(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Scientific basketball; for coaches, players, officials, spectators, and sportswriters."

■ 




■BHBH 

mm i§ss Wb88&! 



I 



|g 



BASKETBALL 



aw 







hbl, stx 



-art**** 




GV 885.H583 
Scientific basketball; 



3 T1S3 DDblMbb? 



< 



OQ 

vn 



SCIENTIFIC BASKETBALL 



SCIENTIFIC 
BASKETBALL 



FOR COACHES, PLAYERS, 

OFFICIALS, SPECTATORS, 

AND SPORTSWRITERS 



HOWARD A. HOBSON 

Head Basketball Coach 
Yale University 



NEW YORK 

PRENTICE-HALL, INC. 



Copyright, 1949, by 
PRENTICE-HALL, INC. 

70 Fifth Avenue, New York 

all rights reserved, including the right to 

reproduce this book, or portions thereof, 

in any form, except for the inclusion of 

brief quotations in a review. 

First Printing. . . .November, 1949 
Second Printing. . February, 1950 



GV 

885 

H5<^ 



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 









v3 



To 

My Wife 

JENNIE NOREN HOBSON 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/scientificbasketOOhobs 



Preface 



R 



'asketbaix is now recognized as our most popular 
winter sport. In spite of this fact, the game in many ways 
is still in its infancy. It is much younger than our other 
major sports, such as football and baseball. Probably for 
this reason, the rules of basketball have been changed rather 
frequently, and the game is still in the process of development. 
Very little has been done to analyze the game from a technical 
point of view. This is more true from the standpoint of 
scouting than from that of playing techniques. Most coaches 
today are well versed in the fundamentals of the game, and 
great strides have been made in developing offensive and de- 
fensive systems. However, in the execution of the various 
plays used, there have been very few standards by which to 
measure the exact success or failure of these plays and exact 
player and team performance. In a general sense, of course, 
we know when a team wins and when it loses; but measure- 
ment of the factors that contribute to the victory or the loss 
is not well established. 

This entire situation might well be compared to our oldest 
game, baseball. In baseball a batter who has a .300 average 
is a good batter, and if he is able to do an average job of 
fielding, he will have a place on the team. This is known 
because thousands of cases have been studied, and a .300 aver- 
age is accepted as a criterion of performance. By the same 
standard it follows that if a player is only able to bat .100 he 
cannot expect to play on a team because his defensive play 
cannot possibly compensate for such a great weakness in his 
batting. In the same manner, fielding averages, pitchers' av- 
erages, and many other baseball statistics have been worked 



vn 



Vlll PREFACE 

out so that standards of performance for a baseball player are 
well known. 

Now let us compare this with basketball. It has been the 
practice, and it still exists in most situations, to credit the 
individual and the team merely with the number of points 
scored by goals from the field and from the free-throw line. 
About the only factors of the game that have been universally 
recorded, other than total points, have been personal fouls and, 
in some cases, free-throw attempts. An individual player 
may score twenty points in a game and yet shoot very poorly, 
depending on the type and number of shots that he attempts. 
The same may be true for the entire team. It also follows 
that a player who scores points may not be a great asset to his 
team if he does not contribute in other ways. For example, 
little attention has been paid to the number of times a player 
or a team loses the ball during a game through bad passes, vio- 
lations, or poor ball-handling. Little attention has been paid 
to the number of interceptions that a player or team makes 
in a game, or to the number of times that a player retrieves 
a ball or a rebound from the backboard. 

It is the author's intention that the material contained in 
this book show that the above-mentioned factors and others 
may be objectively measured, and that it will be possible to 
establish, by analysis, a relationship between these factors of 
performance and the success or failure of the individual player 
and of the team. The standards thus produced will be of 
importance to coach or player in connection with his own 
team and his opponent's. 

The information on scouting of basketball is basic to the 
material in the chapters for the player, official and sports- 
writer. It is also basic to later chapters on fundamentals, 
plays, general coaching methods, problems, and strategy. 

The author wishes to express deep appreciation to the fol- 
lowing people for their assistance in making this book pos- 
sible: 



PREFACE IX 

Players, coaches, student managers, and sportswriters 
throughout the country who have assisted in supplying data. 

Dr. Harry A. Scott, Dr. C. L. Brownell, and Dr. E. S. 
Evenden of Columbia University for their invaluable sug- 
gestions, advice, and assistance during the entire preparation 
of the book. 

Dr. Irving Lorge and Dr. Helen Walker of Columbia Uni- 
versity, Dr. W. L. Hughes of Temple University, and Mr. 
Ned Irish of Madison Square Garden for valuable consultation 
and assistance. 

Miss Ethel M. Feagley, Columbia University librarian, for 
assistance in preparing the annotated bibliography. 

Howard A. Hobson 



Table of Contents 



PART I 

Foreword 

1. The Game — Its History and Future ... 3 

Values of Scouting 
Values for the Coach 

Values for Players, Officials, Sportswriters, 
Spectators 

2. A Complete Game Scout Report .... 13 

3. Scouting Methods Employed 23 

4. Using Scout Reports for the Future ... 33 

5. Basketball Shooting and Its Implications 46 

Basketball Scoring 

Basketball Shooting Percentages 

The Short Shot 

The Medium Shot 

The Long Shot 

Styles of Field-Goal Shooting 

The Free Throw 

Styles of Free-Throw Shooting 

6. Basketball Recoveries ....... 70 

Jump -Ball Recoveries 
Interceptions 

7. Basketball Errors and Their Implications 74 

Loss-of-Ball 
Personal Fouls 

8. Scouting Data Pertinent to Psychology of 

Coaching 84 

The Home Team and the Visiting Team 
The Winning Team and the Losing Team 
xi 



Xll TABLE OF CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

The First Half and the Second Half 
Performance on Various Levels of Competition 
Subjective Observations and the Psychology of 
Coaching 
9. The Tall Man in Basketball 103 

10. A Proposed Area -Method of Scoring . 113 

The Fordham-Columbia Experimental Game 
A New Area-Scoring Suggestion 

11. The Player Analyzes His Own Game . 122 

12. Scouting the Officials 128 

13. Box Score for Sportswriters — Improved Score 

Book ............ 133 

The Running Score 
Scoring Rules for Basketball 

14. The Spectator — Watching the Game . 145 

1 5 . Conclusions and Interpretations on Scouting 150 

PART II 
Foreword 

16. The Game of Basketball 157 

Individual and Group Fundamentals 
Offensive and Defensive Team Plays 
Miscellaneous Problems and Duties of the 
Basketball Coach 

17. Fast-Break Basketball 186 

18. The Zone Defense and How to Attack It 188 

19. Better Defense 196 

20. Basketball Material and How to Use It . 200 

General Hints on Use of Material 

2 1 . Complete Annotated Bibliography of Basket- 

ball Books 210 

APPENDIX 

Glossary 227 

Index 245 



List of Diagrams 



NUMBER PAGE 

I Tip-Off or Jump-Ball Play No. 1 . 162 

II Tip-Off or Jump-Ball Play No. 2 . 162 

III Out-of-Bounds Play on the Side of Court 165 

IV Out-of-Bounds Play Under Basket 165 
V Passing the Zone out of Position — Play 

No. 1 194 

VI Attacking the Zone — Play No. 2 . . . 195 

VII Attacking the Zone — Play No. 3 . . . 195 

VIII Attacking the Zone — Play No. 4 . 195 

IX Attacking the Zone — Play No. 5 . . 195 

X Short-Pass Fast-Break Attack Down 

Center 205 

XI Long-Pass Fast-Break Down Sides . 205 

XII Post Play from Single Pivot Formation . 206 

XIII Double Post from Single Pivot 206 

XIV Single Pivot Variation 207 

XV Double Post Play No. 1 . . . , . .207 

XVI Double Post Play No. 2 208 

XVII Triple Post Play ........ 208 

XVIII Single Pivot with Four-Man Weave . .209 

XIX Spread Formation for Ball Control . 209 



Xlll 



List of Tables 



NUMBER PAGE 

I All Games Scoring 48 

II Total Shots 49-50 

III Short-Area Shooting 53 

IV Medium -Area Shooting 5 5 

V Long-Area Shooting 5 8 

VI Styles of Field-Goal Shooting . 60-61 

VII Free Throws 64 

VIII Styles of Free-Throw Shooting 67 

IX Rebounds 71 

X Miscellaneous Recoveries (Jump Balls 

and Interceptions) 72 

XI Loss-of-Ball 78 

XII Personal Fouls 79 

XIII Home Team Survey 86 

XIV Visiting Team Survey 87 

XV "Winning Team Survey . . 90 

XVI Losing Team Survey 91 

XVII First-Half Survey 94 

XVIII Second-Half Survey 95 

XIX Levels of Competition Shooting ... 98 

XX Major Games 100 

XXI Minor Games .101 

XXII Shooting by Tall Men 107 

XXIII Area Scoring 117 



xiv 



List of Figures 



FIGURE PAGE 

A. A Complete Game Scout Report . 14-15, 18-22 

B. Basketball Scoring Form 24-25 

C. Rebound Form 26 

D. Losses of Ball and Recoveries (Except 

Rebounds) 27 

E. Individual Chart 30 

F. Graph of a Basketball Game 31 

G. A Player's Season Record (Form 1) 36-37 
H. A Player's Season Record (Form 2) 40 

I. A Team's Season Record 42-43 

J. Practice Shot Form 123 

K. Individual Player Rating Scale 126 

L. Report on Officials 130 

M. Improved Score Book 134 

N. Basketball Summary — Box Score 136 

O. Complete Running Score 138 

P. Basketball Program for Spectators . 148 



xv 



List of Photographs 

{between pages 118 and 119) 



Yale's 1949 Champions Leave New York on Flight to 

San Francisco 
Oregon's 1939 Champions Return from Madison Square 

Garden 
The Winning Team 
Greeting the Winners 
Oregon's 1941 Team Visits Hawaii for Post Season 

Games 
Shooting a Basket 
The One-Hand Shot 
The Short Shot 
The Two-Hand Shot 
The One-Hand Free Throw 
The Rebound 

The Center Jump or Tip Off 
The Medium Shot 

Tony Lavelli Demonstrates His Famous Hook Shot 
The Tall Man in Basketball 
The Personal Foul 
The Held Ball 
The Basketball Official 
The Fordh am -Columbia Experimental Game 



xvi 



SCIENTIFIC BASKETBALL 



PART I 



Foreword 



I 



T IS THE PURPOSE OF PART I OF THIS BOOK TO PRESENT 

the results of a study of 460 college basketball games in which 
various performances were recorded. A period of thirteen 
years is covered, from the 1936-37 season through the 1948- 
49 season. College games from all sections of the country are 
included. Individual and team shooting is emphasized and all 
other measurable factors that may be accurately recorded dur- 
ing the progress of a game are also included. It is hoped that 
certain standards of performance will result from an analysis 
of this information and that coaches will receive helpful sug- 
gestions on how intelligently to scout and analyze their own 
players and teams as well as their individual and team op- 
ponents. 

While college games were used, the findings are equally 
adaptable to all levels — from junior high and high school to 
the top professional teams. 

"Scouting" is defined as "the observing, analyzing, and re- 
cording of all performances of both teams, the individual 
players, and the officials during the progress of the game." 
The values of these observations, analyses, and records for 
coaches, players, officials, sportswriters, and spectators are dis- 
cussed fully. In addition, examples of scout reports and 
methods of scouting as well as complete forms and charts for 
analysis of scouting material are included. 

Tables are used to list the results of the 460 scout reports. 
The reader is urged to give careful attention to these tables 
from which yearly, periodical and total findings are avail- 
able for all objective factors of the game. 



Chapter 1 
The Game — Its History and Future 



B, 



'ASKETBALL IS AMERICA S GREATEST CONTRIBUTION TO 

the sports field. It is the only major sport that is entirely 
American in origin. Basketball was invented in 1891 at 
Springfield College, Springfield, Massachusetts by the late 
Dr. James Naismith. Little did the inventor realize at that 
time that the game would develop to its present position in 
the field of national sports. It was his intention to introduce 
a game that could be played indoors with a minimum amount 
of equipment, to fill in between the major sports seasons of 
football and baseball. It was also his intention to eliminate 
bodily contact so far as possible, and thereby lessen the risk 
of injury prevalent in football. 

Peach baskets were first used as goals and since there were 
no openings in the bottoms, the ball had to be retrieved by 
the use of ladders after each goal. Originally, there were 
nine players on each side but because of the congestion caused 
when eighteen players moved rapidly over a small area, the 
number was reduced to seven and finally to five. 

Yale University really pioneered the five-man game. The 
first college game with five men on a team was played at Yale 
University between Yale and the University of Pennsylvania 
on March 20, 1897. Yale won the game 32-10 (see frontis- 
piece). 

The development of basketball since that time has pro- 
duced other major rule changes that have greatly improved 
the game. At one time it was customary for the winning 

3 



4 THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 

team to hold the ball in the back court to "stall out" the re- 
maining time. To eliminate this the ten-second rule was 
introduced, making it necessary for a team to advance the 
ball across the center line within ten seconds, or relinquish 
the ball to their opponents. This change did much to speed 
up the game and gave the trailing team a better chance. 
Another major change that noticeably affected the game was 
the elimination of the center jump during the seasons from 
1936 until 1938. Up to that time it was the practice to have 
a tip-off between the two centers after each free-throw goal 
or field goal. The scoring team now relinquishes the ball 
to its opponents after each goal. This change has popular- 
ized the fast break and has greatly increased scoring. It also 
meant that tall men, used mainly to secure the tip-off, had to 
be better all-round players to earn a place on the team. 

Another major change prohibits any offensive player from 
standing in the free-throw lane for more than three seconds. 
This opens up the area under the basket and also prevents 
tall men from standing directly under the basket where they 
formerly scored by "dunking" the ball into the basket. 

These and other rule changes have made the game a five- 
man shooting contest. For example, one player formerly 
shot all the free throws for his team. Now, the fouled player 
shoots the free throw and all have an opportunity to score 
free-throw points. The changes that have speeded up the 
game and brought the fast break into prominence have also 
made it possible for all the players to participate in the scoring. 
This has added great interest to the game, for both players and 
spectators. 

There will no doubt be further changes which will improve 
the game as basketball is still very much in the developmental 
stage. Although the game has been played since 1891, it 
was in the mid-thirties that it became a prominent major 
sport in most parts of the country. 



THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 5 

Interest in basketball has been particularly great since Mr. 
Ned Irish conceived the idea of bringing college basketball 
into Madison Square Garden in 1934-35. The tremendous 
publicity given to these New York games, the intersectional 
interest, the All-America selections, and the National Tourna- 
ments, effected a country- wide growth and interest in basket- 
ball. It is now estimated that over 20 million people play 
basketball each year in the United States. Over 318 million 
fans bought tickets to their favorite sports events in 1949. 
Of these, 105 million or 33 percent were for basketball 
games. 1 Basketball far surpasses any of our other major 
sports in both participation and spectator attendance. 
'" Basketball has become a major part of all physical education 
programs and is played by many boys and girls recreationally 
on a non-competitive basis; it is one of the leading intramural 
sports in school programs; and it is played on a highly com- 
petitive basis by high school, college, amateur, and professional 
teams throughout the country. The game was also one of 
the chief conditioning and recreational sports used by our 
Armed forces during "World War II. For example, in 1944 
there were more than 2,000 American service teams playing 
basketball in Great Britain and approximately 1,500 in Italy. 
As a result, interest in the game increased greatly throughout 
the world. In the 1948 Olympics many countries looked to 
America for coaches and leaders to help them with the game. 
Of approximately thirty teams participating in the 1948 
Olympics, several were coached by Americans. It is quite 
possible that in the near future basketball will be the leading 
international sport. 

The future of basketball in this country is truly great. Im- 
provements in transportation are making intersectional games 
possible for many teams. For example, in 1946-47 the Uni- 

1 Figures through the courtesy of Ray Bethers and THIS WEEK maga- 
zine. 



6 THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 

versity of Oregon team played two games in New York and 
were away from school only five days, missing only two days 
of classes. In 1948-49 the Yale University team played two 
games in San Francisco during vacation and made the trip in 
six days. Both trips, of course, were made by air. 

The widespread interest in the game has caused many large 
structures to be built to accommodate large crowds. At the 
present time construction is underway for many buildings 
which will seat up to 20,000 spectators each. This will rival 
the already customary attendance at Madison Square Garden. 
Out-of-doors facilities are also being developed rapidly and 
the game is becoming a year-round sport in many sections. 

This great future that is predicted for basketball, includ- 
ing intersection al and international competition, is important 
to all interested in the game. It certainly indicates the need 
for greater study in order that the game's fullest possibilities 
may be realized. 

Value of Scouting 

"Scouting" is a term which is used in athletics with various 
meanings. In basketball the term is used in a broad sense. 
Basketball scouting is the observing, analyzing and recording 
of all performances of both teams, the individual players and 
the officials during the progress of the game. The results of 
scouting include objective data that are recordable and pro- 
ductive of averages and percentages. They also include sub- 
jective observations on styles of play or similar factors. These 
cannot be as accurately measured or reported as the objective 
factors but are probably of equal importance. Scouting also 
includes observations regarding one's own team as well as the 
opponents. 

The information received about a thoroughly scouted game 
should be of value to all interested in and connected with 
basketball in, of course, different ways. Some of these values 
are as follows: 



the game its history and future 7 

Values for the Coach 

First, let us consider the values of objective observations in 
scouting an individual player. Among the factors of the 
game that can be measured objectively are field-goal attempts 
and field goals from various locations, free-throw attempts 
and free- throw goals; recoveries such as offensive and defen- 
sive rebounds, recovered jump balls and interceptions; losses- 
of-ball due to bad passes, violations, and poor ball-handling; 
personal fouls. 

The field-goal data alone are of great value to the coach. 
If his players are shooting below the accepted average some 
change may be necessary in their fundamental work. If an 
opponent is able to score only from certain areas or to score 
only Certain types of shots, this fact has valuable implications 
as to how to play against that opponent. For example, if an 
opponent has a big center and the charts indicate that he can 
score only in the short area close to the basket, the defensive 
center may run back to the keyhole and wait for him, knowing 
probably that he will not take a long shot. If the scout report 
shows his style of shooting and he shoots only with his right 
hand, he may be played accordingly. The scouting data may 
indicate that a star guard on the opposing team is very fast and 
takes shots under the basket but cannot shoot from a long dis- 
tance. The defensive player, therefore, can play him loose and 
prevent him from using his speed. If, on the other hand, re- 
ports indicate that a player is a good long shot he will have to 
be played accordingly. Often scout reports indicate that a 
player does all or most of his shooting from one side of the 
court. Knowing this is an aid to the defensive player in get- 
ting back to a proper position and also in playing the offensive 
man on a particular side. 

Objective free-throw data are valuable mainly for instruc- 
tional purposes. An analysis of free-throw percentages is a 
necessity for intelligent correction or suggestions. 



8 THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 

Rebound data are particularly valuable for indicating the 
strong rebounders on your own and the opposing team. The 
use of such data is the only way to know what your own 
players are doing and it will lead to better instruction. Know- 
ing the strong rebounders on the opposing team will enable 
a coach to devise means of screening out these men and mak- 
ing them less effective. 

Information on other recoveries such as jump balls retrieved 
and interceptions is also of value. This information helps 
the coach to combat the opponents' strong retrievers and 
to strengthen his own players in this particular department. 
Retrieving a jump ball toward the end of a close game is worth 
a little time and effort. It may set up the winning goal. 

Loss-of-ball data are extremely important for instructional 
purposes. A player who constantly travels with the ball or 
makes bad passes will more readily correct his errors if the 
number of times this occurred during a game can be pointed 
out to him. Advantages may also be gained by knowing of 
opponents who have bad habits in this regard. For example, 
an uncertain passer may be pressed by the defense, causing 
him to lose the ball more frequently. 

Personal foul data are commonly utilized by coaches for 
instructional purposes. It is also of value for a coach to know 
which opponents foul most frequently so that strategy may 
be planned accordingly. Naturally, offensive threats should 
be directed toward defensive weaknesses. A player who fouls 
repeatedly on defense may be a key offensive man. If so, the 
offense should be directed toward him. Under the present 
rules, if a key player has three or four fouls, a smart opponent 
will put him on the spot, running plays at him repeatedly 
until he fouls out. Personal foul data are an important part 
of any scout report and much strategy may result from it. 

Objective team data may be obtained by computing the 
totals of individual records. For the coach's own team, the 
total picture will show not only the team average but whether 



THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 9 

the team in general is failing to drive in for the basket, is 
taking bad shots, or is failing to take advantage of known 
defensive weaknesses in certain areas. In many games we re- 
viewed the charts at the half and discovered that our team had 
taken only three or four shots the entire half in the short area. 
Naturally, this means that the team was not taking advantage 
of plays going into the basket, or that they were not feeding 
the post man properly, or possibly that the offensive rebound- 
ing was off. 

There is nothing more valuable in planning an attack 
against an opposing team than knowledge of that team's gen- 
eral shooting ability and styles of performance. Charting a 
team will indicate whether it is a free -shooting, or a conserva- 
tive "percentage" shooting team. Some teams have shot at 
the basket as few as 1 8 times in a game, while others have shot 
as many as 132 times. In the first example, a coach would 
naturally play a pressing defense, if behind, in order to make 
the other team shoot and play ball. In the second example, 
a team could safely play loose away from the ball, knowing 
that shots would be taken without much encouragement. 
When a team is shooting freely at the basket it is probably 
employing a fast break, which means that the defensive team 
may wish to sacrifice offensive rebounds and get the defensive 
men back fast. An example may be used to illustrate these 
points. 

Several years ago, one of the University of Utah's fine 
teams played the University of Oregon. Not having seen 
them play previously, Oregon knew little about their offense. 
At the half, the charts indicated that they took only one-hand 
shots, and that very few shots were taken in the long-shot 
area. With a slight lead, Oregon played a keyhole defense 
the second half, resulting in a 51 to 15 victory for Oregon. 
The strategy was entirely guided by information on the op- 
posing team's shooting pattern taken from the first-half shoot- 
ing charts. Usually, charting an opposing team several times 



10 THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 

will present a good picture as to its general performance in 
shooting. 

Now let us consider the values of subjective scouting ob- 
servations. A report should be made on each player, and it 
should include such factors as size, speed, aggressiveness, com- 
petitive ability, endurance, temperament, and defensive abil- 
ity. These observations are just as valuable as the objective 
ones in coaching individual players and planning the play 
against individual opponents. 

Subjective team observations are of course one of the foun- 
dations for coaching a basketball team and for planning the 
attack against opponents. Certainly the coach must be able 
to observe his plan of offensive and defensive team plays and 
organization. He must be able to decide which are func- 
tioning and what adjustments need to be made during the 
progress of the game. He must also be able to take from 
this subjective scout report information that will be helpful 
in future games. Shall a fast break be used for the entire 
game? Shall a pressing man-to-man defense or a zone defense 
be used? Are the out-of -bound plays being utilized? Is the 
team rebound organization functioning? These observations 
and many others are accurate only if scout reports and records 
are kept. 

Subjective observations about the opposing team are of equal 
importance. What offensive plays and tactics do the op- 
ponents use? What measures shall be employed by the de- 
fensive team to stop them? Do the opponents use a man-to- 
man, zone, or combination defense, and how do they use it? 
What offensive plan will best attack the opponents' defense? 
Obviously these subjective team observations are invaluable 
to any coach. 

Still other phases of both objective and subjective scouting 
include the performance of individuals and teams on home 
courts as compared to visiting courts, during the first half 
as compared to second half which involves endurance, for 



THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 11 

example, or performance in practice games as compared to 
major games. Information of this kind is extremely valuable 
in the conditioning of both players and teams and in the psy- 
chology of coaching. 

Value for Players, Officials, 
Sportswriters, Spectators 

The players 

In one sense, the player is the ultimate recipient of all scout- 
ing information. Scouting is conducted chiefly for the pur- 
pose of improving individual and team play. Aside from 
this, however, it has unique values for the player. First, 
the player benefits from all objective scouting data because 
the information may help him to improve his game offensively 
and to play more scientifically against his opponent defen- 
sively. Before scouting was thought of in basketball, it was 
the rule for a player to analyze his opponent during the early 
part of a game so that he could play accordingly. Objective 
scouting merely eliminates the guess work. Second, the 
player benefits from subjective scouting data through con- 
ferences with the coach and through an analysis of this part 
of his game. Third, the player benefits through self -testing 
and rating which is a form of scouting. There are many fac- 
tors that contribute to making a successful basketball player. 
An analysis of these factors by the player himself, as well as 
by his teammates and the coach, will be invaluable. 

The officials 

Scouting an official is comparatively new in basketball, but 
it is important. Because of the unique position of the basket- 
ball official as compared to officials of other sports, it is essen- 
tial that the work of the official during a game be recorded, 
analyzed, and rated. The results through proper follow-up 
work should be valuable to every official. This scouting and 



12 THE GAME ITS HISTORY AND FUTURE 

rating may be done by representatives from official bureaus or 
associations, coaches, or other competent observers. 

The sportswriter 

Basketball owes much of its popularity to the publicity that 
has been given to the game through channels such as the press 
and radio. Sportswriters have not had a great deal of objec- 
tive data to report to the public. Many have expressed a 
desire to have more of this information. Certain parts of the 
scout reports which may be kept conveniently by sports- 
writers or reporters themselves such as field-goal attempts, 
losses, and recoveries, will be of great value in reporting games 
to the public. 

The spectator 

Similarly, objective data will give spectators a better appre- 
ciation of the game. Scouting information will make it pos- 
sible for spectators who like to keep score at games to do so 
more intelligently, and forms may be made available to them 
so that other data may be tabulated if desired. Actually 
this is of benefit to many fans because it relieves unnecessary 
nervous tension during games. 



Chapter 2 
A Complete Game Scout Report 

J_HE SCOUT REPORT ILLUSTRATED IN FORM A, PP. 14-21, 

gives a complete picture of the objective and subjective obser- 
vations during a complete game. On the front of Form A all 
of the objective data are reported. The back of the form 
gives all subjective observations during the game. These 
minimum essentials are included: 

1 . Objective Data (Individual) 

(a) Long field-goal attempts and goals scored 

(b) Medium field- goal attempts and goals scored 

(c) Short field-goal attempts and goals scored 

(d) Total field-goal attempts and goals scored 

(e) Free-throw attempts and goals scored 

(f ) Loss of ball 

1 ) through violations 

2) through poor ball handling 
3 ) through poor passing 

(g) Interceptions 
(h) Tie-ups 

(i) Jump-ball recoveries 

(j) Offensive rebound recoveries 

(k) Defensive rebound recoveries 

(1) Assists 

(m) Personal fouls 

(n) Points-responsible-for 

(o) Total points 

13 



TEAM YALE 



HALF SCORE (32 ) FINAL SCORE (64 ) 



DATS MAR.CH 13,1948 PLACE VALE 



REFEREE BE6QVICH 



HARVARD 



FIRST HALF 



YAL6 




RUNNING SCORE 


HOME 


TEAM ( 






YALE 












) 


Time Out 


//.'. 








Running Score 


/ 


X 


X 


f 


X 


lA. 


r 


a 


!< 


KS 


X 


yi 


>3 


U 


H 


yi 


yr 


ye 


\» 


20 


21 n yi 24 a a 21 


a 


24 


Player Scoring 




n 




\\ 


? 


ii 


8 




1 




7 


ii 




b 




7 


II 




ii 




3-] 




11 


ii 


t 


* 




f 




lime ol Score 




ifh 




7fl 


/7 


lik 


/6 








15 


its 




14 




a 






10 




1 




t 


s 


Sli 


i 




3 






Running Score 


Jfl 


K 


X 


js 


34 


35 


H 


yi 


n 


x> 


#5 


X 


^ 


# 


# 


*4 


*6 


e> 


46" Vt 50 *1 


& & 


# 


X 


U 


a 


yi 


Player Scoring 


14 




7 




If 




t 




b 




It 




11- 




1 


i" 




/¥ 


T 




a 




6 


7 


/ 




y 


n 


7 


Tims of Score 


V/i 




/2 




11 




n 




lb 




14 




12 




lZ!i 


n'i 




H 


IO'/ t 




6 




H 


4 


4 




yt.i'4 


z 



Running Score 


Y> 


6ff 


K 


# 


* 


M 


65 


64 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 " 


3 74 


75 7 


6 77 


78 


79 


80 f 


1 82 


83 


8 


85 


86 


87 


Player Scoring 




i, 




m 




14 










































Tine ol Score 




w 




i 




'/4 
















































"° 


ML 


"""'■'»'«« 






LONG 


MEDIUM 


SHOUT 


TOTALS 


PCT 


THROWS 




TMLt 


S 


■ 


s 


B 


s 


8 


s 


B 


s 


B 


LAftt.LI 


ft 


3) 


4 


o 


s 


I 


II 


"t 


1ft 


5 


*?8 


II 


5 


N«pnEf».NY 


1* 


30 


1 





» 


5 


*• 


z 


It 


7 


.sop 


£ 


I 


ANOER&OM 




1? 


2. 





£ 


1 


7 


4 


II 


3 


£73 


3 


i 


JOYCE 


9 


3<r 


«t 


% 


3 


6 


6 


I 


IS 


3 


ftOO 


1 


i 


JOHNSON 


f 


1 


























,000 








PEACOCK 


? 


32 


7 


1 


t 


i 


3 


1 


IV 


3 


2it 


6 


$ 


REDDEN 


6 


3? 


H 


1 


3 


i 


H 


2. 


II 


«t 


,%t 








FITZGERALD 


1* 


13 


1 





I 





1 





3 





,000 


2 


1 


















































































































TEAM TOTALS 




200 


21 


•f 


27 


9 


38 


12 


$6 


25 


291 


25 


If 



HARVARD 




HRER 



TEAM TOTALS 



m: 



_3JL 



m: 



2001 9 IOI22I 3 ISTI I [fe 162 I 19 123112? 1 I? 



I? 



311 



at 



I 



i»0 



HIM 



OOP 



: Shott attempted B = Basket* nude 



FORM A 

A Complete Game Scout Report 

14 



TEAM HARVARD 



HALF SCORE ( 27 > FIN AL SCORE < 5 3 > 



umpire SCHOENFELP timer DESMOND scorer ARNOLD 



YALE 



SECOND HALF 



HARVARD 




RUNNING SCORE OPPONENTS ( HARVARD ) Time Out 



//// 



Running Scare 


/ 


/ 


Z 


t 


a 





/ 


t 


If 


\fi 


W 


VI 





1/ 


K 


K 


y 


M 


W 


Xi 


M 


it 


H 


24 


J* tf X 


VI* 


Player Scoring 




n 


n 




i 




lb 


n 




li> 




1 


It 




// 




n 


/y 




Z-l 




2-7 




lb 


/z 


// 


27 




/i> 


Time of Score 




11 


iti 




ni 




W 


13 




n 




n 


7 




b 




5 


5 




4 




2i 




" 


2 


/ 


^ 




Hi 




Running Score 


■» 


n 


H 


a 


X 


?i 


n 


a 


-a 


y) 


4d 


Yl 


41 


t*\f< 


* 


K. 


rt 


^ 


* 


5<J 


W 


yi 


51, 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


Player Scoring 




it 




n 


n 




n 




it 


lb 




a 




inn 


a 


? 




// 


? 




7 


7 


14 












lime of Score 




it 




li 


16k 




15$ 




IS 


lib 




i 




n / 




7 




5 


4% 




3 


3 


Yz 














Running Score 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


Player Scoring 




























































Time of Score 





























































Lessor.,,... 




- 


.COVE..ES 


3 


ASS.STS 


■WW 


"ii? 


TOTAL. 


■■ASSES 


V.OL.TION 


nihb 


CEPTIOlis 


TIE UPS 


JUMP .All 


OPFEN.'E 


DEFENSE 




1 


o 


3 


6 


2. 





? 


10 


£ 


1 


10 


If 





o 


i 


3 


O 


o 


7 


10 


4 


3 


? 


If 


1 


1 


i 


x 


O 


X 


S 





1 


1 


4 


9 


X 





6 


2 


2 


i 


II 


10 


1 


£ 


\l 


7 





o 














o 





O 


1 


z 





1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


z 


t 


H 


S 


8 


9 


t 


o 


1 


«f 


t 


i 


1 


3 


5 


H 


$ 


I 


3 





o 





o 


& 





3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


































































































10 


I 


8 


16 


7 


7 


33 


<tt 


16 


19 


53 


6f 



LOSSOF B ALL 


Z .ECOVEK.ES 


5 


ASS.STS 


","»' 


w 




PASSES 


V.OLAT.O* 


SUA. 


CEpTJo'nS 


T.EUPS 


JUMP BALL 




W E *s t 


POINTS 


1 


1 


1 


•* 


o 





»0 


11 


1 


3 


6 


IZ. 





| 


2. 


3 


5 


1 


7 


S 


1 


•r 


a6 


? 


o 























o 





6 





1 


I 


O 


1 


i 


1 


10 


H 


1 


X 


6 


IX, 


% 


o 


1 


i 











3. 


I 


q 


8 


fi 


£ 


£ 





2. 





6 


Y 


7 


3 


$ 


7 


5 


o 


o 


1 


! 





i 


J 


6 


1 





it 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 





i 


1 


i 


X 


$ 


10 


ff 


1 








i 





i 








1 


3 


5 


1 










































































12. 


8 


6 


18 


3 


5 


30 


39 


II 


tt. 


6t 


53 



FORM A 

A Complete Game Scout Report 
(cont'd.) 

15 



16 A COMPLETE GAME SCOUT REPORT 

2. Objective Data (Team) 

(a) Team totals for each of the individual items on p. 13 

(b) Team shooting percentages and averages for long, me- 
dium, and short shots, and free throws 

(c) The running score 

In regard to objective information, some coaches will wish 
to include more extensive material, such as style of shots at- 
tempted and scored; first and second half divisions; points- 
responsible-for; assists; shots taken and scored as a result of 
certain styles of play, such as the fast break or set plays. Ad- 
ditions of this kind may be easily kept by using symbols. 

Tie-ups, assists, points-responsible-for, and running score 
are not a part of this study but are mentioned and described 
briefly because they are recognized as a part of a complete 
scout report. All other items included in Form A are treated 
thoroughly later. 

A tie-up occurs when a player causes a held ball to be called 
by gaining partial possession of the ball while it is the control 
of an opponent. 

An assist may be credited to a player when he makes a pass 
that contributes directly to a field goal. Since this is a mat- 
ter of judgment, the assist is not entirely an objective item. 

Points-responsible-for are charged to the defensive player 
when his man scores a field goal or when a player fouls an op- 
ponent and the latter scores from the free-throw line. 

The running score gives valuable information. A diagonal 
line is drawn through the proper number each time a score 
is made. The jersey number of the scoring player is placed 
beneath the score number. The time remaining in the half is 
placed beneath the number of the player scoring. This in- 
formation will show which team is leading at any time dur- 
ing the game. It also indicates consistency in scoring by 
players and teams. 



A COMPLETE GAME SCOUT REPORT 17 

3. Subjective Observations 

(a) Team offense and opponent's defense. 

It is suggested that these two major items be scouted and 
recorded together. This includes offensive formations, posi- 
tions of players, methods of bringing the ball down the court, 
and all set-play patterns. It also includes the manner in 
which the defensive team gets back to position and the op- 
ponent's styles of team defense. 

(b) Team defense and opponent's team offense. This is 
the reverse of (a). 

(c) Jump -ball plays (both teams) 

(d) Rebound organization (both teams) 

This includes team rebound organization by both teams on 
the offense and on the defense. It also includes any particular 
rebound strategy or plays that may be used. 

(e) Free-throw organization 

Observations should be recorded on free-throw information 
of both teams on offense and defense. Any plays or strategy 
employed following free throws should also be recorded. 

(f) Out-of-bounds plays (both teams) 

This includes both the offense and defense on all out-of- 
bounds situations; team organization and plays of both teams; 
situations where the ball is taken out-of-bounds under a team's 
own basket, under the opponent's basket, or on the sides of 
the court. 

(g) Personnel (both teams) 

If it is not already known, this should include the height, 
weight, class, and age of each player; and all individual obser- 
vations of the player in this particular game, such as speed, de- 
fensive ability, and offensive ability. A good personnel report 
is as valuable as any part of the scouting report in basketball. 

(h) Officials 

A brief report regarding the work of the officials in the 
game should be included. 



ax > « g 
E ?^^ | 

§ *>Z o- S-o ' 






rt-B 



w 

en £ 
2 * 



O ^ "iS S.S !rS^ fa ^ WDiSJS- 

sa 5a h u » " . 5 «i s .s 2 >o 
>.- B-B(g * > s S . 2 3T3 " s - "^ ?„S a** B 
Q. t "_2't; I/1 -Oc3-5<U ^ti " C Ul> » » " 2* u "*« ico 



8 § I &-£ ' 




go- 



2 o o u 
ca c c -B 



B E °"S .2 o . >,.g «u-o •£ - g 



B o -o m 

E -o 



B •- — 



E 3 



w^Dh 5 e 55 

— ed u .« o 13 <u _ - - - 



cd"O>~*-»o c0 c"E 



« ca E 



|| § « 3 « E ^ „-« 







60 o "3 - 3 <B ,_; o -B 

b 5 S Jo S .3 ~ S"° - K S J3 "o. K2 1 fe.« er jg s - g 

M„«j'°6ogB ) oo.^agss-s-s.ssj w *> 
a -a ra J b : |^-„ e_,s b-^j g *.-§ g sj"*:^ 



6JD U 



? c3 D rt > 



B- ?, O 



c Bs 



JS gja 1 



' !►» cj-B E « 
"CJj *j u .. C 4)' rt 



3 O 



C "• O _E _5 
UT3 rt 



>■, >p-^ «' 



ed c 



t> 



rtOc8^caj3S - 3 2m3e°tBSMS« 



o ^c B c *■ --* ns 

2 S-S SJ=-5 S o.rS 






S ffi fc>"9 o t: 2 





<5 3 

r^j en 

o 



> ft 
P^ 



"3 a §3 b*2 °s " N * 

~- i) a 3 g" 4 ^ a «J e 
_ (U cu B o_ v B B-Q _. 

g^^^a, | | a j « g > 
^! 5 .S,*- 1 ffl >_ S bo— * ^ 



a«°»ii . i^-S «2«S-Sgg£ 

>»•£ B to t, « SB « J= ' 
-2 fi >, SJJJ CU g <-• 

a. G 



^ Q) J CD Js "^ " 0*r3 o ""* 
B)tetnj3i-"S'0 *£ 

a. p 






CO u CD ««-■ 

° s s as 

c > o ^ •£: 

- «- w- u cp g 0) -t; _^ J3 g ^ J3 ^ t« 

" B S3 § g-ug^j^ g.g g-3^ 



to O 4> -5 — a 

" Q >-"o a"" B-o «> Jj ;a 
i2§°JOS.p"*S-S.« 



a. — 
b o-r: 



a. 2 - 

CD *-" .« 



25 2 „.s 

SB 2 « 

*** B B bt 



ss £^:s1 s-a 



■S b ja 



8 * «-> - - 

H g CO O. CD 

B B 60-rj coitJ 

« ° O £_ O-j.,, 

-O 5. . CD T3 .. >- .a CO CD 



« B B •t; ^ 

> — B o ^ 

- » ? '3 a h 

«> S ? 2 n, P 



^ caa. JJ cDcD-T3-« 
£2 „ coco^5 C a; 



6D 



CD. 



0) ' 



"J3P.3 

Sj 2 a to 



ctf 



CD 



,- CD CD CD 

J> > S CD i 

ca 8 a i _a "" 2 "C 



'TS >,.SSc2 CD "- "J^j 

f> a„ - -B B _ 

^i J-I ^ CD *-* CD _H 

P, a. 2 S* E-g'2 



P. 3 



12 * 
tuo 



4>Eo j _,Bcd> > cd23 
c - .-, t " g 

s 



CD t3 5 



B E 'S 




6D t *- 



<u— •£ .2Ew-£2 

2— CD* - "— B-3 « 



E a«a32^2g.BS:Sg2.!s£'3;£o«S-o S B 





< 3 



a eg 



o 



cu rt 
> Pi 



Q fi- 
ll II 



* 



igg^r^ <§rj 



x 



19 






>»>» ft. 

_ ,; «)«£< « 2 
S-.2 OT 9 a C 

stag £.£p 
■g^-S g o-« 
o B o> ta •- 

- - i. -~ A3 r> ca 

.. S 



CO « 

f ©• B « & § 



! ft B CT3 13 i.2 

ea g o u ■" ~ O -, 
-3 — C'-'CU™ 

.SPTS.a'P «.«"" " Rj o 

~- §-■-•!§ s*^ 

,„co.SuS £^ 
>.£ s£ ™ - • * 



-• •- u 4-; r - r — O 



£5 S . °-**. E & 

2 -s E 6 b 8."3g 

■5 30«E-o6S 




<§$! 


£2<§) 5 z 
^ 1 




K\© 5 ^ 

fe) § 

>8 * £ 



< 3 



o 

P-, 



0) w 



20 




ft" o.Sw-S.S 



21 



22 A COMPLETE GAME SCOUT REPORT 

pivot. Shoots with either hand. Did not appear to be rugged on 
boards or strong defensively. 

McCURDY 

Six feet, 160. Shoots from in and out. Good set shot, off in 
this game. Shoots very freely. Always dangerous. Fair defensive 
pjayer. 

OFFICIALS — BEGOVICH 

Excellent game. Followed ball well and used good judgment. 
Called plays quickly and decisively. 

SCHOENFELD 

A good game except interpretation on travelling. Did not 
allow shooter to lift pivot foot in shooting. In the main, however, 
used good judgment and game under control at all times. 

GENERAL COMMENTS — 
SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE GAMES 

Harvard is big and aggressive.- Condition is an important 
factor and we did .not keep up a fast pace all the way in this 
game. Mentally, we were keyed too high for this game — not 
necessary against a traditional opponent. Players seemed nerv- 
ous and over anxious entire first half — settled down in second 
half. Harvard may zone more next game with big men — be ready 
for this. Against man to man we need to develop better side 
attack against them as they concentrate defense in key area. De- 
fensively assigned man to man seems best but we must play it 
much tighter next game. They are a free shooting team and must 
be picked up clear out to center of court. 

In this game we coasted with 12 point lead in second half 
and they caught us. Harvard has hard fighting team and do not 
give up easily. Can't let up against them. 



(i) General comments — suggestions for future games. 

This may include any observations not covered in any other 
items, such as condition of the court, lighting conditions, 
psychological factors, general observations of different stages 
of the game, and "pep" talk reactions. 

Since the report includes all information found in a score 
book, it may be used as an official score record. But the offi- 
cial score book should also be kept to minimize possibilities of 
error. 

A more detailed explanation of the procedure used in ob- 
taining these data follows. This type of report and the fol- 
lowing procedure were used in securing the data for the 460 
college games upon which many of the suggested scouting 
principles in the book are based. 



Chapter 3 
Scouting Methods Employed 



a 



BJECTIVE DATA ARE OBTAINED THROUGH THE USE OF 

charts kept by expert observers. There are several plans 
which may be used, but it is best if three trained observers are 
used to keep the records during a game. Student managers or 
others familiar with the game may easily do the observing since 
it is an entirely objective process. 

It is suggested that one observer record all field-goal at- 
tempts and field goals for both teams. This may be done by 
using a chart as illustrated in Form B on pp. 24-25. It will be 
noted that the scoring area is divided into three parts: the short 
area includes shots out to a radius of twelve feet from the 
basket; the second, or medium area, includes shots from a 
radius of twelve to twenty-four feet from the basket; the 
third, or long area, includes shots farther than a radius of 
twenty-four feet from the basket. Other areas may be in- 
cluded, such as right and left side of the court. The tech- 
niques are simple. If a player takes a shot at the basket, 
merely record his number on the chart at the position from 
which the shot was taken. Tip-ups and blocked shots count 
as attempts. If the shot is successful, the number is encircled. 
If more detailed data are desired, such as the style of shot or a 
shot resulting from a certain style of play, additional symbols 
may be used. The shot observer may also keep the running 
score for both teams. 

The second observer should tabulate rebounds for individual 
players of both teams. This again is a simple procedure. 

23 



24 



SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 

TEAM HALF SCORE ( ) FINAL SCORE < 



DATE 



PLACE 



REFEREE 



FIRST HALF 




RUNNING SCORE HOME TEAM ( 



) Time Out. 



Running Score 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


31 


Pilfer Scoring 




























































Tini ol Score 






























































Running Score 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


SO 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


fUrir Scoring 




























































Tine el Score 





























































Bowirog Score 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


62 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


flayer Scoring 




























































Tins el Store 





























































FORM B 

Basketball Scoring Form 
(To be kept by first observer.) 



Form C on page 26 is suggested. The observer merely records 
a tally each time a player retrieves an offensive or defensive 
rebound. An offensive rebound is one which is retrieved from 
a player's own basket. A defensive rebound is one that is re- 
trieved from the opponents' basket. An observer may check 
the accuracy of his figures, since the total number of rebounds 
should be approximately equal to the number of missed field- 
goal attempts and missed free throws less missed free throws 
when the ball is dead following the attempt. For example, if 
team A shoots at the basket sixty times and succeeds fifteen 
times, there will be forty-five rebounds at that basket from 
field-goal attempts alone. If team A attempts twenty free 
throws and makes ten, there will probably be an additional 



«. TEAM 



SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 

HALF SCORE < ) FINAL SCORE ( 



25 



UMPIRE 



TIMER 



SCORER 



SECOND HALF 




RUNNING SCORE OPPONENTS ( 



) Time Out. 



Banning Sure 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


IS 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


Player Scoring 




























































Tim! of Score 
































































Running Score 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


Player Scoring 




























































Time of Score 
































































Running Score 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


66 


87 


Player Scoring 




























































line ol Score 





























































FORM B 

Basketball Scoring Form 
(cont'd.) 

ten rebounds, or a total of approximately fifty-five offensive 
and defensive rebounds at that basket. 

Occasionally a missed free throw is a dead ball and there is 
no rebound. This may occur on the first free throw when 
two are awarded or on a missed free throw awarded for a tech- 
nical foul. All other missed shots result in rebounds. 

When a rebound results in a held ball, the team finally re- 
trieving the jump ball should be given a rebound recovery. 
In case a shot goes out-of-bounds without hitting the back- 
board the opposing team is credited with a rebound. In these 
latter two cases they are recorded as team rebounds rather 
than individual. 

The third observer should record losses-of-ball by players of 



26 



SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 





OFFENSIVE 


DEFENSIVE 


TEAM 






PLAYER NO. 


































































TOTALS 










OFFENSIVE 


DEFENSIVE 


TEAM 






PLAYER NO. 


































































TOTALS 







Form C 

Rebound Form 
(To be kept by second observer.) 



SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 



27 





LOSSES 


RECOVERIES 




Passes 


Vio- 
lation 


Ball 
Hand. 


Inter- 
ceptions 


Tie- 

Ups 


Jump 
Ball 


TEAM 














PLAYER NO. 






























































































































TOTALS 


















LOSSES 


RECOVERIES 




Passes 


Vio- 
lation 


Ball 
Hand. 


Inter- 
ceptions 


Tie- 
Ups 


Jump 
Ball 


TEAM 














PLAYER NO. 






























































































































TOTALS 















Form D 

Losses -of-Ball, and Recoveries (except rebounds) 

(To be kept by third observer.) 



28 SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 

both teams and recoveries other than rebounds (see Form D, 
page 27). It will be noted that losses are divided into three 
divisions, namely bad passes, violations, and ball-handling. 
Occasionally a player will be guilty of losing the ball when it 
is obviously not the passer's fault: for example, not cutting 
properly to meet a pass. In this case the offender should be 
charged with a loss under ball-handling. 

Interceptions are credited to a player who gains possession 
of the ball from the other team in general floor play. If a 
player throws the ball out-of-bounds a team interception is 
credited to the opponent. The observer may check his ac- 
curacy since the number of interceptions should equal the 
number of losses due to bad passes and poor ball-handling. 
Jump-ball recoveries are credited to the player retrieving the 
jump ball. This observer may also keep tie-ups if desired. If 
assists and points-responsible-for are to be kept, either the 
second or third observer may keep them by adding the neces- 
sary columns to Form C or D. 

The procedure in recording losses and recoveries is to mark 
a tally opposite the player's name in the proper column. 

The observers may total the results and have the records 
available to the coach at half time. After the game they 
should be recorded on the complete scout report sheet and 
percentages computed. Everything shown on the front page 
of the game scout record, Form A, may be derived from Forms 
B, C, and D and the score book. The transfer to the perma- 
nent sheet (Form A) may be done in less than one hour. It is 
suggested that the coach do this so that he may analyze the 
performances of the players and team during the game. 

The subjective part of the report is a matter of observation 
by an expert, usually the head coach. An assistant coach, or 
some other qualified observer, may record plays and notes on 
forms during the game. However, this cannot be done by a 
casual observer. It is suggested that immediately following 
the game or during the next day, the coach record his subjec- 



SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 29 

tive observations on the back of Form A. If a secretary is 
available, much of the subjective report may be dictated and 
typed on the form. If other scouts are available a collabo- 
rated report may be given. Completing the objective and 
subjective report should not take more than two to three 
hours of a coach's time and the permanent record with its 
future values will repay his effort. 



Other Scouting Methods 

Individual charts 

Many coaches may prefer to secure objective data through 
the use of individual charts, as illustrated in Form E, Page 30. 
In this method, the starting player in each position is No. 1. 
The first substitute in a position is No. 2, the second substitute 
in No. 3. If a shot is successful the number is encircled. 
Second-half shots may be underlined to distinguish them from 
first -half shots. This is the most simple method of charting 
shots on individual charts. If more detailed information is 
desired, various symbols may be used. Some coaches desire the 
following information (in each case special symbols may be 
used) : 

1. Bad shots as distinguished from good shots. This re- 
quires an expert observer with knowledge of the game. 

2. The type of shot taken, whether it be a one-hand shot, 
a two-hand shot, a hook shot, an under-hand shot, or an 
overhead shot. If types of shots are recorded, one method is 
to use numbers for each type of shot. For example, 1 — set 
shot; 2 — right-hand shot; 3 — left-hand shot; A — lay-up shot; 
5 — rebound shot. 

3. Whether the shot was taken as the result of a rebound, a 
fast break, or a set play. 

It is suggested that coaches avoid complicating the charts 
with a mass of data which will not be of actual value. Most 



30 



SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 



coaches will find it sufficient merely to chart the shots at- 
tempted and the shots made from the proper location. 

The other objective data should be recorded by using the 
same method. No. 1 is used for the starting player, No. 2 for 
the first substitute, etc. A diagonal line separates the two 
halves. 

,$IN01E GAME EXAMPLE x 

{• FROM YAtC-COftNgU d*Mf HH>) 

nameLAVELU posH.P. no. ft 
sub&AULT«2.1sub 




za 



'RECOVERIES 



INTKBCEPTION8 JUMP 

tnyinaa 1 \xf 



OFFENSIVE DETKNSIVI 

i»u/nii I myrnr n 



LOSS OF BALL 



PASSES 



ASSIST 



rs 



VIOLATION 



BALL f 

I2L 



PTS. RESPONSIBLE FOR 



LZi£ 



III 






FREE THROWS 



qq/qqqq i~i/i 



PERSONAL FOULS 



FORM E 

Individual Chart 



SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 



31 



In the points-responsible-for box an x indicates two points 
(field goal) and the number 1 indicates one point (free throw) . 
If a second player is playing in the position, use number 2 
below the symbol (see example). 

One advantage of the individual chart method is that it 
gives the coach the complete picture of each player's achieve- 



60 
50 
















OREGON 64 


















^S 














/ 

4 


jfwASHIN 


GTON 54 


30 
20 
10 










ORE. 32 


/ 
• 














•^t 


WASH. 29 












— - 1 
















*•"" 


1 




END OF 
FIRST 
HALF 










END OF 
GAME 



MINUTES PLAYED 



FORM F 
Graph of a Basketball Game. 

ment at a glance. This type of record has often been used 
along with the team forms. The results may easily be re- 
corded on a permanent scout report like Form A. In other 
words the individual chart gives the same information as that 
obtained from Forms B, C, and D. 

Graphs 

Some coaches prefer the use of graphs in keeping game rec- 
ords. Form F, above, illustrates how a graph may be used 



32 SCOUTING METHODS EMPLOYED 

to show the progress of teams during a game. A glance at 
the graph will indicate when each team scored and the game 
situation at any minute during the game. 

Graphs may also be used for individual and team shooting 
and scoring records but they are more complicated and less 
desirable than the plans already described. 

The individual-chart method and the graph method refer, 
of course, to objective scouting. Subjective observations are 
always the same in procedure. 



Chapter 4 
Using Scout Reports for the Future 



E 



IACH SCOUT REPORT, IF CAREFULLY STUDIED, SHOULD 

lead to recommendations for the next game, even though it be 
with another opponent. In any event, the parts of the report 
that have to do with one's own team may be utilized. Prior 
to playing the next game, possibly on the Monday following a 
week-end game, the scout report may be taken up with the 
squad and plans made for the game to come. 

It has been found that reviewing scout reports over a period 
of years helps in planning to meet a known opponent. A 
sample of notes taken from scout reports to meet a situation 
of this kind follows: 

Oregon vs. Washington, January 25, 1946 (Notes taken from scout 
reports of past three seasons) . 

1. Keep out of corners on fast break with the ball. 

2. Trailer man is open around the sides of the court. 

3. At least one man play the ball down court; two if possible. 

4. With lead make them come out; they prefer to play loose. 

5 . Drive in on them individually. They will foul. Pass to open 
man when they take over. 

6. They use a long-pass fast break. Two defensive men must be 
back at all times. 

7. Analyze their personnel. Johnson is key man. 

8. No. 3 on Smith's side of floor was good last year. See where 
he plays and run plays at him. 

9. Wide attack is good. Screen for side set shots. 

10. They slap rebounds back. Guards play to intercept these. 

11. Screen out Jones on rebounds. He is key man. 

33 



34 USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 

12. Diagram their jump-ball play. It scored for them last year. 

13. All five "Washington men can score. They must all be 
guarded tightly. 

14. Work to Anderson's side from post. They will play him 
tight. 

15. Watch man who loosens to tie up the post man. His man 
should cut for basket. 

16. Don't throw to Anderson down the side. They watch for this 
and will intercept. 

17. No. 5 man can drive into foul area and down sides. 

18. On defense guards must go through on the No. 3 play. They 
fake to the outside and go to the inside. 

19. The out-of-bounds play to the left side going into the basket 
was good last year. 

20. On jump balls tip away from the spot where their forward 
comes in. 

21. Their center jumps in front of the post man. Pass over him. 

22. The screen on sides is easy for set shots. 

23. Force play early and as much as possible. Tie up their guards. 

24. They had three men on the offensive board but do not press 
down court; they drop back fast. If forwards take their guards to 
the sides, our guards can drive in. 

25. Free-throw arrangement must be reviewed. They use re- 
bound plays. 

26. Take over fast on defense. Make them shoot from outside. 

27. Drive all the way to the end of the court. They stop their 
defense half way. 

28. They rebound harder offensively when trailing. 

29. They break forward to the post. 

30. Roll ball into the pivot. On defense they play hard on the 
sides. 

31. Set up plays early in the game. Increase tempo later. 

32. Go over the defense for their No. 3 play. Sliding defense 
will be best. 

33. Cross the forwards on the fast break. 

34. Guards should rebound offensively early in the game. 

35. The left side plays are good. They expect us to work to the 
right. 

Additional Uses of Scout Reports 

Another valuable way to use scout reports of your games in 
the future is to keep permanent records of the performance of 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 35 

each player and of the team during the season. These records 
are easily obtainable from the game reports. Forms G and H 
on pages 36-37 and 40 illustrate how a player's complete rec- 
ord for the season may be kept. In this particular example, 
the player's record is for conference games only. For exam- 
ple, the first game listed is Yale vs. University of Pennsylvania. 
It is very simple to examine the scout report for this game and 
take the individual player's record from it. 

On the shooting chart in Form G, the shot attempts and 
goals scored by each player are given for each game. The 
numbers used correspond to the game number as indicated in 
the Game Number column. For example, 1 indicates games 
with the University of Pennsylvania. If the shot attempt is 
successful, it is encircled. 

The example in Form G divides the shooting chart into 
games played away from home and games played at home, 
since this particular information was desired. It also shows 
results for the first-half shooting compared to the second half. 
Other plans may be used depending on the coach's or player's 
needs. 

Much information may be gained from studying this re- 
port. The over-all picture shows that this player made twelve 
field goals in sixty-six attempts in the long area for a percent- 
age of .182. He made eleven goals in forty- three attempts 
in the medium area for a percentage of .256. He made 
twenty-two goals in fifty-six attempts in the short area for a 
percentage of .393. His total performance was forty-five 
field goals in one hundred and sixty-five attempts for a .273 
percentage. This player was a much more accurate shooter 
in the second half. First-half totals show that he made 
only seventeen field goals in eighty-seven attempts — a .195 
shooting percentage. In the second half, however, he made 
twenty-eight field goals in seventy-eight attempts — a .359 
percentage. This indicates that the player is in good condi- 
tion and a good second-half competitor. However, the first- 
half record is so low that it must be brought up to par. Per- 



36 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 



haps a longer warm-up period is necessary for him or he may 
be unusually nervous before a game. The report also shows 
that this player was a more accurate shooter away from than 
at home. He made twenty-five field goals in eighty-four at- 
tempts (a .298 percentage) away from home as compared to 
twenty field goals in eighty-one attempts (a .247 percentage) 



TEAM 



HALF SCORE ( ) FINAL SCORE ( > 




RUNNING SCORE HOME TEAM ( 



) Time Oul . 



Running Score 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


■10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


IS 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


Player Scoring 




























































Tine of Score 






























































Cunning Score 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


Plajrer Scoring 




























































Tims of Score 






























































Running Score 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


Player Scoring 




























































Tine o! Score 





























































/firfc/^-0 _ jZcr* *-"» 


»o 


AH. 


S „„„«»YO F SHOTS 








fuofrfe.n 


LONG 


UEDIUM 


SHORT 


TOTALS 


PCT 


THROWS 




S 


B 


S 


B 


s 


B 


S 


B 


s 


B 




-* forvruwjLusrV^ 


i 


ir 


/' 


V 


6 


O 


4 


¥ 


Z.3 


8 


3*6 


V 


2- 






7, 


to 


<£> 


2, 


¥ 


/ 


¥ 


O 


If 


3 


Zi¥ 


¥ 


¥ 






3 


3(, 


7 


/ 


/ 


o 


3 


1 


II 


z. 


/fb. 


¥ 


¥ 






4 


31%. 


4 


1 


I 


o 


7 


z 


i4 


3 


Zlf 


IO 


7 






g~ 


zr 


¥ 


O 


1 


o 


J 


o 


I 


o 


.000 


O 


o 






C 


3S- 


¥ 


1 


3 


1 


¥ 


2. 


ii 


¥ 


M 


o 


o 






1 


n 


¥ 


o 


S 


7. 


/ 


1 


IO 


1 


■>*> 


5" 


3 






z 


35 


¥ 





z. 


o 


4 


1 


fz. 




.ftfii 


/ 


D 




Cfwtt. 


3 


to 


z. 





S" 


1 


V 


J 


II 


¥ 


.3l<f 


2- 


1 






4- 


¥o 


5" 


1 


c 


2. 


X 


2_ 


19 


s~ 


PU 


z 


1 






S" 


3(o 


3 


o 


H 


1 


u 


3 


13 


¥ 


.308 


3 


3 






c 


3T 


I o 


Z- 


5" 


3 


¥ 


3 


ii 


8 


.fu 


¥ 


i 




TEAM TOTALS 




Wi. 


(,(, 


/x. 


¥3> 


II 


$■(. 


it 


/6y 


¥i~ 


273 


3? 


Z8 




* %7^-^c^ju^ «*■■-* <»>■) (;■"-) i ■■■■ '-' ("£' 



FORM G 

Player's Season Record 

(Form 1) 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 



37 



at home. This is rather unusual but it again indicates that the 
player is a good competitor and is not bothered by unf amiliar 
surroundings. Poor home-court lighting may have been a 
factor. 

The report also shows free-throw results. This same man 



n TEAM 



HALF SCORE < ) FINAL SCORE ( > 



(%U*nSLMa^^) SECOND HALF r^Wc d^c^ ) 




RUNNING 


SCORE 


OPPONENTS 


( 
























) 


1 


ime Out. 












Running Scare 


I 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


IS 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


n 


Pilfer Scoring 




























































Tine of Score 
































































Running Score 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


Plarcr Scoring 




























































Time of Score 
































































Running Score 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


Planer Scoring 




























































Tine of Score 





























































UBSOP..LL 


HCOVC^S 


_» 


"rtr 


R SIBLE * 






»,ol.«,.ON 


KMi 


CAPONS 


neups 


H.LDB.LL 


BACKBOARD 


POINTS 




OPPENSB 






/ 


1 


o 


/ 


/ 


1 


¥- 


i 




1 




'P 


/ 


1 


X, 


X. 


2. 


x. 


O 


3 




/ 




/ o 


2. 


3 




5 


3 


z. 


1 


3 




3 




fl 


/ 


s- 




X 


3. 


z. 


3 


¥ 




¥ 




13 


O 


1 





1 


2- 


o 


J 


3 




3 




O 


2. 


o 




¥ 


2. 


1 


1 


3 




¥ 




8 


1 


i 




2. 


1 


1 


3 


3 




¥ 




f 


2. 


3 


2. 


7 


Z. 


1 


2 


3 




1 




X. 





z. 




1 


O 


o 


z. 


z. 




3 




1 


1 


1 




2. 


1 


z. 


1 


3 




¥■ 




It 


3 


1 


z 


z. 


o 


1 


3 


¥ 




S 




II 


O 


5" 


1 


¥ 


1 


3 


3 


5~ 




J 




It 


l¥ 


Z4 


/3 


33 


n 


tt> 


zc 


37 




3t 




118 





FORM G 

Player's Season Record 
(cont'd.) 



38 USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 

Thomas Redden — 1947-48 — Off-Season Suggestions 
1947-48 Shooting Data (12 Conference Games) 





Long 
Shots 


Me- 
dium 
Shots 


Short 
Shots 


Total 
Shots 


Free 
Throws 


Total 
Points 


66-12 


43-11 


56-22 


165-45 


39-28 


118 


Percentage 


.182 


.256 


■ 393 


.273 


.718 




*Av. Per 
Game 


6-1 


4-1 


5-2 


15-4 


4-3 


11 






At Home 
Shooting 


Away 
Shooting 


1st Half 
Shooting 


2nd Half 
Shooting 


81-20 


84-25 


87-17 


78-28 


Percentage 


.247 


.298 


•195 


.359 



* Based on time played: 434j^ min. (approximately equal to 11 40-min. 
games). 

Your record also shows 51 losses-of-ball (nearly five per game) ; 63 
rebounds (6 per game); 66 other recoveries (6 per game) and 36 
fouls (3 per game). 

You can be considered a good college basketball player. You have 
aggressiveness, determination and are a good competitor. However, 
you still have some rough spots in your game that could be improved. 
If you will work hard during the off-season you will have a much 
better season next year. "Work on the following fundamentals: 

Footwork: 

You are too stiff in your actions and this is one reason you lose the" 
ball as much as you do. Practice stops, starts and pivots that we 
have covered. Defensively, you also need to improve on footwork, 
get down lower, and learn to move backward faster. But, your 
defense this year was probably better than that of most of the other 
players. 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 39 

Dribbling, Passing and Ball-Handling: 

Your dribble is too high (another reason for your frequent loss 
of the ball this year) . You need to get down over the ball, be able 
to dribble fast with either hand and also develop a change of pace 
in your dribble. You also need to practice quick ball-handling and 
passing which will be used a great deal more with a moving offense 
next year. 

Shooting: 

This should demand a major part of your off-season practice time. 
Your short shooting was not up to a winning average. You need to 
practice driving in hard and shooting with either hand and high 
jumping rather than broad jumping. You also need much practice 
shooting about eight feet out from the basket. In the middle area, 
work hard on the right-hand shot. You can also use the set shot in 
this area. Practice both of these a great deal. You do not hit a 
high average in these shots. 

Individual Defense: 

Get an opponent whenever possible and keep practicing your in- 
dividual defense. Do the same thing on rebounds. You could do 
better defensive rebounding and practicing this will make you 
more conscious of it. Each time you go on the court, end your 
practice with running for conditioning. Finish with some good 
sprints and also some backward sprints. This will build up your 
endurance for the coming season. Please keep in touch with me 
during the summer. 



made twenty-eight free-throw goals in thirty-nine attempts, 
a .718 percentage. It also shows all of the other objective 
findings such as rebounds and losses-of-ball. Since the total 
number of minutes played are given, it is possible to determine 
how many forty minute periods each player plays and arrive 
at the average number of attempts, goals, rebounds, and losses 
per game, if desired. 

A typical example of suggestions to the player that may be 
recorded on the back of Form G is given on pp. 38-39. 
These, of course, are based on the season record and any sub- 



40 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 



jective observations noted during the season. A copy of this 
report should be given to the player so that he can improve 
his game accordingly. Similar records are possible for players 
on opposing teams if enough data are available. 

Form H, below, shows how an individual-chart form 

SEASON SUMMARY EXAMPLE 
name PEACOCK. P0S.L6 no. ? 



SUB 



SUB 




TOTAL i*H37 ••!i'« l 'l 



PCT. .Z98 



<2\ 



i i« 



RECOVERIES 



INTERCEPTIONS 


JUMP BALL 


31 


17 



OFFENSIVE 


DEFENSIVE 


3? 


%♦ 



I-OSS OF BALL 



PASSES 


VIOLATION 


BALL HAND. 


16 


9 


21 



ASSISTS 



PTS. RESPONSIBLE FOR 



3117/ 



FREE THROWS 



PERSONAL FOULS 



33-2«fr (717) I «f3 



FORM H 

Player's Season Record. 

(Form 2) 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 41 

may be used for a player's season record. Again, the results 
are taken from the game report. This report is not broken 
down into first and second halves or games at home and away 
from home. Neither is it broken down for the different 
games. It merely shows field-goal attempts by a vertical line 
and the line is encircled if the goal was made. Notice that 
this particular player did most of his shooting from the cen- 
ter or right side of the court. 

The team's record for a complete season may be kept in the 
same manner. Form I on page 42 gives an example. Again, 
this record is for conference games only. Since each individ- 
ual game report shows the field-goal attempts and goals on the 
game charts, it is not necessary to duplicate this on the season 
record charts. The recordings on the season charts merely 
indicate by a vertical line the spot from which a field-goal at- 
tempt is taken. If the line is crossed, it indicates that the 
attempt was successful. This record, at a glance, gives the 
shooting percentages of the team from all areas; the free-throw 
percentage; and the other objective information. Percentages 
and averages per game may be worked out. 

In a similar manner, the same information may be recorded 
about the opposing team during the season. This is very im- 
portant if your team's achievements are to be compared with 
those of the opponents'. 

It is interesting to note that in this season report, the team 
had a shooting average of .249 at home and .295 away from 
home. Perhaps it was partly psychological, but the players 
complained that the lighting on the home court was very poor. 
Using these records as a selling point, an improvement was 
made before the next season. The shooting average of the 
team in 1948-49 improved from .270 to .319 and the home 
shooting average improved accordingly. This indicates that 
these reports have many uses besides being coaching aids. 
Whether it was due to improved lighting or psychological fac- 
tors, shooting did improve. 



42 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 



TEAM 



HALF SCORE ( ) FINAL SCORE ( 




RUNNING SCORE HOME TEAM ( 



) Time Out 



Running Score 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


IS 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


Player Scoring 




























































Time ol Score 






























































Running Score 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


Player Scoring 




























































Time of Score 






























































Running Score 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


31 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


Player Scoring 




























































Timer of Score 































































» 


,a»,i„ 


SUMMARY O- SHOTS 






fa$P%ft. ¥S 


LONG 


MEDIUM 


SHOUT 


TOTALS 


per 


THROWS 


s 


B 


s 


B 


5 


D 


s 


B 


s 


B 


^ni^n^i^ri^tccu 






31 


IO 


iz 


4- 


Z&, 


IO 


97 


Z</ 


.Z¥7 


z* 


1ST 


■*ffMus*ri&JL^ 






2-1 


1- 


53 


<r 


Zz_ 


7 


76, 


n 


Zll 


15- 


12. 


■* Cff7-»ve^L 






ZL 


b 


33 


c 


Z-V 


t 


&3 


ZO 


z<tl 


19 


1* 


%7ht*lC£tcrrL, 






/¥ 


i 


Z2~ 


? 


27 


i4 


73 


Zl 


2f?« 


sr 


Zi 


-X J^nfiZ^TIAcCtA. 






l(o 


i 


ZC 


C 


18 


n 


loo 


ZM 


.zf/o 


Zo 


is- 


*uL<«^ 






Zl 


* 


Z7 


y 


38 


iz. 


f(. 


zs 


.257 


zr 


11 








IZ- 


Z 


z6 


7 


3.9 


to 


(,7 


19 


ZfW 


Z7 


'$ 








IG 


S" 


Z3 


ff 


ZC 


c 


i>S 


if 


.z?z 


it 


/<; 


aLTfc: 






13 


3 


2.7 


r 


ZS- 


8 


<£S" 


/(, 


z% 


Zf 


/V 


t/ioi\<:j%bH-^ 






IS 


* 


51 


f 


¥0 


f 


ft 


Zl 


z-a/ 


17 


to 








IC 


H 


2-5 


7 


Z.1 


f 


Cf 


If 


zjf 


35- 


30 








Zl 


7 


2-i 


7 


25 


11 


to 


31 


M 


Zg 


in 


TEAM TOTALS 






2.30 


5-3 


357 


1C 


lift 


izC 


pte. 


ZSS 


ZT]0 


zH 


iff 


*H**v£<~~*>~ K*-* (.2-30) (zzQ (-"j; (rroi) 



FORM I 
Team's Season Record 



It has been my experience that such information about in- 
dividual players and the team is invaluable in planning for 
the next season. Each game must be planned carefully, based 
on findings of previous games. Similarly, a coach should plan 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 



43 



..TEAM 



HALF SCORE ( ) FINAL SCORE ( ) 



Wfflif 'Oam&t^) 



SECOND HALF 



''/.,/' ' 



V 1 1,<' 









® 







RUNNING SCORE OPPONENTS ( 



) Time Out 



Running Scare 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


Plajrer Scoring 




























































Time of Score 
































































Running Score 


30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


3S 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


■17 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


Player Scoring 




























































Time of Score 
































































Running Score 


59 


60 


6; 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


66 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


Player Scoring 




























































Time of Score 





























































LOSS OT »u. 






E COV E H, K 




.SS.STS 


"■SSSff' 


"If 






»,OL*T.O» 


stti 


c£S%« 


T, E UP S 


HELD -ALL 


BACKBOARD 


point:. 


PASSES 


OFFENSE 






9 


/ 


sr 


/C 


/o 


6 


3y 


*s 




/8 


¥*- 


C3 


3 


1 


R 


/ 2- 


IO 


9 


i9 


zs 




7 


s-n 


YY- 


7 


c 


¥ 


/& 


A3 


<S 


zc 


Zo 




2 / 


ST8 


i-¥ 


/ 


r 


5" 


/9 


/ 


7 


31 


2C 




Zl 


5T3 


Cs- 


9 


7 


(, 


/a 


6 


7 


¥5- 


¥o 




1 c 


£.8 


63 


IO 


*. 


8 


/s 


f 


7 


32. 


37 




19 


srj 


C¥- 


& 


s~ 


5" 


II 


5" 


5" 


z.8 


32 




2/ 


s-f 


rc 


1 o 


. 6, 


c 


13 


r? 


? 


15- 


'8 




12 


C 1 


s¥ 


IO 


g 


¥ 


IO 


£ 


5" 


21 


3¥ 




29 


s~z. 


¥C 


1 


r 


C 


IZ 


7 


6 


3¥ 


¥2 




17 


53 


sz 


V 


7 


? 


7 


& 


6 


2-3 


iL 




Z¥ 


7^ 


(r* 


t> 


tb 


/ 


Z3 


2. 


£ 


/X 


Vfl 




2C 


SV 


SO 


<jl 


7T 


72 


tun 


?o 


72- 


33C 


HoQ, 




Z3I 


(>8z 


7o9 





FORM I 

Team's Season Record 
(cont'd.) 



the coming season in the light of the past season's experiences. 
The following is an example of information that may be in- 
cluded for future reference on the back of Form I. 



44 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 



Season Summary — Yale — 1947-48 
Suggestions for Next Year 



At Home 
Shooting 


Away 
Shooting 


1st Half 
Shooting 


2nd Half 
Shooting 


515-128 
.249 


431-127 
.295 


460-116 
.252 


486-139 
.286 



(For Other Shooting Records, see Form H) 

Averages per Game 





Shots 


Goals 


Long Shots 


19 


4+ 


Medium Shots 


28 


6+ 


Short Shots 


32- 


11- 


Total Shots 


79 


21 


Free Throws 


24 


17 



Loss-of-Ball 20 

Rebounds 62 

Other Recoveries .... 27 

Personal Fouls 19 

Total Points 59 

Opponents Points ... 57 



Shooting was up to par only in the long area. The record in the 
medium area should be much higher and the short area at .333 was 
extremely low. We also had fewer short shots at the basket than 
our opponents. Lack of adequate shooting practice early in the sea- 
son must be corrected next year. The fact that we were a better 
shooting team away from home bears out the point that lighting on 
the home court is very poor. It must be improved next season. 

Each player must have individual instruction in shooting and this 
must be emphasized in off-season practice. 

Next to shooting, our biggest weakness was poor rebounding. 
Although we retrieved an average of sixty-two rebounds a game, we 
were weak in this department against the top teams. Individual 
work and team rebound organization must be improved next year. 

Defensively, every player on the squad should improve. The op- 
ponents averaged fifty-seven points a game which is far too many. 
We must pay more attention to individual defense in early season 
practice. 

The fact that we committed nineteen personal fouls a game in- 



USING SCOUT REPORTS FOR THE FUTURE 45 

dicates that our footwork and general individual defense is below par. 

Losses-of-ball totaled two hundred and thirty-nine for twelve 
games, an average of twenty per game. This gives the other team 
twenty points every ball game. Much of this was due to learning 
a new, fast system but it must be cut down materially next year. 

Generally speaking, the squad was very cooperative and had a very 
good attitude. The fact that the squad was learning a new system 
and got a late start contributed very much to a mediocre season. 

In addition to emphasizing fundamentals and team play, we must 
stress better physical condition next year. We were not a strong 
second-half team during the past season. We should also make more 
effort to have the entire squad available daily for practice. 



Chapter 5 

Basketball Shooting 
and Its Implications 

T 

A HE ONLY WAY TO SCORE IN A BASKETBALL GAME IS TO 

"shoot a basket." See photo, Shooting a Basket, in illustrated 
section. And, as the rule book states: "The purpose of a 
basketball team is to throw the ball into its own basket and 
to prevent the other team from securing the ball and scor- 
ing." x Therefore to "shoot a basket" becomes the main ob- 
jective. Various fundamentals, techniques, systems, and styles 
of play are all directed to this end. The fact that all players 
can shoot at the basket is a chief reason for wide participation 
in the game. Shooting is obviously the most important factor 
in the game. In view of this fact, it is surprising that so little 
attention has been paid to shooting percentages and to an 
analysis of the areas from which shots are taken. 

Shooting averages in basketball are just as important as bat- 
ting averages in baseball. We should have some standard by 
which to measure the shooting ability of a player. If a good 
baseball batting average is .300, what is a good basketball 
shooting average? How much shooting ability should be ex- 
pected from a basketball player? Since shots are taken from 
various parts of the court, we must also know what shooting 
performance to expect at various distances from the basket. 

By compiling the results of 460 college basketball games it 
was possible to arrive at certain results. The games included 

1 Technically, a team's "own basket" is the one at which they are shooting. 

46 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 47 

a thirteen-year period starting with the 1936-37 season 
through the 1948-49 season. There are many intersectional 
games in the survey including fifty-one games played in Madi- 
son Square Garden during the 1944-45 season. Tabulations 
of field-goal attempts and field goals have been made in vari- 
ous areas. Free-throw attempts and free-throw goals were 
also recorded. 

Comparisons are made between major and minor games, 
first- and second-half performances, winning and losing 
teams, home and visiting teams. Intra-squad scrimmages and 
practice shots are also used for comparison purposes. The re- 
sults of this survey are given in this chapter. 

Basketball Scoring 

There is a definite trend toward higher scoring in basket- 
ball. Part of this is due to rule changes that have lengthened 
the actual playing time. The elimination of the center jump 
and the trend toward a faster game have also increased scoring. 
Table I, All Games Scoring, page 48 proves these statements. 
During the thirteen-year period, the average score per game 
has increased from 70.5 for both teams to 126.2. 

However, the 126.2 mark is admittedly above the national 
average since it includes Yale games and Yale in 1948-49 had 
close to a 70-point game average. The N.C.A.A. bureau in 
1949 reports that college scoring in 3603 major college games 
averaged 109.5 points per game for both teams. This is a 
3.0 increase over 1948 when the N.C.A.A. report for 3848 
major college games showed a game average of 106.5 for both 
teams. 

The 1948-49 season indicates that teams are scoring an aver- 
age of around 5 5 points per game. It should be further noted 
that the greatest increase in scoring started during the period 
of World "War II. At first it was thought that this was a 
temporary situation due to the fact that teams were below par 
defensively and many of the top coaches were in the service. 



48 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 



There was a tendency to de-emphasize proper defensive play 
and it was thought that a leveling-off would follow. Since 
scoring is still on the increase, however, it is possible that the 
peak has not yet been reached. In any event, it is apparent 

TABLE I 
All Games Scoring 



Season 


Number 


Score 


Average Score 




of Games 




per Game 


1936-37 


31 


2185 


70.5 


1937-38 


36 


2985 


82.9 


1938-39 


41 


3326 


81.1 


1939-40 


32 


2748 


85-9 


1940-41 


43 


3537 


82.3 


1941-42 


32 


2588 


80.9 


1942-43 


35 


2985 


85-3 


1943-44 


32 


2763 


86.3 


1944-45 


52 


5306 


102. 


1945-46 


37 


3855 


104.2 


1946-47 


32 


3537 


110.5 


1947-48 


27 


3174 


117.6 


1948-49 


30 


3787 


126.2 


Game Totals 








(both teams) 


460 


42776 


93.0 


Major Games 








(both teams) 


382 


35715 


93-5 


Minor Games 








(both teams) 


78 


7061 


90.5 


Winning Team 


460 


24253 


52.7 


Losing Team 


460 


18523 


40.3 


Home Team 


448 


21614 


48.2 


Visiting Team 


472 


21162 


44.9 



This table shows total scores and average scores per game for 
both teams, by seasons, for 460 games. Similar information is 
given for major and minor games, winning and losing teams, and 
home and visiting teams. 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 



49 



that basketball is such a high-scoring affair that special atten- 
tion must be given to shooting and shooting percentages. 

Basketball Shooting Percentages 

The basketball shooting results for the 460 games are found 
in the total shot table, Table II, pp. 49-50. The trend is 
toward more accuracy but even greater improvement is antici- 
pated. 

Through the cooperation of Mr. Ned Irish, shooting records 
were kept of all games played in Madison Square Garden dur- 
ing the 1944-45 season. In mid-season of 1944-45, the re- 
sults of the New York games up to that date, along with the 
results of the college survey since 1936-37, were given to the 
New York sportswriters and coaches. For possibly the first 

TABLE II 
Total Shots 













Average 
Field- 




Season 


Num- 


Field- 






Goal 
At- 


Average 
Field 




ber 

of 

Games 


Goal 
At- 
tempts 


Field 
Goals 


Per- 
centage 


tempts 

per 
Game 


Goals 

per 
Game 


1936-37 


31 


3082 


790 


.256 


99 


25 


1937-38 


36 


4198 


1090 


.260 


117 


30 


1938-39 


41 


4956 


1249 


.252 


121 


30 


1939-40 


32 


4101 


1115 


.272 


128 


35 


1940-41 


43 


5188 


1411 


.272 


121 


33 


1941-42 


32 


3790 


996 


.263 


118 


31 


1942-43 


35 


4294 


1168 


.272 


123 


33 


1943-44 


32 


4004 


1112 


.278 


125 


35 


1944-45 


52 


8319 


2154 


.259 


160 


41 


1945-46 


37 


5238 


1491 


.285 


142 


40 


1946-47 


32 


4715 


1361 


.289 


147 


43 


1947-48 


27 


4201 


1204 


.287 


156 


46 


1948-49 


30 


5081 


1460 


.287 


170 


49 



50 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

TABLE II (Continued) 



Season 











Average 
Field- 










Goal 


Num- 


Field- 






At- 


ber 
of 


Goal 
At- 


Field 


Per- 


tempts 
per 


Games 


tempts 


Goals 


centage 


Game 


460 


61167 


16601 


.271 


133 


382 


50995 


13762 


.270 


133-5 


78 


10172 


2839 


.280 


130.4 


460 


30129 


7977 


.265 


65-5 


460 


31038 


8624 


.278 


67.5 


460 


31209 


9554 


.306 


67.8 


460 


29958 


7047 


•235 


65-1 


448 


30002 


8398 


.280 


67.0 


472 


31165 


8203 


.263 


66.0 


75 


10520 


3457 


.329 


140.3 




14925 


8474 


.568 





Average 
Field 
Goals 

per 
Game 



Game Totals 

(both teams) 
Major Games 

(both teams) 
Minor Games 

(both teams) 
1st Half 
2nd Half 
Winning Team 
Losing Team 
Home Team 
Visiting Team 
Intra-Squad 
Scrimmages 
(both teams) 
Practice Shots 



36.1 

36.0 

36.4 
17.3 
18.8 
20.8 
15.3 
18.7 
17.4 



46.1 



This table shows field-goal attempts and field goals by both 
teams, by seasons, for the 460 games; percentages of attempts 
scored and average number of attempts and goals per game. It 
gives similar information for major and minor games, first and 
second halves, winning and losing teams, and home and visiting 
teams; also, a sampling from intra-squad scrimmages, and prac- 
tice shots without defense. 

time, national publicity was given to basketball shooting per- 
centages. Of course, many coaches had kept shooting charts 
and records prior to this, but very few had made the results 
public. Since 1945, there has been a great trend toward keep- 
ing player and team shooting records and percentages. In 
1947 the National Collegiate Athletic Association started to 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 51 

compile reports from records of the minor and major college 
games. 

As a result of attention to this phase of the game, it will be 
noted (Table II, Total Shots, on pp. 49-50) that shooting per- 
centages have increased during the last few years. However, 
the percentages are probably far below the standards that 
might be achieved. While the percentage of teams in the last 
two years has been .287, the over-all average for college bas- 
ketball is .271. The N.C.A.A. average during the 1948-49 
season was .308. In 1948, it was .293. However, it must be 
realized that many teams did not report to the N.C.A.A. and 
probably those with higher percentages are more inclined to 
make reports. Also in the national picture there is lack of 
uniformity and standardization as to what constitutes an at- 
tempt. Some teams count tip-ups and some count blocked 
shots, while others do not. Hence, many teams do not report 
all attempts that would cause a considerably higher percent- 
age. It is reasonable to state that the accepted shooting per- 
centage for the average college basketball team is between 
.270 and .280. 

It is certain that if coaches and players pay more attention 
to shooting percentages, they will be able to improve shooting 
efficiency. The Yale basketball team in 1947-48 had a .270 
shooting average. During the 1948-49 season, this improved 
to .319. It is noteworthy that the team had many of the 
same players during both years. Each player increased his 
percentage over the previous year by concentrated shooting 
practice and by keeping a careful record of results. If in- 
creased shooting efficiency was not the reason for the difference 
between a championship in 1948-49 and a mediocre season in 
1947-48, it was at least a very important factor in this differ- 
ence. 

Further study of Table II will show that the average num- 
ber of attempts per game have increased greatly since 1945. 
Various comparisons are given in the table. Of particular 



52 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

note is the fact that winning teams hit an average of .306 
while losing teams drop to .23 5. A complete study of Table 
II should give some idea of what can be expected from indi- 
viduals and teams in various game situations. 

The Short Shot 
(See photo, The Short Shot, in illustrated section.) 

A "short shot" is a shot taken within a radius of twelve feet 
from the basket. The twelve-foot radius is stipulated because 
this is the accepted area for the lay-up or cripple shot. These 
are predominantly shots taken with one hand and, in most 
cases, are backboard shots. It is, of course, a shot that players 
and teams try to use most frequently because the accuracy is 
and should be higher in this area. Still, there are surprising 
results that would indicate that accuracy under game condi- 
tions is much lower than it should be. The percentage for all 
games is .372 and it has not improved in recent years. For 
complete results on the short shot see Table III, Short Area 
Shooting, page 53. 

The averages in this area should be much higher. A tighter 
defense is partly responsible for this fact but it is also due to 
taking poor shots at the basket. Players who get in as close 
as this are inclined to take a shot at the basket, whether they 
are in a position for a good shot or not. This is particularly 
true after retrieving rebounds. Practice results, where there 
is no defense, indicate that players make an average of .867 in 
this area. The coach who insists that only fundamentally 
sound shots be taken at the basket will be well repaid. It 
might even be reasonable to improve the shooting average for 
the short shot to .500. It is also suggested that players first 
ground themselves properly in the fundamentals of the short 
shot and follow this with constant practice. A player that 
will drive toward the basket at full speed and shoot each time 
until ten successive goals have been made will be surprised at 
the improvement made. The area eight or ten feet from be- 
neath the basket should receive special attention from all 



TABLE III 

Short-Area Shooting* 













Average 














Field- 














Goal 


Average 


Season 


Num- 


Field- 






At- 


Field 




ber 


Goal 






tempts 


Goals 




of 


At- 


Field 


Per- 


per 


per 




Games 


tempts 


Goals 


centage 


Game 


Game 


1936-37 


31 


1021 


367 


•359 


33 


12. 


1937-38 


36 


1394 


511 


.367 


39 


14. 


1938-39 


41 


1381 


517 


.374 


34 


13. 


1939-40 


32 


1112 


436 


.392 


35 


14. 


1940-41 


43 


1468 


611 


.416 


34 


14. 


1941-42 


32 


1065 


413 


.388 


33 


13. 


1942-43 


35 


1449 


572 


•395 


41 


16. 


1943-44 


32 


1377 


560 


.407 


43 


18. 


1944-45 


52 


3765 


1275 


.339 


72 


25- 


1945-46 


37 


1968 


735 


.373 


53 


20. 


1946-47 


32 


2138 


796 


.372 


67 


25- 


1947-48 


27 


1906 


675 


•354 


71 


25- 


1948-49 


30 


2096 


770 


.367 


70 


26. 


Game Totals 














(both teams) 


460 


22140 


8238 


.372 


48.1 


17.9 


Major Game 














Total (both 














teams) 


382 


18435 


6768 


.367 


48.3 


17.7 


Minor Game 














Total (both 














teams) 


78 


3705 


1470 


.397 


47.5 


18.8 


Winning Team 














Total 


460 


12494 


5043 


.404 


27.2 


11.0 


Losing Team 














Total 


460 


9646 


3195 


•331 


21.0 


6.9 


Intra-Squad 














Scrimmages 














(both teams) 


75 


4501 


1964 


.436 


60.0 


26.2 


Practice Shots 




3810 


3304 


.867 







This table shows total shots with percentages and averages as 
in Table II but for short shots only. 

* Short shots are those taken within a radius of twelve feet from the basket. 

53 



54 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

players since many players neglect to practice shooting in this 
area. 

The Medium Shot 
(See photo, The Medium Shot, in illustrated section.) 

A "medium shot" is a shot taken between a radius of twelve 
feet and a radius of twenty-four feet from the basket. This 
particular area was selected for the medium-distance shot be- 
cause it is considered the half-way mark for shooting from 
the floor. Very few shots are attempted beyond the thirty- 
six foot mark. Therefore, the medium shot is midway be- 
tween the short- and long-shot areas. Probably the most 
helpful information is found when examining statistics on this 
"abused" area in basketball. Table IV, page 55 gives com- 
plete facts about this area. 

Players seem to take a great variety of shots from this area. 
The two-hand set shot from the chest is used a great deal in 
the East. In other sections the one-hand set shot is favored. 
And, where one-hand shooting predominates, there is much 
shooting on-the-run. Pivot shots and hook shots are also 
taken frequently from the medium or middle area. Players 
from Arkansas, West Virginia, and a few other sections, use 
an overhead shot from this area either from a standing position 
or using a jump. 

Most coaches have become rather lenient in their views on 
shooting in recent years, as is indicated by the increase in total 
shots attempted by the average team during a game. As a 
result, players shoot very freely from this area and take poor 
shots in many cases. As was suggested in discussing the short- 
shot area, shots should be taken that are earned. Coaches 
should observe closely the type of shot taken from this me- 
dium area and eliminate the poor-risk shots. This does not 
mean that all players must use the same type of shot, but they 
must have one that they can make, one on which they can 
depend. The following story will illustrate this point. 

Tony Lavelli is probably the greatest hook shot the game has 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

TABLE IV 

Medium-Area Shooting* 



55 













Average 














Field- 














Goal 


Average 


Seasons 


Num- 


Field- 






At- 


Field 




ber 


Goal 






tempts 


Goals 




of 


At- 


Field 


Per- 


per 


per 




Games 


tempts 


Goals 


centage 


Game 


Game 


1936-37 


31 


1349 


288 


.213 


44 


9. 


1937-38 


36 


1859 


396 


.213 


52 


11. 


1938-39 


41 


2347 


513 


.219 


57 


13. 


1939-40 


32 


1830 


449 


•245 


57 


14. 


1940-41 


43 


2358 


548 


.232 


55 


13. 


1941-42 


32 


1555 


363 


•233 


49 


11. 


1942-43 


35 


1916 


402 


.210 


55 


11. 


1943-44 


32 


2013 


423 


.210 


63 


13. 


1944-45 


52 


2906 


598 


.206 


56 


12. 


1945-46 


37 


2276 


525 


.231 


62 


14. 


1946-47 


32 


1875 


428 


.228 


59 


13- 


1947-48 


27 


1356 


308 


.227 


50 


11. 


1948-49 


30 


2032 


461 


.227 


68 


15- 


Game Totals 














(both teams) 


460 


25672 


5702 


.222 


55-8 


12.4 


Major Games 














(both teams) 


382 


21247 


4730 


.223 


55-6 


12.3 


Minor Games 














(both teams) 


78 


4425 


972 


.220 


56.7 


12.4 


Winning Team 














(total) 


460 


12644 


3169 


•251 


27.5 


6.9 


Losing Team 














(total) 


460 


13028 


2533 


.194 


28.3 


5-5 


Intra-Squad 














Scrimmages 














(both teams) 


75 


4848 


1261 


.260 


64.6 


16.8 


Practice Shots 




3085 


1632 


.529 







This table shows total shots with percentages and averages as 
in Tables II and III but for medium shots only. 

* Medium shots are those taken between a radius of twelve feet and a radius 
of twenty-four feet from the basket. 



56 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

ever seen. See photo in illustrated section. In the first prac- 
tice session with Tony, I was rather disappointed to learn that 
the hook shot was the one that he depended on in the medium 
area. Most coaches do not consider the hook shot an orthodox 
shot and it is not a dependable one for most players. Tony 
was asked to shoot twenty of these highly specialized shots 
from a distance of approximately fifteen feet. He obliged 
and made eighteen out of the twenty. He moved out a little 
farther and nearly duplicated the performance. The next re- 
quest was for Tony to try the shot with his left hand. He 
then took twenty hook shots at a distance of fifteen feet and 
made sixteen. Always the gentleman, Tony asked, "What 
suggestions do you have? Do you think I should change the 
shot'?" The coach's reply was, "My boy, if you can drop- 
kick the ball through the basket and make that percentage, 
it's all right with me." 

This great player did not master the hook shot by ac- 
cident. It was only mastered after many hours of daily prac- 
tice through the years. Of course, any shot must be funda- 
mentally sound if it is to be consistently accurate. Tony has 
a perfect follow-through with his hook shot and perfect wrist 
and finger action. Yet, even this phenomenal shooter im- 
proved his shooting percentage nearly twenty points in his last 
college year through a prescribed practice-shooting program. 

There is no reason for the shooting average to drop from 
.372 in the short area to .222 in this medium area. Practice 
shooting with no defense in this area shows that players make 
an average of .526. Why then should it drop so markedly 
in games? Certainly the fatigue and mental factors could 
not make this difference. One reason for poor shooting aver- 
ages from this area, and from all areas, is the fact that most 
players do not have their attempts and shots recorded, so that 
they are not conscious of the fact that their averages are low. 
Naturally, in these cases there is not the incentive to improve. 
By insistence on good shot attempts from this area, there is 
reason to believe that the shooting average might be increased 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 57 

to as high as .300 in major competition. A team should strive 
to succeed in one-third of its attempts in this area. 

Either the one-hand or two-hand shot may be accurate in 
this area. If the shot is sound, one is as good as the other. 
Purely from observation, however, it seems that the one-hand 
shot causes most of the abuses. Players who are in motion 
are more inclined to take poor shots while going away from 
the basket. It is suggested that teachers of the one-hand shot 
pay particular attention to the elimination of poor shots. 

The Long Shot 
(See photo, The Two-Hand Shot, in illustrated section.) 

A "long shot" is a shot taken outside a radius of twenty- 
four feet from the basket. The distance for the long shot was 
set at twenty-four feet when the court was divided into three 
scoring areas, since there are few shots taken beyond the 
thirty-six foot mark. Hence, each area has a twelve-foot 
length. 

Here the two-hand set shot taken from the chest predom- 
inates. The one-hand set shot is also used in the inner part of 
this long shooting area. Table V, Long-Area Shooting, 
page 58 gives complete findings. The shooting average in 
this area could not be expected to compare favorably with the 
shooting in the short area. However, poor shooting in this 
area has had many detrimental effects on the game in recent 
years. This is mainly because the one-hand shot has come 
into use in many sections of the country to the extent that 
the two-hand set shot is actually not used at all. From a 
coaching standpoint, this has encouraged the use of the zone 
defense and types of defense that call for playing loose away 
from the ball and congesting the keyhole area. 

Suppose that a team is ten points ahead in the middle of a 
game. The other team cannot shoot long shots well. Why 
then would not the leading team play a keyhole defense 
whether it is zone, switching, loose away from the ball, 



58 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

TABLE V 
Long-Area Shooting* 













Average 














Field- 














Goal 


Average 


Season 


Num- 


Field- 


Field 


Per- 


At- 


Field 




ber 


Goal 


Goals 


centage 


tempts 


Goals 




of 


At- 






per 


per 




Games 


tempts 






Game 


Game 


1936-37 


31 


712 


135 


.190 


23 


4 


1937-38 


36 


945 


183 


.194 


26 


5 


1938-39 


41 


1228 


219 


.178 


30 


5 


1939-40 


32 


1159 


230 


.198 


36 


7 


1940-41 


43 


1362 


252 


.185 


32 


6 


1941-42 


32 


1170 


220 


.188 


37 


7 


1942-43 


35 


929 


194 


.209 


27 


6 


1943-44 


32 


614 


129 


.210 


19 


4 


1944-45 


52 


1648 


281 


.171 


32 


5 


1945-46 


37 


994 


231 


.232 


27 


6 


1946-47 


32 


702 


137 


•195 


22 


4 


1947-48 


27 


939 


221 


.235 


35 


8 


1948-49 


30 


953 


229 


.240 


32 


8 


Game Totals 














(both teams). 


460 


13355 


2661 


.199 


29.0 


5.8 


Major Game 














Total (both 














teams) 


382 


11313 


2264 


.200 


29.6 


5.9 


Minor Game 














Total (both 














teams) 


78 


2042 


397 


.194 


26.2 


5.1 


Winning Team 


460 


6071 


1342 


.221 


13-2 


2.9 


Losing Team 


460 


7284 


1319 


.181 


15.8 


2.9 


Intra-Squad 














Scrimmages 














(both teams) 


75 


1171 


232 


.198 


15-6 


3.1 


Practice Shots 




2905 


1046 


.360 







Long shots are those taken beyond a radius of twenty-four feet from the basket. 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 59 

or some similar defense? What chance does a trailing team 
have to work the ball in if they cannot draw the defense out 
with at least an occasional long shot? Unless the trailing 
team can score on a fast break or has an unusually strong re- 
bounding team, they do not have a chance. This type of 
game is not only unsatisfactory from a coaching standpoint, 
but it also ruins spectator interest. The answer is to teach 
boys a good set shot that they can use out to the forty-foot 
mark. It is one of the oldest stratagems of the game that a 
player shoots long to draw his opponent to him so that he can 
drive in to the basket. This is becoming somewhat rare in 
basketball. 

Because of these facts, coaches are strongly urged to teach 
the long shot, starting with the beginner in basketball. No 
shot has more player and spectator appeal, or is more helpful 
to the entire offensive plan in any style of play. 

College coaches in many sections are faced with the prob- 
lem of players who report to them never having learned a 
two-hand set shot. At Yale, for example, boys come from all 
sections of the country. At least 70 percent of those who re- 
port have never used a two-hand set shot for their long shots 
and most of them cannot shoot accurately from the long area 
at all. Although it is possible, it is still difficult to teach a 
player of college age to learn new shots. Players should 
learn the technique of the two-hand set shot while in Junior 
High School or even earlier. The shot should be mastered 
first in areas close to the basket. By the time a player is in 
college, he should be able to hit the two-hand set shot from 
as far as thirty-five or forty feet. 

The long two-hand set shot is a "must" in professional 
basketball, and many excellent prospects have failed in the 
professional ranks because they have failed to master it. 

Table V (left) shows total shots with Percentages and aver- 
ages as in Tables II, III and IV but for long shots only. 



60 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 



TABLE VI 

Styles of Field-Goal Shooting 
(both teams) 

The Long Shot 





No. 

of 

Games 


One-i 
At- 
tempts 


Hand 
Bas- 
kets 


Per- 
centage 


Two- 
At- 
tempts 


Hand 
Bas- 
kets 


Per- 
centage 


1st Half 
2nd Half 


77 
77 


343 
344 


52 
76 


• 152 
.221 


982 
911 


170 
166 


.173 
.182 


Total 




687 


128 


.186 


1893 


336 


.177 


The Medium Shot 




No. 

of 

Games 


One-i 
At- 
tempts 


Hand 
Bas- 
kets 


Per- 
centage 


Two- 
At- 
tempts 


Hand 
Bas- 
kets 


Per- 
centage 


1st Half 
2nd Half 


77 
77 


1644 
1669 


362 
342 


.220 
.205 


426 
394 


95 

83 


.223 
.211 


Total 




3313 


704 


.212 


820 


178 


.217 


The Short Shot 




No. 

of 
Games 


One-i 
At- 
tempts 


Hand 
Bas- 
kets 


Per- 
centage 


Two-j 
At- 
tempts 


Hand 
Bas- 
kets 


Per- 
centage 


1st Half 
2nd Half 


77 
77 


2132 
2321 


734 
813 


.344 
.350 


88 
90 


27 
25 


.307 
.278 


Total 




4453 


1547 


.347 


178 


52 


.292 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 



61 



TABLE VI (Continued) 
Total Shots 





No. of 
Games 


Attempts 


Baskets 


Percentage 


1st Half 
2nd Half 


77 
77 


5615 
5729 


1440 
1505 


.256 
.263 


Total 




11344 


2945 


.260 



This table shows a comparison of one-hand and two-hand 
shooting in seventy-seven games. Number of attempts, goals 
scored, percentage of attempts scored and totals, in long, medium 
and short areas and in first and second halves, are given; also 
totals for both types of shots, with percentages, in first and sec- 
ond halves. The report is for both teams. 

Styles of Field-Goal Shooting 

This book does not include a complete study of skills or 
techniques. However, the one-hand and two-hand shots have 
caused so much controversy that a sampling of games was used 
to study them. Table VI, Styles of Field-Goal Shooting, pp. 
60-61 gives the results in seventy-seven major games. 

The two-hand set shot is considered best for use in the long- 
shot area. While the results indicate that the one-hand shot 
is a bit more accurate from a long distance (the average is 
.186 as compared to .177 for the two-hand shot), it should 
be pointed out that most of the one-hand shooting was done 
just outside the twenty-four foot mark. The accuracy of 
this type of shot dropped considerably from a greater distance. 
The study included fifty-one games in Madison Square Gar- 
den (mostly intersectional games) , one other New York game, 
and twenty-five games from western areas where the one- 
hand shooting is used to a greater extent. It is significant that 



62 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

the one-hand shot average in the long area was only .135 in 
the Garden games, while it was .203 for the other games. 
Another significant fact is that less than five one-hand at- 
tempts were made by both teams per game, so that possibly 
not enough shooting was attempted to form any definite con- 
clusion. 

In the medium area it will be noted that there was very 
little difference between the accuracy of the one-hand and 
two-hand shot. However, the one-hand shot was used more 
than four times as much as the two-hand shot. This was 
true of both eastern and western teams. 

The short shot is almost entirely a one-hand shot in all 
sections. 

Conclusions are that the one-hand shot is as good, or better, 
in the first two areas; the two-hand set shot is still recom- 
mended in the long area. 

The Free Throw 

Championships are won at the free-throw line. Of 460 
games, more than one hundred were won by less than four 
points. In each of these games a perfect free-throw record 
by the losing team would have made it the winner. Basket- 
ball coaches know that they lose enough games at the free- 
throw lines each year to make the difference in winning and 
losing a championship race. In spite of this knowledge, com- 
paratively little has been done to improve free-throw per- 
centages. Many studies are available on free-throw results 
and the accepted average for college teams is slightly less 
than .600. There are certain results of this study that may 
be helpful in improving this percentage. Table VII, pp. 
64-65 gives the complete results. 

In the entire 460 games a total of 16,181 free throws were 
attempted by all teams and 9,574 were converted. This is 
an average of .592. The records of free-throw attempts and 
free-throw goals are reported accurately to the National Col- 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 63 

legiate Athletic Association bureau and the results released 
by this bureau closely parallel the results of the author's sur- 
vey. In 3,848 major college games in 1948, the free-throw 
percentage was .598. The 1949 report for 3,603 major col- 
lege games showed a percentage of .616. Allowing again for 
the fact that teams with extremely poor records probably do 
not report faithfully to the national bureau, the percentages 
released are probably a bit high. 

Accuracy in free-throw shots has improved in recent years. 
This has been due partly to improvement in equipment and 
facilities (better balls and baskets, and improved lighting 
conditions) and partly to instruction and practice. Yet the 
average in 1949 remained at approximately .600, and this is 
extremely low. 

It should be kept in mind that the free throw is one type 
of shot that is exactly the same under game conditions as in 
practice, as far as the actual physical performance is con- 
cerned. No one is guarding the shooter as when a player 
attempts a field goal. A record of 5,275 shots by our squad 
in practice shows a success percentage of .780. What then 
makes the difference during a game? 

A study of 200 games indicates that, in the first half, the 
free-throw percentage was .597, while in the second half it 
dropped to .584. This difference indicates that the element 
of fatigue may enter into the situation. It is therefore sug- 
gested that after the technique of the free throw is mastered, 
players practice free throws during and following strenuous 
practice sessions. Of course, proper physical condition that 
will carry a player through an entire game is an even better 
answer. Research also indicates that the winning team made 
a percentage of .609 while the losing team made an average 
of .573. This may indicate that the winning team was more 
skillful in free-throw shooting but it also indicates a probable 
decrease in the fatigue factor. There was no great difference 
noted in the free-throw performance at home and on visit- 



64 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 



ing courts; the percentage for home games was .590 and for 
games away from home was .593. 

Another factor that affects the player in free-throw shots 
and probably reduces his efficiency even more than fatigue 
is his mental state. Players who are affected by spectators, 
the importance of the game or of the situation in the game, 
and who allow themselves to think of other things except 
making the free throws, are no doubt the rule rather than the 
exception. 

A typical example of this occurred a number of years ago 
in a game between Oregon and Washington State College. 
As the gun sounded ending the game, a foul was called that 

TABLE VII 
Free Throws 













Average 














Free- 


Average 












Throw 


Free- 


Season 




Free- 






At- 


Throw 






Throw 


Free- 




tempts 


Goals 




No. of 


At- 


Throw 


Per- 


per 


per 




Games 


tempts 


Goals 


centage 


Game 


Game 


1936-37 


31 


1043 


605 


.580 


34 


20 


1937-38 


36 


1356 


805 


.594 


38 


22 


1938-39 


41 


1406 


828 


.589 


34 


20 


1939-40 


32 


857 


518 


.604 


27 


16 


1940-41 


43 


1154 


715 


.620 


27 


17 


1941-42 


32 


1013 


596 


.588 


32 


19 


1942-43 


35 


1100 


649 


.590 


31 


19 


1943-44 


32 


1006 


539 


.536 


31 


17 


1944-45 


52 


1828 


998 


.546 


35 


19 


1945-46 


37 


1478 


873 


.591 


40 


24 


1946-47 


32 


1339 


815 


.609 


42 


25 


1947-48 


27 


1224 


766 


.626 


45 


28 


1948-49 


30 


1377 


867 


.630 


46 


29 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 



65 



TABLE VII (Continued) 













Average 














Free- 


Average 












Throw 


Free- 


Season 




Free- 






At- 


Throw 






Throw 


Free- 




tempts 


Goals 




No. of 


At- 


Throw 


Per- 


per 


per 




Games 


tempts 


Goals 


centage 


Game 


Game 


Game Totals 














(both teams) 


460 


16181 


9574 


.592 


35-2 


20.8 


Major Games 














(both teams) 


382 


13703 


8191 


.598 


35-9 


21.4 


Minor Games 














(both teams) 


78 


2478 


1383 


• 558 


31.8 


17.7 


1st Half 














(both teams) 


200 


3235 


1932 


•597 


16.2 


9.7 


2nd Half 














(both teams) 


200 


3579 


2091 


.584 


17.9 


10.5 


Winning Team 


460 


8449 


5145 


.609 


18.4 


11.2 


Losing Team 


460 


7732 


4429 


•573 


16.9 


9.6 


Home Team 


448 


8164 


4818 


.590 


18.2 


10.8 


Visiting Team 


472 


8017 


4756 


.593 


17.0 


10.1 


Intra-Squad 














Scrimmages 














(both teams) 


75 


2134 


1204 


.564 


28.5 


16.1 


Practice Shots 




5275 


4112 


.780 







This table shows total free-throw attempts and free-throw 
goals made by both teams for the 460 games. It also shows 
percentage of attempts scored and average number of attempts 
and goals per game. 

The table also shows free-throw attempts and free-throw goals 
made, percentages of goals scored, and average number of at- 
tempts and goals per game for major and minor games, first and 
second halves, winning and losing teams, home and visiting 
teams and in intra-squad scrimmages and in practice shots with- 
out defense. 



66 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

gave an Oregon guard two free throws at the basket. Ore- 
gon was one point behind — needing one free -throw goal to 
tie the score and two to win. Unfortunately, the player 
missed both free throws. The usual "hard luck" consolation 
remarks went around the dressing room but later in the eve- 
ning, after things had cooled off, the boy was asked what he 
was thinking of when he toed the free-throw line. It was 
necessary to know what outside factors entered the picture, 
since the player was an expert at free-throw shots and con- 
sistently made 90 percent of his attempts in practice. He 
was also a "money player" — best when "the chips were down." 
He was a tireless player and therefore fatigue was not the 
answer. After hesitating a moment, his reply was: "Well, 
Coach, I've been having a little trouble lately in shooting 
them short. I thought I would be sure, so I aimed at the 
back rim." Needless to say, both shots hit the back rim 
squarely. It may be a very difficult task, but the more players 
learn to think only of making the free throw, the more they 
will improve their performance. 

Styles of Free-Throw Shooting 

Close observation of different styles of shooting used in 
fifty-two major games played in New York City during the 
1944-45 season indicate that the underhand free throw is the 
most accurate. Table VIII, Styles of Free-Throw Shooting, 
page 67 gives the results. Other studies made by the Na- 
tional High School Federation also bear this out. In this 
particular study there were 914 free throws attempted using 
the underhand style. Of this number 516 were successful, 
showing a percentage of .565. The two-hand chest shot was 
used 794 times, 422 with success, giving a percentage of .531. 
The one-hand shot was used 115 times, 5 8 with success giving 
a percentage of .504. In teaching the underhand shot 
coaches have used the argument that time must be spent in 
teaching a different type of shot than the player uses from the 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 



67 



field. They claim that a player will become proficient from 
the free-throw line by the use of the same type of shot that he 
uses from the field and that the additional practice will also aid 
his field-goal shots. This contention may have had some 
grounds during the war period when coaches did not have 
players more than a year and had limited time to spend with 
their players each day. However, to train players in free 
throwing is now important enough to be a major part of 
coaching. It will pay dividends to spend extra time in teach- 
ing the underhand free throw to most players. 

TABLE VIII 

Styles of Free-Throw Shooting 
(Major Games in Madison Square Garden, 1944-45) 





Underhand 


Chest 


One Hand 


Total 




(2 hands) 


(2 hands) 










* 


o 
bo 

CI 






u 

bo 

a 






u 

bO 

a 






bO 

4-1 

c 




<! 
H 
Ph 


O 
H 
Ph 


u 
u 
<u 
Ph 


Ph 


O 

H 

Ph 


o 
u 
<u 
Ph 


< 
H 

Ph 


O 
H 

Ph 


u 

u 
o 

P-I 


< 
H 

Ph 


O 
H 

Ph 


!_) 
U 
U 

Dh 


1st Half 


























Totals 


450 


261 


.580 


395 


216 


•547 


68 


38 


•559 


918 


517 


•563 


2nd Half 


























Totals 


464 


255 


•550 


399 


206 


.516 


47 


20 


.426 


910 


481 


.529 


Game 


























Totals 


914 


516 


.565 


794 


422 


•531 


115 


58 


• 504 


1828 


998 


.546 



This table shows a comparison of the underhand, chest, and 
one-hand styles of shooting free throws in fifty-two games. 
It shows the total number of attempts, total goals scored and 
percentage of attempts made in the first and second halves and 
totals. The report is for both teams. 



* Free-Throw Attempts. 
** Free-Throw Goals. 



68 BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 

There are, of course, individual differences and every good 
rule has exceptions. If a player is able to make a high per- 
centage of his free-throw attempts using the two-hand chest 
shot or the one-hand shot he should be permitted to do so, 
particularly on the college level. Stanley Peacock, a Yale 
player, asked if he could shoot his free throws from the chest. 
Asked if he knew his percentage from the previous year, he 
said that it was .700. "Pretty high," was the reply. "How 
about a demonstration?" Stan proceeded to make thirty-nine 
successive free throws from the chest before he missed. Need- 
less to say, during that season he shot free throws from the 
chest and his average was .758. 

Tony Lavelli, however, was the greatest free thrower it 
has been my pleasure to coach. As a matter of fact, Tony 
is the best free thrower in the history of college basketball 
since the days when one man was permitted to shoot all the 
free throws for his team. Tony shoots free throws with one 
hand. In four years of college basketball, he scored 564 free- 
throw goals out of 722 attempts — a .781 percentage. In 
1948-49, he scored 215 free-throw goals out of 261 attempts 
for an .824 percentage, the highest of his entire career. Ac- 
cording to records of the National Basketball Guide no other 
college player has approached these records either in a single 
season or throughout a four-year career in totals or averages 
per game. Anderson of Lafayette holds the all-time college 
record. He played in the years from 1915-19 when one man 
was privileged to shoot all the free throws for his team. An- 
derson's record was 764 free-throw goals out of 930 attempts, 
an .822 average over the four-year period. He used the 
underhand shot and taught this style for many years as a 
coach. The author agrees with Anderson but, of course, is 
always satisfied when a one-hand expert like Lavelli can sink 
them consistently (see photo, The One-hand Free Throw, in 
illustrated section). 

These examples show that great shooters may use various 



BASKETBALL SHOOTING AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 69 

types of shots. However, they are the exceptions rather than 
the rule and the underhand shot is still the most accurate for 
most players. Again, the point is made that shooters like 
Stan Peacock and Tony Lavelli were accurate because their 
shots, regardless of style, were fundamentally correct and they 
disciplined themselves to consistent practice periods. Their 
shots had perfect wrist and finger action, perfect follow- 
through, and perhaps even more important, these boys knew 
they could make them — they had confidence. 

There is no reason why players should not make 80 to 90 
percent of their attempts in practice and why they should not 
approach this average in games, if the fatigue and mental 
hazards can be eliminated. 



R, 



Chapter 6 
Basketball Recoveries 

Offensive and Defensive Rebounds 
(See photo, The Rebound, in illustrated section.) 



.EBOUNDING IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANY OTHER BAS- 

ketball fundamental except shooting. Possession of the ball 
is worth at least one-half a point to a team provided they do 
not lose the ball before getting a shot at the basket, as the 
shooting average is above .250 (better than one out of four). 
Naturally, the team that gains possession of the ball most fre- 
quently when it is free will win, provided it can match the 
other team in shooting accuracy. A random sampling of 
seventy-five major games was studied and the results are given 
in Table IX, Rebounds, page 71. It is significant to note 
the rebound performance of the winning team and of the 
home team. 

As expected, the winning team usually gains more rebounds 
than the losing team. The home team usually has an ad- 
vantage due to the fact that they are more accustomed to the 
manner in which the ball bounds from the basket or back- 
board. It is, of course, different on different courts. If the 
baskets are tight, the rebounds will be long; if the baskets are 
loose, the rebounds will be short. If the backboard is braced 
rigidly, the rebounds will be long; if it is braced loosely, the 
rebounds will be short. Until equipment is standardized, a 
visiting team should spend part of the practice prior to the 
game in rebounding to familiarize itself with the conditions. 
The fundamentals of proper rebounding are important enough 
to be taught all players so that they can get their share of re- 

70 



BASKETBALL RECOVERIES 



71 



TABLE IX 
Rebounds 





No. 


Offen- 


Aver- 


Defen- 


Aver- 




Aver- 




of 


sive 


age 


sive 


age 


Total 


age 




Major 


Re- 


per 


Re- 


per 


Re- 


per 




Games 


bounds 


Game 


bounds 


Game 


bounds 


Game 


1st Half 
















(both teams) 


75 


1564 


21 


2327 


31 


3891 


51.9 


2nd Half 
















(both teams) 


75 


1601 


21 


2375 


32 


3976 


53.0 


Winning Team 


75 


1653 


22 


2536 


34 


4189 


55.9 


Losing Team 


75 


1512 


20 


2166 


29 


3678 


49.0 


Home Team 


75 


1643 


22 


2430 


32 


4073 


54.3 


Visiting Team 


75 


1522 


20 


2272 


30 


3794 


50.6 


Both Teams 


75 


3165 


42.2 


4702 


62.7 


7867 


104.9 



This table shows the offensive, defensive and total rebounds 
retrieved by both teams for seventy-five games. It also shows 
the average number of rebounds by both teams per game. Find- 
ings are also given for first half, second half, winning and losing 
teams, and home and visiting teams. 

bounds. Proper balance, timing, jumping, and protection of 
the ball after it is retrieved are important factors. Individual 
rebound fundamentals and team rebound organization should 
demand a major part of the practice periods. 

The average team takes sixty-seven field-goal shots and 
seventeen free-throw shots at the basket. This means that the 
ball is shot at the basket by both teams a total of 168 times 
during the progress of the game. If one-fourth of the field- 
goal attempts are made and three-fifths of the free throws 
are made, approximately 115 rebounds remain for the two 
teams to fight over during the progress of an average game. 
The entire thirteen-year period shows an average of only 105 
rebounds per game but there has been an increase in recent 



72 



BASKETBALL RECOVERIES 



years. In many college games in 1949, there were as many as 
140 rebounds. Obviously, recording and scouting will show 
the coach the strong rebounding opponents as well as his own 
strong rebounders. Strategy may be planned accordingly. 



Jump-Ball Recoveries 

(See photo, The Center Jump, or Tip-Off, 
in illustrated section.) 

There was a time in basketball when the tip-off was one of 
the main plays of the game. Earlier books on basketball 
show many tip-off plays. With the elimination of the center 

TABLE X 

Miscellaneous Recoveries, 
(Jump Balls, and Interceptions) 









Average 




Average 




No. of 


Jump 


per 


Inter- 


per 




Games 


Balls 


Game 


ceptions 


Game 


1st Half 












(both teams) 


75 


552 


7.4 


578 


7.7 


2nd Half 












(both teams) 


75 


608 


8.1 


518 


6.9 


Winning Team 


75 


634 


8.5 


546 


7.3 


Losing Team 


75 


526 


7.0 


550 


7.3 


Home Team 


75 


560 


7.5 


528 


7.0 


Visiting Team 


75 


600 


8.0 


568 


7.6 


Both Teams 


75 


1160 


15.5 


1096 


14.6 



This table shows the total number of jump balls and intercep- 
tions made in seventy-five games with the averages per game 
(both teams). It also shows the totals and averages for first 
and second halves, for the winning and losing teams and for the 
home and visiting teams. 

jump, however, the importance of tip-off and jump ball plays 
has been minimized. It is true that the held ball is not as 



BASKETBALL RECOVERIES 73 

important as some of the other phases of the game, such as 
the rebound. A study of seventy-five major games shows an 
average of sixteen jump balls during a game (see Table X, 
Miscellaneous Recoveries, page 72). Compared to more than 
100 rebounds a game, the time spent on jump-ball work should 
not be as great. However, a team profits by having the six- 
teen jump balls. Too many coaches have neglected this part 
of the game almost entirely and as a result have lost the ma- 
jority of the jump balls. The only way to determine a team's 
ability in this phase is to record the results. Most teams tip 
to certain men; find out who those men are. The jump ball 
toward the end of a game when the score is close may be worth 
a little time and effort. 

Many players do not understand the technique of tipping 
the ball properly. Each player should have instruction in 
how to tip the ball ahead, behind, and to either side. It is 
equally important that players who expect to receive the tip 
know how to properly fake their men out of position and 
time their jumps for the ball. 

Interceptions 

"Ball hawks" in basketball are the players coaches are always 
looking for. Coaches strive to develop men who can press 
the defense and steal the ball without fouling, players who 
can intercept a pass or dive for and recover a loose ball on the 
floor. These players are great contributors to victories. Very 
often a timely interception gains four points for a team — it 
saves two points that the opponents may make if they retain 
the ball and it gains two points that the interceptor's team 
may make by gaining possession. 

In a crucial Madison Square Garden game that will never 
be forgotten, Oregon led Long Island by a fifteen point margin 
at the start of the second half. Long Island had several great 
"ball hawks" and their timely interceptions resulted in goals 
that cut down the Oregon lead. With ten seconds to play, 



74 BASKETBALL RECOVERIES 

Oregon still held a two-point lead. Out of nowhere came 
a "ball hawk" who intercepted a pass and fed the ball to a 
teammate who tied the score. Long Island went on to win in 
overtime 56-55. Who received the credit? — the player who 
scored the basket. The interception was soon forgotten. 

In spite of its great importance, players are rarely given 
credit for this skill. Since it can be objectively measured, 
why not let the player and the public know of his achieve- 
ment? The interceptor should receive due credit. If players 
are given this credit it will furnish an incentive for both them- 
selves and other players to improve and excel in this depart- 
ment. As long as scorers get all the praise, many players will 
want to score above all else — sometimes at the expense of team 
interest. 

The "ball hawks" on the opposing team should be known so 
that play may be kept away from their areas as much as pos- 
sible. Great caution should be used so that the ball will not 
be exposed to them. Table X, Miscellaneous Recoveries, 
page 72 gives the results of a study of a random sampling 
of seventy-five major games. The average of fifteen inter- 
ceptions a game seems extremely low. In many games there 
are twice that number. Certainly more attention should be 
directed toward this part of the game. That "four point" 
interception may win many games. 



Chapter 7 

Basketball Errors 
and Their Implications 



B. 



'ASKETBALL TERMINOLOGY IS NOT WELL ESTABLISHED. 

Errors are not defined in the rule book as in baseball. For 
our purposes errors are meant to include loss of the ball (ex- 
cept by shooting for the basket) and personal fouls. 

Loss-of-Ball 

Obviously, a team cannot score without the ball. There- 
fore, everything that can be done to gain possession of the 
ball should be stressed by the coach. In addition to gaining 
possession, it is equally important to retain that possession 
until a scoring opportunity is presented. 

Yale University played the University of Illinois in the 
first round of the N.C.A.A. tournament at Madison Square 
Garden in 1949. Illinois won the game 71-67. It was a 
thriller for Illinois to win and a heartbreaker for Yale to lose. 
Yale had enjoyed a six-point lead with a little more than three 
minutes to play. An intercepted pass gave Illinois a field 
goal but with two minutes to play, Yale still held a three-point 
advantage and possession of the ball. A Yale player was 
open going into the basket for what might have been the 
clincher. A bad pass, however, gave the ball to Illinois and 
they cashed in with a field goal. Illinois then intercepted 
the throw-in after the goal and scored again. Yale, in pos- 
session of the ball, went down the court but was guilty of 
traveling. This resulted in a fourth Illinois goal on four 

75 



76 BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 

straight losses-of-ball. Now two points behind, Yale again 
brought the ball to the front court and set up a play. Again, 
the ball was taken away from a Yale player and turned' into 
a basket. Five losses in three minutes gave five field goals 
to the other team. Most coaches can think of many games 
that have been lost similarly. Loss-of-ball is, then, one of the 
most serious errors in the game. 

Just how much it may cost a team when it loses the ball 
may be seen in the following illustration: Team A has the ball. 
Theoretically, this is worth a half point since it will succeed 
in one out of four shots if it does not lose possession. This is 
based on the assumption that the shooting percentage is at 
least .250. When the team loses possession of the ball with- 
out gaining a scoring opportunity they obviously give the 
opponents this half point. If Team A kept possession they 
would also have had a rebound possibility on missed shots 
which really makes the value of possession even greater to 
them than the half point. One point would be the minimum 
cost in losing the ball. The loss might be costly enough to 
make a difference of four points in the score — two points that 
Team A might score if they retained possession and two points 
that the opponents may score when they gained possession. 

It is also conceivable, although a remote possibility, that 
there could be a maximum cost of eight points to a team 
that loses the ball. If Team A scored a basket and the 
shooter was flagrantly fouled in the act of shooting and made 
both free throws, he would give his team four points. If the 
ball was lost to the opponents and they executed such a play, 
the difference in the score would be eight points on one loss- 
of-ball. At least we may proceed on the supposition that 
loss-of-ball is costly. 

A study of seventy-five games indicates that the average 
team loses the ball between fifteen and sixteen times a game. 
(See Table XI, Loss-of-Ball, page 78). The faster game, 
however, has seen an increase in losses-of-ball. Thirty games 



BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 

checked in 1948-49 showed an average of twenty losses a 
game by each team. Many teams lose the ball as many as 
forty times during a game. Coaches should keep in mind 
that if they can cut down the losses by ten in a game, they 
have given their teams ten extra points minimum and it 
could be as many as forty or even more. It is therefore of 
great interest to the coach to know how the ball is lost and 
who loses it, both on his team and on the opposing team. If 
the coach knows who loses the ball on his own team he may 
work on fundamentals to improve this situation. If he knows 
which opponents lose the ball, he may plan strategy that will 
press those opponents and cause them to lose the ball more 
frequently. 

The ball is lost primarily in three ways: (1) by bad passes, 
(2) by poor ball-handling, (3) by rule violations such as 
graveling or broken dribble. The ball may be lost, of course, 
by taking bad shots at the basket, or by taking any shot that 
does not score. The ball even changes possession when a goal 
is scored. However, these latter methods are taken care of 
through the records of scoring and rebounding. 

It should be noted in Table XI that approximately three- 
fourths of the losses are due to bad passes and poor ball- 
handling. By paying particular attention to the most fre- 
quent offenders, instruction may improve the situation 
markedly. Passing drills that fit into the style of play to be 
used will help. Violations may also be decreased by covering 
the rule interpretations thoroughly, and insisting on strict ad- 
herence to the rules in all practices and scrimmages. 

It is significant to note that all losses decrease markedly in 
the second half as compared to the first half. This would tend 
to eliminate the fatigue theory as a cause of losses. It may 
mean, however, that players are more tense in the early stages 
of the game and that it takes some time to settle down. This 
fact may have important meanings to the coach in regard to 
"pep talks" which will be discussed in a later chapter. 



78 



BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 



Loss-of-ball also occurs more frequently on foreign courts 
— particularly losses due to violations. This may be due to 
the fact that the visiting team is usually not familiar with 
the floor, lighting conditions, and similar factors. Perhaps 
this would indicate to the coach the advisability of working 
out on courts away from home prior to the game. If the 
game is to be played at night, practice should be held at night 

TABLE XI 
Loss-of-Ball 





o <U 
O rt 

£0 


C/5 


Average 
per Game 


</> 
a 
o 
■(-> 
a* 

"o 
> 


Average 
per Game 


Poor Ball- 
Handling 


Average 
per Game 


rt to 
O O 


Average 
per Game 


1st Half 




















(both 




















teams) 


75 


467 


6.2 


329 


4.4 


471 


6.3 


1267 


16.9 


2nd Half 




















(both 




















teams) 


75 


362 


4.8 


257 


3.4 


450 


6.0 


1069 


14.3 


Winning 




















Team 


75 


429 


5.7 


300 


4.0 


475 


6.3 


1204 


16.1 


Losing 




















Team 


75 


400 


5-3 


286 


3-8 


446 


5-9 


1132 


15-1 


Home 




















Team 


75 


449 


6.0 


260 


3-5 


423 


5-6 


1132 


15-1 


Visiting 




















Team 


75 


380 


5.1 


326 


4.3 


498 


6.6 


1204 


16.1 


Both 




















Teams 


75 


829 


11.1 


586 


7.8 


921 


12.3 


2336 


31.1 



This table shows the total number of times the ball is lost by 
bad passes, violations and poor ball-handling, and total in 
seventy-five games with the averages per game (both teams). 
It also shows the totals and averages for the first and second 
halves, for the winning and losing teams and for the home and 
visiting teams. 



BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 



79 



to get the same lighting conditions. No doubt the mental 
hazards of playing before unfamiliar and at times unsympa- 
thetic crowds are also factors that contribute to this situation. 
Eliminate those losses! A ball lost is a point lost should 
be the slogan of every player and coach. 

TABLE XII 
Personal Fouls 





No. of 
Major Games 


Personal 
Fouls 


Average 
per Game 


Winning Team 
Losing Team 
Home Team 
Visiting Team 
Both Teams 


75 
75 
75 
75 

75 


1069 
1183 
1073 
1179 
2252 


14.3 
15-8 
14.3 
15-7 
30.0 



This table shows the number of personal fouls committed by 
both teams in seventy-five games with the average per game for 
the winning and losing team, home and visiting team and totals 
for both teams. 



Personal Fouls 

(See photo, The Personal Foul, in illustrated section.) 

Every coach owes it to the game to minimize as much 
as possible the committing of personal fouls by his team. 
Coaches also agree that there is no place in the game at any 
time for deliberate flagrant personal fouls. It is true, how- 
ever, that this is one part of the game that needs careful study 
and attention. It is hoped that this book will help to bring 
about an improvement in the game by showing that the pen- 
alty for the personal foul is not sufficient and therefore needs 
revision. A study of seventy-five games indicates that the 



80 BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 

average team commits an average of fifteen personal fouls per 
game. (See Table XII, Personal Fouls, page 79.) 

The national average is even higher. In 1948, the Na- 
tional Collegiate Athletic Association report showed an aver- 
age of 18.5 per team and this increased to 19.4 in 1949. 
Twenty major college teams averaged more than twenty-one 
fouls per game in 1949, and Davidson College, the team com- 
mitting the fewest in the nation, averaged more than fourteen 
per game. In fact, there has been a steady increase in the 
personal fouls committed since 1944-45 when five fouls were 
permitted each player instead of four. 

The penalty to a team for a defensive personal foul is only 
one-tenth of a point, unless it gives the opposing team two 
free throws. When a foul is committed and the offended 
team gets one free throw it is worth six-tenths of a point to 
them since the average team makes 60 percent of its free 
throws. When they make the free throw they must give the 
ball to the other team. Possession of the ball is worth at 
least five-tenths of a point since the average team scores at 
least one field goal in four attempts. This leaves one-tenth 
of a point net gain to the team that is fouled. A team that 
commits twenty personal fouls in a game might lose only two 
points (net) in the score. This is not much of a penalty 
and naturally invites players to foul rather irresponsibly, 
particularly when behind. As a matter of fact, if one team 
were to foul the opposing team every time they gained pos- 
session of the ball and before they had a chance to score a bas- 
ket, the fouling team would win by a comfortable margin, 
since they would match field-goal opportunities against free- 
throw opportunities. There is obviously something wrong 
with the balance of the game in this instance. The penalty 
for the personal foul should always be so severe that a player 
will not consider it advantageous to foul. 

One other criticism of the personal foul method is that key 
players often go out of the game by committing five personal 



BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 81 

fouls. Increasing the number from four to five, as mentioned, 
did not remedy the situation nor did it cut down the number 
of personal fouls committed. On the contrary, it increased 
the number. In no other game do we lose key players be- 
cause they make five mistakes in a game. If a player uses 
rough or unsportsmanlike tactics, he should be dismissed from 
the game for one infraction, as in football or baseball. 

If a football player is guilty of holding several times in a 
game, he is not asked to leave the game. The penalty, how- 
ever, is severe enough so that he will not hold if he can pos- 
sibly avoid it. If the penalty for holding was two yards, for 
example, there would probably be holding on every play — 
regardless of efforts of coaches. Officials would also have a 
tendency to "call" the infraction more frequently; they hes- 
itate before they measure off fifteen yards. Holding is not 
called unless it affects the play. 

There are many interference rules in baseball. For ex- 
ample, a base runner may jump in front of a fielder to pre- 
vent the fielder from making a play on a ball. The runner 
is not asked to leave the game, but since he will be called out, 
the penalty is so severe that he cannot afford to break such a 
rule. In basketball, regardless of the coach's efforts, players 
are going to commit fouls when the penalty is not great. We 
are all familiar with the situation in the last moments of 
a close game. The trailing team will foul repeatedly in order 
to gain possession of the ball. 

Players should not be deprived of a chance to continue 
playing because of rule infractions; neither should spectators 
be deprived of seeing the best players in action late in the 
game; neither should there be constant, deliberate fouling dur- 
ing the latter part of the game. None of these conditions will 
be remedied by allowing the players more personal fouls be- 
fore they are asked to leave the game, or by asking players 
to refrain from fouling. The only remedy is to make the 
penalty severe. In other words, if the penalty were severe 



tG&^oto 



82 BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 

enough, the player would not commit the foul and there 
would not need to be a rule that five infractions means the 
player must leave the game. 

It has already been mentioned that knowledge of habitual 
personal foul offenders is valuable in coaching. Under the 
present rules plays may be directed at opponents who foul 
easily or at key men to cause them to commit fouls. The 
same tactics will, of course, be used against your team if your 
players cannot play without fouling. 

In the Yale-New York University game in Madison Square 
Garden in December, 1948, an incident occurred that il- 
lustrates the point. Many of the sellout crowd came to watch 
Tony Lavelli. N.Y.U. wisely directed their offense at Tony, 
and at the half he had committed four fouls. Under these 
circumstances most coaches take a star player out of the game 
and hope to be able to use him sparingly before the fifth foul 
is committed. In this instance, it was decided to change the 
defensive assignments and Tony played very much "under 
wraps" defensively during the second half. The choices 
were: (1) to have him play only offensive ball, (2) let him 
foul out or (3) have him sit on the bench during the best 
part of the game. Generally, such a situation is not good for 
the player, team, or spectator. 

In conclusion, the following suggestions are made to help 
remedy the personal foul situation: 

1. More emphasis in coaching individual and team defense. This 
is particularly important on the junior high and high school level. 
Since the center jump was eliminated from basketball there has been 
a growing tendency to neglect defense. There is a tendency to let 
the offensive team shoot more freely because the opposing team will 
get the ball when a basket is scored. 

2. Attention by the officials to the rule book so that only actual 
fouls are called. There is no question of the fact that many of the 
fouls called in the course of a normal game are not fouls at all ac- 
cording to the rule book. For example, in the latter part of the 
game, many fouls occur against the team that is trailing and trying 



BASKETBALL ERRORS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS 83 

to gain possession of the ball. The rules state that a closely guarded 
player who withholds the ball from play for a period of five seconds 
shall have a held ball called. The 1949-50 rules say shall instead of 
may and it is hoped held balls will be called properly under this rule. 
The official often waits for bodily contact and then calls a foul. 
(See photo, The Held Ball, in illustrated section.) Attention to 
this point alone would cut down the average per game by several 
fouls. 

3. There should be a greater penalty for the defensive foul. The 
rules committee did not solve the problem in 1949-50 by ruling that, 
in the last two minutes of the game, the offended team is given a free 
throw and the ball out-of-bounds following the free throw (made or 
missed). This rule takes away fast-break opportunities, slows down 
the game and does nothing about the problem existing during the 
first thirty-eight minutes of the game. 

It is suggested that one free throw be awarded for all defensive 
fouls and that the free-throw goal count two points. The penalty 
for the offensive foul should be loss-of-ball to the opposing team — 
the same as a violation. A player should not be required to leave 
the game for committing personal fouls. The penalty should be 
severe enough to take care of the situation. Coaches are urged to 
try this plan in scrimmages and practice games. 



Chapter 8 

Scouting Data Pertinent to 
Psychology of Coaching 



U 



'P TO THIS POINT OBJECTIVE DATA HAVE BEEN INTER - 

preted mainly for the purpose of coaching to improve various 
skills. The same objective data will now be interpreted as 
pertaining to the psychology of coaching. 

Physical and mental condition, particularly the latter, have 
much to do with winning or losing basketball games. Re- 
gardless of the skill and all-round ability that a player or 
team may possess, unless physical condition and mental at- 
titude are adequate, victory cannot be expected. For exam- 
ple, a team often enters a game feeling that there is little 
chance to win away from home, another may feel that it is 
unable to win in the second half because of the fatigue ele- 
ment. Still others may feel that they cannot do well because 
the game is highly competitive and the pressure is too great. 
Many practice players are not able to come through in games. 

It is the purpose of this chapter to point out what the dif- 
ferences are in these various situations. It is hoped that these 
findings may help coaches to eliminate false impressions and 
be an aid to them in having their players and teams mentally 
right for the games. It is not claimed that objective meas- 
urements tell the entire story, or even that they are more 
valuable than subjective observations. It is true, however, 
that facts are a basis upon which to formulate plans and that 
knowledge tends to minimize superstitions and false con- 

84 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 85 

cepts. It might be added that athletes, generally speaking, 
are among the more superstitious and that more knowledge 
might improve this situation. 

The Home Team and the Visiting Team 

Many coaches have expressed the opinion that the home 
court is worth ten points or better to a team. In other words, 
the team playing at home has a ten-point advantage. In this 
study, an attempt was made to compare the home games with 
the games played away from home to determine if a difference 
does exist, and if so, what the difference is. The reader is 
referred to Table XIII, Home Team Survey, page 86, and 
Table XIV, Visiting Team Survey, page 87. In cases where 
games were played on a court common to both teams, they 
were both considered home teams and not included. Where 
both teams played on a neutral court away from home, both 
were counted as visiting teams. This accounts for the 448 
home teams and 472 visiting teams in the 460 game survey. 
In 434 of these games, a home team played against a visiting 
team. Results other than shooting and scoring are given for 
75 games. 

It must be admitted that the home team does have an ad- 
vantage. Of the 434 games included, the home team was 
on the long end of the score in 273 cases, which is a percentage 
of .629. Assuming that the home team does have an advan- 
tage, what are the reasons for and the significance of this fact 

Table XIII shows a record of the home team in 448 games. It 
includes field-goal and free-throw attempts and goals, total scores 
and average score per game. Percentages of attempts scored and 
averages of attempts and goals per game are also given. For 75 
home games, it includes total number and average per game of 
rebounds; losses of ball by bad passes, violations and poor ball 
handling; jump-ball recoveries; interceptions; personal fouls. It 
also shows number and percentage of games won and lost in 434 
home games. 



86 SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 

TABLE XIII 
Home Team Survey 





No. of 
Games* 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Per- 
centage 


Average 
per Game 


Shooting 
Results 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Total Shots 
Free Throws 


448 
448 


30002 
8164 


8398 
4818 


.280 
.590 


67.0 
18.2 


18.7 
10.8 



Other 


No. of 




Average 


Results 


Games 


Total 


per Game 


Score 


448 


21614 


48.2 


Rebounds 


75 


4073 


54.3 


Bad Passes 


75 


449 


6.0 


Violations 


75 


260 


3-5 


Losses by Ball-Handling 


75 


423 


5-6 


Total Losses-of-Ball 


75 


1132 


15-1 


Jump Balls 


75 


560 


7.5 


Interceptions 


75 


528 


7.0 


Personal Fouls 


75 


1073 


14.3 











Percentage 






Games 


Games 


of Games 






Won 


Lost 


Won 




No. of 


by Home 


by Home 


by Home 




Games** 


Teams 


Teams 


Teams 


Home Games 










Results 


434 


273 


161 


.629 



* Only home team court games counted. 

** Games not included played on neutral courts. 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 

TABLE XIV 

Visiting Team Survey 



87 





No. of 
Games 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Per- 
centage 


Average 
per Game 


Shooting 
Results 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Total Shots 
Free Throws 


472 
472 


31165 
8017 


8203 
4756 


.263 
•593 


66.0 
17.0 


17.4 
10.1 



Other 


No. of 




Average 


Results 


Games 


Total 


per Game 


Score 


472 


21162 


44.9 


Rebounds 


75 


3794 


50.6 


Bad Passes 


75 


380 


5.1 


Violations 


75 


326 


4.3 


Losses by Ball-Handling 


75 


498 


6.6 


Total Losses-of-Ball 


75 


1204 


16.1 


Jump Balls 


75 


600 


8.0 


Interceptions 


75 


568 


7.6 


Personal Fouls 


75 


1179 


15-7 



Visiting 
Game Results 



No. of 
Games* 



434 



Games 
Won by 
Visiting 

Teams 



161 



Games 
Lost by 
Visiting 

Teams 



273 



Percentage 

of Games 

Won by 

Visiting 

Teams 



.371 



Table XIV shows a record of the visiting team in the same 
manner that Table XIII shows a record of the home team. 



* When both teams travel both are counted as visiting teams, 
included played on neutral courts. 



Games not 



88 SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 

from a coaching standpoint? All the reasons for the differ- 
ence cannot be measured objectively, but there are certain facts 
which may be helpful in the solution of this problem. Refer- 
ring to Tables XIII and XIV, it will be noted that the shoot- 
ing average of the visiting team is only .263 while that of 
the home team is .280. The free-throw performance is al- 
most identical. However, as was mentioned in the treatment 
of loss-of-ball, this may mean that the home team is more ac- 
customed to the court, lighting facilities, and similar factors. 
It is undoubtedly true also that the matter of fatigue is an 
important factor in the difference. To remedy this problem, 
arrive at the scene of games in plenty of time to have adequate 
rest before playing a game. It is also advisable to take a 
short work-out on the visiting court to become adjusted to 
the comparatively strange conditions. 

Another factor that contributes to this difference is un- 
doubtedly a purely psychological one. For years we have 
stressed the fact that the home team does have an advantage. 
Players often go into games away from home with the feeling 
that they are playing under a handicap. Coaches may help 
this situation by pointing out to their players that they ac- 
tually have more time to rest while traveling than at home, 
where they are usually busy with studies, and other activities. 
It should be further pointed out to them that they are playing 
before spectators who know less about them than do their 
home fans, and this applies to their weak points as well as their 
strong points. Many players prefer to play away from home 
where their closest friends and relatives are not watching 
them. This is a very important psychological opportunity 
for the coach. 

Last, but not least, another very important factor that ap- 
plies to this problem requires the attention of all coaches and 
directors of basketball. There is little question but that the 
home crowd, when encouraged and permitted to become 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 89 

hostile and discourteous toward the visiting team, does give 
the home team a distinct advantage. Coaches, players, and 
home fans who attempt to intimidate the officials also give 
the home team an unfair and unearned advantage. The fact 
that in 75 games 1073 personal fouls were called on the home 
team as compared to 1179 on the visiting team, no doubt has 
some connection with this. Still other significant data may 
be gained from the comparison of loss-of-ball through viola- 
tions on home and visiting courts. 75 games show 260 vio- 
lations for home teams compared to 326 for visiting teams. 
It must be kept in mind that loss-of-ball through a violation 
is far more serious to a team than having a defensive personal 
foul called. A personal foul, as has been explained, gives the 
other team one-tenth of one point. Losing the ball takes 
away the opportunity of that team to score and gives that 
opportunity to the other team. Using the one-out-of-four 
shooting percentage as a basis, this means that the team los- 
ing the ball loses one full point. Theoretically, this is ten 
times as serious as the personal foul when the penalty for the 
foul is one free throw. 

Therefore coaches and directors of basketball should elim- 
inate, so far as possible, improper conduct of spectators, play- 
ers and coaches that in any way intimidate players or officials. 
This means that booing and other similar tactics must be 
eliminated. It means also that officials must have, and use, 
the right to dismiss players and coaches from the game or 
bench, when the occasion calls for such action. 

A close study of Tables XIII and XIV indicates that the 
home team has the main advantage in field-goal percentage 
and in retaining possession of the ball. In many of the other 
factors no difference exists. Certainly visiting teams should 
win more than 37 percent of the time. Correcting factors 
mentioned and eliminating superstition may improve this situ- 
ation. 



90 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 



The Winning Team and the Losing Team 

Table XV, Winning Team Survey, below, gives the data 
on the winning team and Table XVI, Losing Team Survey, 
page 91 gives data on the losing team. Naturally the per- 
centages are higher for the winning team. In many cases, 

TABLE XV 

Winning Team Survey 













Average 




No. of 


At- 




Per- 


per Game 


Shooting 


At- 




Results 


Games 


tempts 


Goals 


centage 


tempts 


Goals 


Long Shots 


460 


6071 


1342 


.221 


13.2 


2.9 


Medium Shots 


460 


12644 


3169 


.251 


27.5 


6.9 


Short Shots 


460 


12494 


5043 


.404 


27.2 


11.0 


Total Shots 


460 


31209 


9554 


.306 


67.8 


20.8 


Free Throws 


460 


8449 


5145 


.609 


18.4 


11.2 



Other 


No. of 




Average 


Results 


Games 


Total 


per Game 


Score 


460 


24253 


52.7 


Rebounds 


75 


4189 


55-9 


Losses-of-Ball 


75 


1204 


16.1 


Jump Balls 


75 


634 


8.5 


Interceptions 


75 


546 


7.3 


Personal Fouls 


75 


1069 


14.3 



This is a table that shows the record of the winning team in 
460 games. It includes total field goal attempts and field goals, 
percentage of attempts scored, average of attempts and goals per 
game for long, medium, short areas and total. It also shows 
winning team free-throw attempts, goals, percentage of free 
throws scored and averages per game. It shows the winning 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 



91 



team total score and average score per game. It also shows the 
winning team record in 75 games of rebounds, losses-of-ball, 
jump balls, interceptions and personal fouls; totals and averages 
per game. 

TABLE XVI 
Losing Team Survey 













Average 




No. of 


At- 




Per- 


per Game 


Shooting 


At- 




Results 


Games 


tempts 


Goals 


centage 


tempts 


Goals 


Long Shots 


460 


7284 


1319 


.181 


15-8 


2.9 


Medium Shots 


460 


13028 


2533 


.194 


28.3 


5-5 


Short Shots 


460 


9646 


3195 


.331 


21.0 


6.9 


Total Shots 


460 


29958 


7047 


.235 


65.1 


15-3 


Free Throws 


460 


7732 


4429 


•573 


16.9 


9.6 



Other 


No. of 




Average 


Results 


Games 


Total 


per Game 


Score 


460 


18523 


40.3 


Rebounds 


75 


3678 


49.0 


Losses-of-Ball 


75 


1132 


15.1 


Jump Balls 


75 


526 


7.0 


Interceptions 


75 


550 


7.3 


Personal Fouls 


75 


1183 


15-8 



This is a table that shows a record of the losing team in the 
same manner that Table XV shows a record of the winning team. 

however, there is not a very great difference between the win- 
ner and the loser. A particular game will illustrate this point. 
Of the five Oregon-Long Island games at Madison Square 
Garden, the most thrilling was the game in December, 1939. 
Because Oregon had won the National Collegiate Athletic 



92 SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 

Association title the year before and Long Island won the 
National Invitational, there was great rivalry in the game. 
With fifteen minutes to play, Oregon led by fifteen points. 
With one second to play, the score was tied and Dolly King 
of Long Island missed a free throw, sending the game into 
overtime. In the overtime period, the teams matched baskets 
twice, then with twelve seconds to go, Oregon made a free 
throw and led by one point. In the last three seconds Dolly 
King again entered the picture. This time he tossed the ball 
underneath the outstretched arms of the Oregon center — the 
ball bounced three times on the rim and fell in for the winning 
basket! Long Island had won the game by overcoming great 
odds and fighting an uphill battle. Still, a team losing where 
the margin is this close could hardly be classed as a losing 
team. In some cases, losing close games of this kind actually 
gives a team the incentive or counter-irritant to win its suc- 
ceeding games. 

Careful scouting and planning will contribute to the win- 
ning habit. Added to this, however, are psychological ele- 
ments which must supplement statistics, figures, scouting 
reports, and data of all kinds. Every game should be played 
with the idea of winning. Unless players and their coach 
have the confidence that they will win, they should not at- 
tempt to play any game. Coaches who pride themselves on 
being good losers usually lose frequently. They become ex- 
perts at losing. They should pride themselves on being gra- 
cious losers and good sportsmen, and should take every lesson 
possible from a loss, as well as from a win. But the difference 
between the winner and the loser is very often the confidence 
that the coach has in winning a game and the extent to which 
he can instill that confidence into his players. 

Along with these psychological factors, however, data in 
Tables XV and XVI, pages 90 and 91 will indicate the type 
of performance necessary to be in the winning or the losing 
class. Teams cannot be expected to win unless they have 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 93 

reasonable ability. It is hoped that information offered here 
will aid coaches in knowing what to expect from a team and 
will help to bring the team up to a winning standard. 

It is significant to note that the winning team has a .306 
shooting average compared to .23 5 for the losing team. This 
is the greatest difference between the winner and the loser. 
Note that the losing team takes more long shots than the win- 
ning team, but that in the short area, the winning team takes 
many more and hits a much higher percentage. The winning 
team hits for a percentage of .404 in the short area compared 
to .331 for the losers. Even in the medium area, where all 
shooting is below par, the winning team's percentage is .251 
while the losing team's is only .194. 

It also should be noted that while the losing team takes a 
greater total of shots, this is due to the number of shots taken 
in the two outer areas. In the short area, the winning team 
takes an average of twenty-seven shots per game compared 
to an average of twenty for the losing team. 

The winning team also excels in free throws. They have 
more attempts (eighteen per game compared to sixteen for 
the losing team) and make a .609 percentage while the los- 
ing team percentage is .573. 

The winning team, then, works the ball in for close shots 
more often, shoots more accurately in all areas, and has more 
free-throw attempts and makes a higher free-throw percent- 
age. In factors other than shooting, the difference is not so 
great, except in rebounding. As expected, the winning team 
usually has an advantage on the boards. The seventy-five 
games studied show that the winning team retrieved an aver- 
age of fifty-six rebounds a game compared to forty-nine for 
the losing team. 

From this report, a lesson is offered. Greater shooting 
ability and organization that will get shots from closer areas 
seem to be the major requisites for the winning team. Again, 
keep shooting percentage records for various areas. 



5>4 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 



The First Half and the Second Half 

The performance of a team in the first half, as compared 
to that in the second half, is worth the careful attention 
of the coach. That is, if the coach likes to win, and it is un- 
derstood that most of them do. In scouting one's own team, 
as well as the opponent's, it should be determined just how 
effective the team is in each half. If the opponent is a first- 

TABLE XVII 

First-Half Survey 
(both teams) 





No. 

of 

Games 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Per- 
centage 


Average 
per Game 


Shooting 
Results 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Total Shots 
Free Throws 


460 
200 


30129 
3235 


7977 
1932 


.265 
.597 


65-5 
16.2 


17.3 
9.7 



Other Results 


No. of 
Games 


Total 


Average 
per Game 


Rebounds 
Losses-of-Ball 
Jump Balls 
Interceptions 


75 
75 
75 
75 


3891 

1267 

552 

578 


51.9 

16.9 

7.4 

7.7 



This table shows first-half field-goal attempts, field goals, per- 
centages of attempts scored, average number of attempts and 
goals per game, in 460 games (both teams). It also shows first- 
half free- throw attempts, goals, percentage of free-throw at- 
tempts scored and averages per game. For 75 games it shows 
first-half rebounds, losses-of-ball, jump balls and interceptions; 
totals and averages per game. 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 



95 



half team and tires in the second half, a coach may plan his 
strategy and attack accordingly. If the coach discovers that 
his own team is a first-half team, he may take measures to cor- 
rect this situation early in the season. 

Of course the major question is how teams become second- 
half teams. The answer lies very largely in the fatigue and 
psychological factors. Coaches of every championship team 
agree that to be a champion, a team must be strongest in the 
second half. Here, then, is another winning formula. Know 
the first- and second-half strength of your own club and of 
your opponents. Also, be sure that your team can do two 
things: improve its performance in the second half over its 
performance in the first half, and outplay the opponents in 

TABLE XVIII 
Second-Half Survey 





No. of 
Games 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Per- 
centage 


Average 
per Game 


Shooting 
Results 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Total Shots 
Free Throws 


460 
200 


31038 
3579 


8624 
2091 


.278 
.584 


67.5 
17.9 


18.8 
10.5 



Other Results 


No. of 
Games 


Total 


Average 
per Game 


Rebounds 
Losses-of-Ball 
Jump Balls 
Interceptions 


75 
75 
75 
75 


3976 

1069 

608 

518 


53.0 

14.3 

8.1 

6.9 



This is a table that shows a record of the second half (both 
teams) in the same manner that Table XVII shows the first-half 
record. 



96 SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 

the second half. A team that can do this will win most of its 
games. Remember, you cannot guess at this; you get this 
information only through careful scouting or analyzing of 
your own team and of the opponent's. 

Comparative data are available for the average team in both 
halves. Results are given in Tables XVII, First-Half Survey, 
page 94 and Table XVIII, Second-Half Survey, page 95. 

One very significant fact may be derived from these results. 
For years it has been the belief that team performances become 
less efficient in the second half. Many have said that the 
game is too strenuous and that the fatigue element prevents 
teams from playing well late in the game. The mental hazard 
still persists among players that they cannot hold up in the 
second half. However, results show that even the average 
team shoots better and more often in the second half. The 
shooting percentage jumps from .265 in the first half to .278 
in the second half. The average team loses the ball less in 
the second half. These are the major factors in which 
fatigue would affect the play. 

It is true that in 200 games studied, free-throw accuracy 
decreased in the second half. The percentages dropped from 
.597 in the first half to .584 in the second half. This may 
indicate that pressure and mental factors are more responsible 
than fatigue in missed free throws. Certainly, if fatigue 
alone caused free-throw accuracy to decrease in the second 
half, it would also cause field-goal shooting accuracy to de- 
crease correspondingly. The fact that there is a pause before 
the free throw, permitting the player to think over the situa- 
tion with possible annoyance from the crowd, may be the 
answer. Also, the pressure is greater in the second half — 
particularly toward the end of the game. 

In any event, coaches can partially disregard the second- 
half fatigue theory as far as shooting accuracy is concerned. 
This may be an important psychological aid in coaching. 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 97 

Well-conditioned teams that do not tire in the second half, 
however, will shoot more accurately than poorly conditioned 
teams. No doubt the better the condition, the better the 
accuracy, provided the mental hazards can be eliminated. It 
is suggested that coaches keep comparisons in first- and second- 
half scrimmages as well as in games. Every effort should be 
made to improve individual and team play in each half. An 
added effort should then be made to make the second half 
stronger than the first. 

Performance on Various Levels of Competition 

Coaches are constantly looking for and striving to develop 
the competitive player — the boy who can come through when 
a game is close. Many players look great in practice but are 
unable to reach great heights in strenuous competition. With 
this thought in mind, the 460 games were divided into "ma- 
jor" and "minor" to see if a marked difference existed in the 
shooting performance of teams on the two levels. There 
are more data available in the major class — 382 of the 460 
games were in that classification. Seventy-eight games were 
considered minor, or practice games. The major and minor 
games were also compared to intra-squad scrimmages and also 
to practice shooting where no defense was encountered. The 
results of this entire comparison are found in Table XIX, 
Levels of Competition Shooting, page 98 and in Table XX, 
Major Games, page 100 and Table XXI, Minor Games, page 
101. Each of these will be treated briefly. 

Major games indicate an over-all shooting percentage of 
.270 and the shooting percentage for all games is .271, indi- 
cating very little difference. However, in the short area the 
percentage is .367 for major games but .372 in all games. 
This would indicate that it is a bit harder to work the ball in 
for close shots in major games. Because the difference is not 
great it may be stated that college players, at least, adjust well 



98 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 



M 

H 

O 

w 
CO 

X § 

a 1 
I J 

H u 

m 
o 

a 

> 







b 2 












00 


00 


"*■ O 






o> 


m 


vo oo 


CO 

O 
•d 




ft c 


<n 


m 


«n r- 


co 


rH 


CO 


3 2 


H 




"rt 


o> 


00 






O 


i— 1 


CO 


tN rH 






o 


oo 


i-H 


rH TJ- 


1_. 












£ 




CO 

<J a 

OJ 


m 


00 


^- «n 






O 


r^ 


m r- 






r~- 


■*■ 


rH tN 






fO 


tN 


tN «0 






4-1 


i— i 










<L> 

S3 « 












O 


o 


on oo 






r^ 


00 


tN vo 






ft d 


iN 


tN 


en in 




Cfl 


u 








CO 


tN 


ON 


r* ■«*■ 




O 

.d 
CO 
1— ( 


cc5 


VO 


m 


<n r^ 




o 


r^ 


00 


^- t 




o 


CO 

i-H 


tN 


en oo 


CO 

u> 


«n 


tN 


o m 




4-» 


< a 


ON 


r- 


tN tN 




o 


ON 


l-H 


>n on 




H 


o 


o 


o **■ 




■ui 


m 


rH 


rH i-H 


CO 
O 

co 


CO 


oo 
VO 


O 


VO O 




O 


r- 


^t- 


ct\ m 


CO 


o 


VO 


i— i 


rH rO 


co 








O 
O 


4-1 
O 


4-> 




m 

o 


rH O 
O rH 


J3 




st 


r~- 


m oo 


CO 


00 


en 


tc m 






4-> 


i-H 






-d 












"o 




CO 


o 


tN 


rH tN 




a CO 


rt 


rn 


1^ 


vo m 


ft 


O 


r^ 


on 


tN vo 




3 *-> 


O 


"*■ 




rH rH 


co 

4-> 


-*- 


«n 
tN 


oo in 
"T oo 






tN 


^J- 


oo o 






I— 1 


-<*- 


^ m 






4-1 


«n 






CO 

+-> 
O 


CO 

"t3 

O 


vS 
tN 


o\ 
m 


tN vo 

<n -3- 

CN| o 




-d 
CO 
bQ 

d 
o 


O 


tN 




rH 


co 

4-> 

< a 


en 


tN 


rH <n 




i-H 
i-H 


s 

tN 


rH 0\ 
rH tN 






4-) 


i-H 








*H-I CO 












O O 












• a 


tN 


00 








o ca 


00 


r^- 






£0 


m 












/~s . 


•-\ 


^i2 








CO CO CO 

<L> Cj 4> 

a 1 a 


co 








a 

ctl 


» § o ; 

(U rt rd 








rt <L> Pi 


<u 


bo U co 








o w o 


4-> 










■2.S § 


-d 
o 


C r°, pS 








M 








2^2 


v^>" 


CO ft 



N .' w ; 




OO H r-t T3 




m a a 




ngin 
long, 
made, 
ts SCO 






playi 
iows 
mpts 
ttemp 






co co U rt 




S 4-> 4-1 k„ 

rt r— 1 rt ^ 






U o 










f-J M_l V4-4 
P d -H O 






ij d rt 




.o o *-» o 




H -d O bp 




S3 4-> +-" C!j 




hrow p 
ions wi 
tage of 
percent 








4 - J <Z> rH ., 
1 CO fi 1» 




5-> o a Jh 

<U CO O *tj 

4-1 *H *^ 




(J On'd 
T3 •-] c3 




d tJTJ «4 




- S. 5 - 




rt ft „ rt 




O - oi O 






2-3 go^ 

H S o 




aS'u'S 




■*: bjo^d ^ 




d « " O 




8 6 8* 




ompari 
5 scrim 
attemp 
smpts, 




V 


u r~- _< 4j 


G 


_. d w 




rt co o rt 


<u 


CO JJ bo ;> 


T3 


o 


in ^* (j 


1 


4-1 O — 1 J. 




tha 

min 

tota 

fret 


O 
O 

J3 


i} CO H3 *rt 


u 


-° ^ d £ 




rt „ rt O 




■M CO «-» 


w 


s is a 
game 
short 

hows 


1 


o 
V 


•»H VH •> CO 


o 


r^ ° a « 


r -1 n d co 


* 



a-3 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 99 

under competition. Shooting averages in the medium and 
long areas are almost identical to the all-game averages. 
Strangely enough, the free-throw average in major games is 
.598, which is slightly higher than the all-game average of 592. 

As might be expected, minor game results show a higher 
shooting percentage. The average is .280, which is higher 
than the all-game average and considerably higher than the 
major game average. Shots in the short area are more fre- 
quent and the percentage is higher. 

Seventy-five full game intra-squad scrimmages show a 
shooting percentage of .329, which is far above the major and 
minor game averages. Short shots are still more frequent 
and percentages higher in scrimmages. This may indicate to 
the coach that defense is lax in practice or that players become 
tense when spectators are present. If free throws in scrim- 
mages fall below the average it may indicate lack of applica- 
tion during practice. Also, as in the case of minor games, 
some of the players have limited ability and are not capable of 
shooting as well as those who play in major games. This, of 
course, would have a bearing on all shooting. Fatigue and 
psychological factors should be at a minimum in scrimmages. 

Practice shots including field goals from various areas, and 
free throws, were taken with no defensive men guarding the 
shots. Naturally, defense makes a big difference, but if a 
player has mastered a skill, he should be able to perform 
reasonably well under competition. The total practice shoot- 
ing percentage shows an average of .568 for field goals and 
.780 for free throws. Particularly in free throws, there is 
no reason why players should not do better during a game 
since there is no defense and, with the exception of mental 
hazards or fatigue, conditions are the same as in practice. 
Theoretically, field-goal shots should not be taken unless fun- 
damentally correct; that is, unless they are good earned shots. 
If this type of shot were always taken, it would compare fa- 
vorably to the practice shot. Therefore, eliminating bad 



100 SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 

shots may help coaches more closely to approximate the prac- 
tice shooting average in games. 

Table XIX, Levels of Competition Shooting, page 98 shows 
a decrease in shooting accuracy as the situation becomes more 

TABLE XX 







Major 


Games* 










No. of 
Games 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Per- 
centage 


Average 
per Game 


Shooting 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Long Shots 
Medium Shots 
Short Shots 
Total Shots 
Free Throws 


382 
382 
382 
382 
382 


11313 

21247 
18435 
50995 
13703 


2264 
4730 
6768 
13762 
8191 


.200 
.223 
.367 
.270 
.598 


29.6 
55-6 
48.3 
133-5 
35.9 


5-9 
12.3 
17.7 
36.0 
21.4 


Score 


No. of 
Games 


Total 
Points 


Average 
per Game 




382 


35,715 


93-5 



This is a table that shows the record of both teams in 382 
major games. It includes long, medium, short and total field- 
goal attempts and field goals, percentage of attempts scored and 
the average number of attempts and goals per game in each cate- 
gory. It gives the same information on free throws and also 
shows total scores and average score per game. 



competitive. This again presents a psychological problem 
for the coach. It is particularly suggested that coaches care- 
fully check the shooting performances of each individual 
player on the various levels of competition. It has been 
pointed out that team percentages may vary due to lack of 

* A major game is a conference game or its equivalent where competition is at 
its highest level. 



SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 101 

ability of some of the players engaged in a scrimmage or minor 
game. A player's individual record, however, compared to 
the record of teammates and opponents, will tell the coach 
whether he is a "money player." 

TABLE XXI 

Minor Games* 





No. of 
Games 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Per- 
centage 


Average 
per Game 


Shooting 


At- 
tempts 


Goals 


Long Shots 
Medium Shots 
Short Shots 
Total Shots 
Free Throws 


78 
78 
78 
78 
78 


2042 
4425 
3705 
10172 
2478 


397 

972 
1470 
2839 
1383 


.194 
.220 
.397 
.280 
•558 


26.2 
56.7 
47.5 
130.4 
31.8 


5.1 
12.4 
18.8 
36.4 
17.7 


Score 


No. of 
Games 


Total 
Points 


Average 
per Game 




78 


7061 


90.5 



This is a table that shows the record of both teams in 78 
minor games in the same manner that Table XX shows the record 
of both teams in major games. 

Subjective Observations and the Psychology 
of Coaching 

Subjective scouting information is equally as valuable as 
objective data, and this certainly applies in the psychology of 
coaching. 

Personnel observations are particularly important in this 
regard. Conferences with players about their mental and 

* A minor game is a non-conference or practice game where the competition 
is not at its highest level. 



102 SCOUTING DATA AND PSYCHOLOGY OF COACHING 

physical condition are just as important as coaching of skills 
on the court. Similarly, properly planned strategy and con- 
structive meetings with the squad in which all take part in 
planning for a game are of paramount importance. 

Confidence, competition, cooperation, loyalty and team 
morale are all products of subjective observations as well as 
objective data. It is not our intention to infer that teams can 
be coached entirely as a result of a testing and rating program. 
The coach must take the entire picture into consideration 
and develop his team to perform efficiently both mentally and 
physically. 



Chapter 9 



The Tall Man in Basketball 

(See photo, The Tall Man in Basketball, 
in illustrated section.) 

T 

A HE TALL MAN (FROM SIX FEET FIVE INCHES TO SEVEN 

feet tall), when properly developed, is the greatest asset a 
basketball team can have. Regardless of any problem the tall 
man has presented to the game, coaches should constantly 
strive to develop and use the "big fellows." 

The far West seems to be a territory where many tall men 
play basketball. Part of this is due to the fact that high 
school coaches have learned to have patience and work with 
these men while they are in the growing, awkward, uncoordi- 
nated stages. A story will illustrate the point: 

At the University of Oregon, there was not a single season 
in twelve years during which we did not have three or four 
tall men, six feet five inches or over, on the squad. The 
greatest was Urgel "Slim" Wintermute who stood six feet 
eight inches. He was center on the national championship 
team of 1939 and was selected on almost every All- America 
team that year. Fortunately, he was under a good coach in 
high school that realized the value of a big man. While many 
high school coaches would have cut him off the squad, Scott 
Milligan, coach at Longview, Washington High School, stayed 
with "Slim" through the awkward stages and as a result, won 
state honors with him as a senior. When "Slim" Wintermute 
came to college, he had his full height but weighed only 165 
pounds. He was not aggressive and many times during his 
freshman and sophomore years, it appeared that he might not 
make the grade as a college player. In the junior year, how- 

103 



104 THE TALL MAN IN BASKETBALL 

ever, he had developed into a better than average college 
player. As a senior, he was the difference between just a good 
college team and a national championship team. 

Similar stories can be told about many tall men. It takes 
patience and work to develop them. But in return, the hard 
work may pay off in a championship, in addition to the values 
the boy has received from playing the game. Because of the 
tremendous value of the tall man, his appearance in the game 
has created many problems — mostly for the coaches that do 
not have them. 

What shall we do with the tall man in basketball? This 
has been a leading question in the game for many years. Var- 
ious rule changes were made to curb the effectiveness of the 
tall man. The center jump, which used to follow each goal, 
was eliminated after free throws in 1936 and after all goals in 
1938. Now the ball is awarded to the opponent after each 
goal. It was thought that this would lessen the value of the 
tall man in the game unless he was a good all-round player, 
because he could not be used merely for getting the center 
jump. Result: more tall men and their effectiveness not 
curbed. The big fellow merely had more stamina from not 
having to jump, so that he could better play other parts of the 
game. 

The second restriction of the big men was the passing of the 
three-second rule which prevents the offensive player from 
standing in the free-throw lane more than three seconds. 
This change came in 1936 and with certain variations has been 
continued in the game. Result: still more tall men with no 
apparent improvement in all-round ability. In other words, 
the big man is still playing and is just as effective as ever. 

Many insist that the tall man should not be legislated 
against, any more than we should legislate against the fast 
man, or the expert shot. Many coaches believe that the tall 
man can be stopped effectively by proper defensive measures. 
Others believe that the only way to stop a tall man is to have 



THE TALL MAN IN BASKETBALL 105 

one a little taller and a little better. The entire problem 
reached a climax in 1944 and 1945 when seven-foot Bob Kur- 
land almost single-handed led Oklahoma A & M to two na- 
tional championships. During the same era, George Mikan, a 
six-foot nine inch giant at DePaul University of Chicago, was 
dominating most of the games in which he played. As a re- 
sult, additional legislation was considered to curb the tall man. 
Most of the suggestions had to do with enlarging the three- 
second area in some way so that the tall man could not take a 
position so close to his offensive basket. Many still desire a 
change of this kind although since World War II, this problem 
has lessened with the improvement in material and coaching. 
Perhaps part of the problem took care of itself when Bob Kur- 
land and George Mikan finished college, but it must also be 
remembered that they dominated the game during a period 
when material and coaching were at a low ebb. 

Some have advocated putting a height limit on players, 
thereby eliminating the extremely tall man from the game. 
However, most coaches and basketball followers agree that 
such a limitation would not be fair to the tall men. Basket- 
ball is one of the few sports that they are able to play; they are 
seldom outstanding in football or in baseball and no legislation 
should be put into effect that would deprive them of playing 
a game that offers them as much all-round value as the game 
of basketball. 

However, the tall man still presents a problem to the game. 
The results of this study and the information contained 
herein may help coaches to find a solution to this problem. 

A total of eighty players over six feet four inches were se- 
lected for this part of the study. These players are listed and 
the results given in Table XXII, Shooting By Tall Men, page 
107. It will be noted that the players come from all sections 
of the country, where different styles of play are used. 

Shot attempts and goals were charted and recorded in the 
three areas for these men. The results are significant. The 



106 THE TALL MAN IN BASKETBALL 

shooting averages compare favorably to the average for all 
players in each area but this does not tell the complete story. 
These men took 5 3 percent of their shots and made 6 5 percent 
of their goals in the short area. The average player takes 36 
percent of his shots and makes 50 percent of his goals in this 
area. This represents a great difference. In the medium 
area, the tall man takes 3 8 percent of his total shots and makes 
29 percent of his goals. The average player takes 42 percent 
of his shots and makes 34 percent of his goals in this area. 
Therefore, there is little difference in the medium area. In 
the long area, however, the tall man takes only 9 percent of his 
shots and makes only 6 percent of his goals, while the average 
player takes 22 percent of his shots in this area and makes 16 
percent of his goals. 

In other words, the tall man makes 94 percent of his total 
field goals in the short and medium areas. These figures 
would indicate that he is a threat mainly in the areas close to 
the basket. 

Several suggestions seem to be in order that will improve 
the game and still enable the tall man, if he is a good all-round 
player, to participate. Some of these follow: 

1. Consider widening the free-throw lane from six to twelve feet 
and make this entire lane a restricted three-second area. This would 
not only keep the tall man, or any player, out of that area, but it 
would open up the middle lane so that zone defense would be of less 
value and teams would work the ball into the basket with less diffi- 
culty. The change would relieve congestion under the basket. 

The Fordham-Columbia experimental game played in 1945 
and described in Chapter 10 was played with the suggested 
widened lane (see illustrated section). 

A vote of the spectators attending the game was taken. 
Seventy percent voted for the change. The officials that 
worked the game and many of the coaches present favored the 
change also. As soon as another group of giants like Bob 



<J 
H 

n 


H 

O 
O 

w 

c/0 



>-h to 

tii <-> 
£ ° 

H c/3 


o 


i — I i—l -^J- i — I tS O lA'ttS HH 
CV| i-4 i— 1 H (S i— 1 


<J 


(SH>M^H00O\O\^«inOM'th'ttOHf^ 
t— (rS ^ iAH cO(N O^O hOOmOcOOaiS 


« en 

o o 

C/3 GO 


o 


r-nofs|HO\iNirifnr>OHirnno\'^-fniN»0'*vO'* 

^O CO i— H i— 1 >Ol/MSC1HH i/l 

1—1 1—1 


< 


HO\vo')- , ti^'Oi>ts«Ti-iA(»r--mto\Hi3\HO 
Ooo rttstiri fo a fo in vo ^r tn ct\ h 

i/O i— < tN i—l i— 1 i—l 


a « 


o 


OOHOH/if/iNvOCONoOifltcOHtnt^N 

^-tS m (T|r- 1 <N i— t ■<*■ 
.— 1 


< 


HHTj-inOHO\h-i>fn'tot^tiNO\«)oaM>H 

N't i— 1 ^ tN IN 1^ (S ^O (S ^- r- l"st-i— I 
(N i— 1 i—l i— I ■"vf ol 


bo K 
t— 1 OO 


* 
* 


OOcOOtSv^iiHOOrOi— iOOoom-^-rOOOO>0 

i—l rO 


* 

< 


OHhOt r ir p if r l | AO'toOOinr~-t s -'tl^f , 1iNr<MS 
i— l(N<S i— I rO^t-m </"» 
1—1 1—1 


to 


rtHNHtyiOMSr^mtNoOHO«mi^oooM»iN 


bO 


O0VOVOOM^O0\Oi/iVOi^i/iiA0Ot^r^i/M»/l(r(i/i00 


VQVOVDVOVO^VOVDVO'OVO^QVOVO^O'O'OVO^O'O'O 


"o 

o 

GO 


Phillips Oil. A.A.U. 
Long Island Univ."~ 
Long Island Univ. 
Phillips Oil. A.A.U. 
Univ. of Oregon 
Univ. of Oregon 
Oregon State Coll. 
Oregon State Coll. 
Union Oil. A.A.U. 
Oregon State Coll. 
Oregon State Coll. 
Univ. of Oklahoma 
Univ. of Oregon 
Univ. of Oregon 
Univ. of Oregon 
Univ. of Oregon 
Univ. of Idaho 
Washington State Coll. 
Univ. of Washington 
Univ. of Oregon 
Univ. of Oregon 


P 




Troutwine 

Holub 

Beenders 

Fortenberry 

Hays 

Borrevik 

Reisman 

Conklin 

Grenier 

Mandic, J. 

Mandic, F. 

Ford 

Jackson, L. 

Marshik 

Anderson 

Borcher 

Hilton 

Nelson 

Schlicting 

Silver 

Jewel 



a, 

<U Uh 

-G O 
i-i <** 

.3 CU 



to 



-G G 

.a a 

£ a. 
**h a 

o „ 

^ e 
* s 

"3 bo 

g& 

O CO 

Oh «S 
bO-j 

:=< O 
O bO 



«.i5 

° a 
^a 

CO aj 
O +-> 

G , 

SOJ 
O 

O <u 

CLq3 



3 o 

o <-" 

2t» 

•5 d 

o 5 

bo O 

T3 to 

*U - 

* a 
ga 

Is 

1/5 5 

w o 

-S « ii 

~ » o 

pj (O 



107 





o 


riiOfOff\Oootoooor^ , 0(Si^r^NroinHiNajvooo(S 




VOtN^-tN^J-Oi— l M -^-ONNH H fOHH i— I inr- 1 


*-> o 




i — I ■ — 1 (S 






H C/D 








<J 


rvICTsrOCT\OoOO>iOOOVOooa\rOONi— ioON(SOr- immiri 




H(NH^iAOtO(NO\(SrOh*OinoOtinHHCOtO« 






(St— 1 H tH fl H fl 00 




o 


o\Hvor~-^oini^t«3fO*Ho\or--ooHanotSH 




HHNO0H ON NCICOHHHH i— 1 ^J-i— 1 


*-> CO 




1—1 


O O 






J3 A 






C/D C/D 


<! 


vOiAH\0^0(SfOm0^cOhO\HNmONt^>OOi^O\N 




lOtcmh^HHMattncnto^HH m r^<s 






(S <N tN f~i 




o 


^■CONiflHOOH^-oONoOinvOr^iSiOHHOM^NO 


5 to 

G tJ 


C<~> r—l !— 1 C~l I— 1 I— 1 I— 1 I— 1 0\ 










1" 


<< 


o<^ooi^-cot-<tNor~ON^ootNir\0>ocor~'^- , 0'^-to<s 


N^Ctt^^ONHiSfOOOttSrli^HH t vo (S 






i— i i— i m 




* 


OrO>— lOr- li— li— lOOi— li— lOOr-Hrn-^TOOOi— IrO-^-rH 


bo tt 

8 o 

°-G 

K-l GO 


o 


i— 1 i— 1 I— 1 


* 


\0 m^J-vo H m^-OHtM'NNrOOvoO inHOifl'tHH 




<^ 


r<1H tH i-i ON i— 1 


( 


3 a 


"tfOI^Or~««Ttl^O\OH'J-^IOM^-HH|VH'1-H 


2 


5 rt 


i— 1 1— i m i— 1 1— i m i— i *o 


+ 






J 






t 


* 


invoooco*ooor^oo\^oi/Ni/M/ , ia<o^o>rirNr v ^oooi/Mn 


"l 
3 




VQVOVOVO^O^O^O'O'O'O'OVO^O^C^O'OVOVOVOVOVOVO*© 


















o g o g oo a i a a ' 






U °U P uu^o'oo 

^^-M .... w . . C3 ^ . . 4J 4J. 






U toil Hh^h^^h bO ^ 4 - >1J ^H'r' bCC3 > W) bO > 


1 

C 
c/ 




2 'p 2 OUUUU o IS ou 2 2 u J5 IS O £ "S ° IS ^ 


3 






Sq^ Sdmh ^cajoooo^^^oo So So<yD ^^ooj*^^^,^ 






a OS OcjcGG 000 g.g_g a o O c g o o o^g 






*£ > *$ > bO bo ojd ojd >' > > b0-£ *£ bo > >' bO bO >" > > bO 






|-g|g a a Ji JTg - g"g ^^ Sal H §'g - g - g § 


V 




G £> 


( 


J 

"N 


2 G g -fl ^ § 




i 


c u C^ ri y S rt 2 ^^ S S <-* En H *7? 5M3 ■" <* 5 
S 'rJ •" ^ S PJd'^'G^ u G 1J2 «-> .S? O ° k? o Is» ""e ;*1 







108 





o 


r~-mr^*orv|f^t^oom(N'^-(S^-NHVOHCM^'*NcoTf 

"3- •/"! cN VO rO H t 


<J 


tOOHI^HhOOMCOCHOOOChOHOOtOOO 

r-i — MSr- itsmfSi— ii— itN c~> i— lOfitNi— ii- ii/ii/i 

l — 1 • — 1 I — 1 r—l i— 1 


4-> « 

U *-> 
O O 

CO OO 


o 


"sT f~l tS *© (S i— 1 r<-> 


«! 


(S 'O VOH 1— l(N|r- (I— 1 I— 1 I— 1 *© <N I— IH t^H 
i-l r-H i-H 


§ J2 

2^ 


o 


■<^-^t-fSt-<r-ii— lrOf~iOOOOi— lOrHi— lOOrOOOmm 

tS rH 


<! 


*^ON i— Ii— I i— I i— I ro i— iro 


1— 1 c/D 


* 
* 


.-ii-HOOOOOOOOOOi-lOOOOOOOOOO 


* 

<! 


rO^t-i— 1 i— 1 tN ■— lOi— lOOmOr-IOOfOtNOOOOi-HfN 
r-H 




N m^(S I- IrHmtNcNi— It— Ii— It-Hi— Ii— Ii— IVOtSi— 1 r- IHfOr 1 
r-lM i-l 




iniriH^oinhON^oooirivociriOM^ioinONini^HOio 


"o 
o 

u 

oO 


Univ. of Washington 
Oregon State Coll. 
Bowling Green State U. 
Cornell Univ. - 
Rensselaer Poly. Inst. 
Hamline Univ. 
DePaul Univ. 
Univ. of Tennessee 
Univ. of Tennessee 
Canisius Coll. 
Temple Univ.- 
Temple Univ.- 
Coast Guard Academy 
Cornell Univ. 
Univ. of Akron 
Brooklyn Coll. 
New York Univ. ~ 
Ohio State Univ. - 
Western Kentucky 
Valparaiso Univ. 
Syracuse Univ. - 
Oklahoma A. and M, 
St. John's Univ. - 


P 


-1 
J 

3 


Gilmur 
Romano 
Otten, Don 
Way, Walter 
Kent 
Schultz 

Mikan, George 
Thomas 
Barnett 
Kamp 
Budcl 
Hewson 
Dorn, Bob 
Peterson, Ed 
Burke, N. 
Benson, M. 
Schayes, A. 
Risen, A. 
Jones, L. 
Schoon, M. 
Ludka, J. 
Kurland 
Summers 



109 



«J 

c 
o 
U 



X 

a 

<: 

H 






O 



<: 



o o 






O 



o 



t— 1 OQ 



o 



-5 e 






o 
o 

.a 



PX< 



HOMnr^^or^rjfOHvoTtmt^ 



H[^NiOTftN^H(0^^in 



ONr- ir— ifScOOOOOi— l i- l(S 



mor~-«Aooo\fSfOi-ncor^-ooir\ 



OOtSOOOOOOOOOO 



O^ONOcSOOOOv^OOO 



■<}-NrlHrl(SiSHH(SHHN 






; ? 



DD£ 

<* <* (D 43 

> > a 

*< *-" G -i 
rt rt o O 

KKuZ 



• — H — ( CO 






2 a 

.S c 

~j o 

so 



ti rt 6 t ° fi " • • • 



u 

3 is 



"2 o -^ «-i 

« W .S ft O rtJJ 5V %M 
u *,£% %M g^^-6 8 ft. 

£ ffi O S u « £ >« S * O O ; 
110 



00 o\ 



oo 



(S ; 

as <s 



I — m 



O m 

r- «n, 



■ ^ 



o 





a, 


tun 




«> 


rt 






c 


O 


1-. 
O 
> 




H<3 


em 



THE TALL MAN IN BASKETBALL 111 

Kurland and George Mikan appear, the proposal will no doubt 
be considered again. It is indeed strange that the rules per- 
mit an offensive player to stand within three feet of the basket 
on either side of the lane but do not permit a player to stand 
any place in the lane out to the foul line — a distance of fifteen 
feet from the basket. It would seem that the somewhat anti- 
quated markings of the court rather than the needs of the 
game have dictated the rules. However, a rule change is not 
in order until further experimentation and research have been 
conducted. 

2. It is urged that consideration be given to allowing only one 
point for baskets scored in the short area. This would definitely 
take away the effectiveness of any player who could only score close 
to the basket. Since the tall man has the advantage in this area, the 
change would make it less advisable for coaches to use him unless he 
could play the entire game well. 

If the widened lane were adopted, it might be well to count 
all field goals within that area one point and all other field 
goals two points. Experimentation in practices and intra- 
mural or practice games is urged along this line. 

3. Coaches should teach big men a shot that may be used in the 
long area so that defensive players will not be safe in running back 
to the keyhole and waiting for the opponent. If big men could 
shoot long shots accurately, it would (a) tend to relieve congestion 
under the basket on both offense and defense, (b) open up the game, 
(c) cut down the effectiveness of the zone defense and (d) make the 
big man a greater asset to his team. 

4. In playing against an opposing player who is tall and can only 
score close to the basket, defensive measures should be taken accord- 
ingly. First, a defensive player may play in front of him or to the 
side so that it is difficult to get the ball to him. Second, defensive 
players away from the ball may drop into the keyhole to help tie up 
the tall man, and third, measures may be used to effectively screen 
him from the backboards. 

5. Have patience and work hard to develop the big man. Try to 



112 THE TALL MAN IN BASKETBALL 

have big men on your squad because, no matter what changes are 
made in the rules, a good big man will always be valuable in basket- 
ball. 

It must be stressed again that radical, immediate rule 
changes are not intended. It is suggested, however, that 
coaches try out these ideas in practice scrimmages and in prac- 
tice games. 



Chapter 10 
A Proposed Area-Method of Scoring* 

T 

XHE HOME RUN IS THE MOST SPECTACULAR PLAY IN BASE- 

ball. Parks have been built for particular hitters so that the 
fans will see an occasional home run. The baseball has been 
made more lively so that the home run will be more possible. 
Correspondingly, the long field goal is the most spectacular 
play in basketball. In spite of this fact, it is used sparingly in 
many sections of the country. The home run in baseball, of 
course, is worth more than the single. In basketball, however, 
the long field goal from, let us say, forty feet out, counts the 
same as the field goal under the basket. Since the data indi- 
cate clearly that it is much more difficult to score from the 
longer areas, why should not goals from the longer areas be 
worth more than goals under the basket? 

In addition to the percentage differences in shooting from 
different areas, there are two other major reasons for consider- 
ing an area-method of scoring — the reasons are the zone de- 
fense and the tall man. 

The zone defense 

It has been observed that many teams are using this type of 
defense which does not project out much more than twenty- 
four feet from the basket. In many sections of the country 
teams that are using the one-hand shot almost exclusively are 

* The area-method of scoring in basketball is suggested for use by in- 
structors and intra-mural coaches as an interesting variation of the regular 
game. "Area basketball" has proved popular to those who have tried it. 

113 



114 A PROPOSED AREA-METHOD OF SCORING 

not effective in shooting beyond this distance. Therefore 
when those two situations exist — the team that cannot shoot 
long and the zone defense — there is not much of a basketball 
game after the defense is set. If more credit is given for the 
long field goal, it might draw out the zone defense and also en- 
courage all players to learn a shot that can be made from a 
long distance. 

The fact has been pointed out in Chapter 9 that the tall man 
does most of his scoring in the areas close to the basket. If a 
score in this short area counted less, it would minimize the 
importance of the tall man and he would not be used unless 
he could play all of the game well. 

Further, to restrict the tall man it was suggested in Chapter 
9 that the restricted three-second area be increased. The 
suggestion was made that the free-throw lane be increased 
from a width of six feet to twelve feet. The same rules that 
are now in use would then apply. However, on a jump ball in 
the lane, the ball is tossed up at the free-throw line and no one 
is allowed inside the lane until the ball is tapped. This wid- 
ened lane is suggested to permit the smaller man to have a bet- 
ter chance to get rebounds, to relieve congestion under the 
backboards, and to restrict the tall man in scoring under the 
basket. It seems inconsistent to restrict players from coming 
closer to the basket than the foul line and then permitting 
them to be only three feet from the basket on the sides. 

Other advantages to the area-method of scoring are that: 
( 1 ) it gives the team behind a better chance in the latter part 
of the game; (2) it is more attractive to spectators since they 
see the "home run" of basketball more often; (3) it encour- 
ages a more wide-open style of play which appeals to players 
and spectators. 

The Fordh am -Columbia Experimental Game 

The suggestions that have been mentioned were made to the 
New York basketball coaches and sportswriters in 1944. As 



A PROPOSED AREA-METHOD OF SCORING 115 

a result, an experimental game was played between Columbia 
University and Fordham University in the Columbia gym- 
nasium, February 7, 1945 (see illustrated section). Be- 
cause three scoring areas were thought too complicated for the 
officials, it was decided to divide the court into two areas. The 
short area extended from the basket to a radius of twenty-one 
feet and the long area was that area beyond a radius of twenty- 
one feet. The rules were as follows: for each field goal made 
inside the twenty-one foot area the usual two points were 
scored; for each field goal made outside the twenty-one foot 
area, three points were scored. If the shooter touched the 
area line on the take-off, only two points were allowed. How- 
ever, if the shooter's impetus carried him inside the short area 
after the shot, the goal counted three points. 

The foul lane was widened from six to twelve feet and the 
regular three-second rule applied throughout the entire new 
area; that is, no offensive player was permitted to remain in 
this area for more than three seconds with or without the ball. 

Excerpts from Irving T. Marsh's account of the game in the 
New York Herald Tribune, February 8, 1945, are as follows: 

From the spectators' point of view, the new rules provided more 
excitement, more wide-open basketball and a decided accent on set 
shooting. 

The crowd voted 60-40 in favor of the 3 -point basket for a long 
shot scored outside a twenty-one foot arc and 70-30 in favor of 
widening the foul lane. 

Most of the coaches present, however, were not too pleased with 
the new regulations, but nearly all agreed that widening the foul lane 
had distinct merit since it opened up the game and prevented mad 
scrambles under the basket as well as dropping the emphasis on big 
men. 

To this observer the new rules definitely provided a game with 
more action and much more excitement, but if it really gets wild 
and wooly there is no telling what may happen. The scorers and 
officials particularly found it extremely difficult to keep up with the 
play, but both men who worked the game, Chuck Solodare and John 
Norton, liked the innovations in spite of the added burden. 



116 A PROPOSED AREA -METHOD OF SCORING 

The game might have been even more successful and proved 
the points better if one of the teams had used a zone defense. 
Unfortunately both teams played man-to-man. Also, neither 
team had any exceptionally tall players. 

Following this game other games were played in various 
sections of the country and the author conducted numerous 
games of this type among service teams. In practically all 
cases the reaction was favorable to both changes. 

In one Army game a team was twelve points behind with 
two minutes to go. Four long field goals were scored and 
because each counted three points, the score was tied and the 
game went into overtime. The original leader finally won 
by two points. This indicates how the area-scoring plan gives 
the team behind a better chance. 

It is suggested that further attention be given to these ideas 
and that coaches and instructors of basketball experiment with 
them in intramural scrimmages and in practice games. 

A New Area-Scoring Suggestion 

A special study was made to further analyze the problems of 
the tall man and the zone defense, and to give due credit for 
shots from various distances from the basket (see Table XXIII, 
Area Scoring, page 117). Sixty major games in which there 
was a difference in the score of five points or less were selected 
from the various season records included in the survey. These 
games were then scored by the area method of counting one 
point for a goal in the short area, two points for a goal in the 
medium area, and three points for a goal in the long area. 
The area scores were then compared to the original scores. In 
twenty-eight of the sixty games, the original losing team either 
tied the score or won under the area method. It is significant 
to note that in practically all of these games where the winner 
was changed there was a tall man on the original winning team. 
It is also evident from the data of the entire survey that lessen- 
ing the value of the goal in the short area would minimize the 



A PROPOSED AREA-METHOD OF SCORING 



117 



TABLE XXIII 

Area Scoring 

(60 Major Games) 

Original Score 5 points Difference or Less 

This table shows original scores of 60 major games where the 
final score was 5 or less points difference, compared to area scores 
for the same games. Area scores count 1 point for each goal in 
the short area, 2 points for each goal in the medium area and 
3 points for each goal in the long area. 







Original 


Area 


Season 


Game 


Score 


Score 


1936-37 


Oregon State Coll. 


28 


22 




Univ. of Washington 


27 


20 


•< 


Washington State Coll. 


36 


35 




Univ. of Washington 


33 


38* 


<• 


Univ. of Oregon 


35 


36 




Oregon State Coll. 


34 


30 


1 1 


Univ. of Oregon 


40 


36 




Washington State Coll. 


36 


39* 


" 


Univ. of Oregon 


31 


26 




Univ. of Idaho 


29 


26** 


1937-38 


Univ. of Oregon 


50 


44 




Washington State Coll. 


46 


45* 


«« 


Univ. of Oregon 


32 


34 




Oregon State Coll. 


36 


32* 


«• 


Univ. of Oregon 


34 


31 




Univ. of Idaho 


35 


35 


«• 


Univ. of Oregon 


37 


30 




Univ. of Washington 


40 


35 


« t 


Oregon State Coll. 


32 


29 




Univ. of Idaho 


34 


36 


1938-39 


Univ. of Oregon 


54 


49 




Univ. of California 


49 


51* 


** 


Oregon State Coll. 


35 


35 




Univ. of Idaho 


30 


1C** 



* Area method changed winner of game. 
** Area method caused tie game. 



118 A PROPOSED AREA-METHOD OF SCORING 

TABLE XXIII (Continued) 







Original 


Area 


Season 


Game 


Score 


Score 


1938-39 


Univ. of California 


42 


43 




Univ. of So. California 


39 


38 


* * 


Univ. of Oregon 


35 


42 




Univ. of Idaho 


31 


38 


1939-40 


Long Island Univ. 


56 


56 




Univ. of Oregon 


55 


53 


" 


Wayne University 


32 


31 




Univ. of Oregon 


29 


26 


* * 


Univ. of Oregon 


37 


32 




DePaul University 


39 


35 


1940-41 


Univ. of Oregon 


36 


34 




Oregon State Coll. 


35 


27 


* * 


Univ. of Oregon 


42 


44 




Temple University 


45 


44** 


* * 


Univ. of Oregon 


34 


30 




Duquesne Univ. 


37 


39 


1941-42 


Long Island Univ. 


33 


27 




Univ. of Oregon 


31 


28* 


* * 


Duquesne Univ. 


33 


33 




Univ. of Oregon 


28 


24 


" 


DePaul Univ. 


27 


19 




Univ. of Oregon 


23 


jo** 


1942-43 


Univ. of Oregon 


42 


38 




Oregon State Coll. 


38 


34 


" 


Univ. of Oregon 


30 


25 




Univ. of Washington 


31 


27 


* 4 


Univ. of Oregon 


47 


40 




Washington State Coll. 


45 


38 


1943-44 


Univ. of Oregon 


38 


59 




Univ. of Washington 


40 


63 


4 ' 


Univ. of Oregon 


40 


33 




Washington State Coll. 


36 


34* 


4 4 


Oregon State Coll. 


33 


35 




Univ. of Washington 


38 


36 


1944-45 


University of Utah 


36 


47 




St. John's University 


39 


47** 



:am--" 



Above: YALE'S 1949 CHAMPIONS 
LEAVE NEW YORK ON FLIGHT TO 
SAN FRANCISCO. First appearance of a 
Yale team on the Pacific Coast. Photo 
courtesy American Airlines. 



Below: OREGON'S 1939 NATIONAL 
CHAMPIONS RETURN FROM MADI- 
SON SQUARE GARDEN. First Oregon 
team to go East. Photo courtesy Photo- 
graphic Illustrations Inc. 






(See page 46) 
SHOOTING 
A BASKET. 
The ball finds 
its mark — the 
ultimate goal 
of all basket- 
ball effort. 




THE ONE-HAND SHOT. Ore- 
gon's Bob Hardy (No. 40) gives a 
perfect illustration of the one-hand 
shot as All America Laddie Gale 
(No. 28) waits for possible re- 
bound. Photo courtesy Warren 
Teter. 




(See page 52) 

THE SHORT SHOT. Ted Anderson, star 

Yale forward, goes high into the air for a 

short "lay up" shot in Yale-Navy game. 

Photo courtesy The Yale News. 



(See page 54) 

THE MEDIUM SHOT. Tony Lavelli il- 
lustrates a shot from the medium area in 
Yale-Columbia game, using the left-hand 
hook style. Photo courtesy The Yale News. 




1 i 



m 





(See page 56) 
TONY LAVELLI 
DEMONSTRATES 
HIS FAMOUS 
HOOK SHOT. 
Photo courtesy 
Ralph Morse for 
LIFE magazine. 




(See page 103) 
THE TALL MAN IN 
BASKETBALL. George 
Mikan, 6' 9" Minneapolis 
Laker and former All Amer- 
ica DePaul player, uses his 
height to tip in a goal un- 
der rather adverse condi- 
tions. World Wide Photos. 



£% 




(See page 57) 

THE TWO-HAND SHOT. Dick 
Joyce, 1949-1950 captain, shows start- 
ing position of the two-hand set shot. 
Photo courtesy The Yale News. 



(See page 68) 

THE ONE-HAND FREE THROW. 

Tony Lavelli, Yale's All America 
and modern collegiate free-throw 
champion, sets new major college 
scoring record (his 1871st point) in 
Yale-Harvard game. Notice perfect 
follow through in this example of one- 
hand style free throw. Photo courtesy 
The New Haven Register. 






■<■ 5 mi 






(See page 70) 

THE REBOUND. Jack Kerris, Lo- 
yola center, gives a perfect illustra- 
tion of rebounding as Loyola upsets 
favored Kentucky in 1949 New York 
Invitational Tournament. World 
Wide Photos. 





(See page 72) 

THE CENTER JUMP OR TIP-OFF. 
Center shows excellent jumping form 
as traditional Oregon-Oregon State 
game gets under way. Photo cour- 
tesy Warren Teter. 




(See page 79) 

THE PERSONAL FOUL. Oregon's 

All America John Dick is fouled from 

the rear by two California players in 

championship tussle. 

(See page 128) 

THE BASKETBALL OFFICIAL. It's 



(See page 83) 

THE HELD BALL. Nothing to do but call 
a held ball and let them jump for it in this 
scramble during the Oregon-Washington State 
game in the Pacific Coast Conference. Photo 
courtesy Warren Teter. 

a foul! Pat Kennedy, veteran New York official 



calls one in Madison Square Garden. World Wide Photos. 




MV 



/ \ .^lliW 1 "" t > 




\ 












Ph 




2 w 

J3 _ 



US 

<u .3 

"5 « 



U (U 

JS *^ 

w is 

tuo 

J.S 

< ^ 

H OS 

Z S 

w 



D 
O 

u 

< 

a; 

a, 

w 

H 



1/3 



A PROPOSED AREA-METHOD OF SCORING 



119 



TABLE XXIII (Continued) 







Original 


Area 


Season 


Game 


Score 


Score 


1944-45 


Oklahoma A. & M. 


49 


34 




New York Univ. 


45 


34** 


*• 


St. John's University- 


41 


48 




Coll, of City of New York 


42 


51 


" 


Univ. of Tennessee 


50 


52 




New York University- 


48 


40 


" 


Brooklyn College 


49 


54 




Western Kentucky 


45 


58* 


« * 


New York University 


41 


38 




Oklahoma A. & M. 


44 


40 


• « 


St. John's University 


34 


31 




New York University 


30 


31** 


** 


Brooklyn College 


54 


54 




Coll. of City of New York 


57 


51* 


" 


Columbia University 


41 


49 




Yale University 


38 


37 


* * 


Bowling Green State Univ. 


61 


49 




New York University 


63 


AQ** 


" 


New York University 


70 


69 




Ohio State University 


65 


67 


* * 


St. John's University 


34 


32 




Muhlenberg College 


33 


36* 


* * 


Canisius College 


58 


52 




Long Island University 


61 


55 


1945-46 


Univ. of Oregon 


57 


42 




Univ. of Washington 


56 


55* 


* * 


DePaul University 


59 


41 




Bowling Green State Univ. 


54 


42* 


" 


Univ. of Oregon 


62 


52 




Univ. of British Columbia 


60 


46 


** 


Univ. of Oregon 


42 


34 




Oregon State Coll. 


41 


35* 


1946-47 


Oregon State Coll. 


56 


50 




Univ. of Washington 


52 


51* 



120 A PROPOSED AREA -METHOD OF SCORING 

TABLE XXIII (Continued) 







Original 


Area 


Season 


Game 


Score 


Score 


1946-47 


Univ. of Oregon 


46 


41 




Washington State Coll. 


48 


38* 


* * 


Univ. of Oregon 


45 


36 




Univ. of Idaho 


43 


37* 


'* 


Univ. of Oregon 


49 


43 




Univ. of Washington 


48 


36 


1947-48 


Yale University 


57 


46 




Duquesne University 


60 


51 


* * 


Fordham University 


77 


69 




Yale University 


75 


68 


4 * 


Yale University 


56 


48 




University of Pennsylvania 


59 


49 


* * 


Yale University 


54 


50 




Cornell University 


58 


48* 


44 


Yale University 


63 


47 




Dartmouth College 


68 


57 


4 4 


Yale University 


52 


48 




Princeton University 


53 


36* 


1948-49 


Yale University 


69 


59 




St. Marys — California 


74 


71 


* * 


Yale University 


45 


40 




Princeton University 


47 


4Q** 


* * 


Yale University 


54 


49 




Columbia University 


58 


48* 


4 4 


Yale University 


67 


53 




University of Illinois 


71 


67 



advantages of the tall man. While it may be difficult to have 
three scoring areas, it is suggested that this plan be tried by 
coaches and instructors in classes and practice sessions. If the 
plan proves too complicated, the court may be divided into 
two scoring areas. This plan was used in the Columbia-Ford- 
ham experimental game. The two-area plan may be used by 
allowing one point for goals scored in the short area and two 



A PROPOSED AREA-METHOD OF SCORING 121 

points for goals scored in the outer area, provided the short 
area does not extend beyond the free-throw line. If the areas 
are used as in the Fordham-Columbia experimental game, the 
goals in the short area should count two points and the goals in 
the outer area three points. These suggestions are based on 
percentages derived from the survey. 

Major changes should never be made without sufficient evi- 
dence of their worth and this must come through research and 
experimentation. Many coaches and followers of basketball 
fought against the elimination of the center jump, and it took 
years to bring about this change. The Pacific Coast Confer- 
ence finally tried the plan for one entire season and this 
resulted in the change. Now it is agreed that it is an improve- 
ment in the game. 

If the tall man and the zone defense are problems in basket- 
ball, the plan suggested here may be the answer. It should 
certainly never be made illegal to use the tall man or the zone 
defense, but rules of the game may be altered to make it of less 
advantage to use them. 

Again, none of the proposals in this Chapter are made with 
the idea of changing the rules immediately. Yet, the sugges- 
tion is made that coaches try out the proposals, experiment 
with area scoring and see if the results seem to be helpful to 
the game. 



Chapter 11 

The Player Analyzes 
His Own Game 



M< 



.OST PLAYERS MUST MAKE THEMSELVES GREAT BY CON- 

stant practice. It is alleged that the great pianist Paderewski 
was once approached after a concert by an admirer who said: 
"That was wonderful. I wish I could play like that." The 
artist replied, "No, I'm afraid you wouldn't want to. It was 
necessary for me to practice twelve hours a day for thirteen 
years in order to play as I do." 

A player who expects to be an outstanding performer in 
highly competitive basketball will find it necessary to make 
certain sacrifices. He must, of course, be willing to keep 
himself in good physical condition. This means that he must 
refrain from smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages. He 
must not have habits that are detrimental to the very best pos- 
sible physical condition and endurance. In addition to hav- 
ing the physical requirements and a correct mental attitude, 
the player must be willing to put basketball first among all his 
activities, except for his studies, during the season. 

Major sports are now so highly specialized that it is necessary 
for boys to do some practicing in their chosen sport out of 
season. It is the trend now for coaches to specialize. Many 
schools engage a different coach for each major sport and they 
frequently hold practice sessions during other than the regular 
playing season. To keep up with the highest competition, 
therefore, it is also necessary for players to specialize. The 

122 



THE PLAYER ANALYZES HIS OWN GAME 



123 



best basketball players play the game whenever possible all 
year 'round. Most players at least practice shooting in the 
off-season. 

Boys come into the coach's office throughout the year and 
ask if they may turn out for basketball. They want to be 



PLAYER'S NAME: 



)o~tx*-4s . M<&^o-&c4_ 





DATE 


LONG 


MED. 

2 
HAND 


MED. 

1 
HAND 


SHORT 


FREE 
THROW 


OTHER FUNDAMENTALS 


fjt*. 


'fr 


S 


B 


S 


B 


S 


B 


S 


B 


S 


B 




vh$*ff- 


^ 


sd 


'7 


Si> 


-V 


S?> 


At 


SB 


¥/ 


ss 


3? 


^An^Liv-. iSlAitt/^ft. Jjinrlj 





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































S-SHOTS ATTEMPTED 



8- BASKETS MADE 



FORM J 
Practice Shot Form 



124 THE PLAYER ANALYZES HIS OWN GAME 

varsity players. After a thirty-minute talk, a coach can tell 
whether or not they have a chance. If a player has reasonable 
ability, it depends largely on how much he wants to sacrifice 
and specialize to be a good competitive player. 

Coaches may guide, counsel, and aid them but to get to the 
top, the players themselves must assume the major responsi- 
bility. 

One way to practice constructively after techniques are 
learned is to scout or analyze one's own game. For example, 
in practice shooting keep a daily or weekly chart as illustrated 
in Form J, page 123. By recording the number of attempts 
and goals from various areas and for the various types of shots, 
a player soon learns his proficiency and how best to spend his 
time to improve. 

If scout reports are kept in scrimmages and games, a player 
should be given access to the findings so that he may know his 
ability and achievement. He can then work accordingly to 
improve. Our charts are scrutinized carefully by players 
after scrimmages and games and great interest is shown by 
each player regarding his achievement. This means there will 
be an effort toward improvement in most cases. 

At first, some players do not like to know about their shoot- 
ing percentages and other records. Just as baseball players 
are conscious of their batting averages, so some basketball 
players feel that knowing their records makes them too con- 
scious of the percentage factor and causes them to "tense up" 
in scrimmages or games. However, after becoming accus- 
tomed to the idea, all players seem to like it. Players must 
adjust themselves to it eventually because the basketball shoot- 
ing averages are now public knowledge just as batting averages 
are in baseball. 

It has been the author's custom to make up a season report 
on each player at the end of the year. An example of this is 
found in Form G, page 36. In light of these findings, sug- 
gestions are made to each player that he may use to improve 



THE PLAYER ANALYZES HIS OWN GAME 125 

his game during the off-season and a prescribed program is 
outlined for. him. After a season under this plan, players 
eagerly come into the office to receive their report each Spring. 
Of course, keeping proper records is basic to this plan. 

Individual rating scales may be of great value to the player. 
An example is offered on Form K, page 126. Self- analysis 
and rating by the player is also strongly recommended. This 
brings his rating to the player in the most meaningful way 
and he may work accordingly. Coaches, of course, may also 
use these scales as an aid in the selection of squad and team and 
for instructional purposes. Often the player's rating and the 
coach's rating may be combined, with a conference resulting. 
A constructive plan for player improvement may follow. 

It must constantly be kept in mind by the coach that each 
player is different. Practice sessions in which all players re- 
ceive exactly the same type of instruction should be minimized. 
On the basis of the player's rating, a program should be pre- 
scribed that will fit his particular needs. 

The. rating scale offered in Form K is not claimed to be 
technically valid. The twenty-five factors are not weighed 
as to importance and everyone may not agree that these are 
the proper or total factors which make up the successful 
player. It does include, however, the generally accepted fac- 
tors. By receiving a mark of four in each factor, a player 
could score one hundred on the rating. If a player's score 
falls below three in any factor, real effort should be made to 
improve this skill. It will be noted that it is impossible for 
the player to improve some of the factors listed. For example, 
a small player cannot help his size. This means he will need 
to work harder on the other points to make up for this handi- 
cap. A player can, however, improve on most factors, both 
objective and subjective. The data from this survey will aid 
the individual player in improving the objective factors by 
establishing standards that indicate good or bad performance. 

Subjective factors may also be improved if the player will 



avnos no 9Nuvy 
nvnaiAiaNi 


15 
































3MO0S "IV101 


ft 
































Ainiav ivanivN 


*> 
































cnina e azis 


"*. 
































AvHd «00"1J 9 

SNiiino a3doad 


"0 
































SS3N1M3TV 


* 
































30N39m3J.NI 


«i 
































3aniuiv nviN3w 


*> 
































9NINIVU1 
NOUiaNOO 


•J 
































3«u asaND Ain 

-I8V 3AUI13dWOO 


") 
































SS3N3AISS3M99V 


<* 
































3Aiaa lanoo 

NO 033dS 


*) 
































snvxN3wvaNnj 

JO NOIltfOllddV 


> 
































>iaoM aavoa 

-X9V9 3AISN3J30 


"> 
































xaoM aavoa 

-XOVB 3AISN3JJ0 


*0 
































3SN3J30 

nvnaiAiaNi 


") 
































3SN3JJ0 

nvnaiAiaNi 


■n 
































SMOUHX 332J3 


*> 
































S10HS 9N0T 


% 
































siohs V3av inod 


V. 
































S10HS laOHS 


«* 
































9Ni>imvh ~nva 


"J 
































9NH0NVH TIV8 


*> 
































NOIJ.OV iSiaM 


* 
































9NISSVd 


°> 
































9Nnaaiaa 


*) 
































xaoMiooj 

3AISN3J30 


«K 
































xao/vuooj 

3AISN3JJ0 


«1 
































SCALE 

L VERY POOR 

2. FAIR 

3. ABOVE AVERAGE 
4 EXCELLENT 

NAME 


^ 


5> 































<l3 5-4 



126 



THE PLAYER ANALYZES HIS OWN GAME 127 

analyze himself carefully. For example, many players have 
developed skills to a high degree but because of a poor mental 
attitude, are unable to excel in competition. Worry about 
being "off one's game," consciousness of spectators, lack of 
confidence, the wrong attitude toward the coach or other 
players, fear of being taken out of the game for mistakes, and 
what people or the newspapers say, are only a few of the exam- 
ples that keep players from performing to the best of their 
ability. 

Players may get help in analyzing their game by asking 
teammates for their opinions about both the objective and sub- 
jective factors. The intelligent player is one who is willing 
to help his teammates and, in turn, to be helped by them. 

Still another aid is the use of moving pictures. If a movie 
camera is available, pictures of players in action executing the 
various skills will be invaluable. Coaches will also find it 
valuable to take moving pictures of games when possible. 
There is no better aid in individual instruction than a picture 
that will show the player exactly how he performs. 

Generally speaking, then, the successful player must (1) 
be willing to make any sacrifice that is necessary to be in 
fine physical condition, (2) have the proper mental attitude 
toward the game, ( 3 ) have determination and confidence that 
he can succeed, (4) constantly analyze his game by keeping 
careful records, ( 5 ) try to improve on the basis of these find- 
ings after consultation with the coach. He should also make 
it a habit to go into the coach's office often to talk things over. 
This is helpful to both player and coach. 



c 



Chapter 12 
Scouting the Officials 

(See photo, The Basketball Official, 
in illustrated section.) 



fOACHES AND OTHER BASKETBALL AUTHORITIES AGREE 

that, because so much is left to the judgment of the official, 
basketball is the most difficult of all games to officiate. The 
records show that the average team commits fifteen to twenty 
personal fouls during a game. At least, the officials call that 
many. For both teams that makes a total of thirty to forty 
decisions on personal fouls alone. If we add to this violations, 
out-of-bounds decisions, held balls, and technical fouls it is 
reasonable to assume that basketball officials have at least 
seventy-five decisions to make during the progress of a forty- 
minute game. Each of these decisions may vitally affect the 
game and a team's chances to win. Basketball officials are 
usually part-time workers; officiating is a side-line for them. 
For this reason, comparatively few of them make a thorough 
study of the game. It therefore falls upon the coach, the only 
person spending the major portion of his time working at the 
game, to help in problems of officiating. Again, this book 
does not deal with playing or officiating techniques, but rather 
with facts derived from studying and analyzing the game, 
which may lead to improvement in all its phases. 

There are certain significant results which should concern 
the official. It has been pointed out that the home team wins 
63 percent of its games. This in itself is, of course, not the 
fault or concern of the official, except for the contributing 
factors. For example, personal fouls are called much more 
frequently on the visiting team than they are on the home 

128 



SCOUTING THE OFFICIALS 129 

team. Even more serious is the fact that violations are called 
more frequently on the visiting team than on the home team. 
Many times, of course, this is proper and it is admitted that 
no two games, or even parts of games, are the same. How- 
ever, the results in regard to these two factors are too con- 
sistent to be overlooked. Other data are available that show 
numerous instances where the same officials, working several 
games in which the same teams participated, called more fouls 
and violations on the visiting team than on the home team. 
Also, more players on visiting teams are put out of games on 
fouls than are members of home teams. 

Indications are that there is a tendency for the official un- 
consciously to favor the home team. This is not because the 
official is dishonest or unethical; it is because he is under the 
same pressure that confronts a judge or jury trying a case in 
a community where local feelings and prejudices run high. 
This situation may partially be eliminated by engaging offi- 
cials from an outside area who have no interests of any kind 
in the community where the game is played. It has also 
been suggested that officials be trained, recommended, and as- 
signed by a neutral, central bureau representing the Confer- 
ence or Association under whose auspices the teams are play- 
ing. Scouting the official is another way to help the officiating 
problem. If it is fair to measure the achievement of a basket- 
ball player during a game by analyzing his performance, why 
is it not equally fair to do the same to the official? Data 
gathered in this manner will soon point out which officials are 
inclined to work games without being influenced by local pres- 
sure, which ones yield to this pressure, and which ones do or 
do not have the general ability to officiate. 

The suggested procedure is as follows: Assign an observer to 
each official through one entire game and chart the official on 
the number of personal fouls and violations that he calls on 
each team during the game. The results are then totaled for 
the entire game. If records of this kind are kept on every 



130 SCOUTING THE OFFICIALS 



DATE. 



TEAM "A" (Visitors) Score 

TEAM "B" (Home) Score 

OFFICIALS "C" "D" PLACE. 



Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 


Yes 


No 



I. ANALYSIS OF OFFICIAL'S WORK: (In checking "Yes" 
or "No" column use either "C" or "D," or both.) 

Satisfactory 

A. Subjective 

1. Prompt Appearance for Game 

2. Physical Condition 

3. Professional Poise 

4. Speed in Action 

5. Prompt and Decisive Judgment 
Calling Plays 

6. Judgment in General 

7. Assumed Equal Responsibility 

Calling Plays Yes No 

8. A Spirit of Comradeship rather 

than Hostility Yes No_ 

9. Assumed Complete Command of 

Game Yes No 

10. Official Combination and Team 

Work Yes No 

11. 1947-8 Rule Interpretation Calls Yes No 

B. Objective 

1. Personal Fouls Called on Home Team 

2. Personal Fouls Called on Visiting Team 

3. Violations Called on Home Team 

4. Violations Called on Visiting Team 

5- Held Balls called on Both Teams 

REMARKS: (State briefly conditions which prompt you to 
check column "NO.") 

II. CONDITIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS WHICH 
AROSE IN THIS GAME THAT CALL FOR SPECIAL 
ATTENTION FOR OUR NEXT MEETING: 

Signature of Coach. 



Signature of Athletic Director. 



FORM L 
Report on Officials 



SCOUTING THE OFFICIALS 131 

game that an official works throughout the season, some indi- 
cation of his ability will be insured. The measurements for a 
large number of games, or a comparison of data on the same 
official working with the same teams playing at home and 
away, will be of some value. 

In addition to objective data there should be subjective ob- 
servations, and they must be made by an expert. The com- 
missioner of officials usually does this in college conferences. 
If there is no commissioner, the officials' associations should 
send out men to scout officials. Subjective observations should 
include the appearance, physical condition, and professional 
poise of the official, his judgment and responsibility in calling 
plays, and his attitude toward players, spectators and coaches. 

A composite report of all of the data should be recorded and 
sent in to the official's association or the commissioner's office, 
whichever may be the central bureau. This report may be 
sent in on a form similar to Form L, page 130. This particu- 
lar form, with some modifications, has been used in the Pacific 
Coast Conference. 

It is hoped that these suggestions on the scouting of officials 
will be of some help to the officials themselves and a means of 
improving the entire officiating problem. 

Officials may also be aided through their commissioners. 
These men are appointed for conferences or leagues and should 
be qualified to observe, train, appoint and assign officials. 
Standard interpretations of rules will also be a great aid to the 
officials, particularly in intersectional play. Moving pictures 
of officials in action, as well as of rule interpretations will also 
be helpful. Clinics and demonstrations are still other pos- 
sibilities which should be utilized. Lastly, bringing records 
kept during games to the official's attention, as we do in the 
case of players, will help him and will tend to eliminate the 
weaker officials. At best, basketball will always be a difficult 
game to officiate. Improvement depends on cooperation be- 
tween officials, coaches, players, and spectators. 



132 SCOUTING THE OFFICIALS 

Officials have an opportunity to aid the game by their con- 
duct on the court. Decisions should be made promptly and 
clearly, but the official who is an exhibitionist has no place in 
basketball. The game is for the players, and officials should 
stay in the background as much as possible. Also, their man- 
ner should not have a tendency to antagonize players or spec- 
tators. The official who knows the rules and their interpreta- 
tions thoroughly, who is in the physical condition his duties 
require, and who has the professional dignity and poise to 
carry out his assignment efficiently but without showmanship, 
will do much to improve basketball. Coaches should make 
an effort to train young officials by using them during scrim- 
mages. Officiating should also be included in physical educa- 
tion courses that include basketball. 



Chapter 13 

Box Score for Sportswriters — 
Improved Score Book 



I 



T HAS ALREADY BEEN STATED THAT BASKETBALL IS PLAYED 

by some twenty million and watched by more than one hun- 
dred million people each year. This interest indicates that 
there must be a correspondingly large number of people who 
read about the games in the newspapers. Sportswriters and 
reporters, therefore, should seek to report as many interesting 
facts of the game as possible. In baseball, for example, the 
score of the game and the number of runs each player scores 
is not all that is reported to the public. A rather elaborate box 
score is included and it is followed by a summary giving most 
of the available facts about the game. Similar information is 
available in basketball, so why not follow the same procedure? 

Admittedly, it would be too complicated for a reporter to 
record all of the details that are included in a scout report. 
However, a simplified record with the most important statis- 
tics could easily be kept in a score book similar to the one 
described in Form M on page 134. 

It will be noticed that this model form includes all available 
information now kept in the ordinary score book. It adds to 
this field-goal attempts, recoveries, and losses-of -balls. From 
this information, individual player and team percentages and 
averages may easily be computed and recorded. In this man- 
ner, season records for players and teams may easily be kept 
the same as in baseball. 

133 



go 






i* 




<is 




> 




i-a. 










(A 








Ul 










if) 

(A 
O 


\ 




•Y 




_l 










</> 








Ul 










tc 


_ 








Ul 


^ 




> 




> 
o 


s 




^ 




o 










Id 










o: 










(A 










* 










O 
GE 


s 






N 


X 


^ 




.1 


*>» 


1- 


X 




w> 


•>* 


Ul 






•s 




UJ 

tc 


X 








U. 


~* 


















(0 


X 








_l 










< 






<i 


<n 


o 
o 


X 




m 




o 


-w 




^ 




_1 






^-s 




UJ 


>c 








u. 


"*■ 








6 

z 


v> 




(fl 










cri 
o 
a. 


v^ 




_l 
< 

o 

1- 


O 




^ 




a: 

Ul 


c 




Ul 

z 


a. 


>- 


^c 




< 




< 


V 




o 




_i 










a. 










w 


\ 








_i 


01 








o 
u. 


* 










►- 




3 




o 




(/> 




Ul 




z 








1- 





m m • 

M « • 

- » r- 



— » 



5° 
3 O 
(E Crt 



134 



BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 135 

Explanation of Form M 

This is an example of a page of a score book for one team. The 
heading at the top, the running score and times out entries at the bot- 
tom are self-explanatory. Explanation of the columns is as follows: 
Column 1 — Fouls: Pi — first personal foul 
P2 — second personal foul 
2 — Player: This indicates the player's name. 
" 3 — Pos.: Position 
" 4 — No.: Player's jersey number 

5 — Field Goals: This column includes field -goal attempts 
and field goals scored. A vertical line indi- 
cates a field-goal attempt and an X indicates 
a field goal scored. 
6 — Free Throws: This column includes free-throw at- 
tempts and free throws made. Again a free- 
throw attempt is a vertical line and an X is 
a free throw made. 
7 — Recoveries: Includes offensive and defensive rebounds, 
interceptions and retrieved jump balls, A 
vertical line indicates a recovery. 
8 — Losses: This column includes losses-of-ball by bad 
passes, violations, or poor ball handling. A 
vertical line indicates a loss. 
9 — Total Points: Total points are equal to the number of 
field goals made (2 points each) plus the 
number of successful free throws (1 point 
each) . 
Game totals are merely the addition of each column. 
In the totals under "field goals" and "free throws" the first num- 
ber indicates the attempts and the second number indicates the bas- 
kets made or scored; percentages are arrived at by dividing the num- 
ber of baskets made or scored by the number of attempts. 

Note: Diagonal line divides game into two halves. Everything on 
left of diagonal line is first half; everything on right of diagonal line 
is second half. 

From the data accumulated in this type of score book, a box- 
score summary suitable for use in the newspapers could easily 
be made. An example is given in Form O on page 138. This 



136 



BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 



summary gives the reader at a glance the important statistics 
on each player during the progress of the game as well as team 
totals and percentages. If this type of box score requires too 



Name 


Fouls 


FG 


FT 


Rec. 


LB 


TP 


Nelson 


3 


10-3 


8-3 


7 


5 


9 












































TOTAL 


15 


65-22 


18-10 


64 


21 


54 


Pet. 




.338 


•555 









FORM N 
Basketball Summary — Box Score 



BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 137 

Explanation of Form N 

This summary, or box score, is, of course, taken from the score 
book. It gives a total for each player and for the team. The ex- 
planation of the columns is as follows: 
Column 1 — Name of player 

2 — Fouls: This includes the total number of personal 
fouls called on the player during the entire 
game. It also includes technical fouls which 
would be indicated by T 1 , T 2 , etc. in Form M. 
3 — F.G.: Field-goal attempts and field goals. For ex- 
ample, 10-3 means 10 field-goal attempts and 
3 field goals. 
4 — F.T.: Free-throw attempts and goals. For example, 
8-3 means 8 free-throw attempts and 3 free- 
throw goals. 
5 — Rec: Total recoveries 
6—L.B.: Total loss-of-ball 
7 — T.P.: Total points 
The totals at the bottom are, of course, the team totals and again 
the percentages are arrived at by dividing the number of goals by 
the number of attempts. 

many columns, a summary may be used at the bottom, as is 
done in baseball. This summary might include the personal 
fouls, and if necessary, the recoveries and losses, eliminating 
those columns from the box score proper. 

This simplified plan is suggested as a start toward reporting 
the most essential game information. In some cases there may 
be a demand for more detailed information, as has been the 
case in baseball. It is possible that reporters who care to keep 
detailed statistics might include a summary of such things as 
offensive rebounds, defensive rebounds, violations, bad passes, 
ball-handling losses, interceptions, jump-ball recoveries, bas- 
kets responsible for, and assists. All but the latter two may 
be objectively recorded. A complete summary using abbrevi- 
ations no more complicated or detailed than is commonly used 
in baseball would be possible. Again, it should be stressed 



138 



BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 



that this latter, more complicated plan is only necessary for 
those who desire complete information. As the public be- 
comes more familiar with this type of reporting the demand 
for additional details will follow. 

The Running Score 

It will be noted in Form A on page 14 that the complete 
scout report includes an elaborate running score. This type 
of running score was not included in the improved score book, 
Form M on page 134, because it would be impossible for one 
person to keep this type along with all the other scoring rec- 
ords. However, the values of the complete running score are 
so great that it would be well to have one person devote his 
time to keeping it on a separate form. A very complete run- 
ning score plan is given below to show the possibilities. 























RUNNING 


SCORE 








SCORE 


1 


^ 


3 


/ 


<* 


M 


1 


8 


y 


10 


yi 


yt 


13 


* 


15 


yd 


vr 


18 


yt 


20 


PLAYER SCORING 




// 




II 


7 


li 


i 




? 




7 


ii 




6 




7 


il 




il 




TIME OF SCORE 




ML 




1! 


n 


m 


it. 




is\ 




15 


N!i 




/V 




IZ 


ill 




IO 




TYPE OF SHOT LOCATION 




I-L 




l-L 










3-C 




i-C 






IR 




IR. 






l< 















































FORM O 

Complete Running Score 

SCORE Box: Draw a diagonal line through proper number each time 
score is made. This shows the exact score of both teams at all times 
during the game. 

PLAYER SCORING Box: Place the jersey number of the player 
scoring the goal directly beneath the score number. This furnishes 
very valuable information since it shows which players are consistent 
and which ones have "cold" streaks. It also gives information for 
reporting the game so that players will be given proper credit for 
making important goals. 

TIME OF SCORE Box: Starting with twenty minutes and going to 
zero, each time a goal is scored, place the remaining time to the near- 
est quarter minute directly under the score number. This provides 
extremely valuable information as to when a team or player has long 



BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 139 

periods without scoring. This may involve a fatigue element. It 
also makes it possible to compare the exact scores of both teams at 
any time during the game. This is important information for 
sportswriters. 

LOCATION— TYPE OF SHOT Box: 

For location of shot: 

1 — short shot (cripple) out to twelve feet from basket. 

2 — foul area shot; from twelve to twenty-four feet from basket. 

3 — long shots; beyond twenty-four feet. 
For type of shot: 

L — left-hand shot 

R — right-hand shot 

C — chest shot 

U — underhand shot 

H — hook shot 

O — overhead shot 
Example — 1-R would indicate short shot right hand. 

The information in this box will aid coaches and sportswriters. It 
will give the type of shot and the location on the court from which 
each goal is made. This makes it possible to describe a game much 
more vividly and, of course, will aid coaches in instructional work. 

Scoring Rules for Basketball 

Scoring rules for basketball should be as complete as they are 
in baseball. The following rules were drawn up by the au- 
thor at the request of the National Collegiate Athletic Associa- 
tion with the assistance of Mr. Homer Cooke of the N.C.A.A. 
Bureau. The rules now have the approval of that bureau. 
The rules submitted have been used in the 460 game survey, 
although "assists" and "points-responsible-for" were not in- 
cluded. Some of the rules were given in Chapter 3 in de- 
scribing scouting methods. The complete list is given here 
with approved rulings and recorders are urged to use them 
so that consistency and standardization may be achieved. 
Approved rulings are cases in point that are a part of all 
official rules. 



140 BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 

Section 1 — Field-Goal Attempts: 

Article 1: An attempt shall be charged to a player any time he 
shoots, throws or taps the ball at the basket, when, in the opinion of 
the scorer, he is attempting to score a goal, except when he is fouled 
in the act of shooting and the goal is not made. 

Article 2: Tip ups shall count as field-goal attempts, because the 
player tips the ball with the intention of scoring a goal. 

Article 3: Blocked shots shall count as field-goal attempts. The 
player whose shot is blocked is attempting to score a field goal. 
Question: Team A Player, while shooting, is fouled by Team B 
Player and goal is made. Is this a field-goal attempt? 
Answer: Yes. Since a goal was made, an attempt must be charged. 
If the goal was not made, no attempt would be charged. 
Question: Team A Player shoots but fouls Team B Player by 
charging after the ball leaves his hands. Is this a field goal at- 
tempt? 

Answer: Yes, as goal, if scored, would count in this case. If foul 
were called before ball left shooter's hands, ball would be dead 
before shot and no field-goal attempt would be charged. 

Section 2 — Rebounds: 

Article 1 : A rebound is credited to a player or team each time the 
ball is retrieved after a field-goal attempt or free-throw attempt is 
missed. A rebound must be credited following each unsuccessful 
goal attempt, except when ball is dead following free-throw attempts. 
Article 2: A team rebound is credited to the team that the ball 
is awarded to when a goal attempt goes out-of-bounds (a) without 
being touched by a player (b) is deflected out-of-bounds before 
there is possession (c) a free-throw attempt misses the rim and is 
awarded by official to opponent out-of-bounds. 

Question: Team A Player and Team B Player retrieve rebound 
simultaneously and held ball is called. Who is credited with re- 
bound? 

Answer: If neither player had clear possession prior to the held 
ball, credit player whose team retrieves the jump ball. For exam- 
ple, if Team A Player tips jump ball and it is retrieved by his team, 
credit Team A Player with the rebound. 

Question: Team A Player does not catch rebound but tips it out 
to a teammate. Is he credited with a rebound? 
Answer: Yes, if the ball goes to a member of Team A. However, 
if it goes to Team B Player, the latter is credited with the rebound. 



BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 141 

Section 3 — Recoveries (Other Than Goals or Rebounds) : 

Article 1: The ball changes from one team's possession to the op- 
ponent's in one of the following ways: 

1. Following opponent's successful goals. 

2. Defensive rebounds. 

3. Interceptions. 

4. Jump balls (when ball is retrieved by team not originally in 
possession) . 

5. Violations. 

6. Offensive personal fouls. 

7. Technical fouls on offensive team. 

8. Declined free throws by the defensive team. 

9. Double foul where original possessor loses following tip-off. 
Goals and rebounds are covered elsewhere. Credit other recoveries 

in cases covered by the following articles. 

Article 2: Interceptions: 

An interception occurs each time a player or team takes the ball 
away from the opponent. Examples are intercepted pass; taking the 
ball from an opponent's hands; stealing the ball on a dribble. 

Question: Team A Player has ball and Team B Player ties it up 

causing a held ball. Is this an interception? 

Answer: Credit Team B Player with recovery if his team retrieves 

the jump ball. If not, there is no change of possession and no re- 
covery is credited. 

Question: Team A Player makes a bad pass that goes out-of- 
bounds and ball is awarded to Team B. Is this an interception? 

Answer: Yes. Credit B with a Team recovery as the ball changed 

possession. 

Article 3: Jump Balls: 

A jump-ball recovery is credited each time the ball is tossed be- 
tween two players and a player's team gains possession. This in- 
cludes tip-offs. Credit the recovery to the player retrieving the ball. 

Question: On a jump ball Player A taps the ball out of bounds and 

it is awarded to Team B. Is a recovery credited? 

Answer: Yes. Credit a Team jump-ball recovery to Team B as 

that team gained possession. 

Article 4: Fouls: 

When ball changes possession due to an offensive foul or declined 
free throw, credit a recovery to the player who was fouled. In case 
of a technical foul by offense where no individual player is fouled, 



142 BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 

credit a recovery to the team that is fouled. If double foul is called 
and jump-ball that follows causes a change in team possession, credit 
a recovery to team retrieving ball. 

Section 4 — Losses: 

Article 1: A player or team loses the ball in one of the following 
ways: 

1. Scoring a goal. 

2. Losing a rebound to defensive team. 

3. Bad pass or poor ball-handling resulting in interception by 
opponents. 

4. Violations. 

5. Allowing ball to be tied up and losing resulting jump ball. 

6. Committing an offensive foul — personal or technical. 

Goals and rebounds are covered elsewhere. Charge other losses 

each time a player or team is responsible for the opponent gaining 

possession of the ball. Such cases are: 

Article 2: When a player in possession loses ball to opponents due 

to bad pass, poor ball-handling or dribbling, or due to a violation, 

charge the player or team with a loss. 

Question: Team A Player has ball and withholds it from play or 

allows Team B Player to tie it up causing held ball. Is a loss 

charged? 

Answer: If held ball results in possession by Team B, charge Team 

A Player with a loss. Otherwise no loss is charged as ball did not 

change possession. 

Question: Team A Player is dribbling and Team B Player slaps ball 

out-of-bounds. Is Team B Player charged with a loss? 

Answer: No. Team B Player did not have possession and ball did 

not change team possession. Had Team B Player caught the ball 

and then fumbled or slapped it out-of-bounds, he would be charged 

with a loss. 

Article 3: Charge a loss each time an offensive player commits a 

personal or technical foul as this always involves loss of ball. 

Section 5 — Assists: 

Article 1 : Credit a player with an assist each time he makes, in the 
scorer's judgment, the major contributing pass to a field goal. Fur- 
ther, only one assist is to be credited for each field goal and only 
when it is primarily responsible for that goal. 



BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 143 

Question: Team A Player retrieves defensive rebound, dribbles to 

side and passes to teammate in mid-court. Latter could have 

scored but passes to another teammate who scores the goal. Who 

gets the assist? 

Answer: Major contribution was probably made by first passer in 

this case. The last pass before goal is scored is usually but not 

always the assisting pass. 

Question: When player scoring has dribbled in for the goal may 

an assist be credited to a teammate? 

Answer: Yes. If there was an important pass that led to the 

dribble and goal, credit an assist to the passer. 

Section 6 — Points-Responsible-for: 

FORWARD 

Careful judgement must be exercised by the scorer to be sure a 
defensive player is not unjustly charged with points an opponent 
scores. Even in assigned man-to-man defense it is necessary to change 
men due to screens or for other reasons. "While it is desirable to 
place defensive responsibility for all points scored, individual players 
must not be penalized where there is serious doubt. 

Article 1: Each time a point or points are scored, charge the op- 
posing player or team with those points. If responsibility cannot 
be charged to an individual player, charge the points to the team. 

In placing responsibility for field-goal scores, place the responsi- 
bility on the player who has or should have the responsibility at that 
particular time. 

Free-throw scores are always charged to the player committing the 
foul. 

Question: Player A goes in for offensive rebound and his opponent 
beats him back and scores field goal. Is Player A charged with 
the points? 

Answer: No. If teammate took over his assignment as he should, 
the teammate would be responsible. If no one took over and if 
Player A had no reasonable chance to recover, charge responsibility 
to Team. 

Question: Defensive Player A jumps at opponent and allows op- 
ponent to drive around him and score field goal. Teammate tries 
to take over but is too late. Who is responsible? 
Answer: Charge Player A who made the major mistake in this 
case. Had Player A been unavoidably screened and teammate did 
not properly take over, the latter would have been responsible. 



144 BOX SCORE AND AN IMPROVED SCORE BOOK 

Question: Team A uses a zone defense. Can responsibility be 
charged to individual defensive players in this case? 
Answer: Yes. Just as definitely as in man-to-man. Charge re- 
sponsibility to player who is guarding or should be guarding 
shooter in that area. Also penalize zone defensive players who 
commit fundamental man to man defensive errors that lead to- 
scores. 

Errors are not included in the rules submitted. A sug- 
gested definition is: An error shall be charged to a player each 
time he commits: 

1 . A personal foul 

2. A technical foul 

3. A violation 

4. Causes his team to lose the ball in any other manner than, 
in a try for a goal. 

Sportswriters are in agreement that a reasonable amount of 
this type of data will be helpful in writing interesting but 
impartial stories on the games. 

As a case in point, there was a game in Madison Square 
Garden in which a certain highly publicized player scored 
twelve points, although the defense against him was very 
strong. Because of the twelve points most of the press reports 
were very flattering to the player. He accounted for the 
twelve points by scoring four free -throw goals and four field 
goals. The game chart showed that the player took thirty- 
two shots in order to get the four field goals, giving him an 
average of .125. Actually, his shooting performance was the 
poorest of any player on the court that night. Therefore the 
press report of this particular game was misleading — it did 
not tell the whole story. Many times the star rebounder, for 
example, receives little recognition because there is no evidence 
of his work. 

The suggestions made in this chapter should help to elimi- 
nate guess work and give reporters and sportswriters more 
concrete information on which to base their stories. 



Chapter 14 
The Spectator — Watching the Game 

XTLlGH SPEED AND FREQUENT SCORING PRODUCE THRILLS 

in basketball that are not found in many other games. How- 
ever, partly because basketball is a comparatively new game, 
and partly because complete statistical reports have not always 
been available to the public, the average spectator has a limited 
knowledge of the sport. As a result, many who watch bas- 
ketball games are unaware of many of the things that they 
should look for to make the game more interesting and mean- 
ingful to them. 

Spectators watch a game for different reasons and therefore 
react differently during the game. Some watch because their 
school team is playing and they feel a responsibility to support 
the team; others watch a game because a friend or relative is 
playing on one of the teams; still others attend because they 
are interested in basketball as a sport. The last group prob- 
ably includes many who have played the game. A fourth 
group includes those who are professionally interested, such as 
players, coaches and scouts. 

Regardless of a spectator's purpose, the information and 
suggestions furnished in this chapter may in some measure 
give him a more intelligent understanding of the game. 

Most coaches watch between one hundred and one hundred 
and fifty basketball games each season. In watching these 
games they look particularly for certain things, depending on 
their interest. If the coach's own team is playing, he of 
course attempts to analyze both individual and team play. 

145 



146 THE SPECTATOR WATCHING THE GAME 

He knows the individual assignments and the plan that has 
been outlined for the team and his main interests are whether 
these are being carried out, and whether they are successful 
against the opponent. Many coaches follow an individual 
player constantly through several minutes of the game to see 
how he is performing. In other words, coaches analyze all 
phases of the game when their team is playing. 

In watching a game where future opponents are playing, a 
scout's analysis, as described in the earlier chapters, should be 
the observer's intention. 

Many times, coaches of college or professional teams watch 
games for the purpose of scouting new material. In these 
games there is a different interest. Here the coach looks for 
potential ability such as speed, aggressiveness, competitive abil- 
ity, coordination, skill, size, and similar attributes. These 
observers are not greatly interested in analyzing team play 
and individual assignments. 

It has been observed that when watching the game for one 
of these professional purposes there is seldom reason for, or 
evidence of, the observer screaming, screeching, and shouting 
as the game progresses. When a person allows himself to be 
"taken away" by the game and becomes a rooter, he ceases to 
be an analytical coach or scout. 

Players often watch games in order to learn and to improve 
their own techniques. In such cases they are seldom strong 
rooters. Players analyze the game with a concentration and 
interest similar to those of a coach or scout. 

The average spectator is not expected to watch a basketball 
game with the sole purpose of making a complete analysis of 
it. For this reason, he cannot be expected to react quite like 
an experienced scout, coach, or player. The point should be 
made, however, that the greater the spectator's knowledge of 
the game, the more intelligently he will be able to watch it 
and control his reactions. It is not our intention to discour- 
age or take away the spectator's joy in rooting for their fa- 



THE SPECTATOR WATCHING t he GAME 147 

vorite team. It is desirable, however, that spectators be able 
to control themselves properly at the games and a greater 
understanding of the game will aid in this. 

The observations made at a high school tournament will 
illustrate this point. Two very prejudiced rooting sections, 
one on each side of the court, comprised most of the attend- 
ance. It was obvious that the majority of the rooters had 
very little knowledge and understanding of the game. Their 
interest, of course, was to see their favorite team win. Con- 
stant bedlam and uproar started with the first whistle and 
lasted throughout the game. As a result, the players received 
undue and unjust criticism. Coaches were also criticized and 
in the spectators' opinion the officials were seldom right be- 
cause each decision had to go against one team or the other. 
At times, spectators of this type reach a stage of hysteria which 
is undesirable for all concerned. Of course, there were a few 
spectators who apparently went merely to see the "spectacle" 
and sat passively, waiting for the end. They are comparable 
to the lady who courteously accompanied her baseball-minded 
husband to a game. She sat quietly through seven innings. 
Then the pitcher beaned the batter, at which point, rejoic- 
ingly, the lady jumped to her feet, exclaiming, "Good, now 
let's go home; he's hit him at last." 

Greater knowledge will lessen the nervous strain, anxiety, 
and superstitions often apparent in the rooters' sections during 
ball games. Spectators should know what to expect from 
players, teams, and officials so that they will not hope for the 
impossible. 

In baseball many spectators keep the score during the prog- 
ress of the game. Since basketball programs are now used 
extensively, they should include an arrangement for keeping 
the score as illustrated in Form P on page 148. This might 
well include an individual chart, see Form E, page 30. This 
would make it possible to chart the performances of your fa- 
vorite player during the game. The same form could be used 



148 



THE SPECTATOR WATCHING THE GAME 



NAME 


NO. 


POS. 


AGE 


HT. 


WT 


FIELD 
GOALS 


FREE 
THROWS 


PER. 
FOULS 


TOTAL 
POINTS 


Na^^t^uJ^jtft^S.^ 


// 


F 


<=?/ 


b V" 


t9o 










* * 


/(, 


F 


f 


6> r 3" 


/gs~ 










* f^^ts, 9T 


if 


c 


JO 


b's" 


/<?s 










/C> &~*una-rU ' \7- 


// 


<? 


at 


S'//" 


iss- 












/A 


& 


3S 


S '/o " 


I7S- 












7 


F 


/9 


(,' 


/ST 










1/ ' 


/4 


F 


J* 


6'/' 


//J 












9 


F 


A/ 


(,' 


/70 










/l<A^t£/isiji, . <7 


J- 


c 




b'S" 


J./O 










'J?U^u3u<z£&~<,.VJ. 


3 


F 


/? 


6 7" 


>7? 














FIRST HALF SCORE FINAL SCORE 


NAME 


NO. 


POS. 


AGE 


HT 


WT 


FIELD 
GOALS 


FREE 
THROWS 


PER. 
FOULS 


TOTAL 
POINTS 


c*A-<*e£(Us . J 


/ 


F 


19 


b'j" 


fgS 










Ch<*£eAs4-emsJ f\ 


// 


F 


/9 


G's* 


170 










CUr-^uu , & 


9 


c 


40 


b'S' 


/f* 










V if ' 


& 


$ 


J/0 


S'f 


/bJ 










r^asc&rJz, t S 


7 


<f 


£.0 


S '/o " 


J 70 










Or/L&-<X*As»U Q 


s 


cf 


'9 


Cl" 


/gs- 










sLQ~c£*Lesvnst-t~~- -JT 


>4 


F 


AO 


b' 


/<?3 










f ' 
(yascJi^tn*; .CX 


ts 


<? 


Jl 


S"/o" 


/<9o 












4 


c 


£/ 


b~V 


iro 










£7 • 


/o 


F 


// 


5' ll" 


/bo 











FIRST HALF SCORE 



T INDICATES PROBABLE STARTING PLAYER 
USE VERTICAL LINE FOR FIELD-GOAL ATTEMPT 
USE X FOR FIELD GOAL SCORED 



FINAL SCORE 

USE O FOR FREE-THROW ATTEMPT 
USE® FOR FREE THROW SCORED 
USE PI, P2 ETC. FOR PERSONAL FOUL 



FORM P 
Basketball Program for Spectators 



THE SPECTATOR WATCHING THE GAME 149 

to chart an entire team, if so desired. Plans of this kind will 
develop a more meaningful spectator interest. 

Teachers of basketball could greatly aid spectators by giving 
clinics, talks, and demonstrations of various kinds for the 
general public. These sessions might include such things as 
interpretations of the rules, demonstrations of fundamentals, 
simple plays, and moving pictures. 

Demonstrations conducted in connection with early season 
games are possible. Talks and showing of basketball films to 
student bodies, service clubs, alumni groups, and other similar 
gatherings, may be very valuable. 

Teachers of physical education courses that include basket- 
ball might well devote part of the course to spectator interest. 

Spectators, of course, can also improve their knowledge of 
the game by reading the rules book and some of the many 
books on the sport (see Chapter 21 for list of suggested read- 
ings). 



Chapter 15 

Conclusions and Interpretations 
on Scouting 



X 



.HE FOLLOWING LIST OF CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETA- 

tions should be of help to coaches, players, officials, sports- 
writers, and spectators, in accordance with their respective 
interests and needs. 

1. Scoring in college basketball is on the increase. The 
present average is approximately fifty-five points per game. 
It was thirty-five points per game in 1937. 

2. Shooting may be measured objectively and averages 
computed. 

* 3. The shooting average for a basketball player in college 
games is approximately .271 or 27 percent. These averages 
show an improvement since 1946 but the peak has probably 
not been reached. 

4. Shooting accuracy lessens as the distance of the shot 
becomes greater. 

* 5. Over one-half of the scoring in basketball is done in 
the short area (within a radius of twelve feet from the basket) . 
The shooting average in this area is .372. This has defensive 
implications for the coach. 

* 6. Results of shooting in the medium area (between a 
radius of twelve and twenty-four feet from the basket) indi- 



* Sections indicated by asterisks are based on averages over a thirteen- 
year period. Trends in recent years may change this figure. Regarding 
most factors the reader is urged to consult carefully all tables, from which 
figures may be taken for any period within the thirteen-year span. 

150 



CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS ON SCOUTING 151 

cate that poor shots are taken in this area. The average is 
only .222. 

* 7. In the long area (beyond a radius of twenty-four feet 
from the basket) shooting has been neglected and should re- 
ceive particular attention. Only 16 percent of the scoring is 
done in this area. The shooting average is only .199. 

* 8. The average team takes sixty-six shots at the basket 
each game and makes eighteen. 

9. One-hand and two-hand shots are equally effective in 
the medium area but the two-hand shot is preferable in the 
long area. 

* 10. Free-throw averages drop from .780 in practice to 
.592 in games. This might easily be improved by minimizing 
the mental and fatigue hazards. 

11. The underhand style of free throw is the most accu- 
rate for most players. However, some of the top free throw- 
ers use other styles. 

* 12. The average team has 17.6 free-throw attempts dur- 
ing the game and makes 10.4. 

* 13. The home team has a distinct advantage. Home 
teams win 63 percent of their games. This is due mainly to 
a better shooting average and fewer losses-of-ball. Since 
other factors are nearly the same it would seem that psycho- 
logical elements are involved. 

* 14. The winning team has a slight advantage over the 
losing team in most phases of the game. However, the dif- 
ference is due mainly to the fact that the winning team has a 
shooting average of .306 as compared to an average of only 
.235 for the loser. The winning team also shoots more fre- 
quently and better in the short area and is more accurate from 
the free-throw line. Generally speaking, shooting accuracy 
can be said to be the main difference between winning and 
losing teams, since there is very little difference in the number 
of attempts. 

15. The average team is actually stronger in the second 



152 CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS ON SCOUTING 

half in field-goal shooting and in retaining possession of the 
ball. This indicates that the game is not too strenuous physi- 
cally. Tension of players in the first half may lessen the ad- 
visability of pre-game "pep talks." Poor shooting in the first 
half may be improved by longer warm-up periods. The fact 
that free-throw accuracy lessens in the second half would 
seem to be due largely to psychological factors. 

16. Shooting accuracy lessens as the competition becomes 
more intense. Therefore, all that can be done to relieve ten- 
sion should be attempted. 

* 17. There are at least 105 rebounds in the average college 
game and next to shooting rebound recoveries are the most 
important fundamental. The number of rebounds may be 
accurately measured during a game and it is valuable to the 
coach to know where the rebound strength lies. 

18. Possession of the ball is worth an average of at least 
one-half point. 

19. Loss-of-ball costs a team an average of one point and 
may cost as much as eight points. 

* 20. Jump balls are relatively few during a game. The 
average is about fifteen. Less time should be spent on this 
phase of the game than on more important ones such as re- 
bounding, shooting, etc. 

21. The penalty for the personal foul is not severe enough. 
A single free throw is worth only one -tenth of one point net 
gain to a team. The penalty should be so severe that the 
player cannot afford to commit a foul. The survey indicates 
that 2 points should be allowed for the free throw. 

22. The tall man (over six feet four inches) does most of 
his scoring close to the basket. Ninety-four percent of his 
scoring is within a radius of twenty-four feet of the basket. 
Enlarging the three-second area and allowing fewer points for 
short shots would tend to lessen the value of the tall man un- 
less he can play all of the game well. Experimentation and 
further research is suggested. 



CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS ON SCOUTING 153 

23. An area-method of scoring is recommended for further 
study since it is more difficult to score from the longer areas. 
This would also help solve the tall man problem and the zone 
defense problem, and would encourage the teaching and use 
of the long shot. It also would add to spectator appeal. 

24. Objective scouting may be done by a trained observer 
but subjective scouting must be done by a basketball expert. 
Many factors in basketball cannot be objectively measured. 
Subjective findings are equally important and should be con- 
sidered as such by the coach. 

25. Complete scout records on players, teams, and oppo- 
nents should be kept each season for future reference. These 
may be obtained from game scout reports. 

26. Officials tend to favor the home team in calling personal 
fouls and violations. Scouting the official is recommended as 
a means of improving the situation. 

27. An improved score book and box score is suggested for 
the use of sportswriters so that they may better report the 
games to the public. 

28. Players may analyze and improve their game through 
the use of fundamental rating charts. 

29. It is possible for spectators to scout their favorite play- 
ers during a game. Greater knowledge may lessen nervous 
strain and anxiety for the spectator. 

30. There is a need for further research in the field of bas- 
ketball, particularly on the secondary school level. 



PART II 



Foreword 



T 

Ihe material contained in the following chapters 
is a brief summary either in outline form or in description of 
the coaching and teaching material contained in my book 
BASKETBALL ILLUSTRATED published by A. S. Barnes 
and Company. 

Part II of this book is intended as a check list for the basket- 
ball coach. It includes a complete outline of the game which 
is divided into three parts, namely (1) individual and group 
fundamentals, (2) team offense and defense, (3) miscellane- 
ous problems and duties of the basketball coach. The outline 
is taken from the author's coaching experience and his basket- 
ball coaching courses. It is hoped that checking over the 
various items in this outline at the beginning of and during 
the season will prove helpful. 

An effort will be made to elaborate upon points covered in 
the second and third parts of the outline. Separate chapters 
are offered on (1) Fast-Break Basketball, (2) The Zone De- 
fense and Attacks Against It, (3) Better Defense, and (4) 
Basketball Material and How to Use It. Particular attention 
is given to basketball strategy. Part II contains 19 diagrams 
of offensive plays, including jump-ball, out-of-bounds and 
fast-break plays as well as plays for attacking both zone and 
man-to-man defense. 



T 

JLh 



Chapter 16 
The Game of Basketball 



PART I— INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP 
FUNDAMENTALS * 



.HE IMPORTANCE OF FUNDAMENTALS CANNOT BE OVER- 

emphasized. All successful teams, over a period of years, are 
well-grounded in all fundamentals. While time spent on this 
phase of the game varies with the experience of the squad, a 
minimum of from three weeks to one month of daily practice 
is usually required before team situations are started. After 
that time, constant review and proper application of funda- 
mentals are necessary. The fundamentals should be taught 
in proper sequence so that one leads to the next. Drills to 
practice and review fundamentals should be used. Funda- 
mentals and drills should be taught in a manner that fits into 
the style of play to be used. 

A. INDIVIDUAL FUNDAMENTALS 
1. Footwork 

a. Starts and stops 

b. The rear pivot, with feet parallel, with right or left foot 
advanced 

c. The front pivot 

d. Side and reverse turns 



* The outline material which follows is from BASKETBALL ILLUS- 
TRATED by Howard A. Hobson, Copyright, 1947, by A. S. Barnes and 
Company, Incorporated; used by permission. 

157 



158 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

e. Defensive footwork: 

(1) Proper stance, position of body, and other tech- 
niques 

(2) Proper method of shifting forward, backward, and 
to the sides 

f. Jumping and landing (the take-off, various turns in the 
air and other techniques) 

g. Appropriate footwork drills 

2. Dribbling 

a. Bouncing the ball while standing still, proper use of 
wrists and fingers 

b. The low running dribble used around defense 

c. The high dribble for speed 

d. The right- and left-hand dribble 

e. The change-of-pace dribble 

f . Dribbling drills 

g. Drills that combine dribbling and footwork 

3. Passing and Catching 

a. Two-hand chest pass 

b. Right- and left-hand chest pass 

c. One- and two-hand bounce pass 

d. Right- and left-hand roll pass from various positions 

e. One-hand baseball pass 

f . Catching the ball, receiving different types of passes 

g. Passing and catching drills 

h. Drills that combine footwork, dribbling, passing, and 
catching 

4. Tipping and Retrieving 

a. Jumping and tipping with right and left hands to all 
positions 

b. Retrieving tip-offs in various positions, proper timing, 
position of body 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 159 

c. Tipping of rebounds: 

(1) Into basket 

(2) Out to teammates 

d. Retrieving rebounds (proper timing, position of body) 

e. Retrieving loose balls in floor play 

f. Appropriate drills 

5. Shooting 

a. Short shots — first area (within radius of twelve feet of 
the basket) 

( 1 ) Right- and left-hand lay-in shots from both sides. 

(2) Over-the-rim shots from the center and sides. 

(3) Pivot shots from all positions with right and left 
hands. 

b. Medium shots — middle area (radius of twelve to 
twenty-four feet from basket) 

(1) One-hand push shots, both right and left, station- 
ary and in motion. 

(2) Pivot shot, right and left 

(3) Two-hand set shots 

c. Long shots — third area (beyond a radius of twenty- 
four feet from basket) 

(1) Two-hand chest shot 

d. Shots peculiar to individuals 

(1) Hook shot, overhead shot, underhand shot 

e. The free throw 

(1) The underhand toss, the chest shot, the one-hand 
shot 

f. Shooting drills 

g. Drills that review previous fundamentals covered, plus 
shooting 

6. Individual offense and defense 

(Taught together from various positions on court- -in- 
cludes pivot play) 



160 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

a. Individual defense 

(1) Proper stance; position of body, arms and hands; 
voice; proper angle. 

b. Individual offense 

( 1 ) Fakes 

(2) Watching defensive weaknesses 

(3) Watching opponent's eyes 

(4) Cutting, change of pace 

c. Drills covering individual offense and defense 

B. GROUP FUNDAMENTALS (TWO, THREE, 
OR FOUR ON A SIDE) 

The group fundamentals should be taught in the manner 
in which they are to be used in the system of play. 

1. Two against one (offense and defense) 

2. Three against two (offense and defense) 

3. Three-man fast break weave (length of court) 

4. Four -man weave (one end of court) 

5. Offense and defense of screens 

a. Stationary screens, screens approaching from the rear, 
both sides and front; inside and outside screens 

b. Moving screens from all directions. Defensive meth- 
ods of going through, crashing through, changing men 

c. The post play with two men on each side (offense and 
defense) 

d. The cutaway, roll and double roll, two men on each 
side (offense and defense) 

e. The reverse, two men on each side (offense and defense) 

6. Competitive Rebound Work (offense and defense) Two, 
three, and four men on each side 

7. Competitive Tip-Off and Retrieving Work (offense and 
defense) Two, three, and four men on each side 

All group fundamental work should be competitive when 
possible. Players who are to play together later should prac- 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 161 

tice together on group fundamentals whenever possible. The 
coach should be watching for possible team combinations dur- 
ing this instructional period. 



PART II— OFFENSIVE AND DEFENSIVE TEAM PLAYS 

A. OFFENSIVE TEAM PLAYS 

1. The fast break 

Chapter 17 covers the fast break thoroughly. For this 
reason, it will only be mentioned here. It is hoped that all 
basketball coaches will consider the fast break as a basic part 
of team offense. 

2. Attack against a set man-to-man defense 

A good offense must, of course, have an attack against a 
man-to-man defense after the defense is set or organized. 
Many systems and plays are possible and an entire book could 
easily be written on plays of this kind. A number of plays 
against man-to-man defense are offered in Chapter 20 on Ma- 
terial and How to Use It. 

It is easier for a coach to build an offensive plan of this kind 
than it is to copy one. The plan must depend upon the ma- 
terial at hand and the type of opponents that are to be met. 
Generally speaking, a man-to-man defense may be success- 
fully attacked by 

a. keeping the players moving rapidly, 

b. screening plays of various kinds, and 

c. cutting plays of various kinds. 

The single pivot, the double pivot, the give-and-go, the 
figure 8, and many other systems or combinations are possible. 

In building an offense of this kind, the following pointers 
should be remembered: (1) it is harder to watch a player that 
is in motion than it is to watch one standing still — keep players 
moving; (2) it is harder to watch the ball when it is moving. 



162 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

DIAGRAM I DIAGRAM II 



Tip-Off or Jump Ball 
Play No. 1 



Tip-Off or Jump Ball 
Play No. 2 




1 leaves early. Ball tipped to 
4 on side who taps ball back 
to 2. 2 dribbles up and passes 
to 1 who passes to 5 on op- 
posite side or back to 2. 3 
and 4 are safety. Same play 
either side. 



Tip back to 3 who passes to 
1 who meets ball. 1 may 
pass to 4, 5 or back to 3. 
No. 4 and No. 1 should va- 
cate spots as ball is tossed. 
No. 2 is safety. Same play 
either side. 5 cuts for bas- 
ket on opposite side. 



KEY TO ALL DIAGRAMS 

X = OFFENSIVE PLAYER 
O = DEFENSIVE PLAYER 
— — = PASS 

= DRIBBLE 

= PATH OF PLAYER 



•\ = SCREEN 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 163 

Keep the ball moving as much as possible; (3) do not congest 
the key-hole area: have only one player at a time cut in for the 
basket; (4) use combinations of players that will give strength 
to your offense; some offenses are built around only two or 
three players; utilize an offensive threat by each player, but 
concentrate on the top offensive men, and develop combina- 
tions with them as much as possible. (5) Find out the de- 
fensive weaknesses and run at them. 

3 . Attack against a zone defense 

It is equally important to have an offense ready to attack a 
zone defense that is set or organized. This is adequately 
covered in Chapter 18, The Xone Defense and How to 
Attack It. 

4. Offensive tip-offs and jump-ball plays 

It has been pointed out in earlier chapters that including 
tip-offs there are only about fifteen jump balls in an average 
game. Therefore, one should not spend too much time on 
plays of this type. We should, however, emphasize organiza- 
tion that stresses possession of the ball in jump-ball and tip-off 
situations. Offensive plays or organization should, of course, 
be used when a team is reasonably sure of the tip; in other 
words, when the jumper has an advantage in height. Dia- 
grams I and II on page 162, give examples of jump-ball or 
tip-off offensive plays or organization. 

5. Offensive rebound organization 

The importance of possession of the ball has been stressed 
throughout this book. It has also been pointed out that more 
than one hundred times in every game, a player has a chance 
to get a free ball by retrieving a rebound. Proper team or- 
ganization will put players in position to get those rebounds. 
Rebound team organization should be a part of every fast 
break and every set play against any type of defense. In fact, 



164 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

any time a shot is taken at the basket, there should be offensive 
team organization. Every effort should be made to get the 
best rebounders in the most advantageous positions. Some- 
times, screening or cross-screening is a good plan. "Whether a 
team can afford to offensively rebound two, three, four, or 
five players depends on the personnel and also on the other 
team's offensive. If the opponents are fast breaking, it may 
not be possible to rebound more than two or three men offen- 
sively. It is a good rule, however, to have as many players as 
possible on the offensive boards depending on the situation. 
Assignments must be definite for each of the five players. 

6. Offensive out-of-bounds plays 

There should be team organization every time a team has 
possession of the ball out-of-bounds. Players on the offen- 
sive team should have the feeling that, the ball is ours — let's 
keep it until we get a good shot at the basket. It must be 
kept in mind that the offensive team will have the ball out-of- 
bounds under their opponent's basket each time a goal is 
scored. This may be as many as forty times in a single game. 
Even in these situations, there should be organization in get- 
ting the ball into scoring position, even though definite plays 
are not used. If the team has the ball on the side of the court 
or under their own basket, plays may be utilized. In any 
event, an offensive team should keep the following suggestions 
in mind when they have a ball out-of-bounds: 

(a) Have a five-man team organization to get the ball into 
scoring position. 

(b) Be sure that players are assigned to meet the ball. Re- 
member, the defense may press. 

(c) Get the ball started quickly if a fast break is to be used. 

(d) Use long passes against a defense that presses or loafs 
back on defense. 

(e) Use scoring plays in out-of -bound situations under 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 



165 



your basket or on the sides of the court when the de- 
fense is pressing. 

Diagrams III and IV illustrate out-of-bounds plays that 
have been successful against a pressing defense. 



DIAGRAM III 

Out-of -Bounds Play 
on the side of court 



DIAGRAM IV 

Out-of -Bounds Play 
under Basket 












r 




® 

X4 


^ 


(D 

X3 



XS screens © and X2 passes 
to Xl who screens ©. Xl 
returns ball to X2 who drib- 
bles in for score. If not 
open, X2 passes to XJ and 
cuts around XS. X4 cuts 
in on opposite side. X3 is 
safety. Same play either side. 



Xl takes position as indicated. 
X5 screens ©. X2 passes 
to Xl and may receive return 
pass from Xl and take set 
shot or Xl may cut around 
X5 and receive pass from X2 
to rove. X3 and X4 are 
safety. Same play either 
side. 



166 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

7. Offensive free-throw organization 

Every time a team has an offensive free throw, every man 
on the team should have a definite assignment. The shooter, 
however, should not be given an assignment that in any way 
interferes with his concentration on the free throw. Making 
the goal should be his assignment. It is best, usually, to have 
two men back as defensive safety men since most of the free- 
throw attempts are successful and the other team may fast 
break. However, it is the only situation in the game where 
the offensive team has an equal chance at rebounding with the 
defensive team. This is due to the assignments in the lanes, 
which are equal for both teams. Of course, the two strongest 
rebounders should be placed in the best positions on the lanes. 
A third rebounder may be used if the other team does not em- 
ploy a fast break. 

It is necessary that every basketball team have offensive 
plays or team organization in each one of the above categories. 
It is further necessary that each player on the team have a 
definite assignment in each of these situations. 

B. DEFENSIVE TEAM PLAYS 

While we do not think of team defensive plays as we do reg- 
ular offensive plays, defense does require teamwork of the 
highest order. Much of the material on team defense is cov- 
ered in Chapter 19, Better Defense. Therefore, only the ac- 
tual points will be included here in outline form, with brief 
comments. 

Every player must have a definite assignment in team defen- 
sive organization when the other team has the ball. This ap- 
plies to all situations. 

Team defense consists of the following parts: 

Getting back on defense 

Particularly against a team that fast breaks, a defense must 
be organized and waiting for the attack. 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 167 

Assigned man-to-man defense 

Every team must apply this type of defense at some time 
during the season. Good man-to-man fundamentals are a 
must. 

Variations of the assigned man-to-man defense 

a. Pressing defense all over the court, necessary at times for 
all teams, particularly when behind. 

b. Switching man-to-man defense or a quick-change plan. 
Useful against a good screening team. 

The zone defense — (See also Chapter 17 — The Zone and How 
To Attack It) 

Variations of the zone defense 

a. The 3-2 zone; the 2-1-2 zone; the 2-3 zone. 

b. Combination defense. (Man-to-man and zone.) 

Zone and combination defenses are not essential for all 
teams. However, a team that can play more than one type of 
defense has an advantage. Players should at least understand 
different styles of defense. The minimum essentials would 
include the man-to-man defense, the pressing defense, the 
switching defense, and taking over properly on defense. 
"Taking over" means helping a player who cannot stay with 
his man for some reason. It is an important part of defense. 

Defensive organization on tip-off and jump-ball situations 

a. Man-to-man plan. This is perhaps the oldest and most 
simple defensive plan in situations of this type. Each 
player is assigned to an opponent. He must keep be- 
tween his man and the ball and play him as he would 
man-to-man defense. 

b. Rotation plan. This plan places three players in a tri- 
angle around the jumpers. They may rotate to the right 



168 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

or to the left. Each one is responsible for a territory. 
The fourth man plays back as safety. This is a good 
plan to use if good "ball hawks" are available. 

Team defensive rebound organization 

Ordinarily, every player on the defensive team should have 
an assignment when their opponents shoot at the basket. Oc- 
casionally, an offensive team will want to use a "sleeper" to go 
down quick on the fast break. However, in most cases all 
have assignments for defensive rebounding. There should be 
a greater advantage to the defensive team in this department 
because they have the inside positions. Again, it is necessary 
to have organization that places the strongest rebounders in 
ideal positions. The slogan here should be, "They had one 
shot, that's all — now get that ball!" 

Team defensive out-of-bounds organization 

This type of organization varies under different situations 
and in different areas of the court. Suggestions are as follows: 

1. Under the opponent's basket, watch for screens. Avoid 
using a man to cover the player taking the ball out. In- 
stead, assign that man to help other defensive players or 
use him as a "ball hawk," to intercept. 

2. Under your basket, press a team that uses only one man 
to throw the ball to. Drop off of the man throwing in 
and double up on the receiver. 

3. Be sure that each player has an assignment. 

Defensive free throw organization 

When their opponents are shooting a free throw, the defen- 
sive team should have the following things in mind. 

(1) Be sure to retrieve the rebound if the free throw is 
missed. The defensive team gets a rebound advantage 
by using a fast-break threat. This will cause the other 
team to have two safety men back and gives the de- 
fensive team three men against two on the boards. 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 169 

(2) If the opponents score the free throw, look out for a 

press by opponents. Have men come to meet ball. 
( 3 ) Again, every man must have an assignment. 

This concludes the first two major parts of the outline. It 
is suggested that teams spend three to four weeks on the fun- 
damentals outlined in Part I. Another similar period should 
be devoted to team plays and organization. This entire pro- 
gram should precede practice games and game scrimmages. 
Otherwise, players will form bad habits and will not learn the 
system desired. Plenty of competition can be worked into 
the program in teaching the fundamentals and team organiza- 
tion. 



PART III— MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS AND 
DUTIES OF THE BASKETBALL COACH 

1. BASKETBALL MATERIAL— HOW TO DEVELOP 
IT, HOW TO USE IT 

This subject is completely covered in Chapter 20, Basketball 
Material and How to Use It. 

2. SELECTION OF THE SQUAD AND TEAM 

Once the material reports for basketball practice, the job 
of selecting the squad and the team confronts the coach. This 
is a major problem. Decisions made by the coach may mean 
the difference between a championship and a losing season. 
First, let us consider the various methods of selecting the 
squad. It has been my experience that two methods are pos- 
sible, depending on the situation. 

First, assume that you have a large turnout and a short 
time, perhaps six weeks, in which to prepare for the season. 
My first experience along this line was at a large high school 
in Portland, Oregon. We had a turnout of two hundred and 



170 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

sixty boys. Two weeks later, we had 25 and in three weeks, 
it was down to fifteen — the ideal number to carry on a squad. 
Naturally, this was not achieved by putting the entire 260 
boys through a three or four week fundamental program. 
The plan was to require each candidate to perform a very sim- 
ple fundamental exercise, such as dribbling the ball the length 
of the court and shooting for the basket. It was thus possible 
to eliminate many who were poorly coordinated, too small, or 
that had other handicaps that made it impossible for them to 
make the team that particular year. Next, the boys retained 
participated in five-minute scrimmages to determine their gen- 
eral ability and action on the court. From this procedure, it 
was possible to decrease the number to approximately twenty- 
five. With this number, we started the regular, fundamental 
program. Each period, however, ended with five-minute 
scrimmages to further thin down the squad. These scrim- 
mages, of course, are not to be confused with regular game 
scrimmages, which came much later in the program. 

The men who were not retained in the first fifteen were ad- 
vised to turn out for intramural basketball and an intramural 
league was arranged for them. In this way, if someone was 
missed, it would come to light during the season. Those who 
gained experience and maturity, and showed improvement, 
were given another chance the following year. 

In a situation where the turnout is small (not over thirty 
to forty) , it is possible to select the squad in a different way. 
With this number, a coach may start in with the regular fun- 
damental program and thin the squad down as he goes along. 
Short five-minute scrimmages may also be utilized. 

When considering the size of the squad, coaches should re- 
member that it is almost impossible to work with more than 
fifteen boys. Most gymnasiums do not have more than six 
baskets and many do not have that number. For adequate 
shooting practice and other fundamental practice, no more 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 171 

than two or three players should work at one basket. In ar- 
ranging intra-squad scrimmages, it is hard to give the condi- 
tioning work and the necessary practice if more than fifteen 
are included. 

The fifteen men, of course, must have the proper qualifica- 
tions that the coach desires. A combination of size and speed 
is usually desirable. Therefore, look for big men for the 
center and forward positions and fast men for the guard posi- 
tions. When it can be combined with size, speed is, of course, 
an asset in all positions. The ideal fifteen-man squad includes 
three tall men for the center position, at least four tall men 
for the forward positions with six desirable, and six fast 
men for the guard positions. Naturally, attitude, competitive 
qualities and basketball ability, must also be considered in the 
selection of the fifteen-man squad. 

Following the selection of the squad, the next important 
problem facing the coach is to select the team. It cannot be 
overemphasized that basketball is a team game. Coaches who 
never decide on a combination for their first team will not win 
many games. A five-man team should be selected as early as 
possible and kept together throughout the early part of the 
season. They must get used to working together; they must 
eat, sleep, and play the game together. Most great teams are 
of this type and there are very few successful teams in which 
the lineups are changed frequently. Adequate reserves are 
necessary but should be kept to a minimum. A good first five 
with an alternate forward, an alternate guard, and an alter- 
nate center can take care of most situations. The rest of the 
squad should be groomed for reserve duty in case of injuries 
or illnesses. They should also have an excellent attitude and 
be able to crowd the first string men all along the line. Pref- 
erably, the reserves should be underclassmen on their way 
up. It is easier for them to keep up interest and to maintain 
the desired morale. 



172 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

3. THE BASKETBALL RULES 

A coach is negligent in his duties if he does not thoroughly 
know both the rules and their proper interpretations. He 
must also be able and willing to teach the players these rules 
and their interpretations. Part of this may be done on the 
court in connection with regular practice, but the coach should 
also stress the necessity of owning a rule book and reading it. 
Periodic examinations may be given to advantage. Never 
forget that games are lost every year because a player or a 
coach does not know the rules. Players also need to know the 
rules and their interpretations to execute the fundamentals 
and play the game well. 

4. BASKETBALL STRATEGY 

This is a basketball coaching duty that has many ramifica- 
tions. Suggestions regarding basketball strategy run through- 
out this entire book and many chapters could be devoted to 
this subject. The coach that can use his material, plays, and 
organization to the best advantage against each opponent, is a 
great strategist. Some of the more important points of strat- 
egy include the following: 

1. Proper planning of a game before it is played. This, of course, 
depends on analysis of the opponents and of one's own team. It 
also depends on wise use of the scout reports of previous games. 

2. First-half strategy. Stay with the plan until it is certain that 
it will not work. Analyze your team and the opponent's but see if 
the plan outlined prior to the game is the proper one. Make neces- 
sary changes as the half progresses. 

3. Half -time strategy. In light of the findings of the first half, 
prepare the second half. It may be an entirely different game in 
the second half. Your opponents may try to cross you up; you 
must try to cross them up, if necessary. 

4. Second-half strategy. Knowing what moves to make during 
the second part of the game is very often the deciding factor. This 
is particularly true in the closing minutes of a close game. The 
coach who allows himself to be carried away with the excitement of 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 173 

the game will rarely win. He must carefully analyze and take ad- 
vantage of every possible situation. 

Strategy is divided into two main parts; individual strategy 
and team strategy. There are dozens of examples but it will 
suffice here to give a few examples of each to explain the pos- 
sibilities. 

Individual strategy: 

1. Tie up a leading scorer by leaching him at all times. 

2. Play a fast player loose unless he is an excellent long 
shot. 

3. Make a right-handed player go to his left, and vice 
versa. 

4. Screen out a key rebound man. 

5. Play in front of a tall offensive man near the basket; 
prevent him from getting the ball. 

6. Press a poor ball handler. 

7. Put a strong offensive player against a weak defensive 
player, whenever possible. 

8. If a short player is guarding a tall player, move your 
tall man into the pivot. 

9. Be aggressive with a player that is timid or uncertain. 
10. Players must constantly be aware of the possibilities of 

individual strategy. They should analyze their oppo- 
nents early in the game and play accordingly. 

Team strategy 

This type of strategy, of course, covers a wide field. Here 
are a few examples: 

1. Fast break a defensive team that is tired. 

2. Use a fast break when the opponents are rebounding 
strong offensively. 

3. Use set plays when the opponents are not on the offen- 
sive board and are getting back fast. 



174 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

4. Use long pass attacks when the defense is congested 
under its own basket or is pressing. 

5. Use a zone or combination defense against a team that 
has more speed, that cannot shoot long, or that uses 
screens. 

6. Pass a zone defense out of position and overload sides 
on a zone. 

7. Use screens against a tight man-to-man defense. 

8. Shoot long against a loose defense. 

9. When ahead, make the defense show. 

10. Use a pressing defense against tired opponents. 

11. Use a pressing defense against a team that is ahead and 
playing a possession game. 

12. Press a team that is big. Do not let them get into scor- 
ing position. 

13. Bottle up rebounders on a fast breaking team. Delay 
their first pass. 

14. Use a fast break on a team that is big but play ball con- 
trol against them after their defense is set. 

Strategy is also planned effectively between halves and in 
chalk-talk meetings prior to, or following games. 

Strategy between halves: 

It is best to examine the charts for the first half while the 
players rest at the beginning of the intermission. The trainer 
takes charge at this time. Then carefully go over the second- 
half plan utilizing the results of the first half. The half-time 
period is also a good time to encourage morale. Players who 
have been under fire for a half are more receptive to a good 
"pep" talk; prior to the game, it makes most players extremely 
nervous. One other bit of strategy that may be in order is to 
give players adequate time to warm up before the start of the 
second half. In most cases five minutes is better than three 
minutes. "Get the jump on them in the second half" should 
be the slogan of every coach and team. 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 17 5 

Strategy in chalk- talk meetings: 

In addition to the strategy sessions prior to and during the 
game, there should also be strategy and chalk talks following 
the game. Meetings are always desirable on the following 
Monday or the day after the game. Plays and strategy that 
were good and bad may be taken up in these meetings, offer- 
ing a chance for players to discuss and suggest. The team's 
statistical record for the game may also be given at this time. 
Meetings should also be held on the next opponent. A gen- 
eral discussion of strategy, plays to be used, etc., should be 
taken up at this meeting prior to going on the court. This 
avoids much time being spent standing around on the court 
when players are in uniform and should be active. 

In conclusion, on the topic of strategy it might be said that 
like baseball, basketball is a great second guessing game. 
The strategy that works is wonderful; the strategy that fails 
is inexcusable. 

In December, 1946, the University of Oregon team came 
East to play New York University in Madison Square Garden. 
N.Y.U., at that time, was ranked as the number one team in 
the nation. N.Y.U., therefore, entered the game a fifteen- 
point favorite. 

Both teams employed the fast break and the first half was 
a free scoring affair which ended 37-37. At the half, the 
shooting chart indicated that N.Y.U. was getting in for too 
many short shots and was not hitting well from outside. This, 
along with the fact that N.Y.U. had rarely played against the 
zone and that Coach Howard Cann outwardly disliked the 
zone, caused Oregon to switch to that type of defense to start 
the second half. This plan upset N.Y.U. After two ex- 
changes of baskets, Oregon scored thirteen straight points be- 
fore N.Y.U. tallied again. Oregon went on to win 81-65 in 
one of the season's major upsets. The results were considered 
"great strategy." Newspaper reports, spectators, players, and 



176 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

followers all commended the fine strategy that upset one of 
the nation's top teams. 

In December, 1948, our Yale team played N.Y.U. in Madi- 
son Square Garden. The first half was very similar to the 
Oregon-N.Y.U. game of 1946. Yale had a four-point lead 
at the half which ended 37-33. Both teams employed the 
man-to-man defense in the first half as they had in the game in 
1946. Again, all indications pointed to a change in Yale's 
defense in the second half. In addition to other factors, Tony 
Lavelli of Yale had four personal fouls. This time, however, 
the strategy backfired. N.Y.U. won the game in the last four 
minutes by the score of 76-67. The newspaper reports read 
"Terrible strategy. N.Y.U. gives Yale a lesson in how to 
attack a zone defense." Newspaper reporters were in the 
dressing room before we could get in. They demanded to 
know why such strategy would even be attempted. 

There you have it, coaches. It is great to use strategy in 
basketball. The game lends itself to great possibilities along 
this line. However, like our other sports, the strategy that 
wins is the right strategy, always. 

5. BASKETBALL SCOUTING 

This topic has been thoroughly covered in the earlier chap- 
ters of the book. 

6. MOVING PICTURES 

A coach who is able to utilize moving pictures to the fullest 
extent will be well repaid. It has already been pointed out 
that they are of great value for instructional purposes. A 
few ways in which moving pictures may be used advanta- 
geously follow: 

1. Take moving pictures of early season fundamental work 
for instructional purposes. It is valuable for your players 
to watch themselves and the other players in action. 

2. Take moving pictures of as many home games as pos- 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 177 

sible. They will be invaluable for scouting and instructional 
purposes. 

3. Get copies of pictures of games taken away from home. 
Arrange with your opponents to get a copy of the film and 
give them a copy of your films when they play on your court. 

4. Get pictures from central agencies on rule interpreta- 
tions, fundamentals, and games. A study of these will be 
valuable. 

7. TRAINING AND CONDITIONING 

This important phase of basketball is divided into three 
main parts: 

A. Physical condition off the court 

This means that players must eat properly, get adequate 
sleep, and have good personal habits. They must be willing 
to refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages and smoking. 
Physical condition also includes proper attention to injuries 
and ailments. It also means that players should spend most 
of their time during the season in playing basketball and main- 
taining good scholastic averages if they are in school. 

B. Conditioning on the court 

This is the part that a coach can supervise more thoroughly. 
It is the duty of the coach to see that every player is in condi- 
tion to play forty continual minutes of basketball. This is 
necessary not only from a health standpoint but also to win 
games. It is suggested that coaches build their teams up grad- 
ually, starting with short scrimmages, until a player is able 
to play continually for fifty minutes. High school coaches, 
of course, can regulate the time periods according to high 
school standards. 

C. Mental condition 

While there is no real scientific distinction between the 
physical and the mental, this part of the work refers to the 



178 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

player's attitude and loyalty. Players who have great confi- 
dence and yet are not over-confident, who constantly think 
about winning, succeeding, making a basket, instead of losing, 
failure, and missing a basket, are the ones that will get there. 
They must, of course, be cooperative, and be willing to make 
sacrifices. They must have the proper attitude toward the 
coach, the other players on the squad, the officials, the specta- 
tors and all concerned. Of all the qualifications and qualities 
that a coach should look for in a player, I believe the most 
important ones are confidence, competitive ability and deter- 
mination. A few stories will illustrate this point: 

Bobby Anet was selected on "Chuck" Taylor's first All- 
America team in 1939, when he was captain of a national 
championship team. Bobby stood just under five feet nine 
inches and weighed 170 pounds. He was not a good shot 
and had very few qualities, on the surface, to recommend him- 
self as a basketball player. However, he did have those quali- 
ties that are so important — confidence, determination, com- 
petitiveness — in other words, "the heart." 

When Bobby came to college, he did not understand the 
intricacies of screen plays. Because of this, in his sophomore 
year, he had trouble breaking into the lineup immediately. 
Early in the season, we were having trouble with Washington 
State College, a very good screening team. One of their 
players repeatedly would cut off of a screen to score. The 
defensive player handling the assignment was a veteran, knew 
what to do, but did not quite have the speed or ability to stay 
with the man. Finally, I said to Bobby, who was sitting next 
to me on the bench, "That man has to be stopped, Bobby. 
Do you think you can do it?" "Sure, coach, I'll stop him," 
was the quick reply. "Do you understand how to switch men 
on those screens, Bobby?" I asked. "Do you see what that 
man is doing out there?" The reply this time was, "Yes, 
coach, I see. He's scoring baskets. I'll stop him." After 
Bobby entered the game, I really do not think the opposing 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 179 

player that had been doing all the damage was ever in a posi- 
tion to set up a play. He was "dogged" unmercifully and did 
not score another point in the game. Perhaps the most scien- 
tific methods were not used but the player was stopped 
through determination and confidence. 

When this same Bobby Anet was a senior, Oregon had a 
championship game in the Pacific Coast Conference with Ore- 
gon State College. Bobby had sprained his right wrist and 
had it bandaged for the game. It was questionable whether 
he should play, but the team physician had given his approval. 
Just having Bobby out there meant a lot to team morale. 
Prior to the game, I felt Bobby out by saying, "Better sit this 
one out, Bobby. You won't be able to handle the ball and 
score with that wrist." The expected reply was, "I feel fine, 
coach. I'll be O.K.," and then he added, "I'll throw them in 
with my left." This last statement was a joke, because Bobby, 
a poor scorer at best, could not make one out of twenty with 
his left hand. 

In the middle of the second half, with the score tied, Bobby 
dribbled with his left hand down the side of the court and 
"let fly" with the same hand! The ball touched only the 
bottom of the net on the way through the basket. The goal 
swung the game in our favor and we never trailed after that. 
As Bobby ran by the bench after the goal he said, "How did 
you like that lefty?" Boys like Bobby are "clutch" players. 
They win games and championships. 

It is always hard for a player to have a good mental attitude 
while he sits on the bench. Sometimes, players are great reg- 
ulars but poor substitutes. John Dick, another Oregon All- 
America player in 1940, was this type of player. We were 
taking our first intersectional trip in 1938, and after playing 
in New York and Philadelphia, we had a game in Cleveland on 
the way home. "Slim" Wintermute was our center and John 
Dick was his understudy. Just before the half ended, "Slim" 
sprained his ankle. It was so bad that he had to be carried 



180 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

from the court. The attending physician thought it was a 
certain fracture. "Slim" was rushed to the hospital. In the 
session between halves, I turned to John Dick, who had been 
a mediocre substitute and was fortunate to have made the 
travelling squad, and said, rather dejectedly, "It looks like 
we've lost a great center, John. What we do from here on in 
depends on you. This is your chance. Let's see what you 
have to offer." 

Most players would have been tense and nervous. John 
Dick responded with a lazy grin and went out on the court to 
score eighteen points in the second half. John was never a 
substitute thereafter. Fortunately, "Slim" Wintermute had 
only a sprain and was back in action before we finished the 
road trip. Playing at forward with him was John Dick, who 
developed into one of the finest players the college game has 
seen. A great regular but a poor substitute. 

Personally, I don't care for players who are content to sit 
on the bench any more than I care for players who are content 
to lose ball games. This does not mean that benchwarmers 
should be trouble makers and always dissatisfied. On the 
other hand, players who are not on the first team should come 
around and talk things over with the coach. They should 
find out how they can improve and convince the coach that 
they are competitors who can win ball games. Mental atti- 
tude is perhaps the most important of all conditioning. Play- 
ers and teams that are right mentally will win many games 
that they otherwise would lose. 

8. BASKETBALL OFFICIATING 

This topic has been covered in Chapter 12. Coaches should 
do all that they can to develop and to help officials. And, 
while they should be able to referee a basketball game, coaches 
should not officiate at their own scrimmages. It is best to 
have an outsider do this for two reasons: first, the players will 
become accustomed to regular officials, and second, it is not 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 181 

possible for coaches to concentrate on coaching the funda- 
mentals and plays and officiate at the same time. 

9. BASKETBALL PUBLICITY AND INTEREST 

The coach's necessary contacts with the press, radio, video, 
the student body, and community are extremely valuable. 
Coaches should make it a point to become acquainted with all 
sportswriters and radio announcers, and others who are inter- 
ested in basketball. Coaches who cooperate with publicity 
men will find that the results will be well worthwhile. Every 
effort should be made to acquaint the publicity men with the 
plans and activities of the squad. When press reports are 
inadequate or poor, it is because of misinformation or lack of 
information. Publicity men do a good job when given the 
opportunity. It is a good plan to have a weekly luncheon for 
all those in the locality who are writing about basketball. 
Radio and television men should also be included. At these 
luncheons, complete and accurate information about the team 
should be given out so that all may be kept well-informed. 
A brochure covering the schedule and plans for the season and 
personnel on the squad is another publicity requisite in both 
high school and college basketball. 

It is equally important for coaches to have proper contacts 
and relationship with the student body. Student body pub- 
lications and assemblies are good channels through which to 
work. Showing moving pictures, and giving demonstrations 
and periodic talks to the student body are also valuable. 

It is well for the coach to appear before the various service 
clubs and church organizations in the community. If there 
is not a community athletic organization of some kind, there 
should be one and coaches can do more than anyone else to 
inaugurate it. This organization should extend through the 
entire year for all sports. 

Coaches also should have a cooperative relationship with 
the faculty and parents. If faculty members understand the 



182 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

plans and problems of the basketball squad, they will be far 
more cooperative. A coach should be a member of the faculty 
and basketball should be an educational activity. If neces- 
sary, the faculty should be educated along this line. 

Parents are also entitled to know the contents of their chil- 
dren's sports programs. They should also be aware of the fact 
that coaches have a genuine interest in each player, both on 
and off the court. This is impossible without good relation- 
ship between parents and coaches. 

10. ARRANGING THE SCHEDULE 

The arrangement of schedules is an administrative function 
but the coach usually does and should have a part in it. Many 
factors should be considered. Some of these are the strength 
and experience of the team, gate receipts, travel problems, and 
the desirable number of games. For example, ordinarily it is 
better for an inexperienced team to play its easier games first 
and on their own court so that they will gain confidence for 
the games to follow. 

Travel presents a problem in all sports, but a reasonable 
amount of it is beneficial in many ways. Naturally, most of 
the games away from home should be played on weekends so 
that players will not miss classes. Admittedly, a long trip is 
hard work for the coach. There are many details to be 
worked out in advance. The travel schedule, meals, hotel 
arrangements, practice periods, press or radio interviews — all 
of these must be worked out to the hour. A complete itin- 
erary must be given to each player before departing. One 
long cross-country trip in college basketball necessitates hun- 
dreds of letters. Properly planned, however, a trip can be of 
great value to a team. 

After taking teams across the country six times, I feel that 
travelling has many values. In the first place, players like to 
travel. Properly planned, travel is part of their education. 
Sightseeing trips, shows, and entertainment of various kinds, 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 183 

should be arranged in addition to the basketball games to 
maintain the value of such travel. 

In the games themselves, there is great value. In our first 
game at Madison Square Garden, our players did not like the 
rule interpretations or the officiating. The officiating was not 
poor but it was different. Our players finally learned to 
adjust to conditions away from home. They learned differ- 
ent styles of basketball and how to defend against them. All 
this was valuable experience. The same values are available 
to high school teams. It is not necessary to travel clear across 
the country to get the experience of playing in foreign terri- 
tory. 

Schedule building, then, is an important function of the 
coach. Proper attention to this duty may result in increased 
gate receipts and more games won. 

11. THE BASKETBALL BUDGET 

Preparing the budget is an administrative function, but 
coaches should be and usually are consulted. If a coach pre- 
pares a budget carefully and presents it to the administrators, 
it will very likely be considered and adopted. 

A carefully planned budget will result in better equipment 
and facilities. Successful coaches show an interest in making 
a profit in their sport as well as an interest in winning games. 

12. BASKETBALL EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES 

Coaches must be concerned with the proper purchase and 
care of basketball equipment. The most important items are 
balls and shoes. It pays to buy the best quality. The same 
types of balls should be used in practice that are used in games. 
The quantity should be sufficient so that every two players 
have a ball for practice purposes. Light shoes that hold the 
court well are essential. Shoes will last longer if each player 
has two pairs and wears them on alternate days. In addition, 
they will dry out better under this plan. 



184 THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 

Uniforms and warm-up suits should be of good quality. 
Wool is always preferable next to the skin because wool ab- 
sorbs perspiration. Light-weight wool jerseys are desirable 
and warm-ups should be lined with wool. It is an economical 
plan to adopt a pattern and then add a certain number each 
year, rather than changing patterns frequently. 

Wool socks are preferable to cotton even though they pre- 
sent the problem of shrinkage from washing. Nylon socks 
are excellent, but expensive in the initial outlay. In the long 
run they are probably less expensive. 

Each player should be made to feel responsible for equip- 
ment issued to him. A careful issuing system should be 
worked out and players should be asked to replace articles that 
are carelessly lost. 

Much equipment and money can be saved by proper han- 
dling. Equipment should be kept clean and all wool garments 
should be dry cleaned. Careful storage in the off-season to 
prevent destruction by moths is also important. 

Basketball facilities should be modern and standard. 
Coaches are urged to use rectangular glass backboards, if pos- 
sible. In construction of new courts and revision of old ones, 
a 50 by 90 foot playing floor is desirable. Obstructions, so 
far as possible, should be removed. Seating arrangements 
should not interfere with the playing area in any way and 
there should be at least a six-foot border on all four sides of 
the court. Out-of-door courts are essential for use in good 
weather. Coaches that are willing to be concerned with good 
facilities and the upkeep and improvement of those facilities 
will usually have the most successful teams. 

13. BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Chapter 21 contains a complete, annotated bibliography 
of all basketball books published. New books should be added 
to this list as they are published. The Cumulative Book In- 
dex, available in most libraries, gives this information. Trade 



THE GAME OF BASKETBALL 185 

journals such as the ATHLETIC JOURNAL and SCHOLAS- 
TIC COACH are also recommended. Coaches should keep 
up with the game by doing a reasonable amount of study and 
reading. Coaches also should have enough interest in the 
sport to write an occasional article and to do a bit of research 
when possible. Only through this type of effort will the game 
improve. 

In conclusion, several suggestions in coaching methods are 
offered: 

1. Make presentations clear and simple. 

2. Cover fundamentals thoroughly but get them playing as soon 
as possible. 

3. Use lots of competitive drills leading up to scrimmaging. 
Make fundamentals competitive. Drills must fit into style of play. 

4. Use scrimmages frequently as soon as they are ready. 

5. Don't give too many detailed plays. Stress team organization. 

6. Have men available to work on charts and records. Substi- 
tutes may be used during scrimmages if necessary. 

7. Try out experiments — things that are new and will interest 
players and spectators. Do this early in season or during the off- 
season. 

8. Plan your time for each day in advance. Plan each practice 
carefully. 

9. Encourage rather than criticize. Have patience. 

10. Put some fun into the game. 

11. Teach players rather than basketball. Put their interests first. 

12. Have a bulletin board and use it. Let players know the daily 
plans in advance. Records of scrimmages and games, rating charts, 
daily practice schedules, trip itineraries, newspaper clippings, pic- 
tures, and announcements are items that may be displayed on the 
bulletin board. 



Chapter 17 
Fast-Break Basketball 



JL AST-BREAK BASKETBALL IS LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE 

popularity of the game today. In twenty years of coaching 
this style of basketball, I never found a player who did not 
thoroughly enjoy playing it, once he was in the proper condi- 
tion. The fast break gives every boy a chance to share in the 
scoring. It is also a great conditioner, and a crowd-pleasing 
style of play. 

Many coaches think that a system is merely a group of plays 
or formations. However, plays are really secondary to the 
team's attitude or philosophy of offense. 

Broadly speaking, there are two systems of offense. 

1. The fast-break offense, which depends primarily on beat- 
ing the defense back to the basket. Some teams always fast 
break upon gaining possession of the ball. Others fast break 
only when the opportunity presents itself. The real fast- 
break coach teaches the first method — breaking whenever 
possession is gained and applying pressure until the oppor- 
tunity to score on the break closes completely. 

2. The slow-break or ball-control offense, which permits 
the defense to retreat toats normal position and then attacks 
it with a definite system of plays or patterns. 

The modern team must be well-grounded in both these 
offensive systems. Of the two, the second type, or set attack, 
is perhaps the most essential. The reason is simple enough. 

* Diagrams of fast-break plays are given in connection with the discussion 
of proper use of material, Chapter 20, page 200. 

186 



FAST-BREAK BASKETBALL 187 

A defense that is in position and organized cannot be attacked 
with a fast break. Because of this a team that uses the fast 
break must have something else to go with it — a weapon that 
can be utilized whenever the defense is set and waiting. 
Many coaches, for this very reason, believe that the set attack 
is sufficient per se and that a team will do well to master this 
style alone. However, a team that only slow breaks permits 
its opponent to rebound harder offensively and to loaf back 
or press, as it chooses, defensively. 

A slow break and set plays alone are not enough as an of- 
fense. A fast break should be used to beat the defense back, 
and a set offense should be sprung once the defense is set and 
waiting. 

The fast break is not simple to teach or easy to learn. It 
requires a sound grounding in such fundamentals as foot- 
work, passing, dribbling, ball-handling, and shooting. 

It also requires good organization and cannot be a hit-or- 
miss affair. 

In addition to the proper instruction in fundamentals, ad- 
herence to fast-break rules, and the adoption of an organized 
pattern, there is the matter of attitude. A few stories will 
illustrate this point. 

Upon installing the fast break at Yale it was discovered 
that only one boy had really played the break as t I teach it. 
As luck would have it, he broke his wrist after the fourth 
game and was lost for the season. That meant not only teach- 
ing a new system to an entirely new group but also selling 
them on the idea of the fast break. 

Tony Lavelli, who was perhaps the greatest shot in college 
ball, had been utilized mainly as the cog in a set-play system. 
Not a great speedster, Tony was not sure just how the fast 
break would work out; nor were the other players. 

It took them nearly a half season to catch on to the idea of 
what was meant by the fast break and to develop the proper 
attitude toward it. They were extremely cooperative but 



188 FAST-BREAK BASKETBALL 

did not really understand what was meant by an offensive, 
fast-break state of mind, and this is extremely important. 

Yale finally scored 80 points against Harvard in the last 
game of the season. This was not due to better playing but 
to a better attitude toward the fast break. 

In teaching the fast break, it is difficult to change back and 
forth from a fast game to a slow game. This would be de- 
sirable but once players slow down, it is difficult to get them 
to speed up again. 

I learned my lesson many years ago when I was a high school 
coach at Portland, Oregon. We had a speedy outfit, led by 
a nimble, full-blooded Indian called "Chief" McLean. Our 
foremost rival was a school with a zone defense and a little 
cracker-box gymnasium. I decided that once their defense 
was ready and waiting in those cramped quarters our fast 
breaking tactics would not work. 

In the first three minutes, we galloped hard and scored 
eleven points. Then, McLean cried, "Set 'em up!" Our 
team abandoned its rush toward the basket and started pass- 
ing the ball around. The bombardment of shots ceased. 
The ball changed hands twenty-five or thirty times before 
some player tried for a basket. Table tennis would have been 
more exciting. 

The crowd began to stir restlessly and protests and catcalls 
chilled the back of my neck. Later in the game we attempted 
to fast-break once more, but that long stall had bogged us 
down. McLean and the other lads seemed frozen. I was 
finding out that the drive and attack of a basketball team 
could not be turned on and off like a tap. It had to be sus- 
tained or not used at all. We scored eleven points during 
the rest of the game. 

The father of one of the players came up to see me after 
the game. He said, "My boy told me basketball was an excit- 
ing sport, but after the first few minutes out there it looked 
awfully dull and slow." I took a couple of complimentary 



FAST-BREAK BASKETBALL 189 

tickets out of my wallet and handed them to him. "You 
and your wife come to our next game, and you'll see a dif- 
ferent performance. The entire game will be like those first 
few minutes. You learned something about basketball today, 
and so did I." 

If it is a choice between the fast game and the slow game, 
give me the fast game every time. 

"Keep moving!" is the best basketball maxim I know. 
Teams that constantly thrust into the opposition's side of the 
court are the teams that, in the long run, produce the most 
victories. They are superior, in my opinion, to teams that 
proceed cautiously, consider ball-handling more important 
than drive, and protect rather than fatten a slim lead. 

Although the fast break lends itself to free scoring, it has 
been stressed that it should have the same careful organization 
as any attack. Unfortunately, some boys spoil the attack 
by taking wild, aimless shots, but players who pass up good 
chances are just as deserving of criticism. 

An athlete can be too cautious. I do not approve of a team 
that fast-breaks by slam-banging down the court. But a 
squad that breaks sharp and fast for the basket the instant it 
gets the ball, and takes advantage of every chance will have 
trophies when the season is ended. 

In a choice between the team that slam-bangs and the team 
that roots in its tracks and passes the ball back and forth, give 
me the slam-bangers. Their sin is not so great. At least they 
keep on the move and show some action. Fans would rather 
see a game that ends 62 to 60 than one that ends 22 to 20. 
As the 22 to 20 games have waned in number, the crowds have 
soared in size. 



Chapter 18 

The Zone Defense and 
How to Attack It 



r OES THE ZONE DEFENSE HAVE A PLACE IN PRESENT-DAY 

basketball? This question has been the subject of debate by 
players, coaches, and spectators throughout the country. 
Some professional leagues have made the use of the zone de- 
fense illegal. Certain college conferences have had a gentle- 
men's agreement that the zone defense would not be used. 
Many have advocated legislation against it in the rules of bas- 
ketball. The great majority, however, agree that this style 
of defense is an important part of basketball and too impor- 
tant a weapon used in winning games to be discarded. Most 
coaches who criticize the zone are unable to attack it success- 
fully or feel that the use of the zone detracts from the action 
of the game and has little spectator appeal. 

These remarks are not intended to uphold the use of the 
zone defense, but rather, to explain the zone and to present 
plans that may be used to attack it in a successful and spec- 
tator-appealing manner. 

First of all, it should be pointed out that fundamentally, 
all teams use the zone defense. When one player defends 
the goal against two attacking players, that defensive player 
must know the fundamentals of zone defense and must play a 
zone defense. When two players guard the goal area against 
three attacking players, those two defensive players must play 
a zone defense. Therefore, a coach who does not teach the 
fundamentals of zone defense is sadly neglecting his duty. 

190 



THE ZONE DEFENSE AND HOW TO ATTACK IT 191 

Still, the player using the zone fundamentals must also em- 
ploy proper man-to-man fundamentals. No defensive bas- 
ketball player is sound who does not adhere to the proper exe- 
cution of man-to-man fundamentals. A player must know 
how to guard an individual opponent properly, whether the 
team is playing a man-to-man, zone, or combination defense. 
Also, all teams employ the principles of zone defense in their 
team defensive styles. A team that constantly switches on 
screens, or a team that plays loose away from the ball in order 
to strengthen the defense around the keyhole area, is actually 
using elements of the zone defense, although they may call it 
man-to-man. Many games are played each year in which 
it is difficult to distinguish whether a team is actually using 
a zone defense or a man-to-man defense. The two can be 
very similar in appearance. A story will illustrate the point: 
In 1939, our University of Oregon team played Ohio 
State for the national championship. Ohio State had an ex- 
tremely fast team and they used a fast moving offense along 
with very hard, running screens that were difficult to stop. 
At the beginning of the game, Oregon used a zone defense. 
The men shifted their positions with the ball and kept their 
arms up. After two or three minutes, Ohio State stopped 
their regular offense and stationed their men in set positions 
and started passing the ball, making no effort to cut for the 
basket or screen. By signal, the Oregon team changed im- 
mediately to man-to-man defense but the players were careful 
to keep their arms up and play loose away from the ball, giving 
the defense the appearance of a zone. This plan continued 
for the rest of the game. Ohio State scored 33 points in the 
game which was extremely low for them. Most of their scores 
came from long shots. After the game, an Ohio State booster 
said, "Well, of course, they beat us with a zone defense. That 
isn't basketball. We don't even allow it in the Big Ten." 
Actually, we played a zone defense for about three minutes; 
long enough to cause Ohio State to discontinue their favorite 
offense. 



192 THE ZONE DEFENSE AND HOW TO ATTACK IT 

The correct defense is one that takes away the offensive 
team's best weapons. In football, the best defense against 
certain offensive attacks may be the 6-2-2-1, the 7-1-2-1, the 
6-3-2, or the five-man line. In baseball, the proper defense 
may be to shift the entire team in one direction to stop cer- 
tain hitters. No one thinks of outlawing these defenses. It 
is the duty of the offense to learn to attack the new defense 
properly. The same is true in basketball. Unless the offense 
can beat the zone defense, it will remain in the game and still 
more teams will use it. 

Zone defenses are of numerous types. The most common 
is the 2-1-2 which is used as the example in the diagrams 
found on page 195. The 3-2 and 2-3 are variations in which 
the center man moves up court or back under the basket. 
These are the standard types. The defensive shifts are very 
similar in all three. A modern zone does not limit the as- 
signment merely to covering areas. It is usually more of a 
shifting defense with man-to-man aspects. The main idea is 
to cover the man with the ball and to congest the keyhole area 
with a strong defense. Properly executed, this defense does 
not permit dribbling. Nor does it permit passing into or 
through the keyhole area. It attempts to force the offense 
to attack mainly by means of long shots from the outer areas. 
Attacks against the 2-1-2 may be used against the 3-2 or 2-3 
with little or no variations. 

Unorthodox zone defenses such as the 1-3-1 do not present 
a problem to the well-balanced offensive team. The forma- 
tion given in Diagram V on page 194 would be effective 
against the 1-3-1. This defense would not be sound against 
most teams because it could not cover the outside men, even in 
reasonably close scoring areas. 

Attacks against the zone may be effective and also spectac- 
ular. These attacks may have just as much action as the at- 
tacks against man-to-man defense. There was a time when 
it was thought that the only possible ways to attack the zone 
were to pass it out of position or shoot over it. These methods 



THE ZONE DEFENSE AND HOW TO ATTACK IT 195 

are still good but it is also possible to attack the zone by mov- 
ing players as they move in attacking the man-to-man. The 
plays in diagrams V-IX on pages 194-195, give examples. 
From these, coaches can easily work out similar attacks de- 
pending on the material at hand. Other general measures 
that may be employed to cope with the zone defense are as 
follows: 

1. Improvement in set shooting from outer areas. (Neces- 
sary to supplement any zone attack.) 

2. Insistence on adequate and uniform facilities that will 
eliminate conditions conducive to the use of the zone — such 
as short or narrow courts or low ceilings. 

3. Use of a fast-break offense that can attack before the 
zone defense is set and organized. 

4. The use of an offensive formation against the set zone 
that is similar to or the same as that used to attack the man- 
to-man defense. 

In attacking the zone, it is particularly helpful if the of- 
fensive team uses the same formation used in attacking the 
man-to-man defense. If this plan is not followed, it is easy 
for the defense to shift from man-to-man to zone and vice 
versa each time the offensive team changes its regular forma- 
tion. 

One other suggestion is made for the use of the offensive 
team in attacking the zone. It takes two teams to make a 
basketball game. Either team may, within the rules, ruin the 
game for the players and for the spectators. Many games 
have been ruined because one team employed the zone defense 
and the other team held the ball in mid-court and made no 
effort to play. If the offensive team is ahead, it may be their 
privilege to make the defense come out. The same is true 
against a man-to-man defense. Yet a team that makes no 
effort to score against any type of defense is really not helping 
the game. The exception to this, of course, might occur in 
the closing moments of the game, when strategy dictates that 
the team ahead protect its lead. If this stalling type of offense 



194 THE ZONE DEFENSE AND HOW TO ATTACK IT 

is employed through the entire game, it becomes a very drab 
spectacle. 

The proper way to beat the zone defense, or any defense, 
is to know how to attack it by well-executed plays, causing 
the opposing team to change their defensive tactics. No de- 
fense should be attacked by holding the ball in mid-court 
or playing a freeze game. Stalling, "freezing," or holding 
on to the ball, may be good basketball at times, but it is not 
the type of basketball that has made the game the greatest of 
all of our indoor sports and that has filled our gymnasiums and 
arenas from coast to coast. The zone defense or the loose 
man-to-man defense is not usually responsible for slowing 
down the game, and causing it to be a poor spectacle. More 
often, it is because the offense chooses to stop its efforts to 
score. 

DIAGRAM V 

Passing the Zone out of 
Position 

(Effective against 1-3—1, 3-2 

or 2—1—2 defense. May be 

used against 2—3.) 

Play No. 1 




X3 passes to XI who passes to 
XS who passes to X2 who 
shoots or passes to X4. Play 
goes to either side by moving 
X3 to left and XI to center. 



DIAGRAMS VI, VII, VIII, and IX 

show passing the zone out of position with use of cutters. 

(Possible against 3-2, 2-1-2, or 2-3 defense.) 



DIAGRAM VI 

Attacking the Tone 
Play No. 2 



DIAGRAM VII 

Attacking the Tone 
Play No. 3 




Zone attack: X2 to XI to X5 
who cuts to side. At instant 
XI passes to XS, X3 cuts be- 
hind © for bounce pass. He 
shoots, or if © interferes, X3 
bounce passes to X4 who 
moves toward basket. Goes 
to either side. 

DIAGRAM VIII 

Attacking the Tone 
Play No. 4 



X2 to XI to X5 back to XI 

to X3 in corner who shoots 

over XS. Same play either 

side. 



DIAGRAM IX 

Attacking the Tone 
Play No. 5 




X"" 


®f 


~©~ 


7 X 


4 


®^~'<2> / 




i * 




X3 >^2 






C^ 





X2 to XI to X3 to X5 or X4. 
Same play either side. 



X2 to XI to X5 to X4 who 

shoots or passes to X 3 . Eithei 

side. 



195 



Chapter 19 
Better Defense 



T 



.HE CHAPTER ON FAST-BREAK BASKETBALL EMPHASIZED 

the fact that today the game is predominantly an offensive 
one. With college teams hitting the one hundred point mark 
and professional teams frequently going over that mark, what 
is the peak to be? Do we need a balance in the game? Is 
defense neglected? 

Many feel that the game is reaching a state of offensive 
hysteria. In spite of the fact that the game owes its popu- 
larity to high scoring, it can be overdone. Most people like 
to see a baseball game in which a few home runs are made 
rather than a 1-0 "pitchers' battle." However, most people 
do not enjoy a 23-20 baseball game. In football, fans like 
to see some touchdowns. However, it is doubtful that they 
would care to see a 60-50 football game. A basketball game 
can be a colorful, high-scoring affair and still include good 
defense. 

At one time we had basketball games in which the scores 
were 20 points or less. These were defensive battles. Years 
ago coaches told us that if we could hold our opponents score- 
less and each of us score one basket, we would win 10-0. 
Stressing defense in this manner was not uncommon, yet none 
of us feels that this was a desirable type of game, either for the 
players or for the spectators. 

We needed to do something to open up the offense and 
we changed the rules. The very changes that have made the 
game a high-scoring one minimized the importance of good 

196 



BETTER DEFENSE 197 

defense. Some of these changes and their effects on defense 
are as follows: 

1. Elimination of the center jump 

This change, of course, helped the game offensively. It has made 
possible the popular, high-scoring game. However, this change has 
lessened the importance of defense, because, when a team is scored 
upon, they know they are going to get the ball again. In other 
words, the elimination of the center jump has actually made the field 
goal of less value. 

Assume that our team scores eight field goals. As a result, we 
give our opponents a chance to score eight times, and if they are 
successful in 25 percent of their efforts, which is average, they will 
get four points. That means our net total on the eight goals is 
twelve points. Under the old rules, if our team scored eight field 
goals, the other team would theoretically get the ball four times if 
we break even on the tip-offs. If they again scored the usual 25 
percent they would have one goal, and our net gain on the eight field 
goals would be fourteen points. Therefore, theoretically, it is con- 
siderably less important for the teams to play good defense under the 
new rule. 

2. The ten-second rule 

In making it necessary • to bring the ball across the center line 
within ten seconds, the forcing defense all over the court has been 
nearly eliminated from the game, except in the closing minutes. 
"While this rule may be helpful to the defense in one way, it has en- 
couraged a lack of man-to-man defense and an increase in position 
or zone defense. 

Along with the rule changes, there were other factors that 
came into the game that lessened the emphasis on defense. 
Some of these were: 

1. The one-hand shot 

This type of shot is not accurate more than twenty-five feet from 
the basket for most players. Its use in outer areas, to the exclusion 
of the two-hand shot, has encouraged zone and position defense. It 
has minimized the importance of playing a tight defense even out to 
the mid-court. The defense has in many cases been content to guard 



198 BETTER DEFENSE 

the keyhole area only. This is not good for either the offensive or 
defensive phases of the game. 

2. Lack of defensive fundamentals 

During World War II, coaches of both school and service teams 
used the excuse, and justifiably, that they did not have players long 
enough to teach them the fundamentals of the game thoroughly, 
particularly good defense. The tendency, therefore, was to try to 
outscore the other team rather than to insist on reasonable defense 
when the opponents gained possession of the ball. This tendency 
still exists. Most coaches seem to agree that a better balance can 
and must be maintained in the game by placing more emphasis 
on individual and team defense. Coaches who are quick to realize 
this situation will not only win more games, but will improve the 
game greatly, for both the player and the spectator. There are cer- 
tain definite ways in which this emphasis on defense may be brought 
about. One way, of course, would be to make rule changes to favor 
the defense just as we have made them to favor the offense. This, 
however, does not seem necessary. The problem can be met in other 
ways. Some suggestions follow: 

a. Insist on good, sound individual fundamentals of defense. Be 
sure that every player knows how to guard an individual properly. 
Also, insist that he understand the intricacies of defense against 
screens of various kinds. 

b. Be sure that the players learn the elements of zone defense in- 
dividually. There are times when one man has to guard a territory 
under the basket while two or more opponents are coming at him; or 
when three come against two opponents. 

c. Be sure that any offensive attack, whether it be a fast break or 
a set play, has at least one safety man and a definite defensive team 
organization in case the ball should be lost. 

d. Be sure that the team has a definite plan for getting back on 
the defense, particularly against an opponent that is fast-breaking. 

e. Be sure that the team is able to play a good, pressing man-to- 
man defense, which is the only defense possible when a team is be- 
hind and has to force play. 

f. Team defense should also include a defensive plan for jump- 
ball, out-of -bound, and free-throw situations. 

g. Be sure that your team has a good team defense against their 
opponents' set-play attack. In this case a team should be able to 
use at least two defenses. Your own material and the opponents' 



BETTER DEFENSE 199 

attack are, of course, the determining factors. If the opponents 
depend on moving screens, perhaps your best defense would be a 
combination or zone defense. If the other team excels in long shoot- 
ing or in a fast passing game, perhaps your best defense would be 
man-to-man or perhaps a combination of the two. Vary the defense 
to meet the offensive attack. 



Chapter 20 

Basketball Material 
and How to Use It 



E 



I VERY COACH HOPES FOR IDEAL MATERIAL. IT IS PRETTY 

hard to win races without the horses. We are constantly 
looking for that ideal combination in a basketball team or 
squad that will be a top contender and come home with a 
championship. Of course, all coaches may not agree on just 
what this ideal combination is and just what ideal material 
consists of. 

I prefer to look for a combination of speed and size, with 
particular emphasis on the latter. It is granted that players 
must have reasonably good coordination and some natural bas- 
ketball ability, desire, competitive attitude, and similar quali- 
ties. These factors may be developed by coaching. Speed 
and size can be improved but little. It is true that we can 
improve a player's speed slightly and teach him how to use his 
speed properly, but we cannot give him the ability to run fast. 
Neither can we give a boy an extra foot in height. We can 
teach him to use his height effectively but we cannot give a 
six-foot player an extra half foot to compete with the boy who 
is six feet six inches. Once a coach has decided, then, on the 
type of material he is looking for, how can this material be 
found or developed? 

It is my opinion that coaches who are at an institution any 
length of time should have no alibi for constantly having poor 
material. The following suggestions may be of some help: 

200 



BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 201 

1 . Basketball is a game composed of natural or fundamental skills. 
These include running, throwing, jumping, shooting, and similar ac- 
tivities. Every boy enjoys playing on a team if he has the oppor- 
tunity to compete with others of similar ability. Therefore, it is 
the coach's duty to see to it that all boys in the school system have 
the opportunity to learn the game and to play on a team. This plan 
will not only render a great service to boys but excellent varsity 
material will come as a by-product of such a program. Medical 
examinations, of course, should be given before a player is permitted 
to compete. 

s 2. See that fundamentals of basketball are included in the Physi- 
cal Education program in the elementary schools in your community. 
Boys at this age should not play a great number of highly competitive 
games but fundamentals such as foot work, dribbling, passing, and 
shooting may be included in drills that are attractive and that will 
lead into the coach's particular style of play. 

3. Junior high school teams should play a type of basketball simi- 
lar to that used in the senior high. For example, if the high school 
senior team is employing a fast break, it is important that this feature 
be included in the system of junior high teams. Not only will this 
develop the type of material required but it also will stimulate greater 
interest on the part of the junior high school player and will activate 
his desire to play on the senior team. 

4. Cooperate with and follow the industrial, church, and amateur 
leagues in your community that might have players of school age 
participating. In one instance, four out of five players who later 
made up a State championship high school team, were found playing 
on independent teams and did not turn out for the high school squad 
at all until the coach discovered them. Boys who work after school, 
or for some reason have not been reached in the school program, may 
be found in these leagues. 

5. See that basketball facilities and teams are included in summer 
playground and recreational programs in your community. Basket- 
ball is now a year-round game. Where weather permits, play- 
grounds should have out-of-door courts. Tennis courts, for exam- 
ple, may be made into combination courts by putting baskets at each 
end. Summer leagues in basketball are possible. The more basket- 
ball that is played in your community, the greater chance you have 
of developing material. 

6. Be sure that you reach every possible candidate enrolled in your 
school. Every boy who enrolls should fill out a form giving his 



202 BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 

experience in all sports and his desire to participate. These should 
be followed up and every possible candidate interviewed. Intra- 
mural programs should be provided for those who cannot make the 
first squad. The coach should watch the progress of every candidate 
very closely and be constantly on the lookout for new and better 
material. 

7. Most important! Be patient with and retain on the squad all 
really big boys until you are sure they have no chance. A six foot 
six inch boy, awkward as a Freshman, may win a championship for 
you as a Senior. Many tall boys look hopeless when they first turn 
out for basketball. Sound advice to any coach is — don't sell the big 
man short. The best way to beat the tall man is to get one taller. 

However, try as we may, sometimes the material is not up 
to par and seldom is it all that the coach desires. Regardless 
of the quality of the material, the coach who can get the best 
out of what he has is usually near the top. Adjusting the 
material to the system or the system to the material (both are 
important) are major coaching problems. More often than 
not, however, a coach may use his favorite system with minor 
changes to fit the material rather than use an entirely different 
system with which he and the returning players are not fa- 
miliar. 

General Hints on Use of Material 

The following combinations of speed and size are the pos- 
sible ones with which coaches may have to work. For each 
combination, suggestions are offered for fast-break and set- 
play offense (against man-to-man defense). Basic diagrams 
are given with a sample play. Coaches may work out varia- 
tions and options to suit particular needs. It is recognized, of 
course, that certain stages of the game, the score, the type of 
opponents, etc., may always dictate the offensive style of game. 
These suggestions are offered for use under normal or general 
conditions: 



BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 203 

1. Three big men and two smaller fast men (the ideal combination). 

a. Ideal for fast break illustrated in Diagrams X and XI on 
page 205. 

b. Use set plays that do not require five men moving and do 
not pull big men away from offensive board. 

c. Use big men for screeners and rebounders. 

d. Use small men as set shots and cutters. Plays from Dia- 
grams XII and XIII on page 206 recommended. Play in 
diagram XIV, page 207, also good. 

e. Ideal for 2-1-2 zone or combination defense or assigned man- 
to-man. 

2. Two big men and three smaller men. 

a. Ideal for fast break illustrated in Diagrams X and XL 

b. Use set plays that have three men moving and utilize two 
big men for rebounds. Variations of the double post are 
good. Plays from Diagrams XII, XIV, XV and XVI on 
pages 206-208 recommended. 

c. Assigned man-to-man defense or 3-2 zone usually best, de- 
pending on speed and ability of players. 

3. One big man and four smaller men. 

a. Fast break may be used but success will depend on beating 
defense back for direct scores, as rebound strength is not 
great. 

b. Use single pivot with big man in bucket and four men mov- 
ing. Ideal for four-man weave, give-and-go game, etc. 

c. Use set shots with caution due to weak rebounding. See 
Diagram XII on page 206; also, Diagrams XIV, XVIII and 
XIX on pages 207 and 209. 

d. Man-to-man defense recommended. Pressing man-to-man 
should be possible. 

4. Four big men with one small man (not recommended for a team 
unless at least one of big men is fast and an exceptional ball 
handler) . 

a. Utilize Diagram XI fast break if one of big men is fast and 
can handle ball well. Long pass break may be possible. 
Rebound strength is strong. 

b. Set plays should utilize rebound power. Not good usually 
for a moving offense. Set screens, double or triple post 
plays are best. See Diagrams XIII, XV, XVI, and XVII on 
pages 206-208. 



204 BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 

c. Zone defense recommended. Assigned man-to-man defense 
also necessary. 

5. Five big men (not recommended for a team unless at least two 
of big men are fast and exceptional ball handlers). 

a. Utilize Diagram XI fast break if two of big men are fast and 
can handle ball well. Great rebound advantage. 

b. Use set plays that utilize rebounding. Double or triple post 
plays and set screens good. Use set shots to take advantage 
of rebounding. See Diagrams XIII, XV, XVI and XVII 
on pages 206-208. 

c. Zone defense best. Assigned man-to-man also necessary. 

6. Five small men (the long hard winter combination) . Hard to 
compete with team like this but not impossible. By playing all 
court defense against larger opponents, a team of this kind may 
regain possession of the ball often. 

a. Fast break must be used with great caution as rebounding is 
weak. If used at all, team must score directly on break by 
beating defense back. 

b. Set plays should utilize five men moving. Diagram XVIII 
on page 209 using single pivot and changing pivot men 
would be good. Also, formation such as Diagram XIX on 
page 209 that spreads defense and makes possible quick cuts 
into the basket is good. 

c. Ball control, short certain shots, with more than a little 
courage and luck must be the ammunition of this type of 
team. 

d. All man-to-man defense. Should be able to use all varia- 
tions of man-to-man, particularly a pressing defense. 



BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 205 

DIAGRAM X DIAGRAM XI 



Short Pass Fast-Break Attack 
Down Center 

(Possible to use with any com- 
bination) Preferably, X4 and 
XJ should be big men. Oth- 
ers should be fast and good 
ball handlers. 



Long Pass Fast Break Dmvn 
Sides 

(Possible to use with any com- 
bination) Preferably, XI, X4 
and X5 should be big men. 
X2 and X3 should be fast and 
good ball handlers. 




X5 takes rebound and passes 
to X2. X2 passes to X3 who 
passes to Xl cutting for bas- 
ket. XS trails as safety. 
X4 continues down court for 
rebound duty. Play may be 
used to either side. Other 
options may also be worked 
out. 



X5 takes rebound and passes 
long to XI down side. XI 
passes to X3 who drives across 
court. X3 passes to X4 cut- 
ting for basket. XI and X3 
cut down court for rebound 
duty or for return pass. XS 
trails as safety X2 goes to 
meet first pass, then trails 
play. Same play either side. 
Other options may be worked 
out. 



206 



BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 



DIAGRAM XII 

Post Play from Single Pivot 
Formation 

Good with 3 big men, 2 small 
men, or 2 big men and 3 small 
men. X4 and X5 should 
preferably be big. Possible 
with 1 big man, 4 small men. 



DIAGRAM XIII 
Double Post from Single Pivot 

Good with 3 big men, 2 small 
men or 2 big men, 3 small 
men. Possible with 4 big 
men and 1 small man. XI, 
X5 and X4 should be big men. 




X2 passes to XJ who meets 
pass. Xl cuts around post 
man X5 screening ©. X2 
cuts to side line to keep de- 
fense occupied, then cuts out- 
side of XI. XS passes to 
either XI or X2 for score. 
X3 is safety. X4 goes in on 
left side for rebound. X5 
also rebounds. Same play 
either side. 



X2 dribbles inside of X3 and 
hands off to X3. At same 
time, XI and X5 come to- 
gether. X3 passes to XI. 
X3 cuts around XI for return 
pass, screening ®. XI may 
also hand off to XJ coming 
around later. Other options 
may be used. X2 is safety. 
X4, X5 and Xl rebound. 
Same play either side. 



BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 



207 



DIAGRAM XIV 

Single Pivot Variation 

Screen on and away from ball. 
-Good with three big men, two 
small men; two big men, 
three small men. Possible with 
other combinations. Big men 
XI, XS, and X4, preferably, 
are used for screeners. 



DIAGRAM XV 
Double Post Play 

X4 and XS should be big. 

Others may be smaller but 

should have speed, and be 

good ball handlers. 




X2 passes to XI and cuts for 
sideline to occupy defense. 
At same time, X4 screens ® 
and X3 cuts on outside for 
basket. Xl passes to X5 and 
cuts around him, screening 
©. X5 passes for score to 
X3, Xl or X2 whichever is 
open. X4 is safety. XS and 
XI or X3 rebound. Play 
goes to either side. 



Xl passes to XS as X4 and 
X3 both screen ©. X2 cuts 
on outside to receive pass 
from XS and score. If 
takes X2, X4 cuts for basket 
and receives pass from XS. 
XS may also pass to Xl on 
right side. X3 is safety. XS 
and X4 rebound. Same play 
either side. 



208 



BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 



DIAGRAM XVI 

Double Post Play 

X4 and XS should be big men. 

Others may be smaller but 

should have speed and be good 

ball handlers. 



DIAGRAM XVII 
Triple Post Play 

Used with three or four big 
men. Xl, X4 and X5 must 
be big. They screen for each 
other or for X2 and X3 and 
work the boards. 





SX2 



£^> 



Xl passes to XJ and moves 
over to screen ©. At same 
time, X4 screens © and X5 
dribbles around screen for 
score or passes to X2 on right 
side. Xl is safety. X3 cuts 
on left side for rebound or 
possible pass. X4 also re- 
bounds. Same play either 
side. 



X2 passes to Xl as X4 screens 
®. Xl dribbles around screen 
for score. X5 and X4 re- 
bound. X2 and X3 are safety. 
Many similar options may be 
used. 



BASKETBALL MATERIAL AND HOW TO USE IT 



209 



DIAGRAM XVIII 

Single Pivot with 4-Man 
Weave 

Good with four small, fast 
men with one big man. Pos- 
sible with five small men. 
XI, X2, X3, and X4 must 
have ball-handling ability. 







X3 dribbles inside of and 
hands off to X2. X2 dribbles 
inside of and hands off to X4 
as X3 continues over to screen 
©. X4 dribbles around X2 
for score or may pass to XI 
for score. X5 takes © out 
of play, then comes in for 
rebound. X3 and X2 are 
safety. Plan offers numerous 
similar options. 



DIAGRAM XLX 

Spread Formation for Ball 
Control 

Similar to Diagram XVIII ex- 
cept 5 -man instead of 4-man 
weave. All should be good 
ball-handlers. Five small men 
could use this for regular at- 
tack. Center should be kept 
open. 




X""~*i® ^-X2 

4 Vj 



X X3 

X4 dribbles inside of and 
hands off to X3. X3 dribbles 
inside of and hands off to XS 
as X4 continues over to screen 
®. X5 dribbles around X3 
for score or may pass to Xl 
for score. X4 and X3 may 
rebound. X2 is safety. Sim- 
ilar options are possible. 



Coaches who are willing to work hard to develop material 
and have ability to use it properly will be the successful ones. 



Chapter 21 

Complete Annotated Bibliography 
of Basketball Books 



Every basketball coach should be familiar with the literature 
in the field. This is important not only for a knowledge of 
the history and progress of the game, but for all coaching pur- 
poses. It is also important for basketball scouting. Only 
through a thorough knowledge of the game as expressed by 
those actively engaged in the field will coaches be able to ana- 
lyze the game. 

With this thought in mind a complete bibliography of every 
book that has been written on basketball since its origin is 
listed below. Annotations are included in the hope of giving 
helpful information to coaches. 

Allen, Forrest C, Better Basketball. New York: Whittlesey House, 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1937. 490 pp. 

Probably the most complete book on basketball. Dr. Allen is 
one of the best-known coaches; he has been head coach at the Uni- 
versity of Kansas for over twenty-five years. 

All fundamentals, styles of offense and defense, subordinate 
plays are fully covered. Section on conditioning, training, first 
aid, bandaging, and taping is very complete. Basketball Tales is 
an interesting and unique feature. One disappointment is that the 
zone defense, for which Dr. Allen is noted, is not explained in de- 
tail. Book recommended for all coaches. 
Allen, Forrest C, My Basketball Bible, 7th ed. Kansas City: Smith- 
Grieves Company, 1928. 

An earlier book on all phases of basketball. Has been duplicated 

210 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 211 

in Dr. Allen's later book: Better Basketball. Valuable now only 
as a historical reference on basketball. 
Allen, Forrest C, and others. Rating Basketball Players; Their Bat- 
ting and Fielding Averages Computed. University of Kansas, 
Lawrence, Kansas: The Author, 1939. 25 pp. 

Mimeographed publication of players' records at University of 
Kansas during seasons of 1937-38 and 1938-39. Attempts to 
rate players on shooting percentages and other fundamental statis- 
tics. Valuable and interesting study for all coaches. 
Andersen, Leonora E., Basketball for Women. New York: The Mac- 
millan Company, 1929. 

Author has edited Basketball Guide for Women and is prominent 
teacher of basketball. Good general reference for women's basket- 
ball. Needs revision. 
Andersen, Leonora E., An Athletic Program for Elementary Schools. 
New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1934, Chapters IV, V, VI. 

Skill tests in basketball for elementary children; lead-up games 
to basketball. One of the more complete sources of information 
on basketball for grades one to twelve. 
Angell, Emmett D., Basketball for Coach, Player and Spectator. 
Chicago: Wilson Western Sporting Goods Company, 1918. 

One of the earlier pamphlets on basketball written for Wilson. 
An advertising feature, but very useful in its day. Valuable now 
only as a historical reference. 
Bancroft, Jessie H., Games. New York: The Macmillan Company, 
1927, pp. 412-414, 4J0-465, Basketball. 

List of lead-up games for basketball; games of basketball 
skills for all age levels through elementary grades; regular basket- 
ball as it applies to elementary school children. 
Barbour, Ralph Henry, and LeMar Sarra, How to Play Better Basket- 
ball. New York: Apple ton-Century Publishing Company, 1941. 
Hipp. 

Written for junior and senior high school boys. Fundamentals, 
offensive and defensive plays, team management, list of player 
hints, how to officiate. Play diagrams; glossary. 
Barry, Justin M., Basketball; Individual Play and Team Play. Iowa 
City: The Clio Press, 1926. 123 pp. 

Written by Sam Barry while coaching basketball at University 
of Iowa. For past ten years has been coach at University of South- 
ern California. An expert on basketball. 

Book needs revision but section on fundamentals is still good. 



212 COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

For present coaching purposes, more modern books are recom- 
mended. Book interesting for style of game played twenty years 
ago. 

Bee, Clair F., Basketball Annual. New York: Universal Publishing 
and Distributing Corporation, 1948. 128 pp. 

Articles and stories of basketball written by college and profes- 
sional coaches and others. Good entertainment. 
Clair Bee is coach at Long Island University. 

Bee, Clair F., Drills and Fundamentals. New York: A. S. Barnes 
and Company, 1942. Ill pp. 

Clair Bee's idea of basketball fundamentals and how to teach 
them. Not complete in details. Illustrations and diagrams. No 
bibliography. 

Bee, Clair F., Man to Man Defense and Attack. New York: A. S. 
Barnes and Company, 1942. 118 pp. 

A complicated, detailed analysis of certain styles of man-to-man 
defense and offensive attacks for each. Recommended for the 
college coach. Diagrams are very complicated. Illustrations are 
interesting but do not always explain the subject. No bibliog- 
raphy. 

Bee, Clair F., The Science of Coaching. New York: A. S. Barnes 
and Company, 1942. 101 pp. 

A practical book for the basketball coach. Chapters on The 
Coach, The Player, Conditioning and Training, Practice and 
Coaching Methods, and Game Strategy and Tactics are all good. 
Offensive and defensive basketball covered rather generally but 
there are better sources for this material. Play diagrams and pic- 
ture illustrations from actual games are used. No bibliography. 

Bee, Clair F., Zone Defense and Attack. New York: A. S. Barnes 
and Company, 1942. 117 pp. 

Probably the most complete analysis of the zone defense avail- 
able. History, development, principles of zone covered; all styles 
explained with offensive attacks for each; diagrams and illustra- 
tions. Book not practical for the beginner in coaching or playing; 
recommended for the college coach. No bibliography. 

Bliss, James G., Basketball. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger Publish- 
ing Company, 1926. 

Included as historical reference. 

Bruce, Robert M., Annotated Bibliography of Basketball Literature. 

The National Association of Basketball Coaches, 1947. 151 pp. 

An indexed, annotated, bibliography of books and periodical 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 213 

publications on basketball through April, 1947. An excellent 
reference and source of information. 

Robert Bruce did this work as a master's thesis at Springfield 
College. 

Bunn, John W., The Art of Basketball Officiating. Springfield, 
Massachusetts: M. F. Stibbs, 1948. 

A modern and much needed book covering all phases of offi- 
ciating. 

Bunn, John W., Basketball Methods. New York: The Macmillan 
Company, 1939. 327 pp. 

Written after Mr. Bunn had enjoyed several highly successful 
seasons at Stanford University. A disciple of Dr. Allen, Kansas 
basketball coach, the author features zone defense. All parts of 
the game are well covered; one-hand shooting, made nationally 
popular through Hank Luisetti at Stanford, is explained in detail. 
Daily practice schedules and methods of instruction are valuable 
features. 

Butler, George D., ed., The New Play Areas; Their Design and Equip- 
ment. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1938, pp. 42, 70- 
72,99,101. 

Important information on out-of-door basketball courts; type 
of material to be used, construction, dimensions ; converting wad- 
ing pools into basketball courts; popularity of the out-of-door 
basketball game. Of particular value to all physical educational 
directors and coaches. Present trends indicate great development 
of out-of-doors basketball. 

Carlson, Harold C, Basketball Research in Fatigue. National As- 
sociation of Basketball Coaches, 1945. 

A scientific study showing the effect of basketball on the human 
body. Relation of the game to fatigue. Should be read by every 
coach. 

Carlson, Henry Clifford, Basketball: The American Game. New 
York: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1938. 189 pp. 

A complete basketball book featuring continuity or Figure 
Eight basketball as used by Dr. Carlson at the University of Pitts- 
burgh. This popular style of offense is used in some variation by 
most coaches. Practical for classes as well as advanced teams. 
Illustrations and diagrams. 

Chandler, William A., and George F. Miller, Basketball Technique. 
Menomonie, Wisconsin: Dunn County News, 1922. 



214 COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Mr. Chandler is coach at Marquette University. Included as 
historical reference. 
Chicago Park District. Basketball Fundamentals Fully Illustrated. 
Chicago: Chicago Park District, 1938. 92 pp. 

Pamphlet published on basketball as a part of recreational series; 
valuable for any elementary instructor of basketball or for players. 
Covers fundamentals only. 
Converse Rubber Company, Basketball Yearbook. Maiden, Mas- 
sachusetts: Converse Rubber Company, 1942. 49 pp. 

An annual publication. Has records and pictures of leading 
college and high school teams; articles on basketball by leading 
coaches; Chuck Taylor's All America selections; national tourna- 
ment summaries. A valuable basketball booklet for all coaches 
even though advertising is the motive. Back copies should be 
kept for reference. 
Cordell, Christobel M., Basketball Assemblies. Portland, Maine: 
Platform News Publishing Company, 1942. 45 pp. 

Reference in basketball administration. 
Cummins, Robert A., A Study of the Effect of Basketball Practice 
on Motor Reaction, Attention and Suggestibility. Princeton, 
New Jersey: Psychological Review, 1914. 21:356-359. 

Important reference in research and testing in basketball. 
Daher, Joseph G., and Clair F. Bee, Fundamentals of Basketball. 
Charleston, West Virginia: Morris Harvey College, 1941. 146 pp. 

Other books by Clair Bee cover same material and are more 
complete. 
Dean, Everett S., Progressive Basketball. Stanford University, Cali- 
fornia: The Author, 1942. 190 pp. 

Mainly the system of basketball taught by Everett Dean at Stan- 
ford University. Fundamentals and styles of offense and defense 
are explained in a practical manner. Chapters on Coaching Meth- 
ods, Condition and Training, Psychology and Strategy, and A 
Daily Practice Schedule are excellent. Coaching philosophies con- 
tributed by nineteen outstanding college coaches are an interesting 
and unique feature. Play diagrams. Illustrations by members of 
the national championship Stanford team of 1942. One of best 
books on basketball. 

Everett Dean coached for ten years at Indiana University be- 
fore going to Stanford as basketball coach in 1940. 
Encyclopedia Americana. New York, Chicago: Americana Cor- 
poration, 1941, Vol. 3, pp. 312-13. 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 

A very brief paragraph on the history and rules of basketball. 
Very incomplete bibliography. Not recommended as an exten- 
sive source of information on the subject. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 
1941, Vol. 3, pp. 181-182. 

A good history of basketball. Philosophy, popularity, strategy, 
summary of rules are included. Basketball for girls and boys 
explained. One-goal basketball described. One court diagram. 
One illustration. 

Evans, Harold O, Some Notes on College Basketball in Kansas. To- 
peka: Kansas Historical Quarterly, 1942. 2:199-215. 

Fish, Marjorie E., Theory and Technique of Women's Basketball. 
Boston, New York: D. C. Heath and Company, 1929. 137 pp. 
Fundamentals are well illustrated. Later books are more com- 
plete. 

Frost, Helen, and Charles D. Wardlaw, Basketball and Indoor Baseball 
for Women. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1920. 154 pp. 

Excellent book in its day. Fundamentals of basketball well 
explained. Still valuable as reference for basketball during that 
period. Both authors were experts on basketball. 

Frymir, Alice W., Basketball for Women; How to Play and Coach 
the Game. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1928. 259 

PP- 

History and development of basketball; qualifications of the 
coach; basketball courts and equipment; all basketball fundamen- 
tals explained in detail; offensive and defensive basketball covered; 
how to play positions, healthful living habits and diet, competition 
for girls. Has limited number of diagrams and illustrations. An 
excellent book on women's basketball. 

Gee, Ernest Richard, compiler, The Sportsman's Library: being a 
Descriptive List of the Most Important Books on Sport. New 
York: Bowker Company, 1940. 158 pp. 
Includes a list of basketball books. 

Gregg, Abel J., ed., Basketball and Character. New York: Associa- 
tion Press. Date not listed by C.B.I. 

A pamphlet published between 1933 and 1937 by the Associa- 
tion Press (National Council of Y.M.C.A.). 

Griffith, John L., and George P. Clark, Basketball Plays and Attack; 
Fundamentals of Basketball; Fundamentals of Basketball Defense; 
Training the Basketball Team. Chicago: Wilson "Western Sport- 
ing Goods Company. Date not listed by C.B.I. 



216 COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Four separate pamphlets published prior to 1928 for Wilson. 
Sold for fifty cents each and contain advertising material. Out of 
date now but useful as historical reference on basketball. 
Gulick, Luther, How to Play Basketball. London: British Sports 
Publishing Company, 1907. 89 pp. 

Mr. Gulick worked with Dr. Naismith in originating basketball. 
Book should be very valuable historical reference. One of original 
Spalding Athletic Library books, Group 7, No. 27. 
Gulick, Luther, A Symposium on Basketball. Springfield, Massachu- 
setts: American Physical Education Review, 1909. 14:376-389. 
Another historical reference by one of the originators of basket- 
ball. 
Gullion, Blair, Basketball Offensive Fundamentals Analyzed. Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, New York: The Author, 1938. 82 pp. 

An excellent analysis of the usual basketball fundamentals. 
Results of a study in slow motion moving pictures of players exe- 
cuting the fundamentals. Illustrations are excellent. No bib- 
liography. 

Blair Gullion is coach at Washington University, St. Louis, and 
is a product of Indiana basketball. 
Gullion, Blair, One Hundred Drills for Teaching Basketball Funda- 
mentals. Richmond, Indiana: The Author, 1933. 47 pp. 

Written when Mr. Gullion was coach at Earlham College, Rich- 
mond, Indiana. Very useful and practical for coaches and class 
teachers of basketball. 
Gullion, Blair, Basketball Offensive Fundamentals. Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee: The Author, 1936. 84 pp. 

Written when Mr. Gullion was coach at University of Tennes- 
see. His later publication, Basketball Offensive Fundamentals 
Analyzed, covers the same material. 
Hager, Robert H., Percentage Basketball. Oregon State College, 
Corvallis, Oregon: The Author, 1926. 112 pp. 

Mr. Hager was coach at Oregon State College when book was 
written, but is no longer coaching. 

An offensive style of basketball explained thoroughly; still used 
in some degree by many coaches; still a valuable reference. Fun- 
damentals and defensive play also covered. 
Hawley, Gertrude, An Anatomical Analysis of Sports. New York: 

A. S. Barnes and Company, 1940. 191 pp. 
Healey, William A., High School Basketball. Minneapolis: Burgess 
Publishing Company, 1940. 68 pp. 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 

A book for high school coaches; practical and easy to read. 

Duplicated pretty much in author's later book: Coaching and 

Managing High School Basketball. 

Healey, "William A., Coaching and Managing High School Basketball. 

Danville, Illinois: Interstate Printing Company, 1942. 194 pp. 

Designed for the high school coach. History and growth of 
basketball; fundamentals, team offense and defense; suggestions to 
coaches; basketball tests; purchase and care of equipment; recent 
developments in basketball, are all well covered. Practical and 
easy to understand. Diagrams, illustrations, bibliography. 

Distributed by the National Federation of State High School 
Athletic Associations, Chicago, and by A. S. Barnes and Company, 
New York. 
Hillas, Marjorie, and Marian Knighton, An Athletic Program for 
High School and College Women. New York: A. S. Barnes and 
Company, 1938, Chapter VI. 

Achievement tests in basketball; basketball squad practice; bas- 
ketball relays; variety of basketball games. One of later and bet- 
ter references for women's basketball. 
Hinkle, Paul, Basketball's Assistant Coach. Tiffin, Ohio: Saygers 

Sport Syndicate, 1933. Not listed in C.B.I. 
Hepbron, George T., How to Play Basketball. New York: Ameri- 
can Sports Publishing Company, 1904. 76 pp. 

One of first books on basketball. Included for historical refer- 
ence. One of Spalding's Athletic Library books, Vol. 17, No. 193. 
Hobson, Howard A., The All America Basketball Player Record and 
Scout Book. New Haven, Conn.: Walker-Rackliff Co., 1948. 

Not a textbook, but a book for scouting and recording indi- 
vidual player achievements during the season. Covers 35 games. 
Hobson, Howard A., Basketball Illustrated. New York: A. S. 
Barnes & Company, 1948. 86 pp. 

A well illustrated elementary book for boys and young coaches. 
Excellent for the beginner. Covers all fundamentals thoroughly. 
Gives examples of offensive plays and defensive formations. Fea- 
tures training, conditioning, and self-testing activities for the 
player. 102 illustrations; 14 diagrams. No bibliography. 

Howard Hobson coached twelve years at the University of Ore- 
gon before coming to Yale as coach in 1947. His team won the 
National Championship in 1939. 
Hobson, Howard A., The Official Basketball Scout and Record Book. 
New Haven, Conn.: Walker-Rackliff Co., 1948. 



218 COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Not a textbook, but a book for scouting and recording player 
and team achievements during the season. Covers 3 5 games. 

Holman, Nathan, Championship Basketball. Chicago: Ziff-Davis 
Publishing Company, 1942. 155 pp. 

The various fundamentals and team plays that make a cham- 
pionship team when properly executed. Fundamentals are well 
illustrated; man-to-man defense is very good. One of better 
books for coaches. Film under same title also available through 
author. 

Mr. Holman has been coach at College of the City of New York 
for many years and was one of the outstanding professional players 
of all time. 

Holman, Nathan, Winning Basketball. New York: C. Scribner's 
sons, 1935. 215 pp. 

A good basketball book. A more general treatment than Mr. 
Holman's later publication: Championship Basketball. Various 
features of offensive and defensive styles of basketball are well 
covered. The two-hand set shot is explained well. 

Hood Rubber Products Company. Basketball Hints. New York: 
Hood Rubber Products Company. 

Booklets published by Hood between 1933 and 1937. Were 
distributed each year for advertising purposes but were very valu- 
able; still good for references on fundamental notes. Include list 
of do's and don't's on offense and defense; plays and articles by 
leading coaches. 

Howard, Glenn W., A Measurement of the Achievement in Motor 
Skills of College Men in the Game Situation of Basketball. New 
York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1937 (Teachers 
College, Columbia University. Contributions to Education, No. 
733). 109 pp. 

A scientific measurement of skills executed by college players in 
games. Observation of each player for a specified length of time 
by expert judge; subjective methods and results not entirely satis- 
factory, but this is a study that should be examined by all coaches; 
should be an inspiration for much needed testing in basketball. 

Dr. Howard is not a basketball coach but is professor of physi- 
cal education at Queens College, New York. His dissertation is 
probably the first one ever done specifically in the field of basket- 
ball. 

Hughes, William L., ed., The Book of Major Sports. New York: 
A. S. Barnes and Company, 1938, pp. 139-209. 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 

Devotes a section to each major sport written by an expert in 
each sport. The basketball section is written by Charles C. Mur- 
phy, who duplicates this section in his book, Basketball. A rather 
ordinary treatment of the fundamentals of basketball. Questions 
for discussion and test questions on various phases of basketball are 
valuable. 

Dr. Hughes was coach at DePauw University prior to his ap- 
pointment as professor of physical education at Temple University. 
Indiana University, King Basketball. Bloomington, Indiana: The 
Author. 

In print in 1928 and is distributed by Indiana University Book 
Store, Bloomington, Indiana. Included as historical reference. 
International Amateur Basketball Federation, Official Basketball Rules 
for Men as Adopted by International Basketball Federation for 12th 
Olympiad, 1936-1940. New York: Amateur Athletic Union of 
United States, 1936. 

Interesting rules adopted for 1936 Olympics. Height factor 
considered for other nations; all rules pertaining to squads as well 
as game itself. Valuable for historical reference. 
Jones, Ralph R., Basketball from a Coaching Standpoint. University 
of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois: The Author, 1916. Not listed in 
C.B.I. 

Included as historical reference. 
Jourdet, Lon W., and Kenneth A. Hashagen, Modern Basketball. 
Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1939. 165 pp. 

A very complete book with excellent illustrations and diagrams. 
Section on set shooting excellent; all fundamentals; mainly eastern 
styles of offense and defense; coaching problems. 

Mr. Jourdet was coach at University of Pennsylvania. 
Kennard, Ada B., Tips on Girls' Basketball. Detroit: Sport Tips 
and Teaching Aids, 1914. Not listed in C.B.I. 

Practical for both players and teachers. A minimum of read- 
ing material and maximum of good diagrams. Wall charts also 
available. 
Lambert, Ward Lewis, Practical Basketball. Chicago: Athletic Jour- 
nal Publishing Company, 1932. 243 pp. 

One of most complete publications on basketball. Short and 
long passing fast break; simple fundamentals properly applied; 
man-to-man defense, are features. Conditioning and training, 
coaching principles and suggestions very good. Revision neces- 
sary but still very practical book for all coaches. 



220 COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ward Lambert was coach at Purdue University for over twenty- 
five years and was one of the best coaches in the country — recently 
retired. 
Martin, Warren L., Shifting Basketball Defense. Winfield, Kansas. 
Not listed in C.B.L 

Included as historical reference. 
Mather, Edwin J., and Elmer D. Mitchell, Basketball; How to Coach 
the Game. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1925. 109 

PP- 

An early illustrated book on basketball. Some fundamentals 
still apply but more recent books are better. Valuable only as a 
reference for basketball twenty years ago. 
Meanwell, Walter E., Science of Basketball for Men. Madison, Wis- 
consin: H. D. Gath, 1924. 382 pp. 

Explains the Meanwell short pass game in detail. Also covers 
all fundamentals well; particularly good on man-to-man defense. 
Probably best of earlier books and still quite practical except for 
team plays. Published in 1922 under title, Basketball for Men. 

Dr. Meanwell was coach for many years at University of Wis- 
consin and was one of the leading coaches twenty years ago. 
Meissner, Wilhelmine E., and Elizabeth Y. Myers, Basketball for 
Girls. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1940. 87 pp. 

Fundamentals thoroughly covered; offense and defense for each 
player; equipment, fundamentals of teaching; officiating, diagrams, 
and illustrations. Modern and practical. One of the best books 
on girls' basketball. 
Meissner, Wilhelmine E., ed., Official Basketball and Officials Rating 
Guide for Women and Girls, Containing Rules for 1944-1945. 
New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1944. 112 pp. 

Published for National Section on Women's Athletics of the 
American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recrea- 
tion. 

Standards for women's basketball; progressive basketball pro- 
grams for grades one to twelve; basketball in service programs; 
officials rated for each state; official basketball rules and interpre- 
tations; selected bibliography. The first requisite for coach or 
teacher of basketball; also valuable for players and spectators. 

This is an annual publication. Back copies should be kept for 
reference. 
Messer, Guerdon N., How to Play Basketball. New York: American 
Sports Publishing Company, 1921. 101 pp. 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 221 

A thesis in pamphlet form on the technique of the game. Ear- 
lier edition published in 1911. One of Spalding's Athletic Li- 
brary books, Group 5, No. 193. Valuable for historical reference. 

Miller, Ben W., and Karl W. Bookwalter and George E. Schlafer, 
Physical Fitness for Boys; A Manual for the Instructor of the Serv- 
ice Program. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1943, 
Chapter VIII. 

Team and group games of basketball; basketball for large classes; 
basketball tournaments; variations of basketball activities. Valu- 
able for all physical education instructors. 

Miller, William H., Basketball of Tomorrow. Tulsa, Oklahoma: 
The Jordon Company, 1938. 110 pp. 

Mr. Miller is a veteran coach of Amateur Athletic Union teams. 
The Tulsa D. X. Oilers won the national championship under his 
coaching. 

Mitchell, Elmer D., Intramural Sports. New York: A. S. Barnes 
and Company, 1939. 113 pp. 

Details of arranging and managing college intramural tourna- 
ments; basketball tournaments covered thoroughly; basketball as 
most popular tournament game. Valuable for high school as well 
as college instructors. 

Murphy, Charles C, Basketball. New York: A. S. Barnes and Com- 
pany, 1939. 94 pp. 

Printed from plates of The Book of Major Sports, edited by Wil- 
liam L. Hughes, except photographic illustrations, which are sup- 
plied by Scholastic Coach. 

A rather ordinary treatment of the fundamentals of basketball. 
Questions for discussion and test questions at the end of each chap- 
ter are valuable features. 

Naismith, James A., Basketball: Its Origin and Development. New 
York: Association Press, 1941. 198 pp. 

The last book by the inventor of basketball; how the game 
started; basketball in the earlier periods; present-day basketball; 
the future of the game. Interesting for general public; essential 
for all coaches and instructors for knowledge of game. 

Naismith, James A., and Luther H. Gulick, Basketball. New York: 
American Sports Publishing Co., 1896. 30 pp. 

The first book on basketball. Authors originated the game. 
Explains how the game is played; general rules of the game; coach- 
ing suggestions. Valuable as historical reference. One of Spald- 
ing's Athletic Library books, Volume 2, No. 17. 



222 COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

National Federation of State High School Athletic Associations, Offi- 
cial Basketball Rules for 1944-45; National Federation Edition. 
Chicago: The Author, 1944. 64 pp. 

Intended for high school use. A copy of the basketball rules 
adopted by the National Basketball Committee. Includes records 
and statistics of high school basketball with all state tournament 
results of the previous year. Published annually. Back copies 
should be kept for reference. 

Distributed by National Federation and by A. S. Barnes and 
Company, New York. 

National Federation of State High School Athletic Associations. 
Basketball Game Administration Handbook. Chicago: The Au- 
thor. Date not listed by C.B.I. 

Published in two volumes. Distributed by National Federation 
and by A. S. Barnes and Company, New York. 

Neilson, Neils P., and Frederick W. Cozens, Achievement Scales in 
Physical Education Activities for Boys and Girls in Elementary and 
Junior High School. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 
1939, pp. 18-19, 46-48, 112-114. 

Tests on basketball throwing for girls and boys; test procedure. 
Should be valuable inspiration to coaches for more testing in bas- 
ketball. 

Neilson, Neils P., and Winifred Von Hagen, Physical Education for 
Elementary Schools. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 
1930, Part II. 

A graded program of basketball for elementary schools. Games 
that lead up to basketball and other basketball activities are ex- 
plained for each grade level. Useful for the elementary school 
teacher. 

Nicholas, James R., Technique of Basketball Officiating. [1926]. 
122 pp. 

Included as historical reference. 

Olsen, Harold, Offensive Systems. Tiffin, Ohio: Saygers Syndicate. 
Not listed in C.B.I. 

Mr. Olsen was coach at Ohio State University. 

Peterman, Mark A., Secrets of Winning Basketball, rev. ed. Dan- 
ville, Illinois: Interstate Printing Company, 1941. 96 pp. 

Recommended for the high school coach. Distributed by Na- 
tional Federation of High School Athletic Associations, Chicago, 
and by A. S. Barnes and Company, New York. 

Porter, Harold V., ed., Basketball Play Situations. Chicago: Na- 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 223 

tional Federation of State High School Athletic Associations, 1944. 
80 pp. 

Correct interpretations on play situations for each rule; sanc- 
tioned by Oswald Tower, official interpreter of the National Bas- 
ketball Committee; section for basketball officials; 311 problems 
solved for the coach and player. Valuable for all instructors; only 
book of its kind published. 

Published each year. Back copies should be kept for reference. 
Ruby, James C, Team Play in Basketball. Champaign, Illinois: 
Basketball Book Company, 1931. 157 pp. 

A separate book dealing with team plays of various kinds, both 
offensive and defensive; value of team work in games; selection of 
squad. Duplicated in Part III of author's book: Coaching Basket- 
ball. 
Ruby, James C, Coaching Basketball. Champaign, Illinois: Basket- 
ball Book Company, 1931. 307 pp. 

Published in 1926 under title: How to Coach and Play Basket- 
ball. Mr. Ruby wrote these books when coach at University of 
Illinois. He is no longer coaching. 

One of the best sources on fundamentals. Other sections need 
revision. Good reference for middlewestern basketball during 
earlier period. 
Rupp, Adolph F., Championship Basketball. New York: Prentice- 
Hall, Inc., 1948. 239 pp. 

Adolph Rupp's philosophy and system of basketball as used at 
the University of Kentucky. A very complete basketball book 
covering all phases of the game. Coaching stories are a feature. 
107 diagrams. Index. 

Adolph Rupp has coached two National Championship teams 
at the University of Kentucky. He was the United States College 
Olympic Coach in 1948. 
Smith, Hubert H, Administration and Educational Values of a Dis- 
trict Basketball Tournament. New York: Teachers College, Co- 
lumbia University, 1926. 7 pp. 

A Phi Delta Kappa Thesis at Teachers College, Columbia Uni- 
versity. Should be valuable to high school coaches and physical 
education directors. 
Tower, Oswald, ed., Spalding's Official Basketball Guide for 1940- 
1941. New York: American Sports Publishing Company, 1940. 

Last publication of the guide by A. G. Spalding Brothers. This 
and all back copies of annual guide should be in library of the 



224 COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 

coach for reference. Divided into sections on college and high 
school records; official ratings; rules and interpretations. 

Tobin, James F., ed., Spalding's Official Basketball Rules for 1940- 
1941 as Adopted by the Amateur Athletic Union of the United 
States. New York: American Sports Publishing Company, 1940. 
A.A.U. rules written when A.A.U. was not a member of Na- 
tional Basketball Board. 

Tobey, Dave, Basketball Officiating. New York: A. S. Barnes and 
Company, 1943. 73 pp. 

Conditioning of the official; equipment, duties, officiating sys- 
tems, single and double; game situations; ethics and relationships 
of the official, are all well covered. Chapter called Do's and 
Don't's is an added feature. Illustrations and diagrams. Rec- 
ommended for officials and coaches. 

Dave Tobey has been a prominent basketball official for over 
twenty-five years. He was coach at Savage College. 

Tower, Oswald, ed., The Official Basketball Guide. New York: 
A. S. Barnes and Company, 1943. 256 pp. 

The official rules as adopted by the National Basketball Com- 
mittee of the United States and Canada. Includes records and 
reviews of past season in all sections; college conference and tour- 
nament summaries; basketball editorials; basketball officials' sec- 
tion. Published annually. The most important book for coaches, 
players, and spectators. Coaches should keep back copies as refer- 
ence for rule changes, history, and records. 

United States Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, Basketball. 
"Washington, D. C: United States Naval Institute, 1943. 257 pp. 
One of several books on major sports written by expert coaches 
while in United States Navy. Intended for use in schools of all 
levels, including colleges; also playground and recreation centers. 
Stress is on mass participation. 

Naval aviation basketball program reviewed; team defense and 
team offense; court facilities; the out-of-doors possibilities of bas- 
ketball; equipment, safety precautions, ground school foundations; 
class organization and instruction. One of best books for instruc- 
tors of basketball. 

Veenker, George F., Basketball for Coaches and Players. New York: 
A. S. Barnes and Company, 1930. 234 pp. 

Very complete book that is still practical. Fundamentals ex- 
plained with illustrations. Simple plays diagrammed; particularly 



COMPLETE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 225 

good on man-to-man defense and attacks against it. Recom- 
mended for all coaches. 

Mr. Veenker was coach at Iowa State College. He is no longer 
coaching. 

Wardlaw, Charles Digby and Whitelaw R. Morrison, Basketball: A 
Handbook for Coaches and Players. New York: C. Scribner's 
Sons, 1921. 231pp. 

Fundamentals of basketball explained; training suggestions; ad- 
ministrational duties of the coach; how the game is played. Illus- 
trations and diagrams. A very useful book in its day and valuable 
now as a history reference of basketball. Not recommended for 
the coach of present-day basketball. 

Welsh, R., Winning Basketball. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing 
Co., 1947. 



APPENDIX 



Glossary 



Abused Area — 
All-round Player- 
Angle, Proper — 



Areas — 
Area-Scoring 
Method — 

Assist — 

Attempts — 
Back Court — 



Ball-Control 
Game — 

Ball-Handling — 

Ball Hawk — 

Ball, Loose — 
Basket — 



Basket Shooting — 
Basket Shooting 
Charts — 



The medium area where players seem to take 

more bad shots. 

A player who is expert in all phases of the 

game. 

Defensive term meaning the act of taking a 

position between the offensive player and the 

basket at a certain angle. 

Certain designated parts of the playing court. 

A suggested method of awarding different 
points for field goals scored in different areas. 
A pass made by a player that directly con- 
tributes to a field goal. 
An attempt to score a goal; a shot. 
That part of the court between the center 
line and the end line behind a team's oppo- 
nent's basket. 

A conservative offensive plan used to protect 

a lead; a percentage game. 

Ability of the player to control the ball well 

in all situations. 

A player who is expert in retrieving the ball; 

a ball recovery expert. 

A ball not in possession of either team. 

The ring eighteen inches in diameter with 

white net, through which the ball is thrown 

to score a goal; also used interchangeably 

with field goal. 

Shooting the ball at the basket. 

Charts or forms used to record attempts and 
goals. 

227 



228 



GLOSSARY 



Bench — 

Bench Warmer- 
Boards — 
Bottle Up — 

Box Score — 
Break, The — 
Bucket — 

Catcalls — 



Catching — 
Center — 

Center Jump — 



Chalk Talk — 
Change of Pace — 

Changing Men — 

Chart — 

Charting — 

Clincher — 
Clutch — 
Clutch Player — 

Coach — 

Converted Free 

Throw or Shot- 
Court — 
Cracker Box 

Gymnasium — 
Crashing Through- 



Section reserved for team officials and for 
players while not participating in the game. 
A player who sits on the bench. 
Basketball backboards. 

A defensive term which means to stop the 
offense from functioning effectively. 
Summary of the game records. 
The fast break. 

Keyhole area; around the basket; bucket 
means basket. 

A term attributed to spectators' cheers that 
are unsportsmanlike. Remarks that are un- 
complimentary. 

The act of catching or receiving the ball. 
Name of one of the positions on a basketball 
team. 

The two centers jump for the ball which is 
tossed up between them at the start of the 
game, at the start of the second half and at 
certain other times; a tip-off; a jump ball. 
A meeting on basketball. 
The act of moving at different and alternat- 
ing speeds over the court. 
A defensive term meaning that defensive 
players change assignments. 
A form on which objective or subjective data 
are recorded. 

Recording of objective data during the course 
of a game or scrimmage. 
A goal that seems to assure victory. 
A period when the game is close. 
A player who plays well in the clutch or 
when the game is close. 

One who teaches a team or squad the game 
of basketball. 

A free throw or shot that is successful; a goal. 
The playing floor. 

A small gymnasium — under regulation size. 
-A defensive term meaning that the defensive 



GLOSSARY 



229 



Cripple — 

Cross Screening — 

Cross Up — 

Cutaway — 

Cutter — 

Cutting Plays — 

Defense, All 
Court — 

Defense, 

Combination — 



player stays directly with his assignment on 
screen plays by staying between his man and 
the screener. 

A type of shot — an easy short shot. 
Players cross to screen out opponents from 
basket on rebounds. 

The act of doing what the opponents do not 
expect. 

Offensive term meaning that player cuts 
for the basket after setting a screen. Used 
when defense changes assignments too fast. 
A player who runs or cuts on the court, usu- 
ally for the basket. 

Plays that use players who cut or run from 
one position to another. 

A style of defense in which players are 
guarded tightly in all parts of the court. 



A combination of man-to-man and zone de- 
fense. 

Defense, Forcing — A pressing defense; a tight defense; an effort 
to force the offensive team into action. 

Defense, Indi- 
vidual — A player's individual defensive techniques 
such as defensive footwork, ball hawking, 
and guarding. 

A team defense that plays in the keyhole area 
and does not force play in the outer areas; 
a loose defense. 

A sagging defense; a defense that converges 
to the center; a defense that does not press. 



Defense, Keyhole- 



Defense, Loose — 

Defense, Loose 
Away from the 
Ball — 



Defense, Man-to- 

Man — 



A defense in which the defensive players 
guarding men not near the ball play well 
away from their men; used to congest the 
keyhole area. 

A defense that gives each player a definite 
opponent to guard. 



230 



GLOSSARY 



Defense, Sliding — A defense that enables players to stay with 
regular assignments. 

Defense, Switching — A defense that permits players to change de- 
fensive assignments repeatedly. 

Defense, Zone — A defense that gives each player an area of 
the court to cover. 



Defensive Back 

BOARD WoRK- 

Defensp/e Foot 

WORK 



Defensive rebound techniques. 



Various techniques of footwork employed 
by a player while on defense. 
Defensive Player — A player on the team not in possession of the 
ball; a player attempting to prevent an op- 
ponent from scoring. 

A defensive term meaning the act whereby 
an opponent is guarded closely at all times. 
Defensive term meaning to put two players 
against one. 



Dogged — 



Double Up — 



Draw the Defense 
Out — 



Dribble — 



Dribble, Broken — 



An offensive plan to make the defensive play- 
ers come to the outer areas of the court in 
order to relieve congestion near the basket. 
Throwing, batting, bouncing, or rolling the 
ball and touching it again before it touches 
another player. 

A discontinued dribble in which the ball 
comes to rest in one or both hands of the 
dribbler; a violation. 

Exercises given to train players in basketball 
skills. 

A player's effort to dribble hard toward the 
basket in an effort to score. 
Defensive term meaning to play loose or 
away from an opponent. 
A word used to describe the action of a tall 
man who jumps high and reaches above the 
rim of the basket to drop the ball through 
the basket. 

Errors, Basketball — Loss of ball, and personal fouls. 

Fake — An offensive fundamental action that draws 

a defensive player out of position. 



Drells- 



Drp/e In — 



Drop Off — 



Dunking — 



GLOSSARY 



231 



Fan — 

Fast Break — 



Feed — 

Field — 
Figure 8 — 

First String — 
Floor Play — 



Footwork — 
Forward — 

Force Play — 

Foul Area — 
Foul, Deld3erate- 
Foul Out — 

Foul, Personal — 

Foul, Technical- 
Free Ball — 
Free Throw — 



Free-Throw 
Attempt — 

Free Thrower — 



A spectator. 

A system of team offense that attempts to 
advance the ball to the front court for scor- 
ing opportunities before the defense is organ- 
ized. 

A pass; to feed the ball to a player is to pass 
it to him. 
The playing floor. 

An offensive plan in which all five players 
move in a manner that forms the figure 8. 
The first squad or the first team. 
General ability in playing the game offen- 
sively aside from shooting, such as ball han- 
dling, passing, and dribbling. 
Various movements of the basketball player 
in which the feet are used. 
Name of one of the positions on a basketball 
team. Originally thought of as an offensive 
player who played in the front court. For- 
wards and guards now perform similar duties. 
To press the team with the ball in an effort to 
make them play faster. 
Keyhole area. 
An intentional foul. 

Being forced to leave the game after com- 
mitting five personal fouls. 
A player foul which involves contact with 
an opponent while the ball is in play or after 
the ball is in the possession of a player for a 
throw-in from out-of-bounds. 
A foul that does not involve contact; not a 
personal foul. 

A ball not in possession of either team that 
is in play. 

Privilege given a player to score one point 
by an unhindered throw for goal from a 
position directly behind the free-throw line. 

A try or attempt or shot at the basket made 

in an effort to score a free throw. 

A player in the act of shooting a free throw. 



232 



GLOSSARY 



Free-Throw Lane — 

Free-Throw Line — 

Free-Throw 
Percentage — 



Freeze the Ball- 
Front Court — 



Fundamentals — 

Fundamentals, 
Group — 

Fundamentals, 
Individual — 

Gallop — 

Games Abroad — 
Give-and-Go — 



Glass Boards — 
Goal — 

Goal, Field — 



Goal, Free-Throw- 



Going Through — 



Areas at each end of the court; an area be- 
tween the foul line and the end line. 
A line fifteen feet out from the basket from 
which free throws are attempted. 

Percentage of free throws made; number of 
free-throw attempts divided into number of 
free throws scored; free-throw shooting aver- 
age. 

To hold the ball and make no effort to score. 
That part of the court between the end line 
behind a team's own basket and the center 
line. 

Elementary skills of the game such as drib- 
bling, shooting, passing, and similar skills. 



Fundamentals executed 
four on a side. 



by two, three, or 



Fundamentals executed by one player or one 
player on a side. 

A term used to describe a player running at 
full speed. 

Games played away from home. 
An offensive plan in which players pass the 
ball to a teammate and run for the basket or 
to another position — usually for a return 
pass. 

Backboards made of glass. 
Made when the ball enters the basket from 
above and remains in or passes through. 
Goal scored from the field or playing floor 
other than a free throw; a field goal counts 
two points. 

■ A goal scored from the free-throw line as 
a result of a penalty. A free-throw goal 
counts one point. 

A defensive term meaning that a player stays 
with his assignment on screen plays by going 
through a gap between his defensive team- 
mate and the screener. 



GLOSSARY 



233 



Guard — 



Hand Off — 
Heart, The— 
Heave — 
Held Ball — 



Name of one of the positions on a basketball 
team. Originally thought of as a defen- 
sive player who played in the back court. 
Guards and forwards now perform similar 
duties. 

Act of handing the ball to another player. 
Will to win. Competitive ability. 
A goal attempt — a shot. 
When two players have one or both hands on 
the ball so firmly that neither can gain pos- 
session without undue roughness. Ball is 
tossed between the two players who jump for 
it. Also used interchangeably with "jump 
ball." 



Held-Ball 
Recovery — 



A retrieve of the ball on a jump for the ball 
following a held ball. 
Hold the Court — Term applied to basketball shoes. Shoes that 
will not slip on the basketball floor. 
The playing floor of the home team. 



Home Court- 
Home Run of 
Basketball- 



Interception — 

Intra-Squad — 
Intramural — 
Jump Ball — 



Jump, Getting the 
Jump on a Team- 
Keyhole — 



Key Man — 



A long shot that, it is suggested, might count 
three points instead of two points as at pres- 
ent. 

Taking the ball away from an opposing 
player or team while the ball is in play; for 
example, an intercepted pass. 
Between squad members. Groups that are 
members of the same squad. 
Between two groups that are members of the 
same institution. 

A jump ball takes place when the official 
tosses the ball up between two opposing 
players. 

-The act of getting ahead of the other team 
at the start. 

The areas from the end lines inside of the 
free-throw lanes including the free-throw 
circles. 
A valuable player. 



234 
Leaching — 

Lefty — 
Let Fly — 
Loose Ball — 
Loss of Ball — 

Major Games — 

Major Sports — 



Make Defense 

Show — 
Material — 

Mental Hazard — 



Mid-Court — 
Minor Game — 
Money Player — 

National Invita- 
tional — 



NCAA- 
Neutral Court — 

Observations, Ob- 
jective — 

Observations, 
Subjective — 



Observer- 



glossary 

A defensive term meaning to guard an op- 
ponent closely at all times. 
Left-hand shot at the basket. 
To shoot at the basket in a careless manner. 
A ball not in possession of either team. 
Possession of the ball changing from one 
team to the other. 

A conference or league game or their equiva- 
lent. 

Generally regarded as those sports that have 
the most participants and spectator appeal, 
such as football, basketball, baseball, track, 
swimming, and hockey. 
An offensive plan to cause the defense to 
make the first move or to commit itself. 
Players available to a coach to work with or 
teach. 

A disconcerting factor that a player has to 
contend with that may affect his mental at- 
titude during the game. 
Center area of playing floor. 
A non-conference or practice game. 
A player who is a good competitor when the 
game is close. 

A basketball tournament sponsored by the 

Metropolitan Sports Writers of New York 

City. 

National Collegiate Athletic Association. 

A playing floor that is the home court of 

neither team. 

Observations that can be made by two or 
more persons with the same results. 

General observations not included under ob- 
jective observations; in this study, subjective 
observations are made by a basketball expert. 
One who watches the game as an analyst; a 
recorder of objective or subjective data; a 
scout. 



GLOSSARY 



235 



Offense, Individ- 
ual — 



Offensive Back- 
board Work — 

Offensive Foot- 
work — 

Offensive Player- 
Officials — 



Opponents — 
Outfit — 
Out-of-Bounds- 

out-of-bounds 
Plays — 



Overtime — 

Pass — Passing — 

Pass, Baseball — 

Pass, Bounce — 

Pass, Chest — 

Pass, Hook — 

Pass, One-Hand — 

Pass, Roll — 
Pep-Talk — 



A player's individual offensive techniques 
such as faking, dribbling, passing, and shoot- 
ing. 

Offensive rebound techniques. 

Various pivots, stops, and turns executed by 

a player while on offense. 

A player on the team that has possession of 

the ball; a player attempting to score. 

The referee and umpire of the game. They 

are assisted by two timekeepers and two 

scorekeepers. 

Players or teams to be played against. 

A team. 

The territory beyond the sides and ends of 

the court. 

Offensive plays employed when the team has 

possession of the ball for a throw in from 

out-of-bounds. 

An extra playing period in effect after the 

regular period of the game, when a game is 

tied. 

Tossing or throwing the ball from one player 

to the other. 

A one-hand pass, similar to a baseball throw, 

usually a long pass. 

A pass in which the ball is bounced once 

before it reaches its destination. 

A pass with one or two hands that starts 

with the ball held near the chest. 

A wrist action, one hand pass made over the 

head. 

A pass in which the ball is passed or tossed 

with one hand. 

A pass in which the ball is rolled on the floor. 

Coach's remarks to a team prior to, during, 

or between halves of a game. 



236 



GLOSSARY 



Percentage Basket- 
ball — 



Percentage of 
Shots — 

Pivot — 

Pivot Area — 
Pivot, Double — 

Pivot, Front — 

Pivot Man — 

Pivot, Rear — 

Pivot, Single — 

Pivot, Triple — 

Player Number — 
Playing Tech- 
nique — 
Plays — 
Play the Ball — 

Points — 



Points-Responsible- 
For — 

Post — 

Post, Double — 
Post Man — 



A style of play that stresses ball control and 
taking only close shots where the shooting 
percentage should be high. 

Number of shots or attempts divided into 

number of goals or baskets scored. 

A step or steps taken by a player in different 

directions with one foot while the other 

foot is held in place. 

Keyhole area. 

An offensive plan that uses two pivot or 

post men. 

A pivot in which the player turns or pivots 

forward. 

An offensive player who plays in pivot area; 

keyhole area. 

A pivot in which the player turns or pivots 

to the rear. 

An offensive plan that has only one man 

playing offensively in the keyhole area. 

An offensive plan that uses three pivot or 

post men. 

Number on jersey of the player. 

Skill employed by the players. 

Offensive plans of a team to score goals. 

To press or force defensively; to go after 

free balls. 

Credit for goals; free-throw goals count one 

point each and field goals count two points 

each. 

Points that a defensive player permits his 

opponent to score. 

Keyhole area. Player assuming the position 

of a post. 

An offensive plan that uses two post men. 

A player who takes a position similar to that 

of a post so that teammates will cut past 



GLOSSARY 



237 



Post, Triple — 
Press — Pressing — 



Quick Change — 

Rating Scale — 

Rebound — 

Rebound, Defen- 
sive — 

Rebounder — 

Rebound, Offen- 
sive — 

Rebound, Team — 

Recovery — 

Regular — 

Retrieving — 
Reverse — 

Road Trip — 

Roll — 



Roll, Double — 

Score — 

Score, Running — 

Scout — 



him and cause their defensive players to 
come in contact with him. 
An offensive plan that uses three post men. 
To play a tight defense; to play close to the 
player with the ball in an attempt to take 
the ball from him. 

Defensive term in which players change de- 
fensive assignments quickly on screen plays. 
A rating plan by which a player is rated in 
relation to others on the squad. 
A retrieve of the ball from the backboard 
after an unsuccessful shot at the basket. 

Retrieve of the ball from the opponent's 

backboard. 

A player who retrieves the ball from the 

backboard; a retriever of rebounds. 

A retrieve of the ball from a team's own 

backboard. 

A rebound that is awarded the team; one 

not recovered by an individual player. 

A retrieve of a ball not in possession of either 

team or a retrieve of a ball in possession of 

an opponent. 

A player on the first team; one who plays 

regularly. 

Gaining possession of a free or loose ball. 

Offensive act of player who makes a quick 

stop and reverses his direction. 

A trip made to play basketball games away 

from home. 

Offensive term meaning that player turns 

for basket after setting screen. Used in 

similar manner as the cutaway. 

A roll by two players consecutively. 

Point or points resulting from a goal or goals. 

The progressive score of each team during 

the game, point by point. 

One who watches the game as an analyst; 



238 



GLOSSARY 



Scouting — 
Scout Report — 

Screen — 

Screen, Moving — 

Screen, Station- 
ary — 



Scrimmage — 
Second Guessing — 



Second-Half 

Team — 
Set Plays — 

Shoot — 

Shooting Average- 
Shot — 
Shot, Backboard — 

Shot, Bad- 
Shot, Blocked — 
Shot, Chest — 

Shot, Earned — 

Shot, Field— 



a recorder of objective or subjective data; an 
observer. 

Analyzing individual and team perform- 
ances, objectively and subjectively. 
Recorded objective and subjective observa- 
tions of either or both teams during the 
game. 

To set up a post on which a teammate may 
screen his defensive player; to screen a player 
from an area. 

A situation in which the player doing the 
screening is on the move and not stationary. 

A situation in which the player doing the 

screening is in a stationary position while 

screening. 

An intra-squad game. 

The custom of offering the correct way of 

doing something after it is done; having the 

right answer after something fails. 

A team that plays better in the second half. 
Offensive team plays used to attack a team 
defense that is set or organized. 
To try for a goal by tossing, throwing, or 
tapping the ball toward the basket. 
-Percentage of shots made; similar to batting 
average in baseball. 

A try for a goal by tossing, throwing, or 
tapping the ball toward the basket. 
A shot in which the ball hits the backboard 
before going through the basket. 
A shot that is not fundamentally correct. 
A shot deflected by a defensive player. 
A two-hand shot that starts from a chest 
position; usually a set shot. 
A good shot; a shot that the defense cannot 
block. 

A shot from the field or playing floor other 
than a free throw; a field-goal attempt. 



GLOSSARY 



239 



Shot, Good — 

Shot, Hook — 
Shot, Inside — 
Shot, Lay -In — 
Shot, Lay-Up — 
Shot, Long — 



A shot that is fundamentally correct; a shot 
that cannot be guarded; a shot that is accu- 
rate. 

A wrist-action, one-hand shot made over the 
head. 

A player who shoots short area shots. Also, 
shots taken in short areas. 
A short shot off the backboard or layed just 
over the rim of the basket. 
A short shot in which the ball is banked off 
the backboard. 

A shot taken in the long area, outside of a 
twenty-four foot radius from the basket. 
This area is considered the two-hand shot 



Shot, Medium — 



Shot, 
Shot, 
Shot, 
Shot, 
Shot, 



Shot, 
Shot, 
Shot, 



Shot, 
Shot, 



A shot taken in the medium area between a 
radius of twelve feet and twenty-four feet 
from the basket. This area is so selected 
because it is considered the one- or two-hand 
shot area. 

A shot in which the ball is pushed or thrown 
toward the basket by one hand. 
A player who shoots long -area shots. Also, 
a shot taken in the outer area. 
A type of shot in which the starting position 
of the ball is over the head. 
A shot taken following a pivot or turn by the 
shooter; usually taken in the keyhole area. 
A shot taken in practice sessions where no 
defense is encountered; not a scrimmage or 
game shot. 

A shot that is the direct result of a rebound. 
A shot taken from a stationary position. 
A shot taken in the short area within a radius 
of twelve feet from the basket. This area 
is so selected because it is usually considered 
the backboard shot area; the easy scoring 
area. 

A good shot; fundamentally correct. 
Underhand — A shot in which the ball starts from a posi- 
tion below the waist. 



One-Hand — 



Outside- 



Overhead — 



Pp/ot — 



Practice — 



Rebound- 
Set — 
Short — 



Sound— 



240 



GLOSSARY 



Slam Bangers — 



Offensive term meaning players that are 
careless in their play. Erratic play. 
A player who ignores defense and waits only 
for opportunity to score. Player sent down 
court quickly to catch defense asleep. 
Offensive term meaning a system where team 
plays slowly and attacks defense after it is 
organized. A ball-control game. 
A fiery player who instills team with courage 
and desire to win. 

One who watches the game as a non-partici- 
pant. 

Two offensive players cutting on either side 
of a post man. 

Gentlemen of the press who report the games 
to the public and who write about the game. 
To keep possession of the ball and make no 
effort to score. 

Position of the arms, legs, and body. 
A type of footwork. Method of starting to 
run on the court. 

To take the ball away from an opponent. 
A type of footwork. Method of stopping 
on the court. 

Plans, either offensive or defensive, to be 
used in playing a game. 

General pattern or plan that a team employs 
on offense or defense. 
Style of Shooting — The form or style a player employs in shoot- 
ing, such as the one-hand shot, the under- 
hand shot, and the hook shot. 
A player who enters the game to replace a 
regular player. 

General offensive or defensive plan a team 
employs. 

The last position of the feet while in contact 
with the floor, when a player is in the act of 
shooting. 

A defensive term meaning that a player takes 
a teammate's defensive assignment when 
necessary. 



Sleeper — 



Slow Break — 



Spark Plug — 

Spectator — 

Split the Post — 

Sportswrtters — 

Stall — 

Stance — 
Starts — 

Steal the Ball- 
Stops — 

Strategy — 

Style of Play — 



Substitute — 



System- 



Take-Off — 



Take Over — 



GLOSSARY 



241 



Teamwork — 
Tense up — 

Ten-Second Rule- 



Three Against 
Two — 

Three-Second 
Rule — 



Tie-up- 
Timing — 

Tip -Off — 

Tip or Tipping — 

Tip-Up — 

Toss — 
Trailer Man — 

Traveling — 
Traveling Squad — 

Trouble Maker — 

Turn, Reverse — 

Turn, Side — 

Two Against One- 

Under Fire — 



Ability of players on a team to play well 
together. 

Condition of a player meaning to stiffen. 
Not relaxed. When a player is not able to 
act in a well coordinated manner. 
-Rule whereby it is necessary to advance the 
ball from the back court to the front court 
within ten seconds. Penalty for infraction 
is loss of ball to opponents. 

A situation in which three offensive players 
are against two defensive players. 

Rule that makes it illegal for an offensive 
player to stand in the keyhole area from the 
foul line to the end line for more than three 
seconds. Penalty is loss of ball to opponents. 
When a player causes a held ball to be called 
while it is in control of an opponent. 
Method of jumping at the proper time to 
retrieve the ball. 
A center jump. 

The act of tipping the ball with the finger- 
tips; a tap. 

A goal attempt made by the player tipping 
the ball toward the basket. 
A shot at the basket; also, a pass. 
A player who follows behind the ball as a 
safety man. 

Running with the ball; a violation. 
Group of players who are included on basket- 
ball trips. 

A player who has a poor attitude. One who 
causes dissension on the squad. 
A type of footwork where the player turns 
to go in the opposite direction. 
A type of footwork where the player turns 
to go to the right or left side. 
-A situation in which two offensive players 
are against one defensive player. 
In major competition. 



242 GLOSSARY 

Understudy — A substitute. 

Violation — Certain infractions of the rules not classed 

as fouls, such as running with the ball, illegal 
dribble, kicking the ball, and similar offenses. 
Penalty for most violations is loss of ball to 
opponents. 

Visiting Court — The playing floor of the visiting or traveling 
team. 

Weave — A method of players moving from one posi- 

tion to another so that they exchange posi- 
tions in a manner resembling a weave. 

When Chips Are 

Down — A period when game is close. 

Work Out — A practice. 

Work the Ball In — An offensive plan to get shots in the short 
area near the basket. 

Wrist Action — The ability of a player to use his wrists in a 

coordinated manner in passing, catching, 
' shooting and similar techniques. 

Zone — Refers to zone defense. 

Zone 2-1-2 — A zone defense that stations two men near 

the basket (one on each side), one man in 
the center, and two men in the outer area. 

Zone 2-3 — A zone defense that stations three men near 

the basket and two men in the outer area. 

Zone 3-2 — A zone defense that stations two men near 

the basket (one on each side) and three 
men in the outer area. 

Zone 1-3-1 — A zone defense that stations one man under 

the basket, 3 men across the court about even 
with the free-throw line, and one man in the 
outer area. 



INDEX 



Index 



Anderson, of Lafayette, 68 

Anet, Bobby, 178-179 

Area scoring, 113-121, 153, 229 

advantages of, 114 

Fordham-Columbia experimental 
game, 114-116, 120-121 

new suggestion, 116, 120-121 

table, 117-120 

zone defense, 113-114 
Assistant coach, 27 
Assists, 16, 27, 139, 229 

rules, 142-143 
Attitude, mental: 

coach and, 84-85 

conditioning, 177-180 

toward coach, 127 

toward competition, 97-101, 127 

toward fast break, 188 



B 



Bad passes, 27 
Ball: 

gaining possession of, 75 

loss of, 75-79 (see also Loss of ball) 
Ball-control offense, 186, 229 
Ball-handling, 27, 229 

in record, 39 
Ball hawks, 73-74, 229 
Basket, a team's own, 46 
Basketball: 

a year-round game, 201 

future of, 5-6 

game of, 157-185 (see also Game of 
basketball) 

growth of interest in, 5 

invention of, 3 

rule changes in, 3-4 
Basketball Illustrated, 156, 157 
Basket scoring form, 24, 25 
Bethers, Ray, 5 

Bibliography, 184-185, 210-227 
Box score, for sportswriters, 133-144, 
230 

form, 136 
Budget, preparing, 183 



Catching, 158, 230 
Center jump, 104, 238 

elimination of, 197 
Chalk-talk meetings, 175-176, 230 
Championships, 62 
Clothing, selecting, 183-184 
"Clutch" players, 179, 230 
Coach, 230 

and basketball material, 200-202 

assistant, 27 

as spectator, 145-146 

attitude toward, 127 

duties of, 169-185 (see also Game of 
basketball: coach, duties of) 

head, 27 

suggestions for, 200-202 
Coaching, psychology of, 84-102 (see 

also Psychology of coaching) 
Columbia-Fordham experimental 

game, 106, 114-116, 120-121 
Commissioners, officials and, 131 
Community: 

and coach, 181 

teams, 201 
Competition, mental attitude toward, 

97-101, 127 
Conditioning, 177-180 
Conservative "percentage" shooting 

team, 9 
Cooke, Homer, 139 
Court, conditioning on and off, 177 



D 



Davidson College, 80 
Defense : 

better, 196-199 

correct, 192 

definitions, 228-229 

getting back on, 166 

individual, 39, 159-160 

man-to-man, assigned, 167 

rule changes and, 197 

set man-to-man, 161-163 

zone, 113-114, 116 
Defensive fundamentals, lack of, 198- 
199 



245 



246 



INDEX 



Defensive team plays, 166-169 

Definitions, 227-243 

Dick, John, 179-180 

Double post from single pivot, diagram, 

206 
Double post play, diagrams, 206, 207 
Dribbling, 158, 231 
in record, 39 



Elementary schools, basketball in, 201 
Equipment, purchase and care of, 183- 

184 
Errors, basketball, 75-83, 128, 231 
loss-of-ball, 75-79 

personal fouls, 79-83 (see also Per- 
sonal fouls) 
rules, suggested, 144 



Facilities, basketball, 184 
Faculty, coach and, 181-182 
Fast break, 161, 186-189, 233 

advantages of, 186 

against zone defense, 193 

teaching, 188 
Field-goal attempts, rules, 140 
Field -goal data, 7 
First half: 

and second half, 94-97 

strategy, 172 

survey, 94 
Five-man game, first, 3 
Footwork, 157, 233 

in record, 38 
Fordham-Columbia experimental game, 

114-116, 120-121 
Forms: 

basket scoring, 24, 25 

box score — basketball summary, 136- 
137 

graphs of game, 31 

individual chart, 29 

individual player rating scale, 126 

losses and recoveries, 28 

player's season record, 36, 37, 40 

practice shot form, 123 

rebound, 26 

report on officials, 130 

running score, complete, 138 

score book, improved, 134-135 

scout report, 14-15, 18-21 

spectator program, 148 

team's season record, 42, 43 
Foul lane, widening of, 115 



Fouls: 

definitions, 233 

personal, 79-83 (see also Personal 
fouls) 
Free-shooting team, 9 
Free-throw averages, 151 
Free-throw data, 7 
Free-throw lane, widening of, 106, 111, 

234 
Free-throw organization: 

defensive, 168-169 

offensive, 166 
Freeze the ball, 234 
Freezing game, 194 



Game of basketball, 157-185 
coach, duties of, 169-185 
budget, 183-184 
checklist of methods, 185 
motion pictures, 176-177 
officiating, 180-181 
publicity and interest, 181-182 
rules, 172 

schedule, arranging, 182-183 
scouting, 176 

squad and team selection, 169-171 
strategy, 172-176 

training and conditioning, 177-180 
defensive team plays, 166-169 
graph of, 31-32 
group fundamentals, 160-161 
individual fundamentals, 157-160 
offensive team plays, 161-166 
preplanning of, 172 
scout report of (see Scout report) 
Glossary, 229-244 
Goals: 

definitions, 234 
peach baskets as, 3 
Graphs, of game, 31-32 
Group fundamentals, 160-161 

H 

Half-time strategy, 172 
Held ball, 235 
Holding ball, 25, 194 

penalty for, 81 
Home team, 151, 153 

and visiting team, 85-89 

officials and, 129 

survey, 85, 86 
Hook shot, 56 



INDEX 



247 



I 



Individual fundamentals, 157-160 
Individual rating scales, 125-126 
Individual records, 34-37 
Interceptions, 27, 72, 73-74, 75, 233 
Interceptors, 73-74 
Interest in game, building, 147-149, 

181-182 
Interference rules, 81 
Irish, Ned, 5, 49 



J 



Jump balls, 27, 152, 233 

data, 8 

defensive organization on, 167-168 

diagrams of plays, 162 

offensive, 163 

recoveries, 27, 72-73 
Junior high school teams, 201 

K 

King, Dolly, 92 
Kurland, Bob, 104, 111 



Lavelli, Tony y 54, 56, 68, 82, 176, 187 
Leaching, 234 
Long-area shooting, 57-61 
Long pass fast-break down sides, dia- 
gram, 205 
Long shot, 57-61 

defined, 57, 58 
Losing team, 151 

survey, 91 

winning team and, 90-93 
Loss-of-ball, 75-79, 152, 234 

data, 8, 25, 27, 28 

rules, 142 

table, 78 

ways of losing, 77 

where loss occurs, 78 



M 



McLean, "Chief," 188 
Madison Square Garden, 5, 6, 47, 49, 
61, 62, 75, 82, 91, 183 

free-throw shooting, table, 67 
Managers, student, 23-27 
Man-to-man defense: 

assigned, 167 

set, 161-163 



Marsh, Irving T., 115 

Material, basketball, 200-209 {see also 

Players: basketball material) 
Medical examinations, 201 
Medium-area shooting, 54-57 
Medium shot, 54-57 

defined, 54, 55 
Mental attitude {see Attitude: mental) 
Mental conditioning, 177-180 
Mental hazard, 234 
Mikan, George, 105, 111 
Milligan, Scott, 103 
Motion pictures, 127, 131, 176-177 



N 



Naismith, Dr. James, 3 
National Basketball Guide, 68 
National Collegiate Athletic Associa- 
tion, 47, 50-51, 75, 80, 91, 139, 
234 
National High School Federation, 66 
National Invitational, 92, 234 



O 



Objective team data, 8 
Observers, trained, 23-27, 234 
Offense: 

ball-control, 186 

definitions, 235 

fast-break, 186 

individual, 159-160 

slow-break, 186, 187 

stalling type of, 193-194 

systems of, 186 
Offensive team plays, 161-166 
Officials, 235 

and home team, 129 

coach and, 180-181 

conduct on court, 132 

from outside area, 129 

report on, form, 130 

scouting, 11-12, 128-132 
procedure, 129-131 
Olympics, 5 

One-hand shots, 57, 61, 151, 197-198 
Oregon vs. Long Island, 73-74, 91-92 
Oregon vs. New York University, 175 
Oregon vs. Ohio State, 191 
Oregon vs. Washington State College, 
64 

scout reports, 33-34 
Out-of-bounds plays, 164-165, 235 

defensive, 168 



248 



INDEX 



Pacific Coast Conference, 121, 131 
Parents, coach and, 181-182 
Passes: 

bad, 27, 75, 77 

definitions, 235 

intercepted, 75 
Passing, 158 

in record, 39 
Peach baskets as goals, 3 
Peacock, Stanley, 68 
Penalties for personal fouls, 80, 152 
Pep talks, 77, 152, 174, 235 
Percentage basketball, 236 
Percentage of shots, 236 
Personal fouls, 79-83, 231 

data, 8 

defensive, penalty for, 80, 152 

remedies for, 82-83 
Players: 

as spectators, 145, 146 

basketball material: 

diagrams showing use of, 203-208 
how to use, 200-208 
search for, 200 

"clutch," 179 

mental attitudes of {see also Atti- 
tudes, mental) 

scouting and, 13 

season record, 34-41 

self-analysis, 122-127 

speed and size combination, 200, 202 

substitute, 180 

successful, 127 

tall, 103-112 {see also Tall player) 

too-cautious, 189 

training and conditioning of, 177-180 

value of scout reports to, 124 
Points-responsible-for, 16, 27, 139, 236 

rules, 143-144 
Post, definitions, 236-237 
Post play from single pivot formation, 

diagram, 204 
Pressing, defined, 237 
Psychology of coaching, 84-102 

first half and second half, 94-97 

home team and visiting team, 85-89 

levels of competition, 97-101 

subjective observations and, 101-102 

winning team and losing team, 90-93 
Publicity, coach and, 181-182 

R 

Rating scales, individual, 125-126, 237 
Rebounding, 70 
defensive, 168 



| Rebounds, 25, 70-72, 152 

data, 8 

definitions, 239 

form, 26 

organization, offensive, 163-164 

rules, 140 
Records: 

individual, 34-41 

keeping of, 23 
Recoveries, 70-74, 237 

jump-ball, 72-73 

losses and, form, 28 

miscellaneous, 72 

rules, 141-142 
Report, scout {see Scout report) 
Reporters {see Sportswriters) 
Retrieving, 158-159, 237 
Reverse, 237 
Roll, defined, 237 
Rooters, 146-147 
Rules of basketball, 172 

changes in, 3-4, 197 
and tall player, 104 

interference, 81-82 

scoring, 139-144 

standard interpretation of, 131 
Running score, 16, 138-139 



Schedule, arranging, 182-183 
Score: 

definitions, 237 
kept by spectators, 147-148 
running, 138-139 
Score book, improved, 133-144 
Scoring, 47-49 

all games, table, 48 
area, proposed, 113-121 
basket, form, 24, 25 
in college basketball, 150 
rules, 139-144 
Scout, 237-238 
Scouting, 238 

conclusions and interpretations, 150- 

153 
data, and coaching psychology, 84- 

102 
losses-of-ball and recoveries, 27, 28 
methods, 23-32 

basket scoring, 24-25 
graphs, 31-32 

individual charts, 29, 30-31 
rebounds, 25, 26 
objective, 153 
officials, 128-132 



INDEX 



249 



Scouting (cont.): 
subjective, 153 
value of, 6 
for coach, 7-11 
for officials, 11-12 
for players, 11 
for spectator, 12 
for sportswriter, 12 
Scout reports, 13-22, 238 
accessibility of, 124 
forms, 14-15, 18-21 
individual records, 34-41 
objective data: 
individual, 13 
team, 16 
reviewing, value of, 33 
subjective observation, 17, 22, 151 
team records, 34, 41-45 
three-season, Oregon vs. Washington, 

33-34 
uses of, 33-45 

value of, for future, 33-45 
Scrimmage, 238 
Season records: 
player's, 34-41 
team's, 34, 41-45 
Second half: 

first half and, 94-97 
strategy, 172-173 
survey, 95 
team, 238 
Set plays, 238 
Shoes, 183 

Shooting the basket, 46-69, 150-151, 
152, 159 
averages, 46, 238 
field-goal, styles of, 60, 61-62 
free throw, 62-69 
styles of, 66-69 
in record, 39 

levels of competition, 97-101 
long- area, 57-61 
medium-area, 54-57 
percentages, 46, 49-52 

table, 49-50 
practice in, 123-124 
short-area, 52-54 
Short area shooting, 52-54 
Short pass fast-break attack down cen- 
ter, diagram, 203 
Short shots, 52-54 

defined, 53 
Shots, definitions, 238-239 
Single pivot variation, diagram, 207 
Single pivot with four-man weave, dia- 
gram, 209 



Slam bangers, 189, 240 

Sleeper, 168, 240 

Slow-break offense, 186, 187, 240 

Spark plug, 240 

Spectators, 145-149, 240 

improper conduct of, 88-89 

score-keeping by, 147-148 

scouting and, 12 
Sportswriters, 133-144, 240 

scouting and, 12 
Spread formation for 'iall control, dia- 
gram, 209 
Springfield College, 3 
Squad, selection of, 169-171 
Stalling type of defense, 193-194, 240 
Starts, 240 

Stealing the ball, 240 
Stops, defined, 240 
Strategy, 172-176, 240 

between halves, 174 

first-half, 172 

half-time, 172 

in chalk-talk meetings, 175-176 

individual, 173 

second-half, 1 72 

team, 173-174 
Student body, 181 
Subjective observations, 10 

and individual analysis, 125, 127 

and psychology of coaching, 101-102 

of officials, 131 

scout report, 17, 22, 27, 29 
Summer playground basketball, 201 



Take-off, defined, 240 
Take over, defined, 167, 240 
Tall player, 103-112, 113, 114, 116, 
120, 121, 152, 153, 202 

shooting by, table, 107-110 
Team: 

records, 34, 41-45 

selection of, 169-171 
Teamwork, 241 
Ten-second rule, 197, 241 
Terminology of basketball, 75 
Three-second rule, 104, 115, 241 
Throw-in, intercepted, 75 
Tie-ups, 16, 27, 241 
Timing, defined, 241 
Tip-off plays, 72-73, 241 

defensive, 167-168 

diagrams of plays, 162 

offensive, 163 
Tipping, 158-159 



250 



INDEX 



Tip-up, defined, 241 
Training, 177-180 
Travel, planning, 182-183 
Traveling, defined, 241 
Triple post play, diagram, 208 
Turns, definitions, 241 
Two-hand set shot, 59, 61 
Two-hand shots, 57, 61, 151 

U 

Uniforms, 184 

University of Oregon, 9, 33-34, 64, 73- 

74, 91-92, 103, 175, 191 
University of Pennsylvania, 3 
University of Utah, 9 



Violations, 242 

losses as, 27 
Visiting team: 

home team and, 85-89 

survey, 85, 87 

W 



Weave, defined, 242 
Winning habit, 92 



Winning team, 151 

and losing team, 90-93 

survey, 90 
Wintermute, Urgel "Slim," 103-104, 

179-180 
World War II: 

basketball during, 5 

scoring during, 47 
Wrist action, 242 



Yale team: v 

first five-man game, 3 

shooting average of, 51 
Yale vs. New York University, 82, 176 
Yale vs. University of Illinois, 75-76 



Zone defense, 113-114, 116, 167, 242 
attack on, 163, 190-195 

best, 194-195 

measures used, 193 
criticism of, 190 
diagrams, 194-195 
types of, 192 
unorthodox, 192 
use of, 190-191 




University of 
Connecticut 

Libraries 



Q 




COI 



fifl 



SML 
ggggl 



1MB 

nmnr 



ansa 
BUKJDgjJI