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Full text of "Scientific baseball"

UC-NRUF 




261 762 



-POX'S ATHLETIC L\SR. 



ASE BALL 



HOW TO PLAY 
THE GAME 



JOHN M'GRAW 




OFFICIAL 
RULES 



1913 



PRICE I O CENTS 



RICHARD K.FOX 
PUBLISHING COMPANY 

HEW YORK CITY 




RICHARD K. FOX 



SCIENTIF 1C 

BASEBALL 

By JOHN J. McGRAW 

Manager-Captain of the New York Club 
National League 



ALSO THE 



Official Rules for 1913 

AND 'SCHEDULE OF GAMES TO BE PLAYED 



FULLY ILLUSTRATED 



RICHARD K. FOX' PUBLISH ING COMPANY 

FRANKLIN SQUARE, NEW YORK CITY 



Copyright 1913 
BY RICHARD K. FOX PUBLISHING COMPANY, 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 
Schedules for National, American and In tern '1 League Games ior 1913 8 

Concern ma Pitchers 15 

Ti.e Man Behind the Bat 37 

Playing First Base 43 

On Second Base 47 

The Third Baseman 51 

Shortstop 55 

At the Bat 57 

The Outfielders 63 

Rule* 7 

Umpires and Their Duties ,. 89 

Rules for Post-season Championship G times 100 

World's. Championship Series, 1912 104 

National League Records, 1912. 105 

National League Batting Averages, 1912 106 

National League Pitching Averages, 1912.. 107 

American League Records, 1912 108 

American League Batting Average*, 1912 109 

American League Pitching Averages, 1912 , 110 

Pacific Coast League Records, 1912 Ill 

Pacific Coast League Batting Averages, 1912 112 

Pacific Coast League Pitching Averages, 1912 113 



266902 



INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE. 

Richard K. Fox 2 

John J. McGraw 16 

How Ball is Grasped for Start of Fade-away 18 

Position of Hand as Kail Leaves it 18 

The Drop-curve 20 

The Out-curve 20 

How to Throw a High Fast Ball 22 

Toe Spit Ball 22 

The In-curve 24 

The Slow Straight Bail 24 

Christy Mathpwson 36 

Joe Wood : 40 

Frank Cbance 44 

Ty Cobb 50 



SCHEDULES 



:OF THE: 



National, American and 
International Leagues 

For 1913 



AND THE 

OFFICIAL RULES 

for Professional Baseball 



Adopted by the Joint Playing Rules Committee of the National 
and the American Leagues at New York, February 16*1913 



BASEBALL SCHEDULE FOR 1913 

National League. American League. 


Boston at home vs. 


Chicago at home vs. 


Brooklyn. 
April 22, 23, 24, 25. May 29, 
30, 30, 31. Oct. 2, 3, 4. 


St. Louis. 
April 24, 25, 26. 27. June 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25. S'ept. 26 27. 


New York. 
April 17, 18, 19. 19, 21. Mav 
24, 26, 27, 28. Sept. 29, 30. 


Detroit. 
April 21. 22, 23. May 4, 29, 
30, 30, 31. June 1. Aug. 30, 31. 


Philadelphia. 
April 26, 28, 29, 30. June 21, 
23, 24. Sept. 4, 5, 6, 8. 


Cleveland. 
April 17, 18, 19, 20. Mav 24, 


~5. June 26, 27, 28, 29. Sept. 

28. 


Pittsburgh. 
May 6, 7, 8, 9. July 12. 14, 
15, 16. Aug. 25, 26, 27. 


Washington. 
May 7. 8, 9. 10. July 20, 21, 
22, 23. Aug. 24, 25, 26. 


Cincinnati. 
May 15, 16, 17, 19. Julv 22, 
23, 24. Aug. 16, 18, 19, 20. 


Philadelphia. 
Mav 11, 12. i:j, 14. July 16. 
17. 18, 1'J. Aug. 21, 22, 2:5. 


Chicago. 
May 20, 21, 22. Julv 17, 18, 19, 
21. Aug. 12, 13, 14, 15. 


New Y"ork. 
Mav 15. 16. 17, 18. July 9, 
10, 11. Aug. 14, 15, 16, 17. 


St. Louis. 
Mav 10, 12, 13, 14. July 8, 9, 
10, 11. Aug. 21, 22, 23. 


Boston. 
Mav 19, 20, 21, 22. Julv 12, 
13,* 14, 15. Aug. 18, 19, 20. 


Brooklyn at home vs. 


St. Louis at home vs. 


Boston. 

May 1, 2, :{. 5. June 30. July 
1, 2, 3. Aug. 28, 29, 30. 


Chicago. 
April 13, 14, 15. 16. Julv 3, 


4, 4. Sept. 4, 5, 6, 7. 


New York. 
April 26, 28, 29, 30. July 4, 4, 
5, 7. Sept. 25, 26, 27. 


Detroit. 
April 10, 11, 12. May 24, 25, 
26, 27, 28. July 5, 6, 7. 


Philadelphia. 
April 9. 18, 1!). 21. Mav 24, 26, 
27, 28. Sept. 1, i, 2. 


Cleveland. 
April 30. May 1, 2, 3, 4. 
June 30; Julv 1, 2. Aug. 29, 
30, 31. 


Pittsburgh. 
May 20, 21, 22, 23. July 17, 
IS, 19, 21. Aug. 13, 14, 15. 


Washington. 
Mav 11, 12, 13. 14. July 16, 
17, 18, 19. Aug. 21, 22, 23. 


Cincinnati. 
May 10, 12, 13, 14. July 8, 9, 
10, 11. Aug. 21, 22, 23. 


Philadelphia. * 
Mav 7, 8, 9, 10. July 20. 21, 
22, 23. Aug. 24, 25, 26. 


Chicago. 
Mav 6, 7, 8, 9. July 12, 14, 


New York. 
Mav 19, 20, 21, 22. July 12, 


15, 16. Aug. 25, 26, 27. 


13, 14, 15. Aug. 18, 19, 20. 


St. Louis. 
Mav 15, 16, 17. 19. July 22, 
23, 24. Aug. 16. 18, 19, 20. 


Boston. 
May 15, 16, 17, 18. July 9, 
10, 11. Aug. 14, 15, 16, 17. 



BASEBALL SCHEDULE FOR 1913 

National League. American League. 


New York at home vs. 


Detroit at home vs. 


Boston. 
April 10, 11, 12. June 25. 20, 
27, 28. Sept. 1, 1, 2, 3. 


Chicago. 
April 2!>, 30. May 1, 2, 3. 
June 30. July 1, 2. Oct. 3, 
4. 5. 


Brooklyn. 
April 14, 15, 16. June 21, 23, 
24. Sept. 4, 5, 6, 8, 24. 


St. Louis. 
April 17. 18. 19. 20. June 26, 
27, 28, 29. Sept. 1, 1, 28. 


Philadelphia. 
April 22. 23, 24. 25. May 29. 
30, 30, 31. Oct. 2, 3, 4. 


Cleveland. 
April 24, 25, 26. 27, 28. Sept. 
6, 7, 26, 27. Oct. 1, 2. 


Pittsburgh. 
May 15, 16, 17, 19. July 22, 
23, 24. Aug. 16, 18, 19, 20. 


Washington. 
May 15. 16. 17. 18. July 9. 
10, 11. Aug. 14, 15, 16, 17. 


Cincinnati. 
May 6, 7, 8, 9. July 12. 14, 
15, 16. Aug. 25, 26, 27. 


Philadelphia. 
May 19. 20, 21, 22. July 12, 
13, 14, 15. Aug. 18, 19, 20. 


Chicago. 
May 10, 12, 13, 14. July 8. 9, 
10, 11. Aug. 21, 22, 23. 


New York. 
May 7, 8, 9. 10. July 20. 21, 
22, 23. Aug. 21, 22, 23. 


St, Louis. 
Mav 20, 21, 22. 23. July 17. IS, 
19, 21. Aug. 13, 14, 15. 


Boston. 
May 11, 12, 13, 14. July 16, 
17, IS, 19. Aug. 24, 25, 26. 


Philadelphia at home vs. 


Cleveland at home vs. 


Boston.. 
April 14, 15, 16. July 4. 4, 5, 
7. Sept. 24, 25, 26, 27. 


Chicago. 
April 10, 11, 12. May 26. 27, 
28. July 5, 6. Sept. 1, 1, 2. 


Brooklyn. 
April 10, 11. 12. June 2, 25, 26, 
27, 28. Sept. 29, 30. Oct. 1. 


St. Louis. 
April 21, 22, 23. May 29, 30, 
30, 31. June 1. Oct. 3, 4, 5. 


New York. 
May 1, 2, 3, 5. June 30. July 
1, 2, 3. Aug. 28, 29, 30. 


Detroit. 
April 13, 14, 15, 16. June 21, 
22. July 3, 4, 4. Sept. 4, 5. 


Pittsburgh. 
May 10, 12, 13, 14. July 8, 9, 
10, 11. Aug. 21, 22, 23. 


Washington. 
Mav 19. 20, 21, 22. July 12. 
13, 14, 15. Aug. 18, 19, 20. 


Cincinnati. 
Mav 20, 21, 22, 23. July 17, 
18, 19, 21. Aug. 13, 14, 15. 


Philadelphia. 
May 15, 16, 17, 18. July 9, 


10, 11. Aug. 14, 15, 16, 17. 


Chicago. 
May 15, 16, 17, 19. July 22, 
23, 24. Aug. 16, 18, 19, 20. 


New York 
May 11, 12, 13, 14. July 16, 
17, 18, 19. Aug. 24, 25, 26. 


St. Louis. 
May 6, 7, 8, 9. July 12, 14, 
15, 16. Aug. 25, 26. 27. 


Boston. 
Mav 7, 8, 9, 10. July 20, 21, 
22, 23. Aug. 21, 22, 23. 



BASEBALL SCHEDULE FOR 1913 

National League. American League. 


Pittsburg at home vs. 


Washington at home vs. 


Boston. 
June 2, 3, 16, 17, 18. 19. Aug. 
7, 8, 9. Sept. 15, 16. 


Chicago. 
June 12. 13, 14, 1(5 Aug. 4, 
". <>. 7. Sept. 13, 15, 16. 


Brooklvn. 
June 9, 10, 11. Julv 30, 31. 
An. 1, 2. Sept. 9, 20, 22, 23. 


St. Louis. 
June 3. 4, 5, 6. Julv 25. 20, 
28, 29. Sept. 20, 22, 23. 


New York. 
June 12. 13. 14, 20. Aug. 4, 5, 
<i. Sept. 10, 11, 12, 13. 


Detroit. 
June 7, 9, 10, 11. July 30, 31. 
Aug. 1, 2. Sept. 17, 18, 19. 


Philadelphia. 
June 4, 5, 6, 7. July 25, 26, 
28, 29. Sept. 17, 18, 19. 


Cleveland. 
June 17, 18, 19. Aug. 8, 9, 
11, 12. S'ept. 9, 10, 11, 12. 


Cincinnati. 
April 17, 18, 19. May 20. 27, 
2*. July 7. Sept. 1, 1, 2, 3. 


Philadelphia. 
April 14, 15, 16. June 2, 25, 
26, 27, 28. Sept. 29, 30. Oct. 
1. 


Chicago. 
April 25. 26. May 24, 29, 30. 
30, :n. Aug. 29, 30. Sept. 24, 25. 


New York. 
April 10. 11, 12. June 20, 21, 
23, 24., Sept. 4, 5, 6, 8. 


Si. Louis. 
April :;<>. Mav 1. 2. 3. July 
:;. 1. 4. 5. Sept. 4, 5, 6. 


Boston. 
April 22, 23, 24. 25. Mav 29, 
30, 30, 31. Oct. 2, 3, 4. 


Cincinnati at home vs. 


Philadelphia at home vs. 


Boston. 
June 12, 13, 14, 15. Aug. 3, 
4, 5, 6. Sept. 10, 11, 13. 


Chicago. 
June 17, 18, 19. Aug. 8, 9, 
11, 12. Sept. 9, 10, 11, 12. 


Brooklyn. 
June 3, 4, 5, 7. July 26, 27, 
28. 29. Sept. 17, IS, 19. 


St. Louis. 
June 7, 9. 10. 11. July 30, 31. 
Aug. 1, 2. Sept. 17, IS, 19. 


New York. 
June 1, 16, 17, 18, 19. Aug. 
7. S, n, 10. Sept. 20, 21. 


Detroit. 
June 3. 4, 5. 6. Julv 25. 26. 
28, 29. Sept. 20. 22. 23. 


Philadelphia. 
June 8. 9. 10, 11. Julv 30, 
31. Aug. 1, 2. Sept. 14, 15. 

in. 


Cleveland. 
June 12. 13, 14. 16. Aug. 4. 
5. 6, 7. Sept. 13, 15, 16. 


Pittsburgh. 
April 10, 11, 12. May 4, 25. 
June 21, 22, 23, 24. July <;. 
Sept. 7. 


Washington. 
April 26. 2S. 29, 30. Mav 24. 
2(5. 27. 2S. Sept. 1. 1,' 2. 


Chicago. 
April 20. 21. 22, 23. June 25. 
26. 27, 28, 29. Sept. 27. 28. 


New York. 
April 22. 23. 24. 25. Mav 29. 
30. 30. 31. Oct. 2. 3. -4. 


S't. Louis. 
April 13, 14. lf>. 1C. May 21. 
June 30. July 1. 2. Aug. 29. 
30,- 31. 


Boston. 
April 17. IS, 19. 21. June 20. 
21. 23, 24. S'ept. 4. 5. 6. 



BASEBALL SCHEDULE FOR 1913 

National League. American League. 


Chicago at home vs. 


New York at home vs. 


Boston 
June 4, 5, 6, 7. July 26, 27, 
28, 29. Sept. 17, 18, 19. 


Chicago. 
June 7, 9. 10, 11. July 30, 31. 
Aug. 1, 2. Sept. 17, 18, 19. 


Brooklyn. 
June 12 13, 14, 15. Aug. 3, 
4, 5, G. Sept. 10, 11, 13. 


St. Louis. 
June 17, 18, 19. Aug. S, 9. 
11, 12. Sept. 9, 10, 11, 12. 


New York. 
June S, 9, 10, 11. July 30, 31. 
Aug. 1, 2. Sept. 14, 15, 16. 


Detroit. 
June 12, 13, 14, 10. Aug. 4. 
5, 6, 7. Sept. 13, 15, 16. 


Philadelphia. 
Juno 16, 17, 18, 19. Aug. 7, 
8, 9, 10. Sept. 20, 21, 22. 


Cleveland. 
June 3. 4, 5, 6. July 25, 20, 
28, 29. Sept. 20, 22, 23. 


Pittsburgh 
April 13, 14, 15. April 27, 
28. June 30. July 1, 2. 
Aug. 31. Oct. 4, 5. 


Washington. 
April 17, 18, 19, 21. Julv 4, 
4, 5, 7. Sept. 25, 26, 27. ' 


Cincinnati. 
r April 29, 30. Mav 1, 2, 3. 
July 3, 4, 4, 5. Sept. 5, 6. 


Philadelphia. 
May 1, 2, 3, 5. June 30. July 
1, 2, 3. Aug. 28, 29, 30. 


St. Louis. 
April 10, 11, 12. May 4, 25, 
20, 27. July 6. Sept. 7, 8, 9. 


Boston. 
April 26, 28, 29, 30. May 24, 
26, 27, 28. Sept. 29, 30. Oct. 1. 


St. Louis at home vs. 


Boston at home vs. 


Boston. 
June 8, 9, 10, 11. July 30, 
31. Aug. 1, 2. Sept. 20, 21, 
22. 


Chicago. 
June 3, . 4, 5, 6. July 25, 26, 
28, 29. Sept. 20, 22, 23. 


Brooklyn. 
June 16, J7, 18, 19. Aug. 7, 
8, 9, 10. Sept. 14, 15, 16. 


St. Louis. 
June 12, 13, 14, 16. Aug. 4, 
5, 6, 7. Sept. 13, 15, 16. 


New York. 
June 3. 4, 5, 7. July 26, 27, 
28, 29. Sept. 17, 18, 19. 


Detroit. 
June 17, 17, 18, 19. Aug. 8, 
9, 11. Sept. 9, 10, 11, 12. 


Philadelphia. 
June 12, 13, 14, 15. Aug. 3, 
4, 5, 6. Sept. 10, 11, 13. 


Cleveland. 
June 7, 9, 10, 11. Julv 30,. 
31. Aug. 1, 2. Sept. 17, 18,' 
19. 


Pittsburgh. 
April 20, 21, 22, 23. June 25. 
26, 27, 28, 29. Sept. 27, 28. 


Washington. 
Mav 1, 2, 3, 5. June 30. Julv. 
1, 2, 3. Aug. 28, 29, 30. 


Cincinnati. 
April 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. May 
29, 30, 30, 31. Oct. 4, 5. 


Philadelphia. 
April 10, 11, 12. Julv 4, 4, 
5, 7. Sept. 24, 25, 26, 27. 


Chicago. 
April 17, 18, 19. June 1, 20, 
2], 22, 23. Sept. 1, 1, 2. 


New York. 
April 14, 15, 16. June 25, 26, 
27, 28. Sept. 1, 1, 2, 3. 



BASEBALL SCHEDULE FOR 1913 

International League. 


Toronto at home vs. 


Buffalo at home vs. 


Montreal. 
June 9, 10, 11. 11. Jnlv 10, 
11, 12, 12. Sept. 8. 9, 10. 


Toronto. 
Mav 29, 30. 30. 31. Julv .". 
7, 8, 9. Sept. 1, 1, 2. 


Buffalo. 
June 5. 0. 7. 7. June 30. Julv 
1, 1, 2. Sept. 11, 12, 13. ' 


Montreal. 
July 3, 4, 4. Sept. 3. 4. 5, 0, 
18, 19, 20, 20. 


Rochester. 
Tune 2, 3, 4, 4. July 17, 18, 
19, 19. Sept. 15, *16, 17. 


Rochester. 
May 26, 27, 2S June 12. 13. 
14, 14. July 14, 15. 15, 16. 


Baltimore. 
May 15, 16, 17, 19. July 21, 
22, 23, 24. Aug. 28, 29, 30. 


Baltimore. 
May 10, 12, 12. 13. 14. Aug. 
2, 2, 4. 25, 26, 27. 


Providence. 
MMV 21, 22, 24, 24. July 29, 
30. 31. Aug. 1, 21, 22, 23. 


Providence. 
Mav 15, 10. 17. 19. Jnlv 25. 
26, 26, 28. Aug. 18. 19, 20. 


Newark. 
May 0. 7, 8, 9. July 25. 2G, 
2G, 28. Aug. 18, 19. 2n. 


Newark. 
May 20, 21, 22. 24. July 21. 
22, 23, 24. Aug. 28, 29.' 3d. 


Jersey City. 
M:iv 10, 12, 13, 14. Aug. 2, 
2'. 4. 4. Aug. 25. 20. 27. 


Jersev Citv. 
May 6, 7, 8, 9. July 29. 30, 
31. Aug. 1, 21, 22, 23. 


Montreal at home vs. 


Rochester at home vs. 


Toronto. 
M.-iv 2.",, 20. 27, 28. June 12, 
13, 14. July 13, 14, 15, 10. 


Toronto, 

Jlllv 3. 4. 4. -Sept. 3. 4. 5. 
6, IS. 19. 20. 20. 


Buffalo. 
June 1, 2, 3, 4. July 17, 18, 
19. 20. Sept. 15, 1C, 17. 


Montreal. 
May 29. 30, 30, 31. July 5, 
7, 8, 9. S'ept. 1, 1. 2. 


Rochester. 
June 5, 6, 7. 8. June 30. July 
1, 1, 2. Sept. 12, 13, 14. 


Buffalo 
June 9. 10, 10, 11. Julv 10. 
11, 12, 12. Sept. 8, 9, 10. 


Baltimore. 
May 21 22, 24. 24. July 25. 
IK'.. 27. 2S. Aug. 18, 19, 20. 


Baltimore. 
May 0, 7. S. 9. Julv 29. 30, 
31. Aug. 1, 21, 22, 23. 


Providence. 
May 0. 7, 8. 9. Aug. 2, 3. 
4, 4. Aug. 25, 20. 27. 


Providence. 
May 10, 12. i:;. 14. Julv 21. 
22, 23. 24. Aug. 28, 29, 30. 


Newark. 
May 10, 11, 13. 14. July 29. 
30, 31. Aug. 1, 22, 23. 24. 


Newark. 

Mav 15. 10. 17. 17. 19. Aug. 
2, 2, 25, 25, 26, 27. 


Jersev Citv. 
May 16, 17, 18, 19. July 21, 
22, 23, 24. Aug. 29. 30. 31. 


Jersey City. 
Mav 20, 21, 22. 24. Julv 25. 
20. 20. 28. Aug. 18, 19. 2O. 



BASEBALL SCHEDULE FOR 1913 

International League. 


Baltimore at home vs. 


Newark at home vs. 


Toronto. 
April 30. May 1, 2, 3, 3. June 
27, 28, 28. Aug. 5, G, 7. 


Toronto. 
April 1C, 17, 18. 19. June 15, 
16, 17, 18. Aug. 15, 10, 17. 


Montreal. 
April 21, 22, 23, 24. June 10, 
20, 21. Aug. 11, 12, 13, 14. 


Montreal. 
April 25, 20, 27. 2S. June 23. 
24, 25, 20. Aug. 8, !). Id. 


Buffalo. 
April 25, 20, 28, 29. June 23, 
24, 25, 20. Aug. 15, 16, 10. 


Buffalo. 
April 20, 22, 23, 24. June 19, 
20, 21, 22. Aug. 5, 6, 7. 


Rochester. 
April 30. May 1, 3, 4, 18. 
June 28, 29. Aug. 3, 12, 13, 
14. 


Rochester. 
April 1C, 17, 18. 19. June 10, 
17, 17, 18. Aug. 8, 9, 9. 


Providence. 
June 0, 7, 7 July 3, 4 4, 


Baltimore. 
May 25. June 8, 9, 10, 11. 
July 13, 14, 15. Sept. 8, 9, 
10. 


5. Sept. 11, 12, 12, 13. 


Newark. 
May 20, 27, 28, 29. June 30. 
July 1, 2. Sept. 1, 1, 2, 3. 


Providence. 
June 12, 13, 14. July 17, 18, 
19, 20. Aug. 31. Sept. 15, 
16, 17. 


Jersey City. 
June 2, 3, 4. 5. July 10, 11, 
12, 12. Sept. 4, '5, 0. 


Jersey City. 
M-iy 5, 30 (a'.m.), 31. June 1. 
July 4 (p.m.), 7, 8, 9. 
Sept. 12. 20. 21. 


Providence at home vs. 


Jersey City at home vs. 


Toronto. 
April 25, 27, 28. June 23, 24, 
25. 20. Aug. 8, 9, 10. 


Toronto. 
April 20. 22, 23, 24. June 19, 
20, 21. 22. Aug. 12, 13, 14. 


Montreal. 
April 10, 17, 18, 19. June 15. 
16, 17, 18. Aug. 15, 16, 17. 


Montreal. 
April 30. May 1, 3, 4. June 
27, 28, 29, 29. Aug. 5, 6. 7. 


Buffalo. 
April 30. Mav 1, 3 4. June 
27, 28, 29. Aug. 11, 12, 13, 14. 


Buffalo. 
April 10, 17, 18, 19. June 15, 
10, 17, 18. Aug. 8, 9, 10. 


Rochester. 
April 20, 22, 23. 24. June 19, 
20, 21, 22. Aug. 5. 0, 7. 


Rochester. 
April 25. 20, 27, 28. June 23, 
24, 25, 20. Aug. 15, 16, 17. 


Baltimore. 
May 30, 30, 31. Juno 1. July 
0, 7, 8, 9. Sept. 19, 20, 21. 


Baltimore. 
June 12, 13, 14. July 17, 18, 
19, 20. Sept. 7, 15,* 10, 17. 


Newark. 
June 2, 3, 4, 5. July 10, 11, 
12. Sept. 4, 5, 0, 7. 


Providence. 
June 8, 9, 1O, 11. July 13. 14. 
15, 16. Sept. 8, 9, 10. 


Newark. 

April 29. May 30 (p.m.). June 
0, 7. July 3, 4 (a.m.), 5. 
0. Sept. 13, 14, 19. 


Jersey City. 
May 25. 20, 27, 28.' June 30. 
July 1, 2. 'Sept. 1, 1, 2, 3. 



OFFICIAL DIAGRAM OF A 
BASEBALL FIELD. 



E 



1! 



64J 



o 



For further information see Rules from 
No. 2 to No. 12. 



CONCERNING PITCHERS 



Christy Matthewson, who is probably the 
most successful pitcher in the business, is a 
man who all young fellows in the game might 
well follow, for he has mastered the science of 
the game from the pitcher's standpoint. Here 
is something he has said that will be of great 
interest to the baseball student. Read it over 
many times and then practice until you have 
attained perfection. That's the only way. 

The value of a pitcher is almost invariably 
measured by his ability to change his pace or 
mix up the style of ball he is capable of de- 
livering. Unless he can mix them up pretty 
well he is of little use against a clever team. 

Of the various balls used by latter day 
pitchers the fast ball, which may have an in- 
ward shoot, outward shoot or upward shoot at 
the end of it, comes first. All pitchers must 
be able to use this ball with more or less suc- 
cess. Then comes the absolutely slow ball, 
which does not curve or revolve ; .the drop 
curve, one of the most popular curves of the 
day; the out curve, which is very seldom used 




' ifc' IB 



JOHN j. MCQBAW. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



in the big leagues; the raise ball, an under- 
hand curve, used with very little success by 
any one except McGinnity; the fall away, or 
fade away, which I have used with greater 
effectiveness than any other pitcher, and the 
spit ball, a style of delivery the science of 
which cannot be explained and one very diffi- 
cult to control. 

For two or three years I relied almost en- 
tirely upon the drop curve, fast ball and fall 
away, and these I shall explain fully, as I be- 
lieve they are the most useful to pitchers 
under the present system of playing the national 
game. 

In the first place, it takes a good physical 
specimen of manhood to make a successful 
twirler. Knotted muscles, however, are not 
an essential to a great pitcher, as the ball is 
propelled mainly by a swing of the body and 
the bulk of the power is derived from the back 
and shoulders, the arm acting as a whipcord 
to snap the ball. In fact, the more a pitcher 
can learn to get the power from his body the 
more he will save his arm and the longer he 
will be able to do himself justice in the box. 

I attribute a great deal of my success to my 
ability to get most of the propelling force from 
the swing of the body. 

When mastered there is no more successful 



HOW BALL IS GRASPED FOB START OF FADE-AWAY. 




POSITION OF HAND AS BALL LEAVES IT. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 19 

ball than the drop, or drop curve. It is a ball 
that can be made to break very abruptly or a 
gradual break can be put to it. When it breaks 
quickly the batter invariably hits over it and 
misses it entirely. It is the ball I usually rely 
upon when there is a man on third base and 
no one out. 

To deliver this ball the arms must be thrown 
high above the head. As the pitching arm 
rapidly descends straight forward the arm is 
turned slightly outward, and when the arm is 
horizontal the hand is turned slightly outward 
and the snap, a hard one, is given by the wrist, 
and the greater the snap the faster will be the 
curve. 

In holding the ball the first two fingers are 
above it and the thumb below. The ball is 
held rather loosely. When the twist or snap 
of the wrist takes place at the moment of de- 
livery the hand tnrns so that the thumb is on 
top of the ball and the first two fingers below 
it. A full arm swing is used. The body is 
bent far forward so that all the weight of the 
body is behind the ball, and as the arm de- 
scends with a mighty swing the weight of the 
body is shifted from the right foot to the left. 
Under no circumstances use moisture when 
delivering this great puzzler to batsmen. On 
leaving the hand the ball travels in a straight 




HOLD THE BALL LIKE THIS FOR A DROP CURVE. 








HOW TO START THE OUT-CURVE. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



line until just before it reaches the plate, 
when it breaks sharply downward in front of 
the batter. 

As can be well guessed such a ball is a great 
strain on the muscles of the arm when de- 
livered with all the power a pitcher possesses. 
Like all curves the ball can be used at varying 
speeds. When men are not on bases it is a 
fine ball to pitch if it is desired to make the 
batter send out a grounder that can be easily 
fielded. In fact any curve can be used fast or 
slow with this purpose in view. 

By not bringing the ball quite so high above 
the shoulder when starting to make the throw 
an outdrop can be attained. I seldom consider 
it necessary, however, to try the outdrop. It 
has less space in which to be called a fair ball 
when passing over the plate, and is therefore 
more risky. The regular drop curve has all 
the space between the batter's shoulders and 
knees to make the batter score a strike, while 
the outcurve has but the width of the plate. 

When delivering this or any other curve the 
position of the feet is important. It comes 
natural to most of us, but if a pitcher begins 
wrong it is apt to injure his effectiveness. 
The feet should be about eighteen inches 
apart, with the toes squarely to the front when 
the pitcher is swinging his arms preparatory 



HOW TO THROW A HIGH FAST BALL. 




JIOW TO TiiKOW SPIT BALL. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



to delivering the ball. Then as the arms are 
outstretched overhead a long stride forward 
should be taken with the left foot. As the ball 
leaves the hand the right foot is pulled off the 
ground and all the weight of the body is on 
the left foot. As soon as the ball is delivered 
the feet are again placed side by side about 
eighteen inches apart, and in this position the 
pitcher is in a good position to handle a sharp 
hit or to start quickly after a bunt. * 

The hardest thing about the drop curve for 
a novice to learn is to not make the ball break 
too quickly. It is the correct twist of the 
wrist that accomplishes the desired result, so 
the twist requires the most study. 

The beginner had better refrain from at 
tempting any speed, as there is no ball that 
will create such havoc with the arm if used 
indiscreetly. 

No pitcher with a good assortment of curves 
should be required to play in more than two 
games a week. A great amount of tissue is 
broken down in the arm that does the work, 
and it takes a lot of time to rebuild it. 

The fall away, or fade away, ball is the most 
effective style of throwing a baseball that I 
have yet discovered. 

So far as I know, I am the only pitcher in 
League baseball to-day that habitually vises 



SENDING IN AN IN-CURVE. 



THE DECEPTIVE BLOW STRAIGHT BALL. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



this method of pitching. There was a twirler 
a few years ago who had some success with it, 
but he is no longer in the game. It took me 
considerable time to master it with any degree 
of perfection, but it came more or less natural 
to me. To others it seems to be a very hard 
ball to master. I have tried to teach it to 
several players, but none of them ever suc- 
ceeded in getting it down well enough to 
make practical use of it in a game. 

Even after they have grasped the idea and 
know fairly well how to send it across the 
plate, they lack the confidence to use it in a 
contest. Two pitchers that I could mention 
have been trying to add it to their accom- 
plishments for two years, and they are now 
about ready to give it up. For this reason I 
believe the fade away is the ball that comes 
most natural to my own particular build of 
muscle, or perhaps I am a poor coach. 

I regard the fade away as my most effective 
ball. I use it in every game, and it has never 
failed me in recent years when my control was 
in working order. It is the ball that has won 
for me all my honors in baseball, and I regard 
it as the best and most deceptive style of de- 
livery that a pitcher could possess. 

After a few drop curves and fast balls have 
been used there is no better ball than the fade 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



away for a change of pace. It is really an 
exceptionally slow ball, and it serves to relieve 
the strain on the pitcher as well as to puzzle 
batsmen. A simple definition for the fall 
away is that it is a ball 'that curves out from a 
left-handed batter when it is pitched by a 
right-handed pitcher. 

In starting the fade away a pitcher goes 
through practically the same motions that he 
uses for a fast drop curve. The ball is also 
held in the same way as for the drop curve, 
and these two things serve to mystify the man 
at the bat at the very start. The ball is held 
very loosely at the tips of the fingers, the first 
two fingers being above the ball and the thumb 
below it. The arms are thrown high above 
the head, as for the drop curve, but when the 
pitching arm begins to start the horsehide on 
its way the arm is brought out from the side 
of the body and raised to an angle of about 45 
degrees. This motion is gone through so 
quickly, however, that it is practically impos- 
sible for the batsman to detect the fact that he 
is going to get something very different from 
a drop curve. In the drop curve the arm de- 
scends straight down in front, but in the fade 
away the motion of the arm from its position 
at an angle of 45 degrees is a small outward 
swing. When the arm gets in front of the 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



pitcher just about on the level with his chin 
the hand is given a sharp twist inward, or to 
the left, which brings the back of the hand on 
top, and the loosely held ball, which is revolv- 
ing from the rapid action of the arm, slips out 
sideways or off the second finger. At the same 
time there is a rotary motion given to the hand. 
When the ball leaves the hand the arm is so 
twisted that the palm of the hand faces out- 
ward. 

The ball sails through the air at a deceptive 
gait until it gets about six feet from the bats- 
man, where it begins to curve both outward 
and downward. It is the rotary motion of the 
hand just before the ball is let go that imparts 
the outward curve to the ball. As the ball 
passes the batsman it is revolving at a great 
rate, and its course, as I've said, is both out- 
ward and downward. 

It can be easily imagined that such a ball is 
calculated to deceive the greatest wielder of a 
bat that ever strode the diamond. He is de- 
ceived at the start as to the speed of the ball. 
As it rushes towards him it looks like a fast 
high ball ; six feet away from him, when it 
begins to drop, it has the appearance of a slow 
drop ball, and then .as he swings at it it is 
travelling in two directions at once. 

Another good feature of the fade away is 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



that it can be delivered fast as well as slow, 
although it never attains the speed of what we 
baseball players call the fast ball. 

The ball often puzzles umpires, but when 
rightly placed it is invariably called a strike. 
The reason for this is that the ball has a good 
big target in which to score a strike. The 
diagonal break gives it about two feet of travel 
across the plate. 

Another thing that increases its effective- 
ness is its tremendous curve. In rising it I 
generally lure the batsman into the idea that 
he is about to receive a fast ball of some sort. 
He prepares to meet such a ball, and is there- 
fore wide of the mark when he strikes at a 
sphere with a two-foot curve on it. It is par- 
ticularly effective against left-handed batters, 
for if they meet it at all they will catch it on 
the end of the bat and either score a little pop 
fly or make a weak, dribbling hit toward the 
pitcher or third base. 

Right-handed batters are puzzled just as 
much by it, and I never hesitate to use it at 
any time. Many batsmen have a pretty good 
idea of the direction it will take when they 
guess what is coming, but they also know how 
hard it is to connect with and this lessens their 
confidence in their own skill. 

I invariably use the ball when two men are 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



on bases, and the opposing batsmen know it. 
The knowledge, however, does them little 
good, the ball being so hard to hit. 

No pitcher can be very effective in the box 
without having a fast ball at his command ; 
and it is, in fact, the ball that amateurs who 
aspire to be professionals should thoroughly 
master before perfecting their control of any 
other mode of pitching. 

If a pitcher depended entirely on slow balls 
and curves, he would weaken his effectiveness 
at least twenty-five per cent. The opposing 
batsmen would soon learn to anticipate what 
was coming, and base hits would be made with 
bewildering frequency. 

A fast ball may travel as straight as a sur- 
veyor's tape into the glove of the catcher, but 
the most effective way to vise it is to make it 
shoot in one of several directions. If delivered 
by a straight overhand movement, and with 
great force, it may sometimes jump upward, 
perhaps only an inch, but that may be enough 
of a jump to make the batsman hit under it or 
hit it so that it goes straight up in the air, 
where the catcher or pitcher can easily secure 
it when it descends. 

If delivered by a side arm snap, or, in other 
words, with the arm horizontal to the ground, 
it may shoot in toward the handle of a right- 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



handed batter. Some amateurs have been 
wont to call this shoot an incurve. It is not a 
curve, but a distinct shoot. At other times it 
may shoot in exactly the opposite direction; 
and, in fact, there is no telling what a fast ball 
will do. 

It therefore can be easily conceived that the 
fast ball is a very wicked ball ; and, in the 
hands of a pitcher with an attack of wildness, 
a very dangerous one. Pitchers often hit 
batsmen when using the fast ball, even when 
they have perfect control, for the ball is liable 
to take an unusually big shoot at any time. It 
is a ball calculated to rattle the man at the bat, 
for it is impossible for him to guess which way 
an extremely fast ball will jump when de- 
livered overhand. 

In many respects it is a simple sort of de- 
livery to learn. The ball is clutched in the 
same way as the fade away and drop curve 
balls ; that is to say, it is held by the two first 
fingers and the thumb, the latter being beneath 
the ball. There is one important exception, 
however. When delivering the drop curve 
and fade away, the ball is clasped so loosely 
that it moves about in the hand, while when 
the fast ball is desired the sphere is pressed 
tightly against the thumb. 

This pressure prevents the ball making a 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



curve. When the ball is started on its way 
with the overhand swing, the whole body must 
go behind the ball, and no sudden jerk should 
be given to the arm. Neither is there any 
snap of the wrist when the ball leaves the 
hand , When the ball starts for the plate the 
wrist is exactly on a level with the rest of the 
arm, which is extended out as straight as pos- 
sible horizontally to the ground. The ball 
leaves the hand at terrific speed and travels 
straight as a die. When it is about three feet 
from the batter it may shoot for six inches or 
more, either outward or inward. 

When the ball is rightly delivered the speed 
is so great that the time is too short for a bats- ' 
man's eye to judge it. He is compelled to 
either strike at random or step back out of 
harm's way. 

When using the fast ball it is essential to 
take care that 110 jerk of the arm or snap of 
the wrist occurs. The tremendous power put 
in the swing is apt to lead to a strain if the 
motion of the arm be not as smooth as pos- 
sible. The slightest jerk of the arm is apt to 
cause it to ache for some time. 

Control is, of course, the most important 
feature of the fast ball. When a pitcher has 
good control of it, it will be as useful against a 
clever team as any ball he could employ. If a 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



pitcher knows that a batsman hits weakly at a 
high ball, he must have the control to send 
the ball across the plate exactly at the height 
of the batter's shoulders, so that if an attempt 
is made to bat the ball it will be a strike. 
Some batsmen are very weak at hitting low 
balls when they pass over either the inside 
edge or the outside edge of the plate, and 
these men are easily struck out by a pitcher 
having perfect control of the fast ball. 

A good ball to use in connection with the 
fast ball is what is known in the profession as 
the slow ball, also known as the palm ball. 
This is thrown with exactly the same motion 
as the fast ball, and is therefore a gay deceiver 
to all but exceptionally clever batsmen. When . 
a pitcher desires to use the palm ball he places 
the horsehide in the palm of his hand and 
makes the same swing as for the fast ball ; . 
that is, bringing the arm well back over the 
head, and then straight forward at full length, 
but puts very little effort in the delivery. The 
slow ball has no curve, and very often does not 
revolve when on its way to the plate. 

It is this ball that is often described as look- 
ing "big as a house" when approaching the 
batsman. In fact, some sharp-eyed batters 
say that they can see the seam when the slow 
ball is used. It is a great ball to use when 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



you are sure that the fellow with the willow 
in his hands is expecting something speedy. 

A great deal has been written about the spit 
ball, and it is doubtless a very useful thing to 
those who have mastered it. I took the 
trouble to master this ball, and, like many 
other pitchers, I have had some success 
with it. I do not use it very often, for 
the reason that I am more successful with 
the other styles of delivery I have described 
in these articles. The spit ball is delivered 
in about the same manner as the fast 
ball, and it has a little more speed than the 
slow or palmed ball. It is not a curve, 
but makes an abrupt shoot downward when 
within two or three feet of the plate. It does 
not revolve when on its way to the batsman. 
Just why it takes that abrupt drop even the 
scientists who take an interest in baseball 
have been tinable to explain. The ball gets 
its undignified name from the fact that the 
first two fingers are thoroughly moistened 
with saliva, so that the ball glides over them 
without revolving. 

I might say in conclusion that it takes care- 
ful living and careful training to remain a 
first-class pitcher. A man may train con- 
scientiously, yet fail to maintain his prestige 
in the pitcher's box, owing to a lack of knowl- 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



edge of the art of taking care of his salary 
wing, as ball players put it. I inake it a point 
to give my arin a thorough rest several 
months each year, and I have found that this 
proves the wisest thing to do in the end. 
CHRISTY MATTHEWS 



[THE SPIT BALL.] 

The spit ball, which is probably the most de- 
ceptive ball that a batter ever struck at, is 
thrown at medium speed. If thrown fast it 
loses its effect. It must be carefully judged, 
for if it is too slow it will break too soon and 
probably hit the ground before it reaches the 
catcher 

To throw a spit ball wet the first and second 
fingers, so it will slip away instead of rolling 
away. With the latter movement the curve 
is sharp, but with the former it is sudden and 
sometimes startling. 

It will be found difficult at first to control 
the ball, and the beginner is apt to be dis- 
couraged because of his wild throws. 

Bear in mind one thing: In ordinary and 
curve pitching the ball leaves the thumb first 
and the fingers last ; with the spit ball this is 
reversed, and the thumb is made to control 
the ball instead of the fingers. 

The wetting of the two fingers is only for 






SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 35 



the purpose of allowing the ball to slip away 
from them easily. 

Very little rotary motion is imparted to the 
spit ball. It comes up big and slow and the 
batter can almost see the seams. Just as he 
draws back to hit the ball seems to receive 
new impetus and drops or jumps as if struck 
down from behind. If the batter hits where 
he aimed he misses it probably a foot. 

That is what has caused so many former 
heavy hitters to become disheartened and de- 
clare that nowadays, the batter is lucky if he 
hits .250 on the season. It certainly has cut 
down the hitting so much in one season that 
already a change in the rules is contemplated. 

Unlike an ordinary curved ball, the pitcher 
cannot be certain of the side direction the ball 
will take as it breaks downward. The perfect 
spit ball drops from the batter's hips to his 
knees or below in perhaps two feet of forward 
motion. 

The side breaks are determined by the 
manner in which the ball leaves the pitcher's 
hand. If the hand is turned with the arm 
facing down and to one side the break at the 
plate will be different than if the ball left the 
hand with the palm not turned over so far. 
There are a great many angles to deliver the 
ball from, and different arm motions, but they 
must be studied out. 




CKBISTY MATHEWSON, THE PHENOMENAL PITCHER. 



THE MAN BEHIND THE BAT. 



With pitchers studying out new and puzzling 
curves, throwing first fast and then slow, with 
drops, in-shoots, out-shoots, and rising balls, the 
position of catcher becomes trebly important, 
and his work increased accordingly. He must 
have a quick eye, strong hands, "and good nerve, 
for all three are necessary to good play in that 
particular position. 

Even in the most favorable light, the 'position 
is not an easy one, and it is always in the danger 
zone. 

Many a good catcher has pulled his team out 
of a hole at a critical moment, and has helped the 
pitcher to steady himself. The catcher is the 
man who is practically in control of the field, 
because his position faces every player, and, con- 
sequently, not a move should escape him. By a 
system of signals he can notify the pitcher of 
every move made by the base runner, and when 
and where to throw a ball to catch a man napping. 
A long reach is almost indispensable for a 
catcher, for by its means he will be the better 
enabled to handle wild pitches which come his 
way. 



38 SCICIiCC Of BASEBALL. 

A catcher who can hold the balls, no matter 
how fast or erratic they come, is bound to in- 
spire a pitcher with confidence, to say nothing of 
the good effect his work will have upon the rest 
of the team. 

A catcher with weight is bound to have a great 
advantage over a lighter man, because with nerve 
and pounds he will be better enabled to block a 
base runner who is willing to take all kinds of 
chances. He is bound to have nerve, anyhow, if 
he expects to be successful behind the brt, be- 
cause it is a great strain to be compelled to face 
the rapid-fire work of a good pitcher, watch the 
field, look after fouls, and protect the home plate. 

The catcher should never weaken in his work. 
If he is up against a fast, strong pitcher, he must 
take the balls as they come, and* not be afraid of 
them. 

For this the best thing is practice, and keep 
at it. His hands should never be allowed to grow 
soft. The good catcher will let nothing go past 
him ; he must be able to throw accurately, and he 
must have a brain that acts quickly. He must 
watch the bashes closely and head off a runner. 

Many a game has been lost by the wild throw 
of a catcher who wasn't well up in the game ; and 
there is no position on the team that calls'.. for 
harder work. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 39 

He must be thoroughly familiar with signals, 
and be able to use them in such a manner that 
they will not be learned by any of the opposing 
players. 

There is style in catching, just as there is style 
in anything else. There is a way to stand and a 
place to stand, as well as a way to throw. 

In standing, the body should be bent well for- 
ward from the hips, with the knees straight, or 
almost so. The object is to assume such a posi- 
tion that the ball can be readily handled at any 
point from the ground up. 

Don't crouch, but assume an easy position. 

Don't make any more work than is necessary, 
as energy is a good thing to take care of. 

Keep your feet fairly close together never 
more than 12 inches apart and always be pre- 
pared for a quick throw. Bear in mind that the 
catcher must be prepared for every kind of an 
emergency, and he must be in form to make a long 
throw, stop a low ball, a high ball, or get to a foul 
at an instant's notice. 

The catcher and the pitcher should thoroughly 
understand each other, and after the signal the 
hands should be held in such a position that the 
batter will not have any reason to suspect which 
kind of a ball is coming at the next throw; so 
never give any of the opposing team any advan- 
tage in that direction. 




JOE WOOD. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



The position of the catcher can always be 
changed when the pitcher is ready to deliver the 
ball, and he can then prepare himself to hold it. 

Too much importance cannot be placed upon 
throwing accurately and promptly to the bases, 
and here again is where practice will make the 
good player. One of the best catchers in the 
business has this to say: 

"When about to catch a ball which is to be 
immediately thrown, be in a position to receive 
the ball on the right side; take one short step 
with the left foot, and in throwing, send the ball 
straight from the shoulder without drawing the 
arm too far back." 

There isn't a great lot of speed in a ball of 
that character, but there is less time spent in start- 
ing it on the way, and that more than equalizes 
matters. 

In making long throws the ball should be sent 
overhand, but in throwing to first and third bases 
the snap throw will be found to be best. 

Don't catch with a stiff arm, as it is liable to 
injure the hands. Relax the muscles and let the 
hands give with the ball. Don't meet it with a 
jolt and increase the strain. 

The good catcher will be careful to keep his 
hands in good condition, and take no chances of 
having them crippled. 

Now a word as to foul flies. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



It looks easy from the outfield or grand stand 
for a catcher to get under a foul, but it takes a 
quick, alert player to handle them successfully. 
They are usually hit behind him, and it is some- 
times very confusing to have to turn around too 
quickly. But here is where practice comes in 
again, and it doesn't do any harm to practice on 
fouls. 

There have been many arguments as to where 
a catcher should stand when guarding the home 
plate, and there is a considerable difference of 
opinion on this point. Some stand a couple of feet, 
back of the line and near the plate, contending 
that this makes it impossible for the runner to 
slide around them. But the majority seem to 
concede that the proper position is in front of 
the plate and about two feet toward third base. 

Courage is most essential in a catcher's makeup, 
and he must be quick to think and quick to act. 




PLAYING FIRST BASE. 



There was a time, years ago, when the posi- 
tion of first baseman was not nearly so important 
as it is to-day, and so the man who defends that 
bag must be a particularly alert player. This may 
be more readily understood when the fact is 
stated that a large percentage of the balls thrown 
go to this point. With more than one man on 
bases his place is liable to be a critical one. 

It is considered good policy to cut off a player 
at third instead of the man who has just been at 
the bat, and who is trying to reach first, but 
the play should be made quickly. There are 
plenty of opportunities to make a double play, but 
many times they end in disaster, and allow the 
man on second base to g*et to third. So remem- 
ber the old rule that one out is better than none 
out. 

Watch the man at the bat. 

When the bases are vacant play well into the 
field, in order to get hits that would otherwise 
be safe, and depend upon the pitcher to cover the 
base. In the event of fielding the ball at a short 




PBANK CHANCK 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 45 

distance from the base, if the pitcher is covering 
it don't make the mistake of a swift overhand 
throw, which is liable to be muffed. 

In case the base is occupied, watch the batter 
closely, and if he bunts the ball toward first, run 
in and get it and throw it to second, on the chance 
that it may be returned promptly enough to head 
off the man who is trying to make first. 

Too much importance cannot be attached to this 
play, which has been adopted by all good first 
basemen. 

But don't hurry. 

Take your time, and make your throw accurate, 
and then get to your base, where you will be ready 
to receive the return throw. 

But before you throw, be sure that you will 
head the runner off. Make a sure-thing play of 
it, and if there should be any doubt about it, bear 
in mind that you can at least put out the batter. 

One of the most essential qualifications of a 
man playing first is his ability to successfully han- 
dle low balls, and a good clean pick up has re- 
tired many a runner at this point. 

A long reach is a good thing for any ball player 
to have, no matter in what position he plays, and 
its advantages in handling wild throws is self- 
evident. It is sometimes a difficult matter for a 
fielder to gauge a long throw, and the best posi- 
tion is to stand with both feet in front of the 



46 SCIENCE OP BASEBALL. 

base, so that the position may be readily changed 
from one side to the other, according as the ball 
may come. 

Foul flies come within the province of the first 
baseman, and in order to handle them he must be 
a speedy sprinter and always on the alert. 

And, finally, go after the ball never wait for 
it to come to you. 

Above all, don't stand behind your base when 
you expect to be in the play, because there is a 
good chance that the ball will reach you at the 
same time the runner arrives at the base, and he 
will be safe. 

Go forward to meet the ball, if possible, and. 
be where you can command control of the bag. 




ON SECOND BASE. 



It requires a cool head for second base, as well 
as a thorough familiarity with the signals, and 
many a man holding down second has brought 
disaster to his side by going up in the air at a 
critical moment. 

Assuming that the first and third bases are oc- 
cupied, and that the man on first is trying to steal 
to second, the man on second will give the signal 
to the catcher for a long throw, while the short 
stop will back him up. 

Then, if the man on third attempts to score, 
a wide-awake second baseman will return the ball 
to the home plate and cut him off. 

Then, assuming that the man on third does not 
try to score, the second baseman will allow the 
ball to go to the short stop, who has temporarily 
covered the base, and put out the runner from 
first to second. 

This is more or less of a trick play, when made 
under these circumstances, in order to induce the 
runner on third base to attempt to score. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



This play has caused more criticism among the 
experts than any other on the diamond, but it is 
given here in the way it is played by those second 
basemen who rank as stars. 

Quick judgment is absolutely necessary to this 
position, for with a runner on first, and the ball 
hit out to near him, a man hasn't got a great while 
to think what to do. Here is his chance for a 
double play, which he ought readily to make, if 
he keeps his head. But this, of course, with the 
understanding that no one, .or perhaps one man, 
is out. 

The proper place to stand is just inside of the 
line, two or three feet from the base, unless, of 
course, the runner happens to be a diver or a 
slider, when it is advisable to play behind the 
line. 

The object of playing inside the line is to be 
nearer the ball on a short throw from the catcher, 
and gathering in a grounder quickly. 

A great many flies come to the second baseman's 
territory, and many of them are extremely diffi- 
cult to handle. He may have to go to center or 
right field, or he may have to run in almost to 
the pitcher. In cases of this kind there is always 
the chance of two men, both after the same ball, 
colliding. To avoid this, if he is reasonably sure 
of getting the fly, he should shout : 

"I'll take it!" 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL. 19 

No reply is necessary to this, as the other player 
assumes that everything is all right. 

And then, on the other hand, unless this is done, 
both players may stop running for the ball, each 
one assuming that the other will take it, and both 
will miss it. 

Many an easy fly has proved a safe hit because 
of a misunderstanding between players in the 
field. 

A little practice and experience will soon prove 
to a player whether he can get the ball or 
not, and if his colleague has the better chance, 
he should' allow him by all means to take the 
ball. 

Don't try for a grand stand play at the expense 
of the game. 

Don't call out that you will take the ball un- 
less it is almost a certainty that you can take it. 





TY COBB. 



THE THIRD BASEMAN. 



The third baseman is right in line with some 
of the hardest hits, which it takes no little amount 
of nerve and courage to face. 

Besides this, he occupies what is considered by 
many experts one of the most difficult positions 
on the diamond. 

When a runner is on third base, the temptation 
to steal home is very great, and here is where the 
third baseman's alertness comes into play. With 
one run needed to win, or tie the score, his posi- 
tion is indeed a trying one, and it frequently hap- 
pens that the game is in his hands. 

A good man on third can make the position a 
comparatively easy one, just the same as a good 
man anywhere can do any kind of work with less 
exertion than one who may be less capable. 

The good man on third will study the peculiari- 
ties of the men at the bat, and become just as fa- 
miliar with them as the pitcher. He will pick 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



out the hunters, and try, as far as is possible, to 
anticipate the play. The toughest proposition he 
has to face is the expert with the willow, who is 
not only a scientific batter, but a sprinter of abil- 
ity. 

He must make up his mind that the batter is 
just as clever as he is, and will try and deceive 
him, if possible. 

Such a batter will do all in his power to induce 
the baseman to play in close by pretending to bunt, 
and will then make a safe hit. 

So the man on third who expects to be really 
good in the position must know to a certain extent 
about what is going to happen in advance. 

He should field all of the easy, slow hits, in- 
stead of the short stop, with whom he must have 
a complete understanding. And as in every other 
position on a nine, team work counts for a great 
deal in the long run. But he shouldn't conflict 
with the short stop by endeavoring to reach a ball 
that ought to be fielded by the latter. 

He should also watch the bases, and when he 
throws the ball, throw it to the right place at the 
right time. 

If it should so happen, as it frequently does, that 
a runner is on first base, and a hit is made to third, 
he should throw the ball to second, from whence 
it will go to first, with two out as the result But 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 53 

if there is no chance for a double play, he should 
give the throw to second the preference, by all 
means. 

There are many intricacies in this position which 
will soon be mastered by an earnest, intelligent, 
ambitious player, if he will study them. 




SHORT STOP. 



This means an exceedingly active man, good 
at a sprint, quick to get in action, and just as 
quick to stop; a good and accurate thrower, and 
the more ability he has to throw a ball the better 
will he be able to support a very trying posi- 
tion. 

He is also an emergency second and third base- 
man, and must be always ready to get to either 
one very quickly when he is wanted. 

The short stop covers a territory in which it 
is very easy for an experienced batter to send 
the ball, and he must, perforce, keep all his wits 
about him. It frequently happens that he will 
have to field the ball on a run. He must then 
make a dead stop and send it to first without de- 
lay. 

The position of short stop offers many oppor- 
tunities for individual star plays, and the work 
of a good man will have no little effect upon the 



56 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



And here, again, a word of caution, which 
seems to be particularly appropriate. Don't throw 
the ball until you are sure you are going to get 
it to the hands of the man who is waiting to re- 
ceive it, and don't be over anxious. Wild throws 
and fumbles are inexcusable errors, which should 
never be made. 

Better not throw the ball at all, than throw it 
wild, and give the runner a chance to make an- 
other base, or perhaps score. 

The duty of a short stop includes that of tak- 
ing part in the play when a runner is caught be- 
tween the bases, and he assists the baseman in 
running the player down. Don't make too many 
throws in play. Start off at full speed, and get 
the runner in action, and then make the throw to 
the fielder who is in front of the man. A few 
throws will generally do the trick, and a lot of 
surplus energy will be saved. 

The short stop should thoroughly familiarize 
himself with the system of signals of the team, 
especially those which are used between the catch- 
er and the first and second basemen, so that he 
will be informed of approaching plays, and be 
able to back them up promptly and effectively. 

He is supposed to be an all-around man, and 
he is ; and his business is to help the other play- 
ers on the team whenever and wherever it is pos- 
sible to do so. 



AT THE BAT. 



In many games the batting tells the story, and 
while a player may be a star in almost any posi- 
tion on the nine, yet he is liable to be weak when 
at the bat. 

The way to learn how to handle the bat is to 
go up against a good pitcher and try and hit him. 
Practice is everything, but in batting there is a 
great 'deal more to be learned than would seem 
at first glance. The veriest tyro can take a ball 
and a bat and knock flies and grounders, and he 
can become so proficient that he will be able to 
send the sphere a long distance. But put him up 
against a good pitcher, and he will fan the air for 
a few minutes and then go and take a seat on 
the bench and give somebody else a chance. 

So to all baseball players this advice is given: 

Learn how to bat pitched balls, and train the 
eye to follow the ball and gauge it accurately. 

There are very few young men who, if they hit 

a ball fairly, cannot send it a great distance ; they 

have muscle enough for that, so that it isn't a ques- 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



tion of strength alone; but the thing is to hit it, 
and the science of it all is to put it in a good safe 
spot, whether it is in the infield or the outfield. 

And now assume that the game has begun, and 
you are at the bat. Don't be in a hurry; there 
is plenty of time. Watch the pitcher, and when 
he delivers the ball shift your eyes to it. 

Stand firm, with the legs not too far apart, and 
within easy reaching distance of the plate. 

Be confident. 

Don't let the pitcher get your nerve. 

When the pitcher is about to deliver the ball 
be prepared to meet it, and try and make up your 
mind whether it is a fast ball or a slow ball. 

Study his delivery, and try to discover what he 
is going to do next. 

Rather let a ball go and have a strike, than 
miss it, because nothing is so discouraging as to 
hit at a ball and miss it. The weight should be 
on the forward foot, and once the ball has been 
started don't attempt to change your position, and 
don't make a wild swing or reach for it. 

A trained eye and close calculation will do more 
for the man at the bat than the muscles of San- 
dow ; and be careful not to take a long step on the 
spur of the moment in going after what seems 
an easy ball. Keep all the advantage of height 
in order to bat a moderately high ball. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL. 59 

The secret of a long hit is not muscle ; it's knack. 
It lies in the hitting of the ball at precisely the 
proper moment, with a sharp, quick stroke, and 
adding to it the impetus given by the shoulders. 

It isn't necessary to swing hard, either ; in fact, 
in many cases, it is a fatal error, and it robs the 
batter of his judgment of distance and accuracy. 

Don't look for a home run. The base hit is 
what pulls the batting average up. 

Study the field, and master the ability to send 
the ball into a certain territory, rather <han to try 
and send it a great distance; and don't forget 
that flies are fatal to the batter in many instances. 

It is conceded that the bat should hit the ball 
not more than six inches from the end. 

The weight of the bat doesn't make a very great 
difference that is at the option of the player. 

It is a hard matter to define just how the bat 
should be held, because many good players have 
their own opinion on this subject; but you will not 
be very far out of the way if you keep the hands 
slightly apart, and in a position that the bat may 
be readily and easily handled. 

One of the most important things to learn is 
scientific hitting. For this the hands should be 
much further apart, and the player should lean 
forward and wait for a low ball, which is the 
best for this purpose. The trouble with a high 



60 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

ball is that the batter is liable to pop up an easy 
fly, which can be easily caught by the infield. 

The ability to place a ball in any certain terri- 
tory it should be called an art cannot be over- 
estimated, and too much attention cannot be given 
to it. 

This particular chapter is one of the most im- 
portant in this book, because it applies to all play- 
ers, no matter what their positions on the nine 
may be. Every man has to bat, while only two 
or three have to pitch, or occupy certain posi- 
tions on the field. 

And, above all, be confident. 

Don't be afraid of being hit with the ball. Re- 
member you are about to engage in a contest in 
which you will have nine men against you, and 
you have every chance of winning, notwithstand- 
ing the apparently unequal odds. 

For the batter, confidence is half the game ; and 
he shouldn't fear a pitched ball; the fact of be- 
ing hit by a ball shouldn't get a man's nerve. It's 
all in the game, and if a player is enthusiastic over 
the great national game he will be willing to take 
the few hard knocks that go with it. 

If your eyes are at all bad, don't play ball, for 
you will never succeed. Every ball player needs 
two good eyes, and he must use them all the 
time, and more especially when he is at the bat. 



SCIENCE QF BASEBALL 



Nothing will so rattle a man as a wild 
pitcher, especially one who delivers a speedy 
ball, and many pitchers throw wild occasion- 
ally in order to make a batter nervous. But 
wait until the ball comes that you want. Make 
up your mind that you want to hit the ball if 
the opportunity offers, and don't hope and ex- 
pect to be sent to your base on balls. 

The player who stands in the correct posi- 
tion at the plate will not often be hit, because 
he will be able to dodge and side step readily. 

When a player is at the bat, the only thing 
he has to consider is the ball, as it comes from 
the pitcher, and he shouldn't shrink back 
every time a fast ball comes near him. 

Bunting to-day has become a distinct feature, 
and the man who knows the science of bunt- 
ing is a valuable acquisition on any team, no 
matter what his other qualifications may be. 

The man who bunts the ball can usually 
place it in any territory he desires, for the 
simple reason that he is better able to gauge 
an easy hit than if he were going to slug. 

And it is important that the bunter should 
know just when to bunt and where to put the 
ball, in order that it may do the most good. 



re**. 




THE OUTFIELDERS. 



The player who is a good outfielder is a valu- 
able and important addition to any team. His 
motto should be, "Don't wait, but get there." 

There are two essential qualifications, and they 
must be well developed a strong arm and the 
ability to sprint. 

Of course, it is understood that a fielder must 
possess other good points, but these come first, and 
without them he might as well try some other po- 
sition, for he will never make a success in the 
field. 

Practice and good judgment will tell the story, 
for a man never knows what he can do until he 
tries. 

It isn't everyone who can get under a fly and 
hold it, or who can field a bounding grounder and 
throw it accurately and swiftly to the proper base. 

The fielder must think quick and act quick. He 
must take the sun and the wind into considera- 
tion, as well as the nature of the ground upon 
which he is working. A slight inequality will 
often divert the course of a grounder that would 



6 4 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

otherwise come his way, and he must allow for 
that. 

He should know, the instant the ball is hit by 
the batter, just about where it will go, and he 
should not confine himself to too small a terri- 
tory. 

Fielding' alone will not win a game, but if suc- 
cessfully done its influence will be shown on the 
score of the opposing team. 

Don't hold the ball, but throw it at once to the 
proper place, and be accurate about it, too, for 
a wild throw from the outfield is usually disas- 
trous, and gives the runner a chance to advance. 

It is a good rule for the center fielder, as well 
as the left fielder, to throw to second base, if there 
is a man on first, and to throw to third if there is 
a man on second. 

With the right fielder it is different, but it is 
too long a throw to third from where he would 
probably field the ball, and with a man on first 
his play would be to send the ball to second ; and 
with no men on bases, to throw it to first. 

Another point for fielders is that the fielders 
should not interfere with each other. Go for the 
ball if you have any kind of a chance to get it, 
and if you are reasonably sure you can handle it, 
announce the fact as you are running. If not, 
it is just as well to call to any of the other fielders 
who may be going for it, "You take it !" 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 65 

This not only prevents confusion, but prevents 
the possibility of the ball dropping uncaught be- 
tween two players, which has been known to oc- 
cur. 

A good fielder will know as soon as a ball is 
hit just about where it will go, especially if it is 
a long fly ; and if he is a good man, and he judges 
the fly will go over him, he will not keep backing 
and stumbling, but he will instantly gauge it, and, 
turning his back on it, will run to the place where 
he expects it will land. Here is where speed 
comes in, for the sooner he reaches the desired 
point the more time he will have to get directly 
under it in its drop. 

But such work as this can come only from 
long practice. It is worth the while in the end, 
and it will more than repay the ambitious ball 
player. Of course, it is easier to run in for a ball 
than out for it, but batters do not hit a ball to be 
caught, and the conscientious fielder will find that 
there is plenty of work cut out for him. 

In fielding a grounder, don't wait until it comes 
to you, but go after it, and get it, if possible, on 
a short bound. 

Always back up the play of another fielder. No 
man is infallible, and he is liable to miss a ball; 
but with two men the chances of missing are mini- 
mized, and besides, it will serve to make the run- 
ners stick to their bases a little closer. 



66 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



- 



Another thing: a man who is backed up will 
have more confidence in his work. 

Good support is invaluable in every part of the 
game of baseball. 

Help each other, and remember, again, that good 
team work will tell in the long run. 




RULES. 



Rule 1. The Ball Ground. 

The ball ground must be enclosed. To obviate the 
necessity for ground rules, the shortest distance from a 
fence or stand on fair territory to the home base should 
be 235 feet and from home base to the grandstand 
90 feet. 
Rule 2. To Lay Off the Field. . 

To lay off the lines defining the location of the several 
bases, the catcher's and the pitcher's position and to 
establish the boundaries required in playing the game of 
baseball, proceed as follows: 

Diamond or Infield. 

From a point, A, within the grounds, project a 
straight line out into the field, and at a point, B, 154 feet 
from point A, lay off lines B C and B D at right angles 
to the line A B; then, with B as a center and 63.63945 
feet as a radius, describe arcs cutting the lines B A at F 
and B C at G, B D at H and B E at I. Draw lines 
F G, G E, E H, and H F, which said lines shall be the 
containing lines of the Diamond or Infield. 

Rule 3. The Catcher's Lines. 

With F as a center and 10 feet radius, describe an arc 
cutting line F A at L, and draw lines L M and L O at 
right angles to F A, and continue same out from F A 
not less than 10 feet. 

Rule 4. The Foul Lines. 

From the intersection point, F, continue the straight 
lines F G and F H until they intersect the lines L M 
and L O, and then from the points G and H in the oppo- 
site direction until they reach the boundary lines of the 
ground, and said lines shall be clearly visible from any 
part of the diamond and no wood or other hard sub- 
stance shall be used in the construction of said lines. 



68 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

Bale 5. The Players' lanes. 

With F as center and 50 foot radius, describe arcs 
cutting lines F O and F M at P and Q ; then, with F 
as center again and 75 feet radius, describe arcs cutting 
F G and F H at R and S ; then, from the points P, Q, 
R and S draw lines at right angles to the lines F O, 
F M, F G and F H, and continue the same until they 
intersect at the points T and W. 

Rule 6. The Coacher's Lines. 

With R and S as centers and 15 feet radius, describe 
arcs cutting the lines R W and S T at X and Y, and 
from the points X and Y draw lines parallel with the 
lines F H and F G, and continue same out to the boun- 
dary lines of the ground. 

Bole 7. The Three-foot Line. 

With F as a center and 45 feet radius, describe an arc 
cutting the line F G at I, and from I to the distance of 
three feet draw a line at right angles to F G, and 
marked point 2 ; then from point 2, draw a line parallel 
with the line F G to a point three feet beyond the point 
G, marked 3 ; then from the point 3 draw a line at right 
angles to line 2, 3, back to and intersecting with F G, 
and from thence back along the line G F to point I. 

Rule 8. The Batsman's Lines. 

On either side of the line A F B describe two paral- 
lelograms six feet long and four feet wide (marked 8 
and 9), their longest side being parallel with the line 
A F B, their distance apart being six inches added to 
each end of the length of the diagonal of the square 
within the angle F, and the center of their length being 
on said diagonal. 

Rule 9. The Pitcher's Plate. 

SECTION I. With point F as center and 60.5 feet as 
radius, describe an arc cutting the line F B at line 4, 
and draw a line 5, 6, passing through point 4 and ex- 
tending 12 inches on either side of line F B ; then with 
line 5, 6, as a side, describe a parallelogram 24 inches 
by 6 inches, in which shall be located the pitcher's plate. 

SEC. 2. The pitcher's plate shall not be more than 15 
inches higher than the base lines or the home plate, 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL - 69 

which shall be level with the surface of the field, and 
the slope from the pitcher's plate to every base line and 
the home plate shall be gradual. 

Rule 10. The Bases. 

SECTION I. Within the angle F, describe a five-sided 
figure, two of the sides of which shall coincide with the 
lines F G and F H to the extent of 12 inches each, 
thence parallel with the line F B 8^2, inches to the points 
X and Y, a straight line between which, 17 inches, will 
form the front of the home base or plate. 

SEC. 2. Within the angles ^at G, I and H describe 
squares, whose sides are 15 inches in length, two of 
such sides of which squares shall lie along the lines F 
G and G I, G I and I H, I H, and H F, which squares 
shall be the location of the first, second and third bases 
respectively. 

Rule 11. 

The Home Base at F and the Pitcher's Plate at 4 
must each be of whitened rubber, and so fixed in the 
ground as to be even with its surface. 

Rule 12. 

The First Base at G, the Second Base at E, and the 
Third Base at H must each be a white canvas bag 
filled with soft material and securely fastened in place 
at the point specified in Rule 10. 
Rule 13. 

The lines described in Rules 3, 4 5, 6, 7 and S must 
be marked with lime, chalk or other white material, 
easily distinguishable from the ground or grass. 

Rule 14. The Ball. 

SECTION" i. The ball must weigh not less than five nor 
more than five and one quarter ounces avoirdupois, and 
measure not less than nine nor more than nine and one-quar- 
ter inches in circumference. A league ball must be used in 
all games played under these rules. 



70 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

SEC. 2. Two regulation balls of the make adopted by 
the league of which the contesting clubs are members 
shall be delivered by the home club to the umpire at or 
before the hour for the commencement of a champion- 
ship game. If the ball placed in play be batted or 
thrown out of the grounds or into one of the stands for 
spectators or, in the judgment of the umpire, becomes 
unfit for play from any cause, the umpire shall at once 
deliver the alternate ball to the pitcher and another legal 
ball shall be supplied to him, so that he shall at all 
times have in his control one or more alternate balls. 
Provided, however, that all balls batted or thrown out 
of the ground or into a stand for spectators until the 
the field be given into the custody of the umpire imme- 
diately and become alternate balls, and so long as he 
has in his possession two or more alternate balls, he 
shall not call for a new ball to replace one that has 
gone out of play. The alternate balls 'shall become the 
ball in play in the order in which they were delivered 
to the umpire. 

( SEC. 3. Immediately upon the delivery to him of the 
alternate ball by the umpire, the pitcher shall take his 
position and on the call of "Play," by the umpire, it 
shall become the ball in play. Provided, however, that 
play shall not be resumed with the alternate ball when 
a fair batted ball or a ball thrown by a fielder goes out 
of the ground or into a stand for spectators until the 
base-runners have/ completed the circuit of the bases 
unless- compelled to stop at second or third base, in 
compliance with a ground rule. 

Discolored or Damaged Balls. 

SEC. 4. In the event of a ball being intentionally 
discolored by rubbing it with the soil or otherwise by 
any player or otherwise damaged by 

any player, the umpire shall forthwith demand the re- 
turn of the ball and substitute for it another legal ball 
as hereinbefore described; and impose a fine of five 
dollars upon the offending player. 

Home Club to Provide Balls. 

SEC. 5. In every game the balls played with shall be 
furnished by the home club, and the last in play shall 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 71 

become the property of the winning cluh. Each ball 
shall be enclosed in a paper box, which must be sealed 
with the seal of the President of the League and bear 
his certificate that he has examined, measured and 
weighed the ball contained therein, and that it is of the 
required standard in all respects. The seal shall not be 
broken by the umpire except in the presence of the 
captains of, the contesting teams after "Play" has been 
called. 

Reserve Balls on Field. 

SEC. 6. The home club shall have at least a dozen 
regulation balls on the field during each championship 
game, ready for use on the call of the umpire. 

Rule 15. The Bat. 

The bat must be round, not over two and three- 
fourths inches in diameter at the thickest part, nor 
more than 42 inches in length and entirely of hardwood, 
except that for a distance of 18 inches from the end 
twine may be wound or a granulated substance applied 
to the handle. e 

Rule 16. Number of Players in a Game. 

The players of each club actively engaged in a game 
at one time shall be nine in number, one of whom shall 
act as captain ; and in no case shall more or less than 
nine men be allowed to play on a side in a game. 

Rule 17. Positions of the Players. 

The players of the team not at bat may be stationed 
at any points of the field on fair ground their captain 
may elect, regardless of their respective positions, ex- 
cept that the pitcher, while in the act of delivering the 
ball to the bat, must take his position as defined in 
Rules 9 and 30; and the catcher must be within the 
lines of his position a's defined in Rule 3 and within 10 
feet of home base, whenever the pitcher delivers the 
ball to the bat. 

Rule 18. Must Not Mingle with Spectators. 

Players in uniform shall not be permitted to occupy 
seats in the stands, or to mingle with the spectators. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



- 



Rule 19. Uniforms of Players. 

Every club shall adopt two uniforms for its players, 
one to be worn in games at home and the other in 
games abroad, and the suits of each of the uniforms of 
a team shall conform in color and style. No player 
who shall attach anything to the sole or heel of his 
shoe other than the ordinary baseball shoe plate, or 
who shall appear in a uniform not conforming to the 
suits of the other members of his team, shall be per- 
mitted to 



Rule 20. Size and Weight of Gloves. 

The catcher or first baseman may wear a glove or 
mitt of any size, shape or weight. Every other player 
is restricted to the" use of a glove or mitt weighing 
not over 10 ounces and not over 14 inches around the 
palm. 

Rule 21. Players' Benches. 

SECTION I. Players' benches must be furnished by 
the home club and placed upon a portion of the ground 
not less than twenty-five (25) feet outside of the play- 
ers' lines. One such bench shall be for the exclusive 
use of the visiting team and the other for the exclusive 
use of the home team. Each bench must be covered 
with a roof and closed at 'the back and each end ; a 
space, however, not more than six (6) inches wide 
may be left under the roof for ventilation. All players 
and substitutes of the side at bat must be seated on 
their team's bench, except the batsman, base-runners 
and such as are legally assigned to coach base-runners. 
Under no circumstances shall the umpire permit any 
person except the players and substitutes in uniform 
and the manager of the team to be seated on the bench. 

Penalty for Violation. 

SEC. 2. Whenever the umpire observes a violation of 
the preceding section he shall immediately order such 
player or players as have disregarded it to be seated. 
If the order be not obeyed within one minute, the of- 
fending players shall 'be fined $5 each by the umpire. 
If the order be not obeyed then within one minute, the 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 73 

offending player or players shall be barred from further 
participation in the game and shall be obliged forthwith 
to leave the playing field. 

Rule 22. A Regulation Game. 

Every championship game must be commenced not 
later than two hours before sunset and shall continue 
until each team has had nine innings, provided, how- 
ever, that the game shall terminate : 

(1) If the side at bat scores less runs in nine 
innings than the other side has scored in eight innings. 

(2) If the side last at bat in the ninth inning scores 
the winning run before the third man is out. 

SEC. 3. If the game be called by the umpire on ac- 
count of darkness, rain, fire, panic or for other cause 
which puts patrons or players in peril. 

Rule 23. Extra-Inning Game. 

If the 'score be a tie at the end of the nine (9) innings 
for each team, play shall be continued until one side 
has scored more runs than the other in an equal m 
ber of innings, provided, that if the side last ap v ^a 
score the winning run before the third man Is out in 
any inning after the ninth, the game shall terminate. 

Rule 24. Drawn Games. 

A drawn game shall be declared by the umpire if the 
score is equal on the last even inning played, when he 
terminates play, in accordance with Rule 22, Section 3, 
after five or more equal innings have been played by 
each team. But if the side that went second to bat is at 
the bat when the game is terminated, and has scored 
the same number of runs as the other side, the umpire 
shall declare the game drawn without regard to the 
score of the last equal inning. 

Rule 25. Called Games. 

If the umpire calls a game in accordance with Rule 
22, Section 3, at any time after five innings have been 
completed, the score shall be that of the last equal in- 
nings played, except that if the side second at bat shall 
have scored in an unequal number of innings, or before 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



the completion of the unfinished inning, at least one 
run more than the side first at bat, the score of the 
game shall be the total number of runs each team has 
made. 

Rule 26. Forfeited Games. 

A forfeited game shall" be declared by the umpire in 
favor of the club not in fault in the following cases : 

SECTION I. If the team of a club fail to appear upon 
the field, or being upon the field, refuse to begin a game 
for which it is scheduled or assigned, within five min- 
utes after the umpire has called "Play" at the hour for 
the beginning of the game, unless such delay in appear- 
ing, or in commencing the game, be unavoidable. 

SEC. 2. If, after the game has begun, one side refuse 
to continue to play, unless the game has been suspended 
or terminated by the umpire. 

SEC. 3. If, after play has been suspended by the 
umpire, one side fails to resume playing in one minute 
after the umpire has called "Play." 

{' hid' ^ a man ern Pl v ' tactics palpably designed to 
deiit^ < .4,j_ game. 

SEC. 5. If, after warning by the umpire, any one of 
the rules of the game be wilfully and persistently vio- 
lated. 

SEC. 6. If the order for the removal of a player, as 
authorized by Rules 21, 58 and 64, be not obeyed within 
one minute. 

SEC. 7. If, because of the removal of players from 
the game by the umpire, or for any cause, there be less 
than nine players on either team. 

SEC. 8. If, after the game has been suspended on ac- 
count of rain, the orders of the umpire be not complied 
with as required by Rule 29. 

SEC. 9. If, when two games are scheduled to be 
played in one afternoon, the "second game be not com- 
menced within ten minutes of the time of the comple- 
tion of the first game. The umpire of the first game 
shall be the timekeeper. 

SEC. 10. In case the umpire declare the game for- 
feited, he shall transmit a written report thereof to the 
president of the League within twenty-four hours there- 
after. However, a failure on the part of the umpire 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



to so notify the president shall not affect the' validity 
of his award of the game by forfeiture. 

Rule 27. No Game. 

"No game" shall be declared by the umpire if he ter- 
minates play in accordance with Rule 22, Section 3, 
before five innings are completed by each team. Pro- 
vided, however, that if the club second at bat shall have 
made more runs at the end of its fourth inning than 
the club first at bat has made in five completed in- 
nings of a game so terminated, the umpire shall award 
the game to the club having made the greater number 
of runs, and it shall count as a legal game in the 
championship record. 

Rule 28. Substitutes. 

SECTION i. Each side shall be required to have pres- 
ent on the field during a championship game a suffi- 
cient number of substitute players in uniform, conform- 
ing to the suits worn by their team-mates, to carry out 
the provisions of this code which requires that not less 
than nine players shall occupy the field in any inning 
of the game. 

SEC. 2. Any such substitute may at any stage of the 
game take the place of a player, whose names is in his 
team's batting order, but the player whom he succeeds 
shall not thereafter participate in that game. 

SEC. 3. A base-runner shall not have another player 
whose name appears in the batting order of his team run 
for him except by the consent of the captain of the 
other team. 

SEC. 4. Whenever one player is substituted for an- 
other, whether as batsman, base-runner or fielder, the 
captain of the side making the change must immediately 
notify the umpire, who in turn must announce the 
same to the spectators. A fine of $5 shall be assessed 
by the umpire against the captain for each violation of 
this rule, and the President of the League shall impose 
a similar fine against the umpire who, after having 
been notified of a change, fails to make proper an- 
nouncement. Play shall be suspended while announce- 
ment is being made, and the player substituted shall 
become actively engaged in the game immediately upon 
his captain's notice of the change to the umpire. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



Rule 29. Choice of Innings Fitness of Field for Play. 

The choice of innings shall be given to the captain 
of the home club, who shall be the sole judge of the 
fitness of the ground for beginning a game after a rain; 
but, after play has been called by the umpire, he alone 
shall be the judge as to the fitness of the ground for 
resuming play after the game has been suspended on 
account of rain. 



THE PITCHING RULES. 



Rule 30. Delivery of the Ball to the Bat. 

Preliminary to pitching, the pitcher shall take his 
position facing the batsman with 'both feet squarely on 
the ground and in front of the pitcher's plate ; and in 
the act of delivering the ball to the bat he must keep 
one foot in contact with the pitcher's plate defined in 
Rule 9. He shall not raise either foot until in the act 
of delivering the ball to the bat, nor make more than 
one step in such delivery. 

Rule 31. A Fairly Delivered Ball. 

A fairly delivered ball is a ball pitched or thrown to 
the bat by the pitcher while standing in his position and 
facing the batsman ; that passes over any portion of the 
home base before touching the ground, not lower than 
the batsman's knee, nor higher than his shoulder. For 
every such fairly delivered ball the umpire shall call 
one strike. 

Rule 32. An Unfairly Delivered Ball. 

An unfairly delivered ball is a ball delivered to the 
bat by the pitcher while standing in his position and 
facing the batsman, that does not pass over any portion 
of the home base between the batsman's 'shoulder and 
knee, or that touches the ground before passing home 
base unless struck at by the batsman, or, with the bases 
occupied any ball delivered by the pitcher while either 
foot is not in contact with the pitcher's plate. For 
every unfairly delivered ball the umpire 'shall call one 
ball. A ball that hits the ground in front of the plate 
is not a strike under any circumstances. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 77 

(NOTE. If, with any of the bases occupied, the pitcher 
delivers the ball while either foot is not in contact with 
the pitcher's plate, as required by Rule 30, the "Balk" 
rule applies.) 

Rule 33. Delaying the Game. 

SECTION I. If, after the batsman be standing in his 
proper position ready to strike at a pitched ball, the ball 
be thrown by the pitcher to any player other than the 
catcher when in the catch's lines and within 10 feet of 
the home base (except in an attempt to retire a base- 
runner), each ball so thrown shall be called a ball. 

SEC. 2. The umpire shall call a ball on the pitcher 
each time he delays the game by failing to deliver the 
ball to the batsman for a longer period than 20 seconds, 
excepting that at the commencement of each inning, 
or when a pitcher relieves another, he may occupy one 
minute in delivering not to exceed five balls to catcher 
or infielder, during which time play shall be suspended. 

SEC. 3. In event of the pitcher being taken from the 
game by either manager or captain the player 'substi- 
tuted for him shall continue to pitch until the batsman 
then at bat has either been put out or has reached first 
base. 

Rule 34. Balking. 

A balk shall be : 

SECTION i. Any motion made by the pitcher while 
in position to deliver the ball to the bat without deliver- 
ing it, or to throw to first base when occupied by a base- 
runner, without completing the throw. 

SEC. 2. Throwing the ball by the pitcher to any base 
to catch the base-runner without stepping directly to- 
ward such base, in the act of making 'such throw. 

SEC. 3. Any delivery of the ball to the bat by the 
pitcher while either foot is back of the pitcher's plate. 

SEC. 4. Any delivery of the ball to the bat by the 
pitcher, while he is not facing the batsman. 

SEC. 5. Any motion in delivering the ball to the bat 
by pitcher while not in position defined by Rule 30. 

SEC. 6. Holding of the ball by the pitcher, so long 
as, in the opinion of the umpire, to unnecessarily delay 
the game. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

SKC. /. Making any motion to pitch while standing 
in his position without having the hall in his possession. 

SEC. 8. Making any motion of the arm, shoulder, hip 
or body the pitcher habitually makes in his method of 
delivery, without immediately delivering the ball to 
the bat. 

SEC. 9. Delivery of the ball to the bat when the 
catcher is standing outside the lines of the catcher's 
position as defined in Rule 3. 

If the pitcher shall fail to comply with the require- 
ments of any 'section of this rule, the umpire shall call 
a "balk." 



Rule 35. Dead Ball. 

A dead ball is a ball delivered to the bat by the 
pitcher, not struck at by the batsman, that touches any 
part of the batsman's person or clothing while he is 
standing in his position. 
Rule 36. Ball Not in Play. 

In case of an illegally batted ball, a balk foul strike, 
foul, hit ball not legally caught, interference with the 
fielder or batsman, dead ball, or a fair hit ball, striking 
a ba'se-runner or umpire before touching a fielder, 
touching a base-runner, the ball shall not be considered 
in play until it be held by the pitcher standing in his 
position, and the umpire shall have called "Play." 

Rule 37. Block Balls. 

SECTION i. A block is a batted or thrown ball that is 
touched, stopped or handled by a person not engaged in 
the game. 

SEC. 2. Whenever a block occurs the umpire shall 
declare it, and base-runners may run the bases without 
liability to be put out until the ball has been returned to 
and held by the pitcher in his position. 

SEC. 3. If the person not engaged in the game should 
retain possession of a blocked ball, or throw or kick it 
beyond the reach of the fielders, the umpire shall call 
"Time" and require each base-runner to stop at the base 
last touched by him until the ball be returned to the 
pitcher in his position and the umpire shall have called 
"Play." 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

THE BATTING RULES. 



Rule 38. The Batsman's Position. 

Each player of the side at bat shall become the bats- 
man and must take his position within the batsman's 
lines (as defined in Rule 18) in the order that his 
name appears in his team's batting list. 

Rule 39. The Order of Batting;. 

The batting order of each team must be on the score 
card and must be delivered before the game by its 
captain to the umpire at the home plate, who shall 
submit it to the inspection of the captain of the other 
side. The batting order delivered to the umpire must 
be followed throughout the game, unless a player be 
substituted for another, in which case the substitute 
must take the place in the batting order of. the retired 
player. 

SEC. 2. When the umpire announces the pitcher prior 
to commencement of the game, the player announced 
must pitch until the first batsman has either been put 
out or has reached first base. 

Rule 40. The First Batsman in an Inning;. 

After the first inning the first striker in each inning 
shall be the batsman whose name follows that of the 
last man who completed his "time at bat" in the pre- 
ceding inning. 

Rule 41. Players Belong on Bench. 

When a side goes to the bat its players must imme- 
diately seat themselves on the bench assigned to them 
as defined in Rule 21, and remain there until their side 
is put out, except when called to the bat or to act as 
coachers or substitute base-runners. 

Rule 42. Reserved for Umpire, Catcher and Batsman. 

No player of the side "at bat," except the batsman, 
shall occupy any portion of the space within the 
catcher's lines as defined in Rule 3. The triangular 
space back of the home base is reserved for the ex- 
clusive use of the umpire, catcher and batsman, and the 
umpire must prohibit any player of the side "at bat" 
from cro'ssing the same at any time while the ball is in 



So SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

the hands of the pitcher or catcher or passing between 
them while standing in their positions. 
Rule 43. Fielder Has Right of Way. 

The players of the side at bat must speedily abandon 
their bench and hasten to another part of the field when 
by remaining upon or near it they or any of them would 
interfere with a fielder in an attempt to catch or handle 
a thrown or a batted ball. 

Rule 44. A Fair Hit. 

A fair hit is a legally batted ball that settles on fair 
ground between home and first base or between home 
and third base or that is on fair ground when bounding 
to the outfield past first or third base, or that first falls 
on fair territory beyond first or third base or that 
touches the person of the umpire or a player while on 
or over fair ground. 

.Rule 45. A Foul Hit. 

"V A foul hit is a legally batted ball that settles on foul 
territory between home and first 'base or home and 
third base, or that bounds past first or third base on 
foul territory or that falls on foul territory beyond first 
or third base or while on or over foul ground touches 
the person of the umpire or a player. 

Rule 46. A Foul Tip. 

A foul tip is a ball batted by the batsman while 
standing within the lines of his position, that goes sharp 
and direct from the bat to the catcher's hands and is 
legally caught. 

Rule 47. A Bunt Hit. 

A. bunt hit is a legally batted ball not swung at but 
met with the bat and tapped slowly within the infield 
by the batsman. If the attempted bunt results in a foul 
not legally caught a strike shall be called by the umpire. 

Rule 48. Balls Batted Outside the Ground. 

SECTION i. When a batted ball passes outside the 
ground or into a stand the umpire shall decide it fair 
or foul according to whether the point at which it 
leaves the playing field is on fair or foul territory. 

SEC. 2. A fair batted ball that goes over the fence or 
into a stand shall entitle the batsman to a home run 



SCIENCE Or BASEBALL 81 

unless it should pass out of the ground or into a stand 
at a less distance than two hundred and thirty-five 
(235) feet from the home base, in which case the bats- 
man shall be entitled to two bases only. The point at 
which a fence or stand is less than 235 feet from the 
home base shall be plainly indicated by a white or black 
sign or mark for the umpire's guidance. 

Rule 49. Strikes. 

A strike is : 

SECTION i. A pitched ball struck at by the batsman 
without its touching his bat; or, 

SEC. 2. A fair ball legally delivered by the pitcher 
at which the batsman dees not strike. 

SEC. 3. A foul hit ball not caught on the fly unless 
the batsman has two strikes. 

SEC. 4. An attempt to bunt which results in a fotjl 
legally caught. 

SEC. 5. A pitched ball, at which the batsman strikes 
but misses and which touches any part of his person. 

SEC. 6. A foul tip, held by the catcher, while stand- 
ing within the lines of his position. 

Rule 50. Foul Strike. 

An illegally batted ball is a ball batted by the bats- 
rrrn when either or both of his feet is uppn the ground 
outside the lines of the batsman's position. 

Rule 51. "When Batsman Is Out. 

The batsman is out : 

SECTION i. If he fails to take his position at the bat 
in the order in which his name appears on the batting 
list unless the error be discovered and the proper bats- 
man replace him before he becomes a base-runner, in 
which case the balls and strikes called must be counted 
in the time "at bat" of the proper batsman. But only 
the proper batsman shall be declared out, and no runs 
shall be scored or bases run because of any act of the 
improper batsman. Provided, this rule shall not be en- 
forced unless the out be declared before the ball be de- 
livered to the succeeding batsman. Should the bats- 
man declared out under this section be the third hand 
out. and his 'side be thereby put out, the proper bats- 
man in the next inning shall be the player who would 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



have come to bat had the players been put out by ordi- 
nary play in the preceding inning. 

SEC. 2. If he fail to take his position within one 
minute after the umpire has called for the batsman. 

SEC. 3. If he make a foul hit other than a foul tip, 
as defned in Rule 46, and the ball be momentarily held 
by a fielder before touching the ground ; provided, it 
be not caught in a fielder's cap, protector, pocket or 
other part of his uniform, or strike some object other 
than a fielder before being caught. 

SEC. 4. If he bat the ball illegally, as defined in 
Rule 50. 

SEC. 5. If he attempt to hinder the catcher from 
fielding or throwing the ball by -stepping outside the 
lines of the batsman's position, or in any way obstruct- 
ing or interfering with that player. 

^SEC. 6. If, while first base be occupied by a base-run- 
ner, the third strike be called on him by the umpire, 
unless two men are already out. 

\ SEC. 7. If, while attempting a third strike, the ball 
uouch any part of the batsman's person, in which case 
Wse-runners occupying bases shall not advance, as pre- 
scribed in Rule 55, Section 5. 

SEC. 8. If, before two hands are out, while first and 
second, or first, second and third bases are occupied, he 
hit a fly ball, other than a line drive, that can be handled 
by an infielder. In such case the umpire shall, as soon 
as the ball be hit, declare it an infield or outfield hit. 

SEC. 9. If the third strike be called in accordance 
with Rule 49, Section 5. 



Batsman Must Obey Call. 

SEC. 10. The moment a batsman's term at bat ends, 
the umpire shall call for the batsman next in order to 
leave his seat on the bench and take his position at the 
bat, and no player of the batting side shall leave his 
seat on the bench until so called, except to become a 
coacher or substitute, base runner, to take the place 
of a player on his team's batting list to comply with 
the umpire's order. The batsman shall be declared out 
if he steps from one batsman's box to the other while 
the pitcher is in his position and ready to pitch. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

BASE-RUNNING RULES. 



Rule 52. Legal Order of Bases. 

The Base Runner must touch each base in legal order, 
viz., First, Second, Third and Home Bases ; and when 
obliged to return while the ball is in play, must retouch 
the base or bases in reverse order. He can only acquire 
the right to a 'base by touching it, before having been 
put out, and shall then be entitled to hold such base 
until he has legally touched the next base in order, or 
has been legally forced to vacate it for a succeeding 
base runner. However, no base runner shall score a 
run to count in the game ahead of the base runner pre- 
ceding him in the batting order, if there be such pre- 
ceding base runner who has not been put out in that 
inning. 

Rule 53. When the Batsman Becomes a Base Runner. 

The batsman becomes a base runner : 

SECTION I. Instantly after he makes a fair hit. 

SEC. 2. Instantly after "Four Balls" have been called 
by the umpire. 

SEC. 3. Instantly after "Three iStrikes" have bee'n de- 
clared by the umpire. 

SEC. 4. If, without making any attempt to strike at 
the ball, his person or clothing be hit by a pitched ball 
unless, in the opinion of the umpire, he plainly makes 
no effort to get out of the way of the pitched ball. 

SEC. 5. If the catcher interfere with him in or pre- 
vent him from striking at a pitched ball. 

Rule 54. Entitled to Bases. 

The base runner shall ( be entitled, without liability 
to be put out, to advance a base in the following cases: 

SECTION i. If, while the batsman, he becomes a base 
runner by reason of "four balls" or for being hit by a 
pitched ball, or for being interfered with by the catcher 
in striking at a pitched ball, or if a fair ball strikes the 
person or clothing of the umpire or a base runner or a 
fair grounder. 

SEC. 2. If the umpire awards to a succeeding batsman 
a base on four balls, or for being hit by a pitched ball, 



SCIENCE Of BASEBALL 



or being interfered with by the catcher in striking at 
a pitched ball and the ba*se runner be thereby forced to 
vacate the base held by him. 

SEC. 3. If the umpire call a "Balk." 

SEC. 4. If a ball delivered by the pitcher pass the 
catcher and touch any fence or building within ninety 
(90) feet of the home base. 

SEC. 5. If he be prevented from making a base by 
the obstruction of a fielder, unless the latter have the 
ball, in hand ready to touch the base runner. 

SEC. 6. If the fielder stop or catch a batted ball with 
his cap, glove or any part of his uniform, while detached 
from its proper place on his person. 

SEC. 7. If a thrown or pitched ball strike the person 
or clothing of any umpire on foul ground, the ball shall 
be considered in play and the base runner or runners 
shall be entitled to all the bases they can make. 

Rule 55. Returning to Bases. 

The base runner shall return to his base without lia- 
bility to be put out : 

SECTION I. If the umpire declare any foul not legally 
caught. 

SEC. 2. If -the umpire declares an illegally batted ball. 

SEC. 3. If the umpire declares a dead ball, unless it be 
also the fourth unfair ball, and he be thereby forced to 
take the next base, as provided in Rule 54, Section 2. 

SEC. 4. If the person or clothing of the umpire inter- 
fere with the catcher in an attempt to throw or the um- 
pire be struck by a ball thrown by the catcher or other 
fielder to intercept a base runner. 

SEC. 5. If a pitched ball at which the batsman strikes, 
but misses, touch any part of the batsman's person. 

SEC. 6. If the umpire be struck by a fair hit ball be- 
fore touching a fielder; in which case no base shall be 
run unless necessitated by the batsman becoming a base 
runner, and no run shall be scored unless all the bases 
are occupied. 

SEC. 7. If the umpire declare the batsman or another 
base runner out for interference. 

Rule 56. When Base Runners Are Out. 

The base runner is out : 

SECTION i. If, after three strikes have been declared 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 85 

against him while the hatsmaii, the third strike ball be 
not legally caught, and he plainly attempts to hinder the 
catcher from fielding the ball. 

SEC. 2. If, after having made a fair hit while batsman, 

such fair hit ball be momentarily held by a fielder be- 

. fore touching the ground or any object other than a 

fielder; provided, it be not caught in a fielder's hat, cap, 

protector, pocket or other part of his uniform. 

SEC. 3. If, when the umpire has declarecf "Three 
Strikes" on him while the batsman, the third strike ball 
be momentarily held by a fielder before touching the 
ground ; provided, it be not caught in a fielder's cap, 
protector, pocket or other part of his uniform, or touch 
some object other than a fielder before being caught. 

SEC. 4. If, after three strikes or a fair hit, he be 
touched with the ball in the hand of a fielder before he 
shall have touched first base. 

SEC. 5. If, after three strikes or a fair hit, the ball be 
securely held by a fielder while touching first base with 
any part of his person before such base runner touch 
first base. 

SEC. 6. If, in running the last half of the distance 
from home base to first base, while the ball is being 
fielded to first base, he run outside the three-foot lines, 
as defined in Rule 7, unless he do so to avoid a fielder 
attempting to field a batted ball. 

SEC. 7. If, in running from first to second 'base, from 
second to third base, or from third to home base, he run 
more than three feet from a direct line between a base 
and the next one in regular or reverse order to avoid 
being touched by a ball in the hands of a fielder. But in 
case a fielder be occupying a base runner's proper path 
in attempting to field a batted ball, then the base runner 
shall run out of direct line to the next base and behind 
said fielder and shall not be declared out for so doing.. 

SEC. 8. If he fail to avoid a fielder attempting to 
field a batted ball, in the manner described in sections 6 
and 7 of this rule, or in any V^ay obstruct a fielder in 
attempting to field a batted ball, or intentionally inter- 
fere with a thrown ball ; provided, that if two or more 
fielders attempt to field a batted ball, and the base run- 
ner come in contact with one or more of them, the um- 
pire shall determine which fielder is entitled to the bene- 
fit of this rule, and shall not decide the base runner out 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 




for coming in contact with a fielder other than the one 
the umpire determines to be entitled to field such batted 
ball. 

SEC. 9. If at any time while the ball is in play, he be 
touched by the ball in the hands of a fielder, unless some 
part of his person be touching the base he is entitled to 
occupy; provided, however, that the ball be held by the 
fielder after touching him, unless the base runner delib- 
erately knock it out of his hand. 

SEC. 10. If, when a fair or foul hit ball (other than a 
foul tip as defined in Rule 46) be legally caught by a 
fielder, such ball be legally held by a fielder on the base 
occupied -by the base runner when such ball was batted, 
or the base runner be touched with the ball in the hands 
of a fielder, before he retouch such base after such fair 
or foul hit ball was so caught; provided, that the base 
runner shall not be out in such case, if after the ball 
was legally caught as above, it be delivered to the bat 
by pitcher before the fielder hold it on said base, or 
touch base runner out with it; but if base runner, in a- 
tempting to reach a base, detach it from its fastening 
before being touched or forced out, he shall be declared 
safe,. 

SEC. ii. If, when the batsman becomes a base runner, 
the first base, or the first and second bases, or the first, 
second and third bases be occupied, any base runner so 
occupying a base shall cease to be entitled to hold it, 
and may be put out at the next 'base in the same manner 
as in running to first base, or by being touched with the 
ball in the hands of a fielder at any time before any base 
runner following him in the batting order be put out, 
unless the umpire should decide the hit of the batsman 
to be an infield fly. 

SEC. 12. If a fair hit ball strike him before touching 
a fielder, and, in such case, no base shall be run unless 
necessitated -by the batsman becoming a base runner, 
but no run shall be 'scored or any other base runner 
put out until the umpire puts the balj back into play. 

SEC. 13. If, when advancing bases, or forced to re- 
turn to a base, while the ball is in play, he fail to touch 
the intervening base or bases, if any, in the regular or 
reverse order, as the case may be, he may be put put by 
the ball being held by a fielder on any base he failed to 
touch, or by being touched by the ball in the hands of v 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



fielder in the same manner as in running to first base; 
provided, that the base runner shall not be out in such 
case if the ball be delivered to the bat by the pitcher be- 
fore the fielder hold it on said base or touch the base 
runner with it. 

SEC. 14. If, when the umpire call "Play," after the 
suspension of a game, he fail to return to and touch the 
base he occupied when "Time" was called before touch- 
ing the next base ; provided, the base runner shall not be 
out, in 'such case, if the ball be delivered to the bat by 
the pitcher, before the fielder hold it on said base or 
touch the base runner with it. 

SEC. 15. If with one or no one out and a base runner 
on third base, the batsman interferes with a play being 
made at home plate. 

SEC. 16. If he pass a preceding base runner before 
such runner has been legally put out he shall be de- 
clared out immediately upon passing the preceding base 



Overrunning First Base. 

SEC. 17. The base runner in running to first base may 
overrun said base after touching it in passing without 
incurring liability to be out for being off said base, 
provided he return at once and retouch the base, after 
which he may be put out as at any other base. If, after 
overrunning first base, he turn in the direction of or at- 
tempt to run to second base, before returning to first 
base, he shall forfeit such exemption from liability to 
be put out. 

SEC. 18. If, while third base is occupied, the cpacher 
stationed near that base shall run in the direction of 
home base or near the base line while a fielder is mak- 
ing or trying to make a play on a batted ball not caught 
on the fly, or on a thrown ball, and thereby draws a 
throw to home base, the base runner entitled to third 
base 'shall be declared out by the umpire for the 
coacher's interference with and prevention of the legiti- 
mate play. If one base runner passes another on the 
paths, the runner so passing shall be declared out. 

SEC. 19. If one or more members of the team at bat 
stand or collect at or around a base for which a base 
runner is trying, thereby confusing the fielding side and 
adding to the difficuUv' of making such play, the base 



SCIENCE OP BASEBALL 



runner shall be declared out for the interference of his 
team-mate or team-mates. 

SEC. 20. If with one or none out and a runner on 
third -ba'se, the batsman interferes with the catcher, 
the base runner shall be declared out. 

Rule 57. When Umpire Shall Declare an Out. 

The umpire shall declare the batsman or base run- 
ner out, without waiting for an appeal for such decision, 
in all cases where such player be put out in accordance 
with any of these rules, except Sections 13 and 17 of 
Rule 56. 

Rule 58. Coaching Rules. 

The coacher shall be restricted to coaching the base 
runner, and then only in words of assistance and direc- 
tion in running bases. He 'shall not, by words or signs, 
incite or try to incite the spectators to demonstrations, 
and shall not use language which will in any manner 
refer to or reflect upon a player of the opposite club, 
the umpire or the spectators. Not more than two coach- 
ers, who must be players in the uniform of the team at 
bat, shall be allowed to occupy the space between the 
players' and the coachers' lines, one near first and the 
other near third base, to coach base-runners. If there 
be more than the legal number of coachers or this rule 
be violated in any respect, the umpire must order the 
illegal coacher or coachers to the bench, and if his order 
be not obeyed within one minute, the umpire shall assess 
a fine of $5.00 against each offending player, and upon 
a repetition of the offense, the offending player or 
players shall be debarred from further participation in 
the game, and shall leave the playing field forthwith. 

Rule 5J>. The Scoring of Runs. 

One run shall be 'scored every time a base-runner, 
after having legally touched the first three bases, shall 
legally touch the home base before three men are put 
out; provided, however, that if he reach home on or 
during a play in which the third man -be forced out or 
be put out before reaching first base, a run shall not 
count. A force-out can be made only when a base-run- 
ner legally loses the right to the base he occupied by 
reason of the batsman becoming a base-runner and he is 
thereby obliged to advance a, the result of a fair hit 
ball not caught on the fly. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

UMPIRES AND THEIR DUTIES. 



Rule 60. Power to Enforce Decisions. 

The umpire is the representative of the League and 
as such is authorized and required to enforce each sec- 
tion of this code. He shall have the power to order a 
player, captain or manager to do or omit to do any act 
which in his judgment is necessary to give force and 
effect to one or all of these rules and to inflict penalties 
for violations of the rules as hereinafter prescribed. In 
order to define their respective duties, the umpire judg- 
ing balls and strikes shall be designated as the "Umpire- 
in-Chief"; the umpire judging base decisions as the 
"Field Umpire." 

Rule 61. The TImpire-in-Chief. 

SECTION 1. The Umpire-in-Chief shall take position 
back of the catcher; he shall have full charge of and 
be responsible for the proper conduct of the game. 
With exception of the base decisions to be made by the 
Field Umpire, the Umpire-in-Chief shall render all the 
decisions that ordinarily would devolve upon a single 
umpire, and which are prescribed -for "the umpire" in 
these Playing Rules. 

SEC. 2. He shall call and count as a "ball" any unfair 
ball delivered by the pitcher to the batsman. He shall 
also call and count as a "strike" any fairly delivered 
ball which passes over any portion of the home base, 
and within the batsman's legal range as defined in Rule 
31 whether struck at or not by the batsman; or a foul 
tip which is caught by the catcher "standing within the 
lines of his position, within 10 feet of the home base ; 
or which, after being struck at and not hit, strikes the 
person of the batsman ; or when the ball be bunted 
foul by the batsman ; or any foul hit ball not caught on 
the fly unless the batsman has two strike's, provided, 
however, that a pitched ball shall not be called or count- 
ed a "'ball" or "strike" by the umpire until it has passed 
the home plate. 

SEC. 3. He shall render base decisions in the follow- 
ing instances: (i) If the ball is hit fair with a runner 
on first, he must go to third base to take a possible 
decision; (2) with more than one base occupied, he 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



shall decide whether or not a runner on third leaves 
that base before a fly ball is caught; (3) in case of a 
runner being caught between third and home, when 
more than one base is occupied, he shall make the de- 
cision on the runner nearest the home plate. 

SEC. 4 The Umpire-in-Chief alone shall have author- 
ity to declare a game forfeited. 

Rule 62. The Field Umpire. 

SECTION 1. The Field Umpire shall take such posi- 
tions on the playing field as in his judgment are best 
suited for the rendering of base decisions. He shall 
render all decisions at first base and second base, and 
all decisions at third -base except those to be made by 
the Umpire-in-Chief in accordance with Cection 3, 

SEC. 2. He shall aid the Umpirein-Chief in every 
manner in enforcing the rules of the game and, with 
the exception of declaring a forfeiture, shall have equal 
authority with the Umpire-in-Chief in fining or re- 
moving from the game players who violate these rules. 

Rule 63. No Appeal from Decisions Based on Urn* 
pire's Judgment. 

There shall be no appeal from any decision of either 
umpire on the ground that he was not correct in his 
conclusion as to whether a batted ball was fair or foul, 
a base-runner safe or out, a pitched ball a strike or ball, 
or on any other play involving accuracy of judgment, 
and no decision rendered by him 'shall be reversed, ex- 
cept that he be convinced that it is in violation of one 
of these rules. The captain shall alone have the right 
to protest against a decision and seek its reversal on a 
claim that it is in conflict with a section of these rules. 
In case the captain does seek a reversal of a decision 
based solely on a point of rules, the umpire making the 
decision shall, if he is in doubt, ask his associate for 
information before acting on the captain's appeal. Under 
no circumstances shall either umpire criticise or inter- 
fere with a decision unless asked to do so by his asso- 
ciate. 

Rule 64. Duties of Single Umpire. 

If but one umpire be assigned, his duties and juris- 
diction shall extend to all points, and he shall be per- 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



mitted to take his stand in any part of the field that in 
his opinion will best enable him to discharge his duties. 

Rule 65. Must Not Question Decisions. 

Under no circumstances shall a captain or player dis- 
pute the accuracy of the umpire's judgment and decision 
on a play. 

Rule 66. Clubs Cannot Change Umpires. 

.The umpire cannot be changed during a champion- 
ship game by the consent of the contesting clubs unless 
the official in charge of the field be incapacitated from 
service by injury or illness. 

Rule 67. Penalties for Violation of the Rules. 

SECTION i. In all cases of violation of these rules, by 
either player or manager, the penalty shall be prompt 
removal of the offender from the game and grounds, 
followed by a period of such suspension from actual 
service in the club as the President of the League may 
fix. In the event of removal of player or manager by 
either umpire, he shall go direct to the club house and 
remain there during progress of the game, or leave 
the grounds ; and a failure to do so will warrant a 
forfeiture of the game by the umpire-in-chief. 

SEC. 2. The umpire shall assess a fine of $5 against 
each offending player in the following cases: (i) If 
the player intentionally discolor or damage the ball; 
(2) if the player fail to be seated on his bench within 
one minute after ordered to do so by the umpire; (3) 
if the player violate the coaching rules and refuse to be 
seated on his bench within one minute after ordered to 
dp so by the umpire: (4) if the captain fail to notify 
him when one player is substituted for another. 

SEC. 3. In cases where substitute players show their 
disapproval of decisions by yelling from the bench, the 
umpire shall first give warning. If the yelling continues 
be shall fine each offender $10.00, and if the disturbance 
is still persisted in he shall clear the bench of all sub- 
stitute players; the captain of the team, however, to 
have the privilege of 'sending to the club house such 
substitutes as are actually needed to replace players in 
the game. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



Rule 68. Umpire to Report Violations of the Rules. 

The umpire shall, within twelve hours after fining or 
removing a player from the game, forward to the 
therefor. 

Rule 69. 

Immediately upon being informed by the umpire that 
a fine has been imposed upon any manager, captain or 
player, the President shall notify the person so fined 
and also the club of which he is a member; and, in the 
event of the failure of the person so fined to pay to the 
Secretary of the League the amount of said fine within 
five days after notice, he shall be debarred from par- 
ticipating in any championship game or from sitting on 
a player's bench during the progress of a championship 
game until such fine be paid. 

Rule 70. 

When the offense of the player debarred from the 

game be of a flagrant nature, such as the use of obscene 
language or an assault upon a player or umpire, the 
umpire shall within four hours thereafter forward to 
President a report of the penalty inflicted and the cause 
the President of the League full particulars. 

Rule 71. Warning to Captains. 

The umpire shall notify both captains before the 
game, and in the presence of each other, that all the 
playing rules will be strictly and impartially enforced, 
and warn them that failure on their part to co-operate 
in such enforcement will result in offenders being fined, 
and, if necessary to preserve discipline, debarred from 
the game. 

Rule 72. On Ground Rules. 

SECTION I. Before the commencement of a game the 
umpire shall see that the rules governing all the ma- 
terials of the game are strictly observed. 

SEC. 2. In case of spectators overflowing on the play- 
ing field, the home captain 'shall make special ground 
rules to cover balls batted or thrown into the crowd, 
provided such rules be acceptable to the captain of the 
visiting club. If the latter object, then the umpire shall 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 93 

have full authority to make and enforce such special 
rules, and he shall announce the scope of same to the 
spectators. 

SEC. 3. In all cases where there are no spectators on 
the playing field, and where a thrown ball goes into a 
stand for spectators, or over or through any fence sur- 
rounding the playing field, or into the players' bench 
(whether the ball rebounds into the field or not), the 
runner or runners shall be entitled to two bases. The 
umpire in awarding such bases 'shall be governed by 
the position of the runner or runners at the time the 
throw is made. 

SEC. 4. The umpire shall also ascertain from the 
home captain whether any other special ground rules 
are necessary, and if there be he shall advise the oppos- 
ing captain of their 'scope and see that each is duly 
enforced, provided they do not conflict with any of 
these rules and are acceptable to the captain of the 
visiting team. 

Rule 73. Official Announcements. 

The umpire shall call "Play" * at the hour appointed 
for the beginning of a game, announce "Time" at its 
legal interruption and declare ^Game" at its legal ter- 
mination. Prior to the commencement of the game he 
shall announce the batteries, and during the progress of 
the game shall announce each change of players. In 
case of an overflow crowd, he shall announce the spe- 
cial ground rules agreed upon, and he 'shall also make 
announcement of any agreement entered into by the 
two captains to stop play at a specified hour. 

Rule 74. Suspension of Play. 

The umpire shall suspend play for the following 
causes : 

1 If rain fall so heavily as in the judgment of the 
umpire to prevent continuing the game, in which case 
he shall note the time of suspension, and 'should rain 
fall continuously for thirty minutes thereafter he shall 
terminate the game. 

2 In case of an accident which incapacitates him or 
a player from service in the field, or in order to remove 
from the grounds any player or spectator who has vio- 



94 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

lated the rules, or in case of fire, panic or other extraor- 
dinary circumstances. 

3. In suspending play from any legal cause the um- 
pire shall call "Time"; when he calls "Time," play 
shall be suspended until he calls "Play" again, and dur- 
ing the interim no player shall be put out, base be run 
or run be scored. "Time" shall not be called by the 
umpire until the ball be held by the pitcher while stand- 
ing in his position. 

Rule 75. Field Rules. 

No person shall be allowed upon any part of the field 
during the progress of a game except the players in 
uniform, the manager of each side, the umpire, such 
officers of the law as may be present in uniform, and 
such watchmen of the home club as may be necessary 
to preserve the peace. 

Rule 76. 

No manager, captain or player -shall address the spec- 
tators during a game except in reply to a request for 
information about the progress or state of the game 
or to give the name of a player. 

Rule 77. 

Every club shall furnish sufficient police force to pre- 
serve order upon its own grounds, and in the event of a 
crowd entering t the field during the progress of a game, 
and interfering with the play in any manner, the visit- 
ing club may refuse to play until the field be cleared. 
If the field be not cleared within 15 minutes thereafter, 
the vi-siting club may claim and shall be entitled to the 
game by a score of nine runs to none (no matter what 
number of innings has been played). 

Rule 78. General Definitions. 

"Play" is the order of the umpire to begin the game 
or to resume it after its suspension. 

Rule 79. 

"Time" is the order of the umpire to suspend play. 
Such suspension mtrst not extend beyond the day. 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 95 

Hule SO. 

"Game" is the announcement of the umpire that the 
game is terminated. 

Rule 81. 

"An inning" is the term at bat of the nine players 
representing a club in a game and is completed when 
three of such players have been legally put out. 

Rule 82. 

"A Time at Bat" is the term at bat of a batsman. It 
begins when he takes his position, and continues until 
he is put out or becomes a base-runner. But a time at 
bat shall not be charged against a batsman who is 
awarded first base by the umpire for being hit by a 
pitched ball or on called balls or when he makes a 
sacrifice hit, or for interference by the catcher. 

Rule 83. 

"Legal" or "Legally" signifies as required by these 
rules. 

Rule 84. Tlie Scoring Rules. 

To promote uniformity in scoring championship games 
the following instructions are given and suggestions 
and definitions made for the guidance of scorers, and 
they are required to make all scored in accordance 
herewith. 

Rule 85. The Batsman's Record. 

SECTION I. The first item in the tabulated score, after 
the player'-s name and position, shall be the number of 
times he has been at bat during the game, but the ex- 
ceptions made in Rule 82 must not be included. 

>SEC. 2. In the second column shall be set down the 
runs, if any, made by each player. 

SEC. 3. In the third column shall be placed the first 
base hits, if any, made by each player. 

The Scoring of Base Hits. 

SEC. 4. A base hit shall be scored in the following 
cases : 

When the ball from the bat strikes the ground on or 
within the foul lines and out of the reach of the fielders. 



9 6 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

When a fair-hit ball is partially or wholly stopped by 
a fielder in motion, but such player cannot recover him- 
self in time to field the ball to first before the striker 
reaches that base or to force out another base-runner. 

When the ball be hit with such force to an infielder or 
pitcher that he cannot handle it in time to put out the 
batsman or force out a base-runner. In a case of doubt 
over this class of hits, a base hit should be scored and 
the fielder exempted from the charge of an error. 

When the ball is hit so slowly toward a fielder that he 
cannot handle it in time to put out the batsman or force 
out a base-runner. 

In all cases where a base-runner is retired by being 
hit by a batted ball, unless batted by himself, the bats- 
man should be credited with a base hit. 

When a batted ball hits the person or clothing of the 
umpire, as defined in Rule 54, Section 2. 

In no case shall a base hit be scored when a base- 
runner is forced out by the play. 

Sacrifice Hits. 

SEC. 5. In the fourth column shall be placed the sac- 
rifice hits. 

A sacrifice hit shall be credited to the batsman who, 
when no one is out or when but one man is out, ad- 
vances a runner a base by a bunt hit, which results in 
the batsman being put out before reaching first, or 
would so result if it were handled without error. 

Fielding Records. 

SEC. 6. A sacrifice hit shall also be credited to a 
batsman who, when no one is out or when but one man 
is out, hits a fly ball that is caught, but results in a run 
being scored. This rule will produce higher batting 
averages for the team worker and is framed so that 
justice may be done to the man who works for his side. 

SEC. 7. The number of times, if any, each player 
assists in putting out an opponent shall be set down in 
the sixth column. An assist should be given to each 
player who handles the ball in aiding in a run out or 
any other play of the kind, except the one who com- 
pletes it. 

An assist should be given to each player who handles 
the ball in aiding in a run-out or any other play of the 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



kind, even though he complete the play by making the 
put-out. 

And generally an assist should be given to each player 
who handles or assists in any manner in handling the 
ball from the time it leaves the bat until it reaches the 
player who makes the put-out, or in case of a thrown 
ball, to each player who throws or handles it cleanly, 
and in such a way that a put-out results, or would re- 
sult if no error were made by a team-mate. 

Assists 'should be credited to every player who handles 
the ball in the play which results in a base-runner being 
called "out" for interference or for running out of line. 

Errors. 

SEC. 8. An error shall be given in the sixth column 
for each misplay which prolongs the time at bat of the 
batsman or allows a base-runner to make one or more 
bases when perfect play would have insured his being 
put out. But a base on balls, a base awarded to a bats- 
man by being struck by a pitched ball, a balk, a passed 
ball, or wild pitch, shall not be included in the sixth 
column. 

An error shall not be charged against the catcher 
for a wild throw in an attempt to prevent a stolen base, 
unless the base runner advance an extra base because 
of the error. 

An error shall not be scored against the catcher or an 
infielder who attempts to complete a double play, unles's 
the throw be so wild that an additional base be gained. 

In case a base-runner advance a base through the 
failure of a baseman to stop or try to stop a ball accu- 
rately thrown to his base, the latter shall be charged 
with an error and not the player who made such throw, 
provided there was occasion for it. If such throw be 
made to second base the scorer shall determine whether 
the second baseman or shortstop shall be charged with 
an error. 

In event of a fielder dropping a fly, but recovering 
the ball in time to force a batter at another base, he 
shall be exempted from an error, the play being scored 
as a "force-out." 

Stolen Bases. 

SEC. g. A stolen 'base shall be credited to the base- 
runner whenever he advances a base unaided by a base 



98 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

hit, a put-out, a fielding or a battery error, subject to 
. the following exceptions : 

In event of a double steal or triple being attempted, 
where either runner is thrown out, the other or others 
shall not be credited with a stolen base. 

In event of a base-runner being touched out after 
sliding over a base, he -shall not be regarded as having 
stolen the base in question. 

In event of a base-runner making his start to steal a 
base prior to a battery error, he shall be credited with a 
stolen base. 

In event of a palpable muff of a ball thrown by the 
catcher, when the base-runner is clearly blocked, the 
infielder making the muff -shall be charged with an error 
and the base-runner shall -not be credited with a stolen 
base. 

SEC. 10. A wild pitch is a legally delivered ball, so 
high, low or wide of the plate that the catcher cannot 
or does not stop and control it with ordinary effort, and 
as a result the batsman, who becomes a base-runner 
or such pitched ball, reaches first base, or a base-runner 
advances. 

A passed ball is a legally delivered ball that the 
catcher should hold or control with ordinary effort, but 
his failure to do so enables the batsman, who becomes 
a base-runner on such pitched ball, to reach first base, 
or a base-runner to advance. 

Rule 86. 

The Summary shall contain: 

SECTION i. The score made in each inning of the 
game and the total runs of each side in the game. 

SEC. 2. The number of stolen bases, if any, by each 
player. 

SEC. 3. The number of sacrifice hits, if any, made by 
each player. 

SEC. 4. The number of sacrifice flies, if any, made by 
each player. 

SEC. 5. The number of two-base hits, if any, made by 
each player. 

SEC. 6. The number of three-base hits, if any, made 
by each player. 

SEC. 7. The number of home runs, if any, made by 
each player. 

SEC. 8. The number of double and triple plays, if any, 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 99 

made by each side and the names of the players par- 
ticipating in the same. 

SEC. 9. The number of innings each pitcher pitched 
in. 

SEC. 10. The number of base hits, if any, made off 
each pitcher and the number legal at-bats scored against 
each pitcher. 

SEC. ii. The number of times, if any, the pitcher 
strikes out the opposing batsmen. 

SEC. 12. The number of times, if any, the pitcher 
gives bases on balls. 

SEC. 13. The number of wild pitches, if any, charged 
to the pitcher. 

SEC. 14. The number of times, if any, the pitcher 
hits a batsman with a pitched ball, the name or names 
of the batsman or batsmen so hit to be given. 

SEC. 15. The number of passed balls by each catcher. 

SEC. 16. The time of the game. 

SEC. 17. The name of the umpire or umpires. 



RULES FOR 
POST-SEASON CHAMPIONSHIP GAMES. 



SEC. i. The pennant-winning club of the National 
League and the pennant-winning club of the American 
League shall meet annually in a series of games for the 
professional baseball championship of the world. 

SEC. 2. The emblem of the professional baseball 
championship of the world shall be a silver cup of suit- 
able size and appropriate design, jointly contributed by 
the two leagues. 

SEC. 3. The games shall be played under the super- 
vision, control and direction of the National Commis- 
sion. 

SEC. 4. The event shall take place at the end of the 
championship season of each year. Seven games shall 
constitute a complete series. 

SEC. 5. The games shall be conducted according to 
the playing rules as provided for by the National 
Agreement. 

SEC. 6. The National Commission shall promulgate 
schedule for the event. Three games shall be scheduled 
in each of the cities of the contesting clubs, unless the 
commission should otherwise decide. In case it be- 
comes necessary to play the seventh game to decide the 
event, the commission shall determine the city in which 
the game is to be played. 

SEC. 7. The clubs entitled to contest for the world's 
honor shajl be represented by the Presidents of their 
respective leagues and clubs. The Secretary of the 
National Commission will be required to notify all of 
the players of the contesting teams that they will be held 
amenable by the commission to all rules governing 
baseball and will be subject to discipline regardless of 
contracts. 

SEC. 8. The clubs shall continue to play each day 
according to the authorized schedule until one of them 



SCIENCr OP aA3EBll 



has won four games, when the contest shall end, and 
the club winning shall be entitled to hold the emblem 
of the world's championship during the ensuing base- 
ball season. 

SEC. 9. The National Commission shall reserve to 
itself the right to terminate the series at any time 
iliat it deems the interest of baseball demands it, and 
to declare one of the contesting clubs the winner of 
the championship regardless of previous performances. 

SEC. 10. Each of the clubs ^participating in the event 
shall guarantee to the National Commission in such 
manner as the latter may prescribe, that they will faith- 
fully carry out all of the provisions of these rules and 
regulations and such others as the commission may 
hereafter make to govern the games, and that they 
will not exercise an arbitrary right or privilege of 
abandoning the series until it has been completed or 
the championship determined. 

SEC. ii. There shall be two umpires who shall be 
invested with the authority and discretion that the play- 
ing rules confer, and they shall observe the same gen- 
eral instructions with reference to maintaining order 
and discipline upon the ball field during these con- 
tests that govern them in the performance of their 
duties in all other games in their respective leagues. 

SEC. 12. The President of the National League and 
the President of the American League shall each select 
one umpire from their respective leagues, and the um- 
pires so chosen shall be assigned to duty and be sub- 
ject to the orders of the Chairman of the National 
Commission. 

SEC. 13. The compensation of the umpires shall be 
fixed by the National Commission. 

SEC. 14. The expenses of the National Commission 
pertaining to these games, the salaries of the umpires, 
and other miscellaneous and contingent expenses in 
connection therewith, shall be paid out of the funds to 
be received by the commission from these games. Should 
these funds prove insufficient to this purpose, the bal- 
ance shall be paid out of the regular funds of the com- 
mission, and should there be a surplus in these funds 
it shall be credited each vear to the regular funds of 
the commission. All other expenses of both clubs. 



or JASEBALL 



such as hotel bills and traveling expenses, balls, adver- 
tising, policing of grounds, ticket sellers and takers, 
incidentals, etc., shall be paid by the club incurring 
the same. Should any difference arise at any time 
as to the latter expense, the same shall be submitted 
to the commission for adjudication and its rinding shall 
be conclusive. 

SEC. 15. Each contesting club shall preserve its con- 
stitutional rights during games played upon its own 
grounds with reference to the conduct of its business 
affairs in connection therewith, but the visiting club 
shall also be allowed its inherent rights and whatever 
representation and facilities it may require to properly 
protect the interests of the club and its players. 

SEC. 16. The rates of admission and the condi- 
tions governing the same shall be fixed by and be under 
the control of the National Commission. 

SEC. 17. The receipts from the games shall be di- 
vided as follows : 

1. Ten per cent, of the gross receipts from all games 
shall be paid to the National Commission. 

2. per cent, of the balance, from the first four 
games shall form a pool for the players of the two 
teams, to be divided 75 per cent, to the winner and 25 
per cent, to the loser of the contest. 

3. After the 10 per cent, deductions for the com- 
mission and the two leagues from all the games and 
that which forms the players' pool from the first four 
games, the balance of the gross receipts shall be divided 
equally between the two clubs. 

4. The amount to be paid into the players' pool as 
provided by this section shall be paid to the com- 
mission, and the same shall be distributed to the 
players through the Secretary of the commission. 

SEC. 18. In the event that the schedule for a world's 
championship series extends beyond the player's con- 
tract season, then the salaries of the players who prop- 
erly belong to the pennant-winning clubs shall con- 
tinue, at the contract rate, to the end of the series of 
games scheduled, although only four or more, games 
be played. 

SEC. 19. The free list shall be suspended during the 



SCIENCE OP BASEBALL 103 

contest except to representatives of the press and club 
officials of the two leagues. 

SEC. 20. The winning team shall receive a pennant 
and the individual players suitable trophies emblematic 
of the championship. 

SEC. 21. All questions arising out of the playing for 
the world's championship not provided for herein nor 
covered by the playing rules shall be dealt with and 
decided by the National Commission. 

SEC. 22. All clubs of both leagues, whether holding 
the cup or challenging for it, hereby agree absolutely 
to conform strictly to all the articles of these rules, and 
in any cases not herein provided for, to conform to 
the decisions of the National Commission. 

SEC. 23. These same rules may apply to all other 
games played between National and American League 
clubs upon application being made to the National Com- 
mission, except as to the division of the receipts ex- 
clusive of the amount to be paid to the National Com- 
mission and the two leagues, which shall be mutually 
agreed upon between the clubs participating in such 
games, provided, all players shall be paid at their con- 
tract prices for all games of this character that they 
are obliged to play after the expiration of their con- 
tracts. 

SEC. 24. After the adoption of this agreement by 
the National and American Leagues copies of the same 
shall be prepared by the respective leagues and sent to 
the President of each club, who shall, on or before the 
loth of March of each year, mail a copy to each player 
of his club. 



104 SCIENCE: OF BASEBALL 

WORLD'S CHAMPIONSHIP SERIES 

FOR 1912 

New York Nationals vs. Boston Americans. 

First Game At New York, Oct. 8. Boston 4, New York 3 
Batteries Wood and Cady for Boston; Tesreau Crandall and 
Myers for New York. 

Second Game At Boston, Oct. 9. Tie game, 6 to 6 (eleven 
innings). Batteries Collins, Hall, Bedient and Carrigan for 
Boston; Mathewson and Wilson for New York. 

Third Game At Boston, Oct. 10. New York 2, Boston 1. 
Batteries Marquard and Myers for New York; O'Brien, Bedient 
and Carrigan for Boston. 

Fourth Game At New York, Oct. 11. Boston 3, New York 1. 
Batteries Wood and Cady for Boston; Tesreau. Ames and Myers 
for New York. 

Fifth Game At New York, Oct. 12. Boston 2, New York 1. 
Batteries Bedient and Cady for Boston- Mathewson and Myers 
for New York. 

Sixth Game A't New York, Oct. 14. New York 5, Boston 2. 
Batteries Marquard and Myers for New York; O'Brien, Collins 
and Cady for Boston. 

Seventh Game At Boston, Oct. 15. New York 11, Boston 4. 
Batteries Tesreau and Wilson for New York; Wood, Hall and 
Cady for Boston. 

Eighth Game At Boston, Oct. 16. Boston 3. New York 2. 
Batteries Bedient. Wood and Cady for Boston; Mathewson and 
Myers for New York. 

ATTENDANCE AND RECEIPTS. 

Attendance. Receipts. 

New York, first game 35,730 $75,127.00 

Boston, second game 30,148 58,369.00 

Boston, third game 34,624 63,142.00 

New York, fourth game 36,502 76,644.00 

Boston, fifth game 34,683 63,201.00 

New York, sixth game 30,622 66.654.00 

Boston, seventh game 32.694 57,196.00 

Boston, eighth game 17,034 30,500.00 



Total 252,037 $490,833.00 

PREVIOUS SERIES FOR THE WORLD'S CHAMPIONSHIP. 

1884 Providence 

1885 Chicago 

1886 Chicago 

1887 Detroit 

1888 New York 

1889 New York 

1890 Brooklyn 

1903 Boston 

1905 New York 

1906 Chicago Americans 

1907 Chicago 

1908 Chicago 

1909 Pittsburg 

1910 Athletics 

1911 Athletics 

1912 Boston Americans 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 105 

NATIONAL LEAGUE 

STANDING OF CLUBS' AT CLOSE OF SEASON. 

Club. N.Y. Pitts. Chi. Cm. Phil.St.L.Bklyn.Bos. Won. PC. 

New York 12 9 1C 17 15 16 18 103 .682 

Pittsburgh ... 8 .. 13 11 14 15 14 18 93 .616 

Chicago 13 8 .. 11 1O 15 17 17 91 .607 

Cincinnati ... 6 11 10 .. 8 13 16 11 75 .490 

Philadelphia . . 5" 8 10 14 . . 11 13 12 73 .480 

St. Louis 7 7 7 9 11 .. 10 12 63 .412 

Brooklyn 6 8 5 6 9 11 .. 13 58 .379 

Boston 3 4 5 11 10 10 9 . . 52 ,340 

Lost 48 58 59 78 79 90 95 101 

The Chicago- Pittsburgh game at Chicago, October 2, was pro- 
tested by the Pittsburgh club and thrown out of the records, tak- 
ing a victory from the Chicago club and a defeat from the Pitts- 
burgh club. 

CHAMPIONSHIP WINNERS IN PREVIOUS YEARS. 

1871 Athletics 759 

1872 Boston v 830 

1873 Boston . 729 

1874 Boston 717 

1875 Boston 899 

1876 Chicago 788 

1877 Boston 646 

1878 Boston 683 

1879 Providence 702 

1880 Chicago 798 

1881 Chicago .667 

1882 Chicago 655 

1883 Boston 643 

1884 Providence 750 

1885 Chicago 770 

1886 Chicago 726 

1887 Detroit 637 

1888 New York 641 

1889 New York 659 

1890 Brooklyn 667 

1891 Boston 630 

1892 Boston 680 

1893 Boston 667 

1894 Baltimore I 695 

1895 Baltimore 669 

1896 Baltimore 698 

1897 Boston 795 

1898 Boston 685 

1899 Brooklyn 682 

1900 Brooklyn . 603 

1901 Pittsburgh 647 

19O2 Pittsburgh 741 

1903 Pittsburgh 650 

1904 New York 693 

1905 New York 668 

1906 Chicago 765 

1907 Chicago 704 

1908 Chicago 643 

1909 Pittsburgh 724 

1910 Chicago 675 

1911 New York 647 

1912 New York , 682 



106 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



CLUB BATTING. 
Club. G. AB. R. H. TB. 2B. 3B 
N York 154 5067 823 1451 2002 231 88 
Pitteb'ghl 152 5252 751 1493 2090 222 129 
Chicago 152 5048 756 1398 1953 245 91 
Boston . .155 5361 693 1465 1933 227 68 
St. Louis 153 5092 659 1366 1791 190 77 
Brooklyn. . 153 5141 651 1377 1839 220 73 
Phila ...152 5077 670 1354 1861 245 68 
Cincin 155 5115 656 1310 1732 183 91 


. HB. SH. SB. 
48 152 319 
39 181 177 
42 182 164 
35 168 137 
27 166 193 
32 159 179 
42 179 159 
19 175 248 


PC. 

.286 
.284 
.277 
.273 
.268 
.268 
.267 
.256 


INDIVIDUA] 
Name and Club. 
Zimmerman, Chicago 
Mej'ers New York 


L. BA1 
G. 
145 
126 
153 
143 
48 
42 
143 
21 
65 
28 
145 
46 
103 
48 
110 
81 
77 
37 
145 
143 
50 
141 
129 
145 
86 
132 
123 
120 
150 
15 
42 
152 
145 
148 
29 
128 
16 
124 
81 
65 
46 
130 
122 
78 
52 
24 
128 
108 
130 


:TING AVERAGES. 

AB. R. H. 

557 95 207 
371 60 133 
593 84 204 
478 73 163 
108 8 36 
39 4 13 
558 98 184 
67 10 22 
257 37 84 
46 5 15 
558 91 181 
121 25 39 
359 53 115 
132 20 42 
416 59 132 
252 26 80 
244 27 77 
57 9 18 
540 102 170 
538 81 169 
80 9 25 
502 99 155 
479 82 148 
559 81 172 
241 45 74 
464 79 142 
453 70 138 
431 82 131 
587 114 177 
53 4 16 
113 10 34 
583 80 175 
624 102 185 
558 73 164 
51 11 15 
458 60 133 
31 3 9 
436 59 126 
239 45 69 
121 17 35 
97 13 28 
528 99 152 
451 74 130 
163 48 47 
111 8 32 
59 6 17 
486 75 139 
332 38 95 
436 63 124 


SB. 
23 
8 
27 
16 
4 
1 
36 
3 
13 

26 

1 

8 
35 
3 
8 
5 
36 
25 . 

ii 

37 
29 
11 
30 
16 
35 
45 

*i 

16 
19 
23 
7 
16 

11 
10 
2 
2 
20 
11 
22 
1 
1 
22 
1 
15 


PC. 

.372 
.358 
.344 
.341 
.333 
.333 
.330 
.328 
.327 
.326 
.324 
.322 
.320 
.318 
.317 
.317 
.336 
.316 
.315 
.314 
.313 
.309 
.309 
.308 
.307 
.306 
.305 
.304 
.302 
.302 
.301 
.300 
.296 
.294 
.294 
.290 
.290 
.289 
.289 
.289 
.289 
.288 
.288 
.288 
.288 
.288 
.286 
.286 
.284 


Sweenev, Boston 


Evers Chicago 


Bresnaban, St. Louis . . . 
McCormick, New York . . . 
Dovle New York 


Knisely, Cincinnati 
Lobert Philadelphia 


Wiltse, New York 


" Wagner, Pittsburgh 
Hendrix, Pittsburgh 
Kirke Boston ... . 


Kellv Pittsburgh 


Marsans, Cincinnati 
Kling Boston 


Donlin Pittsburgh 


Stengel, Brooklyn 


Paskert, Philadelphia 
Konetchy, S't. Louis 


Crandall, New York 
Titus, Philadelphia-Boston 
Merkle New York 


Daubert, Brooklyn 


W. Miller, Chicago 
S. Magee, Philadelphia . . 
Wheat Brooklyn 


Huggins, St. Louis 
Carev Pittsburgh 


Edington, Pittsburgh . . . 
Simon Pittsburgh 


J. Wilson, Pittsburgh . . . 
Campbell, Boston 


Hoblitzell. Cincinnati . . . 
Burns New York 


Lee Magee, St. Louis .... 
M. Brown, Chicago ...... 
Devlin Boston .... 


Bates Cincinnati 


A. Wilson, New York . . . 
Hvatt Pittsburgh 


Bvrne Pittsburgh 


Saier Chicago 


Shafer New York 


Phelps Brooklyn 


Graham, Philadelphia . . . 
J. Smith, Brooklyn 
Houser, Boston 
Cravath, Philadelphia .... 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



107 



PITCHING AVERAGES 


Name and Club. 


G. 


PO. 


A. 


E. 


PC. 


Robinson, Pittsburgh 


33 


g 


40 




1000 


C. Brown, Boston , 


.... 31 


4 


42 




1000 


Willis, St. Louis 


... 31 


3 


26 




1000 


Wiltse, New York 


28 


5 


40 




1000 


Adams, Pittsburgh 


, . . . 28 


2 


36 




1000 


Rixev. Philadelphia 


23 


4 


35 




1000 


C. Smith, Chicago , 


. . . . 21 


2 


29 




1000 


Rucker, Brooklyn 


45 


5 


82 


1 


.989 


Mairquard, New York , , 


34 


2 


58 


'l 


.984 


Brennan, Philadelphia , 


. . . . 27 


7 


53 


1 


.984 


Ames, New York 


33 


6 


53 


1 


.983 


Leifield, Pittsburgh-Chicago 


19 


10 


31 


1 


.976 


Steele, St. Louis , 


41 


10 


66 


2 


.974 


Harmon, St. Louis 


. . . . 43 


11 


87 


3 


.970 


Hendrix, Pittsburgh . , , 


, . . . 39 


7 


91 


3 


.970 


Benton, Cincinnati 


. . . . 50 


13 


78 


3 


.968 


Alexander, Philadelphia 


. . . . 46 


10 


75 


3 


.966 


Sallee, St. Louis 


. . . . 48 


17 


61 


3 


.963 


O'Toole, Pittsburgh 


37 


3 


75 


3 


.963 


Suggs. Cincinnati 


. . . . 42 


14 


82 


4 


.960 


Cheniey, Chicago , 


. . . . 42 


4 


67 


3 


.959 


Reulbach. Chicago 


39 


8 


60 


3 


.958 


Mathewson, New York 


43 


15 


74 


4 


.957 


Crandall, New York 


37 


4 


41 


2 


.957 


Curtis, Philadelphia-Brooklyn . . . 


. . . . 29 


3 


37 


2 


.952 


Hess, Boston 


33 


11 


47 


3 


.951 


Knetzer. Brooklyn 


. . . . 33 


4 


34 


2 


.950 


Tyler, Boston 


. . . . 42 


15 


75 


5 


.947 


Lavender, Chicago 


42 


8 


64 


4 


.947 


Stack, Brooklyn 


. . . . 28 


2 


34 


2 


.947 


Ragan, Brooklyn 


. . . . 36 


11 


40 


3 


.944 


M. Brown, Chicago 


15 


1 


15 


1 


.941 


Camnitz, Pittsburgh 


. . . . 41 


4 


59 


4 


.940 


Kent, Brooklyn 


.... 20 


2 


29 


2 


.939 


Barger, Brooklyn 


. . . . 16 


2 


29 


2 


.939 


Allen, Brooklyn 


20 


2 


28 


2 


.938 


Donnelly, Boston 


37 


7 


51 


4 


.935 


Tesreau, New York 


36 


9 


63 


5 


.935 


Humphries, Cincinnati 


. . . . 30 


6 


33 


3 


.929 


Seaton, Philadelphia 


. . . . 44 


9 


55 


5 


.928 


Perdue, Boston 


. . . . 37 


6 


45 


4 


.927 


Moore, Philadelphia 


. . . . 31 


4 


34 


3 


.927 


Richie, Chicago 


39 


2 


57 


5 


.922 


Geyer, St. Louis 


41 


7 


49 


5 


.918 


Dickson, Boston 


. . . . 36 


4 


63 


6 


.918 


Fromme, Cincinnati 


. . . . 43 


7 


76 


9 


.902 


Yingling, Brooklyn 


... 25 


7 


36 


5 


.896 


Cole, Chicago, -Pittsburgh 


. . . . 20 


1 


21 


3 


.880 


Dale. St. Louis 


19 


3 


10 


2 


.867 


Slmltz, Philadelphia 


. . . . 22 


4 


17 


4 


.840 


Keef e, Cincinnati . . 


17 


3 


18 


4 


.840 


Woodburn, St. Louis 


. . . . 20 


2 


10 


5 


.7w; 



108 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 

AMERICAN LEAGUE 

STANDING OF CLUBS AT CLOSE OF SEASON. 



Club. 


Bos. Wash. 


Phila. 


Chic. 


Clev. Det 


. St.L.N.Y 


.Won 


PC. 


Boston 




12 


15 


1C 


11 


15 


17 


19 


105 


.691 


Washington . . 


10 




7 


13 


18 


14 


14 


15 


91 


.599 


Philadelphia . 


7 


13 




10 


14 


13 


1C 


17 


90 


.592 


Chicago 


6 


9 


12 




11 


14 


13 


13 


78 


.506 


Cleveland 


, 11 


4 


8 


11 




13 


15 


13 


75 


.490 


Detroit 


c 


8 


9 


8 


9 




13 


16 


09 


.451 


St. Louis 


5 


8 


6 


9 


7 


9 




9 


53 


.344 


New York . . . 


2 


7 


5 


9 


8 


6 


13 




50 


.329 



Lost 47 61 62 7G 78 84 101 102 



CHAMPIONSHIP WINNERS IN PREVIOUS YEARS. 

1900 Chicago , 607 

1901 Chicago 610 

1902 Athletics 610 

1903 Boston 659 

1904 Boston 617 

1905 Athletics 621 

1906 Chicago 614 

1907 Detroit 613 

1908 Detroit 588 

1909 Detroit 645 

1910 A,thtetics 680 

1911^Athletics 669 

1912 Boston 691 



CLUB BATTING AVERAGES. 

Club. G. AB. R. H. 2B. 3B. HR. SH. SB. PC. 

Philadelphia . .153 5111 779 1442 203 108 22 201 259 .282 

Boston 154 50(59 794 1403 268 85 28 190 186 .277 

Cleveland 155 5148 676 1404 220 75 10 208 195 .273 

Detroit 154 5146 720 1374 192 87 18 151 275 .267 

New York .. .153 5089 630 1321 170 78 18 152 245 .260 

Washington . .154 5070 698 1299 197 86 17 144 262 .256 

Chicago 158 5183 638 1319 176 79 17 211 212 .254 

S't. Louis 157 5085 652 1262 165 70 19 139 176 .248 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



109 



INDIVIDUAL BATTING 


AVERAGES. 


Name and Club. 


G. 


AB. 


R. 


H. 


SB. 


PC. 


Cobb, Detroit 


140 


553 


119 


227 


61 


.410 


Jackson, Cleveland 


152 


572 


121 


226 


35 


.395 


Speaker, Boston 


153 


580 


136 


222 


52 


.383 


Borton, Chicago 


31 


105 


15 


39 


1 


.371 


Lajoie, Cleveland 


117 


448 


66 


165 


18 


:368 


Lelivelt, New York 


36 


149 


12 


54 


7 


.362 


Collins, Philadelphia 


153 


543 


137 


189 


63 


.348 


Baker, Philadelphia 


149 


577 


116 


200 


40 


.347 


Veach, Detroit 


23 


79 


8 


27 


2 


.342 


Cree, New York 


50 


190 


25 


63 


12 


.332 


Mclnnes, Philadelphia . . 


153 


568 


83 


186 


27 


.327 


Crawford, Detroit 


149 


581 


81 


189 


41 


.325 


D. Murphy, Philadelphia 


36 


130 


27 


42 


8 


.323 


Hemriksen, Boston 


37 


56 


20 


18 




.321 


Williams, Washington . . 


56 


157 


14 


50 


'2 


.318 


E. Murphy, Philadelphia. 


33 


142 


24 


45 


7 


.317 


Gardner, Boston 


143 


517 


88 


163 


25 


.315 


Chapman, Cleveland .... 


31 


109 


29 


34 


10 


.312 


Easterly, Chicago " 


93 


241 


22 


75 


4 


.311 


Laporte, Washington . . . 


119 


402 


45 


125 


10 


.311 


Brief, St. Louis 


15 


42 


9 


13 


2 


.310 


Turner, Cleveland 


103 


370 


54 


114 


19 


.308 


Krug, Boston 


15 


39 


6 


12 


2 


.308 


Milan. Washington 


154 


601 


105 


184 


88 


.306 


Gandil, Washington 


117 


443 


59 


135 


21 


.305 


Griggs, Cleveland 


89 


273 


29 


83 


10 


.304 


Pratt, St. Louis 


151 


570 


76 


172 


24 


.302 


Stahl, Boston 


95 


326 


40 


98 


13 


.301 


Oldring, Philadelphia . . . 


98 


395 


61 


' 119 


17 


.301 


Wolverton, New York . . 


33 


50 


6 


15 


1 


.300 


McConnell, New York . . . 


42 


91 


11 


27 




.297 


Bodie, Chicago 


137 


472 


58 


139 


i2 


.294 


Jones, Detroit 


97 


316 


54 


93 


16 


.294 


Lapp, Philadelphia 


90 


281 


26 


82 


3 


.292 


Williams, St. Louis 


64 


216 


32 


63 


18 


.290 


Shotten, St. Louis 


154 


580 


87 


168 


35 


.290 


Collins, Chicago 


153 


579 


75 


168 


26 


.290 


Wood, Boston 


43 


124 


17 


36 




.290 


Strunk, Philadelphia . . . 


120 


412 


58 


119 


29 


.289 


Paddock, New York 


46 


157 


26 


45 


9 


.287 


Ford, New York 


39 


112 


15 


32 


2 


.286 


Delehanty, Detroit 


78 


266 


34 


76 


9 


.286 


Schalk, Chicago 


23 


63 


7 


18 


2 


.286 


Foster, Washington 


154 


618 


98 


176 


27 


.285 


Lewis, Boston 


154 


581 


85 


165 


9 


.284 


Gardiner, New York 


43 


160 


14 


45 


11 


.281 


Compton, St. Louis .... 


100 


268 


26 


75 


11 


.280 


Johnson, Cleveland 


43 


164 


22 


46 


8 


.280 


Mullen, Detroit 


37 


90 


13 


25 




.278 


Moeller, Washington 


132 


519 


90 


143 


30 


.276 


Dubuc, Detroit 


36 


105 


16 


29 




.276 


Carisch, Cleveland 


24 


69 


4 


19 


*3 


.275 


Chase, New York 


131 


522 


61 


143 


33 


.274 


Daniels, New York .... 


133 


496 


72 


136 


37 


.274 


Wagner, Boston 
C. Walker, Washington 


144 
36 


504 
110 


75 
22 


138 
30 


21 
11 


.274 
.273 


Hartzell, New York . . . 


123 


416 


50 


113 


20 


.272 


Rath, Chicago . N 


157 


591 


104 


161 


30 


.272 


Callahan, Chicago 


111 


408 


45 


111 


19 


.272 


Steen, Cleveland 


22 


48 


5 


13 


4 


.271 



110 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES Continued. 


Ryan, Cleveland. 93 


328 


53 


69 


12 


.271 


Sweeney, New York 110 


351 


37 


94 


6 


.268 


Plank, Philadelphia 34 


90 


5 


24 




.267 


Lord, Chicago 151 


570 


81 


152 


28 


.267 


AMERICAN LEAGUE 


PITCHING AVERAGES. 


Name and Club. 


G. 


PO. 


A. 


E. 


PC. 


Coombs, Philadelphia 


54 


16 


66 




1000 


Plank, Philadelphia 


34 


6 


68 




1000 


White, Chicago 


28 


5 


46 




1000 


Baumgardner, St. Louis 


28 


4 


61 


i 


.985 


Cashion, Washington 


33 


15 


40 


1 


.982 


Quinn, New York 


16 


4 


39 


1 


.977 


Wood, Boston 


43 


41 


110 


4 


.974 


Bedient, Boston 


34 


6 


67 


2 


.973 


Dubuc, Detroit 


36 


12 


91 


3 


.972 


Kahler, Cleveland 


32 


12 


46 


2 


.967 


Brown, Philadelphia 


30 


10 


72 


3 


.965 


Johnson, Washington 


53 


15 


93 


4 


.964 


Engle, Washington 


15 




27 


1 


.964 


Collins, Boston 


26 


3 


45 


2 


.960 


Hall, Boston 


32 


9 


59 


3 


.958 


Baskette, Cleveland 


19 


4 


19 


1 


.958 


Blanding, Cleveland 


36 


9 


77 


4 


.956 


Bender, Philadelphia 


26 


6 


36 


2 


.955 


Ford, New York 


34 


13 


88 


5 


.953 


Steen, Cleveland 


22 


7 


34 


2 


.953 


Peters, Chicago 


23 


6 


52 


3 


.951 


O'Brien, Boston 


35 


10 


83 


5 


.949 


Willett, Detroit 


37 


12 


113 


7 


.947 


E. Brown, St. Louis 


21 


2 


31 


2 


.943 


Cicotte, Chicago 


26 


10 


69 


5 


.940 


Lake, Detroit 


33 


4 


73 


5 


.939 


Caldwell, New York 


39 


2 


59 


4 


.938 


Vaughn, Washington 


22 


5 


53 


4 


.935 


Houck, Philadelphia 


25 


7 


50 


4 


.934 


Hamilton, St. Louis 


36 


9 


57 


5 


.930 


Mullen, Dertoit 


37 


8 


70 


6 


.929 


Gregg, Cleveland 


33 


10 


61 


6 


.922 


Powell, St. Louis 


31 


3 


52 


5 


.917 


McConnell, New York 


42 


9 


75 


8 


.913 


Fisher, New York 


16 


3 


38 


4 


.911 


Walsh, Chicago 


61 


22 


140 


15 


.910 


Allison, St. Louis 


27 


4 


46 


5 


.909 


Groome, Washington 


42 


13 


77 


9 


.909 


Lange, Chicago 


36 


6 


42 


5 


.906 


Warhop, New York 


37 


3 


64 


7 


.905 


Hughes, Washington 


30 


6 


57 


7 


.900 


Works, Detroit 


22 


2 


51 


6 


.898 


Benz. Chicago 


38 


10 


77 


10 


.897 


Mitchell, Cleveland 


22 


8 


30 


6 


.864 



SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 111 



PACIFIC COAST LEAGUE 



STANDING OF CLUBS AT CLOSE OF SBAJ 
Club. Won. 
Oakland 1 2o 


SON. 

Lost. 
83 
83 
93 
100 
115 
121 


P.C. 

.591 
.587 
.542 
.459 
.436 
.376 


Vernon 


118 


Los Angeles 


no 


Portland .... 


85 


S"an Francisco ... 


89 


Sacramento 


73 







CHAMPIONSHIP WINNERS IN PREVIOUS YEARS. 

1903 Los Angeles 630 

1904 Tacoma 589 

1Qft . f Tacoma (1st series) * 583 

I Los Angeles (2d series) 6O4 

1906 Portland 657 

1907 Los Angeles 608 

1908 Los Angeles 585 

1909 San Francisco . . . ; 622 

1910 Portland 567 

1911 Portland 589 

1912 Oakland 591 

* In play-off Los Angeles won. 



INDIVIDUAL BATTING AVERAGES. 

Name and Club. G. AB. R. H. SB. PC. 

Bryam, Sacramento 16 30 4 12 . . .400 

Mclntyre, San Francisco .. 41 152 24 58 .. .382 

D. Howard, San Francisco 98 344 42 123 19 .358 

Fitzgerald, Portland ...... 52 155 27 55 13 .355 

Cunningham, Portland 11 36 7 13 . . .361 

Heitmuller, Los Angeles 151 556 68 186 27 .335 

Daley, Los Angeles 174 639 90 212 54 ^332 

R. Williams, San Francisco. . 15 25 2 8 .. .320 

Bayless, Vernon 199 716 118 228 44 .318 

Lindsay, Portland 89 318 33 101 7 .318 

Nagle, Los Angeles 23 38 6 12 1 .316 

R. Brashear, Vernon 192 692 108 217 27 .314 

Van. Buren, Sacramento . . . 127 383 48 120 15 .314 

Kane, Vernon 169 616 124 191 66 .310 

Delmas, Oakland 16 42 5 13 1 .310 

Doane, Portland 146 505 65 156 47 .309 

Delhi, San Francisco 16 39 4 12 1 .308 

Pope, Oakland -...10 13 1 4 .. .308 

Rodgers, Portland 184 705 84 216 28 .306 

Zimmerman, San Francisco 69 255 25 78 11 .306 

Patterson, Oakland 138 515 85 157 30 .305 

Hartley, San Francisco . . . 119 422 38 129 18 .305 

Sharpe, Oakland 101 357 29 107 4 .300 

Krueger, Portland 162 586 73 175 28 .299 

Hetling, Oakland 202 708 95 210 33 .297 

Coy, Oakland 184 639 115 190 25 .297 

Butler, Portland 52 192 23 57 10 ,297 



112 SCIENCE OF BASEBALL 



PITCHING 


AVERAGES. 


Name and Club. 


G. 


PO. 


A. 


E. 


PC. 


Munsell, Sacramento , 


19 


3 


44 




1000 


Pernoll, Oakland 


19 


4 


39 




1000 


Gaddy, Sacramento 


.... 18 




14 




1000 


Leverenz, Los Angeles 


52 


13 


83 


1 


.990 


Christian, Oakland 


48 


16 


63 


1 


.988 


Slagle, Los Angeles 


42 


17 


60 


1 


.987 


Schwenck, Sacramento 


.... 22 


6 


50 


1 


.983 


Parkin, Oakland 


.... 26 


9 


47 


1 


.982 


Baum, Vernon 


.... 37 


8 


81- 


2 


.978 


Klawitter, Portland 


57 


21 


108 


3 


.977 


John Williams, Sacramento 


41 


9 


79 


2 


.977 


Abies, Oakland 


.... 45 


10 


73 


2 


.976 


Arellanos, Sacramento 


43 


25 


101 


4 


.969 


Suter, Portland 


.... 21 


5 


26 


1 


.960 


Arlett, San Francisco 


11 


8 


22 


1 


.968 


Chech, Los Angeles 


50 


17 


97 


4 


.966 


Killilav, Oakland 


.... 20 


4 


44 


2 


.960 


Brackenridge, Vernon 


34 


20 


76 


5 


.950 


Stewart, Vernon 


.... 39 


21 


47 


3 


.958 


Henley, San Francisco 


.... 45 


16 


74 


4 


.957 


Hall<a, Los Angeles 


40 


14 


85 


5 


.952 


Malarkey, Oakland 


40 


7 


52 


3 


.952 


Carson, Vernon 


45 


9 


66 


4 


.949 


Raleigh, Vernon 


.... 35 


13 


76 


5 


.947 


Gray, Vernon 


46 


9 


41 


3 


.943 


Hitt, Vernon 


.... 42 


19 


94 


7 


.942 


Gilligan, Sacramento 


43 


13 


81 


6 


.940 


Fanning, San Francisco 


.... 35 


15 


47 


4 


.939 


Harknoss, Portland 


.... 39 


18 


48 


4 


.938 


Higginbotham, Portland 


42 


18 


69 


6 


.935 


Koestner, Portland 


53 


18 


101 


9 


.930 


Fitzgerald, Sacramento 


28 


7 


58 


5 


.929 


Castleton, Vernon 


.... 31 


8 


55 


5 


.926 


Delhi, San Francisco 


.... 16 


12 


23 


3 


.921 


Tozer, Los Angeles 


.... 40 


20 


72 


8 


.920 


Byram, Sacramento 


16 


3 


29 


3 


.914 


Miller, San Francisco 


47 


14 


. 69 


8 


.913 


Gregory, Oakland 


37 


17 


99 


10 


.913 


Flater, Los Angeles 


15 


1 


20 


2 


.913 


Perritt, Los Angeles 


11 


4 


27 


3 


.912 


Vernon, Los Angeles 


.... 10 




10 


1 


.909 


Nagle, Los Angeles 


.... 23 


5 


34 


4 


.907 


McCorry, San Francisco 


45 


6 


58 


7 


.901 


Baker, San Francisco 


40 


12 


58 


8 


.897 


Toner, San Francisco 


.... 27 


5 


38 


5 


.896 


Bonner, San Francisco 


10 


1 


14 


2 


.882 


Olmstead, Oakland 


10 




7 


1 


.875 


Durbin, Oakland 


15 


2 


18 


3 


.870 


Gregg, Portland 


30 


5 


31 


6 


.857 


Pope, Oakland 


.... 10 


1 


11 


2 


.857 


Temple, Portland -Vernon 


.... 19 


4 


14 


5 


.782 



DON'T WEAR A 
TRUSS! 




After Thirty Years' Experience 
1 Have Produced An Appli- 
ance for Men, Women or 
Children That Cures 
RUPTURE. 



I Send It On Trial 



C. E. Brooks, Inventor, of the Appliance 



If you have tried 
most everything else, 
come to me. Where 
others fail is where I 
have my greatest 
success. Send attached coupon today and I will 
send you free my illustrated book on Rupture and its 
cure, showing my Appliance and giving you prices 
and names of many people who have tried it and 
were cured. It gives instant relief when all others 
fail. Remember I use no salves, no harness, no lies. 
I send on trial to prove what I say is true. You 
are the judge and once having seen my illustrated 
book and read it you will be as enthusiastic as my 
hundreds of patients whose letters you can also read. 
Pill out free coupon below and mail today. It's well 
worth your time whether you try my Appliance or not. 

FREE INFORMATION COUPON 

Mr. C. E. Brooks, 1560 State St. Marshall, Mich. 

Please send me by mail, in plain wrapper, your 
illustrated book and full information about your Ap- 
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Name 



Address 

City . State 



MKN ANY AGE: 



Made strong and vigorous. Get Turko Giant Oint- 
ment. Applied direct, strengthens, develops, invig- 
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box, sealed in plain wrapper, 20c. ; large box, $1.00 ; 
3 boxes, $2.50. Sent anywhere prepaid. Call or 
write. 

DEAN & DEAN 

Dept. R 

634 Third Avenue New York 




HER-CU-LIN, the giant developer for 

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you still have ambition to enjoy life get 
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brings you proving size at once from 

B. A. OSWALD CO. 

318-32O WEST 42d ST. NEW YORK 



CONFESSIONS 

of 
Estelle Ramon, Some Other Girls and Daisy 

The Warmest little book ever published. Contains 
nearly 150 pages and 32 vivid pictures in Darkest 
Chicago. Price 25c. Remit in any form that suits 
your convenience, except stamps. 

ADDRESS 

Kentucky Book Company 

P. O. Box 565 

PHILPOT, KENTUCKY 



fMaccv Ron DiMiiroc GENUINE PHOTOGRAPHS 
UlaSSy Lien rlCTUreS or BEAUTIFUL WOMEN i 

Exquisite Art Studies in Bewitching Poses! Portraying 
Exactly the Rich, Warm Beauty of the Living Models 

By ordering from this ad. vou will receive no prints 
or cheap trash, as we sell nothing but REAL PHOTOS 
of Female Loveliness made by a regular photographer. Far 
from the ordinary Exquisite portrayals of real art! 

A large part of these photos were made in France and 
cannot be surpassed in this country at any price. 

Cabinet size (3^x5^), on best quality double weight 
photo paper; 3 for 25c. ; 8 for 50c. Our dollar special: 8 
of the cabinet size, two 2^x3^, eight 1^x2^. six, 154x2, 
68 small ones, one "Love in Three Acts," and one fine 
large 6^x8^2 photo for framing; every one a genuine 
photograph. The whole lot for only $1.00 postpaid. En- 
close lOc. extra for sealed postage. Your money back if 
not exactly as represented! 

TEN BOOKS FOR 1O CENTS 
1-Big Joke Book, 2-Book on Magic, 3-Book 
1 on Toy Making, 4-Book on Courtship, 5- 
Baseball Book, 6-Dream Book and Fortune 
Teller, 7-Book Letter Writer, 8-Cook Book, 
, 9-Home Entertainer, 10-White Slave Story 
Book. All the above by mail for 10 cents. 
Address 
8. 8. KING CO., AKDOTER, OHIO 




FOR MEN: 



A QUICK, SAFE AND 
POSITIVE TREATMENT FOR 

GONORRHOEA AND GLEET 



THOUSANDS HAVE USED AND FOUND 
IT THE ONE BEST REMEDY 

Discharges, Inflammations and Irritations of the Kidneys, 
Bladder and Urinary Organs permanently relieved in 2 to 5 
days. Warranted harmless, Non-Injective. Stricture 
impossible. Bona-fide Guarantee to cure or money back. 

PRICE, 50 CENTS The Box of 50 Gaps 

Sold by all druggists or sent 
postpaid in plain wrapper 

THE SAFETY REMEDY CO., BOX C. 

CANTON, OHIO 




GEDNEY'S 
PEARLS 

Insist on GEDNEY'S PEARLS 
Take Nothing Else 

Trade Mark Reg. U. S. GUARANTEED TO CHECK 

Tat. Omce a u unnatural discharges of 

the urinary organs in 24 hours. A SAFE, SPEEDY and 
PERMANENT CURE, PRESCRIBED by Celebrated DOC- 
TORS. QUICK RELIEF FOR KIDNEY and BLADDER 
trouble. Clears up cloudy or thick urine. One bottle will 
prove its value. GEDNEY'S PEARLS the only genuine. 
Known as the old reliable over 75 YEARS. Write TO-DAY 
for booklet, mailed free, plain sealed envelope. All Druggists, 
or bottle by mail $1.00 Plain Package. 

J.W.GEONEY, 767 E. 1 33d St., New York, U.S.A. 

Guaranteed by J. W. GEDNEY under Pure Food and Drugs 
Act, June 30, 1906, as pure and unadulterated. 



INJECTION 




for 
GONORRHOEA and GLEET 

No Other Treatment Required 
SOLD BY ALL DRUGGISTS 



BE A GOOD MIXER, BY ALL MEANS 

Hoffman House Bartender's Guide 

By CHARLEY MAHONEY 

This is a little dif- 
ferent from the rest be- 
cause it tells more and 
tells it better. There is 
no part of the business 
which is not explained foil 
here from the buying ^O 
and stocking of a sa- 
loon to the temperature at 
which wines ought to be 
kept, to say nothing about 
the recipes for all of the good 
and popular drinks. Plenty 
of pictures, too. 

Sent for fifteen 2-ct. stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 

PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin Sq., N. Y. City 




A WIT TAKES HIS PEN IN HAND 



Bowery Life 

By CHUCK CONNORS 

Mayor of Chinatown 

You may never have heard 
of Chuck Connors, but 
makes no difference for 
you will know him in- 
timately after you have 
read this little book and you will 
wish it was twice as big. He 
writes of life as he has seen it, 
and the best part of it is that he 
writes just as he talks. Go tot 
it. 

Sent for fourteen 2-ct. stamps. 

RICH Alt 1> M. FOX 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin SQ.. N. Y. City 




IT'S AL.L, FIGURED OUT FOR YOU 




Blocking and Hitting 



By GEORGE McFADDEN 



greatest 
in the 



Known as the 
defensive boxer 
world. 

A good many punches 
are stopped with the face, 
but McFadden has changed 
all that. He shows how to 
block cleverly, how to 
punch swiftly, how to 
avoid punishment and 
wear the other fellow out 
by his own efforts. What 
he has written he has ac- 
tually done in the ring; 
also, he posed for the il- 
lustrations. 

Sent for 7 2-ct. stamps. 
RICHARD K. FOX. 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin Sq., N. Y. City 



DO YOU WANT A 46-INCH CHEST 



UNITED STATES 
NAVY DRILL 

By TOM SHARKEY 

One of the strongest and best 
developed men who ever jumped 
over the ropes is Tom Sharkey, 
and he says he got his big chest, 
his broad back and l\is strong 
arms from the -drilling he went 
through in the navy. He says 
every young fellow can be an 
athlete and he tells how here. 
He posed for the pictures 28 
of them and they're worth 
looking- .over. A lesson with 
each one. 

Sent for seven 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 

PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin S^., N. Y, City 




INTRODUCING THE CLEVEREST OF ALL 



Scientific Boxing 

By JAMES J. CORBETT 

With Fifty Illustrations and 
Photographs 

The wonderful boxer who beat 
John Li. Sullivan for the cham- 
pionship explains a few things in 
the game and shows the right 
way to send in the hooks and 
jabs to get the best possible re- 
sults. The world couldn't have 
a better teacher, could it? Get 
the book and see. 

Sent for 7 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin Sq.. N. Y. City ' 




HERE'S AN INTERESTING EXERCISE 




Scientific 

Bag Punching 

By HARRY SEEBACK 



The champion of all bag 
punchers, holder of the Police 
Gazette Medal and challenger 
of the world. Beginning with 
the simplest moves, the author 
takes the pupil along the line, 
step by step, to the most dim- 
cult feats known to the pro- 
fession. There's an illustra- 
tion with every lesson, which 
makes it simple. 

Sent for seven 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 

PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin Sq., N. Y. City 



IT IS KEPT UP TO DATE ALWAYS 

The 

Life and Battles 

of Jack Johnson 

The latest edition is now out 
and tells of the struggles of the 
first black champion of the world 
to attain the much-coveted title; 
it is an interesting story and is 
full of facts, to say nothing of 
the illustrations, many of which 
are remarkably interesting. 

Sent for seven 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARJD It. FOX 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin JSq.. N Y City 

HAVE THE FIGURE OF A SOLDIER 



Army Exercises 

By FRANK IDONE 

Formerly of the Tenth. Field 
Battery 

An unusually intelligent artil- 
leryman has put on paper the 
system of physical culture used 
in the United States Army and 
the result is this book. To make 
it more interesting and complete 
he has posed for the illustrations 
so that every position is shown 
by a plate. 

RICHARD K. FOX 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin Si., X. V City 




EVERY MAID CAN BE A VENUS 



FOR 
WOMEN 



Physical Culture 

By BELLE GORDON 

Police Gazette Champion Bag- 

Puncher 

Artists have raved over Miss 
Gordon's curves and she is very 
proud of them because she 
helped make them; she would 
like to have other women like 
her, hence the book. She shows 
before the camera the move- 
ments and exercises necessary 
to produce physical perfection 
and it's all very interesting be- 
cause she is not only a smart 
woman, but a great poser. 

Sent for 7 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 

PUJBLISH1XG CO. 

Franklin Sq.. N. Y. City 




YOU WANT TO PLAY TO WIN, OF COURSE 

POKER, How to Win 

Together with official and latest rules of the 
games of Stud, Draw, Straight, Freezout and 
Whiskey. 

It is the percentage in poker that tells the 
story and if you know the value and chances 
of the draw you are bound to come out the 
top man in any game if it is square. If you 



* 




* * 




"* 




* * 




*+* 


* 








* 




* * 




* * 







* * 




* * 




4* * 




* * 



play poker every night or once a year you want 
this book; and if you know all about the game 
from the deuce up, you want it just the same, 
for it can show you something that you never 
knew before, and that is bound to improve 
your play. Sent for six 2-cent stamps. 
RICHARD K. FOX PUBLISHING CO., N. Y. CITY 




WHEN YOU DO HIT, HIT HARD 



The Recognized Authority oil 

AND HOW 

TO TRAIN 

This tells it all, beginning- with 
a man who is out of condition 
and who knows nothing; if he 
is thin it puts meat on his bones; 
if he is fat, it takes it off; then 
it teaches him how to lead with 
the left; after that the right; 
then the counter, until it finally 
turns him out a boxer. Many of 
the champions have posed to 
show the different punches and 
it is good. 

Sent for fourteen 2-ct. stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin Sq.. N. Y. City 



AVHY NOT BE A PERFECT 31 AN? 



PHYSICAL CULTURE 

by means of 

Muscular Resistance and 
Breathing Exercises 

By PROP. EDWARD ITTMANN 

Profusely illustrated with plates 
made from photographic poses by 
the famous author who shows what 
can be done without paraphernalia. 

Sent for 7- 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 

n m.isii ix; co. 
Franklin Sq., tf. Y, City 




YOU CAN LEARN TO BE A \VRESTLER 



WRESTLING 



By Illustrated 

FRANK with photo- 
GOTCH graphs posed 
The for by the 

Champion of author, Hack- 
the world enschmidt and 
many other celebrites 
of the mat. All of the 
difficult holds shown by 
pictures, making 1 it easy 
for the pupil to learn 
how. 

Sent on receipt of 
seven 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 

ir KMK nix*.; CO. 
Franklin Sq., IV. V. City 




HERE IS THE ROAD TO HEALTH 




PROF. ATTILLA'S 

Five Pound 
Dumb-bell Exercise 

The teacher of Sandow, the 
world's greatest athlete, ex- 
plains his system in plain lan- 
guage and illustrates his les- 
son with photographs posed 
for by his pupils. Thirty 
lessons, with thirty half-tone 
plates. 

Sent for 7 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 
PI'lfiMKf I IXti CO. 

Franklin Sq., X. Y. City 



IS A MINE OF KIVOWI-EDGK 



The Official 

Book of Rules 

for 

All Sports 

This tells it all, settles all 
doubts, prevents heated argu- 
ments and shows you how to do 
the right thing at the right time. 
Rules for everything from the 
shot-put to rat killing. No one 
should be without a copy. 

Sent for seven 2-cent stamps. 

KIC Jl A IU K. FOX 

PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin, Sa- N. Y. City 




TRULY A GREAT MAN ON THE MAT 




SCIENTIFIC 
WRESTLING 

By 
GEO. BOTHNER 

For many years 
the holder and de- 
fender of the 
lightweight cham- 
pionship and the 
Police Gazette 
belt. He has put 
brains into this 
book as well as 
lessons and pic- 
tures and the re- 
sult is all that 
there is to be told 
about the game. 

Sent for four- 
teen 2-ct. stamps. 

RICHARD K. FOX 
PUBLISHING CO. 

Franklin SQ., N. Y. City 



WHEN IN DOUBT, TURN TO THE BOOK 



Fox's 

Barber's Book of Recipes 

Good for the barber who wants to make his 
own Cosmetics, Hair Tonics, Perfumes, Etc., 
because he wants them pure and unadulterated. 
A fine trade demands fine gnods and the wise 
barber knows it. That is the reason this book 
is now in its tenth edition and is still selling 1 . 
You can be a manufacturer, if you like and 
have the necessary energy, and sell the goods 
to other barbers who prefer to take it easy 
and let the other fellow make the most money. 

Sent on receipt of fourteen 2-cent stamps. 



RICHAR1> K. FOX 



CO., ST. Y. CITY 



YOU CANNOT KNOW TOO MUCH 



BRIDGE and WHIST 

The most popular game in America and England to-day 




It has been the rage on two continents be- 
cause it is a great game. The clever, scien- 
tific player will win nine games out of ten; 
the others will be consistent losers. To deliver 
the goods a book like this is necessary. It is 
all so plain and simple that you will not have 
to sit up all night to study it. If you are 
going to play cards at all play them close up 
and to win. To do that get the book. 

Send for six 2-cent stamps. 

RICHARD K.. FOX PUBLISHING CO., N. Y. CITY 



University of California Library 



/9853 




UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 



'&