
these should be in fresh condition as, just after opening, 
the fragrance is at its best. Place these in a vase filled 
with water so that they will not wither. Now get some 
ice and crush this into small fragments using it to fill up 
the glass funnel. At the same time place some recep- 
tacle under the funnel. Sprinkle salt on the ice and then 
move the flowers and the funnel into close proximity. 

After a while it will be seen that the moisture from the 
atmosphere is condensed on the outside of the funnel, the 
surface of which is chilled by the ice. The ethereal odor 
of the flowers combines with this liquid which slowly 
trickles down by drops into the receptacle. When a 
sufficient quantity is secured this may be mixed with 
about an equal quantity of pure alcohol. The mixture 
should then be placed in bottles when it will keep for an 
indefinite time. In this way all kinds of flower perfume 
may be captured with the greatest ease. 

The Water Monitor 

' I ''HE Water Monitor, Varanus salvalor, is one of the 
* standbys of the citizens of India, Ceylon and the 
Malay Peninsula and Islands, and thereby hangs a tale. 
Vou might shudder when you suddenly confronted one 
In the jungle. Not so the native, hunting its eggs and 
rejoicing to get near such treasures. The Monitor is 
equipped with a long forked tongue, extending from a 
sheath like a snake's. It is one of the largest of existing 
lizards, reaching a length of 7 feet, although its nearest 
relative, the gigantic Australian Monitor, grows from 12 
to 30 feet long. The Monitor lays twenty or more 
white, soft-shelled eggs in hollow trees, and in Burma 
these bring a much higher price than hen's eggs. 

The Monitor is well fitted for its life. It is a swift 
runner, able to overtake the speediest mammals, frogs, 
turtles and snakes on which it feeds. It often startles 
hunters by crashing through the jungle, making as much 
noise as large game. It climbs trees for squirrels, birds 
and their eggs. At other times it may be found digging 
along stream banks for the eggs of the crocodile, of which 
it is most fond. Either in running or swimming, it can 
leave its enemies far behind. If surprised 
when up a tree, it drops into the water, 
swimming with powerful strokes of its flat- 
tened tail, which acts as oars and rudder. 
When being captured, it fights with teeth, 
claws and tail. 

The natives term the Monitor, "Kabara- 
Goya." Although it is harmless and non- 
poisonous, it is used to produce deadly 
poisons. The Singhalese are experts in 
brewing a deadly poison termed "Kabara- 
tel." They extract poisons from venemous 
snakes, adding arsenic and other drugs, 
boiling the combination in human skulls. 
And here the Monitor comes in as a part 
of their superstition. They tie three 
monitors on three sides facing the fire. 
Then they torment the Monitors with 
whips and make them hiss to cause the fire 
to blaze up. You and I would take a 
bellows for this purpose, but the natives 
believe that the hiss of the Monitors adds 
to the poisonous quality of the deadly 
brew. 



16 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 



Inventions New and Interesting 

A Department Devoted to Pioneer Worl^ in the Arts 



Adjustable Cutter for Making Large 
Holes in Metal 

THE time required to cut a hole 13^ to 
5 inches through iron or steel plate 
is about two hours by the old-fashioned 
use of a hammer and cold chisel. In 
efficient contrast is the use of a specially 
designed cutter which its makers say 



tCil 





For a quick hole in a sheet of metal 

can do the same task in five minutes, a 
most valuable saving of a workman's 
time. The cutter is small and easily 
transported for work away from the 
shop and is adaptable not only for the 
cutting of iron and steel but also for 
other metals, slate, insulating fiber, 
asbestos board, linoleum, auto bodies, 
boilers, tanks and cabinets. 

The cutter is adjustable for making 
holes of various sizes. All that is neces- 
sary is to drill a %-inch pilot hole through 
the material, through which the stud of 
the cutter is passed and held in position 
by a flange nut. A few operations of the 
ratchet wrench quickly moves the cutting 
tool around the circumference of a circle 
of the desired diameter and a neat hole 
results in a few minutes. 



Device for Handling Hot Metal 

AN American company has recently 
perfected a unique liquid-metal car 
for use in charging large steel furnaces 
with hot blast-furnace metal. In the 
modern processes of making steel, it is 
now customary in the largest plants to 
put hot metal in open-hearth furnaces 
together with cold scrap steel and melt 
the two down and refine them into steel. 
It is not easy to transfer this hot metal 
into an open-hearth furnace but this 
new device renders the operation much 
easier. 

It consists of a short-pour ladle with 
the necessary tilting mechanism and 
a motor-driven charging spout 
mounted on an all-steel frame. The 
capacity of the ladle shown is 35 
tons, but it can, of course, be built 
to carry any desired capacity. 

After the ladle car receives its load 
of liquid metal from the mixer, blast 
furnace or a larger ladle, it is taken 
to the charging floor of the open- 
hearth plant by a locomotive or 
motor-driven truck and run on a 
track directly in front of the furnace. 
The motor-driven charging spout is 
then driven into the furnace and the 
ladle tilted, the power for this being 
supplied by a motor and train of 
gears driving the drum, which takes 
up two chains attached to an equaliz- 
ing bar connecting with the tilting 
lug of the ladle. 

Short-pour stands mounted on the 
car frame enable the ladle to rotate, 
maintaining the axis of the pour on a 
line with the pouring spout of the 
ladle. In this way, it is pointed out. 



the pouring spout is kept close to the 
receiving runner during the whole pour- 
ing operation thu.s confining the metal to a 
short drop into the trough while the 
portable charging spout and ladle crane 
generally employed are eliminated. 

A Simple and Efficient Pyrometer 

IN the early days of the war in England, 
so great was the demand for steel and 
so scarce was skilled labor that unskilled 
men and women had in many cases to 
be used in foundry operations whieli 
could be done successfully and accurately 
only by the use of pyrometers. .So 
complicated are many of these instru- 
ments and so difficult to make in a hurry 
that it was found necessary to devise a 
simple type for immediate use and one 
that w^ould meet all the es.sential condi- 
tions. Recognizing these facts, two 
Englishmen, W. K. Barclay and G. E. 
M. Stone, worked out an instrument of 
decidedly novel design to meet the re- 
quirements. 

The apparatus consists essentially of 
an outer tube of fused silica closed at its 
lower end and open above. Inside this 
tube is a rod, the lower portion of which 
is made of fused silica and the upper 
portion of metal. The top of this rod 
is pivotally connected to a pointer having 
its fulcrum on an upstanding lip at the 




edge of the 
tube, and 
terminating 
at a scale 
beyond that 
The melting-point fulcrum. 
pyrometer in Turned 

section to fit into 

the lower end of the tube, but 
with the necessary allowance for 
expansion, is a small piece of 
fusible metal of the same allby 
as the metal for which the ap- 
paratus is to be used, but with 
constituents proportioned so the 
(Cimlinucil on page 19) 

Drilling Upside Down 

WHILE not an absolute in- 
novation, the design of 
the drill pictured herewith, 
which drills upward instead of 
downward, is at least to be 
recognized as daring. If it 
were simply one of those things 
that will work, and for which 
no more positive claim than this 
could be made, it would be in- 
teresting; but such is far from 
being the case, and it therefore 
acquires added interest from 
the numerous advantages which 
its manufacturers bring forward 




An elTective liaison between the blast furnace and the 
steel hearth 





■ 






;] 


V 


^ 




I 


> 


/ 


V 


1 






\/ 


r 






\ 




^ 




/ 


< 


/ 


1 





The gaps (1) or 

ically for the 

one direc 


(■-) are 
passage 
tion or 


filled autc 
of a train 
the other 


>mat- 

ID 



as the main features of their apparatus. 

It was designed, in the first place, by 

a practical metal worker, for the purpose 

of chewing up tons of old castings in his 




A novel inverted drill that feeds 
automatically 

own shop; but it was so successful that 
the more finished model illustrated was 
brought out for commercial development. 
The "drill upward" principle is claimed 
to effect a 50 per cent increase in the 
speed of operation, since the borings 
drop out freely and leave a clean hole for 
the drill to work in. Aside from this, 
perhaps the best thing about the drill is 
the automatic weight feed — which is ad- 
justable as well as automatic. In a word, 
the diagonal arm at the top of the ma- 
chine acts, under the push of the weights 
seen at its lower end, as a lever bar that 
forces the w^ork down over the drill. 
All that the operator has then to do is 
see that the work is properly placed; so 
he can operate from six to eight spindles 
without difficulty. In this connection, 
another valuable feature is the spring 
cushion at the top of the spindle, which 
takes up the blow when the drill breaks 
through, and thus saves much drill 
breakage. 

This gang drill is intended for use on 
cast-iron, steel and brass articles which 
can be put through at the rate of 7,000 
to 10,000 pieces per day. As a "speed- 
up" agency in the machine shop its mak- 
ers insist that it is hard to beat. 




How the rails are laid out for the 
new crossing 



The joltless crossing, showing the lugs and the 
mechanism that operates them 



A Shockless Railroad Crossing 

A SHOCKLESS railroad crossing 
■^^ has been in use for several 
months on a branch line of the 
Southern Pacific in Los Angeles. It 
is so devised that the opening at 
each of the four frog points of the 
crossing is avoided, thereby doing 
away with the pounding or jumping 
of the wheels. 

At each of the four points formed 
by two intersecting lines of track, in- 
stead of the old style frog all laid 
in one piece, only the two outer 
rails (A, B, C, D, etc., in our dia- 
gram) are joined together; and with 
them the continuity is complete — 
there is no depression or gap, but 
the entire rail top from both direc- 
tions runs right out to the vertex of 
the angle. The quadrilateral is then 
completed by four short rail sections 
laid between the four angles, but in 
(Continueii on pagr 19^ 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



17 



Sekien Trudks 




1877-1919 

The first gasoline motor propelled road wagon was a Selden, 
The present types o/Selden TRUCKS are the 
result of years of continuous experiment, obser- 
vation and experience in manufacture since 
the day of their inception in 1877. 

One to Five Ton Models, Write for full information. 

SELDEN TRUCK SALES COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. Y., U. S. A. 




18 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 




IJ.1-MiMJ.|'|.rL-i-M.|JI.'t-1.'k-AVJJA-rtT^ 



No Leaky Roofs 
for Ten Years 

Coat your roofs old or new with Stormking and 
they are covered by our ten year guarantee. 

Come rain or snow, heat or cold, the water-proof 
oils and gums and the asbestos fibre of Stormking 
will remain steadfastly water-tight. 

Easy to Put On 

Apply it in any weather on any roof surface — tin, 
^wood, tile, stone, brick, slate, concrete, canvas, 
composition, etc. 

For your convenience Stormking is furnished in 
plastic form, to be applied with a trowel or liquid 
to be brushed on. 

Plastic Stormking is especially recommended for 
repairs to leaky joints, breaks, flashings and over 
shingles where extra body is required. 

Stormking saves labor and material expense. 
Investigate. 

Our customers know — write for their testi- 
monials and full information to Dept. B. 



Efficiency Products Company 



'-36 Fulton St NewYorKCity -- 



m 



Reilly s 

^TIEISIEWiv' 




BRICK AND CONCRETE PAINT 

Waterproof Your Walls Now — This Winter 



Reilly's B & C Paint can be successfully 
_ applied to masonry in cold weather. A dry 
surface is the only requisite. 
One painting makes brick, mortar or con- 
Crete permanently waterproof. It pene- 
trates up to an inch. Fills the pores with 
impenetrable liquid wax. 

Permanently colors to th« rich shades of 
facing brick, without appearance of being 
painted. Covers -white salts and stains and 



prevents their formation. Prevents crack- 
ing, freezing and crumbling. 
One painting will last as long aa the build- 
ing. Works perfectly with brush or spray- 
ing machine. Can't peel, crack, chip or 
blister. 

A BIG SAMPLE CAN for SOc-Standard 
Brick Red, Dark Brick Red. Standard Brick 
Brown, Black or Uncolored. Write for color 
card. 



THE REILLY COMPANY, Indianapolis, Ind. 

PLANTS: Indianapolis Minneapolis Mobile Seattle Norfolk 



*lSjai/it%i^i^^lcu/er6^ 



FOR GIFTS 
^^"oea/ Flowers not only delight the eye, but their 
fioriat. beauty and fragrance brighten the atmosphere. 

your focal fiorist, within a few hours, can deliuer fresh flowers in any city or town in 
the United States and Canada through the Florists' Telegraph Deliueru aeruice. 




THE MIDGET SLIDE RULE 

will add, subtract, multiply, diviik ; 
solve problems involving even and 
uneven roots and powers. Also gives 
the Logarithms of Numbers and the 
Sines, Cosines. Tangents and Co- 
taniients of all angles. Its operation 
is \erv simple: quickly solves any 
rnatliematical problem. Durably 
ni.-ule of metal. Adapted or shop 
and office use. Fits the pocket. 
3^* in diameter. Price d*| AA 
with instructions .... ^1«VU 

8end for fVce descriptive 
circulars, 

, „ „rj l:iri t/yuu arr "i"' sdi'/'td 

GkLSON SLIDE RULE CO., Niles. Mich. 





Cleveland Grindstones 

It's in the Grit 

The only ji;fnutne Derea 
Stone. Possessesjust the right 
degree of hardness to put a 
keen edge on all cutting 
tools without destroying the 
temper of the tools. Used by 
majority of mechanics and 
Industrial Schools. 



The Cleveland Stone Co. 

1836 Euclid Avenue 
rieveland, O. 



Where Nothing Goes to Waste 

(Continued from page 6) 
operation and which proved most effective 
in the method of patching. There are em- 
ployed here 341 persons, principally women. 
The harness department repairs all the 
old pieces of harness brought in from 
the battlefields; after being sorted out, 
the French harness is returned to the 
French army and the British harness to 
the British army. The chief items are 
complete .sets of harness, of which about 
1,000 are turned out weekly, and saddles, 
representing about 700 weekly. Some 150 
women and 50 men are employed in this 
work, and the value of the monthly pro- 
duction amounts to $215,453. In the 
canvas department are handled leggings, 
haversacks, canteen covers, cartridge belts, 
medical packs, waist belts and other small 
efjuipment articles, and it turns out daily 
5,000 canvas articles and about one carload 
of burlap sacks. Its production in a month 
equals about S222,878 in value. 

The total output for the month of August 
was over three million dollars ($3,246,588), 
while the cost of production was $315,013; 
the percentage of cost as compared to the 
value of output was 1034 per cent. The 
actual salvaging operations of the depots 
started last January with five officers, six 
enlisted men and six civilian employes, 
while at present about 10,000 persons are 
employed. The results show that the 
plant is not only saving a large volume of 
transport, but over $100,000 per day; and 
while the coming of peace curtailed the 
operations of the plant in all metal lines, 
there is little occasion as yet, for it to 
abridge its other activities. 

Our Giant Aircraft 

[Continued from page 7) 
ideal landing places for seaplanes and 
flying boats. 

To say that the N. C. 1 is the largest 
airplane in the world is to overlook what 
the other countries are doing. The Italian 
constructor, Caproni, is known to be hard 
at work on giant triplanes, one of which is 
said to exceed seven tons in lifting capacity. 
The Germans, during the past year, de- 
veloped their Gotha-Lizenz long-distance 
bomber, with a wing spread of 140 feet 
and a lifting capacity of perhaps five tons 
or more. This German bomber is equipped 
with four powerful engines. The British 
have developed a still larger Handley-Page 
bomber with four instead of two engines, 
which has already carried more than 40 
passengers in recent tests. 

All the late belligerents are now at work 
on large planes, because they realize that 
only the very large planes have a real com- 
mercial value. The pursuit or chase 
planes — single-seaters capable of develop- 
ing high speeds — have little or no com- 
mercial value. The two-seater reconnais- 
sance and general utility military planes 
are available for mail carrying, and light 
express service. But the giant planes can 
be used for passenger transportation and 
for handling express and freight, when 
speed is essential. 

So it is that all aircraft constructors are 
bending their energies toward large air- 
craft, and it may be a matter of only a 
few months before passenger-carrying 
planes are ready for business in this coun- 
try and abroad, and the Atlantic will have 
been bridged by some form of heavier-than- 
air machine. 

Iron That Can Be Whittled 

IT is well known that rapid cooling of 
hot metals hardens them. That the 
opposite is true has recently been demon- 
strated in striking fashion by the General 
Electric Co. One of their scientists an- 
nealed American ingot iron surrounded 
by hydrogen gas for three hours at a 
temperature above 1,600 ° F. The product 
was very little harder than the softest 
copper, and can be whittled with a 
knife. 



LATHES AND SMALL TOOLS 



The "BARNES" Positive Feed 

Upright Drills 




10 to 50-!nch Swing 
Send for Drill Catalogue 




1999 Ruby Street 



Rockford. niinow 



SOUTH BEND LATHES 

E<lal<lialit<l III I'.IIIU Ovrr I9,l»iOSoiilli llend l.allM'> in u.e 

"sl J— 4t—jir F"' 'te Machine 

il'i<'ii"lf^&)_""|i ^yj and Repair Shop 

"^^ LOW IN PRICE 

IS III. to il In. tniiii: 

Straight or Vnp Bell. 

Semi for free'caUloK i^n 

South Bend Laihe Worki 
421 JLiilKonSt.. 
Si.iilli ll.'iid, liMl. 




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9 PIPE. TUBING AND 

ModeU SOLID BAR BENDERS 

Bend all hizes of Htandar.l 
or double thick a te t: I , 
wrouitbt iron, brass and 
copper pipe from 1-8 In. to 
6 Ins.: tut>in|[ from 1-2 in 
to7ins.: round squar*' and 
twisted Bolid stock fron. 
1-4 in. to 3 ins. 

American Pipe Bendiag 
»\^ 5*^ Machine Co. 

32 Pearl St.. Bo^^on!* M«$."u. S. A. 



THE No. 51 UNIVERSAL WOOD WORKER is the 

mosl wonderful wood working machine you have 
ever seen. 26" bind saw. 8" jointer, reversible 
single spindleshaper, saw table and borer all In 
ACb fifNT special catalog describing it. Also aslc I 
catalog of band sawi. saw tables, 
jointers, variety wood workers. 
planers, swing saws, disk grinders 
and borers. 

THE CRESCENT MACHINE CO. 
230 Haio St. . Lectonia. Ohio, U.S.A. 





G £ A R S 

All Kinds-Small 

Thp mo.1. acciiate made and price;, 
reasonable. We carry a complete 
line of Rears In stock for immedl 
ate .hipment. Can also quote cm 
special Bears of all kinds. Send i>.< 
your inquiries. 

Write for Catalogue 

CHICAGO STOCK GEAR WORKS 

20 South Wells Strwt Chkato 



k_a_l__|_«a 



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Be an Accountant- I Higher Dp Thionfli 

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Cor Free Book, "Stories of Success" 
Bhow3 how thel.A.S. intensive home-study cours. 
Drepared many for the bIgrBer job an<l how they got It Low 
teltlon: ea^y terms; qiUckresult^; simple. efficient method. 
International Accoontants Society 
£24 So. Michigan Ave. Dept 41-A Ctiicago lU. 



THESCHWERDTLE STAMP CO. 
.jSTEEL STAMPS LETTERS & FIGURES. 
BRIDGEPORT CONN, 





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for others*, big protit. All eitsy. rules uenL 

Write factory for presseatalog.TYPE.carde, 

(laper.THE PRESS CO. 0-22 Merlden.Ceaik 




THE BRIDGEPORT CHAIN CO. 

SpecialistsiiiSmallWireShapes&FlatStanipings 
Bridseport, Conn. 



NOVELTIES & PATENTED ARTICLES 

MlNUFtnURED BY CONTRtCT. PUNCHING DIES. 
LIGHT lUTDMOBIlE STAMPINGS 

E KONIGSLOW STAMPING & TOOL WORKS, CLEVEUND. 0. 



E AjL^al Model anti Experimental Work 

.tuloniohlle.. lllolQr^. enjlue. and part.. 

INVENTIONS DEVELOPED TO COMPLETION 

Light Tlfg.. Srien Unrhliie niirk. Sprelal narlilnrry, Slampl.|t 

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MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOIST 

for Outrigger hoists. Paster tbaii Elevators, and tiolst 
direct from teams. Saves bandllng at lees expense. 

Manufactured by VOLNEY W. MASON & CO.. Inc. 
Providence. R. I.. U. S. A. 



January 4, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



19 



Four 
Engineering 

Money Makers 

Four big fields with unlimited money 
making opportunities are open to you if 
you will use a little of your spare time 
and prepare yourself. 
The best way to do this is to make use 
of what other men have learned. Get 
everything you need to know in 
either line out of these great books. 
Dozens of well known engineers and 
experts have written them in plain every- 
day English just to help ambitious 
men make more money. 
Thousands of other men have done it. Hun- 
dredsare doing it every day. You can do it too. 
Make us prove how these books will help you 
earn more by indicating- on the coupon which 
set you want for FREE EXAMINATION and 
mail It today. See the free examination otter 
below. ^. 

Electrical Engineering 

7 volumes; 3,000 pages and 2.600 illustrations, dia- 
grams, etc. They prepare for Electrical Engineer. 
Fower Plant Superintendent, Substation Operator or 
Electrician. Partial contents: Elements of Electri- 
city. Electrical Measurements, Underwriters' Elec- 
trical Requirements, Theory, Calculation, Design and 
Construction of Direct Current Generators and Mo- 
tors, Types of Generators and Motors. Management 
of Electrical Machinery, Electrical Lighting, Alter- 
nating Current Machinery, Power Transmission, Elec- 
tric Railways, Power Stations, Switchboards and 
Switching, Storage Batteries, Applied Electro-chem- 
istry, Electric Elevators, Electric Welding and Heat- 
ing, Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony, Land and 
Submarine Telegraphy. 

Regular price, $35. Special price with a year's con- 
sulting Service/ree is $19.80 

Automobile Engineering 

volumes; 2400 pages and 2000 picturea, diagrams, 
etc. These books will prepare you for a Garage Fore- 
manship. Expert Automobile Mechanic or Automobile 
Driver. Partial Contents : Motors. Welding, Motor 
Construction and Repair, Carburetors, Valves. Cool- 
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Final Drive, Steering, Tires. Vulcanizing. Ignition, 
Starting and Lighting Systems. Wiring Diagrams, 
Shop Kinks. Commercial Garage Equipment, Elec- 
trics. Storage Batteries, Motorcycles, Commercial 
Trucks, Steam Cars, Glossary. 

Regular price, $25. Special price with year's con- 
sulting Service /rec is$17.80. 

Machine Shop Practice 

6big volumes; 2300 pafirea and 2500 illustrationa. They will 
help you become a Machine tihop Superintendent or Foreman 
Foundryman, Pattern Maker. Tool Designer or Tool Maker. 

„ Partial List Of Contents : 
Shop Work, Shop Kinks. Gear Cutting, Turret Lathea. Screw 
Machines Manufacturing, Shop Management, Metallurgy, 
Welding Die Making. Metal Stamping, Tool Making. Punch 
and Die Work. Tool Design, Foundry Work. Malleable Prac- 
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al Drawing. Machine Drawing and Design, Automobile Shop 
Work Regular price. $30.00. Special price with a year's 
conaulting Service /ree ia $19.80 



Civil Engineering 

9 volumes; 3900 pages and 3U00 illustrations They prepare 
for Civil or Structural Engineer, Tran--.itman. Estimator De- 
signer or Chief Draftsman. Partial Contents : Plane' Sur- 
veying. Mechanical Drawing. Plotting and Topography. Rail- 
road Engineering, Statics, Strength of Materials, Roof Trus- 
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Engineering. Masonry and Reinforced Concrete, Steel Con- 
struction. Practical Problems in Construction, Bridge En- 
Kneenng. Highway Construction. Hydraulics. Water Supply, 
ri^tion Engineering, Water Power Development. Sewera 
and Drains. House Drainage and Sanitation. River and Harbor 
^Regular price, $45. Special with year "3 con- 



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I Keierence. . - 



A Simple and Efficient Pyrometer 

{Continued from page 16) 

melting point correspcmds to the tempera- 
ture at which the metal in the crucible 
should be poured. The silica rod rests 
upon this piece of metal, and when so 
resting the pointer is in the zero position. 

When the time has arrived for ascertain- 
ing whether the metal is ready for pouring, 
the pyrometer is lowered into the crucible 
of molten metal. It may be here explained 
that it is necessary to coat the portion of 
the silica tube which enters the crucible 
with a special covering to resist the cutting 
action of the slag and the reaction of the 
metal in the crucible. When the re- 
quisite temperature has been reached, the 
metal in the tube will melt and thus 
allow the rod to descend, by gravity, until 
its end rests upon the bottom of the tube. 
In so descending it raises the pointer in 
the quadrant to the position shown in the 
dotted lines, thus indicating in a positive 
manner that the crucible charge is ready 
for pouring. The pyrometer is then 
withdrawn from the crucible, and in 
order to prevent its metal charge from 
solidifying round the rod, the outer end of 
the pointer is depressed until it is forced 
by a spring catch into a recess in the 
bridge-piece, lifting the rod clear of the 
metal. When the latter has set, it is 
merely necessary to release the pointer 
and the apparatus is again ready for 
service. 

It may be noted that a special socket 
connection has been devised to join the 
metal and the silica portions of the rod, 
in order to prevent the latter from be- 
coming separated when the metal socket 
expands with the high temperature. The 
connection consists of a socket having a 
number of slanting saw cuts formed in its 
sides. The silica rod is fitted into the 
central recess and rammed in with cement, 
the arrangement being such that the saw 
cuts allow for expansion without relaxing 
the hold on the sihca rod. In the event 
of an accident, such as the bottom of the 
tube falling out while in the crucible, the 
charge is not spoiled, as the fusible metal 
being the same class of alloy as the charge 
does not have any deleterious effect on it. 

A Shockless Railroad Crossing 

(Continued from page 16) \ 

every case leaving a gap in the rail tops be- 
tween the end of the inner section and the 
intersection of the outer rails. These 
inserted rails are marked in the diagram 
with small letters a, b, c, etc. Thus in 
neither direction is there a line of con- 
tinuous rail. 

The idea of the device is to provide, at 
the approach of a train on either line, a 
continuous rail on that line. For this 
purpose there is a lug or filler at each of 
the eight gaps, so arranged as to take 
either of two positions — up, filling the gap 
in the rail, or down, leaving the gap un- 
filled. These eight lugs are connected 
with each other by the operating mechan- 
ism, wliich can be set up to operate in 
either of three ways. 

In any event, there is a base casting, 
upon which the rails rest. On each side of 
this, a few inches from the bottom, is a 
three-inch shaft carried in bo.xings, and on 
the ends of each shaft are found the lugs. 
Under the first system all the lugs are 
upright, and there is a full rail in each 
direction, all the time. The flange of the 
wheel, as it meets the lugs opposing its 
passage, pushes them forward; after each 
wheel has passed they return to their 
upright position. The other four lugs 
furnish the rail surface for the wheel — a 
surface without interruption, and which 
can accordingly be traversed without 
jar. 

This automatic system is of course not 
at all feasible for fast trains; so for main- 
line use a block system has been devised 
for operating the crossing. Under this 
system the cross bars from cam to cam are 
removed. One of these is inverted and 
fastened to the base casting, and in the 



center of this bar is fastened a three-armed 
device and a straight bar, the ends of 
which correspond with the short lugs on 
the axles to which the upright lugs are 
attached. Strong lugs connect the short 
lugs with the bars in the center. When 
the upright fillers afford a full arm in one 
direction, the other lugs are down. At a 
convenient connection, wire pulls are at- 
tached to the ends of the armed device in 
the center and carried to a lever at any 
convenient point. When operated, one 
set of lugs or fillers rises while the other 
drops. Operation may be wholly auto- 
matic, by connection with the regular 
signals indicating which of the intersecting 
lines is clear; or the crossing signalman 
may be required to set the track separately 
from the signal for the passage of a train 
in one direction or the other. 

When desired, the crossing can be oper- 
ated electrically instead of mechanically. 
For this purpose, the ordinary mechanism 
used for operating switches from the block 
system may be employed, using selenoid 
pulls to move the lugs into position. 

Farm Trademarks that Bring Business 

ALWAYS a trademark is worth having, 
L and when it is "catchy" and particu- 
larly appropriate for the products sold, 
it is of especial value. To this remark 
the business of agricultural production 
affords no exception. An eastern farm, 
famous for its poultry, and which has 
extensive apple orchards, adopted an 
attractive distinctive name that combined 
these two products in a single coined 
word, which was illustrated, cartoonwi.se, 
by an appropriate design. This mark, 
in varied sizes, is employed wherever 
opportunity permits — on letterheads, en- 
velopes, billheads, selling literature, carton 
labels, etc. It is a striking thing that is 
seldom forgotten by those who see it. 

Progressive farmers, who long ago 
realized the value of a good farm name, 
are now adopting trademarks freely; and 
where the farm advertises, or sells direct 
to the consumer by parcel post, the money- 
making possibilities of the device are so 
great that pains should be taken with it. 
Coined names, like that alluded to, have 
particular value. For while a poorly 
coined name simply sounds silly, a good one 
has enormous pulling power; and it offers 
the additional advantage that it can be 
registered in Washington and ownership 
and sole right of use thus guaranteed. 
The head of one of the great biscuit com- 
panies is said to have appraised the coined 
name under which his leading product is 
sold at a million dollars. Every reader 
is familiar with nationally advertised 
trade names of this sort, coined words 
which only the originator has the right to 
use. 

Among farmers most advertising is done 
by breeders of good stock. Poultrymen 
in particular use much selling literature. 
Trademarks and tradenames are employed 
more and more by these men; but a sur- 
prising thing is that few avail themselves 
of the registry privilege, the cost of which 
is so trifling. Sometimes deplorable con- 
sequences arise. 

A Massachusetts breeder of White 
Leghorns coined, or thought he did, a name 
suggesting that his hens were great egg 
producers, and he applied this name to his 
stock and his farm, the latter an enterprise 
in which he had some $25,000 invested. 
The name through the owner's advertising, 
became well known in many parts of the 
country. Then it developed that a Middle 
West farm breeding another variety of 
chicken, and advertising on a much smaller 
scale, was also using this identical coined 
name — and had registered it at Wash- 
ington. There was nothing for the Massa- 
chusetts man to do but abandon the name 
which was undoubtedly worth hundreds 
or perhaps even thousands of dollars to 
him. So if you have originated a unique 
and business-getting name for the products 
of your farm, or for the farm itself, register 
it. That is the safe thing to do, and the 
business-like thing. 




.GATHO 

ALLoy Steels 

have always realized it. 

So out of their vast exper- 
ience, these men have 
evolved a complete set of 
alloy steel types, covering 
every conceivable condition, 
that combine "AG ATHON" 
super quality with perfect 
physical qualifications. 

Do you require Alloy Steel 
for automobile crankshafts? 

Agathon Type No. 29-A is 
best for this purpose. 

Is it a locomotive connect- 
ing rod? Specify Agathon 
Type No. 24-B. 

And so it is with every 
other alloy steel require- 
ment; there's a standard 
"Agathon" Type for each 
and all; — ^the finest quality 
of steel tliat can be made 
and the most suitable alloy 
for its designated purpose. 

Are you interested ? 

If so we will be glad to 
answer any questions you 
may wish to ask. 

The Central Steel Co. 

Maasillon, Ohio 




A connecting rod 
steel that will suc- 
cessfully stand a 
test like this can be 
relied upon under 
any service condi- 
tions. 

This rod was 
twisted while COLD 
and showed no sigtt 
of fracture. 
AGATHON Stand- 
ard Connecting Rod 
Type No. 24-B. 



20 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 4, 1919 



WHITING-ADAMS 

BRUSHES 

TRADE VULCAN MARK 
RUBBER CEMENTED 

Shaving Brushes 

are guaranteed not to »hed bristles 
or hair nor to fail in any respect. 
Having one, insures its owner 
against all brush troubles. 

These brushes have ends as soft 
as the finest velvet, and the mass of 
hair has stiffness and elasticity to 
rub in the lather to make it eff ectiTe. 




Send for 

Illustrated 

ljt*ratur« 



JOHN L. WHITING- 
J. }. ADAMS CO. 
Boston, U.S.A. 

Brush Manufacturers 
for Over 1 08 Years and 
the Largest in the World 



R^ckuiood 
Friction- 

1rAn^fii//ion 



If you are making hoisting or ele- 
vating machinery, mill machinery, 
machine shop tools or wood working 
niachinerj- — variable speed devices of 
any kind — machines where quick 
starts and sudden stops are essential 
— Friction Transmission is best In- 
vestigate it. 

Ask us to send you oiu- book 
"Friction Transmission." It is 

free to manufacturers, engineers or 
designers and contains valuable data 
and formulae. Please mention firm 
connection. 

THE ROCKWOOD MFG. CO. 

1904 English Ave. Indianapolis, Ind. 



LowCosto/UpKeep 



ROTH MOTORS 

are built for work, not 
for idleness in the re- 
pair shop. So 
they give 
steady, day< 
after-day ser- 
vice at a low 
cost of oper- 
ation. Twenty 
years* success is 
their best recommen- 
dation. Write for full 
facts. 

RothBros.&Co. 

198 Loomis Street 
Chicago. HI. 



Saccessfol More 
20 Years 




renevaLlef U ^£^3 

cot annual fuse mainteaaace costs] 80% 
in many of oar leading indiutrics. 

An inexpensive l::-n.- ' Drop Out" Kene'wal 
Link restores a biowTi Economy Fuse to its 
original efficitncy. Economy Fuses protect 
electrical circuits of the U. S. Na\->- and 
leading powder and munitions plants. 
Order from your ol. ctncal df alcr. 

ECONOMY FTTSE & l^G. CO. 
ffiime and Orleans ^..Chicago.U.S A. 

1 SoU t'tanufacturers of " ARKLILSS"— 
the Son-RennaabU Fuse -^ith the 
" 100% Guaranteed Indicator" 
Economy Puses are aisb made in 
Canada ai .\fortreal 



WELL^p'iVI'^WELL 

Own a machine of your own. . Ca^fi"^ or easy 
terms. Many styles and sizes for all purposes 
^ Write for Circular. 

WILLIAMS BROS., 431 W. Slate St., Ithaca, N.Y. 




^Notes 

and Queries. 



Kindly keep your queries on separate sheets of 
paper when corresponding about such matters as 
patents, subscriptions, books, etc. This will 
greatly facilitate answering your questions, as in 
many cases they have to be referred to experts. 
The full name and address should be given on 
every sheet. No attention will be paid to un- 
signed queries. Full hints to correspondents are 
printed from time to time and will \x mailed on 
request. 

(14293) W. R. S. asks: As you un- 
doubtedly are aware, • the advantages that 
would accrue from a more efficient method of 
oxygen separation than known at present would 
be of incalculable value to our country in the 
present crisis. The most economical method 
now known is that of fractional distillation, but 
this is far from being cheap and convenient. As 
the atomic weight of oxygen is more than that of 
nitrogen which is the chief constituent of the air. 
I believe that the separation of oxygen can be 
effected by intense centrifugal force. A. The 
separation of nitrogen from the oxygen of the air 
by centrifugal force has been performed, but 
whether a commercial i)ossibility we caimot say. 
At normal pressure and the freezing temperature, 
oxygen weighs .08922 pound per cubic foot, and 
nitrogen weighs .07812 pound per cubic foot. 
This is a very slight difference upon which the 
centrifugal force is to act to overcome the kinetic 
energy of diffusion. We have no data at hand 
of the experiments in this direction. The various 
modes of securing oxygen are well presented in an 
article in the Scientific A.merican Supplement, 
No. 1867 

(14294) F. H. P. says: Could you kindly 
give me any information re converting garbage 
into fuel. I think you published something 
regarding this in your magazine some time ago. 
If you have nothing on this probably you could 
put me in touch where I could procure this in- 
formation. A. The word garbage as used in 
your cotmtry (Canada), usually includes munici- 
pal refuse consisting of kitchen food refuse, 
household ashes, combustable rubbish, and 
manure. In Ottawa this was collected in one 
set of wagons, no separation being made of the 
various classes of refuse except that during the 
winter months part of the ashes we-e collected 
separately. Mixed refuse can be burned without 
additional fuel in a suitably designed furnace. 
The essential features of such a furnace are 
provision for charging regular quantities at 
regular intervals, drying the refuse in the furnace 
before stoking into the burning grates, retention 
of heat in the furnace, preventation of leakage of 
cold air into the furnace, high pressure forced 
draught, preheating of this forced draught by 
utilization of the heat generated. Such a furnace 
is called a Destructor. When it is desired to 
utilize the heat generated by the burning refuse 
the waste gasses are passed through high pressure 
boilers inst ailed in the setting between the furnace 
and the chimney. The amotmt of evaporation 
in the boiler naturally depends on the character 
of the refuse and other variables. In common 
practice about 1 Vt poimds of steam at 100 pounds 
pressure can be generated per poimd of refuse 
burned. This often runs up to 3 or 4 pounds 
evaporation. The commercial value of gar- 
bage as fuel is illustrated by the Destructor at 
Wcstmount, P. Q., where the high pressure steam 
generated by utiUzlng the waste heat from burn- 
ing refuse is a large proportion of the steam used 
in the municipal electric light plant. The present 
Destructor at Ottawa generates considerable 
steam from refuse. This steam is used for plant 
purposes. In the new Destructor at Toronto 
the officials did not see fit to accept the proposal 
to install boilers to utilize the waste heat. They 
have, therefore, lost to the city the heat value of 
from 2.5 to 40 tons of coal per day, w hlch in these 
times of lalx)r scarcity and fuel shortage is an 
important item. 

(1429.5) C. E. M. says: Will you kindly 
state through the columns of your paper whether 
it is possible for a mine not attached by cable or 
anchor to the bed of the ocean and not suspended 
by floats from the surface to float at any depth 
between the bed of the ocean and its surface? 
Will you also state whether it is possible for a 
submarine to remain suspended between the 
bed of the ocean and the surface if the submarine 
has no motion imparted to it by the propellers? 
If memory serves me, at the time of the " Titanic " 
disaster, when a great many newspapers pro- 
claimed that "she didn't go to the bottom." your 
paper had an article stating in effect that, since, 
water is practically incompressible and the 
specific gravity of water the same at the bottom 
of the ocean or at any depth as at the surface, a 
body that would disappear jelow the surface 



would go to the bottom. A. A floating mine was 
developed nine years ago which maintained a 
specified depth of submergence for a certain 
period and then sank. This was accomplished 
by hydrostatic control of an engine in the mine 
which was operated by compressed air. The 
mine was given a specific slightly greater than 
one and cast adrift in a tidal channel or harbor 
entrance. It would slowly sink until the hydro- 
static control opened the air vaive when the 
engine would turn the propeller and cause it 
to rise. It would rise until the control closed 
the valve and the process would be repeated. 
In this way the mine would fluctuate throuL:ii a 
distance of three or four feet. None of these are 
in use now as far as we are aware. No mine will 
float at a specified depth unless controlled by 
some force. A submarine if handled by experi- 
enced men, can remain within a foot or so of a 
specified depth by pumping in or oit a very small 
quantity of water. The fluctuation will be very 
slow, but continuous. Water is practically non- 
compressible and its specific gra\ity is. therelbre, 
the same for practically all deptlis. Conse- 
quently it is impossible for any object to float of 
itself at a certain depth. 

(14296) W. O. asks: The primitive 
man lived an out-door life, constantly in close 
contact with Nature; he slept on leaves or rudely 
improvised beds. All animals practicahy do the 
same: the dog and in fact nearly all animals, if 
indisposed, usually seek the damp cool earth to 
curl up and sleep, especially if they are inclined to 
be feverish. We are told that the heart to a 
certain extent generates electricity. As men 
became more civilized and adopted civilized 
methods, clothed himself in socks, shoes and 
clothing: lived in houses closely carpeted and at 
night further insulated himself by climbing into an 
insulated bed. If he is inclined to insomnia, he 
rolls and tosses; this tends to produce friction from 
his clothing and increased heart action and create 
additional frictional electricity in the sjstera. 
The thought comes to me that an overplus of 
static might irritate the nervous system. I know 
of some persons who have attached a wire to the 
water pipe with a handle held in the hand for 
awliile before going to sleep. They claim the 
current flows from the earth, establishing an 
equilibrium in the system. I claim that unless 
the supposed benefits derived are imaginary, 
the static flows from the body to the earth. Is 
there any instrtmaent made sensitive enough to 
record such current; or has any investigation, to 
your knowledge, been made along this line; or 
could sufficient static be generated in the system, 
as afore described, to affect the nervous system, 
or produce restlessness; or is the effect of the 
groimded wire merely imaginary? A. We have 
no preconceived opinion upon the subject of yoiu- 
letter, and should neither affirm nor deny that 
electricity might flow out of a human body 
through a wire. We do not know any proof 
that the body generates electricity tu the process 
of its vital activity. It may or may not do so. 
We are certainly inclined to the belief that any 
assistance in obtaining sieep by means of an 
electrode attached to a water pipe is due to a 
mental suggestion rather than to any physical 
effect by a discharge of a static charge in the body 
due to insulation from lying on a bed. The 
mental rest or unrest of the person who is wooing 
"tired nature's sweet restorer" has more to do 
with the success of the wooing, we believe, than 
a discharge wire. t 

(14297) F. W. D. asks: I would like to 
know the process of making iron permanently 
black. If at any time the process has been 
printed in your paper, will you kindly let me 
know the date and 1 will obtain a copy. A. We 
do not know any process which will make iron 
permanently black. Any such coating will wear 
through in time by use or rubbing. A sulphide of 
iron coating can be produced by boiling together, 
sulphur one part and oil of turpentine 10 parts. 
While boiling, spread over the iron with a fine 
brush, or pencil, as it is called: then heat in the 
flame of an alcohol lamp. The sulphur unites 
with the iron to form a brilUant black. This 
and several other modes of blackening iron are 
given in our Cyclopedia of Formulas, which we 
will send for S5.00 by mail postpaid in greater 
New York: elsewhere as per the zone rates. 

(14298) W. K. D. asks: Please advise 
me if It is possible to remove the bottom of a 
bottle with an electric needle, removing the 
contents of the bottle, then replacing the piece 
which was cut out. .K. We cannot pronoimce 
upon the possibility of cutting the bottom from a 
bottle which is filled with some liquid with an 
electric needle, and removing the contents of the 
bottle. If this can be done the bottom can be 
sealed on again by a glass worker just as other 
pieces of glass are melted together in the making 
of the articles. If the needle has sufficient heat 
it will crack the glass as it is drawn along. We 
have never used the electric needle for this pur- 
pose, but have used a red hot iron, which will 
do the job very well. In any case a mark will have 
to be made by a file where the crjick is to begin. 



LEGAL NOTICF 57 



jSAm/ENTS 

JF YOU ILWE AN INVENTION 
which you wish to patent you can 
■WTite fully and freely to Munn & Co. 
for advice in regard to the best way 
of obtaining protection. Please send 
sketches or a model of your inven- 
tion and a description of the device, 
explaining its operation. 
All communications are strictly confiden- 
tial. Our vast practice, extending over a 
period of seventy years, enables us in many 
cases to advise in regard to patentability 
without any expense to the client. Our 
Hand-Book on Patents is sent free on 
request. This explains our methods, terras, 
etc., in regard to Patents, Trade Marks, 
Foreign Patents, etc. 

All patents eecured tlirou|>h u& are described wiil.vut 
cost to the patemee in Uie SCIENTinC AMERICAN. 

MUNN (a CO. 

SOLICITORS _0F P^AJLEJLT S 

23:^ Broadwav. Woolnorth Building, 



Annual Subscription Rates 
Scientific American Publications 

Scientific American (established 1845) one year So. 00 
Scientific American Supplement (established 

1876) one year 5.00 

Postage prepaid in I'nitcd States and pofsessiotis. 
Mexico. Cuba and Panama 

Foreign Postage • 

Scientific American $1.50 per year additional. 
Scientific American Supplement $1.00 per year ad- 
ditional. 

Canadian Postage 
Scientific American 7.5c per year additional. 
Scientific American Supplement 50c per year addi- 
tional. 
The combined subscription rates and rates to foreign 
countries, including Canada. wi!l be furnished 

upon application 

Remit by postal or express money order, bank 

draft or check 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



AGENCIES WANTED 

THE Pioneer Electric (_'o.. Churehiiate St.. Bombay. 
(India). Reguo.=;t3 the Manufarturcr.s of Electrical ac- 
ces.sories, carbon and metal filament lamps, motors, 
dynamos, cooking^ apparatus, novelties etc.. to commu- 
nicate to us with catalogrues. samples, quotations, agency 
torms. et<-. (Bank references eiven.) 



FOR SALE 

FOR SALE — By reliaV)le nianufaoluring corapanv a 
Light Farm Tractor Busine*:.^. Particulars fumishetl 
upon application. Box No. 83. R. F. D. No. 1, Schagh- 

ticokp. N. Y. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

WELL eqiiipi>ed iron foundry will dnv einp and 
market patented article which can be made in it* own 
plant. Preference will !>e given castings n.-^ed in build- 
ings. Addre.ss Foundry, Box 773. City Hall Station. 
New York City. 



What Do 
You Offer? 

We have a shop with 
up-to-date and varied 
equipment — (some 265 
Machines.) 

Also the necessaiy capital to acquire 
patent rights or manufacture on 
a royalty basis an article of merit 
which can be sold in large quantities. 

OPPORTUNITY 

Box 773. City Hall Station 

New York 



LEARN WATCHWORK X^kS^R^^.^N^ 

A tine trade coniniundiug a t^oud salary and your 
ser vices always in deniainl 



ForvMrlv Par- 

Horological 




you can start in busi- 
ness for yourself. .\t 
BRADLEY INSHTUTE 

Tlio greatest school for 

WHtohmji.k.T> 111 tK- w..ria. A.1- 
(In-ssHoroluKicnl iHpartti.fnt A. 
TvoriK. III., fi<r c»ta)»sur of ii - 
formation. AI«o tca^ti Optii'^ 
luid Instrument Repair. 



S OLVINE B OILER P RESERVER 

>.Varrante(l, witlio\tt reserve, to remove boiler scale, 
prevent pitting and scale formation. 

Pamphlet on request. Money back fniarantee. 

EUREXA MFG. CO. • . Jersey City, N J. 




Reliability and Endurance 

The Strong Steel Chain 
Significant of YALE Quality 

Made from toughest chain steel, each hnk elec- 
trically welded on the side, and subjected to 
sixteen inspections and to maximum tests, YALE 
Chain assures Reliability and Endurance. 

While YALE Chain is One feature — exclusive 
with YALE Spur-Geared Chain Blocks — several 
other big features appeal to those Who Know. 

' From-Hook-To-Hook-a-Line-of -Steel * 

8md for Catalog tSD., or a>k your Machinery Supply Houst 

For factory locking equipment use a Yale 
Matter-Key System, Write for particulars 



The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co. 



9 East 40tli Street 



New York City 



CYALEi/ 



Published Dec. 2, 1918 

96-Page 

Catalogue 

of 

Scientific and Technical 

BOOKS 

Listing 2500 titles on 500 subjects 

SELECTED from more than 7,000 
books now in print. This catalogue 
is the latest and best list of technical 
and scientific literature which can be 
secured. Conditions in the publishing 
business are so severe that it is with 
some difficulty that many books can be 
obtained. For which reason this new 
and timely catalogue of books will be 
particularly welcome. 

Write to-day for your copy. Sent free on application 

MUNN & CO. 

233 Broadway, Woolworth Bldg., New York, N. Y. 



Over Thiriy Million Square Teei 

^ConcretcFloors hardened during last year with 



lAPIDOIITH 

■i^^"" TRADE MARK ^HHMi 




i 






I 



OvcrOneMillionSquarercctii7y/^BevoBuilding-x5/.Zwyj 

The War Is Over But — 

now begins the fight for bigger business at home and in the world's market. 

The manufacturer who is properly equipped and who can prevent the losses, 
large or small, due to wastage, must inevitably win. 

Lapidolith the liquid chemical hardener will positively 

Prevent Injurious Concrete Dust 
and Concrete Floor Disintegration 

Concrete dust is more dangerous than you may realize to your merchan- 
dise, machinery and men. 

And it is a sign that your floors are crumbling. 

Stop this unnecessary expense — flush on Lapidolith and your old or new 

floors will be dustless and hard as granite for all time. The expense 

slight, the returns great. 

Let us refer you to a lapidolized floor near you. Our supervision if desired. 

IVrile today for free sample, hardened concrete block ""'^ ieilimoniah. 

L. SONNEBORN SONS, Inc. 

264 Pearl St. Dept. 1 New York 



85 3^S^S®S^SS«^^^55 



hM^-Mik=^-^^^J^Mm^^^^ 



^sas^s^g?? 




nhlsMarkon 
yourpiumbin 
ituimtes gf^^^ 



\fr r 



In CO CD &i 



iLL-Ll 



Conditions 



SOUND judgment dictates that sanitary facilities are part of the shop 
equipment, and should be just as good, just as modern. The employee 
judges the whole by what meets his critical eye as the most unworthy 
part. His mental attitude is a direct reflection. 

"Tepeco" Plumbing is sanitary, beautiful and permanent. Made of All-Clay 
products — the same as your dinner service. Years of experience have 
enabled us to perfect plumbing designs best suited to factory requirements. 
Every factory plumbing problem is different. Bring yours to us and secure 
competent advice. Send for our book "How to Increase the Margin of 
Profit on Your Employees by Industrial Sanitation." 

THE IRENTON POTTERIES COMPANY 

TRENTON NEW JERSEY U.S.A. 

World's Larsest All-Ciay Plumbing Mar\ufaccureTS - Makers of the Sil«nt Si-wel-clo 





i^.; i[^ p "'«f' 




Getting Down to Business 

Today American Business faces an era of stupendous possibilities. We are about to 
eiiiCr an age of industrial prosperity unmatched in history. The vast, unsuspected 
reservoirs of economic resources the war has tapped cannot be sealed up. They are 
known, open and flowing and must continue to How for the benefit of all mankind. 
This is an obligation arising from the unquestioned Leadership in Finance, Transpor- 
tation, Industry and Agriculture, which the fortunes of war have thrust upon America. 



TO every thinking man, the future 
must be interpreted largely in terms 
of motor transportation. 

New industries bom of war's necessity 
must continue to serve in peace. They 
will need motor trucks. 

The enlarged capacity of America's 
factories — none too great to meet our 
own and the world's requirements — must 
rely upon modern haulage. 

Our standardized, fabricated ships are 
needed to carry America's goods to 
foreign lands. Their cargoes must "go 
down to the sea" in motor trucks. 

The multiplied harvests of our power- 
operated farms can best be carried to 
market with motor trucks aiding rail- 
road and ship. 

Our soil is still rich with coal, ores, 
and petroleum. Better roads and more 
trucks are needed to release them. 



We accept Federal's part in this great 
constructive peace period not only as an 
opportunity but as a duty. 

That manufacturer falls short who sees 
in a motor truck only a power vehicle to 
be sold at a profit. 

He must sense his larger obligation 
to supply haulage units that will assist 
in the fulfillment of America's great in- 
dustrial destiny. 



FROM the very beginning of its history. 
Federal has laid solid foundations. 

"Federal" signifies — not a mere com- 
bination of specifications — but perform- 
ance — quality of service — the assurance 
of haulage, reliable, efficient and eco- 
nomical. 

What Federal signified before the war. 
Federals have proved many times ovor 
in their war-time record. 



That record is the ample evidence 
of what may be expected of Federal 
in the coming period of business 
expansion. 

Federal plans for the future are plans 
for growth in order to answer every 
haulage need for more trucks and the 
right kind of trucks. 

The Federal Haulage Research De- 
partment will be developed still further 
so as to offer motor truck users inform- 
ation that will enable them to get the 
utmost of service from their trucks. 

This is the purpose that animates the 
entire Federal organization as we are 
once more "getting 6own to business." 

If in the following out of this purpose. 
Federal can help you in your business, 
you may rest assured that no details 
will be overlooked in our endeavor to 
serve you well. 



For the benefit of motor truck users, present and prospective. Federal publishes regularly 
an interesting worth-while magazine, "Federal Traffic News," which discusses actual 
problems of haulage in various specific lines of business and shows how they have been 
solved. It contains a wealth of suggestion on motor transportation for the owner and 
operator of trucks. We will be pleased to send it to business executives on request. 



Federal Motor Truck Company 



Detroit, Michigan 



One to 

Five Tons 

Capacity 




Return i^oads Will Cut Your Haulage Costs. " 



p. iMoxy. IW. 



SciENTincAMERICAN 



D 



Entered as second class matter June 18, 1879, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 




3D 



Vol.CXX. No. 2 
January 11, 1919 



TOWING CANAL BARGES— A PEACE-TIME OCCUPATION FOR FRENCH BABY TANKS 



Published AVeekly by 

Scientific American Publishing Co. 

Munn & Co., New York, N. Y. 



x 



Price 10 CenU 
$5.00 a Year 



PROGRESS 



THRU POWER 



[AN has progressed as he has succeeded in harnessing 
and applying POWER to his pvirpose. 

This magic servant has multiphed his activities a thousand 
fold. The slow-moving oxen and forked stick have given 
way to the Tractor-drawn multiple plow; the pack-horse 
to the Motor Truck ; the relay rider to the Automobile. 
The ability of these modem forms of Automotive Power 
to give full measure of service is dependent upon engine 
performance. And it is a self-evide.it fact that 

No Engine Can Be More Efficient 
T^n Its Cooling System 

The Important function of the cooling unit has spurred the Long 
organization through 17 years of specialized effort to perfect a prin- 
ciple of radiation that would afiEord the utmost cooling efficiency. 
Thesuccessof Long Cooling Systems is attested by their wide spread 
adoption in the Automotive Industry. More leading motor trucks 
are equipped with Long units than with any other make of radiator. 
Select a Tractor, Truck or Motor Car equipped with a Long 
Cooling System and assure yourself of continuous productive ser- 
vice, uninterrupted by radiation trouble. 

LONG MANUFACTURING CO., DETROIT, MICH. 

Phnetr makers of Cooling Syitemifor gaioline engines 

Loot Spiral Tublnt U the most efficient, durable and dependable for 
Motor Truckt and Tractors- 




THE WEEKLY JOUBNAL OF PEACTICAL INFOIMATION 



VOLUMF CXX 
NUMBER 2 



NEW YORK. JANC ARY 11. 1919 



Railroad Ferry Service 

Between England 

and France 

/^NE of the carefully- 

^^ guarded secrets of the 
war was the construction at 
Richborough, on the south 
coast of England, of a large 
fright yard and railway ter- 
minal ferry for the transfer 
of loaded trains between 
England and France. So 
well was the location con- 
cealed that this important 
link in the cross-Channel com- 
munications was never sub- 
jected to bombardment by 
airplanes or Zeppelins. 

The terminal which is 
known as Richborough is 
located near the coastal town 
of Sandwich, and was built 
upon land which, three 
winters ago, was a favorite 
resort of the coot and the 
heron, and was used, in part, 
for the pasturing of shee]). 
The site selected included 
about 2,200 acres, and in addition to a 
large railway storage and classification 
yard, with the usual tracks and storage 
buildings, there was constructed an ex- 
tensive plant for the construction of 
barges. The magnitude of the Rich- 
borough terminal works may be judged 
from the fact that at the close of the war 
its personnel included 20,000 officers and 
men. 

For the train ferry service, three steel 
ferries were constructed of the type shown 
in our illustration. These vessels are 3G3 
feet long by 61 feet in beam, with 10 feet 
of draft, and their speed is 12 knots. 
Their displacement is 3,65.5 tons and they 
are driven by twin screws. They are ])ro- 
vided with four railroad tracks runnine 
the length of the ship, which are capable of 
holding fifty-four 10-ton trucks. To ac- 
commodate the rise and fall of the tides, 
movable ferry slips were provided at 
each terminal. The trains were run 
directly on to the ferry and at the terminals 
at France were hauled ashore and taken 
direct to their destination. A\hen the 
ferries were not loaded with freight trains. 
they were used for the transportation of 
locomotives, tanks, artillery, and other 
similar supplies for the fighting front. 

The service was started in full swing; on 
the 1st of February, 1917, and from that 
time to the signing of the armistice, it had 
carried across 1,285,000 tons, of vvhicli 
785,000 tons consisted of guns, gun shells, 
and other ordnance material. 

We have referred above to the steel 
barge building yard which formed part 
of the Richborough plant. A large number 
of barges were constructed here and, in 
connection with the ferry service, a total 
of 232 steel barges and 50 tugs were in 
constant operation. The barges were so 
built that they could pass without unload- 
ing or lightering through the canal system 
of France, which extended right into the 
fighting front. 



[10 CENTS A COPY 
I $5.00 A YEAR 




A' 



One of the railroad ferry-boats, built for cross-Channel war service. Carries 54 cars at 12 knots 




The ferry-slip at Richborough being lowered to 
level of ferry deck 




All pbotosraphs cvpyrlffbted by Interaational News Service 

Deck of the cross-Channel ferry loaded with 
freight trains 



It should be mentioned 
that each of the ferry-boats 
carried four anti-submarine 
guns of three-inch caliber, 
two mounted at each end of 
the boat. In addition to 
Kichborough, there was an- 
other terminal on the-English 
.side of the Channel at South- 
ain[)ton. Ferries from Rich- 
borough ran to Calais and 
Dunkirk and the service from 
Southhampton ran to Dieppe. 

The Effect of Altitude 
on the Eye 

CAREFUL study of the 
effect of altitude on the 
eye, was made at the Re- 
search Laboratory at Mine- 
ola, L. I., in order that the 
complex practical problems 
could be more scientifically 
dealt with, according to Capt. 
Conrad Berens, M.C., U.S.A., 
writing in Plane News. Sight 
accommodation (the power 
to see clearly objects close 
to the eye), convergence (the power to keep 
the gaze of both eyes fixed on an approach- 
ing object), the field of vision (power to 
see laterally when the gaze is fixed straight 
ahead), the finer color discriminations and 
stereopsis (the power to judge depth and 
distance), all showed weakening, due to the 
effect of altitude, the changes occurring 
at varying altitudes in diiTerent subjects. 
Should goggles be worn? fti our opin- 
ion, continues Capt. Berens, they un- 
doubtedly should be worn if a properly 
constructed and ventilated goggle with a 
perfect field of vision and good optical glass 
can be obtained. Goggles are a great 
protection in the wind, as their use prevents 
tearing and inflammation of the lids, and 
also prevents hot water or oil from striking 
the eye. 

It is also important that there should be 
not too large a bar between the eyes, as 
this may interfere with the use of both eyes 
in the judging of distance. Colored lenses 
are a great help, but it is better to wear 
them only when absolutely necessary, as 
when flying toward the sun, in a fog, above 
the water, or in the case of pilots whose 
eyes are unusually sensitive to hght. If 
colored lenses are worn one should always 
have a pair of goggles with white lenses 
ready for instant use. Triplex goggles are 
some protection, although chips of glass fly 
off the posterior surface and the resisting 
material, placed between the two glass 
surfaces, deteriorates with age and becomes 
less transparent. 

If a man is flying every day without the 
artificial use of oxygen, he should have his 
eyes examined every month, as the ocular 
condition is also an index of general 
physical fitness. It is important to have 
an immediate ocular examination if the 
aviator is landing badly, having trouble in 
seeing clearly or in judging distance; for a 
few days' treatment may be the means of 
preventing the wrecking of a plane or a 
more serious accident. 



22 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Founded 1845 

Published by Scientific American Publishing Co. 

New York, Saturday, January 11, 1919 

Munn & Co., 233 Broadway. New York 



Charles Allen Muun, President; Orson D. Munn, Treasurer 
Allan C. Hofi man, Secretary ; all at 233 Broadway 

Entered nt the Post OIlUw of New York, N. Y.. as Second Class Matter 

Trade Mark Hffristoreil In the I'ulted States Patent Ofllce 

Copyright 1919 liy Sclcntiflc American Publlsblng Co. 

(ireat Britain rijilits reserved 

Illustrated articles must not be reproduced without permission 



The object of this journal is to record atcu.a'eiy and 
lucidlu the latest scientific, mechanical and ii.Justrial 
news of the day. As a weekly journal, it is in a posi- 
tion to announce interesting developments before ihey 
are published elsewhere. 

The Editor is glad to have submitted to him timely 
articles suitable for these columns, especially when such 
articles are accompanied by photographs. 

New York Subways Must Be Readjusted 

THE new system of subways, including two 
fundamental lines extending north and south 
through Manhattan and the Bronx, one on the 
West Side and the other on the East Side, with a system 
of shuttle trains supposed to connect the two at 42d 
Street, has been in operation for a sufficient length of 
time for the traveling public to form an estimate of its 
convenience and efficiency. 

We feel confident that we are voicing the practically 
unanimous opinion of the people of New York, in which 
we heartily concur, when we state that the present 
arrangements are exceedingly inconvenient. 
' A passenger coming down from the upper West Side, 
who wishes to cross over to the lower East Side line, or 
vice-versa, has to alight from the train at Times Square, 
follow a long and confusing course through the station 
to the shuttle train, and on arriving at the old Grand 
Central Station, he has to climb the stairs and take 
another long walk before he can get into touch with the 
East Side line. Even to the passenger who has made 
the trip and is familiar with it, the delay and the con- 
gested crowds are, from a business point of view, a 
nuisance, and incur a very considerable loss of time. 
In other words, a truly magnificent system of rapid 
transit is delayed, interrupted, and, to any but regular 
users, that is to say to many, many thousands of visitors 
to the city, is rendered extremely confusing. 

In considering this pi'oblem we must not be unjust. 
It cannot be denied that in the neighborhood of 42d 
Street there is a great congestion of underground 
lines, and beyond question the Public Service Com- 
mission and its engineers had a very difficult problem 
to work out at this point. But, seeing that they had 
determined upon a shuttle service, they should have 
made it a sine qua non that the shuttle-train tracks at 
each end of 42d Street terminate alongside the platforms 
upon which the cross-over passengers are discharged. 

Something must be done to restore the system to its 
full efficiency. The obvious plan is to build another 
connecting subway through one of the cross-town streets 
in the neighborhood of 42d Street, using the present 
42d Street line for the trains which convey passengers 
from the upper West Side to the lower East Side, and 
using the other cross-town subway for traffic from the 
upper East Side to the lower West Side. Such an ar- 
rangement would restore all the greatly appreciated 
advantages of the old system, and would avoid the 
present troublesome break in the journey. 

A Good Job, Well Done 

WHEN war was declared, the technical men of 
this country who were unable to go to the 
front demanded some means whereby they 
could share in the prosecution of our cause. This 
feeling resulted in the organization of the War Com- 
mittee of Technical Societies. The functions of this 
body were to assist in bringing the engineering resources 
of the country to bear upon the technical problems of 
the war. 

The Committee was organized by joint action of the 
leading technical societies. The appropriations from 
these societies were too small to support efficient work; 



so the Committee accepted an otTer from the Naval 
Consulting Board, by which it agreed to cooperate with 
the Board in return for offices, telephone .service, and 
postal [)riviloges. 

The first fruits of thi.s admirable arraiigoment were 
joint bulletins of the Board and the C-ommittee on 
"The Enemy Submarine" and "Problems of Airplane 
Improvement." These bulletins placed before the 
engineers of the country, in concrete form, the funda- 
mentals of these two important fields of war invention. 
They told what had been done, what had been tried 
without success, wiiat was wanted; they resulted in a 
much improved class of suggestions ovt^r what the BoMni 
theretofore been receiving. 

But it was not contemplated that the engineering 
problems of the war be dealt with entirely by voluntary 
offerings of the public. During the prosecution of 
hostilities, new problems of all kinds were constantly 
coming up, both in the army and in the navy. These 
weie problems which the army and navy engineers, bj- 
vir,ae of their very specialization, were not qualified 
to attncK to best advantage; and on the other hand, 
there .seemed no effective agency to exist whereby such 
problems might be referred to the men equipped to 
solve them. It appeared, therefore, that the War 
Committee, with its technical affiliations, could meet a 
very real need by acting as a go-between to bring the 
problems of the army and the navy officially before the 
engineers and technicians best qualified to deal with them. 

At first there was a hitch in this arrangement. There 
was no go-between to bring the problems of the army and 
the navy before the Committee; and the latter found it 
difficult to get hold of these problems at long range. 
This situation was met by quartering the Committee 
with the navy, and by appointing, in the army, a "liaison 
officer" part of whose business was the keeping open of 
communication between the Committee and the 
military chiefs. 

All this turned out admirably. The problems of 
army and navy began to get properly before the Com- 
mittee, in all their bearings; and the Committee was 
invariably able to analyze them sufficiently to refer them 
to just the right place for solution. Some were suitable 
for general distribution to all members of the engineering 
community, through bulletins and letters; some, of a 
semi-confidential nature, went only to selected individuals 
who were known to be interested in the class of work in- 
volved; and a certain few, secret to the last degree, 
required the higest order of technical qualifications, to 
be found only in carefully selected scientists and inven- 
tors whose whole life-work had fitted them for the in- 
vestigation in hand. Its success in the handling of these 
last cases alone would have been sufficient justification 
for the life of the Committee. 

Of course, the Committee did not operate without 
friction. It had to learn how to discharge its functions 
by discharging them, and learning from its mistakes. It 
made plenty of these, but seldom or never the same one 
twice. And it was just getting into its stride, and 
bringing the whole weight of our technical man-power 
squarely into the fight, when the bottom fell out of the 
war, and left the Committee without a job. 

This little notice is, in fact, an obituary. On December 
31st the War Committee of Technical Societies ceased 
to exist. It had done its work well; it was responsible 
even more than can be adequately realized from so 
close by, for the thoroughgoing participation in the war 
of American invention and engineering. And though 
its members may have feelings of regret that what must 
appeal to them as the untimely collapse of the foe 
should have robbed them of the satisfaction to be derived 
from witnessing the full fruition of their labors, the Com- 
mittee at least goes out of business with the satisfaction 
of having done all that was asked of it — and a little more. 

Getting Rid of German Shackles 

IN the flood of lamentable nonsense that has been 
let loose of late in the American press on the subject 
of German science and German scientific literature 
it is a joy to meet with the opinions of the few persons, 
here and there, who, though in no sense apologists of 
Germany, possess a first-hand knowledge of their sub- 
ject and brains unbefogged by fanaticism. Such a 
person is Prof. Edwin Bidwell Wilson, of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology. Writing in Science 
on the subject of "Insidious Scientific Control," Pro- 
fessor Wilson hits the nail squarely on the head when 



he undertakes to point out just in what way the scientific 
literature of Germany is superior to that of other coun- 
tries, and the direction in which the rest of the scientific 
world must bend its efforts if it would secure freedom from 
German intellectual shackles. 

So far as the public at large is concerned, the issue has 
been deplorably confused by reiterated statements to 
the effect that (Jerinaiiy has never surpassed, or perhaps 
has never equaled, certain other countries in the task 
of adding to the world's stocks of valuable knowledge. 
In the field of creative science, we are told, German 
achievements have been grossly overrated. Let us 
grant this contention with alacrity. What then? 

The policeman on his beat, the cab-driver on his 
box and the provinical politician on his stump may be 
pardoned for believing that a nation which is not prolific 
in scientists of the first rank is not capable of turning 
out particularly valuable scientific textbooks and refer- 
ence books. Nobody who uses such books, however, 
should fall a prey to this fallacy. The best didactive 
scientific books are almost never written by the leaders 
in scientific thought and the pioneers in scientific investi- 
gation. They are written by persons who have a talent 
for exposition and unflagging indu.stry in assembling 
knowledge wherever available, and who, as often as not, 
have never made a single scientific discovery. 

Just how have German publications acquired their 
undeniable hold upon the minds of well-educated 
scientific workers throughout the world? It is idle to 
talk of propaganda. The modern business man is well 
aware of the narrow limitations of advertising that does 
not rest upon merit in the goods advertised; and pro- 
paganda is merely another name for advertising. 

Professor Wilson has supplied a partial answer to the 
foregoing question. It is found in the everyday law 
of competition. He says: 

"The fact is that any scientist must have the means 
himself readily to look up the literature on any scientific 
subject; and the fact is that the great compendiums of 
science, the great yearly reviews of scientific progress, 
are made by Germans, and published in the German 
language. It is impo.ssible for a mathematician to work 
to advantage without being able to consult the Jahrbuch 
far Malhemalik. It is impossible for physicists to work 
without consulting the Fortschrillc dcr Physik; Science 
Abstracts are not sufficient. And so it is in many other 
fields of science." 

Every cosmopolitan scientific man will be able to make 
many additions to this list. The Minerva Jahrbuch is 
the one and only first-rate international directory of 
scientists and scholars. The Geographcn-Kalender is 
indispensable within the field of geography and con- 
tiguous sciences. No British or French atlas approaches 
Stieler's in workmanship and accuracy. But the list 
is endless. 

The business of making scientific discoveries is one 
thing; the business of recording them," summarizing 
them, rendering knowledge of them available, is quite 
another. In this latter field Germany has had no serious 
rival; and at the present writing no other iiation mani- 
fests any serious intention of taking her place. 

The workings of competition will not long be hampered 
by sentimental considerations. Unless non-Germans 
can produce as good dyes and drugs, textbooks and 
reference books, as those made in Germany, we shall in- 
evitably lapse into economic and intellectual subjection 
to the Germans. It will not help the situation to harp 
upon irrelevancies. 

German monopolies have not been good for the world 
at large, , nor, indeed, for Germany herself. Her com- 
mercial monopolies have been shattered by the war. 
Whether they can ever be reestablished is problematical. 
The particular kinds of intellectual monopoly of which 
we are writing can only be said to be in abeyance. We 
hear that British and American manufacturers have 
solved the dye problem and the glass problem. We do 
not hear that any publisher has produced an American 
equivalent of Stieler's " Hand-Atlas" or a British equiva- 
lent of Winkelmann's "Handbuch." 

Let us hope for the best. The English-speaking 
world is more populous than the German-speaking 
world, and the English language, with its Germanic 
base and its Latin superstructure, is particularly well 
qualified to become the international language of science. 
Those are excellent reasons why books indispensable to 
students and scholars should be printed in English 
rather than in German. 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



23 



Electricity 

Why Not Larger Trolley Wheels? — In rthe Electric 
Railway Journal some account is given of the experience 
of the Oakland, Antioch and Eastern Railway with 10- 
inch trolley-wheels. Formerly 6-inch wheels were used, 
the trolley pole tension being 35 to 40 pounds, and the 
life under those circumstances was only about 900 miles. 
By using 10-inch wheels the tension can be reduced to 
25 to 30 pounds, and a life of 6,000 miles or more is ob- 
tained. In addition, various incidental maintenance 
troubles are diminished. 

Naval Control of Wireless. — The Navy Depart- 
ment has purchased all of the radio stations except four 
high-power stations of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph 
Company of America.^ The stations sold by the company 
are 45 in number, of which 19 are on the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts, 16 on the Great Lakes and 10 on the Pacific 
Coast. The Navy Department has purchased from the 
Alien Property Custodian the radio station at Sayville, 
L. I., formerly controlled by German interests and 
intended for transatlantic wireless traffic. 

Marconi's Improved Radio Transmitter. — The 
apparatus developed by G. Marconi for the production 
of continuous oscillations by overlapping wave trains 
has proved most effective for long-distance communi- 
cation at high power. It has done away with many of 
the intricate mechanical and electrical problems en- 
countered in the construction of radio-frecjuency alter- 
nators and arc transmitter systems, according to the 
Electrical World. Moreover, it makes an apparatus 
capable of generating damped oscillations at any spark 
frequency desired. 

Dielectric Loss in Condensers. — In a contribution 
to the Zeitschrifi dcs Oeslerr Ingenieiir und Archi'eklcn- 
Vereines, Dr. Grunberg describes some tests on glass, 
hard paper and mica condensers at a low frequency. 
With glass the efficiency diminishes with increasing 
frequency. A rise in temperature also causes a marked 
increase in the losses, which increase rather more rapidly 
than the square of the pressure ajjplied. With hard 
l)aper a more marked drop in power factor occurs with 
diminishing frequency than in the case of glass, while 
with mica the contrary effect is noted. 

Wind Driven Dynamos. — An account was recently 
given in Ingenioren by Mr. H. C. Vogt, of some experience 
of the utilization of wind power for driving dynamos. 
The mills described had sails 100 feet in diameter and an 
area of 3,930 square feet. With a mean wind velocity 
of 24 feet per second, 290 horse-power was obtained. 
Power is transmitted from the main shaft by a series of 
cog wheels with the spokes in tension; rope and chain 
gearing were found not to answer. By means of gearing 
the speed of the main shaft, 12 J/2 revolutions per minute, 
is increased to 1,500 revolutions per minute for the 
dynamo. 

Electric Heater for Medicinal Solutions. — In 
warming solutions for medicinal purposes it is often 
essential that an even temperature be maintained, ac- 
cording to Electric I World. With this end in view an 
American concern is now making an electric heater which 
incloses the tubing carrying the solution from the supply 
to the point of application so that as the solution is 
needed it is heated to an even temperature. By using 
a light-dimming socket in conjunction with the heater it 
is possible to lower or raise the temperature of the solu- 
tion by varying the amount of current fed to the heater. 
Connecting plugs and cord are supplied with the heater. 

Insulator Failures. — A power company operating 
in the State of Georgia has recently changed over all 
^ the strain insulators on one of its lines as a means of 
reducing insulator failures. Operating reports of the 
company showed that 30 per cent of the insulators were 
defective. The cause of the large number of defective 
insulators was found to be on account of the combined 
influence of the elements, the position of the insulators, 
and their design. Unequal expansion and contraction 
of metal parts, of porcelain and cement, played a part 
in the failure, but the chief cause was due to the insulators 
being installed in a horizontal position, their "under 
sides ' thus being exposed to sun and rain, and at the same 
time acting as pockets for the accumulation of dust and 
dirt. By changing the type and position of the insu- 
lators for a vertical arrangement an umbrella effect 
is obtained which overcomes the trouble previously 
mentioned. 



Science 

In Honor of Leonardo da Vinci. — The fourth 
centenary of the death of Leonardo da Vinci will be 
celebrated next year in Italy by the publication of a 
"national edition" of his works, including material 
never before published. Leonardo was the greatest 
scientific and mechanical genius of his time, and the 
new critical edition of his works will doubtless find a 
place in all large scientific and technical libraries. 

Fake Cures for Consumption. — According to the 
National Association for the Study and Prevention of 
Tuberculosis, no less than $20,000,000 is invested in 
the business of making and exploiting fake cures for 
consumption in this country. About S5, 000, 000 per 
annum is spent in advertising these nostrums and the 
net profit is estimated at $10,000,000 per annum. This 
is properly described by the Association as "blood 
money." 

Sengite. — Under this name, which is derived from the 
initial letters of the words "Substitute explosive, no 
glycerine," with "ite" added in imitation of the word 
"dynamite," a new explosive is being manufactured in 
South .\frica, to meet the growing shortage of nitro- 
glycerine explosives. According to a consular report, it 
has a giincotton base and is similar to tonite, except that 
nitrate of soda is substituted for nitrate of barium. It 
is found that by this substitution an explosive of ap- 
I)roximately the same strength as gelignite can be 
produced. The new explosive is said to be so insensitive 
to shock that it may be safely hammered with a steel 
tool. If used in mining, explosions would not be caused 
by drilling into unfired holes. It has already been 
thoroughly tested in a number of mines and found 
satisfactory. 

Adenoid Clubs. — Under this name the state board 
of health of North Carolina, in its Health Bulletin, 
describes a new plan whereby surgical treatment is 
provided at moderate cost to children suffering with 
diseased tonsils, excessive adenoid growth, and kindred 
disorders. In the medical inspection of schools many 
cases of this kind are constantly" found. Simply to 
notify the parents proves woefully inadequate, owing 
to the expense of an operation, the necessity, in many 
cases, of taking the child away from home, and a general 
spirit of inertia. The new scheme, which has been 
tried with much success in various parts of the state 
since 1914, involves engaging the services of an expert 
operator, who visits a particular locality on a day 
previously announced, bringing complete equipment 
and a trained nurse, and operates on as many as 15 
children in the course of the day. A temporary hospital 
is installed at a local hotel, and local physicians are 
engaged to look after the patients until they "come 
round" properly. By this plan the expense to the 
parents able to pay for the operation isre luced to $12.50 
per child, and children of poor parents pay nothing. 

Fixing the Responsibility for Diphtheria Fatali- 
ties. — The State Laboratory of Hygiene of North 
Carolina has recently undertaken the distribution of 
diphtheria antitoxin practically free of cost to the people 
of the state. The charge for a package of antitoxin, 
irrespective of its size, whether it contains 1,000 units 
or 10,000, is 25 cents, which is merely to cover the value 
of the accompanying syringe and wrappage. At the 
same time the state board of health has adopted the 
policy of seelving to fix the responsibility in cases of 
death from this preventable disease. It is proposed, 
at the outset, to make a careful investigation by personal 
visit of a trained epidemologist in one hundred cases of 
death from diphtheria in various parts of the state. 
With very few exceptions children die from this disease 
because antitoxin is not promptly administered in proper 
amounts. Less than two per cent die if thus treated 
during the first two da\s. Responsibility for the the 
fatal cases may lie either with (1) parents, who delay 
summoning a physicain when suspicious symptoms 
present themselves, or with (2) physicians who fail to 
administer antitoxin promptly to patients and persons 
exposed to the disease and not shown by the Shick 
test to be immune, or with (3) the local health officer, 
for failing to see that a supply of antitoxin is at all times 
available in his vicinity. The state board of health 
proposes to publish hereafter in its monthly Health 
Bidletin, details of fatal cases and to point out, so far 
as possible, just t\'ho was responsible in each case. 



Industrial Efficiency 

A New Dutch Industry. — A factory has recentl} 
been installed in Holland for the manufacture of sacking, 
carpets, and even fine fabrics from plant fibers, by means 
of a new process. Great quantities of vegetable fiber 
is now being accumulated for the purpose. 

Hemp Braid Dye. — Heretofore the inability of the 
Japanese to dye successfully hemp braid, which is 
exported to the United States and PJngland for trimming 
on women's hats, has stood in the way of an even larger 
business being done in this article. However, a report 
has been received from Japan to the effect that a Japanese 
chemist has invented a process whereby the dyeing may 
be done uniformly. 

Steel Band as a Substitute for Leather Belt. — ^The 
scarcity of leather brought about by the war has made 
it necessary to find a substitute for that material, par- 
ticularly in the case of belting. At the Ickern mine in 
the Heme mining district in Germany, a steel band is 
being used to rejjlace a leather main driving belt 52 feet 
in length and 7 inches in breadth. The width of the 
band is only 3 inches, and the ends are joined by means of 
small screws. The driving pulley has a diameter of 
3 feet. The cost of the band was about $65. Though, 
from some undiscovered cause, this band gave way near 
the joint, the mine authorities, in view of the many 
advantages of the steel band, have decided to repeat the 
experiment. 

Numerous Jobs for Cripples. — A recent canvass 
undertaken by officials of the Ford Motor Company 
plant at Detroit for the purpose of ascertaining how 
much of the work at that point could be handled by 
cripples, revealed the following interesting information: 
Jobs that could be filled by legless men, 670; by one- 
legged men, 2,637; by one-armed men, 715; by totally 
blind men, 10. The time required for cripples to become 
expert at these jobs is estimated for 1,743, one day or 
less; for 1,461, one day to one week; for 251, one to two 
weeks; for 534, one month to one year; for 43, one to 
six j'ears. About 18 per cent of all the employees at 
the Ford plant at the present time are said to be cripples 
or physically substandard. Eighty-five per cent of them, 
however, are classed as fully efficient workers. 

Lemon Drops for Our Army. — When our draft 
armies first came into training, it was found that the 
lemon drop was a favorite candy among the men. It 
was found also that most of the commercial lemon drops 
were made of glucose, flavored not with the fruit but 
with an acid imitation. The military authorities ob- 
tained samples of lemon drops from practically all the 
candy makers in the country, analyzed these, chose the 
best one, obtained the formula for its manufacture, and 
distributed orders for a supply of lemon drops to be 
made according to the accepted recipe. Consequently, 
the soldiers are now being supplied with a lemon drop 
that is made of pure granulated sugar, and flavored 
with an emulsion from the rind of the lemon. This 
confection has the thirst-quenching quality of good 
lemonade. And it is being used by the soldiers at the 
rate of 200,003 pounds a month. 

The Danger of Empty Gasoline Tanks. — Seemingly 
empty gasoline tanks or cans are at all times more 
dangerous than those filled with gasoline. Usually the 
can will not be entirely emptied and the remaining 
gasoline will vaporize, the vapor will mix with the air 
in the can, and the mixture may easily be explosive. 
When the can is being filled this mixture is forced out by 
the gasoline and may explode if ignited by a flame or 
spark near the opening. Many engines are built with 
cavities or inclosed spaces in the crank case, base, or 
some other part, and these may be full of gasoline 
vapors. When inspecting or making repairs with an 
open light, men have been severely burned when the 
light vapors ignited. To guard against such accidents, 
all cavities should be blown out with compressed air or 
steam. If neither is available the cover should be 
removed, the vapors fanned out, and a lighted lamp or 
candle, attached to a stick, i)assed around inside the 
cavities to burn out any vapors that may remain in the 
cavities. Unless an ample current of air at considerable 
velocity is passing, gasoline should not be used to clean 
an engine or other machinery. Even if there is sufficient 
air to sweep away the vapors as soon as they are given 
off open lights should always be kept a safe distance 
and on the intake side so that the* vapor cannot be 
carried to the light. 



24 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 



Cibola Revealed 



Relics of Coronado's Seven Cities in a New York Museum 



^CIKXCE and romanre give attest to the Seven 
►-"^ Cities of Cibola and the Kingdom of Quivara. of 
which the good Friar told while sitting in tlie babcr's 
chair. That was a long tiine ago, to be sure, and the 
knights who fared across the American desert have long 
since gone to their fathers; as to the great Coronado 
himself, his good sworii is rust this many a year. 

We have almost forgotten Cibola, you and I — the last 
four years and half of war would have driven archaeology 
out of the heads of even the zealots who revel in the past : 
and yet after all what a name is Cibola with which to 
conjure! Now that the Government has no more need 
of withholding from peaceful uses the 
bronze and steel and gla.ss from which 
showcases are made, the Museum of the 
American Indian, in \ew \'ork city, will 
be able to display the riches of Cibola to 
the public. Scorces of heavy packing 
cases laden with them are already waiting 
in the basement, and perhaps soon we 
shall have the chance to see the relics of 
that venerable town stormed in 1540 by 
the Spanish conquerors. 

Wherefore let the archaelogist and the 
historian rejoice together over this notable 
collection, from which they may learn so 
much, and let the layman also be glad 
that he may see for himself what Don 
Francisco de Coronado and his followers 
got for all their privations and their pains. 

The riches of .\ztecs and the Inca*. 
which came so easily into the treasure 
chests of Spain, filled the adventurers of 
the early sixteenth century with the belief 
that all the New World was running over 
with treasure more precious than the 
wealth of Ormuzd and of Ind. When it 
was propo.sed to explore the realm to the 
north of Mexico, Cortes, de Soto, and others 
sued with the Spanish court for the privilege 
and they fought each other in the tribunals 
as well. The more they quarreled about 
the lands still unseen, the more were they 
convinced that gold and silver and precious 
stones could be had for the taking. 

Under the direction of Viceroy Mendoza, you will 
recall, the intrepid Coronado set forth from Compo- 
stella in February, 1540, to annex the Province of Cibola 
and the kingdom of Quivara. Strange, high sounding 
names were these — given to what is now the Southwest 
of th>"se United States. They were based on the language 
of the Indians, and gradually, so many were the tale.'; 
which the aborigines had told, the Spaniards came to 
believe all that their avarice dictated concerning the 
mysterious settlements beyond the border. True, they 
had sent as a scout, the good Friar Marcos de Niza', who, 



By John \^ alker Harrington 

fearful that he would be murdered as had his negro 
guide, viewed the first city of Cibola from a good safe 
distance. There is more than distance to lend enchant- 
ment to the walled and terraced towns of our Southwest, 
for the friar must have felt what he said when he made 
affidavit later that the'first of the cities of Cibola, which 
we call Hawikuh, was larger than the City of Mexico 
itself. The magic of the mesa and of the wide spaces of 
the Southwest had him in thrall, and small wonder was 
it that he repeated as true many of the details of the 
wealth of the people whidi had been told by the (bony 
guide who had proceeded him. Afterwards, wh( n the 




Znni Indian workmen employed in resurrecting 



ijt ilicir ancestors 



friar came upon calmer days, and was under the ministra- 
tions of the knight of the razor, he undoubtedly told no 
more than was really so when he spoke of Cibola as the 
city which was surrounded by walls, with guarded gates; 
where there were goldsmiths and silversmiths; where 
the women had golden beads and the men girdles of gold; 
and where there were sheep from the fleece of which 
were woven garments of pure white "and where the 
people slaughtered birds and also had images of iron." 

Ihe story of the march of Coronado loses none of its 
interest nor does it dwindle in its importance, through 
the discovery of the document among the Spanish 



.\rchives which snow^s that, five years earlier, Cabeca 
de V'aca had traveled the old Santa Fe trail in the quest 
of the Golden West. Coronado will always be asso- 
ciated, as the real pioneer, with these early chapters of 
the history of the Southwest; for undoubtedly the 
effects of his expedition, the most extensive ever made 
within the borders of the United States, have been far- 
reaching. 

With 800 picked men, the most of them mounted and 
encased in armor and carrying their great lances in rest, 
and attended by hundreds of burden bearers, the army 
proceeded. It discarded or sent back many of its heavy 
trappings and superfluous baggage, and it 
was reduced to the lightest possible march- 
ing order when, in the heat of August, it 
reached the first city of the quest. Indeed, 
when the natives resisted the design of the 
conquerors to take everything in sight, 
a sorry and feeble brigade it was which 
attacked them. The invaders were nearly 
famished. The cross-bowmen and the 
harquebusiers were so weak that (hey could 
hardly move, and the arms of many of 
them were out of commission. The men 
of Hawikuh, fighting from the house tops 
of the wall town, threw huge stones with 
such accuracy that they overwhelmed 
many of the exhausted Spaniards. Coro- 
nado, a conspicuous target by reason of his 
shining gilded armor, was twice knocked 
down and would have been killed had he not 
been dragged away by one of his aides. 
The natives finally surrendered, however, 
and the adventurers occupied the town. 
Once in the houses they found abundant 
food which satisfied them so well, that for 
days thcj' were gladder to have had it 
than silver and gold. The town was 
abandoned entirely by the Indians, who 
went to neighboring settlements and left 
the Spaniards in control. 

Disappointed in not finding the wealth 
on which he had set his heart, Coronado 
none the less continued his explorations, 
and he and divisions of his party penetrated as far as 
the present neighborhood of Kansas. This was years 
before Plymouth Rock and Jamestown, and through the 
friars, who afterwards established chains of missions, 
civilization was established in what is now the rich and 
populous American West. 

There is abundant confirmation of all that Coronado 
and his accompanying historians said about Hawikuh, 
which so closely resembles the present pueblo of Zuni. 
The treasure trove of science which the museum has 
been able to unearth through the generositj^ of one of 
its trustees, Mr. Harmon W. Hendricks, tells us truly 




Like all primitive-minded folk, ihe Cibolans "killed," by breaking, the vessels 
buried with the dead, so that these might accompany their owners 



A hunter, surrounded in his grave by deer's antlers, trophies of his prowest;, 
and with the customary broken bowl at his head 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



25 



all that the cities of Cibola were or hoped to be. Here 
are pots and bowls which still contain the remains of 
corn such as that from which were made the cakes, which 
the famished conquistadores said were "the best that 
ever they did eat." 

The excavations have been for the most part along 
the slopes of refuse where the dead were buried. Some 
of the bodies had been cremated and placed in urns, 
alongside of which were the charred grains and foods 
made ready for the spirits of the dead. Here is a mightj' 
hunter, a Nimrod of the Mesas, with whom were buried 
antlers of the deer that he had slain, in the hope that in 
the Happy Hunting Ground he might still have good 
sport. 

The good friar was not wont to complain grievously 
of his dark guide, Estevanico, who exacted tribute of 
turquoises, and won the hearts of many native women, 
And here we have, driven tight to the skull of one of the 
feminine enchantresses of old, a comb of wood, encrusted 
with the blue gem and bearing a band of jet. The 
vanities which filled that once shapely head are no more, 
but here in the ruins of the venerable village, we have 
plenty of proof that the women of the day wore many 
adornments and were proud of their gaudy garbs. They 
were found surrounded by their jewels, such as they had, 
and the vessels of graceful form which they had with 
them in life. Many of the best examples of pottery 
were shattered as they were thrown into the graves — 
purposely sacrificed or "killed." There are some 
examples, almost prefect when exhumed, in which are 
holes in base and lid to show that they had been offer- 
ings to the manes of the dead. 

Five hundred pottery vessels were dug up in the 
season just closed by the excavators of Hawikuh, as 
compared with the 3.50 which were found there by a 
previous expedition under the auspices of the American 
Bureau of Ethnology and the Museum of the American 
Indian. Specimens of basketry, matting, cloth, stones, 
cord, objects of wood, stone and bone, thousands in all, 
contribute to our knowledge of the ancient city and its 
ways. 

It is believed that some of the remains are those of 
Indians who preceeded the people who lived there when 
Coronado came in quest of plunder. That is a matter 
over which the archaeologists may study for many a day 
to come by comparing and assembling the pottery frag- 
ments — a work now being conducted by F. W. Hodge, 
assisted by George H. Pepper, who spent last summer 
amid the excavations of the ruined pueblo. 

There will be especial interest in interpreting the de- 
signs which appear on many of the objects. Especially 
promising are three bowls with the macaw, the goldfinch 
and the paw of a bear, with a pendant feather attached 

by a string. Another bowl bears the figure 

of a dancer. 

When the entire collection is prepared 
for exhibition in relation to the surround- 
ings of this present age, we shall find much 
which will appeal to all of us in the time- 
worn remains of New Granada, as Coro- 
nado was wont to call this first of the Seven 
Cities. They of Cibola hved in cham- 
bered and terraced dwellings four and five 
stories high, strongly built of stone and 
adobe, the original apartment houses of 
this country, the prototypes of those 
structures which we latter-day Americans 
inhabit. The Cibolans brought no bound- 
less wealth to the conqueror, and yet in 
what a mighty city of riches and power 
have the bones of those who dwelt in that 
mysterious realm of old come to rest! 

Water Tanks of Concrete Staves 

THE accompanying illustrations show 
the construction of concrete stave 
tanks developed at Marfa, Texas. These 
tanks are used widely on the ranches of 
that vicinity. Until a httle more than 
three years ago the concrete stave was not 
considered adaptable to the construction 
of large storage tanks, some of the leading 
silo builders having tried it out thoroughly 
and abandoned the idea. 

The drawing shows the details by means 
of which the concrete stave has been made 
a practicable device in this connection. 
The floor is criss-crossed with expansion 
joints, which are partly filled with tar 
or asphalt. It will be seen that the 
staves for the tank walls are of five 
patterns — long and short top staves, long 
and short bottom staves, and the full 
or regular stave. With proper combin- 
ations of these the wall can be carried 
to any unit height desired. In addition, 
there are special forms for the gutter 




Jar containing cremated human remains, covered 
with a broken bowl 

around the outer base of the tank; and the steel 
hoops with expansion joints provide the finishing touch. 

The Current Supplement 

IT is fully recognized that the molecule plays a domi- 
nating part in every branch of phjsics, chemistry and 
many other departments of science. In a paper on 
Molecular Orientations in Physics and Crystallography' 




A small tank of concrete staves 




The details of construction of the Texas concrete stave tank 




Concrete stave tanks of 375,000 gallon.^ capacii> 



in the current Lssue of the Scientific American Sup- 
plement, No. 224.5 for January 11, some of the problems 
relating to the molecule are reviewed from a new and 
interesting standpoint. A second instalment of the 
articles on The Macoa Indians of Venezuela appears in 
this issue, and it is copiously illustrated with original 
photographs. The Pharmacology of Alcohol, which treats 
of this important liquid in relation to its action as a drug 
will be of interest in these times of "dry" movements. 
Steel for Reconstruction calls attention to the enormous 
demands that will be made on the United States for this 
indispensable material, of which America is the largest 
producer in the world. The note is accompanied by a 
number of instructive photographs. Curious Projectiles 
describes a number of shells and bombs invented in 
Germany and Austria that appear to be more ingenious 
than practical. It is illustrated by a number of diagrams. 
Airplane Accidents is a careful discu.ssion of an important 
subject from a medical point of view by a British sur- 
geon, based on personal observations. Other articles of 
interest in this issue are The Principles of Diffusion and 
Their Analogues; The Rat Pest; Sewage Disposal by 
Dilution; The Story of a Grass, A New Photographic 
Mordant Dye Process and The Theory of Fertilizers. 

Making Old Iron Bridges Stronger 

An ingenious method of strengthening old cast iron 
■^* bridges has been devised by a British major, the 
county surveyor of Shropshire. The fundamental idea 
is to encase the original arch ribs in ferro-concrete, thus 
making good defects resulting from cracks and general 
deterioration and rendering the structures capable of 
complying with modern traffic requirements. 

The first bridge treated in this manner was a cast iron 
structure built 95 years ago by Thomas Telford when 
county surveyor of Shropshire. This bridge, situated 
on the main road between Shrewsbury and Ludlow, had 
long been unfit for heavy traffic, and in the course of a 
careful examination made last year it was found that two 
of the cast iron ribs had developed cracks of serious 
character at the haunches. On the recommendation of 
the major, the county authorities decided that the two 
defective ribs should be encased in ferro-concrete, and 
the work was successfully carried out on the Mouchel- 
Hennebique system. No disturbance of the road surface 
or handrailing was involved, the ferro-concrete work 
being executed from platforms suspended below the two 
outer cast iron ribs. The appearance of this historic 
structure has undergone no appreciable change, and the 
bridge is now very much stronger than at the time of its 
erection. 

The county surveyor has arranged to strengthen 
in a similar manner a second cast iron bridge, built 
by Telford exactly a hundred years ago, 
on the main road between Shrewsbury and 
Wenlock. 



British Steam-Power Economies 

rT'OUR HUNDRED experts have been 
•^ appointed by the coal controller of 
Great Britain to consult with and advise 
steam-power users how to eliminate waste. 
As the result of an inquir}' by the Coal 
Control Technical Department it is clear 
that tremendous wastage of coal is going 
on which could be prevented. It will, 
however, take several years to recover the 
whole of this loss, even if a supreme effort 
is made by all the industrial firms, as it 
was impossible to install more efficient plant 
while the war was on. Another cause of 
wastage of coal is the employment of 
unskilled stokers, and, unfortunatelj', there 
are today perhaps more men of this 
description than at any other time, as so 
many skilled stokers have joined the 
army. 

There are 45,000 users of steam plant 
in Great Britain. Up to the present 
reports on 364 firms have been carefully 
scrutinized, and it is estimated that a 
saving of approximately 106,000 tons 
will result. This saving can be effected 
without any serious alteration to plant 
in the following directions: 

1. Obtaining greater efficiency in the com- 
bu.-^tion of fuel. 2. Educating of stokers. 
3. Utilizing the heat in the gases to better 
advantage. 4. Using exhaust steam for 
heating feed water. 5. Adjusting engines 
more efficiently to use the steam generated, 
t). Using the hot water from the condenser 
discharge for boLler-feed purposes instead 
of cold water. 7. Effecting lagging of 
steam pipes. 8. DiscounectLng steam pipes 
not in use, etc. 



2b 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 



Wartime Agriculture in Great Britain 

The Administrative Machinery and the Means Adopted to Secure Land for Tilling 

By Major H. Bannerraan-Phillips 



THE question of the food supply of the United King- 
dom in view of the possibility of war with a nation 
posses iing great naval resources had, of course, been con- 
sidered before the war, and the advisibility of national 
granaries discussed, but nothing was done about the 
latter, and no measures were taken in peace-time to 
encourage agriculture. It was realized that supplies 
of meat and wheat from abroad would have to be de- 
pended on for a very large proportion of the food of 
the people, and though the average margin of reserves 
within the country was only sufficient for from six 
weeks to three months consumption, there was justified 
confidence in the ability of the Navy to protect the sea- 
borne traffic of the British Empire. But when Turkey 
entered the war and Russian wheat could no longer be 
reckoned on, when harvests all over the world gave a 
reduced yield, when tonnage was increasingly required 
for other things besides food, when the submarine 
menace became serious, it was realized by the Govern- 
ment that the supply of meat and wheat from neutral 
countries would have to be more and more supplemented 
by home-grown supplies. 

Putting the Fanner on a Firmer Footing 

The poor harvest of 1916, with the low condition to 
which stocks of cereals had fallen, made it evident that 
the problem of the food supply of the United Kingdom 
would become acute in 1917. Other factors also seriously 
affected the situation. In 1915, partly in response to 
direct appeal, there had been an increase of 430,000 
acres in the area of wheat and 280,000 acres in oats, 
though this was to a large extent offset by a decrease of 
350,000 acres in barley and 75,000 acres in other cereal 
crops; there had also been a slight increase in the area 
of potatoes. In 1916, on the other hand, the area of 
wheat had fallen back by about 280,000 acres, while the 
yield of the crop had been considerably below the average; 
and, owing to the increasing shortage of labor, the out- 
look for 1917 was serious. It was estimated at the close 
of 1916 that the area sown with winter wheat, was 15 
per cent less than in the preceding year. Further, the 
potato crop for 1916 had proved to be one of the worst 
on record, and the shortage in this very important 
article of food was already making itself felt. The 
Cabinet, therefore, decided immediately that vigorous 
action must be taken to secure, if possible, an increased 
area under cereals and potatoes in 1917, and to provide 
for a program in 1918 which would make the nation to a 
greater degree self-supporting in respect of cereal food- 
stuffs, of which normally 60 per cent is imported. 

In deaUng with the situation, the first essential was 
to strengthen and confirm the confidence of the farmer. 
The experience of the agricultural depression in the 
eighties and nineties, which had led to the heavy decline 
in the tillage area, made farmers hesitate to undertake 
the breaking up of land. There was on the one hand 
the growing scarcity of labor and the rise in costs of 
production, and on the other hand there was the natural 
fear that sooner or later cereal prices might come 
tumbling. It was therefore necessary, if a considerable 
tillage area was to be secured in 1917 and in the subse- 
quent years, to give the farmers artificial security. 
With this object in view the Cabinet, in December, 1916, 
decided that prices for wheat, oats and potatoes in 1917 
should be guaranteed to the farmer, the same guarantees 
applying to aU parts of the United Kingdom. This 
program was subsequently more fully developed in the 
Corn Production BUI, with a view to laying down a policy 
which would make the country more secure, not only 
in 1918, but in the succeeding years. As in the case of 
munitions, so in the case of food it was felt necessary to 
ensure against the risks of a prolonged war. This act, 
by securing to the farmer minimum prices for wheat and 
oats for a period of five years, by providing a minimum 
wage for the agricultural laborer, and bj' securing powers 
of entry upon land and requirement of better cultiva- 
tion where this was found to be desirable in the national 
interest, laid the foundations of the new poUcy and 
program. 

The Machinery of Agricultural Expeuision 

The principles of this policy having been announced, 
the Board of Agriculture for England and Wales, the 
Board of Agriculture for Scotland and the Irish Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and Technical Instruction set to 
work to reorganize and extend the machinery for assist- 
ing farmers in the task of carrying out the program of 
increased tillage. It was necessary to develop both local 
and central machinery, but with the extended program 



it became more important than ever to provide for 
greater decentralization. 

Accordingly one of the first steps taken was to set up 
in every county in Great Britain small War Agricultural 
Executive Committees of not more than seven members 
appointed by the War Agricultural Committee of the 
County, together with such additional members as the 
Board of Agriculture might appoint. In Ireland the exist- 
ing statutory County Council Committees on Agricul- 
ture were available for the campaign. With certain 
reservations the exercise of the special war powers en- 
trusted to the Board of Agriculture was conferred on these 
Executive Committees in their respective areas. These 
Committees have appointed special Sub-Committees 
to deal with certain branches of their work, such as labor, 
machinery, supplies and finance. In addition, in each 
district of the county, a District Committee has been 
established to act as an advisory body to the Executive 
Committee, and in many counties parish representatives 
have been appointed to keep the Executive Committees 
in touch with each parish in the county. The Central 
Department has appointed District Commissioners in 
charge of two or more counties who are ex officio members 
of the Executive Committees, and who act as links 
between the Central Department and the Committee. 
Each Executive Committee has its own proper staff 
and in many counties considerable assistance has been 
received from the County Councils, who have placed 
their officers at the disposal of the Executive Committees; 
while, throughout the country, valuable help has also 
been received from the staff of the Land Valuation 
Department and the Inland Revenue. The County 
Agricultural Executive Committees report to the Central 
Department on the state and progress of cultivation 
in their counties and frame estimates as to the possible 
areas of increased cultivation. They are also charged 
with the work of preparing estimates of requirements of 
labor, machinery, fertilizers, seeds, etc., and the successful 
carrying out of the extended program is in great measure 
due to the voluntary and hearty cooperation given by 
members of these committees. 

At the same time steps were taken to increase the 
machinery of the Central Departments in order to deal 
with the new situation. The President of the Board of 
Agriculture for England and Wales appointed an Ad- 
visory Committee on Food Production and a special 
Food Production Department was established in January, 
1917; in Scotland and also in Ireland special Advisory 
Committees to the Central Departments were appointed. 

Getting the Land 

The first problem was to form an estimate as to the 
additional area which could be brought under tillage in 
the spring of 1917. A rapid survey was made in Feb- 
ruary and March for this purpose, and on the basis of 
the reports rendered it was estimated that in England 
and VVales an additional area of 300,000 acres, and in 
Scotland of 50,000 acres, might be secured. Lender the 
Defence of the Realm Regulations the Boards of Agri- 
culture for England and Wales and for Scotland had been 
given powers to enforce cultivation where they con- 
sidered that the land was not being properly tilled, and 
the.se powers, with certain exceptions, have been dele- 
gated to the County Agricultural Executive Com- 
mittees. Acting under these orders, the Committees 
can serve notices on occupiers requiring them to cultivate 
their land in such a manner as the Committees think 
necessarj- or, where no improvement takes place as a 
result of warning, the Committee may take possession 
of the whole or a part of the farm and either cultivate it 
or let it to new tenants. 

The Committees report their proceedings each week to 
the Department, and the picture they give of the agri- 
cultural conditions of their counties shows that large 
parts of rural England had sunk into a veritable slough 
of despond. Case after case was reported of considerable 
areas of land which, having at one time produced good 
crops, were either entirely given up to sport, allowed to 
become derehct or farmed in the most careless and neg- 
ligent manner. Many of the worst cases are those of 
occupying owners who do not depend on the production 
of the land for their livelihood, and for whom there is no 
excuse on the ground of lack of the necessary capital. 
In other cases, however, farmers had been allowed 
to obtain possession of far more land than they were able 
to cultivate adequately with the capital at their disposal, 
and in some parts of the country there are large areas 
which formerly supported a considerable population, 
where the houses and buildings had been allowed to fall 



into ruin and the land had been used merely as ex- 
ten.sive sheep or cattle ranges. Wherever possible such 
places are being dealt with by the Committees, but many 
of them will require new buildings and other works on a 
scale impracticable during the war. 

All powers resident in the Committees have been ex- 
ercised; but in the main the increase in tillage in England 
and Wales and in Scotland has been obtained by volun- 
tary appeal to farmers. In the case of the 1918 program, 
however, which provides for an increase in the arable 
area over 1916 of 2,700,000 acres in England and Wales 
and 350,000 acres in Scotland, the Boards of Agriculture 
have allocated a quota of this amount to each County 
Agricultural Executive Committee, which is empowered 
to serve notices upon farmers in its area calling upon 
them to provide a certain amount of additional tillage. 
The Committees have been engaged in carrying out a 
detailed survey, in order to apportion their quota 
among different farms, to schedule grass land which 
might with advantage be plowed up, to secure an in- 
creased area of cereals, roots and potatoes on the existing 
arable land, and to ascertain any land which is not 
being cultivated by the present occupiers. 

In Ireland a different procedure was adopted. The 
Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, 
by an Order in Council of January, 1917, required all 
agricultural holders of over 10 acres to increase their 
arable area in 1917 by 10 per cent, except where the 
arable area on any farm already amounted to 50 per 
cent of the total area suitable for arable cultivation. 
With regard to 1918 it is proposed that the additional 
area to be tilled shall be an increase of 15 per cent on 
the 1916 area, with a further five per cent increase in 
the case of farms having 200 acres or more of arable land. 

New Agriculture on Old Lands 

Steps were also taken to survey areas of land where 
production could be improved by drainage. In almost 
every county there are thousands of acres which might 
be used for agricultural production if properly drained, 
and in England and Wales nearly 100,000 acres have been 
inspected and reported on, and several schemes have been 
put in operation which would secure an immediate im- 
provement in the land for tillage purposes. In Scotland 
also a survey was made of deer forests with a view to re- 
stocking tracts of land with sheep. 

A great live-stock industry has been built up on the 
wonderful permanent grass lands of England, but the 
enforced extension of the corn-growing area by the usual 
method of plowing up the land has already encroached 
on the turf, and threatens still further inroads. It is 
now believed to be possible to use the grass lands for 
growing oats and wheat and still keep them for grazing 
and for raising hay. A method with this object has 
been devised by an English farmer and tried by him with 
success on a small scale during the past year. It was 
described in the Scientific American for June 29th. If 
the plan is adopted on a large scale this year, as is now 
proposed, it will mean more grazing this year, more beef 
next winter, and more oats, wheat, hay, and grazing in 
1919. If the new method is as successful over a large 
acreage as it has proved to be in the experimental stage 
it may rightly be termed a great discovery in agriculture, 
peculiarly valuable to England, where the gain in grain 
crop through plowing up the turf hardly compensates for 
the loss of grass, even in these times of grain deficiency. 

Apart from increasing production on agricultural 
land, important developments have taken place in pro- 
viding land for allotments. Under the Defence of the 
Realm Regulations powers have been delegated to Town 
and Urban District Councils enabling them to take pos- 
session of any unoccupied land and, with the sanction 
of the Agricultural Executive Committees, of any occupied 
land for the purpose of letting it as allottments to the 
residents in urban areas, who can cultivate it in their 
spare time. Complete statistics of allotments are not 
available, but in England and Wales alone, up to 
31st December, 1917, reports from 1,095 urban districts 
show that 185,147 plots have been provided; in Scotland 
there are returns of close on 20,000, and in Ireland of 
12,000 allotments. But these statistics do not include 
the rural districts and by no means include all allot- 
ments in urban districts. A complete register is being 
taken in hand. The tenure of plots has been extended 
until the 1st of January, 1919, and the enthusiasm dis- 
played in the movement, and the taste for gardening 
which it has fostered in the urban population, make it 
certain that further measures will have to be taken to 
meet the increasing demand for allotment land. 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



27 



Old Names for a New Navy 

The Heroic Associations That Attach to the Names of the Famous Fighters of the Past 



CECRETARY DANIELS has issued no order so 
^ completely popular as his ruling that our five new 
battle-cruisers shall be designated the "Constitution," 
"Constellation," "Saratoga," "Lexington," and 
"Ranger'" The Chief of the Navy Department has 
brought back to our first fighting line traditions as 
splendid as they are old. 

When milady Juliet figured it out that there was, after 
all, nothing in a name, she was taking count of no more 
than a family feud which promised to make the course of 
true love just a little rougher than usual. She over- 
looked the detail of naming ships. There lies all the 
difference between inspiration and nausea. Think of 
putting to sea aboard the " Apronstring!" The psy- 
chology of a single word would demoralize the best 
crew that ever signed up. To sail on the "Mauve" 
would be a colorless transaction. But to face the foes 
of one's country from the-deck of a "Constitution" or a 
"Niagara" is to set yet keener edge to the characteristic 
American fighting qualities. What fine patriotism would 
be bred from mere service on a craft called "Constella- 
tion," with all her daring memories of achievement! 

The original vessel of that name, now at Newport as a 
training ship, will hereafter be the "Old Constellation," 
even as it will hereafter be the "Old Constitution," which 
visitors at Boston's Navy Yard will visit and honor. 
There is no "Lexington" at present on the list, though 
the mighty cruiser now planned will be the fourth to 
bear the name. The "Saratoga," existing till 1911 as 
the cruiser "New York," when she took part in the 
battle off Santiago de Cuba, will now be rechristened 
once more and become the "Rochester." 

In the name of a nation's naval line one may read the 
nation's spirit. National feelings and ideals are there 
typically set forth. Our own method, for instance, 
though at first sight lacking in originality and rather 
prosaically methodical, keeps well to the fore the basic 
thought of our Federal structure. If the battle-cruisers 
are hereafter to be named to commemorate the mighty 



historic past of which we are justly proud, the dread- 
noughts will continue to bear the names of our states, 
and each sovereign commonwealth undoubtedly has as 
sound a right to a battleship all its own as to its own star 
in the blue field of the flag. Our cruisers are christened 
in honor of our greatest cities; our gunboats for those 
of lesser size, albeit often of historic eloquence (as 
"Yorktown" and "Chattanooga"), while it is reserved 
for the destroyers to recall distinguished names of naval 
commanders past and gone though not forgotten. 

During the war we have had illustrated three interest- 
ing instances of this last-mentioned method, in the 
christening of the "Radford," "Montgomery" and 
"Kilty." Few non-naval men of today recall this trio 
of Rear Admirals, unless it be their fellow-townsmen of 
Fincastle, Virginia, Allentown, New Jersey, and Hagers- 
town, Maryland; yet they were gallant commanders all. 
Radford was in charge of a cutting-out expedition during 
the Mexican War, was captain of the "Cumberland" 
when she was sunk by the Confederate ram " Merrimac," 
and directed the "New Ironsides" during the attacks on 
Fort Fisher in the Christmas week of '64 and fortnight 
following. Montgomery's 54 years under the starred 
jack (he was appointed midshipman in 1812), brought 
him service on Perry's "Niagara," under Decatur against 
the Tripoli pirates, and throughout the struggle between 
North and South. Kilty was both active and successful 
in the water fighting of that same Civil W'ar, first under 
Foote in the Western Flotilla and afterwards on the 
White River. 

In this same destroyer connection, it is distinctly worth 
the record that, for the first time in our history, one of this 
class of vessels has been named for an enlisted man — and 
in thus honoring Chief Gunner's Mate Ingram, of the 
U. S. S. "Cassin," Mr. Daniels has at once done a grace- 
ful thing and commemorated an heroic action. When 
the "Cassin" was torpedoed she, like other destroyers, 
had depth bombs stowed on deck aft. These were 
charged with a considerable weight of high explosive 



and, as the case of the "Manly" has since shown, their 
detonation would do a deal of damage. Ingram saw 
the silvery wake of the Hun torpedo as it sped toward 
the "Cassin," and saw also that it would strike her aft. 
Though he must have known that the chances against 
him were tremendous, he took no thought of himself, 
but ran aft and succeeded in getting the depth charges 
overboard just before the torpedo struck, ki ling him 
before he could get forward. But, due to his self- 
sacrifice, the "Cassin" was saved from worse damage 
and he was the only victim of the torpedo. Courage 
is a commonplace in the fighting services, but such a deed 
as Ingram's maintains the best traditions of the Navy. 

The great sea-fighters of Europe indicate clearly the 
characteristics and history of the several lands to 
which they belong. England has recorded in steel 
the magic names " King Alfred " and "Queen Elizabeth," 
"Marlboro" and "Lord Nelson," "CornwalUs" and 
"Drake." The "Agincourt" has already entered the 
battle line, glowing with the traditions of that signal 
victory of the fifth Henry. Around the "Temeraire" 
brightly shine recollections of Trafalgar, while the 
"Ramilles," "Iron Duke" and "Black Prince" all speak 
with prophetic comfort to a militant today through 
English triumphs of long ago. 

The academic shades of Oxford and Cambridge are 
recalled, too, by John Bull's "classic" craft the "Ajax," 
"Neptune," "Jupiter," "Mars," "Theseus," "Minerva," 
"Diana," "Juno," " Adriadne" and pretty much all the 
rest of Parnassus. When the guns of the "Agamem- 
non" spoke deeply off the Dardanelles they not only 
recalled the siege of Troy, distant 3,000 years if only a few 
score miles, but, also, seemed to echo the thunders of its 
forefather's cannon at Copenhagen. So again if the 
"Bellerophon" awakens memories of winged Pegasus, 
much more does it recall the day when the great-great- 
grandpapa of this modern marine Cerberus received, in 
durance vile, that mighty and superlatively dangerous 
(Continued on page JfO) 



Correspondence 

The editors are not responsible for statements made 
in the correspondence column. Anonymous commu- 
nications cannot be considered, but the names of cor- 
respondeuts will be withheld when so desired. 



The Shipping Problem 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

I agree with your editorial this week on navy ex- 
pansion, but did it occur to you what folly it is also to 
squander money in merchant ship expansion on the pro- 
posed plan of Mr. Schwab, at present excessive costs. 
The building of ships during the war at exorbitant 
costs, and perhaps even of ships that can be useful im- 
mediately, can be excused; but would any sensible man 
consider it expedient to continue building ships, at such 
cost that these ships will be handicapped all their life. 
The ship plan proposes to build ships at four times 
normal cost. They have wasted millions in building 
obsolete wooden 3,000-ton, 10-knot boats costing 
$600,000 each, which can not earn their expenses in 
competition with up-to-date modern vessels of 6,000 
to 10,000 tons of steel. Before the war, a 3,000-ton steel 
boat cost $125,000 to $150,000. Two years from now, 
you will probably be able to build with $600,000 a 
6,000- to 8,000-ton boat. The plan will land the tjnited 
States with a fleet of high-priced vessels that can not 
compete. Our officials seem to think ships are the 
same as railroads. The difference is, that the ship 
offering the lowest freight rate gets the business, but a 
railroad is a monopoly. If I originate 100,000 tons of 
cargo on a railroad, I must ship over that road, but if 
I have that much cargo at a port, the cable brings every 
ship owner, competing for it in normal times. 

Can our Government run these ships as cheaply as 
Norway, Italy, Japan, Germany, Great Britain? * I 
believe not. We, as private owners, could not, and 
certainly Government management is more expensive 
than private ownership. Must the tax payer pay the 
losses for years to come, or will our ships rust at our 
docks, because our costs and expenses are too high. 
Rusting ships, that can not compete, tied up to the 
dock, have been common, even good ships. Will busi- 
ness expand and keep up freights? I believe freights 



must decline and will to 20 per cent of present rates. 
High freights prevent business growth and expansion. 
A company of which I am a Director had two 3,000-ton 
Scotch-built steel steamers, which cost us $150,000 each; 
We sold them for over $500,000 each. No private owner 
can afford to face United States competition; unless war 
profits have paid for his ships. Mr. Schwab's interests 
are steel; he builds ships at United States cost. You 
and I pay the bill. Steel gets the business and profits 
now; the running of the ships at a loss later is another 
question. H. I. Underbill. 

"A Broken Idol" 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

I have just read and reread your editorial in the issue 
of November 23d under the above title, trying hard to 
get at the root of what you mean. There is no single 
statement in what you say that I would oppose, but there 
are underlying implications that will be used to thwart 
the great cause of the League of Nations, whether you 
intended it or not. 

No man can be a good "citizen of the world" who does 
not thrill with pride for his own country. But no man 
is an inlelligenl patriot, no matter how great the sacrifice 
his devotion has led him to make for his country, who 
does not work for the establishment of an international 
system of justice that will be less haphazard than the 
benevolent anarchy (from our standpoint and that of our 
Allies), that has been proven so insufficient. 

The creation of the League of Nations is the supreme 
task of our generation. We can not solve in advance 
all the great problems of the future, but the organization 
of the machinery of international control is our sacred 
duty, the neglect of which would make us slackers to 
posterity. 

The time is ripe, and every publication, scientific and 
otherwise, should rejoice to use its space to arouse men 
to this great moral and spiritual mobilization. 

L. O. McAfee. 
Ismay, Mont. 

The Oil-Cooled Kerosene Engine 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

I cannot resist the impulse to express my appreciation 
of your article on "Oil-cooled Kerosene Engine," that 
appeared in the November 16th Scientific American. 
Your authoritative statement of the facts in this case 
is the most welcome of anything that I have read for 



quite a time. Incidentally, may I add that for several 
years past I have been giving quite a bit of time to the 
study of such a development and including no small 
amount of simple physical experiments. Might mention 
that in this same issue of the Scientific American I was 
favored with a brief mention of a patent on temperature 
control means. 

As unnatural as it may sound to you, it has been my 
experience to learn that even many well-known auto- 
motive engineers, although devoting valuable talent to 
the perfection of the industry, are apparently uninformed 
or not open to conviction as to the undeniable possibility 
of the great increase in fuel efficiency that is inevitable 
with the adoption of internal combustion engines de- 
signed to operate at higher temperatures. In fact, 
statements that I have received in reply to my inquiry 
as to their attitude along this line are so elementary and 
unappreciative as to become absolutely disgusting. It 
is my fervent prayer that more engineers of your kind 
shall eventually see fit to impress this fact upon the minds 
of the masters of the engine world. I am sure that the 
result would be that the near future will see an evolution 
that will surpass any of the truly marvelous innovations 
that have done so much in the past. 

I trust that this simple note of appreciation will 
at least tend to soothe any effect of averse criticism that 
your article may have brought upon your head. 



Anderson, Ind. 



Harris S. Coy. 



The Electron Formula 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

With reference to the electron theory of the physical 
and mechanical universe I would like to recall to the 
readers of the Scientific American the fact that the 
Alfred Nobel .140,000 phy,sics prize awaits the discoverer 
of the electron formula. 

In 1906 Sir J. ,j. Thomson of Cambridge University, 
England, was awarded the Alfred Nobel $40,000 physics 
prize for advancing the electron theory and it has been 
suggested that a scientific society be organized to devote 
its entire time researching for the electron formula. 

The writer would be pleased to hear from those who 
believe in the electron theory when we may eventually 
reveal the great law of the universe through the columns 
of the Scientific American: 

Era M. V. Leewah. 
New York, N. Y. 



28 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January il, 191& 




The file fish of Eastern Asiatic waters. His bottom spikes enable him fairly 
to sit down on his victim as he stings 



The tetraodon of East India. Bristling with short strong spines and armed 
with strong teeth, natives call him "deadly death" 



Weeding Out the Poisonous Fishes 

How Scientists Are Tying a Figurative Bell on the Dangerous Denizens of the Deep 



MR. E. W. GUDGER, Professor of Biology of the 
North Carolina State Normal School, in behalf of 
the Carnegie Institution, Washington, has been engaged 
at the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York, studying poisonous fishes. In Washington, a 
section of the Bureau of Fisheries, under Dr. Hugh M. 
Smith, Director, is busy on similar lines. In California, 
Dr. David Starr Jordan, President of Stanford Uni- 
versity, is strenuously at work testing all kinds of fishes 
available. There is a universal and feverish effort 
going on in different institutions to test up all products 
of the salt and fresh waters of the world, to get at 
everything edible and throw into the discard everything 
unfit for human food. As to the latter, every effort is 
being made to find some kind of utility for discarded 
species, either for leather, fertilizer, commercial or 
medicinal oils, etc. 

Poisonous fishes, for convenience, may be divided 
into those forms which are unsafe to eat, and the types 
which by their bites are destructive to edible or useful 
fishes and dangerous to man. There are also side lines 
of conditions which are unsafe. For instance, the 
bluefish, the most popular marine food in summer, will 
if it happens to feed upon decayed mossbunker used as 
chum by commercial fishermen or anglers, not only 
make ill those who eat it, but cause the face and other 
parts of the human body to break out in a conspicuous 
rash. The carnivorous bluefish in the ocean, which 
feeds ravenously on schools of mossbunkers which it 
follows, is perfectly edible when taken by net fishermen. 
When, however, the mossbunkers enter the baj's to breed 
they stick to shallow water where they are safe from 
pursuit. It is then that the bait boats offer iced 
mossbunkers (or menhaden, or oUfish as they are called) 
for the use of commercial fishermen and thousands of 
pleasure anglers. The iced mossbunker soon deeaj's 
in the heat and the bluefish that fill up with him become 
permeated with alkaloids which they convey to the 
Stomachs of humans. It depends upon the human 
stomach involved, whether there is immunity or not 
from fish alkaloids and ptomaines. 

Still another source of danger to humans is the fish 
that have died which are sold in the markets or caught 
■with a hook. In Europe, net fishermen or anglers who 
allow fish to die in the air, are prosecuted and punished 
to the extreme Limit. All fish caught in European 
waters must be butchered alive. Even the hook anplor 
catching fish for his own home consump- 
tion, must kill each fish with a knife im- 
mediately upon taking it from the water. 
Government inspectors go out with fishing 
fleets. They require that fish must be 
butchered aUve, the same as steers, and 
the carcasses thrown into iced holds. 
Only iced or frozen fish can be sold in the 
markets or peddled. In America, few 
such precautions are taken, and hence 
the vast amounts of decayed and unfit 
fish consumed, bearing toxic alkaloids to 
the human stomach. Hence also, the vast 
amounts of fish condemned by board.s 
of health as unfit for consumption. When 
an angler, for instance, kills his fish with 
a knife as fast as caught, he can put them 
in his bag or box with perfect safety. A 
butchered fish, if left in air or sun, will be 
protected for hours by its own skin and be 
perfectly safe eating for some time. 

The other form, the fi.sh that exude 
poison or posionous bacteria fatal or 
detrimental to humans and edible fish, 



also most deeply concern the laboratories. It .seems 
vital that all such forms should be tagged and placed 
upon the card index for universal destruction as a com- 
mercial necessity. It is feared that such forms both will 
be eaten if left in the waters and will continue to destroy 
edible marine products in enormous quantities. Dr. 
John H. Nichols has recently cautioned the public 
against the well-known blowfish. He warns that it is 
poisonous to humans. Strange as it may seem, the 
blowfish which was formerly regarded as a pest by 
anglers, has for several years become popular for the 
frying pan. Upon its back are two strips of "tender- 




Pteroise volitans, a large and much feared stinging 
fish of Samoa 

loin." Not only have anglers of late been greedily 
stripping these off, but the numerous fishermen's small 
hotels along the coast have been serving the tenderloins 
as a delicacy. Yet this fish is poisonous and should not 
be eaten, except by people whose stomachs are as im- 
mune as a goat's or ostrich's. Dr. Gudger also warns 
against eating the barracuda as a fish causing ptomaines 
in humans from toxic bacteria. 

Some of the most poi.sonous fish of the w'orld are found 
in the waters of Samoa, Hawaii and the East Indies 
generallj', although for that matter, equatorial waters 
("Vf^rywhere have their peculiar forms. ')f these the 




oison-bearing spikes of the giant rayfish, which inflict a dangerous wound 



family Tetraodon tidae is most conspicuous. It is 
difficult to understand why these fellows, heavil}' armored 
as they are with stout spines, stout jaws and teeth, 
should also need to e.\ude posion for their protection 
from enemies. Jordan and Searle describe the several 
species: "The group are more abundant in the East 
Indies than the South Seas. They are regarded as 
poisonous, although none of the species has the bad 
repute possessed at Hawaii by Tetraodon hispidus. The 
natives call them sui, meaning puffers, or blowfish. 
Hispidus is very abundant in the lagoons and mullet 
ponds. It is regarded as excessively poisonous, ?niiki- 
muki, or deadlj' death, being its local name. Nigro- 
punctatus is very common about Apia and Pago Pago, 
and is likewise regarded as poisonous. In some in- 
stances the body is covered with bristles so long as to give 
the appearance of coarse fur. The highly colored 
family Lutianus, mostly with red shades, has poisonous 
species, of which monostigma is a conspicuous example. 
It is common at Apia with a coppery red coloration, and 
has no teeth on its tongue. Another large, brick-red.^ 
species of the famih', bohar, with large canine teeth, is 
poisonous. It ranges widely in the East Indies. 

" Pteroise volitans is a large stinging fish of Samoa, 
Tahiti, New Guinea, New Britain and the East Indies. 
It is blackish red in color. The natives call it Sausaulde, 
because of its fluttering, butterfly flight in water." It 
will be noted that this fish somewhat resembles the 
Atlantic sea robin in appearance. There are, however, 
tentacles on the head and it is armed with knife-hke 
spines, and is capable of stinging in all directions what- 
ever it comes in contact with. The stings of some fish 
are as deadly as their bites. This fish also has bands of 
minute teeth to sting with. 

Of the deadly sting rays of the Eastern Indian waters, 
Jordan and Scale name a new one, Himantura fai. The 
Tahitins call it fai, the New Zelanders whai and the 
Figians vai. Sting rays are everywhere deadly, on our 
own coasts as well as elsewhere in the expanse of salt 
water. Many prominent fishermen have been kiUed by 
their stings. They are difficult for laymen to distinguish 
from ordinary skates, which fact should make all persons 
cautious in handling these triangular flatfish. The 
rays have long whip-lash tails. In the sting raj', there 
are on the tail, below the body, two protruding spines, 
or stingers, which the animal is very deft in thrusting 
into his annoyers by squirms, whether in water, in boat 
or on shore. The sting may or may not be 
deadly, according to quick treatment of 
the wound and the condition of health of 
the victim. The sting fluid, or fish slime 
invested with toxic bacteria, quickly 
circulates with the blood, permeating the 
whole system. Many people have been 
killed by the sting, and the life of Capt. 
John Smith is alleged to have been saved 
by Princess Pocahontas only after eight 
months of careful treatment and nursing 
following a thrust by a sting raj'. 

Two terrors of the Eastern seas comprise 
fishes with poisonous spines. Thej' dart 
out from under rocks and from the depths 
of pools and thrust their virus into dis- 
turbers of their peace, whether natives or 
denizens of water. They have a wide 
range of habitat. They rejoice in the 
names of Seba^lopsis guamen^is and scabra, 
and Sebaslapisles laotale. Thcj- have 
poisonous spines on the head, one directed 
forward and the other backward; spines 
on the cheeks and nostrils and 11 spines 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



29 



elsewhere about the fins and body. One 

species has a deadly spine at the base 
of the under part of the body, so that 
lie can fairly sit down on a victim and 
sting him. Two other spinous species 
are even more interesting. Amajises 
scopas, a file-fish, has a sheaf of long 
needle-like spines, about ten in number 
and nearly as long as its head, on each 
side near the tail. These spines are 
thrust into enemies approaching it behind. 
Forward, it is protected by the sharp 
teeth in its long snout, a heavy spine 
on top of the head and a short, stout 
spine on the center of the belly. Even 
more dangerous is the trunk-shaped file- 
fish Monacanlhus. The triangular spine 
on the back of its head is armed with 
spikes. Below is a heavy, movable spine 
with an armature or battery of heavy 
spikes. The snout is equipped with 
knife-hke teeth. The dorsal spined fish 
of uncomely form most dreaded by the 
natives is called nofu by them. Its 
name is Syance'a and it abounds in the 
tide pools and about the coral reefs. 
The deadly poisonous spines being on the 
back fin, make it exceedingly dangerous 
to handle. 

From the other side of the world, 
Africa, comes Prolopterus to the American 
Museum. Herbert Lang, the African 
explorer says of it: "At Nouvelle Anvers 
the natives are very much afraid of being 
bitten by the live Protopleri which they 
bring to the market in pots of water. 
When one is thrown on the ground it is 
very active, wriggling like a snake and 
moves along in a like manner. These fish live in the 
dry sand when the bottoms of the rivers are on top, as 
(Continued on page /}0) 

Changes in Iron After Repeated Heating 

AT a recent discussion before a large British technical 
society of certain changes in cast iron after repeated 
heating, a prominent metallurgist called attention to 
the effect of repeated cooling in water 
on same large steel tongs which became red 
liot each time they were used. 

The result of this continued heating 
and cooling was to cause a very material 
contraction in the length. The envelope 
contracted when being cooled, while the 
portions below were more plastic then the 
chilled outer layers. The effect was that 
the more plastic central portion was 
forced or "jumped" down, causing con- 
traction in length and bulging of the sides. 
There was probably no decrease in the 
actual volume, but only a change in the 
position of the steel. Incidentally it 
might be remarked that the result ob- 
tained suggested the somewhat starthng 
hypothesis that if an oblong bar of soft 
steel were to be heated and cooled a 
sufficient number of times under proper 
conditions it would eventually assume a globular shape. 

An almost perfect instance of the effect here so well 
predicted was cited by another metallurgist at the same 
meeting. In order to warm a small tank of water used 
for molding purposes at the workshop of Robert Rogers 
& Co., Stockton, England, a piece of iron, weighing 
several pounds is heated over a coke brazing-fire to a 
blood-red heat, then quenched until it is nearly cold. 




(1) parent cestode; (2) the deadly pigment of the cestode, below the head at r; (3) 
proboscis of the cestode, enlarged from a diameter of .9 millimeter; (4) larval cestode; 
(5) three enlarged views of the cestode 's head. 
Poisonous parasite (enlarged) which the sting-ray injects into the wounds it creates 

Some years ago a cylindrical piece of soft steel, similar 
in shape to that shown in the illustration was cut from 
a round bar of about 3.5 inches diameter and used 
solely for this purpose. The analysis of the steel was 
as follows: Carbon, 0.05 per cent; silicon, 0.01 per cent; 
phosphorus, 0.08 per cent; sulphur, 0.05 per cent; 
manganese, 0.45 per cent. 

About 200 heatings and quenchings were given in a 




After 800 heatings and quenchings, the blocic of steel shown at the left had 
developed the shape at the right, passing through the central stage 

year, and in the course of four years of this treatment 
the cylindrical piece had gradually become nearly 
spherical in shape, as shown. An intermediate stage in 
the transformation is seen in the center figure of the 
illustration, which is a photograph of a similar piece after 
it has been subjected to about 200 quenchings. 

The remarks, quoted above, are clearly illustrated 
by these examples, the pressure on the hotter internal 



metal due to the more rapid contraction 
of the chilled outer layers having ulti- 
mately caused the piece to assume the 
globular aspect shown in the third or 
second figure of this illustration. Meas- 
urements taken indicated that, after 800 
quenchings, the cylinder had contracted 
in length about 0.75 inches and had 
also increased in \^dth by a corre- 
sponding amount. Each quenching must 
therefore have caused a maximum dis- 
placement of material in a lateral direc- 
tion of about 1/1000 of an inch. 

Pressure Marks on Photo Plates 
By M. Luckiesh 

SEVERAL years ago while scrutinizing 
some photo-spectrographs for fine 
detail, certain irregular markings were 
found which excited a suspicion that they 
might be made by ions present in the air 
owing to the particular conditions sur- 
rounding the \\ork. Furthermore, owing 
to the fact that these tracks were found 
only on one type of panchromatic plates 
and not on any of a number of other 
types of plates which were used, it 
appeared that they were peculiar to this 
particular plat* for some reason. Various 
experiments were conducted to ascer- 
tain the origin of the tracks, including 
the development of several dozen new 
plates which were unpacked in the dark- 
room and immediately developed without 
being subjected to any possible influence 
in the laboratory. The tracks were 
found on all these new plates of this type, 
which were obtained several years after those on which 
the tracks were first noticed, and further investigation 
did not reveal any on other types of new plates. 

It is a fact of photography that a latent image can be 
impressed on a photographic plate by minute abrasions 
of the emulsion surface. These are known as pressure 
tracks. The particular type of plate under considera- 
tion appeared to be packed as well as others in the 
original package, having cardboard strips 
between plates. Nevertheless these pres- 
sure tracks appeared to be due to particles 
of gritty substance being rubbed against 
the emulsion, because similar tracks were 
reproduced in this manner by using fine 
particles of sand. The individual mark- 
ings or "pressure marks" are too small to 
be troublesome in ordinary photography 
but are visible under careful observation to 
the naked eye. They can be very an- 
noying in photo-microscopy. 

The illustrations are high magnifications 
of the original "tracks" and are of some 
interest not only photographically but 
from the standpoint of the antics of a 
small particle rubbed between flat sur- 
faces. Fig. 1 is the result of magnifying 
a nest of "tracks" about fifty times. 
The long trail appears to have been made 
by a single particle. This portion is seen at a higher 
magnification (about 125 times) in Fig. 2 although in- 
cidentally this photograph is reversed as if Fig. 1 were 
seen in a mirror. The more complicated region of Fig. 1 
is seen enlarged (and reversed) in Fig. 3 to the same 
magnification as Fig. 2. The character of the darker 
or heavier spots is shown in Fig. 4 greatly magnified, 
although this photograph is of a different subject. 




fig. 1 



Pressure tracks on photographic plates, greatly magnified. 



Fig. 3 
For detailed information see the text 



Fig. 4 



30 



ISCIENTIFIC AMERICANk 



January 11, 1919 



Mechanical Equipment of the Farm 

Latest developments in agricultural machinery and practical suggestions for the farmer 

Conduri,-.i hv HARRY C. RAMSOWER. Professor of Acricullurjl Encineerint!. Oh.n Slale Unlversin 





Dredging the outlet of an open ditch drain 



Machine for gathering corn and binding it into bandies 



Cleaning and Deepening the Open Ditch 

ON'E of the phases of farm drainage which is too often 
neglected is the open ditch. For land drainage we 
rely upon underdrains almost exclusively, but all tile 
ultimately empty into the open ditch. The vital im- 
portance of this ditch comes from the fact that no under- 
drain can be better than its outlet permits it to be. 
More often than not this outlet ditch is filled with grass, 
weeds, and trash, to such an extent that the tile emptying 
into it are completely clogged at the outlet and are thus 
largely useless. 

In large ditches serving as the outlet for a considerable 
area of underdrained land, the dredge is used to good 
advantage. If a large volume of water is present, a 
floating dredge is perhaps most convenient. In the 
greater number of cases, however, large ditches are 
needed^too large to be cleaned and deepened by the use 
of horse drawn scrapers, yet not large enough to take a 
floating dredge. 

The dredge shown on this page might be called a dry 
land dredge. It is supported by heavy timbers on the 
banks of the ditch. A convenient track is laid over 
which it may be propelled. Its powerful hoist enables 
it to cut through trash, roots, etc., with comparative ease. 
Where the extent of the work justifies, it will always pay 
to use a machine of this kind rather than to rely on 
ordinary scrapers drawn by horses. 

The One-Horse Gasoline Horse 

THE title may sound rather odd, yet no other term 
seems to convey the right meaning. The larger sized 
tractors are intended to do the work of two, four, six, 
eight, or more, horses and many times they are thought 
of in terms of the number of horses whose power they 
equal. But the one-horse tool is a necessity on most 
farms while in many instances, as on small farms 
devoted chiefly to truck gardening, it is used much 
more than any other tool. It remained, therefore, for 
someone to design a machine that w ould find favor where 
the one-horse job was the chief issue or where a consider- 
able amount of hand labor might better be done in some 
more rapid and more profitable way. 

The garden tractor shown on this page is the result of 
effort along this line. As the machine stands it is 72 
inches long, 17 inches wide and 36 inches high. It is 
equipped with a single-cj-linder motor, S},^ x 4)4 bore 
and stroke, with a belt speed varying from 300 to 
2,200. The total weight of the machine is 550 poimds. 

It can readily be seen that 
this tractor is capable of 
doing only very light work. 
The plow which it is intended 
to pull, cuts a 7-inch furrow 
and the various tillage at- 
tachments are of correspond- 
ing size. It is easily handled 
in garden work. There is, 
in addition, a pulley attach- 
ment which can be used for 
light belt work. The diam- 
eter of the pulley is 4J^ 
inches and it runs at 800 
revolutions per minute at 
normal engine speed. 

A machine of this kind, 
honestly built, slTould fill a 
real place in our immense 
truck gardening business 



The individual who wishes a garden of something larger 
than average size can use it to good advantage. It 
might also be used to draw a large lawn mower where a 
considerable area must be cut regularly, but where the 
size would not justify a power mower. The chief diffi- 
culty which users of this type of machine will encounter 
is this — they will expect too much of it. Its limitations 
must be recognized. It really does not possess the power 




Plowing with a one-horse gasoline horse 

of one horse. While it is true that a horse at steady work 
cannot develop more than ^ horse-power, yet in an 
emergency and for a short time he can multiply this 
effort many times. It is for this reason that those who 
have been accustomed to using horses are frequently 
disappointed when they undertake the use of motor 
power. This is not a criticism of motor power; the 
statement is made to forestall possible disappointment. 




A Loading Attachment for a Combinder 

TT has long been recognized by practical farmers that 
*■ the handling of the corn crop is one of the hardest 
tasks of the entire year and one phase of farm work which, 
in spite of numerous labor saving machines, stiU calls 
for a large amount of hand labor. The various types of 
so-called sled cutters work very satisfactorily if the corn 
stands up well, but corn frequently becomes lodged and 
twisted so that these simple machines cannot be used at 
all. 

The corn binder will gather and bind into bundles, 
even badly lodged corn, but it is not an easy task by any 
means to pick up and set the bundles in shocks. A 
number of attempts have been made to devise shocking 
arrangements for different forms of corn harvesters, but 
none of them have met with much success. It has 
always been found next to impossible to make a shock 
that would stand erect for any length of time. In the 
hands of a skilful operator, fairly good work can be d6ne, 
but, in the main, shockers have never become widely 
used. 

The attachment shown on this page has already been 
put to wide practical use and with considerable satisfac- 
tion from the mechanical point of view. That it is a 
remarkable labor saver there can be no doubt. It can 
be used, of course, only when the corn is put into a sUo, 
but this means no small amount of hard work and hand 
labor saved annually, when the country as a whole is 
considered. 

The ])hotograph at the head of this column shows 
the machine in service, being hauled by a tractor. 
The tractor, by the way, is especially well adapted to 
drawing the corn binder. This tool is a heavy draft 
machine — more than a load for two horses, and it seems 
to be rather awkward and inconvenient to use more than 
two. Further, the machine works much better if drawn 
at a steady rate. 

Cement Drain Tile 

THE question as to the merits of cement drain tile, 
especially their desirability as compared to clay tile 
is continuaUy being raised in the minds of farmers. 
This is a proper question and deserves consideration. 

In the first place let it be said that there is no reason 
why first class drain tile should not be made from cement 
and good, clean sand or fine gravel. The materials 
should be mixed in a proportion not leaner than 1 :3, 
that is, one part of cement to three parts of aggregate. 
The tiles after being molded 
must be carefully and com- 
pletely cured if they are to 
attain to the proper strength. 
In the better commercial 
plants the tiles are steam 
cured. They are put into 
more or less air tight com- 
partments and the atmo- 
sphere within is kept satur- 
ated by means of steam pipes 
in water. 

The fact remains, however, 
that many of the cement tile 
that have been made in 
recent years have not been of 
good quality. This may 
have been due to any one of a 
number of causes such ae 



The gasoline horse as a stationary engine 



(Continued on page ^Z) 
\ 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



31 



The Continuous Nitration of Hydrocarbides 

THE nitration of hydrocarbides, of gylcerine and of 
cellulose, which is the preliminary step in the manu- 
facture of powders and other explosives, was nearly 
always a discontinuous operation before the war. This 
discontinuity was practiced in order to avoid the danger 
arising from the high temperatures produced when large 
masses are treated; by operating discontinuously on 
comparatively small quantities cooling is facilitated and 
danger in the case of explosion is limited. 

But the enormous quantity of explosive material ex- 
pended in the present war and the scarcity of man power 
have caused inventors to seek processes permitting 
continuous nitration, at least in the case of liquids, of 
large quantities by means of apparatus to insure prompt 
and permanent cooling. 

One method employed for cooling was agitation with 
paddles; this was abandoned, however, because of a 
serious explosion which took place in the plant of the 
Aktien Gesellschaft for the Manufacture of Aniline at 
Rummelsberg near Berlin in consequence of the operator 
having forgot to set the paddles in motion. For the same 
reason coohng by means of turbines has been found 
unsatisfactory. Recently, however, an apparatus free 
from this disadvantage has been invented by Kubierschky 
based upon the principle of his well known absorption 
columns and gas washers. The manner in which it oper- 
ates has been recently described by A. Stettbacher in 
Technik und Industrie. 

As shown in the accompanying diagram the apparatus 
consists essentially of three columns: A, in which the 
nitration of the benzine is effected ; B, which is a washer 
in which the nitrobenzine formed in the column A is 
freed from the acids which it has carried down with it; 
and C, in which the nitrobenzine is distilled. 

The dimensions and the relative position of these 
three columns have been so arranged that the liquids 
circulate from the first to the last merely through the 
force of gravity, an initial pressure being obtained by 
means of the glow regulator rn for the benzine, and the 
reservoir G which contains the sulfonitric acid mixture. 
Furthermore the escape valves also ensure regularity of 
flow throughout the whole apparatus. 

The benzine coming from the reservoir D, after having 
passed into the regulator m (which regulates both the 
flow and the pressure), passes through the pipe E to the 
lower portion of the nitration column A. The sulfo- 
nitric mixture passes from G into the upper portion H. 
Its density being greater than that of the benzine it 
traverses the latter and during its passage mingles with 
it little by little. The contact of the two liquids is 
made intimate by the presence in the nitration column of 
numerous plates which cause the acid to fall in a shower 
of drops. Thanks to this double circulation in opposite 
directions of the two liquids the reaction takes place 
progressively and can be entirely completed without 
large quantities of strong acid at any time coming in 
contact with large quantities of fresh benzine. 

The dilute acid which results from the reaction collects 
in the container J; the crude nitrobenzine containing 
traces of acid issues by the pipe K, flowing into the 
washer B. The initial proportions of the liquid are such 
that it still contains an excess of about 10 per cent of ben- 
zine so as to avoid the formation of dinitrobenzine. 

In the washer B, which is also provided with dripping 
plates, the mononitrobenzine circulates in the direction 
opposite to a current of water, which is less dense than the 
nitrobenzine. It flows out through L, passing into 
the distillation column C after having traversed a con- 
denser M which is at the same time an exchanger of heat. 
In the column C it is subjected to an injection of water 
vapor introduced at the bottom. The benzine vapor 
carried along by the water is partially condensed in M 
and the condensation is completed in the refrigerator N. 
A closed separator P receives the condensed liquid, 
which consists of a mixture of water and benzine. 
Decantation is performed in 
P, the water collected in the 
lower portion makes its exit 
continuously by means of a 
siphon, while the benzine 
flows out at the top. 

As for the nitrobenzine it 
issues purified but mi.xed 
with water at the bottom of 
the column C, and traverses 
the refrigerator , in which 
the water and the notro- 
benzine are completely con- 
densed. The two liquids are 
separated from each other 
in the separator S in which 
the decantation and the 
evacuation are produced in 
the same manner as was the 
^jsswi ease with the water and 
benzine in the separator P. 




The general scheme of the apparatus for continuous 
nitration. For the reference letters, see the text 

The continuous cooling of the liquids in the column of 
nitration is insured by means of four cold water serpen- 
tines placed in the middle portion of the column. Their 
flow is regulated automatically by internal thermometers 
which set in action distribution sluices by means of 
electricity. 

The exhausted acid collected in J is almost free from 



^ic 


GX" 




M 








N 
1 


\ 


{' 


= 


n 




■'^ 


— f— - 


1 


A 


1 


B 


A 


2 


B 


) 




^ ^ 


r' 




^ 




} 


c 


•"^S"^ 


A 


3 ° 


A 




4 




S 



To illustrate his suggested changes in the standard 

railway tie, a French investigator presents these 

diagrams, which are explained in the text 

nitric acid; it is dilute sulfuric acid which may be used 
again in the manufacture after having been reinforced 
by the addition of oleum or sulfuric anhydride and of 
fresh nitric acid. Finally similar apparatus to that just 





Above .-General view of the Quinsib'n ' ' !=''■ m Worcusfir, Mass.. sliowiiig the completed half and the remaining half in 

building. At left: Finished half of the bridge a.s seen f[-om the bank. At right: Concrete forms in place on the imtoished side. 

Three views of a concrete bridge which has been built by halves, for earlier opening to traffic 



described makes it possible to transform the mono- 
nitrobenzine into dinitrobenzine and the latter into 
trinitrobenzine. 

Improved Sleepers for Railroads 

A FRENCH railroad engineer, M. A. Auric, has come 
-^* to the conclusion that the present method of con- 
structing roadbeds is faulty in principle and is largely 
responsible for the wear and tear to which they are sub- 
ject. 

His criticisms cover three main points, the rigidity of 
the cross-tie or "sleeper" in the longitudinal direction, 
the manner in which the rail is fastened to the sleeper, 
and the insuflBciency of support at the junction of the 
rails. In a recent article in Le Genie Civil he supports 
his argument by the u.se of the accompanying diagrams. 

Figure 1 represents the tie A B supporting the rails 
C and D. According to M. Auric it has been proven 
by experiment that the loads and the shocks which are 
transmitted simultaneously to the ties at C and D are 
never equal or even approximately equal; on the con- 
trary almost the total amount of the load is transmitted 
integrally first at one point and then at the other, 
becau.se of the unavoidable zigzagging, pitching, rolling, 
etc., in the motion of engines and cars. Because of the 
rigidity of the tie in the longitudinal direction these 
and uneven loads cause it to rise (and fall) now on one 
side and now on the other, and the incessant vibration 
thus occasioned tends to disturb the ballast of the road- 
bed and causes the fastenings of the rails to become 
loosened. 

This disadvantage can be remedied, M. Auric believes, 
by the simple method of making the tie thinner in the 
middle, as indicated by the dotted line E F G, thus 
preventing the two ends of the tie from having too closely 
conjoined an action, and allowing them to act inde- 
pendently of each other under the strains and stresses 
imparted by the load. 

Figure 2 represents the present method of fastening 
the rail to the tie in the transverse direction by means 
of cramp-irons, etc., fixed upon the upper surface C D 
of the tie, this upper surface having a width of 0.15 
meters to 0.20 meters (5.8 inches to 7.8 inches). 

Obviously, when the rolling load is at M to the left of 
C the tie will have a tendency to sink at A and to rise 
at B ; when the load is at N to the right of D this action 
will be reversed; the effect of the constant oscillation is 
the same as in the preceding case, the loosening of the 
fastenings and damage of the ballast. The remedy 
proposed, and illustrated in Fig. 3, is equaUy simple, 
and consists merely in reducing the supporting surface 
C D to the minimum consistent with safety when suitably 
reinforced. The weight of the load will thus be trans- 
mitted as nearly as may be to the center of the base of 
support A B, which will have the effect of checking the 
vibration. 

As regards his third criticism, the insufficient support 
of the rails at the point where they are joined, M. Auric 
proposes that cross-ties should be done away with en- 
tirely at such points and replaced by girders as shown in 
Fig. 4. At present the practice is to place the ties closer 
together at the joints than elsewhere, giving the rails 
wide bases of support. The longitudinal rigidity is thus 
increased with a corresponding increase of vibration. 
As a consequence it is precisely at these points that the 
roadbed is most subject to damage. 

Building a Bridge by Halves 

ITOW can a bridge be opened to traffic before 
■*^ -1 it is completed? The answer is simple and obvious: 
Build half of it at a time so that traflSc can use the 
completed portion while the other half is finished in due 
course. 

A typical case of bridge-building by halves is that of 
the attractive concrete structure recently completed 
across Lake Quinsigamond, 
at the eastern edge of the 
city of Worcester, Mass. 

As will be noted in the 
accompanying illustrations, 
this bridge was so much in 
demand for traffic crossing 
the lake that half of it was 
completed, or from the el- 
aborate arched face to the 
center line, including a single 
track for the street car line. 
The first half was completed 
and finished, even to the or- 
namental lighting fixtures 
and the asphalt pavement. 

With half the Quinsiga- 
mond bridge opened to traf- 
fic, the builders turned their 
attention to the construction 
of the other half. 



32 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 




The "Pennsylvania," flagship of Admiral Mayo. 

'T'HE residents on Riverside Dri\e and Washington 
*■ Heights, New York, have looked down, during the 
past quarter of a century, upon many a naval review on 
the majestic Hudson Kivcr; but never have they wit- 
nessed a gathering of the ships of the United States 
Navj' to compare in numbers and strength with the fleet 
which was reviewed by the Secretary of the Navy on 
December 26, 1918. "From 59th to 179th Street— a 
full six miles — there rode at anchor, in the center of the 
river a line of 20 battleships, and parallehng it on the 
Jersey side, was another line of destroyers, consisting of 
the fine, flush-deck, 1,200-ton vessels, of which are buUding 
over two hundred as part of our war program. 

Holding the place of honor at the head of the line were 
the big dreadnoughts which that very day had returned 
from their 13 months of service with the Grand. Fleet 
'.n the North Sea. The.se five ships, which were known as 
the Sixth Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet, were 
anchored in the following order; "Florida," "Wyoming," 
"Arkansas," "Texas" and "New York." The squadron 
is under the command of Admiral Rodman on the flagship 
"New York." The next ship in line was the 31,500-ton 
"Pennsylvania," flagship of Admiral Mayo, commander- 
in-chief of the Atlantic fleet, which, with her sister the 
"Arizona," reached the North Sea after the signing of 
the armistice. The nexi; three ships upstream were the 
"Utah," "Nevada" and "Oklahoma," which were 
stationed during the war at Beerhaven, off the southwest 



Displacement 31,500 tons. Mounts twelve 14" guns. 

the verj' latest and most powerful vesseb of our dread- 
nought fleet, all but the last two of which had dc ne 
service, during the war, in European waters. 

Then followed the older ships — the predreadnoughts — 
of which there were eight in line: the sister ships, "Mis- 
souri" and "Maine"; the sister ships "Wisconsin", 
"Illinois" and "Alabama"; the " Kearsage " ; the "Iowa" 
and the "Indiana," which were in the battle off the south 
coast of Cuba, when Admiral Cervera made his gallant 
sortie from Santiago Harbor. 

The particulars of the dreadnoughts are as follows: 



Tons Battery Belt , Speed 



New Mexico 1 

M issis.sippi ) | 

Pennsylvania i ' 

-Viizona f 

Nevada I 

Oklahoma ( ] 

New York i 

Te.\as ( 

W'yorains i 

Arkansas f 

Florida 1 

Utah ) 



32,000 


12-14' 


14' 


21 


31,500 


12-14' 


14' 


21 


27,500 


10-14' 


14' 


20 'A 


27.000 


10-14' 


12' 


21 


26,000 


12-12- 


11' 


21 


23.000 


10-12' 


11' 


21 



coast of 
raiding 
proaching 
vessels 
elect ric- 
" Missis- 



Ireland, ready to attack any enemy 
force that might threaten an ap- 
convoy. The eleventh and twelfth 
were the two recentlj' completed, 
ally-driven "New Me.xico" and 
sippi," of 32,000-tons displace- 
ment — the largest battle 
ships afloat. In the 
dozen ships above 
<T^ named are included 



The predreadnoughts are well known to the readers of 
the SciE.XTiFic Americ.\.\. Compared with the dread- 
noughts they are obsolete. They vary from 11,000 to 
13,500 tons in displacement, and from 15 to 18 knots in 
speed. The}- mount four short 12-inch guns in the main 
batteries, and from 12 to IG short six-inch guns in the 
secondary batteries. The "Iowa" carries four 12-inch; 
eight 8-inch guns, and the old "Kearsage" and "Indiana" 
mount short 13-inch, 8-inch 4- and 5-inch guns. It should 
be noted that our later predreadnoughts of the " New 
Jersey" and "Connecticut" classes, 11 ships in all, 
mount four 12-inch, eight 8-inch and twelve 7-ineh guns. 
They are 15,000- to 16,000-ton ships, with 18 to 19 knots 
speed. These latter vessels, not present at the review, 
form a strong second line of defense. 

The chief interest centered, of cours?, in the ships of 




Return of the 

The Ships That Kept ^ 
By J. Bernard Walker, Edilo 




The .Atlantic fleet in ft 




I'hotograph by J 



Sub -caliber gun practise al 




CopTTisht by Eadel ft Herbert 



Turrets Nos. 1 and 2 of the "Texas", with airplane and platform on No. 2 



CopyHcht by IntAmatlonsI News Service 



Sunset on the Hudson, wl(l| 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



33 



A^merican Fleet 

^atch in the North Sea 

r of the Scientific American 




ull dress for the review 




iboard one of the warships 




Our largest dreadnought "Mississippi" of 32,000 tons, carrying twelve 14" guns 



the Sixth Battle Squadron, which had served with the 
Grand Fleet under Admiral Beatty for over a year in the 
North Sea. Later in this article we give extracts from 
Admiral Rodman's statement, which afford a vivid 
impression of the very arduous nature of this work; but just 
here we draw attention to some novel features which at 
once struck the eye of any student of warship equipment. 

First to attract attention was a large dial on the mast- 
head and a series of vertical stripes on the turrets and 
barbettes of our battleships. These were adopted as part 
of the Grand Fleet practice. They are for giving visual 
indications to other ships of the range and bearing (dis- 
tance and direction) of the enemy ship which, let us say, 
the "Texas" might be engaging. The figures 8, 9, 10, 11 
on the masthead dial represent the number of yards, 
8,000, 9,000, 10,000, etc., distant of the enemy. The 
numbers on the barbette show the bearing in degrees, 20°, 
40°, 75°, etc., of the enemy. This enables any two or 
more ships by observation of each other to concentrate 
and maintain their fire on any one vessel in the enemy line. 

Another striking novelty was the two airplane launching 
platforms, built upon No. 2 and No. 4 turrets and extend- 
ing out to the muzzle of the guns, a distance of about 
sixty feet. Above each turret was an airplane (not a 
seaplane). In launching, the turret is swung over, 
20 or 30 degress to port or starboard, according to the 
strength and direction of the wind, so that the resultant 
of the ship's speed and the wind's speed shall be parallel 
with the axis of the turret. The plane is then released. So 
speedy are these machines, that they lift before the end 
of the platform is reached. 

The two machines are for spotting. One is an observing 
and the other a swift fighting plane. The observing plane 
carries the spotter, the fighter — a 120-mile English 
"Camel" — protects it if attacked by enemy planes. 
The advantage of observing from a height of several 
hundred feet, as compared with the height of 120 feet of 
the fire-control platform, is enormous. Not only is the 
position of the splash with reference to the enemy ship 



ascertained with great accuracy, but it is possible to see 
over the smoke screens, such as the Germans used so 
effectively in the Jutland battle to hide themselves from 
the British fire. 

It took very real heroism for the pilot to launch himself 
into the air for battle service, far out in the North Sea; 
for no return could be made to the same platform. When 
the service of spotting or scouting was concluded, the 
pilot had to make his way to the nearest shore — often 200 
miles or more distant. If engine trouble ensued or gas 
supply gave out, there was nothing for the pilot but to 
drop into the sea, and hope for a friendly destroyer, 
scout, or merchantman, to sight him before the wrecked 
machine sank beneath him. The British lost many a 
gallant going chap in this service before they brought out 
their airplane carriers, with broad, long platforms for the 
landing of machines. Two of these were shown in our 
issue of December 21, 1918. 

Admiral Rodman states that when our ships joined the 
Grand Fleet, they adopted the code, signals, etc., of the 
fleet, and had their regular position in the British fighting 
line. They found the fleet in a very high state of efficiency, 
with a great many devices and practices incorporated as 
the result of the experience gained in the battle of Jutland, 
especially in the matter of gunnery, which the fleet had 
brought up to a state of high efficiency. We are not 
permitted, for obvious reasons, to give any particulars; 
but ordnance experts will appreciate the fact that the 
average dispersion has been brought down to 200 yards. 

The pennant for gunnery, by the way, is flown this year 
by the "Texas," which achieved results in salvo firing 
that would have been thought impossible when the 
writer witnessed our battle practice on the " North 
Dakota," in 1911. This ship got on at the first salvo with 
a "straddle" and followed this with a string of several 
straddles without a break. 

A favorite lie of the German Admiralty, during the w-ar 
was to the effect that the submarines had so scared the 
(Continued on page 43) 




Fhoto^aph by Edwin L>" 



ith the battleships in silhouette 



One of our latest 1200-ton, 35-knot destroyers 



34 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 



Inventions New and Interesting 

A Department Devoted to Pioneer Work, in the Arts 



Artificial Limbs in Quantity 

WITH the greatly-increased demands 
for artificial limbs brought about 
by the great war, manufacturers of such 
products have been compelled to resort 
to quantity-production methods. As a 
result, many of them have installed 
automatic shaping lathes of thetypeshown 
in the two accompanying 
illu3trati3.i3. As will be 
noted, the operator places 
a roughly cutpieceof woodin 
the machine, and then turns 
on the power. The cutting 
knives are guided over the 
rough piece of wood through 
the agency of a curved rod 
which rests against a master 
wooden leg lield at the rear. 
Thus the cutters only re- 
move as much wood as the 
master permits, and the 
result is an exact replica 
of any kind of limb held 
at the rear. 

It will be seen that this 
is another application of the 
pantograph principle, which 
has been used so much lately — notably 
in making propellers. 

The Rotary-Pole Magneto 

A LARGE part of invention consists in 
mere mechanical improvement, a 
touch here, an added detail there, to make 
existing equipment function better. It 
is comparatively 
seldom that a 
brand rew prin- 
ciple is laid down 
and applied; and 
this phenomenon 
is therefore the 
more interesting 
by virtue of its 
verj' scarcity. 
We imagine that 
it must have been 
in pessimistic 
broodingoverthis 
fact that the now 
famous patentex- 

aminer of the 1830'8, who resigned be- 
cause everything had been invented, 
reached his decision. 

Perhaps it will not be going too far to 
put in the class of basic inventions the 
rotary-pole magneto developed since 
1912; for while this apparatus, like older 
types, ignites the cylinder charge by 
means of an electrical spark, it makes, in 
the production of this spark, just about 
as fundamental a departure from estab- 
hshed procedure as the nature of mag- 
netism and electricity would permit. 

The ordinary magneto embodies a horse- 
shoe magnet, with the poles built out 
in concave pole-pieces to provide a seat 
in which rotates the armature. The 
magnetic flux that flows between north 
and south poles of the magnet passes 
through the metal of the core in preference 
to the atmosphere, because there it meets 
less resistance. But as the core rotates, 
the path through it of the flux must be 
reversed. While the shaded end E 
is in contact with the north pole N, in 
the left-hand diagrams, the flux enters at 
E and flows /rom E through the core; a 
moment later E is in contact with the 
south pole, and the flux must then flow 
through the core toward E. 

The electric current induced, by the 
magnetic field, in a coil of wire exposed 
to the action of the magnetism by being 
wound about the core, has a maximum 
intensity when this reversal of flux takes 
place; and the sharper that reversal, the 



greater the peak of the current. Since it 
is this peak that produces the spark in a 
magneto, anything that operates to 
retard the flux reversal makes the current- 
peak weaker and the spark less efficient. 
In the armature magneto there are 
two influences so working. The iron 
of the armature shows a tendency to 



core. The general arrangement is shown 
in the cut. The rotating shaft runs from 
pole to pole across the gap of the magnet, 
no longer through that gap between the 
poles. The pole-pieces are mounted on 
the shaft, and when it rotates they 
rotate in contact with the poles. In 
place of the armature we have two field- 





Rough stock in place, ready to be shaped into 
an artificial leg 

maintain its polarity, a reluctance to 
reverse, which slows up flux reversal. 
And when the armature is in the third 
position shown, it is neutral; the ends 
are neither north nor south, but are in 
contact with both poles and trying to 
be both north and south at once. Flux 
then flows across the ends of the armature, 



Rear view of machine, showing master wooden 
leg in place 

pieces partly surrounding the middle of 
the shaft, just as stationary pole-pieces 
partly surround the armature. To make 
and break the magnetic circuit, each pole- 
piece has a lobe that projects, parallel to 
the shaft, far enough to brush the field- 
pieces in rotating. These lobes are 
opposite one another on the shaft, just 




Three stages in the working cycle of the armature 
and the general arrangeme 



magneto (left) and of the rotary-pole type (right); 
nt of the latter (center) 



and in both directions through its shank, 
making for gradual rather than sudden 
reversal. Indeed, this is actually the 
process of gradual vs. sudden reversal; 
so the peak of the current in the coil is 
comparatively weak. 

In 1912 the first patent was granted 
for a magneto with rotary poles and fixed 



as are the armature ends in the older type. 
In operation, the rotary pole-pieces 
retain their polarity, without reversals. 
There is thus less reluctance because less 
iron has to reverse magnetically. More- 
over, in this neutral position there is 
precision instead of confusion. The gap 
is now bridged by a piece of constant 




iric donkey-engine for logging 



polarity, causing a definite magnetic 
short-circuit during the instant of bridg- 
ing, with a scavenging effect that elimi- 
nates all stray lines of flux, and clears the 
decks for a sharp, clean reversal. A 
current intensity is thus obtained which 
the old-style magneto cannot approach. 
This means a better spark, more thorough 

ignition, more rapid and 

more complete combustion, 
and as a final consequence, 
more power. 

Nor is this all. The arm- 
ature magneto gives exactly 
two sparks for each revolu- 
tion of the armature shaft — 
one for each flux reversal. 
But the tendency in engines 
is ever toward more cylin- 
ders, which means more 
sparks per revolution of the 
engine shaft. This demand 
is met by a gear between 
engine shaft and armature 
shaft, so that the latter 
turns faster than the for- 
mer; but even with this, we 
have by no means disposed 
of the matter completely. 

Engine speeds are always going up, too. 
A while ago a fair average was 1,20C 
revolutions per minute. Today few en- 
gines work at less than 1,400-1,50C 
revolutions; the Liberty makes 1,700 
while the latest wrinkle of increasing 
by gearing down from shaft tc 
propeller requires 
that the engint 
speed up to 2,20( 
turns, or evei 
more per minute 
A multi-cylindej 
engine, with mag 
neto operated oi 
a 4- or 6- or evei 
an8-to-lgear,w-il 
then mean any 
where from 6,00( 
to 20,000 revolu 
tions per minuti 
by the armatun 
shaft; and this, ii 
addition to its normal bearings, carrie 
two pole-pieces that have contact ove 
a broad surface with the fixed poles 
(.Continued on page JfZ) 

Logging by Electricity 

BY converting waste lumber and saw 
dust into electrical energy, insteat 
of feeding it into the refuse burner, ! 
large sawmill company in western Wash 
ington is obtaining sufficient power t( 
operate an electric logging donkey fo; 
hauling logs in the woods. This con 
stitutes the first serious attempt a' 
handling heavy Pacific Coast timber witl 
electric power, w'here logs weighinf 
several tons each are common. 

Apparently doing anything a stean 
donkey will do, the electric machine 
possesses remarkable flexibility, throtthnf 
down to eight or 10 revolutions pei 
minute when tightening up on its load 
and consistently hauhng in at a drure 
speed of 24 revolutions. 

The motor was designed especially foi 
logging service, by the engineers of om 
of America's largest electric companies 
and has an intermittent rating of 20t 
horse-power, with an immense overloac 
capacity not yet determined. The unit 
was buUt to be the equivalent of £ 
steam installation with cylinder dimen- 
sions of 11 X 13 inches. The tola! 
weight of the machine is about 50,00( 
pounds. 

(Continued on page iS) 



January ri, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



35 



Malung or Marring 
the Strength of Steel 



^ 



PIECE of steel is a bundle of very short 
fibres, more or less hard according to the 
amount of carbon they contain, more or 
less strong according to their relation one 
to another. 



When a blacksmith heats a bar red hot and 
forges it out into horseshoe shape on his anvil, 
all the fibres of the steel are bent into the 
horseshoe shape of the finished forging. They 
remain in proper relation one to another. 
There is no decrease in their strength. 

If, however, we were to make a casting 
of this horseshoe, the fibres would run in 
various directions, and this would be a 
source of weakness. The metal would be 
hard, but brittle. This is why forging is 
superior to casting where both hardness 
and tensile strength are needed, and it is 
why forgings are now, to a very great extent, 
supplanting castings. 



Now, even in forging, there is a right and 
a wrong way of hammering. 

If the forging is ignorantly or carelessly 
made by a single great blow of a drop 
hammer, the outside fibres of the steel are 
more compressed than those on the inside. 

If, on the other hand, the forging is made 
by a series of carefully calculated and nicely 
adjusted blows (such as only long experience 
can accomplish), the fibres are more evenly 
compressed throughout, and a finer grain 
and greater strength result. 

By an intensive and exact knowledge of 
steel and its methods of treatment ; by the 
ideal, best expressed by C. E. Billings when 
he said, "into every forging goes our entire 
reputation"; by half a century of steady pro- 
gress since Civil War days, this company ha8 
reached its present position in the estimation 
of the world. 




The 



Triangle B forgings have made many a great in- 
dustry possible by holding in leash forces which would 
otherwise have remained beyond the scope of humanly 
wrought strength. 



Billin 






pencer 

A^ Hartford 

j_ ^^ "RELY ON ME" ^^ 

The First Commercial Drop Forging Plant in America 



CopyriBht, 1919, B. & S. Oo. 



36 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 



RECENTLY PATENTED INVENTIONS 



Electrical Devices 

OUTLET BOX COVER — P. Klein, care of 
Morris Koth, 185 Duaiio St., New York, N. Y. 
This invention relates to electric wiring attach- 
ments and has particular reference to outlet 
Ijoxes a<la|)ted for ceilings, walls or the like. 
Among the objects is to proWdo a type or design 
of outlet box cover having more reliable means for 
securing the cover to the box than is ordinarily 
employed. 

Of Interest to Farmers 

CUTTER BAR FOR MOWERS.— E. Antz, 
Homestead, Ore. The invention relates to an 
attachment for mowing macliines whereby a 
clear cut can bo made at the outer end of the 
finger bar. An object is to provide an attach- 
ment wliich can be easily and quickly applied 
to a mowing raacliine, the attachment being in 
the form of an extension of the finger bar for 
making an upward cut at the end of the sickle bar. 

COTTON CHOPPER.— J. H. Dwight. 479 
Stewart Ave., Atlanta, Ga. This invention re- 
lates to implements for chopping out surplus 
cotton plants, and more particularly to an 
apparatus for tliis purpose, in wliich rotary 
chopping elements are arranged to turn about a 
vertical a.xis, and to have an up-and-down move- 
ment to give the chopping action. The machine 
is provided ivith a harrow at the front arranged to 
be adjusted laterally, and cultivator shovels at 
the rear of the chopper. 

Of General Interest 

ARMBAND.— L. F. Nelson, P. O. Box 692, 
Bremerton, Wash. The invention relates more 
particularly to that type of sleeve supporters in 
the general form of a resiUent band to encircle 
the arm and support the sleeve in adjusted posi- 
tion. The prime object is to provide a band in 



registering grooves, and a si)lit ring engaging 
the registering grooves to hold the rollers in as- 
sembled relation. 

HOG FEEDER —F. H. Page, Waverly, Iowa. 
The invention more particularly relates to a feeder 
arranged in connec'tion with a hopper to be 
actuated by the animal for feeding a limited 




A PARTLY SECTIONAL SIDE ELEVATION 

which clamp jaws are incorporated, adapted to 
grip the material of the sleeve in addition to the 
holding action due to the resiliency of the band as 
a whole. 

FILING DEVICE. — E. E. Rettig, Keytesville, 
Mo. The invention relates to filing devices in 
the form of a spindle or rod on which letters, 
bills, accoimts, cards of card systems, or like 
articles may be placed. The prime object is to 
provide a file in which relatively movable sec- 
tions are arranged in a novel manner to permit 
ready access to and removal of any particular 
letter or the like without tearing. 

STARRING MIXTURE FOR ANTIMONY 
SMELTING. — Chung Yu Wang, Panoff Garden, 
Rice Die Sargon, Kankow, Cliina. An object 
of this invention is to prodice a slag or starring 
mixtiu-e which does not contain any antimony 
compound. Another object is to utilize a by- 
product of the refining of antimony, which is at 
present discarded as useless. The mixture is 
composed of iron sulfld resulting from the pre- 
cipitation process of antimony smelting, and an 
alkaU metal carbonate. 

SAMPLE TAB. — B F. Stenz, 644 First Ave., 
New York, N. Y. The object of this invention 
is to produce a sample tab so constructed that 
not only will there be a saving in the cost of the 
materials used, but a sample had which shall be 
of Ughter weight and will he flatter as compared 
to those made heretofore, and by the use of which 
a saving in the cost of transportation will be 
eflected. 

PICTURE HOLDER. — Z. Orizaroff. 200 
S. Front St., Steelton, Pa. This invention re- 
lates to hangers or holders for picture frames, 
mirrors, ornamental panels, or the like, it has 
particular reference to hangers that are adapted 
to support the picture frame from the side edges 
of the upper portion without cords, wires, screw 
eyes or the Uke being attached thereto. 

- ROLLER BEARING. — A. Golden, 945 Hoe 
Ave., Bronx, N. Y. The object of the invention is 
to provide a roller bearing arranged to permit 
of conveniently handUng the bearmg as a unit 
and without danger of the rollers becoming dis- 
placed. In order to produce the result use is 
made of outer and inner bearing rings, rollers 
interposed between the bearing rings, the rollers 
and one of the bearing rings having annular 




A vertical section of the feeder 

quantity at each operation. An important 
object is to provide a feed device with actuating 
means so formed as to bring about the operation 
thereof by the snout of the animals approaching 
the feed outlet, the device is so arranged as to 
prevent clogging or packing of the feed. 

WHEELED GUN CARRIAGE WITH WIDE 
SCOPE OF FIRE FOR FIELD ARTILLERY.— 
E. RiMAiLHo, Paris, France. The object of the 
invention is to construct a wheeled gun carriage 
comprising an axle wheel member, and a trail 
frame member, said trail frame provided with 
diverging tubular arms provided with a housing 
at their free ends within which trail beams are 
moimted to swing and have longitudinal sliding 
movement, and supporting guides carried by the 
axle wheel member to receive the trail beams when 
so sUd. 

PLOTTING BOARD.— J. D. McCabe, 1315 
Union Bank Builr'ing, Pittsburgh, Pa. This in- 
vention relates to a plotting device, the object 
being to provide a construction whereby deed 




A top plan op the device 

descriptions may be properly plotted without 
resorting to anything except the use of a pencil 
and paper. Another object is to provide a device 
which may be taken to the recorder's oBice and 
a given piece of land properly plotted on a piece 
of paper practically from the record whereby 
errors in transcribing will be eUminated. 

Hardware and Tools 

REAMER FOR OIL AND GAS BEARING 
SAND. — A. Otto, 209 Scaritt Building, Kansas 
City, Mo. The invention relates to appliances for 
oil wells, its object is to provide a construction 
for removing part of the gas and oil-bearing 
sandstone of an oil well so as to allow a free flow 
of oO and gas. Another object is to provide a 
reaming device furnished with a centrifugal 
reaming structure, and means for removing the 
removed sand and deposit. 

PLANKING CLAMP.— T. E. Mazier, Box 
536, Madisonville, La The object of the in- 
vention is to provide a device for clamping 
planks in position on a ship or any other structure 
and holding the same in place while permanent 
securing means are provided. Another object is 
to provide a clamp which may be moimted sub- 
stantially at any point on a ship or other structure 
for holding a plank in position temporarily on 
flat surface, a concave, or a convex surface. 

SECTIONAL LINK. — J. M. Thomson, care of 
Box 16, Sourlake, Texas. Th? object of this 
invention is to provide a sectional Unk adapted 
to be readily opened and locked to hold the parts 
in coupled relation. Another object is to provide 
a Unk more especially designed for use in oil well 
drilling tools, to prevent bending of the link and 
throwing it out of alinement with the connected 
parts when subjected to a heavy pull or strain. 

BRAKE AND LOCK FOR SLIDING 

SASHES.— E. M. Hicks, 5180 Liberty St., 
Schenectady, N. Y. The invention relates to 
means for holding sUding window sashes when 
open to any desired extent and for locking the 
sashes in the closed position. The invention 
particularly relates to sash attachments involving 



the use of brake or stop elements adapted to 
frictionally engage a guide rod on a window 
frame for holding the sashes in any given adjust- 
ment. 

CUT GAGE FOR MACHINE TOOLS.— 
B. Nefedon, care of General DeUvery, Ansonia, 
Conn. Among the principal objects of the in- 
vention are, to furnish means for accurately 
disposing the lathe cutting tool to the work to be 
performed, to indicate optically the extent of 
movement of the tool, to rapidly adjust the tool 
to the work required, to avoid overcutting by 
the tool, and to simplify the construction of the 
gage for setting the tool 

Heating and Lighting 

GAS BURNER — R. V. Howes, address H. E. 
Almberg, care of Consohdated Gas Co., 130 E. 
15th St., New York, N. Y This invention re- 
lates to burners which may be used in any stove 
or range constructed for burning coal, gas, wood, 
or oil. An object is the provision of a gasburner 
using a combustion mixture and certain arrange- 
ment of pipes and heat retaining material whereby 
an auxiliary supply of heated air is provided 
adjacent the supply or mixture of air and gas 
so that a maximum combustion is secured and 
consequently a maximum heat procured from a 
given volume of gas. 

STREET LAMP.— F. Milliken, 55 John St., 
New York, N. Y. The invention relates to im- 
provements in street Ughts of the type disclosed 
in patent No. 1,264,114 issued April 23d, 1918, to 
the same inventor. Among the objects is to 
provide a street light with the head or casing 
movably mounted on a standard whereby the 
signs on the different sides of the casing may be 
moved by a traffic officer for controlling the 
traffic while not in any way interfering with the 
action of the light. 

Machines and Mechanical Devices 

WELL DRILLING MACHINE.— W. C. Sole, 
114 No. French St., Sullivan, Ind. The object 
of the invention is to provide a portable well 
drilling machine. The machine is provided with 
a calf reel, and in the rear of the calf reel a bull 
reel, the calf reel having a casing line and the 
bull reel having a drilling cable. On the calf 
reel is mounted a spudding pulley tmder which 
the drilling cable may be disposed, so that the 
calf reel may be rocked by means provided for 
the spudding purposes. 

NEWSPAPER VENDING MACHINE.— 
O. J. HoTALiNG, 420 Ogden St,, Newark, N. J. 
A specific object of this invention is the provision 
of means for supporting a pile of papers on their 
edge and with their ends overhanging or pro- 
jectmg beyond their support, whereby a simple, 
and effective dispensing element can engage the 
outermost paper and swing the same off the 
edge of the support, so that it will drop out of 
the dispensing opening of the cabinet. 

REVERSE WINDER FOR FILMS.- P. J. 
Phokop, 561 W, 143d St , New Y'ork, N. Y. 
Among the objects of this invention is to provide 
winding apparatus for moving picture macliines, 
in the nature of a receiver into which the film 
from a projecting apparatus is conveyed and 
wound in such a manner that the advancing or 
first picture end of the film will lie on the outside 
of the roll ready to be delivered through the 
projecting apparatus for a subsequent run of 
the picture without reivinding as is the usual 
practice. 

VENDING MACHINE.— I. Gonick. 4023 
N. 30th St., Omaha, Neb. Among the objects of 
the invention is to provide a vending machine 
in which a novel delivery means is used, which is 
operable only after a coin of predetermined 
denominate value has been deposited in the 
machine, such coin serving as means for operating 




perspective view of the machine 

the mechanism for releasing the article delivering 
device. A further object is to construct a sup- 
porting means in such manner that adjustments 
for receiving boxes of various dimensions may be 
acquired. The machine is designed especially for 
deUvering shoe dressing contained in boxes. 

COAL SEPARATOR.— M. H. Reap and J. R. 
Fleminc;. 801 Monroe Ave., Scranton, Pa. 
Among the principal objects of the invention are 
to increase the capacity of separators, to support 



the base mineral and coal without congesting the 
mineral delivery ,;,and to simplify the construction 
of the separator. The device comprises a pliu-- 
allty of incUned spiral flights, and a hollow tubu 
lar supporting mast, the mast being provided with 
a series of openings adjacent the lower inner edges 
of the flights for extracting the base mineral from 
the mixed materials. 

FRAMING DEVICE —F. C. Taylor, address 
Chas. K. Frankhauser, 450 Fourth Ave., New 
York, N. Y This invention relates to a framing 
device for moving picture macliines, the object is 
to provide a simple and inexpensive device with 
which the framing of the picture on the film can be 
accomplished with great ease and comparatively 
no strain on the film. 

WORKMAN'S STAND FOR GAS ENGINES. 
— J. H. Staley, care of Continental Auto Parts 
Co., Knightstown, Ind. The invention relates 
to a stand designed for use in workshops or man- 
ufacturing plants for the purpose of supporting 
an internal combustion engine or other motor in 
a manner to enable the workman to operate it in 
a most convenient manner. The invention has 
for its general object to improve the construction 
of stands so that they can be capable of holding 
various types of engines in such manner that the 
engine can be completely reversed or turned up- 
3 de down, and locked in any desired position. 

PEBBLE OR BALL MILL.— C. H. Stave, 
Box 2, Thornton, 111. This invention particu- 
larly relates to a mill designed to reduce chemicals 
or other material to fine powder. The prime 
object is to provide a pebble or ball mill in which 
the drum or cylinder will be disposed with its 
axis transecting the axis about which the mill 
turns whereby to effect increased reducing action 
by a more frequent and more thorough tumbling 
of the reducing elements and the material. 

Prime Movers and Their Accessories 

POWER TRAN.SMISSION AND SPEED 
CHANGING MECHANISM.— S. V Dickman. 
address J. S. Dickman, Margaretville, N. Y. 
The object of the invention is to provide a power 
transmission and speed changing mechanism for 
use in automobiles, aeroplanes, and other power 
driven vehicles and machines, and arranged to 
transmit the power from a motor or a driving 
shaft to a driven shaft without appreciable loss 
and to permit the operator to readily vary the 
speed to any desired degree or to reverse the mo- 
tion of the driven shaft. 

Railways and Their Accessories 

AUTOMATIC TRAIN. SIGNAL.— M.B. Bulla, 
216 Martin Building, El Paso, Texas. This in- 
vention relates to safety appUances for railways 
and has particular reference to an automatic 
railway track safety brush, serving either to give 
indications of signals to the locomotive driver 
or to Insure the operation of automatic train 
stops although the breaking or stopping mechan- 
ism that may be relied upon are not indicated in 
this particular instance. 

Pertaining to Recreation 
BASEBALL GAME APPARATUS.— H. T. 
Buck, 539 Broadway, Brooklyn, N. Y. The 
object of the invention is to provide a baseball 
game apparatus more esperiaUy designed for the 
use of two players located at opposite sides of the 
game table, which represents a baseball field, 
the apparatus being arranged to require consider- 
able skill on the part of the players to successfully 
play the game according to standard or league 
rules. 

Designs 

DESIGN FOR A SHIRT OR SIMILAR 

BODY GARMENT. — W. H. Dctcher. address 

Chas. Scarl, 1548 President St , Brooklyn, N. Y. 

This body garment design provides maximum 




DESIGN FOR SHIRTS 

comfort to the warcr at the arm pits and shoulders, 
and enables the cutting to result in a vast economy 
of material, as shown in the illustration. 

DESIGN FOR A TOY HEAD BLOCK.— 
R. E. Humbert, care of De Witt C. Baker, 
Baker & Bennett Co , 873 Broadway, New York. 
N. Y. i 

DESIGN FOR A PLATE, PLAQUE, OR 
SIMILAR ARTICLE.— T. 8. Mabtin. 391 
Webster Ave., Bronx, N. Y. 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



37 







IhQ American kp^f 
airplane ignition 




Victor in a thousand battles! 
Leader by right of achievement ! 
Holder of flying records ! 
Reliance of airmen the world over ! 

The magneto, recognized by every fighting nation as the incomparable form of 
ignition, has the Aero Dixie as its supreme representative by virtue of its selection as 
standard equipment for aircraft engines by the U. S. Government. 

A product of American genius, built in an American factory by American workmen, 
this super-magneto answered war's uncompromising need and will meet every require- 
ment where reliability, efficiency and simplicity are considered more essential than low 
first cost. 

For passenger cars, motor trucks, tractors, motorcycles, motor boats, stationary engines. 
Aero Dixie type magnetos make the war-tried ideal ignition system. 

SPLITDORF ELECTRICAL COMPAlSfY ' Newark, N. J. 

Sumter Division: 1466 Michigan Avenue, Chicago 




Write for booklet 
"Facts About 
Ignition/' It is 
brim full of inter- 
est to every owner 
of hydro-carbon 
engines. 




qjllAn^MAOa 




38 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 



Are You 

Going After 

Foreign 

Trade? 



If so, are you sure that 
your inventions and 
trade-marks actually be- 
long to you in foreign 
markets ? 

Unless you avail your- 
self of the right to ac- 
quire foreign patents 
and trade-mark registra- 
tions, you may find that 
another has preceded you 
and has actually appro- 
priated yovir inventions 
and trade-marks and ob- 
tained legal ownership 
thereof, whereby he can 
bar yoiu" goods from for- 
eign markets. Such a 
proceeding is permissible 
imder the laws of many 
foreign coimtries. 

Many have lost their 
markets in certain for- 
eign covmtries by over- 
looking this fact. 

Many of our clients are 
preparing to extend their 
business by seeking pat- 
ent and trade-mark pro- 
tection in foreign coun- 
tries. 

We should be glad to 
have you avail yotuself 
of oiir services. 

Foreign 

Patent and Trade-mark 

Department 



MUNN & CO. 

Wooiwortb Buadini Ncw York City 



Reconstruction 



A Department Devoted to the Improvement of Old and the Development of New Lines of Manufacture 



IN our issue of December 14th, we an- 
nounced a new department aimed to 
assist in the reconstruction of our indus- 
tries in these unsettled days following the 
signing of the armistice. Many letters 
have come to the Reconstruction Editor 
commending the Scientific Ameiiican for 
undertaking this service. Manufacturers 
who have built up organizations for the 
production of war material and are now 
seeking new lines of manufacture adapted 
to the machinery with which they are 
equipped, have written the Editor for 
information regarding promising inven- 
tions and for suggestions on new lines of 
manufacture. Responding to these ap- 
peals, our readers have offered many 
interesting ideas covering a very wide 
range of subjects. 

Manufacturers' Problems 

Manufacturers are urged to tell the 
Reconstruction Editor their needs. He 
will be glad to help them with their prob- 
lems, and if they so desire, will withhold 
their names from publicity so that they 
may not be deluged with a flood of cor- 
respondence from impractical inventors. 
By stating in detail just what their prob- 
lems are, what is their equipment for new 
work, and the character of the work they 
would like to take up, they will facOitate 
the task of the Editor, and eliminate much 
useless correspondence. 

Methods of Presenting Ideas 

Inventors are urged to exercise judgment 
in presenting their wares. A well developed 
invention that can be demonstrated with 
a model is far more likely to receiv^e con- 
sideration than one which merely exists 
on paper. A photograph and blue prints 
of working drawings are far more con- 
vincing to the average manufacturer than 
a patent drawing. One correspondent 
submits his patent claims without any 
accompanying illustration. Some of our 
correspondents have offered good sug- 
gestions which they confess are not pro- 
tected by patents. Some have tried to 
sell mere ideas, not embodied in any 
concrete form — ideas so vague that it 
would require the exercise of inventive 
faculties to develop them sufficiently to be 
patentable. Obviously such suggestions 
are practically worthless. 

The average manufacturer is not an 
inventor. He does not care for abstract 
ideas. Inventions must be presented to 
him in concrete form. He wants to see 
the patents that cover the inventions 
because a patent is evidence of novelty 
and a guarantee of protection from com- 
petition. But in order to gain an adequate 
conception of the invention, he must have 
it well pictured and preferably embodied 
in a working model. 

Those who are prepared to submit a 
working model should so state in their 
letters. Do not send models to the Re- 
construction Editor. He cannot handle 
them. Instead, send him photographs of 
models. 

Clesuing House of Progress 

The aim of the Reconstruction De- 
partment is to become a clearing house for 
useful and progressive ideas — to bring 
about a closer cooperation between in- 
ventor and manufacturer — to bring the 
manufacturer in touch with useful in- 
ventions, and the inventor in touch with 
manufacturers' needs. 

The Reconstruction Editor cannot at- 
tempt to answer all of the letters sent 
to him, but he will see that those which 
are in proiier form are forwarded to manu- 
facturers who are likely to be interested 
in their subject matter. 

Here are a few of the many scores of 
interesting letters which the Reconstruc- 
tion Editor has received : 



The Municipal Reference Library 

To the Reconstruction Editor of the 

Scientific American: 

In the current issue of the Scientific 
American I note the announcement of a 
new department devoted to reconstruction 
problems recently started under your 
direction, and wish to extend to you the 
compliments of civic workers generally 
upon this far-sighted action. 

The Municipal Reference Library has 
given considerable attention to the prob- 
lems of reconstruction and we have com- 
piled extensive references on the subject. 
We have recently published a special 
reconstruction number of our weekly 
bulletin which perhaps may beof some use 
in connection with this work. 

DoRSEY W. Hyde, Jr. 

Librarian. 
Municipal Reference Library, 

512 Municipal Building, 
New York City. 

Wauited: A Factory 

To the Reconstruction Editor of the 

Scientific American: 

We note in the Scientific American 
of December 14th, a notice on page 485, 
under head of Reconstruction, to which 
we reply: 

We have perfected and patented in the 
United States, and applications for patents 
have been made in several foreign countries, 
for an automobile non-puncture, non-blow- 
out, resilient tire. This tire is a proven 
product and now ready to be manufactured 
for the market. We have had sets of tires 
running on machines since last March, 
and are now making molds to manufacture 
tires; also, we have arranged with a tire 
plant to manufacture under our own 
supervision tires in a small way until we 
get into a plant of our own. We are in- 
corporated under the laws of the state of 
Virginia and have been closely investigated 
by the State Corporation Commission of 
this state and granted a permit to sell 
stock. We have not as j'et decided on a 
location for our plant, but have had offers 
from several cities. However, we are 
investigating all places from every source 
that will be of greatest benefit to our cor- 
poration before we decide on a permanent 
home for our plant, shipping, labor con- 
ditions, etc., etc. Our proposition means 
much to the community in which it is 
finally situated. We are open now for 
correspondence with factory firms who 
may have capacity plants for an industry 
that is all and more than is or has been 
expected in the touring car and truck tire 
world. 

A Safe for Liberty Bond* 

To the Reconstruction Editor of the 

Scientific American: 

On page 485 of your December 14th 
issue there is a request from a manufac- 
turer for suggestions as to metal articles 
that could be sold in large numbers with 
proper advertising. 

For several years I sold hardware over 
the counter and on the road, and for the 
last few years was buyer and sales manager 
for a large wholesale and retail hardware 
house. One of the items that I always felt 
should be on the market is a good sub- 
stantial metal box to hold valuable papers 
for household use. Such a box should be 
of pressed steel of a gage sufficiently 
heavy so that it would keep its shape and 
its cover stay on and fit properly in spite 
of any ordinary accident. The weight 
would also give the purchaser a sense of 
security and would protect the contents 
much more thoroughly from fire than do 
the thin tin boxes on the market. 

Because so many millions of people now 
own Liberty Bonds and have been awakened 
for the first time to the need of some pro- 



tective, substantial box to keep them in, 
together with other valuable papers, I 
think that advertising would sell several 
millions of a box of this type. It should 
be nicely enameled in black and have a 
good lock and key. It should retail at not 
over $2.00 each and can be made very 
profitably to sell at that price, if the manu- 
facturer's agent, the jobber, and the re- 
tailer do not all tack on an exorbitant 
profit. If I were making them I would 
eell direct to the consumer, paying the 
parcel post charge. 

I have always thought an 8-inch oscil- 
lating electric fan of the best type would 
sell in enormous quantities if made to 
retail around .$10. MiHions of possible 
users of these fans have been deterred 
from buying them by the prohibitive prices 
asked for standard makes. The low^ priced 
fans that are on the market are altogether 
too small and poorly constructed to be 
useful or salable in large numbers. 

A good sanitary fireless cooker to sell 
for not over .110.00 would be a boon to 
hundreds of thousands of housewives, and 
the biggest economy they could possibly 
put into their homes. I firmly believe 
that someone will make a proper fireless 
cooker, advertise it thoroughly, and sell 
an immense number, because such a cooker 
is scientific, saves fuel, labor and worry, 
cooks food better, and is advertised by 
everyone who owns one. 

Electric Farm Lighting Equipment 

To the Reconstruction Editor of the 

Scientific American: 

We are manufacturing an electric farm 
lighting and automatic electrically oper- 
ated water supply system on which we have 
several patents filed. The outfit is the 
simplest so far designed for furnishing 
private utilities to country homes, stores, 
gins, sawmills, isolated factories, etc. It 
contains 40 per cent fewer parts than any 
of its few competitors and is a Ford idea 
in its field in that it lends itself to big 
quantity production and at a marketing 
price which would undersell anything in 
its field. 

We cannot begin to supply the demand 
in one state alone, and due to the adverse 
manufacturing conditions in the South for 
producing equipment of this kind, as well 
as the fact that the resources of a $50,000 
company are wholly inadequate for a 
product of such uncommon merit as ours 
for nationalizing and handling as Big 
Business in a big, successful way, we are 
planning to consolidate with an established 
manufacturer of large resources and or- 
ganization, or have our system taken over 
by a big corporation to manufacture and 
merchandise. 

Our product lends itself ideally to big 
volume production to undersell competi- 
tion and to dominate its field which is 
potentially of enormous possibilities and 
at present of negligible competition. 

If you care to cooperate with us in our 
plan detailed information will be gladly 
given. 

Electric Cast Iron Made from 
Steel Scrap 

A DEVELOPMENT of war conditions 
in the steel industry of the United 
States has been the demonstration of the 
possibility of making pig iron and iron 
castings direct from steel scrap in an electric 
furnace — something never accomplished 
before. It has been claimed that such iron, 
cast in the form of castings, is far superior 
to the same castings made from ordinary 
pig iron, melted and cast. Tests of this 
new iron recently made at Columbia Uni- 
versity demonstrate its high quality. Its 
tensile strength was shown to be 40,730 to 
45,030 pounds per square inch, <;pnsiderably 
higher than of ordinary cast iron. 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



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Turning to the Tasks of Peace 

For twenty-one months American industries have 
labored under the spur of a great purpose and to 
help accomplish a great task. Now that task is 
done. The trappings of war become relics. We 
lay them aside and turn to the tasks of peace. 

For twenty-one months the Hercules Powder 
Co. has had but one thought and aim — to con- 
tribute its uttermost for the winning of the war. 
Great plants have been built, new methods de- 
vised, sources of supply discovered that were 
before unknown. 

Due to this development, made necessary by war, 
the company is today capable of serving the indus- 
tries of peace to a greater extent than ever before. 

The great industrial era which the country faces 
insures the certainty of there being ample oppor- 
tunity for rendering this service. The use of ex- 
plosives is essential to the great basic industrial 
enterprises. In mine and quarry, on the highway 
and along the railroad line, when the course of a 
river is changed or a dam built, where irrigation 
or drainage is necessary, and where idle lands are 
converted into fertile fields — there Hercules 
Powders will meet the demands of peace as they 
have met the demands of war. 

HERCULES POWDEI{^ CO. 

Chicago St. Louis New York Pittsburg, K.an. 

Denver Hazleton, Pa. San Francisco Salt Lake City 
Joplin Chattanooga Pittsburgh, Pa. Wilmington, Del. 



40 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 




That Bridqe of Ships 

The Sinews of Construction at once became the 
Sinews of War when it was decided to build and 
maintain a 3,000-mile line of communication 
between America and Europe. 



^egHMting in the mine and forest, every 
pound of material in our Bridge of Ships 
was handled again and again by wire ropes 
— s-ilently, eflRciently, expeditiously. And 
as each ship was finished, wire ropes put 
aboard the equipment and the cargo. The 
mechanical stevedores of our great docks 
on the other side, wire rope equipped, 
are the marvel of France. 



From our entrance into the great struggle, 
by far the largest part of Broderick & 
Bascom Wire Rope produced, has been 
engaged directly or indirectly in war work. 

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best suited to every purpose, civil and 
military. Our grades include the celebrated 
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Old Names for a New Navy 

(Continued from page Z7) 

militarist, Xapoleon. Leviathans of the 
British Navy also advertise native prow- 
ness and bull dog tenacity; witness "Tiger'' 
and "Lion," "Valiant" and "Vengeance," 
".\udacious" and "Revenge," "Thunderer" 
and "Triumph," "Indefatigable" and 
"Indomitable" and "Invincible." 

The French show an equal pride in great 
historic figures and epochs when seeking 
ship titles, but leaders in thought and civic 
action furnish inspiration as well. Under 
the tricolor float the "Charlemagne," 
"Jean d' Arc" and "St. Louis," reminis- 
cent of empire building and of the Cru- 
sades. "Henri IV" tells the story of 
romantic Navarre's rise to be one of the 
greatest kings of France, while "Charles 
Martel" reminds the beholder of the hero 
of a decisive battle of the world, the victory 
over the Saracens at Tours in 732. Over 
the "Conde" falls the shadow of the 
greatest of a great military family, and 
the "Massina" and "Carnot" breathe 
memories of the Napoleonic era. On the 
other hand, mammoth dreadnoughts, pre- 
dreadnoughts and battleships proudly ride 
the waters bearing the names of the 
philosopher "Diderot" ("Who aspired to 
the glory of Plato yet did not blush to 
imitate Plautus") and the statesmen of 
Revolutionary times, "Condorcet" and 
"V'ergmaud." The "Voltaire'' and "Vic- 
tor Hugo" recall not only two of La Belle 
France's most noted sons, but two of the 
most noted men of letters of any age and 
land. The "Gambetta" and "Ferry" 
suggest two world-famous statesmen of the 
early eighties, while "Truth" and "Jus- 
tice," "Democracy' and "Republic" pro- 
claim the exultation of a country released 
from the autocracy of empire into the joys 
of freedom. 

Quite the same catholicity of expression 
is found in Italy, which places the "Julius 
Caesar ' and "Andrea Doria," namesake 
of Charles Fifth's imperial admiral, along- 
side the "Garibaldi'' and "Cavour," re- 
spectively illuminated by thoughts of the 
fiery nineteenth century republican and the 
astute father of today's united Italy. Two 
other notable contrasts appear in the 
"Marco Polo," substantial ghost of that 
wonderous thirteenth century traveller, 
and "Leonardo da Vinci" redolent of the 
genius of the Renaissance; and then there is 
the "Columbus," launched in the same 
class as the "Dante." 

The Dutch, always a nation of seamen, 
honor their great admirals in the "Tromp" 
and "De Ruyter," and Germany, appro- 
priately enough, has graved upon her 
latest gigantic instrument of present-day 
frightfulness, " Hindenburg." Former mili- 
tary crises in the life of this nation are 
celebrated in the "Frederick the Great" 
and in the "Moltke" and "Roon," Bis- 
marck's great coadjutors; while the ro- 
mance and poetry of the people shine forth 
in "Siegfried," "Odin" and "Undine." 

The component parts of the earlj' United 
States navy evidenced in their titles the 
simplicity and vigorous atmosphere sur- 
rounding our ancestors. Besides the five 
now to be recalled by the new battle- 
cruisers, the stars and stripes floated over 
the "Wasp" and "Hornet" — "simple" 
perhaps, but "vigorous" certainly. In the 
war of 1812 both of these somewhat fiery 
insects distinguished themselves as sharply 
as was fitting; the one capturing the British 
ship "Frolic" while the "Hornet" stung 
the "Peacock" into a watery tomb. Then 
there were the "Scorpion" and "Asp," 
veritable watch dogs of the sea (to mix one's 
metaphors a little). The "Alliance," 
named in honor of the bonds of friendship 
cemented with France in 1778, twice bore 
the fortimes of Lafayette across the At- 
lantic, under the command of Commodore 
"Jack" Barry. Stephen Decatur, in the 
old "United States," deemed the fastest 
vessel of her time, concjucred the English 
"Eurydice" and "-\tlantic" during the 
second war with George III, while the 
"Congress " did a generous share in up- 
holding the dignity of the infant American 



Republic. Signers of the Declaration of 
Independence were represented in the 
"Adams" and the "Hancock"; the "Ran- 
dolph" was called after the Virginia family 
which subsequently gave to the world 
John of Roanoke — and perhaps it was in 
melancholy anticipation of the irrascible 
tendencies of this celebrated publicist that 
the frigate blew up during the struggle of 
'76 in a battle with John Bull's " Yar- 
mouth.'' 

The memory of Lawrence is indissolubiy 
associated with the sanguinary conflict 
between his ship "Chesapeake" and the 
British frigate "Shannon," while that of 
Perry belongs to the great victory of Lake 
Erie and his "Lawrence" and "Niagara." 
It was during that same war of 1812 that 
there appeared the valiant little schooner 
"Surveyor" which captured the "Nar- 
cissus," flying England's Jack. 

Are there not many names of this roll of 
honor well worth reviving among our 
modern sea fighters? For example, how 
much more effective for submarines than 
the uninspiring C plus a bald number 
would be the "Wasp" or "Asp" or 
"Scorpion?" 

It is a large pity that the present fleets 
of the United States so slightly reflect the 
mighty history with which she is endow-ed. 
Among smaller craft are to be found indeed 
"Bainbridge," "Barry," "Decatur," 
"Lawrence" and "Farragut," but there 
are more full as worthy to be borne by our 
present-day sea fighters. One looks in 
vain for a "Washington," "Madison," 
"Lincoln," "Polk" or "McKinley," be- 
neath our blue Jack, yet they were the 
Presidents identified with the five great 
war crises of our past, and four of those 
struggles, at least, were fought in generous 
part on the water. 

Naming a ship does not call for so highly 
developed a genius in kaleidoscopic pho- 
netics as does Pullman car christening, but 
none the less is it a matter of far more 
importance than may appear at a casual 
first glance. So Secretary Daniels' move 
in the matter of these battle-cruisers is one 
to be emphatically commended. It is to 
be hoped it may portend yet further ad- 
vances in a good direction. 

Weeding Out the Poisonous Fishes 

(Continued from page 29) 

it were. Polypierus is another edible 
African fish which can stay out of water 
several hours. When approached, it raises 
its long dorsal fin and strikes with its 
spines, lacerating the hand." Here we 
have both poisonous spines and teeth. 
The more imposing African fish of the fresh 
waters is Hydrocyon, with teeth as large 
and cutting as a man-eating shark's, 
conical, the outside row projecting out of 
the jaws and the inside row lying down to 
take the place of the outer teeth when 
destroyed. It is as poisonous as a shark. 
Dr. Hugh M. Smith, Director of the 
Bureau of Fisheries, Washington, describes 
many of the ray fishes, which, however 
edible in some of their parts, and however 
valuable for their skins as leather, are 
dangerous customers, causing septic poisons 
by their stings or bites or both. The 
Torpedo fish ranges from 30 to 100 pounds 
in weight. "The fish is able to emit a 
very strong electric discharge from a 
large organ situated on either side or just 
back of the head. The shock from a large 
fish can knock a man down." The electric 
rays have two-spined dorsal fins for 
stinging. The rayfish Dasyatis ranges 
up to twelve feet in length, having the 
usual barbed spines at the base of the tail 
for stinging. The whipray of this genus 
uses its tail as a whip, jabbing its barbed 
spines into its victims, with power sufficient 
to pierce leather shoes or rubber boots. 
The powerful nianta, or devilfish, possescs 
a single stinging spine, also a series of teeth 
which may well be avoided. Specimens 
weighing five tons are common stiuth of 
Nortli Carolina. The spotted eagle ray 
has its caudal spines serrated, cutting 
sharply its victims, and it aLso possesses a 
(Continued on page 4£) 



January 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



41 



Prom 

Name Plates 
ark. 

^RRISON 

^DIATORS 




42 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 11, 1919 




The Tool 
That Makes 
You Handy 

Wouldn't you like to be able 
to do all of the little repair jobs 
around the house yourself — to 
be free from the nuisance and 
expense of calling in paid help 
for little things like putting up 
a door bell or fixing the lawn 
mower? 

Wouldn't you like to do other 
jobs quickly and just as well 
as the "handy man" — hanging 
pictures for instance? You 
can with 



ReO U S.PAT OPT, 



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There are many different mod- 
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wrench — just the thing for 
handling pipes and nuts, for 
cutting wire and for use as a 
hand vise. 

They won't make a skilled 
mechanic of you, but they will 
enable you to do scores of things 
around the house just as well 
as a skilled mechanic. 

Ask yoii' hardware dealer 
for Red Devil 999 and 
make your hands handy. 

Smith & Hemenway 
Company, Inc. 

Sales and Export Office: 

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Factories: Irvington, N. J. 

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guide to know quality in Pliers, Electri- 
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Weeding Out the Poisonous Fishes 

{Cuntinuccl from page liO) 
median row of very broad teeth, flanked 
by several rows of smaller, narrow teeth. 
None of the above are true fishes. Some 
of them reproduce by eggs encased in a 
leathery capsule and others bring forth 
their young alive. 

Just how numerous poisonous fishes are 
will be better known when Dr. Gudger 
and others finish their investigations. 
Far more dangerous to the public, perhaps, 
are our edible fishes which have become 
infested with minute worms that act as 
disease carriers of toxic bacteria. These 
disease carriers go generally under the 
names of cestodes, nematodes and tre- 
niatodes The nematode is a known 
carrier of the germ of cancer. A govern- 
ment report of several years ago, showed 
that all American trout hatcheries had 
become infected and that cancer in trout 
was spreading into the fresh water streams 
and also largely infecting some of the species 
of salmon. Trout of large bodies of water 
and salmon taken in salt water were not 
shown to be so affected. In July and 
-August, all species of edible fish, perch, 
bass, etc., in small, shallow lakes and slow 
moving streams, are known to be dangerous 
to eat, their flesh being permeated with 
minute worms. 

Something like seventy species of fish 
parasites have been enumerated, making 
dangerous for food, fishes of sluggish 
inland waters. As a rule, fish from deep 
salt water are most immune from parasites, 
if butchered when taken from the ocean. 
Those forms, however, which pass from 
salt water, through brackish water (mixed 
salt and fresh) into sluggish waters, are 
liable to be dangerous to cat. The same is 
true of these fish that pass into streams or 
lakes infected with poisonous wastes from 
factories or which live naturally in such 
waters. 

Some forms of fish, bivalves, etc., 
become infected with the germ of typhoid. 
This has been especially true of such bodies 
of factory- and sewage-polluted waters as 
Long Island Sound. No body of water 
extant has produced so many cases of 
typhoid in humans as the soft and hard 
clams and oysters of Long Island Sound. 
A good second is Lower New York Bay, 
reeking in sewage and pollution from 
factories. It is a crime to allow bivalves 
from such sources to be sold in the markets. 
The State of New Jersey has likewise had 
a hard struggle to rid its bivalve industries 
of the lower Delaware River and the 
indentations of Delaware Bay of typhoid 
infected products. The state has been 
forced to give great care to its natural 
oj'ster beds and to the places where it is 
allowed to plant seed oysters. This has 
required enlarged police patrol and heavy 
penalties for infractions of the laws and 
regulations, besides a heavy annual ex- 
penditure. Notwithstanding all precau- 
tions, occasional epidemics of typhoid 
recur. 

Cement Drain Tile 

(Conlinurd from page 20) 
inexperience in the business, the use of 
unfit aggregate, too lean a mixture, too 
little water or poor methods of curing. As 
a result the breakage in hauhng has in 
many instances been altogether too great. 
After the tile have been laid in the ground 
they should increase in strength and they 
will not be injured by freezing and thawing 
if subjected to such conditions, as will soft- 
burned clay tile. This fact, though, 
should not be used as an argument in favor 
of poorly made cement tile. 

It is only under unusual conditions that 
it will pay individual farmers to make their 
own cement tile. There are a number of 
good, small cement tile machines on the 
market by means of which it is possible to 
make first class tile. The process, how- 
ever, is rather slow and the amount of 
hand labor required is so great that it is 
impossible to make any large number of 
tile with economy. If one is located some 
distance frorh a point where clay tile are 



] handled and if a good aggregate is close at 
hand, conditions are somewhat altered, and 
j it may be economical to attempt tlie home 
I manufacture of cement tile, .\gain, if a 
large number of tile are to be used, and a 
good aggregate is close at hand one might 
afford to buy a large power machine and 
make the tile on a large scale. An instance 
is now in mind in which one farmer paid 
$500 for a machine and made enough tile to 
drain 300 acres of hiy own land and he still 
has some 500 acres to tile. 

In a general sense the practice of taking 
one's time to construct an article made in a 
commercial way and on a large scale is 
questionable. Time is money now, to a 
greater degree than ever before. If what 
is wanted can be had on the market at a 
reasonable price, buy it. It will usually be 
of better quality than the homemade 
product and really cheaper if all things are 
considered. 

This question invariably arises in the 
writer's mind — If good clay tile are to be 
had, why consider cement tile'? A well- 
made clay tile will last for a hundred years 
— even longer. The average farmer can 
better judge the quality of clay tile than 
of cement tile. He, therefore, is not so 
likely to make a mistake in this respect. 
If good clay tile and good cement tile are 
to be had at the same price he will be less | 
likely to err if he chooses clay product. O: 
the other hand, if the cement tile an 
slightly less in price and he can satisfy him- 
self as to their good quality, he may, with 
economy, choose the cement product. A 
good cement tile should ring clear when 
struck with a hammer. The surface 
material should not easily rub off and it 
should have a dense appearance and be 
free from cracks or checks. There should 
also be evidence of water marks on the 
surface, to make sure that they were not 
mixed too dry. 

Some cement tile manufacturers make 
the claim that their tiles are superior to clay 
tiles because water will pass rather freely 
through the walls of the tile, whereas it 
cannot pass through the walls of a hard- 
burned clay tUe. It has long been recog- 
nized as a fact that little water does or is 
expected to pass through the walls of a clay 
tile — it enters at the joints. It has not 
been demonstrated as a fact that this 
characteristic of cement tile is one to be 
desired. 

The Rotary-Pole Magneto 

(Continued from page 3Ji) 
The thing is a manifest mechanical im- 
possibility. One remedy consists in mount- 
ing several magnetos, allowing each to 
fire its fair share of cylinders at 2,400 or 
3,600 revolutions; but while that would 
do very nicely on the ground, the added 
weight is very serious in the air. By 
means of a so-called rotary sleeve, the 
armature magneto can be doubled up and 
made to spark four times per revolution; 
but this is the absolute limit, and it is not 
enough. 

The rotary pole affords an escape from 
this dilemma. We are here no longer 
restricted to two or four flux reversals 
per revolution of the magneto shaft; we 
can have as many as we please. For the 
pole may be built out to make contact 
with the field-pieces, not merely in a 
single lobe, but equally well in multiple 
lobes. The wings of north and south pole 
must alternate around the shaft, and 
opposite each north-pole lobe must lie a 
south-pole lobe. Subject to these re- 
quirements, each pole may have as many 
lobes as we please to give it; there will be 
a flux reversal every time a north lobe 
is ousted from the critical position by its 
south successor, and vice versa. 

So where the old system would have 
called for an 8-to-l gear in firing an 
engine from a single magneto, the new, 
using a six-hole outfit, does the job on an 
8-to-3 gear; and for other combinations 
there are corresponding reductions in the 
gear ratio. The explanatory diagrams 
show the simplest type, with a single lobe 
for each pole; the set-up of other types will 
be clear from the above remarks. 



The best rate -of --work 
you can get from machines is 
assured by 

COUNTERS 

— because the output of the Veeder- 
equipped machine may be held to the 
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brought still higher by such developments 
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The Revolution Counter 
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revolution o( a shaft, re- 
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A favorite for operating 
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Suitable counters for operating the dif- 
ferent types of machines will be seen in 
the Veeder booklet — copy sent gladly. 

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18 Sargeant St., Hartford, Conn. 




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ISii; HEARING 

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Januar\' 11, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



43 



One more rather conspicuous advantage 
inheres in the rotary-pole magneto, with- 
out mention of which our story would be 
incoinplete. The coil must be wound about 
the core through which the flux passes, 
or there is no current induced; so where 
the core rotates, the coil must rotate, too. 
But in the rotary-pole magneto the core 
doesn't rotate; it is way up in the bow of 
the magnets, quite out of the field save as 
the field is passed through it from the 
field-pieces. So there is no motion of 
the coil at all. 

This simplifies the mechanical end of the 
outfit. When the coil goes 'round, we 
have got to pick the induced current off 
it as it shoots past; and for this we need 
brush contacts and complicated circuit 
breakers. But when the coil stands still 
while it produces the juice, we can pick the 
current off it with the simplest sort of 
devices, and do away with several trouble- 
s ime and complicated moving parts. 

Like the sewing machine and the tele- 
graph and the harvester and every other 
gjod thing, the rotary-pole magneto did 
not "burst full panpolied from the head of 
Jove," Jove in this ca.se being embodied in 
an American inventor, Charles T. Mason. 
There was the basic idea, patented in 1912; 
and ever since, as in the parallel cases 
mentioned and in many others, there has 
been a gradual process of improvement 
by accretion, for some of which the original 
inventor was responsible, but much of 
which was contributed by others. It was 
the stimulus given, both here and abroad, 
by the war that lent the final touches to 
the present high state of development 
attained by this ingenious apparatus. 

Logging by Electricity 

(Continued from page 31) ) 

Aside from possessing no boiler and 
fuel-oil tank, the electric donkey does not 
differ greatly in appearance from the 
steam yarder. The mot(ir and drums, of 
which there are three, are mounted on a 
heavy wooden sled. The main drum is 
driven by a train of three reduction gears, 
and has its ends filled with cement to 
deaden the noise. 

The machine is now working at a distance 
of two miles from the power house. A 
permanent bare wire copper transmission 
line has been installed to serve the engine. 
The power is stepped up to 13,000 volts 
for transmission, and reduced at the scene 
of operations by a portable transformer 
to 550 volts. The motor takes its power 
through 500 feet of armored submarine 
cable, which can be laid wdth absolute 
safety through mud and water. This 
cable being wound with heavy steel wire, 
makes it rugged enough to be dragged 
through the brush, as occasion requires a 
change of location. The machine can be 
moved by its own power, by attaching 
its main cable to a convenient stump or 
tree. The transmission line has to be ' 
extended in the general direction of the [ 
change of setting, as the moving radius i 
cannot exceed the length of the submarine 
cable. 

To provide for communication with the 
crew at work in the woods, a signal wire 
attached to an air whistle on the engine, is 
run out to the point where the load is 
attached. A boy gives the requisite 
signals at the direction of the hook tender, 
by pulling on the wire. The electric 
logging donkey being far lighter than the 
steam machine, requires adequate anchor- 
age fore and aft to keep it on the ground. 
As the accepted practice in the Pacific 
Coast woods is to run the main hauUng 
line through a block on a spar tree, often 
over 100 feet in height, to keep the line free 
from obstructions, it can easily be under- 
stood how the machine has a tendency to 
lift itself off the ground. A few turns of 
spare cable connecting the sled with a con- 
venient log or tree solves the question of 
anchorage. 

Another contrivance, as yet lacking on 
the electric yarder, is a overload warning 
device, whose signal of alarm can be 
heard distinctly at a distance of several 



hundred feet, where the log is attached to 
the main line. Electric motors have no 
exhausts, to speak in eloquent terms when 
they are being overloaded. The logging 
motor is no exception. It pulls to its 
capacity and quietly stops. The rigging 
men, when working with a steam machine, 
can tell from the sound of the exhaust 
whether the load is too heavy or whether 
a stop is necessary to adjust the hitch, a 
thing not yet possible with the electric 
yarder. Engineers of the company are 
at work on a whistle arrangement, worked 
by an electric relay, which can be adjusted 
to function when the load reaches a pre- 
scribed limit of safety. 

The advantages of the electric machine, 
where abundant power is available, are 
manifold. The electric motor as designed 
today, constitutes one of the most fool- 
proof machines in general use. With the 
use of electricity the problem of piping 
water long distances to the engine is 
eliminated and the services of a fireman are 
dispensed with. Added to this comes a 
marked reduction in fire hazard. 

The Return of Our Fleet 

(Continued from page 33) 
Grand Fleet that it dare not leave its 
harbors. As a matter of fact we are told 
by Admiral Rodman that the fleet was 
constantly out in search of the enemy, 
and that small detachments were sent to 
cruise near the German bases, in the hope 
of luring the High Seas fleet into the open. 
But he would not venture out. 

The fleet was frequently under attack 
by submarines. Says Admiral Rodman: 

"In our operations in the North Sea 
we were frequently attacked by sub- 
marines, and our battleships had numerous 
narrow escapes, often only by prompt and 
skUlful handling. On one occasion a sub- 
marine rammed the flagship "New York," 
dented the bottom, and demolished the 
starboard propeller. But there is every 
reason to believe that the blows from the 
propeller sank the submarine. En route to 
drydock to make repairs and install a new 
propeller, three torpedoes in rapid suc- 
cession were fired at her by hostile sub- 
marines. But again she avoided them by 
clever maneuvring and escaped. Once 
when guarding or supporting a convoy of 
thirty or forty vessels, on the coast of 
Norway, in mid-winter, a bunch of hostile 
subs fired six torpedoes at us. Again only 
our vigilance and instantaneous maneuv- 
ring saved us, but by a very narrow mar- 
gin. There were stUl other attacks by 
submarines which necessitated quick action 
to avoid them. 

"It would be superfluous to go into the 
details of our operations in the North Sea; 
or to mention the rigorous chmate, where 
the latitude is north of Sitka in Alaska, or 
about equal to that of Petrograd in Rus.sia; 
or the terrific weather, the cold, sleet, snow, 
ice and heavy seas; the arduous and danger- 
ous navigation; the continuous cruising in 
close formation at high speeds, without 
lights, where the winter nights lasted 18 
hours. Or the dangers of mine fields, our 
own sometimes, as well as those of the 
enemy; or the repeated attacks of hostile 
submarines on our battleships, and the 
never-ending readiness and vigilance of 
the whole fleet to put to sea on all but 
instant notice. 

Always Ready to Fight 
"Let it be sufficient to say that during 
our absence of a year there was no other 
condition than that of constant and con- 
tinuous readiness for action. There was 
no hberty or leave worth mentioning; no 
one allowed away from the ships after 
dark, nor for a period longer than four 
hours, and then only in the immediate 
vicinity of the ship, in signal or telephone 
communication, subject to recall. All 
ships were completely closed and darkened 
from sunset to sunrise, as a precaution 
against air and other attacks; in winter 
this meant from fifteen to eighteen hours 
per day. This, in all but an arctic chmate, 
was one of our many hardships. But there 
was no complaint; on the other hand, 



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find the rock-hewn foundation of real worth. In the 
case of KEYSTONE COPPER STEEL, its high 
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the result of undeniable superiority in actual service. 





Full weight, 

Galvanized— 



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as formed from Apollo-Keystone Copper Steel Galvanized 
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APOLLO KEYSTONE Copper Steel Galvanized 
Sheets are unequaled for Culverts, Flumes, Tanks, 
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KEYSTONE Copper Steel Terne Plates (Roofing 
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durable, satisfactory. Send for our Roofing Tin book- 
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We manufacture Sheet and Tin Mill Products of every description 
and for every known purpose— Black Sheets, Galvanized Sheets, Cor- 
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Plates, Terne Plates, Automobile Sheets, Special Sheets for Stamp- 
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AMERICAN SHEET AND TIN PLATE COMPANY, Qeneral Offices: Frick Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Five Rooms 

f. o. b. Brooklyn 



^57555 



Price of Pocono Hills 
Bungalow, $575 
f.o.b. Brooklyn. Send 
check or money 
order for $143.75. 
Pay balance of 
$431.25 when noti- 
fied bungalow is 
ready for shipment. 
Send 18c for catalog 
showing the full line 
of Bossert Houses. 




POCONO HILLS MODEL 



Order Now for Spring Delivery 

Picture this bungalow in your favorite summering place — up in 
the mountains, at the seashore, close to the 
shimmering waters of a breeze-swept lake, 
or perhaps nestling in the silences of the 
deep woods! 

Possession of one of these inexpensive, artistic 
and sturdily built houses not only adds greatly 
to the pleasures of country life, but saves the 
high cost of living at summer resorts. 

Shipped in sections of convenient size for 
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Simple instructions for assembling furnished. 

Bossert Houses 




should not be confused with so-called "poit- 
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Houica aie of enduring quality of material 
and workmanship and fully covered by U. S. 
patents. 

They are fabricated at the Bossert plant — a 



method of construction which insures uniform 
quality throughout and lowers construction 
costs. 

Bo.s.scrt Houses are shipped complete from 
our factory — even with doors and windows 
hung and hardware attached. 



LOUIS BOSSERT & SONS, Inc. 

1305 Grand St.. Brooklyn, N. Y. 



44 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



• January 11, 1919 



LATHES AND SMALL TOOLS 

Friction Disk Drill 

FOR UGHT WORK 

Ha» These Great Advantaa** • 

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or largest ilrills witbiii its ranee a wunJerful econoniy 
in lime and ereat saving in drill brcakaee. 
Send for Drill Catalogue 

W. F. & Jno. Barnes Company 

Establislicd 18"> 
1999 Ruby Street Rockford. lllinoi 




SOUTH BEND LATHES 



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LOW IN PRICE 
19 ill. to it In. <nlne 
Slnlitlil or (iup Urd> 



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Sooth Bend Lalhr Works 

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renevrable 

FUSES 

cut annual fuse maintenance 
costs 80%. Can be used oyer 
and over. An inexpensive 
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restores a blown Economy 
Fuse to its original efficiency. 

ECONOMY FUSE & MFG. CO. 
Kinzie & Orleans Sis , CHICAGO, U.S.A. 

,;. Manufartur^r.cf ■■ARKI.FSF 



the Ko^i-Ben^wabi' J^^'' «<' 
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THE BRIDGEPORT CHAIN CO. 

Specialistsiii SmallWire Shapes&FlatStampings 

Briddeport, Conn. 
AUTOMOBILE SPECIALTIES WANTED 

WE desire to hear from mdi\Uluals or concerns who 
tiave a patented article or a patentable Idea pertainint: 
to the jiutoniobile indu.stry. 

Our splliiK,' organization can profitably handle addi- 
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to inamifacture. advertise and sell an article that fits in 
with our line. 

Write fully. We will tell you by return mail if we 
can use vour device. 

F. (>. B. Mfs. fn.. Pales Offices. Real Estate Trust 
BuildiuB. PhiliUlelphia. )'a. 



INVENTORS' ATTENTION! 

Three Rivers Machine, Tool A- Die Corp., successors tu 
the Oswego Machine, Tool & Die Works, wishes to an- 
nounce that they are eQuippeel wiili Hiicst iiiaclliuerv 
and employ best tool and model nuiki'is in the country 
to take care itt dHvelopim: and buililiiu,' morlels for in 
ventors. Will quote mi work at reasonable flat lioiir 
basis or contract. If iutere.sted, write us for particulars. 

Three Rivers Machine Tool & Die Corp. , Phoenix, N. Y. 
Oswego Machine Tool & Die 'Works 



HANDY MAN'S WORKSHOP AND LABORATORY 

Compiled and edited by A. Russell Bond. 
6x8^ inches. Cloth. 4(17 pages. 370 illus- 
trations. $2.00. Postpaid $2.10. 

A compilation of himdreds of valuable sugges- 
tions and ingenious ideas for the mechanic and 
those mechanically inclined. The suggestions ari> 
practical and tlie solutions to which they refer are 
of frequent occurrence. It may be regarded as the 
best collection of ideas of resourceful men pub- 
ished. 

Scientific American Publishing Co., 
Woolworth Bldg.. New York 



Steurt Your Boy on the Road to 
True Manhood! 

This is the formative period of your boy's life. What he 
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On sale at all newsstands, 16c a copy. Address 
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S5S0 Main latreet Smethport, Pa. 



every one seemed happy and contented, 
and all eager to go to sea every time the 
occasion demanded in the hopes that 
we would meet the Hun fleet and en- 
gage it. 

'■ Let me add tliat with all of the demands 
which have been placed upon the ships of 
this division, in .spite of this constant 
readiness for action, their maintenance, 
upkeep, and efficiency, under war con- 
ditions, with no general overhaul or re- 
pairs, have been maintained at such a high 
degree that it is no exaggeration to say 
that, were they called upon to do so, they 
could steam around the world as they are 
now and still be ready to go into action." 

Realizing the absolute necessity of 
holding the German fleet innocuous within 
its harbors, Great Britain made vast ad- 
ditions to her fleet and rounded it out in 
every branch of its activity. Admiral 
Rodman refers to this fact as follows: 

"To give an idea of the immense size 
and number of vessels employed in the 
Grand Fleet, it might be of interest here 
to state that, entering or leaving port, our 
column of ships, excluding destroyers, was 
on an average about sixty-five miles long; 
on one occasion, 76 miles. Its length was 
dependent upon weather and other con- 
ditions, as well as upon the number of 
ships." 

If the whole destroyer fleet had been in 
single column astern the total line would 
have approached 200 miles in length. 

All patriotic and broadminded Americans 
will be pleased to know that our officers 
and men who have cooperated with the 
Grand Fleet in the North Sea, bear tribute 
to the cordial sympathy and high appreci- 
ation which characterized the attitude of 
our great Ally during the combined oper- 
ations. Testimony to this effect was given 
at a dinner on the "New York" in honor 
of Admiral Beatty, when Admiral Rodman 
said: 

"It is truly impossible for me to express 
to you, the Commander- in-Chief, and flag 
officers of the Grand Fleet the pride and 
honor which I and my fellow countrymen 
of the 6th Battle Squadron feel for the 
great privilege which has been granted us 
of serving for the last year as an integral 
part of your force, under our most efficient, 
genial, and well-tried Commander-in-Chief, 
and with the others of the British Navy. 

"It is needless for me to reiterate that 
which is known and recognized throughout 
the civilized world; namely, that it is the 
Grand Fleet which has been the very 
backbone of the structure, which has made 
a victorious peace a certainty. Without 
it the war would long ago have been 
disastrously concluded, with just the 
reverse conditions obtaining from those 
which now exist. 

" In addition to indisputably emphasiz- 
ing the value and nece.ssity of sea power, 
and the command of the sea, the greatest 
lesson which this war has brought home to 
us is that, though we may have been born 
under different flags and are accredited as 
belonging to different nations, yet these 
are more a matter of geographic boundary 
or delineation than of real or important 
diff'erences, and that after all the same 
blood flows through our veins. We have 
the same ideals of rights, morals, and 
national liberty, and that when the time 
came to show this to our common enemy, 
we could not only unite under a single 
leadership, but could coordinate and co- 
operate smoothly, easily, pleasantly, with- 
out the slightest friction, and yet have an 
efficient and well adjusted force, ready 
for any emergency or duty which it 
might be called upon to perform. 

"I shall always look upon the year 
spent in the Grand Fleet not only as one 
of the most profitable, but particularly as 
one of the most pleasant and agreeable of 
a lifetime, and can only ascribe it to the 
never ending courtesy, help and assistance, 
which you, our Commander-in-Chief, and 
other flag officers, one and all, were ever 
ready to extend to us; particularly in the 
beginning, when we were more or less 
strangers to you and your ways, but who, 



if you feel as I do, have become more like I 
tru • and well-tried friends, or even as 
brothers, between whom I trust and believe [ 
that the intimacy and affection which has 
been engendered by our mutual association | 
and common cause will last forever after- 
ward." 

The Crucial Week for the Green 
Employee 

MEN often get discouraged and quit 
the first month on a new job and do 
not analyze the cause of their failure. This 
article aims to discuss one universal reason 
for discouragement and failure in com- 
mercial and industrial life. A green man 
often labels himself as "Incompetent" 
because he doesn't understand the nervous 
readjustment that accompanies any change 
of occupation, nor does he foresee the 
crucial moments in this readjustment. 

Every man in every occupation makes 
mistakes at the start. This is nothing to 
his discredit, providing he has profited by 
them and rearranges his mode of conduct 
so as to prevent the same mistake twice. 
The man higher up always extends the 
privilege of making one mistake; but woe 
to the man who continues to repeat it. 
Repeated blundering soon catalogues an 
employee as incompetent and he is fired 
or is relegated to some niche of mediocre 
service where his mistakes are not costly. 

However, every man has had a week, 
we'll say the third, when every thing goes 
dead wrong. If they all had backbone 
enough to "stick" in spite of it, this dis- 
cussion would miss fire; but thousands 
quit — only to swell our vast American 
army of floaters, lowering the standard of 
efficiency in every occupation. What is 
there about the third week that is unques- 
tionably critical? 

The routine of new work necessitates 
the formation of new habits. The process 
of habit formation is as essentially physio- 
logical as any other function of our ma- 
terial bodies. It has its basis in the most 
highly organized mechanism of man — the 
nervous system. The sense organs, com- 
ing in contact with the world about us, 
receive impressions. These impressions 
are transmitted to nerve centers in the 
brain or spinal cord, and action results. 
If the me.ssage transferred is dependent 
on the brain for interpretation, the process 
is conscious; if the process is reflex, a 
lower brain center, perhaps the spinal cord, 
handles it with no thought on our part. 
To form a habit is to transfer the circuit 
to a lower brain center and relieve the 
higher mental faculties for new work. The 
transfer takes place after the same pathway 
has been used so often that a stimulus 
meets no resistance when it excites the 
nerve ending. 

Nervous tissue is very plastic and readily 
yields to repeated stimulation. But from 
the time we start to form a habit until it is 
absolutely part and parcel of our body, 
there are dangerous pitfalls for the indi- 
vidual. The most critical time is when we 
must judge whether or not we can trust 
the lower nerve centers to carry out our 
work. Too much new stimulus forces us 
to crowd unripe habits into the subordinate 
centers of control. \Miat happens? They 
function inefficiently, we make mistakes, 
call these new habits back to consciousness, 
confusion results, and we get discouraged. 

Learning to operate a typewriter, an 
adding machine, a lathe, a crane, or any- 
thing else, means not only one readjust- 
ment, but thousands — hence the signifi- 
cance of the problem. We must not try 
to let our new habits do the work before 
they are grown-up. If an employee can 
cross this ])lateau of uncertainty in forming 
new habits, the battle is half won. If an 
employer can understand the stress and 
strain of this period for the employee, he 
will often develop a valuable man instead 
of losing his temper and firing him. 

If you are a learner, strive to attend 
to the routine until the habit is thor- 
oughly ripe; if an employer, take the 
"third week" into account and help the 
green man. 



LEGAL NOTICES 



mTENTS 

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which you wish to patent you can 
write fully and freely to Munn & Co. 
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sketches or a model of your inven- 
tion and a description of the device, 
explaining its operation. 
All communications are strictly confiden- 
tial. Our vast practice, extending over a 
period of seventy years, enables us in many 
cases to advise in regard to patentability 
without any expense to the client. Our 
Hand-Book on Patents is sent free on 
request. This explains our methods, terms, 
etc., in regard to Patents, Trade Mark; 
Foreign Patents, etc. 

All patents ercured tbrouvh us »Tf. described witlroul 
cost to tbe p.leulee In the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 

MUNN ^ CO. 

SOLICITORS OF PATENTS 

233 Broadway. Woolworth Building. 

New York 
And 625 F Street. Washington. D. O. 



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Count se\'en words to the line. All orders must be 
accompanied by a remittance. 



FOR SALE 

FOR SALE — By reliable luanufacturiiiK companj' a 
lAght Farm Tractor Busine.ss. Particulars furnished 
upon applicaUon. Box No. 83, R. F. D. No. 1. Schasrli- 

ticoke, N. Y. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

INVKNT'HtS — ENUINEKKS.- One of tl'e large 
manufacturers of meial— iirass, bronze, Iron, aluminum — 
seeks quantli.v production. Company has iirtce, compe- 
tent ortianization, factor.v and fouu'iry. (^an finance an 
will devflnp your inveniion and manufacture in (luaiiti- 
tipsany desirable product. P. O. Box307. nronklyn. N. Y. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

Incorporate your business under the common la^^'. 
No orK-aiiizatiou tax ; no franciiise tax ; no f.*deral cor- 
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Manufacturers, Stimulate 

the inventive facuhies 

of your Engineers and 

Mechanics 

by making available to 
them a complete set of 
all patents — properly 
classified — which relate 
to your particular line 
of work. The results 
will surprise you. We 
can furnish such sets of 
patents in convenient 
form for ready refer- 
ence. Write our Manu- 
f acturers' Service 
Department. 

Scientific American 

ROOM 676 
Woolworth Building New York. N. Y. 



iiiiiii 



*"liill|*P!l!*P"P 




It is the Gargoyle — the world symbol ol 
scientific lubrication. 

The red Gargoyle' appears on cans and barrels 
which leave Vacuum Oil Company refineries scat- 
tered over the globe. 

The red Gargoyle points the way to correct 
lubrication on six continents. It hangs out over 
garage doors in every countrv where motor cars 
are a factor. . In the ports of the world it is 
looked, for by owners ot steamships. 

It is a servant to electricity, steam and gas. It 
gives these power-sources their right to work at 
full efficiency. 

Every nation on the two hemispheres recog- 
nizes the red Gargoyle. It is their guide-post to 
mechanical efficiency. 









4 



h 



.'^ 




SfiecialUts in the manufacture of kigh-grailt 

htbricafits for e-r-ery ciass of machinery. 

Olitaiftable ei'cry^vhere in the '.t-orld. 



)^^^^^ 



-^- :;xv>\svoi>^^v^^: 



munn ex. \^\j 



i 




To carry the load and stand the strain 



THAT is the duty of axle and shaft in actual service. 
Within that great truck there are ball bearings that carry 
all the strain of the shaft and all the load of the axle — yet 
they have the added duty of reducing friction. 

That Hess-Bright Ball Bearings serve this way under such 
conditions makes them standard. And it's safe to say that 



with a record in such service they will perform as consist- 
ently and with as little attention where the load is lighter 
and strain is less — as on your car. 

Rugged in strength, precise in manufacture, yet certain of 
performance in gruelling service. That's the testimonial of 
their worth to you. 



THE HESS-BRIGHT MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

PHILADELPHIA. PA. 



«■— — BP 



SV/iprp ^orfoTmancG tokos ^ProforGnco ovorT^ico 



FlMoi^. R^ 



SciENTincAMERICAN 



y 



Entered as second class matter June 18, 1879, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 




V0I.CXX. No. 3 
January 18, 1919 



DAMMING A RIVER WITH PILLARS OF CONCRETE [See page 47] 



Published Weekly by 

Scientific American Publishing Co. 

Munn & Co^ New York, N. Y. 



DC 



Price 10 Cent* 
$5.00 a Year 





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•* : 25'6" -r 

BOTH GLIDE ,--" -^ 






PULLEYS 12 ' ^^T'rr^ ' ^^r '/ . \ 






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\ DRIVE PULLEY 

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2 1 Horse power 6 
%\ Speed 1675 RRM. 
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Specified GOODYEAR GLIDE BELT 

I 3/2' 5 Ply 

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Fairbaikn Naylor Spinning Frame Drive 

p, - — Kentucky River Mills 

- i Frankfort , Kentucky. 

:5- SHIFT PUILL. 




1 



Cop7Tl£bt 1919, by The Goodyear Tir« tt Robber Ca 



Fourteen Months— Half -Hour Shifts— and the G.T.M. 



They had never kept belt records in the Kentucky Fliver Mills 
at Frankfort, Kentucky. They always bought expensive belts 
and took the price as proof of quality. They were troubled some- 
times by the frequent need for belt repedrs, by their belting bills 
and by low production^ — but they just accepted all these things as 
necessary evils. One July day in 1917, a G.T. M. — Goodyear 
Technical Mein — called. It was our Mr. Jenkins. 

He asked Mr. Sutherland, the superintendent, to show him the 
hardest drive in this particular mill. Mr. Sutherland wanted to 
know why. The G.T. M. explained the Goodyear plan of selling 
belts only after a careful analysis of the drives to be served — and 
not as if a given belt were like a patent medicine and a sure- 
cure for any and all ills that drives may entail. 

The idea appealed and he was shown the spinning frame drive. 
It was a shift — every half-hour the belt was thrown from one 
driven pulley to its twin. There •was one quarter turn and one half 
turn. He measured belt speed, centers, pulley diameters and pulley 
faces, asked about the power, and noted the nature of the load. 

Then he prescribed a Goodyear Glide Belt — 3}4 inch 5 ply. 
Mr. Sutherland •was interested- He asked the price. He found it 



was so moderate that he doubted the merit of the belt, but consent- 
ed to try it He didn't see where he could lose anything, and he 
might be able to get rid of constant interruptions and shut-downs. 

The belt was applied August 16, 1917, and is still running. 
Its edges are not even Worn. No stretch has had to be taken ouL 
Production has never been interrupted a single minute. Four- 
teen months after being applied the belt seemed still a« 
good as new. 

These fourteen months of perfect service, in spite of shifts 

every half-hoxu, on that spinning frame drive, have converted 
them to the Goodyear plan of belt buying — -and .to GoodyeM 
Belts. They have made the mill a Goodyear-belted- and 
CT.M.-served mill — like thousands of others. 

If you have a hard drive, and have always accepted high 
belting costs and belt-troubles as necesszuy e^vils, ask a G. T. M. 
to ceJl. One from the nearest Goodyear Branch •will be glad to do 
so when next he is in your vicinity. His service is free — for the 
savings he effects for purchasers are so e'vident 2Jid materieJ, that 
a gratifying volume from the plants served is siure to result 
within a few years. 



The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio 



BELTING • PACKING 





HOSE • VALVES 




January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



45 



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transporting these return 
loads via ''QTfie ^^ations 
^Freight Carfiirther cuts 
costs through economy 
of^ maintenance and 
certainty of performance. 
Cyind back of both stands 
DiamondT^s thirteen years 

of REPUTATION 



'THE NATIONS FREIGHT CAR. 



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1 to 5 tons 



Diamond T ^T,^; 4521 W. 26th St., Chicago ^^ 



46 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 




You can thank these men 
for some of the coal 
in your bin 

PRECIOUS black diamonds ! . . . How 
we appreciate them since our experi- 
ences of last winter. . . . 

But few^ of us realize how science is sav- 
ing coal for us. We know little of the 
engineers, w^ho have devoted a lifetime of 
study to successful methods of saving 
steam and heat; who, through the insula- 
tion of piping and other hot surfaces, have 
worked out great economies in industry. 

Not only plant owners but the Government itself 
realizes what these men have done. During the 
last year the Fuel Administration has constantly 
emphasized in its Industrial work the tremen- 
dous importance of proper insulation. And as a 
result it is estimated that among our mills, fac- 
tories and power plants over two and a half 
million tons of coal have been saved. 

And these savings will continue throughout the 
years to come. More will be added to them. 
For coal wastes of ten years ago will never be 
tolerated again. 

So, for some of the coal in your bin now and in 
the years to come you can thank, among others, 
Johns-Manville, who through their laboratory ex- 
perimenters, by the development and application of 
asbestos,haveperfectedmethodsof heat insulation. 

And this development of a complete line of 
insulation has enabled this organization to build 
up a broader service in heat and power saving 
than would be possible were that service con- 
trolled and centered merely on the sale of any 
one type of covering. Just another way in which 
Johns-Manville serves, not only industry, but 
the whole nation. 

H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO. 

New York City 

10 Factories — Branches in 63 Large Cities 

Asbestos and Magnesia Heat Insulations. Pack- 
ings, Refractory Cements. Steam Traps, and 
other Power Plant Materials; Asbestos Roofings 
and Shingles: Electrical Products: Asbestos 
Brake Lining, Fire Extinguishers, Speedometers. 



ANVILLE 



Serves in 0>nservation 



VOLUME CXX. 
NUMBER 3 



NEW YORK. JANUARY 18, 1919 



riO CENTS A COPY 
L $5.00 A YEAR 



An Ingenious Irrigation Scheme 

ANEW ZEALAND engineering concern recently 
conducted an interesting proceeding in the Kawarau 
Gorge, where two pillars had been constructed for the 
purpose of damning back the water. Each of the pillars 
is built of reinforced concrete. The column on the right- 
hand side of the river was 
46 feet high and 16 feet 
square, and weighed 720 
tons; that on the left-hand 
side stood 36 feet high and 
13 feet square, and weighed 
530 tons. The spot on the 
Kawarau where the river is 
to be dammed back is about 
four and a half mUes from 
its junction with the Clutha 
at Cromwell, and a few 
hundred yards inside the 
entrance to the gorge. The 
river here is very rapid and 
narrow, running at the rate 
of 300 feet per minute. 
The banks are very steep, 
and the tops of the pillars 
were not on a level with 
their edges. The works 
undertaken by the Devel- 
opment Company necessi- 
tated the raising of the 
river, so that even at its 
lowest flow it would be high 
enough to run into the in- 
take on the right-hand side, 
and thence flow down a race 
to the power-house. It was 

not considered possible to undertake the building of a 
weir in the usual fashion, owing to the precipitous nature 
of the sides of the gorge and the great volume of water, 
which has a fairly uniform depth of 17 feet. 

On the pressure of an electric button the gelignite 
answered at once to the firing of the charge. The huge 
mass appeared to spring for- 
ward and lean slightly over 
as a tremor ran through its 
length. Momentarily it hung 
in the air, and then slowly 
bent and fell with a mighty 
crash into the river, the spray 
rising to a height of about 
60 feet. From the time the 
explosion occurred till the 
pillar struck the water was 
just nine seconds. The pillar 
appeared to give a roll when 
it again came to view, and 
the water of the river surged 
back and then quickly re- 
sumed its onward flow, cover- 
ing the ob.struction. The 
pillar had apparently leapt 
out from its base as the ex- 
plosion occurred, leaving a 
gap between its lower end 
and the bank of about 20 
feet. When it came to rest 
and when the pillar had 
finally settled, it was seen 
that it was lying in a diagonal 
position, its top facing up- 
stream. 

The company's engineer, 
on being interviewed after 
the falling of the first piUar, 
expressed his satisfaction at 
the way in which it had come 
to rest practically in the place 



which he had allowed for it. Since the pillar had fallen 
the river had risen 3 feet. It wa.s lying just under the 
water. The intention was to back it up with 1,000 
tons of mica schist. This blocking, it was anticipated, 
would silt up finally with sand, and the whole of the river 
would flow over the obstruction at a sufficient height to 



Forest Fires of Spontaneous Origin 

IT is usually assumed that forest fires, when not the 
* result of a stroke of lightning are the result of care- 
lessness on the part of lumbermen, campers, picknickers, 
or wayfarers. A French scientist, Mr. G. Raymond, 
denies this, and offers several interesting hypotheses in a 
brief article in La Nature 





Two monoliths ready for the explosion 



The concrete pillar toppling into the river 



run comfortably into the intake. The river being thus 
raised, the fluming which is built for a distance of 30 
chains on the right bank will be available to carry the 
water to the turbines which are to force the water from 
the river to a height of 180 feet through 2,240 feet of 
30-inch pipes, and thus irrigate an extensive plantation. 




One of the fallen pillars in the water. Note the intake on the right 



(Paris) to account for spon- 
taneous fires. He notes 
first that such fires always 
occur under the same con- 
ditions, namely, when the 
weather is dry, hot and 
windy, as for example, dur- 
ing the blowing of the 
"mistral" in southern 
Europe. To begin with, 
he considers it entirely 
possible that the dry and 
resinous branches of a pine 
forest might develop enough 
friction in a high hot wind 
to strike fire, the case being 
analogous to the method in 
which various savages ob- 
tain fire by a "fire stick." 
Again, minute drops of 
resin, spherical in form, 
might act as lenses to bring 
the sun's rays to a focus, 
thus setting fire to the in- 
flammable materials around 
them. 

A third suggestion is that 
since the ground of a pine 
forest, covered with needles 
and other decomposing matter, often acquires a very high 
degree of heat in the summer months, even a tempera- 
ture several degrees above 100° F., there may result 
catalytic effects in the presence of impalpable resinous 
substances. 

Lastly Mr. Raymond considers the effect of a possible 
engendering of frictional elec- 
tricity in scraps of bark, 
pine needles, etc., driven 
hither and thither by the 
wind. It is indeed, a well 
known fact, that in the right 
weather conditions many per- 
sons can light a gas jet merely 
by pointing a finger at it, 
after shuffling rapidly over 
the carpet so as to develop a 
large amount of electricity 
through friction. Similarly 
the mere shaking of a 
blanket in the Sahara often 
causes it to emit a shower of 
sparks. Apropos of this the 
African explorer, Foureau, 
often mentioned the fact that 
during the blowing of the 
simoom in the desert his 
pocket compass was rendered 
utterly unreliable by reason 
of the electricity developed 
in its glass cover by the 
friction of the sand against it, 
driven before the burning 
wind. So it appears eminent- 
ly reasonable to conclude that 
some, at least, of our forest 
fires maybe attributed to such 
causes as these, and that lo- 
comotives and campers and 
lumbermen may be acquitted 
of universal responsibility. 



48 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Founded 1845 

Publithed by Scientific American Publishing Co. 

New York, Saturday, January 18, 1919 

Munn & Co., 233 Broadway, New York 



Charles Allen Munn, President; Orson 1). Munn, Treasurer 
Allan C. Hoffman, Secretary ; all at 233 Broadway 

Entered at tlie Post Oftli-e of New York. N. Y., as Second Class Matter 

Trade Murk Registered In tlic liilted States I'atont OHlce 

('opyrittht IHlii by S<-lentiac American Put)lishine ("o. 

(ireat Hritain rijihus re.-ier\eil 

Illustrated articles must not l>e reproduced wltliout permission 

The object of this jownal is to record accurately and 
lucidly the latest scientific, mechanical and indiistrial 
news of the day. As a weekly journal, it is in a posi- 
tion to announce interesting developments before they 
are published elsewhere. 

The Editor is glad to have submitted to him timely 
articles suitable for these columns, especially when such 
articles are accompanied by photographs. 

To the Secretary of the Navy 

IN the SciEXTiFic American of December 28th, 1918, 
\vc made known the very gratifying fact that, with 
the elimination of the German Navy, the United 
States Navy moved up to second place. We showed also 
that because our allies lost many of their capital ships 
and stopped work, during the war, upon those they were 
building, our navy is .so strong a second that it is equal 
in dreadnought strength to the next three navies, those 
of Japan, France and Italy, combined. 

Our investigation showed that the United States 
possesses 19 dreadnoughts, Japan 9, France 7 and Italy 5. 
We found also that, because of the superior gun power, 
armor protection, and displacement of our vessels, our 
19 ships were fully a match for the 21 .ships of the three 
powers enumerated. 

Our total of 19 completed United States dreadnoughts 
was based on a recent statement of the Chief Con- 
structor to a Congressional Committee that we possessed 
that number. As a matter of fact, the Idaho is com- 
pleted but has not yet had her trials; and the "Cali- 
fornia" and "Tennessee" are nearing completion and 
will be finished by the summer. It is fairly certain that 
all three ships will be ready for service by the time the 
Peace Plenipotentiaries have affixed their signatures at 
Versailles. 

We are addressing this open letter to you, sir, because 
we feel that you owe it to Congress and the American 
people to explain why you presented to the House Naval 
Affairs Committee, and allowed to be published in the 
New York Times, the misleading statement of the naval 
strength of the Allies which appeared in the issue of that 
journal of December 31st, 1918. In the table pre- 
sented, which we analyze on another page, you group 
the completed capital ships under three heads, viz.. 
Battleships, Older Battleships, and Obsolete Battle- 
ships; and, because under the first heading, "Battle- 
ships," you assign 16 to the United States (this being 
the number of our completed dreadnoughts at the sign- 
ing of the armistice) it is evident that you intend the 
American people to understand that the numbers as- 
signed under that same heading to the respective navies 
of Great Britain, France and Italy, represent the number 
of completed .dreadnoughts possessed by those nations. 

As the result of your treatment of the statistics, the 
country is led to believe that Great Britain has 61 
dreadnought battleships completed, France 20, and 
Italy 14; whereas the truth is that Great Britain has 
only 33, France 7, and Italy 5. So that in your effort to 
convince the taxpayers of the country and their repre- 
sentatives in Congress that our navy is inadequate, you 
give the correct figure for the dreadnought strength of 
the United States Navy, and exaggerated figures for the 
dreadnought strength of our allies. Your statement 
would make them believe the British dreadnought 
strength to be about double what it is, and the strength 
of France and Italy about treble. 

Now, sir, we have a profound respect for the exalted 
and difficult position which you occupy in these perilous 
times; and we naturally and loyally jumped to the con- 
clusion that these glaring errors were merely a slip of 
the pen. So we sought for an explanation of 61 being 
given as the total of the British dreadnoughts and found 



that it included the 21 predreadnoughts, or "older" 
battleships as you call them in your table, and even the 
7 ob.solete battleships of that navy. Now if we add 21 
and 7 to 33 (the actual number of dreadnoughts) we 
arrive at your total of 61. Similarly, we find that Italy 
has 9 predreadnoughts, which number added to her 5 
dreadnoughts gives us your total of 14. 

We go thus into detail so that you may understand 
our perplexity; for it is evident that you had the full 
data before you in all its detail, not merely of our own 
navy, but of those of our allies; and what we are asking 
our.selves, and what the House Naval Affairs Committee 
and the country at large will not understand is why the 
Secretary of the Navy should give the true totals in 
regard to our own navy and incorrect totals as to the 
navies of our allies. 

What the American people, naturally, want to know 
is: if a battleship is obsolete or old in our navy, why is its 
counterpart not obsolete or old in the navies of our 
allies? If Italy has 14 battleships, France 20 and Great 
Britain 61, by the same reckoning the United States has 
39. Why, Mr. Secretary, do you thus confuse the issue 
by conveying the impression that 16 and not 39 re- 
presents the relative standing of the United States? 

With the exception, possibly, of a few of the officers 
with whom you have surrounded yourself at Washington, 
we find that there is a practically unanimous conviction 
that the strength of the British Navy is warranted by 
her island position and the scattered condition of the 
British Empire, and that it is sufficient that we should be 
a powerful second. Particularly strong is this con- 
viction among the officers of the battle squadron which 



Theodore Roosevelt 

rHE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN wishes to lay 
a wreath of mourning at the feet of the great 
man who has just passed away. While he lived, his 
passionate and fearless nature made him a host of 
friends and some enemies ; hut in this time of sorrow 
all ali\e, whether they are friends or foes. Republicans 
or Democrats, join in the desire to pay tribute to the 
man who Was regarded as the first American Citizen, 
and whose loyalty and patriotism were likje an ever- 
glowing fire. His fearlessness and hatred of wrong- 
doing, combined with his fundamental loveliness of 
nature, endeared him to the generation in which he 
lived, and will' be an inspiration to those which are 
to come. 



you recently reviewed on its return from cooperation 
with the British fleet in the North Sea. 

If there is any body of expert opinion that is qualified 
to judge whether the British fleet is a menace to the peace 
of the world, it is to be found, surely, among these 
American officers, who have spent a whole year with that 
fleet in the most intimate intercour.se and cooperation. 
They frankly express their conviction that the British 
Navy is regarded both by officers and civilians of Great 
Britain as a purely protective force, built up and main- 
tained for the sole purpose of keeping open the trade 
routes between Great Britain and her widely-scat- 
tered colonies. 

Furthermore, the suggestion that the German fleet 
be sunk was prompted by the belief that an era of re- 
trenchment for all navies, including our own and Great 
Britain's, was at hand. The elimination of the German 
fleet was regarded as the first logical step in this direction. 

That this suggestion should have originated, as 
Admiral Rodman has announced, with himself and 
Admiral Beatty at the German surrender, proves that 
the thought and desire for retrenchment were already 
in the air. 

Now that the public has been made aware of this fact, 
you will perhaps undersiand, Mr. Secretary, that your 
persistent advocacy, oven before the peace conference 
has opened, of huge increases in the United States Navy 
has filled all thoughtful people, not merely among our 
allies, but here in America, with amazement and deep- 
seated concern. 

This note of deep concern is sounded in an editorial 
on your attitude, in the Washington Post of January 3d, 
which says: No patriotic citizen wishes to hear any 
language at this time, or at any time, which is in its 
essence a manifestation of distrust of and latent enmity 



to one or more of the nations that have fought side 
by side with the United States against Germany. Yet 
Mr. Daniels is .so lacking in discretion that he directs 
his utterances along these lines, at a time when President 
Wilson is straining every nerve to show the Allies that 
the United States sympathizes with them, and is anxious 
to have them all adjust their interests to the common 
welfare and peace of the world. 

Reconstruction— With American Machinery 

PRIOR to the war, the big manufacturing problem 
in this country was to reduce the cost of the 
finished product by means of labor-saving devices; 
for in American goods the cost of labor is always the 
outstanding item. In Europe, on the other hand, where 
labor has constituted a relatively small percentage of 
total costs, the installation of expensive labor-saving 
American macnines has never met with much encour- 
agement. It was the old story of the farmer and his 
hogs. A silvery-tongued agent had spent a couple of 
hours trying to sell a wonderful new feeder, which 
enabled the porkers to get outside a square meal in 
about one-tenth the time required when it was necessary 
for them to fight one another back and forth along the 
trough. When he had shot the bolt of his eloquence, 
his prospective customer remarked, "Waal, I don't guess 
my hogs' time is worth much money." 

But the war has completely changed the conditions 
that surround the employer of European labor. As a 
special writer in the New York Evening Post recently 
pointed out, probably at no time in the history of our 
relations with Europe has American labor-saving ma- 
chinery been in such demand as in the present period 
of reconstruction. European labor conditions, so far 
as wages are concerned, now more nearly approximate 
tho.se of the United States than ever before. Already, 
this writer states, since the signing of the armistice 
numerous American makers of machinery who are 
properly protected in Europe have, within his knowledge, 
been approached by English and French manufacturers 
asking them either to ship machinery or to arrange for 
licenses under their existing European patents. 

Europe, before the war, did not know what we meant 
when we talked of quantity production. But today new 
American machines are to be seen all over Great Britain 
and, in less degree, France. More important even than 
this are the American ideas that have taken root — ideas 
about the layout of machines in factories, ideas about 
the efficient using of unskilled labor through skilled 
planning, ideas of scientific management of all kinds. 
The great loss of labor through the war alone would 
make it essential for the European manufacturer and 
the European agriculturist to increase tlieir per capita 
production. It is this necessity that is creating a demand 
for American inventions in Europe; for this country is 
the headquarters to which other nations must look for 
inventive development along labor-saving lines. 

The meaning of this to us must not be overlooked. 
In the fir.st place, it gives great promise of helping the 
solution of our own reconstruction problems. These 
have to do, not with finding enough labor to go around, 
but rather with the most advantageous employment of 
the labor which the war will release, and of the manu- 
facturing facilities, multiplied even beyond our normal 
huge capacity, which it has bequeathed us. Our con- 
temporary displays keen vision in its clear view of the 
possibilities here — possibilities whose importance is but 
suggested by the fact that already our manufacturers 
are crying aloud, through these columns and elsewhere, 
for peace-time products to keep their plants busy. 

The situation has its call to the inventor, too. It were 
utter folly to suppose that labor-saving machinery has 
attained the height of its possibilities. In every direction 
it can be improved; in many industries it has not even 
been introduced save on the smallest of scales. For the 
inventor who can seize this opportunity and for the 
manufacturer who will seize it in company with him, the 
business of developing machinery for us to make and 
sell to Europe offers extraordinary allurements. 

To Our Subscribers 

/^UR subscribers are requested to note the expiration 
^^ date that appears on the WTapper in which they 
receive their copies of Scientific American. If they 
will send in their renewal orders at least two weeks prior 
to the date of expiration, it will aid us greatly in ren- 
dering them efficient service. 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



4S 



Engineering 

The World's Record for Car Movement is claimed 
by Columbia, Pa. , where, according to a recent report of 
the Director General of Railroads, 9,531 cars passed in a 
single day. In one month 250,000 freight cars passed 
Columbia, or an average of six cars per minute. 

Gas Producer Built of Concrete Staves. — Owing 
to the high price and scarcity of steel during the war, a 
gas company in Syracuse found it necessary to build 
the shells of a 200 horse-power gas producer and scrubber 
out of concrete staves. The shells are eight feet in 
diameter and the staves measure 24 by 10 by 2}^ inches. 
They are connected by tongue and groove joints. Be- 
tween the concrete and the fire brick lining there is a 
three-inch space filled with a heat resisting material. 

The Largest Tanker. — What is said to be the largest 
oil tanker in the world was launched at Wallsend-on-Tyne 
last month. The vessel has a length of 506 feet and a 
width of 68 feet 7 inches with a molded depth of 42K feet. 
This vessel, the "San Florentino," was built on the 
Isherwood system of longitudinal framing and was 
measured to pass both the Panama and Suez Canals. 
The ship's hull is divided into 13 compartments, and has 
4 ■ 2 miles of oil pipes. It is equipped with steam heating 
apparatus, a refrigerating plant, a hospital and a com- 
plete installation of auxiliary machinery. Compound 
geared turbines are used which may be run independently 
or be coupled to gearing to drive the propeller. 

Caterpillar Road Grader in the Desert. — We have 
referred before, in this column, to the 17-mile tangent of 
Lincoln Highway which cuts across the Salt Lake Desert, 
shortening the highway by some fifty miles. This road 
is being built with desert soil as a base on which is laid 
a base course of gravel 5 inches thick with a surface course 
3 inches thick. The desert surface is broken up by means 
of gang plows and shaped by means of road graders, 
hauled by caterpillar tractors. Owing to the nature of 
the soil some difficulty was experienced in moist weather 
due to the weight of the tractors which sank into the mud 
despite their broad bearing surfaces. The difficulty was 
solved by bolting timbers to the caterpillar belts so as to 
broaden the tread of the machines. As the road bed is 
completed the gravel is hauled and dumped over it by 
means of motor trucks mounted on broad steel-tired 
wheels which serve to pack the road material. 

Helping the Salvor in the Shipyard. — When the 
race between the submarine and the shipyard was at its 
height it did not seem to occur to anyone that special 
provision should be made in the construction of a ship 
to render it easier for salvors to raise the ship in case it 
should be sunk. The submarine menace is now past, 
but even in time of pfeace, there is a considerable loss 
of vessels due to the elements, and to collision. One of 
the greatest difficulties that wrecking companies have to 
contend with is that of getting hold of a vessel which is 
completely submerged. Owing to the construction of a 
ship it is necessary to pass chains under it at various 
points as there is no provision for attaching chains 
directly to the framing of the ship. Why are not our 
ships designed with shacldes affixed to the frame mem- 
bers at sui.table points so as to simplify and expedite 
the work of the diver in making chains or cables fast to a 
wreck ? 

Repairing a Wooden Ship with Concrete. — A 
letter from Buenos Aires addressed to Engineering 
(London), describes some interesting work done in the 
repair of a wooden ship. The vessel, which is of 200 tons 
displacement, was purchased for the transport of stone 
and sand. On dumping stones into the vessel it was 
found that the bottom was weakened by the impact and 
leaked badly. Investigation showed that the wooden 
ribs had entirely rotted away for some three feet on 
either side of the keel. The bottom, however, was in 
good condition. Owing to the condition of the boat it 
was judged that it could not be docked by means of a 
slipway, which was the only means of docking available 
at the time. In this emergency new ribs of reinforced 
concrete were fitted into the spaces between the wooden 
ribs and at the same time the false keel was strengthened 
by running continuous concrete girders on either side of 
it. The work was done in a few days with the ship afloat 
in light condition. The repair gives every evidence of 
being a success. The concrete adds very little more 
weight than the ballast of old chains which had hereto- 
fore been used in the vessel. 



Astronomy 

Bright Night Skies in England. — The report of 
the Photographic Section of the British Astronomical 
Association for the year ending September 30th, 1918, 
comments on the unusual amount of light in the sky 
during the nights of that period. It has, says the report, 
been possible to read the face of a watch at all sorts of 
hours. The contrast of astronomical negatives has been 
much reduced. This illumination was not due to search- 
lights, nor did it seem to be auroral; moreover lighting in 
towns has been much reduced, under war regulations, 
so the cause remains a mystery. 

New Ideas in Astronomical Observing. — A com- 
mittee of the British Astronomical Association is known 
as the "Methods of Observation" Section. This body 
is trying to make as large a collection as possible of 
special devices and methods that members have found 
useful in their work, whether in actual observations or 
in the setting up and adjustment of instruments. The 
director, Mr. Maurice A. Ainslie, 8, Woodville Road, 
Blackheath, London, S.E., would doubtless welcome sug- 
gestions from non-members, also, as to useful "dodges." 
He proposes to publish shortly a list of points on which 
information is especially desired. 

The Total Solar Eclipse of May 29th, 1919, will 
be comparable with the eclipse of last summer in the 
long stretch of continental territory covered by the path 
of totality, though not in accessibility of places along the 
path. The track extends across South America at its 
widest part, and also across equatorial Africa. The 
duration of totality will be exceptionally long (six seconds 
or more). The Carnegie Department of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, Washington, is planning to send two ex- 
peditions to favorable points. The director. Dr. L. A. 
Bauer, wishes to hear from other institutions planning 
expeditions, in order that arrangements may be made for 
systematic observations in terrestrial magnestism, at- 
mospheric electricity, and kindred features of the eclipse. 

Variations of Mira Ceti. — Several recent series of 
observations of the varying brightness of Mira Ceti, 
accompanied by light-curves, are published in L' Astron- 
omic for last October. M. Felix de Roy, the Belgian 
astronomer, places its last maximum at October 2d, 
1917, with a brightness of 3.4 mag. on the Harvard 
scale. The previous maximum was November 5th, 
1916. The last minimum could not be observed, on 
account of the proximity of the star to the sun. The 
increase from minimum to maximum was regular and 
very rapid; the subsequent decrease was more gradual 
and irregular. The dates assigned by other observers 
to the recent maximum range from October 5th to 
October 15th. The date previou.sly calculated was 
October 21st. 

A Short Period Variable Star in Andromeda.— 
Miss F. Mabel Ashall, a graduate student of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, has recently discovered a variable 
star in Andromeda, R.A. 22 h. 49 m., Decl. N. 37 deg. 
23 m., having the remarkably short period of 3 h. 50 m. 
55.1 s. The range of variation is small, being only 
from about 9.18 to 9.88 mag. This variable was dis- 
covered in the examination of a number of plates from 
Harvard College Observatory, and a further examina- 
tion of plates, extending over a period of 26 years, made 
by Miss H. S. Leavitt, has revealed the fact that during 
1913 the period of variability changed suddenly, be- 
coming longer by 0.17 sec. The light curve shows a 
gradual decline in brightness and a similar gradual in- 
crease, with no evidence of a secondary minimum. 

The Twenty-second Meeting of the American 
Astronomical Society was held at Harvard College 
Observatory August 20th-23d, with an attendance of 
about fifty. The programme of papere was unusually 
large, and a considerable number of these dealt with the 
solar eclipse of last June and the new star in Aquila. 
An active discussion took place over the question now 
prominent in the astronomical world of the time of 
beginning of the astronomical and civil days. A resolu- 
tion was adopted in favor of beginning both at midnight 
and numbering the hours from to 24. A similar 
resolution has been adopted by the Royal Astronomical 
Society, and the project is favored by the British and 
French naval authorities, so the prospects are that this 
long-mooted reform in timekeeping will soon be put into 
effect. Prof. E. C. Pickering was elected president of 
the society for the coming year. 



Automobile 

Post -War Models in England. — There is consider- 
able speculation in England as to what kind of cars 
will be offered by the manufacturers now the war is 
ended, for it is a generally accepted fact that the de- 
signers of that country have been making careful note of 
the operation of all kinds of cars used by the armies with 
a view to future radical changes and improvement. 
However, the sudden ending of the war, and the fact that 
all of the car builders were full up with government 
work until the last minute, and not yet free, will make it 
impossible to get out any new models for this season, 
and the real "post-war" car is not expected to make its 
appearance until next fall. Practically the same manu- 
facturing conditions prevail in this country, but no such 
radical changes in models have been predicted here as are 
rumored for the British makers. 

Rubber Water Connections. — When cleaning out 
the radiator it is well to occasionally inspect the condi- 
tion of the rubber hose connections in the water circula- 
tion system, for obstructions not infrequently develoi> 
at these places. If a glycerine anti-freezing mixture 
has been used, or any kind of radiator dope, the interior 
of these rubber connections is very likely to be injured, 
as many of these substances so affect rubber that the 
interior surface of the connection is softened and loosened : 
and the vibration of the car is liable to cause pieces of 
rubber to break away. When this occurs the loo.se 
pieces lodge at the narrow points in the passages and 
seriously diminish the flow of the cooling water. When- 
ever one of these rubber connections feels soft and 
flabby, or appears to have breaks in the body of the tubing, 
the connection should be removed and carefully examined 
and at the same time the passage should be tested to see 
that the flow of water is not obstructed. 

Care of Radiators. — Out of sight, out of mind, is a 

saying as old as the hills, and as true today as it ever was; 
and it is particularly applicable to the car radiator. No 
one ever sees the inside of the radiator, and conse- 
quently, as long as the outside looks well and there are no 
serious leaks, it is taken for granted that the device is 
all right and performing its function properly. Some 
kinds of vv'ater form a deposit in the radiator and water 
passages, and this is all the greater if the water used is 
dirty, with the result that the circulation is retarded and 
the engine runs hotter than it should. As the radiating 
surface is designed in suitable proportion to the size of 
the engine, in order to maintain proper operation the 
radiating surface must be kept in efficient condition, and 
this means the inside as well as the outside. .-V satis- 
factory way to clean out the deposits within the radiator 
is to make up a solution of one pound of washin;;; soda 
in two gallons of hot water. This is poured into the 
radiator, which is then filled up with plain water and 
the engine is then run slowly for half an hour, when th(> 
soda solution is entirely drained off, and the radiator 
refilled with clean water. This cleaning out should be 
done several times a year, and more particularly where 
the thermo-siphon system is used. 

Anti -Freezing Mixtures. — During the winter sca.s<;n 
great care must be observed to keep the cooling system 
of an automobile from freezing, and to assist in this 
many anti-freezing mixtures have been offered to owners 
of cars. The U. S. Bureau of Standards has made an 
exhaustive investigation of the subject, and its con- 
clusion is that the most satisfactory material to use, which 
will not injure either the radiator, engine or the rubber 
connections, is alcohol mixed with the cooling water in 
sufficient quantity. For a temperature of 27° F. a 10 
per cent solution of alcohol is required; for 10° F., 30 
per cent; for — 2° F., 40 per cent and for — 18° F., a 50 
per cent solution. The best way to make up the proper 
strength mixture is to use an hydrometer, and the 
specific gravities shown by the instrument for the above 
temperatures are respectively 0.988, 0.968, 0.957 and. 
0.943. Of course the alcohol bods off quite rapidly, 
and the cooling medium must be tested and more alcohol 
added every few days, but it appears to be the only safe 
system. Glycerine is sometimes added to reduce the 
loss of alcohol, but in effective quantities it attacks the 
rubber connections seriously; and calcium chloride 
solutions, so often recommended, are decidedly corrosive, 
especially on the soldered joints of the radiator and on 
aluminum or alloys that are often used in manifolds, 
pumps, etc. 



50 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 




General view of the multiplex apparatus now used between Baltimore and Pittsburgh luai view of one of the multiplex racks with covers removed to show paxts of the appadratu^ 

Two views of the multiplex apparatus now employed for increasing the carrying capacity of telephone lines 

Getting More Messages Over Our Wires 

How the Traffic Capacity of Telegraph and Telephone Circuits Has Been Increased Three-fold 



THE new system of multiplex telephony and telegraphy 
recentlj- announ<^ed in the daily press is the result 
of several years of intense effort. By its application it 
is now possible to increase many-fold the message- 
carrying capacity of long-distance telegraph and tele- 
phone lines; indeed, the new system marks an epoch in 
the development of trans-continental communication. 

The new multiplex system, which has been in actual 
use between Baltimore and Pittsburgh for more than two 
months with entirely satisfactory results, is the recent 
practical application, of the work of the technical staff 
of the Bell organization. It permits four telephone con- 
versations to be carried on simultaneously over one pair of 
wires,, in addition'to the telephone conversation provided 
by the ordinary methods. That means that over a single 
circuit a total of five telephone conversations are simul- 
taneously transmitted, and in each the service is as good 
as if the circuit were carrying, in the ordinary way, a 
single conversation. 

A number of years ago the Bell engineers developed 
the "phantom" circuit arrangement by which telephone 
circuits are obtained from two pairs of wires. This is an 
improvement and has been exten.sively used, but here- 
tofore it has been impossible to carry over a single pair 
of wires more than one telephone conversation. 

Now it is possible by the multipex method to utilize 
a single pair of wires for five conversations, while two 
pairs of wires, which heretofore had a maximum of three 
conversations with the aid of the "phantom," may now 
be multiplexed to carry ten simultaneous conversations. 
This amounts to an increase of more than three-fold in 
the telephonic carrying capacity of the wires, as compared 
w'ith the best methods previously known to the art, and 
an increase of five-fold in the capacity under conditions 
where the "phantom' circuit is not employed. 

The new multiplex system makes use of alternating 
currents whose frequencies occupy a range between the 
frequencies of the ordinary telephone currents, which are 
those of the human voi(;e, and the lowest frequencies 
which are used in wireless communication. This 
frequency range has not heretofore been commercially 
usea. It is interesting to note that under favorable 
conditions the whole range is audible to many, and the 
lower part of the range is audible to anyone with normal 
hearing. It is found that frequencies within this range 
are high enough to be used as "carriers" of ordinary 
telephone currents, and yet with proper arrangements 
can be transmitted over long telephone lines without the 
large transmission losses and large interference between 
circuits which would be brought in by higher frequencies. 
Each additional circuit in the new system makes use 
of some frequency within this range. At the sending 
end of each circuit thf ordinary telephone currents are 
made to modulate this "carrier" frequency, so that the 
amount of the "carrier" frequency sent out on the line 
varies with the amplitude of the ordinary telephone 
currents. At the receiving end the "carrier" current 
is put into a demodulating circuit which then gives out 
the original telephone current. 



The different circuits are kept separate at each end 
by inserting in each circuit a combination of impedances 
which make up an electrical "filter." This transmits 
the range of frequencies peculiar to that circuit and stops 
all other frequencies. An important difference should 
be noted here between this system and wireless systems, 
in that in wireless working it has been generally sufficient 
to send and receive in "tuned" circuits. In the multi- 
plex system, however, tuned circuits would not be 
sufficient since each telephone channel occupies a range 
of frequencies of about 2, .500 cycles and any circuit tuned 
to these comparatively low frequencies would be too 
selective to receive such a range properly. 

Vacuum tubes are used in the modulating and de- 
modulating circuits, and are also used as amplifiers in 
the transmitting and receiving branches and at inter- 
mediate points along the line where necessary, in order 
to prevent the currents from becoming too highly at- 
tenuated. 

The underlying principle may be illustrated by con- 
sidering a composite photograph of five individuals. 
Given such a composite photograph of the ordinary kind, 
it would obviously be impossible to derive from it the 
picture of each of the five individuals going to make it up. 
If, however, the composite photograph had been made 
up in five different colors, the picture of each individual 
being in different color, say, one red, one blue, one green, 
one yellow, and one violet, it would then be po.ssible, by 
looking at the picture through colored glasses, to see any 
one picture, separate from the others. If red gla.sses 
were used, the picture printed in red only would be seen, 
if blue glasses the picture in blue, and so on; although 
when looking at it in the ordinary way all of the pictures 
would be .seen together and only the combination would 
appear. As the tint of each picture serves as a means of 
differentiating it from the others, so does the frequency 
of the "carrier" currents serve to differentiate each of 
the conversations in the new telephone multiplex. 

Sensational results have also been attained in teleg- 
raphj' by the new multiplex system. A single pair of 
wires combined into a metallic circuit of the type used 
for telephone working, by the application of the Bel! 
System's new apparatus and methods, will have an 
enormously increased capacity for telegraph messages. 

As applied to high speed printer systems, the engineers 
find they can do eight times as much as is now done, and 
as applied to the ordinary duplex telegraph circuit in 
general use, they can do ten times as much. These 
increased results are attained without in any way im- 
pairing the telegraph traffic. 

Moreover, the nature of the developments permits 
the same wires to be used partly for telephone and partly 
for telegraph purposes. This means that a pair of wires 
is available either for five simultaneous telephone con- 
versations or for 40 simultaneous telegraph messages, or 
partly for one and partly for the other. 

There have been numberless attempts by inventors, 
scientists, and engineers, from the earliest days of both 
the telegraph and the telephone, to develop methods for 



the multiplex transmission of messages. Dr. Alexander 
Graham BeU was working on the problem of multiplex 
telegraphy when he had his first conception of the 
structure of the original telephone. It is significant that 
the Bell organization which has been and is working con- 
tinuously to perfect the telephone and extend its useful- 
ness, has accomplished not only multiplex telephony 
but multiplex telegraphy. Dr. Bell's unsolved problem 
of 40 years ago. 

Notwithstanding the fact that there were no con- 
clusively practical results from the early efforts in this 
direction, it is nevertheless true that some of the under- 
takings of the earlier workers in this field have been of 
suggestive value at least in the working out of the prob- 
lem. As an instance, there is a suggestion made by 
Major General George O. Squier, Chief Signal Officer 
of the U. S. Army, about ten years ago, which attracted 
very general attention. Likewise, Dr. Lee DeForest 
working in entirely different fields and with a different 
objective, a number of years ago, invented a wireless 
device known as the audion, which bj' the improvements 
and adaptation of the telephone engineers has been 
made an important part of the new system. 

While the new multiplex system is physically adaptable 
to short lines, practically, from the nature of the ap- 
paratus and methods employed, it is not advantageous 
on lines of much le.ss than one hundred miles. On longer 
lines its application will be extended immediately, but 
its introduction must necessarily be gratlual on account 
of the nature of the apparatus required and the rearrange- 
ment and adaptation of the lines themselves and their 
associated apparatus to the new methods of working. 

The new multiplex system as it is now applied to the 
telephone is a means of increasing or multiplying trans- 
mitting capacity of long lines, requiring no change in 
the subscribers' telephone or in the terminal switch- 
board operation. It is quite as applicable to trans- 
continental lines as to any other long-distance service. 

The "Eagle" Boats 

THE Ford "Eagle" boats, of which we are hearing so 
much just now, were designed for anti-submarine 
service — work for which we have always considered 
them to be too small. Line officers would have preferred 
a larger craft, and we believe that if our naval con- 
structors had had their way and been left entirely free 
in the matter, they also would have designed a larger 
boat with better sea-keeping qualities. How far Mr. 
Ford had to do with the design we do not know, but we 
do know that speed of construction was a controlling 
consideration. Hence the framing and the general lines 
of the ships were drawn so as to reduce bending and 
general working to a minimum. They have straight 
wedge bows and no flare. Consequently, they would be 
in trouble driving into a head sea or running before a 
following sea, in which latter case they would be very 
difficult to steer. Either the construction of any more of 
these boats should be abandoned, or the design should 
be modified to give them better sea-keeping qualities. 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



51 



What Machinery Is Doing for the Walnut Industry 

How Production Is Enlarged, Prices Stabilized, and Wastes Eliminated 

By Howard C. Kegley 



A FEW years ago when the EngHsh wahiut grow- 
ers of California formed a cooperative associ- 
ation and began marketing their own product they 
found a big obstacle in their way. That obstacle was 
the cull — the under-developed, discolored or scrawny 
nut. It stood in the way of standardization of two 
excellent grades. The people had been accustomed 
t^ walnuts at 10 cents per pound, and they couldn't 
see that any nut was worth more than that. Nut 
peddlers had been in the habit of buying up quantities 
of culls, topping them with a few high grade nuts and 
spoiling the market with them. 

At the outset the growers' association decided that 
it would have to eliminate the cull in order to prove 
to the public that there was something better — some- 
thing worth at least 20 cents per pound. So the first 
year of scientific marketing the cull was taken off 
the market. It had previously been sold at about 
five cents per pound. At the outset the association 
undertook to crack it and sell the meat for use in candy 
stores and bakeries. The going was a little slow and 
the culls didn't pan out profitably the first year, but 
the first and second quality nuts brought good prices, 
so the growers counted that they were ahead of the 
game. 

A careful study of conditions and requirements 
showed that the association needed to get at the cull 
business on a bigger scale, so the contracts were made 
to read that all growers had to deliver their entire 
output of culls to the association storehouses, vir- 
tually taking the cull out of the market. Then 
members of the association invented three machines 
which did away witli hand-cracking, provided a 
method of separating the good nuts from the bad ones 
and finally made it possible to extract the last morsel 
of meat from the shells of the cracked culls. 

Today the walnut growers' association has revolu- 
tionized its business to the point where it gets from 
20 to 25 cents per pound for number ones and number 
twos, and sells its nut meats for from 25 to 45 cents 
per pound. And the singular thing about it is that 
it cannot get enough of the meats to supply the de- 
mand. This is due to the fact that the meat of the 
English walnut grown in the United States is plumpsr, 
larger and whiter than that of the nuts grown in 
southern Europe. In two years the southern Cali- 
fornia walnut meats completely crowded the imported 
walnut meats out of the market in this country. 

The invention of the three machines used in trans- 
forming the cull into an article which is in big demand 
made it possible to use every bit of the cuU for com- 
mercial purposes. In the packing houses of Chicago 
it is said that they extract from the pig everything 
but the squeal. In the walnut packing house they 
equal this performance. Even the shells are sold; 
they are used in place of cornmeal, as a carrying 
vehicle for dynamite, and the association sells all of 
its cull shells at $10 per ton. In the matter of winning 




Vacuum machine that culls out the undersized nuts 




This machine cracks but does not crush the nuts 



the war, it can be seen, the English walnut has done 
its bit along with other products of the soU which are 
considered more vital in times of war. 

Probably the most important of the mechanical 
devices used in the walnut cull factory is the cracking 
machine — a device invented by one of the association 
members, and sold to the organization. It has a 
capacity of five tons of nuts per day, and four of the 
machines keep 200 women and girls at work separating 
the meats from the shells and grading the meats. 

This machine has a nut hopper at the top. The 
nuts drop from holes in the bottom of the hopper, into 
cylinders, going in one at a time. The cylinders feed 
them one at a time in between long iron fingers. The 
finger device is operated by cam wheels. At one stage 
of the cracking operation the fingers are just far 
enough apart to admit a walnut with its end perpen- 
dicularly. When the walnut has dropped between 
the fingers untU it fits snugly, the cam wheels turn 
around to the point where their leverage shoves the 
right hand set of fingers over against the left hand 
set with a quick motion, and that motion exerts 
just enough energy to snap the shells of the nuts 
without exercising any slow pressure which would 
tend to pinch or crush the meats. Then as the cams 
turn over again the fingers are allowed to spread apart, 
and the nuts drop into sacks which are hung over 
the mouth of the chute below the machine. 

The adjustment of the machine is so nearly perfect 
that it cracks at least 85 per cent of the nuts without 
injuring the meats in any way. The 15 per cent of 
damaged meats come from extra large or unshapely 
nuts which do not conform to the size of the space 
between the cracking fingers and consequently get too 
much squeeze when the machine is in motion. 

One of the biggest problems that confronted the 
association when it undertook to separate the culls 
from the high grade nuts was that of weeding out the 
lightweights — the nuts with only one mature half, 
or those which had shriveled meats, or moldy meats, 
or were otherwise unfit to go into the two best grades. 

It was necessary to eliminate these inferior nuts in 
order to establish firmly the quality of the better 
grades in the open market. 

This difficulty was overcome by the use of a vacuum 
machine invented for that particular purpose. The 
device works on the principle of the vacuum cleaner, 
and it lifts from among the high grade nuts all nuts 
which are light in weight and therefore of questionable 
quality. When it has finished its work the associa- 
tion is reasonably sure that every nut it has left in 
the two best grades is a sound nut with plump meat. 

The nuts are conveyed to the vacuum machine in 
a narrow elevator at one side of the machine. The 
elevator belt is pocketed to keep the nuts from pihng 
up and overflowing the elevator track. When they 
are dumped into a trough at the end of the elevator 
{Continued on page 62) 




The girls separate meat from shells, as the cracked nuts pass out of the big 
hoppers upon and along the table chutes beneath 



Feeding the shells into the machine which finds the small pieces of meat that 
the girls have overlooked —fifty dollars' worth a day 



52 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 



UNITED 

STATES 

/9 



/X LL Ji^ J^ ,1^ JJ^ Ji^ Ji^ 




iTAiy -^i^~ ^u^ ^u^ ^L^ -jtw 



J" 



This sketch shows what will be (he comparative strength in dreadnoughts of the United States, Japan, France and Italy at the signing of the Versailles Peace Treaty, 

when our dreadnought fleet will be equal in power to those of the next three nations 

Battleship Strength of the Five Leading Naval Powers 

Analysis of the Standing of the Allied Navies in Dreadnoughts, Predreadnoughts and Battle-Cruisers 



THE end of the world war finds the Allied powers war- 
weary and eager for relief from the burden of main- 
taining huge armaments both on sea and land. Ameri- 
cans returning from the other side, whether they be 
officers of the army or navy, or civilians, tell us that all 
of our allies, now that the German threat is gone, are 
prepared to make a pro rata reduction of their armaments, 
based upon their several national necessities, and it 
is confidently beUeved that the determination of the 
relative future strength, both on sea and 
land, will be mutually and amicably ad- 
justed at the forthcoming peace conference. 

In 1914, the leading naval powers were 
in the full swing of that burdensome com- 
petition which the aggressive activity of 
Germany had imposed. Every leading 
navy had an important program of naval 
construction on hand and in 1916 the 
United States also, foreseeing the possi- 
bility of its eventual entrance into the war, 
sanctioned in a single program an ad- 
dition to our fleet greater than had ever 
been voted by any naval power in all the 
history of naval shipbuilding. To Great 
Britain was assigned the task of holding 
within its harbors or defeating in the open 
the powerful German fleet, and with a 
view to providing for future losses and 
making sure of having at all times a 
sufficient preponderance of power in the 
North Sea, the British shipbuilding yards, 
both governmental and private, were in- 
structed to rush the uncompleted ships 
of the 1913 and 1914 programs to completion. 

The other members of the Entente, France, Italy, and 
Japan, realizing that they were sufficiently strong in 
battleships and battle-cruisers to take care of the fleets 
of Austria and Turkey, practically ceased all work on 
their capital ships and concentrated upon unarmored 
ships of the scout, destroyer and submarine type. All 
of the Allied navies, particularly that of Great Britain, 
suffered heavy losses during the war. Great Britain has 
lost two dreadnought battle- 
ships, eleven predreadnought 
battleships, three battle- 
cruisers, eleven armored 
cruisers, two second-class 
cruisers, eight light cruisers, 
and over forty destroyers.; 
France has lost a semi-dread- 
nought battleship, three pre- 
dreadnought battleships, three 
armored cruisers, a protected 
cruiser, and eight or ten de- 
stroyers. Italy has lost one of 
her finest dreadnought battle- 
ships, three predreadnought 
battleships, and half a dozen 
destroyers. Japan is short an 
armored cruiser, two light cruis- 
ers, and a destroyer, and the 
United States has lost an ar- 
mored cruiser and several des- 
troyers. 

The lifting of the censorship 
makes it pos.sible to give in 
detail a statement of the 
present strength of the navies 
of the world and to include 
in this the new ships which 
have been built during the 
war. 



It should be noted that because of the limitations of 
space, our tables on the accompanying page include 
only capital ships, that is dreadnought battleships, pre- 
dreadnought battleships, and battle-cruisers. 

The British Navy 

At the date of the signing of the armistice, the battle- 
ship strength of the British navy consisted of 33 dread- 
nought battleships, 21 predreadnought battleships, 7 



STRENGTH OF NAVIES IN COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS AND BATTLE-CRUISERS AT 
SIGNING OF ARMISTICE 



Mr. Daniels'figures, as herewith 
given, are taken from a statement 
presented to the House Naval 
Affairs Committee on December 
30th, 191f, and published in the 
New York Times of the following 
day. 


Great 
Britain 


United 
States 


Japan 


France 


Italy 


tt 
E 

'5 

Q 

s 


s 

o 

1 


is 

'3 
Q 


0) 

u 
3 

u 

t 

o 
U 


» 


a 
«t 

fa 

u 
« 

5 


3 
M 

E 

'c 
Q 


CB 
V 

U 

3 
d 

fa 

u 

u 
u 
o 
U 


3 

E 

'3 
Q 

<5 


09 

V 

3 
fa 


Battleships (dreadnoughts) 


61 


33 


16 


16 




5 


20 


7 


14 


5 






21 


23 


19 




12 




11 




9 










7 




4 








3 


















Battle-cruisers (completed) ! 9 


9 








4 











*Figures for Japan were not given in Mr. Daniel?' table. 

Table showing the correct figures of the comparative battleship strength 
of the leading naval powers 

obsolete battleships, and 9 battle-cruisers. For reasons 
best known to himself, Mr. Daniels, Secretary of the 
Navy, in recent tables presented to the House Naval 
Committee, credits the British navy with no predread- 
noughts or obsolete battleships, but lumps all three 
types together as dreadnought battleships. 

The capital ships completed during the war and in- 
cluded in the Grand Fleet consist of three dreadnought 
battleships, the "Benbow," "Emperor of India," and 




TACOM'k 






SIHTTLC 
PORTLANO one 



>roL£oo 



"Marlborough," of the "Iron Duke" class, ships of 
25,000 tons, mounting ten 13.5-inch guns. Also, the 
"Agincourt," a ship which was laid down in 1911 at 
Ellswick for the Brazilian government. In January 
1914, she was sold to Turkey and on the outbreak of war, 
being still in the builders' hands, she was taken over by 
the British navy and named "Agincourt." She is 
notable for the fact that she carries fourteen 12-inch 
guns in seven 2-gun turrets. Her displacement is about 
28,000 tons. Another new ship is the 
"Erin," built by Vickers for Turkey, and 
taken over for the British navy at the 
outbreak of war. She is of 23,000 tons 
displacement and mounts ten 13.5-inch 
guns. Still a third ship taken over is the 
"Canada" of 28,000 tons, built at Ells- 
wick, for Chile and known as the "Al- 
mirante." Her armament consists of ten 
14-inch guns. 

Of the five ships of the "Queen Eliza- 
beth" class of 27,500 tons, mounting eight 
15-inch guns and steaming at 25 knots 
an hour, two, "Queen EUzabeth" and 
"Warspite" were about completed at the 
opening of the war and three others, the 
"Valiant," "Barham," and "Malaya," 
were put in commission in 1915. 

In 1913 and 1914, the five ships of the 
"Royal Sovereign" class were laid down 
and these ships were completed during the 
w-ar. They are about 2,000 tons less in 
displacement than the "Queen Elizabeth" 
class and their speed is 21.5 to 22 knots. 
They mount the same battery of eight 15-inch guns. 
Contrary to the general belief, Great Britain did not 
build many new battle-cruisers during hostilities. As a 
matter of fact, only two, the "Repulse" and "Renown," 
were completed and joined the the Grand Fleet. They 
are the longest and largest warships afloat, with an 
overall length of between 800 and 850 feet, a displace- 
ment of 33,000 tons and a sea speed of 33 knots. They 
mount six 15-inch guns, four forward and two aft and a 
battery of 15 torpedo defense 
guns mounted in five three- 
gun turrets. 

Ships under construction or 
authorized, include three 
dreadnought battleships, prob- 
ably of an improved and en- 
larged "Queen Elizabeth" 
type, and possibly four battle- 
cruisers of the "Renown" 
type. One of the battleships 
is about half completed and 
the keels of the other two have 
been laid, but comparatively 
httle work done upon them. 
The condition of the four 
battle-cruisers is uncertain, 
although our own Navy 
Department credits Great 
Britain with having com- 
menced work on all four. The 
British battleship fleet in- 
cludes also 21 predreadnoughts 
and seven obsolete vessels. 



NCwOKltMS 



Geographical conditions under which the United States would require the most powerful fleet in existence 



The United States Navy 

. Although on our entrance 
into the war the Navy Depart- 
ment concentrated all its 
efiforts upon the construction 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



53 



of anti-submarine craft, we made a great increase in the 
strength of our dreadnought fleet between 1914 and 1918 
by the addition of seven of the largest and most powerful 
ships in existence. In 1916, we completed the "Okla- 
homa" and the "Nevada," 27,500 tons, mounting as 
their main battery ten 14-inch guns. The following 
year we completed the "Pennsylvania" and "Arizona" 
of 31,500 tons, each mounting twelve 14-inch guns. 



These were followed in 1918 by the "New Mexico" and 
"Mississippi," of 32,000 tons and twelve 14-inch guns. 
The "Idaho" was also practically completed at the close 
otf the year and was ready to undergo her trials. 

In addition to these vessels, we are building two more 
of the "New Mexico" class, namely the "California" 
and "Tennessee," which will be of about the same 
displacement but will mount eight of our very fine 



SO-caliber 16-inch naval guns. These vessels will be 
ready by the summer. So that by the time the peace 
treaty is signed, we shall be in possession of seven 
dreadnought battleships, all of which will be of about 
32,000 tons displacement. A remarkable feature in 
these ships is the great thickness of armor which they 
carry, namely 14 inches on the belt and 18 inches on the 
turret, and their steaming radius is larger than 



|Great Britain 

COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS (DREADNOUGHTS) 



Battleship and Battle-Cruiser Strength of the Five Leading Navies 

United States 

COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS (dKEADNOUOHTS) 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Royal Sovereign 


1915 
1915 
1916 
1916 
1916 


25,800 
25,800 
25,800 
25,800 
25,800 


8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 


21.5 


Royal Oak 


21.5 




21.5 




21.5 




21.5 








1914 
1914 
1915 
1915 
1915 


27,500 
27.500 
27.500 
27,500 
27,.500 


8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 
8-1.5-inch 
8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 


25 




25 




25 




25 




25 








1915 


28,000 


10-14-inch 


23 






Erin 


1914 


23,000 


10-13. 5-inch 


21.5 








1914 


27,500 


14-12-inch 


22 








1914 
1914 
1914 
1914 


25,000 
25.000 
25.000 
25,000 


10-13.. 5-inch 
10-13.5-inch 
10-13. 5-inch 
10-13.5-inch 


21.5 




21.5 




21.5 




21.5 








1913 
1913 
1913 


23,000 
23,000 
23,000 


10-13.5-inch 
10-13.. i-inch 
10-13.5-inch 


21.5 




21.5 


Ajax 


21.5 








1912 
1912 
1912 
1912 


22,.50C 
22,500 
22,500 
22,500 


10-13.5-inch 
10-13.5-inch 
10-13.5-inch 
10-13.. 5-inch 


21.5 




21.5 




21.5 




21.5 








1911 
1911 


20.000 
20,000 


10-12-inch 
■ 10-12-inch 


21.5 




21.5 








1911 


20,000 


10-12-inch 


21 






St Vincent 


1910 
1910 


19,300 
19,300 


10-12-inch 
10-12-inch 


21 




21 








1909 
1909 
1909 


18,500 
18.500 
18,.500 


10-12-inch 
10-12-inch 
10-12-inch 


21 




21 




21 






Dreadnought 


1905 


18.000 


10-12-inch 


20.5 



BATTLESHIPS (BUILDING OR AUTHORIZED) 



Three of improved Eliza- 1917- 
beth class 1918 



Work 



Dis- 
place- 
ment 



Guns 



BATTLESHIPS (PREDREADNOUGHTS) 



.Speed 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 




1908 
1907 


16.500 
16,500 


4-12-iuch 
10-9.2-inch 


18.5 




18.5 






Commonwealth 


1905 
1905 
1905 
1905 
1906 
1906 


16,350 
16,350 
16,350 
16,350 
16,350 
16,350 


4-12-inch 
4-9 . 2-inch 


18.5 
18.5 




18.5 




18.5 




18.5 




18.5 








1904 


11,800 


4-10- inch 


19 








1904 
1904 


15,000 
15,000 


4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


18 




18 








1903 
1903 
1903 


14,000 
14,000 
14,000 


4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


19 




19 




19 








1902 
1899 


15,000 
15,000 


4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


18 




18 








1898 


15.000 


4-12-inch 


18 








1899 
1901 
1900 
1901 


13,000 
13,000 
13,000 
13,000 


4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


18 


Albion 


18 


Glory 


18 


Vengeance 


18 



BATTLESHIPS 


(obsolete) 






Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 




1895 
1897 
1896 
1897 
1897 
1897 
1897 


14,900 
14,900 
14.900 
14.900 
14.900 
14.900 
14,900 


4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


17.5 


Hannibal 


17.5 




17.5 




17.5 




17.5 




17.5 


Illustrious 


17.5 



BATTLE-CRUISERS 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 




1916 
1916 
1914 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1913 
1908 
1908 


33,000 
33,000 
28,500 
26,500 
26,500 
18,000 
19,250 
17,250 
17,250 


6-15-inch 

6-15-inch 

8-13.5-inch 

8-13.5-inch 

8-13.5-inch 

8-12-inch 

8-12-inch 

8-12-inch 

8-12-inch 


33 




33 


Tiger 


30 




28.5 




28.5 


New Zealand 


26.5 




26.5 


Inflexible 


25.5 




25.5 






Battle-cruisers 
building — four 













Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


New Mexico . 


1918 
1919 
1918 


32,000 
32,000 
32,000 


12-14-inch 
12-14-inch 
12-14-inch 


21.5 


Idaho 

Mississippi 


21.5 
21.5 


Pennsylvania 

Arizona 


1917 
1917 


31,500 
31,500 


12-14-inch 
12-14-inch 


21 
21 


Oklahoma .... 


1916 
1916 


27,500 
27,500 


10-14-inch 
10-14-inch 


20.5 


Nevada 


20.5 






New York 

Texas 


1914 
1914 


27,000 
27,000 


10-14-inch 
10-14-inch 


21.5 
21.5 


.\rkansas 

Wyoming 


1912 
1912 


26,000 
26,000 


12-12-inch 
12-12-inch 


21 
21 


Utah 

Florida 


1911 
1911 


21,850 
21,8.50 


10-12-inch 
10-12-inch 


21 
21 


Delaware 

North Dakota 


1910 
1910 


20,000 
20,000 


10-12-inch 
10-12-inch 


21 
21 








1910 
1910 


17,000 
17,000 


8-12-inch 
8-12- inch 


19.5 


Michigan 


19.5 



PARTLY COMPLETED 


BATTLESHIPS (DREADNOUGHTS) 








Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


California 

Tennessee 


1919 
1919 


32,000 
32,000 


S-16-inch 
8-16-inch 


21 
21 



BATTLESHIPS (pREDREADNOUOHTS) 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Kansas 

Vermont . . . 


1907 
1907 
1907 
1908 
1906 
1906 


16.000 
16.000 
16,000 
16.000 
16,000 
16,000 


) 

1 

14-12-inch 

|8-8-inch 


18.5 
18.5 


Minnesota . 


18.5 




18.5 




18.5 


Connecticut ... 


18.5 






Virginia . . . 


1906 
1906 
1906 
1907 
1906 


15,000 
15,000 
15,000 
15,000 
15,000 


4-12-inch 
8-8-inch 










19 


Nebraska 




Rhode Island .... 








Ohio 


1904 
1902 
1903 


12,500 
12,500 
12,500 


4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


18 


Maine 


18 


Missouri 


18 






Alabama 


1900 
1901 
1901 


11, .500 
11,500 
11,500 


4-1.3-inch 
4-13-inch 
4-13-inch 


17 


Illinois 


17 




17 






Kearsage 


1898 
1898 


11,500 
11,500 


;4 -13-inch 
i4-8-inch 


16 


Kentucky 


16 







BATTLESHIPS 


(obsolete) 








Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Iowa 1897 

1 


11,350 


f4-12-tnch 

i 8-8-inch 


17 


Indiana 


1895 
1896 
1896 


10,300 
10,300 
10,300 


/ 4-13-inch 
I 8-8-inch 


16 


Massachusetts 

Oregon 


16 
16 



Italy 

COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS (DREADNOUGHTS) 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 




1915 
1915 


22,700 
22,700 


13-12-inch 
13-12-inch 


22 


Andrea Doria 


22 




1913 
1914 


22,500 
22,500 


13-12-inch 
13-12-ineh 


22 




22 







Dante Alighieri 1 1913 


21,000 


12-12-inch 


23 



PARTLY COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS (DREADNOUGHTS) 





Work Begun 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Colombo 


Keels laid 

but all 

work Stopped 

during war 


31,000 
31,000 
31.000 
31.000 


8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 
8-15-inch 


25 




25 




25 


Caracciolo 


25 



France 

COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS ( DREADXOUGHTS) 



BATTLESHIPS 


(PREDRE.IDNOUGHTS) 






Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 




1906 
1906 
1907 
1909 


12.800 
12,800 
12,800 
12,800 




2-12-inch 
12-8-inch 


21 


Regina Elena 

Napoli ... 


21 
21 




21 






San Giorgio 


1910 
1910 


10,500 
10,250 


/4-10-inch 
18-7. 5-inch 


22 5 




22 5 






Pisa 


1909 


10,600 


i'4-lO-inch 
\8-7 . 5-inch 


22 5 






St. Bon 


1901 
1901 


lO.OOO 
10,000 


4-10-inch 


18 


Fihberto 




4-10-inch 


18 



Com- 



pleted P''"'t 
'^ ment 



Bretagne 1915 

Lorraine _ 1915 

Provence 1915 



Courbet 1913 

Jean Bart 1913 

Paris 1914 

France | 1914 



Dis- 



23,500 
23,. 500 
23,500 



23,500 
23,500 
23,500 
23,500 



Guns 



10-13 4-inch 
10-13 4-inch 
10-13.4-inch 



12-12-inch 
12-12-inch 
12-12-inch 
12-12-inch 



PARTLY COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS (DREADNOUGHTS) 





Work Begun 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Normandie 

Gascogne 

Languedoc 


Note: The keels 
of these ships 
laid and some 
are plated up. 
All work stopped 
during war. 


25.250 
25,250 
25,250 
25,250 
25,250 


12-13.4-inch 
12-13.4-inch 
12-13.4-inch 
12-13.4-inch 
12-13.4-inch 


21 
21 
21 
21 


Bearne 


21 



OLDER BATTLESHIPS (PREDREADNOUGHT TYPE) 



Com- 
pleted 



Mirabeau 
Diderot . . . 
Condorcet . 
Vergniaud . 
Voltaire. . , 



Democratic. 

Justice 

Verit6 



Republique. 
Patrie 



Henri IV 



1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 



1906 
1906 
1906 



1904 
1905 



1901 



Dis- 
place- 
ment 



18.500 
18.500 
18.500 
18.500 
18,500 



14,900 
14,900 
14,900 



14.900 
14.900 



Guns 



4-12-inch 
12-9.4-inch 



4-12-inch 
10-7.6-inch 



4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 



BATTLESHIPS (OBSOLETE) 


Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Charlemagne 

8t . Louis 


1897 
1898 


11,300 
11,300 


4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


18 
18 


Carnot 1896 


12,000 


/2-12-inch ,„ 
\2-10. 8-inch ^^ 



Japan 

COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS (DRE.U>N0UGHTS) 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Fuso 


1915 
1916 
1918 
1918 


30,500 
30,500 
31,250 
31.250 


12-12-inch 
12-12-inch 
12-12-inch 
12-12-inch 


22.5 


Yamashiro 

Ise 


22.5 
23 


Hiuga 


23 


Settsu 


1913 


21.500 


12-12-inch 


20 



PARTLY COMPLETED BATTLESHIPS 





Work 
Begun 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Negato (building) 




32.500 


10-15-inch 


23.5 



BATTLESHIPS (pRED READ NOUGHTS) 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 


Aki 


1911 
1910 
1910 
1909 
1907 
1906 
1906 

1904 

1902 
1902 
1901 
1900 


20,000 
19,500 
14,500 
14,500 
15,000 
16,000 
16,000 
13,500 
15,200 
12,700 
15,200 
15,200 


/ 4-12-inch 
ll2-10-inJh 
/4-12-inch 
I 8-8-inch 
4-12-inch 
/4-12-inch 
I 4-10-inch 
14-12-inch 
\(>-8-inch 
4-ll>-ineh 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 
4-12-inch 


20 




18 5 




22 


Ibuki 


22 




21 




19 




19 




18 




18 




18 


Asahi 

Shikishima 


18 
18 



COMPLETED BATTLE-CRUISERS 





Com- 
pleted 


Dis- 
place- 
ment 


Guns 


Speed 




1913 
1914 
1910 
1916 




Kongo 

Hiyei 


27,500 
27,500 
27,500 
27,500 


8-14-inch 
8-14-inch 
8-14-inch 
8-14-inch 


27.5 
27.5 
27 5 


Kirishima 


27.5 



that of any contemporary ships of which we know. 
In the predreadnought class we have 19 ships, 11 of 
which carry in addition to the usual predreadnought 
battery of four 12-ineh guns, a powerful intermediate 
battery of eight 8-inch guns; these are the six ships of 
(Continued on page 64) . ■' 



54 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 



Guns for the Fighting Front 

American Heavy Artillery Designed and Built for Our Armies in France 



OUR experiencp in tho 
late war proved tliat, 
for a nation as unprepared 
as we were, but possessed 
of a large measure of in- 
itiative and adaptability, it 
is easier to provide the 
personnel than the material. 
When the armistice wa-s 
signed, about a year and a 
half after we entered the 
war, we had two million 
men in France and over a 
million in the United States, 
in uniform. The work of our 
men, considering the very 
limited training that it was 
Iiossible to give them, was 
surprisingly and uniformly 
excellent and called forth the warm ap- 
preciation of the military leaders among 
our allies. 

In the broad field of engineering, also, 
we showed characteristic energy and re- 
sourcefulness, particularly in the pro- 
vision of docks, yards, storage houses, and 
in the reconstruction of the main railway 
system which was allotted to us for the 
service of our army at the front. 

Even in the matter of airplane service, 
although results were slow in coming, we 
were beginning to supply our fighting 
forces at a very rapidly increasing rate 
and with promise of a huge air force if the 
war had carried on into 1919. 

But in the matter of artillery, and par- 
ticularly the heavy artillery, we were up 
against a huge problem, which in the very 
nature of things, required time for its 
solution. Rifles can be produced in great 
numbers at comparatively short notice; 
machine guns, also, although requiring of 
couse longer time, can be produced at a 
comparatively rapid rate, when once the 
plant is installed. When we come to field 
artillery, however, the task becomes more 
serious and the time element is the con- 
trolling factor. It is known that our 
army had to depend, in the first months of 
our active service, upon the French gun 
factories, which fortunately were in a 
position to give us the artillery we so im- 
peratively needed. 

But when it came to the question of im- 
mediately supplying heavy artillery, we 
were up against a situation — despite 
even our vast resources in raw materials, 
steel works, foundries, machine shops and 
skilled mechanics, to say nothing of a 
plentiful supply of capital — which reqtiired 
time for its full solution. 




14-inch railway mount. Gun is wire wound. Shell 1,200 pounds. 

Range 19 miles 



Velocity, 2,900 foot seconds 




16-inch howitzer undir i anioullaye screen at the front 



These facts were well 
known to our army officers, 
war college, general staff; 
and such of our leading 
generals as were willing, in 
their patriotic desire to arouse 
the country to the serious- 
ness of our lack of artillerj', 
to risk the wTath of the 
poUticians, sounded the warn- 
ing for many a year previous 
to the war. We have only 
to instance the case of 
General Leonard Wood, who 
several years ago, as Chief 
of .Staff, and persistently 
after the great conflagration 
broke out in Europe, warned 
us that we could not pos- 
sibly extemporize artillery, either field or 
heavy, when war was upon us. That he 
should have paid the penalty for his 
candor and courage is an injustice that 
rankles deeply in the hearts of all patriotic 
and fair-minded Americans. 

However, the moment war was declared, 
the army bent itself to its herculean task 
with its whole energy and our plans were 
laid upon a scale and prosecuted with a 
vigor which, if the war had run into an- 
other year, would have found our armies 
magnificentlj- equipped. We had to begin 
work practically from the ground up; and, 
having at our dispo.sal the accumulated 
experience of our allies during four years 
of war, our ordnance officers designed new 
models of all calibers and of every possible 
type which, when the armistice was signed, 
were already proving their high efficiency 
on the French front. By the courtesy 
of the War Department, the pubhc is now 
being made acquainted with what has 
been done. Perhaps the best measure of the 
work imdertaken bj' the Ordnance Depart- 
ment of the Army, is the fact that up to 
September 30th, 1917, contracts were 
issued amounting to §9,865,253,529. 

The accompanying illustrations show 
some of the leading types of guns which 
have been designed and built. 

Naturally, the average citizen is at» 
tracted to size and power, and the huge, 
long-range guns of 12- and 14-inch caliber 
on massive railroad mounts, designed for 
the shelling of the back areas of the enemy 
country, far behind his front, attract most 
attention. 

Fourteen-inch Railway Mount 

First among these is the army 14-inch 
high-velocity gun on a railway mount 




12-inch mortar railway mount. Permits all-around fire. Maximum elevation, 65 degrees. Total weight, 177,000 pounds. Shell weighs 700 pounds 

Velocity, 1,500 foot seconds. For plunging fire against dugouts, cement shelters, etc. 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



55 





Two-man, 6-ton tank, boarding a rubber-tired, ball-bearing trailer 
for quick transportation 



Eight-inch howitzer on caterpillar self-propelled carriage 
Speed, 1 to 4 J/2 miles per hour 



This mount was designed prior to the beginning of the 
war. It was intended primarily for the mobile seacoast 
defense of this country, and of course, was admirably 
adapted for service with our armies in France. Gun and 
cradle are mounted on a heavy, steel plate girder, the 
entire mount weighing about 250 tons. The gun is 
wire-wound, the caliber is 14 inches, and it is 47 feet in 
length. It fires a 1,200-pound i)rojectilc with 400 
pounds of powder, with the 
high muzzle velocity of 2,900 
, feet per second. The range 
is about 19 miles. The re- 
coil is partly absorbed by a 
hydraulic recoil brake, and 
the gun is returned to bat- 
tery by counter-recoil springs. 
The gun is placed in the 
firing position on a cast- 
steel bed plate, which is 
adapted to give the mount 
a traverse of 360 degrees. 
About five hours are recjuired 
to place this mount in posi- 
tion, using a well-trained 
crew. The rate of fire is 
one round every two minutes; 
and the mount has the ad- 
vantage of being adapted for 
use against moving targets 
such as battleships, as well 
as for use against stationary 
targets on land. 



a 700-pound projectile, with a muzzle velocitj- of .3,200 
feet per second (the highest velocity for a big shell of 
which we know), and with a range of approximately 
28 miles. The mount was built by the Ordnance Depart- 
ment, with the exception of the gun itself, in 85 days. 
After the track is laid and beam stringers placed, only 
about five minutes are required to move the mount 
into position and get it ready for firing, and it may be 



Twelve-inch Sliding Railway 
Mount 




Another type among big 
guns is the 12-inch sliding 
railway mount. This has no recoil mechanism, the 
recoil being absorbed by friction produced by sliding 
the mount on the special track which supports it. It is 
operated on a curved track and is trained on the objective 
by moving the mount backward or forward. The entire 
mount is 105 feet long, weighs approximately 600,000 
pounds and is carried on four trucks of eight wheels each. 
It has been moved on railway tracks at the rate of 40 
miles an hour. This 12-inch gun is 50 feet long; it fires 



Sixteen-inch railway-mount howitzer. Total weight of mount, 325,000 pounds. Can be fired on this mount 
up to 45° elevation. One of the most powerful howitzers known 



removed from the firing position in an equally short time. 

Sixteen-inch Howritzer Railway Mount 

The long-range high velocity guns above described 
are designed to attack the enemy's communications, rail- 
way depots, ammunition dumps, supply centers, etc., 
from 15 to 25 miles back of the fighting line. For 
the attack of the belt of country lying a few miles behind 
the front, and extending up to the front itself, use is 



made of howitzers, which fire their shells at a high angle 
of elevation, so that they may drop with a steep angle 
of descent, upon dugouts, concrete shelters, ammunition 
dumps, important cross-roads, and other vital elements 
in the enemy terrain. Conspicuous among these is our 
16-inch howitzer, developed by the Ordnance Depart- 
ment, which is one of the most powerful howitzers 
known. It can be fired on its mount up to 45 degrees 
elevation, directly from the 
trucks, when resting on any 
standard gage track. The 
energy of recoil is taken care 
of partly in the recoil mech- 
anism and partly bj' per- 
mitting the car to move back- 
wards along the track on its 
jown wheels. After firing 
the mount is returned to its 
original position by means 
of a gasoline-driven winch, 
m()unte<l on the forward 
truck, which hauls in a cable 
anchored to the track ahead. 
The extreme range is about 
thirteen miles. The total 
weight of the mount is 
325,000 pounds and its length 
overall is 58 feet 4 inches. 
In spite of the weight of 
the gun of over forty-five 
tons, it is so well balanced 
on its trunnions that it can 
be elevated to 65 degrees by 
one man in 40 seconds. 
The gun can be traversed 
five degrees to either side of 
center, or a total of 12 
degrees can be secured. This is all that is required for 
range correction, and the direction is secured by moving 
the mount on a curved track. The entire mount was 
built within 75 days after the order was placed. 

Twelve-inch Mortar Railway Mount 

The 12-inch mortar railway mount is designed to 
permit all-around fire and may be elevated from minus 

(.Continued (,n page 62) 





Five-ton artillery tractor. Built in four sizes: 2H. 5, 10 and 20 tons. Can haul 
guns through deep mud, shell craters, etc. 



American "Baby" 3-ion tank. Speed twice that of a horse. Can haul guns 
Used against machine-gun nests 



56 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 



Fitting the Shoe to the Soldier 

The Evolution of a Satisfactory System of Measuring the Soldier's Foot 



Some phases in the evolution of a system for fitting shoes to our fighting men 

Al the lejt : An iron device based on sliding iron blocks but discarded because it required use of a paper chart. Center : Automatic size and 

width indicator with foot inserted, developed by Mr. BUss, at Charlestowu Navy Yard and Quantico, Va. Al the right : Final 

automatic foot-measuring de\'ice as ofiScially adopted by the Army, Navy and Marine Corps in 1918 

fitting would have opportunity to operate 
.so accurately that there could and would 
be no possible question about the soldiers 
being given the right size.s of shoes. 

It was also necessary to create a system 



THE proper fitting 
of soldiers' foot- 
wear, previously cov- 
ered with normal thor- 
oughness by govern- 
ment regulations, has 
been a matter of ad- 
ditional study, and has 
now led to the adoption 
by the War Depart- 
ment of new regula- 
tions authorizing a 
special system of foot- 
fitting, which it is the 
purpose of this article 
to describe. 

Under normal con- 
ditions, a company 
commander could with 
little difficulty see that 
every member of his 
command was fitted 
with as nearly correct 
size of shoe as neces- 
sary. The few evils 
could be rectified with- 
in the company, and 
might be considered 
negUgible. When the 
fact is considered that 

he must now depend at times upon men, unused to 
making such fits, to select from the 138 standard 
combination sizes the proper size for each man, and 
do this without loss of time, the need of a simple 
machine is evident. Furthermore, upon a compila- 
tion of the tariff of sizes used by the many organiza- 
tions the Quartermaster Corps must depend also for 
its final tariff for ordering from manufacturers. 
The much needed machine, in addition to saving 
time, insures accuracy of fit to each soldier and a 
correct tariff for subsequent ordering. 

In a desire to make haste in supplying the recruits 
with their service shoes upon their arrival at the 
training camps, commissary officers and their as- 
sistants found it necessary under former conditions 
to allow the recruits, in many cases, to specify the 
sizes they should wear; and in some instances the 
new soldiers were permitted actually to pick out of 
stock the shoes in which they received their initial 
training. This careless practice is no longer allowed, 
because recruits from civil life do not know the sizes 
of army-last shoes which they should wear in pre- 
paring for and participating in actual warfare. In- 
vestigations made at a number of the concentration 
camps disclosed the following characteristics: 

1. Ignorance of their correct foot-sizes, even in civilian 
shoes. 2. Ignorance of the difference be- 
tween their size in civiMan footwear and 
the corresponding size in army shoes. 3. 
Ignorance of the matter of making proper 
allowance for foot-expansion in the army 
shoe, produced by hard marching and the 
carrying of the soldier's fighting equip- 
ment. 4. Personal vanity, as shown in a 
desire to wear as small a size as possible. 

And it is well known by now that soldiers 
mu.st wear properly fitting shoes. The 
human foot is a fragile structure, contain- 
ing 26 small bones of irregular shape. 
These small bones must be kept in their 
proper form and place to ensure efficient 
locomotion. Again, foot troubles gener- 
ally lead to leg troubles, and a soldier who 
is impaired in his locomotion is no longer 
a good soldier. Hence the importance of 
properly fitting shoes is a paramount con- 
sideration in any efficient army. 

It has remained for Mr. Elmer Jared 
Bliss, the president of a leading shoe com- 
pany of Boston, Mass., to evolve a satis- 
factory army shoe fitting system. His 
principal aim in devising his system was to 
eliminate, so fur as possible, the hkelihood 
of mistakes being made in selecting shoe- 
sizes for the soldiers. It was believed 
that having got each new soldier right on 
the spot at the time of his entrance into 
the Army, and having disabused him of 
the idea that he himself was to exercise any 
jurisdiction over the selection of the size 
of his service shoes, the new system of 







Length detector used to obtain size of shoes when markings are 
defaced, developed by Reclamation Department overseas 

that would correctly provide for the 138 different com- 
binations of sizes and widths required by the complete 
size-range of enlisted men — and yet be simple enough in 




Kit or carrying case containing the foot- measuring and shoe-fitting devices, 
testing gage, and spare parts 



details so that it would 
be easily understand- 
able and usable by 
army officers and their 
subordinates who would 
conduct the measuring 
and fitting. 

The devices em- 
ployed in Mr. Bliss's 
shoe-fitting system are 
two in number — a sin- 
gle machine, somewhat 
larger than the bottom 
of an adult human foot, 
which is the foot-meas- 
uring device, and a set 
of thin metal blades, 
each fitted with a metal 
knob on one end, which 
is the shoe-fitting de- 
vice. The larger or 
measuring machine 
translates the foot 
length and width into 
the shoe length and 
width. The set of blades 
composing the shoe-fit- 
ting device is employed 
to prove the accuracy of 
the size as disclosed by 
measuring the soldier's feet in the larger machine. 

The measuring machine is constructed for the great 
army of average feet — that is, feet that present no 
marked abnormalities. The elevation of the heel por- 
tion is of scientifically correct height for po.sitioning 
the human heel when the foot is measured for the 
army shoe. The angle at which the side wings are 
set was determined from a composite of the angles 
of the inner soles and lasts of all the various sizes 
of the army shoe in the army size-range. The 
adjustment of the mechanism governing the oper- 
ation of the pointer on the width-scale by the spread- 
ing action of the side wings, was also worked out 
upon a scientific basis. 

The procedure of measuring is as follows: 
The measurer requires the soldier to remove his 
old shoes, put on his army pack, hold his rifle, then 
set his stockinged foot onto the base of the foot- 
measuring machine, with the heel back snugly 
against the curved block at the back. It is essential 
that the foot be in the center line of the machine; 
that is, the imaginary line through the center of the 
foot from heel to toe should be over a similar line on 
the bottom of the machine. 

The measurer then releases the wings at the sides and 
allows them to press in against the sides of the soldier's 
foot. He also slides the plunger, at the 
front of the machine, along until its flat end 
rests lightly against the end of the soldier's 
foot. 

Then the soldier, keeping his balance by 
holding onto some sort of brace above, rises 
twice or three times on the ball of his foot. 
This act of rising closely duplicates the act 
of walking; and, since the soldier is carrying 
his regulation service load, the weight thus 
put into the spread of the foot when ele- 
vated upon the ball is the weight he will be 
carrying when he is actually wearing his 
shoes. In rising, he will lift his heel only 
about half an inch off the device. 

The resulting spread of his foot, forward 
as well as sidewise, thrusts the sUding 
plunger forward so that its little marker- 
point automatically registers the correct 
shoe length; and the two side wings are 
thrust apart so as to cause the arm-pointer 
on the lettered scale to record automatically 
the correct shoe width as A, B, C, etc. 

In his act of rising several times onto 
the ball of his foot, the soldier's foot causes 
the side-scale pointer to waver back and 
forth. The measurer observes this closely, 
and takes the middle mark, between the 
extreme points touched by the pointer, as 
the correct width. 

Now having determined the size of shoes 
for the soldier to try on, the measurer pro- 
ceeds on the second part of the fitting oper- 
ation, which is to prove the correctness of 
(Continued on page 63) 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



57 



A Stretching Wheel for Red Cross Workers 

EVERY Red Cross worker knows how much time and 
labor are required to fold gauze before cutting it 
into the required sizes. Unwinding the bolts and spread- 
ing layer upon layer on the long tables and getting all 
the layers smooth and even, is a task dreaded among the 
headquarters workers. 

To lighten this work and make it comparatively easy, 
a Cincinnati man hit upon the Red Cross stretching 
wheel shown in the accompanying illustration. It is 
7 feet in diameter and two women can stretch as much 
gauze with it in one hour as a dozen women can do in a 
day by the old hand-stretching method. One woman 
turns the wheel while the other keeps the gauze winding 
evenly and smoothly upon the big wheel. When the 
required number of layers are wound upon the wheel, 
they are cut through and taken off the wheel. 

Other Red Cross workers are hereby requested to 
"steal" the idea and make wheels like it. 

The Current Supplement 

THE study of the wonders and the mysteries of our 
earth offers endless attractions to the student and the 
scientist, and many of its problems are of the utmost 
economic value. One of these problems that has not 
been definitely solved relates to The Age of the Earth, and 
the paper having this title which appears in the current 
issue of the Scientific American Supplement, No. 
2246, for January 18th, will be found of more than 
ordinary interest to the general reader. The task of 
maintaining an army in the field is infinite in its 
ramifications, and on its success depends the results of 
the contest, fully as much as on the actual fighting, 
and even more so, as without adequate supplies no 
army could exist. Water for an Army, with accom- 
panying photographs, tells of one of the 
ever present problems confronting those 
behind the fighting lines, which is far 
reaching in its effects. The final in- 
stalment of the papers on The Macoa 
Indians of Venezuela, with a large number 
of unusually interesting photographs ap- 
pears in this issue. The 34 Supermagic 
Square deals with a curious mathematical 
recreation of ancient origin, and is ac- 
companied by many examples. The paper 
on Molecular Orientations in Physics and 
Crystallography is concluded in this issue. 
Other articles of interest include Plant 
Growth and Reproduction; Atlantic Flight; 
The Raleigh Tercentenary; Some Peculiar 
Thermoelectric Effects; Sphagnum Moss and 
Wonderful Exhibition of Old French Silks. 

A Model Hospital on Wheels 

FT'OR the rapid and proper transportation 
of our wounded in France, there have 
been built in England a number of hospital 
trains. To be more specific, the hospital 
trains have been built at the works of the 
Great Central Railroad of England at 
Dukinfield, and it is perhaps safe to say 
that these trains are the last word in the 
transportation of wounded. 

The accompanying illustrations give 




A Cincinnati man invented this stretching wheel for 
simplifying Red Cross work 

some idea of the ward car of the American hospital 
train, which is fitted with every modern appliance for 
the comfort of the wounded men during long journeys. 
Each train carries a large Red Cross and the letters U. S., 
as well as the train number. There are accommodations 




With its beds raised, the ward car can be quickly and thoroughly cleaned 



for both lying-down and sitting-up cases, as illustrated. 
The train also includes a kitchen car and a coach for at- 
tendants. 

New Way to Make Castings of Non-Ferrous 
Alloys 

A PROCESS for forming castings of certain non- 
ferrous alloy, which is claimed to bestow unusual 
properties on the metal, is announced by a New York 
engineering company. Direct comparison is made 
between this and the usual method of casting such mix- 
tures in sand. Parts made by this process are said to 
possess greater tensile strength, increased density and 
to be freer from blow holes. Their crystalline struc- 
ture is said to be finer and the machining qualities 
superior. 

The new process consists in pouring the molten aUoy.s 
into metal molds and forming or congealing them under 
pressure. They are really die castings formed under 
high pressure. The inventor claims that the process 
gives absolute control of the desired physical properties 
and the machining qualities. A very large number of 
fuse bodies for shrapnel have already been made by this 
process. The composition of these is 80 per cent 
aluminum and 20 per cent zinc. 

It is claimed that almost any grade of non-ferrous alloy 
can be handled by this process, the casting being made in 
a specially constructed automatic machine by which a 
large number can be produced in a day. Besides a 
90-10 aluminum-copper alloy, there has been made one 
of 60 per cent copper and 40 per cent zinc with a trace 
of lead, having a tensile strength of 49,500 pounds per 
square inch and an elastic limit of 29,750 pounds per 
square inch with an elongation of 45.5 per cent in two 
inches. Another alloy of 86.5 per cent aluminum 12 
per cent zinc and 1.5 copper is reported 
to have a tensile strength of 42,700 pounds 
per square inch and an elastic limit of 
29,400 pounds per square inch with a 
definite elongation of seven per cent in two 
inches. 

An interesting feature of this process is 
the possibility of making an alloy of alu- 
minum, copper and iron which has a low 
coefficient of expansion. Success is said 
to consist in a special secret method of in- 
troducing the iron into the mixture. The 
ordinary piston made of aluminum and 
copper is said to have too great a coeffi- 
cient of expansion but the introduction of 
the iron is regarded as making it possible 
to produce very large aluminum pistons 
as part of the essential equipment of high- 
power aircraft engines. 

One of the many advantages claimed 
for this process is that important parts of 
aircraft motors can be made of great 
strength and lightness. In the case of 
pistons, the strength can be put into the 
head and the bosses where it is needed 
and they can be machined down to lighter 
weight and still possess unusual strength. 
The process has been patented in the 
United States, and in Great Britain, Japan 
and other foreign countries. 





A ward car prepared for both lying-down and sittlng-up cases 



For the handling of lying-down cases, all the beds of the ward car are prepared 



.58 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 



The Service of the Chemist 

A Department Devoted to Progress in the Field of Applied Chemistry 



Conducted by H. E. HOWE. Chemical Engineer 



Federal Aid for Research 

FROM a preliminary roiisideration it would seem 
po-isil)le to defend the general proposition that our 
agricultural interests have derived more from research 
than our other industries. This is not because our farm- 
ers are more appreciative of research than our manu- 
facturers, but because some fifty years ago our agri- 
cultural experiment stations were established and 
through federal aid, intensive work was undertaken 
along lines which would doubtless have remained un- 
touched for many years had the investigations been left 
for those most interested in the results. Our farmers 
are not alone in this attitude for it might be shown 
that in litigation or threatened law suits much of our 
brilliant industrial research has had its inception. True, 
agriculture, in common with other enterprises, profits 
from most of what is done in the manufacturer's labor- 
atory, btit, likewise, the factory gains when agriculture 
advances and this is simply further proof, if it were 
needed, of our interdependence in our complex civiliza- 
tion. 

While the agricultural experiment stations have not 
always been managed to suit every one and some may 
even consider many of them failures, some of the results 
have been of the greatest value. Consider what has 
been accomplished in improving strains of corn, oats and 
wheat and what has been proven with reference to seed 
selections, germination tests and the breeding of corn, 
for example, to increase its feeding value. At another 
point work has been concentrated on questions of animal 
husbandry, the development of better stock and the 
study of feeding problems so that we may produce the 
ma.ximum food with the minimum raw materials. 
Further the problem of what an animal does with its 
food has been studied with the result that more is known 
concerning its economical feeding and the point at which 
further food means a substitution of water for the fat 
previously stored and then "the critter eats his head 
ofT." Much of the stability of our dairy industry is 
directly due to agricultural college and experimental 
station work, no small part of which has been the in- 
vention of simple, dependable testing devices. Then 
there is that research which led to an increase in the 
average number of marketable tobacco leaves per plant 
equivalent to about 200 per cent increase in yield with 
the same amount of land and labor. Walnut trees that 
grow as rapidly as poplars and poplars wliich attain a 
height of 10 feet in 14 months are other examples of 
what can be done in agricultural research. 

The dumping of cotton seed into the rivers of the 
South created such a nuisance that laws were enacted 
to stop the practice. On the basis of 1917 and 1918 
prices the appUcation of research to this waste problem 
added nearly S40 to the value of each of the 11,500,000 
bales of cotton grown. 

Crickets ate the binder twine used in tieing the sheaves 
causing considerable loss in the wheat fields after the 
grain had been put in shock until chemistry showed 
how to make binder twine unattractive. It was not 
enough to make it poisonous for there were crickets left 
over to cut other twine. It had to be made repellent. 

These will serve as examples of the influence of law 
and necessitj' in instigating research. To interest the 
average man in research that strikes out to find something 
is a much more difficult task. The war has been a great 
educator in this direction and well qualified research 
men are in greater demand now than at any other time. 
Three hundred and fifty-five American manufacturing 
concerns maintain their own research laboratories and 
many more employ the facilities of commercial labora- 
tories, consultants and educational institutions. The 
total is but a fraction of the number which should take 
full advantage of what modern science offers and the 
layman has yet really to appreciate research. Hence, 
the proposal now to establish engineering research 
stations throughout the country, one in each*state, or to 
appropriate money for each state to be expended in the 
support of research of importance to science and industry 
carried on in whichever educational institution might 
show itself best suited to undertake the specific problem. 

It is now proposed to grant 815,000 to each state the 
first year, $20,000 the next, §25,000 the third, and 
$30,000 the fourth and subsequent years. The details of 
administration are not decided, but the indications are 
that an impartial committee in each state will be made 
responsible, seeing to it that no money is spent without 
an adequate return in productive work, and that no 



favoritism is shown in the a.ssignment of problems. A 
central organization in Washington will correlate the 
work, advi,se and suggest problems of national impor- 
tance, but shall not be directive or administrative in its 
functions. It may be found advisable to change the 
.secretarj- of this central body annuallj', appointing the 
assistant to be secretary, thus securing continuity with- 
out the danger of stagnation. Such a po.st, properly 
paid, would be attractive to manj' scientists quaUfied 
to perform the work since it would offer man\' advantages 
not to be measured by monetary standards. 

This plan, known officially as the Smith-Howard Bill 
(S. 3805 and H. K. 9G86),. is undergoing modification and 
improvement, many of our country's best minds being 
active on the questions involved. The National Re- 
search Council, the American Chemical Society, the 
foremost educators and engineers sanction the principle 
and mean to see a workable plan prepared for the ap- 
proval of Congress. The competition between the edu- 
cational in.stitutions in each state for this federal aid, 
the granting of which, will in itself, be recognition of the 
high qualitj' of work being done there, constitutes one 
of the sure benefits. FaciUties will be provided with 
which those quahfied may work under the best con- 
ditions as regards equipment and assistance. A larger 
number of our young people will acquire the scientific 
method of attack and become so acquainted with materi- 
als that industry will be benefited when they go out to it, 
not to mention the advances which may be expected from 
the laboratory work. In some instances research can be 
directed from present interesting but less practical lines 
to those substances of more urgent importance and equal 
interest. 

That federal aid to research can be given in a practical, 
efficient manner and be made profitable has been demon- 
strated by the agricultural experimental stations. We 
should do better, in view of our experience, with the new 
plan. The war has conclusively demonstrated the value 
of scientific research and all countries are organizing to 
pursue it diligently. The opportunitj- is offered for the 
people at large, our educational institutions and our 
industries to become really interested in research and to 
profit by its achievements in the various specific fields. 

Some Phases of Reconstruction 

CHEMISTS generally realize that the post-war prob- 
lems are more complex than those imposed by war 
when questions of low costs and competition are not so 
important. There has been much looking ahead and 
one of the first instances of concerted action was a 
recent meeting of the Council of the American Chemical 
Society. The question of what to do with our excess 
acid production, our gas manufacturing plants and the 
munition factories could not be considered a part of the 
program, the discussion being on subjects of general 
policy. 

The Germans have been called the brick layers, 
not the architects, of science and among the tedious pieces 
of work performed has been the compilation of chemical 
data and statistics. "Beilstein" had become an almost 
holy word in organic chemistry because in no other place 
could so much fundamental information concerning 
organic chemicals be found as in this excellent example of 
brick laying. And yet Beilstein is not wholly satis- 
factory. The work of non-Germans is slighted in the 
statistics. It is 20 years old and incomplete. Ar- 
rangements are now under way for English speaking 
chemists to combine on the truly gigantic task of pre- 
paring a compendium of chemical literature in English 
to be complete in each of the many sub-divisions of 
modern chemistry. Steps are also to be taken to make 
the various publications of the American Chemical 
Society and notably "Abstracts" the very best of their 
kind offering advantages which will insure the publication 
of our American work in them rather than in foreign 
journals as heretofore. 

The matter of tariff on importations of chemicals and 
scientific apparatus has been of interest to many chemists 
.since educational institutions have always been entitled 
to duty-free importation. It would, quite obviously, 
be inconsistent for chemists to advocate protection for 
dyes and other American-made chemicals and yet ask 
for duty-free advantages in matters concerning their 
own requirements even in schools, although the difference 
in costs meant $20,000 increase in laboratory expenses 
in one university. The abolition of the duty-free priv- 
ilege was recommended. 



The need for a closer cooperation between universities 
and industries is apparent. If the industries are to 
continue to benefit by the work done in the schools and 
are to have men properly prepared for their service 
something must be done to make the teaching profession 
more attractive financially. One of our greatest tech- 
nical schools, at the present moment, finds it almost 
impossible to maintain an adequate staff because of 
the lack of money, and a professor can not pay his bills 
with sentiment. Industry must become more directly 
interested in education if we are to maintain our world- 
wide advantages. The society appreciates the situation 
and a number of sub-committees are to be appointed to 
work with the main committee on this perplexing 
problem. 

Chemists enjoy the unique po.sition of being really 
interested in all industry either because they contribute 
some manufactured article or have some part in the 
development and maintenence work. They realize the 
necessity of an active, sustained export trade and urge 
any measure calculated to improve it. This is ample 
reason for urging the adoption of the metric system of 
weights and measures in the United States as rapidly 
as possible. Many successful American exporters are 
using the metric system now, having found it a handicap 
to adhere to the English system in foreign commerce. 
It is doubtful whether the metric system wUI come into 
universal use in our country within a considerable period 
of years, due to alleged complications in land measure- 
ments although the civil engineer already uses tenths of 
a foot, but every one owes it to himself to become 
famiUar with it. 

Closely allied with reconstruction is the work looking 
to guaranteed peace for the future. It seems important, 
therefore, to continue some of the research carried on so 
successfully by the Chemical Warfare Service and to 
coordinate research in the War and Navy departments. 
This is also the time to record in full the details of what 
has been done on war problems and publi.sh anything 
not of militarj^ importance for much of this research has 
both a scientific and indu.«trial interest. The best talent 
in our country has been in cooperation during the 
emergency and it would be a distinct loss not to have all 
records clear before 'the first chemical military unit in 
history, and recognized as such, is allowed to disband. 

The war served to emphasize the desirability of 
more extensive American research in the field of drugs 
and medicines and to that end careful consideration 
is being given the suggestion that an Institute for Co- 
operative Research be formed. In such an institute 
chemists, biologists and manufacturers would work 
together on the nearly innumerable problems which are 
of practical as well as scientific importance. 

"The American Chemical Society has only begun 
its study of reconstruction on the committee plan and 
its next meeting is expected to yield valuable results. 

Scientific Patents 

WHEREVER fresearch is proceeding in sustained 
fashion much that is patentable may be expected. 
Because of the circumstances under which scientists 
serve in the Government's employ the practice of as- 
signing patents to the people has been followed since 
early in the eighties. This plan has the fundamental 
weakness that unless some protection can be secured no 
one is going to see any process through its develop- 
ment stage and consequently very little has ever 
come of those inventions donated to the public in 
their infancy. 

Two alternative plans are now under consideration. 
One of these provides for a non-exclusive free license 
to the Government for its own use and for the use 
of its licensees, all other rights remaining with the 
patentee including foreign rights as at present. There 
are some minor details with respect to payment of fees, 
etc. The other suggestion is based on a plan that seems 
to have been satisfactory in the case of the Cottrell pat- 
ents, which were really assigned to the Government 
through the Smithsonian Institution, but with a license 
system the fees from which have paid for the develop- 
ment work and will finance further research in future. 

It is proposed by this second plan to have the licensing 
of any patents assigned to the people placed with one 
of the trade boards. This board would use the fees 
for development work and for the reward of the paten- 
tee while at the same time the Government may benefit 
from the patents without charge. 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



59 



An Enormous Log Raft for Overseas 
Transportation 

WHILE log rafts are by no means new, 
inasmuch as they are quite common 
in this and other countries, the huge raft 
recently constructed at Haparanda, 
Sweden, and used to ship a large number of 
logs to Copenhagen, Denmark, is worthy 
of passing mention. 

The great raft, which is shown in the 
accompanying illustration as it appeared 
anchored at a wharf in the harbor of 
Copenhagen, measures 387 feet long, 55 J/^ 
feet wide, 10 feet above the water line and 
163^ feet below. 

The raft took six months to build and 
contains as much wood as four big steamers. 
It is held together by an ingenious system 
of steel cables and wires, and is capable 
of carrying a large amount of material. 
The crew consists of seven men. 

Magnetic Pulleys 

MAGNETISM in some of its many 
apphcations is so commonplace that 
it no longer creates particular interest. 
Upon it the electric dynamo, the motor, 
the hfting magnet and many other famiUar 
electric appliances depend for their opera- 
tion. An out-of-the-ordinary application, however, 
and one that will be new to many readers is that pre- 
sented by the magnetic separator pulley, as used in a 
greatly increasing list of industries. 

These devices are useful wherever it is desired to 
remove continuously the magnetic content from non- 
magnetic bulk material. For Example, they are suc- 
cessfully employed in separating pick heads, coupling 
pins and other metals from bulk goods passing to a 
crusher which would be damaged by the entrance of 
such material. They are used for a similar purpose at 
phosphate rock mines and quarries. In the production 
of sulfite fiber paper stock they are available for removing 
tram iron and steel from the wood chips before these are 
dehvered to the sulfite tanks. They are also found 
valuable in the manufacture of cement, the production of 
gypsum and hmestone, the making of terra-cotta clays, 
and doubly so in freeing grains, spices and tobacco from 
bits of iron and steel before grinding. Even in such an 
unpoetic place as the city disposal plant they are put 
to work in picking out tin cans, horsehoes, nails, etc., 
from the worthless material. Likewise the high cost of 
metals has made the saving of metal turnings and the 
separation of iron and steel from brass well worth while. 

Another interesting application is found in the sugar 
industry, one in which it would seem that there would be 
no field for such equipment. The separator here is in- 
staOed to remove from animal charcoal iron rust or iron 
oxide which is collected by it while , passing through 
the ovens and being baked. This baking process is 




Copyright, Western Newspaper UdIoo 

Huge raft made of logs held by steel cables, which made the trip 
Haparanda, Sweden, to Copenhagen, Denmark 

necessary to eliminate from the charcoal the impurities 
which it has absorbed from the sugar. The magnetic 
material is especially prevalent after the retort has been 
repaired. Under ordinary conditions the magnetic 
pulley is energized only part of the time, two weeks out 
of a month or so, this being sufficient to keep the iron 



tlaferial containing metallic particles 




tiagnetic material 
sticKs to pulley until belt 
leaves pulley at twttom. 




-•; Non-magnetiC' 
material 



How the magnetic pulley sorts out the sensitive 
from the non-sensitive 

oxide out of the bone charcoal so that trouble with iron 
coloring in the sugar is prevented. 

A word or two as to the general scheme of operation 
of the magnetic pulley separator may not be out of place. 
It is magnetized by passing direct current windings in 
the interior of the pulley. The current sets up a mag- 
netic flux which pas.ses through the belt as it turns about 



the pulley, thus attracting any iron or 
steel contained in the material which i8 
carried on the belt. These pieces are then 
held in contact by the pulley until the belt 
leaves it on the under side. Here they 
are dropped, and collected in a box which 
is kept well separated from the shower of 
the other material leaving the belt by 
means of a barrier as shown in our drawing. 
Direct current is required to energize 
the pulley, although of course the alternat- 
ing variety will very likely be used to 
rotate the belt. Only a small amount of 
juice is necessary to keep the magnet 
working, the average for the sizes in 
greatest use being but a few amperes. 
Standard pulleys can therefore be con- 
nected to any 110- or 220-volt direct 
current system, although pulleys may be 
designed with cods suitable for operation 
on currents of 500 volts, or even more. 

Data on Women's Work Wanted by 
Labor Department 

THE Woman in Industry Service of the 
United States Department of Labor is 
from collecting and distributing information on 

such topics as the extent of employment 
of women during the war, the wide variety 
of their employment, the methods by which they have 
been successfully introduced into new occupations, and 
the safeguards with which it has been necessary to sur- 
round them in the interests of their health and efficiency. 

Plans are being made to establish a pictorial record 
of the work women are doing, and the Woman in In- 
dustry Service is asking for the cooperation of the em- 
ployers of the country in assembling these pictures. 
Illustrations are desired of the various processes on 
which women are working, particularly those in which 
women are substituting for men; mechanical adjust- 
ments installed to enable women to do work formerly 
impossible for them; safety devices that have been 
found necessary to protect women workers; and special 
arrangements and equipment that have been installed 
for the comfort of the workers. 

Manufacturers would be rendering valuable assistance 
if they would forward to the Women in Industry Service 
any pictures of this description that they have or are 
able to obtain. If any firm has recently improved the 
conditions under which its employees are working, pic- 
tures taken before and after the improvements were 
made would be particularly welcome. 

These pictures will be used to form a permanent 
record of women's work. When the photographs are 
forwarded it wiU be appreciated if a statement is at- 
tached of the name of the process and any other par- 
ticularly significant facts. 

If the pictures are published the names of the firms 
will not be used without permission. 




At close ranges magnetism is a powerful force 



The magnetic pulU. . deration 



60 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 



The Motor- Driven Commercial Vehicle 

This deparlmenl is devoted to the interests of present and prospective owners of motor trucks and delivery wagons. The editor wUl endeavor to answer any 
(jtieslinn relating to mechanical features, operation and management of commercial motor vehicles 





\\ .iil:id.. 



I iiiadian soldiers learning to operate farm iractors 



Farm tractor built by a prominent Italian motor car company 



Teaching Wounded Soldiers to 
Operate Tractors 

THE problem of providing suitable 
occupation for wounded soldiers has 
occupied no little of the attention of 
manufacturers of farm tractors, as well as 
others. Canada, which has had the 
wounded soldier problem to deal with 
for some time, has opened a number of 
schools where the men are instructed in 
the handling of tractors, and it has been 
found that even artificial limbs are not 
necessarily a serious disadvantage in this 
line of work. Of course some of the men 
take to tractor driving more readily than 
others; but on the whole the idea has 
worked out very satisfactorily. The 
matter is all the more important because 
good work with a tractor calls for a good 
operator; a good tractor with a poor 
operator is capable of turning out highly 
unsatisfactory work. 

Theire 'n an instruction base in Toronto, 
Canada, where a considerable number of 
soldiers kave been made familiar with 
tractor driving. All the men there have 
received wounds that have made it im- 
possible for them to resume their former 
occupations, and the tractor idea has 
therefore, a strong appeal to them. The 
man shown driving in the photograph has 
an artificial leg, notwithstanding which, 
he did excellent work. 

Protection for the Truck Driver 

Ay the commercial vehicle grows in 
, importance as a means of transpor- 
tation the man who operates it quite 
naturally comes in for increased consider- 
ation. In winter weather he is likely to 
suffer a good deal without proper pro- 
tection. Such protection is afforded by 
a cab that is supplied as part of the regu- 
lar equipment of a truck that recently 
has been placed on the market by a firm 
whose attention has hitherto been con- 
fined to passenger cars. It is customary 
to sell trucks "in the chassis" all ready 
for the body, but with no body on the 
frame. In this instance the usual cu.s- 
tom is followed, but the cab is added. 

The cab is of very substantial con- 
struction and instead of providing only 
partial enclosure, it completely houses 
the driver's seat. In front there are 
large glass windows which can be opened 
when the weather is mild and at the sides, 
in place of doors and windows, there are 
heavy curtains that fit closely and snugly 
and are readily adjusted either to open 
up the cab or to let the driver get in and 
out, in the case of the door sections. 



Very largo flexible panels give a good view 
in all directions. The -seat is more than 
usually well upholstered and, altogether, 
the driver of one of these trucks will find 
himself a good deal more comfortably 
situated than most of his fellows. Side 
lamps are inset flush with the front. The 
front panel at the same time forms the 
dashboard of the truck and serves to 
support the rear end of the hood. 

Engine Heats Its 
Fuel Three Times 

THE very large 
percentage of 
kerosene found in 
the gasoline that is 
commonly supplied 
today has made it 
necessary for all 
manufacturers of 
gasoline engines to 
take measures to 
supply considerable 
heat in order prop- 
erl}' to vaporize 
the heavy constitu- 
ents of the fuel. 
One manufacturer of 
light motor trucks 

takes the precaution of heating the fuel 
three times in order to ensure its being 
thoroughly vaporized and to distribute the 
heating uniformly throughout the vapor. 
The first heating is by means of the 
ordinary "stove" on the exhaust pipe, 
through which the air drawn through the 
carbureter is made to pass. Leaving the 
carbureter the air, together with the 
atomized gasoline which it has taken 




A' 



A cab to protect the truck driver 



from the carbureter, enters a passage 
cored between the cylinders, this being 
kept hot, of course, as long as the engine 
runs. Lastly the gas impinges against a 
metal surface the other side of which is 
in direct contact with the hot exhau.st gas 
— in fact, the surface is one of the walls 
of the exhaust manifold. The result of 
this arrangement is a clean engine, maxi- 
mum power and a low fuel consumption. 

Italian Manufac- 
turer Prepared for 

After-War 
Tractor Demand 

LARGE Italian 
firm which 
manufacturers not 
only automobiles, 
but trucks, motor- 
boats, airplanes and 
numerous other 
automotive prod- 
ucts, has designed 
a three-plow tractor 
that is intended to 
supply the needs of 
the average farmer 
for power for his 
soil preparation and harvesting. 

There is no frame, in the ordinary 
acceptance of the term. The engine, 
gearset and rear axle are enclosed in 
casings which are all bolted together and 
mounted on four wheels, so that no other 
framing is required. The rear axle 
enclosure, w-hich extends out to the rear 
wheels, makes a right angle with the 
erankcase and gear.^et iiousings, the whole 



BODY 1 

COMPENSATING SPRING 





NSMI5SI0N SHAFT ^r 7 j. . , \t 9k >®' 




EATHE.<? DUST COVER 

./ TUBULAR WELO 

/ 



transmission shaft 
Flange' 





COMPRESSION SPRING 



PROPELLER- BALL-RACES 

SHAFT HEAD 



Phantom view of a universal joint with large bearing balls 



forming a big T. Such a construction 
gives absolute rigidity and all the strength 
that could possibly be required. 

The gearset allows choice of three 
speeds and is fitted throughout with ball 
bearings and final drive to the rear axle 
is through a worm gearing. A peculiar 
feature of the machine is that the worm 
shaft is extended through the housing at 
the rear and carries the pulley for the 
belt used in driving stationary machinery. 
As the pulley thus comes between the 
rear wheels means are provided for very 
quickly and easily removing one wheel, 
on the side toward the machine to be 
driven. A .special permanently attached 
jack is used for raising the tractor and 
holding it up when doing belt work. The 
source of power is a four-cylinder block- 
cast engine that is practically identical 
with the engine used by the same firm 
in one of its 3/^-ton trucks and has a 
bore of 100 mm. and a stroke of 180 mm. 

The tractor weighs 2H tons and has a 
maximum speed of 3.7 miles an hour and 
a speed on low gear of 1.2 miles an hour. 

Big Steel Balls in Universal Joint 

A UNIVERSAL joint of unusually inter- 
esting construction is used in a iH- 
ton truck that is making a good record 
for itself in service. In this joint there is 
a total absence of the usual flat bearing 
surfaces and cyUndrical journals. In- 
stead there are large hardened steel balls 
mounted on opposite ends of a trunnion 
pin at the end of the propeller shaft. 
The steel housing of the joint is made 
with two oppositely disposed grooves or 
races accuratelj- formed for the balls to 
work in; they are elongated, however, so 
that the balls are allowed the longitudinal 
motion necessary to permit the joint to 
operate at an angle. The balls are free 
to turn on the trunnion pin, so that they 
are constantly shifting and presenting 
their entire surfaces for wear. 

The lubricant tends to work to the 
points farthest from the center due to 
centrifugal force, which carries it into the 
ball races and puts it where it does the 
most good. 

When two of these joints are used, one 
at each end of the propeller shaft, the usual 
rectangular or spUned slip-joint is not re- 
quired. The balls have suflicient longi- 
tudinal freedom in their grooves for the 
purpose. In each housing there is a helical 
spring, the forward spring tending to push 
the shaft backward, and the rear spring 
tending to push it forward. The shaft 
"floats" between the springs. 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



61 







TVTOT the price you pay, but the 
■^ ^ years of service you get, deter- 
mines a motor truck's cost. Econo- 
my of operation and maintenance is 
the determining factor. 

You might buy a motor truck at an ex- 
tremely low price, yet pay dearly in the end. 
Inversely you might invest considerable 
money in a motor truck, yet pay little per ton 
mile or year of service. 

There is no better indication of any article's 
actual worth than its "forced sale" price. 

At a creditor's sale in Chicago, recently, 
14 motor trucl^s were sold at auction. A 
Service Motor Trucli 22 months old 
brought 8P/ i^Q of its original price. The 
others, used only 10 to 18 months, sold 
for about one-third of the first cost. 

From the investment standpoint. Service 
Motor Trucks are "gilt edge." 

Consult the nearest Service Distributor, or 
send for catalog which gives full details of the 
five models and four sizes, from 1 to 5 tons. 

SERVICE MOTOR TRUCK CO., Wabash, Ind. 

Distributors in A II Principal Cities 

93 




62 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1919 



Look for the Mark 



lycos 



on the Temperature 
Instrument you buy 

It is on all recording instru- 
ments and regulating devices 
made by us and means standard 
apparatus — precision, reliability 
and permanence. 

We equip manufacturing plants 
of all kinds with Temperature 
Indicating, Recording and Con- 
trolling Instruments. 

^oj products are also in daily 
use in the home, on the farm, 
by the medical profession — 
everywhere temperature is con- 
sidered. 

Our line of manufacture includes: 

Household Thermometers 

Industrial Thermometers 

Pyrometers 

Temperature, Pressure and 

Time Regulators 

Hygrometers 

Hydrometers, Barometers 

Pocket Compasses 

Surveying Compasses 

Air Meters, Hand Levels 

Sphygmomanometers 

Fever Thermometers, etc. etc. 

Write today for literature. Address 

^loT Instrument Companies 

Rochemter, New York, U.S.A. 

There's a J^oj Thermometer 
for Every Purpose. 



MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOIST 

for Outrigger hoists. Faster than Elevators, and hoist 

direct from teams. Saves handling at less expense. 

Manufactured by VOLNEY W. MASON & CO.. Inc. 

Providence, R. I.. U. S. A. 



ECONOMY 



renew, 



aLleFUSES 

^ cnt annoal fuse maintenance cost^80% 
in many of our leading industriet. 

An mexpensive luil.r 'Drup Out" Renewal 
Link restores a blown Fx:onomy Fuse to its 
original efficiency. Economy Fuses protect 
electrical circuits of the U. S. Navy and 
leading powder and munitions plants. 
Order from your electrical dea!t-r. 

ECONOMY FUSE & MTG. CO. 
Kinzie and Orleans St3.,Chicago,U.S.A. 

I Sole manufacturers of ' ARKLhSS"— 
■^imi the Non-Renewable Fuse with the 
\h\ ■• tOO% GuaranUed Indicator." 
\m\ Economy Fuses are also made in 
\^k\ Canada at Montreal 



R^ckiaood 
n"ic±ipn- 

mtatAnMnon 



Will do more to eliminate the waste 
of power in machinery involving power 
transmission than any other mechanical 
device. Tliis ia especially true where 
quick starts ;ind sudden stops are neces- 
sary. Some place in your plant or prod- 
uct there may be a place where Kork- 
wood Friction Transmission will save 
you time and money. Investigate it. 
Send for our 'J2 page book "Friction 
Transmission." It ia of great value to 
manufacturers, drsigners, and engineers, 
please mention firm connection. 

THE ROCK WOOD MFG. CO. 

1904 English Ave. Indianapolis, Ind. 



What Machinery Is Doing for the 
Walnut Industry 

{Continued from page 51) 

they are distributed across one end of a 
sieve which operates like an endless belt. 
This sieve conveys the nuts beneath a 
chute whicii extends down from the over- 
head motor-driven blower that operates 
the vacuum device. This arrangement 
e.xerts just enough suction to pick up all of 
the nuts which are below a certain weight, 
leaving the heavier nuts of grades one and 
two to pass to the end of the sieve and glide 
down a long chute to the packing shed. 

The third machine invented by members 
of the association to convert the cull into a 
profitable bj'-product is the shell separator. 
This is used to handle the tailings of the 
mill. After the nuts are cracked and the 
girls have extracted from the shells all of 
the meats they can find there are usually 
small bits of meat left in .some of the shells, 
and women who are either careless or new 
at the work frequently overlook choice 
pieces of meats and sometimes whole halves 
while working over a pile of cracked nuts. 

The manager noted that there was con- 
siderable waste from that source, so he had 
a machine built to handle the tailings, and 
it has resulted in a saving of $50 worth of 
broken meats per day since it was put into 
operation. This device is built on the 
plan of a smaU threshing outfit, and 
yields a product material which, before 
the final sifting, runs about 80 per cent 
halves and broken pieces of nut meats 
and 20 per cent of shell particles. 

The walnut grower used to average 
about 3 cents per pound for his culls, and 
was unable to separate the shriveled meats 
from the sound ones, so the value of his 
better grades was depreciated. Today he 
gets from 5 to 7 cents per pound for his 
culls, and the sound nuts sell proportion- 
ately higher because they are of standard- 
ized quality. In 1915 the association 
cracked and sorted nuts by hand and 
marketed 434,000 pounds. Last year it 
sold all the meats it could obtain, and this 
year it is marketing 1,500,000 pounds of 
culls alone by the by-product system. 

Guns for the Fighting Front 

(Continued from page 55) 

five to plus 65 degrees, having a range of 
nine miles at the latter elevation. The 
total weight of this mount is 177,000 
pounds, the gun weighing 29,000 pounds, 
carriage 57,300 and car 90,000. The 
projectile weighs 700 pounds and the 
powder charge 65 pounds, which gives a 
muzzle velocity of 1,500 feet per second. 
This mortar is not designed for long-range 
but for plunging fire at shorter ranges, 
where great penetration is desired. The 
shells, filled with high explosives, are very 
effective in destroying ammunition dumps, 
dugouts, cement shelters, quarries, etc. 
When it is necessary to bring this mortar 
nearer the enemy, provision has been made 
to replace the standard six-wheel trucks by 
narrow gage trucks making the carriage 
very mobile and effective. 

Upon firing, the mortar moves to the 
rear about thirty inches, the energy of the 
recoil being partly absorbed by the re- 
sistance which the fluid in the recoil 
cylinders on the bottom of the cradle, 
offers to being forced past the pistons. A 
portion of this energy, sufficient to return 
the gun to its original position, is absorbed 
by compressing the air in the recuperator 
cylinder on top of the cradle. The return 
of the mortar is eased by buffers in the 
front of the recoil cylinders. Appro.xi- 
mately 300 rounds have been fired from one 
of these r2-inch mortar railway mounts 
with no impairment of any of the working 
parts. 

The guns above described are all adapted 
to transportation on railway tracks and in 
addition to those illustrated, mention, 
should be made of a very effective eight- 
inch railroad mount, model 1918, with its 
own ammunition car, which at a maximum 
elevation of 42 degrees fires a 200-pound 
projectile to a range of 20,000 yards. This 



mount permits of an all-around fire without 
changing the position of the mount on the 
tracks. 

Eight-inch Howitzer on Self-Propelled 
Caterpillar Mount 

In addition to the above artillery, the 
Ordnance Department developed some 
mobile heavy artillery for transportation 
over the highways, and if need be, across 
the fields, (juite independently of the 
higiiways. A very fine piece is the eight- 
inch howitzer mounted on a self-propelled 
carriage of the caterpillar type, so de- 
signed as to make the entire unit self- 
contained and adapted for quick mobility. 
The self-propelled carriage is designed 
along the same general lines as the artillery 
tractors which played such a prominent 
part in the field operations of the Allied 
armies. It is propelled by a four-cyUnder, 
heavy-duty, tractor motor developing 
about 75 horse-power at 850 revolutions 
per minute. The design of this unit is 
such as to permit a few degrees traverse of 
the howitzer to the right and left, as well 
as the full elevation of the piece. A small 
supply of ammunition can be carried on the 
platform of the gun mount, with a reserve 
carried on cargo-carrying "caterpillar" 
tractors, sufficient to serve the howitzer or 
battery of howitzers. This howitzer 
mount is capable of speeds ranging from 
about one to four and a half miles per hour, 
and is so designed as to require less than 
one minute to put it in firing position from 
road travel. .The total weight of the 
vehicle is approximately twenty-five tons, 
though, on account of the large track area, 
the concentrated pressure per square inch 
is but slightly greater than that exerted 
by an ordinary horse. Sufficient fuel and 
oil are carried to permit the vehicle to 
travel about ten hours under full load, 
without replacing the supply. 

The new ordnance includes, also, an 
eight-inch railway mount, with ammuni- 
tion car: shell 200 pounds; range 20,000 
yards; all-round fire. 

During a test the tractor gun climbed a 
45-degrees ravine wall and developed a 
speed of four miles per hour on level 
ground, demolishing trees and shrubbery 
just as do the monster tanks. 

Five-ton Artillery Tractor 

The five-ton artillery tractor, developed 
and built in large quantities by the Ord- 
nance Department, has put the horse out 
of business so far as pulhng guns is con- 
cerned. Deep mud, shell craters, sand or 
logs cannot detain artillery when pulled 
by this type of tractor. The Ordnance 
Department has produced them in four 
sizes; namely 23/2-, 5-, 10- and 20-ton 
capacity. Automobile engineers and auto- 
mobile factories with large production 
facilities made these tractors possible. 

"Dreadnought" and "Baby" Tanks 

Tanks played the most decisive part 
in the later phases of the war, and the 
Ordnance Department, on a joint produc- 
tion schedule with England, brought out a 
35-ton tank which, in its general appear- 
ance, is similar to the first tanks used by 
the British on the Somme. This design, 
which is driven by an American 12- 
cylinder Liberty motor, carries 12 men, 
four machine guns and two six-pounders. 
Wireless outfit, by which communication 
is always had with headquarters, is a part 
of its equipment. 

"Machine Gun Cavalry" is the name 
that should properly have been assigned 
to the American "Baby" or three-ton 
tanks, developed by the Engineering 
Division of the Ordnance Department. 
Capable of a speed double that of a horse 
and with one man firing at a rate in excess 
of the firing of ten men with rifles, this 
type of tank saves the work and lives of 
many thousand soldiers. It advances 
against machine gun fire, and can pull guns 
as well as carry fighters. 

Six-ton Tank and Trailer 

This American, two-man, six-ton tank 
closely resembles the famous French 



LEGAL NOTICES 



STENTS 

JF YOU HAVE AN INVENTION 

which you wish to patent you can 
write fully and freely to Munn & Co. 
for advice in regard to the best way 
of obtaining protection. Please send 
sketches or a model of your inven- 
tion and a description of the device, 
explaining its operation. 
All communications are strictly confiden- 
tial. Our vast practice, extending over a 
period of seventy years, enables us in many 
cases to advise in regard to patentability 
without any expense to the client. Our 
Hand-Book on Patents is sent free on 
request. This explains our methods, terms, 
etc., in regard to Patent; Trade Markt, 
Foreign Patents, etc. 

All pateou BPcured tbrougli UB are de«cribed widiout 
COBI lo the paleotee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 

MUNN (^ CO. 

SOLICITORS OF PATENTS 

233 Broadway. Wool worth Building, 

New York 
And 625 F Street. Washington. D. C, 



Annual Subscription Rates 
Scientific American Publications 

Scientific American (established 1845) one year $5.00 
Scientific American Supplement (established 

1876) one year 5.00 

Postage prepaid in United States and posseesions, 
Mexico, Cuba and Panama 
Foreign Postage 
Scientific American $I..50 per year additional. 
Scientific American Supplement SI -00 per year ad- 
ditional. 

Canadian Postage 
Scientific American 75c per year additional. 
Scientific American Supplement 50c per year addi- 
tional. 
The combined subscription rates and rates to foreign 
countries, including Canada, will be furnished 

upon application 

Remit by postal or express money order, bank 

draft or check 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising in this column is $1.00 a line. No 
less than four nor more than 12 lines accepted. 
Count seven words to the line. All orders must be 
accompanied by a remittance. 



BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

WB^I.L etj nipped iron foundry will develop and 
market patented article which can be made in its own 
plant. I'refercnce will be t;iven ca.sttngs used In build- 
ings. Addre.ss Foundry, Box 773, City Hall Station. 
New York City. 



AGENCY WANTED 

ITALIAN flrra, organized for market sales, contrac- 
tors to CJovernment and railways works — wants lo 
secure agency for Italy of best American Manufacturers 
of India Kubber goods— technical, mechanical, domestic 
articles. Address, Bofla, Piazzi 5. Turin (Italy). 



D PrintinfiT Cheap 

* ^..-^.^('arii-.,t.ircnlars. labels, book. paper. Pres.s$6. 

Larger$20 Job press $S5 up.Save money. Print 
for others, big profit. All easy, niles sent. 
Write factory for press cataloe.TYPK, cards, 
paper.THE PRESS CO. D-22 Meriden.Conih 




WELL'"'p'iVrWELL 

Own a machine of your own. Cash or easy 
terms. Many styles and sizes for all purposes 

Write for Circular. 
WILLIAMS BROS., 434 W. State St., Ithaca, NY. 



What Do 
You Offer? 

We have a shop with 
up-to-date and varied 
equipment — (some 265 
Machines.) 

Also the necessaiy capital to acquire 
patent rights or manufacture on 
a royalty basis tin article of merit 
which can be sold in large quantities. 

OPPORTUNITY 

Box 773, City Hall Station 

New York 



January 18, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



63 



How to find 
the right pencil 



You have run 
across a pencil now 
and then that suits 
you to a T — makes 
your work easier, 
quicker, more satis- 
factory. Why not be 
sure of getting such a 
pencil every time ? 

T^^ DIXON'S 

ELDobaD 

^Ihe master dramn^ penal 



has strong, firm leads that 
save a lot of resharpening 
— smooth, responsive leads 
that write with much less 
effort. Made in 17 degrees 
— 6B (softest) to 9H (hard- 
est). HB (medium) is most 
popular for general work ; 
but be sure to get the degree 
exactly suited to your work. 

How to find your grade. With the aid of 
the chart below, select the grade you think you 
should have. If the first is not exactly right, 
next time select a degree or two softer or 
harder as the case maybe. When you have 
found your degree, specify it every time and 
you will beassured of satisfactioD from thenon. 

Write us which degree you want, or what 
kind of pencil work you do. enclosing 16 
cents in stamps and we w^ill send you full- 
length samples worth double the money. 

JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE CO. 
DEPT. 121-J JERSEY CITY. N. J. 

Canadian ^*»?"'''""' 

Representativea ' °^ ' 

A. R. MacDougall & Co., Ltd., Toronto, Out. 



I Oil 



(A I 

IN! 



n 

N 

,311, 

\i 



dXxXn 



SB ) Varying degrees of 
SB >extra softness — 6B 
4B J softest. 

3B Extra soft and black. 
2B Very soft and black. 
B Soft and black. 
HB Medium soft. 
F Firm 



H Hard. 
2H Harder. 
3H Very hard. 
4H Extra hard. 

SHWa 



6H 
7H 
8H 
9H. 



/arying 

degrees of 

extra 

I hardness. 




P 

X nee 



OWER — all the power you 
need — steady, dependable, low- 
cost power for any purpose — that's 
the result of installing a Bessemer 
Oil Engine. No matter what your 
requirements are, a Bessemer will 
meet them with a saving in labor 
and expense. Burning the cheaper 
crude or fuel oils, the Bessemer eams 
its first cost through its operating 
economy alone ! Write for catalog. 
15 to 180 H. P. 

The Bessemer Gas Engine Co. 

14 York St., Grove City. Pa. 



oil. ENGINES 



Renault, the terror of the German machine 
gun nests. For quick transportation to 
the places of activity the ordnance 
engineers provided a rubber-tired, ball- 
bearing trailer, an American artillery- 
tractor being provided to haul the entire 
outfit over any kind of roadway. 

9.2-inch Howitzer and 1 1 -inch Trench 
Mortar 

In addition to the artillery above 
enumerated, we possess five 9.2-inch 
mobile ho.witzers of the siege type, built 
from a British design; and it is now recom- 
mended that a total of 20 be completed. 
This piece fires a 290-pound shell with a 
ma.ximum range of about 10,000 yards, 
and for traveling it divides into three loads 
of about 14,000 pounds each, including the 
transporting vehicle. We have also 
gotten out a design for a 11-inch trench 
mortar with a maximum range of 4,500 
yards. 

The unexpectedly early termination of 
the war leaves the country in an excellent 
condition as regards its capacity for the 
construction of all sizes of artillery in the 
event of a future war. Many of the 
plants will, of course, be dismantled; but 
the great Government establishments for 
the manufacture of ordnance on a large 
scale will be a permanent and immensely 
valuable asset to the country. The 
Ordnance Department is to be con- 
gratulated upon the way in which it rose 
to the occasion, put in operation the vast 
organization and built the equipment 
above described. 

Fitting the Shoe to the Soldier 

{Continued frnm page 56) 
the size by testing it with the shoe-fitting 
device — the set of metal blades. In reality 
this operation is employed in order to 
render it doubly certain that each man shall 
receive correctly fitted shoes. 

Each of these small metal blades is 
marked with a shoe size — 5 J '2, 6, 63^ and 
so on. When a pair of shoes has been 
selected for the soldier, of the size indicated 
by the measuring device, the operator 
inserts in them a pair of the blades, of 
corresponding size, placing a blade in each 
shoe. The knob end goes forward into the 
toe of the shoe and the other end is sprung 
back into the heel. 

The soldier then puts on the shoes and 
laces them up snugly. The blade in each 
shoe will lie flat and smooth in the bottom 
of the shoe under the stocking, and will 
follow perfectly the conformation of the 
arch. 

The little knob in the toe end of the shoe 
occupies exactly the space which should be 
free space between the soldier's toes and 
the leather at the end of a correctly-fitted 
army service shoe. Even when the foot 
has been expanded, by the act of the sol- 
dier's walking and carrying his load, there 
should still be a certain space between the 
toes and the inside end of the shoe, because 
it is fundamental in the science of army 
shoe fit that under no circumstances should 
the ends of the toes be in contact with an 
obstruction of any sort. 

Presence of free space ahead of the toes 
does not mean that the shoe is too long, 
nor that in the acts of walking, running or 
jumping the foot is likely to slump forward 
too far. If the shoe fits correctly, and is 
laced properly, the ball points of the shoe, 
and the restraint of the lacing and the 
"throat" of the shoe, will serve further to 
hold the foot in its rightful place. 

The test by the shoe-fitting blades con- 
sists in the soldier's determining whether 
or not he can with comfort wear the new 
pair when these blades are in them and 
when he walks briskly about, climbs upon 
a platform, descends a steep ramp fitted 
with cross-cleats, and otherwise gives the 
shoes a tryout approximating some of the 
severe exercises involved in field work and 
marching. If in performing these experi- 
ments — which take place at the time of 
fitting — the soldier's toes press against the 
knob of the blade, a longer shoe is 
required. 




Disston— 
The International Saw 



"T^ISSTON Saws did not seek trade con- 
^-^ quests on foreign shores, but were in- 
vited there by craftsmen who knew Disston 
quality by experience or reputation. 

Every country has its toolmakers who 
produce good tools, yet in every country 
you will find Disston Saws in the 
hands of many expert workmen. 

The word quality as applied to 
Disston Saws means a steel formula 
to produce the proper degree of 
hardness, toughness and elasticity. 



^nSS^o^,. 




It means design and form for fast, clean 
cutting. It means exact temper and work- 
manship. 

Disston Quality is the result of over 

three quarters of a century of development. 

Disston is truly the International Saw. 

Disston Saws and Tools are sold 

by all progressive hardware stores. 

Send for the free " Disston 

Handbook of Saws. " It contains 

many valuable suggestions on the 

care of Disston Saws and Tools. 



The saw most carpenters use 

HENRY DISSTON & SONS, Inc., Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
CANADIAN WORKS: TORONTO, CANADA 

DISSTON 

SAWS AND TOOLS 




"teiw" Electric Heating Devices 

FOR Industrial use 

Air Heaters 
Laboratory Plates 



Soldering Irons, 
Que Pots 



Afflencan Electrical Heatev Company 

DETROIT. USA. 



MODELS BUILT and 
INVENTIONS DEVELOPED 

We are prepared to build special ma- 
chinery and models from most delicate pre- 
cision instruments up to 10 ton machines. 

ENeiKEEREVe AND PLASNIXG DKPT. 

Best Equipped Plant of its kind in Country 

THREE RIVERS MACH. TOOL & DIE CORP., PHOENIX. N. Y. 



Any Place -Any Pace -Any Car 




New STROMBERC l^es W 

4^ C/\RBURE.TOR 



64 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 18, 1910 



"Why is the price of meat 
so high?" 




THE head of a Philadelphia family 
writes to ask us why the price of 
meat is so high. 

There are, of course, many reasons. 

The heavy de- 
mand for meat, 
caused by large 
orders from the 
Allies, and byhigh 
wages at home, 
has helped to 
boost prices. The 
lower purchasing 
power of the dol- 
lar has also caused 
the prices of all 
commodities to 
increase. 

But one impor- 
tant factor is the high cost of pro- 
ducing and marketing meat all along 
the line from farm to retailer. 

The retailer, for example, must pay 
higher wages to clerks and more for 
delivery service — in fact, everything 
entering into store operation has ad- 
vanced tremendously. 

And the retailer has to get a much 
higher price for meat, because he has 
to pay the packers more for it. 

Wages of packing house laborers 
have increased over 100 per cent 
in thepast three years 



All items entering into the 
operation of the retail meat 
shop have advanced tremen' 
dovaly in cost 



The packers, in turn, are in the same 
position as the retailers. Labor, trans- 
portation, machinery, materials — all 
items in the packing business— have 
mounted rapidly. But here again the 
packers have to get higher prices for 
meat when they have to pay such high 
prices for live stock. 

During the past four years cattle 
prices to Swift & Company advanced 
74 per cent, whereas the price received 
for beef by Swift & Company has ad- 
vanced only 61 per cent during the 
same period. 

The farmers have had to get more 
for cattle because it costs more to raise 
them. 



Every item entering into the 
production of cattle has gone up 





Corn, for example, has doubled dur- 
ing the past four years; farm labor is 
scarce and wages are high. 

But even with these higher produc- 
tion costs, the price of meat has gone 
up no more than the price of other 
foodstuffs — and this in face of the 
enormous quantities sent overseas to 
our Army and to the Allies. 

If the packers were to eliminate their 
profits entirely, there would be prac- 
tically no change in the price of meat. 
Swift & Company's profits average only 
a fraction of a cent per pound of meat. 



Swift & Company, U.S. A. 

A nation-wide organization owned by more than 23,000 stockholders 




For Gunsmiths, Tool Makers, Ex- 
perimental & Repair Work, etc. 




From9-in. to 18-in. 
swing. Arranged for 
Steam or Foot Power, 
Velocipede or Stand- 
up Treadle. 

W. F. & J. Barnes Co. 

Established 187J. 

1999 Ruby Street 

Rockford, III. 



ASBESTOS 



We are miners and shippers of Crude Asbestos in any 
quantity. We produce all grades at our world famous 
BELL ASBESTOS MINES in Canada. We also card 
fibres, spin yarns, weave cloths, and make all sorts ol 
Asbestos products. 

For anything you w^ant in Asbestos, turn to 
KEASBEY & MATTISON COMPANY 

DEPT. S-1 

AMBLER, PENNA. U. S. A. 

Owners of the world's largest Asbestos Mines 



NOVELTIES & PATENTED ARTICLES 

MtNUFtCTURED IT CONTRtCT. PUNCHIKG DIES. 
LIGHT lUTOMOBIlE STAMPINGS 

E KONIGSLOW STAMPING & TOOL WORKS, CLEVELAND. 0, 



SOLVINE B OILER P RESERVER 

Warranted, withont reserve, to remove boiler scale, 
prevent pittinK :in(i scale formation. 

Pamphlet on request. Money back guarantee. 



EUREKA MFG. CO. 



Jersey City, N. J. 



SOUTH BEND LATHES 



Eiliiblltliecl ill I'JVU 




19,UuOSoiilli Uend l,txlUi 

For the Machine 
and Repair Shop 

LOW IN PRICE 
l< In. to -24 In. (nine 
Stralghl or Unp Bed. 

Send for free'cataloi; ulv 
Ing prlcea on entire line 

Soatli Bend Lathe Worki 

4iIHi>dlion8t., 
South llend, Ind. 



IHESCHWERDTLE STAMP CO. 
»STEEL STAMPS LETTERS & figures: 
BRIDGEPORT CONN. 




■ Auto Tires. Double i 

La and punctureB. Easily appUeJ in any tire. 
') thousands Bold. Details free. Agents wanted. 
Anier.Acccssorle»Co..Dcpt. 8 Cincinnati 



THE BRIDGEPORT CHAIN CO. 

SpecialistslnSmallWireShapes&FlatStampings 
Briddeport, Conn^ 



WONDER 




9 PIPE. TUBING AND 

Models SOLID BAR BENDERS 

Bend all aizes of atandard 
or double thick a tee I, 
wrought iron, braaa end 
copper pipe from 1.8 In. to 
6 ina.; tubinff from 1-2 in. 
toTlna.; round aquare Uld 
'-viated aolld atock frMS 
tin. to 3 Ins. 

Amcrit^n Pipe Btndini 
Machine Co. 
32 PtvlSt. Bo°«^'mw."u. S. a. 



Battleship Strength of the Five 
Leading Naval Powers 

(Continued from page 53) 

tlic "Kansas" class and the five ships of 
the "New Jersey" cla.ss. We have also 
eight ships of the "Maine," "Alabama" 
and "Koarsagc " classes, mounting 12-inch 
and 13-ineh guns. 

It is considered that a battleship be- 
comes obsolete after 20 years of service 
and therefore the "Iowa" completed in 
1897, and the "Indiana," "Massachu- 
setts," and "Oregon," built in 1895 and 
1896 must be reckoned in the obsolete class. 

Before leaving the United States Navy 
and passing on to the ne.xt three, we draw 
attention to the fact that because of the 
great size and power and resisting quality 
of our dreadnought ships, they form a fleet 
which under a single command is fully 
equal in strength and fighting power to a 
combination of the Japanese, French and 
Italian dreadnought fleets. 

We wish, however, very emphatically 
to draw attention to the fact that our navy, 
strong though it is in dreadnoughts, is very 
poorly balanced. We have no fast modern 
scouts whatsoever, and these are absolutely 
essential in the strategy and tactics of 
modern naval warfare. We have six very 
fine battle-cruisers authorized and partly 
under construction. These should be 
pushed to completion, but we should 
immediately commence the construction 
of the 7,000-ton, 35-knot scouts of the 
1916 program, or better than that we 
should lay down a larger number of smaller 
and more handy type of equal speed, but 
of say 4,000 or .5,000 tons displacement. 
Our officers who were with the British fleet 
speak enthusiastically of a 35-knot scout 
of about 4,500 tons displacement mounting 
five 6-inch guns on the center line, and we 
think it would be good policy for our navy 
to lay down as early as possible at least a 
score of these in preference to the 10 larger 
vessels. We have authorized the con- 
struction of 10 dreadnoughts, four of them 
of the "California" type and the other six 
to be of over 40,000 tons and carrying ten 
or twelve 16-inch guns. This program in 
common with whatever program Great 
Britain may have under consideration and 
those of the other naval powers will come 
under consideration by the peace con- 
ference with a view to fair reduction, on 
the basis of the respective requirements of 
the various countries concerned. 

The Japanese Navy 

During the war Japan has added six 
ships of the dreadnought class to her fleet. 
Four of these are battleships of over 30,000 
tons displacement, each mounting twelve 
12-inch guns and steaming at 22.5 to 23 
knots. The other two are battle-cruisers 
of 27,500 tons, mounting eight 14-inch 
guns and steaming at 27.5 knots. She is 
also building a new battleship of 32,500 
tons and 23.5-knot speed, designed to 
mount 10 15-inch guns upon which not 
much work has been done, construction 
being stopped for the period of the war. 

Of predreadnoughts Japan has 12 of 
widely differing military value. Six of 
these are what might be called semi- 
dreadnoughts, inasmuch as in addition 
to their 12 guns, they carry a heavy inter- 
mediate battery of twelve 10-inch in the 
case of the "Aki" and "Satsuma," four 10- 
inch in the ca.se of the "Kashima" and 
"Katori," and eight 8-inch on the "Kur- 
ama" and "Ibuki." The Japanese pre- 
dreadnoughts are generally more modern 
than those of other nations, all of them 
having been built since 1900 and all having 
speeds of from 18 to 22 knots. 

The French Navy 

The French ships completed during the 
war are three of the "Bretagne" class, 
23,500 tons; mounting ten 13.4-inch guns. 
The French had laid down five ships of 
the "Normandie" class of 25,250 tons, 
mounting 12 13.4-inch guns in three 4-gun 
turrets; but they had done very little work 
upon the ships when the war opened, and 



did practically nothing during the progress 
of the war. Hence, the French navy 
includes at present only the seven dread- 
nought battleships of "Bretagne" and 
"Courbet " classes. 

Remembering that a dreadnought ship 
includes nothing less than 12-iuch guns 
in its main battery, it will be understood 
that the five French battleships of the 
"Mirabeau" class which mount four 12- 
inch and 12 9.4-inch guns, cannot be con- 
sidered available for the first line. Like 
the Japanese "Aki," the Italian "Vit. 
Emanuele "' and the British " Lord 
Nelson" classes, these vessels must be 
reckoned in the predreadnought cla.ss which 
for the French navy includes a total of 
11 ships. Of obsolete vessels the French 
navy possesses three. 

The Itetlian Navy 

Similarly to the French navy, the Italian 
navy had under construction when the 
war started some powerful dreadnoughts 
of which the keels had been laid but upon 
which all work was stopped during the war. 

These are the four ships of the 
"Colombo" class; 31,000 tons; 25-knot 
speed; mounting eight 15-inch guns. The 
five dreadnought battleships in commis- 
sion are from 21,000 to 22,700 tons dis- 
placement and 22 to 23 knots speed. One 
carries a battery of twelve 12-inch guns, the 
others a battery of thirteen 12-inch guns, 
mounted in three 3-gun and two 2-gun 
turrets. It will be noted that neither the 
French nor the Italian navies have built 
any warships of the battle-cruiser type. 

Deterioration in Ultra- Violet Radia- 
tion of Mercury Lamps 

THE radiations from the quartz mercury- 
vapor lamp are being used extensively 
in accelerating photochemical actions, as a 
bactericide in sterilizing water, as a 
therapeutic agent, in dye-fading tests, and 
in other connections. The violet and ultra- 
violet rays appear to have, as distinguished 
from the infra-red, a marked effect in many 
of these activities. There has accordingly 
arisen among manufacturers of paper, 
dyes, cloth, rubber goods, paints, etc., a 
distinct need for a source of ultra-violent 
radiation of high intensity which does 
not decrease with use. 

It is well known that the intensity of 
the radiation from quartz mercury-vapor 
lamps, especially as regards the ultra- 
violet component, decreases greatly with 
use. This decrease has been established 
qualitatively by several experiments, using 
physical, chemical and biological tests. 
But no exact quantitative data have been 
available showing the rapidity and the 
extent of the loss in effectiveness, as a 
function of the time of operation of the 
lamp. 

Some months ago the problem was 
presented to the Bureau of Standards. 
In attacking it it was first necessary, as is 
so often the case in the investigations of 
this Bureau, to devise methods and instru- 
ments which would measure the deteriora- 
tion quantitatively. The Bureau of 
Standards is quite in the habit of being 
the first to undertake a certain observa- 
tion or measurement, and so is not at all 
dismayed to find that no accepted pro- 
cedure is known for doing something that 
it wants to do. When it meets this 
situation, it just goes ahead quietly and 
invents a way, and, as often as not, a 
tool or instrument or whatever else may 
be needed. 

In the present case it was found possible 
to measure the ultra-violet radiation with 
a thermopile and a yellow glass. Several 
makes of quartz mercury-vapor lamps 
were examined; none was found to possess 
any great advantage over the others in 
point of initial strength of the ultra-violet 
component. The total intensity of that 
component was found to decrease to one- 
half or one-third of its initial value after 
1,000 to 1,200 hours service. A full 
account of the methods used and the 
results obtained is given in Scientific- 
Paper No. 330 of the Bureau, just issued. 



We are going on 
Are you ready? 



THE Pierce-Arrow factory 
is going at full speed. It 
will keep going and Pierce- 
Arrow trucks will be available 
for the great reconstruction 
work that confronts us as they 
are needed. 

The energy that met war 
problems unfailingly will meet 
the great problems of Peace. 

Thousands of businesses face 
the emergency in the same spirit. 



Pierce-Arrow trucks will serve 
these — help them to conquer diffi- 
culties of transportation greater 
than those we have conquered. 
We met successfully every con- 
dition of service in 148 lines of 
business. Call on us for help in 
expanding or redirecting trans- 
portation facilities. 

The greatest opportunity 
America ever had is before us. 
Will you take advantage of it? 



PIERCE-ARROW 



Detivers more work in a given time; 
Loses less time on the job and off the job; 
Costs less to operate and less to maintain; 
Lasts longer, depreciates less and commands 
a higher resale price at all times. 




THE PIERCE-ARROW 

MOTOR CAR COMPANY 

BUFFALO. N. Y. 





AT YOUR SERVICE 



Rugged in construction — engined to take their rated load anywhere — MACK 
Trucks give year-round service in a hundred industries from steel making to 
fruit handling with a uniform certainty that automatically determines future 
truck purchases. 

The steady growth of all-MACK fleets — their deliberate selection on the basis 
of performance — indicates the power and stamina MACK Trucks show under 
every condition of load, road and weather. 

Let us send you our catalog and detailed information on MACK Trucks — 
capacities 1 to 7}4, tons, with trailers to 15 tons. 

Orders for immediate delivery can now be accepted. 

INTERNATIONAL MOTOR COMPANY 

NEW YORK 




PERFORMANCE COUNTS 



SciotificAmerican 



Entwed as second claas matter Juno 18. 1879, at the port office at New York, N. Y.. under the Act of March 3. 1879 




Vol. CXX. No. 4 
January 25, 1919 



TAKING OFF THE SERIOUSLY WOUNDED IN LITTERS FROM THE STRANDED "NORTHERN PACIFIC 



Published Weekly by 

Scientific American Publishing Co. 

Munn & Co., New York, N. Y. 



Price 10 Centf 
$5.00 a Year 



No Longer, "Just Lumber 

THE Long-Bell Lumber Company, the 
largest distributor of Southern Pine 
in the United States, announces that here- 
after the product from its twelve great 
saw mills will be marked with this design 



yy 



^5 






hvf 



■■ ■{« 



This progressive age demands 
named goods. Heretofore 
lumber has not been consid- 
ered adaptable to trademark- 
ing, but this company believes 
that the public is as much 
entitled to know the identity 
of the manufacturer of the 
lumber it uses, as the food it 
eats or the clothing it wears. 



It is no longer necessary to 
ask for "just lumber." Wheth- 
er your requirements be large 
or small you may specify 
LONG-BELL brand with the 
same assurance and satisfac- 
tion that accompanies the pur- 
chase of any commodity that 
bears the maker's guarantee 
in the shape of a trademark. 



Ask your dealer for Long- Bell brand lumber. 

The Long-Bell Lumber Co, 



R. A. Long Bldg., 



Kansas City, Mo. 



Manufacturer of Southern Pine, hardwood, oak 

flooring, and creosoted lumber, ties, posts, 

poles, piling and wood blocks. 



s»~^ 



eiJ; 



1^!*^ 



/ 



JPJ 



bi 



\bh 



'•2^ 



Ipnc 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



65 




SOME PITTSBURGH USERS 
OF REPUBLIC TRUCKS 

Riter-Conley Mfg. Co. 
Carnegie Steel Co. 
Dauler, Close Furniture Co, 
Equitable Gas Co. 
H.C. FrickCokeCo., 
Blanck's Transfer Co. 
Gerstner Boiler Works 
Pennsylvania Hide & Leath.Co. 
Hope Natural Gas Co. 
Pittsburgh Foundry & Mch.Co. 
Keystone Bronze Co. 
Armour & Co. 
Liberty Refining Co. 
Beaver Refining Co. 
Am. Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
May Lumber Co. 
Baker Office Furniture Co. 
Am, Fdry. & Construction Co. 
Meadow Lands Coal Co. 
Ziegler Lumber Co. 
Geo. R. McAbee Pdr. & Oil Co. 
Consolidated Ice Co. 
W. E. Osbom Co. 
P. & A. Telephone Co. 
Homestead Steel Works 
Best Company 
People's Natural Gas Co. 
Keller Piano Co. 
Petroleum Products Co. 
Consolidated Coke Co. 
Marshall Bros. Elevator Co. 
Columbia Steel & Shafting Ca 
Pittsburgh Coal Co. 
FoUansbee Bros. Co. 
Pittsburgh-Des Moines St'lCo. 
Equitable Coke Co. 
Famous Biscuit Co. 
Enterprise Stamping Co. 
Pittsburgh Leather & Glue Co. 
Duquesne Packing Co. 
Pittsburgh Melting Co. 
Railway & Industrial Eng. Co. 
Kelly & Jones Co. 
Vanadium Alloys Steel Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Bituminous Coal Corporation 
Aluminum Co. of America 
The Fairbanks Co. 
Pittsburgh BureauofEngin'ng. 
Copeland Coal Co. 



What PITTSBURGH Thinks of IfepubHc Trucks 



In Pittsburgh, with its hills and heavy hauling, 
where power and stamina are absolutely essential; 
half of all the motor trucks in use are Republics. 

"We found Republic Trucks so satisfactory in 
spite of over-loading and strenuous over-time ser- 
vice that we have just purchased another Republic," 
say Best Company, manufacturers of pipes, valves, 
etc. 

"Because of the demonstrated efficiency of the 
first Republic we purchased, we are now using a fleet 
including 1%, 2, 3% and 5 ton, all Republics," say 
W^. E. Osbom Co., large wholesale produce dealers. 

"in spite of the severity of service in the oil and 
gas fields and over difficult country roads our 
Republic Trucks have been absolutely trouble- 
proof," say People's Natural Gas Company. 

"Even the additional abuse of war-time driving 
has had no apparent effect on the Republic Trucks 
which we have had in operation for three years. 
They continue to give the most satisfactory service," 
say Ziegler Lumber Company. 

Other examples of Republic quality and depend- 
able service could be given without limit. Each of 



the owners listed in this advertisement and hun- 
dreds of others have learned the efficiency and 
economy of hauling with Republic Trucks. That 
is why there are as many Republic Trucks in 
operation in Pittsburgh as there are of all other 
makes combined. 

In every city, in town and country — wherever 
motor trucks are used — Republic Trucks will be 
found, in constantly increasing numbers, performing 
hauling tasks of the most exacting kind. 

Republic Trucks are designed and produced by 
specialists who know the severest conditions met 
by trucks in any kind of hauling anywhere and pro- 
vide ample strength and power to meet them. 

More than 1300 Republic Service Stations, dis- 
tributed all over the United States, insure proinpt 
reliable service to Republic Truck users everywhere. 

There's a Republic Truck to exactly fit the needs 
of your business. See the Republic dealer and let 
him help you select the model which will best meet 
your requirements. 

REPUBLIC MOTOR TRUCK CO., INC 

Alma, Michigan 



Republic Special, with boih . . . $1295 Model 12 — 2 Ton, chassis 

Model 10—1 Ton, with Express body . 1535 Model T — 3V2 Ton, chassis 

Model 11 — l\2Ton, chassis . . . 1885 Model V—5 Ton, chassis 

All prices F. O. B. Alma, Michigan 



$2275 
3450 
4750 




The Torbensen Internal Gear 
Drive, used in all Republic 
Trucks, delivers 92% of the 
motor power to the \A^heels. 
AVe know of no other type of 
drive that delivers as much. 
The entire load is carried on 
a separate I-beam axle. The 
driving mechanism has noth- 
ing to do but drive the truck. 



REPUBLIC 

Intemcd Gear Drive 

IMOTOR TRTJCICS 

Built by the Isirgest Marmfacturers ofMotorTmcks in the^rld 



66 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 




AND CONTROLLERS 



Raising the SkyUne 



Story on story the steel framework of the 
office building lifts its lattice against the 
sky. 

Beam after beam, girder after girder, 
slips into place. Swiftly the skeleton takes 
form and becomes a many windowed mass 
of steel, stone and concrete. 

But the mere building is not enough. 
Ready to give elbow room to an army of 
15,000 workers, it must include means to 
carry them swiftly and safely to their 
offices. Its twentieth floor must be as 
easily available as its third. Reaching the 
street must be a matter of but moments, 
and little trouble for workers on any floor. 

Yet few realize how necessary is the 
machinery of transportation that fills and 






empties the many floors of the modem 
office building. 

Without quick, sure, perfectly controlled 
elevators, no sane architect would design 
a building of forty stories. 

Without electricity, which alone meets 
all the power, speed and control reqmre- 
ments of the elevator, there would be no 
Woolworth Building, no Equitable Build- 
ing, no Metropolitan Life. 

Without electricity. New York's skyline 
would be low and level, and the whole 
thirteen miles of Manhattan Island's 
length would be needed to house its 
office workers. 

Truly, the electric motor has been as 
vital as steel in raising the skyline to where 
it stands today. 

Here, as in every other place of business, commerce and 
manufacture, for which dependable, flexible power is re- 
quired, Westinghouse has taken an important part. West- 
inghouse Elevator Motors and Controllers serve today in 
many of America's best known buildings. 

WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING CO. 
East Pittsburgh, Pa. 



w*- 



Starting the workers of great 
buildings on their homeward trip 
— carry ing them up floor after floor 
in the morning, 13 an enormous task 
even for an electric elevator. West- 
inghouse Motors and Controllers 
render this service unfailingly every 
working day. 



<t 



U!^ 



WESTINGHOUSE> 
ELECTRIC } 

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BE WEEKLY JOUBNAL OF PBACTICAL INFOIMATION 



VOLUME CXX, 
NUMBER 4 



NEW YORK, JANUARY 25, 1919 



riO CENTS A COPY 
L $5.00 A YEAR 



Submarine Range-Finding by Means of Re- 
flected Sound Waves 

AT best, submarine visibility is limited to a few 
hundred feet. Even with the most powerful 
searchlights and the most improved sighting means, 
deeply submerged objects can be detected only within a 
200-foot range, which, obviously, is too circumscribed 
for practical purposes. And it is that very fact that 
has brought about the submersible fighting craft, which 
can steal up to its intended victim, discharge its tor- 
pedoes, and get away without showing much more than 
its thin periscope for a 



plan view. A sound projector is mounted in the center of 
the horizontal arm, as shown. The entire apparatus is 
fastened to the bow of a ship as shown in the lower right- 
hand sketch. 

The submarine detector operates in the same general 
manner as the aerial apparatus of Mr. Ries. A sound is 
projected by the sound projector, and the reflected .sound 
or echo is caught by the two megaphone receivers only 
when they are pointing toward the source of reflected 
sound. Thus the horizontal arm is swung about, while 
the two megaphone receivers are moved toward and 
away from each other, until the reflected sound is loudest, 



illustrations it is only shown in the original and simple 
form. The megaphones can be tilted downward as well 
as toward each other, so that they can be brought to bear 
on any object on a different plane than the horizontal 
arm. The swinging of the horizontal arm and the 
megaphone receivers may be effected from the bow by 
means of a simple hand control, or mechanically or 
electrically from the bridge. 

In actual use, the operator wears telephone receivers 
much after the fashion of the radio telegraphist. The 
horizontal arm is slowly swung from side to side, while 
the sound projector is operated at intervals. When a 

suspicious sound is 



brief moment. 

But where the eyes 
fail the ears can be made 
to serve. Early in the 
anti-submarine cam- 
paign the AlUed coun- 
tries set to work devel- 
oping sound detectors 
for indicating the pres- 
ence of U-boats. What 
success they met with 
has been and still re- 
mains a military secret, 
although it is positively 
known that most de- 
stroyers have been 
equipped with simple 
microphonic devices or 
"hydrophones." The 
German U-boats have 
also been equipped with 
electrical "ears," enab- 
ling them to hear the 
various ships and sub- 
marines about them. For 
the most part, however, 
these microphonic de- 
vices have served to 
give a broad indication 
of the presence of U- 
boats and other craft, 
and in no sense have 
they been employed to 
locate the exact where- 
' abouts of the enemy. 

When the United 
States entered the war, 
and when the U-boat 
campaign was practic- 
ally at its height, several 
American inventors set 
to work on the submar- 
ine detector problem. 
Among them was Mr. 
Elias Ries, an electrical 
■engineer of New York 
city, who worked out a 
submarine sound-detect- 
ing apparatus of the 
type shown in the ac- 
companying drawings. 

Mr. Ries will be recalled by the constant reader as the 
inventor of the system of aerial "ears" for mariners, 
which permits the accurate positioning of icebergs, 
landmarks, other ships and so on during the thickest 
fogs, and which was described in these columns some 
three years ago. 

When it came to locating hidden submarines, Mr. Ries 
merely modified his aerial apparatus so as to make it 
available for use in water. The result is shown in the 
large drawing. His subaqueous apparatus consists of 
two megaphone receivers, A and B, pivoted at the ends 
of a horizontal arm. The latter member may be swung 
in almost any direction as shown in the upper right-hand 




Copyrlfi-ht, Scientific American Pub. Co.. Inc. 



nt, Hcientltic American fuD. uo.. Inc. , • t 1 

By means of this device, which was originally developed for the detection of U-boats, the manner is able to 
locate wrecks, uncharted rocks and other submerged objects 

indicating that the apparatus is alined with the source 
of the rebounding sound waves. Now if the axial line 
of each megaphone receiver is extended, the two lines 
will obviously cross at the point where the rebounding 
sound waves originate. And with a base line (the arm) 
of known length, and with the base angles (formed by 
the position of the megaphones as compared with the 
horizontal arm) also known, it becomes merely a matter 
of simple triangulation to determine the crossing point 
of the two lines, which is the apex of the isosceles triangle 
thus formed. 

This type of submarine detector has been developed 
to a fine degree by Mr. Ries, and in the accompanying 



caught, or when an echo 
is received, the operator 
immediately brings the 
horizontal arm into a 
definite position where 
the sound comes in loud- 
est, and then focuses the 
megaphone receivers for 
still louder sound, indi- 
cating that the best focus 
has been obtained. By 
means of suitable scales 
it is then possible to 
read the range and exact 
position of the sub- 
merged object, whether 
it is a WTeck, uncharted 
ledge, or sinister sub- 
marine. Because of the 
homogeneous nature of 
water and the use of the 
reflection principle, Mr. 
Ries claims that the 
range can be determined 
with the same accuracy 
as the conventional ar- 
tillery range-finder. 

Among the refine- 
ments of this apparatus 
which may be mentioned 
is the method of offset- 
ting the pressure when 
the vessel is on the 
move. The inventor 
makes use of a simple 
pitot tube arrangement 
which compensates for 
the pressure on the front 
of the megaphone dia- 
phragm by a counter- 
pressure in the forward 
megaphone compart- 
ment; so that no matter 
what the speed of the 
vessel may be, the pres- 
sure is always equalized 
and the condition is 
practically the same as 
if the vessel were stand- 
ing still. If desired, the 
megaphones may be at- 
tuned to the sound waves of the projector, so that there 
will be practically no interference from other sounds. 
By means of a double contact button which disconnects 
the megaphone receivers when the sound projector is 
operated, the operator docs not hear the projected sound 
waves until they are redistributed by a reflecting surface. 
And since it is extremely difficult to draw comparisons 
by sound means only, Mr. Ries has introduced sensitive 
electrical devices which give a visual indication of the 
comparative values of sound waves affecting each mega- 
phone. 

For many reasons it may be best to employ sound waved 
(.Continued on page 8i) 



68 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Founded 1845 

Publiihed by Scientific American Publithing Co. 

New York, Saturday, January 25, 1919 

Muna & Co.. 233 Broadway, New York 



Charles Allen Munn, President; Orson D. Munn, Treasurer 
Allan C. Hoflman. Secretary ; all at 233 Broadway 

Elntered at the Post Offioe of New York. N. Y.. as .second Class flatter 

Trade Mark It.vnstercd in the Inlted States Patent OHlce 

Copyright 1919 hy Sclentlllc American Publishing Co. 

Cireal llritain rlphts reserved 

Illustrated articles iiiu.>t not l)e reproduced without periuisslon 

The object of this journal is to record accurately and 
lucidly the latest scientific, mechanical and industrial 
Ttevt of the day. As a weekly journal, it is in a p«si- 
tion to announce interesting developments before they 
are published elsewhere. 

The Editor is glad to have submitted to him timely 
articles suitable for these columns, especially when such 
articles are accompanied by photographs. 

Port and Harbor Facilities 

ONE of the most important papers presented at 
the War Emergency and Reconstruction Con- 
gress at Atlantic City in December last, was 
one bearing on the very serious question of the Port and 
Harbor Facilities of the United States. This matter is 
very intimately related to the question of the greater 
American merchant marine which is now in course of 
construction. 

The strange national complacency with regard to the 
absence of an American merchant marine disappeared 
with the withdrawal of hundreds of thousands of tons of 
neutral and German shipping from our commerce, and 
with the insistent demand for bottoms, resulting from 
the enormous purchases of munitions and war supplies 
by Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy. Manu- 
facturers were hurrying shipments to the Atlantic ports, 
regardless of the dates of sailings of vessels and the 
limited storage facilities at those ports. Wharves, docks, 
freight yards, warehouses, etc., became choked with 
freight and, for miles behind the seaboard, sidings and 
tracks were congested with loaded freight cars. 

The solution of the problem was sought in the two 
directions of building a large merchant fleet and of 
increasing the efficiency of the port and harbor facilities. 
Investigations by the Shipping Board showed that the 
dry docks were utterly inadequate to meet the needs of 
the ships in use; that the methods and appliances for 
loading and unloading cargo in the majority of the 
ports were ineflBcient; that the marine terminals were 
inadequate; and that there was no coordination of tow- 
age and lighterage facilities. As the result of its investi- 
gation, the Shipping Board created on May 23d, 1918, 
the Port and Harbor Facilities Commission. 

Careful study of the various elements entering into 
the export and import trade of this country has con- 
vinced the Port and Harbor Facilities Commission that 
one of the most important factors in the upbuilding of 
our maritime commerce is the adoption of a zoning 
system, under which exports and imports will flow 
through those ports which are within economic trans- 
portation distance of the points of origin and destination. 
Knowing the point of origin of a commodity, the deter- 
mination of the port through which it should be exported 
does not by any means depend solely upon proximity 
and railroad facilities. Other factors enter into the 
question, such as the percentage that is exported of the 
total of a commodity that is mined, manufactured, etc., 
at a given point. Statistics tell us the total amount of 
a commodity exported through our various ports, but 
we have no statistics showing the proportion of the total 
exports distributed by the several points of origin. 
Thus, we know that in 1914 Illinois produced three 
times the amount of agricultural implements that was 
produced in any other state, but it does not follow that 
the same proportion obtains in regard to exports. That 
is one of the subjects which the Commission now has 
under investigation. A like condition obtains in respect 
to the destination of imports. Statistics tell us the total 
amount of each commodity received annually at each 
of our ports, but we have no data as to the destination 
of these commodities. This is a matter of supreme im- 
portance, for the success of a port depends on its ability 



to maintain an economic balance between its exports 
and its imports. Thus, a port may be the nearest point 
at which a vessel can unload; but if it cannot provide a 
return cargo, the vessel will make another port at which 
such cargo can be obtained. The Commission is now 
engaged in determining what proportion of our export 
trade originates at each of the important centers of 
production, and to what points our imports are dis- 
tributed. With these statistics tabulated, the Com- 
mission will be able to establish an economic zoning 
system. 

The congestion at the North Atlantic ports was due 
mainly to the fact that 75 per cent of our war industries 
are located east of the Alleghany Mountains and north 
of the Potomac; and also to the fact that the Allies being 
our largest purchasers, there was an unprecedented 
movement of freight to the Atlantic seaports. 

The use of pier transit sheds as storage warehouses has 
been a serious handicap. The Commission recommends 
the construction of adequate warehouse storage facilities, 
inshore and adjacent to the transit sheds, as the most 
effective way of increasing the efficiency of the marine 
terminals. 

It must be understood that the Shipping Board does 
not possess any authority to finance the improvements 
necessary in the various harbors of the country, and it 
believes that the best guarantee of the success of a port 
is the investment in its improvements by those who will 
be benefited by the resulting increase of its business. 
To this end, the Commission has urged the municipal 
officers of all seaport cities to coiiperate in the appoint- 
ment of Port Commissions, whose functions will consist 
in stimulating interest in maritime commerce in their 
several communities and in the territory tributary to 
their respective ports. 

When the ships now in course of construction are 
completed, there will be approximately 17,300,000 dead 
weight tons of shipping under the American flag. That 
tonnage will call for a very large equipment of dry docks 
and marine railways — in immense undertaking in itself. 
Furthermore, the Commission is recommending the 
extensive introduction of modern, improved appliances 
for the loading and unloading of freight. 

We can well believe that each step taken by the Port 
and Harbor Facilities Commission in the course of its 
investigation has served to impress it with the impor- 
tance and magnitude of the task with which it has been 
entrusted. 

Compared with our wealth and our vast and ever- 
growing commerce, our port and harbor facilities are 
woefully inadequate; and in our great effort to build, in 
a few years' time, a merchant marine which normally 
would call for several decades of growth, we must not 
forget that our port facilities are also far below require- 
ments and that they must be enlarged, improved, and 
thoroughly modernized, contemporaneously with the 
construction of our new merchant marine. 

Our Achievements in Aviation 

WITH the raising of the ban of censorship, the 
story of America's effort in the air can at last 
be told in its entirety. It is a remarkable 
story; for it tells how the United States, in the brief space 
of a year and a half of war, established a gigantic aero- 
nautical industry, built up a huge fleet of airships of all 
kinds, trained an army of airmen, and developed a 
standardized airplane engine as well as several ail- 
American types of airplanes. 

It has remained for Major-Gcneral George O. Squier, 
Chief Signal Officer of the Army, to give us real facts 
and figures concerning our aerial activities. This he 
did during a recent address before the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers in New York City. The facts 
and figures given below are his. 

At the outbreak of the war we had a negligible air 
fleet, comprising a handful of training planes and about 
as many trained fliers. There was no real aeronautical 
industry. Our aeronautical engineers and designers 
were so few as to be negligible. But once we entered the 
war, our Government immediately realized the impor- 
tance of aviation. The $10,800,000 appropriation 
granted in the act of May 12th, 1917, the .§31,846,000 
and finally the .$640,000,000 left no doubt that we were 
in earnest. 

As to what has been done, we first learn that 8,600 
fliers have been trained in this country since the war began. 



Monthly graduations at the flying schools have con- 
stantly increased. Figures prove our training fatalities 
to be less than those of any other country. Our students 
have flown more than 880,000 hours, which is the equiva- 
lent of 66,000,000 miles. The monthly average in the 
United States has been only one fatality for each 3,200 
hours flown. 

More than 16,000 Liberty engines were produced in 
the calendar year 1918. To November 11th, 1918, more 
than 14,000 Liberty engines were produced, equivalent 
to 5,700,000 brake horse-power. 

On November 11th, 1918, there had been developed, 
tested and adopted by the Army four airplanes, on which 
production would have started this year. They were 
the Lepere, the De Haviland 9-A, the Martin twin- 
engined bomber, and the Loening two-seater fighter. 
The first three were equipped with the Liberty engine, 
while the last carried the Hispano-Suiza engine, also being 
turned oQt in quantities. 

To turn out the vast number of machines shipped 
overseas, an industrial army of about 350 firms and 
corporations, employing more than 200,000 men and 
women, had to be mobilized. A cotton fabric had to be 
developed to take the place of the linen formerly used 
for airplane wings. Huge lumber camps had to be 
organized in the Northwest, in order to obtain the spruce 
and other lumber required. 

Meanwhile the Navy erected the large Naval Aircraft 
Factory for building its own planes. It developed a 
huge flying boat, equipped with two Liberty engines, 
for anti-submarine, convoying, and coast-patrol work. 
It developed a still larger flying boat, equipped with 
three engines, which recently carried 51 passengers. 

Many achievements were scored in the research field. 
Our chemists worked out a commercially practicable 
method of obtaining non-inflammable helium gas for 
balloons and airships, thus placing these lighter-than-air 
craft on a more equal footing with the airplane type. 

All in all — and the foregoing is only the barest outline 
of what has been done — our record in the air has been 
one of the greatest surprises of the war. 

Electric Waves from Ocean Tides 

OBSERVATIONS which indicate that there is a 
subterranean electric wave analogous to the ocean 
tide and derived therefrom have been made at the 
St. Louis observatory on the Island of Jersey, and recently 
reported before the French Academy. The iron pipe.s 
which deliver gas and water, respectively, to the observa- 
tory, on being tested by a sensitive galvanometer showed 
the existence in the ground of an electro-motive force of 0. 1 
volt, whose variations were registered photographically 
through a period of ten months. In the opinion of the 
observer, M. Marc Dechevrens, the current is evidently 
affected by action of the moon, through the oceanic tides. 
The voltage exhibits a maximum value twice a day 
and a minimum value twice a day; the two oscillations 
are almost equal, like those of the level of the sea. 

The entire variation is accomplished in about 
twenty-five hours of solar time; the maxima and the 
minima for any given day therefore occurred 50 minutes 
later than upon the day before. This is precisely like 
the daily retardation in the passage of the moon to the 
meridian and like the daily retardation of the tides. 

If it is really the movement of the waters which is 
the origin of the electric current observed we would not 
e.xpect to find the maximum voltage concurring with high 
tides. The maximum electro-motive force may be con- 
nected with low tide, preceding it by two hours. 

The ma.ximum amount of attraction upon the water 
by the sun and the moon acting together takes place at 
the time of the equinoctial new moon. At Jersey, the 
highest tide w-hicli results from this action in concerl is 
not produced until after the lapse of an interval of 40 
hours and 30 minutes on the average. The greatest 
variation in the electro-motive force at the same period 
is registered as a minijnuin of voltage about 38 hours and 
30 minutes after the rise of the new moon, or two hours 
before the highest tide of the year. 

During the development of the tide at Jersey the 
sea rises during a period of 5 hours and 40 minutes but 
requires 6 hours and 40 minutes to fall. In the case of 
the electric current the intervals of time which most 
closely accord with those of the tide are 5 hours and 1.5 
minutes for the diminution of the voltage and 7 hours and 
18 minutes for its increase. 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



Electricity 

A Simple Cable Connecter has been in use for some 
time past, in Germany and other European countries. 
It consists merely of a flat metallic tube in which a series 
of notches are made with a special tool, after the two 
ends of the cable to be joined are properly inserted. 
The contact is said to be perfect, and the grip is such that 
the cable breaks btefore the connector gives way. 

Wireless and Morale. — ^Since the armistice brought 
hostilities to an end it has been learned that the morale 
of the population of Lille was maintained by news given 
from a French wirele.ss station hidden from the Germans, 
according to Wireless Age. Good news spread quickly 
through underground channels. The peoi>le knew that 
10,000 American soldiers were arriving daily. Airplanes 
also dropped many leaflets, which were eagerly taken 
despite German efforts to prevent their distribution. 

Efficiency of the Moore Light. — A contribution by 
Dr. M. Wolfke to the Bulletin of the Association Suisse 
des Electriciens refers to some tests carried out on a 
Moore tube installation using carbon dioxide gas. Fig- 
ures for the consumjjtion varying from 4.7 to 6.0 watts 
par hefner-candle are given, and it is shown that the 
former was apparently a minimum when the installation 
consumed about 2,000 watts. In the case of tubes filled 
with nitrogen the efficiency is much better, about 1 to 2 
watts per hefner being recorded, while the Neon tube 
operates at less than 1 watt per hefner. It is known also 
that the efficiency of the CO2 Moore tube can be materi- 
ally improved by introducing a choker in the primary 
circuit with a view to producing a modification in the 
form of the wave. 

British Radio -Telegraph Schemes. — It is reported 
that various schemes are under consideration for the 
development of radio-telegraphy throughout the British 
Empire, particularly in the Far East, the Pacific, and 
the West Indies. It is proposed to establish stations 
at Singapore, Colombo and Hong Kong that will be able 
to communicate with the systems about to be established 
in China and with those already existing in Japan. The 
stations to be established in the Southern and Western 
Pacific will come into line with the Australian and New 
Zealand systems. Some of the islands of the British 
West Indies are already connected by radio telegraphy, 
but it is proposed to extend and improve the system so 
that all the colonies in the Caribbean Sea will be in com- 
munication with each other and with London. All 
these systems will be state owned. 

Rivetless Ships. — The Committee of Lloyd's have 
recently carried out a series of experiments to determine 
as far as can be done by means of tests and analysis, the 
general trustworthiness of structural connections effected 
by electric welding and^their capacity to stand the strains 
to which they would be subjected in practice. The Com- 
mittee had before them the report from the society's 
Chief Ship Surveyor on the results of these experiments, 
and to assist them in their deliberations a demonstration 
was given at the society's offices. After careful con- 
sideration, the Technical Committee decided to recom- 
mend to the General Committee for approval certain 
recommendations put forward by the Chief Ship Sur- 
veyor as all the conditions on which, as a tentative 
measure, welding might be adopted instead of riveting in 
the construction of vessels intended for classification in 
Lloyd's Register Book. 

Electroplating to Balance Shells. — According to 
L'Usine, in most munition work there will be found in 
spite of the care of the mechanical processes, a certain 
number of shells that are badly balanced. It is desir- 
able, if possible, to save such shells, and various 
methods of restoring the balance have been tried. 
For example, acids have been employed to reduce 
the surface at specified points, but this gives rise 
to irregularities and involves certain dangers in 
manipulation. A better method, which has been more 
recently employed, is to deposit a certain amount of 
metal at the weak point "by a simple electroplating 
process. It is said that a deposit of 1.41 ounces is usually 
the limit necessary to correct a 3-inch shell, and with a 
current of 12 amperes the process takes three or four 
hours. Various devices are described for enabling dif- 
ferent defects to be eliminated, e g for restoring the 
balance of a shell whose center of gravity iij too low, or 
situated eccentrically from the axis. 



Science 

Expansion of Insulating Materials. — During the 
past year the Bureau of Standards has tested and heat- 
treated a number of synthetic insulating materials, such 
as "bakelite," "condensite, " "formica," etc., in order to 
obtain information required in connection with the 
Bureau's spark-plug investigations. The tests show 
that, without exception, the substances above mentioned 
are unsuitable for use in delicate apparatus which may be 
subjected to temperatures above 60 deg. C. The ther- 
mal ex])ansion soon vanishes, and continued treatment 
shows marked contraction and loss of weight of the 
specimen. The Bureau will publish a paper on this 
subject. 

Branch Hydrographic Offices in War Time. — 

During the war the various branch Hydrographic Offices 
of the Navy performed a large amount of special work in 
addition to their routine duties of collecting and dissemi- 
nating maritime information. Five of them were en- 
gaged in recruiting and enrolling; four gave instruction 
in navigation to Reserves and Naval Militia; others co- 
operated in naval intelligence work, purchase of sex- 
tants, compass inspection, cable censorship, and the 
"Eyes for the Navy" movement, which resulted in their 
obtaining, free of charge, some 2,300 marine glasses, 
besides numerous other instruments, as loans to the 
Navy. 

New United States Life Tables. — In the year 1916 
the U. S. Census Bureau published a collection of "life 
tables," based on the census of 1910 and the mortality 
in the three years 1909, 1910 and 1911 for the six New 
England states, New York, New Jersey, .Indiana, Michi- 
gan and the District of Columbia. These tables were 
similar to those prepared by life insurance companies, 
except that they related to the entire population of the 
area covered instead of being limited to risks selected 
through medical exammation or otherwise. The Bureau 
now announces that it has ready for publication a new 
series of similar tables exhibiting mortality conditions 
in 1890 and 1901 and during the decade 1901 to 1910, 
inclusive. In connection with certain tables there will 
be given commutation columns and data as to annuities 
and single and annual premiums at various rates of 
interest. 

New Quarters for the Hydrographic Office. — The 

hydrographer of the Navy, in his last annual report, calls 
attention to the urgent need of new and permanent office 
accommodations for the Hydrographic Office. Like so 
many other branches of the Government, the Hydro- 
graphic Office is now domiciled in rented rooms, which 
are both crowded and ill-adapted to the work carried on. 
In this connection Admiral Schroeder revives the project 
of consolidating the Hydrographic Office with the Naval 
Observatory, i. e., a return to the arrangement that 
existed prior to 1866, and notably in the days vi'hen the 
achievements of M. F. Maury shed lustre on these two 
establishments of the Government. The lease of the 
present quarters expires in 1923, which would be a favor- 
able time for the proposed amalgamation. The hydro- 
grapher's plan is to erect a building for his office in the 
Naval Observatorv grounds, where ample space is 
available. 

The National Physical Laboratory, the leading 
establishment in Great Britain devoted to scientific 
research, has grown so rapidly under stress of war require- 
ments that it now has a staff of 532, as compared with 
26 in 1902. The last annual report, although as in 
previous years since 1914 chiefly notable for the things 
that, for military reasons, it omits to mention, is an 
impressive record of strenuous and valuable work. New 
buildings are in course of construction to provide facili- 
ties for manufacturing a certain class of gages and for 
testing glass vessels for chemical work — both undertak- 
ings being on behalf of the Ministry of Munitions. The 
number of munition gages tested at the laboratory has 
amounted to nearly 10,000 a week. Additional large air 
channels have been required to meet the demands of the 
Air Ministry. More than 3,000 clinical thermometers 
have been tested per week. Three new clinical test baths 
have been provided, each having a capacity of 600 ther- 
mometers a day. Under the head of optics, besides 
routine testing on a large scale, important work has been 
done in testing the refractive properties of optical glass 
and in simplifying the calculation and design of optical 
systems. 



Aeronautics 

Airplanes for the Sportsman. — Now that the 
military aviator is returning to peaceful pursuits there 
are many who believe that he will not give up flying. 
Indeed, there are several aircraft constructors who are 
already offering inexpensive airplanes for private use. 
One of the offerings is in the form of a small biplane, 
designed "for the man who rides his ranch, and the man 
who loves the air," to quote the manufacturer's announce- 
ment. It is known as the "Dispatch Model" and sells 
for .S2,500. The factor of safety is said to be high, while 
the cost of upkeep is low. 

Weather Forecast for Fliers. — The first aerial 
weather forecast to be issued in the United States was 
made public recently by the Weather Bureau in coopera- 
tion with the aerial mail service of the Post Office 
Department. It was as follows: "New York to Cleve- 
land, cloudy, 8 P. M. Snow near Lake Erie. Winds 
moderate northwest to north northwest, east of the 
.\lleghanies up to 6,500 feet and moderate south winds 
west of Alleghanies, shifting to west southwest at about 
1,500 feet. Forecast, snow today, Monday, with in- 
creasing northeast to north winds up to about 6,000 feet, 
backing to strong northwest above." Since the attempted 
inauguration of the New York to Chicago mail service 
between those and intermediate cities it is understood 
that the forecast is to be extended to aU the territory 
covered by the vvinged postmen. 

German Aircraft for Peace. — From such reports 
as have reached us since the signing of the armistice, it 
appears that the Germans are bent on making the most 
of their huge aeronautical establishment which was built 
up for military purposes. Almost immediately after the 
armistice was signed, the Staaken plant, located near 
Berlin, began converting the fighting planes on hand 
into commercial machines. The Germans have made it 
known to the entire world that they intend linking up 
all the European capitals ^ith Berlin. Already, dozens 
of planes buUt entirely of aluminum have been trans- 
formed for an extensive aerial postal system. It is 
said that a huge machine is being built at the Staaken 
works for a transatlantic flight. The machine has a 
wing-spread of 198 feet and its multiple-engine power 
plant develops 3,000 horse-power. 

The Race to the North Pole. — It seems that 
Captain Bartlett is not going to have things entirely 
his own way in his airplane expedition to the North 
Pole, for at the present moment the British are also 
planning for a simUar undertaking. So the airplane 
expedition may take on the complexion of a sportsman- 
like air race, with the Americans represented by Captain 
Bartlett and the British by Salisbury Jones of the 
British Northern Exploration Company. Captain 
Bartlett contemplates going to the Far North by way of 
North Greenland, while Mr. Jones is going by way of 
Spitzbergen; which, when reduced to mathematics, 
means that the Americans will have some 2,000 miles 
to go whde our British cousins will have only 900 
miles of journey. Mr. Jones believes that his expedition 
can make the flight in about nine hours. 

An American Passenger -Carrying Record. — Re- 
cently, the NC-1, a U. S. Naval seaplane, broke the 
world's record for passenger carrying by flying with 
50 passengers at the naval air station at Rockaway, 
N. Y. No special modifications of the plane were made 
for the flight, which was intended to demonstrate the 
machine's lifting power. The NC-1 is the first American 
tri-motored seaplane. She is of the flying boat type, 
with wings having a spread of 126 feet. With three 
low-compression Liberty motors of 385 horse-power each, 
the huge seaplane makes a speed of about 80 miles an 
hour. With the 50 passengers the seaplane developed 
72 miles an hour. It is not believed that this record 
will long endure, for there are many giant airplanes and 
seaplanes now ready for flight or almost ready, which will 
soon challenge the present record. The day of the large 
heavier-than-air machine has arrived, and the com- 
petition seems to have swung from the lighter and faster 
machines to the large weight-carrying machines. After 
all, the latter are the ones that have a true commercial 
value, which accounts for this change in effort. Caproni, 
the Italian exponent of huge machines, is reported to have 
a triplane of 2,100 horse-power, which should carry about 
70 passengers, while another rapidly nearing completion, 
should carry 100 or more passengers. 



70 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 



The Voice of the Sea 

Favorite Nooks on the Shores of the Atlantic and the Pacific 
By LeRoy Jeffers, F.R.G.S. 




ONE of the most beautiful sections of our Atlantic 
coast is that of the north shore of Massachusetts. 
Extending from Nahaut to Cape Ann and bej'ond to the 
fascinating sand dunes of Ipswich may be found a sur- 
prising variety of delicately curving beaches, rocky 
pine-clad points, and brown wave-swept 
reefs and ledges over which the sea mur- 
murs softly in summer, and storms wildly 
in the great gales of a northern winter. 

At Swampscott-by-the-Sea, one finds a 
charmingly varied coast line with bold, 
forbidding cliffs and wooded hills. The 
view from the tower of Phillips School is of 
surprising extent and beautj'. Beyond 
the slender finger of Lincoln House Point 
is anchored a remnant of the fleet of 
schooners that in former days sailed to the 
Grand Banks, returning laden to the 
water's edge with cod, haddock and hali- 
but. In the distance Egg Rock rises boldly 
from the ocean near the long peninsula of 
Xahant, while on the horizon the South 
Shore often looms in fanciful mirage. 
White sails gleaming and coastwise steam- 
ers trailing long ribbons of smoke pass in 
and out of Boston harbor. Across the 
water are the spires of Lynn, and beyond 
are the towers and domes of Boston. 
Landward the eye roams over a vast 
forested area of rolling hills, while the 
north affords a glimpse of Salem and the sea. 

On the beach among the clam shells and lobster pots 
one may find the masters of many a long-departed vessel 
ready to spin their yarns of storm and shipwreck. Dor- 
ies laden with the morning's catch of fish or with men 
returning from the nets are constantly arriving, and on 



The surf at the entrance to San Diego harbor 

the bay the sails of pleasure craft are flitting back and 
forth before the breeze. The summer visitors stroll 
along the beaches in the sunshine or loiter in the moon- 
light when the sea is calm; but none are here when the 
storms of winter sweep in with sudden fury from the 



■jfewfa"" --1 




The surf from the backwash at Coronado 

broad Atlantic. In the southeast gales the waves come 
short and choppy, breaking in white-caps far out upon 
the sea; but the full power of the ocean comes majestic- 
ally with wdnd and tide in the great northeast storms 
whose mighty waves roll in unbroken to the shore. 



Sometimes twenty or more feet in height, they tumble 
one upon another, changing from green to frothy white 
and singing with ten thousand voices which the wind 
gathers into one, bearing it inland over the snow for miles. 
Regretfully must one rely on memory to picture the 
surpassing grandeur of the greatest storms, 
for they often reach their height with the 
tide, too late of a winter afternoon for the 
camera to record. I know of no more 
fascinating branch of photography than 
surf work, for it involves the most un- 
certain conditions of storm and of light 
combined with the constant thrill of danger 
from wind and wave. To operate a large 
camera with tripod in a gale involves lively 
work. How rarely does the sun peer 
through the clouds at just the right mo- 
ment, and how often does the height and 
composition of the next wave surpass the 
one which has been photographed! As a 
wall of foaming water comes sweeping 
into a rocky cove, carrying everything 
before it in wild confusion, one's decision 
must be made in an instant, for in the next 
moment one may find himself amid the 
seaweed and driftwood waist-deep in the 
briny sea. Often one must steal far out 
on treacherous, wave-washed rocks in order 
to look shoreward toward the spray- 
covered cliffs. One has not only to watch 
for and to capture the w-ave at its instant 
of highest ascent, but one must also note from the corner 
of his eye the approach of a billow likely to engulf him. 
Often have I struggled against a gale that threatened to 
hurl me into the foaming cauldron of the sea, crouched 
to await a moment of sunshine at the right instant for a 




Where two seas meet on the Lynn breakwater 



The surf at Little's Point, Swampscott 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



71 



picture, only to be forced to run for life 
from a rear attack of which no warning 
had been given. Happy is he who can 
outdistance the wave, for the alternative 
is to cling desperately to the rocks while 
seeming tons of spray drench one in a 
smothering icy downpour. 

What inexpressible joy is mine on sunlit 
mornings to wander alone along the shore, 
responding with all my being to the great 
waves, soaring mountain-high upon the 
rocks in radiant foam. Deep creamy 
froth is spread upon the water, and the 
air is full of the sublime music of the sea. 
Even in mountaineering I have found no 
grander manifestation of power than that 
of the awakened sea. The wild fury of the 
avalanche, expending its energy in a few 
brief moments as it sweeps all life from its 
pathway, is less impre.ssive than is the 
measured attack of wave after wave rollinfi; 
in from the ocean to break upon the cliffs 
in ever-changing forms of beauty and 
wonder. What exhilaration there is in 
watching these great upshoots of spray 
mounting higher and higher with the in- 
coming tide, until they call forth one's 
deepest shout of admiration and one's keenest longing to 
share his joy with another. Sometimes the surf is heavy, 
attacking the rocks in solid masses, and forcing the very 
air to vibrate with its intensity. Again at nightfall, 
bleak and chill, the surf towers ghostly against the leaden 
sky, and the wail of the wind sends one 
shivering on his homeward way. 

On peaceful evenings, at Ocean House 
rocks, the deep orange moon sparkles 
.softly upon the velvet waters, while the red 
eye of Egg Rock gleams across the bay, 
and beyond are Boston light, the Graves, 
and Minot'a Ledge, flashing intermittently. 
In northeast storms, the great green rollers 
break upon these rocks in magnificent 
avalanches of pure white foam. Unfor- 
getable are the seascapes in which the 
enormous globe of the sun, sinking in a 
purple sky, glows with deepest vermilion 
and crimson, painting an indescribable 
pathway of brilliant, changing color across 
the foaming water. Surpassingly beau- 
tiful is the iridescent mirror at the path- 
way's ending on the sand. Each wave 
spreads a fairy film of creamy white and 
green upon its surface, and, retreating, 
awakens the hidden fire of a million opals. 

In summer one may clamber over the 
rocks from Galloupe's to Little's Point in 
safety, peering into the ocean gardens 
where the dark red and brown masses of the seaweed 
rise and fall with the swell, and the long ribbons of the 
kelp wave to and fro. Crabs and fishes roam at will 
amid these forests, and in the tiny pools left by the tide 
the star fish linger. Sea gulls ride upon the waves or 
gather in noisy confusion upon the rocky 
isles. Beyond the ledges are the weather- 
beaten sails of the fishing schooners. 
Bringing sweet odors from the wild rose 
and the bayberry, the wind wanders along 
the point, nodding the thick rich sprays 
of the sea-loving golden-rod. Red and 
brown are the grasses, brown and red and 
gray are the wave-worn ledges. To the 
artist's eyes they glow with color like 
flower fields of rich orange and delicate 
pink. At low tide their sides are shaggy 
with seaweed and banded in white with 
barnacles. Beyond Little's Point is a long 
steep beach of beautifully rounded stones 
which the sea has for centuries been grind- 
ing into coarse yellow sand, singing as it 
rolls the pebbles up and down. Delicate 
.sea mosses of white and purple, of green 
and red, are cast up by the waves which 
curve in stately deliberation as they break 
upon the shore. Farther on is the quaint 
old town of Marblehead. If j'ou have not 
followed its narrow and winding streets, 
studied the curious legends upon its ancient 
gravestones, or watched a yacht race from 
the rocks of Marblehead Neck, you have 
joys awaiting you. 

Along the wilder portions of the Swamp- 
scott coast no one is found to brave the 
winter storms. Glorious days are these 
in which the throbbing heart of the sea 
beats loudly, and the water lashes itself 
into froth which the wind gathers and rolls 
up the beach or carries in shreds high over 




The height of a storm on the Massachusetts clifTs 



Many the hapless schooners, seeking the 
port of Boston, that have left their whit- 
ened timbers strewn along this shore. 
Many the crews that have fought in vain 
for life, escaping the cruel rocks of Nahant, 
only to be driven by the gale acro.ss the 
bay into the jaws of death on these dread 
ledges. One terrible winter night, amid 
the enveloping darkness of a great blizzard, 
a bark from Spain came laden with wine, 
seeking safe harbor at Boston. Losing 
their reckoning, dragging their anchors, 
helplessly awaiting their doom, all the 
sailors reached their final haven that night. 
The following day their bodies were found 
rolling in the snow-filled surf by their 
comrades of the sea, the Swampscott 
fishermen. Across the outlying rocks were 
the anchor chains of the bark, and amid 
the wreckage was its name, "Tedesco." 
Long years have passed, and over the sea 
have swept unnumbered storms; but still, 
on wintry days, between their games of 
chess and checkers, the fishermen tell us 
why these rocks are called Tedesco. Only 
a little later the "Fred Bliss," b«und for 
Boston from the same port as the 
the cliffs. Terrible nights are these in which the air is "Tedesco," was driven one night high upon the near-by 
filled with blinding sleet and snow, and the sea with rocks of Galloupe's Point. Fortunately the all-but- 
jagged ice and wreckage. Tearing the seaweed and the frozen crew were able to make their way to land where 
kelp from their moorings, gathering the driftwood of they broke into a summer cottage and found safety 
countless wrecks, and even seizing the stones in their until the coming of morning. 

To love the sea and to respond to its 
varied moods is to find enlargement of 
soul. Its silent depths have claimed the 
hopes and the lives of an unnumbered 
multitude. Are there not hours in which 
one may hear it voice the mingled joys and 
sorrows of a common humanity? To the 
listening soul the sea is a wondrous harp 
on which the chords of life sound clearly. 
The scenery of the California coast is 
always delightful, whether we wander over 
the sand dunes and morning glories of 
Point Pinos, among the wave-worn cliffs 
and gray cypresses of the Monterey penin- 
sula, or in view of the purple mountains 
at Santa Barbara. Unknown to the 
North Atlantic coast are the wonderful 
blues and indigoes of the water, the flying 
(Continued on page 82} 

Flood Gates That Take Care of 
Themselves 

A T Nashua, Iowa there is a very interest- 




A winter -time view of the automatic flood gates, showing them 
in closed position 



pathway, the waves hurl them all with uncontrolable 
fury against the cliffs. Mountains of foam rise grandly 
over a hundred feet in the air, the ground on which one 
stands seems to tremble, and only with the utmost diffi- 
culty may one avoid being swept away by the gale. 



WALKING SEA 



CENTER 
CHANGING COGS 

CENTER 
CHANGING CAM 
&. PINS 

CONCRETE 
COUNTERWEIGHT 




Section through the automatic flood gate showing, by dotted line, its 
position when fully opened 



ing dam which impounds the waters 
of Cedar River for a hydroelectric plant. 
The dam is a concrete structure, 17 feet high. The 
most interesting feature is the means of keeping 
the water at a constant level back of the dam. 
Cedar River in time of flood rises rapidly and has 
a very swift current, and so flood gates were in- 
stalled in the dam which would open auto- 
matically in proportion to the increased 
pressure of the water and prevent an ex- 
cessive rise of water back of the dam. The 
design of the gate was borrowed from 
Switzerland where such structures are not 
uncommon. It consists of a pair of gates, 
each hinged at the bottom and connected 
at the top to a pair of walking beams. 
At the opposite end of the beams there are 
counterweights of concrete. 

Each gate is 46 feet long and is arranged 
to hold back a constant head of 7 feet. 
^^'hen the water rises, the gate swings 
down, and the counterweight is lifted. 
To compensate for the increase in leverage 
of the outwardly swinging gate the ful- 
crum of the -walking beams is correspond- 
ingly advanced. This is effected by the 
use of toothed wheels on the beams, en- 
gaging racks mounted on the concrete 
buttresses of the dam, so that a rolling 
fulcrum is provided. A certain amount 
of adjustment is furnished in the means of 
attaching the counterweight to the beam. 
Cam links are provided, as shown in the 
accompanying drawing, with a number of 
openings at various distances from the 
center, in which the connecting pins may 
be located. 

The gates are of steel covered with wood 
planking, and leather is used to prevent the 
water from leaking through the hinge 
joint and also around the ends between the 
planking and the buttress walls. 



72 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 



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Fig. 1. Effect of error in speed — estimate on 
submarine's maneuver for position 



Fig. 2. Path of the torpedo when fired at various ranges 
Note: In those three drawings S. s' &c = submarine: v, v' &c.= the ship 

Curved or ^^S'' Courses 

A Protection Against Torpedo and Gunfire 



Fig. 3. Effect of error in course — estimate on 
submarine's maneuver for position 



EARLY in the war shijis wptp accustoiiierl to steer a 
straight course and formed an easy mark for the 
submarine; but in 1915 all the allied nations adopted a 
method of steering on zigzag courses, and this proved to 
be probably the most effective of all the many devices 
to elude the torpedo. During the course of the war, 
Mr. Lindell T. Bates, Secretary of the Submarine De- 
fense Association, devised and patented a method for 
enabling ships to steer on continuous curved courses, 
in which there would be no straight course whatsoever. 
This method is an improvement upon the zigzag course 
and is a logical development of its principles. The 
Submarine Defense Association recently went on record 
with the statement that ''This more than any other 
invention of the war time will aid submarine defense 
and profoundly affect coast defense, armament and 
naval tactics." 

In order to reach a torpedo firing position, the sub- 
marine must submerge at a considerable distance and 
proceed under-water until she comes within firing dis- 
tance. This firing distance should be not over a thousand 
yards. Indeed, during the war, because of the difficulty 
of hitting, the CJerman-U-boats are said to have received 
instructions, if possible, to get within 300 yards before 
letting go. At a range within 1,000 yards, if the tor- 
pedo is fired before the vessel puts her helm over, there 
is but Httle chance for her to avoid being hit. 

For a torpedo firing position within a 1,000-yard range 
to be reached and a torpedo to be aimed with accuracy, 
the submarine captain must learn three things: (1) the 
course on which the vessel is steaming; (2) her speed; 
(3) and the range or the distance between submarine 
and ship. With this data the problem becomes simply 
one of the solution of triangles, in which the bearings and 
range of the ship and U-boat, speed of the ship and the 
torpedo, and the angle of torpedo fire, are utilized. The 
object of this calculation is to fire the torpedo at a point 



ahead of the ship so that it will cross the ship's c<)ur.s(> 
at the time when the ship reaches that point. 

Effect of Miscalculation of the Ship's Course, Speed 
and Distance 

The effect upon the success of a submarine's maneu- 
ver for position of an error in estimating the course, 
speed or range of the vessel, may be very important. As 
may be seen from Fig. 3, an error in course — estimate of 
from 10 to 20 degiees, in a direction which carries the 
vessel toward the U-boat while the latter, submerged, is 
ajjproaching the 1,000-yard firing position — may result 
in the submarine, on emerging to make corrections find- 
ing itself so near the shii), that it will have to remain 
tmder water to escape gimfire and the depth bomb. If 
the submarine makes an error in cour.se-estimate which 
carries the vessel away from the submarine, the latter on 
emerging will be so far fiom the ship as to be outside of 
torpedo range. If the submarine overestimates the speed 
of the vessel, ic can upon coming up for observation await 
the ship's arrival or maneuver closer, but if the U-boat 
underestimates the ship's speed, she will on emerging 
find that the ship has passed the desired firing position. 
This will be clear from Fig. 1. If the range or distance 
to the submarine has been underestimated, the oppor- 
tunity for torpedo attack may be lost. A serious over- 
estimation of the distance may bring the submarine too 
close and expose her to being rammed and sunk by fire 
and depth bombs. 

Now the estimation of the course upon which a shij) 
is steaming and its speed are necessarily difficult to 
make with certainty. A .series of observations is made 
at successive intervals, and it is the object of the various 
forms of camouflage tending to produce optical illusions 
as to the fore and aft axis of the ship, to render this 
calculation inexact. The problem of running imder 
water for a given time and coming up for a final peri- 



scopic sight or series of sights before launching the 
torpedo within a distance of a thousand yards, is de- 
pendent upon the U-boat captain's assumption that the 
ship will continue to steam at the estimated speed along 
a straight estimated cour.se. If the ship, while the sub- 
marine is approaching submerged, should deviate from 
that course either towards or from the submarine, the 
latter on coming up may find either that she has over- 
shot the ship or that the ship has turned away and is too 
far away for any certainty of making a hit. It was 
this consideration that led to the use of zigzag courses. 

There is, however, always the chance that the ship 
may not have started on a new leg of the zigzag before 
the subnuirine comes up for verification of her jjosition 
and that of the ship, and in this case the chances of 
hitting the target are good. It was consideration of this 
liability that led Mr. Bates to work on the problem of 
finding some means by which ships, whether one ship or 
a whole convoy, could steer upon courses, no part of 
which was straight, and he worked out an ingenious 
mechanism for steering curved courses, which has been 
tried out with very encouraging results. 

The types of courses adopted are designed to permit 
of the greatest speed and distance of travel for the ship 
with the largest immunity from torpedo or gunfire hits, 
and it consists of a succession of simple or compound 
graduated spiral arcs, so arranged that the curves melt 
into one another. Such spirals are .selected as are of 
sufficient curvature to confuse observation by the U- 
boat, or by the gunnery officer of a warship or fort, and 
yet will be such as will not too much retard a vessel or 
cause her to lose too much distance as compared with a 
straight course. The embarrassment of a submarine 
captain in attempting to determine the course, speed and 
range of a ves.sel that is steaming on a curve will be 
evident. The problem is difficult enough when the 
vessel is steaming on a straight course, and from a distant 



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Fig. 4. "S" course and 
the other courses 



iiii. 5. These diagrams show the effect of change of position of a movable 
)ubber-line upon a ship's course 



Fig. 6. This cam acting on movable lubber- 
line produces a curved course 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



73 



submarine the angle of departure of a curved course is 
practically impossible of determination. 

During a long course of experiments in curved-course 
steaming, it was found that the retardation on the 
curved course with the easy angle of helm used, at all 
times is less than the whole retardation for a vessel 
steaming on a zigzag course in which the changes of 
course are through a large arc. 



Conversely, if the lubber-line were moved to the left 
or port and the vessel were turned accordingly, the ship 
would be found to be heading east of that compass 
direction, the same number of degrees as the line was 
moved to the left of the longitudinal axis line of the ship. 
The principle of the course indicator is as follows: 
A lubber-line is marked on a rim which is rotatable 
about the compass card. If the line is moved to the 



io:2i IS 

6=* 



Automatic Course Indicator 

The automatic course indicator was 
prepared with the following ends in 
view: 

1. To enable a ship to steer zigzags, 
scientific "S" courses, spiral curves, 
or combinations of them, with pre- 
cision. 

2. To impose upon the helmsman 
in such navigation no duty in addition 
to the one to which time and experi- 
ence have accustomed him — namely, 
that of watching the compass and 
maintaining in alinement on it the 
normal lompass-mark with a lubber- 
line. 

3. To supply the navigation officer 
and helmsman at all times with 
definite information, in intervals of 
time and units of distance, relative 
to the position of the vessel on the 
zigzag, "S" course, or curve, and 
relative to the normal straight course. 

4. To provide an instrument suited 
to any vessel, whatever her speed, 
and whatever her variations in speed, 
her size and other characteristics, and 
adaptable to any type of compass, magnetic or gyroscopic. 

Ships are now navigated by using the helm so that 
what is known as a "lubber-line" on the fixed compass 
rim, which line is set in line with the vessel's longitudinal 
axis, is kept opposite a selected compass mark on the 
compass card. Thus if a vessel proceeding north be 
desired to go east the helmsman turns the ship until the 
east mark of the compass is opposite the lubber-line. 
If, however, the lubber-line were not set in line with the 
ship's axis, but were positioned on the fixed compas.s 
rim, say fifteen degrees to the right or starboard of the 
longitudinal axis of the ship, then the vessel would not 
be steering north, but 15 degrees to the west of north. 




-o — o — o- 



Fig. 7. This shows the difficulty of hitting a ship that is sailing on a 
curved or "S" course 

It also shows the course as estimated by observers in a land fort; and the point of fall of shells (see 
dotted line and circles) fired at the ship. It shows the difficulty of predicting the point at which a 
ship will be when the shell strikes This difficulty is due mainly to the fact that the gunner's esti- 
mates of the futui'e position of the ship are based upon the erroneous assumption that she is saiUng 

on straight courses. 

left or right of the axis of the ship, then by causing the 
selected compass mark to follow it, the ship will go to 
starboard or port respectively. The helmsman today 
looks at a given course mark on the compass and keeps 
it opposite a fixed lubber-line. With the automatic 
course indicator, the helmsman keeps the same normal 
compass mark opposite a lubber-line which is movable. 
The movement of the lubber-line is brought about by 
means of a grooved cam as shown in our illustration, 
Fig. 6. The cam, which is contained within the bin- 
nacle is rotated by means of a small electric motor. 
It is evident that by cutting the cam to correspond 
with the curve or "S" course which the ship is to 



follow, the .ship will automatically, because of the 
movements transmitted to the lubber-Une from the 
cam, steer the desired course. A ship will carry several 
of these cams for as many different courses as may be 
desired. 

Curved Courses sind Gunfire 
The value of the curved course as a protection against 
gunfire, whether from an enemy ship or a shore em- 
placement, will be evident at once, 
and Mr. Bates has pubUshed a de- 
scription of the employment of the 
cour.se indicator, during a special 
maneuver of a ship, made before a 
certain coast fortification with the 
|)ermission of the miUtary authorities. 
The description of this interesting 
test follows: 

"Mortars are the main coast de- 
fense reliance. It is publicly known 
that they are generally fired in view 
of three ob.servations, taken at 
seconds, .30 seconds and 1 minute. 
The angles and ranges noted on these 
occasions are used, with corrections, 
to locate the so-called 'prediction 
point' at the 2d minute and the 'set- 
forward point,' which adds the time 
of flight of the projectile, and is the 
point at which the shell is aimed to 
fall. In the case of mortar fire, with 
its high trajectory, this is between 45 
seconds and one minute for most 
ranges, li is the practice to calculate, 
therefore, for mortar fire, the future posi- 
tion of a vessel from one and three- 
quarters to two minutes ahead. On a 
straight course the prediction and set-forward points 
come close to the vessel's actual course. Figure 7 
shows this fact for ranges between 8,000 and 9,000 
yards. Inspection of the results shows an average error 
of 35 yards. In regard to sinuous courses at the 
same range one finds for a cam course called S I an 
average range error in the set-forward point of about 
90 yards in range and 15 yards in deflection. On in- 
specting Cam 3 course one finds the errors are very 
great in the determination of the set-forward point. The 
Cam 3 course run at 8,000 yards range shows average 
errors in the location of the set-forward point of 175 
(Continued on page 82) 



M ORTAR FIH E 

. — riotteci fot'iits 
_ J'recftcfeei -Pot/its 
- /Set J^orward Taints 



The Final Solution of the Airship Problem 

Industrial Production of Helium and What It Means in the Future of the Airship 



THERE is a widely spread belief that the war, or 
rather the airplane, has "killed" the airship for 
military if not for naval purposes. This is a totally 
erroneous notion. What has come pretty near super- 
annuating the airship as an instrument of warfare for 
over-land operations is not the airplane; it is the unduly 
high fire risk involved in the use of hydrogen, the gas 
wherefrom airships have hitherto derived flotation. 

For this reason the development of a hydrogen sub- 
stitute that would be non-inflammable has always been 
considered by airship advocates as the most important 
progress that remained to be realized in aerostatics to 
make the airship really safe. Heretofore the difficulties 
encountered in this endeavor have appeared as an 
unsurmountable stumbling block. Today the great 
problem is solved, for American enterprise, engineering 
skill and ingenuity have succeeded in achieving an extra- 
ordinary lour de force by developing apparatus for the 
production of helium in large quantities and at a compara- 
tively low cost. 

Helium, an inert, non-inflammable gas, the second 
lightest known (the lightest being hydrogen), is rela- 
tively abundant in all minerals which contain radium, 
thorium, or lu-anium, such as thorianite, cleveite, etc., 
but the operation of separating helium from these 
minerals has involved such a great expense — from $1,500 
to $6,000 per cubic foot — that its use as a hydrogen sub- 
stitute was never seriously considered until the war. 
When it is considered that by next spring helium will be 
produced in this country on an industrial basis and at a 
cost of approximately $100 per 1,000 cubic feel, the 
magnitude of the achievement will be fully realized. 

How Helium Production Was Developed 

Shortly before the Great War an investigation was 
made in this country to ascertain the composition of the 
natural gases which occur in large deposits in the South- 
west, where they serve iluminating purposes. It was 



By Ladislas D'Orcy, M.S.A.E. 

then found that the natural gases of Kansas, Oklahoma 
and Texas contain among other components about 1 
per cent helium. This discovery was not followed up, 
however. There was no demand that would have 
warranted the development of the necessary apparatus 
for drawing off helium, for the very good reason that 
this gas could have been used in large quantities only for 
filling airships — and there did not exist at the time a 
single American airship. 

However, when the United States declared war on 
Germany, the British Air Board called the attention of 
the American government to the fact that one of the 
important contributions this country could make toward 
winning the war would be the industrial production of 
helium. The problem was promptly taken up by the 
Bureau of Mines and the Aircraft Board, as a result of 
which an experimental plant was constructed on original 
lines, while each of two companies engaged in the produc- 
tion of liquid air was induced to build a plant to its own 
designs. All three plants are now in operation, but that 
developed by one of the air products companies has so 
far given the best results, and it is only fair to say that 
the solution of the whole problem is almost exclusively 
due to its efforts. A large production plant, to cost 
about $2,000,000, is now being built for this concern at 
Fort Worth, Tex., by the Bureaus of Steam Engineering 
and Yards and Docks of the Navy Department, and will 
be operated by that firm for the Navy, which alone uses 
airships in this country. 

It is interesting to note that shortly before the armistice 
was signed quantities of helium had been shipped abroad 
for use in American observation balloons, and plans had 
been perfected for the construction of a large Anglo- 
American fleet of rigid helium-filled airships for the 
purpose of conducting a large scale bombing campaign 
against Germany's strategic centers. This fact, which 
may be revealed now the war is won, well explains why 
the directing minds of the American and British Air 



Services should have attached so much importance to 
the quantity production of helium. 

On the Drawbacks of Hydrogen 

The principal, though by no means sole, drawback of 
hydrogen, is, as has been said before, the extraordinary 
inflammability of this gas. The existence, underneath 
hundreds of thousands of cubic feet of hydrogen, of 
internal combustion engines occasionally emitting flam- 
ing exhaust gases, not to speak of the presence of gasoline 
tanks, has ever been a source of worry to airship pilots — • 
while it seemed a poor inducement to prospective aerial 
travelers, notwithstanding the comparatively safe record 
of the Zeppelin excursion line. Considerable progress 
has been made, it is true, in enclosing the engines and 
screening off the exhaust collectors, but the risk was still 
latent, because even the best balloon fabrics are not 
wholly gas-tight and a small quantity of leaking hydrogen 
would, under certain conditions, suffice to cause disaster. 

A further element of danger was introduced in that 
rubberized fabric becomes self-electrified in dry air, and 
emits sparks when creased in any way — for instance, 
owing to a loss of tautness of the gas bags. The atten- 
dant risk was overcome by the Germans with the de- 
velopment of a cotton fabric lined with goldbeaters' skin, 
which apparently cannot become self-electrified. 

Another serious drawback of hydrogen is its ability to 
form an explosive mixture when mi.xed with a certain 
quantity of air. This phenomenon does not occur on 
non-rigid airships, because, owing to the single envelope, 
the exuding gases are instantly carried away by the air 
stream which surrounds the vessel in flight. But on 
rigid airships, where the gas bags proper are surrounded 
by an outer cover, the "ring space" thus formed contains 
more or less stagnant air which gradually becomes charged 
with the hydrogen leaking from the gas bags. Here is then 
another source of danger, though it is somewhat lessened 
(.Continued on page S4) 



74 




SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Battleplane Armament 

From the Automatic Pistol of the Early Airman to the Multi-Gun 

Fighting Airplane of Today 



January 25, 1919 




A LTHOUGH highly imaijinativo writers had predicted 
-^*> battles in the air between rival Heets of airplanes, 
the great nations entered the European war with little 
thought of arming their machines. They did not expect 
battles between airmen; for, as they thought, there was 
plenty of other work for airmen to perform. So with 
marked military conservatism the great powers did not 
arm their planes; and the only weapons the airmen had 
were their automatic pistols, and, in isolated instances, 
infantry or cavalry rifles which were to be used in the 
event of a forced landing behind the enemy lines. 

The airplane was looked upon as a super-scout or a 
sort of winged cavalry, so to speak. It was considered 
quite possible that airplanes might serve for bombing 
purposes; but the poor results obtained with the steel 
arrows, crude bombs and bombing equipment of the 
early days served momentarily to convince the military 
men that the first duty of the airman was that of super- 
scout. Meanwhile the Germans had gone deeply into 
the matter of military aviation; and when 
the war opened they were read}' to employ 
their airmen in the regulation of artillery 
fire. Indeed, the excellent marksmanship 
of the long-range German artillery at the 
beginning of the war was admitted to he 
marvelous by the Allied armies, until they 
too learned the art of aerial spotting. 

It did not take the French pilots long 
to "get on" to aerial scouting and spotting, 
despite the numerous handicaps confront- 
ing them. By October 1st, 1914, the 
French airmen were prying into the affairs 
of the German commanders in the mast 
disconcerting manner to the latter. From 
his high perch the military airman could 
sketch and jot down notes of enemy dis- 
positions and activities, and then fly back 
with that invaluable information to his 
headquarters. This had changed all war- 
fare. Was there to be no more secrecy 
in military activities? Were one's plans and actions to 
be an open book to the enemy? 

Both the Germans and the Entente armies soon came 
to the full realization of the aerial scout's activities. 
Each side decided to push its aerial scouting activities 
to the utmost, while hampering the enemy's as far as 
possible. Thus the offensive and defensive tactics were 
introduced in aerial activities, and soon the planes took 
machine guns aboard and went forth to battle. 

From the light-hearted waj- in which rival airmen 
passed each other in the skies during the opening days 
of the war, merely waving their hands or shaking their 
fists at one another, they went to a real belligerent spirit, 
bent on destroying the enemy whenever possible. .\s 
early as August 15th, 1914, ai Paul Schmitt biplane of the 
French which had been shot down by the German anti- 
aircraft gunners, was found to be equipped with a 
machine gun and 200 cartridges. By November 
practically all the Voisin biplanes of the French were 



armed with machine guns. Records show that the first 
airplane downed in aerial combat was shot down on 
October 5th, 1914, by Sergeant Frantz of the French army, 
in company with his mechanic, Quenault, both of the 
Escadrille F-24, composed entirely of Farman "pusher" 
biplanes. Frantz and Quenault engaged an Aviatik 
biplane at a height of 5,000 feet, and after a few shots the 
German machine crashed to earth in a little wood behind 
the French lines. The pilot had been killed outright by 
a bullet, while the passenger, a Prussian nobleman, died 
before he could be pulled out from under the wreckage 
which had burst into flames. During the aerial fighting 
of 1914 not a single French pilot was shot down in aerial 
combat, such losses as were incurred being due to fire 
from the ground, which was then particularly efficacious 
because of the low altitude at which the machines were 
flying. 

December, 1914, saw the "fifth arm" of the French 
army formally consecrated to its due'share of the great 




Morane-Saulnier "parasol" scouts employed in the early days oi Uu- war 

war. The airplanes were divided into escadrilles for 
strategic reconnaissances and for chasing enemy ma- 
chines; the army corps escadrilles for photography, 
observation, and artillery' fire regulation, comprising 
the regular routine of military aviation; and the bom- 
l).irdment escadrilles for the bombing of enemy works. 

The Germans followed suit, as did the Biitish whose 
aerial fleet was fast developing into a giant organization 
from an almost insignificant showing at the outset of the 
war. The first French chasing escadrilles were created 
at the end of 1915. There were few of these fighting 
units in existence when the Lafayette Escadrille was 
formed, April 17th, 1916. The chasing escadrilles, 
operating freely in assigned zones, were intended to bar 
the skies for enemy machines and to provide protection 
for the army corps machines engaged in routine work. 

Up till 1916, the army corps escadrille was considered 
the fundamental base of the aviation system; but the 
battle of Verdun and the growing aggressiveness of roving 



bands of German aerial warriors, which came to be known 
as "tango circuses" and "traveling circuses" in some 
instances, proved the system to be utterly wrong when 
dealing with an enemy having the initiative of attack. 
.Vccordingly, the chasing escadrilles were grouped under 
a single command and the immediate protection cf the 
army corjjs machines was left to the latter, which soon 
had to assume a more or less defensive attitude in carry- 
ing on their work. Nevertheless, it was the formation 
of the separate chasing escadrilles which permitted th.- 
Entente armies lo meet the aerial offensives of the travel- 
ing German escadrilles, thus restoring aerial balance of 
power whenever necessary, gaining supremacy of thv. 
air at a given point during an Entente offensive, and 
raising the-morale of all .\llied airmen all along the line. 
The single-seater fighter or chaser or scout, as it is 
variously termed, was born of the demand for a fast 
and readily maneuvered machine. It brought about 
the groat competi'.ion between the Germans and the 
Allies of producing faster and better 
fighting planes; for the scouts, Uke the 
battleships of the navy, are the real basis 
of aerial fighting power. An air fleet may 
be made up of large numbers of recon- 
naissance and photography planes, bomb- 
ing planes, and other machines for the 
routine work of aerial warfare, but when it 
comes to battling the single-seaters de- 
termine the issue. 

In the beginning the single-seaters were 
'.i generally monoplanes, and the aircraft 

B constructors made use of the knowledg;' 

gained in developing high-sj>eed types for 
the great races before the war. In fact, 
some of the single-seater or monocoquc 
Deperdussin racers were employed by the 
French at first, for the reason that they 
quite outraced anything the Germans had. 
But it soon dawned on everyone that a 
scout had to be a good fighter; so thi' 
monoplane design was more or less abandoned in favor 
of fast bij. lanes which could carry the necessary arma- 
ment. 

How to mount the machine gun so that it could bo 
brought to bear on the enemy was one of the great prob- 
lems. In the first monojjlanes attempts were made to 
mount the machine gun high above the airman, so that 
its line of fire would be above the sweep of the propeller 
blades. However, such construction was exceedingly 
awkward for the aerial fighters, if not decidedly dangerous, 
since the airman had to stand in order to operate the gun; 
and standing in a machine making better than 90 or 100 
miles an hour is not the most pleasant of sensations. 
The accuracy of one's fire in such a position can well bo 
imagined. 

Now the two-seaters of those days were also con- 
fronted with the machine-gim [jroblem. In the "pusher" 
type, where the propeller is behind the wings, the machine 
gun merely had to be mounted in front of the observer. 





Heavy armament of a Nieuport scout: A Lewis gun above and a Vickers 
machine gun on the engine cowl 



Wreck of a French Nieuport scout, showing the Vickers machine gun 
and ammunition belt 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



73 



Typi 



Such a machine, however, could only bring its 
machine gun to ^bear when acting as the 
pursuer. If an enemy machine happened 
behind it, there was no way of shooting 
rearward. In the case of the "tractor" 
type, where the air-screw, to give it the 
proper name, is in front of the wings, the 
machine gun was mounted behind the pilot 
and the observer, so as to shoot at any angle 
back of the machine. But if such a ma- 
chine happened to be chasing another ma- 
chine — well, it simply couldn't act as a 
pursuer for the reason that it couldn't attack. 
So the pusher and the tractor types were 
automatically obliged to act on the offensive 
and defensive, respectively; which, as is quite 
obvious, was an awkward state of affairs. 

The problem of mounting the machine gun 
in front, even in the tractor design which 
had come into favor because of certain 
structural and aerodynamical advantages 
which could not be sacrificed even for the 
sake of armament, was first solved by the 
French. They mounted a St. Etiene type 
machine-gun, which is clip-fed, on the engine 
cowl directly in front of the pilot. The gun 
was rigidly mounted, and the pilot, whether 
in a single- or two-seater machine, brought 
to bear on the target by aiming the entire machine. 
Thus the pilot's hands were left more or less free 
to manage the airplane, as in more peaceful times. 
The line of fire necessarily passing through the sweep of 
the air screw in front, the French placed small pieces of 
steel or "deflector plates" on the parts of the screw 
blades which cut the line of fire. In that manner such 
bullets as struck the propeller were deflected by the steel 
blades without causing damage. Such an arrangement, 
to be sure, entailed some loss of ammunition, since the 
deflected shots were wasted. But the greatest handicap 
was in the loss of speed, which is said to have averaged 
10 mUes an hour, due to the retardation of the air screw. 
And in the gruelling competition between rival airmen 
this loss was far too serious to be permitted to stand. 

For a time the French mounted a quick-firing cannon 
on their Voisin "pushers" with the object of more 
readily destroying some giant planes which the Germans 
were employing early in 191.5. But the difficulties of 
aerial marksmanship alone compel the use of a machine 
gun with tracer bullets, because of the greater number of 
chances of hitting the enemy. Again, machine-gun 
fire is quite sufficient to account for the crew of an air- 
plane, and, with the use of incendiary bullets, the machine 
itself. So the avion-canon, as the French called that 
type, was soon abandoned. 

By now the Germans had come along with an in- 
genious synchronizing mechanism, whereby the machine 
gun, mounted on the engine cowl, could fire through the 
tractor air-screw sweep between times, so to speak. 
That is to say, by mounting a cam on the engine shaft, 
and running a transmission system of levers and bell 
cranks from this cam, the gun mechanism was only 
operative at such times as the line of fire was clear of the 
air-screw sweep. The Fokker machine which the 
Germans employed in 1915, and which proved the terror 
of the Allied airmen because of the heavy toll which its 
pilots collected, was equipped in this manner. The 
German pilot merely maneuvered his Fokker until the 
sights bore on the target, and then pressed a trigger 




cal German chaser — an Albatross in this case — equipped 
itwin machine guns on the engine cowl 

release; whereupon the gun automatically fired between 
the passing blades. 

Early in 1916 the Allies were ready to combat the 
Fokker with the Nieuport biplane, in which the machine- 
gun was mounted on the upper plane, clear of the air- 
screw sweep, and operated by a Bowden wire control on 
the "joy stick." There were several variations of the 
Nieuport armament; but the standard one was a sin'^le 
Lewis gun with a single pan of ammunition conta ning 
49 rounds. After discharging the pan or drum, the air- 
man had to come down for another. While the gun 
performed splendidly and could be accurately aimed by 
the sights on the engine cowl in front of the airman, the 
limited supply of ammunition was a serious objection. 
Soon pilot.-! began mounting an extra machine-gun, 
usually of the Vickers belt-fed type, on the engine cowl, 
using a synchronizing device to take care of the air- 
screw sweep. Other airmen preferred two Lewis guns 
mounted side by side on the upper plane, with individual 
Bowden wire controls. Thus if one gun jammed, ran 
short of ammunition, or became otherwise inoperative, 
its mate could be brought into play. Still other airmen 
arranged the Lewis gun on a trunnion, so that it could 
be tilted with the butt end in the airman's hand. This 
arrangement was found excellent while attacking a 
machine from below. In fact, the same arrangement 
is still in use on the recent British SE-5 scouts. 

The synchronized machine-gun arrangement having 
proved its worth, it soon became the standard of all 
air fleets. All Allied and German chasers and two- 
seaters of the tractor type were and are still thus armed. 
From a single machine-gun, many airmen have gone to 
two, mounted side by side on the engine cowl and so 
alined as to have their fires cross at a point a hundred 
yards or so in front. Guns mounted in that fashion can 
be used singly or in pairs, by means of trigger controls on 
the "joy stick," and the airman is not so liable to be 
caught with an inoperative gun. 

As for the sights employed on scouts and reconnais- 
sance planes of the tractor design, these vary from simple 



with 



open sights to elaborate telescopic sights. 
The open sights generally take the form of a 
simple ring with cross wires for the rear 
sight, and a standard topped with a small 
ball for the fore sight. The telescopic sight 
is equipped with cross hairs. A chin rest or 
a forehead rest is often provided so that the 
airman can steady his head while taking 
aim. 

Meanwhile the armament of the two-seater 
machines of both Germans and Allies 
closely followed that of the scouts so far as 
practicable. The prevalence of the tractor 
type gave rise to the rigidly-mounted syn- 
chronized gun or guns in front, operated by 
the pilot, and single or twin guns for the 
observer in the rear cockpit. At first a 
simple goose-neck mounting was employed 
for the rear gun, but the Germans intro- 
duced a most ingenious mounting in the form 
of a revolving ring, an adjustable yoke, and 
a stool tui-ning in conjunction with such a 
gun rest. Thus as the observer swings 
about to any point of the horizon, the gun 
turns with him and always remains in front. 
A locking device permits of first locking the 
revolving ring in place, then locking the yoke 
rest when the proper elevation has been 
obtained, and then the gun. This arrangement, variously 
known as the "tourelle" "ring mount" and the "scarf 
yoke," has become standard for all air fleets. 

Up till the signing of the armistice the armament of all 
planes had been pretty well standardized. In the case 
of twin-engined planes, where the air-screws, being on 
either side of the body, are not in the line of head-on fire, 
the usual arrangement calls for a tourelle for the front 
cockpit and another for the rear cockpit. In some in- 
stances, twin guns are mounted to preclude gun trouble. 
Two-seater reconnaissance or general utUity planes, such 
as our DeHaviland Fours, being equipped with a tractor 
screw, have a standard armament consisting of rigidly 
mounted gun or guns on the engine cowl, and a tourelle 
for the rear cockpit. Scouts are invariably equipped with 
one or two guns, either rigidly mounted on the engine 
cowl or on the top plane. For the rigidly-mounted 
guns the air-cooled, belt-fed Maxim is standard with all 
air fleets. 

For the tourelle mounting the Lewis gun, stripped of its 
large cooling tube, has been used by the Allies because of 
its pans or drums which can be readily handled. The 
Germans, on the other hand, have made use of a modified 
Maxim with a very light, perforated cooling tube and 
a reel mechanism for handling the ammunition belt. 
This gun is known as the Parabellum. i 

In naval aircraft the armament has followed military 
practice wherever feasible. Such seaplanes as have been 
actively engaged against U-boats have in many instances 
been equipped with the Davis non-recoil gun, firing a 
\]/2- or 3-inch shell. The mounting of such a gun has 
been of the simplest, consisting of a swivel and trunnion. 
In the majority of seaplanes, however, machine guns 
have been used. The armament of the large flying boats 
employed against the U-boats by the British and Amer- 
ican naval forces, has generally been a tourelle for the 
front cockpit, another for the rear cockpit, and often 
two guns firing through port holes in the sides of the 
huge, boat-like hull. 

(Continued on page 85) 




The famous French Ace, Guynemer, in his Spad chaser equipped with a 
single Vickers machine gun and telescopic sight 



Two-seater British reconnaissance machine, showing telescopic sight 
forward and "tourelle" mounting for rear gun 



76 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 



The Principles of Camouflage — I 

The Art of Concealment and Deception as Practiced on Land 

By M. Luckiesh 



CAMOUFLAGE is an art 
which is the natural 
outgrowth of our instinct for 
concealment and ileccption 
when pitting our wits against 
that of a crafty prey or 
enemy. It is an art much 
older than the human race 
for its beginnings may be 
traced back to the obscurity 
of the early ages of the evolu- 
tion of animal life. The 
name was coined by the 
French to apply to a definite 
art which developed during 
the Great War to a high state 
as many other arts developed 
by drawing deeply ui>on the 
resources of scientific knowl- 
edge. With the introduction 
of this specific word to cover 
a vast field of activity in 
scientifically concealing and 
deceiving, many are led to 
believe that this is a new art. 
But such is not the case, 
however: like many other arts such as that 
of flying, the exigencies of modern warfare 
have provided an impetus which has re- 
sulted in a highly developed art. 

Scientists have recognized for many 
years, and perhajjs more or less vaguely 
for centuries, that Nature exhibited won- 
derful examples of concealment and de- 
ception. The survival of the fittest, as 
Darn-in expressed his doctrine, included 
those individuals of a species who were best 
fitted by their markings and perhaps by 
peculiar habits to survive in the environ- 
ment in which they lived. Naturally 
markings, habits and environment became 
more and more adapted to each other until 
the species became in equilibrium with 
Nature sufficiently to insure its i)erpetuity. 
If we look about us upon animal life we see 
on every hand examples of concealing 
coloration and attitudes designed to deceive' 
the prey or enemy. The rabbit is mottled 
because Nature's infinite variety of high- 
lights, shadows, and hues demands variety 
in the markings of an animal if the latter 
is to be securely hidden. Solid color does 
not exist in Nature landscapes in large 
areas. The rabbit is lighter underneath 
to compensate for the lower intensity of 
illumination received on these portions. 
As winter approaches, animals in rigorous 
climates need a warmer coat 
and the hairs grow longer. 
In many cases the color of the 
hairs change to gray or white 
providing a better coating 
for the winter environment. 

Animals are known to 
mimic inanimate objects for 
the sake of safety. For ex- 
ample the bittern will stand 
rigid with its bill pointed 
skyward for many minutt^s 
if it suspects an enemy. 
Non-poisonous snakes resem- 
ble poisonous ones in general 
characteristics and get along 
in the world on the reputa- 
tion of their harmful rela- 
tives. The drone bee has no 
sting, but to the casual 
observer it is a bee and bees 
generally sting. Some ani- 
mals have very contrasting 
patterns which are conspicu- 
ous in shape yet these very 
features disguise the fact that 
they are animals. Close ob- 
servation of fishes in their 
natural environment provides 
striking examples of con- 
cealing coloration. Vast 
ftorks have been written on 




A huge Zeppelin shed with roof extending to the ground, eliminating shadow-casting 

vertical walls , 




A road screen in Italy to prevent detection of traffic which could be viewed 
from the enemy lines 




A 16-inch railway mount camouflaged in a clump of trees 



tills subject by scientists so 
it will be only touched upon 
here. Mr. G. H. Thayer's 
"Concealing Coloration" is 
a very readable volume for 
the average reader. 

There are many exami)les 
of "mobile" camouflage to 
be found in Nature. Sea- 
sonal change.5 have been 
cited in a foregoing para- 
graph. The chameleon 
changes its color from mo- 
ment to moment. The floun- 
der changes its color and 
pattern to suit its environ- 
ment. It will even strive 
1() imitate a black and white 
checkerboard. 

In looking at a bird, ani- 
mal, insect, or other living 
thing it is necessary to place 
it in its natural environment 
at least in the imagination 
befon; analyzing its colora- 
tion. P'or exam|)le, a male 
mallard duck hanging in the market is a 
very gaudy object, but i)lace it in the pond 
among the weeds, the green leaves, the 
highlights, and the shadows and it is sur- 
prisingly inconspicuous. The zebra in the 
zoo appears io be marked for the purpose 
of heralding its presence anywhere in the 
range of vision, but in its reedy, bushy, 
grassy environment it is sufficiently incon- 
spicuous for the species to survive in 
Nature's continuous warfare. 

Thus studies of Nature reveal the im- 
portance of general hue, the necessity for 
broken color pattern, the fact that black 
spots simulate shadows or voids, the com- 
l)ensation for lower illumination by coun- 
tershading, and many other facts. The 
artist has aided in the development of 
camouflage but the definite and working 
basis of all branches of camouflage are the 
laws and facts of light, color and vision as 
the scientist knows them. 

Just as lower animal life has uncon- 
sciously survived or evolved by being fitted 
to do so mankind has consciously, or at 
least instinctively, applied camouflage of 
\ arious kinds to fool his prey or his enemy. 
Many of us in hunting ducks have con- 
cealed the bow of our sneak-boat with mud 
and weeds, or in the season of floating ice 
wilh a white cloth. In our quest of water 
fowl we use decoys and grass 
suits. The Esquimo stalks 
his game behind a piece of 
ice. In fact, on every hand 
we find evidences of this 
natural instinct. The Indian 
painted his face and body in 
a variety of colors and pat- 
terns. Did he do this merely 
to be hideous? It seems very 
possible that Ihe same in- 
stinct which made him the 
supreme master of wood- 
craft caused him to reap 
some of the advantages of 
concealment due to the paint- 
ing of his face and body. 

In past wars there is plenty 
of evidence that conceal- 
ment and deception were 
practi-sed to the full extent 
comparable with the advan- 
tages or necessity. In the 
Great War the advent of the 
airplane placed the third 
dimension in reconnaissance 
and called for the appUcation 
of science in the greatly 
extended necessity for con- 
cealment and deception. 
With the advent of the air- 
( Conlinued on page 85) 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



77 




False hatch of the decoy ship "Suffolk Coast" in the closed position, 
concealing a 3-inch gun 



When the U-boat was within point-blank range the hatches were thrown 
open, disclosing gun and crew 



Decoy. Ships for Submarines 

Some Details of Naval Actions Which Brought the Victoria Cross 



"ALL the world loves" — a sailor, when he is of the 
•^^ heroic type of the men in our own and the Allied 
services, who when duty called have not stayed to count 
the cost. From time to time our Navy Department has 
told the story of valorous deeds done by our officers and 
men upon the high seas, and here and there, men on 
returning ships add to the brilliant record. All the 
.\llied navies have contributed their quota of recorded 
heroism to brighten the tragic 
histories of this great war on 
sea and land. 

Recently the British Ad- 
miralty have made known 
why the Victoria Cross was 
awarded to certain naval 
officers and men during the 
war. It seems that the cov- 
eted decoration was won 
upon certain ships, whose 
existence and operations were 
kept a profound secret dur- 
ing the war. These were 
.special craft of the " mys- 
tery" type, which carried a 
• camouflaged anti-submarine 
battery and were manned by 
(•arefuUy selected volunteer 
crews. Outwardly, they bear 
the appearance of small 

tramp steamers or sailing craft of the kind that engaged 
in the coastal trade around the British Isles. 

We present photographs of one of these ships, and a 
sketch, which our artist has drawn with a view to show- 
ing more clearly the methods adopted for concealing the 
fighting character of the ship. The favorite method of 
concealment was to mount the guns in false deck houses 
or beneath false hatches, the sides, ends, and ceiling of 
which were hinged and connected with mechanism which 



enabled them in a few seconds to be dropped or folded 
back, exposing the concealed gun and gun crew with 
their weapons trained directly upon the U-boat. 

To enable the commander to keep an eye on the U- 
boat, a periscope disguised as the chimney of a stove was 
emplaced in a position where it commanded an all-round 
view. The conning tower had the appearance of a large 
coil of rope, while another pile of heavy rope served to 




A typical decoy ship, with forward and midship false deckhouses thrown open revealing the guns, 

and the after deckhouse closed 

hide the connections for the auxiliary wireless aerials. 
Such officers and members of the crew as must needs 
put in an appearance on the ship, were dressed as civil- 
ians, the designer of the "Suffolk Coast," Lieutenant- 
Commander .\uten, V. C, wearing an ordinary sack 
suit and a soft fedora hat. 

The strategy and tactics (if we may use the term here) 
of these remarkable craft were as follows: 

The vessel (tramp or steamer, as tlie case might be). 



made for some waters where submarines had recently 
been reported, or where they were wont to foregather, 
and steamed or sailed along as though she were on a 
peaceful merchant voyage. When the submarine was 
sighted, she made every apparent efTort to get away, 
though as a matter of fact, the vessel would be slowed 
up gradually so as to bring the submarine within range 
as soon as possible. In some cases she would carry an 
after gun, either real or 
(lummy, such as was mounted 
on merchant ships, and would 
(^ven engage in an exchange 
of shots. The crew of the 
ship was divided between the 
actual fighting crew who 
remained carefully concealed, 
and what was called the 
"panic party," who, when 
the vessel was heavily shelled 
or had been struck by a 
torpedo, would make a rush 
for the boats and pull away 
from the ship. When the 
submarine had come up 
within point-blank range, the 
false hatches, tarpaulins, and 
other camouflage would be 
flung open and the guns 
would open up at a range so 
close that the destruction of the U-boat was certain. 

It will readily be seen that since these little craft, 
which sometimes were small sailing schooners, had to 
offer themselves as a target for the 4-inch and even 
.5.9-inch shells and the torpedoes of the subnuirine, the 
venture was one requiring remarkable discipline and a 
complete disregard of one's life. But perhaps the work 
can best be told in the words of the official dispatch. 
iConliniirrl on page 88) 





The hinged roof of this deckhouse folds back upon itself and the 
sides fall down, revealing the gun 



The decoy ship "Suffolk Coast," apparently a harmless tramp of the 
kind beloved by the U-boat commander 



78 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 



World Markets for American Manufactures 

Edited by LYNN VV. MEEKINS 
A department devoted to the extension of American trade in foreign lands 



Our Opportunity in Brazil 

BETTER delivery service is at present the greatest 
need of North American exporters selUng their 
goods in Brazil," said the representative of a commission 
house which has branches in South America. " We have 
hundreds of orders on our books, and the consignments 
are awaiting shipment, but there are not enough vessels 
to take them. At least 70,000 tons of cement are ready 
to go foiward, as are thousands of dollars' worth of agri- 
cultural implements, shoe-making machinery and shoe 
findings. \Ve must have more ships soon or the Brazilian 
mcrch.ints. already impatient, may cancel the orders 
placed in the I'liited States and make their purchases in 
Europe or in Japan." 

Brazil is one of the largest and richest countries in the 
world, and opportunities to develop its resources are 
unlimited. Tlie Brazilians are more friendly to us than 
are any other people of Latin America. A market in 
which Germany was strongly intrenched before the war, 
Brazil offers many chances today to American manufac- 
turers. The typewTiter is one American product that 
is making considerable headway just now. Since last 
summer the Brazilian Government has jiermitted con- 
tracts with its various departments to be presented in 
typewritten form. In the past, documents of all kinds 
have been written by hand, but this practice is being 
abandoned since the advent of American salesmen, who 
have introduced standard typewriting machines and 
have organized schools where stenography and type- 
wTiting are taught. 



proprietary medicines are popular in Brazil, where the 
people are noticeably inclined to use such remedies for 
their ailments. In the city of Rio de Janeiro there are 
more than four hundred retail drug stores, and every 
village has at least one such establishment. Malted 
milk and grape juice are typical American articles that 
have been sold successful!)' in the larger cities of Brazil. 
The best way to place American products of this sort on 
the market is to send travelling salesmen to introduce 
the goods and apjjoint competent representatives. Some 
American manufacturers have established branch factories. 

Market for Paper and Other Products 

Brazil is the second largest consumer of paper acu 
paper products in South America, importing more than 
§13,000,000 worth in 1016, but the outlook for an in- 
creased trade in this line is not premising because of the 
country's slow educational development. About three- 
fourths of the population can neither read nor write. 
The expansion by the Brazilian Government of the public 
school system would result in a larger demand for paper 
and for many other commodities. In two of the three 
great manufacturing cities of South America — Rio de 
Janeiro and Sao Paulo — there is a good field for the sale 
of industrial machinery, especially that of an intricate 
nature. 

"Our manufacturers need more direct representation 
in the important trade centers of Brazil," declared an 
American trade commissioner just returned from South 
.America. "We need also a fast and regular freight 



American Dental Equipment in Wide Use 

For some years the United States has 
enjoyed a very satisfactory part of the 
BraziUan trade in dental instruments an I 
supplies. Nearly all of the 1,500 dentists 
in Brazil are natives of that country, 
largely because of the rigid examination 
given in the Portuguese language that must 
be passed before dentistry may be prac- 
tised. "Dental parlors in Rio de Janeiro 
are like those in the United States, as most 
of the equipment is of American manu- 
facture," said a man who has lived in that 
city. "Because several American manu- 
facturers of dental chairs increased their 
prices, German-made chairs of inferior 
quality, sold at a much lower figure, were 
cutting into our share of the trade just 
before the war. Customs duties are high 
and Brazilian importers are better able to 
dispose of the less expensive chairs." 

The great central part of Brazil is the 
least known of any section of the world. 
Although literally darker than Africa, i; 
is not lacking in modern requirements. 
For one thing, sewage disposal systems are 
needed, which means an excellent opportunity for the 
development of trade in pipes and machinery for such 
plants. The agents of American firms who have visited 
Brazil have b(?en too prone to confine their attention to 
the large coast cities and have neglected the interior of 
the country, where farming and the raising of live stock 
are growing in importance. To encourage these indus- 
tries, the Government has removed the import duties on 
farm implements and on pure-bred cattle and horses. 

Brazilian Cities Are Well Lighted 

As an indication of the extent of the market for elec- 
trical supplies, in the state of Sao Paulo alone, 160 cities 
and localities are provided with electric lighting facilities. 
It is reported that American electrical irons, toasters and 
other devices could find an increased sale in Rio Grande 
do Sul through intelligent sales methods, which would 
include correspondence with dealers conducted in Portu- 
guese, the sending of attractive literature accompanied 
by a statement of terms, prices and discounts, and the 
supplying of data showing the volume and weight of 
goods packed for export. In this section of Brazil, 
German houses have been successful in controlling most 
of the importation and distribution of foreign goods. 
But this has not prevented the sale of American electrical 
supplies, which have proved their superiority. 

Brazil is a good market for American drug products 
and pharmaceutical supplies. It is said to use more 
perfume in proportion to the population than any other 
country in South America. Many well-known American 




A display of American dental goods in Rio de Janeiro 

service to all the principal ports. Without it we are as 
crippled as a department store that depends upon casual 
messenger boys to make its deliveries. To obtain mor-j 
Brazilian business, we must extend more satisfactory 
credits. Brazil has every natural resource that the 
United States has, and others in addition. The invest- 
ment of American capital in their development will 
create the largest single incentive to our trade with 
Brazil. We must pay more attention to advertising. 
Publicity methods in South America may be compared 
to those prevailing in the United States thirty j'ears ago. 
The application of American ideas would make Brazilian 
advertising more effective and result in making thou- 
sands of our products as well known as the compara- 
tively few American goods already standard with Bra- 
zilians. If they knew us better, the people of Brazil 
would buy more from us, but they have hardly any con- 
ception of our national life. At the present time they 
are interested in us and have met us half way by indi- 
cating their friendship." 

The Renaissance of Commerce 

THE business of war, which has dominated the world 
for the last four years, is now giving way to the 
business of peace, which will be by no means a peaceful 
business. The war shook the dust off the world's trade 
and in its newness and brightness it is a wonderful and a 
dangerous thing — wonderful in its possibilities for the 
manufacturers and exporters with knowledge and vision, 
and dangerous for those without such qualities. 



In foreign trade nothing should be taken for granted. 
Its changes are kaleidoscopic, its conditions ever 
varying, and he who would not keep up with the times 
had better stay out of it. There are very many manu- 
facturers in this country who think there is not much 
chance of our selling anything in Europe. They have 
read so much about the prejjarations for after the war 
that England, France, Germany and other nations have 
been making that they have decided to draw into theii 
shells so far as selling American goods in that part of 
the world is concerned. They still think that the 
American manufacturer w-ho pays his workmen with 
dollars is unable to compete with the European manu- 
facturer who pays for his labor with francs, leaving out 
of consideration the fact that the United States has the 
most raw materials as well as the finest machinery 
with which the difference in wages may be overcome in 
many cases. 

Very soon we shall have to increase our sales abroad 
or else face an indefinite period of hard times. Fac- 
tories cannot be kept going unless the orders on hand 
are sufficient. The faOurc of a number of our manu- 
facturers to realize the importance of foreign trade 
has thoroughly discouraged quite a few trained foreign 
representatives from handling American goods. A man 
of long commercial experience, born in Greece, who 
has spent more than ten years in the United States, 
complained bitterly the other day about the lack of 
interest in export business that he found in American 
industrial circles. He got in touch with a hundred fac- 
tories, offering to open a well-equipped 
building in Athens where their products, 
could be displayed and asking them to let 
him have samples of their goods, for which 
he agreed to pay, and descriptive cata- 
logues. Although this man knows the 
Near East from A to Z and has ample 
capital to finance the undertaking, he 
received only two repUes, but one of which 
was favorable. 

"I can't understand why American ex- 
porters are not aware of their opportunities 
in the Levant," he said. "The United 
States will have excellent shipping facih- 
ties when its new fleet is built, and it will 
be an easy matter to inaugurate a steam- 
ship line from New York to Near Eastern 
ports. With 85 per cent of the trade of 
the Levant in the hands of Greeks, the 
best distributing centers are Athens, 
Patras, Saloniki and Smjrna. The long 
friendship of Greece for America makes 
these traders anxious to handle the prod- 
ucts of the United States, which they will 
push energetically if given a chance. 
Prices are figured on a close basis out 
there, which means that direct trade is the 
only way that American goods can com- 
pete w-ith those from Europe." 

If the manufacturer will study the geography of 
Africa, he will find that Egypt contains something more 
than the Pyramids and the Sphinx. With land selling 
at SI, 500 an acre and a full measure of prosperity due 
CO its high quality cotton crop, Egj-pt is a spirited bidder 
in the foreign market. Its purchases from the United 
States have increased very considerably in late years, 
and it is a field to which more attention should be paid. 
Our trade with Egypt has been handicapped in the past 
by the lack of direct steamship lines. 

Our new foreign commerce will carry into all parts of 
the world many lines of American goods which used to be 
restricted to comparatively few markets. We are now 
sending abroad numerous commodities that we did not 
export at all before the war and some that we did not 
previously manufacture. Uncle Sam's general store 
has added lots of new departments. He can sell to his 
foreign customers a greater variety of lines than ever, 
thanks to the vast industries newly developed. 

We have also progressed in the manufacture of chemi- 
cals, and instead of something just as good as those we 
used to buj' from Germany, we are turning out something 
much better. With the diversion of industrial plants 
from war orders, their profitable operation depends upon 
the ex-tent to which new foreign business replaces the 
military demands of the i)eriod now ending. Careful 
planning, based upon accurate information, and a greater 
degree of friendliness toward prospective customers are 
essential in the new order of things. 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



79 




A highway bridge in Wisconsin and its twin brother. 



The use of the existing plans for the second structure was made possible by building it on dry land 
and diverting the river to flow under it 



Quantity Production in Bridges 

A COUPLE of years ago we discussed briefly the 
question of serpentine crossings, and showed that, 
whether the crossing were at grade or above or below, 
operating safety required the road to run in a single 
straight line, to include both the crossing itself and a 
considerable distance on either side. We pointed out 
that when this rquirement was not met, the lessened 
first cost of constructing a perpendicular crossing, com- 
pared with a long diagonal one, was properly to be 
regarded as a secondary matter, as against the cost of 
maintenance and the great dangers of the serpentine 
crossing. 

The same situation comes up frequently in building a 
bridge. The road approaches and leaves the river at a 
considerable angle, or at a point where the river bends In 
such a way as to give a long crossing. If the bridge is 
built at this angle so as to give a straight crossing, much 
additional constructional expense is involved. If, on 
the other hand, we put two kinks in the road, one at each 
end of the bridge, in order that the latter may be of 
minimum length, we are but lending our troubles to the 
future. 

The bridge engineer has a way out of this dilemma — a 
way through which the constructor of a rail-highway 
crossing cannot follow him. The railroad is a permanent 
feature and cannot be shifted; but it is a simple matter to 
pick up the ordinary small stream and set it down in a 
new place. So this is what the bridge engineer does; he 
simply relocates the river at the point where he can bridge 
it most conveniently and economically. 

Incidentally he derives another advantage from this 
procedure. Instead of first moving the stream and then 
building the bridge, he builds the bridge and then diverts 
the stream to flow under it. Obviously it is not a very 
great advantage to be able to 
build a bridge of ordinary 
size entirely on dry land — 
we could not go out of our 
way to do this. But when 
it comes to a question of 
whether we shall build our 
bridge on dry land, or build 
a river first so that we may 
build the bridge over water, 
we shall certainly decide in 
favor of the former alterna- 
tive, and make it good for 
such incidental advantages 
as it possesses. It may, 
however, be emphasized that 
its economies are purely in- 
cidental; the big saving, the 
one we are after, is found in 
the difference between the 
cost of diverting the river 
and that of building an un- 
necessarily long bridge. 

A Wisconsin engineer, in 
applying the procedure out- 
lined, has recently demon- 
strated still another possi- 
bility that inheres in it. 
When we build a bridge at 
whatever point we happen to 
come upon the water, we 
must accommodate the .struc- 
ture to the width of the 
watercourse. But if we are 
going to plant our bridge in 
the middle of a field or lay 
it down parallel to the pres- 
ent course of the stream, as 



was done in one of the cases illustrated, when we get 
around to the job of relocating the river, we can make the 
width of the watercourse what we plea.se — within limits, 
of course. That being the case, we can dig into our files 
for an existing bridge plan, and when we find one that we 
like and that comes within the limits of the present case, 
we can accomrilodate the renovated stream to it, instead 
of going to the expense of designing a brand new bridge 
to fit the stream. 

This is actually being done in Wisconsin. The two 
bridges which we picture are located, one near Antigo and 
the other near Manitowoc; the natural spans, if the 
streams had in both cases been left undisturbed, would 
have been quite different in length and height of span, 
since the profiles of the valleys were wholly different. 
But in revising the river at Antigo it was easy to provide 
that, after its transfer to a new channel, it should dupli- 
cate that at Manitowoc so far as concerned its bridge- 
abiiity; and incidentally it is now straight, where before 
it was crooked. 

An Over-night Concreting Job 

THE accompanying illustration shows the laying of a 
concrete floor at night with reinforced I-beam sec- 
tions in a large department store at Cleveland. The 
spans in the construcdcn were 20 feet, with a total load 
of 250 pounds per square foot. The erection was ac- 
complished without the use of forms or supports of any 
kind, and even the removal of the many glass showcases 
standing on the store level beneath ^the floor slab was 
unnecessary. 

The upper layer of concrete is used as a finished cement 
floor; while the ceiling plaster adheres perfectly to the 
lower surface without the use of any adhesive inter- 
mediarv. 



f; 




Concrete floor laid at night without disturbing the floor below; (upper right) the construction details 



The Current Supplement 

VERY now and then the announcement is made that 
"•"-^ someone has discovered a method of creating life, 
but when the facts are examined it can hardly be said 
that we are appreciably nearer the goal than before. 
Many serious, and apparently insurmountable obstacles 
surround that great secret; but what scientists are 
learning, rather slowly to be sure, is how to go about the 
necessary investigations — hitherto they were attempting 
what might be termed methods of direct assault. A 
discussion of some of the questions involved will be found 
in an illuminating paper on Life and the Structure of the 
Molecule in the current issue of the Scientific American 
Supplement, No. 2247 for January 25th. Contraband 
Trade Between Switzerland and Germany notes conditions 
prevailing during the war, and the accompanying illus- 
trations show some of the methods employed by smug- 
glers. The habitat groups in the American Museum of 
Natural History are of wide interest both on account of 
their artistic excellence and because of the unusual 
character of the material often available. One of the 
new groups nearing completion is devoted to that rare 
animal, the white rhinoceros. This will include one of 
the finest specimens in the world, a bull having a horn 
42 inches long, and a female with a 36-inch horn. The 
museum collection includes specimens obtained by 
Colonel Roosevelt, and also the most complete collection 
of skulls of every age and of many shapes in the world. 
An article on The Finest Specimens of White Rhinoceros in 
Africa with illustrations, show the record buU and some 
of the skulls, and some interesting general information 
is given. How Matches Are Made gives some facts 
about the manufacture of the millions of these indis- 
pensible little articles that are consumed every day in 
all parts of the world, and a number of excellent photo- 
graphs show the machinery 
and processes employed. 
Taking Photographs from Air- 
planes and Balloons describes 
and illustrates some of the 
special and unusual cameras 
developed for this unique 
kind of photography. Other 
articles in this issue include 
Zirconia as a Refractori/, The 
Ignition Temperature of Gas- 
eous Mixtures; A ntiscorbutic 
Principles of Limes and 
Lemons; Fringing Rerfs of the 
Philippine Islands and The 
Interconnection of Economic 
Botany and Chemical In- 
dustry. 

New Glands of the 
Platypus 

IN the course of work on 
the anatomy of the pla- 
typus (ornithorhynchus pa- 
radotus), the Australian 
mammal which lays eggs and 
forms a link between the 
birds and the mammals. Dr. 
Colin McKenzie and W. J. 
Owen have established the 
existence of three glands new 
to science. These are a 
cervical set gland, a large 
scapula gland and the pa- 
rathymus. The functions of 
these glands has not yet 
been determined. 



80 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



Jan\iary 25, 1919 



Inventions New and Interesting 

A Department Devoted to Pioneer Work, in the Arts 



Surgical Machinery Up 
to Date 

IT is almost a common- 
place to remark that the 
war hr.s retluced surgery to a 
precise mechanical art. 
Nevertheless, as the various 
devices for converting the 
hospital into a machine shop 
pass in review, the layman 
will hardly be able to retain 
completely the garb of so- 
phistication, or to restrain 
altogether some expression 
of surprise. 

One of the latest exhibits 
of this sort of thing is the 
arm splint which we il- 
lustrate herewith. It is ob- 
vious enough that this splint gives the 
necessary degree of rigidity; but here 
it merely duplicates existing devices, 
instead of surpassing them. Its ad- 
vantages consist in the fact that it can 
be used on either arm indifferently, and 
can be adjusted to any desired position 
of the arm and of the wearer. 

The new splint has been ordered in 
quantities for use in our base hospitals, 
here and abroad, and it is violating no 
dictate of military secrecy to state that 
the American Red Cross is responsible 
for its design and adoption. The ad- 
vantages of having one splint applicable 
to all cases of arm wounds are so obvious 
that we need not dilate upon them here. 
It is just the same game of standardized 
trucks and standarized airplane engines 
all over again, on a smaller scale. 

Weighing the Temperature for 

Blind Folk 

By Jacques Beyer 

THE victims of blindness, whose num- 
ber the war has unfortunately so in- 
creased, excite more and more the in- 
terest of a sympathetic world, which 
strives to ameliorate their lot by provid- 
ing them with a variety of useful ap- 
pliances. In the course of the past few 
years, various workers have adapted to 
the use of the blind certain machines, 
tools, and even games; the Braille slate 
and the Braille typewriter furnish in- 
stances selected at random. Today 
comes a resident of Nimes, M. Fleury 
Brunet, with a curious thermometer 
that he has invented to make it poissible 
for persons deprived of their sight to 
read the temperature quite as well as 
anybody else. 

The device is a calorimetric balance, 
with which one actually weighs the 
temperature, if we 
may be permitted 
this expression. It 
is a combination of 
a balance beam with 
a mercurial ther- 
mometer, using the 
motion of the mer- 
cury column to dis- 
place the center of 
gravity of the tube 
and permit the 
blind man to read, 
from its position, 
the degrees of tem- 
perature marked on 
an index scale. 

The inventor has 
worked out his con- 
ception in a fashion 
at once elegant and 
sound. The scale is 
carried on two steel 





The standardized adjustable arm splint 



bars, along which it can be slid for a short 
distance backward and forward. It is 
graduated in Braille characters, the 
lower temperatures being above and the 
upper ones below. The principal mem- 
ber is a rather heavy bar of aluminum, 
supported, on a knife-edge bearing, at a 
point near one end. On its long arm it 
carries an ordinary mercurial ther- 



How the new splint goes on the patient 



for whatever temperature is to lie in the 
middle of the instrument's range — which 
ordinarily runs from zero to 40° Centi- 
grade. The column of mercury then 
plays the role of running weight; and 
by its varying position it controls the 
position of the balance — when the 
temperature rises and the mercury moves 
outward along the beam, the pointed 




The thermometer that weighs the temperature so that the blind can read it 



mometer, rigidly mounted; and this 
arm terminates in a point. The short 
arm ends in a heavy ball, and is provided 
in addition with two blocks, which may 
be slid back and forth and locked in 
position. This makes it possible so to 
calibrate the instrument that the alu- 
minum beam takes a horizontal position 



end of the latter falls, and in the opposite 
case it rises. 

The point of the beam fails to touch 
the scale in the normal position of the 
latter. When a blind man wants to 
read the instrument, however, he pushes 
the scale in toward the base; and as he 
does so, the pointed beam passes through 





The stretcher that divides down the middle to give up its 
load without handling 



Shockless transfer from ambulance to bed, by means 
of the dividing stretcher 



one of the holes of the scale, 
and penetrates a little way 
on the other side. It is then 
locked in position, and the 
blind man can find it and read 
the corresponding Braille 
character without any danger 
of displacing it and altering 
the accuracy of his reading. 
Having found the tempera- 
ture, the blind man moves the 
scale back to normal posi- 
tion, and the pointer is again 
free to oscillate under the 
influence of temperature 
changes. 

Inability to read the tem- 
perature, while not the worst 
of the blind man's disabili- 
ties, is far from being the 
least annoying; and this clever means of 
removing it will be appreciated. 

A Stretcher That Gives Up Its Load 
Painlessly 

IN the strides made during the past 
decade by medical science and sur- 
gery, little attention has been paid to one 
of the minor, but none the less urgent, 
points in the handling of the injured — 
the means of getting them off the stretcher 
and into the bed. Every doctor will 
concede that the current style of handling 
patients in this transfer leads to irritation 
and shock which, in severe cases, may 
become a serious complication. But 
there has been no suggested means for 
avoiding these unpleasant consequences. 
The stretcher shown on this page 
divides longitudinally in the middle. 
Each half of the canvas may then be 
slipped from under the patient, after he 
has been deposited, in the stretcher, on 
his bed or operating table; so the transfer 
takes place with no handling and no 
shock. 

The center coupling of the new stretcher 
consists of two fine steel rods, three feet 
long — one running from each end of the 
stretcher through canvas loops that, 
extend alternately from each side. These 
rods meet in the center loop, and are 
locked in place by a canvas strap that 
buttons over their outer ends in such 
fashion as absolutely to prevent their 
slipping out, while each rod checks the 
other in any tendency to slip inward. 
The folding handles reduce the minimum 
length of the stretcher to six feet, making 
delivery possible to the standard hospital 
bed, six feet two inches in length. 

The iron spreading rods have a slot 
at the center of one which slips over a 
rivet at the center of the opposite rod, 
and, when rigidity is in order, is locked 
by a pin penetrating 
both rods. This 
pin in turn is held 
in place by a small 
flat steel spring. On 
releasing this lock 
the spreading rods 
swing in under the 
canvas, and counter- 
sink into the wooden 
frame; whereupon 
the entire stretcher 
folds [into a bundle, 
light and compact, 
six feet long and 
eight inches thick. 

This stretcher was 
invented by M. V. 
Hubbard, an am- 
bulance driver in 
the fire department 
of San Jose, Cali- 
fornia. 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



81 




Copyright V'Vj, by The Goodyear Tire t Rubber Co. 



"In this test of nineteen months we have demonstrated to our full satisfaction that 
your Goodyear S-V Solid Truck Tires give us a high general average mileage and a 
low general mile cost per tire, and their stamina has stood up where the strain 
is the hardest." — W. J. Sherwood, Gen' I Supt., Chicago Motor Bus Company. 



AS a result of the extensive test men- 
tioned above, 90 per cent of the 
^ tires on the fifty double -decked 
busses operated by this company, are 
Good3^ear Solid Tires. 

This is because, although the balance is 
always made up of other tires for direct 
comparison, no reason has been found 
for changing. 

The superiority of Goodyear Solid Tires 



is most conspicuous at the points of 
hardest wear which are xhc front wheels 
of these busses. They are the driving as 
well as steering wheels. Their tires re- 
ceive the worst strains imposed by the 
10,000- to 16,000-pound burdens above 
them. 

Out of 342 Goodyear Solid Tires checked, 
thirty-one ran between 15,000 and 20,000 
miles, eleven went 20,000 to 25,000 
miles, while four exceeded 25,000, 



including one old warrior known to 
actually deliver 37,665 miles. 

Nearly fourteen million tire miles have 
cost The Chicago Motor Bus Company 
only one-half cent each. 

Such economy could be produced by 
nothing less than the tremendous 
strength built into Goodyear Solid Tires, 
by reason of which they wear down very 
slowly and evenly. 



The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio 



82 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 



TO INVENTORS 

The completion of substantial war orders 
leaves the undersigned company with largely 
increased facilities for the production of 
metal stampings and drawings of all kinds. 

We desire to utilize these facilities in the 
development and manufacture of some pat- 
ented article of merit ; preferably one which 
is now in general demand and which can be 
turned out in large quantities. 

Behind such a proposition we can place 
our large plant, ample capital, solid reputa- 
tion, and long experience. 

Correspondence with Inventors is solicited 

PRATT CHUCK CO. 

FRANKFORT. N. Y., U.S.A. 



Manufacturers of 



Pratt Positive Drive Drill Chucks, Oneida Lathe Chucks, Electrical Outlet 
Boxes, Bushings, Chaplcts, Nipples, Metal Stampings and Drawings of all kinds. 



The Value of Suggestion 

In a recent interference proceeding 
involving five separate applicants for 
a patent, three of them attributed 
their conception of the invention to 
an illustrated article appearing in 
the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 
By placing before your engineers y 
designers and mechanics for system- 
atic study, copies ol patents, you may 
stir their inventive faculties to your 
great advantage. 

We can furnish complete sets of United 
States Patents --properly classified- 
relating to your particular line of work 
in convenient form for ready reference. 

Write our Manufacturers Service 
Department, 

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

626 Woolworth Building 
New York City 



Submarine Range-Finding by Means 
of Reflected Sound Waves 

[Conlinuctl from page 67) 
which are above the audibility range of the 
human ear. For one thing, such high fre- 
queney soundwaves may be readilyreceivod 
with little if any interference from the many 
other sounds existing in water. Again, 
such waves make it extremely difficult for 
a hostile ship, particularly a submarine, 
to detect the sending source through the 
use of a similar installation. When sound 
wa>cs of a jjitch above the audibility range 
of the human car are employed, the receiv- 
ing circuit includes some form of inter- 
rupter or "chopper," which breaks up the 
high pitched sound so that it may be heard 
by the liunian ear. 

While primarily designed for anti-U- 
boat operations, the present device has a 
permanent use. It literally enables the 
mariner to "see" under water. Un- 
chartered ledges and pinnacles can be 
detected, and wrecks can be located. 
What is more, Mr. Ries claims that with 
a little practice the operator ought soon 
be able to tell the difference between 
various materials, such as sand, rock, wood, 
iron and so on, since each material reflects 
the sound waves differently because of the 
varying acoustic absorption of each. 

The Voice of the Sea 

(Continued from page 71) 
fish and the richly colored sea gardens of 
the Pacific at Santa Catalina. At San 
Diego the yachtsman finds his paradise, 
while at Coronado one may watch the 
feathery spray tumbling gloriously over the 
breakwater. The long high ridge of Point 
Loma overlooks the bay, while from com- 
manding view-points the desert mountains 
of Mexico blend softly with the sky. 

On summer days I have followed the 
rolling hills along the ocean to the south 
of San Francisco, peering over precipitous 
bluffs at tiny curving beaches, bounded by 
rocky headlands and outlying reefs of 
tilted strata, on which the seals and the 
white gulls play. The long blue waves 
of the Pacific break with stately rhythm 
on the sand or tower in spray upon the 
rocks, and the voice of the sea is sweetest 
music to the ear. Come with me through 
the grain fields dotted with golden poppies, 
over the flower-strewn hillsides, joyous with 
birds and butterflies, down through thick 
cedars to the singing sands of the seashore, 
down to the long brown kelp and the wav- 
ing mosses! 

The sea is a symbol of eternity. As we 
become more deeply acquainted with it 
we more truly love its m3'stery and more 
clearly imderstand its message to our 
hearts. There are silent moments upon 
the mountains when one feels the im- 
mensity of nature, and there are storms 
upon the sea in which one realizes the | 
presence of an immeasurable power. He 
has but lived in part to whose heart the i 
mountains and the sea have never spoken. 
Both supply an infinite need of the soul. 
In the solitude of the mountains and in the 
voice of the storm-driven sea there is 
companionship with the Eternal. 

Curved or "S" Courses 

(Continued from page 73) 
yards longitudinally and llOj'ards literally. 
These errors are what may bo ordinarily ex- 
pected in mortar firingat a vessel steering an 
"S" course. The sinuous course causes a 
loss in hitting power of mortar batteries of 
about 50 jjer cent, so that only high velocity 
rifles should be used in future installations, 
confining the use of mortars to special 
cases. The result of these tests demon- 
strated the vulnerability of coast defens(>s 
armed with mortars when bombarded at 
long range by warships steering a sinuous 
bombar<lment curve. As a result of the 
invention of the Automatic Course Indi- 
cator the firing system and armament of 
coast defenses will have to be radically 
revised. 

"In regard to gunfire, a lesser but very 
material error is introduced. In the case 
(Continued on page 84) 



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JF YOU HAVE AN INVENTION 

which you wish to patent you can 
write fully and freely to Munn & Co. 
for advice in regard to the best way 
of obtaining protection. Please send 
sketches or a model of your inven- 
tion and a description of^the device, 
explaining its operation. 

All communications are strictly confiden- 
tial. Our vast practice, extending over a 
period of seventy years, enables us in many 
cases to advise in regard to patentability 
without any expense to the client. Our 
Hand-Book on Patents is sent free on 
request. This explains our methods, terms, 
etc., in regard to Patents, Trade Marks, 
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All pateoU secured through ui are descritird vnOiOUt 
coti lo the patentee in the SClENTinC AMERICAN. 

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SOLICITORS OF PATENTS 
233 Broadway. Woolworth Building, 

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And 625 F Street. Washington. D. C, 



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BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

Incorporate your business under the common law. 
No orframzatioij tax ; no franihise tax ; no f deral cor- 
IH) ation tax ; ceruflcates nottixa' le ; stockholde s ex- 
empt from company tlebis ; do busine s anywhere ; di- 
rectors reside wliere you \* ish ; lowe>l cost ortranization 
possible. < ommon Law OrAranizalion Co., 9 RanUuIi>ti. 
Detroit, Mich. 

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY 

WANTED. CJood quality .second band power equip- 
ment for a new cantiiiig^ fact<»ry that will operate not 
over one tlurd of the year. Two 12.5 li.p. boilers, all 
prereral)ly of internal furnace type, to <*:iriy lUO lbs. 
working pressure; (»ne KM) to 150 h.p. cntrine; one :{r.o h.p. 
fei d water heator; one ;iuO h.p. boiler feed pump; one 
exhaust head, other apparatus later. Shipment about 
tlie middle of February. Address C. C. I'eck, No. 721-2.? 
E. & B. Building. Kocbester. N. V. 

AGENCY WANTED 

FRENCH Interpreter actually working with U. S. 
Army wishes after tbe war t-'ciieral aiieney in France for 
U. S. Ajfrirultural Specialties Mnochanics. chemical, ma- 
nure, etc.). K. (.'. Reboul lluite C'ummerciale 86-Nantes, 
France. 

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY 

WANTED a plant which can develop and use my 
system of raising sunken ships. Engineer, Box 773 
City Hall Station, New York Cty. 

INVENTION DEVELOPMENT 

SI'KCIAIJS rs ill the devolopmeiil. manufacture and 
sale of new devices. A llnely equipped factory and a 
capable and experienced organization at your service. 
Detroit A<ces.s()ries Corporation, Gratiot & Fisher Aves.. 

Detroit, Michiiraii 

BUILD MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS FOR 
PLEASURE OR SALE 

FOR S:{.00 we show yon how to Select Materials. Rend, 
Shape, Fasten and Ornament, we illaslrato inexpensive 
methods by which Amatet.rs can build First Clasa 
Instnnnents of many styles and furnish Drawing? and 
Patterns for a 12 String Double >.eck (hiitar, one Neck 
siving clear t«>ups of Harplike quality, the other, a 
Ricii I^)werful Bass, easy to play and carry. Technical 
De.seriptive Co.. Wallham. Mass. 



TO INVEST 

$50,000.00 CAPITAL 

or more with services (sal- 
ary no object) in going 
manufacturing concern. 
Fullest investigation de- 
manded. No agents. 

DAN H. RUSSELL 

1020 Sycamore Street Cincinnati, Ohio 



.fnnuarv %. 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 





Dotted lines show how the 
inside of the "cup" of a 
Timken Bearing is tapered 
to fit over the tapered rollers. 



Bearings that Stay New 

in Tractor, Truck and Motor Car 



"As good as new" after five thousand, 
twenty-five thousand, fifty thousand or 
even a hundred thousand miles in motor 
car, truck or tractor. 

Why is this characteristic of Timken 
Bearings so important to car builder or 
owner? 

And how does it follow from the tapered 
design of the bearing? 

Here's vsrhy it's important : 

The job of the bearings — in wheels and 
transmission, on the pinion or worm shaft, 
at the differential or in the knuckle heads — 
is to keep the expensive working parts of 
the vehicle from wearing out. Bearings 
can't do this job if they wear out them- 
selves, or even if they just wear loose, and 
stay loose. Therefore they should stay 
new — and Timken Taper Bearings do. 

Here's w/iy it results from Timken 
Taper: 



The tapered design enables the bearing 
to resist not only up-and-down loads, 
bumps and pressures, but also the heavy 
side or end-pressures that are always 
present in some degree in a moving ve- 
hicle — ^jolted to right or left, swinging 
around curves, struggling out of ruts and 
bumping over holes, stones, and so on. 

Naturally, with this doubled power of 
resistance to wear and tear, Timken 
Bearings stand up where less resistant 
bearings would be groimd to pieces. 

Secondly — if a little wear does occur 
after thousands of miles, it can be quickly 
and easily corrected, just by moving the 
tapered "cone" and rollers a trifle farther 
into the tapered cup. This simple "take- 
up for wear" extends the life of the bearings 
indefinitely. 

If you want further explanation write 
for free booklet "How Can I Tell"— which 
describes all the principal types of bearings 
for motor cars. 



THE TIMKEN ROLLER BEARING COMPANY 
Canton, Ohio 





'SES'^^' 



frl 




t4r w- ^ 




r •-• 



nmrnm 



&i 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 




— , 1 Curved or "S" Courses 



Section of a typical Pond 
Truss building. 




Outlet lines of Pond Con- 
tinuous Sash in a Pond 
Truss roof. They can stay 
open in an y ordi nary rain. 




Pond Continuous Sash in a 
sawtooth roof^ controlled 
by Pond Operating Device. 




Short lengths of Pond Con- 
tinuous Sash in a side wall. 




Interior of a Pond A- 
Franne. Used for maximum 
ventilation in a confined 
roof area. 



A Shadowless 
MachiriG Shop 

What both the sawtooth and the multiple monitor 
seek, but miss, is achieved in this machine shop of 
the C. H. Wheeler Manufacturing Co., one of many 
notable examples of uniform all-direction lighting 
from the Pond Truss Roof. 

For most factories a Pond Truss costs less than a 
sawtooth. And— unlike all other types of roof- 
it ventilates a wide building without demandmg 
excessive height. Its very form tends to create air 
currents; and very wide buildings can have alter- 
nating inlets and outlets, with Hght from both. 
We devised the Pond Truss to help our customers 
get 100 per cent, service from 

CONTINUOUS SASH 



the original all-weather, mass ventilating sash. It 
is only one of several arrangements for securing 
results once thought impossible. 
Ask our Service Department to make suggestions 
for your new factory, or for remodeling buildings 
whose present output is unsatisfactory. No charge 
— but you may learn some new possibilities of in- 
creased efficiency. 

Booklet, "Air, Light and Efficiency," tells how special treatment 
produced unusual results in some famous factories. 
Typical ways of using Pond Continuous Sash are shown in the small 
sketches. Contrast them with the limited ventilation due to old- 
fashioned window arrangements. 
You can order Pond Continuous Sash from stock. 

DAVID LUPTON'S SONS COMPANY 

Clearfield CS. Weikel Sts. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Canadian Manufacturers, The 

A. B. Ormsby Co., Lid., Toronto 




l^S^W ^ ti/i^^lcu/er6^ 



FOR WEDDINGS 
«™r°"ca^ Flowers should come first in your list of 
florist. Wedding Gifts. They convey your message. 

lour local florist, within a few hours, can deliuer fresh flowers in any city or town in 
the United States and Canada through the Florists' Telegraph Delivery service. 




(Cunlinued from pagi; S^) 

of 12-inch guns the prediction interval is 
only 30 seconds and time of flight from 15 
to 30 seconds. The error appears to be 
])r()porti()nal or nearly so to the time inter- 
val at wliieii the future jMisition of the ship 
on tlio '8' course must be guessed. On a 
straight course the average error in the set- 
forward point is about 24 yards. With 
the target head-on when steering an 'S' 
cour.se, at ranges between 7,000 and 12,000 
yards, the total jirobability of hitting is 
reduced by 2.5 per cent and with the target 
broadside the sinuous course at 8. 000 yards 
range reduces the longitudinal probability 
of hitting about 10 per cent. At the 
longer ranges, 18,000 and 21,000 yards, the 
.sinuous course will give an attacking fleet 
more immunit}' than now from rifle fire. 
\\'hen spotfiring is resorted to the error will 
be far greater even than that indicated 
above. 

"The importance of these tests cannot 
be too strongly emphasized. As the mor- 
tar and gunfire from a land battery having 
a long horizontal and high vertical base 
line, at 8,000 yards range, was seriously 
affected, how much more will be the effect 
ui)()n gunfiring between battle fleets at 
18,000 yards range which resort to spot- 
firing! A fleet on an 'S' course will be 
much more immune from the enemy's guns, 
wliile her own control officers, knowing the 
' S ' course, can alter their ship's fire as the 
curve changes." 

The Final Solution of the Airship 
Problem 

(Conlinucd from page 73) 
owing to the fact that the outer cover is 
made as a rule of a non-gas-tight material, 
tiuis allowing for some renewal of the air; 
certain constructors, Forlanini for instance, 
provide means for ventilating the ring 
space at will by means of a system of valves. 
Of course, all these are merely peace 
time risks, which in time of war are further 
complicated by the intervention of hostile 
airplanes firing incendiary bullet.s — as the 
list of German Zeppelin losses proves with 
considerable forceful ne.ss. It is small won- 
der then that as long as the industrial 
production of helium had been considered 
impossible the airship should have been 
condemned for all but some special pur- 
poses, more distinctly naval: fleet scouting, 
coast patrol and submarine chasing. It is, 
l)erhaps, not unfitting to add here in view 
of what has been said about the drawbacks 
of hydrogen that the officers and crews 
manning airships in time of war are ex- 
ceedingly gallant men — be they even 
Germans. 

The Virtues of Helium 
It may seem strange that an article 
which purports to extol the virtues of 
helium as a lifting gas — helium, which the 
Xavy Department camouflaged for reasons 
of national security as "argon" until the 
war was won — should pay so much at- 
tention to the drawbacks of hydrogen. 
But as a matter of fact it is only by this 
procedure that the reader can be made to 
appreciate fully the principal factor which 
ever since Giffard's days has obstructed 
the logical development of the airship into 
the aerial liner and battleship. 

Helium, besides being, as has already 
been said, absolutely non-inflammable, 
also refuses to be absorbed and therefore, 
cannot form, through diffusion in air, an 
explosive mixture; hence it eliminates in 
the airship the principal elements of danger 
and promises to bring about nothing short 
of a revolution in aerial navigation. As 
against this very great advantage helium 
possesses only a small drawback with re- 
spect to hydrogen: its lifting force is about 
8 per cent smaller than that of hydrogen, 
because helium is about twice as heavy as 
the latter. Helium will thus lift about 
65 pounds per 1,000 cubic feet, as against 
70 pounds for commercial hydrogen. This 
drawback is, however, really insignificant 
in the light of the enormous advantages the 
new lifting gas possesses. 




Y^ 



llUS 
paciLs 



T^HE old reliable stand-bys are now being utilized 
-*- in the industries of peace. The pencil is the first 
tool used in the change. The long established fa- 
mous VENUS Pencils (made in 17 degrees) always 
can be depended on for the most exacting work. 



17 black degreet 

For bold heavy lines 

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For general writing 
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For clean fine lines 

2H-3H-4H-5H.6H 

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7H-8H-9H 



Special 
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you tintt how perfect 
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Of all stationers and 

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world 



American Lead Pencil Co. 

217 Fifth Avenue, New York 

and Clapton, London, Eng. 



Waxed Typewriter Ribbons 

ARE SUPERIOR 

Produce distinctive letters: we;u' loneer; moie econom- 
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for all makes of Typewriters, and addiag Machines; 
light, medium or lieavy inked : any color desired. Price, 
r> for $6.0(1 : i; for S2 V^: :t for 51. 50, prepaid anywhere iu 
United States. If foreign, add postage and tariff. 

BOOKLET FREE 

Send 3c stamp for interesting -iO-page booklet— '• Better 
Typewriter Ke«ultn." or send 64c, stamps or c<)in 
(checks not accepted for less than S1.6o>, stating the 
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Department 21 

THE RIBBON WORKS, Gilveston, Texas 



ROBINSON 
REMINDER 

AtAU 
Staklioners' 



fffd.hy 

Robinson Mfg.Gx 

>VestfieU.,n«Ss. 



^^^ Modern Gasoline Automobile 

By Victor Page, ^t. V.. Price $3.50; $."^.75 Postpaid 

This Book is the latest and most complete 
treatise on the gasoline automobile; embracing its 
construction, operation, maintenance and repair. 

MUNN & CO. Inc. 

233 Broadway Woolworth Bldg New York 



FREE! 



THE BOYS' 
MAGAZINE 

Send to-day for a free sample copy of 
THE BOYS' MAGAZINE. 

Chock-full of cli'an, ins])iring stories and 
instructive articles all of great interest to 
every live, ui)-to-the-ininute American boy. 
Special articles about Electricity, Mecha- 
nics, Athletics and Physical Training, 
Clardcning, C'ami>ing, Ihinting, Trapping, 

FishinK, Cycling, Carpentry, I'liotoKruphv. Poultry, 
Drawing, Stamp and Coin Cullectini;, Boys' Clubs, 
Jokps. Cartoons, otr.. etc. Keaulifully illustrated 
throughout. Handsome covers in colors. 
Drop us a line to-day. Itemembcr we'll send you 
our very latest issue ahsoXiddy free. 

Address, THE SCOTT F. REDFIELD CO.. 

2730 Main Street Smethporl, Pa. 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



85 



Give Them 

Their Jobs 

Back 

nrHE men who left 
^ your shop or your 
office to finish the Big 
Job over there have 
been working for you 
all the time they have 
been away. 

And though not on your 
payroll, they have saved 
your business and your 
home from thmgs w^orse 
than bankruptcy or fire. 

Their experience has de- 
veloped them and made 
them more valuable to you. 

When they return, give 
them more than a w^elcome 
home. Have their places, 
at bench or desk, ready 
for them. 

DURAND 

STEEL LOCKER CO. 

1574 Ft. Dearborn Bk. BIdg. 974 Vanderbilt BIdg. 
Chicago New York 



MODELS BUILT and 
INVENTIONS DEVELOPED 

We are prepared to build special ma- 
chinery and models from most delicate pre- 
cision instruments up to 10 ton machines. 

ENGINEERINU AND PLANNING DEPT. 

Be$t Equipped Plant of its kind in Country 

THREE RIVERS MACH. TOOL & DIE CORP., PHOENIX, N. Y. 



You can buy truck mile- 
age at cut price by w^atching 
your operating costs and spread- 
ing them over maximum distance 
— as recorded by the 



HmmAj 




HUB ODOMETER 

The rugged mechanism of the Veeder 

gives the instrument its value ; it's always working, 
always saving. Registers /oruJarf/, whether truck 
runs forward or backward. Price, $20. Ford 
model, $15. Ltaflets describe full}). 

THE VEEDER MFG. CO. 

18 Sargeant St. Hartford, Conn. 



The advance which the ([uantity pro- 
duction of helium promises to effect in the 
technique as well as in the application of 
airships can hardly be overrated. One 
may already foresee that, with the fire risk 
eliminated, it will be pojssible to fit the 
engines into the hull proper of rigid airships 
and thus design a more efficient propelling 
system; this will produce a more homo- 
geneous ensemble, almost absolute stream- 
line shape, greater structural strength, and 
better all round performance. That such 
progress will benefit civilian as much as — 
if not more than — military and naval 
pursuits seems a foregone conclusion. 

Battleplane Armament 

(Continued from page 75) 
The armored plane has appeared on 
various occasions in the great war, usually 
on the German side. Such attempts to 
protect airmen and engines have generally 
proved a failure, for the reason that the 
loss in speed and climbing ability has more 
than offset the gain in protection from 
hostile small-arms fire. Indeed, such 
machines have only too often fallen victims 
to artillery fire from the ground. A typical 
armored plane designed by the Germans 
for operations against troops on the ground 
was brought down by the Americans during 
the closing days of active fighting. This 
machine, which was probably of the Junker 
type, was a two-seater and carried three 
guns— one firing directly ahead, one mounted 
on a tourelle, and the third arranged to 
fire through a well in the floor at targets on 
the ground. 

All in all, the tendency has been to in- 
crease the machine-guns wherever feasible, 
but considerations of speed and climbing 
ability have set severe limits in that direc- 
tion. ."Vfter four years of war the little 
chaser, with its single passenger and one 
or two machine-guns, has proved the real 
battleships of the skies. It may be that 
things will change in time; but until the 
signing of the armistice the chaser remained 
the final word in aerial fighting. 

The Principles of Camouflage 

(Continued from page 76) 
plane, aerial photography became a more 
important factor than visual observation in 
much of the reconnaissance. This neces- 
sitated that camouflage in order to be 
successful had to meet the requirements of 
the photographic eye as well as of the 
human eye. In other words the spectral 
characteristics of the colors used had to be 
similar to those of Nature's colors. For 
example, chlorophyll, the green coloring 
matter of vegetation, is a peculiar green as 
compared with green pigments. When 
examined with a spectroscope it is seen to 
reflect a band of deep red light not reflected 
by ordinary pigments. So a photographic 
plate or spectroscope will reveal a differ- 
ence which the unaided eye does not. 

Some time before the Great War began, 
it occurred to the writer that colored filters 
could be utiUzed in aiding vision by in- 
creasing the contrast of the object to be 
viewed against its surroundings. Studies 
were made of various filters, in view- 
ing the uniforms of various armies. Further 
developments were made by applying the 
same princijjles to colored lights and 
painted pictures. As a result of the demand 
for avoiding detection by photographic 
plates and by various colored filters, some 
paints provided for the camoufleur were 
developed according to the spectral re- 
quirements. Many other applications of 
science were developed so that camouflage 
can now be called an art based upon sound 
scientific principles. 

Natural lighting is so variable that it is 
often impossible to provide camouflage 
which will remain satisfactory from day to 
day; therefore, a broad knowledge cf 
Nature's Ughting is necessary in order to 
provide the best compromise. There are 
two sources of light in the daytime, namely 
the sun and the sky. The relative amounts 
of light contributed by these two sources is 
continually changing. The sky on cloud- 
less days contributes from tV ♦<> M of the 




Eugenics in Steel Manufacture 

How Human Genius Aided by Unusual Mechani- 
cal Apparatus Maintains the "Agathon" 
Standard of Physical Perfection 

Even steel men ot long experience have been surprised 
by human care and skill involved in the production of 
Agathon Alloy Steels and the many new arfd exclusive 
mechanical features which have been introduced. 

From laboratories to furnaces, from furnaces to mills, 
Irom mills to testing house — it is one ceaseless round of 
vigilance, to insure that every pound of steel is " born " 
physically tit tor its designated duty and worthy to go out 
into the world bearing the family name — "AGATHON." 

The result of this genius of men and machinerv, of this 
super care and unceasing watchfulness, of the unusual 
methods employed, is that "AGATHON" Alloy Steels 
occupy the highest pinnacle of consistently reliable service 
— concrete evidence of the power of an Ideal faithfully 
and tirelessly pursued. 

It will be a pleasure to answer any questions you may 
wish to ask regarding Agathon Alloy Steels for your par- 
ticular purpose. 

THE CENTRAL STEEL COMPANY 

MASSILLON. OHIO 

rle-!'elanil OJfic<-\ Hickox Building 

I Hamill-Hickt)X Company, District Reps. 

t;,i,.,^„ i)fn ;■ ■ ' "'" P<=oples Gas BIdg., 122 .S. Micliigan Wvd. 
Lhuago (iMii< . , ^; H. Beach, District Sales Mgr. 

JMroifO^ice: -I 326, 327, 328 Ford BIdg. ,, • v 

•^1 1*. Walter Guibert, District Rep. 

K.rjiori Depart mritt: 20 Broad .Street, New York, N. Y. 



Phil.uirlfhinJ'a 
Syrti, lis,- OjKci- : 



I 6(13 Widener BIdg. 

I Frank Wallace, District .Sales M.inager. 

»S2l I'liiversity Block, 

I T. B. Davies, District Sales Manager. 




86 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 




"Mr. Frank H. Simonds' his- 
tory of the great warisavery 
remarkable work. It is not 
too much to say that no other 
man in this or any other 
country can quite parallel the work that Mr. Simonds has done. It is hard to say what most 
to admire: the really extraordinary grtup of the essential facts of the war which is shown, or 
the transparent clearness with which the facts are brought out or the entire fairness 
and impartiality of the conclusions. 



f Once in a generation, perhaps, there 
appears one man with a gift for writing 
history so that all men, all women, all 
children like to read it. Such was Rid- 
path — such were Macaulay and Herod- 
otus — great of vision, brilliant of style, 
with a genius for facts and a genius for 
telling. 

Frank H. Simonds is this generation's 
Ridpath, this war's Macaulay. From the 



day when this man burst like a flame upon ' 
the people of the city of New York with 
his prophecy of the great war, to this day, 
when he is welcomed by Allied statesmen 
and generals, his fame has spread about 
the world. Already, today, clubs and 
schools are studying Frank H. Simonds. 
His least newspaper article is treasured 
and passed from hand to hand. So it is 
wonderful indeed that at last you can 



Copyright. Underwood & Underwood 

have the story of this war in final form 
for yourself and your children, and for 
their children. 



Frank n. Simonds' 

Hisrory ^«^^ ^lid Mr 

5 Large Volumes Size 10M"x7)4"x IH" lOOO Illustrations 



When The Boys Come March ng Home j 

When quiet descends on shell torn 
Europe — ^when weary men have laid djtvn 
their arms — when the great ships, filled 
with our boys, have come across the high 
seas — will this greatest of conflicts have 
left its message for you — will your mind 
be broadened — will it have increased your 
knowledge of the world, of the human 
races, of history, of geography, of in- 
vention? 

With Simonds' brilliant contempora- 
neous History of the War — an intelligent 
.\merican can feel that the meaning of the 
great war will not be lost for him and his 
children. 

And those boys who have come back 
home will find in it the truth about the 
-things they heard ru- 
mored, they will find all 
that part of the war that 
they had never seen. 




Simonds is today the most 
quoted American in Europe. The 
British Government has had his 
articles reprinted and distributed 
broadcast; and he is the only 
American who was allowed to go 
from point to point along the 
great battle line. He has talked 
with generals and soldiers alike. 
His articles appear in leading 
papers all over the world. At 
the height of the Battle of Verdun, 
President Poincare sent him alone 
of all war correspondents to the 
battle front. 

No wonder then that those 
closest to the war have been eager 
to help Frank H. Simonds with 
contributions. Those who really 
know some individual part of the 
great conflict — have written what 
they know best. There are hun- 
dreds of such contributors. One- 
third of the whole history is writ- 
ten by them — the other two- 
thirds being written by Frank 
H. Simonds. A few of these 
contributors are Lord Northeliffe, 
Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, Winston 
ChnrchiU, Snrgeon - General 
William Crawford Gorgas, 
Hudson Maxim, Rudyard Kip- 
ling, Viscount James Brjce, 
Henry Morgenthau, General 
Perilling. 

The Story That Has 
Never Been Told 

The full story of 
Chateau- Thierry has 
never been told. Not 
in a single newspaper, 
or a single magazine, or 
a single book can you 
find just what startling 
things our American 



boys did that day that turned tlie 
tide of history. How they fought 
with their bare hands — how they 
attacked in thefaceof machinegun 
fire as in the face of rain — how 
they tore the machine guns to 
pieces with their hands and over- 
powered the gunners behind them. 

This, and much more — a glor- 
ious story that has never been 
printed. It will make every Amer- 
ican heart beat faster. But you 
can read it now in Frank Simonds' 
History of the World War. 

Many men of many minds con- 
sider this History the great one — 
the one for you to have. French, 
British, Belgian and Americans — 
statesmen, priests, generals, news- 
paper men — differ though they 
may in everything else — all unite 
in considering Frank H. Simonds' 
the history of the world war for 
you to own. 

Many of the war maps ^vere drawn by 
Mr. Simonds himself. The illustrations 
are printed on special paper inserted for 
the purpose. Many of them are entirely 
new to the eyes of readers, h«vinK been 
obtained by the art editor of the Hbtory 
from out of the hundreds of thousands 
that have been taken in this war — these 
are pictures you really v^ant to keep — 
that really illustrate the story. 

Announcement of Price Increase 

When, over two years ago, the Review 
of Review.s Company planned this im- 
portant project, it contracted for paper, 
binding, etc.. at the then prices for a first 
edition of all the volumes. 

A price was put on the set that was 
fair, in view of the costs. 

Since then, cloth, paper, ink, labor — 
everything that goes into the making of 
a book — has gone way up in price. 

Because of these old contracts you are 
now able to get the Simonds' History at a 
low price, if you are prompt and engage 
a set of the present edition. 

We herewith announce, however, that 
the subscription price of the next edition 
will be inrreasea to conform with the 
higher costs. 



Lloyd George, Prime Minister of 
Great Britain, Says — 

" This ' History 'will con- 
stitute a most valuable 
treatise for those who at 
this or any future time 
wish to consult an inde- 
pendent authority on the 
cause of this titanic strug- 
gle." 



Lord Northeliffe Says — 

"Mr. Simonds has been 
right about the war more 
often than any of the many 
who have endeavored to 
forecast the future of this 
complicated catastrophe, 
and 1 say with admiration 
that 1 do not know of a 
better guide to the war 
than Mr. Frank H. Sim- 
onds." 



J. Cardinal Gibbons Says — 

"I feel sure the work of 
Mr. Simonds will prove a 
valuable contribution to 
the literature of the World 
War. The volume in hand 
makes easy, pleasant and 
interesting reading." 



lOOO 
Pictures 
and 
Maps 

In Color 

and 

Black 



REVIEW OF REVIEWS COMPANY, 30 Irving Place, New York 








I 
I 

/s. A 
' RcTiew 

/Reriewi 
30 Irraig PI. 
I New York City 

/' Please send 
me, a II charn- 
es prepaid, 



- volumes of the 
/"Histury of the 
/„ World War" by 

/t'raiik H. Simonds 
and other funnms 
, coiilributors. If not 
/ satisfactory I will 

/return them in five 
(l;ivs, otherwise I will 
remit fl.tio a month tor 
/ I'J months. In letuni 1 
I / am to receive the two 
■/ other volumes of this his- 
,' tory as soon Hs tlipy are re- 
leased frtim the press. 'Ihe 
set will cutitiu the com- 
plete Historv of the World 
War from beginning to end. 

Name 

A<idress 



total light received by a horizontal surface 
at noon. Light from the sky and light 
reflected from the surroundings illuminate 
the shadows. These shadows are different 
in color from highlights because color be- 
comes less conspicuous as the distance of 
observation increases. In general the 
distribution of brightness or light and shade 
is the most important aspect to be con- 
sidered. 

The camoufieiu- worries over shadows 
more than any other aspect generally. 
On overcast days camouflage is much more 
successful than on sunny days. Obviously 
countershading is resorted to in order to 
eliminate shadows and where this is un- 
successful confusion is resorted to by mak- 
ing more shadows. The shape and orien- 
tation of a building is very important to 
those charged with the problem of render- 
ing it inconspicuous to the enemy, but little 
attention has been paid to these aspects. 
For example, a hangar painted a very satis- 
factory dull green will be distinguishable 
by its shape as indicated by its shadow 
and shaded sides. In this zone a hangar, 
for example, would be more readily con- 
cealed if its length lay north and south. 
Its sides could be brought with a gradual 
curve to the ground and its rear, which is 
diu-ing most of the day in shadow, could be 
effectively treated to conceal the shadow. 
A little thought will convince the reader 
of the importance of shape and orientation. 

Broken color or pattern is another funda- 
mental of camouflage which, of course, 
must be adapted to its environment. For 
our trucks, cannon, and many other imple- 
ments of war, dark green, yellow, dark 
blue, light gray and other colors have been 
used in a jumble of large patterns. A final 
refinement is that of the blending of these 
colors at a distance, where the eye no longer 
resolves the individual patches, to a color 
which stimulates the general hue. For 
example, red and green patches at a dis- 
tance blend to yellow; yellow and blue 
patches blend to a neutral gray if suitably 
balanced, but if not, to a yellow gray or a 
blue gray; red, green and blue if properly 
balanced will blend to a gray; black, white 
and green patches will blend to a green 
shade; and so on. These facts are simple 
to those who are familiar with the science 
of light and color; but the artist, whose 
knowledge is based upon the mixture of 
pigments often errs in considering this 
aspect of color-blending by distance. 

In constructing such a pattern of various 
colors it is also desirable to have the final 
mean brightness approximate that of the 
general surroundings. This problem can 
be solved by means of the photometer and 
a formula provided which states, for ex- 
ample, that a certain percentage of the 
total area be painted in gray, another per- 
centage in green, and so on. The photo- 
meter has played an important role in 
establishing the scientific basis of camou- 
flage. 

Where the artist is concerned with a 
background which does not include the 
sky, that is, where he deals only with 
illurninated objects on the earth, his trained 
eye is valuable provided the colors used 
meet the demands made by photographic 
plates and colored filters. In other words, 
the sky as a background, gives trouble to 
all who are unfamiliar with scientific 
measurements. The brightness of sky and 
clouds are far outside the scale of bright- 
nesses ordinarily encountered. 

One of the most conspicuous aspects of 
Nature's surface is its texture. From 
great heights it appears flat, that is, rolling 
land is ironed out and the general contour 
of the ground is flattened. However, the 
element of te\"ture always remains. This 
is the chief reason for the extensive use of 
netting on which dyed raffia, foliage, pieces 
of colored cloth, etc., are tied. Such net- 
work has concealed many guns, head- 
quarters, ammunition dumjis, communica- 
tion trenches, roadways, etc. When this 
has been well done the concealment is 
perfect. 

One of the greatest annoyances to the 
camoufleur is the lack of dulness or "flat- 
ness" of the paints, fabrics, and some of 



January 25, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



87 




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Would it be of 
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have a classified 
set of United 
States Patents 
relating to your 
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manufacture for 
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If so, write to oiar 
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PATENT ATTORNEYS 

626 Woolworth Building ijj 
New York City 



the other media used. When viewed at 
some angles the gHnt or highlight due to 
specular reflection renders the work very 
conspicuous. For this reason natural 
fohage or dyed raffia has been used. 

Systems of network have been exten- 
sively employed on roadways near the front 
not for the purpose of concealing from the 
enemy the fact that the roadways exist, 
but to make it necessary to shell the entire 
roadway continually if it is hoped to pre- 
vent its use. 

Although the camoufleur is provided 
with a vast amount of material for his 
work many of his requirements are met by 
the material at hand. Obviously the most 
convenient method of providing conceal- 
ment for a given environment is to use the 
materials of the environment. Hence 
rubbish from ruined buildings or villages 
supply camouflage for guns, huts, etc., in 
that environment. In woods the material 
to simulate woods is at hand. The color 
of the soil is important for if it is conspicu- 
ous the camoufleur must provide screens 
or natural turf. 

In this great game of hocus pocus many 
deceptions are resorted to. Replicas of 
large guns and trenches are made; dummy 
soldiers are used to foil the sniper and 
I make him reveal his location, and paper 
mache horses, trees, and other objects con- 
ceal snipers and observers and afford 
listening posts. Gimners have been dressed 
in summer in green flowing robes. In 
winter white robes have been utilized. 

In the foregoing only the highlights of a 
vast art have been viewed but the art is 
still vaster for it e.xtends into other fields. 
Sound must sometimes be camouflaged and 
this can only be done by using the same 
medium — sound. In these days of scientific 
warfare it is to be expected that the 
positions of enemy guns would be detected 
by other means than employed in the past. 
A notable method is the use of velocity of 
sound. Records are made at various 
stations of the firing of a gun and the ex- 
plosion of the shell. By simple trigo- 
nometric laws the position of the gun is 
ascertained. It is said that the Germans 
fired a number of guns simultaneously 
with the "7.5-mile" gun in order to camou- 
flage its location. The airplane and sub- 
marine would gladly employ sound camou- 
flage in order to foil the sound detector if 
practicable solutions were proposed. 

The foregoing is a brief statement of 
some of the fundamental principles of land 
camouflage. Let us now briefly consider 
the eyes of the enemy. Of course, much 
concealment and deception is devised to 
foil the observer who is on the ground and 
fairly close. The procedure is obvious to 
the average imagination; however, the 
reader may not be acquainted with the 
aerial eyes from which concealment is very 
important. As one ascends in an airplane 
to view a landscape he is impressed with 
the inadequacy of the eyes to observe the 
vast number of details and of the mind to 
retain them. Field glasses can not be used 
as satisfactorily in an airplane as on the 
ground owing to vibration and other move- 
ments. The difference is not as great in 
the huge flying boats as it is in the ordinary 
airplane. The camera can record many 
details with higher accuracy than the eye. 
At an altitude of one mile the lens can be 
used at full aperture and thus very short 
exposures are possib e. This avoids the 
difficulty due to vibration. When the 
plates are deve'oped for detail and en- 
largements are made, many minute details 
are distinguishable. Furthermore, owing 
to the fact that the spectral sensibilities of 
photographic emulsions differ from that 
of the eye contrasts are often brought out 
which the eye would not see. This ap- 
plies also to camouflage which is devised 
merely to suit the eye. Individual foot- 
prints have been distinguished on prints 
made from negatives exposed at an altitude 
of 6,000 feet. By means of photography 
daily records can be compared. The dis- 
appearance of a tree from a clump of 
trees may arouse suspicion. Sometimes a 
wilted tree has been noted on a photograph 
which naturally attracts attention to this 




Back To Civil Occupations 

Unlike cannon, rifles, shot and shell, the usefulness of the wire ropes 
engaged in war work did not cease when the fighting stopped. Like 
returned warriors they will be mustered out and engage again in 
their normal occupation of construction and reconstruction. 



In rebuilding the devastated portions of 
Europe; in hastening the construction of 
engineering projects long delayed in this 
country, wire ropes will play their silent, 
all-important part. 

Again will Broderick & Bascom wire ropes 
be found mining, logging, hoisting great 
beams and conveying materials of all kinds 
in a peaceful industrial world. 



The Panama Canal, the New York State 
Barge Canal, the Woolworih Building are 
well known monuments to their pre-war 
activilies. Their post-war work will be 
equally as important. 

There's a brand of B. & B. Wire Rope for 
every purpose. Our Yellow Strand is not 
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the same diameter and equal flexibility. 



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Factories and Warehouses, St. Louis and Seattle. Agents in all large localities 

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THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF INDUCTION COILS 

By A. Frederick Collins. 6^x9^ inches. Cloth. 272 pages. 159 illustrations, $3.50. by mail, $3.65 
This work gives in minute details full practical directions for making eight different sizes of coils varying 
from a small one giving a ^-inch spark to a large one giving 12-inch sparks. The dimensions of each 
and every part are given and the descriptions are written in language easily comprehended. 
MUNN &, CO.. Inc.. Publishers. Woolworth Building. New York City 




88 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



January 25, 1919 



Do You Own Your 

Inventions and Trade-marks 

in the 

Foreign Countries? 

'np^IME and money spent without limit to 
develop a business merely creates property 
rights to which you have no title in most of 
the foreign countries unless you comply with 
the foreign laws requiring the patenting of 
inventions and the registration of trade-marks. 

Forei2:n trade ria;hts of Americans which are 
worth millions are being acquired by unscrup- 
ulous persons. Are you going to lose your 
rights to foreign trade? 

If you are interested in protecting your rights 
abroad address 

Foreign Patent and Trade-mark Department 

MUNN & CO. 

Woolworth Building New York City 



( i Photograph taken from Caproni Triplane showing 
Hotel Chamberlin and 



>LD Point 




The show place for 

Aviation in America 

is Langley Field, but a few miles from the Hotel Cham- 
l)crlin. This famous hotel — one of the finest resort hotels 
in the Western Hemisphere — looks out upon Hampton 
Roads and the New Naval Training Base and has Fortress 
Monroe with its various military activities for its next 
door neighbor. 

Superb opportunities for motoring, tennis, soa bathing 
the year round and golf on the Hotels's own Eifihtten Hole 
course. Every Bath and Treatment given at European 
Spas is duplicated by the Medicinal Bath Dei)artment 
(under authoritative medical direction). 

Don't forget how close at hand Old Point Comfort 
really is — fare much less than to the far south resorts. 

Send for Booklet, "Golf" with Colored Aeroplane Map 
(the only one of its kind made in America) of the sporty 
iSighteen-Hole Golf Course and other illustrated booklets. 
Address 




George F. Adams, Manager 



Fortress Monroe 



Virginia 



New York Offloes; Tiprtlm Ruffner Hotel Bureau, McAlpiii Hotel, Cook'; 
'rours or "Ask Mr. Foster'' at any of Ills offices. 



position. It has been said that the enemy 
has resorted to transplanting trees a short 
distance at a time from day to day in order 
to provide clearance for newly placed guns. 
By paths converging toward a certain point, 
it may be concluded from the photographs 
that an ammunition depot or headquarters 
is located there even though the position 
itself were well camouflaged. Continuous 
photographic records may reveal dis- 
turbances of turf and lead to a more care- 
ful inspection of the region for sapping 
operations, etc. 

Decoy Ships for Submarines 

(Conlinupd from page 77) 
Thus, the action of the decoy "Q-5" is de- 
scribed as follows: 

"H. M. S. 'Q-5' was struck by a torpedo 
abreast of No. .3 hold. Action stations 
were sounded, and the 'panic party' 
abandoned ship. The engineer officer 
reported that the engine room was flooding, 
and was ordered to remain at his post as 
long as possible, which he and his staff, 
several of whom were severely wounded, 
most gallantly did. The submarine was 
observed on the starboard quarter 200 
yards distant, watching the proceedings 
through his periscope. He ran past the 
ship on the starboard side so closely that 
the whole hull was visible beneath the 
surface, finally emerging about 300 yards 
on the port bow. 

"The enemy came down the port side of 
the ship, and fire was withheld until all guns 
could bear at point-blank range. The first 
shot behcadtd the captain of the submarine 
I as he was climbing out of the conning 
tower, and the submarine finally sank with 
conning tower open and crew pouring out. 

"The action may be regarded as the 
supreme test of naval discipline. The 
chief engineer and engine room watch 
remained at their posts to keep the dynamo 
working until driven out by the water, 
then remaining concealed on top of the 
cylinders. The guns' crews had to remain 
concealed in their gun houses for nearly 
half an hour, while the ship slowly sank 
lower in the water. Commander Gordon 
Campbell, for this action, was awarded the 
Victoria Cross." 

One scarcely regards a little 200-ton 
schooner as standing much chance in a 
fight with a U-boat; so the following official 
story has special interest. 

"Lieut. William Edward Sanders, R. 
N. R., was awarded the Cross for an act'on 
of H. M. S. 'Prize' on April 30th last. The 
'Prize,' a topsail schooner of 200 tons, 
sighted an enemy submarine, which opened 
fire at three miles' range and approached 
slowly astern. The 'panic party,' in charge 
of Skipper William Henry Brewer, R. N. R. 
(Trawler Section), immediately abandoned 
ship. The ship's head was put into the 
wind, and the gims' crews concealed them- 
selves by lying face downwards on the 
deck. 

"The enemy continued deliberately 
shelling the schooner, inflicting severe 
damage and wounding a number of men. 
For 20 minutes she continued to approach, 
firing as she came, but at length, apparently 
satisfied that no one remained on board, she 
drew out on the schooner's quarter seventy 
yards away. The White Ensign was im- 
meilialely hoisted, the screens dropped, 
and all guns opened fire. A shell struck 
the foremost gun of the submarine, blowing 
it to atoms and annihilating the crew. 
Another shot demolished the conning 
tower, and at the same time a Lewis gun 
raked the survivors off the submarine's 
deck. She sank four minutes after the 
commencement of the action in clouds of 
smoke, the glare of an internal fire being 
visible through the rents in her hull. 

"The Captain of the submarine, a war- 
rant officer, and one man were picked up 
and brought on board the 'Prize,' which 
was then herself sinking fast. Captors 
and prisoners, however, succeeded in 
plugging the shot-holes and keeping the 
water under with the pumps. The 'Prize' 
then set sail for the land, 120 miles distant. 
She was finally picked up two days later 



by a motor launch and towed the remaining 
five miles into harbor." 

Another thrilling story is that of a little 
360-ton collier, commanded by her de- 
signer: 

"Lieut. Harold Auten, V. C, D. S. C, 
R. N. R., was in command of H. M. S. 
'Stock Force' on July 30th, 1918, when 
she was torpedoed by an enemy sub- 
marine at 5 P. M. The torpedo struck 
the shij) abrea.st No. 1 hatch, entirely 
wTecking the fore part of the ship, includ- 
■'ng the bri<lge, and wounding three rat- 
ings. A tremendous shower of planks, 
unexploded shells, hatches, and other de- 
bris followed the explosion, wounding the 
first heutenant (Lieut. E. J. Grey, R. N. R.) 
and the navigating oflicer (Lieut. L. E. 
Workman, R. N. R.), and adding to the 
injuries of the foremost gun's crew and a 
number of other ratings. The ship settled 
down forward, flooding the foremost 
magazine and between decks to the depth 
of about three feet. The 'panic party,' 
in charge of Lieutenant Workman, R. N. R. 
immediately abandoned ship, and the 
wounded were removed to the lower deck, 
where the surgeon (Surgeon Probationer 
G. E. Strahan, R. N. V. R.), working up 
to his waist in water, attended to their 
injuries. The captain, two guns' crews, 
and the engine room staff remained at their 
posts. 

"The submarine then came to the sur- 
face ahead of the ship half a mile distant, 
and remained there- a quarter of an hour, 
apparently watching the ship for any 
doubtful movement. The 'panic party' 
in the boat accordingly commenced to row 
back toward the ship in an endeavor to 
decoy the submarine within range of the 
hidden guns. The submarine followed, 
coming slowly down the port side of the 
"Stock Force," about 300 yards away. 
Lieutenant Auten, however, withheld his 
fire until she was abeam, when both of his 
guns could bear. Fire was opened at 5.40 
P. M.; the first shot carried away one of 
the periscopes, the second round hit the 
conning tower, blowing it away and throw- 
ing the occupant high into the air. The 
next round struck the submarine on the 
waterline, tearing her open and blowing 
out a number of the crew. 

" The enemy then subsided several feet 
into the water and her bows rose. She 
thus presented a large and immobile target, 
into which the "Stock Force" poured shell 
after shell until the submarine sank by the 
stern, leaving a quantity of debris on the 
water. During the whole of the action one 
man (Officer's Steward, Second Class, R. 
J. Starling), remained pinned down under 
the foremost gun after the explosion of the 
torpedo, and remained there cheerfully and 
without complaint, although the ship was 
apparently sinking, until the end of the 
action." 

The Sahara Hydrological Station 

THE General Government of Algeria 
has just decided to create a "Saharan 
Hydrological Station'' for the compre- 
hensive scientific and practical study of 
the various problems connected with the 
vitally important water supply of the great 
desert. Among its activities will be in- 
cluded a census and survey of all the wells 
which supply the various oases, and an 
accurate determination of the yicUd of 
w^ater; in the case of newly sunk wells 
especial note will be taken of the amount 
of floor when first opened in comparison 
with a later yield. This is rendered 
necessary by the fact that many wells 
show a marked decrease of yield after 
having been open for a few years, thus 
indicating that the source of supply was 
not inexhaustible. It was formerly suj>- 
poscd that such sources consisted of sheets 
of water located in subterranean basins; 
while this is proliably true in some cases it 
is now believed that in many parts of the 
Sahara the water supply is distributed in 
"networks of thread-like streams" oc- 
cupying positions which are variable both 
in the horizontal and in the vertical plane 
in the midst of the sedimentary strata. 



y 



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The business of the G-E Motor Agency man is 

to conserve power, increase production and add 

to the profits of his customers. The door of 

every industry in his community — from the "elec- 



tric shoe repair shop" to the big manufacturing 
plant — is wide open to him for what he knows 
and the w^ay he serves. And not the l2ast of 
his assets is the company behind him, building 
more than 500,000 motors a year, and whose 
foremost engineers he can freely consult. 

Call on your local G-E Motor Agency man — he 
can meet your power needs either by the instal- 
lation of new motors or by rearranging motors 
and machines without necessitating the purchase 
of additional equipment. 



GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, Schenectady, N. Y. 



motors 



From the Mightiest to the TiniestA^ 



GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 



p iKAa^ ■ 9^ 



SciENTinc American 



Entered as second class matter June 18, 1870, at the post office at New Yorlc. N. Y., undo' the Act of March 3, 1879. 




D 



.,9 ^ 



]D 



Vol. CXX. No. 5 
February 1, 1919 



EXPLORING THE FRIGID POLAR REGIONS WITH THE AID OF THE AIRPLANE 



Published Weekly by 

Scientific American Publishing Co. 



Price 10 Cents 
$5.00 a Year 



Mu 



nn&C^ 



fjvLynrk M y 




uuuuuiUiUiuuuuuiiuuiuuutkUv\\\unnum i m > h i>> n""*'*'"m»> iiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiijiiiiiyiiii 




THE 

CROIX de GUERRE 

has been awarded the First and Second Groupe- 
ments of the Great Headquarters Reserve No. 1 
of the French Army, each operating 500 or more 
White Trucks. Citations for distinguished service 
accompanied the order, supplemented by a later 
citation to the entire Reserve No. 1, operating 

2,500 WHITE TRUCKS 

This is the first and only instance on record of motor trans- 
port formations in any army receiving this high honor. 

The White Trucks were all veterans, many in continuous 
war service since 1914. 

^''IVhite Trucks Have the Stamina*^ 




THE WHITE COMPANY 

CLEVELAND 




ii////////////////y//////////////y////i/i//i/yyiii/iiiiiiiiiiUiiinuvv\v\\\\vv\vvvvvv\v\\\vvvvm\u\v\\v\\v\\\V 




February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



89 




Conveying bundles of newspapers on Standard Belt Conveyor. 




J under the control 
and guidance of Standard 
conveyors, is serving every 
line of industry. 

If these plants and their employes 
were located in one place, they 
would make a city larger than 
Chicago and surrounding suburbs. 
The small as well as the million 
dollar plants have found Gravity 
indispensable in the handling of 
merchandise, materials, and in 
the indoor transportation of prac- 
tically every class of commodity . 
There is a Standard System or unit 
of conveyors that will revolutionize 
your former methods, greatly re- 
duce expense of handling, speed up 
production, increase capacity, and 
in innumerable ways add to the 
pleasure and profit of doing 
business. 

Our representative in yotu" city 
or vicinity is your conveying 
efficiency man — make use of his 
services. 



I-r. .Ill thf 



Si :• !:i'd Lumber Conveyor. 




Conveying castings t.i ami ir -■:! riai.hmu upcTati 
Standard Rullcr Conveyor. 



Standard Gravit\- Si 



jwering general merchandise. 



STANDARD CONVEYOR CO. 



BRANCH OFFICES 



FORMERLY 

MINNESOTA MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION 

NORTH SAINT PAUL, MINNESOTA BRANCH OFFICES 



CHICAGO, ILL. . 
CINCINNATI, O. . 
DETROIT, MICH. 
MILWAUKEE, WIS. 



549 W. Washington St. 

. . 141 E. Fourth St. 

. 401 Penobscot Bldg. 

606 Security Bldg. 



Send for Catalog 



CLEVELAND, O. . . 1014 Citizens Bldg, 
NEW YORK CITY . . 39-41 Cortlandt St. 
PITTSBURG, PA. . . . 829 Oliver Bldg. 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 716 Dist. Nat'l B'k Bldg. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 



New Test of Transportation Efficiency 
for Packard Owners Starts February 1st 

Test Covers One Yearns Operation — Drivers^ Accountants 
and Shipping Clerks to Share in Cash Prizes of $17,640.00 




How much work can a motor truck deliver? 
What ought to be the cost of doing the work? 

|HESE are two of the most pressing 
questions in American business tO' 
day — what with the railroad con- 
gestion and the need to save freight 
cars ; with the staggering quantity of mer- 
chandise to be moved; and with the great 
business expansions already taking shape. 

Motor truck efficiency 
means not only gasoline 
economy, tire and oil sav' 
ing, and repair economy. 

It means also the right 
size truck for your aver- 
age load; efficient route- 
ing; saving of time in 
loading and unloading; 
the way the truck is 
handled all along the line. 



It means standardizing 
costs — every item fixed 
and known. 

Basic principles, all of them 
— and the purpose of this new 
National Truck Efficiency Test 
is to show the Packard owner 
how these basic principles can 
be applied to his individual 
business. 



How to Enter Your Trucks in 

the Packard National Truck 

Efficiency Test 



The test covers one year's operation — demon- 
strating what can be done under all conditions of 
weather, temperature, road and load. 

The Packard owner may enter as many of his 
Trucks as he wishes. 

Prizes are not only awarded to the Driver, for 
keeping his cost down in relation to his service; 
but to the Accountant, who tabulates the records; 
and to the Shipping Clerk, because much of truck 
efficiency depends on efficient work at the shipping 
platform. 

A Packard Truck of any size 
can compete on a fair basis. 
Trucks are classified according 
to capacity into Divisions, 



Your local Packard Branch or Packard 
Dealer will accept your entries and see that 
your Packard Truck orTrucks are formally 
enrolled on the Official List of Contestants. 



T 



HE Test starts on February 1st, 1919, and 
continues to January 31st, 1920. 

Trucks are divided into seven Divisions, 
according to size : 

"A" Division — ail 6-ton Trucks 
S-ton 



"B" 
"C" 
"D" 
"E" 
"F" 
"G" 



■(■ton 
3-ton 
2-ton 
lyi-ton 

1-IOtt 



The Grand Total of Prizes is $ 1 7, 640.00 -in- 
cluding five prizes for Drivers, Accountants and 
Shipping Clerks in each Division — as follows : 

FRIZES Drivers Accountants Shipping Clerks 

$500 $125 $225 



1st 

2nd 

3rd 

4th 

5th 



400 
300 
200 
100 



100 

75 

50 
25 



175 

125 

80 

40 



Contestants shall be Packard Trucks only. 

All costs and operating shall be kept and sub- 
mitted on the standard forms of the National 
Standard Truck Cost System, \vhich can be 
obtained through your Packard Branch or 
Packard Dealer. 

Recapitulation ot operating and cost data 
must be submitted monthly by owner to the 
Packard Factory for inspection and correction. 



Here is where the owner 
will learn whether his truck is 
just the right size for his work 
— or too large, power lost by 
running on underload — or 
too small, necessitating over- 
load to get his hauling done. 



The Packard owner starts 
the test with the basic princi- 
ples developed by the Packard 
Organization of transportation 
specialists. 

He has a year to apply these 
principles to his individual 
business. 

What can he not achieve in 
efficiency ! 



PACKARD MOTOR CAR COMPANY, Detroit 



THE WEEKLY JOUINAL OF PIACTICAL INFOIMATION 



VOLUME CXX. 
NUMBER S 



NEW YORK, FEBRUARY 1, 1919 



riO CENTS A COPY 
I $5.00 A YEAR 




Copyright, Underwood & Underwood 

Paravane hauled out of the water, showing the hinged cutting jaw, 
plane member, rudders, and floats 



CoDyrlKht, nndeiwood & llnckrwoo 1 

This paravane caught a small shark instead of a deadly mine 
in its cutting jaw 



The Paravane— A Steel Shark Which Protects 
Vessels in Mine-Infested Waters 

THE naval mine is a far more treacherous weapon 
than the torpedo. It gives no warning of its presence 
as it swings some distance below the surface, ready to 
strike a crushing blow the moment it is touched by a 
ship. In the great war the mine has accounted for 
many ships, among them the British dreadnaught 
"Audacious" and the American cruiser "San Diego," 
the latter having been sunk off the coast of Long Island. 
Indeed, the Germans, fully realizing the effectiveness of 
the naval mine, sent large numbers of mine-laying 
submarines into enemy waters with the 
object of sowing mines at the entrance 
of harbors and in the well-known 
shipping lanes. 

But whatever may have been the 
de.structive qualities of the mine as 
compared with the torpedo, its actual 
effectiveness has been largely cur- 
tailed by the introduction of a protec- 
tive device for vessels crossing mine- 
infested waters. This device is known 
as the paravane, and it is reported 
to have been instrumental in making 
the German mine fields more or 
less impotent against Allied vessels. 

Briefly described, the paravane may 
be said to comprise a hollow torpedo- 
shaped body, a plane member ter- 
minating in two floats, horizontal and 
vertical rudders forming the tail, and 
a cable-cutting jaw. In operation the 
paravane is towed by the ship which it 
is to protect. As will be noted in the 
accompanying sketch, a paravane is 
towed on either side of a ship by means 
of a single cable leading back from the 
bow. The point of attachment to the 
bow is about ten feet below the sur- 
face, and each paravane maintain.? a 
parallel course about twenty-five feet 
away from the ship's side. As they 
are being towed at a depth of about 
ten feet, the paravanes can be plainly 
seen from the deck of the ship, hav- 
ing much the appearance of sharks. 



The plane member and the rudders of the paravane, as 
well as the position of the towing cable, maintain this 
device at the proper depth and hold it to the parallel 
course. Aside from the towing cable, there is another 
cable connecting the paravane with a small boom or 
davit on the fo'c'stle. The purpose of this cable is to 
haul in the paravane, as well as to operate the cutting 
jaw in the more recent models. The hauling cable is 
pulled taut, while the other cable is practically free from 
strain except when it is working the cutting jaw. 

Given two paravanes and two taut cables which form 
a V-shaped fender at the bow of a ship, it is a simple 
matter to understand what happens when such a com- 




Arrangement of paravanes on a ship traversing mine-infested waters 



bmation enters a mine field. The mines, which are 
anchored to the sea bottom by means of steel cables, 
are taken care of as depicted in the sketch. The para- 
vane caHe nearest the mine engages with the mine 
cable, pushing the mine aside and causing the mine cable 
to slide along until it comes to the jaw of the paravane. 
The jaw soon cuts the mine cable, releasing the mine 
which then bobs up to the surface. At this point in 
the game the floating mine is exploded by rifle or piachine- 
gun fire, thus ending its empty career. 

In the earlier forms of paravane the cutting jaw 
consisted simply of a rigid wedge with saw teeth. The 
force with which the mine cable came into the jaw, 
as well as the twirling and twisting of 
the mine and its cable, was depended 
upon to cut or tear the cable. In a 
more recent form the second cable of 
the paravane extends from the jaw to a 
winch on board the ship. The winch 
is arranged to operate continuously, 
but allows the cable to slip each time 
it has been wound up tightly. Thus 
the cutting jaw, which is hinged in 
this case, is alternately opened and 
closed so as to act as a pair of power- 
ful shears. 

Most ships traversing mine-infested 
waters have been equipped with the 
paravane. American transports have 
all been equipped with the device. 
The "Leviathan," for instance, is 
understood to have carried four 
paravanes on each trip, two for use 
in mined waters and two in reserve. 
At the high speeds made by this giant 
transport much trouble has been ex- 
l)erienced with the paravanes, and it is 
said that a trip was seldom made in 
which two or three were not lost. In 
fact, it is the difficulty of handling 
the paravanes on high-speed ships 
that has often tempted the crew to 
get along without them, although they 
are recognized as a reasonably sure 
form of mine protection. On slow 
vessels, however, the paravane is 
readily managed. 

(Continued on page 108) 



92 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Founded 1845 

Published by Scientific American Publiihing Co. 

New York, Saturday, February 1, 1919 

Munn & Co.. 233 Broadway, New York 



Charles Allen Munn, President; Orson D. Munn, Treasurer 
Allan C. Hoffman. Secretary ; all at 233 Broadway 

Entered at the Post OfRi-o of New York. N. Y.. as Second Class Ma>,ter 

Trade Mark Urgistered In tlie I'nlted States Patent OlBce 

Copyright 1919 by ScientKIr American Publishing Co. 

Great Britiihi rlsht* reserved 

Illustrated articles miL-st not be reproduced without permission 

The object of this journal is to record accurately and 
lucidly the latest scientific, mechaiiical and industrial 
news of the day. As a iveekly journal, it is in a posi- 
tion to announce interesting developments before they 
are published elsewhere. 

The Editor is glad to have subynitted to him timely 
articles suitable for these columns, especially when such 
articles are accompanied by photographs. 



A World in the Re-making 

WITH all Europi* busy in reconstruction, and 
the final removal of the veil of secrecy that 
has so cnshroudeil the activity of the past 
four years, a vast store of interesting and valuable ma- 
terial is to be had on the ochcr side of the water. We 
have sent our well-known Washington correspondent, 
Mr. C. H. Claudy, to tap this reservoir for us; and his 
articles will feature our pages, we hojw, for a long time 
to come. We direct the attdntion of our readers to his 
first communication, which appears in this issue. 

Sublime Heroism in the Navy 

THE United States Navy is held in high esteem 
by the American people, and its personnel, officers, 
and men alike, have an assured position in our 
regard and affection. Although these sentiments have 
been greatly stimulated by the fine record of the navy 
during the present war; they are not local or ephemeral. 
Pride in the navy and affection for its officers and gallant 
"lads are as old as the nation itself. They had their birth 
with the birth of the Republic, and ships and men alike 
have served to build up, on all the seven seas, that 
tradition of patriotism, courage, heroism, and chivalry, 
which is the navy's most cherished possession. 

"They had no traditions, nothing up to which they 
had to live," said an officer of the victorious fleet, in 
explaining the wholesale surrender of the German fleet. 

Naval tradition — how swiftly the men and ships who 
made it leap to our minds! Paul Jones and the "Bon- 
homme Richard," Farragut and the "Hartford," Dewey 
and the "Olympia," Rodman and the "New York," 
with all the men who, on destroyer, scout and transport, 
faced that modern terror, the pirate submarine, in the 
bitter cold and furious weather of European waters. 

But it is not of heroism in battle on the high seas that 
we wish to speak just now, but of heroism of another kind 
and place. We wish to offer our tribute to the brave lads 
of the navy, who, as mentioned in the adjoining column, 
deliberately courted death in the quiet of a sick ward 
filled with victims of that dread disease, influenza. 

The psychologists tell us that heroism is a complex 
of many impulses and emotions, particularly when it is 
displayed in the heat of battle. Each of these adds its 
stimulus of pride, hatred, anger, desire for fame and 
reward, patriotism and self-sacrifice. There is also the 
inspiration of comradeship and the stimulating leadership 
of the officers. One, or several, or all of these combine 
to carry the men forward to heroic deeds. 

But when those saUor lads in Boston and San 
Francisco entered the sick ward, bent over their stricken 
comrades, and deliberately breathed in the pestilential 
exhalations, they "went over the top" with just the 
simple motives of patriotism and self-sacrifice. Un- 
armed and naked, they faced a foe that had slain its 
millions in Europe and had killed nigh half a million of 
citizens of their own country. 

They knew perfectly well what they were doing, for 
they had been told that they were courting death. For 
aught they knew, the great world outside of that quiet 
ward would never learn of their supreme sacrifice. No 
inspiring bugle note called to duty; no onlooking army 
spurred to action; no decoration was flashed before their 



eyes — no reward save that which comes when a man's 
own conscience whispers to him, "Well done." 

"Greater love hath no man than this that a man lay 
down his life for his friends." 

We suggest that the Navy Department make known 
the names of these hundred sailormen. who volunteered 
for this hazard of death. Thus will our naval tradition 
be enriched and their names and their sacrifice be 
honorably perpetuated. 

The Influenza Mystery Deepens 

SOME time ago in commenting on the spread 
of epidemic influenza, we spoke of the disease as 
"a disease of mystery." That this is even more 
true today is indicated by experiments just made public 
by the United States Public Health Service. 

It may be recalled that medical scientists are by no 
means agreed as to the nature of influenza. The 
influenza bacillus discovered by Pfeiffer in 1892 has, it 
is true, been found associated in a large proportion of 
the cases during the present world-wide epidemic, but 
the best opinion looks upon this bacterium as more 
probably a secondary invader, and holds that the true 
causative micro-organism has not yet been isolated. 

Some months ago, Nicolle, a well-known French 
bacteriologist, reported the results of a series of experi- 
ments which indicated that the virus of influenza was 
"ultra- microscopic," and able to pass through filters 
of unglazed porcelain. This announcement appeared 
the more credible since the investigations by Foster, an 
American army surgeon, had already shown that common 
colds are caused by a filterable virus. > 

Quite unexpectedly, however, Rosenau of Harvard, 
made public the results of experiments which he believed 
indicated that the virus of influenza was not filterable. 
He introduced into the nose and throat of a number of 
volunteers filtered secretions from active cases of in- 
fluenza and failed to reproduce the disease. Careful 
examination of the protocols of Rosenau's experiments 
showed, however, that he had failed to test the infec- 
tivity of the unfiltered secretion. 

It was to remedy these defects in the investigations 
that a second series of experiments was made, this time in 
cooperation with the Hygienic laboratory of the United 
States Public Health Service. In this investigation, 
which was carried on both in Boston and San Francisco, 
over one hundred men of the naval training station 
volunteered to submit themselves to experimental in- 
oculations. By means of sprays and swabs filtered and 
unfiltered secretions from active cases of influenza 
were transferred to the nose and throat of the volunteers. 
In addition to this pure cultures of Pfeiffer bacilli were 
similarly introduced; for, after all, it was still important 
to know whether this could produce typical influenza. 
Finally, in order to reproduce natural conditions as 
much as possible, a group of volunteers, brought into a 
ward in which were active cases of influenza, leaned over 
each of ten bed patients, conversed a few minutes and 
allowed the patients to cough into their faces. 

And the result? — in not a single instance was influenza 
thus produced in any of the volunteers! 

It is, of course, possible, that in influenza the virus 
is present in the nasal secretions for only a limited period. 
This is the case, for example, in measles. In yellow fever, 
too, we know that the virus exists in the blood for only 
a few days, so that search made before -and after that 
period invariably yields negative results. 

By analogy, there is still every reason to believe that 
influenza is most commonly spread by droplet infection, 
i. e., by close contact with influenza patients who cough, 
sneeze and spit. This, too, is the view of Surgeon- 
General Blue, who warns against a misinterpretation 
of the experiments just cited. More than ever, therefore, 
influenza is to be regarded as the disease of mystery. 

Round Pegs and Square Holes 

PERHAPS in no field of science has the war 
stimulated such sudden and such notable ad- 
vances as in that of the psychologist. He has 
had unprecedented opportunity to observe the behavior 
of men under conditions of stress; and he has been called 
upon to make tests, and perforce to devise machines 
and methods of test, on a scale never before contem- 
plated. He has proved his technique to himself and to 
others; he now stands on a level of achievement and recog- 
nition impossible of attainment inyearsof normal activity. 



Four weeks ago we thus summarized the year's develop- 
ment in this science which has so newly been transferred 
from the realm of the inexact to the category of the exact. 
We then supposed that, having graduated into the class 
with the exact scientist, the psychologist would still have 
to go a long way toward overcoming popular inertia 
before he could show definite evidence of his acceptance 
as a practical scientist, an engineer. But any expecta- 
tion to the contrary notwithstanding, the psychologist 
has just made a real advance toward that very goal. It 
is announced that Columbia College will, in September, 
abandon the old system of entrance examinations, and 
substitute psychological tests to determine the students' 
mental capacity. 

As in the past, the candidate for admission will be 
required to exhibit his school record. Instead of pro- 
ceeding on the theory that this certificate is open to 
suspicion, however, the College will accept it without 
more ado as evidence that the student has satisfied the 
academic prerequisites for college work. Having thus 
graded his learning, it will then proceed to grade his 
intelligence by means of tests of substantially the sort 
adopted by the Army. These tests will be intrrpreted 
in connection with the candidate's history, to determine 
whether or not he can profitably be asked to continue 
his schooling. Dean Hawkes hits the nail on the head 
when he says: "We expect these tests to show us whether 
it will be worth our while to try to educate the student, 
and whether it will be worth his while to have us try." 

This is a radical departure, but, we believe, not too 
radical a one. Set examinations are not of themselves 
objectionable; if the student has not sufficient control 
over what he has learned to meet the examination with 
success, he has not sufficient control to meet practical 
situations where he is called upon to u.se his acquired 
knowledge. For this reason, we have little sympathy 
for the student who complains that his peculiar tempera- 
ment prevents him from doing himself justice in an exam- 
ination. If he can't command his learning when he needs 
it, what possible sense is there in his acquiring it. 

It is, therefore, not at all on the ground of any objec- 
tion to set examinations, as such, that we hasten to 
endorse the proposed change. It is rather on the ground 
that in passing his preparatory school courses the student 
has already subjected himself to a more or less severe 
examination, and has emerged from it with success. It 
has always impressed us as a tremendous waste of effort 
to examine him seriatim every winter and spring for 
three or four years, and then do it all over again in one 
wild week preceding his entrance to college. 

It will of course be urged that the percentage of 
students who come up with good school records and fail 
to handle the entrance examinations is sufficiently large 
to show that this repetition is necessary. We believe, 
on the contrary, that the preparatory schools are lax 
in their examinations and in their awarding of certifi- 
cates, because the certificate of the school that John 
Smith has pas.sed his plane geometry really means noth- 
ing save that he has attended the course in plane geome- 
try. It has this restricted meaning because the colleges 
refuse to allow it any other. The school can, therefore, 
afford to thrust upon the college the responsibility of 
telling the student that his school work has been badly 
done. If, however, the school certificate were accepted 
at its face value, it would be well understood that an 
undue number of cases where students from a particular 
school turn out to have inadequate preparation '.vould 
result in refusal longer to recognize certificates from that 
school. Then the school would have to shoulder its own 
responsibilities; and the result would be better for the 
school, better for the student, better for the college. 

The innovation which Columbia has adopted will 
further result in more intelligent selection of the student 
body. Under the old system, anybody who can be 
crammed with enough facts to get by the examiners gets 
into college; lie may not stay long, but he gets in. The 
fact is that while a certain specific preparation is neces- 
sary before a student can attend college profitably — just 
as we must build the anchorage before we can erect the 
bridge — it is by no means the most important factor. 

What should constitute the determining factor in 
admitting students to college is precisely those qualities 
of general intelligence and maturity of mind whose 
presence or absence is revealed by the psychological test. 
This test is, therefore, more significant than the old one. 
Columbia has done well in bringing about this innovation. 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



93 



Naval and Military 

Sixteen Inch vs. Eighteen -Inch Guns. — The re- 
moval of the 18-inch guns from the British cruiser 
"Furious," because their discharge stressed the ship's 
structure too heavily, suggests that our 16-inch fifty- 
caliber gun is about the limit of weight and power for 
naval ordnance. Our gun weighs 128 tons and its shell 
2,100 pounds; the shell of the 18-inch gun must have 
weighed some 3,000 pounds and the gun nearly 200 tons. 

The Submarine is Blind and Slow. — In spite of the 
fact that the British have some steam-driven, 2,700-ton 
submarines, capable of a surface speed of from 23 to 
25 knots, the submarine, as a weapon of war, is too slow 
and too blind when it is submerged to be considered a 
serious weapon of naval warfare. When it can see, 
electrically, to a distance of 10 to 15 miles, while it is 
submerged so deeply as to be invisible to the airscout, 
and when it can steam 20 knots submerged, it will 
dominate the naval situation. 

Tank Used for Hauling Barges. — The French have 
recently made an interesting demonstration of the 
availability of the tank for water transportation. On 
a recent occasion, one of these former engines of destruc- 
tion was put to work on the Marne Canal near Epernay 
by the Ministry of Public Works. The tank hauled a 
large convoy of barges at a speed of nearly two miles an 
hour, which is double the speed that could have been 
made with the same load hauled by horses or mules. 

How the Australians Bagged an 11 -inch Gun. — 
Describing how a German 11-inch railroad gun was 
captured by Queensland infantry. Flight has the follow- 
ing to say: "The Queensland infantry saw a train ap- 
parently trying to get off one line and onto another to 
escape. In the center of the train was a great sheeted 
object. A British plane dropped a bomb near the engine, 
which apparently damaged it, for a large cloud of steam 
went up, and the crew, who were afterwards captured, 
were terribly scalded. The plane then dropped a bomb 
on the tail of the train, which blew up. An Australian 
engineer got up steam, unhooked the tail of the train, 
and shunted the gun through to our lines." 

U. S. Shipping Board Tests Electric Welding of 
Ships. — After exhaustively investigating electrical weld- 
ing, the Electrical Welding Committee of the United 
States Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation, is 
so well satisfied as to the practicability of this process, 
that it formally urged that a 9,300-deadweight-ton 
ship be built by electrical welding. This recommenda- 
tion has not as yet been approved, because of the general 
sentiment among the body of experts that a smaller ship 
should be first constructed. Meanwhile, there is about 
to be built for demonstration purposes at the yard of the 
Federal Shipbuilding Corporation at Kearney, N. J., a 
42-foot electrically welded midship section of a 9,600 ton 
ship. The methods of assembling and welding to be 
used on this section are due to A. J. Mason, Consulting 
Engineer for the United States Shipping Board and 
member of the Electric Welding Committee. 

The "Eagle" Boats. — The Ford "Eagle" boats, 
of which we are hearing so much just now, were designed 
for anti-submarine service — work for which we have 
always considered them to be too small. Line officers 
would have preferred a larger craft, and we believe that 
if our naval constructors had had their way and been 
left entirely free in the matter, they also would have 
designed a larger boat with better sea keeping qualities. 
How far Mr. Ford had to do with the design we do not 
know, but we do kno\v that speed of construction was a 
controlling consideration. Hence the framing and the 
general lines of the ships were drawn so as to reduce 
bending and general working to a minimum. As a 
result the boats have straight wedge bows, with prac- 
tically none of that flare which characterizes all modern 
war vessels. Consequently, they would be in trouble 
driving into a head sea or running before a following sea, 
in which latter case they would be very difficult to steer. 
Either the construction of any more of these boats 
should be abandoned, or the design should be modified 
to give them better sea-keeping qualities. Testimony 
was recently given before the House Naval Committee 
that 112 were ordered, that 7 have been practically com- 
pleted and that 5 are ready for commission. The con- 
tracts for 40 or more have been cancelled. The con- 
tract price for buUs and engines was $275.00; they have 
cost $400.00. 



Science 

Negroes in the United States. — The last annual 
report of the Director of the Census announces the com- 
pletion, in readiness for publication at an early date, of a 
compilation, in one volume, of all the census statistics 
pertaining to the negro race that have been collected in 
this country from 1790 to the present time. This report 
includes, in addition to data from the decennial reports, 
annual mortality statistics relating to negroes for the 
years 1900 to 1915. 

Earthquakes in 1918. — The official report of the 
Georgetown University Seismological Station, Wash- 
ington, D. C, shows that during the year 1918 there were 
recorded on the seismographs 98 earthquakes. From 
dispatches received the location of 37 quakes of impor- 
tance was ascertained. Of these, three were disastrous, 
the first occurring in Guatemala, the second in China 
and the third in Porto Rico. No disturbance of any 
consequence is tabulated as having taken place in the 
United States. 

Egg Substitutes.— The U. S. Bureau of Chemistry 
has recently turned its attention to the numerous so- 
called "egg substitutes" now on the market, concerning 
some of which extravagant claims are made on their 
labels, as to their food value and their ability to serve 
the purpose of eggs in baking and cooking. Analyses 
show that many of these substitutes consist essentially 
of a mixture of starch and baking powder, colored yellow 
with a coal-tar dye. A few contain casein, which is an 
ingredient of milk. The food value of such preparations, 
says the Bureau, is far inferior to that of eggs, and experi- 
ments show that the substitutes do not have the effect 
of eggs in cooking. Action has already been taken under 
the Food and Drugs Act to prosecute the manufacturers 
of some of these preparations. 

The Mountaineers of Tennessee. — Some interesting 
studies have been made by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, of the 
Smithsonian Institution, on the Tennessee mountaineers, 
especially as exemplified by 150 men called for examina- 
tion in the first army draft. His work, commencing 
at Bristol, Tenn., extended to Mountain City, and 
farther on into the hills. His studies do not confirm 
the idea that these mountaineers represent a separate 
type of Americans. Among them are found some 
examples of fine physique, while others are of relatively 
feeble mental powers or nervous stability, perhaps 
due to the hereditary effects of alcoholism or other 
inherited defects. There are all grades of "moun- 
taineers," and no line of demarkation separates them 
from the people in the lower lands, who are mostly of 
similar derivation. Many mountaineer families are 
remarkable for their size. One man of 83 was the 
father of 21 children, ranging down to three or four 
years old. The draft, says Dr. Hrdlicka, should prove 
a God-send to many of the young men, many of whom 
are illiterate, and whose worst enemies are isolation, 
"moonshine" whiskey, and, in many cases, poor heredity. 

Vital Statistics in the United States. — From year 
to year the Scientific American has recorded the steady, 
though far too slow, approach which this country has 
been making to a place in the ranks of those nations which 
possess such a system of collecting vital statistics as may 
reasonably be demanded of a civilized people. Ac- 
cording to the recent annual report of the Census Bureau 
for the past fiscal year, the "registration area" for death 
statistics has now grown until it embraces 28 states, the 
territory of Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and 42 
cities in non-registration states. Thus it contains ap- 
proximately 73 per cent of the total population of the 
country. The most recent additions were the state of 
Tennessee and the territory of Hawaii, admitted for 1917, 
and the State of Oregon, admitted for 1918. The 
inclusion of Hawaii extended for the first time beyond 
the limits of continental United States the area for which 
the Census Bureau annually collects and publishes mor- 
tality statistics. No state, territory or city is admitted 
until a test has been made to prove that the deaths 
occurring therein are properly recorded under state law 
or municipal ordinance, and that the registration is at 
least 90 per cent complete. The Federal collection of 
birth statistics began in 1915, with a registration area 
comprising ten states and the District of Columbia and 
about 31 per cent of the total population. Ten states 
have since been added, and the area contains about 53 
per cent of the country's total population. 



Electricity 

Fixation of Nitrogen in Japan. — According to the 
London Electrician, the Japanese Government has 
decided to establish a laboratory for the study of ques- 
tions relating to the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. 
Hitherto 20,000,000 yens' worth of ammonia for fertilizers 
has been imported, and it is hoped to make Japan inde- 
pendent of foreign supplies. 

Again: The Renewable Fuse Plug. — The latest 
renewable fuse plug to be placed on the market appears 
to be about as simple as could be desired. It consists 
of only three parts: A one-piece porcelain body with 
outside thread to fit the cutout; a fuse strip of the desired 
capacity, and a mica disk cover. The fuse strip can be 
inserted in a few moments. It is pushed through a slot 
alongside the middle of the bottom, pulled up inside and 
bent through a slot near the top and over to the outside, 
being fastened in a little pocket at the bottom of the 
thread; the other end is bent over the bottom button, 
thus forming the end contact, then pushed through 
another slot on the opposite side of the button, and 
bent over inside to prevent the end falling out when the 
fuse blows. After the mica is replaced, the plug can be 
put back ready for use. 

Solution of Flood-Lighting Problems. — The so- 
called flood -lighting, which has found many special 
applications in the United States, will no doubt become 
more familiar throughout the world in the no distant 
future. From a recent article in the General Electric 
Review it is evident that such methods are already 
becoming standardized, and with the data available 
for any particular projector, it is easy to determine the 
resultant illumination on an object at a given distance, 
or the number of projectors necessary to cover a given 
area. We notice that the illumination considered neces- 
sarily varies according to the surface of the building or 
other object illuminated and its surroundings. This, 
no doubt, is quite natural, as one would expect a higher 
illumination to be necessary in order to make an object 
"stand out" in a brightly lit thoroughfare than would be 
needed if it stands alone amidst dark surroundings. 

Pneumatic "Fishing" Device for Conduit Work. 

— In conduit work where the wires are to be enclosed in 
metal pipe, the joining of the conduit by no means 
terminates the task of the electrician. There still re- 
mains the task of passing or "fishing" the wires through 
the conduit, which is by no means a simple one where 
there are many elbows. New methods have done 
much to simplify this task. One of the most recent is a 
pneumatic "fishing" device, consisting of a hand pump, 
pressure tank, flexible air hose, reel for cord, and a 
traveler. The traveler consists of a small shaft carrying 
three light disks which form a more or less perfect piston 
with the conduit walls as the cylinder. When air 
pressure is applied the traveler is pneumatically impelled 
along the conduit whether it is straight or curved, and 
around all manner of bends and elbows. A cord is pulled 
after the traveler. When the traveler has reached the 
other end of the conduit, the string can be employed for 
pulling the wires through. 

Maintenance of Accumulators in War Time. — 

In Elektrotechnik und Maschinenhiu an account is 
recently given of some special difficulties leading to the 
breakdown of some cells in a buffer battery installed in 
the generating station of an Austrian street-railway 
system. The trouble was due to faulty maintenance, 
which is attributed to war conditions. Several cells 
were known to be in a bad way, but could not receive 
immediate attention, and ultimately one of them "blew 
up," shooting out long flames, which could only be put 
out after the battery had been disconnected. The break- 
down, which was repeated shortly afterward on another 
cell, was due to the destruction of the plates which fell 
away from the upper lead frame. The level of the acid 
had sunk below this line of fraction, the whole supply of 
600 volts being thus interrupted, an arc ensued and 
volatilized the lead. The author quotes this example as 
a warning to take care to keep the upper edge of battery 
plates well immersed in the electrolyte. If the story 
had not appeared in a technical contemporary, we 
should have said that such circumstances could not have 
arisen in a civilized country. But that raises other re- 
flections, adds The Electrician, in abstracting the fore- 
going account. 



94 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 




The British Navy on the Job 

Expansion of the Fleet to Meet the Demands of the War 
By C. U. Claiidy, Special Foreign Conespondent of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 




THAT the British Navy had two big main tasks to 
perform in the war and performed them both with 
great honor and credit to itself and profit to all the world 
is generally admitted. It was Great Britain's task, as 
possessing the greatest fleet in history, first to sweep the 
German flag from the seas, and second, to so blockade 
the German Empire that its supplies from without had 
to come by tortuous ways and secret methods, rather 
than by ships. 

Later on, as the war developed, grew two other prob- 
lems, in the solving of which the allied navies bore a 
somewhat larger share though by no means ever as large 
as that played by the British Navy. These were the 
submarine menace and the safe convoy of both troops, 
animals and munitions, and especially of troops and 
munitions across 3,000 miles of ocean from America. 

How well the job was done every one knows. Just 
how it was done, few know and less will tell. It is 
rightly held at the British Admiralty that while perhaps 
little harm could be done by revealing all the story of the 
gigantic tasks performed by the British ships, it may 
well be the part of wisdom to wait for a full revelation 
until the concluded peace is finally a fact and not a hope. 

There are, however, certain things which there is no 
longer any objection to spreading broadcast, and these, 
or some of them, were laid before me to use for the benefit 
of the Scientific American and its readers, the majority 
of whom will unquestionably be interested in knowing 
just how big the Grand Fleet is, and what was its growth 
during the war. 

On August 3d, 1914, the personnel of the British Navy 
was 146,000 men. Four years later the total man power 
force was 406,000. These men began the war with a 
displacement tonnage aggregating 2,500,000 tons and, 
after four years sailed in bottoms which aggregated the 
enormous amount of 6,500,000 displacement tons, a figure 
which it is almost impossible to grasp. It includes, of 
course, all the auxiliary ships and small craft, acquired 
as well as built during the war and those, such as for 
instance the Cunarders, which were converted, according 
to plans made when they were built, to act as auxiliary 
cruisers, etc. 



The battle-cruiser "New Zealand" driving into a head sea 

But the building record has been without a parallel, 
and perhaps nothing (unless it be the figures of accom- 
plishment, other than battle results) can give a clearer 
idea of how single-mindedly Great Britain lived up to her 
most often heard maxim "Win the war!" 




Battle-cruisers passing to their moorings after 
a wintry patrol 

Since the beginning of the war Great Britain has com- 
pleted eleven battleships, throe battle-cruisers, three 
cruisers, 40 light cruisers, 300 destroyers, 130 submarines, 
39 monitors, 60 patrol boats, 600 motor boats and 300 



mine vessels, both sweepers and layers. At the start 
of the war she possessed some four hundred vessels and 
when the armistice was signed over five thousand flew 
the British flag, including some seventeen hundred 
trawlers converted from a hundred peaceful sea pursuits 
to submarine hunters, patrol boats, net guard vessels, etc. 

It is one thing, however to increase ships and personnel, 
and quite another to have them function perfectly in a 
short time. It is here, according to the vision of officers 
high in the British Admiralty, that tradition played a 
very vital role. As one of them phrased it, "Do you 
suppose that if Germanj' had had a naval tradition she 
would have surrendered her fleet? Do you think that 
a single battle, even one as disastrous as Jutland, would 
pen the British Navy up in a harbor, be the fleet waiting 
outside for it never so large? They had no traditions, 
nothing up to which they had to live. We had!" 

Whatever the reason, however, the sudden expansion 
of ships and men by nearly three times was not accom- 
panied by any diminution of discipline or effectiveness 
as far as the results are concerned. Reference is not 
made here to the Jutland battle, nor the anti-submarine 
campaign, nor the sweeping of German raiders from the 
sea, but to the vitally important labors of transportation, 
accomplished in the face of the submarine menace with 
a percentage of loss most surprisingly small. 

All in all, more than twenty-one million allied troops 
have been transported by sea. Of these 4,391 have been 
lo.st at sea, or .02 per cent of the total carried. To sup- 
port these men, and give them the wherewithal with 
which to fight, 86,000,000 tons of stores for the 
British Naval and Military forces and 24,000,000 tons 
of stores for the allies, a total of 110,000,000 tons, not 
including 2,000,000 animals, cows, horses, sheep, goats, 
dogs and mules, have been carried overseas and guarded 
by convoy. 

The convoys began in March 1917, when the necessity 
to keep^ off the submarine raider was alarmingly ap- 
parent. Since that date there have been 75,929 sailings 
convoyed with a loss of 417 ships or .054 per cent of the 
sailings. To make this a little more real than dry figures 
succeeded in doing, it may be mentioned that in 1917 




The Grand Fleet on patrol in the North Sea. At times the line was sixty miles in length 



/ 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



95 





Land type British torpedoplane in the act of launching its 2,000-pound torpedo 



crossing diagonally and connecting the tubular spars, 
which latter are far greater in number than is ordinarily 
found in an airplane wing. In the Junker there may be 
said to be six spars, if one counts the top and bottom 



feet. The wings are covered with light, 
corrugated aluminum sheets. 

From the fact that no trace was found of 
interplane strut fittings, it would appear 
that these members have been dispensed 
with in the Junker. The Junker is made 
in monoplane and biplane designs. The one 
shown is probably the monoplane type. 

The Torpedoplane of Reality 

Tj^VER since Rear Admiral Bradley A. 
-L' P'iske, U. S. N., patented the torpedo- 
plane back in July, 1912, this form of naval 
weapon has received some attention on the 
part of naval men. But it has remained 
for the British and the Germans to give the 
idea an actual tryout, and this they did 
during the last years of the great war. 

The torpedoplane is nothing more than 
an airplane or seaplane arranged to carry 
one or more torpedoes which it can launch 
at surface targets from a distance of several 
hundred yards, to ensure accuracy of aim. 
The British have constructed torpedo- 
planes in which a single torpedo is carried 
between the floats or wheels, depending on 
whether the craft is a seaplane or land 
The Germans have constructed similar 
In some instances the torpedoplanes have 



Great Britain bought most of the Argen- 
tine wheat crop. But the Argentine is far 
away and there was no prey, not even 
"Lusitanias" with women and children or 
hospital ships with wounded men, which 
the German raider liked better than a 
wheat ship. England was to be "strafed" 
by slow starvation and the means were 
submarine hunters of food ships. Yet the 
British Navy did its work so well that of the 
307 convoyed vessels which aggregated 
1,466,000 displacement tons, carrying this 
wheat, one vessel was lost! 

Of course, not all convoy work was as 
successful. Statistics are as yet somewhat 
unrelated and fragmentary, because Great 
Britain has by no means gotten well 
started in the vast work of compilation 
necessary to publish complete statistics of 
the war and her part in it. But there are 
some facts available. For instance, the 
British merchant steamships of more than 
500 tons displacement, to and from ports 
in the United Kingdom only, were most 
generally convoyed. During the year 
from September, 1917, to the same month 
1918, an average of almost 92 per cent of 
such ships were convoyed. Of those which were not 
convoyed an average of 4.44 per cent were lost. Of the 
convoyed vessels .79 per cent were lost before or after 
convoy, while of those in the convoy an average of .58 
per cent were lost. In other figures 920 
ships, convoyed, lost 5}4 ships, approxi- 
mately, while 80 ships unconvoyed, lost 
three and half ships, approximately. In 
still other words, the danger to an uncon- 
voyed ship in the zone of submarine men- 
ace was over eight times what it was to a 
convoyed ship . . . with the British 
Navy on the job. 

There is a great deal of talk about the 
"freedom of the seas" and no one knows 
just what it means. We know the sea 
has been anything but free during the 
period when Germany ran amuck and used 
her submarines without regard to law, 
agreement, or humanity. But what free- 
dom of the seas there was . . . and it was 
enough to put an American army in France 
which turned the scales, and to maintain 

food communications so that three nations ^__^_,^_.^»_^ -^.^^ .^^^ 

could fight without starving . . . what ^HiB^BBBMHHlSw^MyVffPSyM^Wl^M^^^Br ■•T?^^^^*^^B»tmT'^^^^ ^^^ familiar household breadbox, but 
freedom of the seas there was came very BH^^^^^^^^^^Hfl^^^^slnHHl^^^HV^I^^v^^sS^^HHV^^^^^S mounting various knobs, instruments and 
largely because Great Britain had at the fliB^^^HBH^^^ISBB^SBHi^KVlHBKfl^BH/ '.iVSj^BH^^^^p^^S^ bulbs on its front panel; a square, flat 
beginning, the ships and the men and the ^^^^BM^^S^^B^S^SKKDBSSSSf^t/BI^^^^B^^oSSKSSiiB^^Em^^ ^'^^ mounting divers instruments, knobs 
ability and the will to build and trans- ^^^^^^^^M[^BBILlu^^3^^ '^'^''*'^^'P!rSn!!^TJi^|?r^^^ and indicators on its top panel; a diminu- 

form others; to equip and train the pBHO^HSBBB^^^S^^^^i-i^-^"^- "^ ' ~ '^^f^^'Siili^/'^^v*^^^^^^ ~ ^ 5 ^'^^ motor-generator set which could 
needed personnel; and to use her mighty lff^S^Si^^^a^^^^^:^'?CS~~i' . "* - -ST^S^^^^lfe''-^--" - . - J readily be carried about by a boy; a 

weapon with the bull-dog tenacity, copyrieht. underwood & underwood collection of tiny dry cells, embedded in 

the quiet courage and the simple, direct Junker armored airplane, whose wings are covered with thin corrugated aluminum wax so as to form compact units of many 
effectiveness always characteristic of the volts each — that, in brief, is the apparatus 

performance of her navy and her merchant marine. tubes lying vertically above one another as one spar. In which makes possible the carrying on of conversation 

section the planes of the Junker are enormously deep, between airships and ground stations. Such an in- 
An Airplane with WmgS of Metal the maximum thickness of the top plane being about 16 stallation was recently placed on the roof of the Equitable 

MORE than once it has been suggested that the inches. The chord of this wing is a little over 8 feet, Building in New York city, during a W. S. S. celebration; 
airplane should follow a more substantial con- while the chord of the bottom plane is approximately 5 and the public was treated to a demonstration of wire- 
structicn. Why keep to delicate wood, less telephony between a large Navy 

guy wires, and fabric? And always the i, ' — - -- - -- ■ ^- — - ~ "" ^"^ iS~^~T^^ — r -^\ dirigible and the station just mentioned. 

answer has been that, weight for weight, | ■ ^B j ^WB| ! f? ^^^ Navy system of wireless telephony 

the materials in general use cannot be I I ^M ^j^fe, \ J ' for airships is practically the same as that 

improved upon. I .^^^^ ^■.^^^■^ ^ '^^ ^'^^ Armj'; indeed, the same manu- 

But the Germans have again gone into m ^HB^ ^H^^lnir i .^B > facturers supply their instruments to both 

new fields and set aside all engineering ■ i^i. ' ^R^^Km ■ ^ ^^Kt 'l services. Two types of transmitters were 

prejudices. This time it is in the form of j ■ f^QL I WI^^Kr^ ^^B employed in the New York demonstration, 

the Junker armored machine, which is the ■ ^^» J .^^^^^^HIS. ' ■ both of practically the same size, design 

first real all-metal airplane. m .J^Kl-M^^. .^^^^^^^^Bnt^ A-^ ^"^^ general construction. The wireless 

The Junker armored machine seems to I^^^BTi^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^H ^^ '■ 1^8 waves in each case are generated by 
have been designed for attacking trenches. i M«jj»«iw.Miwnn»rai ii i ■■ m. i ^ ^^^^^^^^B|^^ ^^^^^^^H^i Ik k'^'^H so-called vacuum bulbs of the pliotron 
Its fuselage is of the typical German design, ____^^^^^^^^^^^^^Lk ^^^^^^^^Sl^A ^K..^MI ^yP^' three such bulbs being used with 
and carries armor plate along its flat sides. ■■■■■■mMMmMan9|^^|^^^^^^^^B^Kj| ^^^^^^^^^^KQl&H^Hli^l each set. In one set two pliotrons are 
The slightly curved top is of aluminum. ^^^M^^^^^^^K^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^mS^^^KSi employed for generating the waves, while 
The bottom of the body is formed of three ^^^M ^^^^^^^|^^^ ^^^^^^^^^I^SS^^B^ ^^^ third is used in the modulating circuit 

flat surfaces, the middle one of which is ^Wj^B ^^^^^^^^L^H ^^^^^^BP^^B^^^'^5'^^^^^ ! which impresses the voice on the waves, 
horizontal, the other two sloping so as to " jj^HH^E^BI^nH^^^^E^^^K^ ^C ^^^^feHHBHfi^HiL'tt ^^ ^^^ other set, one pliotron is employed 

connect the edges of the horizontal bottom ^^H^^BIK^Hi^^^l^^HB^^b'^^^-' ' •^'"^I^^^^^^^^^^I^^IhI ^^'^ generating the waves, while two 

with those the sides. The ^K^^K^KI^S^^^^^^Ht 't^ ^vT ^^MI ^^^^^^^^^^^H^^H pliotrons are employed as modulators. 

engine, a 280 horse-power Benz, also i ^^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^k-^ -k.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K ^^^^ pliotrons made the form of 

protected by armor plating, which is ■■^^^^^^HR^^HHHHi^^^^^^^^lHH^feS^^^^^^^^^^IBB lamps, with spiral filaments, a 

detachable so as to allow access to the ^^^^HH^^BfiS^^^^^^S^^^^^^^^^HjVHB^S^H^^^^^^H^^B cylindrical plate and a tiny grid. The 

engine. The armoring is finished off just ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^B^I^B^S^KSI^^B filament operates storage 

behind the gunner's cockpit, where ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l^^^^^^^^^^^^ battery. A 22-volt dry battery is re- 

continued across the fuselage by a curved ^^^^^^^^^^^^I^^^^^H^^^^^^^^HIHHIH^^ vuUZZIwaj^^^^^ quired in getting the bulb to oscillate or 

armor plate shaped to form the gunner's ^ -^^^^^ produce waves. This task is then taken 

The wings, however, are of greatest jm^^^^^^^^Hm^ lllil^^^ll^^^^H^IHHIIii^lH^HK-_'. 
interest. The internal construction of the courrisht. Press niustnumK service 1,500-volt current for the grid of the 

wings is in the form of duralumin tubes Wireless telephone apparatus which connect airships with ground stations (Continued on page 104) 




machine. 

machines. 

had single engines, while in others they have been of the 

more pov.-erful twin-engine model. 

British naval officers sank two ships 
during 1916, by means of torpedoplanes. 
The Germans retaliated by sinking the 
British steamship "Gena" by means of 
one of their torpedoplanes. However, the 
war ended before either side could try out 
the torpedoplane on an extensive scale, 
hence the efficiency of this naval weapon is 
still a matter for conjectm-e. It is under- 
stood that a single torpedo weighing about 
2,000 pounds is generally carried. More 
torpedoes mean a larger machine, which in 
turn means a better mark for the enemy 
gunners. Hence the single-torpedo type 
seems the best for the purpose. 

Wireless Telephony Between Airships 
and Ground Stations 

'^ I "■ WO slender wires not exceeding 75 
*■ feet in length; a cabinet no larger than 



96 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Battery Versus Magneto on the 

A Sequel to "The True Story of the Liberty 



February 1, 1919 



Airplane 

Motor" 



THE further Germany's foes went in the war against 
her, the more evidence they unearthed as to the 
thoroughness of her preparation. The tale of industries 
thrown into confusion by the withdrawal of some 
German-made or German-controlled essential is a familiar 
one. In the manufacture of the internal combustion 
engine, the strategic point held by the Hun lay in the 
ignition system; a condition had been created under which 
magnetos — especially magnetos suitable for aviation — 
were so largely made in Germany that the opening of 
hostilities left the Alhcs in a serious predicament. 

Toward meeting this situation America made a 
material contribution. This was made possible partly 
by our vigorous motor truck development, which had 
kept our magneto industry in good shape; but above 
all by a new type of American magneto, just coming into 
its own at this critical period. The rotary-pole magneto, 
described in our issue of January 11th, had not reached 
its present estate in 1914; but it existed and gave 
service. One of the steps that the Allies took to meet 
their emergency was the placing in this country of orders 
for this magneto. First and last, hundreds of thousands 
were shipped; and their part in Allied control of the air 
has been anything but small. 

Another measure which the Allied engineers must have 
considered was the alternative of battery ignition. But 
the opinion prevailed, until the appearance of the 
Liberty Motor, that a battery was out of place on a 
plane. The Liberty, however, is a success; and this it 
could not be if its ignition were an absolute "bust." 
Its performance accordingly means something to the 
ignition engineer; but what? It might mean that the 
battery is to supplant the magneto; it might mean that 
the two are to be on an equal footing; it might mean 
that the batterj' is a sufficient emergency substitute for 
a magneto; it might mean that a man who is determined 
to run a p'ane on battery ignition can get away with it. 
The only way to decide just what it does mean is by a 
general hearing of the case of battery vs. magneto. 

The battery system consists of two fundamental parts 
— battery and generator; the rest of the outfit is the 
mechanism of timing, distribution and control. Since 
the magneto itself is a generator, without a battery, 
the obvious question is "Why the batterj'?" We may 
let its advocates speak first, and tell us the reason, as 
they see it. 

Concerning Safety Factors 

A plane differs from a truck or a car; the pilot can't 
get out and tinker with his machine, can't draw to one 
side and await expert aid — he must complete his day's 
work without irregularity of operation, or not at all. 
And if irregularity comes, it puts him in peril, where on 
the ground it merely constitutes an inconvenience. So 
we must give the aviator every factor of safety; in 
terms of ignition, this involves two means of creating 
the vital spark. Then if one staff fails he can lean on 
the other. 

The battery advocate says he has met this requirement. 
He says that if the battery fails the generator goes on 
firing, and if the generator fails the battery goes on firing. 
So he claims he has provided two separate sources of 
current. The magneto man can do as much only by 
mounting two magnetos; and this gives the battery a 
big advantage in weight. 

The magneto man disputes all this. He is not satis- 
fied that the generator will go on indefinitely with the 
battery out of commission. In the absence of the 
regulator, run from the battery and from the battery 
alone, he wants to know what is to prevent the generator 
from going up, and up, and up, until it burns out. 
But he will not press this point ; for he has a more serious 
one, which the battery man admits. With the battery 
out, the generator at best will fire only so long as the 
engine runs continuously; after it once stops, the 
generator can never start it. We shall return to this. 

On the other hand, eren the battery man can't claim 
that the battery will go on indefinitely after the generator 
fails. His best argument here is that the battery will 
fire for three hours. It will last for three hours, because 
its capacity is nine ampere-hours and the ignition 
current is three amperes; but the magneto man says 
that it will obviously go down below sparking voltage 
before the three hours are up. But the existence of a 
period for the battery, rather than its exact length, is 
the critcal point. The magneto man wants to know 
whether the pilot is supposed to go on with his work for 
that period, relying upon the single source of spark 
which is definitely going to quit without warning, or 
whether he is supposed to drop all business and rush for 



home the minute his generator goes out. Either al- 
ternative seems an embarrassing one. 

The Parable of the Sock 

A certain laborer banked half his week's earnings in an 
old sock, and at the end of the month paid the rent out 
of the sock. He argued that he had thus two sources 
of funds; if he lost the sock he still had his job, while 
if he lost the job he had the sock. One day he did lose 
his job; whereupon he discovered that he could get out of 
the sock exactly what he had put into it from his pay 
envelope, and not a cent more. 

The magneto man says that the battery booster is in 
just this position. He says that the battery, charged 
from the generator, is not a source of current at all; 
hke the sock, it is depository, from which we can get 
back only what we have salted down in it. If it be 
suggested that the battery is a source to the extent of 
its initial charge, the magneto man wiU point out that 
to offset this initial sum in the sock, there is a hole in 
the latter through which 30 per cent of all the electrical 
funds deposited in it leak away. He will close out this 
side of the case by asserting that if the battery man 
wants two independent sources of current, either of 
which will spark indefinitely after the other quits and 
neither of which is in any way affected by the quitting 
of the other — if he wants to compete with the magneto, 
in other words — he must mount an entire dupUcate 
outfit — battery, generator, and ail. Then he loses his 
boasted advantage in weight. 

The magneto man now brings forward his claim of 
positive advantage, which is, a better spark. The 
magneto spark increases in intensity with the speed of 
the motor, but otherwise is remarkably constant. The 
battery spark is admitted to fall off in intensity at high 
speed; in addition, the magneto maker says it is variable 
on its own grounds, going down, now and again, to a 
point that implies a missed explosion. This indictment 
the battery man of course indignantly denies. The 
magneto man asserts that his battery oscillographs were 
made from a stock Liberty ignition set, under field 
conditions; and he says that if he can get a variable spark 
out of the battery by fair means, the aviator can do so, too. 

So much for positive arguments; what of negative 
ones? When the battery man is asked to criticize 
the magneto, he says it has too many moving parts. 
The magneto man agrees; but he challenges the battery 
to make a better showing. If the battery could be 
installed without the generator, it would constitute an 
improvement under this count; but on an airplane it 
can't, so it fails to make good its own point. Before the 
invention of the rotary pole, it might have been argued 
that the magneto was limited to eight cylinders, and 
that the battery therefore had an advantage in flexibility; 
this can no longer be admitted. 

"Trouble, Trouble, Nothing but Trouble!" 

V\'hen we ask the magneto man to stop boosting his 
outfit and to knock the battery system, he replies that 
the latter convicts itself. In the army training school at 
the magneto factory, the bulk of the lectures and the 
bulk of the literature placed in the student's hands is 
devoted to explaining to him the construction and the 
operating principles of the magneto. In the battery 
school the matter is quite otherwise; a preponderance 
of the work of his course here is given over to making 
him acquainted with the 57 varieties of trouble he may 
expect to meet, and the ways for avoiding and over- 
coming them. In at least one instance, he is told 
"Don't touch it; send for an expert!" 

The magneto man figures that this state of affairs is 
natural enough. The battery system comprises a 
generator and a battery and a couple of distributors 
and a regulator and an ammeter. He says that ac- 
cordingly it may be expected to display all the weak- 
nesses found in any of these units, together with the 
special weaknesses inherent in a complicated electro- 
mechanical system composed of numerous elements of 
diverse structure and operation, elaborately intercon- 
nected. 

Thus, the battery consists of a vessel containing liquid, 
which must remain intact while traveling on a plane 
subject to hostile fire in war or exposed to the elements 
in peace. Before it goes aboard it must have been got 
to just the right specific gravity by a procedure which the 
magneto man refuses to believe is possible outside the 
laboratory. After it goes aboard it must be kept from 
sulfating. Fully charged, there is no prospect of its 
freezing; but half discharged, it freezes between 5° and 
30° below zero, Fahrenheit. 



The magneto man lays stress upon the number of wires 
and connections in the battery system. He points out 
that a battery expert has to be an expert in half a dozen 
Unes. He considers that the great number of places in 
which to look for trouble makes it a matter of more time 
to put the battery system in order and keep it so. Then 
he passes to his climax. 

The Matter of Starting 

The magneto-operated plane is stated by an inde- 
pendent, hand-operated magneto. Whenever com- 
pression exists in a single cyhnder this Uttle coffee-mill 
affair will start the engine. The battery-equipped plane 
starts in either of two ways, but always the battery 
must be in working order. If it is not, we may accept 
the claim that the generator will fire the engine as long 
as the engine runs continuously. But the minute the 
engine stops, the generator without the battery will never 
start it again, under any terms whatever. This is 
what our battery friend was getting at when he stated, 
conservatively enough, that "the engine will continue 
to run indefinitely until stopped, when difficulty wiU 
result in starting." (The italics are ours.) 

When this machine comes down, the pilot is expected 
to throw off his ignition switch. But being human, 
sooner or later he is going to forget this. The battery 
will then go on discharging until it is as dead as Juliua 
Caesar; and that plane will stay right there untU it 
gets a fresh battery. If this happens at home, it is 
merely an inconvenience, though perhaps far from a 
minor one. But when the battery and the engine die 
at the same time over hostile territory, add one plane 
and one aviator to the list of missing in action. An 
aviator flying on his generator alone, with his battery 
out of commission, knows with complete certainty that 
anything that stops his engine stops his plane for good. 

So much for the case of battery vs. magneto in aerial 
work. We say nothing for or against the use of the 
battery elsewhere. But items which on the ground 
constitute merely offsets to the advantages — mostly of 
economy — gained by using a battery, become, in the 
magneto man's mind, conclusive arguments against 
the use of the battery in the air. For planes, he insists 
that the precedent laid down in favor of the magneto 
is a just one. 

Prior to the appearance of the Liberty, no ranking 
plane had ever mounted battery ignition; all records 
are held by magneto-equipped planes, right down to the 
altitude record made in the home of the battery, the 
other day, by a Hispano-Suiza plane, with rotary-pole 
magneto. Why, then, is the battery ignition found on 
the Liberty? 

."^hat About the Liberty? 

The designers of this engine have tpoken in these 
columns. "The True Story of the Liberty Motor," 
which appeared in our issue of June 1st last, was com- 
piled after close contact with the men responsible for 
the entire development. We quoted these men to the 
effect that, while the original commercial plans called 
for battery ignition, they had shared the general opinion 
with regard to the desirability of the magneto, and had 
made every effort to use it; that it had failed; and that 
when, in this dilemma, they turned to the battery, it 
had done the job. The first indictment brought to 
justify this action is that, in the Liberty tests, "owing 
possibly to the vibration of the engine at high speed, the 
magnets of the magneto showed fatigue, and gradually 
lost their magnetic property." 

Magneto makers were not content with directing 
attention to the discrepancy between this and the claim 
that "tests of the engine showed that there was no 
noticeable vibration with the cylinders set at this unusual 
angle." They didn't believe that any amount of vibra- 
tion would knock the juice out of their magnets; and 
to prove it, they installed a stock rotary-pole magneto 
on a Hispano-Suiza eight, and ran it continuously for 
55 hours. The engineer of this test says that he didn't 
make the test on a Liberty because he had then no stock 
magneto that would fire the Liberty; but that if the 
vibration of his test was not equal to that of the Liberty, 
something is wrong with the latter. He records that at 
the end of the run the magnets were found to have lost 
exactly three-tenths of one per cent of their strength. 
His point of view is that if the Liberty designers are 
right in their allegations it constitutes a slap, not at 
the magneto, but rather at the engine that rattles to 
such an extent. 

When the Liberty experimental work was being done, 
{Continued on page 104) 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



97 



Correspondence 

The editors are not responsible for statements made 
in the correspondence column. Anonymous commu- 
nications cannot be considered, but the names of cor- 
respondents will be withheld when so desired. 



The German Losses at Jutland 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

There are a number of interesting naval items more 
or less clouded in mystery that I have been looking to 
your columns to clear up since the surrender of part of 
the German fleet and the admission of German defeat 
at Jutland by the German naval officer, Captain Persius. 
The lattsr's confession bears out Admiral Jellicoe's report 
of the battle concerning heavy German losses that could 
not be positively confirmed at the time owing to the mist, 
smoke and darkness. But with the most powerful part 
of the German Navy in a British harbor and a British 
squadron guarding the balance at Kiel and Wilhelm- 
shaven, the identity of the "severe losses" of the High 
Seas Fleet still remains unknown. We were led to be- 
lieve that those losses in capital ships in addition to the 
admitted loss of the battle-cruiser, "Lutzow" and 
battleship '■ Pommern," consisted of at least one other 
battle-cruiser, supposed to be the "Von der Tann," and 
two dreadnoughts. But the original "Von der Tann" 
and not a new "ersatz" surrendered the other day along 
with four other battle-cruiserf. There remains the 
probability that the battle-cruiser "seen to sink" was 
the Greek "Salamis" building in Germany in 1914 and 
taken over. She is approximately of the same tonnage 
as the "Von der Tann" and probably similar in appear- 
ance and the Germans took advantage of the uncertainty 
surrounding her, in concealing her loss by stating that 
only five battle-cruisers took part in the fight and then in 
answer to claims of the British as to battle-cruiser losses, 
by proving the existence of all but the "Lutzow", which 
loss they subsequently admitted; i. e., "Seidlitz," 
•'Moltke," "Derrflinger" and "Von der Tann." The 
British believed that the "Hindenburg" took part also, 
but this would bring the German battle-cruiser strength 
to seven, while the British only reported a total of six. 
Therefore, if the "Hindenburg" was completed in time 
to take part in the fight, which I doubt (and this ought 
to be easy to ascertain now), then the "Salamis," or 
whatever German name she bore — did not, but if she 
did not she would undoubtedly have been surrendered on 
November 21st as the British demanded all the German 
battle-cruisers. It seems that probably she was the 
vessel sunk in action, but the world awaits confirmation. 
Now no accurate account of the Battle of Jutland can 
be written until these matters are cleared up and when 
we come to German dreadnought losses, there is further 
confusion. It is known that all the German ships of this 
class that were completed at the time, 17, were in the 
fight, i. e., four "Koenigs," five "Kaisers," four "Olden- 
burgs" and four "Nassaus." The British claim the 
destruction of two. But all five "Kaisers" and three of 
the four " Koenigs" surrendered, and the other "Koenig" 
was interned at Kiel, not being in condition to put to sea 
(all of them the original ships and not "ersatz"). There- 
fore, the loss must have been sustained by the other 
squadron of eight "Nassaus" and "Oldenburgs." The 
press dispatches coming from Germany at various times 
together with photographs have disclosed the existence 
of most if not all of these eight vessels, the most recent 
dispatches giving accounts of the revolutionary move- 
ment among the sailors mentioning a number of them by 
name. It has also been stated that their surrender was 
not demanded, because it was known that their arma- 
ment had been removed to the Western Front and much 
of their armor plate, fittings, etc., taken for use in new 
submarine construction owing to the steel shortage and 
Germany's sob faith in the U-boat. If this much was 
known before the armistice, the knowledge of the mere 
number of these vessels must have been. Certainly it is 
now. It was also known that Germany stopped building 
capital ships in 1916, three of the four "Sachsens" still 
being uncompleted. The fourth, the "Bayern" was 
surrendered. No statement has been made by the 
British since they had access to the German Naval bases 
of the absence of any of these dreadnoughts or of any 
other pre-dreadnoughts save the "Pommern." 

As it would be natural for the Admiralty to give defi- 
nite proof of Jellicoe's report concerning German losses 
and of the measure of the British victory we must 
assume that all these vessels are afloat. Where then are 
the "severe losses" commonly believed to have been 
sustained by the Germans and stated as a fact by Cap- 
tain Persius? The mere fact that the High Seas Fleet 
never came out since Jutland except to surrender un- 
questionably gives to Britain the laurels of that action in 



the broad sense, but to a layman at least, unless definite 
statements of proof of German losses in capital ships 
other than the old "Pommern," the "Lutzow" and 
(giving Britain the benefit of the doubt), the "Salamis"' 
are forthcoming, credit must be given in all fairness to 
the much despised High Seas Fleet so ignobly given up 
for balancing the above loss (together with four light 
cruisers, nine destroyers and one U-boat), against the 
destruction of three British battle-cruisers, three old 
armored cruisers and eight destroyers. Another interest- 
ing naval item in doubt is whether or not there is in the 
Grand Fleet a dreadnought named "Audacious" replac- 
ing the ship lost in October 1914. Can you enlighten a 
constant reader? 

Harold M. Kennard. 
Nova Scotia. 

[We have already staled in these columns that, in the 
absence of an otHcial report on the subject, the statement 
made by the Germans after the Jutland battle would seem 
to be correct, so far as their losses are concerned. Captain 
Persius seems to imply that the losses were greater, and he 
ought to know The point is well taken regarding the 
"Salamis." The "Audacious" was mined early in the 
war and sank. She is reported to have been raised, but 
we doubt it. — Editor.] 

A Wanton Waste 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

According to the daily papers of December 14th, a 
collection of 2,525 dangerous weapons taken from 
criminals and others during 1918 and valued at $30,000 
was thrown into the ocean by the New York police 
department. The item caught my eye rather forcibly 
and I thought it ought to be brought to your attention 
in your capacity as moulders of public opinion. In these 
days of high pressure conservation it seems almost 
incredible that any state officials should be guilty of 
throwing away $30,000 worth of material, which, accord- 
ing to the clipping, did not contain any explosives or 
other such dangerous substance. It is obvious that the 
stock of the pistols, revolvers, etc., must have been of 
high quality metal which could easily be reclaimed 
and put to more legitimate use. 

W. Segerblom. 
Exeter, N. H. 

Concrete Roads for Heavy Traffic 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

"Some Motor Truck Economics," appearing in the 
Scientific American for December 28th, 1918, well 
describes the inadequacy of our present highway system 
for motor truck traffic. The failure of our roads under 
this new means of transport has been very general. Yet 
there are exceptions to this general unpreparedness of 
our highways which should not be forgotten — exceptions 
which are due to the foresight and energy of progressive 
communities. 

Notable among these are the extensive concrete road 
systems of Wayne County, Mich., Milwaukee County, 
Wis., Huron County, Ohio, Marion County, Ind., and 
Vermilion County, 111. In all of these counties concrete 
roads have stood up under motor truck hauling whether 
it be trains of government trucks, supplies for manu- 
facturers, loads of coal, farm produce, or miscellaneous 
commodities. 

The statement, " Wherever the big army trucks have 
run constantly, there have roads gone to pieces," is true 
in most cases, but not when the route was over well 
constructed, hard surfaced pavements. From Detroit, 
long government truck trains have left for the coast over 
Wayne County roads and the roads have been fully 
adequate. Local motor car traffic over Wayne County's 
150 miles of concrete roads is enormous and by July 1st, 
1918, there had been licensed 9,988 motor trucks and 
commercial vehicles and 57,633 passenger cars. Traffic 
on Woodward Avenue on June 10th, 1917, in slightly less 
than 14 hours amounted to 11,000 motor driven vehicles. 

Similar, though perhaps less dense, traffic passes over 
the other concrete systems, so that while adequate 
through routes are yet to be constructed, a number of 
communities are already prepared for the motor truck. 

H. Colin Campbell. 
Chicago, III. 

Finger Print Classification 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

To those persons, who for any reason, find it trouble- 
some to use the old or improved Henry System of 
Finger Print Identification, I suggest the use of the 
Hollman Notation as adapted to all purposes and being 
simple and accurate. 

In the Hollman Notation each accepted specific 
style of finger print is permanently assigned a numeral 
as follows: Whorls (1); ulnars (loops) (2); central 



pocket loops (3); radials (loops) (4); lateral pocket 
loops (5); tented arches (6); twinned loops (7); arches 
(8); accidentals (9). The cipher (0) is used wherever 
a finger or fingers are missing or has the finger print 
ridges permanently mutiliated; otherwise the dash ( — ) 
is used until superseded. 

It will be noticed that the even numerals are assigned 
to loops-arches, and the odd numerals to the whorls- 
composites. In making an index number or fraction 
there are five places, which give a number in the tens of 
thousands, the left-hand or highest place being assigned 
to the thumb, next (to the right) the first finger and so 
on to the units place which is assigned to the fourth or 
little finger. The right hand is the denominator of 
the filing fraction; the left hand is the numerator. 

1 aA 
Thus the Henry Classification — — 13 wotild read 

42 222 

— '- 13 in the Hollman Notation. The first two 

88,222 

numerals of each number are the style of each thumb 
and index finger respectively, then the second, third and 
fourth fingers. 13 is the number of ridges in the loop 
of the right fourth finger. 

The Hollman Notation is self-indexing and interpret- 
ing and its scope seems to be unlimited Determination 
of styles (types) is in accordance with the principles laid 
down in 'The Finger Print Instructor by Frederick 
Kuhne (Munn & Co., 1916). 

F. H. Robinson. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

An Open Letter from the Secretary of Labor 

To the Business Men of the United States: 

Every public discussion shows how sincerely and 
eagerly the business men of the country are seeking a 
labor policy that wiU enable them to take advantage of 
the many commercial opportunities awaiting them. 
Business men are coming to recognize generally that 
efficiency in production and consideration of the interests 
of workers are inseparable. " 

It is natural that these men turn to the Government 
for leadership in dealing with a problem that is national 
in scope and interest. The tendency of government is 
toward closer relations with industry. The research 
work to secure the data and determine the standards as 
the basis of business organization can best be performed 
by a disinterested governmental agency, able to gather 
the experiences of all and to reach conclusions based upon 
widest information. 

The Department of Agriculture, the Department of 
Commerce, the Department of Interior, have constantly 
been developing more practical service to the interests 
they serve. There is an analogous service the Depart- 
ment of Labor can perform. Just as the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce furnishes information 
on resources, transportation and trade of foreign coun- 
tries, the Bureau of Mines advises mine operators on 
technical problems, safety and sanitation standards, the 
Department of Agriculture furnishes farmers the scientific 
information necessary to successful production and sale 
of farm products, there is a scientific field in which the 
Department of Labor can serve as consulting expert to 
employers and employes in industrial production. That 
field includes sanitary and safety standards, the adminis- 
tration of measures necessary to prevent physical dis- 
abilities, and the relations between managers and em- 
ployes known as employment problems. 

"This service is distinct from that performed by the 
Mediation and Conciliation branch, which deals with 
working conditions and industrial relations as contro- 
versial issues between employers and employes. Antici- 
pating the increasing importance of establishing work- 
ing conditions on a scientific basis, the Department of 
Labor created the Working Conditions Service. The 
work of the Service is conducted through three co- 
ordinated divisions: Division of Industrial Hygiene and 
Medicine, Division of Labor Administration and 
Division of Safety Engineering. 

The Division of Industrial Hygiene and Medicine will 
develop standards of sanitation and medical practice 
in industries. The personnel of this Division is detailed 
from the United States Public Health Service. 

The Division of Labor Administration wiU advise 
employers as to employment systems and labor manage- 
ment policies, and assist in putting into operation stand- 
ard policies. I 

The Division of Safety Engineering will develop 
standards and practices for accident prevention, and 
advise employers as to safety methods best adapted to 
their plants. 

The Department of Labor offers business practical 
service at a time when its need is manifest. This 
assistance is available to owners and managers of indus- 
trial estabUshments in working out labor policies and 
standards. 

W. B. Wilson, Secretary of Labor. 



98 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 



lOOKOUT POST 





LOOKOUT POST 



PASSENGER CA6INS 



BUMPING BAGS 






Copynshl, Scientific Americiui fuD. Cu. 



Our artist's conception of the passenger-carrying dfrigible of the near future, making use of helium gas 

Airship Versus Airplane 

Salient Features of the Two Types of Aircraft With Regard to Their Applicability to Passenger Transport 

By Ladislas d'Orcy, M.S.A.E. 



Now that the quantity production of 
a non-inflammable lifting gas — 
helium — has eliminated the most serious 
defect of airships, i. e., the truly dispro- 
portionate fire risk their method of susten- 
tation involved, there cannot be the 
slightest doubt but that the major, if not 
all, problems of aerial transport will in 
the near future be solved by the airship, 
and not by the airplane. 

Such a statement is likely to rouse the 
ire of airplane manufacturers; it is never- 
theless based on irrefutable facts, as will 
be seen hereafter. 

Taking into consideration only essential 
factors, the respective merits and defects 
of the airship and the airplane for com- 
mercial purposes may be reduced to the 
following terms. 

Security 

In the airship sustentatioD is 

achieved by means distinct from 
propulsion, whereas in the airplane 
forward motion, generated by the 
propelling apparatus, is the necessary 
condition of lift. Therefore, while 
an airship can stay aloft regardless 
of engine stoppage (accidental or 
voluntary), a failure of the airplane's 
power plant necessitates an immediate 
descent in gliding flight. 

This feature furnishes one of the 
most serious objections to the use of 
the airplane as a passenger-carrier, 
for a forced landing is not very 
pleasant to visualize when occurring 
on vast stretches of wooded or 
mountainous country, or the Northern 
Atlantic in mid-winter, for example. 
In this connection it is interesting to 
recall that in a paper read last year 
before the Royal Aeronautical Society 
the suggestion was made to establi.sh 
along future lanes of aerial transport 
a chain of landing grounds, not more 
than ten miles apart, so airplanes in 
distress may always find level areas 
within the range of their ghding angle. 
That such a scheme, entailing, as 



17V last week's issue of the Scientific American ice announced that helium 
•* could now be produced on a commercial scale cheaply enough and in suffi- 
cient quantity to replace hydrogen in balloons and airships. Because helium is 
a non-combustible gas its use will result in material changes in the design of 
dirigibles. The engines can actually be placed inside the shell of the balloon 
bringing the propellers on the axis of head resistance and this resislence can be 
cut down materially by preserving a perfect stream-line design, unbroken by 
suspended cars and a tangle of stays. A possible helium airship of the future is 
illustrated herewith. We also show by illustration the lift of helium as com- 
pared with hydrogen and the present cost of helium as compared with its cost 
before the war. A new future has been opened to the airship and its advan- 
tages as compared with those of the airplane are here discussed. — ELditor. 




Lift of helium and hydrogen compared; also cost of helium now and before the war 



may well be inquired, an enormous ex- 
penditure, should have been seriously sug- 
gested by an enthusiastic advocate of com- 
mercial aviation, who is by the way one of 
the largest British airplane manufacturers, 
is highly significant because it emphasizes 
the fundamental defect of all heavier- 
than-air craft, that is, the insuflScient 
security afforded by dynamic sustentation. 
It is true that load-carrying airplanes 
have been developed during the war in 
which the risk of a forced landing is some- 
what reduced because the motive apparatus 
is spht up into several power units. But 
even so the risk is only lessened, and not 
eUminated, for it is materially impossible 
that a twin-engined airplane, for instance, 
carry when flying on one engine more than 
one-half its indicated full load — unless, of 
course, the machine is so designed as to 
carry its full load on one engine, with 
another engine kept idle for emer- 
gencies. The latter solution — ^quite 
regardless of mechanical diflSculties — 
is conducive to such a waste of carry- 
ing capacity that it cannot be seriously 
entertained for a moment. 

It has been variously suggested 
that could the airplane be fitted with 
lifting screws, whereby it would be 
able to hover hke an airship, the 
principal objection, on grounds of 
insufficient security, to its use as a 
passenger carrier would be eliminated. 
This is, however, a fallacy, because — 
without discussing the feasibility of 
such a scheme— the lifting screws 
would, just like the propellers, be 
subject to stoppage through engine 
trouble. Now it may be argued that 
aeronautic engines will eventually at- 
tain a tiegree of reliability that will 
virtually eliminate the risk of a forced 
landing. While this assumption seems 
justified, there is nevertheless one 
specific case in which even engine 
reliability cannot prevail against 
the inherent defect of the airplane; 
namely its inability to hover. 

This case is the occurrence of fog. 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



99 



which will constitute perhaps the most 
serious problem affecting the successful 
operation of commercial flying services. 
If a fog bank covers the aerodrome, an 
incoming airplane will have to fly round 
and round until the fog clears away — or 
the fuel supply gives out; under the same 
circumstances an airship will stop its 
engines and hover until a landing can 
safely be effected. 

The superiority of the airship over the 
airplane in affording security to passengers 
under the most difficult operating condi- 
tions is thus manifest. A Zeppelin-type 
airship, in which floatation is secured by 20, 
or more, separate gas-bags, is fully com- 
parable as to safety to a steamer fitted 
with watertight compartments. Just as 
a steamer may spring a leak and have 
several watertight compartments flooded 
without sinking, so can a Zeppelin main- 
tain its buoyancy even if several of its 
gas-bags should be pierced. Injury of 
this sort may by the way be mended in 
flight, because balloon fabrics can be 
patched like automobile tires; it follows 
that airships of the rigid type have little 
fear of accident on this score. 

On the other hand it is true that atmos- 
pheric conditions (sudden variations of temperature, a 
heavy rainfall, snowstorms, etc.) may cause a consider- 
able reduction in the lift of airships; this feature may 
appear as a drawback of lighter-than-air craft, but need 
not cause real concern provided supply tanks, for re- 
charging the gas-bags in the air, and a sufficient amount 
of ballast are carried on board. 

Reliability 

Security in operation is, as has been seen, mainly a 
matter of sustentation ; reliability is one of propulsion. 
Next to safety, ability to reach within a reasonable time 
limit the place of destination is the most important 
requirement that must be demanded of commercial air- 
craft. 

Thus defined, rehabihty in operation depends (1) 
upon the trustworthiness of the propelling apparatus, 
and (2) upon the maximum speed the airship is capable 
of developing. 

Now, engine reliability can be achieved more easily 
on airships than on airplanes because on the former the 
great buoyancy permits the use of comparatively heavy 
engines; these may furthermore be throttled down for 
long stretches — when flying before the wind, for instance 
— which relieves them of considerable strain, whereas 
on airplanes the engines have to be run most of the time 
at full power. Another point in favor of the airship is 
that, owing to its independent sustentation, minor engine 
repairs can be effected in flight. 

The speed factor, if viewed superficially, very greatly 
favors the airplane, however. Speeds up to 160 m. p. h. 
have been made by airplanes, whereas airships have 
not exceeded 75 m. p. h., from which the conclusion 
may be drawn that airplanes 
are much more independent 
of adverse winds than air- 
ships. While this is true 
to some extent, it should be 
noted that the airplanes 
endowed with the highest 
speed are single, or two- 
seater machines carrying a 
useful load of but a few 
hundred pounds, whereas 
great load-carriers, such as 
the Handle y-Page for in- 
stance, do not exceed as a 
rule 90 m. p. h. The superi- 
ority of the commercially 
usable airplane over the air- 
ship is therefore not so very 
marked with regard to speed. 
Furthermore, the Zeppelin, 
which is the fastest type of 
airship in existence does not 
embody the hull shape most 
favorable to high speeds, 
because it was designed for 
quantity production ; it may 
be assumed, that by adopt- 
ing a finer streamline hull 
the speed could be bettered 
some ten miles per hour. 

Loading Efficiency 

The great load-carrying 
abiUty of airships naturally 
enables these craft to under- 



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J- 







Copyright, Internatiunal Vi\m Service 

Removing the sandbags, boards and other protection from the 
Vendome Column in Paris 



take cruises with heavy cargoes which entirely outstrip 
in importance anything large airplanes have so far 
achieved. A Zeppelin of the 1917 model (60 gross 
lift tons, 1,200 h.p., 70 m. p. h.) could actually cross the 
Atlantic, carrying 100 passengers with 50 pounds of 
baggage each, and a crew of 30, at a mean speed of 50 
m. p. h., which comes to say that the trip from Ireland 
to Newfoundland would be made in 40 hours. Recent 
reports from Germany indicate that the Zeppelin Co. 
are engaged in building a fleet of transatlantic airships, 
with which they expect to establish a passenger and 
mail service as soon as peace is signed. These airships 
are to have a gross lift of 115 tons and a total horse- 
power of 2,400; they will cairy 30 tons of fuel, provisions, 
etc., 45 tons of cargo and mails, and 100 passengers, that 
is, the useful load will exceed 80 tons. 

These figures would seem fantastic, were it not a well 
known fact that in airships the loading efficiency, that is, 
the ratio of useful to gross lift, greatly increases with 
an increase in size, whereas in airplanes it remains at 
best constant. The reason for this is that the lift of 
an airship increases as the volume, or the cube of the 
dimensions, while that of the airplane increases only 
as the square, that is, like the wing area; on the other 
hand the weight of the structure increases on both craft 
in proportion to the superficial area. 

Thus, the loading efficiency does not as a rule exceed 
35 per cent on airplanes — this regardless of size — whereas 
on the Zeppelin type airship it has grown from 10 per 
cent, in 1900, to 35 per cent, in 1912, and to 58 per cent, 
in 1917. That the leading efficiency of the new, 115-ton, 
Zeppelin may reach 70 per cent is therefore entirely 
within mechanical possibilities, and the importance such 




Copyright, Undeirwood & Unde 



Havoc wrought by the explosion of a 2,000, 000-gaIlon tank of molasses 



a craft would possess in rapid, long- 
distance transport is obvious. 

Comfort 

In a discussion of the merits of aircraft 
for commercial purposes the question of 
comfort afforded to travellers is by no 
means negligible, quite regardless of all 
speed inducements the machine in ques- 
tion may hold forth. Indeed, if the air- 
ship, or the airplane, is to become an 
accepted means of travel, comparable to 
steamships, railways, etc., then the aerial 
traveler must be assured of finding reason- 
able comfort on board aircraft. 
(Continued on page 104) 

Uncovering Paris Monuments Now 
That Air Raids Are Over 

WITH the danger of air raids and 
bombardment now past, Paris is 
again displaying her art works to her 
appreciative visitors. Already, many of 
the carefully protected public monuments 
have been uncovered and restored to their 
peacetime appearance. Typical of this 
activity is the accompanying view, which 
shows a group of workmen engaged in 

removing the sandbags, cement walls and boards from 

the stately Vendome Column. 

S. A. T. C. Salvage 

WITH demobilization of the Army and Navy Units 
of the Students Army Training Corps at Stevens 
Institute of Technology at Hoboken completed there are 
left nearly 500 men who will go on with the regular 
mechanical engineering course, only about 70 having 
withdrawn. This is regarded as an exceptional record 
and leaves the total college attendance close to the 
highest record of previous years which was 520. Even 
this may be surpassed by the return of men who left the 
course to volunteer in the early days of the war. A 
number of these men have already applied for reinstate- 
ment. 

Disastrous' Explosion of a Tank of Molasses 

WHAT is there in molasses that would make it 
explode, particularly in winter time when the 
sticky syrup is proverbially slow? Two weeks ago a 
large tank of molasses exploded in Boston killing a 
dozen persons and injuring 50 more, and no completely 
satisfactory explanation of the disaster is obtainable. 

The tank was a huge cylindrical structure with a 
capacity of two million gallons. Without an instant's 
warning the top was blown into the air and the sides 
were burst apart. A city building nearby, where the 
employees were at lunch, collapsed burying a number 
of victims and a fire house was crushed in by a section 
of the tank, killing and injuring a number of the 
firemen. Wreckage was scattered in all directions while 
a deluge of molasses spread 
over the ruins and into 
the street, suffocating many 
of the injured and increasing 
the difficulty of rescue. 

The only plausible ex- 
planation of this unique 
disaster is based on the 
assumption that there was 
an accumulation of alcohol 
in the tank. In order to 
have the molasses fluid 
enough to flowreadily through 
pipes, steam-heating ceils 
were placed in the tank and 
it is quite possible that there 
was some fermentation, 
generating a certain amount 
of alcohol. It may be that 
the steam was left on too 
long, warming the molasses 
sufficiently to vaporize the 
alcohol and this, mixing with 
the air at the top of the tank, 
resulted in the accumulation 
of an explosive mixture which 
needed but a spark to touch 
it off. Possibly an attendant 
lowered a lantern into the 
tank or dropped a Ughte<l 
match into it to determine 
how much molasses it con- 
tained and then — the ac- 
companying photograph 
tells the rest. 



100 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 




A group of Boy Scouts that made good on the slogan, ■ i. 



iLii 10 leud a soldier" 



Harnessing Boy-Power 

The Story of the Boy Scouts — What They Are and What They Have Done 

By WiUiam B. Ashley 



awake ajv 



WHAT is boy-power? 
Boy-power is exuberant boy energy. After the 
normal scalawag lets loose a requisite amount of energy 
on study, eats, sleeps, and trying to behave, he has a whole 
lot of energy left over. 

This exuberant energj- is employed by the average boy 
in a number of ways. He uses it to generate loud yells 
at sudden intervals; to move his arms and legs in games 
like baseball and football, tag, and athletics generally; 
it makes catapults of his arms when snow is abundant 
and motors of his legs when skating is in vogue. It helps 
him roll cigarettes, kick a tin can along the sidewalk, 
fight, ring doorbells, run to fires, stone cats and dogs. 
And it sometimes is employed in shoveling the snow off 
of sidewalks, cutting wood, pushing a lawn mower 
around, spading a garden, running errands, and even 
in holding down a job after school hours. 

Experts state that the average boy is 
proximately 5,500 hours in the year. 
Taking the year through, 900 of these 
hours are spent inside the school room, 
1,500 inside his home, and 100 inside 
church and Sunday School. Three thou- 
sand of his waking hours presumably are 
spent outdoors working off his exuberant 
energy. There are exceptions, and the 
war has somewhat changed the general 
conditions, but this analysis of a boj''s 
time is accurate enough for the purpose in 
hand. 

What is the product of the use that the 
boy puts his exuberant energy to, the 3,000 
hours in a year? As there are around 
8,000,000 boys in the United Stated whose 
ages run from 12 to 18, this question is 
important. 

In a large degree it is muscle. Good 
health can be included: a good constitu- 
tion for the years ahead. These are 
valuable assets. But suppose this ex- 
uberant energy, this boy-power, can be 
harnessed so that it will produce other 
benefits to the boy himself and very specific 
benefits to the community and the state 
without robbing the boy of muscle or 
health, or of any of the worth-while fun 
he has while directing the use of his own 
exuberant energy? Suppose also that 
in this process the boy who formerly 
would have arrived at the threshold of 
business life 15 per cent prepared (let us 



say), should by this process arrive there 35 per cent pre- 
pared: 20 per cent more efficient at the very .start of 
his business life. 

Hartford, Conn., was to have its annual clean-up. 
The Chamber of Commerce called upon the 350 Boy 
Scouts of the city to assist. At nine in the morning 
they got into action. They distributed 54,000 circulars 
to householders, inspected 15,225 front and backyards, 
reported 2,673 bad conditions, completing the task 
in 33^ hours. In commending the thoroughness of 
their work, the Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce 
wrote: "Who besides the Boy Scouts could have done 
the indispensable work these loyal boys did?" 

Of course, that lets the cat out of the bag. The Boy 
Scout Movement, as an efficient and ideal method of 
harnessing boy-power, is the subject of this article. 

The catalog above included "running to fires." From 
time immemorial the boy has been an infernal nuisance 




Some more Scout work that looks toward improved luud :>upply 



to the firemen. But in various localities Boy Scouts are 
being organized as fire patrols. They have a system of 
quick mobilization. Special automobiles carry them 
with their equipment of fire rakes, axes, water bags, 
and so forth, to any point where they may be needed. 
The law gives them the right to commandeer plows, 
teams, and men between the ages of eighteen and fifty-five 
years. The scouts are authorized to tear down fences, 
enter lands, cut trees or do anything reasonable in the 
discharge of their fire duties. This is an example of how 
boy-power formerly employed in making the boy a 
nuisance, harnessed, can make him an asset to himself 
and his city. 

How did this idea of organizing boys for civic service 
come about? 

The germ of it is found in the daily good turn, which 
every Boy Scout is expected to do for someone without 
pay. The good turn is a practical expression of the 
ability of a boy to do things for himself 
"and others." One great object of the 
Boy Scout Movement is to help boys 
develop abUity to do things for themselves 
and others. 

The good turn is either spontaneous, or 
the result of deliberate search for aiL 
opportunity. It must be practical. It 
can be an individual act, or performed by 
a group of scouts. For example, a number 
of scouts on a car one night discovered an 
old lady who had lost her "bearings" 
(as they put it), and made it their duty to 
assist her in finding her destination. 
Again, scouts at one point take turns in 
wheeling an invalid woman to church. 
They have given poor boys under scout 
age an outing. A troop of scouts picked 
450 pounds of blackberries, the juice of 
which was sent to an army hospital, and 
also gathered special moss for the hospital. 
They take charge of the feeding of birds 
in and about their towns. They distribute 
bags to homes for the collection of waste, 
and afterward gather up and sell the junk. 
The Park Commissioner of New York 
city estimated that the help of scouts in 
taking care of Central Park saved the 
city at least $6,500,000 during 1916. ") 

Such good turns as these and others in 
great variety are duplicated continually 
throughout the United States. \ number 
of cases are reported in which scouts have 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



101 



established public drinking places; a 
much larger number where they are 
responsible for the raising and lowering of 
the flag on public buildings; and a still 
larger number in which scouts are re- 
sponsible for adding to the attractiveness 
of their home cities. 

Perhaps this process might better have 
been called "storing up boy-power." A 
boy's muscle grows by the use of it, and 
his ability to do things increases by 
practice. It's the play spirit, the team- 
work spirit, the idea of doing something 
out of the ordinary, that keeps the Boy 
Scout at it. And all the time he is storing 
up within himself a big reservoir of power 
that will make him an invaluable citizen 
when he comes of age. 

Let's see how this works out. 

The Good Roads movement occupies 
the entire attention of many capable men. 
It is a big subject in our national develop- 
ment. Yet Boy Scouts of Manorville, 
Pa., under competent leadership put a 
considerable stretch of road in thoroughly 
good shape by approved methods. Savan- 
nah, Ga., scouts, 50 or 100 strong, get out 
into the surrounding country and select pieces of road 
which need repairing and go to it. It is a regular 
scouting stunt to them, and to a considerable number of 
troops in other sections of the country. 

Combating destructive pests of every kind is one of 
the vital tasks of government experts. But Boy Scouts 
of Ashland, 111., undertook the removal of the deadly 
barberry plant from the grounds of everybody in that 
town. The breeding places of mosquitoes 
in Memphis, Tenn., were located by Boy 
Scouts who also assisted in their extermina- 
tion. At Glen Cove, N. Y., the scouts 
made it their duty to kill off the thousands 
of caterpillars that infested the trees. 
Typical civic good turns that are duplic ited 
again and again. An appropriate line of 
police work was assigned the scouts at 
Fargo, in stopping vicious pranks on 
Hallowe'en night. It is the common 
thing for scouts to be called upon to hunt 
lost children. And as stated, firemanship 
is proving one of the best means of utilizing 
exuberant energy. Great tastes, these, of 
manhood responsibilities that lie iust 
ahead! 

The war has doubtless taught all nations 
the need of conservation of natural re- 
sources. What's that got to do with a 
gl-orious outdoor hike on Lincoln's Birth- 
day? Nothing. But come to think of it, 
Abraham Lincoln was a rail splitter. 
What of that? Well, doesn't that suggest 
splitting wood? Why not a fuel hike 
when every scout gets out his scout axe 
and gets into the woods and converts 
fallen timber into firewood for the needy? 
And it wasn't only on Lincoln's Birthday by any means 
that the scouts practiced that form of conservation. 
Anti-destructiveness is an underlying principle of scouting. 
Men who lay hold of the responsibilities of government 
with that idea imbedded in their natures, will never be 
grafters. 

Too much cannot be said in commendation of the 
method of education that makes a boy delight in doing 




Boy Scouts acting as aides to the Fire Department get fun and valuable 
training of every description 



well such serious things as these. You can imagine the 
thrill of pride which young scouts of Abilene, Texas, 
felt when they helped the Chamber of Commerce to 
promote a municipal water system and to select a site 
for a mechanical and agricultural college. Something 
has happened when a boy, instead o. throwing sticks 
and stones up into a horse-chestnut tree and shinning up 
any tree along the walk that takes his fancy, regardless 




When boys will do this for the health and beauty of their town, civic 
service has them for keeps 

of broken branches, will laboriously make a complete 
census of the 14,083 trees within his city's limits, tabulat- 
ing 61 different varieties, and doing it so accurately 
that when results were checked the work was found 
correct. And a boy who as a scout has helped to notify 
11, .500 natural gas users between 10 P. M. and 3 A. M 
to turn off their jets because of an accident, has stored 
up for the days of his manhood to come, the power that 



arises only from a sense of responsibility. 
The climax thus far in the development 
of the Boy Scout Daily Good Turn into 
organized civic service, was the tremendous 
contribution of the Boy Scouts to our 
Government's conduct of the war. These 
scouts, it must be remembered, are boys out 
of our own homes. They are not phenom- 
enal boys. They come from all kinds of 
homes, of all nationalities, of every re- 
ligious creed. They run from 12 to 18 and 
19 years of age, averaging around 15 J^. 
They are the sons of poor people and of 
rich people and of in-between people. 
They are likable lads and lads who are 
hard to like. They know how to behave or 
they are little ruffians willing to learn. 
.Just plain American boy. But the scout- 
ing program grips them, the stern Oath 
and Law with its 12 "points," gives them 
moral backbone. The program of out- 
door activities gives them expertness 
in athletics and camping and in wood lore. 
Succe.ssive stunts in civic service tone up 
their sense of solidarity. The Nation 
is forced into a war with another nation, 
and from sea to sea this great brotherhood 
of "plain American boy" leaps to its feet and flashes to 
the President a sturdy message, "The Boy Scouts of 
America stand for 100 per cent patriotism and unqualified 
and energetic support of the Government in every way." 

Follows without comment, the stirring record that 
made that message good: 

In three Liberty Loans made 1,343,018 sales, amounts- 
ing to §206,862,9.50. 

Returns to date on Fourth Loan in- 
dicate over $100,000,000 of sales. 

Sold War Savings Stamps to the value 
of $22,997,260, and still going strong. 

Located 20,758,660 board feet (5,200 
carloads) of standing walnut. 

Collected over 100 carloads of fruit pits, 
enough to make over one-half million gas 
masks. 

Responsible for over 12,000 War Gardens 
actually reported, with thousands more 
not reported in detail. In addition to 
this, many thousands of scouts worked on 
farms. 

Distributed over 30,000,000 pieces of 
Government literature. 

Assisted Red Cro.ss continuously in its 
work, and served in every membership 
and financial drive. 

Assisted the United War Work Com- 
mittee's campaign for money. 

Collected great quantities of books lor 
shipment to soldiers in France. 

Performed many services for the selective 
Service Boards and the Government In- 
telligence Bureau. 

This nation can no longer afford to let 
its boy-power go to waste. It is not 
enough that it shall construct muscle and good con- 
stitutions. We must have more by-products such as 
these. There are 8, 10, 12 million boys in this country 
all the time. Only about five per cent of this vast total 
is under leadership that conserves their "power," 
directing it back upon themselves in self-improvement 
and directing it outward upon the community in civic 
[Continued on page 106) 




Scouts making a careful condition census of the trees of their town 



Making a model of a bridge that will later be erected for actual use outdoors 



102 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 



The Heavens in February, 1919 

A Few Suggestions as to the Ages of the Stars 
By Professor Henry Norris Russell, Ph.D. 



WE had occasion last month to speak of the extra- 
ordiiiiiry brilliancy of certain stars in Orion and 
the neighborhood. 8ueh objects challenge the imagi- 
nation in many ways — their great size, extreme bright- 
ness, and the verj' high temperature to which they owe 
their luminosity. But they are most impressive of all 
when we consider them, not from the standpoint of the 
present moment, but from that of their past history and 
probable future duration. 

Estimates of the brightness of the stars, of very fair 
precision, were recorded by Hipparchus, more than two 
thousand years ago. These suffice to make it certain 
that the general aspect of the constellations, as regards 
the brightness and the position of their stars, has not 
changed perceptibly in these 20 centuries. Indeed, the 
few doubtful cases, in which it looks at first sight as 
though a few stars might have changed in brightness, 
are more probably due to errors in the early estimates, 
or in the copying of the manuscripts, than to actual 
changes in the sky. 

Direct human observation makes it clear, 
therefore, that in the life of a star 1,000 
years is but a short time. This is of 
course what we should expect, from our 
present knowledge of the great age of 
the Earth, and of the life which has for so 
long been evolving on its surface. On 
general principles, we might well expect 
to find that the life of our solar system 
far exceeded in length that of this little 
planet of ours, and that the life of the 
great system of stars was again far more 
extended in duration than that of our own 
small part of it. But what evidence, 
direct or indirect, do we at present possess 
upon the matter? 



by the eruption of hot masses of material from the Sun 
under the influence of the attraction of some other star 
which passed so close to it as barely to miss hitting it. 
On this hypothesis, which is supported by many lines of 
reasoning, the orbits of the planets were originally of 
considerable eccentricity, and have attained their 
present nearlj' circular form by the action of the resis- 
tance due to the swarm of small particles diffused about 
the Sun. Mr. Jeffreys, an English astronomer, has 
recently calculated that, upon plausible assumptions, 
the time which might be required to round up the plane- 
tary orbits in this fashion should be something like three 
thousand million years. This fits in verj' well with the 
longest estimates of geological time; but it also indicates 
that the sun was a "going concern" 3,000,000,000 years 
ago, and must therefore, be older than this by a wide 
margin. 

If the ages of the stars are of at all this order of mag- 
nitude, what hope have we that the slightest change in 
the condition of any one of them can be detected in our 



iio//:f y.'__ iLf^i/JJox 






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Iv.'^- 



The Geologist's Contribution 



'•'^/^VV 



v^ -^' 



At 11 o'clock: 
At 10>^ o'clock 
At 10 o'clock 



Let us begin with the age of the Earth — 
or, rather, of the fossiliferous strata upon 
it, which, as all geologists agree, give us 
only the latter part of the history of the 
evolution of living things. This is not the 
place to enter into details regarding the 
arguments which have led geologists to 
make rough numerical estimates of the ages 
of the various formations; suffice it to say 
that all are agreed in placing the interval 
since the beginning of the Cambrian era — 
when a large variety of highly organized 
living things already existed — at a figure 
which can be measured by the tens of 
millions of years at the very least. The 
only question still under debate is whether 
such an estimate is not too short. Certain 
lacts regarding the accumulation of helium 
in minerals containing uranium — which 
produces helium by a very slow radio- 
active process — indicate that the age of 
the older sedimentary rocks is a thousand 
million years or more. If we say roughly 
that the time during which life has existed on the earth 
is probably at least a hundred million years, and perhaps 
a thousand million, we shall be not far from expressing 
tie state of scientific opinion. 

Now it is morally certain that, during all this enormous 
interval, the Sun has never been, even for a few years, 
very much hotter or colder than it is now. If its radia- 
tion of heat had been but half as great as at present, the 
■whole surface of the Earth would have been ice-bound. 
If the Sun had been three or four times as hot and bright 
as it is now, the oceans, rivers and rain would all have 
been nearly if not quite at the boiling point. Either of 
these catastrophes would have put an end to the orderly 
development of life, and neither is consistent with the 
geological evidence. Indeed, a range of solar radiation 
from two-thirds to twice its present intensity seems to be 
about the utmost that can be admitted, and this corre- 
sponds to a change of hardly more than one magnitude 
in brightness, while the differences in brightness among 
the visible stars of the sidereal system amount to fully 
twenty magnitudes. It looks, therefore, as though not 
merely 2,000 years, but the whole of geological time, 
were but a short interval in the history of the Sun. 

The Origin of the Stars 

Further argument in favor of this view is found in the 
well known planetesimal hypothesis of Chamberlin and 
Moulton — according to which the solar system originated 



y^-^^ .(%. 



K '^^<-. 












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Feb. 6 

Feb. 14 
Feb. 21 



At 9H o'clock; March 1 
NIGHT SKY: FEBRUARY AND MARCH 

ephemeral lives? Little indeed, one might answer; but 
the problem is really not quite so bad as that. 

Recent researches — largely by Eddington and the 
present writer — make it probable that a star starts its 
life as a huge body of highly rarified and relatively cool 
gas. As it contracts it becomes hotter and hotter, until 
at last it gets so dense at the center that it can no longer 
contract freely. Then its temperature has attained a 
maximum, and it begins to cool off, and finally, after the 
lapse of ages, goes out. The Sun appears to be in early 
middle age — well past the maximum of temperature, but 
with still a long life of moderate activity before it. But 
there are many stars — such as Arcturus and Antares — 
which present the evidences of youth. They have not 
yet risen to their greatest temperature, but are already 
very bright, because they are of such large diameter. 
Such stars must live their lives at a very much faster rate 
than the staid old Sun, and the rate at which they are 
shrinking should be rapid indeed. Even so, it would be 
hopeless to attempt to detect its effects, except in one 
special class of stars. 

What the Figures Say 

These are the Cepheid variables — stars of great bright- 
ness, and evidently at an early evolutionary stage — which 
probably owe their variation to periodic vibrations of 
some sort affecting the main mass of the star. Now if 
this is true, the period of the vibrations should depend 



upon the density of the star. For an increase in density 
of 2 per cent, the period should shorten by 1 per cent. 
Some of these stars have been observed carefully for 
more than a century, and in one case at least — the 
typical star Delta Cephei — there is evidence that the 
period of variation, which is rather more than five days, 
is actually growing shorter at the rate of one-twentieth of 
a second per year; that is, by one nine-millionth part of 
itself every year. This indicates that it would take the 
star about forty-five thousand years to increase in 
density by one per cent, and 3,000,000 years to double 
its density. To pass from one to another of the stages 
of temperature which are represented by the Harvard 
spectral classes probably requires, in the case of giant 
stars lik"e these, something like a tenfold increase of den- 
sity, which would call for some ten million years. 

This estimate, which is due to Eddington, is of great 

interest as the first piece of direct evidence, derived 

from the study of the stars themselves, and bearing on 

this great problem of their ages. It is admittedly very 

rough at present; but when more such 

stars have been studied, and if their 

periods are found likewise to be shortening, 

it may be possible to get a very fair idea 

of how fast a giant star lives through its 

early stages. 

To go from the condition of a red star 
like Antares or Betelguese to that of a very 
white one like those in the head of Scorpio 
or the belt of Orion involves passing over 
five successive steps, on the Harvard scale 
of the magnitudes just referred to. This 
would probably take more than fifty 
million years, for the changes would go 
on more slowly as the maximum tempera- 
ture was approached. The later stages of 
a star's life, while it is cooling off, must last 
very much longer, for it is losing far less 
heat per year, and there is a huge store of 
heat accumulated in the interior, which 
must come out and be radiated from the 
surface before the star ceases shining. 

From such evidence as we now possess, 
therefore, it would seem that such great 
stars as those of Orion's belt have already 
been shining for many millions ofyears — 
perhaps for a hundred millions or more — 
while their future duration as light givers 
before they finally cool off to the point of 
extinction is likely to run into the thousands 
of millions of years. 

The Heavens 

The finest region of the sky is now in the 
southwest, where Orion hangs resplendent, 
guarded by Taurus on the right and Canis 
Major on the left, with Canis Minor, 
Gemini and Auriga above. Jupiter, which 
is in Gemini, and at our hour of observation 
very high in the sky, adds to the brilliancy 
of the scene. 
The most conspicuous constellation in the eastern sky 
is Leo, which also gains by the presence of a planet — 
in this case Saturn. Hydra rears far up from the south- 
eastern horizon, while Virgo and Bootes are rising in the 
east. The Great Bear is high in the northeast, Draco 
and Ursa Minor are east of north, with Cassiopeia and 
Cepheus in the north and northwest. Perseus, Andro- 
meda and Aries — the last two low in the northwest — 
complete the tale of the prominent constellations. 

The Planets 

Mercury is a morning star until the 23d, and an evening 
star after that date, but is so far south and so near the 
Sun that he is practically invisible all through the month. 

Venus is an evening star, and is now drawing out from 
the twilight and coming farther north, so that she is 
getting to be a conspicuous object. At the beginning of 
the month she sets at 6.25 P. M., but at its close she 
remains in sight until 7.40. She is actually about three 
times as bright as Jupiter, but will hardly look so, being 
much lower in the sky and on a brighter background. 
Telescopieally she shows a small and almost circular 
disk, 11 seconds of arc in diameter. 

Mars too, is an evening star and is in the neighborhood 
of Venus, but is only about one one-hundredth as bright. 
Even so, he much outshines any fixed star in the neigh- 
borhood, which is rather a dull region. 
{.Conlinued on page 106) 



.At 9 o'clock: Mar. 7 
At 814 o'clock: Mar. 15 
At 8 o'clock: Mar. 22 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



103 



Inventions New and Interesting 

A Department Devoted to Pioneer Work '^ the Arts 



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MACNEr-M£T£R 



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^1^ 



■ SOLENOID CIRCUIT 




A meter which determines the qualities 
of permanent magnets 

An Instrument which Decides the 
Magnetic Qualities of Magnets 

THE wide use of permanent magnets 
for many purposes, and especially in 
connection with magneto construction, 
has created a need for a precise and de- 
pendable instrument which will permit 
of their test in the finished condition. 
While the properties of permanent mag- 
net material can be determined with 
high accuracy with a permeater, such 
apparatus is not designed for and cannot 
be satisfactorily employed in determining 
whether or not magnetized shapes satisfy 
definite requirements or specifications. 

An instrument designed for testing 
permanent magnets should be capable of 
satisfactorily measuring two distinct 
properties. First and foremost, there is 
the flux (induction) which determines the 
initial strength of the magnet. This flux 
depends upon .the degree to which the 
magnet has been magnetized, the effi- 
ciency of the magnetizing process, the 
nature and treatment of the steel used 
and the shape of the magnet. The second 
property is the stabilily (coercive force), 
or power to retain the fiux under adverse 
conditions usually encountered in the use 
of the magnet. The stability depends, 
as before, upon the degree and efficiency 
of magnetization and the nature and 
treatment of the steel used. 

A high initial flux will not be obtained 
in the use of poor material or under 
inefficient magnetizing conditions. But 
' even a high initial flux has little to recom- 
mend it if the material employed has not 
the capability of resisting to a high degree 
the deteriorating influences of vibration, 
changes of temperature, and the possible 
harmful effects of other magnets with 
which it may be assembled. A stability 
measurement determines the properties 
in this respect. 

An instrument has recently been 
evolved to facilitate the inspection and 
test of shaped permanent magnets, by 
serving for comparative measurements of 
flux and stability. It is also well adapted 
for determining, by means of flux tests 
carried out at intervals, whether magnets 
are properly aged. Such a test is par- 
ticularly demanded where magnets are 



intended for use in connection with the 
construction of electrical measuring in- 
struments. 

The basis of construction of this new 
meter and the principle of operation will 
be clear from the following: A coil cap- 
able of rotary movement, to which is 
attached a pointer traversing a calibrat- 
ed scale, is supported between two 
specially shaped pole pieces. This mov- 
able system and scale are enclosed in an 
airtight housing. The pole pieces are 
extended through the housing into contact 
faces or plates, to which the polar por- 
tions of the magnet under test are ap- 
plied. When a definite current is al- 
lowed to flow in the moving coil, a deflec- 
tion of the pointer occurs which is pro- 
portional to the flux in the magnet ap- 
plied to the contact faces. 

In measuring the magnetic stability of 

the magnet, two adjustable solenoids are 

employed which are located in front of 

the contact faces so as to encircle the 

(Continued on page 107) 

Trimming One's Own Hair by 
Combing It 

WITH the extensive introduction of 
the safety razor, the barber lost a 
good part of his former clientele. And 
now with the gradual introduction of a 
simple hair-trimming device which ap- 
pears to complement the safety razor in a 
most efficient way, the barber is con- 
fronted with a further curtailing of his 
trade. Indeed, it is now possible for 
anyone to be his own barber. 



comb's teeth. In no way is it possible 
for the user to become cut while the 
device is being employed in the regular 
manner. The blade holder may be used 
over any part of the comb, with the fine 
teeth or the coarse teeth, according to 
the wishes of the user. 

To trim one's hair with the new device 
it is only necessary to comb it. About 
the neck and the ears, where the hair is 
to be trimmed quite close, the comb is 
held flatly against the head, while for 
slight trimming the cutting edges are 
held farther away. It is claimed that 
with a little practice anyone can master 
the tonsorial art with this new device, 
thus realizing not only a considerable 
saving in the course of a year, but suc- 
ceeding at all times in keeping the hair 
trimmed to the proper length. 

A Fountain Which Uses an Electric 
Lamp for the Pump 

NOTHING could be simpler than the 
electric fountain depicted in the 
accompanying illustration. This device 
has been recently patented by Matt 
Luckiesh of Cleveland, who is a well- 
known physicist and a contributor to 
these columns. 

It will be noted that this simple foun- 
tain makes use of a 150-watt high effi- 
ciency electric lamp, placed in the upper 
part of an airtight vessel partly filled with 
water, and having an outlet tube con- 
necting its lower portion with a nozzle of 
capillary dimensions. The expansion of 




IlillE 




Ulji-il 



Anyone can trim his own hair by means of this simple device, which employs 
blades of the type shown 



The new hair-trimming device is noth- 
ing more than a plain comb, fitted with 
an attachment that holds two special 
steel blades similar to those used with 
safety razors. The blades, as will be 
noted in the accompanying illustration, 
are held so that the cutting edges are 
the proper distance in from the tips of the 



the air above the water, due to the heat 
given out by the lamp, forces the latter 
out through this nozzle and the spray is 
caught and overflows into an outer vessel. 
When the current is turned off, the air 
pressure falls and the water returns to 
the inner vessel through a check valve at 
the bottom, as shown in the sketch. 





A phonograph sound-box of odd construction, which makes use of highly 
stretched silk for the diaphragm 



A 150-watt tungsten lamp does the 
pumping for this fountain 

A Phonograph Sound-Box with a 
Silk Diaphragm 

'T'HERE has been no end to the various 
* kinds of materials employed in phono- 
graph reproducers or sound-boxes. Paper, 
hard fiber, hard rubber or ebonite, 
celluloid, ivory, mica — all these and many 
others have been tried out in the quest for 
better tonal qualities. The choice seems 
to have momentarily rested on either mica 
or fiber, although it is a question whether a 
recently-invented sound-box, which em- 
ploys silk for its diaphragm, does not 
possess considerable merit. 

It has remained for Donald M. Bliss of 
West Orange, N. J., to patent a phono- 
graph sound-box which makes use of taut 
silk as the diaphragm. Any thin woven 
fabric may be used in place of silk. The 
fabric is stretched nearly to its elastic 
limit, the predetermined tension to which 
this member is subjected being evi- 
denced by the fact that the same has a 
predetermined tone or pitch when vibra- 
ted. A stiffening disk of less diameter 
than the supporting member is secured 
to the latter, this disk having a com- 
paratively large central opening in aline- 
ment with the neck of the reproducer. 
This disk is preferably formed of cellular 
material, such as compressed paper, and 
is relatively stiff. A thin disk of high 
density, relative to that of the stiffen- 
ing disk, is secured to the diaphragm to 
cover the central opening, this central 
disk being preferably cupped or concave, 
and attached to the stylus arm. 

Briefly, the idea of this sound box dia- 
l)hragm, according to its inventor, is to 
have the overtones and the higher fre- 
quency vibrations well reproduced by the 
thin central member of high density, 
these vibrations not being distributed to 
any considerable extent in fhe mass of the 
larger member to which the thin dense 
disk is secured. At the same time, the 
size and inertia of the main portion of 
the diaphragm results in the faithful re- 
production of tones of lower pitch in 
proper balance. The inventor also claims 
that the "scratch" is largely suppressed 
by his sound box. As a matter of actual 
test, the reproducer in question gives 
wonderful tones on certain records. 



104 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 19 1<) 



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The Current Supplement 

THE valuable paper on The R6le of 
Selection in Evolution in the current 
issue of the Scientific American Sup- 
plement, No. 2248 for February 1st, 1919, 
deals with some of the widely divergent 
views held by investigators of organic 
evolution, and the discus.sion will be of 
great interest to students of this important 
subject. Food problems promise to be of 
vital significance to the greater part of the 
inhabitants of the world for a long time to 
come, and it behooves everyone to devote 
more attention to them than has ever before 
been considered necessary. In this con- 
nection the study of new kinds of food 
materials is of great importance with a 
view to lightening the demand for the 
limited number of foods that most of us 
have considered essential. The world 
contains many materials that are now but 
slightly utilized, or only locally, which 
could easily be mads to add to our supplies 
and diversify our rather narrow bill of fare 
to general advantage. An article in this 
issue of the Supplement on The Palate of 
the Civilized World deals with this subject, 
and describes a number of new foods almost 
unknown in this country, and several of 
them are shown in accompanying illus- 
trations. It is of unusuil value and 
interest to everyone. Art Electro-Magnetic 
Alternating Current Rectifier gives very 
complete instructions, with working draw- 
ings, that will enable any amateur mechanic 
to make this useful piece of electrical ap- 
paratus. The Production of Copper gives 
a brief account of how this indispen.sable 
metal is reduced from its ores, and is 
accompanied by a number of excellent 
photographs. Other articles of value in 
this issue include Electrical Welding in 
Shipbuilding, A Wax Medium Process for 
Permanent Coloring of Photographs, Resis- 
tance of Ships, Undamped Currents in 
"Super-Conductors" and The Constitution 
of the Earth's Interior. 

Wireless Telephony Between Airships 
and Ground Stations 

(.Continued from page 95) 
pliotron. As for the action of the pliotron 
in converting the direct current into high- 
frequency undamped waves, space does 
not permit of a lengthy explanation. 

An ordinary transmitter is employed 
in connection with the sending set just 
described. Ranges of 25 or 30 miles are 
readily obtained between airships and 
ground stations. For greater ranges the 
transmitting set can be used to send out 
undamped wireless telegraph signals, by 
means of the regular telegraph key. The 
receiving of the telephone messages is 
effected by means of a compact receiving 
set, which also employs vacuum bulbs 
for detecting and amplifying the inter- 
cepted waves. Instead of the usual head 
receivers, a loud-speaking telephone can 
be used so that the messages can be 
clearly heard throughout a large room. 

The transmitting apparatus used by the 
Navy is of the most rugged character, to 
withstand rough handling and the intense 
vibration aboard airplanes and dirigibles 
alike. The pliotrons are protected against 
vibration by ingenious systems of spring 
suspension or by soft rubber pads. 

Battery Versus Magneto on the 
Airplane 

(Continued from page 96) 
no magneto existed that would fire 
all the cylinders at the irregular angle 
and with the unusual timing. No 
such engine had ever been shown, so 
naturally no magneto to fire it had been 
designed. The best the experimenters 
could do for the moment was to make their 
tests with a group of four magnetos. But 
when they went on to conclude that "it 
proved impossible to design a single mag- 
neto that would operate with the irregular 
timing involved," they put a word in the 
magneto-maker s vocabulary that never 
grew there; for three weeks after they 
had complete data on the Liberty engine, 



the rotary-pole engineers had built a 
magneto that would fire it. 

It is not clear just what steps the Liberty 
designers took to see whether a magneto 
could be designed for them. They did 
not consult the rotary-pole makers; so 
here at least they did not avail themselves 
of the best advice. It seems safe to con- 
cede that an armature magneto could not 
be made to fire the Liberty; so assuming 
that the rotary-pole was ignored, the use 
of the word "impossible" can be explained. 
But it can never be justified. In 1917 
the rotary-pole was no freak or novelty; it 
was on a firmer basis than when the Allies 
began its use in 1915. There could be no 
excuse for not considering it, or, in con- 
sidering it, for not realizing that its 
flexibility made feasible its adaptation to 
any motor in the world. 

The magneto makers feel that in the 
matter of Liberty ignition they have been 
lynched. They feel they were given no 
chance to show that the magneto could 
be made to fire the Liberty; and that on 
the basis of the adoption of the battery — 
a departure that must excite universal 
comment — the impression has been created 
that something must be wrong with the 
magneto. This, of course, is not the case. 

The Status of the Magneto 

The only thing that the Liberty proves 
is that a plane can be fired by a battery. 
Magneto makers would have conceded 
this; they will never admit that there is 
any solid reason for wanting to fire a plane 
with a battery. Had the aircraft situation 
been so desperate that the three weeks 
delay involved in asking for a magneto 
and getting it would have been fatal, they 
would concede that the use, as an expedient, 
of the battery which was all ready and 
worked out, would have been justified. 
But the wholesale changes and revisions 
made in the motor, even after construction 
was begun, negative such a suggestion. 
These changes, magneto makers feel, 
make it clear that they were not given the 
same opportunity to adapt their product 
to the engine that was extended to others. 
They insist that in the light of these 
sweeping changes, failure to make one more 
change and substitute the magneto for 
the battery, once the former was shown 
to be apphcable, is difficult to explain. 

The magneto is doing business at the old 
stand. All non-experimental planes that 
do not mount the Liberty are fired by 
magnetos. Trucks and tanks and all the 
other machinery of combat and mobiliza- 
tion and demobilization mount magnetos 
by the thousands. The rotary-pole mag- 
neto cannot be made, in its own factory, 
in sufficient numbers to meet the demand 
of the Government and of private users — 
although that factory has been expanded 
repeatedly. Its makers have had to 
license its manufacture by others. 

We can do no better, by way of clinching 
the magneto's position, than describe the 
standardized equipment recently designed 
by this house. We need not here dilate 
on the advantages of standardization and 
interchangeability; they are known. But 
the man who undertakes the standardiza- 
tion of magnetos is faced with the fact that 
different numbers of cylinders and different 
angles and different timing lead to vastly 
different magneto requirements. Never- 
theless, the chief engineer of the rotary- 
pole magneto set to work on the scheme for 
a universal magneto, applicable to any 
engine. 

How did he do it? Why, it was easy — 
after he had shown how it was to be done. 
The magnets are the same, always. All 
we then need do is classify all engines 
according to their demands, and build 
ou ■ magnetos in such a way that their 
parts may be removed and replaced by 
others. Take out the 2-to-l gear and sub- 
stitute a 3-to-l or a 4-to-l or an 8-to-3, 
take out the four-lobe rotor and substitute 
a six-lobe rotor with its modified field 
structure, take out the cam and substitute 
another with its points differently ar- 
ranged; in each case the magneto will 
fire differently — provided, of course, we 



substitute a new distributing block so 
that it will be able to fire at all. 

This, then, is the big idea. You buy 
a magneto, all set up to fire an eight- 
cylinder engine. You get with it 16 spare 
parts — six distributing blocks, each dif- 
ferent from the one in the machine and 
from other other, three sets of substitute 
gears, four substitute cams, a substitute 
distributor, the substitute six-lobe rotor, 
the substitute field structure that goes 
with it. Any one of these parts can be 
put in the assembly, in the place of the 
corresponding part found there, with no 
mechanical difficulty, and with the simple 
tools provided with the outfit. So if 
you want to shift your magneto from the 
eight-cylinder engine for which it was 
bought to a 16-cylinder, 45-degree, V- 
type engine, all you have to do is to look 
at the chart provided to tell you what 
parts to remove and what ones to put in 
their places. Having substituted the 
proper distributing block, gears, cam, 
brush, rotor and field structure, the thing 
is done; you put the same old magneto on 
the new engine and it fires it. 

Airship Versus Airplane 

(Continued from page 99) 

This requirement is much easier to 
fulfill on airships than on airplanes. Not 
only is the question of weight of minor 
importance on airships; the whole archi- 
tecture of these craft is more adaptable to 
comfort than even the large airplane. It is 
obvious that a hull some 700 feet in length 
affords a splendid opportunity for fitting 
cabins, dining rooms, lounges, etc., at 
such a distance from the propelUng ap- 
paratus as to virtually suppress in the 
living quarters any noise caused by 
engines and airscrews; furthermore, the 
engines may be effectually silenced, and, 
as the number of exposed wires is almost 
nil on rigid airships, the monotonous 
whistling of the wind due to the vibration of 
wire stays — so notable on fast airplanes^ 
is also done away with. 

Then there is the possibility of having 
a spacious promenade deck atop of the 
hull, which should prove a great induce- 
ment for long distance trips. All this in- 
stallation is difficult to conceive on air- 
planes, where noise, vibration and re- 
stricted space are prominent features. 

Prime Co«t and Man-Power 

Prime cost of aircraft is an item difficult, 
if not impo.ssible, to estimate in the light 
of our present knowledge — -for lack of 
data based on experience. Tentative 
figures on the prime cost of commercially 
adaptable aircraft have been worked out 
by the British Committee on Civil Aerial 
Transport as follows: 

Cost per lb. of Cost per lb. 
gross weight of useful load 

Airplane (high speed) . . . 18s. 40s. 

Airplane (low speed). .. . ISa. 30s. 

Airship (rigid) Gs. 18s. ^ 

As to the man-power required for 
operating airships and airplanes, re- 
spectively, figures published by the British 
Air Ministry indicate that airships are 
more economical in man-power than 
heavier-than-air craft. These figures show 
that airships "employed 1.C2 men per hour 
i flown, as against 3.52 for airplanes and 
seaplanes, and flew 1.04 hours per man 
employed as against 0.40 for airplanes and 
seaplanes. 

Conclusion 

It may be said in conclusion that for 
commercial purposes the airship is superior 
to the airplane in the matter of security, 
reliability of the power plant, loading 
efficiency, comfort, prime cost per pound of 
load carried, and man-power required for 
operation. It is inferior to the airplane 
only with respect to speed. 

Should then a mere consideration of 
speed be allowed to retard the advent of the 
transatlantic and cross-continental air- 
ship, considering that it would afford 
maximum safety to aerial travelers at a 
rate of speed entirely sufficient for com- 
peting on long distances with existing 
means of transport?.; 



February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



105 







O H^ w JO O ^ 




2 ^ 



4 CO 



VL 3 ""^ S *^ <-^ o 

.— iR i_i2 P w 55 



U-l .^. t-t 



3 ^- 

3 to 2 



"^ 2 ro 







106 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 



Ifbu wont use a CYALE) 

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You have a hundred and one uses for a Yale Spur- 
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itself many times in time and labor saved. 

Maiie bi/ the makers of Yale Products. Like them it bears 
the trade-mark "Yate" as a guarantee of its superiority. 

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Harnessing Boy-Power 

(Continued from page 101) 
service. And yet consider what that five 
per cent did for the Government in the 
conduct of the war! 

Mr. George W. Edwards of the United 
States Employment Service stated in a 
recent newspaper article that "Boys are 
everywhere leaving the classrooms for the 
factories and shops, so that school at- 
tendance is being seriously affected. In 
one large eastern state the loss for the last 
two years is 18 per cent from the enroll- 
ment to be expected in normal times. 
When these boys enter war industries most 
of them work as messengers, water carriers, 
or helpers. Because they are receiving big 
])ay envelopes they have little inclination 
to enter as learners in skilled employment 
which offers a lower initial wage. 1/ left 
unchecked, these social tendencies would 
develop a large untrained and unskilled 
population. This would prove a serious 
handicap in the reconstruction period 
which must follow the war when the nation 
will need increased production and effi- 
ciency to restore the depleted supply of 
economic good." 

In view of such a serious statement by 
such an authority, the program of the 
Boy Scouts of America becomes of vital 
importance to the nation. It is a program 
of preparedness in the duties of citizenship. 
"Be Prepared" is the slogan of the Boy 
Scouts. This country has never witnessed 
such a spectacle as the mobilization for 
national service of nearly 400,000 uni- 
formed boys, who proved themselves 
prepared to perform difficult tasks effi- 
ciently. It is not so much the mobiliza- 
tion of these same boys for similar tasks in 
the period of reconstruction, that makes the 
program invaluable. But rather, the con- 
tribution that scout trained boys individ- 
ually will make to every line of industry 
and in every profession, when they enter 
upon the duties of manhood. 

Man-leadership is the key to the success 
of this great movement. Nearly 30,000 
scoutmasters and assistant scoutmasters 
are directing the work of these 335,000 
boys. "Plain American men," these scout- 
masters. Fellows of unassailable char- 
acter, big of heart, believers in boyhood, 
willing to learn the scouting program, 
willing to give of their time and strength 
to a big task like this. As a matter of 
fact, most of them get as much out of the 
program as the boj's do, for no man ever 
loses his boyhood. It may have gone 
sound asleep, but it is inside him yet. 
.\nd the minute he hears in his inner voice 
the call of scouting, B.\NG! there is his 
boyhood out of bed and the scout uniform 
half on. 

It is the simplest proposition imaginable 
to harness the boy-power of the nation. 
And yet it is a far greater, more important 
proposition than harnessing the water 
power of the nation. And it is just as 
easy to spot the waste of boy-power in your 
town, as to point to the waste of power 
in a racing stream. And the problem is a 
community problem. Harnessing the boy- 
power by means of the Boj' Scout program, 
calls for community interest in the boys. 
In view of what can be done, it would seem 
as though no man could rest content until 
he had done his part toward conserving, 
harnessing, storing up the boy-power of his 
town for the boy himself and for his town 
and for his country. 

' The Heavens in February, 1919 

(.Continued from page 102) . 

On the 13th Mars and Venus are in con- 
junction, the brighter planet being a little 
more than half a degree south of the other. 
Both are moving eastward, but ^'enus is 
gaining on Mars by nearly half a degree 
per d^y, so that she appears lower in the 
.sky than Mars before the 13th, and higher 
after that date. This conjunction will be 
easily observable, just after dark, and will 
be well worth looking for. 

Jupiter is in Gemini, past opposition, 
but splendidly visible all night, being high 



LEGAL NOTICES 



TF YOU HAVE AN INVENTION 

which you wish to patent you can 
write fuUy and freely to Munn & Co. 
for advice in regard to the best way 
of obtaining protection. Please send 
sketches or a model of your inven- 
tion and a description of the device, 
explaining its operation. 
All communications are strictly coofiden- 
tial. Our vast practice, extending over a 
period of seventy years, enables us in many 
cases to advise in regard to patentability 
witbout any expense to the client. Our 
Hand-Book on Patents is sent free on 
request. This explains our methods, terms, 
etc., in regard to Patents, Trade Markg, 
Foreign Patents, etc. 

AH paleou secured through us are describe*] *riO>oul 
cost to the patentee in the SCIENTIFIC AMERIC>VN. 

MUNN ca CO. 

SOLiCITQRS OF HATE NT.S^ 

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Classified Advertisements 

Advertising in this column is $1.00 a line. No 

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Count seven words to the line. All orders must be 
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PATENT FOR SALE 

FOR S-ALK outriglit or part ca-sh and royalty, patent 
rigbts to machine to renap and to refluish wooleu cloth- 
\ns or blankets where nap Is worn off. Notbins like it 
on the market. Large field among tailors and cleaners. 
Has been in practical operation. E. J. Duuklee, Hack- 
ensack, N. J. 

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

WELL equipped iron foundry will develop and 
market patented article which can be made in its own 
plant. Preference will be given castings used in build- 
ings. Address Foundry, Box 773. City Hall Statlmi. 
New York City. 

AGENCY WANTED 

ITALIAN firm, organized for market sales, contrac- 
tors to Government and railways wortcs — wants to 
secure agency for Italy of best American Manufacturers 
of India Rubber goods— technical, mechanical, domestic 
articles. Address, BotTa, Piazzi 5, Turin (Italy). 
WAXED TYPEWRITER RIBBONS 
Are Superior and Distinctive : supplied for all makes of 
typewriters and guaranteed to please or money back. You 
save by buying direct. Price. 12 for $5.00; 6 for $2.75; 3 for 
SI. 50 prepaid. Send .>lc stamps or coin (ciiecks not accep- 
ted for less than Sl.Sii) for a trial ribbon and interesting 
booklet — "BetterTypewriter Results." Address 
Departmental. The Ribbon Works. Oalvcstoii. Te.\as 



y*a can be quickly cured, if you 



k 

m Send 10 cents coin or stamps for 70-page book on SCam- 

m mering and Stuttering. "Its Caiueand Core." It tells how 1 

^m cured myself after stammering for 20 years. 

^ Benjamin N. Bogue, 801 Bogie BaildiDg. lodiuiapob 



^STAMMER 



The new midget slide rule 




has many exclusive features. 
It will add and subtract frac- 
tion.sandgivedecimal equiva- 
lents. It will also multiply, 
I tivide, add and sub tract, solve 
l^roblems involving any root 
or power (excepting — 1) and 
will give Logarithms and the 
Sines Tangents, Cosines and 
Cotangentsof aliangles. Made 
of metal. Size 3.'4 ins. Send for 



complete instructions 

Your money haek if you 

GILSON SUDE RULE CO. 



t satisjifd. 

NILFS. MICH. 



30 DAYS FREE TRIAL 

and frolght prmpald on a new 

l9l9*'flANGER" bicycle. Writ* 

at one* fcr our big catalog and 

epecial offers. Take your cnoice 

from 44 styles, colors and eizea io the 

louB "HANGER" lin^. - 

■rvAloua Improvcmwita. Extra- 

Jinary values in our iyi9price offers. 

ou cannot afford to buy without 

ettinff our latest propoBitxona 

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TIRES, equipment, sundries and 

perythina in the bicvcle line at 

alf usual prictB. nVi(« Todav. 

e in CYCLC COMPANY 

mot0rM0SS^ niEJlll 0«pt. 1175 Chicaso 




February 1, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



107 




WHITING-ADAMS 

BRUSHES 

USED BY THE 

U. S. ARMY AND NAVY 

Used By 

RAILROAD AND STEAMSHIP 
COMPANIES 

Uaed by Manufacturer* of 

CARS, AUTOMOBILES. 
CARRIAGES 

There are actually ••veral million person* in 
the United States who are continually usins 
Whiting-Adam* Bru*he*. 

Send (or lUiutrated Litaratnre 

JOHN L. WHITING-J. J. ADAMS CO. 

Boston, U. S. A. 

Bru*h Manufacturers for Orer lOS YeanUl'Jl 

the Largest in the World 



LowCosto/Upkeep 



ROTH MOTORS 

are built (or work, not 
lor idleness in the re- 
pair shop. So 
they give 
steady, day- 
after-day ser- 
vice at a low 
cost of oper- 
ation. Twenty 
years* success is 
their best recommen- 
dation. Write for full 
(acts. 

Roth Bros. & Co. 

198 Loomis Street 
Cliiaio. III. 



Saccessfal More 
20 Years 




LEARN WATCHWORK 



JEWELRY WORK 
AND ENGRAVING 

A fine trade commaiidiug a uood salary and your 
services always in demand 
or you can start in busi- 
ness for yourself. At 

BRADLEY INSTITUTE 
The greatest school for 

watchmakers in the world. A'i- 
dress Horologica! Department H. 
Peoria. III., for cataloKue of in- 
formation. Alto teach Optica 
and Instrument Repair. 



Formerly Par- 
Horological 
Institute 




ASBESTOS 



We are miners and shippers of Crude Asbestos in any 
quantity. We produce all grades at our world famous 
BELL ASBESTOS MINES in Canada. We also card 
fibres, spin yarns, weave cloths, and make all sorts of 
Asbestos products. 

For anything you want in Asbestos, turn to 
KEASBEY 4. MATTISON COMPANY 

DEPT. S-1 

AMBLER, PENNA, U. S. A. 

Owners of the world's largest Asbestos Mines 




.|H««'' 



""UIIIIIIIIIIIIlHI 



Er economy begin in the power 
plant! Bessemer Oil Engines set 
new low costs for power production. 
Operating on low priced fuel and crude oils, they 
reduce your power bills fifty to eighty percent, at 
the same time furnishing the reliability and depend- 
ability you desire. 

Quick deliveries in sizes from I5H.P. 
to 180 H.P. Write for catalog. 

THE BESSEMER GAS ENGINE CO. 

14 York Street, Grove City, Pa. 



OIL ENGINES 



in the east at sunset, and crossing the 
meridian at 9 P. M. in the middle of the 
month. His satellites present an interest- 
ing telescopic spectacle, especially on the 
early morning of the 12th when the first of 
them is in front of the planet, and the 
second and third behind it or in its shadow. 

Saturn is in opposition on the 14th and 
is visible all night long. He is in Leo, 
and considerably outshines its brightest 
star, Regulus. With the telescope it 
becomes evident that his rings are seen 
much more nearly edgewise than a few 
years ago, for the poles of the planet pro- 
ject far beyond them. 

Uranus is in conjunction with the Sun 
on the 17th, and is invisible this month. 
Neptune is just past opposition, and may 
be observed with the telescope, his position 
on the 2d being R. A. 8h. 40m. 48s. Declin- 
ation 18° 14' North; and on March 2d, 
8h. 37m. 58s., 18° 25' North. 

The Moon is in her first quarter at 2 
P. M. on the 7th, full at 7 P. M. on the 
14th, in her last quarter at 9 P. M. on the 
22d. There is no new moon this month, 
the previous conjunction with the sun hav- 
ing fallen at 9 P. M. on January 31st, while 
the next is not due until 6 A. M. on March 
2d. This rather unusual occurrence can 
nly take place in February, the other 

onths being longer than the moon's 
synodic period. 

The Moon is nearest the Earth on the 
4th, and farthest away on the 20th. She 
is in conjunction with Uranus, Venus and 
Mars on the 2d, Jupiter on the 11th, Nep- 
tune on the 13th and Saturn on the 14th, 
none of the observable conjunctions being 
close. 

Washington, D. C. 
January 20th, 1919. 

An Instrument which Decides the 
Magnetic Qualities of Magnets 

(Continued from page 103) 
respective legs of the test magnet. If 
current is allowed to flow in the proper 
direction through the windings of these 
solenoids ^when the pointer is deflected in 
reading the flux, the deflection may be re- 
duced to zero by regulation of the current. 
The value of this current is a direct 
measure of the stability of the magnet. 

The measurement of flux does not 
affect the magnetization, and the state of 
the magnet remains unchanged. The 
measurement of stability, as will be seen, 
involves a demagnetization operation, 
and the magnet must be remagnetized 
after such a test. In practice, therefore, 
the flux test may be carried out on every 
magnet in a lot, while it may be found 
advisable, except in special cases or in 
investigative work, to test for stability 
a few magnets selected as samples from 
the lot. 

The design of the meter is such that 
the pointer moves at all times to its 
deflection value or back to zero without 
oscillating through its final position. In 
other words, the damping of the instru- 
ment is entirely independent of the flux 
of the magnet under test. The scale is 
provided with a parallax mirror and is 
5% inches in length, being uniformly 
graduated into 180 divisions or 18 grand 
divisions. These grand divisions are 
marked so as to provide a scale reading 
3-0-15. Means are provided for setting 
the pointer on zero. 

The support of the moving coil is 
provided by metal upper and lower 
suspensions which are in tension. This 
furnishes a movement of great sensitivity 
while rendering unnecessary the leveling 
of the instrument. The special con- 
struction and robust character of these 
suspensions makes their breakage prac- 
tically impossible even under the most 
careless handling of the instrument. 

The instrument is rapid working and 
reliable. The design entirely eliminates 
the residual effects which might affect 
readings, due to weak magnets following 
strong ones in the course of routine tests. 
The current in the moving coil circuit is 
supplied from a dry cell, while the current 




li-l;l'HH['i;n;^'iii'Mil.Til'^lVi-fAt 



Your Roofs Shall Not 
Leak for 1 Years 

A coating of liquid or plastic Stormking on your 
old or new roofs will positively render them 
water-tight and storm-proof for 10 years. 

Stormking forms a one-piece coating which will 
neither run nor crack under the hottest sun or the 
worst cold weather conditions. 

Saves Labor and Expense 

Stormking requires no expert labor. It is readily 
brushed on in liquid form or trowelled on in plas- 
tic form by your own workmen. Stormking 
plastic is recommended for badly ■worn roof sur- 
face and for repairs. Apply it in any sort of 
^veather, on any roof surface w^hatever. It always 
adheres. 

It constitutes a perfect covering on old or new 
roofs, because of the superior materials and 
expert methods in its manufacture. 

We guarantee Stormking for a full 10 years 
period of service. 

"Write for testimonials and full information 
to Dept. B. 



Efficiency Products Company 



'26 Fulton St NewYorKCity --. 



WILLIAMS' 

SUPERIOR DROP-FORCINGS 
AND DROF-FORGED TOOLS 

In every line of human endeavor there is always one name 
that stands out preeminently; never as the result of ac- 
cident or chance, but of years of conscientious effort. 

The name of 

J. H. Williams & Co., for nearly 
half a century, has stood for SUPERIOR 
DROP-FORGINGS and DROP- 
FORGED TOOLS, the best that years 
of experience, the employment of the 
most expert technical skill, adequate 
modern equipment and progressive 
methods have made possible. 

Our two complete plants, at Brooklyn 
and Buffalo, N. Y., serving Eastern 
and Western territory respectively, in- 
sure quick delivery, and reduce trans- 
portation delays to a minimum. 

We carry regularly in stock many complete lines of 
Machinists' Tools, including 40 standard patterns of 
WRENCHES, in about 1.000 sizes, with openings from 
/'ie to 7^ inches. 

Write for Booklet 

J. H. >Villiams (Si Co. 

"The Drop>Forgin^ People" 

Western Office smd Warehome: General Offices: 

28 S. Clinton Street 28 Richards Street 

Chicago. Illinois Brooklyn, New York 



108 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 1, 1919 



Over Thiriy Million Square Feel 

^ConcrclcFloorshardeneddurinp last year wilh 



lAPIDOIITH 

^■^■B^ TRADE MARK ^^MiMs 




OvcrOneMiIlionSquareFc€t/;7/^BcvoBuilciing%5//c>^/:y 
When Concrete Dust Arises — 

look out for two troubles — injury to machinery, merchandise 
and men, and repair bills. 

All through your factory concrete dust finds its way. Its aharp edges, 
unlike ordinary dust, will spoil bearings, fabrics, foodstuffs, etc. And it 
is the danger signal that your floors are wearing away. 

Cure the Cause 

Lapidolize your floors and make them dust-proof and non-absorbent to 
water and oils. The cost is moderate. 

Lapidolith is a liquid chemical, not a top coating. It penetrates and 
completes the concrete by chemically hardening it. 

Lapidolith is easily flushed on and no subsequent treatment is necessary. 

Let us refer you to a lapidolized floor near you. 

IVrite today for free sample, hardened concrete block "nd testimoniaU. 

L. SONNEBORN SONS, Inc. 

Dept. 1 264 Pearl Street New York 

Write for literature on Cemcoat, the Washable Wall Coatine. Gloss and flat — 
White and colors. 



I' 




1i 



FREE! 



THE BOYS' 
MAGAZINE 

Send to-day for a free sample copy of 
THE BOYS' MAGAZINE. 

Chock-full of clean, inspiring stories' and 
instructive articles all of great interest to 
every live, up-to-the-minute American boy. 
Special articles about Electricity, Mecha- 
nics, Athletics and Physical Training, 
Gardening, Camping, Hunting, Trapping, 

Fishing. Cycling, Carpentry, Photography, Poultry, 
Drawing, Stamp and Coin Collecting, Boys' Clubs. 
Jokes, Cartoons, etc., etc. Beautifully illustrated 
throughout. Handsome covers in colors. 
Drop us a line to-day. Remember we'll send you 
our very latest issue absolutely free. 

Address, THE SCOTT F. REDFIELD CO., 

2730 Main Street Smethport, Pa. 



ECONOMY 

renevablef US£S I 

cut annnal fuse matntenance coitaj 80% 
in many of our leading industries. 

All inexptnsi\t_- liule "Urop Out" Renewal 

Link restores a blown Economy Fuse to its 

original etnciency. Economy Fuses protect 

electrical circuits of the U. S. Navy and 

leading powder and munitions plants. 

Order from your eli-ctrical dvaler. 

ECONOMY FUSE A MTG. CO. 

Einzie and Orleans Sts.,Chicago,n.S.A. 

I Sole manufacluren of •• ARK LESS"— 

the Non-Renewable Fuse with the 

Guaranteed Indicator." 

y Fuses are also made in 

Canada at Montreal 



THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF INDUCTION COILS 

By A. Frederick Collins. 6Kx9J4 inches. Cloth. 272 pages. 159 illustrations, $3.50, by mail. $3.G5 
This work gives in minute details full practical directions for making eight different sizes of coils varying 
from a small one giving a 3^-inch spark to a large one giving 12-inch sparks. The dimensions of each 
and every part are given and the descriptions are written in language easily comprehended. 
MUNN & CO., Inc., Publishers. Woolworth Building, New York City 



"The full gallon goes on or in" 

Weatherwax is a liquid wax paint that con- 
tains no volatile elements. The full gallon 
goes on or in the surface, hence it spreads 
twice as far as linseed oil paints. 
The half gallon that in other paints evapor- 
ates into the air, is the half gallon that in 
Weatherwax sinks into the wood — and pro- 
tects it at least five times longer. The fin- 
ished job costs but half as much. 
There is no surface skin to shrink, crack, 
blister and peel off. Can be successfully 
applied in cold weather if the surface is dry. 
Finish is flat and waxy — free from temporary high gloss. 




A BIG SAMPLE CAN for 



SOc — Red, Maroon, Natural Bj 
Write for color card 



Dwn, Dark Brown or Black. 



k^ 



THE REILLY COMPANY, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Plants: Indianapolis Minneapolis Seattle Mobile Norfolk 



in the solenoid circuit is from a 6-to8-volt 
storage battery. Contact shoes are pro- 
vided to permit of ample contact between 
the polar portions of the test magnet and 
the contact plates, in cases where the 
ends of the magnet are not finished. 

The Paravane 

{Continued from page 91) 
The paravane has its limitations, to be 
sure. There is involved the element of 
chance as in many other phases of warfare. 
If the ship equipped with paravanes 
strikes a mine nose on, nothing can save 
it from a smashed bow, which entails the 
flooding of only a small portion of the 
ship. But if it passes a mine but a few 
feet to one side, the paravanes take care of 
that mine in an efficacious manner. It is 
stated that the British fleet assigned to 
visit the German ports following the sign- 
ing of the armistice, traversed the German 
mine fields without an untoward incident, 
thanks to their paravanes. 

Our New Book Catalogue 

THE Scientific American Publishing 
Company announces the publication of 
a 296-page catalogue of scientific and 
technical books. This catalogue lists about 
2,500 books under 400 headings, and in 
many cases a short description of the book 
is given. Printing, paper, and binding 
have advanced enormously in the last year, 
and it must be said for the publishers that 
they have been the last to raise the price 
of their commodity. It is doubtful if 
technical books will ever be produced 
cheaper than at present, and they may go 
higher, therefore, this is a logical time to 
purchase in what is a fair, if not a low 
market. The greatest possible care has 
been used in the selection of titles so as to 
include only the latest books and all 
obsolete and doubtful titles have been 
eliminated. The selection was made after 
7,000 titles were compiled. There is little 
question that home study is the key to 
success. New conditions in business, pro- 
fessions, or trade can be promptly met by 
acquiring new knowledge which can be 
gained in spare time by means of books. 
It is such knowledge that keeps successful 
men abreast of developments in their pro- 
.'ipective trades, professions, or business. 
No matter what knowledge one requires 
it is almost certain to be found in books 
which can be looked up and supplied. The 
Scientific American Publishing Company 
is well equipped to handle all inquiries 
relating to books and our readers are 
earnestly requested to send for a copy of 
this catalogue which is mailed free to any 
address on application. 

Good Brick from Slags 

WHILE excellent paving brick is being 
made from English blast furnace 
slags, an equivalent product has not yet 
been made in the United States. 

British practice consists in pouring mol- 
ten slag into split metal molds, removing 
the red hot bricks when they have solidified 
sufficiently to be handled without defor- 
mation, and placing them into kilns where 
they cool and anneal slowly. 

The.se bricks have a "stony" texture, 
whUe American bricks made in a similar 
manner are glassy and brittle. Compo- 
sition of the slag probably has a great deal 
to do with these conditions, the British slag 
containing 26 per cent silica and 22 per 
cent alumina, while here the corresponding 
amounts are 34 and 14. In practice, 
American slags quickly solidify with a thin, 
tender skin, retaining a molten interior 
for a considerable period. To make suc- 
cessful brick the author specifies that the 
hot mass must be immersed in red hot sand, 
or some other hot medium which effectu- 
ally excludes air and furnace gases, in 
such a manner that the heat from the 
packing and the molten interior reheats 
the chilled shell into a very viscous sub- 
stance. Further cooling must now be 
arranged so that the exterior and interior 
of the mass shall cool at about the same 
rate, from 12 to 18 hours being required. 




GEARS 

All Kinas-Sxnall 

The n>o»f arcuBte iT<ade sml prtrt-K 
reasonable. VJe rarr; b C'tnplete 
line of Rears in stock for immedi- 
ate Bhipment. Can also quote on 
special irearfi of all kinds. Send as 
your intiuiriea. 

Write for Catalogue 

CHICAGO STOCK GEAR WORKS 

20 Souih Wells Suttt Qicagt 



THE No. 51 UNIVERSAL WOOD WORKER U the 
most wonderful wood working machine you have 
ever »een. 26" bind saw, 8* iointer. reversible 
single spindle shaper. saw table and borer all in one. 
A-h for special catalog describing it. Also ask for 
catalog of band sawj, saw tables, , 
jointen. variety wood workers, 
planers, swing saws, disk grinders 
and borers. 

THE CRESCENT MACHINE CO. 
230 Main St. , Lectonia, Ohio, U.S.A. 




SOUTH BEND LATHES 




III Ikiid I.I 

For the Macbinr 
and Repair Shop 

LOW IN PRICE 
IS III. to 21 In. sKlng 
8tral|rlil or Uiip Red> 



South Bend Lathe Worka 
421 n;i<tUoii St., 
Solltll ItCild, lull. 



eOOD IDEAS AKD INTENTIONS 

Can be coined into money.— LET US HELP YOU. 

Our Factory, DcTelopmcDt, Equipmect aod 

Maonfactariog DepartmeDU at jour aerriee. 

Expert advice and help in marketiDg articles. 
^Malce Tlie **ldea.'' Tour Factory. 

Our Taluable txMklet free to those ioureitcd. 
IWrita tnilj what yon have — or come see os. 



MODELS BUILT ani> 
INVENTIONS DEVELOPED 

We are prepared to build special ma- 
chinery and models from most delicate pre- 
cision instruments up to 10 ton machines. 

ENelNEERIK6 AND PLANNING DKPT. 

Best Equipped Plant of its kind in Country 

THREE RIVERS MACH. TOOL & DIE CORP., PBOENK, N. Y. 



E AsTJL™ I Model and Experimental Work 

Aalomol>)li'9, niolora, (engines uod parts. 

INVENT^ONS DEVEI,OPED TO COMPLETION 

Light nfg., Sriew Daehliie tVork, Special BBehliirr;, 'Stamplnr 

ELK MANUFACTURING CO., Inc., 1926 Broadway, N. Y. C. 



NOVELTIES & PATENTED ARTICLES 

MMUFICTUKEO IT CONTRtCT. PUNCNINO DIES. 

LICHT lUTOMOBIlE STIMPINCS 

E KONIGSLOW STAMPING t TOOL WORKS, CLEVEUND. 0. 



THE BRIDGEPORT CHAIN CO. 

Specialistsin SmallWire Shapes&FlatStampings 
Bridgeport, Conn. 



THESCHWERDTLE STAMP CO. 
•STEEL STAMPS LETTERS & figures: 
BRIDGEPORT CONN. 



MASON'S NEW PAT. WHIP HOIST 

for Outrigger boists. Faster than Elevators, and hoist 
direct from teams. Saves bandliug at less expense. 

Manufactured by VOLNEY W. MASON & CO.. Inc. 
Providence. R. I.. U. S. A. 



SOLVINE B OILER P RESERVER 

Warraiited, without reserve, to remove boiler scale, 
prevent pittinj? and scale formation. 

Pamphlet on request. Money back guarantee. 

EUREKA MFG. CO. - . Jersey City, N. J. 




Tires. Double mileare. prrvent bl' 
, . . _iid punctarts. E.isi!y applied in eny tir«. 
) ThoanandB sold. DeUils froo. A«er'a wanted. 
Amer. Accessories Co.. Dept. 8 Cinclr 




_ Cheap 

i--,. i ii iii.irs, lahels.lHKik. paper. I'rt*ssS6. 
Larger 1?J),) oh pn.*ssSSo up, Save money. Print 
for others, hiR profit. All eii-sy. riiles sent. 
Write far torv for press rat aloR.TYPE.carde, 
paper.THE PRESS CO. D-22 Merlden.Ceniit 



WELL-'^p'i^'s^^WELL 

Own a machine of your own. Cash or easy 
terms. Many styles and sizes for all purposes 

Write for Circular. 
WILLIAMS BROS., 434 W. State St., Ithaca, N.Y. 



Collier's 



America's Ten-Billion-Di 



Diceni ber 21 , 1 yi8. 



stry 



BY JOHN H. VAN D EVENT: 



K I) I r (' 



1 .1/ E ft I C t .V M 1 C // / ?U 



I ,i..(.rnr ir^. I rul'lH 




the uM 
Orclnam 



substitution of antimony for^n in the 
slugs of the 30-caliber bullet not only- 
helped to relieve the tin shortage, but 
saved $5,000,000 in money. The substi- 
tution of Parkerized steef~cartridge 
clips for brass clips say^^ .SI.OOO.OOO. 
The redesign of nonexpendable small- 
arms ammunition boxes saved $4,250,- 



i^ 



fast twciit\^ V '• -^ 




Cartridge Clips of Rustproof Steel 
Instead of Brass-Saving $1,000,000 

For months the American public connected the Parker 
Process with the war as merely protecting from rust 
the tons of weapons and munitions which had always 
been made of iron or steel. 



i_^';^^ 

#v^ 




But when the fighting halted — and the censorship lifted 
— the true facts began to drift in — and now we know 
that the Parker Process not only saved from the ele- 
ments war equipment of almost every description, but 
also enabled the allied governments to use steel for many 
parts which had heretofore been 
made only of costly copper or brass. 

The saving of $1,000,000— as described 
in a recent issue of Colliers — covers the 
difference between the cost of steel and brass on 
cartridge clips— jus^ one small part — and is only 
a suggestion of the big economy which has been 
possible through the widespread use of the 
Parker Process. 

Investigate the Possibilities of the 
Parker Process for Your Product 

Do you use iron or steel in the manufacture of 

your product? 
Or do you employ parts of copper or brass simply 
because you know that unprotected steel will rust? 
Then you will find a message of real importance in 
the Parker Process book — a plain talk on rustproofing 
which explains in non-technical terms just what the 
Parker Process is and how easily you can adapt it to 
your own product w^ithout interfering in any iway 
with your present manufacturing plans. 
Your copy will be sent on request. 




KUST PROors iro:n^and steel 



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Vol.CXX. No. 6 
February 8, 1919 



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SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



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110 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 8, 1919 



FORESIGHT/ 




TTie Lesson ojTM^eivfezice 



~\ 







We must all do our best to make the change from 
War Work to Peace Work as easy as possible. 
Co-operation is the Big Thing needed Now. 

U. S. DEPT. OF LABOR 

Wm. E. Wilson, Secrelar}f 



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of new ideas and ideals, new inventions and dis- 
coveries, new standards of living and working. 

But to secure its full fruitage the warning of 
recent experience must be heeded. 

How England Applies the Lesson 

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Launching an Airplane from an Airship 

IDY no means new is the idea of launching an airplane 
^ from an airship. For many years past artists have 
shown large dirigibles carrying one or more airplanes, for 
military and peaceful purposes. But it is one thing merely 
to confine such ideas to paper and quite another to realize 
such an achievement; and it is in the latter category that 
the accompanying illustration falls. It is ba.sed on actuality. 

Several weeks ago the experiment of launching an air- 
plane from a dirigible was successfully carried out at the 
Rockaway Beach air station of the Navy, near New York 
city. One of the large Naval airships was brought to the 
field and landed followed by five airplanes from the Mine- 
ola air school. When preparations for the test had been 
completed, the airship rose to a height of 100 feet, held by 
its anchor ropes, while one of the airplanes was wheeled 
into position below the large gas bag. The airplane was 
fastened to the dirigible by means of a 100-foot cable, 
dropped from the car of the latter. 

These preparations completed, ballast was dropped 
from the dirigible. The airship rapidly rose to 3,000 feet, 
with the diminutive airplane swinging below it at the end 
of the 100-foot cable. At the proper moment the airplane 
pilot pulled the release cord and freed his machine, which, 
with the engine "dead," went into a steep nose dive. 

The force of the air in the downward rush was counted 
upon to crank the propeller and engine. After dropping 
about 1,000 feet, the engine started with a roar, and the 
pilot then rejoined the four other airplanes which had 
been circling about, and in their company started off for 
the Mineola field. 

The airship was piloted by Lieut. George Crompton of 
the Naval Flying Corps, with Chief Machinist Mates J. 
L. Nichols and G. Cooper as crew. Lieut. A. W. Redfield 
volunteered as pilot for the airplane. As far as is known, 
this is the first successful experiment of its kind. 




fc.. 



CopyriKht, Scientific American Pub. Co. 

Method of attaching airplane to a helium airship 
of the near future 

Dynamiting Devastated Orchards in France 

AN interesting new method for the rehabilitation of 
' the French orchards devastated by the enemy was 
recently laid before the French Academy by its author, 
M. Andr6 Piedallu. The process consists essentially in 
using dynamite for the double purpose of breaking up 
the earth and securing an intimate mi.\'ture of the re- 
quired fertilizers with it. The author had noticed the 
specially vigorous development of wild plants around the 
edges of old shell holes and old trenches which had 
suffered from heavy firing. He attributed this vigor of 
growth partly to the fissuration of the soil and partly to 
its impregnation with nitrogenous subjects. This view 
was supported by some experiments made several years 



ago in the western part of the United States, in which 
two-year-old cherry trees planted in holes excavated by 
dynamite reached the height of three meters (about 10 
feet), while similar specimens planted by a spade re- 
mained spindling and grew scarcely half as tall. 

M. Pi6dallu applied his idea by placing a suitable 
amount of fertilizer in a container surrounding the 
explosives, in such a way that the force of the explosion 
would drive the former into the minute cracks produced, 
thus forming an ideal medium for the growth of the 
young tree. The formula of the explosive is not given, 
but it is stated that it is not affected either by concussion 
or dampness, is capable of being molded, is completely 
free from chlorates (which might injure vegetation), ia 
highly energetic in small volumes, and cannot be de- 
tonated except by a fulminating cap. The fertilizers 
employed are chosen with special reference to the char- 
acter of the earth and the needs of the trees to be planted. 
The compressed fertilizer molded around a nucleus 
of the explosive is placed in the bottom of a tube of 
celluloid, paper or cardboard. The cylinder of explosive, 
which contains a cavity for the fulminating charge, is 
then placed in the top of the tube, the hole being closed 
by a stopper pierced by a hole through which passes 
(fitting tightly) a piece of Bickford cord connected with 
the cap. Both the explosive charge and the mass of 
fertilizer adjoining it are covered with paraffin. The 
application of the charge is very simple and is said to 
save both time and labor. A hole like one used for plac- 
ing a mine is bored with a pointed stick or iron rod, 
somewhat larger in diameter than the cartridge. This 
hole should be 60 centimetres deep (about 2 feet). 

The explosion produces a spheroidal cavity some 80 
centimetres in depth (about 30 inches). The earth 
absorbs the vapors liberated and the young tree is then 
placed in the hole and its roots covered with the earth. 



112 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Founded 1845 

Published by Scientific American Publiihing Co. 

New York, Saturday, February 8, 1919 

Munn & Co., 233 Broadway, New YorkJ 



Cbarle* Allen Munn, President; Orson D. Munn, Treasurer 
Allan C. Hoffman. Secretary ; all at 233 Broadway 

Entered at the Post omce of New York, N. Y., as Second Class Matter 

Trade Mark llcjristered In the United States Patent Office 

' Copyright 1919 by Sclcntlflc American Publishlus Co. 

Great Britain rights reserved 

Illustrated articles must not be reproduced without permission 

The object of this journal is to record accurately and 
lucidly the litest scientific, mechanical and industrial 
news of the d^y. As a weekly journal, it is in a posi- 
tion to announce interesting developments before they 
are published elsewhere. 

The Editor is glnd to have submitted to him timely 
articles suitable for these columns, especially when such 
articles are accompanied by photographs. 



A Solution of the Railroad Problem 

THE operation of our railroads by the Government 
has taught us certain lessons as to the practical 
value of co;:peration, which should form the basis 
of any new system of control that may be adopted. 
Having said that, we wish to go on record as being 
opposed to complete governmental ownership and 
control of the railroads. 

A business organization that employs 2,000,000 men 
and upon which, therefore, 10,000,000, or ten per cent 
of our population, is dependent for a living is a mighty 
factor in determining the national prosperity. When 
we remember that it was transportation, moving over 
our vast network of railroads, that opened up these 
United States and brought them to their present high 
stage of development, it will be admitted that the 
question of making any such radical departure as that of 
a permanent or even lengthy change from private to 
governmental operation, should be approached with 
the greatest restraint and weighed in the scales of calm 
business judgment based on past experience. 

The issue is between governmental ownership and 
operation and private ownership under reasonable 
direction and control by the Government ; and we 
believe that the safe way out of the present difficulties 
lies in a whole-hearted adoption, by the Government and 
the people, of the second alternative. 

It is American initiative and the competitive spirit 
that have made the agricultural, mechanical and in- 
dustrial development of the United States the wonder 
and admiration of the world. Therefore we should be 
very slow to make any change that might curtail initiative 
and we should set our face like adamant against any 
sweeping change that would kill it. 

We do not know of anything that would, and does, 
50 quickly and completely kill initiative as governmental 
ownership and control. 

The railroads cannot have too much initiative. But 
past experience has shown that they may have too much 
competition; and the great lesson taught by the opera- 
tion of the roads under Director-General McAdoo is 
that the great need of the future is a reasonable and well- 
considered sys'^m of cooperation. 

The roads should be returned to their owners to be 
operated by them, subject to a certain amount of 
governmental control. Thus the Interstate Commerce 
Commission policy of regulation of rates should be con- 
tinued; and there is much to be said in favor of the 
creation of a Secretary of Transportation to consider 
carriers' estimates of future expenditures, including 
labor costs; to exercise supervision over security issues; 
and to fix rates designed to yield revenues suificient for 
future operations and credits. 

The railroads, as thus privately owned aid operated, 
should be permitted to cooperate, where the object is to 
eliminate duplication of service and of facilities and to 
secure the most efficient use of routes, terminals and 
cars. Moreover, under Federal sanction, they should 
be free to effect consolidations which can be shown to be 
conducive to the mutual benefit of the public and roads 
themselves. 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

The Army and Aerial Mail Service 

MUCH interest attaches to the successful termina- 
tion of the transcontinental flight of four 
.\rmy airplanes at Hazelhurst Field, Long 
Island, on January 7th and the start of the return 
journey to San Diego, Cal., last week. It marks the 
first serious effort on the part of the Government to 
gain an experience in aerial overland flying, that will 
help aeronautics immeasurably when it is put to com- 
mercial and industrial uses. Primarily the flight was 
undertaken to locate, photograph and -aerially survey 
landing fieldr, in the more remote country of our great 
Southwest, for the purpose of laying out possible aerial 
mail routes. 

In its issue of December 21st, 1918, the Scientific 
AMEiiic.\N made plain the various uses to which the 
Government in its several departments could put the 
airplane, and it is encouraging to see that consideration 
is being given to one of the most important of those 
activities. If any Department of the Government is 
qualified to lay out the general routing scheme, surely 
it is the Department of Military Aeronautics with its 
thousands of aviators. Perhaps it can be induced to go 
even further and work out the problems of the Forestry 
Service in its Forest Fire Patrol Police, etc., for which it 
would be peculiarly qualified. 

But without going too far afield in this discussion, we 
wish to record our conviction that the Government 
should consider very seriously having the Post Office 
Department employ the War Department to carry its 
aerial mail. Many advantages would accrue from an 
arrangement of this kind. First, the Post Office Depart- 
ment could depend upon the contractor and the contrac- 
tor's ability to put a sufficiently large and experienced 
organization behind the work to insure its successful ac- 
complishment. Second, instead of paying outside 
contractors for this service or maintaining an aerial 
force of its own, the Post Office Department would 
materially reduce its cost for such service, and at the 
same time make it possible for the Department of 
Military Aeronautics to ask for much lower appropria- 
tions from Congress for the maintenance, equipment and 
training of its military pilots. 

The advantage of such an arrangement to our air 
forces is most evident. Ordinarily, to keep our military 
pilots in proper training and maintain their efficiency, it 
would be necessary that some of our largest flying fields 
be kept in service for the purpose of teaching the theory 
and practice of military aeronautics. These could be 
reduced in size in the event that the Post Oflice Depart- 
ment retained their services, and they would provide 
many service and supply stations in various parts of the 
country which would aid materially in the work of re- 
cruiting. Furthermore, where training was possible 
under actual commercial conditions, in which schedules 
must be maintained and discipline kept at its highest 
point, our military aviators would be more interested 
in their work than they would be in .the relatively aim- 
less flying at training schools. 

Our Army has always been efficient. It buUt the 
Panama Canal when others failed. We believe it 
would make a success of our Aerial Mail Service ! 

The War's Influence on Naval Design 

IT is too early as yet to predict what effect the 
experience gained during the war will have in 
modifying future naval designs in a broad way. 
Whether it will produce radical changes in our ideas 
of the relative values of the various types of fighting 
ship, it is too early to say positively; but the present 
indications are that a fighting fleet will consist, for many 
years to come, of battleships, battle-cruisers, well- 
armed scout cruisers, and destroyers. 

Coming down to details, it is not our purpose to go 
elaborately into the matter just now, but rather to 
point out some of the lessons which apply more particu- 
larly to first-line fighting ships — that is, the dreadnought 
battleships and battle-cruisers. 

The great increase in the length of capital ships due 
to the rapid development of the battle-cruiser, brings 
to the front the problem of stiffness and longitudinal 
strength. During the war the British had battle- 
cruisers in action and on patrol work, that were over 
800 feet in length. The experience gained suggests 
that special attention must be paid to the matter of the 



Februarys, 1919 

girder strength, or the resistance to bending stresses of 
these great ships. The problem is rendered more 
difficult by the natural desire of the line officers who 
fight the ship, to have their vessel present as small a 
target as possible to the enemy, especially in respect 
to its height above the water-line. It was a matter of 
remark among the officers of our own fleet that when 
the surrendered German battleships and battle-cruisers 
came in sight, and particularly when they came abeam, 
they gave an impression of sitting very low in the water. 
The battle-cruisers "Renown" and "Repulse" give 
the same impression. This low freeboard and absence 
of lofty superstructures is all to the good in rendering 
it difficult for the enemy to score hits; but from a 
structural standpoint, it is all to the bad; for if we 
lengthen the ship without making a corresponding 
increase in her dspth, we lo.se in girder depth and con- 
sequently lose enormously in girder strength — lose in 
fact as the square of the depth. 

Closely associated with this is the tendency of late 
years among naval designers to flare their ships out 
above the water line at the bow, with a view to throwing 
the broken water away from the ship and preventing 
the blurring of the periscopes and gun-sight telescopes. 
In moderate seas no harmful effect is felt from these i 
flared bows, but when these high-speed ships are driven • 
hard into a heavy sea, the sudden increased displace- 
ment in the forward sections brings a sudden increase in 
the bending moments on the ship that is almost dynamic 
in its effect. 

These conditions may be met partly by abolishing the 
flaring bows, thereby softening, as it were, the lifting 
effect of a wave, and by doubling up the plating and 
decks of the molded structure for a considerable distance 
amidships. Another method would be to carry the 
hull proper, one deck higher amidships. 

Probably there is no more difficult task set before the 
naval architect than that of designing such huge vessels 
as our new battle-cruisers, 875 feet in length over all 
and of 35 knots speed. Their draft is subject to rigid 
limitations, their freeboard must be kept reasonably ! 
low. Consequently, compared with a trans-Atlantic 
liner like the "Aquitania" or the "Leviathan," they are 
very shallow for their great length. Furthermore, 
unlike the commercial ship, their enormous loads, due to 
the guns of 15- or 16-inch caliber with their immensely 
heavy barbettes, turrets, and magazines, are concen- 
trated at certain specified points along the ship. To this 
is added the enormous weight of engines and boilers 
sufficient to give them their 180,000 or more horse-power. 

The effect of this heavy concentration of weight and 
of the stresses due to the recoil of heavy guns, was shown 
in the case of the 35-knot ships of the "Furious" class, 
built during the war by the British. These vessels, 
of great length and comparatively shoal draft, were 
unable to stand the recoil of the two 18-inch guns, 
one forward and one aft, which were tried experimentally 
in the first ship of the class. The racking effect on the 
hull structure was such, we understand, that they were 
removed and 15-inch guns were substituted. 

Another lesson of the war is the supreme importance 
of protecting the vitals of the ship against big-gun, 
high-explosive shell fire. It took the actual test of battle 
to show how searching is the flash of a bursting high- 
explosive shell of large caliber. The flaming gases of 
the explosion, white hot and under enormous pressure, 
search outthe interior of the ship for unexpected distances. 
This was observed and comm>^nted upon by survivors 
from the "Blucher" which was sunk in the battle of 
Doggers Bank early in the war. In the case of three 
British battle-cruisers at Jutland, the flash of 11- and 12- 
inch shells that came through the roofs or walls of the 
turrets, as the case might be, found its way down to the 
powder in the handling rooms in the bottom of the ship 
and set off the whole magazine. This happened in spite 
of the fact that the hoists to the guns were provided with 
cut-offs in the form of steel doors. Future construction 
will take note of this. 

Necessarily these battle-cruisers are lightly armored 
compared with battleships. The protective value of 
armor was shown by way of contrast in the case of a 
battleship of the "Oueen Elizabeth" class, which came 
under the fire of half-a-dozen German battleships. 
Although the ship was struck over 30 times by big 
shells delivered at moderate ranges, she came through 
without vital injury. 



February 8, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



113 



Aeronautics 

A Record of 150 Loops was recently established by 
Lieut. William T. Campbell, Officer in Charge of Flying 
at Love Field, Dallas, Texas, with a Curtiss airplane. 
According to the Aero Club of America, this is the highest 
record. Lieut. Carl Batts held the previous record of 
136 consecutive loops. 

Crossing the Highest Andes. — Lieut. Dagoberto 
Godoy of the Chilean army crossed the Andes at their 
highest point in a Bristol biplane, donated by the British 
Government, on December 12th last. The aviator 
left Santiago, Chile, and crossed the Tupungato range 
at an altitude of 19,700 feet, landing at Mendoza, 
Argentine Republic. 

Our Airplane Timber. — The latest available figures 
indicate that more than 132,056,288 feet of first-class 
airplane lumber was produced in the northwest during 
the war, through the efforts of th^ spruce divi.sion of the 
Signal Corps. Thes; figures include production from 
August, 1917, when 202,264 feet wjr-3 delivered, until 
October, 1918, v/hen the production reached the high 
mark of 22,965,471. 

Captain Rene Fonck's Record. — The highest official 
score for bringing down Hun fliers, according to Flying, 
goes to Captain Ren6 Fonck of the French army. Before 
the armistice was signed he was officially credited with 
75 Boche planes, but virtu^ally he brought down over 100. 
On two different occasions he brought down six machines 
in a few minutes. Fonck was a wonderful flier and was 
among the first to perform the "barrel" maneuver 
during an aerial battle. The French Government 
has conferred on him nearly every decoration in its 
power to give. 

Airplane Parachute Prize. — Mrs. Louis Bennett, 
whose son, Lieut. Louis Bennett of the British Air Force, 
lost his life while flying at the front, has offered $500 
to the Aero Club of America to be used as a prize in a 
contest to develop the invention of parachutes for use 
in escaping from airplanes which have caught on fire or 
got out of control. The offer has been accepted, and 
the club has formed a committee of the following mem- 
bers to organize a parachute competition : Major Thomas 
S. Baldwin, A. Leo Stevens, Colonel A. L. Fuller, 
Colonel Henry B. Hersey, Colonel James Prentice, 
Lieut.-Col. William Thaw, Major Cushman A. Rice, 
Congressman F. H. LaGuardia, Major R. W. Schroeder, 
Rear-Admiral Mark A. Bristol, Commander Henry C. 
Mustin, Commander John H. Towers, Lieut. Godfrey 
L. Cabot, Lieut. R. A. Preston, Commander P. N. 
Bellinger, Ensign Raffe Emerson, Henry Woodhouse, 
Frank S. Lahm, and Augustus Post. Although several 
successful types of parachutes have been employed 
during the great war, the relative merits of the various 
types have not been established, and it is for that 
reason that the competition is to be held in the near 
future. 

The Ford of the Air. — A most important develop- 
ment is the production of a low priced, most useful air- 
plane, which is the equivalent of a Ford automobile. 
This machine has been produced by the noted aeronautic 
engineer. Captain James V. Martin. In reality. Captain 
Martin produced this little airplane to supply the military 
need for a light fighter capable of climbing to 25,000 feet 
within a half hour, with two guns to fight raiding Ger- 
mans, having a speed of over 100 miles an hour. To 
obtain these results he evolved new and ingenious 
methods of construction and trussing which greatly 
decreased the weight and head resistance. He also 
evolved a retractable chassis, which folds up like 
a bird folds his legs when in flight. By this one 
device there is eliminated 11/100 of the total head 
resistance of the airplance, so that the speed is thereby 
increased by 11 miles an hour. The K-bar trussing 
reduces the head resistance through the elimination of 
struts and wires and permits the increase of the gap and 
gives a higher factor of safety. The result is a very 
attractive little airplane, continues Flying, equipped 
with 40-horse-power engine, capable of carrying two 
passengers at a speed of from 70 to 80 miles an hour. 
A most remarkable feature is that this airplane will make 
about 22 miles on a gallon of gasoline. Having a span 
of only 18 feet, and weighing only 350 pounds, complete 
with motor, and having a landing speed of only 37 miles 
an hour, thi.s plane can land on and start from almost any 
country road. It is expected to sell at about $2,000. 



Science 

Soil Surveys in the United States. — The Bureau 

of Soils of the U. S. D.epartment of Agriculture reports 
that it carried out detailed soil surveys covering 38,136 
square miles during the fiscal year 1918. The total area 
covered by such surveys up to the present time amounts 
to 483,931 square miles. Twenty-four states and four 
Federal bureaus are now cooperating in the work of soil 
surveys. 

An Official Map of Uruguay. — The Geographical 
Journal reports that an official survey has been under- 
taken by the newly organized "Servicio Geogrdfico 
Militar" of Uruguay for the construction of a complete 
large-scale map of that republic. The prime mover in 
this enterprise and the director of the geographic service 
is Colonel Silvestre Mato. The map is to be pubhshed 
on two scales, 1/100,000 and 1/25,000, and will not be 
complete for many years. 

An Immense Fund for Medical Research. — 

According to Science, the will of the late Captain J. R. 
De Lamar, mine owner and capitalist, leaves nearly half 
his $20,000,000 estate, in equal shares, to the Harvard 
Medical School, Johns Hopkins University and the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University 
for use in medical research and the dissemination of 
medical knowledge. The rest of the estate is left in 
trust to his daughter, with the provision that if she dies 
without issue the principal is to go to the institutions 
above named. 

Density of Sodium Chloride Solutions. — The U. S. 

Bureau of Standards has recently made a number of 
density determinations on samples of sea water and other 
sodium chloride solutions. The data thus obtained, it 
is stated, will be of use to oceanographers. The Bureau 
has also prepared samples of sodium chloride solutions 
of various concentrations in connection with an investi- 
gation of the density-concentration relation and for the 
purpose of establishing a percentage scale for salt solu- 
tions for use in the manufacture of hydrometers to be 
used in the pickling industry. 

The Journal of Geography, heretofore published 
under the editorship of Prof. R. H. Whitbeck at the 
University of Wisconsin, has been taken over by the 
American Geographical Society and will hereafter be 
published in New York. This interesting journal is 
issued chiefly for the benefit of teachers of geography in 
the elementary, secondary and normal schools, and 
does not compete with the Geographical Review, the 
chief organ of the American Geographical Society and 
the American equivalent of the Royal Geographical 
Society's Geographical Journal. 

A Uniform Type for the Blind. — American libraries 
for the blind are rejoicing over the fact that they wUl no 
longer be obliged to have books in five different kinds of 
raised letters in order to accommodate readers taught in 
different parts of the country and at different periods. 
After many years of discussion a uniform type, to be 
known as "revised Braille," has been agreed upon, and 
hereafter all booE^ embossed in this country are to be 
in the new type. "The Deserter," by Richard Harding 
Davis, was the first book to be published in revised 
Braille. 

Reports of Snow on Highways. — In the winter of 
1917-18, the Weather Bureau, in cooperation with the 
State Highway Commission of Pennsylvania, inaugurated 
a system of reports on the depth of snow at various 
points along the Lincoln Highway between Harrisburg 
and Pittsburgh. The reports were made by the assistant 
superintendents of highways to the Weather Bureau 
station at Pittsburgh, where they were bulletined and 
furnished to the press, as well as to automobile clubs and 
motor-track associations. The Weather Bureau also 
issued warnings of heavy snow for the mountain regions 
of Pennsylvania, so that steps might be taken to keep 
the roads open. This winter a similar service has been 
started in parts of New York and New Jersey, and the 
system will gradually become more general, in connec- 
tion with the concerted efforts that are being made by 
state highway commissions, the Motor Transport 
Service of the Council of Nation Defense and the auto- 
mobile associations to keep the main highways open 
during the season of heavy snows; especially the roads 
used as motor-truck, rural express and parcel-post 
routes. 



Automobile 

Starting in Cold Weather. On cold, winter days, 
and with the heavy gasoline now used, it is sometimes 
difficult to start the engine. If there is illuminating gaa 
in the garage a quick and easy start can be made by 
slipping a rubber tube onto the gas jet and putting the 
other end into the air intake of the carburetor. The 
gasoline should not be turned on, nor the carburetor 
flooded, before the engine has warmed up. 

Tanks Converted into Farm Tractors. — The little 
lightweight Renault "tanks" established an enviable 
reputation as fighting machines during the last year of 
the war, and now, in times of peace, they promise to 
become equally useful. Already some of them have 
been converted into agricultural tractors, by the removal 
of the guns and armor, and a few other slight modifica- 
tions, and are said to be doing excellent service on the 
farms of France, where labor is painfully scarce just now. 
Another, and probably temporary use that has been 
found for them is towing barges on canals, taking the 
place of horses. 

Lubricating the Car. — An important direction in 
which we may hope to see material improvement in 
the near future is in the methods of lubricating auto- 
mobiles. It is said that on some cars there are as many 
as 74 points where some sort of lubricant must be ap- 
plied. Many of these are entirely inaccessible, and 
there is but little doubt many of these points are never 
discovered by the amateur owner who cares for his own 
car. A few years ago a car was brought over from the 
other side that contained a most ingenious, and ap- 
parently efficient, lubricating system in which there were 
but a very few points for the application of the lubricants, 
and these were all in plain sight and easy to get at; 
but as this car did not gain a foothold here its good 
features attracted but little attention. Now the matter 
is apparently being taken up by some of our manufac- 
turers, and it is to be hoped that a much needed reform 
will result. 

Oil vs. Grease. — Oil has always been a popular 
medium for lubricating the many wearing parts of the 
chassis because it was so easy to apply, and the fact is 
overlooked that oil will run out of a bearing just as easily 
as it will run in, and consequently constant attention is 
necessary to maintain proper lubrication. Indeed, 
this is only possible with a forced feed system which is 
not practical for the character of the bearings in the 
ordinary chassis. On the other hand, while grease is not 
so convenient to put into the cups it can be fed, under 
pressure, to most of the bearings thus insuring a more 
perfect film of lubricant in the bearing, and one of a 
character that will survive much better under heavy 
loads. Anothtr good feature of grease as a lubricant is 
one that many an old time bicycle rider appreciated. 
With oil in a bearing there is a pumping action that 
tends to suck grit into the bearing, while with grease 
there is no such action, the grease always tending to 
work outward, thus not only sealing and keeping grit 
from gaining access to the bearing, but also tending to 
excrete any foreign matter that might have got in by 
some other way. 

Cheap Fuel. — The search for a fuel that will be 
cheaper than gasoline, and equally as efficient, appears to 
be about as elusive as that for perpetual motion, and so 
far appears to have many of the same characteristics. 
Tests of the latest widely heralded fuel, which appears 
to be only a mixture having benzol as a base, do not 
seem to bear out the claims made for it; and, indeed, 
similar mixtures have been experimented with for at 
least five years in England without any very practical 
results. Undoubtedly benzol, either alone or combined 
with other inflammable liquids that can be vaporized or 
properly atomized, will form a valuable addition to our 
fuel supplies, but there is little probability that these 
compounds will supplant gasoline. So far little benzol 
has been used, as most of the supply has been required 
in the manufacture of explosives; and its future applica- 
tion will depend largely on the quantities in which it will 
be produced now that war demands are diminishing. 
In a sense benzol is a by-product, and as such but little 
attention was given to saving it before the war, except 
in Germany; but the experiences of late have warned us 
the world cannot tolerate waste, and it is hoped that 
greater quantities of this undoubtedly valuable motor 
fuel will be available in the future. 



114 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 8, 1919 








Personal combat games like wrestling develop the fighting instinct 



Pushball is a favorite sport at some camps ' 



How Uncle Sam Has Created an Army of Athletes 

Training Camp Activities Which Worked Wonders in Permanent Physical Betterment of the Drafted Men 



Now that the great war is over, to all intents and 
purposes, it is interesting to reflect on what it has 
done for the vast body of civilians who a year and a half 
ago began to flow into our national army camps. We 
have had, in Europe and in the camps of th's country, 
approximately 4,000,000 men, and it is safe to predict 
that the great majority of these will be benefitted for 
the rest of their lives by the course of intensive training 
through which they were put. In other words. Uncle 
Sam created not only an army of soldiers, but an army 
of athletes. These men are in infinitely better physical 
condition than they ever would have been, in all proba- 
bility, had it not been for the war, and it is likely that 
the most of them will make an earnest effort to remain so. 

It is perhaps natural to think that with drilling and 
other taxing tasks of the soldier, athletics would be a 
superfluous commodity in camp. On the contrary, it 
has been found that the more the men were inured to 
the vigorous use of their bodies, the more they longed 
for competitive games and tests of strength. It is a 
known fact that men relieved from duty in the first line 
trenches turn instinctively to strenuous games like 
football to gain the healthy equilibrium necessary to 
sleep. 

From experience, too, it has been learned that an 
instantaneous muscular control is essential to the suc- 
cess of the fighter. For two military reasons — to develop 
the fighting instinct and to arm that instinct with control 
— there has been carried out a program of athletics un- 
paralleled in history. 

Uncle Sam considered athletics of the hard competitive 
sort that develops the fighting instinct of such impor- 
tance that in the very beginning he summoned to his aid 
the very best talent the country possessed. Some forty 
men, among them many famous coaches, wcra assigned as 
sports directors in the several training camps. Organiz- 
ing and directing the athletio 
activities of 40,000 men and 
maintaining an athletic pro- 
gram that will encourage the 
largest possible number of 
soldiers to participate regu- 
larly in some form of ath- 
letics during their leisure, is 
certainly a man's size job. 
But the reactions are remark- 
'able. Football, baseball, 
basketball, soccer, boxing, 
wrestling, tennis, track and 
field athletics and all forms 
of winter sports were in- 
dulged in by all the men in 
training. Never before in 
the history of this country 
have so large a number of 
men engaged in athletics; 
never before has physical 
welfare received such a stim- 
ulus. Narrow-chested clerks 



made three-base hits on the same ball teams with college 
athletes, and lean-visaged philosophers learned how to 
use their fists. The book-keeper and the street-car 
motorman came to grips on the football field. Men 




Tennis champions instructing the jackies in fine 
points of the game 

learned to get bumped, and not to mind it. The quality 
of persistence was developed. 

Being attached to division headquarters, the division 
athletic director was able to coordinate his plans for 




A toboggan of solid snow 35 feet high built by the boys at Camp Grant 



inter-company and inter-regimental baseball or basket- 
ball leagues, track events, field days and the like, with 
the military routine of the different companies. He kept 
in touch with soldiers who naturally lead in athletics and 
attempted to stimulate the sporting element of their 
companies by the formation of a Divisional Athletic 
council, the members of which were in turn elected by 
the regimental councils. In the latter case, each com- 
pany had its representatives and own athletic com- 
mittee, so that the camp director was able to make 
things hum in an athletic way at any time and to stimu- 
late the interest of the men of all the companies in camp. 
The sports included in the camp curriculum, such as 
boxing, football, and other personal-contact games, were 
selected primarily to prepare the men for the struggle to 
come, and the value of the athletic training they received 
was fully realized as they went "over the top." Military 
authorities considered that boxing had great value in 
developing in the individual man the sense of confidence 
and aggressiveness that is generally desirable in a soldier, 
while it gives better than any other form of training a 
sound foundation for modern bayonet-fighting. Boxing 
and bayonet practice are closely allied; the same lunges 
and feints are employed; the men learn to be quick on 
their feet. Nor is this merely theoretical. The Canad- 
ian troops who have been at the front report that the 
agility and quickness of eye gained in boxing is a valuable 
part of the soldier's equipment. 

Detailed groups of men who had had previous knowl- 
edge of this sport were trained by the boxing instructors 
to become their assistants. These boxing instructors, 
by the way, have included some world's champion 
pugilists. In many camps from two hundred to four 
hundred assistant boxing instructors were developed and 
gave instruction. 

The growth of the popularity of boxing from a more 
or less forbidden sport to one 
adopted by the American 
army was one of the marvels 
of the war. Moreover, the 
soldiers were rabid fans. 
Camp bouts were frequent; 
even the Y. M. C. A. en- 
couraged them, and made 
them a regular feature of the 
evening programs in the 
"huts." Last summer 

40,000 khaki-clad soldiers 
and half as many civilians 
were spectators in a huge 
natural ampitheatre at a 
series of bouts between teams 
representing the 86th di- 
vision. Camp Grant, and 
Canadian troops. 

It is a unique fact that 
Camp Grant was the only 
camp in the country where 
any attempt was made to 



February 8, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



h5 



utilize the heavy snowfall and cold weather of last winter 
for winter sports. Six toboggan slides were in daily use 
and 50 toboggans were at the disposal of the men. In 
addition, 200 pairs of skis and 150 pairs of snow shoes 
were distributed, while six artificial skating rinks and 
80 dozen hockey sticks were provided. 

At Camp Grant use was made of the Brigade organi- 
zations as a clearing house for the distribution of equip- 
ment. Companies desiring to use any of the equipment 
would get it from the Brigade Athletic Officer and, after 
using it, return it for the use of the next organization. 
Thus several different groups were enabled to use the 
same apparatus in one day. According to Captain Lewis 
Omer, Athletic Director at Camp Grant and formerly 
director of athletics at Northwestern University, the 
winter sports proved most efficacious in neutralizing the 
bad effects of the super-heated air of the barracks with 
its enervating influence. The greatest enemy to the 
health of soldiers in winter was the stove. For this 
reason compulsory exercise of the play 
variety in the open air was instituted at 
Camp Grant, one hour a day being devoted 
to this. 

Camp Grant was also the first to put 
cross-country running into the scheme of 
mass athletic training. In the 183,1 
Brigade weekly cross-country runs were 
held and the men brought to a point where 
they could run two and one-half miles in 
zero weather without any bad after-effects. 
In the middle of January approximately 
1,000 men took part in one brigade run. 
The plan for developing cross-country 
running used at this camp was later put 
into effect in other camps. 

As was to be expected, baseball proved 
to be the most popular of the summer 
sports. Every camp was provided with 
an immense field to be used as a parade 
ground, and, what is more essential, an 
athletic field. Some of those in the 
National Army cantonments were big 
enough to accommodate 20 diamonds, and 
these were put into full use, particularly on 
Wednesday and Saturday afternoons, which 
were veritable holidays in camp. 

As an index of public interest, it is only necessary to 
mention that a football game between Camps Grant 
and Custer, held in Chicago last fall, brought in gate 
receipts of over $40,000. All of this money was devoted 
to purchasing athletic equipment for the two camps and 
for the boys already in France. The Government 
provided each company with a certain amount of athletic 
equipment — about 75 cents a man, which was not 
enough — but the men in many cases bought some things 
out of their own money, while every company had an 
"athletic chest" which they took to France with them. 
The Y. M. C. A. also made a heavy investment in base- 
balls, bats and gloves, basketballs, medicine balls, boxing 
gloves and wrestling mats; every "hut" was well pro- 
vided for, and the soldiers could borrow almost anything 
they needed for a ''catch" or a set-to in other games. 

Not only were all of the well-known games, such as 
basketball, playground ball, volley ball, football, etc., 
played at the average camp, but frequently the division 



athletic directors invented new games. And one phase 
of camp athletics, which is hardly touched upon by the 
colleges, was laughter-compelling games. This was im- 
portant, for good humor is one of the vital elements of 
discipline. The games were popular, too. In addition 
to numerous improvisations, leap-frog, prisoners'-base 
and a dozen other games that even school boys have 
outgrown, afforded the men intense enjoyment, and 
served the additional purpose of promoting good feeling 
and developing self-control, agility, mental alertness and 
initiative, all bases on which to build military efficiency. 

Doctor vs. Malingerer 

IT was an observation of the ancients that the 
greater pain obscures the less and that, in a general 
way, strong sensations prevent the appreciation of weaker 
ones. In precise terms, stimuli that are similar in all 
their properties except intensity are not dissociated by 
the mind, only the stimulus of greater intensity being so 





A malingerer tricked into denying that he hears, when 
the doctor can prove that he does hear 



One of the indoor sports upon which the men fall back 
in bad weather 

registered that we are conscious of it. This law was 
utilized with much success by Dr. John F. Callahan of 
Brockton, Mass., in the detection of malingerers who 
sought to evade the draft by false claims of deafness in 
one ear — a common practice. 

When a sound reaches each ear with the same intensity 
we are conscious of hearing it in both. When it reaches 
each ear with different intensities we are conscious of 
hearing it only in the ear where intensity is the greater. 
Thus tuning forks vibrating with the same pitch and 
loudness one inch from each ear are heard in both ears; 
but if the fork at the left ear is removed to a point three 
inches away this sound is lost and only the fork remaining 
at the right ear is heard. But if now, the latter is put 
six inches back, it will no longer be heard, while the left 
one, formerly not sensed, will become audible. 

Dr. Callahan early convinced himself that tests which 
depend upon the suspected malingerer not knowing in 
which ear he hears the test sounds are an insult to his 
intelligence; the patient can successfully concentrate 
his attention on his good ear and suppress what he hears 
in his supposedly bad ear. The most we could here 
expect would be to trick a patient who was not very 
sharp; and even then we could merely ascertain that he 
was not totally deaf in his "bad" ear — we could never 
determine the extent of hearing he had in that ear. So 
Dr. Callaha,n has worked out a procedure where the 
patient knows which ear does the hearing, but where he 
is betrayed by his ignorance of which one ought to do it 
if his claims were correct. 

The sound is brought to the patient's ears through 
rubber tubes. It is necessary to eliminate the possi- 
bility of bone conduction, since the vibration in the tubes 
can often be felt with the hand. So instead of being 
attached to the patient's head with lugs, the tube-ends 
terminate in a curved arm attached to the chair-top; and 
after the patient is seated, these ends are brought to 
within an inch of his either ear, without any contact 
between him and the apparatus. 

The sound may be produced in various ways. Dr. 
Callahan has used tuning forks, and a megaphone manu- 
factured from an old ether cone. In the former case, 
the desired length of tube is got by a metal clip joining 
the two tubes, which at the same time makes it possible 
to use a single fork; and the parts of the tubes beyond the 
clip simply do not figure in the test. In the vocal test, 
where the cone has actually to be at the physical end of 
both tubes, metal couplings and auxiliary tube-lengths 
are used. In either event, the mechanical details are 
sufficiently obvious. 

If the patient has two good ears, when the tubes are 



of the same length he will hear the sound in both ears. 
There wiU be a neutral zone of two or three inches around 
this point in which the same result will be obtained. But 
the minute either tube becomes appreciably longer than 
the other, audibility will be confined to the ear that 
pertains to the shorter segment. 

If the patient really has a bad ear, each ear will have 
been tested separately; it will be found, say, that he hears 
in his good ear up to 20 feet, and in his bad ear up to 3 
feet. With both tubes in use at the same time, he will 
hear the sound in his good ear whenever the length of the 
tube leading to it is less than 20 feet while that of the 
tube leading to the bad ear is greater than 3 feet. The 
minute we get his bad ear within 3 feet of the sound while 
the good ear is 20 feet or more away, he wiU hear in the 
bad ear. And proceeding from this point to move the 
sound nearer to both ears at once, if it is 6 inches from 
the bad ear and 18 feet from the good one, the intensitj 
of audition will be greater in the bad ear. The patient 
will then hear in the bad ear, and the good 
one will register no sound — although if the 
bad ear were closed, he would hear in tne 
good one. 

Suppose now that a malingerer has 
claimed deafness in his left ear. If he 
claims partial deafness he will be tripped 
up in short order by sounds whose intensi- 
ties and distances are not known to him; so 
realizing this, he claims 1;otal deafness 4n 
the ear in question. He must then go into 
the test with the determination to say no 
whenever he hears a sound in his left ear; 
otherwise he will presently admit hearing 
something which he should not hear. Very 
well; in the case outlined in the preceding 
paragraph, he hears the sound in his bad 
ear, and denies hearing it at all. Then he 
is caught; for if his left ear were deaf he 
would hear it in his right, and if his left ear 
were not deaf he would hear it in his left. 
Of course the distances in the above 
suppositious case will be greatly modified 
according to the facts of each case. But in 
every case there wUl be a region where the 
malingerer hears the sound in his "bad" 
ear, so that he must deny hearing it at all, 
yet in which he could hear it with one ear or the other if 
his claims were true. Thus, suppose he really hears 
at 30 feet in his left ear and at 20 feet in his right, and 
has claimed deafness in his right ear. When the tubes 
are so adjusted that the source of sound is 10 feet from 
his left ear and 6 feet from his right, he will deny hear- 
ing at all! 

In every case the range of the good ear can be deter- 
mined in advanoe by separate tests of the two ears; and 
in every case the patient, by his negative answer, un- 
consciously gives exact information as to just wh^t 
degree of hearing he has in his alleged Lid ear. For as 
the sound-source retreats from the good ear and ap- 
proaches! the bad one, he marks the point at which he 
begins to hear it in his bad ear by changing his claim from 
"hear" to "do not hear." There seems no escape for 
the unfortunate victim of Dr. Callahan's ingenious de- 
vice — except that of telling the truth about his hearing 
to begin with. 




A suspected malingerer, who claims one deaf ear, 
tested with a tuning lork instead of the voice 



116 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 8, 1919 



The Principles of Camouflage — II 

Low Visibility and Optical Illusion on the Sea 
By M. Luckiesh 



AT the time of the Spanish-American War our' battle- 
l\ ships were painted white apparently with little 
thought of attaining low visibility. Later the so-called 
"battleship gray" was adopted but it has been apparent 
to close observers that this gray is in general too dark. 
Apparently it is a mixture of black and white. The ships 
of the British navy were at one time painted black but 
preceding the Great War their coats were of a warm 
dark gray. Germany adopted dark gray before tha 
dose of the last century and Austria adopted the German 
gray at the outbreak of the war. The French and Italian 
fleets were also painted a warm gray. This develop- 
ment toward gray was the result of an aim toward at- 
taining low visibility. Other changes were necessitated 
by submarine warfare which will be discussed later. 

In the early days of unrestricted submarine warfare 
many schemes of modifying the appearance of vessels 
vere submitted. Most of these were merely wild fancies 
ttith no established reasoning behind them. Here 
again science came to the rescue and through research 
and consultation, finally straightened out matters. 
The question of low visibility for vessels could be thor- 
oughly studied on a laboratory scale because the seascape 
and natural lighting conditions could be reproduced 
very closely. Even the general weather conditions 
could be simulated, although of course the experiments 
could be prosecuted outdoors with small models as in- 
deed they were. Dr. L. A. Jones carried out an in- 
vestigation on the shore of Lake Ontario and laboratory 
experiments were conducted by others with the result 
that much light was shed on the questions of marine 
camouflage. This work confirmed the conclusion of the 
writer and others that our battleship gray 
was too dark. Of course, the color best 
adapted is that which is the best com- 
promise for the extreme variety in lighting 
and weather conditions. These vary in 
different parts of the world, so naturally 
those in the war zone were of primary im- 
portance. All camouflage generally must 
aim to be a compromise best suited for 
average or dominating conditions. For 
example, in foggy weather a certain paint 
may render a ship of low visibility but 
an a sunny day the ship might be plainly 
visible. However, if ships are rendered of 
low visibility for even a portion of the time 
it is obvious that an advantage has been 
gained. Cloudiness increases generally 
from the equator northward as indicated 
by meteorological annals. 



tion of the superstructure have been made but these are 
generally impracticable. False work suffers in heavy 
seas and high winds. 

Countershading to Increase "Low Visibility" 

After adopting dark gray as a "low- visibility" paint 
for ships, perhaps the next refinement was countershading, 
that is, shadows were painted a lighter color or even 
white. The superstructure was painted in some cases a 
light blue with the hope that it would fade into the 
distant horizon. However, the effectiveness of the sub- 
marine demanded new expedients because within its 
range of effectiveness no ingenuity could render its 
prey invisible. The effective gunfire from submarines 
is several miles and torpedoes can be effective at these 
distances. However the submarine prefers to discharge 
the torpedo at ranges within a mile. It is obvious that 
in average weather low visibility ceased to be very 
elective against the submarine. The movement of a 
target is of much less importance in the case of gunfire 
than in the case of the torpedo with its relatively low 
velocity. The submarine gunner must have the posi- 
tion, range, and course of the target in order to fire a 
torpodo with any hope of a hit. Therefore any un- 
csrtainties that could be introduced pertaining to these 
factors would be to the advantage of the submarine's 
prey. For example, low visibility gave way to con- 
fusibility in the discussions of defense againt the sub- 
marine and the slogan, "A miss is as good as a mile" 
was adopted. None of the foregoing factors can be 
determined with high accuracy so that it appeared 
possible to add somewhat to the difficulties. 



A Scale of Visibility 



T^HE art of deception in war is as oli as war itself, but never has it 
received such close, scientific ailcnihn as in the mighty struggle the world 
has just passed through. Early in the war it hzcame evident that while an 
artist might deceive the naked human eyz, the de.eption would he perfectly 
transparent to the photographic camera. A co-nphli kjioxledge of the com- 
position of color was imperative. Here the services of the physizist had to be 
called in. Not only was color used to hoodwink the emmy but all manner of 
optical illusions; here also the physicist was needed. And so many prominent 
scientists were enlisted to reduce camouflage to a science. 



one at the stern. In fact, ingenuity was heavily drawn 
upon and every plausible expedient has been tried. 

The convoy system is well known to the reader. 
This saved many vessels from destruction. Vessels of 
the same speed were grouped together and steamed in 
flocks across the Atlantic. Anyone who has had the 
extreme pleasure of looking down upon these convoys 
led by destroyers and attended by chasers is strongly 
impressed with the old adage, "In unity there is strength." 

Before the war began a Brazilian battleship launched 
in this country was provided with a system of blue lights 
for use when near the enemy at night. Blue was adopted 
doubtless for its low range compared vvith light of other 
colors. We know that the setting sun is red because 
the atmospheric dust, smoke, and moisture have scattered 
and absorbed the blue and green rays more than the 
yellow and red rays. In other words the penetrating 
power of the red and yellow is greater than that of the 
blue rays. This country made use of this expedient 
to some extent. Of course, all other lights were ex- 
tinguished and portholes were closed in ocean travel 
during the submarine meance. 

Smoke Screens 

Naturally smoke screens were adopted as a defensive 
measure on sea as well as on land. Many types of 
smoke boxes have been devised or suggested. The 
smoke is produced chemically and the apparatus must 
be simple and safe. If a merchantman were attacked by 
a submarine immediately smoke-boxes would be dumped 
overboard or some which were installed on deck would be 
put into operation and the ship would be steered in a 
zigzag course. These expedients were likely 
to render shell-fire and observations inac- 
curate. This mode of defense is best suited 
to unarmed or inferiorly armed vessels. 



Among the physicists who had contributed to the scientific development 
of camouflage was the author of the present article, who is a well l^noxn color 
expert. Mr. Luckiesh, therefore, writes with authority. His first instalment, 
dealing with camouflage on land, was published in the Scientific American of 
January 25, 1919. The third and last imtalnenl, whi:h will bz published in 
an early issue, will deal with invisibility of airplanes. — Editor. 



In order to study low visibility a scale 
of visibility must be established and it is 
essential to begin with the fundamentals 
of vision. We distinguish objects by contrasts in bright- 
ness and in color and we recognize objects by these 
contrasts which mold their forms. In researches in 
vision it is customary to devise methods by which these 
contrasts can be varied. This is done by increasing or 
decreasing a veil of luminosity over the object and its 
surroundings and by other means. Much work has 
been done in past years in studying the minimum 
perceptible contrast and it has been found to vary with 
hue, with the magnitude of brightness, and with the 
size of the image; that is, with the distance of an object of 
given size. In such problems as this one much scientific 
work can be drawn upon. A simple though rough scale 
of visibility may be made by using a series of photo- 
graphic screens of different densities. A photographic 
screen is slightly diffusing, still the object can be viewed 
through it very well. Such methods have been em- 
ployed by various investigators in the study of visibility. 

Owing to the curvature of the earth the distance at 
which a vessel can be seen on a clear day is limited by 
the height of the observer and of the ship's superstructure. 
For an observer in a certain position the visibility range 
varies as the square root of the distance of the object from 
him. Such data are easily available so they will not be 
given here. So far we have considered the ship itself 
vhen as a matter of fact on clear days the smoke cloud 
emitted by the ship is usually visible long before a ship's 
superstructure appears over the horizon. This led to 
the prevention of smoke by better combustion, by using 
smokeless fuels, etc. 

The irregular skyline of a ship is perhaps one of the 
tnost influential factors which tend to increase its 
visibility. Many suggestions pertaioing to the modifica- 



Cemiouflage for Submsurines 



Optical Illusions to Distort the Lines of a Ship 

Many optical illusions have been devised and studied 
by scientists. In fact, some of these tricks are well 
known to the general reader. Straight lines may appsar 
broken, convergent, or divergent by providing certain 
patterns or lines intermingled with them. Many of 
these were applied to models in laboratory experiments 
and it has been shown that confusion results as to the 
course of the vessel. The application of these on vessels 
has resulted in the grotesque patterns to be seen on 
ships. It is well known that these illusions are most 
effective when the greatest contrasts are used, hence 
black and white patterns are common. Color has not 
been utilized to any appreciable extent in confusibility 
although there is a secondary aim of obtaining low 
visibility at a great distance by properly balancing the 
black, white and other colors so that a blue gray results 
at distances too great for the individual patterns to be 
resolved by the eye. Color could be used for the purpose 
of increasing the confusion by apparently altering the 
perspective. For example, blue and red patterns on the 
same surface do not usually appear at the same distance, 
the red appearing closer than the blue. 

Such apparently grotesque patterns aimed to distort 
the lines of the ship and to warp the perspective by 
which we estimate the course. This was the final type 
of camouflage at the close of the war. Besides relying 
upon these illusions, ships zigzagged on being attacked 
and aimed in other ways to confuse the enemy. Little 
attempt was made to disguise the bow because the bow 
wave was generally visible. However, attempts have 
been made to increase it apparently and even to provide 



So far as the writer has been informed 
no attempts have been made to camou- 
flage submarines under water but that 
this can be done is evident from aerial 
observations. When looking over the 
water from a point not far above it we are 
unable to see into the water except at 
points near us where our direction of 
vision is not very oblique to the surface 
of the water. The brightness of the sur- 
face of water is due to mirrored sky and 
clouds ordinarily. For a perfectly smooth 
surface of water the reflection factor is 
two per cent for perpendicular incidence. 
This increases only slightly - as the obli- 
quity increases to an angle of about 60 
degrees. From this point the reflection 
factor rapidly increases, becoming 100 
per cent at 90 degrees incidence. This accounts 
for the ease with which we can see into water from 
a position directly overhead and hence the air- 
plane has been an effective hunter of submarines which 
are submerged. The depth at which an object can be 
seen in water of course depends upon its clarity. It may 
be surprising to many to learn that the brightness of 
water, as viewed perpendicularly to its surface is largely 
due to light diffused within it. 

A submerged submarine may be invisible because: 

(1) It may be deep enough to be effectively veiled 
by the luminosity of the mass of water above it 
(including the surface brightness) or 

(2) It may be of the proper brightness and color to 
stimulate the brightness and color of the water. 

It is obvious that if it were black or white it would have 
to attain concealment by submerging deeply. If it were 
a fairly dark greenish blue it would be invisible at very 
small depths. In fact, it would be of very low visibility 
at the surface of the water. From the writer's data on 
hues and reflection factors of earth and water areas it 
would be easy to camouflage submarines effectively 
from enemies overhead. The visibility of submarines is 
amplified by viewing large fish such as sharks 
from airships at low altitudes. They appear as miniature 
submarines, dark gray or almost black amid greenish 
blue surroundings. Incidentally the color of water 
varies considerably from the shallow inland waters con- 
taining much suspended matter to the deep clear ocean 
waters. The latter as viewed vertically are about one- 
half the brightness of the former under the same con- 
ditions and are decidedly bluer. Inland waters such as 
the Chesapeake Bay are very greenish in color. 



Februarys, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 

Worlds of Four Dimensions 

A Field of Mathematics Equally Interesting to Student and Layman 



117 



OF the infinite variety of topics to be found in mathe- 
matics, there are a few which are ever fresh in their 
pubhc appeal. The categorical statement of the mathe- 
matician that the circle cannot be squared or the cube 
duplicated or the angle trisected under the rules which 
he has laid down to govern attack upon these problems 
always intrigues the lay mind. And in the same way, 
an- innocent bystander who remains cold to logarithms 
and derivatives and Taylor Series and determinants and 
other things which are to him but words, will react at 
once to the most casual mention of the fourth dimension 
and four mutually perpendicular lines through a point. 
For here are phrases which convey a meaning to him, 
and moreover a meaning that seems to contradict all his 
experiences; so he feels that he must stay with them. 
According to his type of mind he wOl stay to scoff or 
stay to learn; but he will stay. We have yet to meet 
a person of intelligence who was not sufficiently attracted 
by the term "fourth dimension" and the things it sug- 
gests to want to hear more about it. 

Many of the readers of the Scientific American will 
recall the prize competition of nearly ten years ago for 
essays explaining what mathematicians mean when they 
speak of the fourth dimension. The number of con- 
testants was so large, and the collateral interest so wide- 
spread, that publication in book form of a few of the 
better of the essays seemed worth while. It turned out to 
be so well worth while that the edition was exhausted, 
and the book has been out of print for some time. A 
new edition has recently come from the press; and its 
perusal by one who had not previously seen the book is 
responsible for these remarks. 

The volume contains, in addition to the prize-winning 
essay and a brief afterword thereto, 20 of the competing 
essays selected purely with a view to presenting as many 
aspects of the subject as possible, and a comprehensive 
and well-executed introduction by Dr. Manning of 
Brown University, one of the judges in the competition. 
As was to be expected, the essayists bear down heavily 
and almost unanimously upon the better-known 
features of four-dimensionality. 



The natural passage to four dimensions by considering 
in order point, line, plane, solid and hyper-solid is found 
in most of the essays; and a great deal is said about 
flatlands and worlds of one dimension. Even in this 
rather hackneyed field, however, we find a wide choice 
of illustration; and particularly pleasing is the variety 
of the arguments offered in demonstration of the num- 
ber of points, lines, planes and three-spaces necessary 
to delimit the tesseract, or hyper-cube in four dimen- 
sions. 

The usual amount of space is devoted to the tricks of 
the fourth dimension — the penetration of closed com- 
partments, the appearance and disappearance from three- 
space, the interchange between symmetric forms, the 
turning inside out and the unraveling of knots without 
disturbing the ends — although in several cases it is 
necessary for Dr. Manning to interpose the weight of his 
authority between the individual contributors and the 
errors so commonly found in discussions of these 
items. 

A point which will be new to some of those interested 
in hyper-space is the fact that certain chemical isomers 
appear to differ only in that their molecules or crystals 
are symmetrically instead of identically formed, and 
that in some cases there seems to be free passage from 
the one form to the other without any manifestation of 
chemical change and without evolution or consumption 
of heat. An explanation of such changes — though 
hardly the only explanation, as some of the e.ssayists assert 
— would be found in the hypothesis of rotation through 
the fourth dimension. None of those who advance this 
possibility makes the rather obvious suggestion that if 
our space has an infinitesimal thickness in the direction 
of a fourth dimension, and if penetration in that direc- 
tion be phy.sically impossible save to the extent of that 
thickness, the occurrence of such rotations only in the 
infinitesimal would be accounted for. 

Perhaps the most noteworthy of the unfamiliar ideas 
advanced in this little book is that which suggests that 
we visualize time as a fourth dimension, and consider 
bodily growth, observed at a series of different stages, 



as a series of cross-sections taken across the fourth 
dimension. Such a group of "traces," as the geometer 
would doubtless permit us to call them, perhaps comes 
as close to actual realization of a fourth dimension in 
our world of points as we can hope to come. 

But why confine the discussion to a world of points? 
It has always seemed to us that the doctrine of hyper- 
dimensionality suffers a distinct loss through such con- 
finement. It is true that we humans conceive of our 
universe as a manifold of points. The very fact that we 
do so conceive, however, in conjunction with the fact 
that the universe of our perceptions is indubitably 
three-dimensional in points, suggests strongly that light 
would be thrown upon the concept of a four-dimen- 
sional manifold of points by the construction and 
consideration of four-dimensional manifolds of other 
elements. 

Our own familiar "three-space" is four-dimensional ia 
lines, and if it is unnatural for us to think of the line as 
the element of which space is constituted, we can at least 
force ourselves to do so, and there is not the slightest 
a priori reason for not doing so; our space is four- 
dimensional in spheres, and actually six-dimensional in 
circles. Those of us who have heard Dr. Keyser talk 
or who have read his essays on this aspect of mathematics 
will realize well that, mathematically, the point as the 
space element is purely an accident, and that even so 
complicated an element as a pencil of lines is by no means 
unthinkable. 

In several places, notably in the introduction, "The 
Fourth Dimension Simply Explained" has a good deal 
to say of the sort of non-Euclidean geometries got by 
imposing, upon Euclid's point-element, alternative sets 
of postulates. These systems indeed throw light upoa 
hyper-space and hyper-dimensionality; but we do not 
see that they throw nearly so much light as this other 
sort of non-Euclidean geometry, got by imposing the 
Euclidean or Lobatchevskian or Riemannian postulates 
upon a set of elements other than points. Our one 
regret, in leaving this absorbing volume, is that it has 
nothing to say under this head. 



Correspondence 

The editors are not responsible for statetnents made 
in the correspondence column. Anonvmous commu- 
nications cannot be considered, but the names of cor- 
respondents will be withheld when so desired. 



A Strong and Adequate Navy 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

I am greatly pleased at the attitude of the article 
by Mr. Hudson Maxim in your issue of January 4th as 
to increasing the size of our Navy. I am enthusiastic 
about maintaining a strong and adequate navy. The 
description, "strong and adequate" may appear am- 
biguous, but to me it means a navy at least 20 per cent 
stronger than that of any other naval power, except 
England, and, remembering that Germany's strength 
is temporarily eliminated, say, two-thirds the strength 
of England. I cannot agree with Admiral Badger and 
the New York Times (January 12th) that now is the time 
to speed up and take first place. 

To understand the magnitude of this proposed ex- 
pansion one has only to look at the figures comparing 
naval tonnage built and building, as shown in our 
official Navy Year Book (1916, the latest issue, p. 646, 
insert) : 

England — 2,713,756 tons, built and building. 

Germany — 1,304,640 tons, built and building. 

United States — 1,041,164 tons, built and building. 

England, in her isolated geographical situation, her 
absolute dependance on sea transportation for food 
and raw materials, and her large and scattered depend- 
ancies, has ample reason to insist on first place, reasons 
which pertain not at all to the United States. 

To speed up in naval construction at this time with 
first place in view would only force England to speed up 
in corresponding measure to retain her present com- 
manding position, with needless and fabulous expense to 
both nations. 

It may be that Admiral Badger has in mind some 
financial artesian well bubbling up unlimited dollars, 
and unknown to the rest of us. 

It seems very strange to urge such a lavish expenditure 



in naval expansion at this time, especially as some of 
those now urging, thought, before the war, that third or 
fourth place was plenty good enough for this country, 
the richest nation on earth. We then carried a national 
debt of about one billion dollars. We shall soon carry 
a national debt of over twenty billions. How can they 
demand that we pour out the unstinted money that such 
a program will call for? As a very clear-headed old sea- 
dog, the admiral commandant of the Brooklyn Navy 
Yard, said to the Naval Committee of Congress in my 
hearing, "A naval officer has been trained to spend 
money, not to save it." 

It is my belief that a navy of equal tonnage would cost 
the United States at least 20 per cent over England, 
owing to our higher wage scale and more extravagant 
naval management (for example our maintenance of 
political or sectional but absolutely unnecessary navy 
yards). 

How much easier it would be, with this enormous 
debt staring us in the face, for Congress simply to make 
adequate provision for the fundamentals — dreadnoughts 
battle-cruisers and destroyers — of a reasonable navy, 
and to slow down on all other construction to the lowest 
possible limit, building only enough submarines and 
hydroplanes fully to stimulate invention and improve- 
ment; no more. They should put aside the idea that a 
navy, to be efficient, mu.st man and maintain every 
naval vessel and burn coal or oil under every naval 
boiler. 

After all our troops are brought home, the obsolete 
battleships of the second line could be put "in ordinary" 
in the fresh water basin at League Island Yard, together 
with all obsolete cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and 
other naval craft. With only the modern up-to-date 
ships, built and building, in active commission, we 
would still have a Navy that every loyal American could 
be proud of, both as to efficiency and economy. 

Permit me to congratulate you on Mr. Maxim's 
splendid and sensible article. 

Geo. a. Loud, Ex. Member of Congress. 
Bay City, Mich. 

P. S.^I served 11 years on Naval Committee and one 
year on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. I served, also, 
in Dewey's fleet at Battle of Manila. 



The Transatlantic Airplane Hoax 

To the Editor of the Scientific American: 

There has been so much printed recently indicating 
that the successful transatlantic airplane flight is a thing 
of the future, though one looked forward to with great 
expectations, that I beg to quote the following from the 
correspondence column of the San Francisco Chronicle 
of December 22d, bearing the signature E. W. B., 
Berkeley, Cal.: 

"For the information of A. W. C, Grass Valley 
whose inquiry regarding the crossing of the Atlantic 
by an airship appeared this morning, please be informed 
that such a flight was made July 28th-29th, 1918, to 
celebrate the birthday of Mr. Allen R. Hawley, president 
of the Aero Club of America. The start was made from 
Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, at 4.02 P. M. (seven 
hours, two minutes, Greenwich mean time), Sunday, 
July 28th, and the landing at Dingle Bay, Ireland, at 
4.12 P. M. (seven hours, twelve minutes, Greenwich 
mean time), Monday; time, 24 hours, 10 minutes. For 
an interesting description and navigator's log of this 
flight, see United States Naval Institute Proceedings, 
Vol. 44, No. 187, September, 1918." 

I am a close reader each week, and have been for a 
great many years, of your publication, but I am unable 
to recall that your columns have recorded the fact that 
the Atlantic has already been successfully crossed by 
a flying machine. Assuming that the subject matter 
of this communication interests a large number of your 
readers, would you not at your convenience reproduce 
this communication in your columns and advise whether 
you can confirm? 

John S. Inglis. 
San Francisco, Cal. 

[The flight to which this correspondent refers was a 
fictitious one. The yarn first appeared in "Flying," 
and was reprinted, presumably on the ground of its historic 
interest, in the Naval Proceedings. We do not know 
whether it was originally intended as a hoax, or whether it 
was assumed that readers ivould recognize that the account 
was purely fiction. Judging from the number of letters 
which we have received, and of ivhich the above is but a 
sample, we should say that the omission clearly to state the 
fictitious character of the original publication and of the 
reprint was an unfortunate one. — The Editor.] 



118 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 8, 1919 




Model airplane in position to display pitch (left), roll (center) and yaw (right) when blown upon from the opening in the background. In each case L represents the 
spectacle lens which admits light to tiie chamber, and A-A the pencil of light which is deflected to a scale on the roof and there records the oscillations of the plane 

The Instability of American Airplanes 

Sources of the Defects That Have Killed Many Pilots Revealed by Experiments That Reduce Aerodynamics to the Elementals 

By W. H. Ballou, Sc.D. 



UTILIZIXG the Hodgkins fund for the advance- 
ment of science, of which the Smithsonian In- 
stitution at Washington is custodian, intensive investiga- 
tions have been made at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Boston, on the dynamical stability of 
American airplanes, together with the wind tunnel experi- 
ments in aerodynamics. The investigators comprised 
Assistant Naval Constructor Jerome C. Hunsaker, 
U. S. N., Captain V. E. Clark, U. S. A., C. L. Brand, 
T. H. Huff, D. W. Douglas, H. K. Chow, E. Buckingham, 
H. E. Rossell and E. B. Wilson, Bachelors and Masters 
of Science. 

The technical reports rendered by these competent 
investigators reveal defects in American designs that 
are responsible for so many accidents and deaths of 
apprentices and professionals on the training grounds 
of this country, and which have been laid to enemy 
"sabotage apparently without cause. These accidents 
and deaths have run in greater percentage on practice 
work at home than in actual warfare abroad with 
foreign machines, barring, of course, machines and men 
destroyed by hostile fire. The inference from the 
reports is that American manufacturers have not taken 
the same corrective advantage of remedies as have 
foreigners who have had constant inspection of machines 
in flight. In America there were merely trials of ma- 
chines; abroad, machines got their tryouts in actual 
service, resulting in quick remedies of many defects. 

It may be stated in advance 
that the investigators have 
not found remedies for all 
defects. Far from it. Avia- 
tion is still in the experimental 
stage. The defects and 
remedies pointed out apply 
only to what airplanes are to- 
day. The perfected airplane 
is a matter of tomorrow, that 
is, the airplane which like 
David Harum's horse "will 
stand without hitchin' and a 
■woman can drive it." A 
perfected airplane will be a 
machine that will wholly re- 
place the automobile, that 
men, women and children will 
be as safe and as delighted 
with as the automobile and 
as capable of driving; also 
one that will really annihilate 
time and space in travel. 

An attempt will be made 
herein to summarize in under- 
standable language, the re- 
ports of the airplane investiga- 
tors, within the limits of an 
article, omitting very properly, 
the names of the manu- 
facturers, who, under the 
stimulus of war, will un- 
doubtedly take full advantage 
of any and all remedies offered 
conclusively. Where possible, 
exact quotations will be made, 
but much reduced. Much of 



the experimental work was performed by Me.ssrs. Huff 
and Douglas. The oscillating apparatus for longitudinal 
motion was designed by Mr. Chow, under direction of 
Prof. E. B. Wilson, of the Institute's mathematical 
department. Captain Clark, while a student of the 
Institute in aeronautical engineering, designed an air- 
plane which was selected as one type inherently stable 
for investigation. Another type was an American 
military machine, which possessed powerful controls but 
no particular degree of stability. 

"The comparison of the two types led to the conclusion 
that inherent dynamical stability, both longitudinal 
and lateral, may be secured in an airplane of current 
type by careful adjustment of its surfaces and without 
material effect on controlability or performance. It is 
found that longitudinal motion, if disturbed by any 
accidental cause, is a slow undulation involving a rising 
and sinking of the airplane as well as a pitching motion. 
This undulation is stable for high speeds since it is 
rapidly damped out. At lower speed, the undulation is 
less heavily damped until at a certain critical low speed 
the damping vanishes. For speeds below this critical 
speed, the undulations tend to increase in amplitude 
with each swing and the longitudinal motion is, there- 
fore, unstable. The military machine showed a critical 
speed below which it was longitudinally unstable. 

"It is a simple matter to secure any desired degree of 
longitudinal stability, which is here for the first time 




At right, the aerodynamical balance beneath the wind tunnel; at left, the upper end that projects into the 
tunnel, bearing, in the picture, a model wing whose rotating moments are being investigated 



pointed out, by the use of properly inclined tail surface 
and light wing loading. Excessive statical stability, as 
indicated by strong restoring moments, is undesirable 
and may cause the motion to become violent in gusty 
air. This violence of motion may seriously impair the 
pilot's control and the airplane may 'take charge' at a 
critical time. Longitudinal motion for any particular 
speed may be made dynamically stable, while at the 
same time only slightly stable in the static sense, by 
the use of large tail surface which lies very nearly in the 
relative wind. If the minimum of statical stability be 
combined with the maximum of damping, the pitching 
will be very slow and heavily damped. The longi- 
tudinal motion can then be dynamically stable and yet 
be without violence of motion in gusty air. 

"The general prejudice among pilots against 'very 
stable' airplanes is believed to be justified. It cannot 
be too strongly insisted upon that true dynamical 
stability is better given by damping than by stiffness. 
E,xperience with rolling vessels has led to the design of 
types of small metacentric height (a measure of statical 
stability), fitted with bilge keels (damping surface) for 
passenger carrying. Here, an effort is made to get away 
from the violence of motion associated with stiffness. 

" We determined necessary aerodynamical constants by 
wind tunnel experiments wherever practical, and cal- 
culated by simple approximate method, two coefficients 
which cannot be readily found experimentally. The 
character of the motion is 
indicated in a general way 
by these coefficients, obtained 
algebraically. It was ascer- 
tained that lateral motion is 
a combination of roll, yaw 
and side slip, or skidding. 
One type of motion is a spiral 
subsidence if stable, or diverg- 
ence if unstable. One type of 
machine becomes spirally un- 
stable at low speed. The 
motion is a spiral dive, due to 
an overbank and a side slip 
inwards. The airplane makes 
a rapid turn with rapidly in- 
creasing bank accompanied 
by side slipping inwards. The 
instability is such that an 
initial deviation from course 
will double itself in about 
seven seconds. Such spiral 
motion may be made stable 
by adequate fin surface above 
the center of gravity or up- 
turned wings and by reduction 
in weather helm due to too 
much rudder or fin surface aft. 
The American military ma- 
chine showed the same sort 
of spiral instability at high 
speeds. It had no dihedral 
angle of wings but had a large 
rudder and deep body." 

Whether so intended or 
not, the above paragraph 
obviously explains deaths and 



February 8, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



119 




Details of the wind tunnel. 



At left, the entrance nozzle, showing end of honeycomb; in center, a more general view of this end of the tunnel; at right, interior of 

the diffusor, looking from the propeller 



accidents in pockets, or vacuums in the air. A machine 
going at high speed, spirally unstable, plunges into the 
pocket, turns tail up, and dives toward earth. The 
pilot, it seems, has only seven seconds to work his con- 
trols and right his machine. Foreign machines, early 
in the war game, so corrected their functions as to allow 
the pilot 68 seconds to recover balance with his controls; 
that is to say, by correction of functions, the initial devia- 
tion time for doubling itself was increased from 7 to 
68 seconds. The involuntary spiral dive is one of the 
greatest menaces to aviation. 

"A second type of motion is called the 'Diitch roll,' 
from analogy to a figure in ice skating. The airplane 
takes up an oscillation in yaw and roll simultaneously. 
It swings to the right banking for a right turn, then 
swings back to the left banking for a left turn. The 
combined yaw and roll has a fairly rapid period. If 
heavily damped, this motion is made stable. At high 
speed the period is six seconds and an initial amplitude 
is damped to half value in less than two seconds. At 
low speed the period is 12 seconds, damped to half 
amplitude in six seconds. It appears 
from an approximate calculation that the 
Dutch roll may become unstable if an 
airplane has too much high fin surface, and 
if there is not sufficient weather helm, or 
rear fin surface. These conditions are 
•the reverse of those of spiral instability. 
The conflicting nature of the requirements 
for stability in these two kinds of motion 
suggests that an airplane is unlikely ever 
to be unstable in each sense. It also 
indicates the difficulty of obtaining lateral 
stability by raised wing tips. Thus, our 
military machine was spirally unstable at 
high speed and stable with the Dutch 
roll. At low speed it was spirally stable 
and unstable with the Dutch roll. It is 
believed that the majority of airplanes of 
ordinary type are spirally unstable because 
of excess of fin surface aft. When at- 
tempts have been made to remedy this 
fault by use of a large dihedral angle 
upwards for the wings, matters have been 
made worse. It is only to be expected 
that in over-correcting spiral instability a 
Dutch roll of more or less violence may be 
introduced. Especially in gusty air would 
one expect high fin surface to produce 
violent rolling. Our experimental machine with a slight 
rise of wings, about 1.6 degrees, and a small rudder, has 
shown that at ordinary speeds it is stable in every 
Sense, longitudinally and laterally, and that it is pos- 
sible to secure a degree of stability in every airplane 
of conventional type. But whether this stability is ex- 
cessive in turbulent air, per each particular machine, 
can only be determined by actual flight in it. 

"If an airplane be unstable in still air it is obviously 
worse off in gusts. The converse is unfortunately not 
true, since it may be very stable in still air yet be so 
stiff that in turbulent air that it will be violently tossed 
about. It is conservative to conclude that airplanes 
should not be unstable and that they need not be, since 
slight changes in the nature of adjustments suffice to 
correct such instability of motion. With military 
planes inside the zone of fire, the probability of controls 
becoming inoperative is ever present. An inherently 
stable plane with controls abandoned or shot away, 
could still be operated by a skillful pilot by manipulation 
of motor power alone. Any sort of automatic or gyro- 
scopic stabilizer which operates on the controls is of no 



use when those controls fail, and it should be judged 
only as an accessory to assist a pilot rather than as a 
cure-all for inherent instability of an airplane's motion. 
There is no use to seek radical changes of type to secure 
stability, when an ordinary type of plane lends itself 
to adjustments which make for inherent stability of 
motion. Freak airplanes of great stability may be 
excessively stable in some ways and frankly unstable in 
others. It is likely that the coming most satisfactory 
airplane may be only slightly stable, and that it wiU in 
any possible attitude be easily controlled by the pilot. 
Just such a machine was announced in press dispatches 
from London recently and called 'The Fool Killer.' 
Controlability and statical stability are to some extent 
incompatible. Dynamical stability requires some amount 
of statical stability and considerable damping. It 
appears to be of advantage to provide the minimum of 
statical stability and the minimum of damping. Then 
the airplane's motion will be of very long period but 
heavily damped. Full understanding may be had of 
the effect on the motion of each change, by a systematic 




A Home-Made Machine for Cold Plate Bending 

A YEAR or so ago a shipbuilding concern in Fensacola, 
Fla., which was rushing to completion a new plant, 
went into the open market in search of a set of cold 
bending rolls that would roll plates up to 30 feet in 
length. They found that the best they could do would 
be to pay about $50,000 for a set which could be delivered 
to them in 15 months or thereabouts; so it became 
necessary for them to devise some sort of a substitute 
for the conventional rolls. The result is the plate- 
bending machine illustrated herewith. 

This machine consists of a structiu-al frame with 
backing-up brackets and adjustable formers resting on a 
concrete foundation. The plates to be bent are placed 
on edge in the machine, between the brackets and the 
formers, as shown in the photograph. A series of chains 
attached to the structural frames passes over the end of 
the plate, thence over sheaves anchored to the end of the 
frame, and thence to the ends of the air and water 
cylinder pistons. If the plate is to be bent to a uniform 
radius, a master valve is opened which controls all the 
cylinders, and applies a uniform pull on 
all the chains. If it is desired to bend any 
portion of the plate more than others, the 
master valve remains out of action, and 
the appropriate individual valves go into 
operation. By raising or lowering or 
advancing or retarding the backing up 
brackets or the formers, the plates can be 
bent to any desired radius. 

The machine thus developed met the 
emergency against which it was designed; 
for it cost about $15,000 and was ready 
for operation in less than three months. 



An improvised machine for shaping ship-plates 

variation of one feature of de.sign at a time. The 
process is of necessity laborious, but compared with the 
difficulty of full-scale experiment in open air, the model 
method is rapid and inexpensive. It is rarely possible in 
actual flying to obtain any idea of the effect of slight 
changes in design. Weather conditions, motor troubles, 
personal peculiarities of pilots, etc., tend to add to 
complexity of an otherwise very simple problem." 

"Experimental flying is dangerous. A pUot, to de- 
termine whether a new airplane was spirally unstable, 
took his machine up to a good altitude and allowed it 
to get into a spiral dive. The machine made five or six 
turns of rapidly widening and contracting helix before he 
could bring it out on a horizontal path. If the controls 
had been only a little less powerful, the machine would 
surely have crashed to the ground. That the controls 
were adequate was purely a matter of good fortune. 
The experiment was a success in that spiral instability 
was demonstrated. Only a few minutes of time was 
required, but no information was obtained as to the 
degree of instabiUty present, nor what remedial changes 
(Continued on page 128) 



"Liberty Fuel" 

A GOOD deal has appeared within the past 
few weeks upon the motor fuel invented 
by two army officers and the general tone of 
these notices, coupled with the suggestion of 
governmental acceptance carried by the 
name under which the new compound was 
announced, has led to a rather enthusiastic 
acceptance of the very broad claim that this 
fuel is soon to replace gasoline on a wide 
scale. It was not for a long time possible 
to get data on which to base intelligent 
comment; but press despatches of January 
14th at last met this need. 
It appears that some 65 per cent of the new fuel is 
benzol, while of the kerosene previously announced as 
its "base" there is present but 25 or 30 per cent. To 
anyone acquainted with the supply and demand for 
benzol, this puts the "Liberty Fuel" on the defensive at 
once. If all the benzol which we are now producing 
could go into its manufactures, it could not be made in 
sufficient quantity to replace more than two per cent 
of the gasoline which we now use. 

Of course this does not mean that "Liberty Fuel" 
or something like it would not some day be a fine thing. 
But it does mean that for the present it is not to be 
thought of. Only by a complete revolution in the ways of 
getting benzol, and probably in the sources of supply as 
well, could a fuel containing 65 per cent of this substance 
become a commercial proposition. When to this is 
added the further circumstance that the inventors would 
not supply the Bureau of Standards with their formula 
for testing purposes, and that when the Fuel Administra- 
tion finally got some of it for test it found several 
grave technical defects, it seems quite clear that the 
whole thing is more or less of a bubble. 



120 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 8, 1919 







^ 



JAVA 






^ 






Transporting 
Gargoyle Lubricants 
in Egypt 



^ 




^- 



'T^HE plows of Egypt are still being pulled by oxen. Able- 
-*- bodied Hindus are carrying building materials- on their backs. 
Progressive Japan still has jinrickshaws. 

But labor grows scarce. Man-work must be diverted to fields 
where it can best serve. Muscle is fast losing the right to compete 
blindly with mechanical power. 

Egypt is already taking up farm tractors. Motor-trucks must 
go to India. Japan will replace jinrickshaws with taxicabs. 

Wasteful methods are falling by the wayside. The age of 
machinery will not be denied. The work must go on. 




SEOUL. 



February 8, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



121 




HELIOPOLIS 



SINGAPORE 



THE age of machinery spreads outward from America. 
During the ten years ending 1916, nearly $1,150- 
000,000 worth of American machinery was shipped to 
all parts of the world. 

In America alone, 125 leading manufacturers of power 
machinery specifically recommend or endorse the use of 
the Vacuum Oil Company's Gargoyle Lubricants to the 
purchasers of their equipment. 

Vacuum Oil Company Branches and representatives 
dot the earth. Men serving under the red Gargoyle have 
taught unskilled Malays how to operate their American 
engines. Oriental and African misuse of lubricants has 
been corrected. The more intelligent peoples who lacked 
mechanical carefulness have become informed. 

New inventions often bring new lubricating needs. 
As these needs arise they will be met by new Gargoyle 
Lubricants. To safeguard the correct operation of machin- 
ery going to all parts of the globe, the Vacuum Oil Com- 
pany maintains an ever-expanding world organization. 

The work must go on. 



•>>» 



IZL'-Lfe* 




'a. 



Lubricants 

A grade for each type of service 

VACUUM OlJ, COMPANY, New York, U. S. A. 

Specialhts ^ the manufacture of high-^rade lubricants Jor 
every class ^ machinery. Obtaina' le ever ivhere in the •world. 

"New York Pittsburgh Minneapolis Kansas City, Kan. 

Domestic Branches: I'oston Detroit Indianapolis Des Moines 

Philadelphia Ciiicago 



Correct 

Automobile Lubrication 



o^^?^^ 



Mobiloils 

A grade for each type of motor 

Gargoyle Mobiloil for engine lubrication are : 

Gargoyle Mobiloil *'A'* 

Gargoyle Mobiloil **B'* 

Gargoyle Mobiloil *'E'* 

Gargoyle Mobiloil Arctic 

The Chart i>elow incUcates the grade reconnnende' 

by the \acuuin Oil Company's Board of Hnginecn 

The recommendations cover all models of but 

passenger and cmmercial vehicles unless othenvis 

noted. If your car is not listed in this j-artial Ch.ir 

send for booklet "Correct Lubrication" which libi 

the correct grades for a/i cars. 



Allen . , , 

Appenon , . . 

(S cyl).. 
Auburn {4c>l) . 
(6 cy\) . 
(6-38 & 6-39) 
*(6-39B)lT«torH 
■(6-j9BMConn). 
.Xuiocar (2 cy\) 



" (8 cy\) 
Buick . . 
(Ud iliac . 

Case . . . 

Chalmers ... 

" (6-40) 

(6-30) .. . 
Chandler Sw. . . 

Chevrolet 

• (8 cyl).. . 
■ (FA), 
Cole 

^" (8cyl). 
Cunningham 

(8 cyt) 



Arc Arc Arc Arc, Arc 
AAA/ 

A .^rc A Ate A j\rc A Ai 

Arc Are Arc AfC |.\rc (Arc 
A A 

A .■^rc A .Am A , .. 

Arc Arc Art Arc Ate, Arc Arc Arc A(c Arc 



Dan 



Diidge BfutKera. 

Wort 

Empire (4 cyl) 



Hollle 



(t: 



tD. 



A Arc A Arc 



Arc Arc Arc Arc 



(8 cyl).., . 
Hudson. 

" (Super Six) 
Hupmobile 

• (8 cyl). 

Kdl> Springfield,. 
King 

' (8 cyl) 

■ fCom"0. 
K>Ml K^r 

■ (Mod 4«) 
^•^^ • (iJoD. 

L.bcny (Detroii). 

Lippard Siewart 

" (Mod M) 
■ (Mod.MW) 

Locomobile . 

McFarlan . 

Madiwn 

Marmon . . 
Ma«well 

" [ja-?0) 
Mitchell 

" (8c>-ll 
Moline-Knighi 



{8 oil 
Overland . , 
Owen Magneiic, 

■ (Mod. M35)lArc 



' (6-36) 

■ (6-38-39) 

' (^40) 

Pathfinder . . 
Peerl" *" *^'* • 

^ ■ <8"cy'i):::,:,: 

Pierce Arrow 

- . ■ tCom'l) 

Regal !.'■',,;. 

" i8o'n 

Renault (French). . 



Arc Arc Arc 



Arc A Arc A Arc A Arc 

A A 
Arc Arc .Arc .Arc 



A Arc .\ Ate 



A Arc A Arc 



A Are A Arc A 



A Arc A Are A Arc A Arc 



Arc Arc. Arc Arc Ai 



Reo. 

Rikcr . ; 

Selden '.'.'.'.'.'. 
." (}<ton) 

Slcarni- Knight. 

, ■ ' <8cyl) 

biudebaker 



Velie (4 cyl) 
■ (6 cyl) 
" (3 &3J^ ton).,. Arc 
" (>i Ion) 



Arc Arc Arc Arc 



Arc Arc Arc Arc Arc Arc Arc 



Arc Arc [Art Arc Art. 




IvJAKlLA 




BAMGKOK 




WELLINGTON NewZealand 




'MADEIRA 



^S/ BOMEAT 



122 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



February 8, 1919 



Mechanical Equipment of the Farm 

Latest developments in agricultural machinery and practical suggestions for the farmer 

Conducted by HARRY C. RAMSOWER. Professor of Aericullural Engineering, Ohio Slate University 








A farm tractor with broad, cleated wheels for field work and rubber-tired wheels for service on roads 



A Rubber-Tired Tractor 

THERE seems to be no lack of new ideas in the 
development of farm tractors. Road work with a 
tractor, while much faster than team work, has seemed 
to many to be rather slow. Speeds of from 3 3^2 to 43-^ 
miles per hour are about all average tractors make. 
With the regulation wheels equipped with lugs it is 
perhaps not wise to run a tractor on the road faster 
than this because all parts would be subjected to too 
much jar and strain. 

A prominent eastern company has solved this probelm 
by providing one set of regulation wheels for heavy 
traction work and another set of rubber-tired wheels 
for road work. The change from one set of wheels to the 
other is easily and quickly made. With the rubber- 
tired wheels a speed of ten miles an hour is possible 
and the wear and tear on the machine is reduced to a 
minimum. Of course, there are some drawbacks to 
such a combination as, for example, the additional cost 
of the extra wheels. To balance this, however, is the 
fact that with much hauling to be done a remarkable 
saving in time would be effected in the course of a few 
years. 

Aside from the road wheel feature this machine is a real 
tractor. It is built on neat, attractive lines and material 
of good quality seems to have gone into its making. It 
is equipped with a four-cylinder motor 4 inches by 6 
inches, weighs .3,850 pounds, and is given a rating of 
12-24 horse-power. It seems to handle a three-bottom 
plow in a very satisfactory way. 

One feature of especial note is the convenient and 
comfortable seat for the driver. The awkward, un- 
comfortable position which the driver must assume 
on many tractors constitutes an everlasting objection 
to them. On some machines the driver must sit straddle 
of the motor or frame and cannot easily change his 
position. To sit in such a manner for several hours at a 
stretch is tiresome to say the least. The driver, too, 
is quite well protected by the very ample guards from 
the dust and dirt thrown up in the field by the traction 
wheels, a feature well worth considering in the purchase 
of a tractor. 



Keeping Farm Roads Fit 

THE roads and lanes on the average farm iall into a 
more or less disreputable condition during the winter 
and spring months, making passage over them for teams 
or stock difficult and disagreeable. In a large part, 
neglect is responsible for this condition. It is quite 




Using a grader for open ditch work 

possible to make a good road out of earth and keep it 
good. A good road, like a good house, must have a good 
roof and a dry cellar. Adequate underdrainage by way 
of a line of tile on one or both sides of the road will 
provide the dry cellar; and a smooth surface with good 
crown constitutes the roof. 



The grader, or terracing machine, shown on this page, 
is inexpensive and yet effective in grading up the road. 
When drawn by four or six horses, a mile of road can be 
graded quickly and well. Once graded it will be neces- 
sary only to go over the road after heavy rains, to fill up 
stock and wagon tracks, and rub off high spots so that 
water may not stand on the surface. A split-log drag, 
or one made of planks, will accomplish the same pur- 
pose, after the proper crown is secured. 

The particular machine shown is quite a remarkable 
tool for digging or cleaning out old open ditches. It 
will pay for itself many times over for this work alone. 
It is also used in some cases for digging trenches for 
drain tile. 

The road grader drawn by a tractor, shown on this 
page, represents an interesting combination. A 30-foot 
roadway is completely covered in a single operation. 
.Several miles of road can be "touched up" in one day 
with such a rig. The tractor is doing the work of 24 
horses and six men. 

'' I Lack of Equipment in the Farm Kitchen 

I'^HE statement that the American people have been 
much more tardy in the purchase of modern, labor- 
saving equipment for the farm home than they have for 
I he farm' proper and for the barn cannot be successfully 
contradicted. The sickle has been replaced successively 
by the cradle, the self rake, and the binder, but the old 
stone churn with its complement of milk pans, the coal- 
oil lamp, the well sweep, still persist in surprising 
numbers. It should not be said that such order of 
development was not to be desired, for it will be readily 
admitted that a succes.sful, satisfactory farm home can- 
not be built on other than a fertile, well kept soil which 
produces high-yielding crops and thrifty stock. For 
50 years we have had the gospel of better soils, better 
crops, better live stock, better management preached 
from the lecture platform and spread by the press, but 
in all this time we have had but few champions of the 
better equipped farm house. 

One reason for tkm- lack of equipment in the 
(^Continued on page 128) 








^^M'^^ts.: 




'- '^'/■^^-- 



-'^■fc.lrtllr .;--.i .-.'jOfS^I^L^. 




The machine above used as a road grader 



A 25-50 tractor grading a 30-foot road in a single operation 



February 8, 1919 



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 



123 



Battleship Guns on the Western Front 

How the Navy Placetl Five 14-inch, 30-Mile Range, Guns on the Battle Line in France 

By C. L. McCrea, 




The 14-inch naval gun, on its specially designed car, used for shelling the German terrain for 30 miles back of their front 



DURING the closing days of the year 1917, ordnance 
experts of the U. S. Navy, who had been closely 
v^atching the trend of events in the great war, became 
intensely interested in the effect of long range bombard- 
ments. At a point about 28 miles from Dunkirk, the 
Germans had placed a large naval gun which opened 
fire upon that city, causing great damage, while at other 
points similar naval guns were carrying on their destruc- 
tive work. It was reported that the Germans regarded 
long range bombardments as of such primary importance 
that they had dismantled several of their older battle- 
ships in order to bring the guns from them into action 
on the western front. This tendency to increase the 
range of guns is demonstrated by the German innovation 
of a gun with a range of 75 miles, which fired a light 
projectile on the city of Paris (sometimes hitting that 
city — more often not). 

While the Navy's limited testing facilities — i. e., 
proving ground with a range of only 18,000 yards — had 
never permitted the firing of its big guns at high angles 
of .elevation, it was felt that the 14-inch 50-caliber naval 
rifle was superior to any German gun built, in range, 
accuracy, and striking power. 

The 14-inch naval gun throws a 1,400-pound projectile 
at a muzzle velocity of 2,800 feet per second. With 
the Navy type of shell its maximum range is well over 
40,000 yards or 22 miles, while using a special shell, 
designed for firing at extreme ranges, a range of about 
53,000 yards or 29 3^ miles was possible. 

Areas for destruction not hitherto touched were 
opened to a gun of this range. Troop centers, lines of 
communication, railroads, reserve store houses, and 
similar strategic points almost too numerous to mention 
could be destroyed by such guns. If mounted so that 
they could move rapidly from target to target, their 
possibilities were almost unlimited. Guns of this type 
were urgently needed. Rear Admiral Ralph Earle, 
Chief of the Navy Bureau of Ordnance, recognized that 
need and saw that if a battery of 14-inch guns could be 
placed in action on the fighting front in France by the 



summer of 1918, they could render a real service to the 
armies. 

It was decided that the emergency was such as to 
warrant using guns for this purpose that were intended 
for replacing damaged guns of the Fleet. Risks had to 
be shouldered in making this decision, but in time of 
war and need, responsibilities are heavy in all matters. 
It was, therefore, proposed to build mobile mounts for 
the guns (which meant railway mounts, for in no other 
way could the 95-ton, 14-inch gun be transported), 
completely equip them and place them in action in 
France before the close of the summer fighting in 1918. 

In less than 30 days, complete designs were prepared 
which called for a battery of five guns, each gun car 
train to be provided with a locomotive for hauling it, 
two ammunition cars, three berthing cars to house the 
op'=!rating personnel, a crane car, flat cars and gondola 
C3is for carrying material, as well as other auxiliary cars. 
In addition to the five-gun car trains, a sixth train was 
provided to go independently from one gun position to 
another. The equipment totalled five gun cars, six 
locomotives, and 72 cars. 

The gun car consists of two large bridge girders, tied 
into a single unit, 72 feet long and weighing 68 tons. 
In the well between the two girders is mounted the 14-inch 
naval gun, which with yoke and breech mechanism 
weighs 95 tons, and the 30-ton gun slide, in which the 
gun moves back during recoil. The hydraulic recoil 
brake and the counter recoil mecha