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K4i 



TWENTY-SECOND 
ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

FISHERY BOARD FOR SCOTLAND, 

Being for the Year 1903. 

IN THREE PARTS. 

Past I.— GENERAL REPORT. 

Part II.— REPORT ON SALMON FISHERIES. 

Part III.— SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS. 



PART III.— SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS. 



prcsenteD to botb 1bou0es of ipacliament b^ CommanD ot Ibis /iftajesti^. 




G L A S (} O W : 
PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY "--OFFICE 
By JAMES HEDDERWICK & SONS, ^\^ 
At '*The Citizen Press," St. Vincent Place. 



And to be purchased, either directly or through any isookseller, from 

OLIVER & BOYD, Edinburgh ; or 

EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.G., and 

32 Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.W. ; or 

[E. PONSONBY, 116 Grafton Street, Dublin. 



1904. 



[Cd. 2147.] Price 5s. 2d. 



CONTENTS. 



General Statement, .... 
Trawling Investigations, . 

Investigations on the Rate of Growth of Fishes 
The Hatching and Rearing of Food-Fishes, 
The Life-History of the Crab, 
The Young of the Witch Sole, 
The Marine Crustacea, 
The Parasites of Fishes, . 
The Young of the Conger, 
. Investigations on the Herring in the Firth of C 



yde. 



PAGE 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

10 

11 

11 

12- 



SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 

Trawling Investigations. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., 

Superintendent of Scientific Investigations, . . 13 

Introductory, ...... 13 

The Proportion of Marketable to Unmarketable Fishes, 13 

The Proportion of Immature Fish Landed, . . 16 

Investigations in the Moray Firth and Aberdeen Bay, 19 

Table!, 50 

Table IL, 89 



II. Contributions to the Life-Histories of the Edible Crab (Cancer 
Pagurus) and of other Decajsod Crustacea : — Impregna- 
tion : Spawning : Casting : Distribution : Rate of Growth. 
By H. Chas. Williamson, M.A., D.Sc, Marine Laboratory, 
Aberdeen (Plates I.-V.), 

The Impregnation of Cancer pagurus, 

The Muscular System of the Abdomen of the 

Male Crab, 
The Action of the Penis, . 
The Condition of the Sperniatheca, 
The Impregnation of Carcinns mcenas, 
The Spawning of Cancer pagurus, 

The Mode of Attachment of the Eggs to the 

Swimmeret, 
The Swimmeret, 
The Endopodite, 
The Exopodite, 
The Ripe Egg, 
The Attachment of the Eggs, 
The Sloughing of the Empty Egg-capsules, 
The Attachment of the Eggs in other Decapod 

Crustacea, . 

The Spawning of Carcinus mctnas, 

The Casting, Distribution, and Rate of Growth of 

Cancer pagurus, ..... 

The Migrations of Cancer pagurus. 

The Changes in the Carapace of Cancer pagurus, 

Literature, ...... 

Explanation of the Plates, . . . . 



100 
101 

103 
104 
105 
107 
108 

108 
110 
110 
111 
112 
115 
tl6 

116 
120 

121 
135 
136 
137 
138 



Contents. 



III. 



The Rate of Growth of Fishes. 
F.R.S.E., Superintendent 
(Plates VI. -XII.), 



By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, 
of Scientific Investigations 



1. Introductory, 

2. The Relation of Length to Weight, 

3. The Average Size at Maturity, 

4. The Influence of Temperature on Growth 

5. The Sprat, .... 

6. The Witch, .... 

7. The Norway Pout, . 

8. The Sharp-tailed Lumpenus, 

9. Tables showing the Relation of Length to Weight, 



By 



IV. Notes on some rare and interesting Marine Crustacea 
Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S. (Plates XIII.-XV.), 
Preliminary Remarks, .... 
Copepoda : — 

Fam. Monstrillidte, 
Fam. Choniostomatidfe, 
Amphipoda, 
Sympoda, 
Description of the Plates, 



V. Report on the Operations at the Marine Hatchery, Bay of Nigg, 
Aberdeen. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., Super- 
intendent of Scientific Investigations, 



141 
141 
142 
150 
159 
171 
186 
195 
202 
205 



242 

242 

243 
250 
257 
258 
259 



262 



VI. On the Post-Larval and Early Young Stages of the Witch 
{Pleuronectes cynoglossus, Linn.). By H. Chas. Williamson, 
M.A., D.Sc, Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen (Plate XVI.), . 



270 



VII. On some Parasites of Fishes new to the Scottish Marine Fauna. 
By Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S. (Plate XVIL), . 

Preliminary Note, ..... 

Part I. Copepoda Parasita — 

Fam. Dichelestidse, .... 

Part II. Trematoda — 

Fam. Tristomatidfe, 
Part III. Note on 

Podon Leuckarti, . 
Description of the Plates, 



Post-larval Fish attacked by 



275 
275 

275 

278 

279 
280 



VIII. Ichthyological Notes. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., 
Superintendent of Scientific Investigations (Plate XVIII. ). 

The Young of the Conger, . . . .281 

A Larval Fierasfer, ..... 283 

The Sting Ray, . . . . .283 

The Pilchard, ...... 284 

The Fecundity of the Sprat, . . . .285 

An Albino Plaice, . . . . .286 

The Thickback (Solea variegata), . . . 286 

Reversed action of the Gill-cover in Plaice, . . 287 



TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT. 



TO THE EIGHT HONOUKABLE 

ANDREW GKAHAM MURRAY, K.C., M.P., &c„ 

His Majesty's Secretary fw Scotland. 



Office of The Fishery Board 
FOR Scotland, 
Edinburgh, \st July, 1904. 

My Lord, 

In continuation of our Twenty-second Annual Eeport, 
we have the honour to submit — 

PART III— SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 

This, the third part of the Twenty- second Annual Eeport, 
contains an account of the scientific investigations conducted by 
the Board in 1903 in connection with the sea fisheries of Scotland, 
so far as these have been completed, by means of the Parliamentary 
Vote granted for the purpose. The scientific researches have been 
carried on for the most part at the Board's Marine Laboratory at 
the Bay of Nigg, Aberdeen, which was erected a few years ago, and 
where tanks have now been fitted up for various experiments and 
observations. The sea-fish hatchery is also situated at the same 
place, and a statement as to its operations during the year will be 
found below. 

The investigations into the condition of the fishing grounds, more 
particularly in the Moray Firth and Aberdeen Bay, which were 
commenced four years ago, were continued last year by means of 
steam-trawlers. One of the chief objects of these investigations is 
to ascertain the changes in the abundance of the food and other 
fishes in the closed waters in different years ; but observations are 
also made on the reproduction of the fish, their spawning, food, and 
on various other points connected with their life-history; and 
collections of the plankton or floating organisms are secured, and 
experiments made with small-meshed and large-meshed nets. 

With the large trawl, the efficient ship, and the experienced 
trawlers in charge, it is possible to make a much more thorough 
examination of the bays than was formerly the case, and from the 



6 Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 

fact that the actual trawling operations are carried on exactly as 
they are in commercial fishing, opportunities are thus afforded for 
certain observations of importance, as the proportion of the market- 
able and unmarketable fishes which are caught, and the destruction 
of immature fish on different grounds and at different seasons. 

Trawling Investigations. 

In the course of the year the results of 148 hauls of the large 
otter-trawl were recorded, of which 101 were made in the Moray 
Firth and 29 in Aberdeen Bay, making 130 in the closed waters ; 
and in addition 18 drags were recorded in the waters offshore, the 
aggregate thus being 148. In the Moray Firth the more important 
areas were examined in February, March, April, June, October, 
November, and December, and the grounds in Aberdeen Bay were 
visited in the same months. The localities in the Moray Firth 
which were most thoroughly examined were Burghead Bay and 
the Dornoch Firth, as well as Smith Bank, the grounds off Lossie- 
mouth, off the Suters of Cromarty, and the coast of Caithness. 

The total quantity of fish recorded in the course of the investi- 
gations was large, viz., 180,515, of which 126,485 were of a kind 
and size to be marketable, and 54,030 were found to be unmarket- 
able, either because they were of inedible varieties, or too small to 
be profitably sold. Those which belong to the former category are 
comparatively not numerous, comprising mostly long rough dabs 
and various odd kinds, but they may include large numbers of the 
angler or monk fish and gurnards, though these are very often 
brought to market. The great majority of the unmarketable 
fishes belong to edible and saleable forms, and are simply rejected 
because of their small size, such as small haddocks, whitings, plaice, 
&c. In the hauls in the inshore waters the proportion of the 
immarketable fishes varied from 7*4 per cent, for cod to 78-2 per 
cent, for gurnards among the round fishes, and from 0'5 per cent, 
for brill to 89 per cent, for common dabs among the flat fishes. 
The percentage of unmarketable plaice was relatively large, namely, 
30'3, due to the fact that the fishing was to a large extent carried 
on in shallow water. The proportion of the marketable and 
unmarketable was found to vary very greatly according to the 
depth of the water and the season. 

In the paper by Dr. Wemyss Fulton, the Scientific Superinten- 
dent, on this subject, will be found described also the results of an 
investigation on the proportion of the marketable fishes which are 
immature — that is, which have not yet reached a size at which 
reproduction takes place. The limit between the mature fishes 
and the immature in respect to size is first dealt with, and it is 
shown that in most cases it is not the average size of the generation 
which first becomes mature that is the true dividing line, but 
something under it, the precise point varying in different species 
according to whether the reproductive stage is reached early or 
late in the growth of the species. 

The proportion of the immature, whether regarded in teims of 
weight or of size, of different species brought to market varies very 
greatly according to the species. Among some flat-fishes, such as 



o/ the Fisheri/ Board for Scotland. 7 

the common dab, practically all that are marketable are mature, 
this fish becoming reproductive at a small size. Among plaice, on 
the other hand, which does not attain maturity until it is several 
years of age and of some size, the proportion of the immature 
amounts to about twenty-four per cent, of the marketable fishes, 
but with this species in particular the proportion varies much 
according to the chief areas of fishing. Among the witch sole the 
proportion amounts to about fifteen per cent., and it is still less 
among lemon soles, viz., about seven per cent. From the large 
size at which the cod first reaches maturity, the proportion of the 
immature that are marketable is considerable ; these comprise 
codlings, and of the total quantity landed about thirty per cent, are 
sexually immature. AYith haddocks, and still more with whitings, 
the proportion is much less, these species first attaining maturity 
at about the size at which they become marketable. The calcula- 
tion in regard to haddocks shows that the proportion of the 
marketable which are immature is small, amounting to only about 
one per cent, of the quantity landed, while among whitings it is 
less, practically all the whitings caught by trawlers which are of 
marketable size being adult. 

It must be borne in mind, with reference to this subject, that 
the limit between the mature and the immature is a biological one, 
having reference, not to the size of the fish from the market point 
of view, but in relation to the size when reproduction begins. 

Investigations on the Eate of Growth of Fishes. 

In the present Eeport will be found a paper by Dr. T. Wemyss 
Fulton describing the results of his further investigations on this 
subject, in continuation of the researches detailed in some of the 
preceding Eeports. In addition to the measurement of large 
numbers of fishes obtained during the trawling investigations by 
the use of a small-meshed net, numerous observations were made 
to determine the relation between the size and weight of fishes 
belonging to nineteen species, and a series of experiments were 
carried on to show the influence of temperature upon growth. 

With regard to the ratio between the length and weight of fishes, 
it might be assumed, without experimental evidence, that their 
growth was in consonance with the physical law governing the 
relation of similarly-shaped bodies of uniform specific gravity with 
regard to weight and dimensions — that the weight increased as the 
cube of the length, so that a fish which doubled its length should 
increase its weight eight times. The observations, which have been 
made on between 5000 and 6000 fishes, show that this law does not 
apply with exactitude in any of the species examined, the weight 
increasing in proportion more rapidly than the length, the conclu- 
sion being that, if the specific gravity remains the same, growth 
takes place to a greater extent in some other dimension than in 
length, whether in breadth or thickness. The various species 
examined displayed great differences in the relation between the 
weight and length at a given size, the heaviest in proportion to its 
length being the turbot, and the lightest the witch, the extremes 
being found among the flat-fishes. 



8 Part III. — Tiventy-seGond Annual Report 

With regard to the influence of temperature upon growth, it is 
well known from previous observations that fishes, at least in the 
waters near the shore, grow less quickly in winter than in summer, 
and may not grow at all if the temperature be very low. In the 
experiments referred to a number of the food-fishes were kept in 
tanks in which the water was of different temperature — in one it 
was considerably above the normal — and the effect on the growth 
was determined by measuring the fishes after they had been 
subjected for some time to the various temperatures and comparing 
the measurement with what it was at first. AVith a mean tempera- 
ture of 40'1 F. it was found that the mean increase in the length 
of whitings was 1'6 millimetres per ten days, and 2-5 millimetres 
when the temperature was 48'7 F. ; under the same conditions 
haddocks grew at the rate of 2-7 and 5'1 millimetres respectively, 
and codlings increased under the lower temperature at the rate of 
3*6 millimetres, and under the higher temperature at the rate of 
6 "87 millimetres in each ten days. In another tank where the mean 
temperature was 54-5 F., the rate of growth in length in each ten 
days was, on the average, 2'8 millimetres for whitings, 6-45 for 
codlings, 3"0 for common dabs, and 3-29 for plaice. The growth in 
length varied generally in relation to the size of the fish as well as 
to the species, the smaller individuals as a rule growing the quickest, 
and considerable difference was exhibited in many cases among 
individuals of the same species approximately equal in size. 

The influence of temperature is exerted directly in connection 
with the metabolism of the fish, that is, the chemical changes in 
its tissues, which result in growth as well as in the expenditure of 
energy. In low temperatures the process of digestion was greatly 
impaired, and appetite was more or less in abeyance, the fishes 
refusing their food or eating sparingly. It has been shown that 
the action of the digestive ferments is suspended at low tempera- 
tures and increased at high temperatures. The bearing of these 
observations on the growth of fishes, in winter, whether in the sea 
or in fresh water, is obvious. 

In the same paper the results of the investigations made as to 
the growth of the Sprat, the Witch Sole, the Norway Pout, and the 
Sharp-tailed Lumpenus are described, and illustrated by a series of 
diagrams. 

The Hatching and Eeaking of Food-Fishes. 

During the hatching-season of 1903 the number of eggs of the 
plaice collected from the spawning pond at the Hatchery, Bay of 
Nigg, was approximately 65,940,000. This was almost the same 
number as in 1901, and about seven millions less than in the 
previous year. The number of fry that were hatched from these 
eggs and retained in the hatching apparatus until approaching the 
post-larval stage w^as estimated at about 53,600,000, or a little over 
81 per cent. The fry were liberated for the most part off Aber- 
deen, but on three occasions they were taken further north and 
liberated off Fraserburgli. 

The first eggs were collected on 23rd January and the last on 
16th May, the period of collection thus extending over 113 days, 
but the greater number were obtained in March, when 37,080,000 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 9 

were collected, the number in April being nearly sixteen millions, 
and in February nearly twelve millions. It may be stated that 
the collection of eggs extends over a longer period at the Bay of 
Nigg than was the case at Dunbar, where the work did not usually 
ommence until March, the average duration at the former being 
65 days and at the latter 86 days. The difference is due, not to 
variation in the spawning season, but to the circumstance that the 
fishes at Dunbar, being for the most part collected a little before 
the spawning, did not become accustomed to confinement suffi- 
ciently to part with their eggs until the spawning season was some 
way advanced, while at the Bay of Nigg they are kept in the large 
pond throughout the year, and spawn under natural conditions 
approximately during the same time that plaice are found spawning 
in the sea. An abundant supply of pure sea-water, of suitable 
temperature and specific gravity, has materially aided in the success 
of the work ; and as mentioned in last year's Eeport, the cost of the 
fish hatching, when the hatchery is operated in conjunction with 
the Marine Laboratory, is materially reduced, and does not exceed 
£100 per annum. 

The period for which the embryonic and larval fishes are pro- 
tected in the hatching apparatus amounts to about half the 
duration of their pelagic life, but the benefit would be considerably 
increased if it were possible to rear them in any large numbers 
through their post-larval stages — that is, until they have completed 
their transformation and become adapted to live on the bottom. 
The rearing is not an easy matter, owing to the difficulty of pro- 
viding suitable food for multitudes of larvfe confined in relatively 
small volumes of water, but the attempt to do so will be made by 
the use of a special tank. 

Since the hatchery was established the number of fry of the food 
fishes which have been produced is as follows: — Plaice, 340,455,000 ; 
lemon soles, 5,727,000 ; turbot, 5,160,000 ; cod, 4,010,000 ; and other 
kinds, 2,000,000— the aggregate being 357,352,000. 

During the season deputations of fishermen from Aberdeenshire, 
who visited the establishment by arrangement with the Technical 
Education Committee of the County Council, received demonstra- 
tions as to the operations and the life-histories of the food fishes. 

The Life-Histoey of the Ckab. 

In the present Eeporfc will be found a paper, illustrated by four 
plates, in which Dr. H. C. Williamson gives the results of further 
observations on the life-history of the edible crab and some other 
Decapod Crustacea. The observations deal mainly with the repro- 
duction, and in this connection with the processes of casting, 
impregnation, and spawning. The spawning of the crab takes place 
in November, December, and January, and the casting of the shell 
and impregnation take place in summer : and it appears probable 
that in most cases spawning does not follow until about fourteen 
or fifteen months after the process of casting. 

On extrusion the eggs are attached to the swimmerets of the 
mother, and remain there for about seven months. The mode by 
which the eggs are attached is of interest, the author having 



10 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

discovered that they are skewered on to the long delicate hairs with 
which the inner branches of the swimmerets are provided, and are 
not, as has generally been believed, fixed to them by a mucilaginous 
secretion. The eggs themselves are never found cemented together 
although crowded in close contact. The mode in which the eggs 
are skewered on to the stiff hairs is as follows. When the eggs 
are extruded they imbibe sea water and become swollen, so that 
the egg-mass is separated from the shell, and this space soon 
attains large dimensions. The eggs are retained in a semi-fluid 
mass in the " apron " of the crab, and by the continuous stabbing 
movement of the stiff hairs on the swimmerets the eggs are pierced 
and skewered as described. Dr. Williamson also treats of the rate 
of growth, the migrations, and the distribution of the crab, and in 
connection with the former subject had the use of the data 
furnished by Mr. Waddington, Bournemouth, of the various 
successive casts of certain edible crabs which had been kept in 
confinement for periods up to two years, and these are represented 
in a series of figures, and are of much interest. 

Further descriptions are given of the results of labelling crabs 
which were afterwards liberated, in order to throw light on their 
migrations. In contrast to some of the previous results, it may be 
said that one of the labelled crabs, an adult male, was obtained 
three years after its liberation very near the spot where it was set 
free. 

The Young of the Witch Sole. 

During the trawling investigations in the Moray Firth a very 
complete series of the young of the Witch Sole was obtained, one 
of the flat-fishes now brought to market in considerable numbers 
by the trawlers working in deep water, and in the knowledge of 
whose life-history there were considerable gaps. Dr. Williamson 
describes these in a paper in the present Report. Some dubiety 
has existed as to the identity of the post-larval stages of this form, 
which differ from the corresponding stages of most flat-fishes by 
their great length and slenderness, as well as by other characters, 
so that the first one described was supposed to be a young halibut. 
The present series, by filling up the blanks between the previously- 
recorded stages, completes the chain connecting the egg with the 
parent fish. The paper is illustrated with a number of figures. 

The Maeine Crustacea, 

In this Report will be found a paper, illustrated by three plates 
of figures, by Dr. Thomas Scott, descriptive of a number of rare 
Crustacea, obtained for the most part during the trawling investi- 
gations. The forms described are all small, and include two groups 
of the Copepoda that are somewhat abnormal both in their 
structure and habits. Among the nine species belonging to the 
first of these groups — the Monstrillidaj — three are new to science 
and are now described for the first time, and of the seven species 
which belong to the second of the groups — the Choniostomatidte — 
five are new to science and are here described for the first time, 



of ihe Fishery Board for Scotland. 11 

and these are all minute forms which are parasitic on small species 
of Crustacea. 

The occurrence of other rare species belonging to the Amphi- 
poda, the Isopoda, and the Sympoda, other groups of Crustacea, 
is also recorded. 

Apart from the zoological interest of these discoveries, it is to 
be noted that the minute Crustacea with which they deal play an 
important role in connection with the food of fishes, many forms 
living upon them almost exclusively at some stage or another of 
their existence. 

The Parasites of Fishes. 

In continuation of his researches on the forms which are para- 
sitic on marine fishes, Dr. Thomas Scott also contributes a paper to 
the present Eeport on this subject, illustrated with a series of 
figures. The parasites described include four Copepods and two 
Trematode worms. One of the former is new to science, and 
the other three have not previously been recorded from the 
Scottish seas. Both the Trematodes are new to science, and were 
obtained, along with two of the Copepods, on a specimen of the 
stmg ray {Trygon i?nstinaca?) — a fish closely allied to the skates — 
which was caught in the Moray Firth during the trawling 
investigations. 

In this paper there is also a description of a figure of a post- 
larval fish v/hich has been attacked by two small crustaceans, 
furnishing an example of one of the dangers to which young fishes 
are exposed. 

The Young of the Congee. 

In the course of the trawling investigations in the Moray 
Firth, two specimens of the pelagic young of the Conger-eel were 
taken in the small-meshed net used around the cod-end of the 
otter trawl. These forms, which are characterised in their yonnger 
stages by their singularly flattened form, are known as Leptocephali, 
and were until comparatively lately believed to- represent distinct 
species of fish. They are very rarely seen in British waters. The 
two specimens referred to are described and figured in a paper by 
Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton in the present Eeport, along with other 
rare fishes obtained during the investigations. Among the others 
may be mentioned a larval Fierasfer, an extremely rare form which, 
in the adult condition, lives within Holothurians; it was taken in 
a tow-net easterly from Aberdeen. A specimen of the pilchard 
was also secured in the Moray Firth — a fish which is said to have 
been at one time fairly common at some places in the southern 
part of the East Coast, but is now hardly ever seen in these waters. 
Other rare specimens comprised the sting-ray and the thickback 
sole, both secured in the Moray Firth. It is indeed remarkable 
that in several respects the fauna of the Moray Firth offers 
resemblances to that of the West Coast ; it appears to indicate 
that a connection is established by means of the sea currents 
entering the Firth from the north. 



12 Part III. — Tiventy-second Annual Report 

Investigations on the Herring in the Firth of Clyde. 

In connection with the winter herring fishing at Ballantrae Bank, 
oflf the coast of Ayr, arrangements were made for an investigation of 
the conditions of the fishing in relation to the operation of the 
Bye-law No. 18, by which the use of the seine for the capture of 
herrings within a defined area off the coast is prohibited. Owing, 
however, to the stormy weather that prevailed on these exposed 
grounds the fishing was almost a complete failure, only thirty -five 
crans of herrings being obtained within the area specified, although 
232 crans were caught in the more sheltered waters of Lochryan, 
where fishing operations could be carried on. Under the circum- 
stances it was not found possible to make the investigations 
desired ; but it may be noted that the weather conditions made an 
effective close-time in protecting the herrings frequenting the 
grounds, and if, as there is every reason to believe was the case, 
the herrings spawned there in February and March, the result 
ought to tend to increase the number of herrings in some future 
season. 

Investigations have also been undertaken with regard to the 
herrings in the Firth of Clyde generally, more particularl)i in con- 
nection with their migratory movements and spawning, about which 
comparatively little is known, and which will require some con- 
siderable time to complete. In reference to this enquiry a research 
is being made by Professor Milroy, Queen's College, Belfast, on 
behalf of the Board, as to the chemical composition of the herring 
in relation more especially to the reproduction of the fish. 

We have the honour to be, 

Right Hon. Sir, 

Your most obedient Servants, 

ANGUS SUTHERLAND, Chairman. 

D. CRAWFORD, Deputi/-Chairman. 

D'ARCY W. THOMPSON. 

W. R. DUGUID. 

L. MILLOY. 

D. MEARNS. 

H. WATSON. 

WM. C. ROBERTSON, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 



I.— TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, 
F.R.S.E., Superintendent of Scientific Investigations. 

Introductory. 

The investigations into the condition of the fishing grounds, particularly 
in the closed waters of the Moray Firth and Aberdeen Bay, which were 
commenced four years ago by means of steam-trawlers, were continued last 
year, and a voyage was also made to the offshore waters lying off the 
mouth of the Firth of Forth. In the Moray Firth the more important 
areas were examined in February, March, April, June, October, November, 
and December, and the grounds in Aberdeen Bay were visited in the same 
months. On each occasion the places where fish were found to be most 
abundant were chiefly worked over ; the total number of hauls made in the 
Moray Firth, the results of which were recorded, was 101, and the 
number in Aberdeen Bay was 29, making a total in the closed waters of 
these areas o£ 130 drags, in addition to 18 in the offshore waters, or 148 
altogether. The localities in the Moray Firth which were most thoroughly 
examined were Burghead Bay and the Dornoch Firth, as well as Smith 
Bank, the grounds off" Lossiemouth, off the Suters of Cromarty, and the 
coast of Caithness. 

The total quantity of fish taken in the course of the investigation was 
large, amounting to 180,51.5 in the completely recorded hauls, and of these 
126,485 were of a kind or size to be marketable, and 54,030 were un- 
marketable and were thrown overboard. 

One of the chief objects of these investigations is to ascertain the 
changes in the abundance of the food and other fish in the closed waters 
in different years and seasons, but observations are also made on the con- 
dition of the reproductive organs of the fish, their spawning, food, and on 
various other points connected with their life-history; while at the same 
time the temperature of the surface and bottom water at the various places 
is observed and recorded ; and from the fact that the actual trawling work 
is carried on precisely as it is for commercial purposes, opportunities 
are thus afforded for certain observations, as, for example, the proportion 
of the various kinds of fish captured in the net which are marketable and 
the proportion unmarketable, the influence of the size of the mesh of the 
net on the size of the fish caught, &c., which would be otherwise difficult 
to obtain. Collections of the floating organisms or plankton were also 
secured, and a number of experiments made with small-meshed nets with 
the object of procuring collections in connection with the study of the 
rate of growth of fishes and their distribution. 

With the large commercial trawl, the efficient ship, and the experienced 
trawlers in charge it is possible to make a much more extensive and 
thorough examination of the grounds than could formerly be done. 

The results of the investigation are given in detail in the following 
pages and in the Tables which are appended. 

The Proportion of Marketable to Unmarketable Fishes. 

As already mentioned, the proportion of the unmarketable to the market- 
able was 54,030 to 126,485, which is therefore a very considerable 



14 



Fart III. — T IV enty- second Anmml Eqwri 



proportion. The unmarketable fishes vary in amount in several ways. 
There are some which are never taken to market under any circumstances, 
being inedible or at least unsaleable. The most common of these is the 
long rough dab, which, however, is not found in any quantity in the 
shallow inshore waters. Dog-fishes are also unmarketable in the same 
way, and they are sometimes taken in large numbers by the trawl in the 
deep water in the northern part of the North Sea, but much less 
commonly in the Moray Firth or Aberdeen Bay. There are a few other 
species occasionally brought up in the trawl which are for the same reason 
never taken to market. But the great majority of the unmarketable fishes 
lielong to forms which are quite edible and marketable and are rejected 
merely because of their small size, such as small haddocks, whiting, plaice, 
&c. In some instances the question whether a particular species is taken 
to market or thrown overboard depends upon circumstances, irrespective 
of the size of the fish, as, for instance, with gurnards and anglers. These 
two forms are now, however, generally brought to market, in the latter 
case only the tail part being made use of. The proportion of the un- 
marketable fishes of the class referred to depends also to a very large 
extent on the grounds fished over and the season of the year. Examples 
of this fact are described in the following pages, as, for instance, in con- 
nection with the plaice and haddock (p. 30, 32, 36, 42). 

In the accompanying Table I have tabulated the numbers of marketable 
and unmarketable fishes taken in 103 hauls of the net in the Moray Firth 
and Aberdeen Bay, and have represented the proportions of each for the 
various species in percentages of the total. 



Fish. 


Marketable. 


Unmarketable. 


Total. 


Number. 


Per Cent. 


Number. 


Per Cent. 


Cod, 

Haddock, 

Whiting, 

Coalfish, 

Ling, 

Hake, 

Gurnard, 

Catfish, 

Plaice, 

Common Dab, 

Flounder, 

Witch, 

Lemon Dab, 

Halibut, 

Turbot, 

Brill, 

Long Rough Dab 
Sole, 

Skates and Rays,... 

Anglers, 

Other Fish, 


4,283 

46,287 

4,694 

45 

6 

4 

465 

76 


92 5 
86-0 
'57-3 
91-8 

21-7 
100-0 


343 

7,525 

3,495 

4 

1 
1,675 


7-4 
14-0 

42-4 
8-2 

78-2 


4,626 

53,812 

8,189 

49 

6 

5 

2,140 

76 


55,860 


81-0 


13,043 


19-0 


68,903 


27,669 

1,779 

904 

5,089 

518 

6 

23 

220 

3 


69-6 
10-9 
91-6 
84-8 
95-7 
100-0 
100-0 
99-5 


12,057 
14,543 

83 
911 

23 

1 
2,533 


30-3 
89-0 

8-2 
15-1 

4-2 

0-5 
100-0 


39,726 

16,322 

987 

6,000 

541 

6 

23 

221 

2,533 

3 


36,211 


54-5 


30,151 


45-5 


66,362 


407 
173 


55-2 
28-6 


331 
432 
186 


44-8 
71-2 


738 
605 
186 


92,651 


68-0 


44,143 


32-0 


136,794 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 15 

From this Table it will be seen that the percentages for the gross catch 
of fish are 68 for the marketable and 32 for the unmarketable, and these 
figures may be taken as fairly well representing the proportions in the 
inshore waters referred to, although the ratio varies on different grounds 
and at different times. 

The percentage of cod which were unfit for the market by reason of 
their small size was small, and less than with any other round fish save 
the catfish; it amounted to only 7*4 per cent., the marketable, including 
cod and codling, being 92 5 per cent. The proportion of unmarketable 
haddocks was much higher, viz., 14, as against 86 per cent, marketable ; 
but the proportion was found to vary very greatly in different cases. In 
the hauls made in Burghead Bay in December, for example, about five- 
sixths of the haddocks taken were too small to be marketable, while on 
other occasions the proportion of these small haddocks was very slight. 

The proportion of unmarketable Avhitings taken was still greater, 
amounting to 42 '4 per cent, of the total, the marketable being 57*3 per 
cent. The unmarketable coalfish — of which, however, comparatively few 
were caught — amounted to 8*2 per cent., while all the catfishes obtained 
were of marketable size. Gurnards, which, as stated, are not always 
taken to market, show a high percentage of the "unmarketable," partly 
for this reason, 78-2. 

The proportion of round fishes of edible and saleable kinds which were 
unmarketable was collectively 19 per cent., the marketable being 81 per 
cent. 

With flat-fishes, apart from the long rough dab, which is never taken to 
market, the highest percentage unmarketable were among the common 
dabs, viz. 89, the marketable being only 10"9 per cent. This is owing 
to the generally small size of this fish, and sometimes trawlers are not 
very particular about it, when they are getting good catches of more 
valuable kinds. The j^roportion of unmarketable plaice was also high, 
30"3 per cent., and in this case, even more than with the haddocks, the 
proportion varied greatly according to the depth of water and the season. 
In some places, as at Burghead Bay, where the fishing was as a rule con- 
ducted in water over seven fathoms in depth, comparatively few small 
unmarketable plaice were caught, while in the Dornoch Firth, in from five 
to eleven fathoms, in June, the majority of the plaice got were too small 
to be marketable. In two hauls here, of a total of 9649 plaice caught, no 
less than 6419, or 70" 1 per cent., were unmarketable, 

The proportion of unmarketable flounders taken was comparatively 
small, 8'2 per cent., no less than 9r6 per cent, being large enough to be 
taken to market. The reason of this high proportion is that these 
flounders were almost without exception spawning fish which had 
migrated out from the shallow waters near the beach for the purpose of 
spawning, the smaller and sexually immature forms remaining inshore 
beyond the reach of the trawl. The same reason no doubt explains the 
fact that all the turbot and almost all the brill taken were also large 
enough to be marketable. The number of turbot was not great, 23, but 
of the 221 brill all but one were marketable, or a proportion of 99*5 per 
cent. The shape of both these fishes makes them eminently liable to cap- 
ture in the trawl-net, if they are on the ground, and there is little doubt 
that the smaller forms, under about nine or ten inches, are close inshore 
on the sands. 

Among the skates and rays 44 '8 per cent, were unmarketable, and 55'2 
per cent, marketable, and the other unmarketable fishes were made up of 
anglers, herrings, sprats, dragonets, and a few others. 

The number of hauls on the offshore grounds was comparatively small 
last year, and the same contrast is therefore based on fewer results. Of 



16 Part III. — Tiventy -second Annual Report 

a total of 27,156 fishes in the completely recorded hauls, 22,051 were 
marketable and 5105 unmarketable, the percentage of the former being 
81-2, and of the latter 18-7 — the proportion of the unmarketable being 
thus considerably under what it was on the inshore grounds. In these 
series of hauls also all the gurnards were classed as unmarketable, while, 
on the other hand, owing to the depth of water, all the plaice were 
marketable. 

The proportion of cod, including codling, which was marketable was 
77*2 per cent., 22"8 per cent, being unmarketable ; in the case of haddocks, 
the percentage marketable was 86-7 and unmarketable 13*3; while with 
whitings the respective proportions were 54'4 and 45 "6 per cent. 

The Proportion of Immature Fish Landed. 

The information given above and detailed in the Tables as to the pro- 
portion of fish of the different kinds which are caught in the operations 
of commercial trawl-fishing and thrown away as unmarketable, enables an 
opinion to be formed as to the degree of destruction which may take 
place on the inshore grounds. 

It is also of some importance to be able to ascertain the proportion of the 
fish caught and landed which are immature, that is to say, which have never 
developed milt or roe and reproduced their species. In most cases it 
may be said that the greater proportion of the unmarketable individuals 
of the class which is unmarketable owing to the small size, are immature, 
although in some instances mature fishes may also be too small to be 
marketable. This is the case with the common dabs, none of the imma- 
ture individuals being large enough to be marketable, and those landed 
are therefore adult fishes which have either reproduced or are large 
enough to reproduce. The same is true of the flounder, which, however, 
is not taken often in the trawl in ordinary commercial fishing. It is also 
true to some extent of the haddock, and still more of the whiting, com- 
paratively few of these under the size at which maturity may be reached 
being brought to market, and with the whiting, at all events, there is no 
doubt that a fairly large proportion of the smaller-sized but mature 
individuals are rejected because of their small size. 

With plaice, on the other hand, as with turbot, brill, and halibut, all 
those which have arrived at the size of maturity, and a large number 
which are under that limit are eminently marketable. It is the same 
with the cod and the large round fishes, and it is thus of some importance 
to be able to show approximately the proportion of the mature and 
immature fishes of the different species which are under ordinary circum- 
stances brought to market. 

In order to do this it is necessary to obtain two classes of facts — the 
limit of size which separates the mature from the immature in the 
different kinds of fish, and the numbers of fish at the various sizes which 
are caught. Information on the former head, as I have elsewhere pointed 
out, is not as exhaustive as one would like, but, still, numerous observa- 
tions have been made in Scotland and other countries which enable one 
to differentiate, sometimes with precision and at other times broadly, the 
mature from the immature. It happens, however, at all events in the 
case of some fishes, that the size which separates the mature from the 
immature is not the same in all places. Thus, with plaice the limit 
between the mature and immature is higher in the northern parts of .the 
North Sea than the southern parts and the Channel. This difference 
does not, however, affect the present investigation to any extent, because 
comparatively a very small proportion of the fish landed at Aberdeen is 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 17 

caught in the southeru parts referred to, as is explained in my paper 
dealing with the statistics in connection with the place of capture in the 
Board's Twentieth Annual Report.* 

For the purpose referred to, certain sizes have been selected as separat- 
ing the mature from the immature individuals of the various species of 
fisli dealt with ; in several instances they exceed the sizes assigned in my 
earlier papers on the subject,t where the limit had reference rather to 
the smallest mature individuals which were found than to the average 
size of the group or generation on first attaining maturity. The latter, no 
doubt, is the preferable course in many cases, but not in all, as is some- 
times supposed. 

The subject, indeed — the fixing of the line to separate the mature from 
the immature, so as to include as few of the latter with the former as 
possible and vice versa — is not by any means as simple as it looks. It 
is really in some degree a complex problem, and the degree of complexity 
varies in different cases. If the reproductive generation — that is, the 
group which first attains maturity — were distinctly separated from the 
next younger generation or group, then the proper limit would be natur- 
ally the point between ; on one side all the fishes would be immature and 
on the other side all would be mature, and in such an example the proper 
limit would be, not the average size at first maturity, but the size of the 
smallest mature fish that could be caught. On the other hand, if the 
first reproductive generation were so fused with the next younger genera- 
tion — if the over-lapping between the two was such — that it contained, 
within the range of its sizes, as many immature as the other contained 
mature, then the proper limit would be the average size at first-maturity. 
I am not aware of any case in which either of these two conditions occur. 
In some forms in which reproduction takes place at an early age, as with 
the whiting and the sprat, the over-lapping of the reproductive generation 
with the preceding generation is comparatively slight, and in such 
instances the preferable limit in my opinion is not the average size of the 
group which is mature — which would exclude a large proportion of the 
mature fishes and include a very small proportion of the immature in 
compensation — but a limit placed near the minimum size at first-maturity. 

The approximation to the other extreme is to be found in the larger 
forms, such as the plaice, cod, &c., where reproduction does not take place 
at an age so early, and where, consequently, from the variations in the 
rate or growth of the individuals of the different groups or generations, 
the first reproducing generation becomes to a certain extent fused with 
the generation immediately preceding. But I do not know of any case 
in which the fusion is so complete that half of the fishes comprised within 
it are mature and the other half immature. With the plaice, for example, 
a study of the curves appended to my paper dealing with the growth of 
this fish in the Twentieth Annual ReportJ will show that although 
a considerable number of the fishes belonging to the younger group 
next to the reproductive group have fused with the latter, the greater 
number by far are distinct, and in such instances it appears to me 
that the proper line of division is not the average size of the repro- 
ductive group, but the point between the two groups, i.e. where the 
numbers of immature forms contained within the latter is balanced by 
the number of mature forms contained within the former. 

The precise differentiation of the mature from the immature is further 
complicated by the circumstance that the males and females do not in all 

* Part III., p. 80, PI. I. 

t Eif/hth Annual Report, Part III., p. 160 : Tenth, ibid. p. 240, 

X Part III., PI. XIV. 



18 Part TIL — Twenty-second Annual Bej^ort 

species grow at the same rate, or attain the same size, the females, as a 
rule, growing quicker and becoming biggei* ; and the numbers of the sexes 
in proportion to one another may vary. Thus, among the flat-fishes the 
females grow more rapidly, as a whole, than the males, and reach a larger 
size ; while among the gadoids the rate of growth and the relative 
dimensions of the older forms appear to be, as far as ascertained, nearly or 
quite uniform. This does not, however, very materially affect the 
question of the limit at first maturity, since the males and females grow 
with fairly equal uniformity until the reproductive stage is reached, but 
in certain cases th(} male becomes mature at an earlier age than the 
female and at a smaller size, and it is this which introduces complexity 
and difficulty. It thus happens that among flat-fishes many more 
females than males are landed, although the number of males at the stage 
of reproduction may be equal to or greater than the number of females 
on the fishing grounds. 

I have therefore prepared a statement of the limit between the mature 
and the immature fishes of the various species, based upon the available 
information, -with consideration of the facts concerning the growth of the 
fishes, which may be used in endeavouring approximately to determine 
the proportion of the immatvire and the mature which are marketable, 
as follows : — 



Whiting, 


' 8^ 


Turbot, 


17 


Haddock, 


- 11 


Brill, - 


15 


Cod, - 


- 26 


Common Dab, 


6 


Plaice, - 


- 15 


Witch, 


12 


Lemon Dab, 


- 10 







With regard to the other point of the investigation, the proportions of 
the fish at different sizes and weights which are landed, I have for a 
considerable time past devoted attention to this subject, and have 
measured and weighed a large number of fishes, amounting in the 
aggregate to over twenty tons, as they are landed and sold. With some 
kinds the average size and the limits of size are very regular, and these as 
a rule belong to the more important species. The information thus 
obtained as to the size and weight of the various classes of fish enables 
a close approximation to be made as to the proportion of the mature and 
immature, and thus a comparison instituted between these results and 
the observations made on board the trawlers on the same subject. Tables 
containing the particulars of the size and weight of the fish referred to 
will be found appended to this paper (p. 89), and other information 
relative to the size and weight is given in a paper on the rate of growth 
of fishes {see p. 142). 

I have therefore made a series of calculations to show the proportion 
of the mature and the immature fishes of certain kinds caught by 
trawlers, the data being contained in the Tables and in preceding reports 
of the Fishery Board, particularly the paper above referred to, and the 
limit of size between the two classes being the biological one 
as defined. 

There are marked differences in the proportions among different fishes. 
As already stated in the case of the dab, all those which are marketable 
are of mature size ; no immature individuals of this species are, therefore, 
landed. Among plaice, all those classed as large, or firsts, are of adult 
size, while all those belonging to the third, or small, class are under the 
biological size and are immature. Among mediums a certain proportion 
are immature, rather under one half in number being under the limit of 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 19 

maturity. When calculated out it is found that approximately 24 per cent., 
or about one quarter of the total marketable plaice, by weight, are under 
the limit or immature. The proportion with the plaice varies greatly 
according to the depth of water, and the figure given offers a contrast to 
what obtains in the southern and eastern parts of the North Sea. 

Among lemon dabs all those classed as large, or firsts, are over the 
biological limit of maturity, but a fair proportion of the second class, or 
smalls, are immature, the percentage being about seven for the total 
weight of the marketable fishes. 

Among witches, all those classed as firsts, or large, are over the limit 
of maturity, and have either spawned or are large enough to do so. 
Among the class of seconds, which range in size from a little over 8 
inches to about 14 inches, with an average length of, approximately, 
11^ inches, a considerable proportion are below the size of maturity, but 
the percentage of the immature, by weight, of the total number of market- 
able witches is only about 15. 

From the large size at which the cod first attains maturity, the 
proportion of the immature that are marketable is very considerable. 
Among boxed codlings one often finds a few which are over the 
biological size at maturity, and measuring as much as 28 inches, the 
selection as cod or codling on the part of the men on board the trawlers 
often depending on the meagre or fat condition of the fish, as well as on 
its length. Of all the cod and codling landed about 30 per cent., by 
weight, are beloAv the biological size of maturity. 

With haddocks and whitings it is very difi'erent, since the market- 
able size approximates to the size at which the fishes first become 
mature. The calculations in regard to haddocks show that the 
proportion of the marketable which are immature is very small, 
amounting to only about 1 per cent, of the total quantity landed. This 
is much under what one might expect from the statements made as to 
the large quantities of undersized haddocks sometimes landed, but it is 
the result of careful observations on a large number of fishes, both in 
regard to size and weight. All the medium and large haddocks, or firsts 
and seconds, landed are above the mature size, and the great majority 
also of the small haddocks, or thirds. 

With the whiting the proportion of the immature among marketable 
fishes is still less, and the quantity of small, or second class, whitings 
brought to market by trawlers is inconsiderable, while the proportion 
among those which are under the biological size of maturity is also 
fractional. It may be said that practically all the whitings marketed by 
trawlers are of adult size. 

It must be borne in mind in connection with this subject that the 
limit taken is a biological one, having reference, not to the size of the 
fish from the market point of view, but with reference to reproduction. 

With regard to the numbers, as apart from the weight, the calculations 
show that, taking the mean of several years, the following represents 
approximately the total numbers of the fish of the kinds named which 
are brought to Aberdeen market:— Cod, including codling, 4,575,000; 
haddocks, 110,000,000; whitings, 15,000,000; plaice, 2,400,000; lemon 
dabs, 1,600,000; witches, 3,900,000; and dabs, 260,000. 

Investigations in the Moray Firth and Aberdeen Bay. 

I. 

The first of the series of investigations was made in the Moray Firth 
in February, the steam trawler employed being the " Ben Edra," the trip 
extending from the 7th to the 13th ; nineteen hauls of the net wer« 



20 



Fart III. — Twenty-second Annvxil Report 



recorded. The places visited were Burghead Bay, where most of the 
hauls were taken, off Cromarty, the Dornoch Firth, and, on the 13th, 
Aberdeen Bay. The quantity of fish caught was not very great, haddocks 
particularly being comparatively scarce. 

The first haul was made off Burghead Bay, about four miles N.N.W. 
of Burghead light, in from seventeen to twenty fathoms, and it lasted for 
four hours and fifteen minutes. The aggregate number of fishes caught 
was only 228, of which 173 were marketable and fifty-five unmarketable. 
They included only five haddocks, all marketable, eight cod, fifty plaice, 
and ninety-four witches, all marketable but eight. The next drag was a little 
moi-e productive, 692 fishes being caught in the four hours it lasted. Of 
these 463 were marketable and 229 unmarketable. They included forty- 
two haddocks, all marketable, fourteen cod, a halibut, three brill, one 
turbot, 128 plaice, and 191 witches, as well as fourteen lemon dabs, two 
cat-fish, and nine skates. Other six hauls were made in the same 
locality, but in rather deeper water, and they were somewhat more pro- 
ductive. The first of these was in from eighteen to twenty-five fathoms, 
Burghead light bearing from four to five miles S.S.E., and it lasted for 
four hours and five minutes. The number of fishes obtained was 725, of 
which 476 were marketable and 249 unmarketable. The former included 
eighty-eight haddocks, twenty-three cod, fifty-five codling, twenty-one 
plaice, thirty-eight lemon dabs, and 197 Avitches, as well as a few cat-fish 
and skates. The next haul, a little further off in somewhat deeper water — 
from twenty to thirty fathoms — lasted for four hours and twenty minutes, 
the aggregate catch being larger, namely, 1029 fishes, of which, however, 
a larger proportion were unmarketable. The marketable fishes numbered 
586, the increase being chiefly in cod, plaice, and witches. The 
unmarketable consisted of whitings, common and long rough dabs, and 
herrings, of which seventy- four were taken, showing that a considerable 
shoal was present on the ground. 

The other hauls in this locality Were rather less productive, and they 
were all characterised by the presence of cod, plaice, and especially 
witches, and the comparative scarcity of haddocks, particularly small 
haddocks. 

In the following Table ai'e given the numbers of the various species of 
fishes taken in this locality, the marketable being distinguished from the 
unmarketable. One of the hauls in the deeper water in Avhich the net 
got fouled is omitted. 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Witch. 


Floun- 
der. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Halibut. 


Turbot. 


Brill. 


I. 

n. 


495 


125 
861 


1,699 
189 




73 


1 


1 


5 


Total 


495 


986 


1,888 




73 


1 


1 


5 




Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Coal -fish. 


Ling. 


I. 
IL 


653 


154 


117 
11 


893 
11 


49 
1.50 


20 
1 


3 


Total 


653 ' 154 


128 

1 


404 


199 


21 


3 



{Continued. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 








Cat-fish. 


Gurnard. 


Grey 
Skate. 


Tliorn- 
back. 


Starry 
Ray. 


Angler. 


I. 

II. 


4 


1 


6 


14 
2 


11 
9 


105 
202 


Total 


4 


1 


6 


16 


20 


307 



There were also taken in these hauls one dragonet, seventy-seven 
herrings, and two red gurnards. The aggregate number of fishes taken in 
the seven hauls, the time of actual fishing being thirty hours, was 5445 ; 
the average number caught per hour Avas thus 181 "5. The marketable 
fishes numbered 3269, with an average per hour of 109-0, and the 
unmarketable 2176, with an average of 72"5, The fish caught in largest 
numbers was the Avitch, viz. 1888, the average per hour's fishing 
being 62-9. 

The next few hauls were taken in the same locality but further to the 
west towards Cromarty, in water from twenty-five to thirty fathoms deep, 
and on a muddy bottom. In the first of these 1840 fishes were procured, 
1125 being marketable. More than half of these were witches, viz. 
826, and haddocks were also more abundant than in the previous hauls, 
thornbacks and starry rays being also more numerous. The same features 
characterised the remainder of the haids here, and a considerable number 
of cod were obtained. 

The next drag was for four hours and fifteen minutes, but the net was 
badly torn, and the catch amounted to only 355 fishes, of which 208 were 
marketable. The succeeding two hauls were more productive, the 
number of fishes taken in one of them being 1160, and in the other 2117, 
the marketable and unmarketable numbering respectively 688 and 1158, 
witches being in each case the most abundant. 

Other two hauls were made a little closer in to Burghead Bay, 1515 
and 2009 fishes being obtained, the majority again consisting of witches. 
Altogether in this locality fourteen drags were taken. In one of these the 
net was fouled and in another it was badly torn, and the results from 
these hauls may be excluded. The total duration of the actual fishing 
of the remaining twelve drags was fifty-two hours, and the aggregate 
number of fishes taken was 14,072, or an average of 270' 6 per hour's 
fishing ; the marketable fishes numbered 7815, or an average of 150 "3 per 
hour, and the unmarketable 6257, the average being 270'6. In the total 
were included 11,600 flat-fishes, 5992 being marketable and 5608 
unmarketable. The most common was the witch, of which 5819 were 
caught (4987 marketable) ; the common dabs numbered 2991 (all 
unmarketable but 203), and there were 1988 long rough dabs. The 
quantity of plaice taken was moderate, viz. 707, and all were marketable ; 
only eighty-seven lemon dabs were caught, and all these were also taken to 
market. One black or common sole was obtained, a fish which is very 
rare on the east coast. Haddocks and whitings were poorly represented, 
933 of the former and 263 of the latter being the whole number. 
Only eleven of the haddocks were too small to be taken to market — a 
great contrast to what usually obtains in these waters. The cod 
numbered 286, and the marketable codlings 208 ; there were also twenty- 
five codlings too small to be marketable. Among 211 skates and rays 
were six grey skates, seventy-six thornbacks, 124 starry rays and five 



22 Part III. — Tiventy-second Anniicd Report 

sandy rays. The number of anglers caught was exceptionally large, being 
431 — 150 of them being taken to market. Eighty-three herrings were 
taken, most of them in one haul, and also twelve sprats. 

During most of the time of fishing at Burghead and between it and 
Cromarty the wind had been blowing with fair strength, although variable 
in direction. On the 10th it increased in force, and a shift was made to 
the Dornoch Firth, where four hauls were made in from about six to 
twelve fathoms. The quantity of fish caught was small, the total in each 
of three of them being only a little over four hundred of all kinds ; in one 
it amounted to 710. Few haddocks, cod, or whiting were obtained, the 
bulk of the catch, such as it was, consisting of plaice. A considerable 
number of flounders were taken, nearly all of large size and engaged in 
spawning, the four hauls yielding 215. 

The total number of fishes got in the four drags in the Dornoch Firth — 
the actual time of fishing being seventeen hours and ten minutes — was 
2027, which represents an average per hour of 118-0. The marketable 
amounted to 1476, or an average of 86*0 per hour, and the unmarketable 
551, or an average of 32-1 per hour. The flat-fishes greatly exceeded the 
round-fishes in number, there being 1798 of them and only 203 of the 
latter. Plaice were the most abundant, and after them common dabs. 
Only 102 haddocks were got, none of them unmarketable, and six whitings, 
all of which, except one, were unmarketable. The paucity of small 
haddocks during the whole period of fishing on this occasion is 
noteworthy. 

Only one recorded haul in Aberdeen Bay was made on this trip, 
and the number of fishes taken was still less than in the Moray Firth. 
The haul lasted for four hours, and 155 fishes were caught, of which only 
thirty-five were marketable. These comprised one cod, thirteen codling, 
fifteen haddocks, three plaice, two lemon dabs, and one flounder, the 
unmarketable consisting chiefly of whitings and common dabs. 

The aggregate total of fishes taken and recorded in the seventeen hauls 
in February was 16,268, of which 9340 were marketable and 6298 
unmarketable. The total of flat-fishes was 13,455, and of round 
fishes 2016. 

The quantity of fish landed at the market by the vessel, as recorded 
by the Fishery Officer, amounted to 47| cwts., as follows : — 

Cod. Codling. Ling. Coal-fish. Haddock. Whiting. Turbot. Brill. Lemon Dab. 
7i 2 ^ 6 2i i i i 4 

Skate, 



laice. 


Dabs. 


Witches. 


Cat-fish. 


Flounder. 


Angler. 


14 


i 


6i 


I5 


1 


2 



II. 

The next series of trawlings was made in March on board the 
" Devanha," the catches being again recorded by Mr. James Ingram, jun. 
In all, twenty -two recorded hauls were made, three in Aberdeen Bay on 
the 16th, three in Burghead Bay on the 17th and 18th, four in the 
Dornoch Firth, five on Smith Bank off the coast of Caithness, four ofl" 
Lossiemouth on the 20th, and three off Tarbet Ness on the 21st 
and 22nd. 

In Aberdeen Bay there was a heavy sea, with a S.S.E. wind, and the 
catches were poor. The first haul here, in from thirteen to nineteen 
fathoms off" Newburgh, lasted for four hours, and 514 fishes were 
captured, 478 being marketable and thirty-six unmarketable. They 
included 123 cod and 195 marketable codling, as well as 184 plaice — 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



23 



all but twenty-eight marketable ; but only four haddocks were taken. 
The second drag in the same locality, and lasting for four hours and 
twenty minutes, yielded only 205 fishes, of which 121 were marketable 
and eighty-four unmarketable. In this haul only eight cod and four 
codling were taken, but there were ninety-two haddocks — all but eight 
marketable ; the plaice numbered twenty-two, and there were a number 
of small skates. 

A third drag was made off Newburgh to Donmouth for four hours and 
five minutes, in from eight to sixteen fathoms, and the catch amounted 
to 375 fishes, 269 of which were marketable and 106 unmarketable. 
There were included in it forty-seven cod and 1 26 marketable codlings, 
a coal-fish, 145 plaice (ninety-two marketable), as well as a number of un- 
marketable dabs, flounders, and skates. Only three haddocks were taken. 

In the three drags in Aberdeen Bay, the time of the fishing being 
twelve hours and twenty-five minutes, only 1094 fishes were caught, the 
average per hour's fishing being 88' 1. The marketable numbered 868, 
with an average number per hour of 69'9, and the unmarketable 226, 
with an average of 18"2. The total number of haddocks caught was 
ninety-nine, and of whitings, seven. The following Table gives the 
particulars of the marketable and unmarketable : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Flounder. 


Witch. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


268 
83 


33 


14 


4 


4 


178 


325 


351 


33 


14 


4 


4 


178 


325 




Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Coal-fish. 


Gurnard. 


Grey 
Skate. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Starry 
Ray. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


91 

8 


7 


2 


1 


17 


57 


1 


99 


7 


2 


1 


17 


57 


1 



A lumpsucker was also taken in one of the hauls. These fish are occa- 
sionally caught in the trawl net near shore in spring, during their pawn- 
ing time. 

The vessel then steamed to the Moray Firth, visiting first the south 
coast. 

At Burghead Bay the catches were not very productive, comparatively 
few marketable fishes being got except plaice. The first drag, which 
lasted for three hours and fifty minutes, in from seven to twelve 
fathoms, yielded a total of 652 fishes, 439 being marketable and 213 
unmarketable. The former comprised four cod, three codling, only two 
haddocks, no whitings, one turbot, eleven brill, 329 plaice, seventy com- 
mon dabs, fourteen flounders, three cat-fishes, and two anglers — the 
unmarketable consisting almost entirely of dabs. In the second haul, 
which lasted for four hours and fifteen minutes, 705 fishes were got, of which 
316 were marketable, the majority consisting of plaice. Twenty-eight 
skates and rays were taken, ten being marketable, and three herrings. 



24 



Part III. — Tiventy-second Annual Report 



The third drag was more productive, 948 fishes being taken— 607 
marketable and 341 unmarketable; it lasted for four hours. The bulk 
of the catch was composed of plaice and common dabs, 469 of the former 
and 398 of the latter ; all the plaice except forty-three were marketable, 
and 137 of the dabs. 

Altogether the number of fishes obtained in the three drags in Burg- 
head Bay aggregated, for the twelve hours and five minutes of actual 
fishing, 2305, of which 1362 were marketable and 943 unmarketable. 
The flat-fishes greatly preponderated, 2087 being caught, against only 121 
round-fishes. Among the flat fishes 1314 were taken to market and 773 
thrown overboard, while only thirty-one of the round-fishes were market- 
able, the marketable haddocks numbering two, and there were no market- 
able whitings. The plaice caught numbered 1024, all but forty-three 
being taken to market. The productiveness of the grounds in Burghead 
Bay on this occasion was shown by the number taken per hour's actual 
fishing, which was 190-8 for all kinds of fish — 112*7 for the marketable 
and 78"1 for the unmarketable. The average for the marketable plaice 
was 81*2 per hour's fishing. 

The particulars of the marketable and unmarketable fishes are as 
follows : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Flounder. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Turbot. 


Brill. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


I. 

II. 

Total 


981 
43 


263 
729 


39 


10 


1 


20 

1 


7 


13 
4 


1,024 


992 


39 


10 


1 


21 


7 


17 




Had- 
dock. 


Whiting. 


Cat-fish. 


Gurnard. 


Angler. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Starry 
Ray. 


Sandy 
Ray. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


2 

45 


40 


9 


1 


2 
37 


7 
16 


5 
14 


3 

5 


47 


40 


9 


1 


39 


23 


19 


8 



There were also taken in these hauls seven herrings and one lump- 
sucker. 

After leaving Burghead Bay the vessel steamed to the Dornoch Firth, 
where four hauls were made in the usual locality, in sweeps around the 
bay opposite Dunrobin, Golspie, and Embo, the depth of water being 
from about eight to sixteen fathoms. In the first haul, which lasted 
for four hours and five minutes, 999 fishes were taken, of which 822 
were marketable and 177 unmarketable. The marketable fishes com- 
prised twenty-four cod, 369 plaice, seventy-one common dabs, 317 
flounder.s, as well as ten cat-fish, three lemon dabs, and eighteen skates and 
rays. Kound-fishes continued to be very scarce, only two haddocks and 
a single whiting being caught. The second drag was a very poor one, 
only 229 fishes being obtained, of which 148 were marketable. There 
were fifty-seven plaice, sixteen cod, twelve common dabs, and fifty-two 
flounders. Three herrings and twenty-two sprats were also taken. The 
next haul was better, a hundred cod and 110 marketable codling, as well 



of the Fisheiy Board for Scotland. 



25 



as 174 plaice, eleven lemou dabs, and a number of common dabs and 
flounders, being caught. In the fourth drag the net got badly split, and 
the catch was small, amounting to only 160 fishes, 111 being marketable. 
It however included thirty-eight cod and forty-seven marketable plaice. 

Omitting this imperfect haul, the total number of fishes taken in the 
other three drags in the Dornoch Firth ^vas 2066, of which 1470 were 
marketable and 596 unmarketable. The duration of the fishing in these 
drags was twelve hours and fifteen minutes, and the averages per hour's 
fishing were therefore as follows: — 120"0 for the marketable, 48'7 for the 
unmarketable, and 168-7 for both included. The average for plaice was 
49-0 per hour. The three hauls yielded 140 cod, but only seven had- 
docks and a single whiting, all marketable. The absence of small had- 
docks and whitings both here and at Burghead Bay Avas remarkable, and 
formed a striking contrast to what obtained later in the year. 

The numbers of marketable and unmarketable Jishes caught in the 
three draa:s in the Dornoch Firth are as follows : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Flounder. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Brill. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


600 

8 


128 420 
509 48 


16 


2 


140 


115 


7 


608 


637 468 


16 


2 


140 


115 


7 




Whiting. 


Cat-fish. 


Angler. 


Grey 

Skate. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Starry 
Ray. 


Sandy 
Ray. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


1 


14 


2 


1 


22 


3 

2 


1 


1 


14 


2 


1 


22 


5 


1 



There were also caught three herrings, twenty-two sprats, and two 
lumpsuckers. 

On leaving the Dornoch Firth the vessel ran to Smith Bank, where 
five hauls were made on the western edge in from about nineteen to 
twenty-eight fathoms of water, and here much better results were 
obtained than in the localities above described. The first haul, Avhich 
lasted for four hours, yielded 726 fishes, of which 262 were marketable and 
464 unmarketable. The catch included eleven cod, a halibut, forty plaice, 
a few lemon dabs and witches, and also 223 haddocks, in the latter respect 
thus differing from the catches in the Dornoch Firth and Burghead Bay. 
Eighty-two of the haddocks were too small to be marketable. There 
were also 117 gurnards, a fish more sparingly represented in the previous 
localities— at this season it is only found in any number in the deeper 
waters offshore. The second drag was better than the first, 1016 fishes 
being caught, of which 670 were marketable. They included thirty cod 
574 haddocks, sixty-nine plaice, fifty-eight lemon dabs, and seven cat-fish. 
Seventy-five of the haddocks were two small to be marketable. 

The third haul produced 1934 fishes, 648 being marketable and 1286 
unmarketable. On this occasion haddocks were well represented, 1379 
being taken ; no less than 973 of these were too small to be marketable. 



26 



Part III. — Tiventij-second Annual Re'port 



The catch included twenty-eight cod, ninety plaice, 111 lemon dabs, three 
cat-fish, and a few other kinds. The fourth and fifth hauls were not 
quite so good as regards the number of fish caught. In the first of them 
the total was 901, of which only 166 were marketable, and these included 
sixty-two cod, forty-four plaice, fifty-two lemon dabs, and five cat-fish. 
There were 333 haddocks, all too small to be inarketable, and 126 whit- 
ings, of which only one was marketable. The number of fishes in the 
last haul was still less, viz. 664, and all except 100 were unmarketable. 
Those taken to market comprised twenty-three cod, fifty-four plaice, two 
coal-fisb, eleven lemon dabs, and a few others. The number of haddocks 
caught was 127, and of whitings 216, but all the latter and all except 
three of the haddocks were unmarketable. 

Altogether in the five hauls in this locality, the time of actual fishing 
being twenty hours and twenty-five minutes, 5241 fishes w^ere taken, the 
average per hour's fishing being 256"7. The proportion of marketable 
was, however, not large, owing to the numbers of small haddocks and 
dabs; the number was 1846, the average per hour being 90'4, while there 
were 3395 unmarketable, giving a ratio of 166*2 per hour. 

The aggregate number of flat-fishes in the five drags was 1779, 569 
being marketable and 1208 (chiefly common and long rough dabs) 
unmarketable. Plaice were most numerous, 297 being taken, and lemon 
dabs next, of which 249 were caught, all but ten marketable. The 
aggregate of round-fishes was 3395, there being 1268 marketable and 2127 
unmarketable. The number of haddocks was 2636, and 1049 of them 
were marketable and 1587 too small to be taken to market — a consider- 
able proportion. The average number of haddocks taken per hour's fish- 
ing was 129'1. 

The particulars as regards the marketable and unmarketable of each 
kind are given in the following Table : — 

































Plaice. 


Com. 
Dab. 


Floun- 
der. 


Witch. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Halibut. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Brill. 


Megrim 


I. 

II. 

Total 


297 


3 

826 


2 


22 

44 


239 
10 


2 


328 


1 


3 


297 


829 


2 


66 


249 


2 


328 


1 


3 




Cod. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whiting. 


Coal- 
fish. 


Hake. 


Cat- 
fish. 


Gur- 
nard. 


Grey 
Skate. 


Thorn- 
back. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


154 


14 
22 


1,049 
1,587 


30 
368 


4 


1 


17 


149 


8 
6 


1 
26 


154 


36 


2,636 


398 


4 


1 


17 


149 


14 


27 



There were also caught in these hauls eighteen (unmarketed) anglers, 
one dragonet, and nine red gurnards. 

The next place examined was the grounds off Lossiemouth, where four 
drags were made on the 20th, in from about seven to fourteen fathoms of 
water. In two of them the net was badly torn, and the catches in 
these cases was small, and may be neglected. In the first of the others 
the total number of fishes caught in the four hours during which the drag 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 27 

lasted amounted to 785, and of these 556 were marketable and 229 
unmarketable. Very few haddocks were obtained, the total being three, 
all marketable ; the chief fishes were cod, of which fifty were got, codling, 
plaice, and flounders. In the other haul 690 fishes were obtained, 570 
being marketable. On this occasion also the marketable fishes consisted 
for the most part of cod, codling, plaice, and flounders, while only six 
haddocks were taken. 

The aggregate for the two hauls here, the actual fishing lasting eight 
hours and fifteen minutes, was 1474, or an average per hour of 178"7. 
The marketable fishes numbered 1126, an average of 136'5 per hour, 
and the unmarketable 348, giving an average of 422. The flat-fishes 
greatly preponderated, 1134, or an average of 137 '4, being caught, as 
compared with 327 round-fishes, with an average of 39'6. All the round- 
fishes were marketable, and they comprised the large number of 1 27 cod, 
172 codling, five coal-fish, and twelve cat-fish, but only nine haddocks 
and two whitings. The flat-fishes included 524 plaice, all marketable 
except nine (the average of the former being 62*4), 350 common dabs, 
and 243 flounders. 

Although the catches here were good, the fishing was carried on at some 
expense of gear, and a shift was made to the north-east, oflf Tarbet N'ess, 
where three drags were taken in from twenty to twenty-six fathoms of 
water. In the first, which occupied four hours and thirty-five minutes, 
only 222 fishes were taken, 174 marketable, but the net was slightly split. 
In the next haul 449 were caught, of which 130 were marketable, and in 
the third 259, the marketable numbering 161. The chief fish taken in 
this locality was cod, 142 being obtained. 

Taking the two perfect hauls, the time of actual fishing being eight 
hours and ten minutes, the number of fishes secured was 708, the average 
per hour being 86'6. The number of marketable was 291, with an aver- 
age of only 35'6, and the unmarketable 417, with an average of 51-0 
The total included 137 plaice, 124 cod, 201 haddocks, of which only 
sixteen were marketable, sixteen whitings, all unmarketable, and a few 
others. 

The quantity of fish landed from this trip amounted to 140| cwts., as 
follows : — 

Cod. Codling. Ling. Coal-fish. Haddock. Turbot. Halibut. Brill. 
81 5J 1-J 2 3i i 4 i 

Lemon Dab. Plaice. Dabs. Megrim. Flounder. Cat-fish. Skates. 
2| 28i IS i 4i 5 5 

III. 

From the 8th to the 13th of June another series of trawlings was 
made on board the " Drum])lair," the places visited being Burghead Bay, 
the grounds off Lossiemouth, the Dornoch Firth, the ground oflf Lyb-ster, 
Smith Bank, and Aberdeen Bay, twenty-two hauls being recorded. 

The fishing in Burghead Bay, where three drags were made on the 
8th and 9th, was very poor, the total number of fish taken being only 
560, of which 203 were marketable, the duration of the fishing being six 
hours and forty minutes. In one of the hauls the net was slightly torn, 
and in the other two, lasting for four hours and forty minutes, 390 were 
caught, 125 of them being marketable. The average per hour at this 
time in Burghead Bay was 84*1, the average for the marketable being 
only 30 5. The catch consisted chiefly of plaice ; only one cod, two cod- 
lings, a single haddock, and three whitings were caught. An explana- 



28 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

tion of the poor takes was probably the very large quantity of weed 
which was found in the net, which was with difficulty cleansed of it, 
experience showing that under such circumstances fish are usually scarce. 

On leaving Burghead Bay the vessel proceeded to the ground off 
Lossiemouth, where a haul was made in from eleven to fourteen fathoms, 
about three miles off. The net was hauled in fifty minutes, and it con- 
tained 278 fishes, of which only forty- one were marketable, viz. forty 
plaice and one black or common sole. The unmarketable fishes num- 
bered 237, and consisted of common dabs, small plaice, and gurnards, of 
which there were 110. The weather both here and at Burghead Bay 
was quite calm, the sea smooth, and there was a slight fog. 

The vessel then steamed to the Dornoch Firth, where a number of drags 
were taken. In the first, which lasted for only twenty-eight minutes, the 
net having caught on soiaething on the bottom, ninety-five fishes were taken, 
of which foity-one were marketable and fifty-four unmarketable. They 
consisted mostly of plaice and common dabs ; only one haddock was 
obtained, and there were no whitings. For the time the net was fishing 
the catch was fairly good, and a "dan " was put down and a few of the 
succeeding hauls were made around it. In the first of these, in from 
five to eleven fathoms, and in two hours and forty-two minutes actual 
fishing, a large bag of fish was secured. The total number of fishes was 
4928, of which 1555 were marketable and 3373 unmarketable. With 
the exception of fifty gurnards and twenty-four thornbacks, they were 
all flat-fishes and nearly all plaice. These numbered no less than 4638, 
of which 1525 were marketable and 3113 unmarketable; the former 
consisted of eleven " large," 205 "mediums," 370 "small," and 939 
" fourths," The small unmarketable plaice measured from three and 
three-quarter inches up to ten inches in length. The catch also included 
four brill and six flounders. 

In the next recorded haul, on the same ground and lasting for four 
hours, 4859 fishes were taken, of which 1318 were marketable and 3541 
unmarketable. The great bulk again consisted of plaice, which numbered 
4517, and of these 1211 were marketable and 3306 unmarketable. The 
other marketable fishes included one turbot, one brill, eighty-five common 
dabs, one lemon dab, and nineteen thornbacks. The small " ofFal " 
plaice were of the same sizes as in the former haul, and their great 
abundance showed how destructive the otter-trawl may be on such 
shallow-water grounds in certain cases. In the two hauls forty-three 
thornbacks were got, and the males greatly preponderated. In fifty-six 
examined from these and other catches, there were fifty-one males and 
only five females — a proportion the reverse of what usually obtains.* 
The larger and medium-sized gurnards were spawning, and they were 
found to be feeding on shore-crabs. 

Owing to the quantity of small plaice taken, it was decided to shift a 
little further out so as to avoid the shallow water, and the result was immedi- 
ately apparent. In the first haul made here, in from nine to thirteen 
fathoms, the " bag " was not so large, but the fish were of better size. 
The haul lasted for four hours and two minutes, and the fishes caught 
numbered 1144, of which 432 were marketable and 712 unmarketable. 
The former included 412 plaice, of a total of 1105, the large numbering 
twenty-eight, the medium fifty-eight, the small 110, and the fourths 216. 
There were also two cod, ten common dabs, two flounders, one cat-fish, 
and five thornbacks. The fourth class of marketable plaice consisted of 
fish measuring from 23 centimetres (nine inches) to a little over 31 centi- 
metres (twelve and a half inches), and the unmarketable from 19 '8 cm. 

*' I'wenty -first Annval Rrport, Part Til,, p. 230. 



of til e Fishery Board for Scotland. 



29 



(seven aud three-quarter inches) to about 23-5 cm., or nine and a quarter 
inches ; a few were a little larger. The selection of the various classes 
by the men, being solely by the eye, is never perfect, one class always 
overlapping another more or less. 

A number of other hauls were made on this ground with the same 
general results, the marketable fishes consisting of plaice and scarcely any- 
thing else, round-fishes, with the exception of gurnards, being almost 
absent. During the time in the Dornoch Firth the weather was 
very favourable for tisbing operations on the whole, though on the 10th 
there was some wind from the east, which made the sea a little choppy, 
causing the vessel to roll. 

In the ten recorded hauls in the somewhat deeper water, from eight to 
thirteen fathoms and mostly from eight to eleven, the time of actual 
fishing being thirty-eight hours and thirty-two minutes, the aggregate 
number of fishes captured was 7613, of which 3565 were marketable and 
4046 unmarketable. They consisted mostly of flat-fishes, and chiefly of 
plaice, the former numbering 7316, and the round-fishes, nearly all 
gurnards, only 279. The average per hour's fishing was 92'5 for the 
marketable, and 105"0 for the unmarketable, the general average for both 
combined being 197"5. Only five cod, two (unmarketable) coillings, thirty- 
two haddocks, all marketable, were taken, and not a single whiting. The 
plaice numbered 6680, of which 3450 were marketable and 3230 
unmarketable, the respective averages per hour's fishing being 89 '5 and 
83 8 for the marketable and unmarketable, and 173 -3 for both together. 

In the two first hauls in the somewhat shallower water above described 
a greater number of fishes were captured in the six hours and forty-two 
hours of fishing, viz. 9787, the average per hour being 1460'7 ; the 
marketable numbered 2873, with an average of 428'7, and the unmarket- 
able 6914, with an average of 1032-0. The number of plaice in these 
two hauls was 9155, the average per hour being 1366-4 ; the marketable 
amounted to 2736, with an average of 408-4, and the unmarketable to 
6419, with an average of 958-0. These numbers are very rarely reached. 

The number of marketable and unmarketable fishes taken in the twelve 
hauls was as follows: — 





Plaice. 


Com. 
Dab. 


Floun- 
der. 


Brill. 


Turbot. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


I. 
11. 

Total 


6,186 
9,649 


141 
963 


11 
3 


7 


1 


1 


5 


2 


15,835 




1,101 


14 


7 




1 


1 


5 


2 




Haddock 




Hake. 


Cat-fish. 


Gurnard. 


Angler. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Sprat. 


I 
II. 

Total 


32 


1 


5 


234 


8 


50 • 
7 


1 


32 


1 


5 


234 


8 


57 


1 



It is of interest to contrast the proportions in which the plaice of 
different sizes were caught in the two hauls in the shallower water and in 



30 



Pco't III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



the ten in a little deeper water on this occasion ; and in the appended 
Table I give the percentage of each size to the total, and the average 
number taken in each hour's fishing in the two cases respectively. The 
two hauls are indicated by A and the ten by B. 







Large. Medium, 


Small or 
Thirds. 


Fourths. 


Unmarket- 
able. 


A 
B 


No. 
No. 


27 
174 


329 
775 


681 
1,179 


1,699 
1,322 


6,419 
3,230 


A 
B 


Percent- 
age. 


0-29 
2-60 


3-59 
11-60 


7-43 
17-65 


18-55 
19-80 


70-11 
48-3 


A 
B 


No. per 
Hour's 
Fisliing. 


4-0 
4-5 


49-1 
20-1 


101 -6 
80-6 


253-6 
34-3 


958-0 
83-8 



It will be seen how much greater the proportion of small plaice, under 
about ten inches, is in the former case than in the latter. The actual 
abundance on the ground, as shown by the average per shot, indicates that 
while the large plaice were nearly equally distributed, the medium 
plaice, and still more markedly those still smaller, were far more numerous 
in the shallower water. Nevertheless it will be observed that the largest 
average in each case is for the unmarketable fish, that is, under about 
nine and a half or ten inches. 

Two hauls with the small-meshed net around the cod-end were made 
in the Dornoch Firth. In the first, which was for an hour and twenty- 
eight minutes, it was found on getting the trawl up that the fine net had 
been holed. The total number of fishes taken Avas 143, belonging to 
eleven species, as follows: — Plaice 55, common dab 38, lemon dab 2, little 
or yellow sole 3, cod 10, haddock 1, gurnard 14, cat-fish 1, sand-eel 16, 
goby 1, gemmeous dragonet 2. In the second haul, which lasted for an 
hour, the catch was also very small, viz. 170 fishes, belonging to five 
species, viz. — plaice 103, common dab, 57, gurnard 7, sand-eel, 1, angler 2. 

The next place where fishing was carried on was off Lybster on the 
coast of Caithness, where a drag for two hours in twenty-three fathoms 
gave 584 fishes, of which 383 were marketable and 201 unmarketab'e. 
The catch comprised six marketable plaice, forty-six marketable lemon 
dabs, and forty common dabs, as well as 410 haddocks, 308 of them 
being marketable, two cod, and forty- four whitings, twenty-five of which 
were too small to be marketable. 

Smith Bank was then visited, and a haul there, in from nineteen to 
twenty-two fathoms, for two hours and five minutes, gave a total of 773 
fishes, 378 being marketable. The flat-fishes consisted of two turbot, 220 
common dabs, and twenty-nine lemon dabs, all but seven of them market- 
able; there were also taken 481 haddocks, 316 marketable, one cod and 
twelve marketable codlings, as well as two cat-fish and twenty-three 
gurnards. 

After leaving the Moray Firth five hauls were made in Aberdeen Bay, 
with very good results. The first was in from eight to ten fathoms off 
the Black Dog, and it lasted for four hours. The number of fishes taken 
was 1749, of which 1384 were marketable and 365 unmarketable, the 
bulk of the catch consisting of plaice and haddocks. Of 917 haddocks 
caught, 707 were marketable and 210 unmarketable ; all the former 



of the. Fishery Board for Scotland. 



31 



were " thirds " or small. The plaice totalled 597, all but twenty beiug 
marketable, and of these twenty-five were large, 363 mediums, and 
189 small. There were also one cod, three marketable codlings and 
fourteen unmarketable, forty small whitings, 150 dabs, twenty-five 
gurnards, and two anglers. 

The next haul in the same place, and also lasting for four hours, gave 
almost exactly the same numbers, the total being 1745, the marketable 
1312 and the unmarketable 433. The haddocks numbered 1013, all 
being small and 250 of them unmarketable, while of the 507 plaice, 
all of which were marketable, fifteen were large, 162 medium, and 330 
small; there were no "fourths," a still smaller class, as in the Moray 
Firth. 

In these two drags at this place, the duration of fishing being eight 
hours, 3494 fishes were captured, the average per hour being 436'6. 
The marketable, numbering 2696, gave an average of 337*0, and the 
unmarketable, of which there were 798, an average of 9 9" 6. 

Three other hauls were made in from twelve to fifteen fathoms, ofi' 
Slains Castle, with even better results. Only one was completely 
recorded; it lasted for four hours, and 2068 fishes were taken, 1855 
marketable and 213 unmarketable. The number of haddocks was 1797, 
all but 109 marketable ; there were fewer plaice, viz. 160, all marketable, 
and they comprised sixty mediums and one hundred small. The other 
marketable fishes were two tiirbots and five brill. In the next haul, fur 
three hours, 4283 marketable fishes were secured ; the nnmarketable 
were not counted, but they consisted of six basketfuls, mostly of small 
haddocks. The iiaddocks enumerated amounted to 4126, of which 303 
were mediums, 3193, smalls and 630 fourths, or very small. There were 
also eighty-seven plaice, all marketable, and seventy marketable common 
dabs. The last drag, for- four hours, yielded 1985 marketable fishes, the 
haddocks numbering 1871 and the plaice 107; all the haddocks were 
thirds and fourths. The ofial was not noted. 

The following are the particulars of each class of fish taken in the three 
completely recorded drags in Aberdeen Bay : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Turbot. 


Brill. 


Cod. 


Cod- 
ling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Gur- 
nard 


Ang- 
ler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


],244 
20 


94 

263 


2 


7 


1 


39 


3,158 
569 


40 
56 


61 


2 
3 


1,264 


357 


2 


7 


1 


42 


3,727 


96 


61 


5 



The quantity of fish landed at the market, as the result of this trip, 
as recorded by the Fishery Officer, was 81 cwts., as follows : — 



Cod. 



Codling. 



Coal- fish. 



Hake, 



Haddock. 
4 



Turbot. 



Brill. 



Lemon Dab, 



Plaice. 
63? 



Cat-fish, 
li 



Flounder, 



Skates. 
9 



IV. 



In October another series of trawlings was made, by means of the 
steam-trawler " Star of the North," the grounds visited being Aberdeen 
Bay, Burghead Bay, the Dornoch Firth, off" Lybster, and Smith Bank, 
c 



32 



Part III. — Tiventy -second Annual Be'port 



la Aberdeen Bay five hauls were made on the 16th and 17th of 
the month, with fair results, a strong breeze blowing from the 8.W., 
while the sea was rough. The first was off Black Dog in from eight to 
twelve fathoms, and it lasted four hours. The catch amounted to 1978 
fishes, of which 1938 were marketable, most consisting of haddocks. Of 
these 1517 were caught, all marketable, the majority being "large" or 
" firsts," viz. 749. Thirteen cod and 121 codlings, of which 118 were 
marketable, were included in the catch, as well as 264 whitings, twenty- 
two plaice, one lemon dab, and twenty-eight common dabs. The next 
drag in the same locality, and in from nine to twelve fathoms, gave almost 
the same result, viz. a total of 1964, of which 1889 were marketable. 
The number of haddocks was 1099, all marketable, there being 395 large, 
164 medium, and 540 thirds, There were also four cod and 282 codlings, all 
but nine marketable, 275 whitings, ten brill, 194 plaice, twelve lemon dabs, 
and seventy-three common dabs. A third haul for four hours in the same 
locality gave 1287 fishes, 1216 of which were marketable, the bulk of the 
catch consisting of large and medium haddocks, cod, codlings, and plaice. 

The fourth drag was made in from twelve to twenty fathoms, from the 
same place towards Cruden Skerries, and lasted for three hours and a 
quarter. The catch consisted of 1685 fishes, 1634 being marketable. 
The number of haddocks was 790, of which 237 were large, 156 
mediums, and 397 thirds. Besides nine cod, 387 codlings were taken, all 
but five marketable, 228 whitings, 204 plaice, some dabs and rays. The 
fifth haul was made from the Skerries towards Aberdeen and lasted for 
an hour. The catch amounted to 208 fishes, chiefly haddocks, whitings, 
and plaice ; it was made with the small-meshed net around the cod-end. 

The three hauls in from eight to twelve fathoms, the time of actual 
fishing being eleven hours and fifty minutes, yielded a total of 5229 
fishes, the rate per hour being 442*0. The marketable numbered 5043, 
with an average per hour of 426*3, and the unmarketable 186, with an 
average of 15*7. The aggregate of haddocks was 3281, with an average 
per hour of 277 3. A feature was the large number of marketable cod- 
lings, of which 570 were taken in three hauls. 

The particulars of the catches of the first four drags in Aberdeen Bay 
are these : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Turbot. 


Brill. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


615 


71 
126 


30 


3 


23 


52 


952 

28 


615 


197 


30 


3 


23 


52 


980 




Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Gurnard. 


Angler. 


Grey 
Skate. 


Thorn- 
baek. 


Starry 
Ray. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


4,071 


830 
49 


21 


1 
2 


16 
3 


8 
2 


5 
6 


4,071 


879 


21 


3 


19 


10 


11 



In the haul with the small-meshed net, for an hour, the total number 
of fishes caught was 384, as follows : — Plaice 42, common dab 26, long 
rough dab 1, cod 22, haddock 94, whiting 190, sprat 9. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



33 



The fishing in the. Moray Firth was begun on the 19th, Burghead Bay 
being first visited ; the weather was calm, and very large quantities of 
fish were taken. The first haul was in from twelve to twenty fathoms, 
but mostly in and about ten, and lasted for four hours. The bag of fish 
"was an exceptionally large one, comprising thirty-one and a half baskets 
of haddocks, mostly small, and six baskets of plaice, as well as other 
fishes. The total number of the fishes caught was 8382. of which 7286 
were marketable and 1096 unmarketable. Among the former were 6439 
haddocks and 622 plaice, sixty whitings, a halibut, two brill, thirty 
witches, twenty common dabs, and ninety-six gurnards. The unmarket- 
able consisted chiefly of common dabs, whitings, and plaice. 

The other four hauls at Burghead Bay were made in water from eight 
to twelve and thirteen fathoms, and they were also good in regard to the 
result. In the first, lasting for four hours, 3446 fishes were taken, 2581 
marketable and 865 unmarketable. The former included 1463 haddocks, 
646 plaice, and 255 whitings, and also a turbot, three brill, two witches, 
and some common dabs and gurnards. The next, also for four hours, 
produced 2556 fishes, 1596 marketable and 960 unmarketable, haddocks 
and plaice predominating. In the next haul, also for four hours, 4037 
fishes were caught, 3005 of them being marketable and 1032 unmarket- 
able. The catch included 2119 haddocks and 491 plaice. 

In the last haul, for one hour, the catch amounted to 912 fishes, 515 
being marketable and 397 unmarketable ; most consisted of plaice, had- 
docks, and common dabs. 

The aggregate quantity of fish taken in these five drags, the time of 
fishing being seventeen hours, was the large one of 19,333 fishes, 14,983 
being marketable and 4350 unmarketable. The averages per hour's fishing 
were 1137'2 for the whole, 881*3 for the marketable, and 255-9 for the 
unmarketable. The total number of haddocks was 10,910, with an 
average of 64i"8j the number of plaice was 2730, the average being 
160"6, and the number of common dabs 3618, giving an average per hour 
of 21 2 "S. There were very few cod or codlings, viz. three of the former 
and fifty-two of the latter, and 523 gurnards, of which 379 were taken to 
market. The productiveness of the grounds in Burghead Bay on this 
occasion very strikingly contrasted with the condition in spring and in 
June. 

The following Table gives the numbers of the marketable and 
unmarketable fishes taken in the five hauls, the former being dis- 
tinguished by the figure I., and the latter by II. : — 




34 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



The proportion of the small plaice to those of larger size here was very 
different to what it was in the Dornoch Firth in June. The unmarket- 
able gave only a ratio of 6 "3 per hour, as shown in the appended Table, 
which also gives the numbers, and the average per hour's fishing, for the 
various classes of haddocks : — 



Plaice. 


Large. 


Medium. 


Small. 


Fourths. 


Unmarket- 
able. 


No. . 

Average per 
Hour 


22 
1-3 


677 
39-8 


795 
46-8 


1,128 
66-3 


108 
6-3 


Haddock. 


Large. 


Medium. 


Small. 


Fourths. 


Unmarket- 
able. 


No. 

Average per 
Hour 


62 
3-6 


521 
30-6 


9,988 
587-5 


182 
10-7 


157 
9-2 



In one haul, for an hour, in eight to twelve fathoms, with the small- 
meshed net around the cod-end of the otter-trawl, 997 fishes were 
obtained, belonging to twelve species, as follows : — 



Plaice. 
229 


Common Dab. 
340 


Witch. 
13 


Cod. 
21 


Haddock. 
246 


Whiting. 
93 


Hake. 
1 


Gurnard. 
50 


Pogge. 
1 


Angler. 


Dragonet. 


Thornback 
1 



The fishing in the Dornoch Firth, which was the next place visited, was 
fairly good, but not so productive as at Burghead Bay. The first haul 
was made on the afternoon of the 20th October, oft'Dunrobin and Golspie, 
in from eight to fourteen fathoms of water, and lasted for two hours. 
The number of fishes caught was 793, of which 677 were marketable and 
116 unmarketable. They included forty-two cod, thirty-three codlings, 
all but seven marketable, 592 haddocks, nearly all marketable, twenty- 
seven whitings, two brill, twenty-two plaice, and one or two others. The 
weather was fine, a light wind blowing from the south-west. In the 
next drag in the same locality, and lasting also for two hours, 842 fishes 
were caught, 771 being marketable. There were only three cod, but the 
number of haddocks was increased to 652, and of plaice to a hundred. 
A number of other hauls were made on the same grounds, the best being 
one of four hours' duration, by which 2486 fishes were taken, 2239 
marketable and 247 unmarketable. Only one cod was included in the 
catch, but there were 1846 haddocks and 345 plaice, as well as some 
codlings, whitings, lemon dabs, and others. In the next haul the net was 
split, but the one succeeding it yielded 2223 fishes, 2081 being market- 
able. The haddocks numbered 1926, and the plaice 133, and there were 
also five cod, forty-t^wo codlings, and some dabs. 

Altogether there were nine recorded drags in this place, and the aggre- 
gate of fishes taken was 12,253, 9611 being marketable and 2642 
unmarketable. The averages per hour of actual fishing were 331 '4 for 
the marketable, 91 "1 for the unmarketable, and 422*5 for both combined. 
The average per hour for the haddocks was 266*8 and for the plaice 57*0. 



of the Fishery Board for US Gotland. 



35 



In the following Table are given the totals of each kind of fish taken in 
these nine hauls, the marketable being indicated by I. and the unmarket- 
able by II. : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Witch. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Brill. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


1,552 
100 


89 
2,099 


2 


23 


5 


54 


138 
45 


1,652 


2,188 


2 


23 


5 


54 


183 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Coal-fish. 


Gurnard. 


Cat-fish. 


Thornback. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


7,666 
70 


33 

190 


2 


35 
99 


1 


12 


7,736 


223 


2 


134 


1 


12 



There were also a conger, seven anglers, twenty-two sprats, five picked 
dog-fishes, an armed-bullhead, a little or yellow sole, and a sting ray 
{Trygon). The proportions of the plaice and haddocks of different sizes is 
indicated in the following Table: — 







Large. 


Medium. 


Small. 


Fourths. 


Unmarket- 
able. 


Plaice } 


No. 

iV-verage per 
Hour 


100 
3-4 


261 
9-0 


438 
15-1 


753 
26-0 


100 
3-4 


Had- j 
dock 1 


No, . 

Average per 
Hour 


1,033 
35-6 


879 
30-3 


5,754 
198-4 


- 


70 
2-4 



In a haul for an hour, in from eight to thirteen fathoms, with the 
small-meshed net around the cod-end, 1522 fishes were captured, belonging 
to fifteen species, as follows : — 



Brill, - 


1 


Coal-fish, - 


1 


Plaice, - 


- 364 


Gurnard, - 


35 


Lemon Dab, 


3 


Pogge, 


4 


Common Dab, 


- 724 


Sprat, 


43 


Little Sole, - 


8 


Sting Ray, 


1 


Cod, - 


8 


Thornback, 


1 


Haddock, 


- 95 


Piked Dog-fish, - 


1 


Whiting, 


- 233 







After leaving the Dornoch Firth the vessel steamed to the grounds ofi 
Lybster, where five hauls were made in twenty-three and twenty-four 
fathoms of water and good catches of haddocks got. In the first, which 
was for one hour, 1008 fishes were taken, of which 956 were marketable 
and fifty-two unmarketable. The haddocks numbered 904, all but four 
marketable ; there were also fifty-one whitings, fourteen plaice, five lemon 



36 



Part III. — Twenty-second Anrmal Report 



dabs, and thirty common dabs. The next drag, for two hours, yielded 
2740 fishes— 2674 being marketable and sixty-six unmarketable. The 
number of haddocks caught was 2463 (twenty basketfuls), all except nine 
marketable ; there were also 224 whitings and a few flat-fishes. The 
third haul, for three hours, was scarcely so good, 2810 fishes being taken, 
of which 2665 were marketable. The catch included 2008 haddocks, 
nineteen codlings, twenty-six plaice, four lemon dabs, and eighty-six 
common dabs. 

The five drags here — the time of actual fishing being thirteen hours — 
produced altogether 9992 fishes, or at the rate of 768'6 per hour ; the 
marketable numbered 9536, the average per hour being 732'5, and the 
unmarketable 456, with an average per hour of 35*1. The total number 
of haddocks was 8063, of which only forty-nine were unmarketable, the 
average per hour's fishing being 620"2. Only 349 flat-fishes were caught 
in the five hauls, and of these 108 were marketable, consisting of 
eighty-two plaice and twenty-six lemon dabs ; the uuinarketable were 241 
common dabs. 

The following Table gives the numbers of the marketable and unmarket- 
able fishes respectively : — 





Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Common 
Dab. 


Cod. 


Cod- 
ling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Gur- 
nard. 


Thorn- Ang- 
back. ler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


82 


26 


241 


25 


45 
28 


8,014 
49 


1,315 
121 


27 
16 


2 


1 


82 


26 


241 


25 


73 


8,063 


1,436 


43 


2 


1 



The haddocks were on the whole of a good class, 2078 being firsts, 1530 
mediums, and 4406 thirds, the respective averages per hour's fishing being 
as follows : — 

Firsts. Seconds. Thirds. Fourths. Unmarketable. 

No, 2,078 1,530 4,406 — 49 

Average 159-8 117-7 339-0 — 3-8 

Of the eighty-two plaice obtained, seven were large or firsts, sixty-four 
were mediums, and eleven thirds. 

A small-meshed haul was made here for one hour, but the fine net was 
torn. The number of fishes taken was 1034, as follows : — 



Plaice, - 


- 14 


Cod, - 


9 


Lemon Dab, 


5 


Haddock, - 


- 906 


Common Dab, 


- 49 


Whiting, - 


- 51 



Before leaving the Moray Firth two hauls were made on Smith Bank, 
on the edge, in about twenty one and twenty-two fathoms. The first, for 
an hour, with the small-meshed net attached, yielded 1300 fishes, of which 
350 were marketable and 950 unmarketable. The latter chiefly consisted 
of common dabs and whitings, and the former of haddocks. The total 
for both nets was 1811 fishes, belonging to twelve species, as follows : — 



Plaice, - 


31 


Haddock, - 


306 


Common Dab, 


962 


Whiting, - 


442 


Lemon Dab, 


15 


Gurnard, - 


15 


Long Eough Dab,- 


20 


Pogge, 


4 


Little Sole, - 


1 


Gohiiis yninuttis, 


1 


Cod, 


10 


Dragonet, - 


4 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



37 



The second drag was for three hours and forty minutes, and the number 
of fishes taken was 1236, 980 being marketable and 256 unmarketable. 
They inchided 107 cod, twenty-seven codlings, all marketable, a ling, 796 
haddocks, all but ten marketable, thirty-four plaice, all marketable, 
fifteen lemon dabs, and some whitings and common dabs. 

The haddocks were mostly of the third or small class, only thirty being 
firsts and 110 seconds. 

Another haul with the small-raeshed net around the cod-end was made 
at the " witch ground " about twelve miles off Kinnaird Head, the depth 
being fifty-one fathoms, and the duration of the haul one hour. The 
total number of fishes taken in both nets was 2187, belonging to eleven 
species ; no witches were captured. The numbers of each kind were as 
follows : — 



Plaice, - 


3 


Whiting, - 


422 


Common Dab, 


412 


Norway Pout, - 


613 


Long Rough Dab, 


269 


Gurnard, - 


12 


Cod, - 


1 


Gohius minutus, - 


1 


Hake, - 


6 

. . _ 


Angler, 


1 



Haddock, 



447 



The aggregate number of fish taken in twenty-four recorded hauls in 
this trip in the Moray Firth and Aberdeen Bay — the duration of the 
actual fishing being seventy-seven hours and forty minutes — was 49,728. 
Of these, 41,787 were brought to market and 7941 thrown overboard. 

The quantity, in cwts., as determined by the Fishery Officer when the 
fish were landed, was as follows, the total being 27 If cwts. : — 



Cod. 
39| 


Codling. 
17i 


Ling. 

■5 


Hake. 
8 


Haddock. 
1431 


Whiting 
14i 


rurbot. 
i 


Brill. 

1 


Lemon Dab. 
2i 


Plaice. 
44f 


Dabs. 


Witches. 




Conger. 


Skate. 
3J 


Gurnard. 
2 


Angler. 
1 





V. 



At the end of October six hauls in Aberdeen Bay were made by the 
steam -trawler " Lochryan," four of which were recorded. In the first, in 
from eight to fifteen fathoms of water, and which lasted for two hours and 
twenty minutes, 835 fishes were taken, of which 675 were marketable and 
160 unmarketable. The catch included twenty-nine eod, forty-three 
codlings, all marketable, 399 haddocks, 338 whitings, seven plaice, a 
brill, and a common sole. In the second haul, in from seven and a half 
to twelve fathoms, for four hours and thirty-five minutes, 1066 fishes were 
taken, the number marketable being 930. There were 106 cod, 151 
codlings, all except six marketable, four coalfish, 320 haddocks, only 
eleven of Avhich were unmarketable, 308 plaice, and a number of 
whitings and others. The succeeding two hauls were rather better, 
haddocks especially being more abundant, and altogether in the four 
drags — the time of actual fishing being fifteen hours and twenty-five 
minutes — 6042 fishes were taken, of which 4654 \rere narketable and 
1388 unmarketable, the average per hour's fishing being for the whole 
catch 392 "1, for the marketable 302 0, and for the unmarketable 90' 1. 
The average per hour for haddocks was 196 "3, for whitings 11 7 5, and for 



38 



Part III. — Twenty-seco7id AnrMal Report 



plaice 33'5. The numbers of fishes of the various kinds, marketable (1.) 
and unmarketable (II.), were as follows : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Floun- 
der. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Sole. 


Brill. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Cod. 


I. 
n. 

Total 


507 
10 


40 
33 


5 


3 


2 


1 


2 


197 


517 


73 


5 


3 


2 


1 


2 


197 


I. 

II. 

Total 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Coal-fish. 


Gurnard. 


Thornback 


Starr}' 
Ray. 


322 
22 


2,863 
162 


709 
1,101 


4 


9 


1 
2 


47 


344 


3,025 


1,810 


4 


9 


3 


47 



In a haul with the small-meshed net, which lasted for an hour, the 
total number of fishes taken was 1981, belonging to ten species, as 
follows : — 



Plaice, - 


27 


Haddock, - 


- 1190 


Lemon Dab, 


1 


Whiting, - 


- 701 


Common Dab, 


6 


Gurnard, - 


6 


Long Rough Dab, 


2 


Sprat, 


2 


Cod, - 


45 


Grey Skate, 


1 



The total quantity of fish landed, in cwts., was as follows, the time of 
fishing (including the incompletely recorded drags) being nineteen hours 
and five minutes : — 

Cod. Codling. Coal-fish. Haddock. Whiting. Turbot. Plaice. Dabs. 
25 7i -i 21 4i 4 7 i =66^ 



VI. 

The next series of trawling experiments was made in November, the 
vessel employed being the steam-trawler " Glenogil," and the places 
examined were Aberdeen Bay, Burghead Bay, the Dornoch Firth, between 
Burghead and Cromarty, and Smith Bank. 

Four hauls were made in Aberdeen Bay on 6th and 7th November, off 
Newburgh, and between Black Dog and Collieston. In the first, in from 
eight to ten fathoms, which lasted for three hours, 1383 fishes were 
secured, 1314 of which were marketable and sixty-nine unmarketable. 
The former consisted mostly of haddocks and whitings ; of 1013 haddocks 
taken, 977 were marketable and thirty-six unmarketable, and of 321 
whitings all but eighteen were marketable. The other fishes comprised 
one cod, twenty-seven codlings, a few dabs and gurnards, as well as six 
herrings and two sprats. Only two plaice were caught in this drag. 
Most of the haddocks belonged to the third and fourth classes, only 135 
were " large " and sixty-nine " medium." The smallest haddocks amongst 
the unmarketable measured six and seven inches in length, 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



39 



The next haul in the same locality, in five and a half to twelve fathoms, 
lasting for tvFO hours, yielded only seventy-one fishes, and there was 
nothing apparent to account for the very small catch. The marketable 
fish consisted of thirteen haddocks — viz., one large, six medium, and 
six fourths — twenty-four whitings, one plaice, and one dab. Other two 
hauls were mide in from four and a half to twelve fathoms, bat the 
catches were small, the marketable fishes consisting chiefiy of haddocks, 
plaice, and whitings. Altogether in the four hauls made in Aber- 
dren Bay — the actual time of fishing being twelve hours and five minutes 
—the total number of fishes captured Avas 2630, the average per hour 
being 217'7 ; the number of marketable was 2394, with an average of 
198'2, and the unmarketable 236, with an average of 19-5. The 
haddocks numbered 1485, the average per hour's fishing being 122-9 ; the 
whitings 573, with an average of 47*4, and the plaice 379, with an 
average of 31 '3. 

The numbers of the marketable (I.) and the unmarketable (II.) of each 
kind are shown in the following Table : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Brill. 


Cod. 


Codling. 


haddock. 

1,417 
68 


I. 
II. 

Total 


378 
1 


27 
6 


11 


2 


3 


77 
13 


379 


33 


11 


2 


3 


90 


1,485 




Whiting. Gurnard. 


Grey 
Skate. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Starry 
Kay. 


Herring. 


Spi'at. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


490 
83 


24 


3 


1 


17 


7 


2 
2 


573 


24 


3 


1 


17 


7 



The vessel then landed the fish which had been caught in Aberdeen 
Bay before proceeding to the Moray Firth, and the quantities as recorded 
in the market, by the Fishery Officer, in cwts. were as follows : — 



Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Plaice 


* 


1 


n 


If 


2 



In the Moray Firth the first place visited was Burghead Bay, where 
five hauls were made, four of which were recorded. In the first, which 
lasted for three hours and ten minutes, 1682 fishes were caught, of which 
1365 were marketable and 317 unmarketable. Among the former were 
eleven cod, 506 haddocks, ten whitings, nine brill, 790 plaice, and thirty- 
four common dabs. The unmarketable were composed mostly of small 
haddocks and gurnards. In the second drag, lasting for four hours and 
fifteen minutes, 2421 fishes were taken, 1930 marketable and 491 
unmarketable. The greater part of the catch again consisted of plaice and 
haddocks. It also included a turbot, ten brill, and a black or common 
sole. The number of fishes taken in the third haul, which lasted four 
hours, was 1779, the number marketable being 1273. They consisted 



40 



Part III. — Twenty -second. Annual Report 



for the most part of plaice, of which 1158 were obtained. There 
were only seventy-five small haddocks, twenty-five marketable and fifty 
too small to be marketable. In this drag no less than thirty-one brill 
were taken, a number that is scarcely ever reached in these trawling 
operations, and there were also five turbot. The fourth drag lasted for 
two hours and thirty-five minutes, and 1131 fishes were captured, of 
which 733 were marketable and 398 unmarketable. Only twenty-five 
small and unmarketable haddocks were caught in this drag ; the market- 
able plaice numbered 678, and there were seven brill. 

During the time of fishing in the Bay the weather was favourable, 
though somewhat squally, with rain, the wind blowing from the west. 

The aggregate number of fishes taken in the four hauls in the fourteen 
hours of actual fishing was 7013, of which 5301 were marketable and 
1712 unmarketable. The average catch per hour's fishing was for the 
marketable 378-6, and for the unmarketable 122-3 ; the average for both 
combined was 500-9. The number of plaice caught was 3588, the 
average per hour being 256-3, and the number of haddocks 1823, with an 
average of 130-2. 

The numbers of the marketable and unmarketable of each species are 
given in the following Table : — 





Plaice. 


Common 
Dab. 


Witch. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Sole 


Turbot. 


Brill. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


3,476 
112 


238 

584 


6 


9 


1 


6 


57 


3,588 


822 


6 


9 


1 


6 


57 




Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Gurnard. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Angler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


19 


66 
35 


1,358 
465 


36 
99 


396 


23 
9 


6 
12 


19 


101 


1,823 


135 


396 


32 


18 



With regard to the general size of the plaice and haddocks captured, 
the great majority were small. Especially was this the case with the 
haddocks, only six of the large and forty-five of the medium being taken. 
The numbers of each class and the average per hour's fishing are given 
in the following Table : — 



Haddock, 
Plaice, 



Firsts. 


Seconds. 


Thirds. 


Fourths. 


Offal or 
Unmarketable 


/ 6 
I.0-4 


45 
3-2 


77 
5-5 


1,230 
88-0 


465 
33-2 


f77 
\5-5 


575 
41-1 


2,824 
201-7 


• 


112 

8-0 



On leaving Burghead Bay the vessel steamed to the Dornoch Firth, 
where a number of hauls were made, the weather being calm and the sea 
smooth, a light wind coming from the north-west. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



41 



The first drag was made in from five to thirteen fathoms, off Golspie. 
It lasted for four hours and five minutes, and the catch was a good one, 
the marketable fishes numbering 2346, the unmarketable 1139, and the 
aggregate 34:85. Plaice and haddocks formed the bulk of the catch ; of 
the former 2166 were taken, 1264 of which were marketable and 902 
unmarketable. Most of the plaice were of small size, only five being 
large, 167 medium, and 1092 thirds, while the offal in this haul num- 
bered 902. Some of these, however, were quite large enough to go to 
market as fourths, and after this fourths were also selected. I found 
that the sizes of the larger specimens of the "unmarketable" plaice 
were on this occasion between nine and eleven inches : I give the 
measurements of seventy-six of the larger ones, in centimetres and 
inches : — 



Centimetres, 
Inches, 


21 

8i 


22 


23 
9 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 
11 


29 


30 


31 

m 


32 


33 


34 
]3i 


No., . 


4 


2 


15 


23 


10 


8 


4 


2 


3 


1 




3 




1 



The larger of these plaice were in reality " thirds " ; but the selection, 
as previously mentioned, is neiver quite exact. 

The next haul, in the same locality, was for four hours and twenty-five 
minute.s, but the fishing was chiefly conducted in from eight to ten 
fathoms. The number of fishes taken was 1808, of which 1368 were 
marketable and 440 unmarketable. Haddocks were much scarcer, only 
375 being caught, and it may be said generally in regard to this fish at 
this time in the Dornoch Firth that the quantity taken in the various 
hauls varied very much, there being sometimes only a few and sometimes 
over a thousand. They were obviously present, as the trawlers describe 
it, in "spots." The plaice numbered 1237, of which 978 were market- 
able; there were in addition thirty-two codlings, eight whitings, four 
brill, twenty-two common dabs, and a thornback ray among the market- 
able fishes. 

The number of fishes caught in the next haul, which lasted for four 
hours and a half, was 2514, the marketable being 1902 and the 
unmarketable 612. The haddocks numbered 1282, of which 271 were 
unmarketable. There were 995 i)laice, 881 of them marketable, and in 
addition to these the marketable Hshes included two cod, six codlings, one 
halibut, and one megrim. The unmarketable consisted mostly of 
haddocks, dabs, plaice, and gurnards. In the fifth drag, in from six to 
ten fathoms, only nineteen haddocks were taken, and of these thirteen 
were unmarketable. The plaice numbered 2101, all but 184 being 
marketable. The next drag, for five hours, yielded 3033 fishes, 2337 
being marketable and 696 unmarketable. There were 634 haddocks, 
1981 plaice, 1661 marketable, 371 common dabs, six lemon dabs, and 
seventeen brill. 

Altogether in the six hauls, involving twenty six hours and forty 
minutes of actual fishing, 14,404 fishes were captured, the rate per hour 
being the high one of 541-5. The marketable numbered 10,919, with an 
average of 410-4 per hour, and the unmarketable 3485, with an hourly 
average of 131-0. The average per hour for the plaice taken was 350-4, 
and for those which were marketable 277"2; the average for the haddocks 



42 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



was 140*5 per hour. The numbers of the marketable and unmarketable, 
and the totals, are as follow : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Plaice 


Common 
Dab. 


Brill. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


I. 

ir. 

Total 


24 


78 
31 


3,253 

485 


10 

4 


7,373 

1,948 


129 
746 


25 


15 
3 


24 


109 


3,738 


14 


9,321 


875 


25 


18 




Halibut. 


Megrim. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Gur- 
nard. 


Grey 
Skate. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Sandy 
Ray. 


Angler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


1 


2 


6 


213 


1 8 

- ! 35 

1 


3 


11 


1 


2 


6 


213 


1 


43 


3 


11 



Among the haddocks the proportion of large and medium was con- 
siderable, and much above what it was on many previous occasions ; 
medium plaice were also well represented. The following figures give 
the average number of each class taken per hour's fishing : — 



First. 


Second. 


Third. 


Fourth. 


Unmarketable 


addock, 24-6 


24-6 


33-3 


39-6 


18-2 


laice, 1 •! 


43-4 


137-6 


95 


73-2 



In the Dornoch Firth three hauls were also made with the small- 
meshed net around the cod-end, in from four and a half to twelve 
fathoms, the time occupied in fishing being three hours and fifty minutes. 
The number of fishes taken in both nets amounted to 11,590, the great 
majority having passed through the meshes of the cod-end. They 
belonged to eleven species, as follows : — 



Plaice, - 


- 327 


Gurnard, - - 4 


Brill, - 


1 


Sprat, - - 9351 


Common Dab, 


- 28 


Herring, - - 1407 


Cod, - 


4 


Sand-eel, - - 3 


Haddock, 


- 23 


Thornback Ray, 1 


Whiting, 


- 441 





Most of the sprats were taken in one haul, viz. 5477, and most of the 
herrings in another, 1297. 

On leaving the Dornoch Firth the vessel returned to Burghead Bay, 
where other three drags were made in from five to ten fathoms, a fresh 
breeze blowing from the south, and a considerable number of plaice were 
taken. The hauls were also remarkable for the large number of brill 
captured, the three drags yielding in succession thirty-six, forty-three, 
and fifteen — a total of ninety-four. Seven turbots were also caught. 
The aggregate number of fishes secured in the three drags, the time of 
actual fishing being fourteen hours, was 5367, an average per hour of 
383'4. The marketable fishes numbered 3817, with an average per hour 
of 272*6, and the unmarketable 1550, with an hourly average of 110*7. 
These averages are under those for the fishing in the same place a few 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



43 



days before. In the following Table are given the number of marketable 
(I ) and unmarketable (IT.) fishes taken in the three drags : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Plaice. 


Brill. 


I. 
II. 

Totiil 


84 


87 
34 


190 

98 


8 


3,274 
464 


94 


84 


121 


288 


8 


3,738 


94 




Turbot 


Lemon Dab. 


Common 
Dab. 


Gurnard. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Angler. 


I. 

11. 

Total 


7 


6 
3 


70 
600 


322 


5 
10 


11 


7 


9 


670 


322 


15 


11 



A short haul of one hour's duration was then taken oflF Burghead Bay, 
between it and Cromarty, in thirty fathoms, with the small-meshed net 
around the cod-end of the otter-trawl. The total number of fishes taken 
in both nets was 1805, belonging to fourteen species, as follows : — 



Witch, 


- 101 


Hake, 


2 


Plaice, 


4 


Ling, - - - . 


1 


Common Dab, 


- 130 


Gurnard, 


46 


Long Rough Dab, 


- 705 


Norway Pout, 


432 


Whiting, 


- 339 


Gadus luscus, 


7 


Haddock, 


- 29 


Callionyrmts maculata, - 


2 


Codhng, 


4 


Lumpemis lampetriformis, 


3 



Siaith Bank was then visited, and a haul with the small-meshed net 
attached was made in twenty-one fathoms for one hour. Tbe tying of 
the outer net was defective ; the knot slipped, and all the fish escaped. 
In the cod-end were thirty-three haddocks, three cod, five plaice, one 
lemon dab, five common dabs, and an angler. 

The quantity of fish landed by the vessel, as recorded on returning to 
port amounted to 218^ cwts., as follows: — 



Cod. 
18 


Codling, 
3i 


Haddock. 
5S 


Turbot. 


Brill. 
6 


Plaice. 
115 


Dabs. 
3i 


Witch. 


Skate. 
11 


Angler 
2 



VIL 



The next series of trawling investigations was made on board the 
" Loch ry an," on 11th and 12th December, in Aberdeen Bay, a strong 
breeze blowing from the south, with a rough sea and rain. The catches 
were small, but, as often occurs in such conditions of weather, a consider- 
able number of cod were secured. Three recorded hauls were made off 
the Black Dog in from four and a half to ten fathoms of water, the 
duration of the actual trawling being twelve hours and ten minutes. 
The total number of fishes caught in each haul was respectively 344, 



44 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



243, and 191, the aggregate being 778, with the very low average per 
hour's fishing of 63"9. The marketable numbered 702, giving an aver- 
age per hour of 57 "7, and the unmarlcetable numbered seventy-six. The 
hourly average for cod was 13'0 and for codling 24"5, while it was only 
16'8 for haddocks and 1"G for plaice. Tiie numbers of the various kinds 
taken were as follows : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Coal- 
fish. 


Brill. 


Plaice. 


Com. 
Dab. 


Starry 
Ray. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


158 


298 


205 


14 

21 


5 


1 


19 


7 


50 


158 


298 


205 


35 


5 


1 


19 


7 


50 



Two hauls were also made with the small-meshed neb around the cod- 
end of the otter-trawl. In the first of these, which lasted for one hour 
and twenty minutes, and was made in from eight to twelve fathoms, the 
total catch was one cod, four codlings, fourteen whitings, two common 
dabs, one sand-eel, one goby, twenty-two small herrings (from one and 
three-quarter inches to nearly five inches), and seventy-four sprats. In 
the second, on the same grounds for one hour, but in seven fathoms, only 
a single fish — a starry ray — was taken. 

VIII, 



Towards the end of December another series of trawling investigations 
was carried on in Aberdeen Bay and the Moray Firth, on board the 
steam-trawler "Star of the Ocean." Several hauls were taken in 
Aberdeen Bay on the 23rd and 24th of the month, off Slains Castle, in 
from ten to thirty fathoms, but the net was usually torn, and the catches 
were very poor. In the first, which lasted for four hours and twenty 
minutes, 206 fishes were caught, 182 being marketable. Seventy-seven cod 
were taken, but only seven haddocks and sixty-six plaice, most of the 
latter being " thirds." In the next drag, for three hours and a half, the 
catch was reduced to 108 fishes, twenty-three being cod, and there was 
the same number of plaice, but only five haddocks. The catch of the 
third haul was still less, viz. sixty fish, twenty -six being cod, eight had- 
docks, and eleven plaice. In each case, however, the net was torn on the 
bottom. Two other unrecorded hauls were made, and the aggregate 
quantity of fish landed from the five hauls amounted to 30g cwts., viz. 
22 cwts. of cod, 2f cwts. of codlings, 2| cwts. of haddocks. If cwts. of 
plaice, and 1:^ cwts. of skates. 

On the 25th a number of drags were taken at Burghead Bay, in the 
Moray Firth, the wind being light, from the south-west, and the weather 
foggy, and with much better results. In the first of the two recorded, 
which was in from eight to eleven fathoms, for five hours and five 
minutes, 1149 fishes were taken, 353 marketable and 796 unmarketable. 
The catch was chiefly made up of haddocks, mostly small ; of a total of 
727, the number thrown overboard as unmarketable was 604; there were 
only three large and no mediums. The second haul, for five hours and 
ten minutes, yielded 3055 fishes, of which 784 were marketable and 2271 
unmarketable. The total number of haddocks captured was 2458, and 
of these 2086 were too small to be marketable. In the two hauls, the 
time of fishing being ten hours and fifteen minutes, 4204 fishes were 



of the FUlierij Board for Scotland. 



45 



taken, 1137 marketable and 30G7 unmarketable. The numbers of the 
two classes are as follows : — 





O 


.9 

o 


o 

o 

13 


a 


6 
'3 


m 


4 
« 

s 

o 

a 


o 

3 

Eh 


Lemon 
Dab. 


3 
11 


7 


I. 
n. 

Total 


12 


9 
26 


495 
2,690 


196 

228 


366 
14 


21 


35 
91 


2 


1 


12 


35 


3,185 


424 


880 


21 


126 


2 


1 


11 


7 



The very foggy weather which prevailed interfered with fashing operations 
near the shore ; partly for this reason the vessel shifted its position and 
made a haul in from sixteen to twenty-five fathoms off Tarbet Ness. The 
drag.lasted for one hour and forty-five minutes, and it was found that the net 
was considerably torn. The catch was small, amounting to 543 fishes, 
of which 431 were marketable and 112 unmarketable. The number of 
haddocks taken was 338, of which 315 were marketable ; there were 
seventy plaice, fifty-two being marketable, thirteen marketable codlings, 
five coal-fish, forty-two whitings, twenty-seven marketable, as well as six 
lemon dabs and sixty-three common dabs. 

Two or three hauls were then made in the Dornoch Firth, in from 
seven to twelve fathoms, but the work was difficult owing to the thick 
fog, and in one of the drags the net was foul and came up without any 
fish. In a recorded haul, which lasted for four hours, the number of 
fishes caught was 1095, of which the marketable amounted to 933 and 
the unmarketable to 162. The catch included 825 haddocks, all but 55 
being marketable, as well as eight cod, two turbot, four brill, 148 plaice, 
and some dabs. On the 27th a haul was made for sixty-five minutes, in 
from eight to ten fathoms, with the small-meshed net, around the cod- 
end. The total number of fishes taken in the two nets was 880, belong- 
ing to sixteen species. Ou the following day another similar drag was 
taken with the small-meshed net for an hour, and they may be both 
considered together. The following is a list of the numbers of each kind 
of fish caught in the two drags, nineteen species being represented, and 
the total being 3657 fishes : — 



Plaice, 


122 


Gurnard, 


10 


Lemon Dab, 


4 


Sprat, 


808 


Common Dab, 


845 


Herring, 


4 


Long Rough Dab, 


24 


Pogge, 


8 


Little Sole, 


18 


Gobius minvtus, ... 


2 


Brill, 


4 


Dragonet, 


4 


Witch, 


1 


Coraraon Pipe-fish, 


3 


Cod, 


20 


Angler, 


8 


Haddock, 

Whiting, 


•57 
... 1,708 


Thornback, 


7 



From the Dornoch the vessel steamed to the j 
where a drag was made for four hours and a quarter 
twenty-two fathoms. The net was found to have 
coming up, and the catch was very small, amountin 
fishes, all marketable. The catch included two cod, 
and a few plaice and whitings. 

The next place visited was Smith Bank, where a 
twenty-seven and twenty-eight fathoms, on the ed 



rounds oflf Lybster, 
in from eighteen to 
been badly split on 
g to only sixty-two 
forty-four haddocks, 

haul was made in 
ge of the bank, for 



46 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



19 


Sprat, 


20 


Gurnaril, 


124 


Goby (sp.), 


47 


Pogge, 


1 


Gemmeous Dragonet 


o 


Spotted Dragonet, 


25 


Sand-eel, 


141 


Leptoccph al >is, 


38 


Piked Dog-fish, ... 


153 
1 


Starry Ray, 



sixty-five minutes, the stnall-meshed net being around the cod-end. The 
total number of fishes taken was considerable, viz. 1673, and they belonged 
to twenty-one species; some of them, as the young conger (Leptocephahis) 
and the thick-back sole, were of much scientific interest. 

Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Common Dab, 

Little Sole, 

Thickback, 1 Gemmeous Dragonet, ... 14 

Long Rough Dab, ... 3 Spotted Dragonet, ... 2 

Haddock, 25 Sand-eel, 54 

Whiting, .. ... ... 141 Leptoccpha/ns, ... ... 1 

Cod, 38 Piked Dog-fish, 1 

Norway Pout, 153 Starry Ray, 1 

Poor Cod, 

From the commercial point of view, however, the fishing on Smith Bank 
was not of a profitable kind, and the vessel returned to Burghead Bay on 
the 28th, where a number of hauls were taken, three of which were com- 
pletely recorded. In the first, which was for five hours and a quarter, in 
from five to thirteen fathoms, 1198 fishes were taken, of which 567 were 
marketable and 631 unmarketable. The catch included nine cod, thirty- 
two codlings, all but seven marketable, 713 haddocks, the majority being 
again very small and 540 of them unmarketable, three turbot, thirty- 
seven brill, 306 plaice, all marketable, and a few others. 

Ihe second drag, for five hours, yielded only 269 fishes, of which 110 
were marketable. Of 120 haddocks caught only three were marketable, 
and the other marketable fishes comprised one turbot, nine brill, sixty- 
three plaice, and twenty-seven common dabs. The third haul, in from 
four and a half to ten fathoms, was even less productive, only 193 fishes 
being caught, of which 111 were marketable and 82 unmarketable. None 
of the fifty-six haddocks taken were marketable, but there were seven 
brill and ninety-nine plaice, a cat-fish, two cod, and a thornback ray. 

In the three hauls, occupying altogether fourteen hours and a quarter of 
actual fishing, only 1660 fishes were taken, 788 being marketable and 
872 unmarketable. The general average per hour's fishing is thus a very 
low one, viz. 116"5, while the average for the marketable alone is 55"3, 
The particulars regarding the different kinds of fish are given in the 
following Table : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Plaice. 


Turbot. 


Brill. 


I. 
n. 

Total 


18 


25 
16 


176 
713 


40 


468 


4 


53 


18 


41 


889 


40 


468 


4 


53 




Common 
Dab. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Gurnard. 


Cat-fish. 


Long 
Rough 
Dab. 


Thorn- 
back. 


I. 

n. 

Total 


37 
79 


3 


22 


2 


2 


2 


116 


3 


22 


2 


2 


2 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



47 



A haul with the small-meshed net was also taken in Burghead Bay for 
seventy-five minutes, in from five to twelve fathoms, and the total 
number of fish caught was only 173, as follows : — 



Plaice, 

Common Dab, 


45 
11 


Whiting, 

Sprat, 


59 
7 


Brill, 

Turbot, 

Cod, 


4 
1 
6 


Herring, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Sand-eel, 


3 
1 
2 


Haddock, 


34 







Another drag with the small-meshed net was taken on the so-called 
" witch ground " between Bnrghead Bay and the Suters of Cromarty, in 
thirty and thirty-one fathoms, and it lasted for an hour. The total 
number of fishes caught was 2112, belonging to twenty species. The 
numbers of each kind are as follows : — 



Halibut, 


1 


Norway Pout, 


307 


Witch, 


73 


Hake, 


2 


Plaice, 


6 


Herring, 


31 


Common Dab, 


151 


Sprat, 


356 


Long Rough Dab, 


696 


Sand-eel, 


1 


Thickback Sole, ... 


1 


Lunrpenus, 


6 


Cod, 


3 


Goby (sp.) 


1 


Haddock, 


1 


Angler, 


1 


Whiting, 


470 


Starry Ray, 


3 


Gurnard, 


1 


Thornback, 


1 



Before the vessel left the Moray Firth a few hauls were taken at night 
off Lossiemouth in twenty and twenty-one fathoms, but the net suffered 
much and was usually found split when it was hauled. The particulars 
of these hauls were not recorded ; but in the first the catch included two 
baskets of large haddocks, one basket of mediums, and three baskets of 
thirds, as well as two cod, twenty lemon dabs, half a basket of plaice, 
and half a basket of whitings. The offal thrown overboard consisted of 
seven basketfuls, mostly of small haddocks. 

On the way to port a small-meshed drag was taken in Aberdeen Bay 
on 29th December. It was made in from eight to seventeen fathoms, 
and lasted for an hour. The total number of fishes caught was 4270, the 
great bulk consisting of small whitings. The numbers of the various 
species are as follows : — 

16 

39 

1 

2 

2 

1 

The total quantity of fish, in cwts., landed from this trip was recorded 
by the Fishery Officer as follows : — 



Plaice, 


10 


Herring, 


Common Dab, 


5 


Sprat, 


Long Rough Dab, 


5 


Gurnard, 


Haddock, 


173 


Pogge, 


Cod, 


9 


Liparis, 


Whiting, 


4,007 


Sand-eel, 



Cod. 
ISi 


Codling. Coal-fish. 

2 -?r 


Haddock. 
27a 


Whiting. 
3i 


Turbot. 


Halibut, 
i 


Brill. 
H 


Lemon Dab. Plaice. 
1 28i 


Dabs. 

n 


Witches. 
i 


Cat-fi.sh. 

1 

4 


Skate. 
1 



The quantity was small, considering the duration of fishing, but the 
foggy weather which prevailed for a large part of the time somewhat 
hampered the operations. It was noticed also that young herringii and 
sprats did not form so large a proportion of the small fishes caught in the 
small-meshed net as was usually the case. Foreign trawlers, moreover, 
were observed to be fishing in some numbers in the Firth at the time, 
and three of them were working along with us on Smith Bank. 

D 



48 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



IX. 

In August a record was kept of the hauls made by the steam-trawler 
" Glenogil " on the fishing grounds lying off the mouth of the Firth of 
Forth, The vessel left Aberdeen on the 17th August, and ran for about 
sixty miles on a course S. g E. from Girdleness, and continued fishing 
southwards for several days, landing the catches at Granton, to about 
thirty -four miles S.E. of the Isle of May. The weather was good and the 
sea calm. The grounds visited on this trip, as may be seen from a chart, lie 
oflf St. Abb's Head and the coast of Berwickshire and Northumberland, 
and are much fished by the trawlers belonging to Granton. 

The first drag was made in thirty-four and thirty-five fathoms, about 
thirty miles E. h S. of the Isle of May, and it lasted for three hours. 
The catch was a moderate one, the number of fishes taken being 608, of 
which only 381 were marketable. They consisted almost entirely of 
haddocks, which numbered 519, the marketable numbering 360; the 
other marketable fishes were seven codlings, nine whitings, and five lemon 
dabs. The unmarketable were made up of haddocks, whitings, and 
gurnards. The next three shots were much the same both in regard to 
species and amount, the bulk of the catches being composed of haddocks, 
but there were in addition a few cod, coal-fish, plaice, and ling. After- 
wards the catches improved. In the sixth haul, which was for three 
hours and five minutes, 2145 fishes were captured, 1713 being market- 
able. The haddocks numbered 1755, of which 1535 were marketable; 
there were also 130 marketable whitings, one cod, nineteen codlings, 
twelve plaice, and sixteen lemon dabs. The unmarketable consisted 
entirely of haddocks, whitings, and gurnards. 

Succeeding hauls were nearly as productive, the totals varying from 
1243 to 2991, the duration of the drags being generally a little over 
three hours. In all of them haddocks formed the great bulk of the 
catch, the rest of the marketable fishes being made up of whitings, cod- 
lings, a few cod, ling, and coal-fishes ; the flat-fishes were represented by 
small numbers of lemon dabs, plaice, and common dabs. 

Altogether, in twelve hauls, up to the afternoon of the 19th August, 
the time of actual fishing being thirty-nine hours and twenty minutes, 
the number of fishes caught was 17,569, of which 13,874 were market- 
able and 3695 unmarketable. The average number taken per hour's 
fishing was 353*0 for the marketable, 94*0 for the unmarketable, and 
447'1 for both combined. 

The totals of each kind are given in the following Table, the market- 
able (I.) being distinguished from the unmarketable (II.) : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Coal-fish. 


Ling. 


Hake. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


27 


373 

89 


12,464 
2,264 


711 
695 


19 


8 


1 


27 


462 


14,728 


1,406 


19 


8 


1 




Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Common. 
Dab. 


Long Rough 
Dab. 


Gurnard. 


Angler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


92 


176 


3 
35 


85 


514 


13 


92 


176 


38 


85 


514 


13 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



49 



The liaddocks were by far the most important part of the catch, the 
average number taken per hour being 374-7 ; the rate for the marketable 
was 317"1 and for the unmarketable 57-6. The particulars for the 
majority of the fishes, showing the rate per hour, are as follows : — 





Marketa])le. 


Unmarketable. 


Total. 


Haddock, 


317-1 


57-6 


374 •? 


Whiting, 


18-1 


17-6 


35-8 


Codling, 


9-5 


2-2 


117 


Lemon Dab, .... 


4-5 


- 


4-5 


Plaice, 


2-3 


- 


2-3 


Gurnard, 


- 


13-1 


13-1 



On the 20th and 21st August a number of other hauls were made 
about fifty miles E. by S. from the Isle of May, off the coast of 
Northumberland, in from thirty-four to thirty-six fathoms. The catch 
was of much the same character, consisting mostly of haddocks, with 
some whitings, codlings, plaice, lemon dabs, common dabs, gurnards, and 
an occasional cod. 

The record of one of the hauls was not completely taken, the unmarket- 
able tishes being omitted, but in the other four, the time of actual fishing 
being thirteen hours and twenty minutes, 7257 fishes were taken, the 
number of marketable being 6342 and of unmarketable 915. The average 
per hour's fishing was thus 476-8 for the marketable and 68-8 for the 
unmarketable, the general average being 545 6. The total number of 
haddocks caught was 6292, of which 5811 were marketable; 443 
whitings were taken, 294 being marketable, 140 codlings, forty plaice, 
eighty-one lemon dabs, and some others. 

The averages per hour's fishing agree very well with those of the 
previous hauls above referred to : — 





Marketable. 


Unmarketable. 


Total. 


Haddock, 


436-9 


36-1 


473-1 


Whiting, 


22-1 


12-2 


33-3 


Codling, 


8-1 


2-4 


10-5 


Lemon Dab, .... 


6-0 


- 


6-0 


Plaice, 


3-0 


- 


3-0 


Gurnard, 


- 


12-4 


12-4 



I Tables. 



50 



Part III. — Tvientij-fiecond Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



Place. 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


Remarks. 




6 


d 




1 




No. 
taken to 
Market 


No. 








< 


1 

r/3 


1 
o 


Fms. 


o 

Si 

m 


Name. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1903. 
























1. Burghead 


Feb. 7. 








17 to 


7.30 


11.45 


Cod 


8 




's 


Strong N.N. W. 


Bay. 










20 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


7 




7 


breeze. Sea 


Burghead 
















Haddock, .. 


5 




5 


moderate. 


Pier 
















Whiting, .. 




"7 


7 




light 
















Brill 


"l 




1 




bearing 
















Plaice, 


50 




50 




S.S.E. 4 
















Witch, 


86 


"s 


94 




miles. 
















Com. Dab 

Grey Skate, 
Starry Ray, 
Angler, 
Dragonet, . . 


12 
"4 


14 
6 
1 

18 

1 


26 
6 
1 

22 
1 




173 


55 


228 


2. Burghead 


Feb. 8. 








17 to 


12.0 


4.0 


Cod 


14 




14 




Bay. 










20 


p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling 


4 






4 




Burghead 
















Haddock 


42 






42 




Pier 
















Whiting 


19 






19 




light 
















Halibut 


1 






1 




bearing 
















Turbot, . . 


1 






1 




S.S.E. 4 
















Brill 


3 






3 




miles. 
















Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Witch 


128 

14 

191 






128 

14 

191 




















Com. Dab, . . 


31 


105 


136 




















Long Rough Dab, 




84 


84 




















Cat-fish 


"2 




2 




















Thornback, 


3 


"2 


5 




















Starry Ray, 


2 


2 


4 




















Angler, 


8 


36 


44 




463 


229 


692 


3. Burghead 










18 to 


4.30 


8.35 


Cod, 


23 




23 


Net had small 


Bay. 










25 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling 


55 


"5 


60 


split. 


Burghead 
















Ling, 


2 




2 




Pier 
















Coal-fish, . . 


1 




1 




light 
















Haddock, .. 


88 


"7 


95 




bearing 
















Whiting, .. 


23 




23 




S S.E. 4-5 
















Plaice 


21 




21 




miles. 
















Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 

Cat-fish 

Thornback, 
Starry Ray, 
Angler, 
Herring, . . 


38 

197 

5 

2 
4 
3 
14 


'52 
97 
53 

'33 

2 


38 

249 

102 

53 

2 

4 

3 

47 

2 




476 


249 


725 


4. Burghead 










20 to 


10.10 


2.30 


Cod, 


59 




59 


Light wind W. and 


Bay. 










30 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


25 


2 


27 


by S. 


Burghead 
















Ling, 


1 




1 




Pier 
















Coal-fish, .. 


11 




11 




light 
















Haddock, . . 


89 




89 




bearinsr 
















Whiting, .. 


7 ■ 


'87 


94 




S.E. and^bv 
















Brill 


1 




1 




E. 5-6 miles. 
















Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Witch 


88 

6 

273 




88 

6 

273 




\ 
















Com. Dab,. . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Thornback, 
Angler, 


22 

"1 
3 


172 
101 

"7 


194 

101 

1 

10 




















Herring 




74 


74 




586 


443 


1029 









of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



51 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 


Depth 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 






J,- 


in 










No. 




Remarks. 








y 


O 


Fms. 




« 




No. 


thrown 


Total 








j; 




i^ 




o 


i 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


^ 


m 




M 




Market. 


board. 








1903. 
























5. Burghead 


Feb. 8. 








20 to 


3.25 


4.55 


Cod, 


12 




12 


Gear fouled. 


Bay. 










30 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, 

Haddock, 

Whiting, 

Plaice, 

Witch, 

Com. Dab, 






5 
5 

"e 

72 
2 


5 

2 


5 
5 
5 
6 
72 
4 






102 


7 


109 


6. Same 












5.25 


9.30 


Cod, 


28 




28 




Place. 












p.m. 


p. m. 


Codling, . . 

Coal-fish 

Haddock, . . 

AVhiting, . . 

Plaice, 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch, 

Com. Dab, . . 

Long Rough Dab, 

Thornback, 

Angler 

Red Gurnard 


8 

6 

46 

81 

2 

422 

19 

"3 
18 


"'4 

7 

162 
109 

26 

1 


8 

6 

50 

7 

81 

2 

422 

181 

109 

3 

44 

1 




633 


309 


942 


7. Same 


Feb. 8 










10.0 


2.45 


Cod, 


12 




12 




Place. 


&9. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 

Coal-fish 

Haddock, . . 
Gurnard . . 

Plaice 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch, 

Com. Dab, . . 

Long Rough Dab, 

Starry Ray, 

Angler, 

Red Gurnard, 

Herring, . . 


6 
1 

85 

'44 

3 

326 

21 

"4 
19 


1 
1 

ii 

176 

132 

2 

31 

1 
1 


6 

2 

85 

1 

44 

3 

337 

197 

132 

6 

50 

1 

1 


1 


521 


356 


877 


« 
8. Same 


Feb. 9. 










3.0 


7.30 


Cod, 


10 




10 


Strong E.S.E. wind 


Place. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 

Coal-fish 

Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Thornback, 
Starry Ray, 


12 

1 

38 

83 

10 

204 

15 

"3 
2 


4 
49 

lis 

135 
174 

"4 


16 

1 

38 

49 

83 

10 

322 

150 

174 

3 

6 


freshening. Heavy 
showers of rain 
and sleet. 


















Angler 


39 


51 


90 




417 


535 


952 















52 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 












No. 










a 


o 


Fms. 


o 


"3 


Name. 


No. 

taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








<! 


3 


pa 






W 




Market. 


board. 




9. Six miles 


1903. 
Feb. 9. 








25 to 


2.25 


6.30 


Cod 


27 




27 


Muddy bottom. 


East of 










30 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


10 




10 




Cromarty. 

1 
















Haddock, . . 

Whiting, . . 

Plaice, 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch, 

Com. Dab, . . 

Flounder, .. 

Long Rough Dab, 

Thornback, 

Starry Ray, 

Angler, 

Sprat 


198 

4 

2 

826 

"l 

'25 

29 

3 


"l 

67 

272 

367 

"6 

2 


198 

1 

4 

2 

893 

272 

" 1 

367 

25 

29 

9 

2 




1 


1125 


715 


1S40 


1 
1 
10. Same 












G.55 


n.io 


Cod, 


5 




5 


Net badly split. 


Place. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Ling, 

Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 

Witch 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 

Cat-fish 

Starry Ray. 
Thornback, 


3 
1 

21 

1 

1 

5 

162 

"l 
G 

2 


2 

ii7 

17 

11 


3 

1 

21 

3 

1 

5 

279 

17 

11 

1 

6 




208 


147 


355 


11. Same 


Feb. 10. 










12.25 


5.15 


Cod, 






22 


Fresh S.W. breeze. 


Place. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Brill, 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dal 
Starry Ray, 
Thornback, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Angler, 


[ 


9 
159 

1 

7 

4 

414 

'48 

23 

1 


14 

76 

263 

112 

4 

3 


9 

159 

14 

1 

7 

4 

490 

263 

112 

52 

23 

1 

3 






688 


472 


1160 


12. Five 












5.45 


10.30 


Cod 


54 




54 


S. W. gale. 


miles East 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 




5 




5 




of Cromarty 
















Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, . . 
Brill, 
Sole, 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Long Rough Dab 
Starry Ray, 
Thornback, 
Sandy Ray, 
Angler, 
Herring, . . 


{ 


1 
86 

1 
1 
6 
2 
958 
10 
1 

'is 

10 
3 

2 


ii 
i2i 

543 
267 

"e 

1 


1 

86 

11 

1 

1 

6 

2 

1,079 

553 

1 

267 

18 

10 

3 

8 

1 




















Sprat, 






10 


10 








1158 


959 


2117 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



53 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



.1 




Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












<D 


^ 










No. 




Remarks. 








o 


Fms. 


o 


"3 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


in 


n 




02 


K 




Market. 


board. 






1903. 
























13. Off 


Feb. 12 








10 to 


n.40 


3.50 


Cod, 


17 




17 




Burghead 


&13. 








20 


p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


19 




19 




Bay. 
















Coal-fish 

Hake, 

Haddock, . . 

Whiting, . . 

Gurnard, .. 

Brill, 

Plaice, 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch, 

Com. Dab, . . 

Long Rough Dab, 

Cat-fish, . . 

Starry Ray, 

Thornback, 

Sandy Ray 

Angler, 


1 

1 

54 

5 

"4 

SO 

3 

709 
12 

"1 

1 

"1 
19 


"3 

1 

i25 
307 
118 

1 

1 

'32 


1 

1 

54 

8 

1 

4 

80 

3 

834 

319 

118 

1 

2 

1 

1 

51 




927 


588 


1515 




14. Same 


Feb. 12. 








10 to 


4 


8.10 


Cod, 


12 




12 




Place. 










20 


a.m. 


a. m. 


Codhng, . . 
Coal-fisli, .. 
Haddock, .. 

Whiting 

Turbot, . . 

Brill 

Plaice 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch 

Com. Dab, . . 

Flounder 

Long Rough Dab, 

Cat-fish, . . 

Thornback, 

Starry Ray, 

Sandy Ray, 

Angler, 

Herring 


23 
6 

32 
4 
1 
3 
115 
3 
381 

56 
2 

"1 
1 

"1 
21 


14 
"26 

254 
542 

471 

'3 

'32 
5 


37 

6 

32 

30 

1 

3 

115 

3 

635 

598 

2 

471 

1 

1 

3 

1 

53 

5 






















662 


1347 


2009 




15. Dornoch 


Feb. 12. 








6 to 12 


10.15 


2.15 


Cod, 


2 




2 




Firth. 












a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 

Haddock . . 
Whiting, .. 
Plaice 
Witch, . . 
Com. Dab, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Sandj' Ray, 
Thornback, 
Angler, 


7 
2 

254 
2 

24 

27 

1 

1 
1 
1 


"2 

2 

19 

74 

'28 


7 

2 

2 

256 

21 

98 

27 

28 

1 

1 

1 

1 




322 


12B 


447 




16. Same 










5 to 12 


3.20 


7.20 


Cod, 


4 




4 




Place. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 

Brill, 

Plaice 

Com. Dab, 

Witch, 

Flounder, . . 

Long Rough Dab, 

Thornback, 

Grey Skate 


2 

4 

209 

10 
1 

66 

"5 


lie 

16 

"1 


2 

4 

209 

126 

3 

66 

16 

5 

1 




301 


135 


436 





54 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Ueport 











TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 


I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




d 


a 

o 




■6 
1 






No. 






• 


u 


1 


Fms. 


o 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








'■< 





a 




J3 
02 


S 




Market. 


board. 




1903. 
























17. Same Feb. 12 










8.20 


12.30 


Cod, 


7 




7 




Place. & 13. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock, . . 


1 

2 




1 
2 




















Turbot, . . 


1 




1 




















Brill 


1 




1 




















Plaice 


223 


'20 


243 


















Com. Dab, . . 


28 


47 


75 




















Flounder, . . 


30 




30 




















Long Rough Dab, 




'63 


63 




















Starry Ray, 


"2 




2 




















Thornback, 


8 




8 




















Grey Skate, 




"1 


1 




303 


131 


434 


18. Same 


Feb 13. 










1 a.m. 


6 a.m. 


Cod, 


7 




7 




Place. 
















Codling, . . 

Ling 

Haddock, . . 

Whiting 

Plaice, 
Com. Dab, 
Witch, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Cat-fish . . 
Thornback, 
Red Gurnard, 


fiO 
2 

98 

1 

237 

46 
1 

92 
2 
4 


"3 
155 

"1 


60 
2 

98 

4 

237 

201 

1 

92 
2 
4 
1 




■■ 
















Herring, . . 




1 


1 




550 


160 


710 


lit. Aber- 










8tol0 


7.5 


n.5 


Cod, 


1 




1 




deen Ba.v, 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


13 




13 




off New- 
















Haddock, . . 


15 




15 




burgh. 
















Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab,- 
Cum Dab, 
Flounder, . . 

Witch 

Thornback, 
Grey Skate. 
Angler 


"3 

2 

"1 


'52 

'23 

'i4 

24 
6 
1 


52 
3 
2 

23 
1 

14 

24 
6 
1 




35 


120 


155 


/ 


1 

























of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



55 







Temperature. 




Timejra^^'l Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




a; 


s 
1 




1 






No. 








c 


S 


Fms. 


o 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


1 


O 




^ 


W 




Market. 


board. 




1 


1903. 
























1. Aberdeen 


Mar. 16. 








13 to 


2.50 


6.50 


Cod, 


123 




128 


WindS.S.E. 


Bay, off 










19 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


195 




195 




Newburgh. 
















Haddock 

Gurnard, . . 
Plaice, 
Flounder, . . 


4 

156 


"1 

28 
2 


4 
1 

184 
2 




•2. Same 










12 to 


7.20 


11.40 


Thornback, 

Cod 




5 


5 


Heavy Sea. 


478 


30 


514 


8 




8 


Place. 










18 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 

Coal-fish 

Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Plaice 

Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Starry Ray, 
Grey Skate, 


4 
1 

84 

20 
4 


"s 

7 
2 

"2 

3 

1 

16 


4 
1 

92 
7 

22 
4 
2 
3 
1 

16 




3. Aberdeen 










8 to 


12.15 


4.20 


Thornback, 
Cod, 




45 


45 




121 


84 


206 


47 




47 


Bay. New- 










16 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


126 




126 




burgh to 
















Coal-fish, .. 


1 




1 




Donmouth. 
















Haddock, . . 

Plaice 

Witch, .. 
Com. Dab, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Grey Skate, 
Thornback, 
Lumpsucker, 


3 
92 


'53 
2 

30 

12 

1 

7 

1 


3 

145 

2 

30 
12 
1 

7 

1 




269 


106 


375 


4. Moray 


Mar. 17. 








7 to 


4.35 


8.25 


Cod, 


4 




4 




Firth. 










12 


p.m 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


3 


"1 


4 




Burghead. 
















Haddock, . . 


2 




2 




Bay. 
















Turbot 

Brill, 
Plaice 

Com. Dab, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 
Starry Raj', 
Angler, 


1 

11 

329 

70 

14 

3 

"2 


204 

1 

4 
2 

1 


1 

11 

329 

274 

14 

3 

1 

4 

3 




439 


213 


652 


5. Same 


Mar. 17 










9 


1.15 


Cod, 


2 




2 




Place. 


&18. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 

Whiting 

Brill, 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Flounder, .. 


4 

"5 

226 

1 

56 

8 


"3 

44 

32 

1 

264 


7 
44 
32 
6 
226 
1 
220 
8 






1 












Cat-fish 


4 




4 




















Thornback, 


3 


'12 


16 




















Starry Ray, 


4 


2 


6 




















Sandy Ray, 


3 


4 


7 




















Angler, 




24 


24 


















Herring, . . 




3 


3 




316 


389 


705 















56 



Part in.— -Twenty-second Annual Beport 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 



G. Same 
Place. 



1903 
Mar. 18, 



Temperature. 



7. Dornoch 
Firth, off 
Golspie 



Depth 

in 
Fms. 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



2 
a.m. 



Fish Caught. 



8 to 
16 



8.15 
a.m. 



Name. 



12.20 
p.m. 



12.40 4.40 
p.m. p.m. 



4.50 
p.m. 



9 
p.m. 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock . . 
Whiting, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Thornback, 
Starry Ray, 
Sandy Ray, 
Angler, 
Lumpsucker, 
Herring, . . 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Brill, 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Thornback, 
Starry Ray, 
Sandy Ray, 
Angler, 
Lumpsucker, 



Cod, 

Haddock, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Thornback, 
Lumpsucker, 
Herring, . . 
Sprat, 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Thornback, 
Grey Skate, 
Angler 



I No 
No. thrown 
taken lo Over- 
Market, board. 



4 

426 

137 

9 

17 

2 

4 

1 



43 
261 



607 



24 

5 

2 

1 

2 

369 

3 

71 

317 

10 

14 

3 

1 



143 
25 



177 



100 

110 

174 

11 

45 

51 

3 

5 

1 



500 



Total 
No. 



315 
19 



338 



17 
2 
4 

11 
1 

12 
1 
4 



948 



24 

5 

2 

1 

2 

374 

3 

214 

342 

10 

14 

5 

1 

1 

1 



16 
5 

57 
2 

63 

56 
1 
3 
1 
3 

22 



100 

110 

177 

11 

360 

70 

3 

5 

1 

1 



Rems.rks. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotlaiid. 



57 











TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 


I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




<u 


d 




"d 


1 


1 No. 








< 


3 
03 


o 

o 

H 


Fms. 


1 


3 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1903. 










i 




1 






10. DornochlMar. 18- . . 






9.30 


1.50 


Cod 


38 




38 


Net badly split. 


Firth. Ofif 


19. 








p.m. 


a.m 


Codling', . . 


1 




1 




Golspie. 
















Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock, . . 
Plaice, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Thornback, 
Starry Ra>', 


1 
1 

47 
5 

16 
1 
1 


'3 

39 

6 

1 


1 

1 

50 

44 

22 

2 

1 




111 


49 


160 


11. Smith 


Mar. 19. 








19 to 


7.15 


11.15 


Cod, 


11 




11 




Bank. 










28 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Hake, 
Haddock, . . 


2 
141 


"1 

82 


2 

1 

223 


















Whiting, . . 


27 




27 


















Halibut, . . 


1 




1 
















Plaice, 


40 




40 




















Lemon Dab, 


14 


1 


15 




















Witch, 


16 


28 


44 




















Megrim, . . 


2 




2 




















Com. Dab,.. 




221 


221 




















Cat-fish, . . 


"2 




2 




















Gurnard, . . 




ii7 


117 




















Grey Skate, 


"e 


2 


8 




















Thornback, 




7 


7 




















Angler, 




5 


5 




262 


464 


726 


1-. Same 


" 










11.45 


3.45 


Cod 


30 




30 




Place. 










a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


6 


ii 


17 




















Coal-fish, .. : 


1 




1 




















Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Witch, 

Long Rough Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Red Gurnard, 
Grey Skate, 
Angler, 


499 

2 

69 

54 

1 
1 

"'7 


'75 

'4 
122 
16 
89 

24 

2 
2 
1 


574 

2 

69 

58 

123 

17 

89 

7 

24 

2 

2 

1 




670 


346 


1016 


13. Same 


Mar. 19. 










4 p.m. 


8 p.m. 


Cod, 


28 




28 




Place. 
















Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab. 
Witch, 
Flounder, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Thornback, 
Angler, 


6 
1 

406 

1 

90 

108 

2 

1 
2 

"3 


ii 

973 

27 

'3 
214 

50 

"7 
1 


17 

1 

1,379 

27 

1 

90 

111 

216 

1 

2 

50 

3 

7 

1 




648 


1286 


1934 




















1 






1 



58 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE L 







Temperature. 


Depth 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 




6 


a 
1 


in 




Ti 




1 


No. 




Remarks. 






< 


1 
3 


Fms. 


2 


1 


No. 
Name. taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1903. 
























14. Smith 


Mar. 19- 










8.15 


12.30 


Cod, 


62 




62 




Bank. 


20. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Witch, 
Megrim, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Red Gurnard, 


"l 

44 
52 

"l 
1 

5 


333 

125 

"2 
139 

iis 

"4 
2 


333 

126 

44 

56 

139 

1 

1 

lis 

5 
4 

2 




















Dragonet, . . . . | . . | 


1 


1 




















Grey Skate, 




2 


2 




















Thornback, 




3 


3 




















Angler, 




6 


6 




166 


735 


901 


15. Same 


Mar. 20. 










1 


5.10 


Cod, 


23 




23 




Place. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Coal-flsh, . . 

Haddock, .. 

Whiting, . . 

Brill, 

Plaice, 

Lemon Dab, 

Com. Dab, . . 

Witch, 

Long Rough Dab, 

Thornback, 

Grej' Skate, 

Gurnard, . . 

Red Gurnard, 

Angler, 


2 
3 

"l 

54 

n 

3 

"i 

2 


i24 
216 

130 

'71 
9 

"4 
5 
5 


2 

127 

216 

1 

54 

11 

130 

3 

71 

10 

2 

4 

5 

5 




100 


564 


664 


16. Off 










7 to 14 


2 


4 


Haddock, . 


3 


2 


5 


Net badly split. 


Lossie- 












p.m. 


p.m. 


\\Tiiting 




5 


5 




mouth. 
















Plaice, 
Com. Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard 


'45 
5 
2 
1 


3 

8 
2 

"1 


48 

13 

4 

1 
1 




56 


21 


77 


17. Same 












7 


11 


Cod, 


50 




50 




Place. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, 

Coal-fish, 

Haddock, 

WTiiting, 

Brill, 

Plaice, 




25 
3 
3 
2 
3 
325 


"9 


25 
3 
3 
2 
3 
334 




















Lemon Dab, 


6 




6 




















Com. Dab, 


24 


i85 


209 




















Flounder, .. 


103 


32 


135 




















Cal-flsh, . . 


4 




4 




















Thornback, 


8 




8 




















Grey Skate, 




"2 


2 








556 


229 


785 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



59 







• 




TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS- TABLE 


I. 












Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




6 


fl 




Ti 






No. 










% 


s 


Fms. 








No. 


thrown 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 
m 


o 

P5 




o 

A 


1 


Name. 


taken to 
Market. 


Over- 
board. 






1903. 
























18. Off 


Mar. 20. 










11.15 


3.30 


Cod, 


77 




77 




Lossie- 












p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, .. 


147 






147 




mouth. 
















Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock, 
Halibut, .. 
Brill, 
Plaice, 


2 
6 
1 
1 

190 






2 
6 
1 

1 
190 




















Lemon Dab, 


5 


1 


6 




















Com. Dab, 


24 


117 


141 




















Flounder, . . 


108 




108 




















Cat-fish, . . 


8 




8 




















Thornback, 


1 




1 1 


















Grey Skate, 




"l 


1 




















Angler, 




1 


1 




570 


120 


690 


19. Same 


Mar. 21. 










4 a.m. 


9a.m. 


Cod, 


27 




27 


Net badly split. 


Place. 
















Codling, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Thornback, 
Grey Skate, 


36 
1 

69 
2 

10 
6 

4 


"5 
1 

142 
2 

"3 


36 

1 

74 
3 
152 
8 
4 
3 




155 


153 


308 


20. Off 










20 to 


10.25 


3 p.m. 


Cod 


18 




18 


Net slightly split. 


Tarbet 










26 


a.m. 




Haddock, . . 


87 


"4 


91 




Ness. 
















Whiting 

Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 

Gurnard 

Conger, 
Starry Ray, 


9 

53 

1 

4 

"l 

1 


2 

41 

1 


9 

55 

1 

45 
1 
1 
1 




174 


48 


222 


21. Same 












4.15 


8.25 


Cod, 


48 




48 




Place. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock 

Whiting 

Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard, .. 
Red Gurnard, 
Grey Skate, 
Angler, 
Herring, . . 


12 

'66 
1 
2 

"l 


149 

54 
3 
2 

57 
45 

"4 
1 
2 

1 
1 


161 

54 

69 

3 

59 

45 

1 

4 

1 

2 

1 
1 




130 


319 


449 


22. Same 


Mar. 21- 










9 p.m. 


1 a.m. 


Cod, 


76 




76 




Place. 


22. 














Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Grey Skate, 
Angler, 


1 
4 

"68 
12 


36 
15 

15 
26 
3 
3 


1 
40 
15 
68 
27 
26 
3 
3 




161 


98 


259 













60 



Part III. — Tvjenty -second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caughl 


. 












Depth 














Place. 


Date. 




6 


„■ 


in 










No. 




Remarks. 










i 


Fms. 


o 


3' 


Name. 


No. 
taken tc 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 


w 




s 
m 


B 




Market 


board. 






1903. 
























1. Moray 


June 8. 


10 -s 


12-8 


9.4 


5 to 8 


7.30 


9.30 


Cod, 


: 




1 


Sea smooth; wind. 


Firth. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock, 


: 




1 


S.W., light; net 


Burghead 
















Plaice (1), . . 


17 






slightly split. 


Bay. 
















„ (2) 

Com. Dab, 
Black Sole, 
Gurnard, .. 
Angler, 


23 

40 

21 

1 

17 


"9 
42 

"41 

2 


'49 

63 

1 

5S 
2 




81 


94 


175 


2. Same 


June 8 








5 to 9 


10.20 


12.30 


Codling, . . 


1 




1 


A great deal 'of 


Locality. 


&9. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Plaice (1), . . 
„ (2), . . 

Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 


14 
39 
— 53 

7 


'12 
79 
23 


65 
79 
30 


weed in the net, 
which was diffi- 
cult to get clean. 


61 


lU 


175 


3. Same 


June 9. 


10-0 


10-8 


8-9 


4 to 9 


7 a.m. 


9.30 


Codling, . . 


1 




1 


Calm, foggy 


Locality. 














a.m. 


Whiting, . . 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), . . 

Com. Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 

Gurnard 

Angler, 


3 

5 
50 
— 55 

2 

3 


104 

'47 


3 

"55 
104 

2 
47 

3 




64 


151 


215 


4. Off 




10-0 


10-3 


9-2 


11 to 


1.35 


2.25 


Plaice (1), .. 


4 






Sea calm, no wind, 


Lossiemouth 










14 


p.m. 


p. m. 


„ (2) 


36 






slight fog ; weed 


about 3 


















— 40 


38 


78 


in net. 


miles. 
















Black Sole, 
Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 
Sandy Ray, 


1 


'87 
110 

1 
1 


1 

87 

110 

1 

1 




41 


237 


278 


5. Dornoch 




9-6 


12'2 


9-3 


1 
8 to 


6.10 


6.38 


Codling, . . 


5 


2 


7 


Small meshed net 


Firth, off 










11 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock, . . 


1 




1 


around cod end. 


Golspie. 
















Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. 
„ (3),.. 

Lemon Dab. 
Com. Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 


12 
9 
11 
— 32 

2 

1 


'22 


51 
2 

22 
1 




















Gurnard, . . 




11 


11 




41 


54 


95 









of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



61 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place 


Date. 




. Deptl 
in 


1 














6 


,-• 




. 






1 No. 




Remarks. 








^ 

u 


1 


Fms. 


o 


9 

3 


Name. 


No. thrown 
taken to Over- 


Total 
No. 








<! 


m 


B 




m 


K 




Market 


board. 






1903. 
























6. Same 


June 9. 








5 toll 


7.25 


10.7 


Plaice (1), . . 


11 






Calm, slight fog 


Localitj'. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


„ (2),.. .. 
„ (3),.. .. 
,. (4),.. .. 


205 
370 
939 






trawling round 
Dan. 




















— 15251 3113 


4638 




















Brill 


4 




4 




















Flounder, . . 


( 




6 




















Com. Dab, 




206 


206 




















Thornback, 


2C 


4 


24 




















Gurnard, . . 




50 


50 




1555 


3373 


4928 




7. Same 
Localitj-. 


June 10. 








Gto9 


3.0 
a.m. 


7.0 
a.m. 


Turbot 

Brill, 
Plaice (1),.. 

„ (2),.. .. 

„ (3),.. 

„ (4),.. .. 

Com. Dab, . 
Lemon Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornl)ack, 
Angler, 


1 

I 

16 

124 

311 

760 

— 1211 

85 

1 

"l9 


3306 
185 

' 2 
43 

"5 


1 
1 

4517 
270 

1 
2 

43 
19 
5 


8i baskets of plaice 


1318 


3541 


4859 




8. Same 










9 to 13 


7.30 


11.32 


Cod 


2 




2 




Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, .. 
Plaice (1),.. 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3),.. 

» (4) 

Com. Dab, 
nounder, . . 
Gurnard, . . 

Cat-fish 

Thornback, 


28'" 
58 
110 
216 

— 412 

10 

2 

1 
5 


2 
693 

'i7 


2 

1105 
10 

2 
17 

1 
5 




432 


712 


1144 




9. Same 




11-7 


12-0 


8-9 


9 to 11 


12.25 


1.2!. 


Plaice (1),.. 


3 






Small meshed net ; 


Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


„ (2)... 

,, (3),.. .. 

„ (4),.. .. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler 


24 
4G 
9 
— 76 


'22 
13 
6 

2 


98 
13 
6 
2 


slight breeze 
from eastwards ; 
sea becoming 
choppy. 


76 


43 


119 


10. Same 












3.15 


7.15 


Plaice (1),.. 


21 








Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


„ (2),.. .. 

,. (3) 

., (4),.. 

Com. Dab 

Flounder, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


18 
20 
14 
— 73 

1 


25 
14 

'54 


98 

14 

1 

54 




74 


93 


167 



62 



Part III. — Twenti I -second Annual Report 









TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 


I. 






Place. 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 

in 
Fms. 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 






8 


S 




■D 




No. 


No. 
thrown 


Total 


Remarks 








"E 


■4^ 




o 


3 


Name. 


;aken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


3 


<§ 






W 




Market. 


board. 




11. Same 










3 to 11 


7.45 


11.45 


Cod, 


1 




1 




Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 

Brill, 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2)... 

„ Co),.. 

„ (4/ . 

Com. Dab, ^- 
Thornback, 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 


1 
1 
35 
155 
194 
36 
— 420 

" 1 


406 
53 

'40 
1 


1 

1 

826 

53 

1 

40 

1 




424 


500 


924 




12. Same 


June 11. 










12.30 


5 a.m. 


Haddock, . . 


1 




1 




Locality. 












a.m. 




Plaice (1) 

,. (2) 

., (3) 

„ (4)... .. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback, 


20 
156 
150 
102 

— 428 


235 

4 
3 


663 
4 




42?> 


242 


671 




13. Same 












5.30 


7.30 


Cod, 


1 




1 




Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Brill, 


1 






















Plaice (1), . . 


9 
























„ (2) 


44 
























„ (3),.. .. 


46 
























„ (4) 


30 
— 129 


'40 


169 




















Com. Dab, . . 




23 


23 




















Sprat 




1 


1 




131 


64 


195 




14. Same 




10-9 


11-8 


8-9 




8.40 


12.40 


Plaice (1), . . 


18 








Locality. 












a.m. 


p.m. 


„ (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 
„ (4) 

Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, .. 
Thornba.;k, 


69 
134 
274 

— 495 
32 

1 


547 

109 

23 


1042 

141 

23 

1 




528 


679 


1207 




15. Same 












L30 


6.30 


Harldock(l), 


2 




2 




Iiocality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Plaice (1), . . 
„ (2),.. 
„ (3), 
„ (4),,. .. 

Com. Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


14 

100 
121 
86 
— 321 

2 

1 


210 
96 

"4 


531 

98 

1 
4 




326 


310 


636 






1 







of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



63 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 


K =■ 








No. 








cj 


o 


Fms. 






No. 


thrown 


Total 
No. 








t: "2 


S 




° 1 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 








■< 


zc 


pa 




CC 1 1-^ 




Market. 


board. 






19('3. 






















16. Same 


June 11 








Stoll 


7.30 12.30 


Haddock (1), 


12 




12 




Locality. 


&12. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Plaice (1),.. 
„ (2),.. 

„ (3) 

„ (4),.. .. 


11 

()4 
190 
360 
— 625 


700 


1325 
















i 


Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 




156 
30 


1.56 
30 




637 


886 


1523 


17. Same 












I a.m. 


6 a.m. 


Cod 


1 




1 




Locality. 
















Haddock (1), 

(■2), .. 

Hake, 

Plaice (1) 

., (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

„ (4),.. .. 

Com. Dab, . . 

Flounder 

Thornback, 

Cat-fish 

Gurnard 


14 
2 
— 16 
1 
15 
87 
174 
195 

— 471 

12 

2 

4 

3 


352 

1C4 

1 

60 


"io 

1 

823 

116 

3 

4 

3 

60 




510 


517 


1027 


18. Lvbster 




11-4 


10-8 


9-4 


23 


10.45 


12.45 


Cod 


2 




2 




Bay, 












a.m. 


p.m. 


Hake, 


1 








Caithness. 
















Haddock (1), 

Qi), ■ ■ 

\VTiiting, .. 
Plaice (2),.. 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


306 
— 308 

19 
6 

46 

1 


102 
25 

'40 
34 


410 
44 
6 
46 
40 
1 
34 




383 


201 


584 


10. Smith 










19 to 


2.55 


5 p.m. 


Cod, 


1 




1 




Bank. 










22 


p. m. 




Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), .. 
(3), .. 

Turbot^ 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Angler, 
Gurnard, . . 


12 

314 
— 316 

2 

22 

20 

2 

3 


i05 

7 
200 

'23 


12 

481 
2 
29 
220 
2 
3 
23 




378 


395 


773 





























64 



Part III.— Twenty-second Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS -TABLE I. 



1 





1 Time Trawl 1 


Fish Caus-ht. 










Temperature. 1 


Down. 










Place. 


Date. 




C8 


p m 
o Fms. 


4J 


_2 


JNo. 
No. thrown 
Name. taken to Over- 


Total 
No 








u 


^ 


o 




X. 


W 


Market. 


Doard. 










< 


m 


M 




CO 













20. Aber- J 
deen Bay, 
off Black 


1003. 
una 13. 






. . 8 to 10 


2.30 
x.m. 


6.30 
x.m. 


Sod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock(3), 

Whiting, . . 


1 
3 

707 


'i4 

-10 
40 


1 
17 
017 
40 




















Plaice (1), . . 
„ (2),.. 
„ (3),.. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 


25 
363 
ISO 

— 577 
94 

2 


'20 
56 
25 


597 
150 

25 
2 


V 


13S4 


365 


1749 


21. Same 

Locality. 


" 








'• 


7.15 
a.m. 


1L15 
a.m. 


Codling 

Haddock(3), 
Whiting, . . 
Brill, 

Plaice (1),.. 
„ (2), • ■ 


763 
40 

15 
162 


25 

250 

16 


25 

1013 

56 

2 




« 
















„ (3),.. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 


330 

507 


120 

20 

2 


507 

120 

20 

2 




1312 


433 


1745 


22. Aber- 
deen Bay, 










12 to 
14 


11.30 
a.m. 


3.30 
p.m. 


Haddock (2), 
(3), 


196 
1492 
1688 


ibg 


1797 




off Slains 
Castle. 
















Turbot 

Brill, 
Plaice (2>,.. 

„ (3),.. .. 


2 
5 
60 
100 




2 
5 




















— 16C 




160 




















Cora. Dab, . . 




87 


87 




















Gurnard 




le 






















Angler, . . 




1 


1 




1855 


213 


2068 


23. Same 










12 to 


4.15 


7.15 


Haddock (1), 

„ (2), ■• 
(3). .. 

(4). •■ 


303 






Unmarketable not 
en um e rated ; 


Locality. 










15 






3193 






consisted of six 


















630 






basketfuls, most- 


















412( 


5 


4126 


ly small had- 


















Plaice (2),.. 


8 


1 


87 
70 


docks. 


















Com. Dab, . . 


7( 


) 




428 


B 


4283 


24. Same 
Locality. 


•• 








12 to 
14 


7.45 
p.m 


11.45 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (3), 

(4), •• 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. .. 
„ (3),.. .. 


993 

«78 
187 

51 
36 
20 


2 
5 

1 '.'. 


2 
5 

1S71 


LTnmarkctable not 
enumerated. 




















— 10 


7 


107 




198 


5 


1985 


1 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I 



65 







Temperature. 








Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 














Remarks. 




oi 


-• 




■d 






No. 










^ 


S 


Fms. 


. 






No. 


thrown 










< 


S 
CO 


o 

23 




o 


1 


Name. 


taken to 
Market. 


Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1903. 
























1. About 60 


Aug. 17. 


16-8 


12-8 


8-9 


34 & 


11 


2 


Codling, . . 


7 


4 


11 


Course run — 60 


miles S. A E. 










35 


a. m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 


13 






miles S. J E. from 


from Aber- 
















„ (2), . . 


84 






Aberdeen, and 


deen, and 
















„ (3), .. 


167 






worked south- 


about 30 
















„ (4), .. 


96 






wards to about 


miles E. AS. 


















— 360 


i.'^o 


519 


34 miles S.E. of 


from Isle of 
















AVhiting, .. 


i) 


52 


61 


Isle of May. Sea 


Jlay. 
















Lemon Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 




"7 
5 


7 
5 


calm. 


381 


227 


60S 


2. Same 










35 & 


2.30 


5.30 


Codling, . . 




1 


1 




Locality. 










36 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 
(3), .. 
(4), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 


24" 

96 
104 
120 
344 

2 
2 


246 
26 

'i4 


590 

26 

2 

2 

14 




348 


287 


635 


3. Same 












6.10 


9.40 


Cod, 


9 




9 




Locality, 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


11 


"'4 


15 




working: 
















Coal-fish 


11 




11 




southwards. 
















Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

„ (4), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, .. 


18 

50 
254 
187 
— 509 

"i2 
4 
3 


lie 
12 

'i2 


625 
12 
12 
4 
3 
12 




4. Same 










34 to 


5.15 


9 


Angler 

Cod, 




2 


2 




559 


146 


705 


9 




9 


Locality. 










36 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 
(3), . . 

„ (4). .. 

Whiting 

Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 


"4 
17 
120 
167 
110 
414 

"6 
26 


7 

"86 
32 


7 
4 

500 
32 
6 
26 




5. Same 




19-2 


13-2 


8-9 




9.45 


1 


Gurnard, . . 
Codling, . . 




'30 


30 


Sea smooth; calm. 


459 


155 


614 


40 


28 


68 


Localitj-. 












a.m. 


p.m. 


Ling, 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

„ (3). .. 

„ (4), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 


5 
40 
78 
122 
120 

— 360 
46 
13 
22 


2io 

96 

"2 
3 


5 

570 

142 

13 

22 

2 

3 




486 


3S9 


825 


1 1 



66 



Part TIL — Twenty-second Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



Place. 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


Remarks. 








•A 






No. 








< 


o 

c3 
U 

3 


1 

o 


Fms. 


o 

Si 


1 


Name. 


No. 
baken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1903. 
























6. Same 


Aug. IS 








34 to 


2.5 


5.10 


Cod, 


1 




1 




Locality. 










36 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

„ (3), .. 

„ 0), .. 

Whiting 

Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Gurnard, .. 


19 
62 
314 
621 
538 

1535 

130 
12 
16 


220 
120 

'92 


19 

1,755 

250 

12 

16 

92 




1713 


432 


2145 


7. Same 












6.35 


9.15 


Cod 


1 




1 




Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Hake, 
Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3), .. 

., (4), .. 

Whiting 

Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 

Com. Dab 

Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard 


58 
1 

123 

315 

643 

435 

— 1516 
46 
6 
5 


209 
100 

"s 

5 
38 


58 
1 

1725 

146 

6 

5 

8 

5 

38 




1633 


360 


1993 


S. Same 


Aug. 18- 










9.50 


1 


Cod, 


3 




3 




Locality. 


19. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3). .. 

,, (4), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
liOng Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 


12 
58 
311 
385 
439 

— 1193 
32 
3 
8 


i65 
63 

"3 

7 
24 


12 

1298 

95 

3 

8 

3 

24 




1251 


202 


1453 


9. Same 












L30 


5 


Cod, 


1 




1 




Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

„ (4), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Ctom. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 


23 
126 
105 
383 
210 
— 824 

20 
9 

49 


iso 

64 

"4 

18 
48 


23 

1004 

84 

9 

49 

4 
18 
48 






1 














Angler, 




3 


3 




926 


317 


1243 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



Q1 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


















Depth 












Place. 


Date. 




a; 


^ 


in 


1 






No. 




Remarks. 










*2 


o 


Fms. ^ 

o 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 










< 


W 


» 






Market. 


board 








1903. 


























10. Same 


Aug. 19. 








35 


5.30 


8.30 


Cod, 


2 




2 






Locality. 












a. m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), . . 
„ (4), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Long Bough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 


120 
C2 
512 
325 
235 
— 1234 

"c 

8 


io 

96 

28 

"4 
14 

40 

1 


130 

1330 

28 
6 
8 
4 
14 
40 
1 






1370 


193 


1563 




11. Same 










35 to 


9 


12.15 


Codling, . . 


40 


15 








Locality. 










30 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Coal-fish, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), . . 
„ (4). -. 

Whiting 

Plaice, 
Ijenion Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 


2 
1-20 
524 
10S7 
435 

2172 

140 
13 
21 


209 
56 

8 
18 
100 


2 

2381 

196 

13 

'.'1 

8 
18 
100 






2388 


406 


2794 




12. Same 




15-2 


12-3 


9-4 




12.35 


3.45 


Cod 


1 




1 


Calm. Sea smooth. 




Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Ling, 

Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 
„ (4), .. 

Whiting 

Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 


43 
3 
2 
127 
418 
998 
460 

2003 

288 
10 
10 


20 

428 
46 

"o 

20 

109 

2 


63 
2 

2431 

334 

10 

10 

6 

20 

109 

2 






2360 


631 


2991 




13. Same 
Localitj'. 












4.30 
p.m. 


7.15 
p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 
„ (4), .. 

Whiting, 

Plaice, 

Lemon Dab, 

Com. Dab, 

Long Rough Dab, 

Gurnard, . . 

Angler, 


36 

62 

455 

671 

455 

— 1643 
135 
12 
9 


4 

3i2 
109 

"5 

17 

47 

1 


40 

1955 

244 

12 

9 

5 

17 

47 

1 


At end of haul, 
left for Granton 




1835 


495 


2330 








1 
























- 



6S 



^art lit. — Twenty -second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 










Place. 


Datc2. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 














1 


No. 












1 


B 


Fms. 


o 


f. 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 










< 


cc 


P3 




^ 


W 




Market. 


board. 








1903. 


























14. About 


Aug. 20. 








36 


6.15 


10.15 


Codling, . . 


18 


17 


35 






50 miles E. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 


128 










by S. from 
















(2), . . 


522 










Isle of May. 
















„ (3), . . 
(4), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 


1044 
428 

2122 

130 
20 
31 


ios 

40 

"9 

23 
47 


2230 
170 
20 
31 
9 
23 
47 




















Grey Skate, 




3 


3 










2321 


247 


2568 




15. Same 


Aug. 20- 








34 to 


10.36 


2.45 


Cod, 


5 




5 






Locality. 


21. 








35 


p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), 

(3). 

(4), .. 

Whiting 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Grey Skate, 
Angler 


48 

128 

416 

507 

220 

— 1271 
60 
23 


8 

'96 
32 

8 
15 

52 

1 


56 

1367 

92 

23 

8 

15 

52 

1 

2 






1407 


214 


1621 




16. Same 


Aug. 21 










8.10 


12.20 


Cod, 


2 




2 






Locality. 












a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2), 

(3), .. 

(4), .. 

Wniiting, .. 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 

Gurnard 

Grey Skate, 
Angler, 


42 
1 

125 

G23 

882 

215 

1S45 

104 
10 
20 


7 

209 
46 

4 

43 

3 


49 

1 

2054 

150 

10 

20 

4 

7 

43 

2 

3 






2024 


321 


2345 




17. Same 










34 


1.5 


2.5 


Haddock (1), 


20 










Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


(2), .. 

(3), .. 

„ (4). .. 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, .. 


105 
268 
180 
— 573 

'io 

7 


68 
31 

4 

23 


641 
31 
10 

7 

4 

7 

23 






590 


133 


723 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE ]. 



69 



Place. 



18. Same 
Locality. 



Date. 



1903. 
Aug. 21. 



Temperature. 



Depth 

in 
Fms. 



Zi 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



2.30 
p.m. 



6.30 
p.m. 



Fish Caught. 



Name. 



Cod, 
Codling, 
Hake, 
Haddock (1) 

(2), 
„ (3) 

(4) 

Whiting, . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab 
Cat-fish, 



5 

13 

1 

186 

717 

1131 

448 

2482 

217 

28 

42 

1 

2789 



No. 
taken to 
Market 



No. 

thrown 

Ovar 

board. 



Total 
No. 



2482 

217 

28 

42 

1 

2789 



Remarks. 



Unm arkctable, 
amounting to li 
baskets, not 
counted ; mostly 
haddocks. 



70 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



Place. 



1. Aber- 
deen Bay, 
off Black 
Dos. 



Date. 



1903. 
Oct. 16. 



Temperature. 



Depth 



!. Aberdeen 

Bay, off 
Old Castle. 



8 to 12 



10-1 10-S 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



10.50 2.50 
a.m. p.m. 



3. Same 
Locality. 



Fish Caught. 



Name. 



I No. 
No. thrown 
taken to Over- 
Market.' board. 



3.20 
p.m. 



Cod, 

Codiinar, . . 
Haddock (I), 

(2). 

(3), 

Whiting, . . 
Brill, 

Plaice (1), . . 
„ (2),.. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Grey Skate, 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 



7.10 
p.m. 



itoll 7.30 
p.m. 



11.30 
p.m. 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2). 

(3). 

Whiting, .. 
Brill, 

Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), . . 

„ (3), . . 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Starry Ray', 
Grey Skate, 
Gurnard, . . 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), 

Whiting, .. 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3)... 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 
Grey Skate, 
Angler, 



13 
118 



49 
232 
536 



-1517 
259 
1 



Total 
No. 



4 

273 



395 
164 
540 



-1099 

201 

10 



12 

169 

13 



-194 

12 

28 

3 

5 



1889 



75 



26 
179 
241 
254 
170 
— 665 
96 
S 
10 
171 
14 

— 195 
14 
24 

4 
5 



1216 



13 
121 



1517 

264 

1 



1099 

275 

10 



194 

12 

73 

5 

6 

4 



26 
190 



665 
112 



195 

14 

61 

5 

4 



1287 



WindS.W., strong 
breeze; sea rough. 



of the •Fishery Board for Bcotland. 



71 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 




<u 


rj 




73 






No. 








c 


3 
CO 


s 


Fms. 


o 


0) 

1 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


ffl 




03 


w 




Market. 


board. 






1 1903. 
























4. Same 


Oct. 17. 








12 to 


12.50 


4.5 


Cod, 


9 




9 




Locality. 










20 


a.m. 


a. m. 


Codling, . . 


382 


5 


387 




Towed up 
















Haddock (1), 


237 








to Cruden 
















(2), 


156 








Scars. 
















(3), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Turl)ot, . . 
Brill, 

Plaice 0), .. 
„ (2),.. .. 


397 

— 790 

214 

3 

4 

12 

181 


"ii 


790 

228 

3 

4 




















„ (3),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 
Grey Skate, 
Starry Ray, 


11 

204 

3 
14 

"i 
4 


21 
4 
2 
1 
4 


204 
3 
35 
4 
6 
5 
6 




5. Same 










10 to 


4.20 


5.20 


Angler, 
Codling, . . 


1 




1 


Small incshcd net. 


1634 


51 


1685 


14 


5 


19 


Locality 










15 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 


20 








Shotat 
















(2), 


46 








Ci-ud'en 


















(iO 


4 


'70 




Skerries and 
















Whiting, .. 


32 


19 


51 




towed to- 
















Plaice (1), .. 










wards Aber- 
















,, (2), .. 


42 








deen. 


















42 




42 




(i. Moray 


Oct. 19. 








12 to 


1.30 


5.30 


Com. Dab, . . 
Codling, . . 


12 


14 


26 


Weather calm. 


166 


42 


208 


12 




12 


Firth ; 










20 ; 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 


35 






Catch included 


Burghead 










niost- 






(2), 


190 






31i baskets of 


Baj'. 










ly in 
10 






(3), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Halibut, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

>, (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

,. (4) 

Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 


6214 

6439 

60 
1 
2 
2 
178 
277 
165 

— 622 

30 

20 

96 

4 


30 
150 

.56 

794 
60 


0469 

210 

1 

2 

678 

30 

814 

156 

4 


haddocks, mostly 
small, and si.x 01 
plaice. 


7. Same 










8 to 12 


6.15 


10.15 


Angler, 
Cod, 




"e 


6 




7286 


1096 


8382 


1 




1 


Locality'. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, .. 
Haddock (1), 

„ (2), . . 

„ (3), . . 

Wliiting, .. 
Turbot 

lirill 

Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2, .. 

„ (3), .. . .. 

„ (4),.. 

Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 
Angler, 


9 
1 
ISO 
1282 

—^1463 
255 
1 
3 
4 
314 
134 
194 

— 646 

2 

120 

80 

1 


38 
102 

'20 

653 
31 

'21 


9 

IJOI 
357 

1 

666 
2 
773 
111 
1 
21 




2581 


865 


3446 



72 



Part III. — TvjenUj-second Annual Bejwrt 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE L 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remark.s 




oJ 


jj 




f^ 






No. 












5 


Fms. 


o 




Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 


o 






K 




Market. 


board. 






1903. 
























8. Same 


Oct 19- 


11-2 


10-3 


10 


3 to 12 


10-45 


2.45 


Cod, 


2 




2 




Locality. 


20. 










p.m. 


am. 


Codling 

Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

(4), •• 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice, (1),.. 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3),.. .. 


5 
16 
12 
552 
182 

— 562 
290 
7 
89 
214 


"20 

94 


5 

582 
384 








1 










„ (4),.. 


324 


























— 634 


'32 


666 




















Lemon Dab, 


2 




2 




















Witch 


18 




18 




















Com. Dab, 




786 


786 




















Gurnard, .. 


'so 


18 


98 




















Thornback, 


3 




3 




















Angler, 




io 


10 




1596 


960 


2556 


9. Same 


Oct. 20. 


10 'S 


12 '3 


10 


StolS 


3.35 


7.35 


Codling, . . 


11 




11 




Locality. 












a.m 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
(3), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Turbot, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3),.. 

„ (4),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, . 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 

Gurnard 

Thornback, 
Angler, 


S 
112 
1956 

2076 

250 
1 
5 

78 
120 
288 
— 491 
4 
5 

78 

87 

2 


'43 
103 

860 
21 

"5 


2ii9 

353 

1 

491 

4 
5 
938 
108 
2 
5 




3005 


1032 


4037 


10. Same 










8 to 12 


9.0 


10.0 


Hake, 


1 




1 


Small-meshed net. 


Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

Whiting 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3), . . 

„ (4), . . 

Com. Dab, 
Witch, 
Gurnard, .. 
Thornback, 


12 

2 
27 
184 

— 213 
10 
4 
18 
50 
157 
— 229 

'i3 

36 

1 


"3 

26 
46 

307 
14 


15 

239 
56 

229 

307 

13 

50 

1 




















Angler, 




"1 


1 




515 


397 


912 



oj the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



73 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




TimeTra\>l 


Fish Cauiiht 










Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 






?- 


1 
1 










No. 








< 


■2 


Fms. 


+5 
o 

Si 
aa 


1 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 








1903. 


























11. Dornoch 


Oct. 20. 








8 to 


2.45 


4.45 


Cod, 


42 




42 






Firth, off 










14 


p.m. 


p. m. 


Codling, . . 


26 


7 


3.3 






Dunrobin 
















Coal-fish, . . 




2 


2 






and Golspie. 
















Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
(3), .. 

Whiting, .. 

Brill 

Plaice (1), .. 

>, (2),.. 

„ (3),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


51 
S3 
444 

— -578 

"2 
10 

7 

22 

3 

1 
3 


14 

27 

61 
"5 


592 
27 

22 

"^3 

61 

1 

8 






677 


116 


793 


12. Same 












5.10 


7.10 


Cod 


3 




3 


Weather fine; 


lii'ht 


Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

.. (3) 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Thorn back. 
Angler, 


12 
177 
43 

425 
—645 
4 
5 
39 
54 
— 98 
8 

1 


"7 
12 

"2 

43 
4 

"3 


12 

6.52 
10 

ioo 

8 
43 
4 
1 
3 


S.W. wind. 




771 


71 


842 


13. Same 












7.45 


1.1.45 


Codling, . . 


26 


3 


29 






Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Brill, 

Plaice (1), .. 
„ (2) 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 

Gurnard 

Thornback, 


78 
24 

— 102 
4 
2 
21 
3C 

57 

4 

2 


6 

60 

S 


104 
10 
2 

'57 

4 

GO 

8 

2 






197 


79 


276 


14. Same 


Oct. 21. 










12.20 


3.20 


Codling, . . 


10 


9 


19 


Weather fine 


net 


Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice (1), .. 
„ (2),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


2 
10 

— 12 

5 
20 

25 

12 

"8 


"4 
3 

"6 

24 
11 


io 

3 

'31 
12 
24 
19 


split. 




















Thornback, 


4 




4 




1 


71 


57 


128 



74 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 











TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 


I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Kemark.s. 




6 


r^ 










No. 








< 


3 
m 


o 

o 

P3 


Fms. 


o 

CO 


c3 

SI 


Name. 


No. 
taken tc 
Market 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 

No. 






1903. 
























15. Same 


Oct. 21. 


12-0 


10 '1 


10-6 


8 to 14 


3. .50 


7.50 


Cod 


3 




3 




Localitj'. 












a.m. 


a. m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 
(3), . . 

Whiting 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3),.. .. 

„ (4) 

Lemon Dab, 

Com. Dab, 

Witch, 

Gurnard, .. 

Conger, . . 

Thornback, 

Angler, 

Piked Dog-fish, . . 


8 
21 
10 
G37 

— 663 
15 
16 
24 
17 
25 

82 

2 

2 
7 
1 
2 


2 
25 

233 

'is 
2 


8 

070 
40 

'82 
2 

233 
2 

25 
1 
2 
2 
2 




10. Same 










10 to 


8 


12 


Sprat, 
Cod, 




3 


3 




790 


285 


1075 


1 




1 


Locality. 










15 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), 

(3), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. .. 

„ (3), .. . .. 

„ (4)... .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
(iiirnard, . . 
Piked Dog-fish, . . 

Angler, 
Tliornback, 


13 
149 
123 
1574 

1840 

9 
14 
40 
91 
180 
— 325 
3 
30 
8 

"4 


'23 
'20 

i8i 
1 


IS 

1846 
32 

345 

3 

211 

8 

1 
4 




17. Same 
Locality. 










S to 12 


12.15 
p.m. 


1.15 
p.m. 


Sprat, 

Cod, 
Codling, . . 




15 


15 


Net split. 


2239 


247 


2486 


1 
9 




1 
9 


















Whiting 




-> 






















Plaice (3), . . 


. 1 




i 




















Com. Dab, 




6 


6 




18. Same 










S to 13 


4.50 


8.50 


Sjjrat, 
Cod, 




S 


8 




11 


10 


27 


5 




5 


Localitj'. 












IX m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3) 

.. (4) 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 


30 

308 

350 
1243 
1907 

17" 
34 
46 
15 
— 112 
2 
25 


12 

io 

30 

'21 

'43 

10 

1 


42 

1926 
36 

i33 

2 
68 
10 

1 




2031 


142 


2223 









of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLINC4 INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 



75 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




oi 


1 




• 






No. 










•S 

;» 


Fms. 


o 


3 


Name. 


No. 

aken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 

m 


pq 




J3 


w 




Market. 


board. 






1903. 






















19. Same 


Oct. 21- 








Stol3 


9.10 


1.10 


Codling, . . 


19 


S 


27 




Localit}'. 


22. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
(3). . . 

^^^liting, . . 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2) 

„ (3) 

„ (4),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 


166 
1.50 
717 
— 1033 

lo" 

24 
32 
70 

— 13C 

1 

11 


'i5 

9 

'24 

760 
6 


1048 
9 

160 
1 

771 
6 




1200 


822 


2022 


20. Same 


Oct. 22. 










1.30 


5.30 


Codling, . . 




9 


9 




Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
(3), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. .. 

„ (3) 

„ (4),.. .. 

Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 


73 

81 
645 
— 799 

4" 
38 
120 
210 
— 372 

"VL 

2 


7 
12 

is 

347 
23 


806 
12 

390 

347 

35 

2 




1185 


416 


1601 


21. Same 




9.2 


9-7 


9-4 


8 to 13 


5.45 


6.45 


Codling, . . 


4 


1 


5 


Small -meshed net 


Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
(3), .. 

Whiting, . . 

Brill 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

„ (4),.. 

Com. Dab 

Gurnard, . . 

Thornback, 

Piked Dog-fish, .. 

Sting Ray, 

Little Sole, 

Sprat, 

Armed Bullhead, 


10 

69 

S8 

1 
1 
3 
21 
71 
253 
— 348 
23 
5 
1 


'4 
40 

'i5 
371 

25 

1 

1 
1 
4 
1 


'92 
41 

1 

303 

394 

30 

1 
1 
1 
1 

4 

1 


used. 


471 


464 


935 


22. Off 










23 


1 


2 


Codling 




4 


4 




Lybster. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
(3), .. 

Whiting 

Plaice (1), .. 
„ (2),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab 


352 
190 

358 

900 

37 
4 
10 

14 

5 


4 
14 

'30 


904 
51 

'i4 

5 
30 

1008 




956 


52 









76 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




. Dept 
in 


1 










Remarks. 




V 


a 
s 










1 No. 








u 


% 


Fms 


o 


1 


Name. 


No. thrown 
taken to Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 


M 




SI 

en 


W 




Market 


board. 






1903. 
























23. Same 


Oct. 22 








23 to 


2.30 


4.30 


Codling, . . 




13 


13 


20 baskets of had- 


Locality. 










24 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 
(2), 

Whiting 

Plaice (3), .. 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


731 

446 

1277 

2454 

200 
11 
5 

"4 


'9 
24 

'20 


2463 

224 

11 

5 

20 

4 


docks. 


2674 


66 


2740 




24. Same 










23 


4.50 


7.50 


Codling, . . 


12 


7 


19 




Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
(3), . . 

Whiting, . . 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 


449 

471 

1075 

1995 

628 
3 
23 
— 26 
4 


'i3 

36 
"86 


266s 
664 

26 

4 

86 




25. Same 


Oct. 22 










8.15 


12.15 


Gurnard, . . 
Cod, 




3 


3 




2665 


145 


2810 


18 




18 


Locality. 


&23. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (2), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Gurnard 


19 
286 
210 
836 
— 1332 

"9 
12 

is 


4 

'i4 
21 

'66 
8 


23 

1346 
21 
9 
12 
66 
21 




26. Same 


Oct. 23. 










12.30 


3.35 


Angler 

Cod, 




1 


1 




1403 


114 


1517 


7 




7 


Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

Whiting, . . 

Plaice (2) 

Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


14 
260 
213 
860 

— 1333 
450 
22 

io 


"9 
26 

"39 
5 


14 

1342 

476 

22 

39 

15 




27. Smith 










21 to 


6.15 


7.15 


Thornback, 
Codling, . . . .' 


2 




2 




1838 


79 


1917 


5 


1 


6 


Bank. 






1 




22 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
(3), .. 

Whiting 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. .. 

Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Lemon Dab, 
Armed Bullhead, 
Gurnard, . . 


28 

6 

231 

— 265 
46 
3 
28 

— 31 
3 


■37 

204 

674 
3 

14 
2 

15 


302 
250 

".31 

677 
3 

14 
2 

15 




350 


950 


1300 













of the Fishery Board for Scotlcmd. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



77 



2S. Same 
Localitj-. 



29. Off 
Kinnaird 
Head at 
" Witch 
Ground." 



1903. 
Oct. 23 



Temperature. 



Depth 

in 
Fms. 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



8.10 
a.m. 



1.50 
p.m. 



IL.W 
a.m. 



2.50 
p.m. 



Fish Caught. 



Name. 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Linir, 

Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (2), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
(iurnard 
Angler, 



Hake, 

Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
Angler, 



30 
110 
6-16 



No. 

taken to 
Market. 



-78C) 
10 
34 
15 



-421 
"3 



No. 
thrown 
Over- 
board. 



20G 
8 
1 



18 
40 

400 
12 
1 



Total 
No. 



79fi 
41 
34 
I.") 
20(> 
8 
1 



439 

40 

3 

400 

12 

1 

913 



Remarks. 



Small-mcshed not. 



78 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down . 


Fish Caught. 




Remarks. 


Place. 


Date. 




OJ 


^ 




•B 






No. 










1 


I 


Fms. 


c 


■3 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








.rl 


3 


o 




X 


h2 




Market. 


board. 








< 


■/I 


n 




CC 


HH 












1. Aberdeen 


1903. 
Oct. 30. 








Stolo 


9.55 


12.15 


Cod, 


29 




29 




Bay ; be- 
tween Black 
Dog and 












a-m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


43 




43 


















Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 


181 
195 








Newburgh. 












1 




(3), 

Whiting, .. 
Brill, 

Plaice (3), .. 
Com. Dab, . . 
Black Sole, 
Long Rough Dab, 


16 

— 392 
195 
1 
6 
8 
1 


"7 
143 

"1 
2 


399 
333 

1 
7 
15 
1 




675 


160 


835 


2. Same 




10-0 


10-4 


10 


1h to 


12.45 


5.20 


Cod, 


106 




106 




Locality. 










12 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (2),.. 

„ (3),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 

Com. Dab 

Flounder, . . 
Thornback, 
Starry Ray, 


145 
4 
120 
179 
10 

— 309 

54 
198 
110 

— 308 

1 

3 


6 

ii 

107 

"s 

2 
2 


151 
4 

320 
161 

308 
1 
8 
3 
2 
2 




930 


136 


1060 


3. Same 








_ 


to 11 


5.55 


10.10 


Cod, 


25 


"9 


25 
94 




Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, 


85 




















Haddock (1), 


311 
























,, (2), 


5SS 
























(3), .. 


132 
1031 


130 


lioi 




















Whiting, . . 


ISS 


040 


828 




















Plaice (1),.. 


37 
























„ (2),.. 


W8 
























„ (3),.. 


49 
114 


"9 


123 




















Com. Dab, 


25 


13 


38 




















Gurnard, . . 




8 


8 




















Thornback, 


1 




1 




















Starry Ray, 




'21 


21 




1469 


830 


2299 


4. Same 


Oct. 30 








5 to 11 


10.45 


3 a.m. 


Cod, 


37 




37 
56 




Locality. 


&31 










p. m . 




Codling, . . 


49 


7 




















Haddock (1), 


475 
























(2), 


303 
























(3), .. 


353 
1131 


i4 


1145 




















Whiting, .. 


272 


211 


483 




















Black Sole, 


1 




1 




















Plaice (1),.. 


























„ (2),.. 


52 
























„ (3),.. 


27 

— 79 




'79 




















Lemon Dab, 


2 




2 




















Com. Dab, . . 


7 


"5 


12 




















Flounder, . . 


2 




2 




















Gurnard, .. 




1 


1 




















Starry Ray, 


1580 


24 


24 




262 


1842 









of the Fishery Board for iSeofland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



79 



5. Aberdeen 
Bay ; off 
Collieston. 



Place. 



Date. 



Oct. 31 



Temperature. 



10-C 



Depth 

in 
FVns. 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



7.10 
a.m. 



8 10 
a.m. 



Fish Caiiffht. 



Name. 



No. 
txikeii tn 
Market. 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Grey Skate, 



10 
773 
IGf) 



No. 
thrown 
Over- 
board. 



157 
75 



Total 
No. 



18 

930 

244 

27 

1 

3 

2 

C 

1 



Sniall-meshcd not. 



80 






Part III.- 


—T)ve7ity 


-second u4.nnuc(l licjyort 






TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




Depth 

in 
Fms. 








Remarks. 




S 


5 




■c 




No. 


No. 
thrown 


Total 














o 


'■i 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


3 


pq 




^ 


W 




Market. 


board. 




1. Aberdeen 

Bav ; off 
Black Dog- to 


Nov. 6. 


9-2 


10-0 


9-8 


8 to 10 


2.10 
p.m. 


5.10 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), 


1 

27 
135 
69 
334 




1 
27 


Weather fine ; sea 
smooth ; gentle 
westerly wind. 


Collieston. 




































(4), • • 


439 

— 977 


'36 


1013 




















Whiting, . . 


303 


18 


321 




















Plaice, 


2 




2 




















Com. Dab, . . 


4 


1 


5 




















Long Rough Dab, 




2 






















Gurnard 




3 


3 




















Thornback Raj', . . 




1 


1 




















Herring 




6 


6 




















Sprat, 




2 


2 




1314 


69 


1383 


2. Same 










5* to 


6.25 


S.25 


Codling, .. 




2 


2 


Nothing apparent 
to account for 


Locality. 










12 


p.m . 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(4), . . 

\\Tiiting, .. 

Plaice 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Grey Skate, 
Starry Ray, 
Herring 


6 
6 
— 13 
24 

1 
1 


"2 
6 

"1 

3 

15 

1 


'is 

30 

1 
1 
1 

3 

15 

1 


very small catch. 


39 


32 


71 


3. Same 
Locality. 


Nov. 6 
& 7. 








5J to 
12 


9.15 
p.m. 


1.20 
a.m. 


Cod, ... 
Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (1),.. 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3),.. .. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Starry Ray, 


1 

22 
126 
75 
118 

— 319 
96 
1 
53 
67 

— 121 
7 


"3 

'io 

22 

"1 
5 
3 

2 


1 

329 
118 

i22 
12 
3 
2 




566 


46 


612 


4. Aberdeen 










4! to 


2.55 


5.25 


Cod, 


1 




] 




Bav ; off 










12 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


28 








Newburgh. 
















Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
(3), 

Whiting, .. 

Brill 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . , 


13 
14 

81 

— 108 

67 

2 

39 
215 

— 254 
15 

475 


'20 
37 

"5 
19 

89 


i28 
104 

2 

254 
15 
5 
19 

564 































of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



TRAWLING INVESTI«ATIONS-TABLE I. 



81 







Temperature. 


Depth 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Pish 


Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 




o 


s 

o 

o 

03 


m 




■6 






No. 




Reniarks. 






< 


3 


Fms. 


o 

.a 


"3 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 




5. Morav 


Nov. 9. 








5!S to 9 


Ip.ra. 


4-10 


Cod, 


11 




11 


W i n d west; 


Firth ; Burg- 














a.m. 


Codling, . . 


1 


7 


8 


siiually, rain. 


head Bay. 
















Haddock (1), 
(2), 
„ (3), .. 
(4), .. 

Whiting, .. 

Brill 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. .. 

„ (3),.. .. 

Com. Dab,.. 
Gurnard, . . 


1 
11 

494 

— 506 

10 
9 
21 
109 
660 

— 790 

34 


187 
23 

"s 

8 

84 


693 
33 
9 

798 
42 

84 




6. Same 










5ito 


4.30 


8.45 


Thornback, 
Cod, 


4 




4 




1365 


317 


1682 


2 




2 


Locality. 










13 

and 

20 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
„ (3), .. 

(4), .. 

Wliiting, . . 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 

Black Sole, 
Plaice (1) 

„ (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Witch, 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 


33 

5 

34 

77 

711 

— 827 
26 
1 
10 
1 
16 
151 
741 

— • 908 

100 

6 

12 


io 

203 
31 

'21 
196 

24 


43 

1,030 

57 

1 

10 

1 

929 

296 

6 

24 

12 




7. Same 


Nov. 10. 








4* to 


3 a.m. 


7 a m. 


Angler, 
Cod, 


4 


6 


10 




1930 


491 


2421 


3 




3 


Locality. 










xO 






Codling 

Haddock (2), 

(3), 

(4), .. 

Wliiting, . . 
Brill, 

Turbot, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), . . . . 

„ (3) 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, .. 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback Ray, . . 


32 

25 

— 25 

" 31 

5 
27 
176 
897 
1100 
9 
64 

2 


ii 

50 
34 

'58 

240 

102 

9 


43 

'75 

34 

31 

5 

1158 

9 

304 

102 

11 




S. Same 




7-8 


9-S 


10 


5 to 10 


8 a.m. 


10.35 


Angler 

Cod, 


2 


2 


4 


W.SW. strong 


1273 


506 


1779 


3 




3 


Locality. 














a.m. 


Codling, . . 

Haddock, . . 

Whiting, .. 

Brill, 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2), .. .. 

„ (3), .. .. 

Com.Dab, .. 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback Ray, .. 
Angler, 


1 7' 

13 

;139 

/526 

678 

40 

5 


7 
25 
11 

•25 
140 

180 

"4 


7 
11 

703 
180 

186 
5 
4 


breeze; showery. 


733 


398 


1131 

















82 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



9. Dornoch 
Firth, off 
Golspie. 



Date. 



Temperature. 



10. Same 
Locality. 



Nov. 11 



Depth 

in 
Fms. 



11. Same 
Locality. 



5 to 13 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



3.25 
p.m. 



5.40 
a.m. 



7.30 
p.m. 



Fish Caught. 



Name. 



10.5 
a.m. 



4.10 
p.m. 



p.m. 



Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), 
(4), 

Whiting, .. 
Rrill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3), .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Grey Skate, 
Thornback, 
Sandy Ray, 
Angler, 
Gurnard, . . 



Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), 
(4). 

Whiting, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3l .. 

„ (4),.. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback Ray, 
Sandy Ray, 
Gurnard, . . 

Angler, 



I I ^°- 

No. thrown 

taken to Over- 
Market, board 



232 
214 
413 
191 



-1050 
2 
3 



5 
167 
109-' 



-1264 
6 
4 
1 

5 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

(4), .. 

Halibut, . . 

Megrim, 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3) 

„ (4),.. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 
Angler, 



32 
158' 
53 
56 
56 

— 323 

8 
4 
6 

103 

^53 

416 

— r, 

22 



902 

2 

126 

'i5 
1 



2o9 

78 

5 

1 

34 

1 



1368 440 



lor 






16'i 






21C 






53C 








1011 

1 
1 


271 


6 




8' 






482 




356 






881 


114 

144 

6 

60 

7 
1 



Total 
No. 



1100 
4 
3 



130 
1 

20 
1 
2 

33 



40 



375 
10 
4 



1237 

100 

6 

1 

34 
1 



Remarks. 



Sea smooth. 



612 



1808 



1282 
1 
1 



995 

144 

6 

60 

7 

1 



Weather calm. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotlmul. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



83 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down . 


Pish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
ill 












6 


S 
o 




•6 






No 




Remarks. 








u 


Fms. 








No. 


thrown 










c 


•V 


*^ 




o 


1 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 




« 




02 


W 




Market. 


board. 




12. Same 


Nov. 12. 










2.55 


7.55 


Cod, 


22 




22 




Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling-, . 
Haddock (l), 
(2). 
„ (3>, .. 


23 

97 

78 


3 


26 


















(4), .. 


107 


























232 


46 


328 




















Brill 


1 




1 




















Plaice (1) 


2 
























„ (2),.. .. 


137 
























„ (3) 


319 
























M (4),.. .. 


214 

672 


m 


841 




















Lemon Dab, 


3 


1 


4 




















Com. Dab. 


12 


63 


75 




















Mefrrim, 


1 




1 




















Gurnard, . . 




'50 


50 




















Thornback Ray. . . 




4 


4 










j 








Sandy Ray, 




1 


1 


















Angler, 




2 


2 










1016 


339 


1%5 




13. Same 










6 to 10 


11.40 


3.20 


Codling, . . 




4 


9 




Locality. 












a.m 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 
(2). 

Plaice (1), . . 


3 

3 

6 

7 


'i3 


'i9 




















„ (2),.. 


331 






















.. (3),.. 


795 . . 






















„ (4),.. .. 


784 
1917 


184 


2i6i 




















Com. Dab, 


20 


35 


55 




















Gurnard 




16 


16 




















Thornback, 


2 


4 


6 




















Angler, 




3 


3 




1950 


259 


2209 




14. Same 


Nov. 13 








6 to 11 


5.15 


10.15 


Codling, . . 


1 


1 


2 


Wind S. ; fr 


Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

.. (3), .. 

(i)- ■■ 

Brill 


66 
149 
197 
169 

581 

17 


'53 


634 
17 


breeze ; squa 


















Plaice (1), .. 


3 1 .. 






















„ (2) 


331 1 . . 






















„ (3), .. 


571 ; . . 




















„ (4), .. 


756 
1661 320 


1931 










i 








Com. Dab, 


71; 300 


371 




















Lemon Dab, 


6 .. 


6 




















Gurnard 


.. 20 


20 




















Angler, 


2 


2 




2337! 696 


3033 















84 



Part Til. — Twenty-second Annual Beport. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 










Denthl 


1 






Remarks. 


Place. 


Date. 




6 


s 

o 


in 
Fms. 




i 




No. 


No. 
hrown 


Total 














o 


3 


Name. taken to| 


Over- 


No 








< 


M 


o 

pa 






W 




Market. 


Ijoard. 






15. Burg- I 
head Bay. 


nTov. 13. 








to 10 


1.25 
p.m. 


6.25 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling 

Haddock (1), 
(2), 

„ (3), .. 

„ (4), .. 

Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), . . 

„ (3) 

„ (4):.. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab. 
Thornback Ray, . . 
Gurnard, . . 
iVngler, 


4 
33 

26 

30 

131 

187 

36 
10 
316 
601 
412 

1339 

3 

40 

2 


"6 
46 

150 

iso 
3 


4 
39 

233 
36 

1554 

3 

190 

150 
3 


Wind S. ; fresh 
breeze. 


1644 


576 


2220 




16. Same 


Nov. 13 










7.10 


12.10 


Cod, 


3 




3 




Locality. 


&14. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, .. 

Haddock (1). 

Whiting, . . 

Turbot, . . 

Brill, 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. .. 

„ (3),.. 

M (4) 

Ijemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, .. 
Thornback Ray, . . 
Angler, 


24 
3 

"5 

43 

22 

381 

311 

389 

1103 

3 

"3 


25 
50 

7 

iso 
2 

320 

105 

5 

7 


53 

7 

5 

43 

1253 

320 
105 

8 
7 




1187 


671 


1858 




17. Same 


Nov. 15 










7 a.m. 


11 


Cod, 






77 




Locality. 








i 






a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 

Whiting 

Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. .. 

., (3) 

„ (4) 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Gurnard, . . 
Thornback, 
Angler 


30 

"2 
IS 
12 
205 
381 
234 
83-.: 

'k 


3 
2 

1 

'99 
1 

124 

67 

5 

1 


33 

1 
15 

931 
1 

154 

67 

5 

1 




98( 


5 303 


1289 





of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



85 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caugh 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 




6 


a 

o 










No. 












Fms. 


^ 


3 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


^ 


m 






a 




Market. 


board. 




1, Aberdeen 


1903. 
Dec. 11. 








4i to 


10.15 


1.15 


Cod, 


28 




28 


Wind S. ; strong- 


Bay, off 










10 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling 


lis 




118 


breeze; sea rough; 


Black Dog. 
















Coal-fish, . . 




1 


1 


ram. 


















Haddock (1), 

(-2), . • 

Whiting, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice, 
Com. l)ab. 
Starry Ray, 


142 
4.5 

109 

13 
1 
1 
4 


8 
1 


i()9 

21 
1 

1 
4 

1 




334 


10 


344 


•2. Same 




S-3 


9-6 








r, 


Cod, 


77 




77 




Locaiity. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

Whiting, .. 

Plaice (2), . . 

„ (1),.. 

Starry Ray, 


105 

i!i ' ' 
4 

— 23 

1 
•2 
4 

— 6 


2 
13 

'ie 


105 

2 

23 
14 

"6 
16 




212 


31 


243 


3. Same 












6.30 


11.40 


Cod, 


53 




53 




Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fi.sh, . . 
Haddock (1), 
Plaice (3), . . 
-, (4) 

Com. Dab, 
Starry Ray, 

1 


75 

7 
5 

12 

3 


2 
33 


75 
2 
13 

'i2 
3 
33 




156 


35 


191 









86 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 











IRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 


I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




d 


3 
o 

o 




TJ 






No. 









< 


3 

m 


Fms. 


o 

A 

m 


1 


Name. 


No. 

taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 




1903. 
























1 Aberdeen 


Dec. 23. 


8-7 


9-6 


8-9 


10 to 


3 


7.20 


Cod 


77 




77 


Net split. 


Bay, off 










30 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


3 




3 




Stains 
















Haddock (2), 


5 


2 


7 




Castle. 
















Whiting, . . 
Plaice (2), . . 
„ (3), .. .. 

Com. Dab, 
Starry Ray, 

Conger 

Sand-eel 


2 
64 
— 66 

1 
30 


1 

"1 

20 


1 

'66 

1 

30 

1 

20 




182 


24 


206 


2. Same 












8 


11.30 


Cod 


23 




23 


Net split. 


Locality. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(•2), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

„ (4),.. .. 

Com. Dab, 
Starry Ray, 


8 
1 
4 

— 5 

3" 
8 
12 

— 23 

'46 


2 
1 


8 
"5 

'23 
1 

46 




105 


3 


108 


3. Same 


Dec. 24. 










12.40 


4 


Cod, 


26 




26 


Net again split. 


Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

Plaice (2) 

„ (3),.. 

Starry Ray, 


1 

8 
3 
8 
— 11 
24 




1 
8 

11 

24 

60 


There were none 
unmarketable. 


60 




4. Moray 


Dec. 25. 








8 to 11 


1.15 


6.20 


Cod 


4 




4 


WindS.W ; light 


Firth ; 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 


9 


9 


IS 


breeze. 


Burghead 
















Haddock (1), 


3 








Bay. 
















(3), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

,, (2),.. 

„ (3),.. 

Com. Dab, 

Long Rough Dab, 

Giirnard 


120 

123 

76 
2 

2 
73 
64 
—139 


604 
120 

52 
7 
4 


7i!7 

196 

2 

i39 
52 
7 
4 




353 


796 


1149 









of the Fishiri/ Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



87 







Temperat 


ure. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 






Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




a5 


^ 










No. 










^ 


o 


Fms. 




S 




No. 


thrown 


Total 










■E 






o 


=1 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


3 


o 

05 






W 




Market. 


board. 




, 


1903. 
























5. Sloray 


Dec. 25. 










6.45 


11.55 


Cod 


8 




S 


Weather foggy. 


Firth ; 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 




\n 


17 




Burghead 
















Haddock (1), 


3 








Bay. 
















„ (2), ■- 
„ (3), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ W 

„ (3),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Gurnard, . . 


23 
346 
— 372 
120 
2 
19 
7 
134 
86 

227 

1 
25 


2086 
108 

'i4 

39 

7 


2458 

228 

2 

19 

241 

1 
74 

7 




784 


2271 


3055 


G. Off 


Dec. 26. 


7-4 


9 


9-2 


16 to 


9.30 


11.15 


Codling, . . 


13 


4 


17 


Thick fog. Net 


Tarbetness. 










25 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 

„ (-'), . . 
„ (3), . . 

Coal-fish 

Whiting, .. 

Brill 

Plaice (1), .. 

,. (2) 

„ (3), .. 

Leinon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Witch, 


129 
36 
150 

315 

5 
27 
1 
9 
23 
10 

— 52 
6 
11 
1 


23 
io 

is 
'52 


338 

5 
42 

1 

70 
6 

63 
1 


split. 


431 


112 


543 


7. Dornoch 










7 to 11 


4.40 


8.40 


Cod, 


8 




8 


Thick fog. 


Firth. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 

„ (2), ■• 
„ (3), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3), .. 

„ (4), .. . 

Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Flounder 


160 ' 
498 
112 
— 770 

2 

4 
15 
70 
46 
17 
-^148 

1 


4 
'55 

23 

54 
26 


4 

825 
23 
2 

4 

iis 

54 
26 

1 




933 


162 


1095 


8. Oflt 


Dec. 27. 


6-2 


7-5 


8-3 


18 to 


12.45 


5 


Cod, 


2 




2 


Net badly split. 


Ljbster. 










22 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

„ W, . . 

Whitingr, . 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), . . 

Witch, 


2 
38 
6 

— 44 

9 
3 
1 

— 4 
1 




2 

'44 
9 

"4 

1 


No offal 


62 




62 









Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temporatiire. 


Depth 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




dj 


S 
o 


in 


1 ^ 




No. 




Remarks. 






< 


o 
1 


F'ms. 


Shot. 
Haulei 


No. 
Name. taken to 
j Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1903. 






















9. Burghead 


Dec. 28 








5 to 13 


2.30 


7.45 


Cod, .. .. 9 




9 


Weather fine; calm.; 


Bay. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

„ (2), 
„ (3), 

Whiting 

Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2) 

„ (3) 


25 

4 

9 
100 
— 173 

3 
37 
21 
198 
87 
— 306 


7 

540 
22 


32 

713 

22 

3 

37 

306 




















Lemon Dab, . . 3 




3 




















Com. Dab, . . 


10 


'54 


64 




















Gurnard, . . 




8 


8 




















Cat-fish, . . 


"l 




1 




567 


631 


1198 


10. Same 


Dec. 29. 


1-S 


5'0 


7-3 


5 to 12 


4.25 


9.25 


Cod, 


7 




7 




Locality. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 




"e 


6 




















Haddock (1), .. | 3 


117 


120 




















Whiting, . . 




13 


13 




















Turbot, . . 


1 




1 




















Brill, 


9 




9 




















Plaice (1), .. 


7 
























„ (2) 


41 
























„ (3), .. 


15 
— 63 




63 




















Com. Dab, . . 


27 


14 


41 




















Long Roup-h Dab, 




2 


2 




















Gurnard 




7 


7 




110 


156 


269 


11. Same 










il to 


12 


4 


Cod, 


2 








Locality. 










10 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 

Haddock 

Whiting, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. .. 

., (3) 

Com. Dab, . . 


7 
3 
84 
12 
— 99 


'3 

56 
5 

11 


3 

56 
5 

7 

'99 
11 








1 










Cat-fish, . . 


1 




1 




















Gurnard, . . 




"7 


7 




















Thornbaok, 


"2 




2 




111 


82 


193 









of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



89 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE II. 

Giving particulars as to Boxes of Fish brought to Market. 
LARGE HADDOCKS. 



No. of 
Fish. 


Length- 


-Cm. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 


142 
114 
128 


33 -2-67 -5 
33 -4-67 -3 
27 -6-48 -6 


36-7 
41-4 

38-8 


Lbs. 
140 

127' 


Oz. 
4 

8 


Lbs. Oz. 

132" 14 
126 2 




78 

85 

114 


36 8-57-6 
36-1-60-5 

37 -54 2 


45-4 
45' 3 


143 
149 
134 


9 
4 


139 14 
148 10 


From Faroe. 


111 
110 

28 


36 •1-54-5 

37 -60-1 
50 -71-4 


61-6 


127 
129 
127 


12 

12 

3 


126" 10 


From Iceland. 


117 
127 

87 


36-7-59-5 
34-2-64-0 
38 -62 




135 
136 
132 


7 






94 

87 
87 


36-5-56 
39-0-64 

38-2-58-8 




136 
137 
130 


4 






115 
135 
111 


33 -53 

34 -51 
36 -52-3 


46'-7 


1.30 
137 
127 


13 

8 
2 


134' 8 




132 
148 
130 


31-7-54 
33 -37 
36-2-49-5 




106 
106 
112 


5 
14 






134 
122 
120 


33-5-50-7 
33 -66-3 
34-2-51 


42-0 
42-0 


110 
136 
134 


12 

8 
3 


135"" 12 
133 3 




103 
95 
90 


36-5-52-3 
35-5-54-3 
34-6-57 




131 
1-27 
130 


2 
13 






96 
101 
102 


35-5-52 

29-5-51-6 

36-9-54-5 




121 
135 
140 


8 
5 
4 






95 

102 

95 


35 -54-7 

35 -56-7 

36 -59-7 




137 
144 
131 


3 
14 
14 






94 
95 
97 


37-1-57-4 
34-8-60-5 
35-8-55-6 




130 
127 
131 


8 
3 

7 






35 
35 
35 


50-5-70-8 
52-7-73-5 
51-4-72-8 


59-2 
60-3 
60-1 


122 

128 
133 


10 

3 

14 




Extra L. 


37 
38 
35 
83 


51-6-68-8 
50-7-66-9 
50-3-70 
34-7-63 1 


58-7 
58-5 
59-7 
44-9 


132 
127 
122 
131 


15 

15 

6 




>j 



90 



'Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE II. 
MEDIUM HADDOCKS. 



No. of 
Fish. 


Length- 


-Cm. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 












Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 










Lbs. Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




186 
180 
180 


30-3-37 
31 -38 

28-8-41 -3 


33-2 
33-8 
34-5 


124 3 
12l" 4 


118 ' Hi 

119 - 


Also 1 codling 36-9. 


175 

209 
209 


28-6-39-5 
30-9-38 1 
31-3-37-6 


34-5 
34-1 
34-0 


119 8 
128 8 
126 12 


118 8 
126 10 
123 4 




159 
233 
221 


31-6-40-6 
29-8-35-1 
29-6-371 


33-1 


118 4 
120 12 
118 8 


117 13 




223 


30 -38-2 


34-3 


124 6 


122 14 


Also 1 wliiting 28-0 


185 
179 


32-6-38-5 
30-3-40-3 




130 - 
126 8 




cm. , 4 oz. 


180 
169 
190 


28-9-44-9 

30-1-40- 

26-7-40-6 




129 4 
121 10 
121 - 


... 




184 
176 
173 


29-5-38-2 
32- -39-4 
29-8-39-7 




126 8 
124 8 
124 5 






168 

207 
195 


30-4-41- 
31-0-38-5 
28 -39-4 




120 7 
124 12 
123 2 






158 
151 
226 


27-8-53-2 
32-2-48-5 
27 -3-40 -6 


36-4 
32-6 


123 12 
123 8 
128 11 


121 9 




167 
192 
230 


26-8-38- 

28-4-40-6 

30-2-39-6 




108 4 
126 9 
139 - 






181 
212 
209 


31-4-41-3 
29-5-37-5 
26-9-40-1 




129 - 
121 12 
124 1 






222 

189 

177 


29-6-43-9 
25-3-39- 

28-7-40-2 




126 9 
123 6 
122 3 






182 
148 


27-6-38-9 
32-4-48-4 




125 14 
124 19 







of the Fisheri/ Board for Scotland. 

TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TAP.LK II. 

SMALL HADDOCKS. 



91 





Lengtli— 


Cm. 




Wei 


ght. 




No. of 
Fish. 












Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 








Lb8. 


Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




287 

246 
259 


22 -4-30 -2 

26 •3-25- 
22-8-35 -1 


30-3 


103 

110 
111 


13 
4 


105 4 


Also 5 whitings and 
6 codlings. 


264 

280 
262 


24 -6-36 -7 

24 -8-30 -7 
27 -9-33 -4 


31-0 


120 

119 
112 


6 
15 


120 2 


Also 1 whiting 30-1 
and 5 oz. 


247 
240 
247 


27 -5-36 -4 
26 -6-36 -6 
26-1-36 


32-5 
31-5 
31-6 


114 
116 
122 


15 
6 

8 


114 - 
122" 4 




255 
293 
268 


26-8-35-6 
24-4-36-4 
25-6-36-2 


31-9 
31-1 


128 
134 
121 


12 
2 


126 12 




273 
269 
257 


23-2-33-6 
23 1-33 -5 
21-9-33-8 


30-2 
31-1 
30-4 


114 
114 
106 


8 

8 

12 






277 
271 
268 


24-2-34-8 
23-1-34-3 
24-7-33-5 


30-6 

30- 

30-3 


117 
103 

108 


10 

12 

5 






287 
249 

247 

273 

278 
261 


22-8-34-3 
24-3-34-3 
21-6-34-7 

21-9-33-7 
'23 1-34 -7 
21-7-34-6 


29-9 


113 
103 
101 

107 
110 
113 


13 
12 
10 

12 
4 
2 


109" 8 


Also 2 whitings 41-1 
and 46-3 cm. 


258 
319 
216 


25-0-35-6 
24-5-36-6 
27 0-34-6 


30-2 
•29-4 


108 
123 
104 


8 



12 


107 12 
122 15 




231 
203 
274 


28-2-34-1 
27-8-34-8 
26 -8-33 -2 


31 .5 


108 

102 
122 


2 

15 

2 






270 
223 


24-3-34-8 
26-9-36-0 


30-7 
31-4 


127 
109 


4 
12 


1-27 


Also 1 whiting 43-5 


208 


27-4-37-0 


32-5 


115 


- 


113 2 


cm. 


221 
211 
250 


27-6-34-6 
28-1-35-3 
25- -35-1 




110 
102 
114 


4 

13 

2 






248 
241 
226 


23-4^33-9 
24-8-35-5 
26-3-34-5 




105 
106 
105 


7 
14 






228 
255 


26-4^34-9 
24-8-35-2 




104 
107 


10 







92 



Fart III.' — Twenty -second Anniml Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 11. 
CODLING. 





Length- 


-Cm. 


Weight. 




No. of 
J'ish. 










Remarks. 












Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 










Lbs. Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




39 


38 -2-66 -8 


56-6 




114 15A 


Also 1 cat-fish, 2 lbs. 
5^ oz. 


85 


36 -1-60 -5 


45-3 


149 9 


148 10 




51 


30-4-73 


49-6 


127 6 


126 9 




47 


30-3-69-6 


48-1 


1-24 13 


118 14 


Also lling, 73 -6 cm., 
5 lbs. 2 oz. 


77 


29-5-71 -9 




133 - 




Also 1 ling, 53 cm., 
and 1 whiting. 


30 


34 -77-5 




125 - 






35 


41 •5-74-9 




156 4 






42 


28 -68-8 




125 6 






39 


41-2-73 




128 9 






36 


38 -74 




132 13 




Also 1 ling, 58 cm. 


70 


28-5-66-5 




137 5 






44 


30-3-76 


51-2 


127 10 


125" 9 


Also 1 ling, 1 lb. 
12 oz. 


34 


36 -1-75 1 




122 12 






74 


29 -70-4 




131 - 






40 


28-5-72 




124 - 






47 


34-9-71-8 




131 14 






26 


50-4-78-3 




125 8 






68 


28-2-78-5 




135 3 






51 


37-2-75- 


50-4 


136 12 


135 8 




68 


31-2-65-1 


43-5 


132 12 


131 10 




53 


34-4-71-9 


50-6 


139 - 


138 2 




58 


33-2-80-8 


45-7 


135 - 


134 8 




35 


36-5-71-1 


54-0 


125 4 


121 1 


Also 1 ling, 60-6 = 
2 lbs. 8 oz. 


40 


34-8-71-6 


51-5 




128 9 




26 


42-4-70-4 


59 




116 - 


Ungutted. 


" 


28-3-62-6 


39-6 




93 7 


" 



of tJie Fishery Board for Scotland. 



93 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE II. 
WHITING. 



No. of 
Fish. 


Length- 


-Cm. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 








Lbs. 


Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




155 
180 


30 -3-53 -5 
28 -1-45 -5 


38- 
35-9 


131 


3 


125 2 
130 11 


Also 1 haddock, 1 lb. 

10 oz. 
Also 1 haddock, 34-0 


157 


30 -52-4 




128 


12 




=6 oz. 


192 


28 -6-46 -3 




129 


4 






216 


24-2- 48-1 


34-3 


91 


5 


91 5 




260 

218 

183 


24-7-44-7 
22 -2-46 -7 

27-3-43 


33-2 


109 
94 

117 


11 
6 

4 


113 10 


Also 1 haddock, 32-0 
and 1 codling, 43 '2. 

Also 2 haddocks, 
31-8, 28-8, and 1 
codling, 38-3. 

Line, ungutted. 


123 


32 -2-44 -2 


36-6 


106 


- 


97 12 


Do. do. 


183 


27 -9-34 -7 


31-0 


87 


7 


86 5 


Do. do. 


138 


29-2^45 


34-9 


103 


- 


101 9 


Do. do. 


85 


31 -9-46 -2 


37 '2 


90 


9 


86 10 


Do. do. 


225 


27 -3-40 -2 


321 


118 


5 


116 12 


Also 4 haddocks 25 5 
— 27-2=llb, 4oz. 



9-1 



Tart III. — Tweiiiy-sccond Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVKSTIGATIONS— TABLE IL 
SMALL WHITING. 





Length- 


-Cm. 




Wei 


ght. 




No. of 
Fish. 












Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 








Lbs. 


Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




279 

351 
415 


24 -3-33 -5 

20 -6-32 -6 
20 -8-33 -9 


29-5 
26-4 


106 

97 
113 


5 

13 
4 


103 13 
96 5 


Round, ungutted. 

Also 3 haddocks 

= 10 oz. 
Line, gutted. 
Also riiaddock21-0 


274 
257 


24-7-33-7 
23 -1-36 -5 


28-5 
27-3 


92 
91 


14 


90 2 
89 14 


cm. 
Line, gutted. 
Line, ungutted. 



LARGE PLAICE. 



No. of 
Fish. 



Length — Cm. 



Range. 



Average. 



Weight. 



In Bulk. 



Separately. 



Remarks. 



60 
24 
24 

27 
26 
27 

35 
24 
25 

42 
11 

17 

15 
21 
23 

24 
23 
23 



40 -56-8 
55 -7-73 -5 
5 1-0-69 -3 

55 •1-64-0 
50-8-66-0 
53-'t-68-2 

47 -59-7 

55-3-72 

52-8-69-7 

33-7-67-9 
57-9-87-6 
52-6-80-8 

55-9-78-8 
56- -73-3 
55-1-68-3 

54-7-68-4 
55-7-68-7 
54-3-70-1 



60-4 



74-8 
64-0 

66-2 
63-1 
60-4 

60-1 
60-7 
61-4 



Lbs. 


Oz. 


Lbs. 


136 


15 




140 


11 




141 


2 




144 


4 




150 


4 




140 


12 




129 


4 




139 


8 




149 


1 




135 


9 




138 


6 




132 


13 




132 


12 




147 


10 




139 


14 




144 


_ 




135 


11 




146 


12 





of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



95 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE II. 
MEDIUM PLAICE. 





Length- 


-Cm. 


Wei 


ght. 




No. of 
Fish. 










Remarks. 












Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 










Lbs. Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




144 


30 -53-0 


35-8 


131 61 






134 


29-2-47 -5 


34-2 


135 13 






66 


30 -6-50 -6 


41-3 


129 - 


128" 1 




109 


30 -7-46 -2 


36-6 


126 8 






89 


30 -1-55 -4 


38-6 


131 5 






73 


33 -2-55 -5 


42-2 


125 5 


125' 10 




90 


33-7-54 




133 - 






88 


33-6-51-5 




132 - 






84 


33-6-64-5 


39-0 


137 15 


137 12 




79 


30-5-52 


40-0 


127 5 


126 12 




61 


32-3-57-7 


43-3 




124 13 




47 


38-2-59-2 


46-0 


119" 4 


117 12 




115 


30 -57 


35-6 


128 8 


128 1 


Small, medium. 


60 


33-4-54-5 




148 - 






56 


31-6-56-7 




145 - 






56 


32-7-54-8 




135 - 






54 


29-2-56-5 




121 - 






59 


33-3-54-5 




147 8 






59 


33-6-60-9 




137 12 






63 


29-9-53-4 




139 12 






54 


28-6-53-4 




135 3 






58 


32 -56-8 




143 6 






66 


32-4-51 




137 14 






70 


33-1-54-6 




144 12 






75 


35 -51 




140 7 






63 


32-2-51-4 




142 2 






66 


33 -5-57 1 


42-6 


130 13 


129" 8 




74 


33-1-54 


441 


128 15 


128 14 




122 


30-4-44-9 


34-8 


129 8 


129 6 




96 


30-5-56-8 


36-8 


140 3 






89 


31-5-48-1 




138 13 







96 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annua Report 



IRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE IL 
SMALL PLAICE. 



No. of 
Fish. 


Length — Cm. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 


205 
215 
210 

217 
150 
107 

145 


22-3-36-2 
24 1-35 
23-4-35-6 

22-8-36 

26-3-39-6 

31-4-40-2 

24-7-38-4 


29-4 
29-4 

32-5 


Lbs. Oz. 

131 134 

128 - 

129 8 
129 10 
118 10 

141 3 


Lbs. Oz. 
126 7 





of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



97 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE II. 
LARGE WITCHES. 





Length— 


Cm. 




Wei 


ght. 








No. of 
Fish. 














Remarks. 


















Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 












Lbs. 


Oz. 


Lbs. 


Oz. 






133 


32 -7-47 -8 


39-7 






125 


14 


Also 3 megrims = 
lbs. lOJ oz. 


=3 


143 


33 -6-49 -7 


39-4 






121 


8 


Also 1 megrim = 
lb. 7 oz. 


= 1 


113 


32-5-49 -3 


43-2 






134 


4 






119 


32 -50 


42-7 






137 


12 






129 


31-8-53 


39 


125 


4 


123 


7 


Also 1 megrim =8 


oz. 


131 


33-5-49-6 




121 


13 










115 


31-0-50-3 


38-3 


136 


13 


136" 


4 






143 


29-8-48-1 




142 


7 










137 


30-1-48 




132 


_ 










152 


30-8-47-5 




128 


8 










161 


33 -45-7 




133 


3 










156 


31-3-47-5 


38-7 


186 


10 


135 


12 






160 


32-3-50-1 




127 


13 










125 


32-4-49 


41-6 


123 


8 


122" 


15 






99 


32-8-53-6 


40-7 


122 


6 


121 


1 


Gutted. 





98 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE 11. 
SMALL WITCHES. 





Length — Cm. 


Weight. 




No. of 
Fish. 






Remarks. 












Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 










Lbs. Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




292 


22 -6 -35 -2 


29-8 


103 8 




Also 12 megrims and 
2 lemon dabs — 
6 lbs. 7 oz. 


323 


19 -35-2 




107 4 






441 


19 -8-34 -6 






116 10 








423 


18-1-33 -7 






106 13 








315 


24 -0-40 -6 






130 4 








240 


28-2-40 






114 








298 


21-6-36-9 






106 8 








304 


19-7-36-2 






111 12 








302 


24-2-37 -9 






104 6 








378 


21-1-34-6 






93 5 








407 


19-1-37-3 






122 14 









SMALL LEMON DABS. 



No. of 
Fisli. 


Length — Cm. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 


193 
256 


17-3-32-8 
20-6-34-7 


26-8 


Lbs. Oz. 

104 5 
111 8 


Lbs. Oz. 





oj the Fisher 7/ Board for Scotland. 



99 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE J I. 
LARGE LEMON DABS. 



No. of 
Fish. 


Length- 


-Cm. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. 


Separately. 








Lbs. Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 




115 

99 

100 


28 -5-44 -3 
29 -9-45 -7 

28 ■7-46-0 


35-3 
37-6 


142 - 

145 4 
134 - 


138 12 
145 8 




93 
104 
115 


29-7-46-7 

28-1-48-2 
28-8-47-6 


38 
35-8 


147 15 
147 12 
151 6 


145 3 
150 




89 
91 
97 


26-4-47-7 
26-9-45-2 
27 0-45 


37-6 


135 6 
134 11 
142 7 


141 5 




88 
93 

85 


28-1-48-1 
31 -44-7 
30-5-46-6 


37-5 


127 15 

140 1 

141 2 


126 11 




88 

84 

110 


26-4-46-3 
27-6-46-7 
29 -46-4 


39 "O 
36-9 


140 14 

141 9 

142 4 


140" 12 
141 13 




83 

114 

84 


28-8-47-4 
29 -46-0 
32-1-45-9 


38-2 
36-0 


129 6 
149 5 
146 13 


129 
146 10 





COMMON DABS. 



No. of 
Fish. 


Length- 


-Cm. 


Weight. 


Remarks. 


Range. 


Average. 


In Bulk. Separately. 


115 

109 


21-9-40-6 
21-7-38-6 


27-7 


Lbs. Oz. 


Lbs. Oz. 
59 153 


Also 1 megrim and 
4 lemon dabs= 
1 lb. 6| oz. 



100 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



II.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORIES OF THE 
EDIBLE CRAB {CANCER PAGURUS) AND OF OTHER 
DECAPOD CRUSTACEA : -IMPREGNATION : SPAWN- 
ING : CASTING : DISTRIBUTION : RATE OF GROWTH. 
By H. Chas. Williamson, M.A., D.Sc, Marine Laboratory, 
Aberdeen. (Plates I. -V.) 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

The Impregnation of Ca7!("er^a{/!fm.s, . . . 101 
The Muscular System of the Abdomen of the Male 

Crab, ...... 103 

The Action of the Penis, .... 104 

The Condition of the Spermatheca, . . , 105 

The Impregnation of Carcinus mcenas, . . . 107 

The Spawning of Cancer pagurus, .... 108 

The Mode of Attachment of the Eggs to the 

Swimmeret, ..... 108 

The Swimmeret, . . . . . 110 

The Endopodite, . . . . . 110 

The Exopodite, . . . . , 111 

The Ripe Egg, . . . . . 112 

The Attachment of the Eggs, , . . 115 

The Sloughing of the Empty Egg-capsules, . . 116 

The Attachment of the Eggs in other Decapod Crustacea, *- 116 

The Spawning of Carcinus, manas, .... 120 

The Casting, Distribution, and Rate of Growth of Cancer 

jjagurus, ...... 121 

The Migrations of Cancer pagurus, . . . . 135 

The Changes in the Carapace of Cancer pagurus, . . 136 

Literature, . . . . ' . . . 137 

Explanation of the Plates, . . . . . 138 



In the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Fishery Board (1900) I 
published a paper dealing generally with the life-history of the crab. 
Since then I have, as occasion offered, continued my observations on this 
form, and on other Decapod Crustacea. Attention has been directed 
specially to the phenomena of Impregnation and Spawning. While the 
fact of the impregnation was well evidenced by the presence of the 
internal spermatheca liberally stocked with sperms, the exact mode in 
which the sperms were transferred to the female was not very apparent. 
With a view to elucidating the process a detailed examination has been 
made of the coi)ulatory organs of the male, and the spermatheca of the 
female. While every stage in the process of impregnation has not yet 
been determined, still a considerable advance towards the full desci'iption 
of it has been attained. 

In connection with the spawning of the higher Crustacea the attach- 
ment of the eggs to the endopodite branches of the pleopods has been 
variously described. The secret of the attachment has been ascribed to 
various agencies, the principal of which has been the assistance of a 
strong cement which glued the eggs to the hairs. This I have been able 
to show is not the case. The stalk of the egg is really formed by the 

* " Contributions to the Life-History of the Edible Crab {Cancer pagurus)." Eighteenth 
Annual Report of the Fishery Board, Part III. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland 101 

outer envelope of the egg. The chorion of the egg is pierced by a hair 
of the endopodite. T)ie hair skewers the eggs on one after the other 
until it is filled. 

Observations on the distribution of the edible crab, and additions to 
the list of the labelled crabs which have been recaptured, are also 
included in this paper. 

Impregnation. 

The act of impregnation is not very easily studied. It takes place 
immediately after the female crab has cast. The conjunction of the male 
with the female is so close, and at the same time so readily broken, that it 
is not possible to follow the act completely by direct observation. The 
study of the anatomy of the parts, however, enables one to understand the 
operation in a satisfactory degree. While it is probably the case that in 
the Brachyura impregnation takes place in a similar way in each species, 
still the great variety in the form of the intromittent organ,* and also of 
the vagina, of different species naturally infers a certain amount of 
dissimilarity in the details of the operation. 

An attempt was made to observe the fertilisation in Cancer pagurus, but 
actual coition was not seen. The female, which had just cast, was put in 
beside a hard male crab. The female was so soft that it yielded to the 
pressure of the fingers in every part. It lay a plump, almost inert mass 
when it was withdrawn from the water. The male was in a box a little 
more than 1 ft. cube. The female was introduced at the corner farthest 
away from it. The female immediately made its way towards the male, 
and when it came within reach of its chelse it remained perfectly still : 
the male then gathered the female up with its legs and tucked her under- 
neath him. Sometimes the female was right side up, at another she was 
turned upside down beneath the male. In the case of Carcinus mcenas, 
the male, on seizing hold of the female, immediately introduces its penes 
into the vulvse. This did not happen in the case of Cancer jmgurus. 
This species appeared less at home in the boxes : the quantity of light 
was probably too great. The male and the female were accustomed to lie 
perfectly still. The former does not injure the female except by accident, 
as for example when it is interfered with. The crab is extremely quick in 
noticing a shadow cast on the water, and throws its chela3 wildly about 
to find the foe whose presence has been thus heralded. On one occasion, 
when the two crabs had been separated in order to be examined, the male on 
being released blindly striking out seized the chela of the female and 
destroyed the limb. Impregnation was effected in the case of the crabs 
(C. pagurus) in the Laboratory, but probably at night, as it was not 
observed. 

The male sexual organ consists of three parts. First, the genital 
papilla (fig. 47), which contains the external opening of the vas deferens, 
v.d.; second and third, the appendages of the first and second abdominal 
segments. Each of these organs is paired, so that there is a double male 
organ, consisting of three parts. The female genital organs are also 
paired. 

The genital papilla (g-p-, figs. 39, 41, 47) is situated on the coxopodite 
of the fifth pereiopod.t The vas deferens issues through a hole (o., fig. 55a) 
in the coxopodite, and is protected externally by the wide sac-like genital 
papilla, the wall of which is strong though soft. The papilla is capable 
of distension, and in the living crab is usually turgid. This condition 
appears to be due to the introduction of fluid into the space surrounding 

* Brocchi. 

t Cf. Grobben and Brocchi. 



102 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

the vas deferens. The hole in the ccxopodite round which the base of the 
papilla is attached is situated close to the proximal edge of the bone, and 
when the limb is drawn forward the base of the papilUa is pressed up 
against the edge of the sternum of the thorax {cp., figs. 39 and 41). The 
effect of this is to render the papilla more tense and erect. The outer 
skin is invaginated into the end of the vas deferens. Within the papilla there 
is on the vas deferens a valve (v., fig. 47) surrounded by a white mass, 
probably muscular. The genital papilla has been termed the penis 
(Duvernoy*). It is not the penis in Cancer pagurus ; it is a physical 
impossibility for the genital papillae to reach the vulvae of the female. 
The sperms have to be transferred from the papilla by means of the 
abdominal appendages. The remaining genital organs are the abdominal 
appendages. They are attached to the first and second segments and are 
very dissimilar in form. They are in fact complementary. The first 
appendage is of tapering shape, and is tubular. The tube is formed 
by the involution of its sides. The second appendage is a long rod, 
bent, and jointed about the middle of its length. DifTerent authors have 
ascribed different functions to these appendages. Thus they have been 
regarded as " exciting organs," which were introduced into the vaginae of 
the female, and on being withdrawn their places were taken by the genital 
papillae. Duvernoy described the first abdominal appendage as a duct 
for transferring the sperms from the " penis " (genital papilla) to the 
spermatheca ; the second abdominal appendage he supposed to be a sort of 
strut, which rested on the thorax of the female and thus formed a sort of 
prop between the male and female when in coiiu. Neither of these 
descriptions meets the fact. The first and second abdominal appendages 
together form one organ, the penis. The second or rod-like appendage is 
during copulation inclosed within the first penis and moves up and down 
in it like the plunger of a pump. 

It is first necessary to describe the abdominal appendages in detail. 
The first appendage, which will be hereafter referred as the first penis 
(while the second abdominal appendage will be denominated the second 
penis), is the more complicated. 

The First Penis. 

The first segment of the abdomen bears a large chevron-shaped 
expansion on its ventral surface (fig. 65). This chevron is really 
double; a small chevron (i.ch.), which is united with the larger 
{cell., fig. 46) posteriorly, is hid beneath the latter anteriorly. The double 
chevron is continued backwards on either side as a broad wing-like plate, 
at the end of which is attached the first penis (1 j).). The first penis 
consists of two parts, a short basal joint and a long tubular distal part 
(fig. 37). The basal joint consists of a peculiarly shaped bone (&., figs. 
ib. and 59) to which is attached some loose membranous tissue. The 
membranous tissue is shoAvn in the sketches by dotted areas. The 
involution of the two sides of the distal portion forms a single tube open- 
ing by the separation of the two sides at the top. The opening is 
towards the median line. Fig. 25 shows a transverse section of the first 
penis near the tip, with the second penis in situ. The outer skin of the 
penis is hard bony chitin, but lining the tube the inner surface is soft 
flexible membrane. The latter is shown in the sketches by a thick 
black line. Fig. 16 shows an intermediate section, and fig. 4 exhibits a 
transverse section near the base. It shows the sides of the penis drawn 

* Puvernoy, "Fragments sur les organes de g^n^ration de divers animaux." 
Memoires de I'Academie des Sciences de I'Institut de France, t. xxiii., p. 105, PI. I. -IX., 
Paris, 1853. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 103 

apart, throwing the second penis outside, but at the same time a longitudinal 
septum [in., figs. 37, 59, 60) has appeared which continues the tube. It is 
merely a continuation of the side of the penis by a soft flexible membrane 
instead of by the hard chitin wall. The second penis is situated behind 
the first, and when it is introduced into the first penis it crosses over this 
membrane, which yields readily to pressure. In length the membrane is 
short ; it is united below to the basal bone and forms the tissue binding 
that bone on one side to the tubular part of the first penis. In fig. 10 is 
shown a transverse section through the base. The basal bone (&., fig. 59), 
has a large segment cut out of it, leaving its proximal part simply a 
narrow rim to which the membranous septum is attached. The membrane 
stops just a little beyond the point where the inturned edges of the penis 
meet and form the tube. 

The tube of the penis opens in the base on the anterior side. The 
posterior side of the beginning of the tube is formed by the membrane. 
The genital papilla is inserted in the beginning of the tube. When 
the second penis is in the first, its broadened base lies on the posterior 
surface of the basal joint. Any pressure of the second penis due 
to its movement is transmitted through the membrane to the genital 
papilla (fig. 60). Moreover, as will be shown later, the second penis moves 
up and down in the first in a manner similarto that of the plungerof a pump; 
so that sperms or spermatophores ejected from the vas deferens into the penis 
tube Avill be pumped up and out of it. The groups of hairs that are found 
on the wing of the chevron and round the basal joint act as valves or 
packing round and in the beginning of the tube. 

The Second Penis. 

The second penis is rod-like. It consists of three main parts, first an 
arm from the end of which the rod rises at right angles {ar., figs. 65, 61, 
etc.). This arm, which is fused to the ventral edge of the second joint, is 
formed in its lower half of chitin and in its upper part of soft membrane, 
in figs. 65 and 68. The arm is the immovable part of the second penis. 
From its posterior extremity rises the movable penis. It consists of two 
parts, viz., a base and the rod. The base consists of two bones, a. and &., 
figs. 53, 54, and 56, loosely connected together and to the proximal end of 
the rod with soft membrane. The largest bone is of a tooth-shape. It 
consists of a rather broad tooth rising from an expanded base. The other 
is a narrow somewhat bow-shaped bone. The loose integument between it 
and the other basal bone permits of the former folding over towards the 
latter to a considerable degree. 

The proximal end of the rod is expanded and cut obliquely off {ih.). 
Distally the rod tapers, at first rapidly then gradually, up to about two- 
thirds of its length, where there is a joint permitting a slight amount of 
movement. The loose part of the rod is curved, with the convexity forward. 
At the joint there is on the anterior side a little tuft of long spine-like 
teeth (fig. 104). Above the joint the rod tapers more, and it is curved 
in the opposite sensp to the proximal portion. The tip bears a depressed 
oval cap set obliquely on the end ; it is fringed with teeth (fig. 105). The 
top of the rod is cast slightly in towards the median line. 

The Muscular System. 

The Abdomen. — The posterior edge of the carapace has attached to its 
under surface on each side a membranous plate directed forward into which 
a mu3cle is inserted. This plate is attached by a strong membrane to the 
edge of the outer chevron, and the muscle is inserted into the posterior 



104 Part III. — T^oenty'Second Annual R&port 

edge of the epimeron. The truncated membranous tip of the first abdo- 
minal segment is attached round its sides to the inside of the carapace. 
The inner chevron is attached by a long jointed rod (r., figs. 52 and 65) to a 
delicate muscle inserted on both sides of the bottom of the thoracic cavity. 
A small muscle arises on the under surface of the outer chevron and joins 
this bony rod. The outer chevron is fastened to the posterior edge of the 
thoracic cavity by means of a membrane attached to its anterior edge. 

The muscular system of the abdomen of the Brachyura has been briefly 
described by Duvernoy. Fig. 52 shows a median longitudinal section of 
the abdomen of the male Cancer. Half of the abdominal muscles only 
are of course shown. The muscles consist of flexors and extensors. 
There are two very long flexors, arising on the thorax, and being 
inserted one into the telson, the other into the skin covering the ventral 
surface of the united third, fourth, and fifth joints. The abdomen is flexed 
or extended as a single structure. The telson has movement independent of 
the remainder of the abdomen ; thus it may, Avhen the abdomen is flexed 
on to the thorax, be bent backwards from the thorax to permit the escape 
of the fpeces, while the abdomen itself remains fast. Between the second 
and third joints and between the sixth joint and telson there are pairs of 
muscles (a flexor and extensor on each pair). At each of these joints 
there is a larger movement than at the other abdominal joints. Between 
1 and 2, and between 2 and 3 the action of the joint is extension and flexion : 
the latter joint is freer than the former and afi'ords more extension than 
any of the joints : between 5 and 6 there is flexion alone practically : and 
between the sixth and the telson there is flexion mainly, but also extension. 

First Penis. — In the first penis there is a muscle which, arising on the 
surface of the basal bone {h.) and also from the side of the tubular part, is 
inserted farther up the same, vni., fig. 59, and 1, fig. 48. The muscle will 
have the effect of tending to cause the bending of the two parts of the 
penis towards one another. There are in addition two muscles, 2 and 3, 
fig. 48, which arise from the outer half of the chevron and are inserted 
into the basal bone. The upper muscle draws the first penis forward : 
the lower tends to rotate the penis. 

The two sides of the double chevron are connected by membrane. 
The chevrons, although fixed to the first abdominal segment, are not 
absolutely ritfid. They are elastic. 

Sbcond Penis. — Just as in the first penis, there is also in the second 
penis a muscle connecting the terminal part with the basal joint. In 
this case the muscle, mu., arises on the tooth-like basal bone, figs. 61 and 
66, and is inserted a little way up the rod. Another muscle {mu.', ib.) is 
inserted into the same basal bone : it arises from the side of the fixed 
arm of the second penis. A third muscle arises from the downward-bent 
end of the arm and is inserted into a bony button-like prominence on the 
ventral skin of the third joint (m.'", fig. 46). A long muscle arising from 
the front of the chevron is inserted into the third joint (m.', ih.) ; and a 
broad muscle, m.", that rises from the base of the fixed arm is inserted on 
the anterior border of the inner cnevion. 

The Action of the Penis. 

If the genital papilla of a hard male crab is pressed spermatophores 
may be extruded. When the abdomen of a male crab is examined the 
genital papilla is sometimes found inserted into the tube of the first penis, 
but oftener it is lying on the posterior surface of the base of that organ. 
But if the first penis is drawn backwards into the position it occupies 
when in the vagina of the female the papilla usually slips into the tube, 
and if the fifth pereiopod is brought forward in such a way that the 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 105 

genital papilla is pressed up against the edge of the sternum the intro- 
duction is aided. The coxopodite of the fifth pereiopod abuts into the 
narrow neck of the abdomen at the first and second segments, and the 
genital papilla lies just beneath the first penis. 

Occasionally a male has been found in which the secoud penis was 
inside the first, but usually they are separate. When the united penes are 
inserted into the vaginae, the abdomen is fixed at both ends. The telson 
lies on the thorax of tlie female, and the beginning of the abdomen is 
fixed at its proximal end by its connection to the thorax. The first penis 
is then held firmly, but is capable of retraction and re-insertion. The second 
penis is, however, free to work up and down in the first penis quite 
independently of it. See figs. 44 and 45. In fig. 44, which is intended 
to represent the position occupied by the abdomen of the male during 
coition, A and B are the fixed points, B being the thorax of the female, 
A the carapace of the male crab. The abdomen of the female is outside 
and closely applied to the abdomen of the male. The drawing shows the 
condition in which the second penis is completely entered into the first, 
and its tip appears projecting outside the tip of the first. In this position 
it is to be noted that joints 2 and 3 are extended, i.e. the joint between 
them is depressed. In the drawings they are shown upside down. 
Now by the flexing of joints 2 and 3 the second penis is withdrawn 
partly from the first, while the first remains stationary (fig. 45). By 
each movement the second penis presses on the genital papilla, and 
therefore probably causes the issue of spermatophores into the tube. 
The efficacy of the pumping arrangement was demonstrated experi- 
mentally. A small quantity of a thin carmine paste was introduced 
into the bottom of the tube, and by alternately pushing in and 
withdrawing the second penis the carmine was pumped out at the top. 
By the flexion and extension of the portion of the abdomen, then, the 
sperms (spermatophores) would be gradually transferred to the spermatheca, 
into which the first penis penetrates. 

The Condition of the Spermatheca. 

If the soft female crab after it has been impregnated is examined, it 
will be found that the mouth of the spermatheca and the vagina is filled 
up by a large plug of white material {pi., fig. 49). This plug may be usually 
split into two halves, as was shown in a previous paper.* The sperma- 
theca is globular in shape and is filled with an amber-coloured fluid, and 
a more or less extensive white patch of sperms, situated in the proxi- 
mal and external part of the organ. The top of the plug which extends 
just within the spermatheca is soft and pulpy, being in contact with the 
fluid, whereas in the vagina the plug is hard and fibrous in appearance. 
It has been noticed that the top of the plug has been grooved or scored 
as if a thin body had been repeatedly impressed in it. 

In a hard female crab which has been impregnated the spermatheca is 
of much smaller size than in the soft crab (fig. 67). It is then 
flattened, shrunk, disc-shaped, and contains a quantity of sperms {sp.) and 
some amber-coloured bard material {si), which is the solidified remains of 
the fluid which filled the spermatheca at the time of fertilisation. The 
inner wall of the spermatheca {s-p.w.) and the vagina {v.v.) are con- 
tinous, but that of the spermatheca is mucb the thinner (fig. 38). 

In my previous paper on Cancer pagiirus I stated that the inner lining 
of the spermatheca and the contents of the latter were thrown off with 
the cast integument during the moult, an opinion held also by Cano. 

* " Contributions to the Life History of the Edible Crab (Cancer pag^ir us)." Eighteenth 
Ann. Rejiort of Fishery Board fm- Scotland, Pt. III., 1900. 



106 Paii III. — Ttventy-second Annual Beport 

This I find is not the case, with adult crabs at least. Each crab 
which I have examined after it had cast, and before it had been in 
contact with the male, was found to have a spermatheca resembling 
in general that of a hard crab, i.e., it contained a quantity of sperms 
and some amber-coloured solid. If a soft crab which has been with 
the male, and is plugged, be dissected, no amber solid Avill be found 
in the spermatheca, and there is usually a large quantity of sperms 
with a large quantity of amber fluid. When does the crab get rid of 
the old sperms and amber solid 1 The inner lining of the spermatheca, 
although it does not come away during moulting, is nevertheless 
very loosely attached, and I have drawn out the inner lining and the 
contents of the spermatheca, along with the lining of the vagina, through 
the vulva, in a dead hard ci'ab. On casting only a very little of the inner 
lining of the spermatheca is shed ; that is, the part round the mouth. 

Just inside the spermatheca the lining thins out quickly. The mouth 
of the si3ermatheca is surrounded by a sphincter muscle, mu., fig. 38. 

The break between the lining of the vagina and that of the sperma- 
theca takes place near the point where the thick layer of the vagina 
thins down to that of the spermatheca (fig. 38). In the newly cast crab, 
moreover, there was no fluid in the spermatheca. The spermatheca of 
the crab has a glandular secreting surface. It is probably the case that 
the secretion of the fluid causes the loosening of the inner layer, and on 
the introduction of the penis the amber solid and the old ?perras may be 
expelled with the outflow of fluid. The secretion of fluid in the sperma- 
theca is possibly stimulated by the presence of the male. The vulvae are 
always tightly closed except when they are kept open by the plugs. On 
the introduction of the penis the fluid will flow out round it in the vagina 
aud will prevent the entrance of sea-water into the spermatheca. Vide 
diagram, fig. 55. This fluid coagulates with sea-water, forming a whitish 
precipitate. The plug in the vagina is of a hard fibrous structure and 
of white colour. During the time the male and female are in conjunction, 
a period of probably several days, the piston-action of the second penis 
would transfer the sperms to the spermatheca. The crab, then, on casting 
does not get rid of the remains of the old stock of sperms until it has 
the opportunity of being impregnated afresh. 

Some experiments were made with certain crabs which cast during 
1902, August 31st to October 15th, and the results are of interest. A 
female, measuring 5| inches across, was put with the male crab as soon 
as it was seen to have cast, and four days later pieces of phig were seen 
projecting from the vulvfe. Another measuring 5 inches was separate 
from the male two days after, and at that time a plug projected from the 
vulva. A female crab, measuring 6f inches across, was kept for four 
days after casting. It was not in contact with a male crab. It was then 
killed: no fluid was found in the spermatheca. Six days after casting 
the soft crab which measured 6 J^ inches across, and which had not been 
in contact with a male crab, was dissected. The spermatheca contained 
sperms and a row of hard amber-coloured solid. A small soft crab, viz. 
41 inches across, was put with a male crab. Twenty-four hours after, 
no plugs were seen, but they were visible two days after the introduction 
of the female. 

It is to be noted that while in the male crab the sperms are contained 
in spermatophores, in the spermatheca the sperms are loose ; in very few 
cases was a spermatophore seen. According to Duvernoy, sea-water 
causes the spermatophores to burst. 

The extrusion of the spermatophores from the vas deferens is no doubt 
aided or effected by the following circumstances. The vas deferens of 
the hard male crab is usually in a swollen condition, and therefore the 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 107 

opening of the valve in the genital papilla would immediately be followed 
by a free issue of spermatophores. The opening of the valve may be 
due to the pressure of the second penis as it moves in the first, aided 
possibly by the forward movement of the fifth pereiopod, which will result 
in increasing the turgidity of the papilla. 

A portion of white plug material has been found on the penis in more 
than one crab. One case calls for special mention. 

A large male crab, 6 inches across, hard, was examined at the beginning 
of June. The second penis was inside the first, the genital papilla was 
inserted into the beginning of the tube. Projecting from the aperture 
in the tip of the first penis there was a narrow rod-like white body. At 
the inner side of the base of the first penis there was a small white mass. 
On examining the rod with the microscope it was found to be a tube 
crammed with spermatophores ; on its outer surface there were sperms and 
spermatophores. The tube was formed of parallel fibres. It was found 
in one penis only. No spermatophores were found in the lower white 
mass, which had the same fibrous appearance that the plug has. In no 
case were spermatophores found in the spermatheca packed in a tube. 
The tube, if it is the normal condition, may act simply as a sheath inside 
of which the spermatophores travel. It is formed simply by the intro- 
duction by the base of the penis of some of the fluid of the spermatheca 
which had flowed out from the vagina. By working the second penis 
in piston-fashion the tube was gradually pushed out of the first penis. It 
had apparently been connected to the white mass at the base. 

The Impregnation of Carcinus m^nas. 

The structure of the intromittent organs and of the spermatheca differs 
considerably from thos<} of Cancer pagurus. It is not, however, proposed 
to deal with these differences, but to describe the act of fertilisation so 
far as it was possible to follow it with the naked eye. It is not likely to 
be strictly homologous to that in Cancer. 

Carcinus nuenas is not apparently incommoded to any considerable ex- 
tent by captivity, and it is possible to observe the act of impregnation. . In 
the following case the male was put into a glass jar, and a female which had 
cast the previous night was then introduced beside it (September 16th), 
The male immediately turned the female, with the assistance of the latter, 
upside down. The female raised (or extended) its abdomen and brought 
it outside the abdomen of the male. The male then extended its abdo- 
men, and rested its telson (bent at right angles to the abdomen) on the 
thorax of the female between the vulvae, immediately thereafter inserting 
its penes into the two apertures. These operations took place in a few 
moments. The male then pushed the penes into the vaginae and drew 
them out slightly, about once every two seconds, but while under obser- 
vation intermittently. The male carries the female about with it, and 
the female is attached to the male simply by the hooked penes. The 
legs of neither crab are used for attachment. The penis appears to be 
inserted only a short distance. 

On September 18th the two crabs were still in coitu, but on the 20th 
they were separate. 

The female was now fairly hard. It was killed on the 20th. 

There were no externally projecting plugs. The spermatheca was filled 
with a large irregular plug which projected a little way into the vagina. 
In the vagina from the end of the plug just mentioned to the vulva there 
was another short plug with a rounded upper extremity ; along its 
length it showed a slight groove. Eound the external end of the 
spermatheca and along the vagina there is a layer of gelatinous -like tissue, 



108 Fart III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

probably glandular. Some spermatophores were found on the plug inside 
the spermatheca. In the vagina of the other side the short plug was 
absent. 

A female which cast between the 22nd and 23rd October, and which 
had not been in contact with a male, was dissected on the latter date. It 
was already fairly hard, the integument resembling in feel stiffish bi-own 
paper. The spermatheca was large, with thick walls; it had a little 
white mass at its mouth. There was a certain amount of fluid in both 
spermathecse, but the latter were not globular. 

The Spawning of Cancer pagurus. 
The Mode of Attachment of the Eggs to the Sivimmerets. 

The external eggs of the edible crab are, like those of other decapod 
Crustacea; carried, during incubation, on the hairs of the inner 
branches of the swiramerets of the female. They are arranged on the 
hairs from their bases to the tips as thickly as they can lie. When the 
hair of a berried crab is examined, a condition similar to that shown in 
fig. 21 is seen. The eggs are attached by independent stalks to the hair, 
and they are moreover so closely set together that their stalks intertwine. 
As, however, the egg is not always attached to one hair alone, but some- 
times to two, we have the hairs grouped in bunches which correspond to 
their whorl arrangement on the endopodite, e.g., cf. fig. 26. The inter- 
twining of the stalks of eggs also tends to bind the hairs together. 

How do the eggs become attached so closely and regularly and in a 
manner so economical of the space at their disposal ? 

Several agencies have been invoked to explain this. Cano* and 
Herrickf have each given an historical resume of the theories held Avith 
regard to the mode in which the attachment of the eggs to the pleopods 
was brought about. It is not necessary to recapitulate it nor Cano's full 
discussion of the egg-membranes of the decapods. According to Lere- 
boulletj certain zoologists had explained the attachment of the ova to 
an extension of the primary egg-membrane. 

There has, however, been general agreement that the fixation of the 
egg is due to a cement with which it is coated ; that the egg becomes in 
one way or another covered with a cement which on exposure to sea- 
water hardens, after having glued the egg to the hair of a pleopod. 
The cement was supposed to be derived from the ovary or oviduct by 
Milne Edwards and Rathke ; from the spermatheca by Cavolini and 
Cano,§ and in the case of Astacus from the integumental glands found 
on the pleopods and ventrum of the abdomen by Lereboullet and Braun. 

While in the case of macrurous decapods this explanation might 
not be dismissed on a -priori grounds, it is impossible to accept it as 
applicable to the Brachyura. It matters not how the cement is produced, 
the question reduces itself to this position — Given an egg coated with a 
cement strong enough to form the stalk of the egg, which resists rupture 
for a period of eight or nine months, a period during which time the 
swimmerets are being continually agitated in order to aerate the eggs, is 
it at all likely that it would always attach itself to a hair, and never to 
another egg similarly coated? If we examine the eggs of a Cancer 

* Cano, " Morfologia delF apparecchio sessuale femminile, glandole del cemento, e 
fecondazione nei Crostacei Decapodi." Mittheil. Zool. Stat, zii Neapel, ix. Bd., 4 
Heft., 1890. 

t "The American Lobster." Bull. U.S. Fish Commission for 1895, p. 127. 
JHerrick, "The American Lobster." Bull. U.S. Fish Commission for 1895. 
§ Cano, op. cit. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 109 

pagurus, Carcinus ixvinas, Portunus sp., Hyas sp., etc., we will find the 
eggs attached by their long stalks to the hairs of the eiidopodites. They 
are closely set together, but in no case do we find two eggs stuck together. 
If the eggs had been coated with cement, they could not have avoided 
sticking together, and also to the exopodites. What special affinity can 
there be betw^een the cement and the hair which does not exist between 
the cement of two eggs 1 If the cement on being acted upon by sea- 
water hardened, what is to prevent the two eggs from sticking together 1 
When the eggs are extruded they lie in the incubatory chamber formed 
by tlie curved abdomen in a semi-fluid mass, and they are there retained 
by the overlapping exopodites. The latter prevent the eggs flowing out 
over the edge of the abdomen. Now if each egg were coated with a layer 
of cement, we should have the eggs concreted into a solid mass, and 
while the endopodites would be imbedded in it, the exopodites would 
be probably glued to the outside. The eggs never attach themselves to 
the exopodites with which they are in close contact. 

No cement is supplied by the spermatheca. When the eggs are 
extruded the spermatheca is dry except for the pasty white mass of 
sperms; the solid remains of the spermatheca fluid are present. This 
solid is the consolidated residue of the fluid which was secreted by the 
spermatheca just after the crab cast and when it was impregnated. 
Cano evidently supposed that the cement was secreted by the sperma- 
theca. 

The egg does not derive a coating of cement from the ovary. The 
ripe eggs, if taken out of the ovary, sometimes have a slight coating of an 
albuminous substance ; it is derived from the yolk of ruptured eggs, 
which is somewhat sticky, for by it an egg may become attached to the 
bottom of the vessel in which it is ; but the union is of the slightest, and 
a touch from a camel-hair brush is enough to dislodge the egg. That the 
attachment does not result from an external coating of cement is there- 
fore apparent. 

An opportunity which I had of observing the spawning of Cancer 
pagurus has enabled me to describe the manner in which the attachment 
of the eggs is effected. The fact that the eggs are attached to the hairs 
of the endopodite, which are smooth, and not to the hairs of the 
exopodite, which are plumose, necessitates a condition in which an attrac- 
tion or affinity exists between the egg and the endopodite hair which does 
not exist between it and the exopodite hair. 

The conditions which are necessary to the regular attachment of the 
eggs to the hairs of the endopodite, and to them alone, are the following — 
(1) the eggs themselves must not be coated with a fluid which is of itself 
sufficient to cause it to adhere to anything when it is extruded, or other- 
wise we should have the eggs adhering to one another ; (2) the hairs must 
not likewise be coated with an adhesive cement, or they also would be 
glued together ; (3) after extrusion a condition must arise which will lead 
to the attachment of the eggs to the hairs of the pleopods, and the 
relation is one which acts between each egg and some particular hair. 

The intimate relationship between the egg and the hair is due to the 
hair acting as a skewer upon which the eggs are impaled and strung. 

On extrusion the ripe egg has two investing membranes, the outer or 
chorion and the very delicate vitelline membrane, the " dotterhaut " 
of Rathke. The hair perforates the chorion and enters the " perivitel- 
line chamber," and passes out again without piercing the vitelline 
membrane which is so closely applied to the yolk-sphere, and is more- 
over so delicate that it is not readily recognised. The process is 
more easily followed when the structure of the abdominal appendages is 
examined. 



110 Fart III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 

The endopodite and exopodite of the pleopod are very different from 
one another, and their different functions are very evident from a minute 
examination of their forms. They -will therefore be described below in 
detail. 

In addition to the discussion of this question in the case of Cancer 
pagurus, observations on the spawning of Carciiius nuenas, and on the 
manner of egg-attachment in Homarus, NepTirops, Munida, and other 
forms, will be added. 

The Sivimmerets. 

There are four pairs of swimmeret?, attached to the second, third, 
fourth, and fifth abdominal joints respectively, fig. 15. Each consists of 
an outer, the exopodite {ex.), and an inner branch, the endopodite {en.). 

The description of the swimmeret of Carcimis munas by M'Intosh* 
applies very well to Cancer 2^cigur2is : — '^ First pair of Ahdominal Feet. — The 
internal limb [endopodite] is clothed for the most part with long, delicate, 
silky hairs, which are simple throughout, with the exception of some 
branched hairs at the base, best seen on the anterior surface of the fore- 
most limb. The former are pale and translucent, and come off in distinct 
bundles all the way up from their commencement. The tufts above the 
middle joint arise from the upper part of each of the pseudo-joints that 
compose the fiabellar extremity, being situated, likewise, only on the 
posterior surface and sides of the limb, the anterior surface being free. 
The hairs themselves are very beautiful, presenting externally a brownish 
or yellow outline, within this a pale streak, and then a more or less 
granular central portion . . . The external limb is covered with 
branched hairs from base to apex along both outer and inner edges, the 
hairs on the outer row being rather longer than those on the inner. A 
few short, smooth bristles are distributed over the general surface of the 
limb." " The ova, when present, are attached solely to the inner limb of 
each abdominal appendage." 

The Endopodiie. 

The endopodite {Cancer pagurus) is long, cylindrical, tapering to a blunt 
point ; it is bent slightly in bow-shape, the concavity being towards the 
anterior side. Over its whole length it bears tranverse rows of long, 
stiff, slender hairs. These rows are not set at right angles to the long 
axis of the endopodite, but run obliquely downwards from the inner 
(next the median line of the abdomen) to the outer edge, en., fig. 20a. 
They are moreover confined to the posterior surface, their ends appearing 
at the edges only of the anterior surface. On the outer edge they come a 
little further on to the anterior surface than on the inner side, en., fig. 
2Qh, and fig. 63, which gives a plan of one of the rows. The tips of the 
two endopodites of opposite sides meet in the middle line, and the hairs 
on their inner surfaces are together bent forwards, fig. 13. The hairs 
are thus pointed in every direction. The arrangement of the hairs on 
the posterior surface of the tip is shown in fig. 62. 

The hairs from their extreme thinness are very flexible. They are 
perfectly smooth, except near the tip. The latter ends in a sharp process, 
and close to the extremity of the hair there are a number of delicate 
cilia (fig. 23a). The tips of the hairs do not all conform to this type. 
Considerable diversity of structure was found in different hairs, vid. figs. 
22, 23, 31, 33 ; they usually, however, end in a more or less acute 
point, and the cilia are generally to be made out. It is probable 

* M'Intosh, "On the Hairs of Oarcinus mccnas," Trans. Linn. Socy., vol. xxiv., p. 97. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. Ill 

that the variations are due to the delicate terminal spine being broken off, 
and the different conditions noted and drawn in the figures may be stages 
in the regeneration of the extremities of the hairs. This repair would 
appear to be continuous. 

The hair is tubular, and in the central cavity or core there is a large 
quantity of minute o\al corpuscles. 

The shell of the hair consists of two main thick layers, viz., an outer, 
o.l, and an inner, i.l., figs, 30 and 32. They are laminated in structure ; 
the outer layer shows a division into one, sometimes two, thin cuticular 
layers ; and the inner layer usually shows a separation into one thin layer 
on the outer side, and sometimes also a thin layer next the core. The 
internal surface of the inner layer is uneven, corrugated in appearance. 
The inner layer varies in thickness in diff'erent parts of the hair : at the 
base it is especially thick, fig. 30. It is practically a replica of the outer 
layer. The two layers are to some extent independent, or at least 
separate easily from one another. This is seen when a hair is broken. 
It often happens that when the outer layer is snapped, the inner layer 
remains intact, and the two parts of the outer layer become separated 
by an interval, ri'L fig. 6. It does not appear that the separation of the 
broken halves of the outer skin is due wholly to a sliding over the inner, 
but rather also to the fact that the inner layer expands on the release 
afforded by the rupture of the former. 

The anterior surface of the endopodite has scattered over it short, stiff 
hairs, fig, 50. 

The endopodite is jointed at about a fourth of its length from the base, 
and at this point there are muscles for moving the distal portion. The 
latter bears the greater mass of the hairs. 

The Excpodite. 

The exopodite resembles somewhat the endopodite in form. It is, 
however, more flattened in its proximal part than the latter. With the 
exception of the fourth, the exopodites are more or less twisted on their 
axes in such a way that the edges bearing the hairs are brought into 
an obliquely antero-posterior position, vid. fig. 13, 

The exopodite is furnished on either side from base to tip with a very 
thickly set row of plumose hairs. These are of various length, vid. figs. 
11, 12, 35, and 36, In the case of the shortest hairs, the ciliation 
commences close to the base, while in the others it begins further along 
the stem in proportion to the length. In the case of the longest hairs 
almost the whole of the proximal half is bare of cilia, fig. 36, 
Through the closely set arrangement of the hairs of different lengths, the 
short hairs supply the ciliation which is absent from the stems of the long 
hairs. In this way there results the formation of a thickly-set hedge, 
with no unnecessary overlapping of structures. The ciliation is at first 
sparse, but quickly increases in amount. 

The cilia are all long, stiff, terminating in fine points ; they are more- 
over serrated. On the shortest hairs they are long and slender, fig, 8 ; on 
the longer hairs flattened, lanceolete in shape, fig. 7, They are arranged 
all round the stem of the hair, recalling generally the structure of a test- 
tube brush. At the extremity of the hair, in consequence of the 
shortening of the nodes, the cilia are packed closely together round the 
falcate tip. 

The stem of the hair is tubular. The core is narrow, the wall thick 
and composed of several layers, fig, 9. Fig. 1 7 shows an ocular section 
at the base of the hair. The tube of the hair is continuous with a canal 
in the exopodite. 



112 Part III. — Tivcnty-second Annual Report 

The plumose hairs are not confined to the two edges of the exopo- 
dite, but are also found on the outer surface, vid. fig. 42. They do not, 
however, run round the stem in rows as do the hairs of the endopodite ; 
they are simply scattered over the outer surface. 

The inner surface of the exopodite, fig. 51, is provided with scattered 
short hairs, which are serrated. 

The Ripe Egg. 

The eggs of Cancer pagurus are ripe during October, November, 
December, and January,* and spawning may take place in each of these 
months. The eggs are extruded in a short space of time, probably within 
a period of twenty-four hours. 

In my former paper, " Contributions to the Life-History of the Edible 
Crab {Cancer pagitriis)," I described the ripe ovary as follows : — " The ripe 
ovary is of a turkey-red colour. . . . All the eggs are not of one size. 
The diameter of the yolk-mass may vary from "3 — '41 mm.; in some eggs 
the yolk-sphere is as small as "24 mm. The diameter of the Zona 
radiata varies greatly from the fact that the egg in the ovary has a large 
perivitelline space. . . . The diameter of the capsule may vary from 
•4 — '7 mm. ; the eggs attached to the swimmerets measure "45 and '5 
mm. in diameter." I have, however, come to the conclusion that the 
condition just described, where the ovarian egg shows a large peri- 
vitelline space, is a pathological one. I have since then only found it in 
crabs that died during the spawning season ; the dropsical condition of 
the ovary having possibly been the cause. 

The ripe ovary, however, sometimes exhibits .a condition which 
suggests the presence in it of eggs with large perivitelline space. In a 
crab measuring 7^ inches across (17 November, 1903) the ovary was full 
and of a crimson-red colour. When its outer surface was examined with 
a lens, a clear area was seen surrounding the egg. This clear area is a sort 
of fluid space in the follicle, and is not a perivitelline space ; it is 
outside the egg. 

The ripe egg has tioo envelopes — the inner, the vitelline membrane 
(v.m.), is clearly applied to the yolk-sphere ; the outer, the chorion (chr.), 
is separated from the former by a very narrow space when the egg is 
in ovario. Fig 5 shows a section of the ripe ovarian egg. It is contained 
in the follicle (/.). The yolk-sphere is composed of large corpuscles. 
Mayer t was of the opinion that fertilisation took place in the ovary 
before the egg was invested with the chorion. 

Rathke J described, on the egg of Astacus, three egg-membranes, viz. 
"die Dotterhaut" [the vitelline membrane], "die Lederhaut," and "die 
aussere Eihaut" [the chorion]. In the egg, previous to the commence- 
ment of the development of the embryo, there is a space between the 
" Dotterhaut " and the " Lederhaut," which contains a transparent fluid ; 
the quantity of this fluid diminishes as the development proceeds. In 
this way the " Dotterhaut " and the '"Lederhaut" come to lie closely 
together. The "aussere Eihaut" is that by which the egg is attached to 
the swimmeret. This description does not apply to Cancer pagurus, 
where there are only ttvo egg-membranes. 

A section of a dropsical ovarian egg is seen in fig. 34. These eggs 
can be made out with the naked eye scattered over the surface of a lobule 
of the ovary when few in number ; when the majority of the eggs are 

* Heath's observations lead to a similar spawning-period for Cancer iruigister on the 
coast of California. American Naturalist, 1902. 
f P. Mayer, Jena, Zeit. Naturivissen, 11 Bd., 1877. 
t Rathke, 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 113 

thus distended the ovary is swollen and contains a considerable quantity 
of an amber-coloured albuminous fluid. In the dropsical ovarian egg the 
perivitelline space is filled with an amber-coloured fluid, which is some- 
wliat granular in appearance. Some of the eggs had been preserved in a 
one per cent, solution of formaldehyde in sea-water, and the perivitelline 
fluid was found to have solidified into a whitish substance resembling 
coagulated albumen. This substance cut easily, being of a cheese-like 
consistency, and it formed round the yolk-sphere a thick rind which 
could be removed in two hollow hemispheres. The dropsical eggs when 
fresh are rather dull in colour, in contrast to the bright normal egg. 

The ovarian eggs, and also those which are lying on the abdomen of 
the crab before they become attached to the swimmerets, show under the 
microscope no trace of cement on the outside ; the chorion shows a sharp 
clean surface. If the ripe eggs be taken from the ovary and put into sea- 
water a perivitelline space of more or less extent begins soon to appear. 
The egg imbibes water, and the chorion or outer envelope is distended, 
and stands out all round clear of the inner, the vitelline membrane [vide 
fig. 95). 

Certain ripe eggs were extracted from the vagina of a female that had 
been spawning, by means of a pipette introduced by the vulva. They 
were practically identical with the ovarian egg, there being practically no 
perivitelline space (fig. 94). 

If the eggs which have been extruded, and which are found in a semi- 
fluid mass lying on the abdomen of the crab, be examined, some will be 
found to be attached to the hairs, while others are loose. The latter show 
large perivitelline spaces, but not so large as in the dropsical eggs. A 
large quantity of eggs which had been extruded a week previously, and 
which had not become attached, but were lying in a heap in a corner of 
a box in which a spawning female was confined, had very large peri- 
vitelline spaces ; they were stuck together, but were easily separated. 

The essential for the attachment of the egg to the hair of the 
endopodite is the large perivitelline space, to which the great ductility 
of the chorion contributes materially. In each of the eggs, from that 
showing practically no perivitelline space, viz. the ovarian egg, to the 
egg which has been a considerable time in water and in which the 
perivitelline space has reached enormous dimensions (fig. 96), the chorion 
always shows a sharp definite outline without wrinkles, i.e., as long as 
the chorion is unpierced by the hair. 

Certain experiments bearing on the formation of the perivitelline 
space were made on the eggs from apparently ripe ovaries during 
November. A portion of the ovary was teased out in sea-water. It is 
to be noted that the space does not begin to form in all cases — and even 
if it does form it may be only slight in extent — although the eggs may be 
indistinguishable from others which do so. Whenever the vitelline 
membrane is ruptured (as may often happen in teasing the ovary), the 
egg immediately forms a large perivitelline space, and the fluid in the 
latter becomes amber-coloured or pinkish, whereas in the normal egg it is 
colourless. 

On November 17 a female measuring 7|- inches across was dissected. 
The ovary was friable, and the eggs, which measured "37 and "4 mm. in 
diameter, separated out easily in water. There was no perivitelline 
space visible. At the end of three minutes a distinct perivitelline space 
had appeared. 

In another crab the ovary was full and of a crimson-red colour. 
After being in sea-water for about an hour the eggs showed perivitelline 
spaces of considerable amount. 

A crab measuring 7^ inches across on November 9th had an ovary 

H 



114 Part III. — Titenhj -second Annual Report 

which was large and full. The eggs measured about '4 mm. in diameter. 
Some were a little less ; others larger and narrower. Certain of the eggs 
were put into fresh water : others into sea- water. They began to form 
spaces in a few minutes. In the fresh water the eggs which had been of 
a bright red colour imbibed the water so much that the inner egg (yolk- 
sphere) became disorganised, and the fluid in the space became red or 
amber-coloured. The whole egg, moreover, became whitish-pink to the 
naked eye — the condition seen in dead eggs. A considerable peri- 
vitelline space formed in the eggs in the sea-water in about ten minutes, 
and the eggs were not disorganised. 

The rapidity with which the perivitelline space is formed depends on 
the stage of development of the egg. Minute differences occur between 
eggs of an apparently similar stage of ripeness. 

In another case the eggs were examined twenty minutes after they 
were put into sea-water, and they then showed perivitelline spaces. 
Several days afterwards, the perivitelline spaces had increased in extent, 
but the eggs retained the fresh normal colour. 

In none of the experiments did any of the eggs stick to the glass. 

On October 30th a crab was found to have spawned, probably during 
the preceding twenty-four hours. A large quantity of eggs was lying in a 
heap on the bottom of the tank, while a large amount of eggs was 
contained on the abdomen. Some of the hairs of one of the endopodites 
were snipped off, and on examination the attached eggs showed an early 
condition of the process of attachment. In some the zona was not yet 
completely collapsed : some of the eggs were however already stalked. 
There was a number of dead eggs attached to the hairs. On one of the 
hairs the little cilia were seen to be turned back, as if they had been bent 
over as the hair was pushed through the egg membrane. The eggs that 
were lying on the bottom of the box were quite separate, and they showed 
under the microscope no coating of cement, as did neither of the ovarian 
or attached eggs. 

An experiment was made with the view of testing whether or not the 
perivitelline fluid had adhesive properties :- this fluid was found to be 
sticky. Some ripe eggs were put into sea-water and left there until the 
perivitelline spaces were well developed. Four of these were transferred 
to a watch-glass. The chorion of one egg was pierced by means of a 
needle, and the egg began immediately to show an adhesive property. 
Under the microscope a slightly refractive fluid was seen to have flowed 
out of the puncture and to have stuck to the glass. On the following 
day the egg was attached to the glass, while the others were freely 
movable. It was, however, detached by a puff of sea-water from a 
pipette, although it resisted gentle suction by the same instrument. 

The egg then having the large perivitelline space is pierced by and 
skewered on to an endopodite-hair. The chorion collapses, and being 
extremely delicate falls round the hair clinging to it. The perivitelline 
fluid being somewhat sticky no doubt helps to glue the chorion to the 
vitelline membrane, to other parts of the chorion, and to the hair. 

The eggs which escaped piercing, and which lay on the bottom of the 
box, showed large perivitelline spaces : they grow dull in colour and die. 
It is probable that the pressure set up within the chorion by the osmosis 
is sufficient to cause the death of the egg, unless it is relieved by the 
piercing of the membrane. 

In certain ovaries degenerating eggs were found. They were usually 
of a dull pink colour, and their contents were disorganised. The ovaries 
were sometimes full of these eggs, e.g., in some of the crabs kept in 
confinement— spawning having in some way been prevented. 



of ihc Fishery Board Jor Scotland. 115 

TJie Attachment of the Eggs. 

On being expelled from the ovary the eggs are received into the so-called 
" incubatory chamber " formed by the curved abdomen. The perivi- 
telline space rapidly develops in each egg. The abdomen is withdrawn 
from the thorax, and the sixth abdominal joint and the telson are turned 
upwards, giving a quadrant shape to a longitudinal section of the 
abdomen, ah., fig. 14, The thorax forms the anterior end, the 
abdomen the floor and posterior end of the chamber. The two sides are 
formed by the exopodites, which by means of their plumose edges overlap 
and prevent the eggs flowing out over the edge of the abdomen. The con- 
dition is shown semi-diagraramatically in fig. 19. The eggs are apparently 
extruded continuously until all are expelled. They then lie in a semi- 
fluid mass in the " chamber," and embedded in the mass of eggs are the 
endopodites with the flexible sharp-pointed hairs. The endopodites have, 
independently of the exopodites, two distinct movements, of small extent, 
one in an antero-posterior plane, viz., a. — a., fig. 19, and the other in an 
oblique direction across the abdomen, indicated by the arrow, p. — p., 
and p.' — p.' ; p. — p. referring to the endopodites of the right side, p.' — p.' 
to the endopodites of the left side. This oblique motion belongs to the 
distal j)arts of the jointed endopodites. The hairs reach every portion of 
the receptacle. The continued double movement of the sharp slender 
hairs through the mass of eggs confined in the incubatory chamber 
results in the eggs being impaled and thickly skewered on to the hairs. 
This condition is shown in fig. 1, which represents a hair taken from a 
crab which had extruded its eggs only a short time, probably not more 
than twenty-four hours, previously. In the drawing the perforations 
in the zona are exaggerated. The hair avoids piercing the yolk, simply 
passing through the zona into the perivitelline space, and then issuing 
at a place near the point of entrance. Some dead eggs which were being 
devoured by Nematodes and Acarinse were found on the hairs. How far 
the death of the eggs was due to the accidental piercing of the yolk by 
the hair, or to the unfavourable conditions under which the crab was 
living at the time (viz., in confinement in a small hatching-box), is open 
to question. The hair on striking and entering the zona will almost of 
necessity force the egg to turn round in such a way as to bring the yolk- 
sphere off" the line of impact. The yolk-sphere would naturally tend to 
keep at the lower pole of the egg. 

In a short time the zona collapses, and it becomes glued to the hair by 
means of the perivitelline albuminous fluid. The stalk or pedicle is 
formed by the adhesion together of the parts of the zona which meet. 
This condition was found when the eggs were examined twelve days later. 
Figs. 3a, 36, 3c. An interval of that duration is, however, possibly not 
necessary for this change to occur. The stalks vary in breadth, and they 
are now more or less wrapped round the hair. All the crabs under 
observation threw ofl^ their eggs shortly afterwards, but in a crab which 
had spawned in a tank, and which was examined in January, the sialics 
were now found to be rope-like in many cases. The stalks of the eggs 
were also intertwined. The movement of the swimmerets, which is 
probably continuous in order to afi'ord aeration to the eggs, will, by 
tending to throw the yolk-sphere as far away as possible from the point of 
attachment, result in the formation of the long rope-like stalk, fig. 21. 

Some of the eggs are pierced by two hairs, and through this it happens 
that the hairs are bunched together. This takes place not only with the 
hairs of one row, but also with the hairs of adjacent rows. The grouping 
of the hairs is, however, no doubt mainly due to the interlocking of the 
eggs attached to diff"erent hairs. 



116 Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 

Sometimes a hair is seen to be fixed in a position in which it is bent 
double. 

The egg in the condition last described, firmly attached to the hair, is 
seen on sectioning (figs. 18a and 18^;) to have three layers, which are the 
three layers noticed by Rathke in the egg of Astaciis, but this author 
regardecl the outer investment (" Aussere Eihaut") (the chorion) as derived 
from the "cement." The three layers of the egg-shell are, (1) outermost, 
the chorion (chr.) ; (2) next the yolk, the delicate vitelline membrane, m. 
(" Dotterhaut ") ; and between the two a thicker layer which appears to 
have been formed simply by the solidification of the perivitelline fluid, si., 
figs. 18a and 18^ (" Lederhaut "). This results in gluing the two 
primary layers together, in that way forming an efficient protecting enve- 
lope to the egg. 

The Sloughing of the Empfy Egg-Capsules. 

A point of some interest is the manner in which the crab gets rid of 
the empty egg-capsules after the hatching of the brood. This is effected 
by sloughing off the outer layer (o.l., fig. 32) of the wall of the hair along 
with the attached capsules, fig. 43. The slough of the hair is shown of 
greater diameter that it ought to be in proportion to the rest of the 
figure. 

The minute oval corpuscles found in the cavity of the hair probably 
function in forming a new inner layer of the hair, and in repairing 
injuries which the hair may receive. 

The Attachment of the Eggs in other Decapod Crustacea. 

A number of species have been examined with a view to determining 
whether or not the condition of the attached eggs was such as would lead 
one to infer that the mode observed in the case of Cancer pagurus was a 
general one or not. 

The spawning of Carcinus mamas was observed, and it will be treated 
below. In the following species of Brachyura and Anomura the berried 
females were examined, viz., Maia srjuinado, Fortiums sp., Hyas sp., 
Stenorhynchus sp., Eupagurus sp., Lithodes maia. In these the condition 
of the endopodite and the attached eggs was similar to that of Cancer 
pagzirus, and the mode by which the eggs become attached is the same. 

In Maia squinado (4|- inches across the greatest breadth of the cara- 
pace) the spermatheca is very large, and it difi:ers much from that of 
Cancer. In the latter the solidified remains of the fluid secreted by the 
spermatheca are got rid of at the next impregnation ; in the former they 
are retained, and as a fresh secretion of fluid takes place with each 
impregnation the spermatheca attains enormous dimensions. 

The berried females of certain Galatheidse and Macrura were also 
examined, and the details will be given below. 

In the Alacrura the pleopods diff'er much from those of the Brachyura. 
In some cases the exopodites afford attachment to the eggs, while also 
hairs on the sternum of the abdomen attach to themselves eggs. Both 
branches are more or less thickly furnished with densely plumose setae 
which function for swimming. The egg-hairs, usually ciliated in part, 
are short, and so there are not many eggs on one hair. The eggs are in 
large measure attached to the protopodite of the pleopod. The conclusion 
reached with regard to these also was that the attachment of the egg was 
effected through the piercing of the chorion by the egg-hair, 

Munida rugosa. — The eggs are much larger than those of Cancer. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 117 

The pleopod has no exopodite ; it consists of a single-jointed proto- 
podite and a 2-jointed endopodite. The endopodite is furnished with a 
great quantity of fine egg-hairs (fig. 27). 

The eggs have very long stalks and are not arranged along the hairs as 
in Cancer, but the tips of one or of many hairs are inserted into the stalk 
of the egg ; and they sometimes pass up the stalk for a considerable 
distance (figs. 28 and 29). In this case, then, there is never more than 
one egg to each hair, but very often only one egg to a group of hairs. Its 
position on the extremity of the hair gives occasion to much rotary move- 
ment of the egg, and through this the stalk becomes tightly twisted like 
a rope. 

Some of the hairs of this species are setose over the whole of their 
length, the cilia being long : the extremity of the hair is bare for a 
greater or shorter distance. The short egg-hairs are setose on the middle 
of their length (fig. 27). The cilia are longer at the distal end and 
become less as they are more proximal. This probably prevents the hair 
entering the egg very far on its piercing the chorion. 

Galathea dispersa. — In this form there does not appear to be more 
than one egg to each hair; and a group of hairs sometimes enters 
one-egg stalk. A cluster of eggs is sometimes found on one fascicle 
of hairs. 

A condition similar to Galathea dispersa is apparently present in 
Calocaris macandrete. 

Homarus vulgaris. — The pleopod is short and paddle-like. The endo- 
podite is 2-jointed. The two branches are provided with the usual 
setose hairs round their margins, and on the posterior or concave surface 
of the endopodite there are arranged round the margin the egg-hairs. 
They are not nearly so numerous as the plumose setae. On the exopo- 
dite at its basal outer corner there is a fascicle of egg-hairs. There are 
several fascicles of the same on the protopodite and also on the sternum 
of the abdominal segment. 

The egg-hairs are extremely delicate. The tips only are ciliated, and 
the cilia are directed forward along the extremity of the hair (fig. 58). 

The eggs are not attached to the distal parts of the endopodite and 
exopodite. In this form they are attached in two ways — (1) by the usual 
stalk attachment to the hair, a condition brought about in a way similar 
to that of Cancer ; (2) eggs are attached to one another by stalks and 
without the intermediary of an egg-hair, vide figs. 56 and 57. The stalks 
which these eggs show, and which may be two or three in number, exactly 
resemble the stalks of the eggs attached to hairs ; they are without doubt 
formed by the chorion. In no case were two eggs found to be sticking 
together in the way in which the demersal eggs of a fish, e.g. Cyclopterus 
lumpus, stick together. In the latter case the two eggs form at the point 
where they are glued together a flat common wall. In the lobster, on 
the other hand, the eggs are all stalked, and the fact that each egg usually 
has more than one stalk gives some apparent ground for the theory of tlie 
cement-covering of the egg. 

Scott* has recently described the spawning of the lobster. The 
female lay on its back, and the eggs flowed down into the incubatory 
chamber formed by the flexed abdomen. When the eggs, just after they 
emerged from the genital openings, were placed in a glass of sea-water 
and collected into a heap they all became attached one to the other, " and 
also to the glass. Moreover, the adhesive material only remains soft for 
a short time, as when the individual eggs were isolated and prevented 
from adhering to the glass it was found that at the end of half-an-hour 

* Scott, "On the Spawning of the Lobster." Bepori of the Lancashire Sea-Fishefies 
Lahoratortj for 1902. No. xi. Liveriaool, 1903, pp. 20 et seq. 



118 Part III. — Twenty-second Aniiual Report 

the adhesive property had completely disappeared." The stickiness is 
not a true cement, it is merely an albuminous substance, not a fluid 
' chitin " capable of forming an outer envelope. 

While it is not easy to say exactly how the stalked attachment between 
the eggs is produced, it is still possible to describe a process by which 
the same might be arrived at. 

I have not seen the newly-extruded egg, but assume that on passing 
out of the oviduct it will show little if any perivitelline space. The 
egg in gaining contact with sea-water would immediately begin to deve- 
lop a perivitelline space. The extruded eggs lying on the abdomen 
would, by the mutual pressure due to their weight, tend to cause the 
expulsion of some of the perivitelline fluid by the micropyle (which, 
although it has not yet been described, very probably exists). Through 
this the now flaccid chorion might be glued to an egg, which in a similar 
way might attach itself to a third or to the first egg. Again, these eggs 
may have been pierced by the hairs without actually becoming attached 
to them. The eggs that are attached to one another are close to the 
base of the pleopod, where they are not subjected to any very violent 
movement. They are often found on the outside of the eggs which are 
attached to a fascicle of hairs. 

The weight of the egg tends to stretch out the ductile chorion into long 
thin stalks. Two attachments may sometimes be seen to one broad stalk. 

Nephrops norveijicus. — The pleopod is short and paddle-like ; the endo- 
podite is 2-jointed. Both branches are fringed with densely plumose 
seta3. The egg-hairs (fig. 64) have sharp points, and are ciliated near 
their extremities ; the cilia are small, soft, and blunt. Sometimes the 
fourth of the length of the hair is ciliated. The egg-hairs are arranged 
round the periphery of the hind surface of the endopodite ; they are 
also found on the protopodite. At the joint on the endopodite the 
projecting corner of the proximal segment bears a fascicle of egg-hairs. 
The egg-hairs do not carry nearly so many eggs as they do in the 
Brachyura. 

Crangon vtdgaris. — The egg -hairs are short, but more than one egg is 
strung on one hair. The eggs are attached to the protopodite, not to the 
endopodite or exopodite. 

Pandahis Montagui. — In this form also the eggs are attached to the 
inner surface of the protopodite, and not to either the endopodite or exo- 
podite. The egg-hairs are short. 

The eggs are also attached to one another as in the lobster. 

The duty of bearing the eggs is not allowed to interfere with the swim- 
ming function of the pleopod. In Crangon and Pandalus, where the 
pleopods are important swimming organs, the eggs are attached to the 
protopodite. 

In Homarus, where the swimming function of the pleopod is prac- 
tically in abeyance, the eggs are attached to the endopodite and exopodite, 
but not to their distal parts. 

In the Brachyura, in place of a pleopod which performs both functions, 
viz. of swimming and of carrying the eggs, we have an organ which is 
suited solely for bearing and protecting the eggs. The endopodite is 
provided with special hairs to which the eggs become attached, while the 
exopodites function in protecting the attached eggs during the period of 
incubation. 

Carcinus mamas. 

The writer had the opportunity of observing part of the spawning 
process in Carcinus. Four females extruded their eggs at the Laboratory. 

+ P. Mayer 



of the Fishery Board for Scotlaiul. 119 

The ovaries of these and of a number of other crabs were examined. So 
far as could be made out, little difference exists between the process of 
spawning in this form and in Cancer. 

Tlie Formation of the PerivitelUne Space in the Egg. 

Ovarian Eggs. — A number of non-berried impregnated female crabs 
(C. mamas) were examined in October, at a time when other individuals 
of this species were spawning. They measured in greatest breadth ly^ in. 
and upwards. Of these, some had orange ovaries containing eggs which 
were practically ripe : others had pale, white, immature ovaries. The 
two classes differed in external appearance. The shells of the crabs 
which had orancre ovaries were darker coloured than in the others. In the 
former the thorax and third maxillipedes especially showed some brown 
colour. In the crabs having immature ovaries the legs and thorax were 
of a light green colour, which indicated that they had cast more recently 
than the former (probably during the summer just past). 

The ripe egg, on being extruded, soon shows a perivitelline space. In 
several instances when ovarian eggs, which were apparently ripe, were 
put into sea-water a small separation of the chorion from the vitelline 
membrane began to show itself, but although the eggs were kept in the 
water till next day no large cr, in many cases, even distinct j)erivitelline 
spaces developed, except in those eggs in which the inner (vitelline) 
envelope had been ruptured, when large perivitelline spaces were rapidly 
(in half-an-hour) formed. 

The formation of the perivitelline space would then appear to be due 
to the osmosis set up through the chorion by the presence between the 
chorion and the vitelline membrane of a fluid derived from the yolk. 
The non-formation of the perivitelline space in the above-mentioned eggs 
was possibly due to the fact that the complete ripening of the egg, viz. 
with the occurrence of this fluid between the two envelopes, had not yet 
succeeded. 

A few ripe eggs were found in the spent ovaries of certain berried 
crabs. The spent ovary is a colourless empty sac, and shows here and 
there usually one or two ripe orange-coloured eggs which have not been 
extruded. In two cases examined none of the ovarian eggs showed a 
perivitelline space, but on being transferred to sea-water the spaces 
began to develop, and in a short time were large. In some cases the space 
was distinctly reddish-coloured. It would therefore appear that a change 
which makes the egg more favourable for osmosis takes place in the 
ripening, probably just before extrusion. 

Spawned Eggs. — Some eggs which were taken by means of a brush 
off the thorax of a spawning female were found to have a very slight 
perivitelline space, but after they had been left in sea-water for a little 
they showed large spaces. 

One female which was found spawning, or which had just finished that 
process, had surrounding it a thick layer of eggs on the bottom of the 
box. A small quantity of eggs only was attached to the eudopodites. 
The crab was transferred to a glass vessel, and in the course of that 
operation a considerable quantity of eggs rolled off" the abdomen. These 
eggs showed large perivitelline spaces, and most had a peak-like eminence 
on the exterior of the chorion. 

The eggs lying free on the bottom of the box round the crab also 
showed large perivitelline spaces, but the little prominences were not seen 
on the chorion. 

As was concluded in the case of Cancer, the perivitelline fluid is of 
a sticky nature. 



120 Part III. — Tiventy-second Annual Report 

Eggs picked off the bottom alongside the spawning female had large 
perivitelline spaces, with perfectly smooth chorion ; there was no trace of 
any sticky fluid outside the egg. 

The eggs which Avere displaced from the abdomen in transferring the 
spawning female to a glass jar from the box in which it had previously been 
kept lay on the bottom of the dish, and were with few exceptions 
emptied out of the dish by gentle rinsing. The few which remained 
attached to the glass were dislodged by the touch of a brush or with a 
pipette. 

When the pipette was crowded with eggs, and in one case where the 
eggs were allowed to accumulate in a compact mass, on forcing them out 
some remained sticking to the glass. These were the eggs which showed 
the little prominences on the chorion mentioned above. On examining 
the end of the pipette with the microscope, at nearly every egg a little 
refractive globule was seen attached to the exterior of the chorion. 
This is without doubt the perivitelline fluid which has been squeezed out 
and which served to glue the egg to the glass in this case. 

In another case the eggs which lay on the bottom of the box were 
found the next day to be stuck together in masses, which, however, readily 
broke. The attachment of the eggs to one another was probably due to 
the perivitelline fluid which the mutual pressure of the eggs would no 
9oubt tend to press out. A similar condition was observed in the case of 
the unattached eggs of Cancer pagiirus. After several days the eggs 
which lay on the bottom of the box had become attached together in 
masses. 

The Spawning of C. mcenas. 

A crab which had just extruded its eggs on September 28th was sur- 
rounded by a quantity of eggs which looked like red dust on the sand. 
It was removed to a glass vessel and examined in water. It was 
then seen that the abdomen of the crab was being held away from the 
thorax and that it formed a kind of basin. The points of the 
endopodites lay on the openings of the vulvte. A small quantity of eggs 
were attached to each endopodite, and eggs were noticed in the openings of 
each vagina. The endopodites were moved forwards, backwards, and 
outwards, widely separated laterally, inwards, and forwards. The 
independent movement of the distal part of the endopodite Avas seen. 
The exopodites move a little in unison with the endopodites in certain of 
the movements. 

The crab gradually threw ofl' the eggs that were attached to the 
endopodites. 

On the endopodites a similar condition to that seen in Cancer pagurus 
was found. The chorion of the egg had been pierced by the hair and it 
was in a collapsed condition. 

On October 16th a crab was examined which had spawned since 
the previous day. The eggs on the endopodite showed their outer 
envelopes (chorion) all wrinkled, but the yolk-sphere was not pushed to 
the pole away from the hair: it lay simply in the middle of the irregularly 
crinkled envelope. The stalk Avas not yet formed. 

A considerable number of dead eggs Avas found attached to the endo- 
podites of a berried Carcinus (October 14th) which had just spawned in 
the Laboratory. The inner or vitelline membrane had been ruptured and 
the yolk-sphere was broken up. It is possible that the yolk sphei'e may 
have been pierced by the endopodite hair, though other agencies may 
have been the cause of their destruction. 

Spawning seems to be completed within 24 hours. 



of the Fishery Board for Sootlaiid. 121 



Notes on Casting, Distribution, etc., of Cancer pagurus. 

The Periodicity of Spawning and Casting. — Certain berried crabs 
were obtained during the summer of 1902. Their eggs hatched during 
August, September, and October. None of these crabs spawned again 
until the end of October 1903, when two did so. None of the crabs 
cast during the period. 

In February 1904 two of the crabs were berried, and two were found 
dead. In the two latter the ovary was spent in one, and in the other 
was ripe but dropsical. 

The Colour of the Soft Crab. — When a crab has just cast it is a 
plump inert mass, which yields in all its parts to the slightest pressure of 
the fingers. It is of a dark purple colour all over the dorsum and dorsal 
surfaces of the pereiopods : the ventral surface is yellowish white. As 
the shell hardens the dorsum gradually becomes of a lighter hue, turning 
into a brick-red colour. Meantime the third or white layer of the shell 
is thickening. 

In the paragraph dealing with the migration of crabs the question of 
the abstention from casting is discussed in connection with one of the 
labelled crabs. 

Casting. — During the autumn of 1902, 31st August to 15th October, 
a number of female crabs cast in the tanks at the Bay of Nigg. With 
the exception of the first, all the females recorded in the following Table 
cast at this time. The size of the crab before and immediately after 
casting is shown in parallel columns opposite the date when the cast took 
place. 



[Table. 



122 



Part III. — Ttventy- second Anniuil Report 



TABLE I. 
CRABS THAT CAST IN' THE MARINE LABORATORY, BAY OF NIGG, 



Date. 


Hard Crab 
— Inches. 


Soft Crab 
— Inches. 


Increase — 
Inch. 


Ratio of 
Increase. 


August 16, . 




1| $ 


If 


k 


1/5-5 


)> ij • 




U\6 


If 


A 


1/4-6 


,, • 




n 6 




1 


1/3-5 


„ 31, . 




4i ? 








September 1, 




^ 2 








6, 




H 2 


5 * 


1 


1/4-7 


8, 




a 2 


5| 


I 


1/5-5 


9, 




5i- 5 


6t 


i 


1/6-2 


,-. 10, 




5i 2 


6^ 


1* 


1/5-4 


,> 




4| 2 


'A 


i 


1/7 -S 


,, 11, 




n 2 


4r 


1 


1/4-8 


„ 16, 




If 


11 


i 


1/5-5 


,: 




3i 2 


35 


8 


} 


October 5, . 




1 6 


n 


k 


1 

4 


„ 8, . 




m<s 


2J 


^, 


1/3-8 


„ 9, . 




3i 2 








„ 13, . 




2H$ 








,' )> 




41 $ 








,, 16, . 




4i 2 


5i* 


§ 


1/7-8 



* Measured several days after casting. 

As was previously* shown, the ratio of increase at each cast varies 
greatly. In the Table then given the ratio varied from ^ to i. In the 
present case, in only one instance was the ratio greater than 5, and it was 
as small as ^. 

The histological changes that accompany the ecdysis of the crab have 
been dealt with by "Witten. 

At the time when the crab casts, the shell of the three proximal joints 
of the chela becomes absorbed along certain lines, thereby allowing of 
the expansion of these joints to permit the withdrawal of the large claw. 
In fig. 100, Plate IV., is shown the cast chela. The absorption-lines 
are on the coxopodite, basi-ischiopodite, and meropodite, viz., ah$. The 
part of the shell lying between the lines is movable. Similar absorption 
areas appear in the lobster (Herrick). 

0. Distribution. — In discussing the question of the distribution of the 
crab, I was of the opinion that a group of crabs measuring from 2| to 4 
inches would be found to inhabit the shore waters just outside lo-w-water 
mark. This group was distinct from the beach group, which is consider- 
ably smaller, viz. from i to 2| inches, and is itself smaller than the adult 
group, which measures from about 4 inches upward ; it is required to fill 
up the very considerable gap which separates these two groups. ( Vide 
PL III.) * 

* "Contributions to the Life History of Cancer jxigunis." 



of the Fishery Board fm^ Scotland. 



123 



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124 


Pari III. — Twenty-second Annual Repoi't 




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PLATE I 




' 4 ''' '' ' ' i ' ^ > a 

.2336 BEACH CRABS(6' + 9)ir. 3029 CREEL CRABS (<?+ 9) Ordinary Cr3b-Fishmg>IV. 

1523 CREEL CRABS ( cf-^ ? ) Creels shot cipse to the Beach ^ GronpHI. 



of tlie FisJiery Board for Scotland. 125 

With a view to testing the theory respecting this group (III.) a numher 
of creels were shot during March to August in 1900 and 1901. They 
were set just outside low-water mark and were occasionally left dry by the 
ebb. Some of the creels were at times shot in 2 or 3 fathoms. One or 
two of the creels were covered with siuall-meshed netting. The number 
and sizes of the crabs got in. each month are set out in Table II. 

In March and April very few crabs were got. This was in part due 
to the fact that at that period "of the year it often hai)pens that bad 
weather prevents fishing for a considerable time, but this does not account 
for the small catches. Because even when the creels were fishing, it very 
often happened that no crab was caught. Their absence from the creels 
does not necessarily mean their absence from the region. They may not 
then feed eagerly. Crabs that are kept in the Laboratory during winter 
became very inactive. The cold has a much more paralysing effect on 
the edible crab than it has on Carcinus moinas, so that it is ])ossible 
that the inshore crabs may not move about much before the month of May. 
In this month (May) a considerable number of crabs were got in the creels 
shot in the same place as in the preceding months. (Vide Table II.) 

An examination of the catch of crabs shows that it consists of a large 
number of crabs which fall into the gap between the Beach and the 
Adult groups, but it also contains a large proportion of adult crabs. The 
adult crabs appeared in the catches all through the summer. 

The curve formed by the measurements of these crabs has been intro- 
duced into a chart along with the curves of the Beach and Adult crabs. 
The latter are taken from my previous paper (Tables VIII a and IX.) 

A reference to the chart shows that the new group (red curve) tends to 
fill up the gap between the two former groups. The curve overlaps both 
groups. It measures from about 2 inches to over 7 inches. The examina- 
tion of the shore waters was not carried on during the whole of the year, 
and the inshore migration of the adult crabs introduces larger crabs 
than actually belong to the group under consideration. 

We then have in the summer in the shallow inshore water a double 
group, consisting of the III. and IV. groups. In the autumn and winter, 
investigation will veryprobably show that the adult group will be entirely, 
or almost entirely, absent, and in these seasons, therefore, a better defined 
Group III. should be found. 

Rate of Growth. — As material for the study of the rate of growth of 
the crab, I have introduced here the measurements of the monthly collec- 
tions made on the beach at Dunbar (Table III.), and also the details 
of the individual catches which were measured (Table V.). The totals 
were given in my former paper, and the regions where the catches were 
made are in certain instances given in Table V. I have also introduced 
three additional collections made on the beach, Dunbar, in 1899 and 1900 
(Table IV.). 

Mr H. T. Waddington, Bournemouth, has kindly furnished me with 
particulars of two series of casts of this form. The various ecdyses 
which the two specimens underwent have been carefully recorded by him, 
and he has permitted me to publish them here (Table VI.). The 
measurements of the successive casts of a third crab, which were presented 
by Mr. Waddington to Professor Howes, were kindly supplied to me by 
Mr. William Wallace, B.Sc, Lowestoft. 

Specimen A. when captured, viz., in August, measured 3*25 mm.; it 
had probably been in the megalops stage not more than a month 
previously. When one year old it measured 30*75 mm., i.e., 1| inches ; 
when two years old it measured nearly 46 mm., i.e., a little less than 
2 inches across. Assuming that the rate of growth in nature approxi- 
mated to the data here given, we should conclude that the beach group con- 
sisted of crabs in their second year, and that a crab of 4^ inches across 
would be not less than three years, nor probably more than four years old. 



126 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 





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§ I T i 7 g S 5 S ' i I 
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of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



127 



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•XiCH- ^^CH 'X30+ "XJOf "TOOf 'SdCX- -xdCH- 'oOf -^oOf -XJCH- ^DOf "^DOf 


October 1801— continued, 
November 1897 — continued, • 
December 1897 — continued, 
Januarj- 1808— continued, 
Feljruary 1898 — continued, 
March 1898 — continued, - 
April 1808— continued, ■ 
May 1898 — contimied, 
June 1808— continued, - 
July 1898 — continued, 
August 1808— contimied, 
September 1808— continued, ■ 



128 



Part III. — -Twenty-second Annual Bepor'i 





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October 1897— conti7W«?(i, 
November 1897 — continued, 
December 1897 — continued, 
January 1898— continued, 
February 1898— continued, 
March 189S — continued, - 
April 1898— conthmed, • 
May 1898 — continued, 
June 1898— cmitinued, • 
July 1898— continued, 
August 1898— contimied, - 
September 1898— continued, - 































of the FisheriJ^ Board for Scotland. 



129 





"3 
1 


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^- 1 1 ^- f •- 1 

I I I f f 1 i 1 1 1 i i 
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-s - 1 r s ! i ^ i i 5 1 



130 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 





Of 




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9» 











of the Fishery Board jor Scotland. 



131 



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132 



Part III — Twenty-second Annual Report 







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of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 133 







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Part III. — Tiuenty-second Annual Report 



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of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 

TABLE VI. 

Waddington's Series of Cancer pagiirus. 



135 



No. 


Date. 


1^ 


O xn 


a 1 


No. 


Date. 


1 ^■ 


Pi c 


a 1 




A 


2 








B 








1 


4 Aug., 1899,- 


3-25 










9-25 






2 


15 n „ ■ 


4-75 


\ 




1 


30 April, 1900,- 


13 


1/3-4 




3 


7 Sept., ,, - 


5-75 


1/4-7 


23 


2 


25 Aug., ,, - 


15-5 


1/5-2 


117 


4 


6 Oct., „ - 


8-5 


i 


29 


3 


30 Oct., ,, - 


18-75 


1/4-7 


66 


5 


3 Nov., ,, - 


10-75 


1/3-7 


28 


4 


9 Feb., 1901, - 


20-75 


1/6-5 


102 


6 

7 


12 Dec, „ - 
27 Jan., 1900, - 


14-5 
19-5 


1/2-8 
1/2-9 


39 

46 














€ 


$ 






8 


3 April, „ - 


24-5 


1,3-9 


66 


1 


7 Sept., 1896,- 


12 






9 


4 June, ,, - 


30-75 


1/3-9 


63 


2 


'25 Nov., ,, - 


10 


h 




10 


30 Sept., ,, - 


36-5 


1 


118 


3 


20 Mar., 1897,- 


19 


1/5-3 


115 


11 


19 Mar., 1901, - 


45-75 


1/3-9 


170 


4 


26 May, „ - 


24 


1/3-8 


67 


12 


5 Nov., ,, - 


56-5 


1. 


231 


5 


21 Aug., „ - 


30 


i 


87 












6 


4 Nov., ,, - 


37 


1/4-2 


75 












7 


31 Dec, ,, - 


46 


1/4-1 


57 



The Migrations of Crabs. 

TABLE VII —ADDITIONS TO THE LISTS OF LABELLED CRABS RECAPTURED. 



Set Free. 








Recap 


rURED. 










% - 
"a 2 

^1 


Date. 


Place (A). 


Date. 


Place (B). 


S 
x; . 

o 

O 


? 5 
Days 


'A 


Distance 

a d 
Bearing 
of Place 
(B) from 
Place (A). 


o 

c 

c 

05 


Sex. 


Distance and 

Bearing from 

Dunbar. 


o-S 


Distance and 

Bearing froru 

Dunbar. 




1072 
lOC-2 


Oct. 24, 1S99. 


Mouth of Har- 
bour. 




May 12, 1900. 
.. 14, „ 


3}m. N.W. 
lim. N.W. 


8 
8 


S. 

s. 


200 
202 


H. 
H. 


3Jm. N.W. 
l.Jm. N.W. 


1| 

5i 


6 


894 


Sep. 23, „ 








1 11. >i 


7m. S.S.E. 


8 


s. 


233 


H. 


7m. S.S.E. 


It 


S 


943 


>• >> 


)> II 






1 15i „ 


3Jm. N.N.W. 


8 


s. 


234 


H. 


3!m.N.N.W. 


51 


6 


915 


)> '> 


.. II 






. 21, „ 


4m.N.W.byN. 


10 


s. 


240 


H. 


4m.N.W.byN. 


51 


2 


1121 


Oct. 26, „ 


lira. E. byN. 


17 




, 31, „ 


!m. E. 


7 


s. 


217 


H. 


Im. S.W. 






1159 
999 
963 


Nov. i, „ 
Sept. 25, „ 


Mouth of Har- 
bour. 
2lm. E. by N. 


25 
25 


Jv 


. 31, „ 
me 4, ,, 
'1.V 12, 1, 


Near Cove, 7m. 
from Dunbar. 
IJm. N.W. 


7 

11 

5 


s. 

s. 
s. 


208 
252 
290 


H. 
H. 
H. 


Sm. E. 
7m. S.S.E. 
3m. W. 


43 


6 


1100 


Oct. 26, „ 


1 Jm. E. by N. 


17 


1, 21, „ 


Im. N.W. 


7 


s. 


268 


H. 


2m. W. 






1147 
1119 


Nov. 4, „ 
Oct. 26, „ 


Mouth of Har- 
bour, 
lim. E. byN. 


17 


1, 21, „ 
Oct. 20, 1902. 


lim.ofTD'nb'r 


7 
15 


s. 

s. 


259 
3yrs. 


H. 
H. 


Im. N.W. 


6i 


6 


.v. 


G.— The followi 


ng contractionb 


are us 


ed 


in the above 


Table, viz. :— ' 


m," n 


ile ; " 


yrs. " 1 


ears ; 


"S.,' Soft; "I 


I.,' lis 


rd. 



136 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

A number of labelled crabs which were received after the publication 
of the previous paper are recorded in Table VII. One of these crabs (the 
last in the Table), which is a male measuring 6^ inches across, is especially 
interesting. It was recaptured after an interval of three years very near 
the place where it was set free. When liberated it was a soft crab, and 
it had not cast its shell during its period of freedom. The abstention of 
the large crabs from casting has been exemplified by a number of 
instances, but the time of abstention has only been determined by 
secondary proofs. For example, a crab is captured with an oyster attached 
to its back. Since the age of the oyster may be more or less accurately 
judged from its size, a part of the period that has elapsed since the 
ecdysis has been determined. Thus Buckland recorded two crabs which 
had on their backs three-year-old oysters : they could not have cast for 
three years. Another, now in the Ipswich Museum, is said to have a 
four-year-old oyster on its back. 

The present case gives a definite abstention for three years at the time 
of capture. At the beginning of 1903 it had not cast, and would not 
probably cast then till the summer. This would make the abstention 
from casting four years. There, of course, comes a stage when the crab 
ceases altogether from casting. 

Meek gives* a list of the labelled crabs set free on the coast of 
Northumberland and which have been recaptured at various times during 
1902 and 1903. One of these is of special interest. Set free in October 
it was captured in the following July at Fortieth en (near Aberdeen), a 
point about 80 miles to the north of the place of liberation. 

The Changes in the Carapace of Cancer pagurus. 

Cunningham in his paper on the early post-larval stages of this 
Crustacean drew attention to the great diflerence between the early and 
the adult form of the carapace. In the adult the carapace is broadly oval 
in shape, and is crenate at the edge. In the very young crab the edge is 
toothed. In his opinion the general resemblance of the carapace, in this 
stage, to that of Atelecyclus heterodon, along with certain other points of 
similarity, indicated a closer afiinity between the two species than had 
previously been recognised. 

I have had the opportunity of examining one of the series of casts 
belonging to Mr. Waddington (A, Table VI.). They are, with the excep- 
tion of the first, shown in natural size in figs. 71-81. The changes which 
take place in the shell are well seen. In fig. 103 an enlarged drawing 
of the second of the series is shown ; it measures 4 '7 5 mm. across 
the broadest part of the back. The carapace has five main lateral 
teeth, of which the first forms the hind edge of the orbit, while the 
fourth projects laterally farther than the others. The main teeth are all 
serrated ; between each two a secondary tooth is found. The rostrum 
consists of three dentate lobes. The edge of the orbit is serrated ; and on 
the surface of the carapace and on the limbs there are numerous small 
teeth. 

In the next stage (fig. 102) — 5-75 mm. in greatest breadth — a very 
considerable advance on the preceding is noticed. The secondary teeth 
have increased in proportional size, and with the main teeth are now more 
lobate or rounded. All of the lateral edge and the margin of the orbit 
is minutely dentate. On the rostrum the three lobes show merely a 
minutely notched anterior edge — the serrations being rounded, not tooth- 
like. The chela is furnished with tooth-like tubercles. 

*Meek, "The Migrations of Crabs." — JVorthmnberhutd Sea-Fisheries Committee. Report 
on the Scientific Investigations for the year 1903. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1904. 



of the Fisliery Board for Scotland. 137 

Fig. 101 shows the stage immediately following, viz., 8-5 mm. The 
lateral teeth of the carapace are now lobes having minutely notched 
edges ; the secondary lobes are almost as large as the primary. The 
margin of the orbit and rostrum is minutely notched. The tubercles on 
the chela are rounded. 

In the succeeding stage, 10 "75 mm. (fig. 98), a condition closely ap- 
proaching the adult is to be noted. The notched edge of the lateral lobes 
of the orbit and rostrum is still more prominent than in the adult. The 
tuberculated chela is very noticeable. A distinction in size between the 
primary and secondary lobes is still to be seen. The edge of the carapace 
shows a triple row of tubercles. The dorsum also is tuberculated. 

The sixth cast, 14 '5 mm. (fig. 76), is represented in figs. 99 and 97, 
the former showing the frontal region. The lobes of the edge of the cara- 
pace are on the whole very similar to the adult condition. The chela is 
still tuberculated, and the triple row of tubercles which has succeeded 
the notches is very prominent. 

In the cast shell shown in fig. 77 (19"5 mm. across) the tubercles are 
prominent but smaller. 

They are further reduced in the next stage, viz., 24*5 mm. (fig. 78), 
and in that immediately following, viz., 30 mm. (fig. 79), the tubercles 
are practically reduced to the condition in the adult. 

Fig. 81, the last of the series, was not made from the actual specimen, 
but is a drawing of a crab of the 8ame size. 



LITERATURE. 



Bkauk. — " Zur Kenntniss des Vorkommens der Speichel — u. Kittdi-iisen bei den 

Decapoden." Arbeit a. d. Zool. Instit. in WUrzburg, iii. Bd., pp. 121-166, 

Taf. viii.-ix., 1875. 
Beocchi. — " Recherclies sur les organes genitaux males des Crustaces decapodes." 

Annales des Sciences naturelles, Zoologie et Paleontolofjie, t. ii., 1875. 
Cano. — "Morfologia dell' apparecchio sessuale femminile, glandole del ceiiiento e 

fecondazione nei Crostacei Decapodi." Mittheil. a. d. Zool. Stat. z. Neapel, 

ix Bd., 4 Hft., ISfeO, pp. 503-532, 1 tav. 

CUENOT. — "Etudes physiologiques sur les Crustaces decapodes." Archives de 

Biologie, t. xiii., 1895. 
CuXNiNGHAM. — " On the Early Post larval Stages of the Common Crab (Cancer 

pagurus), and on the Affinity of that Species with Atelecyclus heterodon." 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, March 15, 1898. 
DuvERNOY. — "Fragments sur les organes de generation de divers animaux." 

Mhiioires del' Academic des Sciences deVInstitut de France, t. xxiii., Paris, 

1853, p. 105, pi. i.-ix. 
Grobben. — " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der miinnlichen Geschlechts-organe der 

Dekapoden." Arbeit a. d. Zool. Instit. d. Universitdt, Wien, 1 Bd.,pp. 1-94, 

Taf. i.-vi., 1878. 
Heath. — "The Breeding Hal)its of Cancer magister." American Naturalist, 

xxxvi., pp. 501, 502. 1902. 
Herrick. — " The American Lobster : A Study of its Habits and Development." 

Bxdletin, U.S. Fish Commission, for 1895. 
Leeeboullet. — " Recherches sur le mode de fixation des ojufs aux fausses pattes 

abdominales dans les ecrevisses." Annales des Sciences natwelles, sev. Ae 

(Zoologie), t. xiv., 1860, p. 359. 

" De la maniere dont les (Eufs des Ecrevisses s'attachent aux fausses 

pattes abdominales." — L'Institut, t. xxi., No. 998, p. 64. 1853. 

M'Intosh. — "On the Hairs of Carcinus moenas." Trans. Linnean Society, vol. 
xxiv. 

Mayer, P. — "Sur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Dekapoden." — Jeoa. Zeit 
Naturw., 11 Bd., 1877. 



138 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



Meek. — Various Papers on the Crab in the Reports of the Northumberland Sea- 
Fisheries Comviittee— 1898-1903. 

Rathke. — " Untersuchiingen ueber die Bildung u. Entwickeliing der 
Fhisskrebses," folio, Leipzig, 1829. 

Sabatier. — " De la Spermatogenese chez les Crustaces decapodes." Travaux de 
rhistitut de Zoologie de Montpellier et de la Station maritime de Ce.tte 
(Sabatier et Rouzaud), nouvelle serie, memoire No. 3, Montpellier, 1893. 

Scott. — " On the Spa\vning of the Common Lobster." Report of the Lancashire 
Sea-Fisheries Laboratory for 1902, No. xi., Liverpool, 1903, p. 20. 

TuLLBERG. — " Studien iiber den Ban u. das Wachsthum des Hummerspanzers u. 
des Molhiskenschalen," 12taf. Kql. Veternsk. Akad. HandL, 19 Bd. Stock- 
holm, 1882. 

ViTZOU. — " Recherches sur la Structm-e et la Formation des Teguments chez les 
Crustaces decapodes." Archives de Zoologie E.xpirimentale et G6n6rale, t. x. , 
Paris, 1882. 

Williamson. — "Contributions to the Life-History of the Edible Crs^h {Cancer 
pagurus)." Eighteenth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland, 
Pt. IIL, 1900. 

"On the Larval and Early Young Stages, and Rate of Growth, of 

Carcinus 7n(ffnas." Tioenty-first Annual Report of the Fishery Board for 
Scotland, Pt. IIL, 1903. 

Wilson. — Northximberland Sea-Fisheries Committee. Reports on the Crab 
Fishery, 1893 and 1895. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

WiTTEN. — "On the Structural Changes accompanying the Ecdysis of the Crab." 
Northumberland Sea Fisheries Committee. Report on the Scientific Lncestiga- 
tions for the year 1902, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1903, p. 53. 

"On the Structural Changes accompanying the Ecdysis of the Crab' 

Cancer pagurus." Northimiberland Sea-Fisheries Committee. Report on the 
Scientific Livestigations for the year 1903. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1904, p. 42. 



Letters Used. 



A . — antenna. 

a. — basal bone. 

ah. — abdomen, 

an. — anus. 

ant. — antennule. 

ar. — arm of second penis. 

h. — basal bone. 

c. — core. — ctecum, fig. 38. 

car. — carapace. 

chr. — chorion. 

dis. — egg with distended chorion. 

e. — eye. 

en. — endopodite. 

ex. — exopodite. 

/. -follicle. 

g.pj. — genital papilla. 

i.ch. — inner chevron (Istabdom. sec 

i.Z.- -inner layer. 

y.— joint. 

m. — membrane. 



mu. — muscle. 

o.ch. — outer chevron (1st abdom. seg.). 

o.l. — outer layer. 

lp.-2p. — first and second penes. 

p. — p. — plane of movement of distal 

parts of endopodite of right side. 
23'. — p' . — plane of movement of distal 

parts of endopodite of left side. 
p.f. — peri vitelline fluid. 
r. — rod. 

si. — solid in spermatheca. 
s. e. — secondary envelope. 
sp.- — sperms. 

sp.w. — wall of spermatheca. 
th. — thorax. 
V. — valve, vulva. 
v.d. — vas deferens, 
v.m. — vitelline membrane. 
v.w. — wall of vagina. 
yJc— yolk. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 



Plate II. 

All the drawings are of Cancer pagurus, with the exception of Figs. 27, 28, and 
29, which are of Munida riigosa. 

Figures 1, 3, 5, 11, 12, IS, 21, 23?), 24, 34, 35, and 36 were outlined by aid of 
the camera lucida. 



Fig. 1. Eggs impaled by hair of endopodite. November 30, 1900, 

Fig. 2. Lobule of ovary, showing a few distended eggs, dis. magnified. 

Fig. 3. Eggs in later stage of attachment than Fig. 1 . 

Fig. 4, Transverse section of first penis near base, magnified. 



57 
57 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 


6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 


Fi|. 


10. 


Fig. 
Fig. 


11. 
12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


U. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 139 

Fig. 5. Section of a ripe egg (in ovary). 

Fig. 5a. Envelopes of egg, . . . . . . . x 57 

Hair of endopodite, magnified. 

Part of long hair of exopodite, niagnilied. 

Part of short liair of exopodite, magnified. 

Ocular section of hair of exopodite, magnified. 

Transverse section of first penis at the base, magnified. 

Hair of exopodite, . . . . . . . x 19 

Hair of exopodite, . . . . . • . x 19 

Abdomen, showing relation of the swimmerets. 

Side view of the abdomen, showing the overlapping of the 
exopodites. 

Abdomen. 

16. Transverse section of median part of first penis, magnified. 

17. Ocular section of hair of exopodite, near its base. 

Fig. 18a. Longitudinal section of an egg which had been attached to a hair 

of the endopodite. January 11, 1901, . . . x 57 

Fig. 186. Section of envelopes of 18a. ■ 

Fig. 19. Shows the eggs retained in the " incubatory chamber," formed 
by the abdomen. 

Fig. 20a. Third s^^^mmeret, left side, posterior surface. 

Fig. 20?>. Third swimmeret, left side, anterior surface. 

Fig. 21. Group of eggs attached to a hair. January 11, 1901, . . x 5 

Fig. 22. Tip of hair of endopodite, magnified. 

Fig. 23a & b. Tip of hair of endopodite, magnified. 

Fig. 24. Tip of hair of endopodite, oc. 2, obj. 2 mm. O.I. 

Fig. 25. Transverse section of the first penis, close to tip, magnified. 

Fig. 26. Group of hairs of endopodite bearing eggs, magnified. 

Fig. 27. Tip of hair of endopodite of Munida riKjosa, magnified. 

Fig. 28. Egg of Munida rugosa, attached to hairs of endopodite, . x 19 

Fig. 29. Attachment of egg-stalk to hairs of endopodite (Munida rugosa), 
magnified. 

Fig. 30. Ocular section of the base of hair of endopodite, magnified. 

Fig. 31. Tip of hair of endopodite, magnified. 

Fig. 32. Ocular section of hair of endopodite, magnified. 

Fig. 33. Tip of hair of endopodite, magnified. 

Fig. 34. Section of dropsical ovarian egg with large perivitelline space. 

Fig. 35. Hair of exopodite, . . . . . . . x 19 

Fig. 36. Hair of exopodite, . . . . . . . x 19 

Plate III. 

The drawings, except where otherwise stated, belong to Cancer pagurus. 
Figvu'es 56, 57, 58, and 64 were outlined by means of the catnera lucida. 

First penis, posterior \aew. 

Longitudinal section of mouth of the spermatheca of a hard 

crab, Gy^ inches, showing three-layered wall of vagina and 

spermatheca. 
Fourth and fifth pereiopods, with genital papilla on coxopodite 

of the latter : fifth pereiopod posterior in position. 
Fourth and fifth pereiopods, with genital papilla : fifth 

pereiopod anterior in position. 
Outer surface of tip of exopodite of third swimmeret, left side, 

magnified. 
Sloughed-ofl:" outer skin of hair, with empty egg-capsules 

attached, magnified. 
Abdomen, with first and second penes in one position. 
Abdomen, with first and second penes in second position. 
Muscles of second penis, magnified. 
Genital papilla, magnified. 
Muscles of first penis, magnified. 

Spermatheca of soft crab, 6| inches across. December 1st, 1899. pi. Plug. 
Tip of endopodite, inner surface, magnified. 
Tip of exopodite, inner surface, magnified. 
Muscles of abdomen, \iew from median line. 
Second penis, anterior view. 
Second penis, posterior view. 

Diagram of relation of penis to the spermatheca and the plug. fl. Fluid. 
Coxopodite of fifth pereiopod, showing the perforation for the 

issue of the vas deferens. 



Fig. 
Fig. 


37. 
38. 


Fig. 


39. 


Fig. 


41. 


Fig. 


42. 


Fig. 


43. 


Fig. 


44. 


Fig. 
Fig. 


45. 
46. 


Fig. 
Fig. 


47. 

48. 


Fig. 


49. 


Fig. 


50. 


Fig. 


51. 


Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 


52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
55a. 



140 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

Fig. 56. Egg of Homarus imlgaris, showing throe attachments, . . x 10 

Fig. 57. Egg of Homarus vulgaris, showing tliree attachments. 

Fig. 58. Tip of liair of endopodite of Homarus vulgaris. 

Fig. 59. Dissection of first penis, magnified. 

Fig. 60. Longitudinal section of first penis, semi -diagrammatic, to show 

the relationship of first and second penes and the genital 

papilla, magnified. 
Fig. 61. Longitudinal section of second penis, to show muscles seen from 

median line. 
Fig. 62. Tip of endopodite, posterior surface, magnified. The hairs ought 

in proportion to be larger (viz., about one-third longer) 

than they are here represented. 
Fig. 63. Plan of a row of hairs of endopodite, magnified. 

Fig. 64. Hair of endopodite of Neplirops norvegicus, . . . x 48 

Fig. 65. First and second penes, lateral (external) view. 
Fig. 66. Muscles of second penis. 

Fig. 67. Spermatheca of hard crab, 6| inches. December 1st, 1899. 
Fig. 68. Second penis, lateral (external) view. 
Fig. 69. First penis, lateral (external) view, shows relationship of genital 

papilla. 
Fig. 70. External (attached) egg of Ca)'CJjm«wi(Mia5. December 21st, 1897. 

Plate IV. 
Figs. 94, 95, and 96 were outlined by means of the camera lucida. 

Figs. 71-81. Successive casts of a Cancer pagioi'us, Nos. 2-12 inclusive, 
viz.. A, Table VI. Natural size. 

Figs. 82-93. Successive casts of a Carcinus ananas, viz.. No. 1 in 
Table I. in " On the Larval and Early Young Stages, and 
Rate of Growth, of Carcinus mcenas." Twenty-first Annual 
Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland, Pt. III., p. 166. 

Fig. 94. Egg of Cancer pagurus taken from the vagina of a spawning 

female by means of a pipette, 30/11/00, . . . x 57 

Fig. 95. Egg just extruded, . . . . . . . x 57 

Fig. 96. Egg found on Ijottom of tank beside a spawning Cancer pagurus, x 57 

Plate V. 

The figures in this plate, with the exception of Fig. 100, were outlined by means 
of the camera lucida. 

Fig. 97. Edge of carapace of the cast represented in Fig. 75, . . x 19 

Fig. 98. Half of carapace do. do. 74, . . x 19 

Fig. 99. Frontal region do. do. 75, . . x 19 

Fig. 100. Cast chela of a Cancer pagurtis to show the absorption lines 

(abs.) on [the coxopodite, basi-ischiopodite, and meropodite 

joints. Natural size. 
Fig. 101. Half of cai-apace of the cast represented in Fig. 72, . . x 19 

Fig. 102. Do. do. do. 73, . . x 19 

Fig. 103. Enlarged drawing of cast shell represented in Fig. 71, carapace, x 19 
Fig. 104. Joint on second penis, Cancer pagurus. 
Fig. 105. Tip of second penis, do. 

N.B. — The " arrows" which accompany certain of the figures serve to indicate 
the anteroposterior median line ; the point of the arrow is directed anteriorly. 



F. B. REPORT. 19M. 




Caruxr pagunaSrA 



B REPORT. 1»M 




Caacer pagurtts-^CASHna, Ii 



P-EFORI. 190J 




H.C.W. 

Fig 100 A- H. Wju.uk. 



Cnnerr patiuruM -Caftino. Etc. 



cfthe Fishery Board for Scotland 141 



III.— THE RATE OF GROWTH OF FISHES. By Dr. T. Wemtss 

Fulton, F.R S.E., Superintendent of Scientific investigations. 

(Plates YI.-XII.) 



Contents. 

1. Introductory, . . . , 

2. The Relation of Length to Weight, 

3. The Average Size at Maturity, 

4. The Influence of Temperature on Growth, 

5. The Sprat, . . . . , 

6. The Witch, . . . . , 

7. The Norway Pout; . . . , 

8. The Sharp- tailed Lumpenus, 



Page. 
141 
142 
150 
159 
171 
186 
195 
202 
Tables showing the Relation of Length to Weight, . 205 



1. Introduction. 

The present paper contains the results of further observations I have 
made on the rate of growth of fishes, and is a continuation of the investi- 
gation on this subject as dealt with in some of the preceding Reports of 
the Fishery Board. In that for 1901 I described fully the methods 
adopted,* the collections being obtained by the use of a fine-meshed net 
around the cod-end of the otter trawl, on the occasions when steam- 
trawlers were employed in the trawling investigations in the Moray 
Firth and Aberdeen Bay. It need only be mentioned here that the 
fishes are measured in millimetres, the measurements tabulated, and 
curves formed on the measurements as grouped into 1cm. or "Scm. 
groups. It may be stated that the method of collection with a small- 
meshed net in the way described has now been adopted in some other 
countries as well as on- the " Goldseeker,'"' the vessel employed in the 
Scottish part of the international investigations of the North Sea. 

In addition to the measurements of numerous fishes, only part of which 
are worked up in this paper, viz. those dealing with the sprat, the witch, 
the Norway pout, and the sharp-tailed Lujnjyenus, observations were also 
made on a large scale with the view of determining the relation between 
the weight and the length of a considerable number of species, and these 
are detailed below. I have found that the law which governs the relation 
between the weight and dimensions of similarly-shaped bodies does not 
apply with precision to fishes. They increase in weight more than the 
increase in length would, according to the law, imply, and since the number 
of fishes in which the relation between the length and weight has been 
determined was large, viz. 5675, belonging to nineteen species, and in no 
case has the law been found to apply exactly, it appears to be well-established 
that on the assumption that the specific gravity of the fishes does not 
change during growth they must increase in some other of their dimensions, 
whether breadth or thickness, in greater proportion than they increase in 
length. 

* Twentieth Ann. Rep., Pt. III., p. 326. 



142 Pari III. — Tiventij-secooid Annual Report 

I have likewise carried on a number of experiments in order to ascertain 
the relation which exists between the growth of fishes and the temperature 
of the water in which they live. It is well known from previous observa- 
tions that in the winter season the growth of fishes, at least in the inshore 
waters, is slower than it is in summer ; in the case of those living 
in shallow water, subjected to the changes in the temperature of the air, 
and where the extremes of heat and cold are at their maximum, growth 
may be entirely arrested in winter. In the Annual Report of the Board 
above referred to I gave particulars on this point with regard to the young 
plaice living on the beaches, and exhibited a curve in which the relation 
between the temperature of the water and the degree of growth of the 
plaice was established. 

The experiments, which are described in detail below, consisted in 
keeping fishes of various species in tanks in which the water was arti- 
ficially heated, and the result on the growth of the fish was very marked, 
those in the water of a high temperature growing much faster than 
those in the water at lower temperature. It was, moreover, shown, as 
might have been anticipated, that the fishes in the warmer water ate much 
more food than those in the colder water, the digestive ferments being 
more active at the higher temperatures, and the fish being thus able to 
digest a larger quantity of food in a given time. It was found that the 
appetite of the fishes was in relation to the power of digestion, that is to 
the temperature of the water, those in very cold water scarcely eating 
at all, although abundantly supplied with food. In the same way, the 
metabolism in the tissues was more rapid, and nutrition and growth much 
accelerated. 

Certain differences were found to exist in different species, which are 
referred to below. 



2. The Relation of Length to "Weight. 

In dealing with the rate of growth of fishes it is customary to take one 
of the dimensions of the fish and compare the variations of this 
dimension at different periods or in different collections. In some cases, 
as with the rays, it is more convenient to take the breadth across the 
pectorals than the length. The selection of one dimension for com- 
parative measurement is very convenient, and it is accurate on the 
assumption that the fish grows equally in all directions, increasing in 
breadth and thickness in the same ratio as it does in length. It is 
obvious, however, that the true criterion of growth is the increase in the 
mass of the fish, and this can be determined either by the \ariation in 
the volume or in the weight. 

The determination of the variation in volume is a somewhat slow 
process, and the methods are subject to difficulties in practice. With 
small fishes a burette may be used with accurate results ; with those 
of large size the quantity of water displaced by the fish was measured 
separately in a burette, the fish itself being placed in a convenient 
vessel. In the case of fishes of moderate dimensions the method used 
was to place them in a vessel provided with a syphon to draw off the 
amount of water displaced, which was then measured in a burette ; the 
bore of the syphon being so adapted as to always remain full of fluid. 
As a rule this mode of determining the increase in bulk was found to be 
less satisfactory than the method of weighing the fish, and this was the 
method chiefly employed. 

According to the well-known law, that the volume of similarly-shaped 
bodies of the same specific gravity vary directly as the cube of corre- 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 143 

spending dimensions — a law which was brought prominently forward by 
Herbert Spencer in his " Principles of Biology " — a fish which has doubled 
its length should have increased its weight eight times. This law is a 
very convenient one in considering the rate of growth of fishes, all that 
is required, if the law holds true throughout, being to determine the 
relation between the weight and one of the dimensions at a particular 
size and then calculate the ratio between that dimension and the weight 
at different sizes. The truth of the law has not, however, been proved, 
experimentally in the case of fishes, as far as I am aware, and it was 
decided to actually measure and weigh a large number of fishes of 
difTerent sizes, and to construct curves in order to bring out the relation 
between the length and the weight at different sizes. In the Twentieth 
Annual Report of the Fishery Board* I described the method of 
presentation I had adopted, the absciss;e in the diagrams representing 
length and the ordinates weight; and I pointed out that the curves 
varied for different species, and that they did not everywhere agree with 
the rule as to similarly-shaped bodies above referred to. 

Since then many more fishes and observations have been added to my 
lists, and I propose to discuss some of the results now. 

In all cases, unless where otherwise stated, the observations have been 
made at difierent times of the year, and on fish from different localities. 
This method will give a better result as to the relations between length 
for the species generally, although it is probable that the ratio varies 
somewhat at different places and at certain times of the year — at all 
events in fish which have reached adult size. This is referred to at 
greater length below. 

In the observations made on this subject each fish was individually 
measured in millimetres and then weighed in grammes, and the method 
adopted in presenting the results was to collect the records of weight to 
the nearest "5 centimetre, and take the mean of the lot. Thus the 
number of observations under each "Scm. are often unequal in amount ; 
but it was found, on testing the method, that this system gave practically 
the same result as when the calculations were made for the observations 
under each millimetre measurement — a very laborious process. 

The mean weight under a given "Scm. was then tabulated, as well as 
the number of fishes at that size and the greatest and lowest weight 
among them, and this information for the various fishes dealt with is 
given in a series of tables appended (p. 205), while the average weight is 
represented in the series of diagrams (Pis. VI, VII). In constructing these 
curves the average weight of the fishes at a particular length was not 
itself taken, the series of averages being arithmetically smoothed, by 
taking the mean of the averages immediately before and after ; as a 
rule only the one preceding and the one following was combined with the 
average being smoothed, but in some cases where the number of 
observations was small a number of the preceding and succeeding 
averages were combined also and the mean taken. 

The fishes in which the relation between the length and weight at different 
sizes were determined were the following : — Plaice, common dab, lemon 
dab, long rough dab, witch, brill, cod, haddock, whiting, herring, sprat, 
Norway pout, and partly also the turbot, little sole, gurnard, halibut, 
flounder, armed bullhead, and Lumpenus. 

It will be seen from the tables and the curves of these fishes how very 
greatly the weight for a given length differs in different species, and thus 
how very different is the increment of growth for a given increase in the 
length. Among the food-fishes examined by far the heaviest in proportion 

* Page 334, 1902. 



144 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



to its length is the turbot, and after it comes the brill ; at the opposite 
extreme is the witch, which is the lightest of all :— 



Cm. 


g 


"i- 


1 

c 
o 
S 




c 
o 

o 


1 

§ 

E 


•a 


3 

o -,- 

c 
o 


3 


i 


■i 

o 


^0 

a 


c 
-g 
a> 

X 




5 








1-17 


•97 




-45 






1-04 










67 


10 








9-6 


8-7 






5-7 


10-8 


7-93 


7-8 


7-1 


5-9 


6 


7 


15 






32-3 


34 


28-1 


31-3 


14-1 


21-6 




30-7 


28-3 


23-8 


23-4 






20 






89 3 


77-1 


74-7 


78 


35-4 


58-5 




71-1 


65-7 


54-2 


55-1 






30 








299-1 


296-4 


279 


170-4 






271-8 


243-3 


213-6 


219-5 






35 


922 


622 


561 


484-6 


470 


440 


283-5 






420 


381 


322 










40 




978 


788 


708 




683 


458 






614 


592 


513 










45 


2,000 


1,373 


1,076 


1,0-26 






677 






907 


828 












50 


2,706 


2,145 




1,429 












1,139 














60 


5,000 






2,468 












2,057 














70 


8,569 


. 




3,908 












3,3S0 














80 


. 






. 










. 


5,000 














100 


• 




• 


• 












10,194 















Among the other flat-fishes the lemon sole comes after the brill, then 
the plaice, common dab, flounder, and long rough dab, but several of 
them are very close together. Among the round-fishes the cod is the 
heaviest in proportion to its length, with the haddock next, and then the 
whiting. The sprat is, in proportion to its length, heavier than the 
herring, which shows much the same ratio as the long rough dab. It is 
noteworthy that the extremes in regard to the length- weight ratio should 
be exhibited among the flat-fishes. 

It wall also be noticed that the variation in weight at a given size in 
the same species increases very much as the fish grows in length, so that 
at the larger sizes, of the cod or turbot for example, the variation in this 
respect is most pronounced. For this reason the terminal parts of the 
curves are less satisfactory than the lower parts, as may be seen in the 
diagrams, and it would probably require a very extensive series of 
observations on these larger forms to give the relation between the length 
and the weight with high precision. Nevertheless, I think the curves 
given will be found useful in dealing with many questions connected 
with the fisheries. 

The number of the various species which have been measured and 
weighed for the purpose of this research are as follows : — 



Cod, 


471 


Little sole, 


54 


Haddock, 


844 


Turbot, 


29 


Whiting, 


507 


Brill, 


100 


Norway pout, - 


218 


Flounder, - 


48 


Plaice, 


913 


Halibut, - 


38 


Lemon dab, 


165 


Herring, - 


482 


Common dab, - 


541 


Sprat, 


339 


Long rough dab. 


335 


Gurnai'd, - 


63 


Witch, - 


426 


Armed bullhead. 


59 






Lumpenus, 


43 



-the total being 5675 fishes. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



145 



An examination of the tables and curves shows that the law in regard 
to the increase in weight according to the cube of the length, although 
broadly true, does not accurately apply in tlie case of the fishes examined. 
With scarcely an exception, the weight at a given lengtli is greater than 
the weight calculated from the law, so that if the specilc gravity of the 
fishes remains constant they must increase somewhat more in other 
dimensions than in length. 

In the case of the haddock, the plaice, and the sprat, I have calculated 
out the weights at the various sizes on the assumption that the law 
referred to held true during the growth of the fish, and these are given in 
the Table on pages 240, 241. It will be seen, by comparing them with 
the weights actually observed, that the latter exceed the former in all 
cases as stated. The datum for the calculation in each instance was the 
smoothed average for the smallest sizes of which the relative numbers 
were large. The salient features in this comparison may be given here 
as follows, the weights being in grammes : — 





Plaice. 


Haddock. 


Cm. 






Observed Weight. 


Calculated Weight. 


Observed Weight. 


Calculated Weight. 


1 




-009 




-008 


3 


— 


•252 


— 


-213 


5 


1-17 


1-167 


— 


■984 


8 


4-78 


4-78 


— 


4-03 


10 


9-62 


9-34 


7-8 


7-87 


15 


34 


31-51 


28-3 


26-56 


20 


77-10 


74-70 


65-7 


62-97 


25 


161 


145-90 


140-2 


122-97 


30 


299-10 


252-10 


243-3 


-212-50 


35 


484-6 


406-45 


381 


337-44 


40 


707-9 


597-60 


591-6 


503-73 


45 


1,026 


850-84 


828-2 


717-19 


50 


1,429 


1,167-20 


1,117 


983-80 


55 


1,820 


1,553-44 


[1,440' 


1,309-47 


60 


2,371 


2,016-79 


[1,915 


1,700 


65 


[3,331- 


2,564-17 


[3,214' 


2,162-14 


70 


[3,908] 


3,251-59 


— 


2,699-52 



The figures in brackets represent individual fishes at or very near the dimension stated. 

The comparison in the case of the sprat was as follows : — 



Centimetrep. 


Observed Weight. 


Calculated Weight. 


1 




•005 


2 


— 


•043 


3 


— 


•149 


4 


— 


•343 


5 


•67 


•670 


6 


M7 


1-190 


7 


2-02 


1-838 


8 


3-05 


2-744 


9 


4-63 


4-015 


10 


6-71 


5-36 


11 


9-48 


7-13 


12 


12-46 


9-52 


12 .5 


14-34 


— 


13 


[16-4] 


11-78 


14 




14-71 



146 



Fart III. — Twenty-seeond Anmial Report 



A simple method of determining the relatio-.iship, without calculating 
out the ratio at all lengths, is to compare the weights at twice the size ; 
according to the law the weight should be eight times greater. This has 
been done in all the possible cases throughout the tables, and, with a few 
exceptions in individual instances where the numbers were usuallysmall, 
it has been found that the weight at twice the size is greater, and some- 
times very considerably greater, than the law implies. 

Thus, among plaice of which a large number were weighed (913) there 
is no exception to the statement made, from 4-5cm. on to 35-70cm. 
Ill all cases the weight calculated in this manner is less than the weight 
actually observed, and the excess over what is required by the law is in 
some cases considerable. The following examples may be given : — 



Cm. 


Observed Weight 
(Smoothed). 
Grammes. 


Cm. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Exce.'is. 


Calculated. 


Observed. 


5 
8 

10 
12 
15 
18 
20 
22 
25 
27 
30 


1-17 

4-78 

9-62 

17-35 

34 

57-79 
77-1 
112-8 
161 
207 
299-1 


10 
16 
20 
24 
30 
36 
40 
44 
50 
54 
60 


9-36 
38-24 
76-96 
138-8 
272 
462-2 
616-8 
902-4 
1,288 
1,656 
2,392-8 


9-62 
41 

77-10 
140-6 
299-1 
527 
707-9 
954 
1,404 
1,802 
2,468 


•26 
2-78 
•14 
1-8 
27-1 
64-8 
91-1 
51-6 
116 
146 
75-2 



Throughout the tables of measurements for haddocks also the weight 
thus calculated is always under the weight observed, except in a few 
cases among the largest fishes. Whether this is due to the fact that the 
number of the fishes at the larger sizes is too small to show the true 
relation, or the difference is a real difFerence with age, cannot at present 
be decided. I give the selected examples for haddocks in the accompany- 
ing Table, with all the cases where the calculated weight is greater than 
the observed weight : — 





Observed Weight 




Weight in 


Grammes. 




Cm 


(Smoothed). 
Gramme.s. 


Cm 












Calculated. 


Observed. 




10 


7-93 


20 


60-4 


65-7 


+ 5-3 


12 


13-6 


24 


108-8 


118-3 


+ 9-5 


15 


28-3 


30 


226-4 


243-3 


+ 16-9 


18 


48-3 


36 


386-4 


4-25^2 


+ 3S-8 


20 


65-7 


40 


535-6 


591 •& 


+ 56-0 


22 


91-4 


44 


731-6 


777-6 


+ 46 


25 


140-2 


50 


l,r21-6 


1,171 


+ 49-4 


26-5 


165-6 


53 


1,324-8 


1,379 


+ 54-4 


'^8-5 


205-5 


57 


1,645-0 


1,635 


-10 


31 


271-7 


62 


2,173-6 


2,110 


-63-6 


37 


465-9 


74 


3,727 


3,691 


-36 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 147 

Among conimou dabs the observed weights are always in excess also, 
with one exception, where the calculated weight for a fish of 12cni. is 
14"80 and the weight observed was 14*7 grammes. The difference in the 
smaller forms here is not so great as in those of moderate size. At 6cm. 
the calculated weight was 1'36 grammes and the observed weight TSS ; 
at 10cm. the calculated weight was 7 '76 and the actual weight 
12'31 ; at 8cm. the calculated weight was 32*96 and the weight observed 
34-3 grammes; at 20cm. the calculated weight was 69-76 and the actual 
weight 74'7 ; at 24cm. the calculated weight was 117-6 and the weight 
observed 142-3; at 30cm. the calculated weight was 224-8 and the 
actual weight 296-4 ; at 36cm. the calculated weight was 403-2 and 
the weight observed 487 grammes. 

It was the same with the lemon dab, no exception being found. The 
calculated weight at 15cm. was 26"8 and the real weight 32-3 ; at 31cm. 
the former was 288 8 and the observed weight was 354 grammes ; 
at 36cm. the respective weights were 436-8 and 595 grammes, and at 40cm. 
they were respectively 714-4 and 788 grammes. With the Norway 
pout, the herring, the sprat, the long rough dab, the cod, the witch, and 
the whiting the same method shows the same general result, an excess of 
weight over that to be deduced from the law. I append here some of 
the figures where this appears : — 



Table. 



148 



Part III. — T'lventy-second Annual Report 



Cm. 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
20 
24 

25 

28 

30 

35 

40 

45 

48 

50 

55 

60 

70 

75 

94 
100 
108 



Cod. 



II. 



Whiting. 



I. II. 



40 
46-2 
63-4 
120 
138-4 
196-8 
245-6 
394-4 
568-8 
828 
985 
1,172 
1,588 
2,174 
3,360 
3,948 
7,888 
9,112 
11,728 



45-4 
54 
71-1 
1231 
146-5 
210-7 
271-8 
420 
614-3 
907 
1,013 
1,139 
1,608 
2,057 
3,380 
4,000 
9,144 
10,194 
12,239 



12 



27-2 

34-4 

40-8 

56-8 

99-2 

112-8 

154-4 

190-4 

305-6 

433-6 



Witch. 



1-52 



12-4 



23-8 

35-2 
41-3 
54-2 

102-4 

118 

178-1 

210-6 

332 

513 



7-6 

9-1 

10-5 

11-7 
12-8 



II. 



1-46 



67-2 



112-6 



9-9 
11-7 
14 
16-9 
20 



Long Rough 
Dab. 



2-64 
4-0 



170-4 



7-76 
10-4 
12-2 
15-4 
18-5 
21-4 
28-4 
31-2 
45-6 
84 



II. 



Herring. 



2-68 
3-9 



7-85 
10-5 
13-3 
16-5 
21-6 
27-2 
32-4 
40-4 
58-5 
122 



I. II. 



Sprat. 



I. II. 



819 



984 



283 



589 



458 



791 



23-8 
29 
34-2 
47-2 
84-8 
96-8 
141-6 
187-2 



29-1 

34-1 
40-3 
55-1 

106-1 

119-8 

174 

219-5 



4-0 
5-36 
7-04 
9-36 



4-6 

6-71 

9-48 

12-46 



Among the exceptions to the statement that the rule does not apply 
the most common are to be found among the small and young forms and 
in the whiting. In many cases the weight of the smallest individuals 
whose weight may be calculated by the method described is under the 
ratio prescribed by the law, or in conformity with it, and thus differs from 
what obtains among the larger individuals. It seems not improbable 
that the explanation of this circumstance is that, in their early stages, 
the fishes grow in length in a greater ratio than they grow in other 
dimensions. This is specially observable among the whitings, witches, 
and long rough dabs, although in the case of the two latter, at all events, 



(if the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



149 



the tendency is markedly in. the opposite direction later on. In many 
cases in the very largest fishes a few exceptions also occur, and this may 
be due to defective nutrition with age, or to the fact that the number of 
the fishes of large size examined was much less and not sufficient to bring- 
out the true relationship. It is to be observed that the statement that the 
law does not accurately apply is supported by that part of the tables and 
curves where the observations are most numerous, and which, as a rule, 
includes those fishes which are in adolescence. 

Among cod the greatest number of exceptions were found to occur. 
The observed weight continued to be greater than that required by the law 
from 17cm. to 48cm., and then from that point to 69cm., with one or two 
exceptions, it was less. The number of specimens of the larger sizes was, 
however, comparatively small, and in the case of the cod many of these large 
specimens were weighed in jSIay, after they had spawned. In most of the 
other cases it may be said, although spawning and spent fish are included, 
the number of these is small ; and the sudden loss of weight immediately 
after spawning is marked, although it appears to be rapidly regained. 

I am not at present able to offer any satisfactory explanation of the 
departure from the law of grt)wth generally accepted in the case of fishes ; 
and perhaps it may be said that the application of this law in biology has 
not yet been experimentally tested on a sufficient scale among many species 
of animals. In the growth of some animals there is no doubt that the ratio 
between the dimensions does not continue constant, and that consequently 
alteration of shape occurs in the course of growth. In the case of fishes 
the relation between the length and the weight is in many, and probably 
most, instances modified in connection with reproduction to a considerable 
extent, and it may also be altered by the changes which take place in 
certain of the viscera, as, for example, in the liver, and by the general 
conditions of nutrition due to season and other circumstances. For 
obvious reasons, variations in the quantity of food which may be in the 
stomach or intestine may be neglected. It has to be noted, however, as 
already stated, that the fishes at periods before reproductive disturbances 
begin show a marked departure from the law, and that changes arising 
from difference of season affect fishes at different sizes. 

These tables and curves will also be of value in determining the 
average weight of specimens of difiereut species belonging to different 
series or generations, and thus showing the increase of mass from one 
generation to another as well as the mean weight when the reproductive 
period is reached and the range of variation. An example may be here 
given from the plaice to show the amount of growth which may take 
place from one generation to another, and in the following Table I give 
the particulars as based on the measurements of over 1800 specimens in 
a haul in Aberdeen Bay in November : — 



Series. 


Length (Mm.). 


Weight (Grammes). 


Mean 
Increase. 












Range. 


Average. 


Range of Mean. 


Average. 




I. 


[35—85 


65] 




« 
2-5 




11. 


91—162 


118-1 


6-9-42 


17 


14-5 


III. 


164—260 


216-5 


44—181 


106 


89 


IV. 


261—369 


315 


183-676 


343 


237 


V. 


363—442 


400 


620—970 


708 


365 


VI. 


444—479 


460 


990—1,280 


1,092 


384 



150 



Part III. — Tweedy-second Annual Repor 



From this it will be seen how very greatly the weight and therefore the 
amount of grow^th in difTereut members of the same series may vary. 
The " range of the mean," moreover, refers to the average weight for the 
longest and shortest fish in a series ; the actual or possible variation in 
w^eight is much greater, as may be seen from the Tables for the plaice on 
p. 205. 

3. The Average Size at Maturity. 

With regard to the size and age at which the males and females of the 
various species of food-fishes first attain maturity, a great deal of infor- 
mation is still required. Isolated observations have been made in a 
considerable number of instances on several species, sufficient to give an 
approximate idea of the limit between the mature and the immature, but, 
as a rule, they are not of such a kind as to enable the average-size as 
well as the extremes to be determined, and on the hypothesis that 
reproduction takes place at a certain age this average-size should 
correspoiid to the average for one or other of the yearly groups. 

In one or two cases I have made a number of observations on the 
subject, particularly with regard to the plaice, the haddock, and the 
whiting, a number of these fishes being examined at the spawning time, 
the sexes determined, the condition of the reproductive organs noted, and 
the size of the fish measured. 

A number were also examined at periods anterior to the spawning time 
and the progress of the development of the eggs observed. 

Thus, among twenty-four whitings caught in the Moray Firth on the 
14th November, comprising sixteen females and eight males, it was found 
that the former ranged in size from 242 to 418mm., and in weight from 
108 to 517 grammes; the weight of the ovary varying from 0'2 to 38 
grammes, and the diameter of the eggs from -189 to •294mm. The 
following are selected examples : — 



Length. 


Weight. 


Weight of 


Diameter of 




Ovaries. 


Largest Eggs. 


Mrn. 


Gr. 


' Gr. 


Mm. 


242 


108 


0-4 


•189 


248 


110 


10 


•231 


293 


196 


1-7 


•294 


298 


198 


1-5 


•252 


304 


223 


2-1 


•231 


313 


240 


1-8 


•189 


351 


354 


2-8 


•273 


418 


517 


38-0 


'273 



The particulars in these examples show that the whitings, and probably 
even the smallest, would spawn at the next spawning season ; and it Avill 
be observed that the size of the eggs in some of the smaller specimens is 
as large as in those of considerably greater size. In the males the weight 
of the testes was also determined, and their weight did not always 
correspond with the weight of the fish, as the following examples 
indicate : — 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



151 



Length. 


Weight. 


Weight of Testes. 


Mm. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


293 


205 


0-8 


322 


281 


M 


335 


277 


0-9 


323 


331 


2-0 


339 


330 


3-5 


364 


382 


0-8 



All these males would also in all probability spawn at the next season. 

On the 27th December some others, also taken in the Moray Firth, 
were examined, and the following shows the particulars in regard to some 
of the females : — 



Length. 


Weight. 


Weight of 
Ovaries. 


Diameter of 

Eggs. 


Mm. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Mm. 


175 


40 


•11 


•063 


227 


81 


0-7 


•231 


2.54 


107-5 


M 


•189 


260 


113 


3-5 


•462 


231 


85 


0-8 


•210 



In the males the testes were as small relatively as in those examined 
in oSTovember. Several other whitings of smaller size were examined, 
from 159 to 178mm., and in all cases the ovaries and testes were 
extremely small, and the eggs minute, the largest being about •06mm. 

On 23rd January another lot were examined, and it was found that 
both the weight of the ovary and the diameter of the largest egg had 
considerably increased, as shown by the following particulars of some of 
the females : — 



Length. 


Weight. 


Weight of 
Ovaries. 


Diameter of 

Eggs. 


Mm. 


Gr. 


Gr. 


Mm. 


266 


136 


41 


•609 


269 


160 


1^8 


•357 


297 


209 


5^8 


•609 


302 


224 


39 


•441 


339 


306 


7^9 


•462 


341 


335 


11-7 


•63 



152 



Part III. — Twenti/second Annual Report 



All these females would obviously spawn in the ensuing season ; and it 
is noteworthy that some of the smaller fishes had the larger eggs. The 
weight of the testes in the male had also increased ; in specimens from 
227-232mm. they weighed 0"7-0'9 grammes, and in some from 253-267mm. 
they weighed from 1'2 to 3"8 grammes. From these indications probably 
all would spawn in the course of the next season. , 

On the 1st April, that is after the spawning season had begun, some 
others were examined. Females of 182 and 198mm. had small ovaries 
and unyolked eggs which measured from 0-6 to O'Smm. Others at 225 
and 227mm. (8^ inches) had eggs measuring up to '672, and at 232 and 
237mm. the ovaries contained ripe eggs. From the same collections 803 
whitings were assorted into males and females, the condition of the 
reproductive organs being determined ; the particulars are contained in 
the following Table : — 



" Female. 


Male. 


Cm. 


Ripe. 


Spent. 


Imnr 


lature. Ripe. 


►Spent. 


Immature. 


13 








1 






14 










3 






i 


15 


















16 










4 






6 


17 










4 






4 


18 










1 1 






3 


19 










1 2 






1 


20 


1 






1 16 






2 


21 


t,4 






4 33 


_ 




4 


22 


18 






-58 






2 


23 


33 






3 77 






1 


24 


40 






3 70 








25 


44 






3 65 










26 


40 






1 56 










27 


38 






28 










28 


27 






21 










29 


l^ 






9 










30 


13 






8 










31 


10 






3 










32 


7 






1 










33 


4 






1 










34 


1 
















35 


3 
















36 


















37 


S 
















38 


















39 


i 
















40 


. . 


















^0 ■» 






n li^^ 


J 


r'" 1 




-*\ 


' y 


\ 




^Q^ Tl \ 


^r 




1 


cr] 



In addition to these observations made on board the trawlers employed 
in the Moray Firth, in which the collections included many whitings too 
small to be marketable, the opportunity was taken to examine the sexual 
condition of a number of whitings as brought to market. These do not 
include the very smallest which may be mature, but they serve for 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



153 



comparison, and they show, moreover, the very small proportion of this 
fish which is brought to maiket in the immature condition. 



Females. 


Males. 


Cm. 


Ripe. 


Spent. 


Immature. 


Ripe. 


Spent. 


Immature. 


23 














24 


i 






1 


1 








25 


1 






1 


6 








26 


3 






1 


3 








27 


28 








14 








28 


45 








16 








29 


43 








19 








30 


50 








16 








31 


29 








16 


1 






32 


23 








18 








33 


29 








9 


1 






34 


33 








20 








35 


38 








11 








36 


24 








7 








37 


22 








7 








38 


29 








1 








39 


16 




1 




1 








40 


14 
















41 


12 








1 








42 


3 
















43 


8 
















44 


4 
















45 


1 
















46 


2 

















From these observations it appears that the female whiting may attain 
maturity when it is 20cm., or abi)ut 8 inches, in length, but that the 
average size when reproduction first begins is approximately 25cm., or 
about 10 inches. 

This conclusion agrees with the previous observations made by me on 
the rate of growth of the whiting and the size and age at which maturity 
is reached. I stated in the Twentieth Annual Report* that the whiting 
when two years old had an average size of about 9|^ inches, the range 
being from about 7| inches to 12 inches, and that this was the generation 
which commenced to spawn. The tables given above show that some of 
the males may begin to spawn at a size less than that at which the 
females spawn, but the difference is not very great, and I am disposed to 
consider that the males also do not attain maturity till they are two 
years of age. 

A series of corresponding observations were made in regard to the 
haddock, which serve to throw light on the size and age when maturity 
is first reached. On the 31st October a number were taken in Aberdeen 
Bay, the sexes determined, and the condition of the reproductive organs 
ascertained. The following shows the main features among the females — 



Part III., page 400. 



154 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 







Weight 


Size 


Leiiglh. 


Weight. 


of Ovaries. 


of Eggs. 
Mm. 


Mm. 


Or. 


Gr. 


245 


116-5 


•3 


•08 


246 


134 


•5 


•08--1 


253 


141 


•2 


•08 


276 


182 


•7 


•2 


341 


412 


2-5 


•315 


356 


496 


31 


•315 


387 


616 


2-7 


•294 


428 


814 


101 


•37-39 


525 


1,600 


140 


•36 



On 12th November another series of observations were made on 
haddocks taken in the Moray Firth, and similar observations on 
collections obtained in Aberdeen Bay on 24th December and 14th 
January, and in the Moray Firth on 21st January. The particulars in 
some of the cases are appended : — 





Length. 


Weight. 


Weight. Dia 
of Ovaries. of ^ 


meter 

Eggs. 




Mm. 


Gr. 


Gr. ]V 


fm. 


November 12 


338 


392 


3-5 -4 


2 




333 


311 


5^75 -S 


57 




315 


312 


2-9 -2 


99 




317 


347 


3-9 -3 


78 




355 


490 


30 -S 


15 




415 


782 


7-8 •S 


78 




528 


1,345 


13^5 •a 


78 


December 24 


307 


265 


4-2 


48 




329 


366 


61 


42 




341 


365 


5-3 


48 




390 


637 


43^8 


63 




416 


737 


14^7 


46 




518 


1,387 


30-3 


52 


January 14 


272 


178 


0-4 


12 




301 


224 


•26 


14 




313 


254 


\-2 


16 




325 


318 


1^4 


34 




326 


340 


6-5 


57 




348 


367 


7^0 


44 




381 


467 


2^2 


14 




383 


583 


21-5 


59 




432 


738 


17-6 


48 


January 23 


169 


38 




04 




231 


96^5 


05 


273 




257 


13D5 


0^7 


12 




271 


158 


06 


31 




235 


99-5 


0-9 


36 




223 


90^5 


0^3 


18 




287 


182 


10 


315 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



155 



Among those taken on 23rd January in the Moray Firth several at 
from 146 to 170mm, which were examined had the ovaries quite small 
and imnuiture ; some of those of 257mm. and thereabout hod only clear 
unyolked eggs measuring up to "Imm., while others of the same size, or 
even smaller, had eggs con.sidcrably larger, yolked, and would, no doubt, 
spawn before the close of the spawning season. This difference is, I 
think, to be explained by difference in age, the less matured individuals, 
although larger, being younger and belonging to a later generation. 

On the 1st April, among a number taken in the Moray Firth, quite 
ripe females were got measuring 254mni. (10 inches) and 258mm. and 
weighing 134 and 141 grammes, or about 4| ounces; others almost mature 
measured 256 and 258mm., while some quite immature were found 
measuring 283mm., or more than 11 inches. On the 23rd April a few 
fenuiles of 263mm. were ripe, and males of 255mm. and upwards and 
females of 258, 273, 296mm. and upwards were spent. 

In the collection procured on 1st April a number of the ovaries were 
examined, with the following results : — 



Cm. 
16 


Spawning or 
nearly Ripe. 


Spent. 


Immature. 






1 


17 






4 


18 








19 






1 


20 






3 


21 






10 


22 






24 


23 






30 


24 


8 




27 


25 


15 




14 


26 


11 




4 


27 


5 




2 


28 


5 


1 


1 


29 


2 




3 


30 


6 


2 




31 


4 






32 


8 


1 




33 


7 


1 




34 


12 






35 


6 






36 


3 






37 


1 


• 




38 


5 






39 


2 






40 


1 






41 









The collection was a small one, and the larger fishes were for the most 
part absent. It shows, however, that females as small as 24cm. may be 
ripe and some as large as 29cm. immature, the average size at first 
maturity in this case being a])proximately 30cm., or about 12 inches, 
which is rather under the size brought out by some other ob.servations. 
Out of a large number examined on a former occasion the smallest of the 



156 Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 

females obtained was 12 inches, and the smallest nearly mature 10 inches ; 
and Holt from his observations at G-rimsby placed the average limit 
between the mature and immature at 13 inches. 

Some observations were also made with regard to the size at which 
maturity is reached in the plaice by the examination of the fish as landed 
and also on board as brought to deck. In the latter case the examination 
was only towards the close of the spawning season, when most of the 
fishes were spent, and the information obtained in this way is therefore 
of more limited scope. 

On the 11th and 16th February 259 were examined, of Avhich 134 
were females and 125 males. Among the former 50 were spawning, 
or had the ovaries so far developed that spawning could be said to be 
imminent. The largest immature female measured 440mm., the next 
largest being 436mm. The smallest female found to be actually spawning 
was 373ram., or about 14| inches, the next smallest being 382mm; the 
smallest nearly ripe measured 360, 360, 368, and 378mm. The 
difference, therefore, between the largest immature and the smallest 
nearly mature was 80mm., or 3i inches. The numbers are not very large, 
but so far as they go they show that the average size Avhen maturity is 
first attained is about 43 or 44cm., that is, approximately, 17 inches, the 
limit also found by Holt to apply to the plaice from the northerly part of 
the North Sea, and confirmed by Kyle.* 

With the males the largest immature specimens measured 370, 367, 
and 366mm., and the smallest spawning males measured 306, 318, and 
330ram. ; the smallest nearly ripe was 317mm. and th© next 322mm. 
The difference in this case between the smallest mature and the largest 
immature amounts to 64mm., or 2| inches. Probably the examination 
of a larger number of specimens would enlarge the difference both for 
the males and females, but as they stand they agree very well with the 
overlapping in length of the respective series or generations. 

* Eighteenth Annual Report Fishery Board for Scotland, Part III., p. 190. 



[Table 



oj the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



157 



Cm. 


Females. 


Males. 


ti 
.S 
'S 

a 


6 


0) 


13 
o 


a 
a 
1— 1 


1 
a, 


o 

J?; 


c 

Oh 

m 


I 


6 

3 

a 

a 


27 


- 




- 


. 




- 


. 




- 


- 


28 


- 


- 


- 




- 




- 


■ 




- 


29 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


■ 






30 


- 


- 


- 




3 


1 


- 


■ 


1 


1 


31 




- 






2 


1 


1 




2 


3 


32 


- 


- 






4 


- 


1 


- 


1 


2 


33 


- 


- 


- 




10 


4 


3 


- 


7 


7 


34 




- 






14 


6 


6 




12 


8 


35 




- 


- 




15 


5 


5 


- 


10 




36 


- 


3 


- 


3 


7 


7 


2 


- 


9 


4 


37 


1 


1 




2 


4 


9 


2 


- 


11 




38 


2 




- 


2 


10 


9 


2 


- 


11 




39 




- 






1 


8 


2 


- 


10 




40 


- 


2 


- 


2 


3 


3 


1 


- 


4 




41 


- 


2 




2 


5 


4 


- 




4 




42 


2 


3 


- 


5 


2 


3 




- 


3 




43 


3 


2 


- 


5 


1 


1 






1 




44 


2 


2 


- 


4 


1 


1 




- 


1 




45 


4 


3 


2 


9 


- 


4 


- 




4 




46 


1 


2 


2 


5 


- 


- 




- 






47 


1 


1 


- 


2 




1 


- 




1 




48 


1 


2 


- 


3 






- 


- 






49 


- 


2 


- 


2 




2 


- 


■ 


2 




50 


- 


2 




2 


- 


2 


- 




2 




51 


1 


1 


- 


2 


- 






- 


- 




52 


1 


- 


■ 


1 


- 


2 


- 




2 




53 




- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




54 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




55 


- 


1 


- 


1 


- 








- 




56 




- 




-, 








- 


- 




57 


- 


- 


- 








- 


- 


- 




58 




- 


- 


- 


- 










■ 



(0> 



158 Fart III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 

Of those examined on the 30th of March towards the end of the 
spawcing time, two females were still spawning, their sizes being 43 and 
53cm. ; the number spent was 36, the smallest that was certainly 
determined to have spawned being 45cm. The number immature was 
51, the largest being 46' 5cm., but it is possil)le it had spawned early in 
the season. Among the males, of which 65 were examined, 11 were 
still spawning, the smallest measuring 38cm., or nearly 15 inches. Six 
were taken to be spent, the smallest being 37cm. and the largest of those 
immature was 38cm. Among the spent females it was, as a rule, easy 
to determine their condition from the fact that a small quantity of ripe 
esffs was still contained within the ovaries, sometimes amounting to a 
few teaspoonfuls. 

Some observations were also made upon the cod, and although they 
were not very extensive, so little has been exactly determined for this 
fish that they may be given here. At the end of March, when I was on 
board a trawler, we hit upon a shoal of sj.'awning cod in the Moray 
Firth, some hundreds being caught in each haul of the net, and very 
few other round fish were taken at the same time. They were actively 
engaged in spawning, the ripe eggs and the spermatic fluid flowing from 
them, and some were spent. I was struck by the fact that among these 
fish there were none of a small size, and the great majority were cod of 
the largest dimensions usually landed, Among the smallest measured 
were the following : — Females 33, 35, and 35| inches ; males 29| (quite 
ripe), 33|, 30, 34|, 35 inches. Among the few codlings taken I found 
one of 70'5cm. (27| inches) quite immature; one at 56"7cm. (22;^ 
inches) had an extremely small ovary. At Aberdeen on 18th April I 
found one measuring 72 •6mm. (28| inches) immature, and on the 11th 
February of a number of large codling examined after they had been 
landed I found males measuring 595mm. and 640mm. quite immature ; 
in the latter the testes weighed only 5"3 grammes. The largest female 
was 60-7cm., or about 24 inches, and it was immature, the largest eggs 
in the ovary measuring •18mm in diameter, and showing faint deposition 
of yolk at the periphery. 

From these facts I concluded that the size of the cod when maturity is 
first attained was probably considerably higher than is generally supposed, 
but in the Moray Firth on the very next day, viz. 1st April, a cod was 
taken in 32 fathoms off Burghead with large and perfectly mature ovaries. 
It was 65cm. (25f inches) in length and weighed 71bs. 2|oz., the roe 
weighing 432 grammes (l5|oz.). This fish had just begun to spawn, and 
it was clearly of quite a different class from the great spawning shoal 
above alluded to, in which the smallest spawning female measured 
840cm. 

It may be added that on the 12th November codling taken in the 
Moray Firth, and measuring from 535 to 610mm., had small ovaries, 
weighing from 3'1 to 6^83 grammes, the diameter of the largest eggs 
being "147 and •2mm ; while cod of 92"7 and 102"9cm. had the ovaries 
weighing 111*5 and 161.3 grammes respectively, the diameter of the 
largest eggs being •22mm. On the other hand, a cod of 74 •7cm., taken 
in Aberdeen Bay on 31st October, with ovaries weighing 56^5 grammes, 
had eggs up to •50mm. 

The average size fixed by Holt for the cod on first attaining maturity, 
viz. 25 inches, would therefore appear to be by no means too high ; many 
cod, as he points out, undoubtedly reach a considerably larger size before 
spawning. The smallest ripe female obtained by him measured 26^ 
inches ; it was thus somewhat larger than the small one above recorded 
from the Moray Firth. He, however, obtained one which was three 



of the Ftsho'i/ Board for Scotland. 159 

parts ripe and measured 224 inches. On the other hand, among those 
examined during the spawning season he found females immature as 
large as 36 inches.* 

IV. — The Influence of Temperature on the Growth of Fishes. 

In one of my previous papers dealing with the growth of fishes I 
referred to the important influence which the temperature of the water 
exercises over the rate of growth, and gave examples from the observa- 
tions made on certain species, and particularly the plaice in its younger 
stages when inhabiting the sandy beaches. t It was shown also that the 
haddock and w^hiting and other forms increase in length much more 
rapidly in summer than they do in winter, but from the want of a series 
of periodic observations on the temperature of the deeper offshore water 
in the various months throughout the year, it is not yet possible to bring 
the observations on growth into exact relation with the temperature 
variations in the water. 

It appeared to me that some results of interest might be obtained 
directly by keeping fishes in the winter in water which was artificially 
heated, and comparing their growth with other fishes kept under similar 
conditions but in water at the ordinary temperatures. This has been 
done for over five months with the results described below. 

Four different lots of fish were kept in separate and similar tanks, 
which may be distinguished as No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4. Each of 
the tanks is of concrete with the front and back of plate glass, and the 
light from windows in the tank-house passes through them, but not very 
strongly. The tanks are of uniform dimensions, measuring 5| feet in 
length by 4 feet 4 inches from back to front, and the depth of water 
during the experiments in Nos. 2, 3, and 4 was 252 ii^clies ; the volume 
of water in each of these tanks w^as therefore about 315'5 gallons, or 1433 
litres. The other tank, No. 1, owing to a defect could not be filled so 
full, and in it the depth of water was 15 inches, the volume being thus 
about 185 5 gallons, or 842 -5 litres. Tanks Nos. 1 and 2 were supplied 
from the ordinary supply pipe to the tank-house, the water thus having 
approximately the same temperature as the sea water on the beach. 
Tanks Nos. 3 and 4 were supplied with sea water from the same pipe, 
but it was first passed through a heating arrangement by which its 
temperature was raised. Considerable difticulty was at first experienced 
in raising the temperature of the water in these tanks sufficiently high. 
It was soon discovered that the use of oil heaters was insufficient, and the 
method adopted was to utilise an ordinary slow-combustion stove for heat- 
ing the apartment, upon the top of which was placed a common galvanised 
iron hot-water tank, such as are used for supplying hot water, of forty 
gallons capacity, and around it was placed an iron jacket with a space 
between in which was enclosed the smoke pipe from the stove. This 
arrangement has answered very well and with comparatively little atten- 
tion or extra cost. 

No arrangement was employed for the mechanical regulation of the 
temperature, which varied considerably from time to time, as shown in 
the tables, falling generally during the night ; but a little experience in 
firing enabled the variation to be to some extent controlled. The tem- 
perature was taken every few hours daily, and the supply of hot or cold 
water regulated accordingly, and maximum and minimum thermometers 
were also used in order to ascertain the extreme nightly range. 

*Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc. III., Special Number p. 377, 380, Ibid. III., No. 1, 79. 
^Twentieth Ann. Rep., Pt. III., pp. 335, 342. 



160 Part III. — Tivcnty-second Annual Report 



Inflow. 


Tank No. 


I. 


Tank No. II. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


5-5 


4 '2 


5-0 


— 


— 


— 


5-4 


4-6 


5-2 


6-0 


4-0 


5-3 


6-3 


4-8 


5-6 


6-4 


3-8 


5-0 


60 


3 '8 


5-1 


6-2 


3-8 


5-1 


6-4 


4-6 


5-5 


5-2 


4-4 


4-8 


5-4 


4-0 


4-4 


5-6 


4-6 


5-0 


6-1 


3-0 


5-0 


5-4 


2-8 


4-1 


5-2 


4-2 


4-4 


5-2 


4-2 


4-7 


4-3 


3-6 


3-9 


4-6 


3-8 


4-3 


6-8 


3-8 


5-1 


4-8 


3-4 


4-2 


5-2 


3-6 


4-4 


7-4 


5-4 


6-5 


5-8 


4-5 


5-3 


6-8 


5-0 


5-8 


8-4 


5-2 


6-3 


6-2 


5-0 


5-5 


5-8 


5-2 


5-6 


10-8 


5-8 


7-9 


7-8 


6-3 


6-6 


8-8 


5-4 


6-4 


10-6 


7-5 


8-3 


9-4 


6-4 


8-3 


10-4 


7-0 


8-4 


10-8 


7-6 


9-0 


10-2 


8-0 


8-8 


10-0 


7-8 


8-7 


9-2 


8-2 


8-9 


9-4 


8-0 


8-9 


9-2 


8-0 


8-6 


10-6 


9-8 


10-2 


10-4 


9-8 


10-1 


10-2 


9-4 


9-7 


10-4 


9 9 


10-2 


10-6 


9-9 


10-3 


10-4 


9-8 


10-8 



Tank No. III. 


Tank No. IV. 


Max. 


Min. 


Average < 


3f 


Max. 


Min. 


Average of 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


Max. 


Min. 


Mean. 


— 


- 


— 


— 


— 


16-4 


7-2 


12-6 


9-4 


10-8 


10-6 


7-4 


9-3 


8-3 


9-0 


14-2 


7-4 


12-7 


8-0 


10-9 


n-4 


6-3 


9-3 


7-8 


9-1 


16-4 


7-8 


14-4 


0-7 


12-1 


11-4 


7-2 


9-6 


7-9 


8-9 


17-2 


100 


15-4 


11-5 


13-5 


10-1 


5-0 


8-0 


6-8 


7-6 


21-0 


96 


17-2 


11-2 


13-2 


9-0 


4-4 


8-5 


5-7 


7-0 


19-6 


7-6 


15-3 


9-3 


12-4 


10-2 


3-9 


7-5 


4-8 


6-0 


18-3 


7-8 


15-6 


8-9 


12-0 


8-9 


4-4 


8-0 


6-1 


7-1 


18-9 


7-4 


14-5 


9-9 


12-3 


9-5 


4-4 


7-7 


5-3 


6-4 


20-0 


6-8 


14-9 


10-3 


12-9 


14-0 


5-0 


10-8 


7-0 


7-8 


22-8 


9-2 


15-0 


10-7 


13-2 


15-0 


6-7 


11-6 


8-2 


100 


17-8 


10-0 


15-9 


11-8 


13-6 


12-8 


7-0 


11-0 


8-5 


9-7 


16-1 


8-3 


15-0 


10-6 


12-8 


13-9 


7-0 


11-4 


8-1 


9-5 


18-3 


7-8 


15-2 


9-9 


12-6 


12-8 


8-3 


11-8 


9-5 


10-6 


16-1 


9-4 


15-2 


10-5 


12-5 


15-6 


10-0 


13-3 


10-8 


11-9 


16-1 


10-6 


14-9 


11-7 


13-1 



c^ the Fisher II Board for Scotland. 161 

I have tabulated the temperature observations in the accompanying 
tables for each of the tanks, and for the supply as it came to the 
apartment. Tanks No8. 1 and 2 were not supplied with hot water; Tank 
No. 3 got a partial supply, and Tank No. 4 the largest supply, and it is 
this tank which was looked to to give the best results. 

The temperature observations are tabulated in ten-day periods for the 
155 days over which the experiment extended, each showing the 
maximum and minimum temperature recorded, the mean for the ten 
days ; and for Tanks 3 and 4 the mean of the maxima and minima have 
also been calculated. 

It will be seen from the tables that the mean temperature in No. 1 
varied from 3-9 C. to 10-3 C. during the 155 days, the mean for the 
whole period being 6*5 C. (43 '7 F.) ; the extremes of temperature 
observed at any time were 2*8 and 10"6. The mean temperature of No. 
2 varied from 4-3 C. to 10"8 C, the mean for the period being 7"0 C. 
(44-6 F.) ; the slightly higher temperature was owing to this tank being 
nearer the stove that No. 1. In No. 3 it was desired to maintain a 
temperature intermediate between that of No. 4 and the other tanks, but 
greater difficulty was found in this case in adjusting the supplies of hot 
and cold water. The ten-day means ranged from 6 C. to 11 '9 C, the 
mean for the period being 8-6 C. (47 "5 F.). The extreme individual 
temperatures were 3 "9 and 15 "6, a difierence of 11*7 C, but these 
variations were of short duration. In No. 4 the range of the ten-day 
means was lO'S to 13-6 C, the range of the mean maxima was from 17'2 
to 12*6, and of the minima from B'O to 11"8; the extreme temperatures 
recorded were 6-8 C. (44-2 F.) and 22-8 C. (73-0 F.), a difference of 16 0. 
or 28"8 F. The low temperature as a rule occurred when the stove or 
some part of the apparatus required to be overhauled, and the high ones 
for a short period, when the fire had been too strong ; they sometimes 
occurred during the night. The mean temperature for this tank for the 
whole period was 12*5 C. (54*5 F.), which approximates to the mean 
bottom temperature in the sea off the East Coast in July, August, and 
September ; in depths of from ten to fifteen fathoms the mean temper- 
ature for these months is about 52*9, and a little further out, in thirty 
fathoms, it is 50' 7 F. 

The fishes used in the experiments were young whitings, codlings, and 
haddocks, a few dabs, a plaice, a small starry ray, and an armed bull- 
head. They were procured in the small-meshed net used around the 
otter-trawl in the investigations made on board trawlers, and were first 
kept for a few weeks after being brought to the laboratory before they 
were placed in the experimental tanks. Each fish was measured, but 
not weighed, nor was its volume determined ; trial showed that the risks 
might be too great. 

"With regard to the general conditions and behaviour of the fishes a 
little may be said. They were fed daily, or several times a day, and in 
all cases they got as much food as they were willing or able to take, but 
they were not fed during the night. Their food consisted almost 
entirely of the ordinary edible mussel, chopped up, varied occasionally 
■with a few limpets, and still more rarely with live shrimps ; on one or 
two occasions they got fragments of herrings or parts of the roe or milt, 
and sometimes the mussels were not removed from their shells, but were 
broken up and crushed. An attempt was at first made to weigh the 
quantity of food given to them daily, but the conditions of the experi- 
ment showed that this might be misleading and it was discontinued. 

All the fishes did not by any means thrive to a like extent. The 
haddocks, in particular, proved to be exceptionally delicate as compared 

L 



162 Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 

with tlie codlings and whitings, and most of them died at one time or 
other during the course of the experiments. They did not appear to 
make themselves at home, so to speak, as the codlings and the whitings 
did, and they were obviously, under the conditions of the experiment, 
more stupid fish. When the fish were fed the chopped mussels were 
dropped gradually into the water, and the moment the fragments began 
to sink the whitings and codlings rushed at them and, even when replete 
of a previous meal, took them into their mouths and put them out again, 
or smelt them ; their movements were thoroughly purposive in relation to 
the food. The haddocks, on the other hand, excited by the commotion, 
or it may be by the odour of the mussels also, rushed aimlessly about at 
such times, snapping at the other fishes and missing the fragments 
although often quite near them j.nd themselves quite hungry. The 
haddocks, it was also noticed, kept closer to the bottom, and looked for 
their food there rather than in the course of descent through the water.* 

The fact has to be taken into account, because, although food was 
supplied abundantly, it is pretty certain that the haddocks, as a rule, got 
only what the others left. 

It is probable also that the haddocks suffered more than the other 
fishes from not getting a more natural food. With reference to tempera- 
ture they were also more sensitive than the others. When the water got 
comparatively warm, say about 60° F., the haddocks first showed signs of 
distress and went round the tank near the top gasping or tried to jump 
out, and I attribute the deaths of most of the haddocks to this cause. 
On one occasion I transferred a haddock of 19"9cm. from water of a tem- 
perature of 7-4 C. (45-3 r.) to water of 15 C. (59 F.) and it was killed in 
about two minutes, as if it had been poisoned ; it rapidly became paralysed, 
swayed about a few moments and then sank with its mouth open. A 
small whiting (15*0cm,) transferred at the same time appeared to be doing 
well, but was found dead the next morning. The haddocks, moreover, were 
observed to seek the coolest parts of the hot-water tank, while, unless 
when the temperature was very high, the whitings and codlings in that tank 
seemed to enjoy themselves and were active and alert. It may be said 
that at first the hot water was run in on the top, but it was found that 
there was a difference of two or three degrees under these circumstances 
between the surface and bottom water ; thereafter it was carried towards 
the bottom by a pipe, arrangements being made for air passing in with the 
water at the same time and thus the temperature was nearly equalised. 

During the cold weather in winter a great contrast was shown between 
the fishes in the warm tanks and those in the tanks where the temperature 
was low, the diflfereiice in temperature being about 9 C. In the 
former they moved about actively and were keen and alert and, if the ex- 
pression may be used, were happy; in the cold water tanks the fish, on the 
other hand, were sluggish, remaining a long time at one spot, and gently 
swaying theh fins : the movement and activity in the one tank ofl'ered a 
marked contrast to the comparative lifelessness in the adjoining tank. It 
has already been said that the fishes in the warm water had a far better 
appetite than those in the cold water and ate much more ; it was, more- 
over, observed that at times when the temperature was low, down to about 
3-8 C, or a little above the freezing point of fresh water, the fishes in 
these tanks gave up feeding altogether, while in the adjoining heated tanks 
the fish were fighting eagerly for the food. In the former at such times the 
mussels would be left untouched at the bottom of the tank. This confirms 

* It may be here stated that the haddocks, as a rule, swam nearer the bottom than the 
codlings or the whitings, and this was especially noticeable at first when the fishes were 
introduced into the tanks. While the haddocks grovelled about the bottom, the 
whitings were dispersed upwards to near the top of the tank. The observation as to the 
difference in habit may have reference to the fact that whitings and codlings are caught in 
far greater proportions than haddocks by the otter-trawl compared with the beam-trawl 



of the Fishery Board for Scotlnnd. 



163 



mj'- experience at Dunbar in former years, when it was found that plaice 
and dabs kept in small tanks lost weight in winter and gave up feeding.* 
In tank No. 1, which contained as we have seen about 185"5 gallons 
(842 '5 litres), seven whitings, five codlings, one haddock, one common 
dab, and one sand-eel were placed ; the latter soon disappeared, and was 
probably eaten. The fish were measured on two occasions, (1) at an 
interval of 100 days, and (2) after 155 days. It would, as it turned out, 
have been better to have aieasured them more frequently, since, with the 
exception of the sand-eel, all the fishes survived in this tank; but from the 
mortality in the other tanks it was deemed advisable to disturb them as 
little as possible. In measuring them, they were first transferred to 
convenient dishes, seized cautiously with a loose cloth, and when laid on 
the measuring board care was taken to free the under surface of the fish 
from the cloth. A little practice made the process easy, the only forms 
requiring extra care and promptness being the haddocks. In the 
accompanying Table I give the particulars regarding these fourteen fishes 
which were kept in water at the ordinary temperatures. 









Taxk 


I. 










Fish. 


Length. 


Mean Temperature 
4-5° C. (40-rF.). 


Mean ' 
9-3° C 


Temperature 
(48-7° F.). 


Mean Temp, 
6-5° C. (43-7° F.). 


100 Days Later. 


55 Days Later. 


Increase in the 
155 Days. 


Length. 


Increase. 


Length. 


Increase. 


Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 


Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 


Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 


Whiting. 
1 


Mm. 
209 


Mm. 

226 


Mm. 

17 


Mm. 
1-7 


Mm. 
244 


Mm. 

IS 


Mm. 
3-27 


Mm. 
35 


Mm. 
2-26 


2 


170 


191 


21 


2-1 


210 


19 


3-45 


40 


2-58 


3 


160 


173 


13 


1-3 


187 


14 


2-18 


27 


1-74 


4 


157 


172 


15 


1-5 


181 


9 


1-64 


24 


1-55 


5 


152 


169 


17 


1-7 


178 


9 


1-64 


26 


1-68 


6 


152 


164 


12 


1-2 


177 


13 


2-36 


25 


1-61 


7 
Average, 


142 


159 


17 


1-7 


174 


15 


2-73 


32 


2-06 


163-14 


179-14 


16 


1-6 


193-0 


13-86 


2-52 


29-86 


1-93 


Coclling. 


147 


185 


38 


3-8 


226 


41 


7-45 


79 


5-1 


2 


[143 


184 


41 


4-1 


200 


16 


2-9 


57 


3-7 


3 


132 


169 


37 


3-7 


208 


39 


7-09 


79 


4-9 


4 


129 


163 


34 


3-4 


200 


37 


6-73 


71 


4-58 


5 
Average, < 


123 


160 


37 


3-7 


194 


34 


6-18 


71 


4-58 


134-8 


172-2 


37-4 


3-74 








4-88 


132-7 


169-2 


36-5 


3-65 


207 


37-8 


6-87 


75-7 


Haddock. 


1S3 


210 


27 


2-7 


238 


28 


5-1 


55-0 


3-55 


Common Dab. 


237 


243 


6 


0-6 


243 


0-0 




6 


0-04 



Eleventh Annual Repmt Fishei-y Board for Scotland, Part III., p. 193. 



164 Fart III, — Twenty -second Annual Report 

Among the seven whitings the growth in the first hundred days when 
the mean temperature was 4'5 C. (40"1 F.) was not great, the increase in 
different fishes, as will be seen from the Table, varying from 12 to 21mm., 
the mean increase being 16mm., and the mean for each ten days on the 
average being P6 mm. The fishes were of different sizes as shown, and 
the increase per ten-day period varied from 1'2 to 2'1 mm. In the 
succeeding 55 days when the mean temperature of the water was 9"3 C. 
(48"7 F.) tlie actual increment of length in difierent fishes ranged fi'om 
Omm. to 19mm., the mean per ten days ranging from 1"64 to 3'45mm. 
The average increment was 13"86mm. and the mean for the lot per ten- 
day period was 2'52mm. Over the whole period of 155 days, the mean 
temperature being 6*5 C. (43'7 F.), the actual increments varied from 
24mm. to 40mra. (from about one inch to an inch and nine sixteenths) the 
mean increase was 29'86mm., or about 1^ inches, and for the ten-day 
period the mean increase was l*93mm. There is no doubt that the 
greatest amount of growth was in the latter part of the second period, 
when the temperature was highest ; at this time it was a common remark 
how fast the fish were growing, but for the reason above stated they were 
not more frequently measured. The whitings, it may be said, appeared 
to be in good condition and health. 

The codlings grew more rapidly than the whitings. One of them 
(No. 2) which grew fastest during the first period developed a diseased 
growth or tumour in the second period when its rate of increase was 
therefore very slow. It has been accordingly left out of the calculations 
of the means in the second period, and the other four fishes have been 
also dealt with separately throughout. In the first hundred days the 
increments varied from 34 to 41mm. (1| to Ig inches), the means for the 
ten days being from 3"4 to 4-lmm. ; the mean increase was 37"4mm., and 
the ten days' mean 3 ■74mm. In the second period of fifty-five days the 
actual amount of growth was a little greater, so that under the difference 
of temperature indicated the codlings grew about twice more rapidly. 
Omitting the diseased fish the increments varied from 34 to 41mm. — 
precisely the same as in the first period— the average was 37*8mm. and 
the mean for 10 days 6 •87mm. Over the whole time of 155 days the 
amount of growth in the four healthy fishes was respectively 79, 79, 71, 
71mm., the average being 75"7mm., or about 3^L inches — a very con- 
siderable rate considering the temperature of the water. On the other 
hand the fishes were supplied with abundance of food, and the codlings 
were the greediest of them all, and no doubt got more food in a given 
time than they ■would under natural conditions in the sea. With the 
exception of the one referred to they all remained healthy throughout 
the experiment. 

The growth of the single haddock was also fairly rapid for the 
temperature. In the first hundred days its increase amounted to 27mm., 
or a little over an inch, the mean for ten days being 2 '7. In the second 
period, like the codlings, the actual growth was about the same, although 
the time was only about half j it amounted to 28mm. (1^- inch), the ten- 
day mean being 5'lmm. Over the whole period the actual increase in 
length was 55mm. (2y^^ inches), the average for the ten-day period being 
3'55mm. 

The growth of the single common dab in this tank was slow and 
presented a contrast to the round fishes ; it was an adult female. The 
increase in the first period was only 6mm. (g inch), the mean for ten days 
being 0"6mm. In the second period it did not increase at all. Two 
circumstances may have affected this, the first that four spawning 
flounders were put into this tank early in the second period, and it is 
possible that the greater competition for food prevented the dab getting 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



165 



a full share ; the second that it was a female of adult size and may have 
spawned. It was unfortunately omitted to provide apparatus in the 
overflow from the tank to obtain evidence as to this. 

The observations in Tank No. 1 refer to growth under the ordinary 
temperature of the season. 

Tank II. 



Fish. 


Length. 


Mean Temperature 
5-2° C. (41-4° F.). 


Mean Temperature, 
9-2° C. (48-6° F.). 


Mean Temp., 
7" C. (44-6° F.). 


100 Days Later. 


55 Days Later. 


Increase in the 
155 Days. 


Length. 


Increase. 


Length. 


Increase. 


Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 


Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 


Mean 

Total, per 10 

Days. 


Whitings. 
1 


Mm. 
179 


Mm. 
193 


Mm. 
14 


Mm. 
1-4 


Mm. 
207 


Mm. 1 Mm. 
14 ; 2-54 


Mm. 

28 


Mm. 
1-81 


•2 


178 


192 


14 


1-4 


202 


10 1 1-82 


24 


1-55 


3 


170 


185 


15 


1-5 


196 


11 2-0 


26 


1-68 


4 


160 


179 


19 


1-9 


192 


13 2-36 


32 


2-06 


5 


151 


173 


22 


2-2 


187 


14 : 2-54 


36 


2-32 


6 


151 


171 


20 


2-0 


184 


13 2-36 


33 


2-13 


7 


148 


164 


16 


1-6 


181 


17 ; 3-09 


33 


2-13 


8 


145 


160 


15 


1-5 


177 


17 j 3-09 


32 


2-06 


9 


140 


159 


19 


1-9 


176 


17 3-09 


36 


2-32 


10 


138 


158 


20 


2 


171 


13 2-36 


33 


2-13 


11 


134 


154 


20 


2-0 


170 


16 2-91 


36 


2-32 


12 


134 


152 


18 


1-8 


164 


12 2-18 


30 


1-93 


13 


[131 


151 


20 


2-0 


154 


3 


-5 


23 


- ] 


11 


[130 


150 


20 


2-0] 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


15 


[109 


128 


19 


1-9] 


- 


- 




- 


2-04 


Average - 


152-3 


170-0 


17-7 


1-77 


184-0 


14-0 


2-55 


31-7 


Haddock. 
1 


193 


211 


18 


1-8 




. 




_ 


_ 


2 


180 


199 


19 


1-9 


- 


- 


-- 


- 


- 


3 


178 


197 


19 


1-9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Average, - 


183-7 


' 202-3 


18-6 


1-86 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Com. Dab. 
1 


241 


248 


7 


0-7 


251 


3 


•55 


10 


-07 


2 


146 


168 


22 


2-2 


190 


22 


4-0 


44 


2-84 


Average, - 


193-5 


208 


14-5 


1-45 


220-5 


12-5 


2-27 


26 


1-68 


Starry Ray. 


198 


198 


0-0 


- 


195 


-3 


- 


-3 


- 



166 Part III. — Twenty-second Anmml Report 

The same is true of Tank No. 2, except, as formerly explained, the 
temperature here was generally slightly higher owing to its being nearer 
the stove. Into this tank were placed fiteen whitings, three haddocks, 
two common dabs, and a starry ray ; a sand-eel was also present at first, 
but, as in the other tank, it soon disappeared. The particulars of these 
fishes are given in the accompanying Table. Three of the whitings are 
not included in the final column and averages ; No, 13 was found in the 
second period to have the tail and one of the eyes diseased, and its 
growth had been thus interf erred with. No. 14 was transferred to the 
warm tank as already described, and No. 15 was found dead when thirty- 
five days of the second period had elapsed, and it then measured 134mm. 
In the first hundred days, with a mean temperature of 5-2 C, the 
increments varied from 14 to 22mm., the mean being 17'7mm., or 
1 "Tmm. above that for Tank No. 1, a diflference probably related to the some- 
what higher mean temperature {•! C). As a rule the greatest increase 
was among the smaller fishes. In the second period of 55 days, with a 
mean temperature of 9'2 C. (48"6 F.), the increments ranged in different 
cases from 10 to 17mm., and the mean was 14mm., as compared with 
13 "86 in Tank No. 1, the mean for ten days being 2*55, as compared with 
2-52 — almost precisely the same. It will be seen from the tables that 
the mean temperature of the two tanks in the second period were also 
practically identical, differing by only -1 C, but the difference was in 
favour of Tank No. 1, into which the sunshine entered more freely. 

The haddocks did not thrive so well compared with the one in Tank No. 1, 
and they all died early in the second period. The mean increment in 
the hundred days was 18-6mm., as compared with 27mm. in Tank No. 1, 
the mean for the ten days being l-86mm. against 2-7mm. One of these 
haddocks, 199mm. long, perished by being placed in warmer water as 
previously described; it was well nourished, its weight being 67 "5 
grammes, while the mean weight of haddocks of the same size is 65*7 
grammes (see Table, p. 226), One of the others died 18 days after the 
measurement recorded, and it was then 216mra. long, an increase of 5m, 

Of the two common dabs, the smaller grew quickly and the larger 
slowly. In the first period the former increased by 22m. and the latter 
by only 7mm, ; in the second period the smaller increased by 22ra. 
again, and the larger by only 3mm., the growth as with the round fishes 
being about twice quicker in the higher temperature of the second period. 
The small one increased in the hundred days by 44mm., or If inches, the 
mean rate being 2 •84mm. per ten days, while the increase of the larger 
one amounted in the 155 days to only 10mm., or | of an inch, the mean 
for ten days being only 0"07mm, They were both females. 

The starry ray did not grow at all ; during the first period it just 
maintained its breadth, and in the second it lost about 3mm. in the same 
dimension. Its loss of weight must have been relatively greater because 
it became very attenuated, and it was no doubt owing to lack of proper 
food. 

In Tank No. 3 an endeavour was made to maintain a temperature 
intermediate between that of Tanks Nos. 1 and 2 and Tank No. 4, but as 
previously mentioned the variations were considerable, and the results in 
this tank were not so satisfactory. It appears moreover probable that in 
the endeavours to adjust the supply of hot and cold water the circulation 
was diminished. For some reason or another four of the whitings and 
five of the codlings put in died a short time after the experiment was 
begun, and these are not included in the accompanying Table, which 
gives the particulars regarding the rest of the fish. Two haddocks which 
were placed in the tank also died \ the autopsy revealed no apparent 



of the Fisher ij Board for Scotland, 



167 



cause of death, which was possibly due to the variations in the tempera- 
ture of the water, but one of them, 202mm. in length, which should have 
weighed about 67 grammes, weighed only 63*8 grammes. 

Tank III. 



Fish. 


Length. 


Mean 1 

7-7" C 


EMPEIiATUKE, 

. (45-9° F..). 


Mean Temperature. 
10-3° C. (50-5° F.). 


Mean Temp., 
8-6° C. (47-5" F.). 


100 Days Later. 


55 Days Later. 


Increase in the 
155 Days. 


Length. 


Increase. 


Length. 


Increase. 


Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 


Total. 


Moan 
per 10 
Days. 


Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 


Whiting. 
1 


Mm. 
162 


Mm. 
1S6 


Mm. 

24 


Mm. 
2-4 


Mm. 
204 


Mm. 

18 


Mm. 
3-27 


Mm. 
42 


Mm. 
2-71 


2 


160 


180 


20 


2-0 


190 


10 


1-82 


30 


1-93 


3 


153 


176 


23 


2-3 


188 


12 


2-18 


35 


2-26 


4 


152 


170 


18 


1-8 


185 


15 


2-73 


33 


2-13 


5 • 


[147 


158 


11] 














6 


[146 


155 


9] 














Average, 


156-7 


178 


21-3 


2-13 


191-7 


13-7 


2-49 


35 


2-26 


Codling. 


161 


209 


48 


4-8 


256 


47 


8-54 


95 


6-13 


2 


158 


198 


40 


4-0 


246 


48 


8-73 


88 


5-68 


3 


141 


168 


27 


2-7 


212 


44 


8-00 


71 


4-58 


4 


135 


163 


28 


2-8 


210 


47 


8-54 


75 


4-84 


5 


128 


158 


30 


3-0 


194 


36 


6-55 


66 


4-26 


6 


113 


137 


24 


2-4 


148 


11 


2-0 


35 


2-26 


7 


[149 


189 


40 


4-0 












Average, < 


140-7 


174-6 


33-9 


3-39 










1 


139-3 


172-2 


32-9 


3-29 


211 


38-8 


7-05 


71-7 


4-63 


Common Dab. 


261 


276 


15 


1-5 


286 


10 


1-82 


25 


1-61 



The particulars in regard to the whiting show that the increment in the 
first period varied from 9mm. to 24mm., but the fish showing the small 
increase and another showing an increase of only 11m., were found to 
have the tail badly ulcerated and they were killed. Omitting these two, 
the mean increase was 21-3mm., or an average per ten days of 2-13mm. 
as compared with 16mm. and 17"7mm. in the cold tanks. In the second 
period the increase was on an average 13"7mm., and therefore under the 
average for the cold water tanks in the same period, which shows, as well 



168 Part III. — Ttventy-second Anmial Report 

as the mortality alluded to, that the conditions in this tank were not 
satisfactory. The mean increase over the whole period was 35mm., or 1| 
inches, the ten-day mean 2 •26mm., a little higher than that for the two 
tanks referred to in the similar period. 

Among the cod the increase ranged in the first period from 24mm, to 
48mm., the average mean being 33*9mm., and the ten-day mean 3'39mm., 
and therefore a little less than Tank JSTo. 1. One of the codlings. No. 7, 
was transferred to Tank No. 4 after this, and died four days later, like 
the haddock and whiting above mentioned ; in this case the interval was 
longer. In the second period the remaining fishes increased from 11mm. 
to 48mm. in different cases, the average being 38"8mm., or about 
1 1 inches. Omitting the smaller specimen, in which the increase was clearly 
anomalous, the average increase of the others was 44-4mm., or 8'1 per ten 
days. The increments in the length over the whole time varied from 
35mm. to 95mm., the mean increase being 71 •7mm., or omitting the 
anomalous form, 79mm., or 3g inches, the mean for ten days being 5'lmm. 

The single common dab in this tank increased by 15mm. in the first 
period and by 10mm. in the second, the increment over the whole time 
being 25mm., or 1 inch, and the average per 10 days I'filmm. 

In tank No. 4 there was at first some mortality owing to the vicis- 
situdes in the temperature which, as already stated, affected different 
fishes in different ways. 

Of three haddocks put in none survived the whole period, and only one 
the first. One died after fifteen days ; it was 285m ra. and had increased 
to 287mm. Another died after eighty-three clays, and it had increased 
from 279 to 295mm. The third at the end of the first period increased 
from 262 to 279mm., an increment of 17mm., the average per ten days 
being the small one of l'7mm. It died from the high temperature a 
few days later without having increased in length. 

Among the whitings there was less mortality, nine surviving the whole 
time and other two for the first period. In the first hundred days the 
variations in the increase were from 19mm. to 34mm., the mean being 
27"5mm., or a little over an inch, the ten-day mean averaging 2"74mm. 
In the second period the increments ranged from 9mm. to 19mm., the 
mean being 15-7mm. and the average of the ten-day mean 2"85mm. 

Over the whole period the increments varied from 28mm. to 52mm., 
the mean being 43' 1mm., about 1| inches, the mean increase in the 
ten-day periods being 2"79mm. 



[Table. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
Tank IV. 



169 







Mean Temperatuke, 


Mean Temperature, 


Mean 


Temp. 


Fi.sh. 


Length. 


12-3'^ C. (54-1° F.). 


12-9° C. (55-2" F.). 


12-5° C. 


(54-5° F.). 


100 Days later. 


55 Days later. 


Increase in the 
155 Days. 




Increase. 




Increase. 










Length. 




Length. 




Total. 


Mean 
per 10 
Days. 




Mean 




Mean 








Total. 


per 10 
Days. 




Total. 


per 10 
Days. 






Mm. 


Jim. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Whiting. 
1 


241 


260 


19 


1-9 


269 


9 


1-64 


28 


1-81 


2 


208 


229 


21 


2-1 


242 


13 


2-36 


34 


2-19 


3 


204 


225 


21 


2-1 


239 


14 


2-54 


35 


2-26 


4 


177 


203 


26 


2-6 


220 


17 


3 09 


43 


2-77 


5 


161 


193 


32 


3-2 


209 


16 


2-91 


48 


3-09 


6 


157 


186 


29 


2-9 


204 


18 


3-27 


47 


3-03 


7 


116 


180 


34 


3-4 


197 


18 


3-27 


52 


3-36 


S 


140 


171 


31 


3-1 


190 


19 


3-45 


50 


3-22 


9 


140 


174 


34 


3-4 


192 


18 


3-27 


52 


3-36 


10 


164 


192 


28 


2-8 


- - 


- 


- 


- 


- 


11 


158 


186 


28 


2-8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Average, < 


172-4 


199-9 


27-5 


2-75 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


174-9 


-202-3 


27-4 


2-74 


218 


15-7 


2-85 


43-1 


2-79 


Codling. 
1 


173 


225 


52 


5-2 


278 


53 


9-64 


105 


6-77 


2 


126 


167 


41 


4-1 


221 


54 


9-82 


95 


6-13 


3 


120 


166 


46 


4-6 


220 


54 


9-82 


100 


6-45 


Average, 


139-7 


186 


46-3 


4-63 


239-7 


53-7 


9-76 


100 


6-45 


Com. Dab. 




















1 


245 


262 


17 


1-7 


276 


14 


2-55 


31 


2-0 


2 


151 


186 


35 


3-5 


207 


21 


3-82 


56 


3-61 


3 


147 


185 


38 


3-8 


202 


17 


3-09 


55 


3-55 


4 


- 


206 


- 


- 


237 


31 


5-64 


- 


- 


Average, 


181 


211 


30 


3-0 


228-3 


17-3 


3-15 


47-3 


3-05 


Plaice, 


226 


258 


32 


3-2 


277 


19 


3-45 


51 


3-29 


Pogge, 


127 


1-27 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



It will be noticed from the Table that the increments of growth were 
much greater in the smaller forms than in the larger. 



170 Part III. — Twenty-second Annioal Report 

As in all the other tanks, the codlings grew rapidly. In the first hundred 
days the increments varied from 41mm. to 52mm., the mean being 46-3, 
and the mean for the ten-day periods was 4'63. In the second the 
increase ranged from 53 to 54mm., the increments being thus absolutely 
larger though the period was less and the mean temperature not 
much higher. The mean increase was 53'7mm., that for the ten-day 
period being 9*7 6mm. The total increase in length in the three 
specimens in the 155 days Avas respectively, 105mm., 95mm., and 
100mm., the mean being exactly 100mm., or very close upon 4 inches, 
and the mean for the ten-day periods was 6-45mm. Of all the fishes, 
except the flat-fishes, the codlings appeared to be least affected by the 
changes in the temperature. 

In this tank there were throughout three dabs and one plaice, and 
another dab was added at the beginning of the second period. They did 
well, as a rule. In the first period the increments among the dabs 
ranged from 17mm. to 38mm., the mean increase being 30mm., or a little 
over li inches, the mean for the ten days being 3'Omm. In the second 
period the increments varied from 14 to 31mm., the mean increase was 
17*3mm., and the mean for the ten daj's, 3"15mm. Over the whole 
period the increments of the dabs in this tank varied from 31 to 56mm. 
(li to 21 inches), the average being 47'3mm., and that for the ten days, 
3-05mm. 

Only one plaice was made use of, and it increased in the first period 
from 226 to 258mm., an increment of 32mm., or a little over 1\ inches. 
In the second period it increased other 19mm., the ten-day mean being 
3"45mm., as compared with 3'2mm. in the first period. The total 
increase at the end of the experiment was 51mm., giving an average for 
the ten days of 3 •29mm. 

It may be noted that throughout the whole of the experiment none of 
the flat-fishes perished, so that they bore the changes in temperature 
much better than the round fishes. 

An armed- bullhead, or pogge^ was also placed in this tank, and 
survived over the first period, but it did not increase in length at all. 
Probably like the starry ray this was owing to the food not being quite 
suitable for it. It died shortly after the beginning of the second period, 
on one occasion when the temperature rose high. 

These experiments show that the increase in temperature is followed 
by an increased rate of growth, but I do not think the data are such as to 
enable the ratio between the two to be determined. In such experiments 
there are a number of factors which influence the growth, and it is a 
matter of extreme difficulty to maintain a natural balance among them in 
the various tanks, and to have the experiments carried on under natural 
conditions. The influence of the vicissitudes in the temperature at 
diflferent times of the day or night must be of importance, as shoAvn by 
the experiments of putting fishes from the cold water into the warm 
water, the haddock, whiting, and codling all perishing, although at very 
different intervals. In order to get a more precise relation between the 
temperature and the growth it would be necessary to maintain the 
temperature nearly uniform in each of the tanks throughout, or at all 
events to reduce very greatly the rapidity of the alterations. The 
question of food is also one that would, in any circumstances, give rise to 
difficulty, and yet it is evidently one of much importance. It is not 
easy procuring the natural food of the fishes and supplying it in due 
proportions. 

It appears that the influence of temperature is active in modifying the 
rate of growth by acting directly upon the metabolism of the fish, and 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 171 

also by affecting the rapidity of digestion. In very cold water the fishes 
give up feeding altogether, because the ferments upon which digestion 
depends do not act, or act very slowly, at low temperatures, and in fishes, 
as in other animals, appetite waits on digestion, and this is, on the other 
hand, correlated with the metabolism in the tissues. It has been shown by 
Krukenberg that tlie pepsine or analagous body in the stomach of fish 
acts as well at 20 C. as at 40 C, at which, among mammals, digestion is 
most active, and that the rapidity of its action is closely related to the 
temperature ; and Knauthe and Zuntz have shown that the same thing 
applies to the metabolism in fish, the vital activities being more active in 
the higher temperature, as shown by the excretion of carbonic acid gas 
and other products of metabolism. 



5. The Sprat (Clupea siyrattus). 

Comparatively few observations have been made on the rate of growth 
of the sprat. Cunningham appears to have been the first to publish a 
definite statement ou the subject,* making use of a number of observations 
of Ewart and Matthews, contained in a paper ou the nature of Thames 
and Forth whitebait, which appeared in the Fourth Annual Report of the 
Fishery Board for Scotland. t In that paper an account was given of the 
proportion of herrings and sprats, and their sizes, in collections obtained 
at different times of the year from February to August, and from a study 
of these Cunningham came to the conclusion that the little sprats two to 
three inches long obtained in February, March, April, and May were 
about one year old. The new brood of the year began to appear in the 
whitebait in June and increased to August, when they measured from 
1 inch to 1^ inch (25-38mm.), The proportion of sprats in the samples 
in this month was 48 per cent., but the number of the small soaleless 
sprats gradually increased during the month until 90 per cent, consisted 
of these. Of 2600 specimens of whitebait procured in samples of about 
two hundred each during December, January, and February in the Firth 
of Forth, over 99| per cent, were sprats measuring from If inches to 
2| inches (35 to 70mm.). In the samples from the Thames the average 
size was 2 inches (50mm) in April, and 2| inches in May. 

From the examination of the otoliths of a considerable number of sprats, 
partly from the North Sea and partly from the Baltic, Jenkins came to the 
conclusion that the growth was somewhat more rapid. He assigns a 
length of 75mm. (3 inches) to the sprat one year old; of 110mm. 
(4| inches) to the sprat which has completed two years, and of 130mm. 
(5i inches) to the sprat three years old.J 

The investigations made by myself on the rate of growth of the sprat, and 
described in this paper, were on material collected almost entirely in the 
course of the trawling investigations in the Moray Firth and Aberdeen Bay 
by means of a small-meshed net placed outside the cod-end of the trawl 
net ; but some of them were obtained by the shrimp-net and tow-nets. The 
fact has to be kept in mind, because apart from the difference in vertical 
distribution at different stages, which might result in sprats of different 
size being taken in the bottom or surface net at the same time, the size 
of the mesh exerts an important influence on the sizes of the samples 
taken, at least as far as the smaller specimens are concerned, and there is 
no doubt that in several of my collections the very small slender sprats 

* Journ. Marine Biol. Assoc. II. p. 241, 1892; "Marketable Marine Fishes," p. 167. 

tP..98, 1886. 

% Wissetisch. Meeresuntersuch. Kiel N.F. Bd. 6 Abtheilwiff, Kiel, p. Ill, 1902. 



1 



172 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

escaped capture either wholly or largely by passing out through the meshes 
of the net, although they may have been present in the water in consider- 
able numbers. This, however, does not entirely account for the fact 
which is apparent from the measurements in the tables and from the 
curves, that it was the rule to get only one series of sprats, with a certain 
range of sizes, in the same haul, while in another haul in the same locality 
later, or at the same time in another place, quite a different series 
predominated. That seems to be due to the sprats of different years 
keeping for the most part separate from one another. 

The number of collections obtained and examined was twenty-six, 
some in each month of the year except February, July, and August ; 
most of them were obtained in October and December. 

From the fact that the spawning period of the sprat is definitely 
limited to one portion of the year it is more easy to determine its rate of 
growth than in the case of the herring, in which there are two well 
separated spawning seasons, spring and autumn, and a certain degree of 
spawning iii the intermediate periods. The sprat appears to spawn at 
different parts of the coast at rather different times, or at all events the 
spawning period does not quite coincide. At Plymouth, Cunningham 
found it spawning from the end of January until the end of April, or 
even later.* On the west coast of Ireland Holt obtained the floating 
eggs in March, April, May, and June ; chiefly in March and April. t 
Hensen and Apstein give the spawning period as the end of April and 
the beginning of May.J On the east coast of Scotland the Gadayid 
found the floating eggs in the Firth of Forth from towards the end of 
March to the middle of August, and especially in April, May, and June. 
In the Moray Firth I found sprats to be spawning on the 1st April and 
1st June ; and though the limits of the period here are not well defined, 
there is no reason to doubt that they are much the same as a little further 
down the coast, and probably the chief spawning occurs about the end of 
May on this stretch of coast. 

From the small size of the egg and the temperature of the water at 
that season the hatching of the eggs takes only a few days, the length of 
the larva, according to Cunningham, being from 3 to 3"7mm. Probably 
the early part of June may therefore be taken as the period when the 
bulk of the larval sprats issue into the water. 

The smallest specimens got after the spawning season were obtained in 
September and October in Aberdeen Bay and in the Moray Firth in 
December, in all cases by the tow-net. On the 18th September, near 
shore, in from seven to ten feet of water in Aberdeen Bay, sixteen were 
taken from 29mm. to 46mm., and on the 20th other five measuring 
from 29mm. to 39mm., the average size of these twenty-one specimens 
being 35 •9mm., or If inches. On 18th October, in nine fathoms, in the 
same locality, four were caught which measured 31, 35, 42, and 45mm. 
On the 28th December in the Dornoch Firth two were taken in the 
tow-nets, one of which measured 39mm. and the other 48mm., while 734 
were caught in the small-meshed net around the cod-end, ranging in 
size from 52 to 125mm. It is obvious that all the small sprats taken 
in these drags had been hatched in the previous spawning season, 
and were approximately from three to six months old. 

In April, some small sprats were also got in the shrimp net in shallow 
water in Aberdeen Bay. On the 8th of the month three were taken 
which measured 45, 59, and 53mm., as well as a number from 65mm. 
upwards. On the 16th of the month other fifty-one were taken with the 

* " The Natural History of the Marketable Marino Fishes," p. 165. 

\ Rep. of Oouncil, Roy. Dublin Soc. Jor 1891, p. 265. 

X Wissen. Meeresuntersiich. Kiel Commis. Neue Folge, Bd. 2 Heft 2, p. 37. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 173 

shrimp-net in the same locality, measuring from 40 to 70mm., but all 
except four were less than 55mm., these being — one at 56mm., two at 
65mm., and one at 70mm. From the curves for the whole of the sprats 
in these collections it is apparent that the last and possibly those at 
62mm. belong to the second group. The average size of the fifty-four 
sprats assigned to the first series was 48"3nim., or li inches, including the 
two at 62mm., and the mean size, i.e., coinciding with the central point 
of the base line from the smallest to the largest, is also 48mm. This 
might appear to be the size of sprats ten or eleven months old, belonging 
to the previous spawning season, and it is considerably under the size 
assigned by Jenkins to those of one year's growth, although the amount 
of growth from the middle of April to the early part of June, the period I 
have taken as representing the maximum of hatching, would add several 
mm. to their length. The average agrees better with the size of the 
sprats from the Thames in April examined by Matthews, viz., two inches. 
On 12th December, however, four months earlier, a haul with the small- 
meshed net in the same locality in from eight to twelve fathoms furnished 
seventy- four sprats, of which the first series numbered forty-seven, 
ranging in size from 49mm. to 60mm., the average being 55'5mm., and 
the mean 54'5mm. This shows that the collection in April was not fully 
representative of the series. By combining the two collections the average 
size of the 98 sprats of this series is found to be 5r3mm., or 2 inches — 
the range in size being from 40mm. to 60mm., and the mean size 50mm. 
The date intermediate between the collections is about 14th February, 
and the size stated may be taken as approximately representing the 
average size of the sprats at this date. Growth is slow at this time of 
year and on to April, and an examination of the other curves shows that 
the end of the first series is about 6cm. when the sprats are about one year 
old, the average size being a little over 50mm., or slightly over 2 inches. 

There was no collection in February, and that made at the end of 
March in the Dornoch Firth did not include any of the smaller forms 
In St. Andrews Bay MTntosh obtained sprats on 12th March in the 
bottom trawl-tow-net, measuring from 1;|; to 2 inches (32 - 50mm.); and on 
12th April one 2 inche.'* long, and floating eggs of the sprat two days later.* 

The older series are present in the collections in greater numbers, but 
as is usually the case it is frequently a matter of difficulty to fix exactly 
the point of division between them, owing to the overlapping of one series 
with another and often the small numbers of the fish of one of the series. 

Taking the hauls in the order of the months, the first was on 15th 
January off Aberdeen, and of sixteen sprats obtained three belonged to 
one series with an average size of 87 mm., and the other thirteen ranged 
in size from 112 to 135mm. The larger of these probably belonged to a 
still older series., but the average for the lot was 123 mm. Another haul 
in January in the Cromarty Firth furnished twenty-seven sprats, of which 
twenty-three, measuring from 61 to 92mm., formed one series with an 
average size of 77'2mm., and the other four belonged to the older group, 
measuring from 111 to 117mm., and with an average of 114mm. 

If these two January hauls are combined the first group, with a range 
from 61 to 92mm., has an average size of 78'3mm., and the second, with 
a range of from 111 to 135mm., an average of 120"9mm. 

1^0 collection was made in February, but on 31st March 870 were taken 
in the Dornoch Firth. Of these, 205 ranged in length from 75 to 107 
mm., the average being 96'8mm. ; and the other 665 formed a series 
from 108 to 139mm., with an average of 117'8mm. The latter series of 
sprats were ripe and approaching ripeness. 

In April the collection in Aberdeen Bay, besides the fifty-four small 

* Eleventh Ann. Rrp. Fishery Board for Scolland, Partiii., p. 300. 



174 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

ones above described, was made up of another series of fifty-four, ranging 
from 68 to 107mm. and with an average size of 8r5mm. There was 
also one sprat at 116mm., which appeared to belong to another series. 
In a haul of the small-meshed net made off Burghead Bay in the Moray 
Firth in thirty fathoms of water on 1st April seventy-four sprats were 
caught, two of which measured 101 and 104mtn., and the others from 108 
to 126mni., the average size being 118"lmm. This collection is of special 
interest from the fact that the sprats were spawning, as referred to below. 
In May there was only one collection of sprats and it was from the 
Firth of Forth, where a number were taken on the ninth of the month at 
Station III. by means of the small-meshed net around the cod-end of the 
GarlaniVs trawl. There were two small ones, one measuring 52mm. and 
the other 62mm. and it appears that these belong to the group of smallest 
sprats, most of which were able to escape through the meshes of the net, 
that is, the group about one year old. The next series was well represented, 
the sprats numbering 554, and ranging in size from 68 to 110mm. The 
average size was 83 •4mm. Thirteen larger fishes pertained to an older 
group, measuring from 113 to 134mm., and having an average of 120"9mm. 
Two hauls were made on 1st June, one in the Cromarty Firth and the 
other at Aberdeen. At Cromarty the sprats were found to be spawning, 
and with the exception of one, 124mm. in length, they seemed all to 
belong to the same scries. The range of size was from 73 to 110mm., 
the average being 92-9mm. 

In the collection from Aberdeen Bay the corresponding series was 
represented by fifty-seven fish measuring from 86 to 109mm., the average 
length being 96-5mm., and there was a larger one at 116mm. 

On the 28th of the month eighty-one were taken at Lunan Bay near 
Montrose, further down the coast, and they all belonged to the same 
group, the range of sizes being from 86 to 117min., with an average of 
104-2mm. 

When the measurements of all the sprats obtained in June are combined 
the following result is obtained. The first is represented by the two fishes 
from the Forth, 52 and 62mm. ; the second consists of 689 sprats, 
ranging in size from 68 to 117mm. with an average of 94-4mm. ; and the 
third by two fishes with an average of 120mm, 

From the end of June to the middle of October no collections were 
procured with the exception of the twenty- one small ones got in the tow- 
nets on 18th and 20th September. 

On the 18th and 20th October a number were taken in Aberdeen Bay. 
Four of these measured from 31 to 45mm. and have been already referred 
to ; of the others, fifteen, ranging in size from 82 to 94mm., had an average 
size of 86-8mm., and ninety-two ranged from 107 to 130mm., the average 
being 114"5mm. On the 22nd, forty-three were caught in the Dornoch 
Firth, one measuring 54mm. belonging to the early group; sixteen varied 
from 65 to 96mm., with an average of 81 ^mm., and twenty-six from 100 
to 124 ram,, the average being 114-6. These October series when combined 
give three groups, one from 31 to 54mm., with an average of 41-4mm., one 
from 65 to 96mm., with an average of 84'lmm., and a third from 100 to 
130mm., with an average of 114"5mm. The number of fishes in the first 
was five, in the second thirty-one, and in the third 118. It may be here 
said that the average of the second series is higher than it ought to be, 
but the number of fishes in it is small. 

In November a collection was obtained in the Dornoch Firth, all three 
series being represented. The first consisted of thirty-three fishes 
measuring from 45 to 61mm., with an average of 55-6nim. The second 
series was predominant, the number of sprats measured being 1650. 
They ranged in sizes from 62 to 98mm., with an average of 75-5mm 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 175 

There were also nine sprats varying from 102 to 112mm. A collection at 
Aberdeen on the 2Sth furnished fourteen sprats; one measured 87mm., 
and the other thirteen ranged from 113 to 125mm., the average being 
120-2. The average of the twenty-two of the third series in the two 
hauls combined was 114'4mm, 

In December a number of collections were obtained from the Moray 
Firth and Aberdeen Bay. In the latter, on the twelfth of the month, 
seventy-three were procured belonging to three series. The first comprised 
forty-seven fishes, the sizes of which ranged from 49 to 60mm. with an 
average of 55-5mm. ; the second included twenty-four from 62 to 97mm. 
the average being 77' 6mm., and there were other two measuring 101 and 
102mm. On the 18th, twenty-six were obtained, of which twenty-two, 
measuring from 66 to 84mm., had an average size of 73"7mm., and four, 
ranging from 100 to 132mm., an average of lir7mm. On the 19th, 
seventy-four were secured, seventy of them belonging to the second series, 
ranging in size from 67 to 97mm., the average being 78 ^mm. ; the other 
four measured from 104 to 111mm., with an average of 107'5mm. On 
the 29th, thirty-nine were taken, all belonging to the third group, the 
sizes varying from 98 to 128mm., and the average baing 111-lmm. 

A collection made in the Dornoch Firth on the 25th of the month 
numbered 184 fishes, all of which except sixteen belonged to the second 
group. They ranged in size from 72 to 98mm., the average being 86"6mm. ; 
the other sixteen measured from 103 to 122mm., the average being 
1 12'lmm. In a collection made on the 27th, three groups were represented ; 
the first, comprising three fishes, had an average of 57'7mna. ; the second, 
ranging from 63 to 97mm., and including thirty-six fishes, had an average 
size of 76"6mm.; the third, of fifty-four fishes, had a range of from 100 to 
127mm., and an average size of 107'8mm. On the 28th a third collection 
numbering 722 sprats contained three series. The first, nineteen in 
number, ranged in size from 39 to 60mm., the average being 59 •2mm. 
The second series comprised 575 fishes, the sizes varying from 62 to 97mm., 
and the average size being 79"5mm. The third series of 128fiishes ranged 
in size from 98 to 128mm., and the average was 109'7mm. 

The larger or older group Avas well represented in a haul made in 
Burghead Bay on the 25th December. Of 536 sprats caught 520 belonged 
to that group, their sizes ranging from 97 to 138mm., and the average 
being 121-1 mm. On the 28th another haul yielded a large number, the 
second series being the best represented on this occasion. The first group 
contained twenty-five fishes varying from 50 to 61mm., with an average of 
55-8uim. ; the second comprised 436 sprats from 63 to 91mm., and with 
an average of 75 •2mm. ; and the third series of twenty-seven ranged from 
96 to 124mm., the average being 116'Omm. 

When all the collections made in December are combined we have the 
following general results. The first series of ninety-four fish ranged in 
size from 39 to 60mm., the average being 55'8mm. ; the second group of 
1347 fishes varied in size from 62 to 97mm., and had an average size of 
79-5mm. ; and the third series, numbering 794 fishes, had an average size 
of 117"4mm., and a range from 98 to 138mm. It is probable that the 
larger forms in the third series belong to a still older group, but their 
members are so small and the difficulty of dividing them from the series 
immediately preceding so great that I have not attempted to group them 
into a fourth series. This circumstance will to a small extent raise the 
average of the third series higher than it naturally ought to be. It must 
also be said that the range assigned to the various groups may not be in 
all cases the precise one that exists, for it is sometimes very diflScult to 
define the division between the series. In such cases the curves and 
tables of millimetre measurements must be the best miide. 



176 



Pa7't III. — Twenty-second Annual Rej^ort 



It is clear, however, from the measurements that at least three annual 
series or groups of sprats exist in these collections, although they are rarely- 
well represented together in any one collection, and this is obvious from 
the curves in the plates, and especially from the curve for the combined 
measurements in December (fig. 10, PI. IX). 

The first or early series has been already alluded to, and the facts show 
that the sprat grows slowly. 

Three collections were made in which spawning sprats were got, one 
on the 1st April, off Burghead, one on the 1st June in the Cromarty 
Firth, and the third on 31st March in the Dornoch Firth. In the first 
named collection the seventy-two sprats forming the second series 
measured, as stated, from 108 to 126mm., with an average of 118* 1mm. 
The initial sizes were as follows :— one at 101mm., one at 104ram., one 
at 108mm., and then the series was continuous from 110mm. onwards. 
Unfortunately, the condition of the reproductive organ was not examined 
throughout the whole series, but in eighteen males from 104mm. to 
125mm, the testes were large and apparently ripe or approaching 
ripeness ; they were examined after preservation in formaline solution. 
The number of female sprats examined was nineteen, varying in size from 
110 to 126 mm., and they all contained either fully mature eggs or eggs 
approaching maturity. In those fully mature the germinal vesicle had 
disappeared and the yolk was transkicent but still somewhat granular. 
It was noticed that there was not any indicatiou of an external swelling 
of the belly such as is found as a rule in fishes with fully-developed 
reproductive organs, so that it was impossible to tell from the external 
examination whether the fishes were about to spawn or not. The 
number of the mature or nearly mature eggs was, moreover, very small 
compared with the number to be found in the ovaries of most other fishes 
with pelagic eggs — amounting only to a few thousands (.see p. 285). I 
append a Table giving particulars of the weights (in grammes) and 
condition of the reproductive organs in some of those examined : — 



Males. 


Females. 


Size. 


Weight. 


Weight of 
Testes. 


Size. 


Weight. 


Weight of 
Ovaries. 


Couditiou of Eggs. 


119 


10-8 


0-7 


122 


12-8 


0'38 


Largest yolked up to '46 mm. 


121 


12-2 


0-7 


120 


12-0 


0-492 


,= '44 ,, 


115 


9-1 


0-5 


124 


12-8 


0-44 


,, -44 „ 


120 


11-5 


0-56 


122 


10-5 


0-49 


,, ,, ,: -609 „ 


123 


13-5 


0-75 


126 


13-0 


0-42 


n '42 „ 


124 


13 


0-58 


122 


10-7 


0-33 


., -38 „ 


116 


10-7 


0-52 


121 


12-0 


0-29 


„ "44 „ 


119 


11-8 


068 


117 


11-0 


0-34 


„ -44 „ 


117 


8-8 


0-3 


118 


10-7 


0-20 


>, -330 „ 


114 


10-5 


0-56 


120 


11-8 


0-54 


,. '651 ,, 


114 


8-3 


0-2 


118 


11-7 


0-32 


,, -378 „ 


113 


9-5 


0-56 


111 


8-8 


0-22 


., -331) „ 


104 


6-5 


0-30 


110 


8-2 




„ -79 „ 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 177 

In the case of the sprats takfn in the Cromarty Firth on 1st June, 
only a few were examined in regard to the reproductive organs, and I noted 
that the females over 104mm. were spawning, and males of the same size 
were also ripe, but it is possible that some under those sizes might also 
have been found ripe if a fuller examination had been made of them. 
The collection made on 31st March in the Dornoch Firth furnishes the 
best material, because a larger number of them were examined, the sexes 
determined, and the reproductive organs noted. Of the 870 obtained, 
559 were males and 311 were females, and in some instances, males as 
small as 84mm. had testes sufficiently developed to indicate that they 
would probably spawn in the course of the season — at the close of which 
they would have considerably increased in length. 

It was in this case, as in many others, difficult to divide the first series 
— only the larger members of which were present — from the second series, 
as is obvious from the curve (PI. IX, Fig. 5). The millimetre measure- 
ments were as follows at and near the point selected : — 

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 I 108 109 110 111 112 113 
10 10 10 9 11 15 21 9 8 14 10 13 30 39 



[Table 



178 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



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1 


1 








rk 


1 

CO 


1 


1 

I-H 


1 



4 


1 
00 


2 


1 


1 
00 


1 


1 
CD 


2 






i-H 









f-i 
















OS 





s 


OS 


OS 


OS 


OS 




d 


<M 


«o 


00 


05 


CO 


<M 


<M 


^ 


rt< 


OS 


CD 


•>*i 


CO 





t-- 


^ 




^ 


CJ 


(N 








(M 








CO 




10 


(N 


<M 


(M 


OS 








'"' 






















lO 




I--. 









10 























ip 






p 




00 


b 


b 


















■ n 





OS 


l^ 


t^ 


b 




s 


00 


00 


00 


00 




00 










00 


CO 


t^ 


00 


t^ 


CO 




6 

bo 
C3 




































«p 


t^ 


T^-l 


"P 




"P 


CO 


!>. 


t;~ 




CO 


<p 


ip 


I^ 


cq 


OS 


hH 




tJD 


r_( 


-* 







lb 


t^ 


CO 


00 




CD 


CD 


OS 


CO 


i-h, 


<x> 




GO 


CO 


00 


t^ 




t>. 


t>. 


!>. 


l^ 




CO 


I-- 


t--. 


00 




I— 




< 


































2 






































































» 




































CO 




bD 

1 


■^ 


«o 


CO 


00 




00 


t^ 


^ 


t^ 




00 


t^ 


t^ 


10 


l-H 


CO 




OS 


05 

1 

10 


1 


05 


fe 


OS 
1 


OJ 

1 


00 
1 

CO 


Oi 
1 




OS 

c', 


OS 
CO 


OS 


OS 

1 
OS 


OS 
CO 


OS 

1 

01 




00 


«o 


CO 


CO 




CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




I--. 


CD 


CD 


t^ 


CO 


CO 






10 


CD 


I— 1 





^ 


^ 


■* 


<M 







00 


CD 


10 


CD 


CO 


t^ 




d 






CO 


»o 




10 


tM 


C4 


l^ 




CD 


CO 


t^ 




CO 


-* 




^ 








CD 




CD 



















^ 


CO 










'"' 




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S 







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ip 












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p 




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OS 


' 


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b 




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^ 




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■* 




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10 




aj 






































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^ 


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op 




t 


<x> 




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10 










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10 





f-H 


% 


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10 




iri 





















10 


10 




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5 






































































&a 




































m 


6 


10 




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1 




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1 

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1 




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1 
10 


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1 

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1 


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1 

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1 




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1 

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■rs 


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t^ 










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10 


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■<»< 
















CM 


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5: 















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c 


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tc 


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irT 


00" 


2 


a 




00" 






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3 


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(M 


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(N 


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:; 


- 


a 











180 Part TIL — Twenty -second Annual Report 

The Table giving the particulars of the sprats obtained in the various 
collections is given on page 178, and a comparison may now be made 
between the average size indicated for the vainous groups. 

If the difference between the average size of the groups be calculated, 
it will be found that the amount between the first and second series is as 
follows in the various months : — 23"lmm. for all the December collec- 
tions combined, 33*2 for April, 42-7 for October, 19'9 for November; the 
mean for the four being 29'7mm., or about one and three sixteenths of 
an inch. The difference in some of the cases is considerable, and this is 
owing in large measure to the very small numbers obtained, and to the 
fact, still more, that the great majority of the smaller specimens escaped 
through the meshes of the net. The large difference in the average size 
in October is due to the fact that the first series was represented by four 
specimens got in the tow-net and measuring from 31 to 45mm., and one 
specimen of 54mm., and, on the other hand, to the average of the few 
specimens in the next series being too high, as already referred to. The 
low average for November was caused by the opposite, and especially by 
the average for the first series being exceptionally high. From this 
circumstance, the fact that only the larger specimens of the first series 
were taken in the small-meshed net, comparison may also be made 
between what I have termed the mean, which is based on the intermediate 
size between the largest and the smallest in a group. This system has 
also its disadvantages, unless the largest and the smallest fishes present 
fairly represent the limits of the series, but it tends to diminish the pre- 
dominance of the larger fishes in obtaining the arithmetical average. On 
this basis, the respective differences between the averages of the first and 
second groups are these: — 35 for April, 38 for October, 27 for Novem- 
ber, and 30 for December, the mean of the lot being 32-5mm. The 
presence of small fishes in the tow-net, as small as 39mm. in December, 
and 40mra. in April in the shrimp-net, shows that the true average is 
under that arithmetically calculated. 

The differences between the averages of the second and third series are 
as follows :— March 21-0, April 36-6, May 37-5, October 30-4, November 
38'9, and December 38"5, the mean of the differences being 33'8. This 
amount is rather above the natural difference owing to the fact adverted 
to, that the larger fishes, many of which no doubt belong to a fourth 
group, are included in the third group, and thus the average of the latter 
is somewhat I'aised. The mean of the combined differences is, calculated 
on the other basis, 35'2mm., or a little over 1| inches, and this probably 
represents the amount of annual growth between one series and another 
in the sprat. 

As already stated, the imperfection of the collections of the first or 
younger group of fishes does not allow an accurate calculation of the size 
of that group to be made, but from the sizes obtained in April, December, 
and September it is certain that the range and the average are under 
what is calculated from the sizes represented. In order to throw light on 
the subject, I have made a curve (PI. X), based on the measurements of 
the best collections, showing the gradual growth of the sprat in the different 
generations. From this, it appears, that at one year of age, about the 
beginning of June, the average size of the sprat is a little over 60mm., 
and when two year's old, at a corresponding period, about 93mm. There 
are not sufficient data to show the precise size in the next June, but, as 
in the end of March and the beginning of April the average size is about 
118mm., it is probable that at the beginning of June the average size 
would be a little over 120mm. This would indicate an approximate 
growth of 30mm. between the first generation and the second, and 27mm. 
between the second and the third. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



181 



The growth of the sprat is thus slow compared to most of the Gadoids, 
but it is, of course, a much smaller species. Its growth is not greatly 
inferior to that of the IS^orway Pout, the smallest of the Gadoids I have 
dealt with. 

In winter, moreover, the curves and measurements show that the 
growth is very much slower; most of it appears to take place between 
April and autumn. In this respect the sprat resembles other fishes. 

There is one remarkable circumstance about the sprat, that after the 
third or fourth generation spawns it dies or disappears. Very few fishes 
seem to survive to the following year ; and this forms a contrast to the 
conditions obtaining among the flat-fishes and most round fishes, in 
which many generations survive after maturity is reached and spawn 
in successive years. 

With regard to sexual maturity and the age at which it is attained, a 
comparison may be made between the collections from the Cromarty 
Firth on 1st June and that from the Dornoch on the 31st March, or two 
months earlier — two months, moreover, in which growth is comparatively 
rapid. The curve of the former on Plate VIII (Fig. 7) shows an apparently 
homogeneous and symmetrical group, from 73 to 110mm., with an 
average of 92-9mm. As already stated, the condition of the reproductive 
organs in this series was only partially examined, but if the smaller 
resembled those of about 104mm. — and spawning, as we have seen, goes 
on into July, during which a considerable amount of growth occurs — then 
the whole group would probably spawn, and these fishes were about two 
years of age. The great group in the March collection, ranging from 
108mm. to 139mm., were obviously all approaching ripeness or fully 
matured, and would all spawn in the course of the season. It is probable, 
also, from the condition of the reproductive organs, that the next younger 
generation, or those two years of age, would spawn also before the close 
of the season, or at all events the males would, and in that case they 
would come into line with the series got at Cromarty, and indicate that 
sexual maturity is reached at two years of age. 

The average length and weight of the sprats at one, two, and three 
years of age, according to this research, are approximately as follows : — 





Mm 


Grammes. 


Increase. 


Mm. 


Grammes. 


One year, - 
Two years, - 
Three years. 


63 

93 
120 


1-4 

5-0 

12-5 


30 

27 


7-5 



In the investigation made by Jenkins, based on the examination of the 
ear-bones, three generations were also determined, but the average sizes 
do not correspond. His results are as follows, the weights here inserted 
being derived from my observations on the relation of weight to length, 
as described on page 145. 





Mm. 


Grammes. 


Increase 


Mm. 


Grammes. 


First year, - 
Second year. 
Third year, - 


75 
110 
130 


2-5 

9-2 

16-4 


35 
20 


6-7 

7-2 



182 Part III. — Tiventy-secorul Annual Be^wrt 

TABLE I. 
Measurements of Sprats in 2mm. Groups. 



MM. 



28-9 - 

30-1 - 

2-3 - 

4-5 - 

6-7 - 

8-9 - 

40-1 - 

42-3 - 

44-5 - 

46-7 - 

48-9 . 

50-1 . 

2-3 - 

4-5 - 

6-7 - 

8-9 - 

60-1 - 

2-3 - 

4-5 - 

6-7 - 

8-9 - 

70-1 - 

2-3 - 

4-5 - 

6-7 - 

8-9 - 

80-1 - 

2-3 - 

4-5 - 

6-7 - 



Aberdeen Bay. 






II. 









III, 



IV. 



4) O 

COS 



V. 



VI. 



VII. 



VQI. 



IX. 



X. 



XI. 



<a CO 



XII. 



XIII. 



x^ 



03 CO 
l-H f 



QhhS 



1 

6 

12 

13 

10 

5 

1 



12 
19 
21 
11 
6 
2 



•-SOi 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



183 



TABLE l.—contimied. 



MM. - 

c 


Aberdeen Bay. 


I. 

o 


II. 


5 <B - 

. o 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. ^ 


*^II. 


VIII. 


[X. 


X. 


XI. XII. 


1 k^ 5 - 
1. o.S 


XIII. 






/-I OS 


J" 

O c 




,-( ,-1 ,-1 rH (M 


is 

in --I 

rH 


8S-9 - 


3 




3 


2 






2 






1 








1 




90-1 - 


3 




3 


3 






2 






1 








1 


1 


2-3 - 


3 




3 


5 












4 




2 




6 




4-5 - 


2 




2 


15 






1 






3 




1 




4 




6-7 - 


2 




2 


12 












1 




4 




5 




8-9 - 


1 




1 


7 


















2 


2 




100-1 - 


1 




1 


3 










1 






1 


1 


3 




2-3 - 








5 
















1 




1 




4-5 - 








3 










1 


1 


1 




5 


8 




6-7 - 


1 




1 








1 






1 






4 


5 




8-9 - 








1 






4 






1 






4 


5 




110-1 - 














2 




1 


1 


1 




2 


5 




2-3 - 














8 


1 






1 




7 


8 


1 


4-5 - 














10 








1 




7 


8 


1 


6-7 - 


1 




1 


1 






9 












3 


3 


2 


8-9 - 














16 


4 
















120-1 - 












... 


13 


3 






2 




2 


4 


2 


2-3 - 














11 


3 


... 




1 




1 


2 




4-5 - 














9 


2 














1 


6-7 - 














6 
















2 


8-9 - 














2 












1 


1 




130-1 - 














1 
















1 


2-3 - 


















1 




2 






3 




4-5 - 














1 
















1 


6-7 - 
































8-9 - 
































140-1 - 






























... 



184 



Fart III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 













TABLE I.- 


-continued. 
















Dornoch Firth. 


Off Burghead. 


Cromarty 
Firth. 


Lunan 
Bay. 


Firth 

of 
Forth. 


I 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 




I. 


II. 


III. 


3 


I. 


II. 






MM. 


SO 

r-l "-1 

:o 


o eo 

•^ o 


o so 


k 


k 

Pro 


k 


> . 

1 'V 

"1 

o o 
Q 








a S 

'. o 

o 

Q 






o 

3 
CO 


o 




6 . 


o . 

Q CO 

^§ 
CO'-' 


CS o 


po 

-5^ 


38-9 - 












1 


1 


















40-1 - 
































2-3 - 
































4-5 - 






1 














... 












6-7 - 






1 


























8-9 - 












1 


1 


















50-1 - 






1 














2 


2 










2-3 - 






4 






1 


1 






3 


3 








1 


4-5 - 




1 


8 




1 


3 


4 






7 


7 










6-7 - 






8 






7 


7 






7 


7 










8-9 ■ 






5 




1 


4 


5 






2 


2 










60-1 • 






5 




1 


3 


4 






4 


4 


1 








2-3 - 






13 




1 


3 


4 






2 


2 








1 


4-5 - 




1 


20 




1 


7 


8 






15 


15 










6-7 - 




2 


56 




4 


14 


18 






22 


22 


1 








8-9 - 


... 




98 




2 


27 


29 






31 


31 








5 


70-1 - 




1 


207 




2 


40 


42 


... 




45 


45 


3 






26 


2-3 - 






261 


2 


6 


64 


72 






60 


60 


4 


1 




19 


4-5 - 


2 


1 


287 


2 


10 


88 


100 






64 


64 


2 


1 




28 


6-7 - 


3 




276 


10 


9 


81 


100 






59 


59 


3 


1 




58 


8-9 - 


4 


2 


175 


15 


7 


57 


79 




1 


51 


52 


1 


2 




47 


80-1 - 


4 




116 


9 


9 


44 


62 






43 


43 


1 


7 




54 


2-3 ■ 


5 




76 


16 


8 


34 


58 






25 


25 


2 


29 




47 


4-5 - 


6 


1 


32 


17 


4 


18 


39 




1 


12 


13 


1 


37 




55 


6-7 - 


7 




17 


14 


3 


19 


36 




4 


6 


10 




46 


1 


62 


8-9 - 


6 


1 


4 


14 


3 


16 


33 




4 


] 


5 


2 


50 


1 


42 


90-1 - 


11 


2 


2 


17 


3 


15 


35 




2 


2 


4 


1 


57 




37 


2-3 - 


14 


2 


3 


24 


4 


17 


45 




5 




5 


1 


63 


2 


28 


4-5 - 


17 


1 


2 


17 


3 


15 


35 




3 


1 


4 




58 


4 


20 


6-7 - 


15 


1 


4 


10 


2 


10 


22 




2 


1 


3 




53 


3 


9 


8-9 - 


16 




1 


1 




11 


12 




4 


1 


6 




49 


8 


2 



of the Fishery Board or Scotland. 



185 



TABLE l.—contimied. 





Dornoch Firth. 


Off Burghoad. 


Cromartj 
Firth. 


Lunan 
Bay. 


Firth 

of 
Forth. 


I. 


II. 


III 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 




I. 


11. 


III. 


K 


I. 


II. 




MM. 


ii 

CO 


O en 


12; as 


c5 o 


ii 


jQ 05 

oo'"' 


7-1 

o q 








Tl 

Q 


CrH 
CS O 

o 


no 

tf as 


o 

Oi 

c 
00 


o 

as 






00 ^ 


100-1 - 


20 


2 






4 


12 


16 


1 


5 




5 




35 


8 


4 


2-3 - 


19 


1 


2 


1 


3 


10 


14 




7 


3 


10 




29 


18 


2 


4-5 - 


26 


2 


3 


4 


3 


14 


21 


1 


11 


1 


12 




14 


16 




6-7 - 


SO 


3 


1 




2 


8 


10 




12 


5 


17 




12 


7 




8-9 - 


22 


5 


1 


2 


2 


6 


10 


1 


14 


1 


15 




5 


4 




110-1 - 


23 


1 


1 


1 


3 


6 


10 


4 


15 




15 


1 


1 


2 




2-3 - 


69 


2 


1 


1 


2 


12 


15 


6 


17 


1 


18 


] 




3 




4-5 - 


82 


3 




2 


4 


9 


15 


9 


19 


2 


21 






2 




6-7 - 


122 


1 






8 


11 


19 


10 


25 


3 


28 


2 









8-9 - 


112 


1 






7 


10 


17 


14 


36 


1 


37 










120-1 - 


112 


1 




4 


5 


6 


15 


11 


46 


2 


48 










2-3 - 


62 






1 


3 


3 


7 


9 


53 


4 


57 










4-5 - 


35 


1 






5 


5 


10 


7 


69 


2 


71 




1 






6-7 - 


15 








1 




1 


1 


73 




73 










8-9 - 


4 
















50 




50 










130-1 - 


4 






1 






1 




28 




28 










2-3 - 


















17 




17 










4-5 - 


1 
















6 




6 








1 


6-7 - 


1 
















3 




3 








... - 


8-9 - 


1 
















2 




2 










140-1 - 
































2-3 - 































186 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 



6. Witch {Pleuronectes cy^ioglossus, L.). 

There now exists a considerable amount of material to show the growth 
of this flat-fish in the earlier period of its life, for the first few generations, 
young forms having been procured in the tow-nets or the fine-meshed net 
used with the otter-trawl. 

The witch spawns rather later than most of the other pleuronectids. 
On the east coast of Scotland the spawning period was found by me to 
extend from May to August, the maximum spawning occuring aljout the end 
of June.* Cunningham found it spawning in the Clyde towards the end 
of June,t and Williamson obtained the floating eggs in Lochfyne in each 
month from April to August inclusive — sparingly in these two months, 
and most abundantly in June. J Holt found ripe specimens on the west 
coast of ^Ireland in March, April, and May, and expressed the opinion that 
it also spawns in June; § and Herdman and Dawson, with reference to the 
Irish Sea, describe this fish as spawning from May to July.|| 

The spawning period may therefore be regarded as extending from April 
into August, with a maximum towards the end of June. 

The egg measures from 1'15 to ri9mm. and according to Cunningham 
hatches at temperatures varying from 53° to 68° on the sixth day, and 
at lower temperatures on the ninth day. Holt found that the eggs 
fertilised by him on 14th May hatched mostly on the seventh day; 
some as early as the sixth and others as late as the ninth day, but the 
temperature of the water was not noted. The surface and bottom 
temperatures off" the Firth of Forth, where the depth is about "thirty 
fathoms, are approximately as follows in the months during which the 
witch spawns. 





April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


August. 


Surface, - 
Bottom, - 


43-3° 
41-6° 


46-5° 
44-3" 


61° 

45° 


54-3° 

48-5° 


55^ 
51-5° 



The lower temperatures mentioned by Cunningham are not specified, 
and the eggs of the witch were not among those submitted to temperature- 
experiments by Dannevig at Dunbar. But in the experiments referred 
to ^ it was found that the egg of the cod, which is larger than that of 
the witch, being about l"39mm., took 15;^ days to hatch at a temperature 
of 42^-8, 12| days at 46°-4, 10^ days at 50'', and 9f days at 53°-6; 
while the egg of the flounder, which is smaller than that of the witch, 
measuring 0*95 to l'05mni. in diameter, at the same temperatures hatched 
in 6^, 5^, 4| and 3|- days respectively. It may therefore be assumed 
that if the bulk of the eggs of the witch be spawned in the latter part of 
June, the majority of the larvse hatch out about a week later, or, approxi- 
mately, at the beginning of July. The hatching period, owing to the 
influence of temperature, will be more contracted than the period of 
spawning. 

*Eighth Ann. Report Fishery Board for Scotlaiul, Part III., p. 263 (1890) ; Ninth ibid. 
p. 264 ; Tenth ibid., pp. 234, 242. 

■f Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinr., vol. xxxii., Pt. I., p. 101 (1887). 

X Seventeenth Ann. Rejp. Fisliery Board for Scotland, Part III., p. 99 (1899). 

%Rep. to Council, Roy. Dublin Soc. for 1851, p. 258 (1892). 

II " Fishes and Fisheries of the Irish Sea," p. 55. (1902). 

^Thirteenth Ann. Reji. Fisliery Board for Scotland, Part III., p. 147. 



o/ the Fishery Board for Scotland. 187 

The larval witch on escaping from the egg measures, according to 
Holt,* about 3-99mm., and ten days after hatching, when the yolk was 
exhausted, a specimen measured 5"57mm. Cunningham found that in forty- 
eight hours after hatching the length of the larva increased from 3"9 to 
5'9mm., a rapid increase. From the very considerable length at which 
transformation is completed, it is evident that the pelagic stage of this 
species is comparatively prolonged ; one, incompletely transformed, with 
the left eye on the ridge of tlie head, and measuring 40mm. in length, 
was taken by myself on 15th January off Aberdeen. 

In the present Report (p. 270) Dr. H. C. Williamson describes the 
post-larval and early young stages of the witch. 

In the accompanying Table I give the particulars concerning 151 
post-larval witches caught in tow-nets at various depths in Aberdeen 
Bay and off it, in the Dornoch Firth, and in the Clyde. 

Sci. Trans. Roy. DuU. Soc. V. (Ser. II.), p. 84 (1893). 



I Table 



188 



Part III. — Twentysecond Annual Report 



Place and Date. 


SIZE (Mm.). 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 

1 


17 

2 

1 


IS 

2 
2 

1 
1 


19 


20 

1 

1 


21 

1 

1 

1 


22 

1 
1 


23 

1 


24 

1 

1 


25 
1 




Aberdeen Bay. 

1900. 
1st October, - 
2nd „ - 
3rd „ - 

8th ,, - 

1902. 
15th January, 

1903. 
16th October, 

7th November, - 

Dornoch Firth. 

1903. 
20th October, 
11th November, - 
12th 

Clyde. 

1899. 
7th June, - 
14th „ 
15th „ 

15th July, - 
16th „ 
18th „ 
19th „ 
1st August, - 


2 




7 
1 

3 


3 

4 

4 
2 


10 
3 

3 

2 


2 
4 
1 

1 

1 


2 
4 
2 

3 


1 
2 
3 

1 
1 


1 

1 

2 

2 


1 
1 

1 

2 

1 
1 





of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



189 



27 28 



37 



38 



Remarks. 



Tow-net. Serial iii. 1 fm. from bottom. 
,, 2 hns. from bottom. 

„ 8 fms. to 9-10 fms. 

at 14 fm?. 
„ 8-9 fms. 

30 fms. Mid-water net. 

Surface-net, 3 fms. from surface. 
Bottom tow-net, near trawl head. 
Small-meshed trawl. Still pelagic. 
Tow-net. 6 fms. below surface. 
,, mid-water. 



,, near surface. 

,, <j above bottom. Pelagic. 



14 fms. Between Pladda and 
Ailsa Craig. 

5 fms. Between Sanda and 
Brennan Head. 

5-20 fms. Between Mull of Can- 
tire and Corsewall. 

5-15 fms. Shrimp. Stations 
IV., V. 

20 fms. Between Ailsa Craig and 
Mull of Cantire. 

25 fms. Between Mull of Can- 
tire and Corsewall. 

on trawl head. Station III. 

25 fms. Between Pladda and 

Turnberry. 
on trawl head. Station XII. 

10-15 fms. Series III. 

20 fms. Station IV. 



190 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Beport 

They are to be found in Aberdeen Bay in October and November, 
and, as above stated, an odd specimen may be procured even in January. 
The size of those obtained ranged from 12 to 40mm. (1-1 1 inches), 
transformation being completed and bottom-life begun as a rule about the 
latter size. In the Dornoch Firth a few were also obtained in October 
and November, from 22 to 38mm. In the Clyde, in the deep water 
across the mouth of the Firth, in June and July, a number were procured 
ranging from 6*5 to 37mm., the smaller forms being generally caught 
towards the surface and the larger forms deeper. On 1st August these 
measured 14, 15, and 17mm. I am indebted to Dr. Williamson for 
particulars of these. 

In the absence of a complete periodic series of tow-net collections 
extending over the whole time from the beginning of spawning, it is not 
possible to tell the age of the specimens given in the Table ; but if spawn- 
ing ceases in August it follows that those got in Aberdeen Bay in October 
and November must be two months old, and may be more, and that the 
specimen, incompletely metamorphosed, procured on 15th January, was 
over four months old. The size at which metamorphosis is completed, 
and therefore the duration of the pelagic stage in this species, is there- 
fore considerable. 

The young forms living on the bottom were also sometimes caught in 
the small-meshed net, enveloping the cod-end of the otter-trawl, or in 
the shrimp-trawl. Thus, on 24th October, in sixty fathoms some miles of! 
Aberdeen, nine specimens were taken, five of which measured 42mm., and 
one each 37, 38, 40, and 43mm. These clearly belonged to the preceding 
spawning season, and would be a few months old. On 28th December, 
in thirty fathoms, off Burghead Bay in the Moray Firth, fourteen specimens 
were secured which measured as follows: — 

Mm. 



iO 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


63 


2 


1 


1 


3 


2 


1 


1 


- 


1 


1 


1 



All these also belonged to the previous spawning season ; the next 
largest got in the net was 137mm. {see below). 

In the same locality, on 14th November, one measuring 56mm. 
(2j^^ inches) was taken, and it belongs to tho same category. On 21st 
January, in fifty fathoms, in the Moray Firth, a specimen of 47mm. was 
taken ; on 23rd January, in the same place, another of 45mm., the tail of 
which wus, however, damaged, and its real length would be several milli- 
metres greater. On 1st April, oflf Burghead Bay, in thirty-two fathoms, 
seven small witches were caught of the following sizes : — 60, 65, 66, 74, 
76, 77, 83mm. (2|-3J inches), which would be, approximately, from 
eight to ten months old ; the next largest was 144mm. 

On the west coast, two were caught in Loch Long, off Ruad Dubh, in 
thirty-five fathoms, on 20th September, which measured 57 and 58mm. 
respectively; on 17th September, in Upper Loch Etive, in fifty-two 
fathoms, six were taken, four of which measured 47ram., one 57 mm., 
and one 60 mm.; on 21st April, one measuring 90mm. (3| inches) 
was obtained seventeen miles off Corsewall Point. There seems little 
doubt that all these also belonged to the spawning-season immediately 
preceding. 

Holt, on the coast of Ireland, caught specimens of 42mm. in eighty 
fathoms on 19th August, which he was of opinion were from eggs 
spawned early in the season, and were thus from four to six months old ; 
and in July he got one in one hundred and forty-four fathoms, measur- 
ing 12.5cm., which he believed to be about one year or more old.* 

In some of the hauls a number of specimens were procured belonging 
to a fairly well-defined older group, and these, with some others, are 
represented in the accompanying Table. 

» Sci Trans. Roy. Dithlin Soc. V (Ser. II.) 85 



of the Fishery Boairlfor Scotland. 



191 











MORAY 


FIRTH. 


DEEP 
SEA. 










CLYDE. 










I. 


11. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


\I 


VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 


XIII. 
















_; 














d 


















































i 




28 Dec 


,1903. 


c ■ 


1 April, 1904. 


O § 


O 


i^ 

Ǥ 


5Sept.,lS99. 


5 Oct., 1899. 


1 <-H 


8 Nov., 1901. 


27-28 Nov., 
1901. 


24 Dec, 1901. 


o 


-*• ^ 












«'-' 


j_ 


i-t i-i 












00 










7 


6 


? 


Tot. 




2 


6 


V 


Tot. 






? 


C? 


Tot. 


? 


C^ 


Tot. 




? 


C? 


Tot. 


2 


d 


Tot 


2 


J 


Tot. 


3 
■1 








9 


9 


















































5 


1 






4 


4 


1 
















































6 








1 


1 








1 


1 








































" 


















3 


3 








































8 


















3 


3 








































9 





























































10 




























































11 




























1 


1 


2 




























12 




































1 


1 






















13 
It 


1 

4 






3 


3 


1 




1 




1 






1 








•2 


1 


3 


























15 


2 






4 


4 


1 


11 


2 




13 


1 














1 


1 






















16 


1 






2 


2 


1 


7 


11 




18 








1 


1 


2 










1 


2 


3 














17 

IS 








1 


1 


3 


4 


4 




8 








4 


2 
2 


2 
6 




3 


1 
4 




2 
1 




2 
1 
















19 












1 




2 




2 


1 






2 


1 


3 






2 


1 


1 




1 




1 


1 








20 
21 














■"■■ 








4 

9 


1 

2 


2 


3 
4 


2 

1 


5 
5 




1 

9 


1 
3 






2 
2 


2 
2 








1 


1 


1 
1 


22 








1 


1 


1 




2 




2 


14 


11 


3 


1 


2 


3 




2 


3 




3 


1 


4 














23 
24 






9 






1 




1 

4 




1 
5 


11 

5 


6 
12 


9 














1 
1 




5 
6 


5 
8 




1 


1 




1 
2 


1 
3 


3 




2 




2 


4 




1 


1 




1 


1 




3 


3 


2 




1 


25 


1 




3 




3 


1 




4 


2 


6 


9 


21 


3 




2 


2 




2 


2 




2 


7 


9 




2 


2 








26 


5 




1 




1 


6 






3 


3 


18 


30 






2 


2 








1 


2 


5 


7 


1 


2 


3 




2 


2 


27 


8 




3 




3 


1 




3 


4 


7 


40 


37 


2 


3 


3 


6 




2 


3 


1 


1 


11 


12 




3 


3 


1 


4 


5 


28 


5 




4 




4 


1 




1 


8 


9 


48 


45 


3 


1 


1 


2 




3 


4 




3 


12 


15 


1 


5 


6 


1 


3 


4 


29 


4 


2 


6 




8 


3 






2 


2 


51 


41 


7 


1 


2 


3 








3 


2 


10 


12 




7 


7 




6 


6 


30 


4 




3 




3 


3 






12 


12 


51 


49 


2 


1 


6 


6 




1 




4 


1 


8 


9 


1 


18 


9 


2 


5 


7 


31 


3 




2 




2 


3 






9 


9 


39 


46 


2 


4 


2 


6 




1 




2 


5 


7 


12 


5 


27 


32 


2 


12 


14 


32 


4 


1 


3 




4 


4 






-3 


13 


37 


54 


5 


1 




1 


2 






6 


1 


4 


5 


4 


19 


23 


3 


4 


7 


33 


6 


3 


5 




8 


2 






'2 


12 


24 


85 


2 




1 


1 


1 






6 








10 


21 


31 


5 


11 


16 


34 
35 






6 




6 
2 


2 






16 


16 


35 


94 
100 


4 
6 








9 






10 

8 


4 

2 




6 
3 


7 
10 


10 
13 


17 

23 


5 
5 


9 

8 


14 
13 


8 


2 




3 






10 


10 


31 














1 


36 


5 


1 


1 




9 


1 






10 


10 


23 


93 


5 








1 






7 








8 


2 


10 


6 


5 


11 


37 
38 


4 




1 
2 




i 

2 


3 

1 






8 
8 


8 
8 


16 
17 


86 
80 


3 

1 








1 






2 


1 




1 


9 
4 


4 
1 


13 
5 


4 
5 


4 
1 


8 
6 


5 


39 


3 


1 


1 




2 


3 






7 


7 


20 


69 


1 






















2 




2 


1 




1 


40 


4 










3 






7 


7 


18 


72 


2 
















1 




1 


3 


2 


5 


1 


2 


3 


41 


2 


1 


1 




2 








3 


3 


23 


55 


2 


































42 


3 


1 


1 




2 


1 






10 


10 


21 


56 




































43 


3 


1 






1 


2 






9 


9 


17 


34 


3 


































44 


2 
















2 


2 


18 


30 


1 


































45 


2 




1 




1 








4 


4 


7 


19 


1 


































46 


1 
















2 


2 


7 


19 




































47 






















5 


8 




































48 


















2 


2 


1 


6 




































49 
























5 




































50 
























2 




































51 




























































52 




























































53 












1 
















































54 




























































55 




























































56 




























































57 




























































58 












1 
















































59 




























































60 




























































61 




























































62 








_ 





















































192 



Part III. — Tiventy-second Annual Report 



Thus, ill the haul of 14th November (1) there were eight specimens 
between 13 and 16cm. (viz.:— 132, UO, 144, 146, 148, 152, 156, 161mm.), 
and the next size was 242ram. In that of 28th December the group 
was represented by ten specimens, measuring from 137mm. to 168mm., 
the next largest being 215mm.; in the haul of 23rd January it was 
represented by nine specimens, from 138 to 186mm., the next size 
being 222mm., and in the haul of 1st April by fourty-four, from 144 to 
191mm., the next largest being 217mm. 

A consideration of the first and second series or generations in these 
cases throws light on the rate of growth of the fish, and the measure- 
ments may be grouped as follows, showing the smallest and largest 
specimens represented in each case, and the mean size: — 



First Series. 


Date. 


No. 


Smallest. 


Largest. 


Range. 


Arithmetic 
Average. 


Geometric 
Mean. 


1903. 
14th November, - 


1 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 


Mm. 
66 


Mm. 


28th December, - 


14 


40 


62 


22 


44-7 


52 


1904. 
23rd January, 


1 


- 


- 


- 


47-0 


- 


1st April, - 


7 


60 


83 


23 


71-6 


71-5 


Second Series. 


Date. 


No. 


Smallest. 


Largest. 


Range. 


Arithmetic 
ATerage. 


Geometric 
Mean. 


1903. 
14th November, - 


8 


Mm. 
132 


Mm. 
161 


Mm. 
29 


Mm. 

147-4 


Mm. 
146-5 


28 th December, - 


10 


137 


168 


31 


150-2 


152-5 


1904. 
23rd January, 


9 


138 


186 


48 


167-4 


162-0 


1st April, - 


44 


144 


191 


47 


166-1 


167-5 



The arithmetic average, it may be explained, is obtained by adding 
up the sizes of the fishes represented in each group and dividing by the 
number of fishes ; it will deviate from the true average size in one 
direction or the other if the larger or the smaller fishes of the group 
predominate in numbers. The geometric mean is the middle figure 
between the extreme sizes, viz. :— the largest fish and the smallest; its 
accuracy depends upon the limits of the group being truly indicated. 

Considering first the difference in size between the first series of 
witches and the second series, which are one year older, it is evident that 
the size of the single specimens of the first series obtained on 14th 
November and 23rd January respectively, are not representative, the 
former (56mm.) being too large and the latter (47mm.) too small. This 
is shown by the townet collections in October and November, as 
represented in Table A. and Plate XI, in which specimens measuring 



of the Fisherij Board for Scotland. 



193 



from 12mm. to 40mm. were secured. The differences between the two 
series on 28th December and on 1st April are these : — 





Smallest. 


Largest. 


Ai'ithmetic 
Average. 


Geometric 
Mean. 


28th December, - 
1st Api-il, - 


Mm. 

97 
84 


Mm. 

104 

108 


Mm, 

105-5 
94-5 


Mm. 

100-5 

96-0 



If the mean of the average sizes be taken for the two hauls, the 
difference between the first series and the second series is, for the 
arithmetic average, 100 0mm., and for the geometric, 98-3mm — and thij 
might be taken as approximately representing the increase in growth in 
length in the witch at this stage in one year, i.e., about 3g inches. It 
will be seen, however, as is the general rule, that the average difference 
in length is greater at the earlier date than at the later ; in other words, 
that the younger fishes increase in length more rapidly than those one 
year older. The annual increment is therefore better represented on 1st 
April than on 28th December ; and since 1st April is two or three 
months anterior to the height of the hatching season, and the more 
rapid growth in length of the smaller fishes continues, the true difference 
in length between witches which are one year old and those which are 
two years old is probably under 90mm. (3| inches). The average length 
of a one-year-old witch appears to be about 3| inches, and that of a two- 
year-old somewhat under 7 inches. 

The above Tables also furnish information as to the growth of the first 
and the second series between the dates of the collections. Thus, in the 
ninety-five days between 28th December and 1st April the increments of 
the first series of witches was as follows : — 



Smallest. 


Largest. 


Arithmetic 
Average. 


Geometric 
Mean. 


Mm. 
20 


Mm. 

21 


Mm. 
26-9 


Mm. 
19-5 



In the period mentioned, therefore, the young witches grew a little 
over 20mm. longer^ — about § of an inch. The second series of older 
fishes grew less rapidly. Comparison of the sizes at the various dates 
shows the following increases : — 



[Table. 



194 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Beport 





No. 

of 

Days. 


Increase. 


Of 

Smallest 
Fish. 


Of 

Largest 
Fish. 


Average. 


Mean. 


14th November to 
28th December, 


44 


Mm. 

5 


Mm. 

7 


Mm. 

2-8 


Mm. 
6-0 


28th December to 
23rd January, - 


26 


1 


18 


17-2 


9-5 


23rd January to 
1st April, 


69 


6 


5 


-1-3 


5-5 


28th December to 
1st April, 


95 


7 


23 


15-9 


15-0 


14th November to 
1st April, 


139 


12 


30 


18-7 


21-0 



The increase in length in the ninety-five days from 28th December to 
1st April amounted to about 15mm. (§ inch); on the 139 days from 
14th November to 1st April, to about 20mm. (| inch). It will be 
noticed, as pointed out in previous reports, that the larger fishes of an 
early series grow more rapidly that the smallest, i.e., the variation in the 
sizes of the individual fishes of the group — due primarily to a difference 
in the time of hatching, early or late — becomes more pronounced, which 
is one of the causes of the coalescence of the older generations or groups. 
It will also be observed that, so far as these data go, growth was more 
rapid in December and January than in spring. This might be expected 
from the higher temperature of the bottom water in the depths where the 
witches lived during the former months, growth being closely related to 
temperature. Unfortunately, no observations have yet been made with 
sufficient frequency to enable the temperatures at these depths in the 
northern waters to be approximately stated for the various months of the 
year. Off the Firth of Forth, in thirty fathoms, according to the 
Gaiiancfs observations, the mean bottom -temperature in the months 
referred to were — November, 49° F. ; December, 49'2° ; January, 41*7° ; 
February, 41-3°; March, 40-1°; April 43-3°. 

"With regard to the sizes and growth of the witches of older series, 
above two years, there is more difficulty, owing to the coalescence of the 
groups, and the different rate of growth of the males and females after 
sexeral maturity is attained ; and there are not yet sufficient observations 
on the older males and females to make the matter clear. In most of the 
collections, as may be observed from the table, there is a general absence 
of specimens between the second and third groups, and it is not certain 
whether this gap is natural, i.e., that it is caused by there being really no 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 1^5 

intermediate sizes, the grow th of the largest of the second series not 
having brought that series up to the third — or whether it is owing to the 
imperfect collections. A comparison of the measurements at the different 
dates shows that the latter factor at least partly accounts for it, inasmuch 
as smaller specimens of the third series were obtained in January and 
April than in November as shown : — 

Cm. 15 15-5 16 16-5 17 17-5 18 lS-5 19 19-5 20 20-5 21 21-5 22 22-5 23 23-5 24 

11th Nov., Ill 2 

28th Dec, 2111 1-2--2 

23rd Jan., 11 --3111 1-122 

1st April, 8 1178- 2-11 ----11-1 23 

In the curves -of measurements there is a marked drop indicating a 
division between the third and the fourth series, but it does not agree in 
the different cases, and is based upon not very many mixed measurements 
of males and females. The lowest point is at 30-31cm. in November, 
27cm. in January, 30-31cm. in December, and 29cm. in April. Study of 
the curves of the other series of measurements given in the Table shows 
that the fixing of the division between the third and fourth groups must 
be deferred. If, however, as reasoned above, a two-year-old witch 
measures on the average about 7 inches, and the rate of growth is 
slightly reduced, the average length when three years old will piobably 
be about 10 inches, or 25cm., with a range for the group of approxi- 
mately from 8^ to 11^ inches. 

The average size and the range of size at which maturity is first 
reached in the males and females are not yet sufficiently elucidated. 
I found females ripe at 14 inches, spent at 13 inches, and nearly ripe 
at 12| inches; and males ripe at 15 inches, nearly ripe at 11| inches.* 
On the west coast of Ireland the smallest ripe female found by Holt was 
twelve inches, and the smallest approaching ripeness was also 12 
inches ; the smallest ripe male was 10| inches, and the smallest 
approaching ripeness 10 inches.t 

From these facts it appears that the female witch does not spawn 
before the fourth year ; some males may possibly become mature in their 
third year. It is noteworthy that in this species, under certain sizes the 
males are much more numerous than the females. In 2348 specimens 
under 16 inches, and mostly from 10 to 13 inches, the greater part of 
which were examined by Mr. F. G. Pearcey on board the Garland, 
915 were females and 1833 were males, the males at these sizes being 
thus rather more than twice as numerous as the females. In 104 
examined by myself there were sixty-seven males and thirty-seven 
females. Among large witches, on the other hand, from 13 or 14 
inches upwards the proportions of the sexes are reversed. Of 422 
examined, 306 were females (34-50cm.) and 116 males. 

7. The Norway Pout (Gadus Esmarkii). 

Since describing the observations made on the growth of this species 
in the Nineteenth Annual ReportJ collections have been obtained and 
measurements made on several occasions. Most of the fish were caught 
in the jVIoray Firth, or off Aberdeen, but in two instances collections 
were secured in the deep Avater off the Shetlands. The first haul was for 
forty-five minutes on 19th May, 1901, in sixty-five fathoms, about 
fifty-three miles S.E. by S. \ S. from the south point of Fetlar Island, 
Shetland ; the bottom temperature was 42-5° C, and the surface 46-6° C. 
The number of Norway Pouts caught was 285, almost all belonging to one 

* Eighth Ann. Rep. Fishery Board for Scotland Part III., p. 161) 1890); Tenth 
ihid(, p. 239. 

\ Report of Council for 1891, Roy. Dullin Soc, p. 272. 
+ Part III., p. 155(1901). 



196 



Pa7't III.— Twenty-second Annual Beport 



series, which extended from 85mm. to 129mm.. the range being thus 
44mm. The arithmetic average size for the 279 in the series was 
106"2mm., the mean was 107mm., and the maximum ordinate 10"5cra. 
(PI. XII). The remaining six fishes, measuring from 137 to 149mm., 
represented part of the second series. 

The next collectiou was obtained on 11th December, 1901, from the 
grounds seventy-five miles south-east of Sumburgh Head, Shetland, in 
seventy-five fathoms of water. The number of specimens secured in the 
small-meshed net was 704. Most of them belonged to one series, 
although three were represented. The first was not well represented, and 
was not cut off so sharply from the next series of larger fishes as in the 
hauls in September and October of the preceding year.* 

The measurements, in 1cm. groupings, are given in the Table appended ; 
and the 2mm. grouping is as follows at the point of division : — 



115-6 
10 



117-8 
11 



119-20 

7 



121-2 
5 



12.3-4 
1 



125-6 
4 



127-8 
14 



129-30 
21 



131-2 
25 



This series extends from 97mm. to 122mm., a range of 25mm.; 
the smaller forms are no doubt absent. The arithmetic average size 
of the eighty-five fishes contained in it was lll"5mm., and the mean 
was 109"5mm. The maximum range in this series in the collections 
made in October 1900, which included 1553 fishes, was 50mm., and if this 
be applied in the present case it would make the size of the smallest 
belonging to it about 72mm., and the mean size on this basis would 
be about 97mm. 

The next older group begins at 124mm., and apparently extends to 
180mm. or 182mm., but it is possible it terminates at about 164mm. 
The two-millimetre grouping from 157mm. to the end is as follows : — 



157-8 
14 



159-60 161-2 
8 6 



163-4 

4 



165-6 167-8 
7 12 



169-70 171-2 173-4 175-6 177- 
6 4 4 5 5 



170-80 181-2 183-4 185-6 
3 1-1 



187-8 189-90 191-2 193-4 
3 - 1 - 



195-6 197-8 
2 1 



Taking the series as ending at 182mm., the range of the 611 fishes 
composing it amounts to 58mm. ; the arithmetic average size is 142-3mni. 
and the mean 153mm. There were other eight fishes, the largest being 
197mm., which evidently belong to a third series. The arithmetic average 
size is 190'9mm. 

For comparison with the preceding collections taken in the same neigh- 
bourhood I give here the main features in tabular form, the averages 
being the actual arithmetical average. 



Date. 


1st Series. 


2ncl Series. 


3rd Series. 


Range. 


Average. 


Range. 


Average. 


Range. 


Average. 


1900. 
31 August 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 
110-162 


mm. 

140-2 


mm. 
163 213 


mm. 
176-8 


4 September 


51-92 


78-7 


117-155 


136-0 


157-200 


168-9 


16-19 Octr. 


66-116 


87-7 


119-172 


143-6 


177-197 


182-5 


1901. 
19 May 


85-129 


106-2 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


11 December 


97-122 


111-5 


124-182 


142-3 


185-197 


190-9 



Loc. cit. , plate ix. 



of the Fisliery Board for Scotland. 197 

If. however, the series ends at 164inm., then the average size of the 
second group would be 139-9mm., the mean size 144, and the range 
40mm. ; the third group would have a range of 32mm., an average size 
of 174'1, and a moan of ISlmiu. 

The differences between the average size of the various groups as shown 
above are as follows : — 



t to 2nd. 


2nd to 3rd 




36-6 


57-*3 


32-9 


55-9 


38-9 


20-8 [45-3J 


48-6 



In the December haul the first and third aeries were very imperfectly 
represented (see PI, XII.), and the averages given do n t correctly 
show the proper sizes. The figures in brackets indicate the difference of 
the corrected means. 

Collections of the N'orway Pout were also made at various times a few 
miles off Aberdeen in the deep water known as the Dog Hole, the depth 
varying from about fifty to about seventy fathoms. 

The first was on 28th June, in sixty-five fathoms, eleven miles off"; the 
bottom temperature was 48-2^ F., and the surface temperature 52-5° F. 
The number of specimens procured was 141. One of those was a very 
small one, measuring 27mm., no doubt spawned some months earlier. 
The next series comprised 131, ranging in size from 125mm. to 172mm., 
the range being 47mm.; the arithmetical average size was 150'2mm., 
the mean 148'5mm., and the maximum ordinate 14'5cm. There 

were six in a third group, ranging from 178 to 194mm., with an average 
size of 187-2mm., the mean being 186mm. Other three probably formed 
a fourth series, the sizes being 210, 215, and 222mm., and the average 
212-3 mm. 

In the next collection, on 30th July, in sixty-two fathoms^ the bottom 
temperature being 57" F., and the surface temperature 58'6° F., 350 
specimens were taken, all belonging, apparently, to the same series. The 
range of sizes was from 120mm. to 184mm., or an extent of 64mm. ; the 
arithmetical average was 155"lmm., the mean 152mm., and the maximum 
ordinate 15'5mm. 

The third lot was got on 21st August, in fifty-eight fathoms, the surface 
temperature being 55-9^ F., and they numbered 218 specimens. Two, 
possibly three, series, were present. The first comprised three fishes, 
measuring 67, 81, and 83mm. The second included 214, from 130mm. 
to 189mm., the range being thus 59mm. ; the average size was 158'8mm., 
the meau 159 '5, and the maximum ordinate 16cm. 

On 3rd September, the fourth collection was made in fifty-eight fathoms 
in the same locality, the bottom temperature being 53*^ F., and the surface 
temperature 53-2'. Most of the fishes in the small-meshed net escaped, 
owing to a hole in it ; the number of ^Norway Pouts obtained was fifteen, 
ranging from 132 to 168mm., the average size being 156'9mm., the mean 
150mm., and the maximum ordinate 16cm. 

A few days later, on 10th September, eight specimens were taken in 
Aberdeen Bay, measuring 76, 77, 83, 85, 87, 91, 93, 94mm. respectively. 
The average size was 85-7mm., the mean 85, and the maximum ordinate 
9cm. 

The next collection at the Dog Hole was on 16th December, in fifty- 
seven fathoms, the bottom temperature being 46*2° F. The number of 
specimens taken was fifty-four, belonging to two series. The first included 



198 



Fart III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 



seventeen fishes, measuring from 114mm. to 132mm.; the average size 
was 124'7mm., the mean 123mm., and the maximum ordinate between 12 
and 12-5cm. The second series comprised thirty-seven fishes, ranging 
from 142mm. to 184mtn. ; the arithmetic average size was 160 '8, the 
mean 163mm., and the maximum ordinate 15"5cm. 

The particulars in regard to the specimens talcen ofi Aberdeen may be 
summed up in the following Table, which also includes a number caught 
in the same locality by the Garland in October and November of the 
previous year : — 





1st Series. 


2nd 


Series. 




3rcl Series. 


4tli Series. 


Range. 


Aver. 


Mean. 


No. 


Range. 


Aver. 


Jlean. 


Range. 


Aver. 


Jlean. 


Range. 


Aver. 


Mean. 


1900. 
Oct. 


12, 








26 


59-107 


96-3 


83-0 


^ 














„ 23 


24, 








200 


87-117 


101-8 


102-0 




164 












Nov. 


7, 




• 




60 


80-117 


102-9 


08-5 


168-170 


169 












" 1901. 
June 


9, 

28, 




27 




51 
131 


83-114 
125-172 


99-2 
150-2 


98-5 
148-6 


178-194 


187-2 


186 


210-222 


212-3 






July 


30, 








350 


120-184 


155-1 


152 
















Ang. 


21, 


67-83 


77-0 


75 


214 


130-189 


158-S 


159-5 




201 












Sept. 


3, 

10, 


76-94 


85-7 


85 


15 


132-168 


156-9 


150 
















Dec. 


16, 


114-132 


124-7 


123 


87 


142-184 


160-8 


163 

















The hauls on 9th November 1900, and 10th September 1901, were 
taken in Aberdeen Bay in about ten fathoms ; all the others in 1900 in 
deeper water, from thirty-three to sixty fathoms up to ten miles from 
shore. 

Beginning with the younger fishes, the one taken at the end of June, 
measuring 27mm, (lyV inch), was doubtless about two or three months 
old, and derived from the spawning in the previous spring. Ttiis series 
was not represented in the July collection, but in August the three 
measuring 67, 81, and 83mm. were no doubt large members of this group ; 
the average size at this period is probably under what is given in the 
Table. On 10th September, in Aberdeen Bay, the eight specimens of 
this series taken had an average length of 85'7mm. ; and three months 
later, on 16th December, the average size of seventeen was 124-7mm. 
This would indicate an increment of 39mm. in the period named, and 
47"7mm. from 21st August, 117 days earlier, or 4-08mm. per ten days, 
which is too large. 

In the Firth of Clyde a few collections were also obtained, but the 
numbers were small. On 15th July, 1899, one was taken in a few 
fathoms of water in Machray Bay, Arran ; it measured 85mm. On 4th 
October, 1901, thirty-six were caught in the shrimp-net of the Garland 
between Rhuad Point and Ailsa Craig. They ranged in size from 63mm. 
■"to 97mm.; the arithmetical average size was 83'5mm., and the mean 
80mm., and they no doubt belonged to the same year's spawning. 

In the Moray Firth the Norway Pout is fairly common in the deeper 
water, and some collections were in sufficient numbers to enable curves 
of their measurements to be drawn. On 4th July, 1901, a small collec- 
tion, consisting of sixteen specimens, was procured in fifty fathoms a few 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



190 



miles from Kinnaird Head. They appeared to belong to two groups, the 
first consisting of eleven, ranging in length from 125mm. to 172mm.. 
with an average of ISi'Smm., and the second of five specimens from loo 
to 202nini., the average being 190'2mm. 

On 14th November, 1903, 432 were taken in thirty fathoms off Burg- 
head Bay, belonging to two series. The first comprised 369 specimens, 
varying in length from 75 to 137mm., the average size being 108-Omm., 
the mean 106mm., and the maximum ordinate 10-5cm. The second 
series, of sixty-three fishes, extended from 141mm. to 173mm., the average 
size being 150-5mm,, the mean 157mm., and the maximum ordinate 
15-5cm. 

In the same locality another collection was made, in thirty fathoms, 
on 28th December, 1903, and 307 specimens procured, all belonging to 
the same series. The sizes ranged from 88mm. to 124mm., the average 
being 103-4mni., the mean 106mm., and the maximum ordinate 10-5cm. 

A fourth collection in this locality was procured on 1st April, 1904, 
and apparently only one series was represented. It comprised 347 
specimens, ranging in size from 93mm. to 139mm., the average being 
110-2mm. or 4| inches, and the mean 116mm. 

On 23rd January 1904, 250 specimens were procured in fifty fathoms, 
off Kinnaird Head, three series being represented. The first consisted of 
205, ranging in size from 96mm. to 136mm. ; the average was 115-3, the 
mean 116mm., and the maximum ordinate 12-5cm. The next group was 
composed of forty-four, from 145mm. to 181mm.; the average being 
158-6, the mean 163mm., and the maximum ordinate 15-5cm. There 
was a large one measuring 203mm. 

The particulars are given in the accompanying Table : — 



Date and 
Place. 


Series I, 


Series II. 


Series 111. 


No. 


Range. 


Average. 


No. 


Range. 


Average. 


No. 


Range. 


Average. 


Off Burghead, 

14th Nov. 1903, 

28th Dec. ,, 

1st April 1904, 

Off Kinnaird 

Head, 
4th July 1901, 

23rd Jan. ,, 


355 
307 
347 

11 
205 


Mm. 

75-126 
88-124 
93-139 

125-172 
96-136 


Mm. 

107-0 
103-4 
110-2 

154-3 
115-3 


77 

5 
44 


Mm. 

... 

127-173 

183-202 
145-181 


Mm. 
147-1 

190-2 
158-6 


1 


Mm. 

... 

203 


Mm. 



In these collections it wall be observed that as a rule the second series is 
poorly represented. The apparent annual increment of length amounting 
in the three cases in which comparison can be made to 40-1, 35'7, and 
43-3mm., the mean of the three being 39-7mm., or U inches. 

The information that may be derived from the Table as to the rate of 
growth from one date to the other is not very great, the successive 
averages irrespective of place being 107-0, 103'4, 115-3, 110-2 and 154-3. 
The latter is based upon only eleven specimens, and is too large, larger, 
indeed, than the average in November, 147-1, which deals with the 
measurement of seventy-seven fishes. 



200 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 



Information as to the size at which the Norway Pout becomes mature 
is scanty, the only observations, as far as I know, being those by Holt,* 
who found two ripe females, each 4^ inches in length on the west coast 
of Ireland early in April. 

I examined the condition of the reproductive organs in many of the 
specimens procured by me. 

Seven females from the collection obtained off Burgh ead on 14th 
November, varying in size from 151 to 171mm. (6-6| inches), had small 
ovaries, the largest eggs ranging in diameter from "ISQ to •231mm., 
Others on 28th December, from 95 to 118mm., had the ovaries only 
" slightly developed," but the size of the eggs was not determined. On 
23rd January some of those caught in fifty fathoms off Kinnaird Head 
were examined, and both the weight of the ovary and the diameter of the 
largest eggs had considerably increased. The following Table exhibits 
the particulars, the dimensions being in millimetres, and the weight in 
grammes. The first six are from the November collection, and the others 
from that in January. 



Length. 


Gross Weight. 


Weight of 
Ovary. 


Diameter of 
Largest Eggs. 


151 


27-9 




•21 


152 


28^2 


•17 


•21 


157 


30^9 


•12 


.23 


158 


31-2 


•16 


•189 


164 


32-6 




•21 


171 


38-4 




•21 


153 


24^7 


•5 


•44 


155 


26-5 


•7 


•46 


155 


28-6 


1-3 


•57 


155 


28-4 


M 




155 


26-7 


•8 




158 


3P0 


1^8 




161 


3r7 


1-2 


•57--63 


180 


41 •O 


1^3 


•50 


202 


67-1 


3-4 


•59--63 



Those examined from the collection made off Burghead on 1st April 

were all "quite immature," their sizes ranging from 93 to 139mm. 

(3|— 5| inches) so that this circumstance together with the facts in the 
above Table appear to show that spawning occurs probably in February 
and March. 

A Table giving the measurements in twenty collsctions, arranged in 
half-centimetres, is appended. 

* Roy. Dubl. Soc. Report of Council for 1891. App., p. 291. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



201 



('Ml. 


Aberdeen. 


Off Shetlauds 


Moray Firth. 


Clyde. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


VI. 


V. 


VI. 


VII. 


VIII. 


IX. 


X. 


XI. 


XII. 


XIII. 


XIV. 


XV. 


XVI. 


XVII. 


XVIII. 


XIX. 


XX. 


2 
•5 








"l 




































3 


























"i 


















•5 
■1 












































"a 












































r, 






















1 






















•5 


1 




















1 






















6 






















7 




















1 


•5 


... 

... 










"i 










32 


"'2 


















1 


/ 














... 








124 


11 


















1 





"i 




















286 


68 


"i 












"2 




8 


8 


1 




"l 






"2 










161 


27 


2 












2 




9 


•5 


3 


"8 


2 












"2 




17 


389 


5 












3 


i 


7 


9 


1 


24 


5 












2 




3 


504 


2 






"2 




11 


12 


7 


•5 


9 


50 


17 












11 






433 


1 


"2 


6 






35 


30 


2 


10 


5 


46 


10 












43 






118 




10 


14 






72 


72 




•5 


5 


38 


9 












97 






6 




23 


17 


93 




106 


112 




11 




28 


10 










"i 


64 


"i 




1 


"i 


16 


52 


88 




63 


64 




•5 




6 


7 










1 


38 




■3 


1 


2 


26 


59 


58 




42 


12 




12 _ 










"2 






6 


15 


"3 


27 


1 


1 


9 


34 


28 




16 


4 




"5 








■3 


4 






6 


7 


26 


85 


10 


5 


28 


15 


9 


"i 


7 






13 




... 




2 


6 


'3 


1 


3 




80 


151 


44 


36 


76 


6 


4 


1 


6 






•5 








9 


9 


6 






"i 


120 


119 


78 


51 


137 


2 


1 




4 






14 






... 


15 


31 


11 




"i 




114 


71 


78 


52 


132 








10 






•5 








34 


40 


23 


"2 


4 


"5 


63 


26 


80 


52 


98 


"2 






15 






15 








29 


55 


24 


2 


4 




28 


14 


45 


28 


46 


9 




"3 


10 






•5 






... 


21 


86 


38 


3 


10 




20 


12 


19 


8 


30 


15 




2 


19 






16 




1 




13 


60 


42 


5 


6 




7 


15 


9 


5 


14 


12 




1 


4 






•5 






"l 


4 


38 


38 


2 


5 




15 


19 


8 


4 


23 


4 




2 


3 






17 






1 


1 


11 


)8 




3 




25 


15 


2 




11 






1 


2 






•5 








1 


6 


9 




3 




12 


13 


4 




12 


"i 












18 








1 


3 


1 




1 




14 


3 


1 




2 


1 




i 








■5 








2 




1 








5 


2 


1 




4 






2 








19 








2 












6 


2 


1 




1 






1 








•5 




















1 


1 


1 




3 














20 




















1 










"i 




i 








•5 




















1 






















21 








"i 


































•5 








1 












"i 






















22 








1 


































•5 








































" 



I. Aberdeen Bay, 12th October, 1900. 
II. ,, 23rd October, 1900. 

III. ,, 7th November, 1900. 



IV. Dog Hole, 


off Aberdeen 


. 28th June. 1901. 


V. 


,, 


30th .July, 1901. 


VI. „ 


,, 


21st August, 1901. 


VII. 

nu. 


'• 


3rd September, 1901. 
16th December, 1901. 


IX. Deep Water, off Shetlands, 19th May, 1901. 


X. 


,, 


31st August, 1900. 


XI. 


,, 


4th September, 1900. 



XII. Deep^Vater, off Shetlands, 16th October, 1900. 

XIII. ,, „ 19th October, 1900. 

XIV. ,, ,, nth December, 1901. 
XV. Deep Water, Moray Firth, off Kinnaird, 23rd 

January, 1904. 
XVI. Moray Firth, off Burghead, Ist April, 1904. 
XVII. „ off Kinnaird, 4th July, 1901. 

XVIII. „ off Burghead, 14th November, 1903. 

XIX. ,, ,, 28th December, 1903 

XX. Firth of Clvde, between Rhuad Point and Ailsa 
Craig,' 4th October, 1901. 



202 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Revort 

8, The Sharp-Tailed Lumpenus {Lumpenus lavipetriformis.) 

Fairly large numbers of this fish are taken in the small meshed-net 
around the otter-trawl, more especially in the deeper parts of the Moray 
Firth, as off Kinnaird Head, and at the mouth of the Firth of Forth, and 
some of the collections have been measured. The best of these was one 
got at Station V. in the Firth of Forth, on 10th May, 1901, which com- 
prised 255 specimens. They ranged in length from 127mm. to 345ram. 
(5 - 13| inches). The measurements, grouped in half centimetres, are 
appended, and the curve is given in Plate XI. It is apparent 
from these that at least three series, and possibly five, are represented in 
the collection. What appears to be a first series is indicated by two 
specimens, measuring 127mm. and 128mm., the next size being 138mm. 
On the 16th May, on the same ground, a still smaller one was captured, 
viz., at 123mm., the next measuring 172mm. In a haul on 31st August, 
off Svunburgh Head, in sixty-five fathoms, the smallest I have obtained 
was taken, viz., 84mm, (3y5g- inches), the next largest in the small 
collection being 154mra. I am inclined to think that the specimens in 
the Forth collection referred to were the larger members of an early 
series, the smaller individuals probably escaping through the meshes of 
the net ; the specimen at 138mm. might also belong to this series. 

The second group begins at 138 or 146mm., its division from the third 
series being fairly well defined at 190mm. The range is thus 52mm., the 
average size of the thirty-three specimens, 167'8mm. (6f inches), and the 
mean, with the first-named limit, 164mm., and with the series beginning 
at 146mm., 168mm. 

The next group begins at 197mm., and it appears to terminate at 
263mra., a range of 6Gmm. In the curve based on the half-centimetre 
grouping of the measurements, there is a depression at 23cm. ; it does not 
seem, however, to represent a division between series, but only irregular 
representation. The number of fishes composing the second series was 
127, the arithmetical average size was 235'2mm., and the mean 230mm. 

The next series begins at 264mm., and extends to 312mm., a range of 
48mm. It comprised seventy-eight fishes, whose average length was 
288 ■9mm., the mean size being 288mm. 

The other fifteen fishes in the collection probably belong to an older 
group. They measure from 315mm. to 345mm., the average size being 
325'7nim., and the mean size 330mm. 

The averages and limits above given are based on the supposition that 
five series are represented ; but on the assumption that the smaller fishes 
belong to the same series as the second group, then the extent of the 
latter would be from 127mm. to 190mm., a range of 63mm., and the 
average size of the thirty-five fish would be a little less, viz., 165'4mm., 
the mean being 158*5. If the fifteen larger fishes be included with the 
pi'eceding series the range would be extended from 264 to 345mm., a 
difference of 81mm. — obviously too great — and the average size would 
become 294*9mm., the mean being 304-5mm. Looking at the curve there 
seems little doubt of the presence in the collection of members of a fourth 
series, and scarcely less of the presence of the early one. 

The amount of annual growth between the series as determined above 
are as follows : — 

1st to 2nd. 2nd to 3rd. 3rd to 4tl). 4th to 5th. 

Mm. - 40-3 67-4 53-7 368 

Inches, - If 2W 2\ 1-^ 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 203 

If the two smallest fislies be included in the second group, the diflference 
between the latter and the next older one is 69'8mm. 

Some other collections of Luinpenus were measured, the largest being 
one procured ofl" Burghead in thirty-two fathoms on 1st Ajiril, and which 
comprised 365 specimens. These, after being preserved in formaline, were 
measured by the Laboratory attendant, and the measurements are 
included in the Table appended. On preparing a curve, however, it is 
apparent that either the series was irregularly represented, or the 
measurements faulty, since the divisions between the groups are not 
marked. Four series, however, at least, seem to be indicated. 

With regard to the age of these groups, it is necessary first of all to 
decide as to the period of spawning, about which little is known. In 
specimens taken off the Shetlands on 31st August and 4th September, 
the females, ranging in size from 234mm. to 286mm., had large ovaries, 
with large eggs from I'lmm. to 1 •4:4mm. in diameter, the ovaries them- 
selves measuring from 25 mm. to 35mm. long.* These specimens were 
evidently on the eve of spawning. 

In a collection procured in the deep water off" Kinnaird Head, Moray 
Firth, on 23rd January, the sizes ranging from 153 mm. to 284 mm., the 
ovaries were small and lax, and the tissue contained a great number of 
small dark-brown bodies scattered throughout them, apparently eggs or 
blood in the process of disintegration and absorption ; they appeared to 
be spent. The same condition Avas noted in the ovaries of the specimens 
taken off Burghead on 1st April. On the other hand, in a few specimens 
procured in the Firth of Forth on 16th August, measuring from 236 mm. 
to 283 mm., the eggs were well developed, the largest ranging in diameter 
from I'l mm. to 1*4 mm. ; the yolk spheres w^ere large and small oil- 
globules were present. 

From these observations it may be concluded that Liimpemcs spawns in 
the late part of the autumn or the early part of winter, and it is probable 
that the eggs — which appear to be demersal — do not hatch until early in 
spring, which may therefore be taken as the period from which to date 
the rate of growth. 

Looking to the rate of growth between the series as shown above, it is 
probable that the smaller specimens in May, measuring 123, 127, and 128 
mm., were a little over one year of age, the specimen obtained off the 
Shetlands at the end of August, 84 mm. in length, being probably six or 
seven months old. The average size of Lumpenus when one year old is 
obviously less than these sizes, the smaller forms having escaped capture. 

The information as to the size at which maturity is reached is very 
scanty, the number of specimens approaching ripeness which were 
examined having been small. In August the smallest in that condition 
were 236, 239, 241mm., and they evidently belonged to the same group 
as the third (197-263mm.) represented in the curve for the May 
measurements. The probability therefore is that Lumpenus 

spawn when three years of age. It may be noted that many 

of the largest specimens procured are males. This sex therefore does not, 
as with the flat-fish, grow at a slower rate after maturity than the females. 
A Table of measurement of some of the collections is appended. 

* Nineteenth Ann. Report Fishery Board for Scotland, Part III., p. 287. 



204 



Part ill. — Twenty-second Annual Eeport 



Cm. 


I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


VI. 


VI 


I. Cm. 


I. 


11. 


III. 


IV. 


V. \ 


n. 


VII. 


8 










1 






23 


4 








1 


5 


19 


■5 
















•5 


16 


1 




2 




8 


17 


9 
















24 


11 




1 


1 




4 


30 


•5 






... 










•5 


18 


2 


1 






2 


19 


10 
















25 


13 


1 


1 








20 


•5 
















'5 


14 




2 




1 


1 


23 


'11 
















26 


4 




2 








11 


•5 
















•5 


4 




1 




1 




17 


12 




1 


... 










27 


9 




1 


1 


2 




10 


•5 


2 














•5 


8 








1 


1 


10 


13 
















28 


8 






1 


1 


1 


15 


•5 


1 














•5 


10 




1 


1 


1 




12 


14 
















29 


8 




1 








5 


•5 


1 














■5 


10 












2 


15 


2 










1 




30 


9 












4 


•5 


5 








... 




c 


! -5 


10 












1 


16 


4 


, 








1 


; 


t 31 


1 




1 




... 






•5 


8 










1 




! '5 


4 














17 


2 


1 








2 


£ 


) 32 


2 




2 










•5 


4 


1 








1 


. 


•5 


6 






... 








18 


2 










2 


1( 


) 33 


2 














•5 


3 










1 


11 


•5 
















19 


1 


1 


1 






3 


i 


* 34 






1 










•5 


2 


1 


1 






3 




■5 


1 














20 


2 


1 








2 


\{ 


5 35 
















•5 


9 


3 








4 


/ 


' "5 
















21 


9 










6 


\i 


5 36 
















•5 


6 


1 








7 


1- 


t -5 
















22 


10 










4 


r 


^ 37 
















•5 


10 


2 


1 






5 


2' 


5 -5 














i 



I. Firth of Forth, 

II. „ 

III. „ 

IV. „ 



10th May, 1901. 
16th „ 

23rd, 24th July, 19ul. 
16th Augnat, 1901. 



V. Off Shetlands, 31st August, 1900. 
VI. Moray Firth, off Kinnaird Head, 23rd 

January. 
VII. Moray Firth, oft' Burghead, 1st April. 



of the Fishery Board pr Scotland. 



205 



TABLE A.— Showing Rlation between Length and Weight. 

PLAICE. 

















Len 


gth. 


w 


3ight in Gr 


ammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


4-2 
4-5 
4-7 


If 

1 


0-64 
•79 

•89 


'".11 
92 


•71-" -85 
•76- -98 




1 
.3 
4 


5 
•5 
6 


2 


1-09 
1-53 

r92 


1-17 
1-51 
1-96 


-85- 1 -48 
1-31- 1-77 
1-51- 2-41 


1 

■Jo 


19 
21 
29 


•5 

7 
7-5 




2-44 
3^15 
3-77 


2-50 
3 12 
3-90 


1-77- 2-83 
2-9 - 3-6 
3-3 - 4 17 




19 

7 
9 


8 

•5 
9 


3| 

"a 


4-77 

5-8 
6^58 


4-78 
5-72 
6-82 


3-87- 5-3 
4-5.3- 6-34 
5-2 - 7-4 




17 

38 
35 


•5 
10 
•o 


m 


8-09 

9-68 

11-08 


8-11 

9-62 

11-20 


6-6 - 8-9 
7-99- 10-9 
9-86- 12-8 


"i 


34 
34 
20 


11 

•5 
12 


4t% 
4g 


12-84 
14-86 
16-69 


12-93 
14-80 
17-35 


11-8 - 14 
13-0 - 16-8 
15-6 - 18-7 




16 

15 

9 


•5 
13 
•5 


5| 


20-49 
22-53 
24-2 


19-90 
22-41 
25-46 


17-7 - 24-5 
19-7 - 25-1 
22-2 - 27 -0 




11 

11 

5 


14 

■5 
15 


4 


29-64 
29-17 
34-5 


27-67 
31-10 
34-06 


28-3 - 30-9 
27-4 - 30-2 
32 - 40-1 


i-2 


2 
4 
6 


•5 
16 
•5 


6i% 


38-5 
40-7 
43-9 


37-90 
41-03 
44-83 


35-4 - 40-1 
37-2 - 44-4 
41-1 - 45 


1-4 


3 

6 
6 


17 

•5 
18 


7i 


54-9 
54-6 


49-55 
53-78 
57-79 


47-4 -'58 


'i'-9 


5 

1 


•5 
19 
•5 


74 


65-0 
69 


62-2 

67-63 

71-54 






1 
1 


20 

•5 
21 


8i 


78-0 
84-3 


77-10 

86-1 

95-2 


78 '-' 92 


2-7 


1 
5 


•5 
22 
•5 


"h 


104-0 
114-7 
119-7 


104-6 
112-8 
119-9 


99 -107 
113 -120 
115 -127 




3 
4 
4 


23 

•5 
24 


9^ 

7 


125-2 
132-3 
141-6 


125-7 
133-0 
140-6 


115 -142 
122 -139 
127 -154 




10 

9 

17 



206 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

PLAICE — continued. 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 

25 
•5 


7 
5 


147-9 
164-6 
170-6 


151-4 
161-0 
172-2 


134- 158 
153- 184 
15-2- 187 


5-8 


9 

8 
8 


26 
•5 

27 


lOJ 


181-5 
192-0 
2120 


181-4 
195-2 
207-0 


175- 190 
1 92-" 233 




4 
1 
9 


•5 

28 
•5 


ll" 


217-0 
230-0 
254-0 


219-7 
2.33-7 
248-1 


204- 225 
224- 236 
210- 278 




5 
2 

13 


29 

•5 
30 


1 3 


260-2 
283-7 
298 


266-0 
280-6 
299-1 


247- 276 
256- 306 
2S8- 318 


l'0-5 


4 
10 

8 


•5 
31 
•5 


12A 


315-5 
337-1 
345-8 


316-9 
332-8 
343-3 


286- 341 
319- 368 
324- 375 




8 
9 
10 


32 

•5 
33 


13 


347 

373-5 

425-6 


355-4 

382 
411-2 


356-404 
380- 474 




1 

13 
5 


•5 
34 
5 


3 

S 


434-5 

44:0-2 

458-8 


433-4 
444-5 
464-3 


324- 502 
397- 496 
417- 530 




14 
13 

12 


35 

•5 
36 


13f 

14f\ 


494 
501 
532 


484-6 

509 

527 


43-2- 558 
456- 558 
481- 580 


16-7 


20 

9 

10 


•5 
37 
•5 



TU 


549 

568 

582 


550 
566 

585 


510- 623 
503- 679 
538- 673 




10 
17 

7 


38 

•5 
39 


Vi 
151 


605 
628 
644-6 


605 
6-26 
649-9 


564- 644 
540- 708 
568- 701 




11 

7 
10 


•5 
40 
•5 


4, 


677 

711-6 

735 


678 
708 
739 


644- 708 
673- 807 
708- 792 


25-1 


6 

10 

9 


41 

•5 

42 


161 




743-7 
831 

880-8 


770 

818 
864 


735- 782 
708-1104 
835- 956 




4 

10 

6 


•5 
43 
•5 


"h 


879 
936 
935 


899 
916 
939 


835- 970 
835-1126 
842-1019 




9 

8 
8 


44 

•5 
45 


171 

3 

4 


947 

982 

1049 


954 

993 

1026 


864-1048 
948-1048 
932-1168 


37-3 


7 

6 

10 


•5 
46 
•5 


ISi 


1057 
1122 
1098 


1076 
1092 
1131 


991-1118 

913-1388 

1005-1175 




6 
16 

4 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
PLAICE— conimwec?. 



207 



Length. 



In Cm. 



In 
Inches. 



Weight in Grammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



Range. 



Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



47 
48 

49 

50 
51 

52 

53 
54 

55' 

56 

.1 

57' 
58 ' 

59 

60 ' 

61 * 

62 

63' 

.f 
54' 

65 
66 ' 

67^ 

68 
69 "^ 



19fV 



20xV 



2\\ 



m 



24 



26,^ 



1174 
1217 
1293 

1336 
1373 
1417 

1423 
1446 



1465 
1621 
1675 

1759 

1805 



1784 
1861 



1940 

2l'50 

2053 
2163 
2209 



2445 
2372 

2587 



2952 



3681 



2981 



3575 
3653 



1166 
1228 
1282 

1334 
1375 
1404 

1429 
1459 

1508 

1575 
1624 
1685 

1746 
1784 
1802 

1816 
1820 
1881 

1963 
2005 
2073 

2122 
2142 
2223 

2297 
2371 
2468 



1005-1317 
1161-1288 
1182-1373 

1218-1533 
1338-1409 
1253-1494 

1381-1466 
1366-1614 



1529-1713 
1437-1869 

1643-1876 
1727-1883 



1585-1911 
1826-1897 



1969-2528 
2047-2279 



2435-2464 
2175-2514 

2096-3079 



2733-3172 



3058-4092 
3498-3809 



50-2 



59-2 



86-3 



101-7 



129 



208 Part III. — Twentij-second Annual Report 

PLAICE — continued. 



Len 


gth. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


•In Oni. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 
70 


27i 


3908 








i 


"O 














71 
•5 

72 


28i 


4481 






158-2 


1 


•5 
73 
•5 


9 

TTT 












74 

•5 
75 


29tV 












•5 




















LEMOI' 


r. 




6 
•5 

7 


21 

3 

4 












•5 
8 
■5 


34 


3-35 








1 


9 
•5 

10 


9 




... 








•5 
11 
•5 


^A 


14'-77 








1 


12 

•5 
13 


si 


18 -9 
20 


21-3 


17-35- 20-5 
18-8 - 20-97 


"-66 


"2 

3 


•5 
14 
•5 


"i 


23-8 
26 


23-0 
26-1 

28-5 


23 - 24-7 
22-6 - 29 




6 

8 


15 

•5 
16 


I 

6tV 


3115 

36-1 

41-2 


32-3 
36-1 
40-5 


26- - 35-5 
34-5 - 37-9 
38-5 - 44- 


11 


4 
6 
2 


•5 
17 
•5 


"h 


44-9 
48-6 
51-7 


44-9 
48-3 
51-8 


40-2 - 51-6 
44-3 - 531 
47-5 - 57-7 




9 
6 
4 


18 

•5 
19 


7i 


58-4 
67-8 


55 
61-4 
68-9 


54-3 '-62-4 




2 
1 

















of tlic Fisher !j Board for Scotland. 
LEMON— contiimed. 



209 



Length. 



Ill Cm. 



In 

Inches. 



Weight in Grammes. 



. I Smoothed 

Average. . 

° Average. 



Range. 



Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



20 

21 
22 

23' 

.t 

24 

.r 
25' 

26* 

.1 

27 

28' 

.) 

29' 

./ 

30 

.1 

31 

32 

33 
34 

35 

36 
37 

38 

39 
40 

41 



8i 
1 1 

H 

TO 

lOi 

li 



12^ 



13 



14/7, 



152 



16^ 



91 
99-2 

105-0 



157 



170 

214 



228-8 

262 
340' 



346 
354 



4.53 
434 



484 
468 

493 

582 
598 

579 
608 
647 

658 
718 ^ 
715 

775 
772-6 

740 

852 
896 
868 



79-4 
89-3 
98-0 



363 



482 

514 
561 
586 

595 
611 
638 

678 
697 
736 

754 
763 



829 
872 
894 



84-9 - 99-1 



102 



-106-8 



241- 283 
326-354 

319-361 
411-474 



445- 524 
432- 481 

439- 559 
552- 616 
518- 630 

538- 658 
566- 651 
559- 694 

559- 715 
616- 779 
651- 779 

757- 821 
644- 871 
694- 786 

729- 991 
835- 991 
793- 942 



3-2 



12-2 



20-5 



26-1 



210 Part in. — Twenty-second Annual Beport 

LEMON — contin-ued. 



Length . 



In Cm. 



In 
Inches. 



Weight in Grammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



Range. 



Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



42 
43 

44 

45 
46 

47 



i7i 

m 



917 
982 



1094 



1076 
1119 



922 
1038' 

1096 



871- 963 
935-1026 



1062-1126 



38-6 



WITCH. 



10 
11 

12' 

.1 

13 
14 

15 

16 
17 

18 



34 



4i\ 



•19 



•64 
•71 
•95 



r33 ! 
1-6 



8-4 

10-6 
10-6 
114 

130 
14-3 
14-9 

17-4 
18-4 
193 

22-5 
22-4 
25-1 



•30 
•45 

•60 

•77 
•93 

M4 
r31 
r46 



9-87 
10-87 
11-7 

12-9 
14^07 
15 53 

16-9 
18 •37 
20^07 

21 ^4 
23-3 
25^3 



•18- 21 
•21- -32 



•7 - -72 
•9 - 1-0 



12 - 15 



9-4 - 12-8 

11-7 - 14-3 
130 - 151 
13^ - 18-4 

16-2 - 18^8 
15-6 - 20 
171 - 2M 

181 - 22^3 

23^ -26-1 



7 
10 

5 
9 
4 

6 
1 
5 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
WITCH— covtinued. 



211 



Length. 



In Cm. 



In 
Inches. 



Weight in Grammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



Range. 



Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



19 


i 


•5 




20 


"i 


•5 




21 


H 


•5 




22 


H 


•5 




23 


9i 


•5 




24 


tV 


•5 




25 


J 


•5 




26 


lo'i 


■5 




27 


"f 


•5 




28 


11 


•5 




29 


"a 


•5 




30 


'ft 


•5 




31 


121 


•5 




32 


i 


•5 




33 


13 


•5 




34 


1 


•5 




35 


f 


•5 




36 


14^ 


•5 




37 


T^ 


■5 




38 


"h 


•5 




39 


15| 


•5 




40 


1 


•5 




41 


m 



28-3 

31-38 

35-2 



47-2 
45 

50-9 
57-9 
68 

65-9 
73-7 

78-0 

89-1 
97-3 
98- 

102 
118 
130-9 

134-2 

146 

152-2 

162-8 

178 

170-4 

191 

217-3 

222*8 

232 
234 
247-3 

267-7 
271-0 
285-9 

•293-5 
312-2 
318-2 

330-0 
363-1 
366-0 

381 

4-:6-2 

435 

458-5 

481 

480 



28-3 
31-6 
35-4 

39-7 
44-0 

47-7 

51-3 
58-9 
63-9 

69-2 
73-6 
80-3 

86-1 
95 
99-3 

106-2 
1170 
127-7 

137-0 
1441 
153-7 

164-3 
170-4 
179-8 

192-9 
210-4 
224 

2-29-8 
237-7 

249-7 

262 

274-9 

283-5 

297 
308 
3-20 



337-1 

353 

370 

391 
414 
440 

458 

476-3 

487-3 



27-5 - 29- 
28-45- 34-3 
35 - 35-5 



47-5 - 46-9 
43 - 47 

41 - 56-3 



60 - 84 

70 - 78 
70 - 88 

79-3 - 69-5 
89-5 -108 
88-3 -108 



89 
111 
103 



109-5 
-127 
-150 



127 -140 
132-3 -157 
137-4 -163 



144 
164 
160- 

163 
208 
219 

206 
213 
212 

236 
255 
262 

255 
305 
314 

312 
326 
312 

305 
397 
397 

418 
459 
418 



-189 
-186 
-178 

-216 
-231 
-234 

-255 
-263 

-277 

-297 
-298 
-326 

-343 
-361 
-340 

-361 
-396 
-425 

-467 
-460 
-489 

-500 
-531 
-574 



1-2 



3-1 



6-3 



101 



16-2 



2 
2 

5 
1 
1 

4 

3 
9 

5 
4 
4 

6 

4 

10 

6 
3 

10 

6 
6 
4 

6 
3 
6 

5 

6 

10 

4 
10 
11 

9 
13 



7 

14 
13 

15 



4 
3 

12 



212 Part III. — TvenUj-second Ann-ual Heport 

WITCR—contimied. 



Length. 


Weiglit in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces, 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 
42 

-5 

43 
-5 

44 

-5 
45 
•5 

46 

•5 
47 

• 5 

48 
•5 

49 

•5 
50 

•5 


a 

3 

4: 

18i 
"i 

7 

s 
1^ 


501 ^5 
521 ^7 

527-8 

594-0 
608-3 
620 

646 
678 
707-5 

733 

758 
789 

793 
763 

818 


501-1 
517- 

547-8 

577 
608 
624-7 

648 
677 
706 

732 7 

760 

780 

781 
791 


411 -630 
489 -592 
447 -417 

574 -651 
573 -680 
581 -659 

588 -733 
630 -729 

677 -744 

694 -772 
658 -871 
758 -821 

758 -842 
727 -800 
751 -885 


23-9 
26-9 


8 
4 
4 

13 
6 
2 

7 
4 
4 

2 
6 
2 

3 
2 
2 


COMMON DAB. 


1 

•5 
2 

•5 
3 
•5 

4 

•5 
5 

■5 
6 
•5 

7 

•5 
8 

•5 
9 
•5 

10 

•5 
11 


2 

"i 

4x7 


•17 
•35 

•42 
•72 
•94 

1-26 
1-15 
2-33 

2-74 
3-25 
4-21 

4-9 

7-24 
8-5 
12-6 


"•31 

•50 
•69 
•97 

132 
1-85 
2^27 

2^77 
3-43 
4-12 

511 
6-21 
7-32 

8-72 
10-53 
12-31 


.92- ' -45 

•35- ^54 
•56- ^84 
•75- 12 

1-1 - 1-5 
1-4 - 2^2 
2-0 - 2-8 

2-6 - 3-1 
2-7 - 3-7 
3-8 - 4-7 

4-2 - 5-5 

6-4 '--'8-1 

7-5 - 9-3 

11-6 -16 7 


0-3 


1 

"e 

9 

11 

18 
21 

21 
10 
12 

8 
13 

12 

10 
5 

7 
4 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
COMMON T>AB—conthmed. 



213 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


Fish. 


•5 
12 
•5 


"i 


13-8 
14-6 
16-6 


13-7 
14-7 
16-4 


12-1 -15-9 
13-0 -16 
14-5 -18-5 




8 
11 
24 


13 
•5 

14 


54 


18-0 
20-6 
24-2 


18-4 
20-9 
23-7 


16-5 -20-1 
19 -22 5 
20-5 -27-8 




10 
8 
6 


•5 
15 
•5 


' 


26-4 

28-0 
30 


26-2 
28-1 
30-5 


23 5 -33-7 
•23-5 -32 
25 -34-1 


1 


12 

8 
6 


16 

•5 
17 


6t% 
1 1 

TU 


33-4 
39-4 
44-1 


34-3 
39-0 
43-1 


21 -37 
367 44-6 
42-4 -47 -1 




11 
9 
3 


•5 
18 
•5 


7* 


46-0 
48-9 
56-2 


46-3 
50-4 
56-7 


40-5 -59 
41-5 -59-2 

52 -64 




10 

4 
4 


19 

•5 
20 


"l 


65-0 
66-0 
76-6 


6-2-4 
69-2 

74-7 


59 -78 
64 -69 
73 -85 


2-7 


7 
4 
9 


•5 
21 
•5 


H 


81-6 
90 
99-4 


82-7 
90-3 
99-4 


71 -90 

77 -99 
82 -136 




7 

4 

11 


22 

•5 
23 


1 1 
94 


108-7 
106-6 
129-9 


104-9 
115-1 
123-5 


91 -135 

98 -129 

120 -141 




10 
9 

8 


•5 
24 

•5 


"tV 


133-9 
144-9 
148-0 


136-2 
142-3 
153-6 


111-149 
1-23-173 
131-172 




15 
11 

7 


25 
•5 
26 


I 
lOi 


167-9 
174-4 
190-5 


163-8 
177-6 
186-9 


148-191 
141-198 
170-219 


5-9 


8 

9 

16 


•5 
27 
•5 


::• 


195-8 
209 9 
217-6 


198-7 
210-9 
224-3 


171-219 
170-247 
189-262 




5 

8 

11 


28 

•5 
29 


11 


240-7 
257-3 
269-0 


238-9 
254-0 
266-4 


191-276 
205-297 
247-291 




6 
9 

7 


•5 
30 
•5 


13 


285-4 
279-8 
311 


280-5 
296-4 
305-3 


262-318 
255-290 
247-347 


9-8 


8 
5 

7 


31 

•5 
32 


12i=V. 


327 

323-0 

335 


315-3 
.333-4 
338-4 


304-368 
311-333 
304-383 




5 
4 
6 


•5 
33 
•5 


13 


370-7 
336 


353-2 
379-9 

402-8 


304-396 
325-347 




6 
2 



214 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Beport 

COMMON 'DKQ—contiimed. 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm, 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


34 

•5 
35 


"l 


455 

474-5 

445-7 


422-9 
449-4 
469-8 


450-460 
439-510 
389-481 


15-1 


2 
2 
3 


•5 
36 
■5 


14A 


468-7 
505 


479-1 

487 

501-2 


389-573 
446-559 




4 
3 


37 

•5 

38 


A 
li 


514-3 
517 


522-9 
549-3 
577 


446-552 




3 
1 


•5 
39 
•5 


151 


637 


693-5 






I 


40 

•5 
41 


16J 


750 






26-5 


1 


•5 
42 


"fV 












FLOUNDER. 


11 

•5 
12 


4A 












•5 
13 
•5 


"si 












14 

•5 
15 


^ 

■ ^ 


31-3 








i 


•5 
16 
•5 


6A 












17 

•5 
18 














6 
19 
•5 


'i 












20 

•6 
21 




78-7 


85-4 


66-" 85 


2-8 


3 


•5 
22 
•6 


"\' 


92 
124 


93-5 
103 
118 


144^134 




1 

"2 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
FLOUNDER— co?i«m«ecZ. 



21K 



Leii 


«'th. 


w 


eight in C4ramnies. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 
Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


23 

•5 
24 






126-7 
135-5 
141-2 








•5 
25 
•5 


i 


147 


150 
162 
170 


137-157 


5-7 


2 


26 

•5 
27 




177 

191' 


176 
184 
197-7 


170-184 
170-212 




2 

"2 


•5 
28 
•5 


11 


219-5 

218 


209-3 
223-1 
235-6 


219-220 
184-234 




2 
4 


29 
•5 

30 




245-7 

276' 


247-7 
261-8 
279-4 


241-248 


9-8 


3 
"1 


•5 
31 
•5 


12A 


276 
313-7 


294-4 
309-3 
324-4 


297-340 




1 
3 


32 

•5 
33 


13 


308 
403 


340-5 
355-5 
372-3 


304-312 
347-481 





"3 


•5 
34 
•5 


".} 


420 
415-7 


400-9 
410-2 
425 1 


382-453 
354-481 




"'3 
4 


35 

•5 
36 


14A 


449-5 
467 


440 1 
458 2 

482-8 


439-460 


15-9 


2 
1 


■5 
37 
•5 


"x\ 


580 ' 


523-3 
543-1 
561-1 


538-623 




2 


38 

•5 
39 


15i 


588 


583-9 
606-6 
625-3 






1 


■5 
40 
•5 


'"s 


662-5 


643-9 
683-5 
702-2 


560-765 


23-4 


"2 


41 

•5 
42 


16i 

"a 


821 


741-7 
781-3 






1 


■5 















216 Part III. — Ttventy-second Annual Report 

LITTLE SOLE. 



Length. 



In Cm. 



In 

Inches. 



Weight in Grammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



Range. 



Average! 
Weight No. of 
Fish. 
Ounces. 



10 



11 



12 



13 



21 



A 6 



2-72 
3-22 

4-28 
5-18 
6-15 

7-7 
8-75 
11-0 

12-57 

14-4 

14-9 





2-4^' 3 


'•09 


4 


5 


3 0- 3-4 




6 


23 


3-8- 4-8 




9 


20 


4-3- 5-8 


•18 


5 


34 


5 0- 7-3 




o 


53 


6-9- 9-2 




11 


18 


7-8-100 


•3 


11 


77 






1 


96 


12-1-13-2 




3 


96 






1 






•5 


1 



TURBOT. 



25 

■5 
26 






... 
... 










•5 

27 
•5 


'"§ 




... 
... 
... 










28 

•5 
29 


11 














•5 

30 
•5 


ii 














31 

•5 
32 


12-iV 

'"f 






... 








•5 
33 
•5 


13 


810'-5 




750-871 






2 


34 

•5 
35 


'"i 


828 


890 ' 




29-2 


1 


•5 
36 
•5 


14 -A 


951 
991 


971 ' 
1000 


828-1090 






3 
1 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TURBOT— continued. 



217 



Length. 



In Cm. 

37 
•5 

38 

•5 
39 
■5 

40 

•5 
41 

■5 
42 
•5 

43 

■5 
44 

•5 
45 
■5 

46 

■5 
47 

•o 

48 
"5 

49 
"5 

50 

■5 
51 
•5 

52 

•5 
53 

•5 
54 . 

•5 

55 

o 
56 



58 
59 



In. 
Inches. 



Weight in Grammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



15S 



16i 



1034 
1143 

1147 
1175 



171 



18i 



19-1^1 



20 V 



2U 



22V7I 



23i 



1827 



2520 



2706 



3399 



3483 



Range. 



1039 
1072 
1108 

1155 



2173 



2613 



3052 



3441 



4300 



Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



1090-1289 



64-5 



95- 



12-3 



218 Part III. — Tiventy-secoiicl Annual Report 

TV^BOT— continued. 



Length. 



In Cm. 



In 
Inches. 



Weight in Cirammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



Range. 



Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



60 



61 
62 



63 



64 



65 



66 



67 



68 



69 



70 
71 



73 

.1 

74* 

.1 

75' 

.J 

76 

77' 

•I 

78' 

79 

80 

81 
82 



24 

"a 



25 



26-/, 



27 



28i 



29,V 



30S 



5117 



5317 



6301 
8569 

892)" 



5217 



6376 



7435 



8745 



5268-5367 



10227 



11533 



187-7 



315 



10323-12121 



407 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
BRILL. 



219 



Length. 



In Cm. 



26 

27 

28 
29 

30 

31 
32' 



34 
35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 
41 

•J 

42' 

.1 

43 
44' 

45' 

46 
■ > 

47' 



In 
Inches. 



Average. 



AVeight in Grammes. 

Range 



m 



11 



12, 



13 



14t 



151 



16i 



if 



171 
18| 



248 
301 



315 

344-7 

351-7 

336 
368 
377-5 

397-3 
444-4 

478-4 

490-2 
517-4 
545-2 



580-7 

659-3 

708' 

830 



917 
947 

995 

991 

1079 

1085 



1169 



1373 



1503 



Smoothed 



283-7 
302-2 

3-20-6 
337-1 
344-1 

351-9 
360-5 
380-9 

406-4 
440-3 
471-0 

495-3 
517-6 
542 

562-9 
587-9 
622 

655 

683 
720 

769 

824 
873 



912 
953 

978 
1022 
1052 



243 339 



312- 319 
319- 368 
326- 389 

311- 361 
347- 396 
328- 432 

318- 481 
396- 552 
411 - 516 

474- 410 
460- 552 
524- 580 



566- 595 

583- 729 
701-715 

821- 839 



879- 962 
874- 984 

935-1055 

977-1005 

1019-1140 

981-1189 



1097-1281 



1451-1557 



Avei'age 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



13-0 



23-3 



35-1 



41-3 



53-1 



No. of 
Fish. 



220 Fart III. — T^oenty-second Annual Bepoot 

BRILL — continued. 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

ia 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 
Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 

48 
•5 


"i 


1565 








1 


49 
•5 

50 


19A 


1940 




1699-2181 


68-5 


2 


•5 
51 
•5 


20J^ 


2145 
2117 






... 


1 
1 


52 

•5 
53 


iV 


2145 








1 


•5 
54 
•5 


2U 










... 








HALIBUT. 






21 
•5 

22 


Si 


"84 






3-0 


i 


•5 
23 
•5 


H 




113-5 








24 

•5 
25 


7 
8 


143 






"5-0 


i 


•5 
26 
•5 


ioi 


153 


148 
169 -2 






i 


27 

•5 
28 


8 
11 


171 
196 


190-3 


192-201 


6-9 


i 

2 


•5 
29 


"a 


204 


238 






1 


•5 














30 

•5 
31 


12A 


272 






9-6 


1 


•5 
32 

•5 


"i 












33 

•5 
34 


13 

111 




355-5 









oj the Fisher// Boar (J for Scotland. 
'RAlAWOT—conthmed. 



221 



Length. 


W 


eight in Grammes, 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 
85 
•5 


'1 


439 






i'5-5 


1 


36 


14A 




502-5 









37 


9 












•5 
38 


1 5 


566 






19 -9 


1 


•0 














57 
■5 

58 
•5 


13 
1^ 


1820 






67-8 


1 


63 


241 













64 


2.5" 


2350 






83 


i 

















72 

•5 
73 


28^ 

"a 


3811 


4017 






1 


•5 

74 


1 5 
1 1> 


4223 






149-4 


i 


•0 














75 

■5 
76 


29 /tt 

1 




4622 








•5 

77 
•5 




5022 






177-3 


"1 


78 


30| 












88 

•5 
89 


34| 


6754 


734i 




259-2 


1 


■5 
90 
•5 


351 


7929 








1 
1 


95 

•5 
96 


37f 


9289 


9600 




339 


i 


■5 

97 




9912 

8552 








1 
1 


•5 














98 

■5 
99 




9685 








"1 



222 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual lieport 

HALIBUT— continued. 



Len 


gth. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 

100 
•5 


m 


10534 


10501 




372 


i 


101 

•5 
102 


m 


9230 
10591 


10468 


10478-11385 




3 
1 
1 


•5 
103 
•5 






12597 




444^8 




104 

•5 
105 


m 












•5 




14726 








1 


112 

■5 
113 


44| 


14839 






524 


1 


119 
•5 

120 


m 


18271 

20787 


20152 


17252^19291 




"2 
1 


•5 
121 
•5 




20844 
21693 


20399 
20979 
21399 




736 


1 

1 


122 

•5 
123 


48 


22487 


22090 
22288 






1 


126 
•5 


49i 


28150 








"1 


134 

•5 
135 


52 1 


25375 
29453 


27414 




968 


1 

i 






LO^ 


m ROUGI 


i DAB. 






4 

•5 
5 


1 9 

2 


•33 
•51 




•49- -53 




1 
2 


•5 
6 
•5 


"i 


•97 

r2 

1-6 


13 
1-53 


•89- -1 
11 - 1-4 
r2 - 1-85 


•04 


4 
5 
9 


7 

•5 
8 


3i 


1-86 
2-26 
2-76 


r93 
2-31 

2^68 


1-7 - 2^0 
1-9 - 2-8 
2-4 - 31 


•09 


15 
18 
16 



oj the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
LONG ROUGH DKQ— continued. 



223 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 














Weight 

in 
Omices. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 




31 


3-55 


2-9 - 3-7 




7 


9 


"a 


4-35 


3-9 


3-9 - 5-0 




6 


•o 




4-S 


4-97 


4-1 - 60 




11 


10 


H 


5-6 


5-7 


4-6 - 6-8 


-2 


17 


"5 




6-6 


6-5 


5-4 - 7-8 




20 


11 


4U 


7-3 


7-85 


5-6 - 8-6 




20 


•5 




9-1 


8-41 


6-8 - 10-5 




13 


12 


"f 


9-5 


10-5 


7-9 - 11-7 




14 


•y 




11-9 


11-6 


9-9 - 13-6 




14 


lo 


54 


13-8 


13-3 


12-9 - 15-6 




11 


•5 




14-8 


15-5 


12-2 - 18-2 




16 


14 


i 


17-3 


16-5 


14-2 - 19-7 




12 


■5 




18-2 


20-0 


17 - 20 




5 


15 


s 


22-8 


21-6 


18-3 - 24-9 


' -8 


5 


•5 




25-0 


25-3 


23-7 - 26-4 




9 


16 


6i^^ 


27-9 


27-2 


25-4 - 33-1 




7 


•5 




29-38 


30-1 


25-6 - 32-7 




10 


17 


"\t 


32-3 


32-4 


27-4 - 38 




14 


o 




35 -2 


35-9 


32 - 39-2 




5 


18 


n 


39-5 


40-4 


34-7 - 47-4 


1-4 


9 


■5 




45-7 


43-8 


41-9 - 50-7 




5 


19 


h 


48-1 


50-5 


45 - 52-1 




6 


o 




55-3 


53-7 


42 - 58-5 




8 


20 


7 


59-4 


58-5 


56 - 61-4 


'2-1 


4 


•5 




61-7 




56-9 - 66-5 




2 


2^1 


H 




68-6 








■5 




77-8 


74-2 






"l 


22 


H 


86-8 


83-6 


81-4 - 96 




5 


•5 




89-4 


96-4 


81-8 - 97 




2 


23 


n 


106 


103-2 


105 -107 




2 


•5 




117 


114-0 






1 


24 
•5 


"a 


122 




121 -123 


4-3 


2 


25 


1 ^ 












•5 














26 


lo'i 


168 






'5-9 


1 


•5 




170 








1 


27 


§ 












•5 














28 


11 












•5 














29 


tV 












•5 















224 Part HI. — Tu-eyit //-second A/imial Beport 

WHITINC. 



Length. 



In Cm. 



In 

Inches 



Weight in Grammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



Range. 



Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



6 
•5 

7 


2| 

:! 

T 


1-5 








1 


•5 
8 
•5 


3i 


3-4 
4'3 




3-9 -"4-6 




1 

4 


9 

•5 
10 


] 5 
10' 


5-1 
6-0 
7-4 


5-1 

5-8 
7-1 


4-4 - 5-8 
5-4 - 6-4 

6-8 - 8-8 


'-26 


7 

12 
5 


•5 
11 
"5 


4A 


8-0 
9-25 
10-4 


8-2 

9-2 

10-8 


7-3 - 8-5 
8 -11-12 
9-8 -10-9 




8 
6 

8 


12 

•5 
18 




12-8 
141 
15-5 


12-4 
14-1 
15-8 


11-4 -17-6 
13 3 -15-4 
13-4 -17-5 




7 

7 

11 


•5 
14 
•5 


1 

2 


17-7 
19 
21 1 


17-4 
19-3 
21-1 


16-5 -20-2 
17-1 -20-5 
17-6 -24 




11 
10 
10 


15 

■5 
16 




23-3 
27 
29-6 


23-8 
26-6 
29-3 


22 -27 
24 -33-5 
26-5 -33-5 


.8 


6 
6 

7 


•5 
17 

•5 


1 1 

1 1; 


31-4 
35 6 
38-6 


32-2 
35-2 
38-2 


29 -34-8 

32 -38-5 

33 -44 




3 
4 
5 


18 

•5 
19 


n 
"i 


40-5 
47 1 


41-3 
44-1 

47-8 


36-4 -47 
40-5 -52 




8 
5 


•5 
20 
"5 


t 


53 '-2 
58-6 


50-7 
54-0 

57-7 


49-5 -58-6 
50-7 -71 


1-5 


5 
4 


21 

•5 
22 


Si 


61-3 
66-5 
741 


62-1 
67-3 

72^7 


52 - -68-6 
66 - 67 

64 - 85 




11 
2 
9 


•5 
23 
•5 


9i 


77-4 
85-7 
94-1 


79-1 
85-6 
93-9 


fi5 - 88 
72 - 95 
82 -101 




19 
14 
19 


24 

•5 
25 


i 


102-4 
110-6 
118 


102-4 
110-6 
118-2 


83 -111 

101 - 133 

102 -134 


4-2 


12 

9 

15 


•5 
26 
•5 


m 


125-2 
137-7 
145-4 


127-3 
136-1 
146-1 


107 -149 
121 -158 
136 -157 




14 

10 

9 


27 

•5 
28 


11 


155-1 
172-4 
176-9 


157-6 
168-1 
178-1 


154 -177 
148 -190 
157 -213 




12 
14 
14 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
WHITING— co7itimied. 



225 



Len 


gth. 


W 


eight in Grammes 




Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 
Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


■5 
29 
•5 


f!I 


185-2 
191-0 
205-1 


187-7 
193-8 
202-2 


159 
165 
199 


-205 
-205 
-213 


-'.'.'. 


6 
14 

7 


30 

•5 
31 




210-6 

225 

239-4 


213-6 

225 

237 


188 
223 
217 


-228 
-255 
-276 


7-6 


11 

7 

13 


•5 
32 
•5 


8 


247 
271 
274 


252-5 

264 

272 


252 
242 
256 


-27.3 
-331 
-312 




9 

8 

10 


33 

•5 
34 


13 


270 
293 
312 


279 
292 
309 


263 
306 


'-354 
-361 




4 
9 
6 


•5 
35 
•5 


:• 


33;2" 


322 
332 
341 


298 


-^11 


12-6 


"s 


36 

•5 
37 


14A 


351 

378 


357 
378 


341 


'-432 


... 


"8 


•5 
38 
•5 


"if 


407 
430 


392 

407 
428 


400 


"-524 




"2 
4 


39 

•5 
40 


15| 


446 
509 
513 


462 
504 


404 
474 


-524 
-545 




5 
2 

1 


•5 
41 
•5 


m 


538 
546 


542 
586 








1 
7 


42 

•5 
43 


1 5 


613' 




517 


'-680 




'4 


•5 
44 
•5 


171 


569' 










i 


45 

•5 
46 


t 

isi 




... 










•5 

47 
•5 


"h 


903* 

859 


89.3' 


723 


"-977 




i 
3 


48 

•5 
49 


19A 


984 










1 


•5 


.- 















226 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Bepori 

HADDOCK. 



Len 


gth. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


6 
•5 

7 


2i 

"l 












•5 
8 
•5 


3^ 


'4-6 


... 


... 


•16 


"i 


9 

•5 
10 




6-1 

7-2 


5-3 
6 3 

7-8 


5-6 "-' 6-6 

7-0 - 7-4 


-22 
■25 


"h 

2 


•5 
11 
•5 


iA 


91 
10-2 
12 


8-8 
10-8 
11-9 


8 - 9-8 

9-6 - 11-5 

11-1 - 12-7 




8 

4 

12 


12 

•5 
13 


.1 

4: 

5* 


13-5 
15-4 
17-2 


13-6 
15-4 
17-6 


12-1 - 14-5 
14-6 - 16-5 
16 - 18-2 




9 

8 

10 


•5 
14 
•5 


"h 


20-1 
22-1 
25-5 


19-8 
22-6 
25-2 


18-2 - 23-6 
20 - 25-5 
22-9 - 31-2 




12 

8 
17 


15 

•5 
16 


e'l-v 


28-0 
31-4 
33-7 


28-3 
31-0 
33-8 


24 - 30-3 
29*8 - 35 
31-6 - 35-1 


•99 


16 
16 
12 


•5 
17 
•5 


"h 


36-3 
39-8 
43 


36-6 
39-7 
44-0 


32-3 - 40-3 
33-6 - 43-5 

38 - 48-5 




16 
21 
19 


18 

•5 
19 


7i 

2 


49-2 
52-7 
57-2 


48-3 
53-0 
56-5 


44 - 53-5 
48-1 - 59 
51-8 - 61 




22 

28 
18 


■5 
20 
•5 


"i 


59-7 
67-4 
70- 1 


61-4 
65-7 
70-3 


55-2 - 68-3 
64-2 - 73 
68-6 - 71 


2-"4 


13 

11 

3 


21 

■5 
22 


8i 


73-3 
92-7 


75-4 
82-8 
91-4 


72-4 - 76 
91-6 -'94-5 




6 
3 


•5 
23 
•5 


9i 


98-8 
100-7 
108-3 


97-4 
102-6 
109-3 


90-5 -106-3 
96-5 -105 
99-5 -122-5 




3 

2 

10 


24 

•5 
25 


tV 


119-0 
127-6 
142-5 


118-3 
128-7 
140 2 


112 -127 
114-5 -135-6 
126 -162 


5-63 


3 

7 
15 


•5 
26 
•5 


lo'i 


150-5 
157-5 
164 


150-2 
157-3 
165-6 


131-6 -177 
138 -184 
148 -184 


... 


23 
24 
23 


27 
•5 

28 


■5 
ll' 


175-3 
184 4 
192-7 


174-6 
184-1 
194-9 


161-206 
162-206 
176-219 


.... 


30 
19 
17 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
nAXmOCYL— continued. 



227 



Leng 


'th. 


Weight in Gra 


mmes. 

Range. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 

Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 
Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


•5 
29 
•5 


ViT 


207-7 
2160 

227-8 


205 5 
217-2 
228-4 


170-229 
198-238 
207-267 




17 
13 
14 


30 

•5 
31 


12VV 


241 -4 
260-7 
265-8 


243-3 
256-0 
271-7 


213-269 
241-284 
238-304 


8-5 


18 

14 

9 


5 
32 
•5 


"i 


288-5 
289-9 
300-6 


281-4 
293-0 
305-1 


240-347 
255-307 
247-347 




9 

8 

19 


33 

•5 
34 


13 


324-8 
332-7 
350-9 


319-0 
336-1 
349-9 


276-368 
297-385 
311-412 




13 

9 

20 


•5 
35 
•5 


■| 


366-2 
384-5 
402-3 


367-2 
381-0 
405-8 


325-432 
318-432 
325-496 


13-'6 


15 
12 
12 


36 

•5 
37 


14A 


430-7 
442-5 
461-8 


425-2 
445-0 
465-9 


361-517 
389-510 
420-509 




14 
10 
10 


•5 
8 
•5 


"if 


493-3 

502-5 
550-9 


485-9 
515-6 
542-1 


432-588 
417-559 
467-616 




12 
12 

7 


39 
•5 

40 


15g 


572-8 

591 

573-5 


571-6 
579-1 
591-6 


523-637 
530-641 
573-574 


20-25 


5 

7 
2 


•5 
41 
•5 


164 


610-3 

681 

667-9 


604-9 
636-4 
681-2 


52.3-696 
549-736 
566-782 




11 

5 

10 


42 

■5 
43 


"U 


744-7 
751-7 


698 8 
731-5 
750-1 


722-785 
715-864 


... 


3 
9 


•5 
44 
•5 


yii 


754 

798 

780 


767-9 
777-6 
802-3 


750-759 
730-892 
715-850 




2 
4 
4 


45 

•5 
46 


1 

18i 


878' 
856 


828-2 
854-1 
873-8 




29-2 


"i 

1 


•5 

47 
•5 


"i 


887 
1060 


934-4 
1013-5 
1046 


729-1027 
870-1191 




3 
3 


48 

•5 
49 




1033 
1063' 


1042 
1048 
1095 


976-1090 
948-1182 




2 
'4 


•5 
50 
•5 


"h 




1117 
1171 




41-'3 





228 Fart III. — Tiventii-second Annual Report 

HADDOCK — continued. 



Length, 



In Cm. 



In 
Inches. 



Weight in Grammes. 



Average. 



Smoothed 
Average. 



Range. 



Average 

Weight 

in 
Ounces. 



No. of 
Fish. 



51 
52 



53 



54 



55 



56 



57 



58 



69 



60 



61 



20t1j 

"i 

22tV 

1 3 

23i 

i 

8 



1212 
1338 



1379 



1440 



1628 
16.35 



1915 



1205 
1228 
1303 

1358 



1076-1295 
1281-1387 



1345-1451 



1387-1501 



50-8 



62 



2110 



63 
64 



25 



65 



66 
67 



26A 



3214 



113 



68 



69 



70 



271 



71 



72 



73 



of the Fishery Board for Scotlaiid. 
HADDOCK — continued. 



229 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 
Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


"5 
74 
•5 


"i^ 


3691 




3002-4'290 




3 


75 


29A 












COD. 


2 

•5 
3 




"'•11 
•18 








i 

1 


•5 
4 
■5 


"^ 


•37 
•65 




•63- -67 




1 

2 


5 

•5 
6 


2 

3 


1-04 




1-01 1-07 




2 


•5 

7 
•5 


:* 












8 

•5 
9 


3i 


4-4 

4^65 

6^0 


"5^01 

5-78 


4-3 - 4 4 
4-6 - 47 
5-4 - 6^8 




3 

2 
4 


•5 
10 
•5 


"it 


6^7 
7^8 
9-3 


6-83 
7-93 
9^47 


6^2 - 7-6 
7^1 - 8^9 
8-4 - 10-2 


0-3 


8 
7 
4 


11 

•5 
12 


4r% 

"s 


113 
12-7 
15 2 


1110 
131 
15 


10-3 - 11-9 
11-7 - 13-5 
14^3 - 16^5 




12 
9 

5 


•5 
13 

•5 


5i 


171 
19-7 
21-3 


17-3 
19^7 
21 •S 


16-2 - 17-8 
16-8 - 20^7 
19 - 22-4 




11 

9 

11 


14 

•5 
15 


"l 


24-6 

27-8 
311 


24^6 

27-8 
30^7 


21 - -29 
24^6 - 30-6 
30 - 31-6 


1-1 


7 

10 
4 


•5 
16 
•5 


6t\ 


33-3 
37-6 
41-7 


34 
37-5 
41-2 


30-2 - 35-5 
34 - 40 5 
40-5 - 43 




4 
4 
2 


17 

•5 
18 


7i 


44-4 
50-0 
53-5 


45-4 
49^3 
54 


40-4 - 47-8 
45 6 - 54^5 
50 - 56 


- 


5 
2 
3 


•5 
19 
•5 


"i 


58^5 
61-7 
68^5 


57-9 
62-9 
66-8 


58 - 59 
59-4 - 64 
68 - 69 




2 
2 
2 



230 Fart III. — Twenty-second Annual Meport 

COD — contimied. 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weiglit 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


20 

•5 
21 


si 


701 
74-6 
83 


71-1 
75-9 
83-0 


66-5 - 73-8 
83 '-' 83 


2.5 


2 

1 
2 


•5 
22 
•5 


"h 




90-2 

97-4 

103-5 








23 
•5 

24 


9J 


111-8 
121 -8 


110-7 
116-8 
123-1 


105-119-3 




3 

i 


•5 
25 
•5 


"l 


135-6 
157-8 


1351 
146-5 
158-3 




5.2 


1 


26 
•5 

27 


m 

"i 


170-6 
179 


169-1 

179 

189 


149-184 
175-184 




4 
2 


•5 

28 
•5 


11 


187-7 
218-8 
209 


198-5 
210-7 
217-8 


177-198 
194-248 
191-219 




4 

7 
3 


29 

•5 
30 


1 s 


225-5 

261 

271-5 


231-8 
252-5 

271-8 


219-282 
233-284 
255-304 


9-6 


2 
9 
6 


•5 
31 
•5 


12A 


296' 
303-5 


283 

294-1 
306-1 


278-311 
297-313 




"5 
4 


32 

•5 
33 


i 

13 


319 

349-8 

382 


324-1 
350-4 
366-9 


290-333 
318-389 
368-396 




6 
5 
2 


•6 
34 
•5 


131 


394-5 
403-5 


380-7 
392-9 
410 


382-404 
382-425 




"4 
2 


35 

•5 
36 


f 
14t^ 


42'9'-7 


420 
432 
441-9 


396-456 


14-8 


4 


•5 
37 
•5 


"a 


494-7 
491-8 


462-2 
482-9 
493-5 


466-516 
467-538 




4 
6 


38 

•5 
39 


15§ 


494 
576 5 
673 


520-8 

547-8 
585-8 


460-528 
673-580 




2 
2 
1 


•5 
40 
•5 


"f 


608 

616-7 

618-2 


599-2 
614-3 
620-6 


595-637 
536-680 


21-8 


1 
2 

4 


41 
•5 

42 


9 
TTT 


592-5 
675-5 

658-7 


641-2 

658-5 
671-1 


581-604 
615-736 
581-779 




2 
2 

3 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
COD — continued. 



231 



Len 


gth. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 
43 
•5 


"h 


679 

864' 


700-4 
763-4 

820-8 






1 

' i 


44 

•5 
45 


171 
"l 


835 
920-4 


859-4 
879-3 
906-6 


843-963 


32*5 


1 
"5 


•5 
46 
•5 


ISi 


920 

973 

1002 


938 
965 
968 


941-1005 




1 
2 

1 


47 
•5 

48 


i 


963 
1026 
1004 


986 
1005 
1013 


991-1062 
963-1097 




1 
2 
3 


•5 
49 
•5 


19A 


1010 
1117 


1044 
1080 
1113 


935-1100 
1068- 




7 


50 

•5 
51 


H 
20f^ 


1114 
1189 
1243 


1139 
1182 
1232 


1054-1175 
1232-1254 


39-3 


2 

1 
2 


•5 
52 
•5 


■/it 


1265 
1378 
1395 


1295 
1346 
1373 


1246-1281 
1253-1572 
1303-1536 




3 
3 
3 


53 

•5 
54 


21i 


1347 
1381 
1486 


1374 
1405 
1466 


1274-1451 
1345-1402 
1416-1557 




3 
4 
2 


•5 
55 
•5 


§ 


1702 
1589 


1532 
1608 
1660 


1670-1734 
1458-1826 


60 


2 

7 


56 

•5 
57 


22,1, 


1689 
1661 
1691 


1646 
1680 
1719 


1451-1820 
1494-1791 




4 

4 

1 


•5 

58 
•5 


"H 


1805 
1880 


1792 
1865 
1910 


1805-1805 
1763-1997 




2 
2 


59 

•5 
60 


23J 

"i 


1964 

2108' 


1940 

2020 
2057 


1798-2209 
2025^2224 


, 74-4 


4 
"3 


•5 
61 
•5 


24" 


2043 
2113 
2231 


2088 
2129 
2174 


1812-2293 
2004-2290 




4 
3 
1 


62 

•5 
63 




2124' 


2177 
2207 
2357 


2004^2208 




4 


•5 














64 
•5 


25" 


2524' 

2517 


2499 
2528 


2259-2790 
2400-2761 




2 
4 



232 Pari III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

COD — contmued. 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


65 
•5 

66 


251 


2588' 
2638 


2569 
2598 
2680 


2153-2838 


90-7 


"3 


•5 
67 
•5 


26x\ 


2914 


2744 

2878 
2975 


2471-2818 
2740-3151 




3 
4 


68 

•5 
69 


"it 


3037 
3101 " 


3027 
3069 
3116 


2945-3144 




4 

i 


•5 

70 
•5 


27i 


3179 
3420 


3233 
3380 
3488 


3038-3384 


126-7 


3 
1 


71 
•5 

72 


f 
28i 


3557 
3738' 


3581 
3697 
3865 


3413-3639 




3 

'i 


•5 
73 
•6 


"i% 


4161 






3646-4418 




4 


74 

•5 
75 


If 
29A 


4074 
4000 






3951-4149 
3823-4178 


lii 


'3 
2 


•5 
76 
•5 
















77 

•5 
78 


... 


4602 






4276-4928 




2 


•5 
79 
•5 




4985' 






4312^5607 




"7 


80 

•5 
81 
















•5 

82 
•5 




5501 
6514 






4027-6542 


230 


3 

i 


83 
•5 

84 
















•5 
85 
•5 




6655 






6202-7193 




3 


86 
•6 

87 




6542 






6485-6599 




2 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
COD — continued. 



233 



Lengtli. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 








Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 
Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


o 




6806 




6287-7816 




4 


88 














•5 




7558 




7045-8071 




"2 


89 














•5 




7208 




6061-8581 




'5 


90 














•5 




7866 




6797-8935 


278 


3 


91 






... 








•5 














92 














•5 














93 




8347' 




7944-8836 




"4 


"5 
94 
o 




9144 




8440-10025 




"'4 


95 














■5 














96 




8776" 




7590-10053 




"4 


•5 














97 














"5 




9424 




9134^9713 




"2 


98 














•5 




9702 




8156-10642 




"5 


99 














■5 




... 










100 




10194 




8326-11455 


360 


"5 


•5 




9942 




9318-10253 




3 


101 




10506 




9742-11753 




3 


'5 

102 




10947 




9914-11420 




"4 


•5 




11158 








1 


103 
•5 




10936 




10181-11899 




5 


104 




11361 




10082-12489 




3 


'o 
105 














■5 




11300 








1 


106 




12141 




10930-13410 


429 


5 


•5 




11328 








1 


107 














•5 














108 




12239 




10404^14075 




"2 


■5 














109 














•5 

















234 Part III. — Ttventy-second Annual Repurt 

COD — contimied. 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 














Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average 


Range. 


110 














•5 














111 














•5 














112 














•5 


















THE 


NORWAY POUT. 






3 


1§ 


•315 




•29- -34 




2 


•5 














4 


1t% 














•5 
















5 


2 














•5 
















6 


1 














•5 
















7 


f 


'2-5 








•09 


i 


•5 




2-9 


2-84 








1 


8 


3i 


313 


3-19 








1 


•5 




3-55 


3-75 


3-2 - 3-8 




4 


9 


t\ 


4-58 


4-56 


3-2 - 5-3 




13 


•5 




5-55 


5-49 


4-7 - 6-4 




13 


10 


"h 


6-35 


6-69 


5-5 - 7-0 


•2 


11 


•5 




7-18 


7-38 


5-3 - 8-7 




19 


11 


4i% 


8-6 


8-10 


7-3 - 9-6 




14 


•5 




9-7 


9-7 


7-3 -10-9 




17 


12 


f 


10-8 


10-87 


10-3 -11-8 


-3 


9 


•5 




12-1 


12-41 


10^9 -12-9 




7 


13 


5i 


14-34 


13-81 


12^7 -15^2 




5 


•5 




15 


15-81 


12-4 -17-2 




11 


14 


"i 


18-1 


17-87 


17-2 -19-2 




8 


•5 




20-5 


20-57 


17-8 26-5 




14 


15 


i 


231 


23-5 


18-0 -28-2 


•8 


15 


•5 




27 


26-27 


23-6 -20-9 




10 


16 


6A 


28-7 


29-1 


23-1 -31-7 




16 


•5 




31-5 


31-8 


28-7 -35-8 




If 


17 


"h 


351 


34-98 


38 -38-4 




3 


■5 




38-34 


37-9 


35-7 -41-4 




5 


18 


74 


40-3 


41-2 


33-3 -47-0 


14 


5 


•5 




44-9 


44-6 






1 


19 


"i 


48-7 


50-3 


47-4 -50-1 




2 


•6 




57-2 




572- -57-3 




2 


19-8 




60-0 






i'l 


1 


20-2 




67-1 








1 



of the Fishery hoard for Scotland. 
GURNARD. 



235 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


4 

•5 
5 


2 


"•71 


"•48 


•65- ^77 




"2 


•5 
6 
•5 


"i 


1-25 
'2-05 


113 
1-65 
2-19 


1-2 - 1-3 


•04 


2 

"i 


7 
•5 

8 


3i 


2-87 
3 
3-93 


2-64 
3-27 


2-75- 3-0 
2-9 - 31 
36 - 4-2 




2 
2 
3 


•5 
9 
•5 


"a 


'5-93 




5^6 -' 6-6 




"3 


10 

•5 
11 


H 

"^ 


6-3 

8-7 
100 


6-97 

8-3 

9-87 




•2 


1 

1 
1 


■0 
12 
•5 


::• 


10-9 




10-2 - 12 


•38 


3 


13 

•5 
14 


5i 












•5 
15 
•5 


::^ 












16 

•5 
17 


6i§ 












•5 
18 
■5 


7i 


49-3 




44 - 54 


1-7 


3 


19 

•5 
20 


i 
"§ 


61 






... 


1 


•5 
21 
•5 


8i 


82 
85 


83"3 


85 -" 85 


i'-o 


"i 
2 


22 

•5 
23 


9i 


83-5 
95" 


85-8 

89 

93 


79 - 88 




2 
i 


•5 
24 
•5 


■'t^ 


95 
113-5 


101 
112 
124 


107 -120 




1 
2 


25 

•5 
26 


1 


135 
141 


132 
138 


132 -148 


4-7 


1 
"3 



236 



Part III. — Tmentieth Annual Jieport 
GVRNARD— continued. 



Length. 


Weight in Gr 


immes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 
Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 

27 
■5 


i 
8 


174-7 


157-7 


163 -183 




3 


28 

■5 
29 


11 


179-6 


177-1 

... 


170 -186 




5 


•5 

30 
•5 


"k 


227*0 
237 


235' 


205 -255 


8-6 


5 

1 


31 

•5 
32 


12A 


241 
•297' 


249 
269 
289^7 






1 

"i 


•5 
33 
•5 


13" 


309" 
324-3 


303 
312 


285 -333 
307 -361 


ll'-4 


"2 
5 


34 
•5 

35 


i 












•5 
36 
•5 


14A 


337' 








i 


37 

•5 
38 


1 5 












•5 
39 
•5 


151 












40 

■5 
41 


m 


573 






20-2 


i 


•5 
42 
•5 


"a 












HERRING. 


1-86 
2-91 
4-3 


1 


0-0131 

0-0582 

•32 




-31-" -34 


•01 


48 

14 

4 


4-8 

8-0 

•5 


11 

3i 


•42 

2^98 
3-8 


3-63 


-38- -47 
2-7 - 3-2 
3-5 - 4-0 


•1 


11 
5 
3 


9 

•5 
10 


"it 


41 
4-9 
5-9 


4-27 
4-97 
5-90 


3-4 - 4-9 
4-4 - 5-5 
5-3 - 7 1 


'•'2 


8 

11 

5 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
HERRINC4— co?j^j?)«ecZ. 



OQ*: 



Length. 


^^ 


'eight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


in 
Ounces. 




11 
•5 


4A 


6-9 
8-2 
9-5 


7-0 
8-2 
9-4 


i 6-0 - 8-2 

! 7-6 - 9-4 

8-4 - 11-4 




9 
11 
23 


12 

•5 
13 


4 
5* 


10-9 
11-9 
14-0 


10-6 
12-1 
13-8 


9-5 - 12 
10-2 - 13 
13- - 14-7 




12 

21 

9 


•5 
14 
•5 


"i 


15-6 
17-9 
19-5 


158 
17-7 
19-9 


15 - 15-9 
I 16-2 - 18 
18-6 - 20-7 




6 
9 
6 


15 

•5 
16 


2 
6A 


22-4 
28-4 
27-3 


23-4 

26-0 
29-1 


21-8 - 22-8 
26 -28 


-7 


9 

1 
3 


•5 
17 
•5 


"h 


31 -5 
33-6 
37-1 


30-8 
34-1 

36-8 


30 - 33 

31 - 35 
36 - 38-7 




4 

7 
6 


18 

•5 
19 


7i 


39 6 
43-2 
47-3 


40-3 
43-4 

47-5 


37 - 42-5 

38 - 47 
44 - 52 




10 
14 

7 


•5 
20 
•5 


i 


52 1 
53-9 
59-3 


51-1 
55-1 
60-0 


49-5 - 57 
52-8 - 55 
57-1 - 63-2 


1-9 


6 
2 
5 


21 

•5 
22 


8i 


66-7 
74-8 
86-3 


66-9 
75-9 
81-5 


60-8 - 72-6 

72 - 85 
83 - 89 




4 
5 
3 


•5 
23 
•5 


9i 


91-5 
101-2 


88-4 
94-2 
98-8 


82 -ioi 
93 -113 




'4 
8 


24 

•5 
25 




103-6 
113-6 
115-2 


106-1 
110-8 
119-8 


85-5 -114 
108 -117 
113 -118 


4-'6 


11 

7 
4 


•5 
26 
•5 


lOi 


130-5 
133-3 
144-8 


126-3 
136-2 
143-9 


120 -143 
118 -160 
126 -168 




6 
17 
17 


27 
•5 

28 


11 


153-7 
163-2 
172-9 


153-9 
163-3 
174-0 


141 -186 
151 -188 
149 -195 




22 
11 
14 


•5 
29 
•5 


tV 


185-9 
196-9 
201-7 


185-2 
194-8 
208-8 


158 -213 
185 -218 
178 -212 




16 

8 
12 


30 

•5 
31 


1 

12^ 


227-9 
236-7 


219-5 
229-4 
236-8 


188 -253 

204 -280 


8-0 


12 

7 


•5 
32 


1 


244-3 
263 


248-0 

1 


228 -259 
260 -266 


9-3 


3 
2 



238 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Ue'port 
SPRAT. 



Length. 


Weight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm. 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


4 

•5 
5 


If 
2 


•50 
•67 


""'•67 


-63-" -75 


'•'62 


i 

8 


•5 
6 
•5 


"t 


•84 
M4 
1-53 


•88 
117 
157 


■7 - 1-0 
•92- 1-3 
1-1-2 


'•'64 


28 
20 
15 


7 

•5 
8 


3i 


2 04 

2^48 
2^90 


2-02 
2-59 
3-05 


1-6 - 2-3 
2-0 - 2-8 
2-4 - 3-6 


■07 


21 
33 
38 


•5 
9 
•5 


"a 


3^76 
4^59 
5^53 


3-72 
4-63 
5-56 


3-3 - 43 
3-8 - 5^3 
4-9 - 6^5 




14 

11 
14 


10 

•5 
11 


1 5 

I'll 

4t\ 


6^55 

8^2 
95 


6-76 

8-08 
9-48 


5-5 - 8 
71 - 92 
7^8 -ir8 


-23 


12 

20 

27 


•5 
12 
•5 




10^75 
12-34 
14-27 


10-86 
12-46 
14-34 


9^7 -12-9 
10^8 -14-2 
12-2 -154 


'-'4 


28 
33 
15 


13 


5i 


16-4 








1 


LUMPENUS. 


15 

•5 
16 


51 


"4"-4 






"'•15 


1 


•5 
17 

•5 


'"i* 


5-0 

5-17 

5-8 


'5-32 
5-91 


4-2 - 6 


... 


1 
3 

1 


18 

•5 
19 


7i 


7-17 
7-25 


6-41 
6-86 
7-5 


7-2 -' 7-3 




3 

2 


•5 
20 
•5 


7 
s 


8-1 

7-6 
8 5 


7-65 
8-07 
8-7 


7-4 - 8-7 
7-5 - 7^6 


"•27 


3 
2 
1 


21 

•5 
22 


8i 


'9-9 
10-45 


9 38 
10-09 
10-68 


8-8 '- 10-7 
10-4 - 10-5 




6 
2 


•5 
23 
•5 


9i 


11-7 
12-2 
13-4 


11-45 
12-45 
12-93 


10-4 - 13-1 
10-3 - 14-7 
12-3 - 13-8 




2 
5 
4 


24 

•5 
25 


Iff 


13-2 
14-7 


13-77 


12-8 - 13-7 
13-8 - 15-6 


"•52 


2 
2 



0-f the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
LVMFENUS— continued. 



239 



Length. 


w 


eight in Grammes. 


Average 
Weight 

in 
Ounces. 


No. of 
Fish. 


In Cm 


In 

Inches. 


Average. 


Smoothed 
Average. 


Range. 


•5 
26 
•5 


m 


16 -2 




... 




1 


27 
•5 

28 


i 
ii 


26-2 




18 -'22-4 


'•71 


2 


•5 
29 
•5 


"\ 








... 




30 




















POGGE 








5 

•5 
6 














•5 

7 
•5 














8 

•5 
9 


"a 


3-72 

4-5 

5-2 


4-47 
5-46 


3-*42- 3-93 
3-93- 4-94 
4-45- 5-83 


•13 


6 
12 
12 


•5 
10 
•5 


"h 


6-48 
7-34 

8-25 


6-34 
7-36 

8-74 


5-15- 6 85 
6-88- 7-66 
7-87- 8-64 


•26 


14 
3 
2 


11 

•5 
12 


4rV 

3 
4 


10-62 
12-77 
13 52 


10-55 

, 12-30 

13-80 


12-71-14-63 


'•48 


1 
1 
4 


•5 
13 
•5 


si 


15-12 
21-27 


15-38 
17-51 
19-64 


15 -15-25 


'•'75 


2 

i 


14 

•5 
15 


i 
i 


20-13 








1 



240 



Part III. — Twentt/second Annual Report 



PLAICE. 
Showing the Calcclated Weight at Various Sizes. 



Length in 


Weight in 


Length in 


Weight in 


Centimetres. 


Grammes. 


Centimetres. 


Grarnmes. 


1 


•009 


36 


435-632 


2 


•075 


37 


472-947 


3 


•252 


38 


512-336 


4 


•598 


39 


553 •861 


5 


M67 


40 


597-500 


6 


2^017 


41 


643^515 


7 


3-252 


42 


702 346 


8 


4-7S 


43 


742 357 


9 


6-807 


44 


795-360 


10 


9-338 


45 


850-838 


11 


12 •4-28 


46 


908-824 


12 


16^134 


47 


969-398 


13 


20^513 


48 


1032-600 


14 


26^013 


49 


1115-295 


15 


3P509 


50 


1167-200 


16 


38^240 


51 


1238-4.36 


17 


45-868 


52 


1312-856 


18 


54^454 


53 


1390 065 


19 


64^042 


54 


1470-249 


20 


74^700 


55 


1553-443 


21 


87-793 


56 


1648-160 


22 


99^420 


57 


1729 147 


23 


113 603 


58 


1821 ^760 


24 


129075 


59 


1917-6-24 


25 


145' 900 


-60 


2016-792 


26 


164-107 


61 


2119-322 


27 


183-781 


62 


2225-269 


28 


208-102 


63 


2370-411 


29 


227-720 


64 


2447-360 


30 


252 072 


65 


2.564-174 


31 


278-159 


• 66 


2684-344 


32 


305-9-20 


67 


2808-2-25 


33 


335-543 


68 


2935-552 


34 


366-944 


69 


3068-281 


35 


406 •4.50 


70 


3251-592 



PLATE VII, 











1 












/ 


/ / 


bII 




/ 






















\ 
\l 






16 






















1 


'/ 


/ / 






/ 






















2/I 


'/ 


/ 






1 
























/, 


/a 


/ I 


1 




























/ 


/ 






1 






13 








• 












il 
































V / / 


































1 


'/ 




























1 


/ / / 






/ 








11 




















II 


L 


f 


/ 






















/ 


i/i 


h 






^ 




























I 


1 


/ 


1 


3 






















// f 1 


' 






/s 










L 9 


















/ 


1 


I 


/ 


1 
























u 






/ 






























/ / 


1 /l'4 




1 






















// II 




; 


^ 












I 7 
















1 


// 


/// 


/ 


' 






















fii 


/ 
































/ / 


/ 


/ 






















/[_/ 


ij 




/ 






























1// 


/ 


/ 


/ 






















Try/ 


, 






/ 














6 
















1 /, 


V 




/ 






















1 / 
// 


/// 






















■ ' 












/ 


























////, 


f 




/ 


V 


















1 








J 


/ 




y 
















1 7 / 


y y 


//. 






/ 














1 


h 1 


Ji^y 


^^^-"^ 












': \ \/A 


W 


/ 




/ 






1. Plaioe. 












U€>0>^ 






i^// 


/ / 






/ 






2. Common Dab. 












A^^^"^^ 






! / i/ / 


/ 






/ 






3. Witch 














r ^ 1 






X // / 


/ 




/ 


1 






4. 


Long Rough Dab. 
Cod. 












% 


\ i a 




i 9 10 11 


12 1 


3 » 16 16 17 y y/ / / 






/ 








5. 












































\/^]y/y'\ / 






/ ■ ■ 






6. Haddock. 










1 










\ 




+ — ■ — 


^^ 






E 


^ 


y- 


^ 




^ 




r 


/ 


7^ 


/ 


' 








7 
8. 

1 
1 

1 


Sprat. 
Herring 















10 11 IS 18 U 16 16 17 IS 19 20 SI 82 23 24 



SPRAT 



PLATE VIII. 



n 










I 


1 








1 


SthApiU 






















/ 












1 


I 














V 
























/ 


\/ 




V 






/ 


\/ 




\ 


A 





» 10 U 12 18 



3 9 10 11 i: 13 





\ 




Aberdeen Bay, 

1601 April 

(51 fish). 




k 






l\ 










, 












, 


^ 


v^ 











3 










Aberdeen Bay, 

29th December 

(39 fish). 






























































/ 












/ 












/, 




\ 



3 i 


5 « 


7 


9 10 11 12 IS 


S 

Lunan Bay, 
28th June 
(81 flahj. 












1 
















































/ 












( 1 


i 








/ 




\ 













7 
OTomarty 






j 


\ 


1st June 
(662 fish). 








\ 
















































1 






















^ . 


\ 







8 7 8 9 10 II 12 18 14 









4 
Aberdeen Bay, 




^ 




12th December 
(74 fish). 




































A 










y . 


'\ 


/ 


\, 













e 

Forth m., 
9th If ay 
(669 fish). 






/I 


































































-J 




V 







4 6 6 7 



10 11 12 18 



10 11 12 13 









9 






1 


19th December 
(74 flaw 
























































y\ 










/, 


\ 


-^. 





3 4 6 6 7 











8 

Cromarty Firth, 

10th January 

(27 flsh) 












































\ 












































\ 1 


\ 








/ 




\ 







10 11 12 18 U 



10 11 12 13 



10 11 12 13 





















12 




1 
















Aberdeen Bay, 

18fb September 

aeflsh). 




A 














\ 
























\ 
























\ 


























\ 
























\ 





















2 3 4 6 6 



a 10 11 12 It 





















10 




i 










/ 






Aberdeen Bay, 

I8th December 

(26 flsh). 










/ 














1 
























1 












































































L 


7 




\ 







13 
Aberdeen Bay, 












(112 flsh). 






\ 






























































A 












^ 


7 


V 


/ 


I 



















1 
11 

Aberdeen Bay, 

2(3th September 

(6 flsh). 






























1 














1 1 1 1 



11 12 13 20 



2 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 IS 14 



16 

Dog Hole, Aberdeen, 

IBth January 

(16 flsh). 










/I 












/ 










1 / 










/ 


\J 




\ 



9 10 U 12 13 14 



16 

Aberdeen Bay, 

17th December 

(7 flsh). 










\i 












n 










, 


, 





8 9 10 11 12 13 14 



14 
Aberdeen Bay, 












(68 flsh). 




1 
















\ 
















^— 


































\ 














/ 


. 








3 


6 


S 7 


9 10 11 1 


2 IS 14 







17 


















Dog Hole, Aberdeen, 

28th November 

a4flBh). 










































1 
























/ 
























/ 
























/ 
























/ 


1 






















' 


1 
















/\ 




1 




Jn, 







4 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 1! IS 14 



5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 18 



/ 



PLATE IX. 



1 

BuTghead, 
lit AprU 
(74 ash). 










K 




















1 




























J 


\ 





S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 









2 
Burghead, 






h 


(490 fiBh). 




















































































































































r 




\ 








1 




u 


h) 


V 



* B 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 



3 

Burghead, 

aeth D«oemb«r 

(535 fish). 






















l\ 




























































1 










/ 












J 




[ 









4 










27th December 
(137 fish). 






( 










































































/ 




\ 












^ 














f 














1 








1 









6 

Dornoch, 

3lBt Maroh 

(870 fish). 






























































































































































































/ 


/ 












/ 




\ 








/ 


/ 




Ij 





6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 It 



9 10 11 12 ]3 









l\ 


7 

Dornoch, 

asth Daoember 

(738 fish). 








1 
















so 
















u 






l\ 










.0 






^ 










» 








[ 












<^v^ 


' 




V\ 














V'A 




V 


/^ 









10 11 12 13 14 



6 

Dornoch, 

aand October 


















J 






















h 












Ai 


'\ 










h 


^ 




\ 






A 


1 






\ 





8 

Domooh, 

llUi November 

(1693 fish). 
























































































































































































V 







10 11 1! IS 









9 

Domooh, 

25th Daoember 

(185 flsh)^ 


























1 












/ 


' 




































, 
























1 










1. 




-v 


L 







5 6 


7 8 


9 1 




I 18 13 H 16 


10 

All Deoambar 

Oollectlona 

combined 










1 




























' 












































































































A 
























/ 


1 , 


/ 












y 










1 




vJ 










Al 








\ 




J 










I 


t 3 




6 


8 


8 


10 1 


12 13 U 



""n 



SPRAT 



PLATE X. 



April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dee. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


t 
Mar. 1 
















































































































































1 






























































^^ 




^ 






— ^ 






























































^ 




































































{ 


















• ! 





















































K 






























































-r^ 






























i 


' ■ 


































^ 


^ 


































































y/ 














































1 

































































; 








1 
1 

1 
















































































/ 




















1 
































j 
! 
















/ 






















































1 
1 










/ 


/ 






























































i 



I 



I 



gl^^HBiBEflB3XSSdGttBc^Bl.i 



^ 




6 R 10 12 



10 12 U 16 18 20 22 24 2fi 28 30 82 34 36 3B 40 42 U iG 43 











r- 




















j 


1 




Witch. 
Moray Firth, 
November. 












1 














\ 




















1 


\ 


















\l 


\ 




















\ 


h 












1 






V 


N 


"1 










\ 




















V 








L 


\, 


\ 


A. 














V 


12 




8 20 


2 2J 


« 28 . 


"1 38 


H 36 38 (0 


2 « « 48 50 











































Witch. 

A--Townet 

CoUeotions in Aberdeen Bay 

and Moray Firth in 

October and November. 

The rest of the curve=Off Burghead, 
14th November. 


























































A 


































































































































































































A 


/ 


\ 






















\ 


/ 


v 


\ , 












/ 


\ 




h 




V 




^ 


A 






\ 




/ 


\ 




1^ 










■\ 


\ 












































\ 












Lumpenus. 
Forth, St. v., 
10th May 1901. 

Blaok=5 cm. grouping. 
Red = 1 cm. 






1 


\ 


















































































/ 








/ 


1 
















/ 


























/ 


























/ 




















/ 






1 




















/ 




/ 


n 


1 




^ 


¥ 


/ 












/ 


















1/ 










Ik 




V 


r 








1 




H 


\ 








j 


A 


A^ 












A 


\ 




/ 




1/ 




V 












1 


\ 


A 




13 1 


K 1 


17 1 


i» ai 81 1 


2S 1/ 


•J, 2 


6 27 28 29 31 




i\ & 







I 



/ I 









Norway Pout, 
off Aberdeen. 






\ 


A=»12th October. 

B = 23rd-24th October 




B 












/ 






















^- 


i 


N 


\ 



















Norway Pout, 
off Sbetland, 














16th October 
Ue23 flsb). 




































































(36). Clyde. 
RtauadFolnt to Allsa, 
4tb Ootober 1903 














A 
















V 














































vn 


















































r\ 










^ 


1 


V 


J 




k 







Norway Pout. 
1 off Aberdeen, 
' 16th Deoember. 

1 








i 




















1 
















, 








•z 


V 


/ 




\ 





r 




Norway Pout, 




I 




B3rd January. 




I 


























/ 






A 








1 


r ~\ 


v7 


...^ 


^ 


^ 







j 










Korway Pout, 
offSbefland, 
















31st August <c 
4tb September. 






























A 














1 


























' 






















i 


















1 1 


1 






















































1 








































1 
















\ 




\ 


/\ 








^ 


/ 


V 


J 






\ 


W 








11' 12 M 14 li 







1 


(285) 
Norway Pout, 








offSbetland, 
igth May 


































1 
































\ 






J 




K 


A 



Norway Pout, 
off Aberdeen, 
asttl June. 


U 




-' 


- - - 


K 






















\ 




















I 


\ 








/^ 










y'^ 


1 


\ 











Norway Pout. 
oH Shetland. 
19th October. 








^ 



























































1 


.0 












1 
























iO 








































































\ 






/ 


s 




A 


N / 


K 




A 













Norway Pout, 
off Eurghead, 
14th November. 


























1 






























1 






— 


























— 


















1 


\ 


,A 


A 






^ 


K 


h 


M 


\ 



100 


(307). 
Norway Pout, 
off Burghead 

asth 

December 


\ 
















1 


























/ 


/ 









Norway Pout, 
Aberdeen, 






-A 






A UEled)=3rd September. 

B (Blaok)=10lh September. 

Aberdeen. 




A 














































f 






























j 




I 












1 




\ 




A/)^t\ 


' 1 


A 


\ 


_^ 



13 U in 10 




/ 

1 I 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



241 



, HADDOCK. 

Showing the Calculated Weight at Various Sizes. 



Length in 


Weight in 


Length in 


Weight in 


Centimetres. 


Grammes. 


Centimetres. 


Grammes. 


1 


•008 


36 


367-200 


2 


•063 


37 


398-639 


3 


■213 


38 


431 846 


4 


•504 


39 


467-023 


5 


•984 


40 


503-733 


6 


r700 


41 


542-408 


1 


2^700 


42 


583 073 


8 


4-030 


43 


625-720 


9 


5-738 


44 


670-449 


10 


7-870 


45 


717-188 


11 


10^476 


46 


766034 


12 


13-600 


47 


817-087 


13 


17 297 


48 


870-400 


14 


22-566 


49 


914 465 


15 


26-563 


50 


983-800 


16 


32-239 


51 


1043-963 


17 


38 665 


52 


1107-018 


IS 


45-900 


53 


1171-662 


19 


53-980 


54 


1239-300 


20 


62-967 


55 


1309-470 


21 


72-884 


56 


1444-332 


22 


83-806 


57 


1457-468 


23 


95-754 


58 


1535-531 


24 


108-800 


59 


1616-383 


25 


122-974 


60 


1700-000 


26 


138-377 


61 


1786-340 


27 


154-913 


62 


1875-641 


28 


180-529 


63 


1967-870 


29 


191-941 


64 


2063-290 


30 


212-500 


65 


2162-144 


31 


234-455 


66 


2-262-764 


32 


257-911 


67 


2367-005 


33 


282^846 


68 


2474-580 


34 


309^322 


69 


2585-366 


35 


337-440 


70 


2699-524 



242 



Fart III. — T went 11 -second Annual Report 



IV.— NOTES ON SOME EARE AND INTERESTING MARINE 

CRUSTACEA. 

By Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S. 

(Plates XIII. -XV ) 



CONTENTS. 



Preliminary Remarks, 
Copepoda :— 

Fam. Monstrillidas, . 

Fam. Choniostomatidse, 
Amphipoda, 

Sympoda, .... 
Description of the Plates, . 



PAGE. 

242 

243 
250 
257 
25b 
259 



Preliminary Remarks. 

In the following notes I have described a number of minute Crustaceans 
belonging to the Monstrillidse and the Choniostomatidas — two families 
of Copepoda containing aberrant and parasitic forms of more than usual 
interest. A few forms belonging to other groups more or less rare in the 
Scottish seas are also recorded here. 

The species recorded here belonging to the Monstrillidte are as 
follows: — 

Monstrilla grandis, Giesbrecht. 

„ longicornis, I. C. Thompson. 
„ gracilicauda, Giesbrecht. 
„ anglica, Lubbock. 
„ dubia, T. Scott, sp. n. 
Thaumaleus thom'psoni, Giesbrecht. 

„ rigidus (I. C. Thompson). 

,, zetlandicus, T. Scott, sp. n. 

,, rostratus, T. Scott, sp. n. 

The following are the names of the seven species belonging to the 
Choniostomatidte which are also described : — 

Stenothocheres egregius, Hansen, new to British Fauna. 
Sphoironella paradoxa, Hansen, „ „ ,, 

„ minuta, T. Scott, sp. n. 

„ callisomce, T. Scott, sp. n. 

„ cluthce, T. Scott, sp. n. 

„ pygmoea, T. Scott, sp. n. 

„ ampMlochi, Hansen. 

A description is furnished of each of the species mentioned above, and 
this is illustrated by drawings which have been prepared by my son, Mr. 
A. Scott, A.L.S., who also prepared most of the dissections required. 
The preparing of these dissections Avas in some cases rendered more 
difficult when the species happened to be represented by only a single 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 243 

specimen whose appendages were not very obvious even with a moderately 
high magnification. 

Some moderately rare species of Amphipoda and Sympoda are recorded 
at the end of the paper, the names of which are as follows : — 

Hyperia medusariwi (0. F. Muller). 
Tryphana malmi, Boeck. 
Anony.i- muja.c (Phipps). 
Hoplonyx cicwla (Fabr.). 
Harpinia pectinafa, G. O. Sars. 
Metopa horealis, G. 0. Sars. 
Paratylus falcatus (Metzger). 
Megaluropus agilis, j^orraan 
Idothea neglecta, G. 0. Sars. 
Eudorellopi>is deformis, Kryoer, 
Pseudocuma similis, G. 0. Sars. 

The following are the descriptions of the various species referred to : — 

COPEPODA. 

Fam. MONSTRILLID^ 

Genus Monstrilla, Dana, 1848. 

Monstrilla grandis, Giesbrecht, PI. xiii., fig, 11, 12 ; pi. xiv., fig. 9-11 ; 
pi. XV., fig. 1, 2. 

1892. Monstrilla grandis, Giesb., Pelag. Copep. des Golfes v. 
Neapel, p. 588, pi. 46, fig. 2, 8, 11, 17, 19, 24, 25, 35, 39. 

Description of the Female: — In this species the antennules of the 
female, which are moderately stout, are scarcely equal to one-fourth the 
length of the animal ; their structure is somewhat similar to that of the 
antennules of M. gracilicatida, but the articulations are rather more 
distinct (fig. 9, pi. xiv.). 

The fifth pair of thoracic feet are sub-cylindrical, about twice as long 
as broad, and with a somewhat bi-lobed extremity (fig. 10, pi. xiv.) ; the 
exterior lobe bears three setae, the inner one is small but the other two 
are elongated. The inner lobe appears to be furnished with only a single 
apical seta, but our dissection shows what appears to be the base of a 
seta on the inner margin of this lobe, the seta itself having probably 
been broken off ; the position of this seta is indicated on the drawing by 
dotted lines. 

The abdomen consists of three segments, but the first, which is larger 
than the next two combined, is divided into two portions by a pseudo- 
articulation as shown by the drawing (fig. 11, pi. xiii., and fig. 11, pi. xiv.) ; 
the second and third segments are sub-equal and are together much 
smaller than the first segment. 

The furcal joints are each provided with six setse, one being situated 
on the outer edge near the base of the joint while the others spring from 
the apex (fig. 11, pi. xiv.); one of the apical setae near the inner edge is 
very small. 

The female represented by the drawing (fig. 11, pi. xiii.) measures 
4'25 mm. (about -^ of an inch). 

Description of the Male :— The male is much smaller than the female ; 
the specimen represented by the drawing (fig. 12, pi. xiii.) measures only 
2 mm. (^ of an inch). 



244 Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 

The antennules of the male, which are proportionally rather longer than 
those of the female, are five-jointed, the last joint being hinged to the 
preceding one (fig. 1, pi. xv.). 

The first and second segments of the male abdomen are not coalescent 
as in the female, but otherwise the two sexes are nearly alike. 

The armature of the furcal joints (fig. 2, pi. xv.) is similar to that of 
the female. 

The fifth pair of feet resemble very closely the fifth pair of the male of 
M: longiremis. 

Habitat.— Reeid of Loch Fyne (Firth of Clyde), November 28, 1899, 
one female, and January 30, 1901, a male and a female. 

Professor G. S. Brady records a Monsfnlla, obtained at Cullercoats 
in July, 1900, which he thinks may be the male of M. grandis, 
Giesbrecht,* and I. C. Thompson mentions the occurrence of the same 
species in the vicinity of the Channel Islands.t 

Monstrilla longicornis, I. C. Thompson. PI. xiii., fig. 1-7. 

1890. Monstrilla longicornis, I. C. Thompson, Trans. L'pool. Biol. 

Soc, vol. iv., p. 119, pi. iv., figs. 1, 2, and 4 (S)- 
1892. Monstrilla longiremis, Giesb., Pelagischen Copepoden des 

Golfes von Neapel, p. 589, pi. 46, figs. 10, 14, 22, 37, and 

41 (?). 
1902. Monstrilla longiremis, T. Scott, 20th Eept. Fishery Board 

for Scotland, pt. iii., p. 469, pi. xxv., figs. 3 and 4 ($), 

The antennules in both the female and male are elongated and slender, 
being in some examples nearly half as long as the cephalothorax and 
abdomen combined ; but their length seems to vary to some extent in 
difi'erent individuals, and those of the male appear to be proportionally 
rather longer than in the female. The male antennules are composed of 
six joints, and the articulation between the fifth and sixth is so hinged 
that the sixth joint can be folded inwards ; the second and last joints are 
of nearly equal length and considerably longer than any of the others 
(fig. 6). In the female antennules all the joints except the first appear 
to be coalescent, so that each antennule is apparently only two-jointed 
(fig. 3). 

The fifth thoracic feet of the female consist each of a sub-cylindrical 
plate, but the proximal half of the leg is rather wider than the lower half 
and is defined from it by a distinct notch on the inner margin, and from 
this notch there springs a moderately long seta ; three other setjB spring 
from the distal extremity of the leg, but the innermost one is short while 
the other two are elongated; all the setse appear to be more or less plumose 

(fig. 4). 

The fifth feet of the male are somewhat rudimentary, each being 
represented by a single moderately long plumose seta which springs from 
a small tubercle near the lower ventral margin of the last thoracic seg- 
ment. The genital appendages are narrow and spiniform (fig. 7). 

The furcal joints in the female are each furnished with five moderately 
long setse, but there are only four setae to each of the furcal joints in the 
male. This appears to be the only British species of Monstrilla in which 
the number of furcal seta? in the female is five. 

The male of Monstrilla longicornis does not appear to have been 
previously recorded except by I. C. Thompson. 

* Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumh., Durham, and Newcastle, vol. xiv., p. 64, pi. iv., fig. 1-3. 
\Journ. Marine Zool, and Microscoj)y, vol. ii., p. 97 (No. 8, December, 1897). 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 245 

The following are the localities whence I have obtained this species 
and the dates when the different specimens were collected :— 

Firth of Forth, between Fidra and the Bass Kock, October 18, 

1890 (?). 
Firth of Forth, east of Inchkeith, August 14, 1891 ($ & d). 
Firth of Forth (locality not stated), 1893 (? & d). 
Firth of Forth, Station V. (to the west of May Island), August 30, 

lS94($eScd). 
Firth of Forth, Station V., July 24, 1901 ($). 
Firth of Tay, at Buddon, December 5, 1902 ($). 
Thirty-five miles east of May Island (per s.s. " Glenogle," of 

Aberdeen), August 20, 1903 ($ & d). 
Off Aberdeen about ten miles, November 11, 1901 ($). 
Firth of Clyde, off the Ayrshire coast, November (date not stated), 

1895 ($). 
Firth of Clyde, head of Loch Fyne, December 11, 1897 ($). 
Firth of Clyde, Whitefarland Bay, Arran, July 6, 1899 (c?). 
Solway Firth, Luce Bay (per Andrew Scott), November 26, 1901 ($). 
Larne Harbour, Ireland (per Andrew Scott), January 14, 190i. 

The female represented by the drawing (fig. 1) measured 3 1 mm., 
which is similar to the size given by Dr. Giesbrecht ; the length of the 
male which the drawing represents (fig. 2) is 2 mm. 

One or two of the more obvious characters by which M. longicornis 
may be distinguished from other forms are the long and somewhat slender 
antennules, the form and armature of the fifth pair of thoracic feet, 
and the number of the furcal setse. The structure of the abdomen 
appears also to differ to some extent from the other species of Monstrilla 
recorded here. 

It may be remarked further that the integument in this species when 
examined with the microscope and under a moderately high power is seen 
to have a granular appearance not observed in other species (see the 
drawings, figs .1 and 2). 

That I. C. Thompson's Monstrilla longicornis is identical with If. 
longirewis, Giesbrecht, must, I think, be admitted. The long antennules, 
the granular appearance of the integument, the number of furcal setfe, and 
the structure of the abdomen show that it can be nothing else, and as 
Thompson's name was published two years before that of Dr. Giesbrecht 
it must be restored. Thompson does not appear to have seen the female 
or Dr. Giesbrecht the male of this species. 

Monstrilla gracilicauda, Giesbrecht. PI. xiii., fig. 8-10; pi. xiv., fig. 15. 

1892. Monstrilla gracilicauda, Giesb., op. cit, p. 587, pi. 46, 
figs. 9, 16, 18, 29, 32, 43. 

In the female of Monstrilla gracilicauda the antennules are rather 
shorter than in the species just described. They appear to be four- 
jointed, the first three being small, while the end joint is equal to the 
entire length of the other three (fig. 8, pi. xiii.). 

The fifth pair of thoracic feet (fig. 15, pi. xiv.) are sub-quadrate in out- 
line, rather longer than broad, and somewhat gibbous at the distal end as 
shown in the drawing ; each foot is furnished with three plumose sets?, 
one on the outer aspect and two at the apex, the feathering is very 
delicate and can only be seen by using a moderately high magnification. 

The abdomen consists of four segments, the first segment, which 



246 Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Beport 

api^ears to consist of two coalescent segaients, is of a sub-cylindrical form 
but tapers slightly towards the distal extremity ; it is about one-third 
longer than the breadth at the widest part and nearly twice the entire 
length of the next segments. The third segment is only about half the 
length of the second one. 

The f ureal joints are each provided with six setse arranged as shown in 
the drawing (fig. 10, pi. xiii.), but one of the setse is very small. 

The length of the specimen represented by the drawing is 3*1 mm., 
which is somewhat larger than that stated by Dr. Giesbrecht. No males 
of this species have been observed hitherto. 

M. gracilicauda has been collected at the following places : — 

Firth of Forth, above Queensferry, June 26, 1890 ($). 

Firth of Forth, off Musselburgh, September 29, 1892 ($). 

*35 miles east of May Island, Firth of Forth (per s.s. " Glenogle "), 

August 20, 1903 ($). 
Firth of Clyde, Whitefarland Bay, Arran, July 6, 1899 (5). 
Firth of Clyde, near head of Loch Fyne, November 28, 1899 ($). 

Monstrilla anglica, Lubbock. PI. xiii., fig. 13; pi. xiv., fig. 12-14. 

1857. Monstrilla anglica, Lubbock. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(2), vol. XX., p. 409, pL x., fig. 7, 8. 
1900. Monstrilla (?) dame, Scott, 18th Ann. Kept. Fishery 

Board for Scotland, pt. iii., p. 398, pi. xiii., fig. 15-20. 

Description of the Female. — The specimen represented by the drawing 
measures 3*2 mm. (nearly g of an inch); it has a general resemblance in 
size and structure to Monstrilla longicornis, but is scarcely so robust (fig. 
13, pi. xiii.). 

The antennules are elongated and slender and indistinctly three-jointed ; 
the basal joint is as usual very short ; the next, which is not very clearly 
defined, is also small, but longer than the basal joint ; the remaining 
[(ortion consists of a single piece which may be made up of two or three 
coalescent joints (fig. 12, pi, xiv.). 

The fifth pair of thoracic feet are sub-cylindrical in outline, and nearly 
twice as long as broad ; each foot is furnished with two elongated apical 
setae, and the inner margin, which is nearly straight and shorter than the 
outer margin, terminates in a small rounded process, beyond which the 
distal portion of the foot becomes narrower as shown in the drawing 
(fig. 13, pi. xiv.). 

The genital filaments are scarcely equal in length to the furcal setae. 

The abdomen appears to consist of three segments ; the first segment 
is about twice the length of the second, while the second is about one and 
a half times the length of the third. 

The furcal joints are each furnished with six setse (fig. 14, pi. xiv.). 

Habitat.— Yhth. of Forth, west of May Island, July 26, 1901 ; thirty- 
five miles east of May Island, August 20, 1903, per s.s. "Glenogle." 
Females only were observed in both gatherings. 

This species resembles M. longicornis in size, in the elongate antennules, 
and to some extent in the structure of the abdomen, but differs very 
distinctly in the armature of the fifth pair of thoracic feet, and in 
possessing six instead of five furcal setse ; and the integument appears to 
want the minutely granulated structure observed in M. longicornis. 

The specimens recorded by me in Part III. of the Eighteenth Annual 
Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland from the Firth of Clyde appear 
to belong to Lubbock's MonstiHlla anglica ; these specimens were 

* This specimen was of a fine green colour. 



of the Fisher II Board for Scotlmwi. 247 

apparently imperfect as regards the furcal hairs, and no doubt helped to 
disguise their relationship with the species named. Having now obtained 
specimens in fairly good condition, I am enabled to give a few accurate 
figures of the female which may be of interest as supplementing Dr. 
Bourne's very fine drawings of the male, {See the Quarterly Journ. of 
Micros. Science, vol. xxx., pt. 4, new series, Feb. 1890.) 

Monstrilla duhia, T. Scott, sp, n. PI. xiii., fig. 14 ; pi. xiv., fig. 16-18. 

Description of the Female. — Body moderately slender ; length of the 
specimen represented by the drawing is 33 mm. (fully ^ of an inch). 
The cephalothoracic segment is about one and a half times the entire 
length of the remaining thoracic segments and abdomen. 

The abdomen is composed of three segments ; the first segment is about 
equal in size to the last segment of the thorax, the second is smaller than 
the next, while the second and third are together scarcely as long as the 
first segment (fig. 14, pi. xiv.). 

The antennules are moderately stout and about half as long as the 
cephalothoracic segment, and composed of four joints ; the first and third 
joints are small, the second is about half as long again as the third, while 
the fourth is equal to the entire length of the three joints (fig. 16, pi. xiv.) 

The fifth pair of thoracic feet are moderately slender; each foot is 
. nari'ow and sub-cylindrical at the proximal end, but becomes wider 
distally and terminates in two lobes ; the outer lobe is larger than the 
inner and is furnished with three moderately long seta3, the inner lobe is 
narrow and appears to be devoid of setce as shown in the drawing (fig. 
17, pi. xiv.). 

The furcal joints are each provided with four elongated hairs, one of 
them springs from near the base of the outer margin, two spring from 
the apex, while the fourth is attached on the inner aspect and near the 
middle of the joint, as seen in the drawing (fig. 18, pi. xiv.). 

Habitat. — Firth of Forth, east of Inchkeith, August 14, 1891 ; and 
head of Loch Fyne (Firth of Clyde), IN'ovember 11, 1897, and November 
28, 1899. No males have been observed. 

Remarks. — The Copepod of which I have just given a description 
does not agree with any described species known to me. The characters 
by which it may be distinguished are the following three : first, the 
structure of the abdomen, the first segment of which is as large as the 
segment of the thorax next to it ; second, the peculiar form of the fifth 
pair of thoracic feet ; and, third, the number and arrangement of the 
furcal setae. 

Monstrilla duhia as described and figured here has a somewhat close 
resemblance to the female of M. dame as represented by the beautiful 
drawings of Professor Claparede,* and especially by figure 3, taf. xvi., 
which shows the female from the under side ; the proportional lengths of 
the abdominal and of the posterior thoracic segments are almost identical, 
but the furcal joints are represented with only three setse ; there is also 
a slight difference in the length of the second joint of the antennules. 
Had a separate drawing of the fifth pair of thoracic feet of the female 
been given by that author the identification of the species would have 
been rendered more certain. 



* Beobachtungen uber Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte wirbelloser thier an der 
kuste von Normandie, Angestellt, p. 95, taf. xvi., fig. 1-6 (1863). 



248 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

Genus Thaumalsus Kroyer, 1849. 

Thaumaleus thomsoni, Giesb. PI. xiv., fig. 1-4. 

1892. Thaumaleus thomsoni, Giesb., Pelag. Copep. des Golfes v. 

Neapel, p. 584, pi. 46, fig. 7, 27, 31, 36, 40. 
1902. Thaumaleus thompsoni, Scott, 20th Ann. Rept. Fishery 

Board for Scotland, pt. iii., p. 470, pi. xxv., fig. 5, 6. 

In Part III. of the Twentieth Annual Report of the Fishery Board 
for Scotland, I published a description with figures of the male of 
Thaumaleus thompsoni taken in Lerwick Harbour, Shetland. Recently, 
Avhen examining a small collection of Monstrillas that had been captured 
from time to time during the past twelve or fifteen years, I found a single 
female of the same species that had been taken in a tow-net sample 
collected off Scarborough on July 9, 1893, during some investigations on 
behalf of the Fishery Board for Scotland ; this specimen I will now 
briefly describe, and illustrate the description with figures showing a few 
of its more characteristic features. 

The specimen referred to was elongated and very slender, and 
measured 4-8 mm. in length (about i of an inch). The cephalothoracic 
segment was about equal to twice the entire length of tlae remaining 
segments of the thorax and abdomen combined (fig. 1, pi. xiv.). 

The antennules are short and stout, and appear to consist of four 
joints ; but the third, which is small, seems to be partly coalescent with 
the second (fig. 2, pi. xiv.). 

The fifth pair of thoracic feet are moderately large, foliaceous, and are 
abruptly wider at the distal extremity, the result of a lobe-like process 
on the inner distal aspect ; each foot carries three apical setre, the 
innermost of which is considerably shorter than the other two, as shown 
in the drawing (fig. 3, pi. xiv.). 

The abdomen consists of two segments ; the first is fully half as long 
as the last segment of the thorax, and larger and more dilated than the 
second segment. The short furcal joints carry three moderately elongated 
setae (tig. 4, pi. xiv.). 

The structure of the fifth pair of thoracic feet, and the form of the 
abdomen referred to above, seem to be characteristic of this species. 

Thaumaleus rigidiis (I. C. Thompson). PI. xiii., fig. 15-17; pi. xiv, fig. 19. 

1888. Cymbasoma rigida, I. C. Thompson. Linn. Soc. Journ. 

Zool., vol. XX., p. 154, pi. xiii., fig. 1-4. 
1890. Monstr ilia rigida, Bourne. Quart. Journ, Micros. Science, 

vol. XXX., pi. xxxvii., fig. 8, 11, 12. 
1892. Thaiimaleus claparklii, Giesb., op. cit., pp. 381-385, taf. 

46, fig. 5, 15, 21, 26. 

Description of the Female. — Length of the specimen represented by 
the drawing (fig. 15, pi. xiii.), 2*7 mm. (^ of an inch). The cephalothorax 
is moderately stout, rather wider near the anterior end, and nearly twice as 
long as the entire length of the remaining segments. The abdomen is 
composed of two segments , the first is about one and a half times the 
length of the last segment of the thorax, and the proximal half is more or 
less dilated ; the second segment, which is smaller than the first, is 
probably composed of two coalescent segments, as a slight constriction, 
dividing the segment into two portions as shown by the drawing (fig. 15, 
pi. xiii., and fig. 19, pi. xiv.), is observable in all the specimens examined. 

The antennules are short and stout and appear to be four-jointed, the 
first and third joints being very small (fig. 16, pi. xiii.). 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 249 

The fiftli pair of thoracic feet are rather longer than broaJ, ^ the 
terminal portion being distinctly small and wider than the proximal 
lialf; each foot carries three moderately long apical setse, as shown in 
the drawing (fig. 17, pi. xiii.). 

The fiircal joints, which are of moderate length, arc each furnished 
with three setae (fig. 19, pi. xiv.). 

J^rtY^iVa/".— Mauchrie Bay, Arran, Firth of Clyde, September 17, 1886. 
St. Andrews Bay, August 7, and off St. Monans, Firth of Forth, 
September 6, 1890. Dornoch Firth (Moray Firth district), July 30, 
1895. Whitefarland Bay, Arran, Firth of Clyde, July 6, and between 
Arran and the Ayrshire coast, November 9, 1899. All the specimens 
obtained were females. 

Remarks. — I have adopted I. C. Thompson's name for this form in 
preference to that of Dr. Giesbrecht, as I am convinced, after examining 
a number of individuals and comparing them with the descriptions and 
figures of Thompson and Bourne, that Thatmialeus rigiihcs (I. C. 
Thompson) and 2\ claparedii are identical. The antennules of the 
female in both are short and stout, and although Thompson's figure 
indicates a greater number of articulations than is observed in T. daparedii, 
this may be due perhaps to certain constrictions having been mistaken for 
joints ; but what I rely on chiefly is the structure of the abdomen and the 
form and armature of the fifth pair of thoracic legs of the female, which, 
so far as they are represented by both Thompson's and Bourne's figures, 
are practically the same as the similar parts of T. daparedii represented 
by the drawings of Dr. Giesbrecht. 

Tliaumaleus zetJandicus, T. Scott, sp. n. 1. xiii., fig. 18, 19 ; pi. xiv., 
fig. 20-22 ; pi. xv., fig. 3, 4. 

Description of the Female. — Body moderately stout and elongated ; 
length of the specimen represented by the drawing (fig. 18, pi. ii.), 4-8 mm. 
(nearly i of an inch). The cephalothoracic segment is about one and a 
half times the entire length of the remaining segments of the thorax and 
abdomen. 

The abdomen is composed of three segments ; the first segment is 
distinctly larger than the last segment of the thorax and about twice the 
entire length of the next two abdominal segments ; these two segments are 
sub-equal, but the second is slightly the longer of the two (fig. 22, pi. xiv.). 

The antennules, which are short and moderately stout, are composed of 
four joints ; the first and third joints are smaller than the others, while 
the end joint is about equal to the entire length of the other three 
(fig. 20, pi. xiv.). 

The fifth pair of thoracic feet are short and broadly foliaceous and 
terminate in two broad rounded sub-equal lobes, the outer one of which 
is provided with three moderately long setse ; the inner lobes do not 
appear to carry any setse (fig. 21, pi. xiv.). 

A male belonging apparently to the same species as the female 
described above is considerably smaller than it, and the cephalothoracic 
segment is only slightly longer than the combined lengths of the other 
thoracic segments (fig. 19, pi. xiii.). The length of this male, which is 
represented by the drawing just referred to, is 2*6 mm. (or nearly y^j- of 
an inch). The antennules are five-jointed and longer than those of the 
female (fig. 3, pi. xv.) ; the abdomen appears to consist of four segments, 
the first tAvo are sub-equal and are each distinctly smaller than the last 
segment of the thorax, while the last two are together only a little 
longer than the preceding segment. The number of furcal hairs is the 
same as in the female (fig. 2, pi. xv.). 

Habitat. — Lerwick Harbour, Shetland, October 15, 1901. 



250 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

Remarks. — The more obvious characters by which this species may be 
distinguished are : the structure and lengths of the female antennules, the 
three-segmented abdomen, together with the proportional difierence in the 
size of the first segment with the preceding segment of the thorax and 
the other two abdominal segments ; and lastly, the peculiar form of the 
fifth pair of thoracic feet, as indicated by the various figures. 

Thaumaleus rostmtus, T. Scott, sp. n. PI. xiv., fig. 5-8. 

Description of the Female. — The length of the specimen represented by 
the drawing (fig. 5) is 3-9 mm. (about ^-^ of an inch) ; the first 
cephalothoracic segment is moderately stout, tapering gradually in front 
into a blunt pointed rostrum ; while posteriorly the body becomes 
gradually narrower towards the distal extremity (fig. 5, pi. xiv.). 

The abdomen is composed of three segments ; the first segment is as 
large as the next two together, but the second is very small. 

Each of the furcal joints is provided with three setae of moderate 
lengths, arranged as shown in the drawing (fig. 8, pi. xiv.). 

Antennules short and moJerately stout, four-jointed and sparingly 
setiferous ; the first and third joints are small, the second is about one 
and a half times the length of the third, while the last is equal to the 
entire length of the other three joints (fig. 6. pi. xiv.). 

The fifth pair of thoracic feet are short and fcliaceous, and each 
terminates in two unequal lobes ; the outer lobe, which is narrower than 
the inner and projects somewhat beyond it, is furnished with three 
moderately long setae ; the inner lobe is broadly rounded and provided 
with a single seta (fig. 7, pi. xiv.). 

Habitat. — Lerwick Harbour, Shetland, October 15, 1901. Three or 
four specimens were obtained, all of which were females. 

Remarks. — The form just described is readily distinguished by the 
produced forehead and by the form and armature of the fifth pair of 
thoracic feet. 

Fam. Choniostomatid^, Hansen (1887). 
Genus Stenothoeheres, Hansen (1897). 

SteiiothocJieres egregius, H. J. Hansen. PI. xv., fig. 5-10. 

1897. Stenothoeheres egregius, Hansen, The Choniostomatidse, 
p. 89, pi. i., fig. 1 a-e. 

The iSjyhceronella-like form which I ascribe to Stenothoeheres egregius 
was obtained in the marsupium of Metopa boreaJis, G. 0. Sars. The 
female represented by the drawing (fig. 5) measured about '68 mm. in 
length (nearly Jy of an inch) ; the body was almost s])h8erical in shape, 
but was rather longer than the height. 

The antennules are small (fig. 7), and the end joint, which is furnished 
with two moderately long spine-like terminal setse, is about one and a 
half times as long as the preceding one. 

The antenuce are very minute and composed of two sub-equal joints, 
and they are each armed with a comparatively stout terminal spine (fig. 8). 

The maxillipeds were damaged while being removed for the purpose 
of mounting, but the second pair, so far as they could be made out, 
appear to be moderately strong with stout terminal claws as indicated in 
figure 6. 

The first pair of feet, though very small, are comparatively stout and 
two-branched, and both branches appear to be two-jointed ; the inner 
branches are furnished with three apical spines, the middle one being 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 251 

mr-.Jerately elongated, while the other two are short; the outer branches, 
on tlie otlier hand, are provided with one terminal spine which is 
moderately stout (fig. 9). 

The second pair appear to be more slender than the first, and the inner 
branches are only one-jointed and bear a single moderately long apical 
spine ; the outer branclics, which are two-jointed, are only armed with a 
very short spine at the apex (fig. 10). 

The abdomen is very small and provided with two furcal joints which 
bear a few minute seti«. 

The Amphipod on wliich the parasite was observed occurred in a 
surface tow-net gathering collected in Aberdeen Bay on October 16, 1903. 
The parasite agrees very closely with the description and drawings of 
S. egregius, Hansen, as given in that author's Monograph of the 
Choniostomatidie referred to above, and therefore, though the Amphipod 
on which it was found (Mefopa horealis, G. 0. Sars) is a different species 
from that mentioned by Dr. Hansen as the host S. egregius, I am 
satisfied that the parasite I have described belongs to that species. 

The Amphipod on which Dr. Hansen obtained his specimens of 
S. egregius belonged to Metopa hruzelii (Goes.). 

Sphieronella ixiradoxa, H. J. Hansen. PI. xv., fig. 17-19. 

1897. Sphceronella j^aradoxa, Hansen, The Choniostomatidse, 
p. 118, pi. iii., fig. 4 a-1; pi. iv., fig. 1 a-h. 

The female of this Spharonella represented by the drawing (figs. 16 
and 17) is smaller than those described by Dr. Hansen, being only '57 mm., 
wjiereas the smallest of the specimens mentioned by that author was 
•71 mm. Bat with the exception of the difference in size the specimen 
recorded here agrees very Avell with the species to which it is referred. 
The specimen was found in the marsupium of Batliyporeia pelagka 
(Bate). The figure representing a side view of the parasite shows the 
posterior thread-like attachment considerably twisted upon itself and 
terminating in a sucker disc ; the only other appendages visible are at 
the anterior end, and comprise a pair of antennules and a pair of powerful 
maxillipeds. 

Six specimens of Bathyporeia were found to be infested with 
Spharronella, and all the parasites observed appeared to be adult females. 
The body of the female, represented by the drawings, is seen to be nearly 
globular, particularly when viewed from above. 

The antennules are three-jointed, the end joint being the longest one 
and the penultimate joint the smallest ; they are each provided with a 
few setse (fig. 18). 

The maxillipeds (fig. 19) appear also to be three-jointed; the first 
joint is very large, but the other two are smaller ; the third is armed 
with a moderately stout terminal claw, and as the articulation between 
the first and second joints forms a hinge, the last two joints, together 
with the terminal claw, can be folded upon the first, and this allows the 
maxillipeds to be used as powerful grasping organs. 

No males were observed. 

Habitat. — In the marsupium of Bathyporeia pelagica (Spence Bate), 
collected off Lossiemouth, Moray Firth, December 29, 1903. 

SphcuroneUa minuta, T. Scott, sp. n. PL xv., fig. 11-15. 

An adult Sphceronella was obtained in the marsupium of a specimen 
of Perioculodes longiruayms (Spence Bate) from the Dornoch Firth, 
collected by the bottom tow-net on December 28, 1903. Dorsal and side 
views of the specimen are represented by fig. 12, 11. The length of the 
specimen is '48 mm. (about Jg o^ ^^ inch). 



252 Part III. — Tv'cnty-second Annual Be'jport 

The antennules appear to be three-jointed ; the first joint is nearly 
twice as long as the second, while the third is equal to rather more than 
the entire length of the first and second (fig. 13). 

The first maxillipeds are very small, and consist of a single stout joint 
armed with a moderately strong terminal claw (ng. 14). 

The second maxillipeds are rather more slender and elongated than the 
other pair ; the basal joint is twice as long as broad ; the next two are 
small and narrow, and appear to be hinged to the basal joint ; the 
terminal claw, which is moderately stout, is slightly curved (fig. 15). 

Dr. Hansen states that he obtained female Sphmronellas in the 
marsupiuras of three specimens of Perioculodes longimamis from 
Denmark, and that they appeared to be identical with *S'. paradoxa, the 
only appreciable difference being their smaller size. Dr. Hansen's exten- 
sive knowledge of this curious and difficult group of Crustacea precludes 
any doubt concerning the accuracy of the identification of these specimens. 
I am tlierefore inclined to regard the Syhmronella found on the Periocidodes 
from the Dornoch Firth as a somewhat different form from those he 
observed, and have described it provisionally under a distinct specific name. 

This Splwironella from the Dornoch Firth Perioculodes appears to 
differ not only in size and shape from S. parado.ra, but also in the size 
and proportional lengths of the joints of the antennules and in the size 
and structure of the second maxillipeds. 

Sphoironella callisomcB, T. Scott, sp. n. PI. xv., fig. 20-27. 

The Spiliceronella I record under this name was obtained on a specimen 
of Calluoma crenata (Speuce Bate) collected at the mouth of the Firth 
of Clyde on February 7, 1899. The parasite is an adult female and 
measured '86 mm. in length (= t^^^ of an inch). The body seen from 
above is nearly globular, and the cephalon is seen projecting somewhat 
beyond the anterior aspect in the form of a moderately conspicuous 
tubercle (fig. 21). Seen from the side the body is broadly oblong, with 
both the anterior and posterior ends boldly convex. The anterior portion 
of the body appears to be thickly beset with minute hairs (fig. 20 and 21). 

The antennules are three-jointed ; the middle joint is very shorty but 
the other two are moderately elongated (fig. 22). 

The antennae are very small and uniarticulate, and are each furnished 
with a single terminal seta about as long as the antennal joint (fig. 23). 

The mandibles are slender, elongated, and sub-cylindrical (fig. 24). 

The maxillae are stout, and are each apparently composed of a single 
piece, and armed with two moderately stout terminal setae, while a third 
seta springs from a minute lateral process, as shown in the drawing (fig. 25). 

The first and second maxillipeds have each of them moderately stout 
basal joints, and they are each provided with strong terminal claws 
(fig. 26, 27). 

The ventral filament, which is furnished with a terminal sucker-like 
disc, is long and slender, and twisted upon itself as shown in fig 20 . 

This Sphceronella does not agree with any described species known to 
me. 

Sphceronella clutho', T. Scott, sp. n. PI. xv., fig. 28-30. 

A single adult female of this Sj^luvroiiella was obtained in the 
marsupium of a specimen of Harpinia pedinata, G. 0. Sars,* found in a 
tow-net gathering collected in moderately deep water at the mouth of the 
Clyde estuary, and nearly midway between Ailsa Craig and Sauda 
Island ; this tow-net gathering was collected on November 14, 1899. 

* Some remarks on the distribution of this Harpinia will be found among the Notes 
on Amphipoda at page 256. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 253 

This parasite, which appears to differ from any other Sphceronella 
known to me, measures "74 mm. in length (about -^-^ of an inch). Its form 
is almost globular, especially the dorsal view, but seen from the side the 
height is rather less than the width (fig. 28, 29). 

The only appendages that could be satisfactorily made out were the 
second maxillipeds, and these are moderately elongated and slender, and 
are each provided with a slender terminal claw (fig. 30). 

There does not appear to be any previous record of a Sphceronella 
having been found on Harpinia pectinata. 

Spharonella pygmcea, T. Scott, sp. n. PI. xv., fig. 31-34. 

The adult female of this species represented by the drawings (fig. 31 
and 32), whether viewed dorsally or from the side, is seen to be of a 
nearly oval form, the length being equal to about one and a half times 
the breadth. This parasite, which is very small, measures only "49 mm. 
in length (about Jj of an inch). 

The antennules and antennae appear to be rudimentary, while the only 
appendages of which a satisfactory examination was made were the first 
and second maxillipeds represented by the drawings (fig. 33, 34). 

The first maxillipeds, which are very small and uniarticulate, are armed 
with a moderately stout terminal claw (fig. 33). 

The second maxillipeds are elongated and three-jointed ; the inner 
distal angle of the first joint is produced so as to form a small bifid 
projection ; the first and second joints are sub-equal in length ; the third 
is small and narrow, and bears a somewhat feeble terminal claw (fig. 34). 

Habitat. — This small SpJutronella was obtained in the marsupium of a 
specimen of Pseudocuma similis, G. 0. Sars. No males or post-larval 
females were observed. 

There does not appear to be any previous record of a Sphoironella 
from this species of Pseudocuma. 

Sphceronella ampMlochi, H. J. Hansen. PI. xv., fig. 35, 36. 

1897. Sphwronella aviphiloclii, H. J. H., op. cit., p. 139, pi. vii., 
fig. 3 a ana b. 

The Sphceronellu I record under this name was found in the marsupium 
ot AmpMlochoides odontomjx (Boeck) {^= Amphilochoides jmsilhis, G. 0. 
Sars).* The specimen represented by the drawing (fig. 35) is a young 
female, and as Dr. Hansen has only described the adult form of the 
species from a solitary example, a satisfactory comparison between our 
specimen and his description and figures could not be made. Dr. 
Hansen's specimen was, however, found on the same species of Amphipod, 
and this favours the identification of the two parasites as being the old 
and young females of the same species. The young female I am 
recording measured only '14 mm. in length (about j^ of an inch), but 
the size of the adult described by Dr. Hansen was "54 mm. 

A specimen which appeared to be an adult female was taken from the 
marsupium of the same Amphipod in which the young one now recorded 
was obtained, but it was somehow lost ere it could be thoroughly 
examined and figured. 

The posterior part of the body of the young female is distinctly hispid, 
and the thoracic legs were furnished with long and slender terminal hairs, 
as shown in fig. 35. Near the middle of the dorsal aspect a number of 
slender bristles were observed. 

* Crustacea of Norway, vol. i. (Amphipoda), p. 222. See also the supplement to the 
volume, p. 690, where the author restores Boeck's name, A . odontonyx, for the name used 
in the body of the work. 



254 



Part III. — Twenty -second Annual Report 



The second maxillipeds were moderately powerful, but the other 
appendages were smaller and weaker. 

As this young female agrees with none of the other young forms 
described by Dr. Hansen, I prefer for the present to regard it as the post 
larval stage of his Sj)hce7'oneUa amphilocM. 

As a list of the genera and species of the Choniostomatidse described 
by Dr. H. J. Hansen in his interesting work on that curious group of 
parasitic Copepoda may be useful, I give it here. To this list I have 
added the few odd forms mentioned in the preceding notes, and one or 
two others recorded in previous Reports. The names of the hosts on 
which the parasites have been obtained are also given, and I have indicated 
by an asterisk (*) such of the species as up till now have been observed 
in Scottish waters. This will show how much room still remains for 
further research among these minute organisms. 

The names of the parasites are arranged in alphabetical order on the 
left-hand side of the page, while the names of the hosts on which they have 
been found are placed immediately opposite. 



Names of the Parasites. 



Names of the Hosts. 



Gen. Aspidoecia. 
*Aspidoecia 7ionnani, Giard and 
Bonnier. 



Gen. Clwniostoma. 
Choniostoma hanseni, Giard and 

Bonnier. 
Clwniostoma mirahilis, H. J. 

Hansen. 

Gen. Homceoscelus. 
Homceoscelus mediterranea, 

H. J. H. 
Homceoscelus minuta, H. J. H. 

Gen. Mysidio7i. 
Mysidion cd>yssorum, H. J. H. 
„ commune, H. J. H. 



Gen. Sphceronella, H. J. H 

(a) Sphceronellas pa 

Sphceronella cd>yssi, H. J. H. 

„ acanthozonis, H. J. H. 

. ,, amphilochi, H. J. H. 



antillensis, H. J. H. 
argissce, H. J. H. 



Erythrops elegans, G, 0. Sars ; 
E. serrcctct, G. 0. Sars ; £J. ery- 
tJirojjhihahmis (Goes.) ; JE. 
microphthalmus, G. 0. Sars ; 
and E. abyssorum, G. O. Sars. 



Uipp)olyte gcoimardii, M.-Ed\v^. and 
H. 2)olaris (Sabine). 
„ gcdmardii, M.-Edw. 



Iphinoe trispinosa (Goodsir). 
Diastylis lucifera (Kroyei-). 



Erytlirojis abyssorum, G. O. Sars. 

Erythrops serrata, G. O. S.; E. 
abyssorum, G, O. S.; and Par- 
erythrops obesa, G. 0. S. 



rasitic on Amphipoda. 

Astyra abyssi, Boeck. 
Acanthozone cuspridata (Lepech.). 
Amphilochoides odontonyx (Boeck). 

[=1 Amphilochoides j^usillus, G, 

O. Sars). 
Corophiuni bonelii, M.-Edw. 
Argissco hamatipes, Norman (=^l. 

typica, Boeck). 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



Names of tlie Parasites. 



Names of the Hosts. 



SpJiaronella atyli, H. J. H. 

honnieri, H. J. H. 
caliopii, H. J. H. 
callisomw, T. Scott. 
capensis, H. J. H. 
chinensis, H. J. H. 
clutha', T. Scott. 
danica, H. J. H. 
dulichue, H. J. H. 
eleganfula, H. J. H. 
frontalis, H. J. H. 
giardii, H. J. H. 
giiatiojmdis, H. J.H. 
holhoUi, H. J. H. 
intermedia, H. J. H. 
irregidaris, H. J. H. 
leptocheira, H. J. H. 
longipes, H. J. H. 
messinensis, H. J. H. 
metoixe, H. J. H. 
viicroceijhaJa, Giard 

and Bonnier. 
viinuta, T. Scott. 

paradoxa, H. J. H. 



vestita, H. J. H. 



(b) Splueronellas p 

SphcerojieJla affinis, H. J. H. 
„ curt/pes, H. J. H. 

„ munnopsidis, H. J. H. 

[c) Sphceroneltas p 

Sphan-onella decorata, H. J. H. 
„ di-paj; H. J. H. 

„ insignis, H. J. H. 



„ marginata, H. J. H. 

,, modest a, H. J. H. 

* »' P!J9'>'>i'<-^<'', T. Scott. 

Gen. Steyiothoclieres, H. J. H. 
*Stenothoche^'es egregius, H. J. H. 

„ sa.^'Si, H. J. H. 

Gen. Salenskya, Giard and Bonnier. 

*SaIenskya tuberosa, Giard and 
Bonnier. 



Paratylus swammerdami (IVL-Edw.). 
Protomedia fasciata, Krbyer. 
Calliopius heviuscidus (Kroyer). 
Callisoina crenata, Spence Bate. 
Lemboides aftr, Stebbing. 
Corophium l>onelHi, M.-Edw. 
Ilarpinia pectinata, G. O. Sars. 
Corophium crassicorne (Bruz.). 
Didichia monocantlia, Metzger. 
Clieiroerates simdewatli (Rathke). 
Ampetisca macrocephala, Lillj. 
Protomedia fasciata, Kroyer. 
Gitanopsis arctica, G. 0. Sars. 
Paramj)hitho'e boeckii, H. J. H. 
Bruzelia typica, Boeck. 
Metopa rubrovittata, G. 0. Sars. 
Leptocheims guttatus, Grube. 
Ampetisca tenuicornis, Lillj. 
Gammaropsis melanops, G. 0. Sars. 
Metopa tjruzelii (Goes.). 
Ampetisca typica, Spence Bate. 

Penoculodes tongimamis (Spence 

Bate). 
Batliyporeia norvegica, G. O. Sars ; 

B. pelagica (Bate) ; and B. 

robertsoni (Bate). 
Microjjrotopus maculatus, Norman. 

arasitic on Isopoda. 

Janira macidosa. Leach. 
„ spinosa, Harger. 
Afunnojnis typica, M. Sars. 

arasitic on Sympoda. 

Diastytis rathJcei, Kroyer. 
E2idorella truncatula (Spence Bate). 
Diastylis cornuta, Boeck ; and D. 

rostratus, Goodsir {=D. Ice vis 

Norman). 
Ipihino'e trisp)inosa (Goodsir). 
Eudoretla emarginata (Kroyer). 
Pseudocuma siviilis, G. 0. Sars. 



Metopa bruzelli (Goes), and 
Metopa borealis, G. 0. Sars. 
Stenotlioe marina, Spence ]5ate. 



Ampetisca spinipes, Boeck. 



256 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Beport 

AMPHIPODA. 

The following notes on some species belonging to the Amphipoda and 
one or two other groups of the Malocostraca obtained in plankton — 
samples collected during the investigations recently carried out by Dr. 
T. Wemyss Fulton in the North Sea and the Moray Firth— may be of 
interest. 

Hyperia mechisarum (0. F. Muller). This species, which appears to 
have a decidedly northern and Arctic distribution, and of which there is 
so far no authentic British record, was obtained in a surface plankton- 
sample collected about 180 to 185 miles east by north of Aberdeen on 
October 8th, 1903. One or two full-grown females and several young 
specimens were noticed. In the same gatherings there were observed 
Clione horealis and Limacina retroversa — two northern Pteropods — as 
well as Trypliosa 7ianoidet>, Ho}]lonyx cicada, and some other and 
commoner forms. 

Tryphana malmi, Boeck. This curious and brightly coloured little 
Amphipod occurred in a surface gathering collected off the Ord of Caith- 
ness, Moray Firth, on November 21st, and in a bottom gathering collected 
off Lossiemouth on December 29th, 1903. This is the first time I have 
met with Tryphana so close to the Scottish north-east coast, but the Rev. 
Canon A. M. Norman records its occurrence at Banff, whence specimens 
were sent to him many years ago by Thomas Edward.* Professor G. 0. 
Sars in his great work on the Crustacea of Norway records this species 
from three different places on the west coast of Norwaj'^, and only from 
deep water ; he states further that Boeck also obtained it in deep water 
in Hardangerfjord.t The only other localities which Norman gives in 
his note on the distribution of the species are the Faroe Isles and North 
Atlantic, lat. 18° 8', long. 30° 5' W. (Stebbing). Tryphana malmi may, 
however, be less rare than the apparent dearth of information concerning 
its distribution would seem to imply. I have obtained it in at least two 
plankton-samples from the Shetland Islands, in addition to the two 
mentioned above.J 

Anonyx nugax (Phipps). This species, rarely met with in the British 
seas, was captured in Aberdeen Bay on December 23rd, 1903. The species 
was taken for the first time in Scottish waters in February, 1889 ; on 
that occasion it was obtained near May Island, at the mouth of the Forth 
estuary. § It was again met with in January, 1901, in the Cromarty 
Firth, when specimens collected on the 10th of that month by Mr. F. G. 
Pearcey were forwarded to the Fishery Board's Laboratory at Bay of 
Nigg, near Aberdeen, |i and the present record of its occurrence in 
Aberdeen Bay is the only other occasion on which it has been observed 
off the east coast of Scotland. None of the Scottish specimens of 
Anonyx nugax have attained to anything like the size of some Arctic 
examples. 

Hoplonyx cicada (Fabricius). This species, which, like the last, is 
also a northern form, has already been referred to in the note on Hyperia 

* British Amphipoda of the Tribe Hyperiidfe, &c., Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (7), vol. 

v., p. 133 (January 1900). 
f Crustacea of Norway, vol. i., Amphipoda, p. 18. 
X Conseil permanent International pour I'exploration de la Mer ; Bull, des Results, 

Pt. D., for August, 1903, pp. 44-47. 
§ Eleventh Ann. Rept. of the Fishery Board for Scotland, Part III., p. 212, pi. v., fig. 

' 18-20 (1893). 
II Nineteenth Ann. Rept. of the Fishery Board for Scotland, Pt. III., p. 2f8 (1901). 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 257 

medmariim ; but the largest specimen observed in the collections under 
consideration was obtained in the same gathering with Anonyx nugax, 
from Aberdeen Bay. Though the species appears to be widely distributed 
along the west side of the British Islands, the records of its occurrence on 
the east coast of Scotland appear to be very few, and its presence in 
Aberdeen Bay is all the more interesting. 

It may be stated that the gathering from Aberdeen Bay collected on 
December 23rd, 1903, contained a considerable number of other species 
of Aniphipoda besides the two I have specially mentioned, and the names 
of the following may be given, Acidostoma obesum, Tri/phoM lo?i<j/pes, 
Ampelisca spinipes, Iphinicdea minufa, and one or two fine specimens of 
Amathilla homari. Specimens of Diastylis rostrata and SirieUa armata 
were also observed. 

Harpinia pedinata, G. 0. S.^rs. The occurrence of the single specimen 
of Harpinia pedinata already mentioned in connection with Spliceronella 
duthce, whose host it was, is of sufficient interest to be specially referred 
to in these notes. The only stations that may be considered as within 
the British limits where this species has hitherto been observed " are all to 
the west of Ireland and between Ireland and Ptockall."* Its capture at 
the mouth of the Clyde estuary may be an indication that it may be 
found in other places when carefully sought for. H. pedinata, which 
seems to be confined to moderately deep water, is a form that may easily 
be mistaken for a more common species, the characters by which it is 
distinguished being not easily made out without dissection. Professor 
G. 0. Sars speaks of it as being " by no means rare " off the south and 
west coasts of Norway and occurring, as a rule, in company with II. 
negleda. The Rev. T. E,. R. Stebbing has seen the Clyde specimen and 
confirms my identification. 

Metopa horealis, G. O. Sars. The occurrence of this species in 
Aberdeen Bay has already been referred to under tlie Choniostomatidae 
as one of the hosts of Stenotliodieres egregius. Metopa horealis, like M. 
aJderi and one or two other members of the same genus, has an unarmed 
telaon, but with the assistance of Professor G. O. Sars' excellent mono- 
graph, it need not be confounded with any of the other species referred 
to. M. horealis is a northern form^ but appears to have a fairly wide 
distribution ; it is one of the rarer forms recorded by Dr. Robertson from 
the i irth of Clyde. 

Parafylus falcatus, Metzger. One or two specimens of Paratylus 
falcatus were obtained in a tow-net gathering collected in the Dornoch 
Firth on December 26th, 1903. Though this Paratylus bears a strong 
resemblance to P. uncinatus, G. O. Sars, the tooth-like posterior projec- 
tions of the segments of the metasome on the dorsal aspect readily 
distinguish it. I have found both forms in Scottish waters, but neither 
of them very common. 

Megaluropus agilis, J^orman. This somewhat curious species, readily 
distinguished by the peculiar form of the eyes, was obtained in a bottom 
plankton-sample collected on December 29th about three miles off 
Lossiemouth, Moray Firth. 

ISOPODA. 

Idotliea negleda, G. 0. Sars. Professor G. 0. Sars in his great work on 
the Crustacea of iS^orway, now in course of publication, has in Volume II. 

* British Amphipoda, by Rev. A. M. Norman ; Ann. and Mag. Nut. Hid., (7), vol. 
v., p. 337 (April, 1900). 
B 



258 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual BejJort 

(Isopoda) described as distinct species one or two forms which previously 
have apparently been included with the Isopod known as Idotea trieuspi- 
data, which was in consequence considered to be a variable species. One of 
the forms referred to, which Professor Sars has raised to specific rank is 
named by him Idothea negleda,* and he states concerning it that it 
" occurs along the whole Norwegian coast from Christiania Fjord to Vadsii, 
and is often found in great abundance among decaying algge in depths 
ranging from six to twenty fathoms." This form is probably not un- 
common round the coasts of Scotland, and is, I think, included among 
the varieties of ' Idotea tricuspidata ' described in Bate and Westwood's 
Sessile-eyed Crustacea, t Idothea negleda appears to be moderately 
frequent in some parts of the Clyde estuary ; my friend Mr. Alexander 
Patience of Glasgow, who first directed my attention to its occurrence in 
the Clyde, has obtained a considerable number of specimens, which he has 
been kind enough to let me examine, and there are several specimens in 
the collection in the Fishery Board's Laboratory, Bay of Nigg, which are 
also from the Clyde district. The average size of the male of this Idothea 
is stated by Sars to be 25 millimetres in length ( = 1 inch). (}ne of the 
specimens in the Laboratory is, however, much larger than that, being 33 
millimetres, while others in the same collection measure 28, 27, 25, and 
20 millimetres. The female is much smaller than the male, its average 
size being, according to Sars, only 16 millimetres. All the specimens in 
the Laboratory have been collected in different parts of upper Loch Fyne 
during 1897 and 1899. 

Idothea neglecta has not yet been recorded from the east coast of 
Scotland. 

SYMPODA. 

Eudorellopsis deformis (Kroyer). This curious little species was 
obtained in a plankton-sample collected by the s.s. " Glenogle " about 
fifty miles to the eastward of the May Island, Firth of Forth, on August 
20th, 1903 ; the species has been observed in various other localities, but 
very sparingly and usually in moderately deep water. 

Pseudocuma sirniUs, G. O. Sars. This species has already been referred 
to as the host of SphewneUa pygmcea under the Choniostomatida^ ; a 
few specimens occurred in a plankton-sample collected in moderately deep 
water about three miles off Lossiemouth, in the Moray Firth, on December 
29th, 1 903. Pseudocuma similis resembles the more common P. cercaria 
very closely, and this may be the reason it has only recently been 
recognised as a British species. 

A considerable number of other microcrustaceans, more or less interest- 
ing, have been noticed in various plankton-samples collected during the 
recent fishery investigations carried out under the direction of Dr. Fulton 
in the North Sea and Moray Firth. These may be described in a sub- 
sequent paper dealing more generally with that group of marine organisms. 

I take this opportunity to substitute other generic names in room 
of two that have recently been adopted for certain forms of Copepoda, 
but which I now find to be pre-occupied. 

(a). Genus Platypsyllus, T. Scott, Twentieth Report of the Fishery 
Board for Scotland (1902), Pt. III., p. 455. I find that Platypsyllus 
was used in 1869 both by Dr. Ritsema and Professor Westwood for a 

* Crustacea of Norway, vol. ii., p. 84., pi, xxxv, fig. 1. 
t British Sessile-eyed Crustacea, vol. ii. , p. 381, text figs. 



of the Fisherij Board for Scotland. 



259 



genus of Coleoptera, its use by me for a genus of Copepoda must therefore 
apse, and the name I propose to substitute for it is Jecmella, the diminu- 
ive of the proper name Jean. 

{h) Genus Paranthessius, T. Scott, Twenty-first Report of the FisJiery 
Board for Scothnd (1903), Pt. III., p. 120. This name has already 
been used by Professor Claus for a genus of Copepoda different from that 
described in the Report mentioned, and it must therefore be replaced by 
another, anri the name I propose to substitute for it is Heteranthessius. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



PLATE XIII. 

Alonstrilla lonyicoi-nis, 1. C. Thompson. 

Fig. 1. Female, dorsal view 
Male, dorsal view 
Antennule, female 
Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 
Abdomen and caudal furca, female 
Antennule, male 
Abdomen and caudal furca, male, ventral aspect 

Monstrilla gracilicaiida, Giesbrecht. 

Female, dorsal view .... 
Antennule, female .... 

Abdomen and caudal furca, female, 



Fig. 


2. 


Fig- 


3.' 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 



Fig. 
Fig. 

Fior. 



Fig. 
Fig. 



Monstrilla grandis, Giesbrecht. 



Female, dorsal view 
Male, dorsal view 



Monstrilla anglica, Lubbock. 
Fig. 13. Female, dorsal view .... 

Monstrilla dubia, T. Scott, sp. n. 
Fig. 14. Female, dorsal view . . . . . , . 

ThaumaleAis rigidus, I. C. Thompson. 



Female, dorsal view 

Antennule, female 

Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 



Thaumalezis zetlandicus, T. Scott, sp. n. 



Diam. 



X 


26-5. 


X 


35. 


X 


40. 


X 


53. 


X 


80. 


X 


53. 


X 


80. 


X 


35. 


X 


53. 


X 


79. 


X 


26. 


X 


35. 



Female, dorsal view 
Male, dorsal view 



X 2L 



X 26. 



X 35. 
X 130. 
X 130. 



X 21. 
X 21. 



PLATE XIV. 

Thanmalevs thompsoni, Giesbrecht. 



Fig. 1. Female, dorsal view 

Fig. 2. Antennule, female 

Fig. 3. Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 

Fig. 4. Abdomen and caudal furca, female 



X 20-5. 
X 79. 
X 79. 
X 97. 



260 



Part III. — Tiventy-second Annual Report 



Thaumaletta rostratus, T. Scott, sp. n. 



Fig. 5. 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. 



Fig. 9. 
Fig. 10. 
Fig. 11. 



Fig. 12. 
Fig. 13. 
Fig. 14. 



Female, dorsal view 
Antennule, female 
Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 
Abdomen and caudal furca, female 



Monstrilla grandis, Giesbrecht. 



Antennule, female 

Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 

Abdomen and caudal furca, female 



Monstrilla anglica, Lubbock, 



Antennule, female 

Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 

Abdomen and caudal furca, female 



Monstrilla gracilicauda, Giesbrecht. 

Fig. 15. Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 

Monstrilla dubia, T. Scott, sp. n. 

Fig. 16. Antennule, female .... 

Fig. 17. Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 
Fig. 18. Abdomen and caiidal furca, female 

Thaumahus rigidus, I. C. Thompson. 
Fig. 19. Abdomen and caudal furca, female 

Thaumahus zetlandicus, T. Scott, sp. n. 



Fig. 20. 
Fig. 21. 
Fig. 22. 



Antennule, female 

Fifth pair of thoracic feet, female 

Abdomen and caudal furca, female 



Diam. 


X 


26-5. 


X 


79. 


X 


79. 


X 


79. 


X 


53. 


X 


79. 


X 


72. 


X 


53. 


X 


79. 


X 


97. 



X 79. 



X 64. 
X 106. 
X 79. 



X 130. 



64. 
79. 
79. 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig- 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


.Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 



PLATE XV. 

Monstrilla grandis, Giesbrecht. 

Antennule, male ..... 
Abdomen and caudal furca, female 

Thaumahus zetlandicus, T. Scott, sp. n. 

Antennule, male ..... 
Abdomen and caudal furca, male 



Stenothocheres egregitis, Han. 



Side view, female 
Dorsal view, female 
Antennule, female 
Antenna, female . 
Foot of first pair 
Foot of second pair 



Sphceronella minuta, T. Scott, sp. n. 



Female, side view 

Female, dorsal view 

Antennule 

First maxilliped . 

Second maxilliped 





X 


53. 


X 


106. 


X 


53. 


X 


79. 


X 


53. 




X 


53. 




X 


521. 




X 


781. 




X 


781. 




X 


781. 


X 


106. 




X 


106. 




X 


781. 




X 


781. 




X 


781. 



r. B REPORT. I9M. 




mi 






V 




/ / 



\ — ) I \ 





/I 



]\ 





F B REPORT, law 



PLATE XV 




of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



261 



Splutronella paradoxa, Han. 



Fig. 16. Female, side view 

Fig. 17. Female, dorsal view 

Fig. IS. Antennule 

Fig. 19. Maxilliped 



Spluvronella callisoma', T. Scott, sp. n. 



Fig. 20. Female, side view 

Fig. 21. P'emale, dorsal view 

Fig. 22. Antennule 

Fig. 23. Antenna . 

Fig. 24. Mandible. 

Fig. 25. Maxilla . 

Fig. 26. First maxilliped . 

Fig. 27. Second maxilliped 



Sphceronella cltitluv, T. Scott, sp. n. 



Fig. 28. Female, side view 
Fig. 29. Female, dorsal view 
Fig. 30. Second maxilliped 



Sphoaronella pygmtea, T. Scott, sp. n. 



Fig. 31. Female, side view 

Fig. 32. Female, dorsal view 

Fig. 33. First Maxilliped 

Fig. S-t. Second Maxilliped 



Sj^haronella amphilochi, Han. 



Fig. 35. Female, side view 
Fig. 36. Antennule of the same 



Diam. 


X 


79. 


X 


79. 


X 


781. 


X 


781. 


X 


53. 


X 


53. 


X 


390. 


X 


781. 


X 


781. 


X 


781. 


X 


521. 


X 


521. 


X 


64. 


X 


64. 


X 


79-5. 


X 


106. 


X 


106. 


X 


781. 


X 


390. 


X 


521. 


X 


781. 



262 Fart HI. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



v. — REPORT ON THE OPERATIONS AT THE MARINE 
HATCHERY, BAY OF NIGG, ABERDEEN, By Dr. T. 

Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., Superintendent of Scientific 
Investigations. 



During the season of 1903 the operations on the hatching of plaice 
were continued on a considerable scale as in previous years, and under 
the same conditions as are described in preceding reports. It need only 
be stated that the supply of fertilised eggs is obtained, not by stripping 
the ripe fishes of their eggs and milt, as is done in some other marine 
fish hatcheries, but by retaining the fishes from season to season in a 
large tidal pond, feeding them, and at the spawning season simply 
collecting the eggs from the water by appropriate means, and trans- 
ferring them to the hatching apparatus. For this method, a large 
retaining pond is necessary, and the one constructed at the Bay of 
Nigg has answered its purpose admirably, the fishes remaining in it 
throughout the year in good health and supplying their eggs at the 
proper period with a minimum of trouble to the attendants, and with 
good results in I'egard to the success of incubation. 

One of the consequences of this system which contrasts with the 
condition at Dunbar, where the fishes were merely retained in the pond 
for some time before the spawning began, is that spawning goes on for 
a much longer time than used to be the case under the former system. 
It begins earlier and may continue longer, the dates varying with the 
temperature to some extent, but the extent of the season is always 
greater. Thus at Dunbar the collection of eggs did not as a rule com- 
mence till March, the principal reason being that the fishes had not had 
time to become accustomed to their restraint in confinement after being 
placed in the pond, and they retained their eggs instead of spawning in 
a natural way, very often with fatal results, as described in previous 
reports. In point of fact they did not spawn until they had become 
accustomed to the conditions in which they were placed. The respective 
dates for the beginning of the spawning at Dunbar and at the Bay of 
Nigg are as follows : — 



9th March to 


8th May = 


60 


23rd March „ 


23rd May = 


61 


8th March „ 


8th May = 


61 


22nd February „ 


11th May = 


78 


15th February „ 
10th March „ 


7th May = 
29th April = 


81 
50 


10th March „ 


5th May = 


56 


22 nd Januaiy „ 

8th February „ 

23rd January „ 


2nd May = 
25th April = 
16th May = 


100 

76 

113 



It will be observed that the mean duration of the spawning process 
at Dunbar owing to this delay in its commencement was sixty-five days, 
while at the Bay of Nigg the mean duration has been eighty-six days, 
or twenty-one days longer. In the first season at the Bay of Nigg the 
hatchery was not ready in time, and in the third season the beginning 
of spawning was delayed by cold, though the termination, which was 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 263 

earlier than usual, was natural. The ordinary duration of the spawning 
season of the plaice appears to be about the longer periods, extending 
over three full months and part of other two — and the observation is of 
some importance in fishery investigations. 

Eggs were observed in small numbers a few days before the regular 
collection began, and a few were found after the date when the collection 
ceased. The total number of eggs secured from the pond by means of 
tow-nets was about 65,940,000, the eggs being measured in a vessel of 
known capacity and the number thus estimated. Spawning took place 
for the most part in March, the numbers of eggs secured in the various 
months being as follows : — 

January, - - - 240,000 

February, - - - 11,840,000 

March, - - - - 37,080,000 

April, - - - - 15,900,000 

May, - - - - 880,000 

In some yeai's the bulk of the spawning occurs in the early part of 
April. On some mornings in March last year as much as five gallons 
of eggs were taken from the pond. Of the number of eggs collected 
81 per cent, were hatched, and the remainder succiunbed at one stage 
or another in the apparatus ; there is reason to suspect that some of 
the eggs which are lost in this way are not fertilised, a tendency having 
been shown to economise the space in the pond by having in it an 
unduly large proportion of females at the expense of the number of 
males. 

The estimated number of fry which were hatched and kept for a 
period in the apparatus was 53,600,000, and they were afterwards 
placed in the sea, most of them being liberated a few miles ofi" Aberdeen, 
by means of a fishing yawl. At the request of the line-fishermen 
further up the coast a number were set free on three occasions ofi 
Fraserburgh, the total distributed there being about 16,000,000. 

The particulars as to the distribution of the fry and the details as to 
the numbers of eggs collected throughout the season are given in the 
tables appended, which also show the variations in the temperature and 
the specific gravity of the water in the spawning pond and on the 
beach. 

The number of fishes kept in the pond to act as the breeding stock 
was as usual supplemented in autumn by others caught by means of 
trawlers and brought alive to the hatchery in large tubs ; for there is 
always a certain amount of natural mortality among them, particularly 
during the summer. The plaice, as hitherto, were fed on mussels, which 
are usually removed from their shells, but are sometimes only crushed. 

The ponds and appai^atus, which have been described in preceding 
annual reports, continue to serve their pui-pose well, and the water 
supply, both in regard to temperature, density, and purity, is veiy 
suitable for the work. The only changes that have been made in the 
an-angements consist in the removal of the water tumbling-box from 
the inside of the hatcheiy, where it was served with the incoming water, 
to the outside, where it is now operated by the out-flowing water. The 
box is necessary to provide the motive power to the Dannevig hatching 
apparatus, and it was found to interfere to some extent Avith the 
pressui'e of the water to one side of the hatchery and thus to retard the 
supply. Also by the fitting up of the tank-house for scientific experiments 
it was found necessary to divert a portion of the water from the 
reservoir tank for this purpose, and the change necessitated a little more 
pumping early in the mornings. 



264 Part III. — Twenty-secoyid Annual Report 

The question of attempting to rear the fry on a fairly large scale has 
been considered. It not unfrequently happens that at the end of the 
hatching season young metamorphosed plaice are found in some part of 
the apparatus, which have succeeded in passing the post-larval stages, 
although it is not easy to get such forms when it is attempted to rear 
them. The difficulty is in providing a supply of suitable food, and it is 
proposed to utilise a tank to act as a receptacle for spawning invei'te- 
brates, so that the water, enriched with the embryos and larvae may be 
used to supply the young fishes. 

For a few years the placing of the fry in Loch Fyne has been inter- 
mitted, and they have been distributed, as descidbed, along the coast of 
Aberdeenshire. The reason for doing so is in order to enable observa- 
tions as to the abundance of young plaice on the beaches in Loch Fyne 
to be made under natural conditions, without artificially reared fry being 
placed there in the same season, and the push-net examination of these 
beaches is being continued each summer. The fry were originally 
taken to Loch Fyne without such observations having been made 
beforehand, and there were therefore no data for comparing the abun- 
dance of the young plaice in the years in which the fry were put into 
the Loch. From the natural fluctuations which take place with fish 
everywhere, it is obvious that it is desirable to have observations carried 
on long enough to be able to distinguish one cause of fluctuation from 
the other, just as in cases where the influence of a method of fishing, or 
of stopping it, requires to be tested in the same way. 

During the hatching season the hatchery was visited by depvitations 
of fishermen from the coast of Aberdeen, as in previous years, at the 
request of the Technical Education Committee of the County Council, 
and they received demonstrations as to the processes employed. 



[Tables. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



265 



TABLE I.— Showing the Daily Progress of the Hatching Operations, 
as well as the Temperature and the Specific Gravity of Water 
in the Pond, and on the Beach. 



Date. 


Number of 

Eggs 
Collected. 


Number of 

Eggs 

found Dead 

in Boxes. 


Number of 

Fry 

put out. 


Total Stock 
in Boxes. 


The Sea 

Water in the 

Pond 

at Noon. 


The Sea 

Water on the 

Beach 

at Noon. 




















Temp. 


Sp. gr. 


Temp. 


Sp. gr. 


Jan. 20 










Cent. 
3-1 


27-2 


Cent. 
4-2 


27-2 


„ 21 










3-8 


27-2 


4-4 


27-2 


„ 22 










4-0 


27-3 


5-0 


27-3 


„ 23 


60,000 






60,000 


4-1 


27-2 


5-0 


27-0 


., 2i 










4-2 


27-4 


5-1 


27-0 


„ 25 


















„ 26 


40,000 






100,000 


4-6 


27-3 


5-3 


27-1 


„ 27 


20,000 






120,000 


5-3 


27-2 


5-5 


27-2 


„ 28 










5-4 


27-2 


5-4 


27-0 


„ 29 


40,000 






160,000 


5-3 


27-3 


5-3 


27-0 


, 30 


40,000 






200,000 


5-5 


27-4 


5-4 


27-1 


„ 31 


40,000 






240,000 


5-6 


27-3 


5-2 


27-0 


Feb. 1 








240,000 










» 2 


120,000 






360,000 


4-2 


27-2 


5-0 


27-0 


„ 3 


40,000 






400,000 


4-1 


27-3 


5-0 


27-2 


„ 4 


120,000 






520,000 


4-2 


27-1 


4-9 


26-9 


„ 5 


280,000 






800,000 


4-0 


27-4 


4-6 


27-0 


M 6 


40,000 


60,000 




780,000 


4-0 


27-3 


5-1 


27-1 


„ 7 


200,000 






980,000 










„ 8 


... 






980,000 










n 9 


400,000 






1,380,000 


4-4 


27-1 


4-8 


27-3 


„ 10 


200,000 






1,580,000 


4-6 


27-2 


5-0 


27-0 


» 11 


820,000 


80,000 




1,820,000 


4-4 


27-2 


4-9 


27-1 


„ 1- 


160,000 






1,980,000 






.. i .. 
! 


,, 13 


320,000 






2,300,000 










„ li 


200,000 


... • 




2,500,000 










„ 15 








2,500,000 


4-8 


27-4 


5-1 i 27-0 


„ 16 


480,000 


120,000 




2,860,000 


5-2 


27-3 


5-3 i 27-1 

1 


n 17 


560,000 






3,420,000 


5-4 


27-5 


5-2 27-0 


„ 18 


480,000 






3,900,000 


5-7 


27-3 


5-6 


27-2 


„ 19 


600,000 






4,500,000 


6-2 


27-2 


6-0 


27-1 


„ 20 


800,000 






5,300,000 


6-0 


27-3 


6-0 


26-8 


,, 21 




260,000 




5,040,000 


5-8 


27-4 


5-9 


27-0 



266 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

TABLE 1.— continued. 



Date. 


Number of 

Eggs 
Collected. 


Number of 

Eggs 

found Dead 

in Boxes. 


Number of 

Fry 

put out. 


Total Stock 
in Boxes. 


The Sea 

Water in the 

Pond 

at Noon. 


The Sea 

Water on the 

Beach 

at Noon. 










Temp. 


3p. gr. 


Temp. 


3p. gr. 


Feb. 22 


1,320,000 






6,360,000 


Cent. 
5-5 


27-2 


Cent. 
5-9 


27 '0 


„ 23 


880,000 






7,240,000 


4-8 


27-3 


57 


27 


„ 24 


320,000 






7,560,000 


4-4 


27-2 


5-4 


27-1 


„ 25 


1,240,000 


100,000 




8,700,000 


4-6 


27-3 


5 


27-0 


,, 26 


880,000 






9,580,000 


4-4 


27-4 


5-3 




„ 27 


1,160,000 


140,000 




10,600,000 


4-5 


27-2 


5-0 


27-2 


„ 28 


720,000 






11,320,000 


4-6 


27-2 


5-1 




Mar. 1 








11,320,000 


4-8 


27-3 


5-0 


27-0 


„ 2 


1,680,000 


320,000 




12,680,000 


4-7 


27-5 


5-0 


27-1 


„ 3 


1,200,000 






13,880,000 


4-4 


27-2 


5-0 


27-0 


,, 4 


1,040,000 






14,920,000 


4-8 


27-1 


5-3 


27-8 


,, 5 


1,160,000 






16,080,000 


4-6 


27-2 


5-2 


27-0 


„ 6 


980,000 


380,000 




16,680,000 


4-8 


27-2 


5-1 


27-0 


,) 7 


960,000 


220,000 




17,420,000 


4-9 


27-0 


5-0 


27-1 


„ 8 








17,420,000 


5-0 


27-4 


5-1 


27-0 


„ 9 


1,720,000 






19,140,000 


4-8 


27-3 


5-1 


27-9 


,, 10 


1,600,000 


480,000 




20,260,000 


5-0 


27-5 


5-2 


27-1 


„ 11 


1,280,000 






21,540,000 


4-7 


27-2 


5-0 


27-2 


„ 12 


960,000 


270,000 




22,230,000 


4-9 


27-5 


5-1 


27-2 


„ 13 


1,320,000 






23,550,000 


5-1 


27-4 


5-3 


27-0 


„ 14 


1,440,000 


220,000 




24,770,000 


5-3 


27-4 


5-3 


27-1 


„ 15 








24,770,000 


5-2 


27-3 


5-2 


27-2 


„ 16 


2,000,000 


330,000 


4,000,000 


22,440,000 


5-4 


27-4 


5-1 


27-0 


„ 17 








22,440,000 


5-0 


27-2 


5-4 


27-0 


„ 18 


2,360,000 


360,000 




24,440,000 


5-2 


27-4 


5-2 


27-2 


,i 19 


1,160,000 


260,000 




25,340,000 


5-6 


27-5 


5-1 


27-0 


„ 20 


1,200,000 


460,000 


3,800,000 


22,280,000 


5-5 


27-3 


5-2 


27-9 


„ 21 


2,060,000 






24,34CC000 


5-4 


27-5 


5-4 


27-1 


„ 22 




360,000 




23,980,000 


5-9 


27-6 


5-2 


27-3 


„ 23 


3,500,000 


400,000 




27,080,000 


6-2 


27-4 


5-4 


27-4 


„ 24 


1,280,000 


320,000 




28,040,000 


6-0 


27-3 


5-8 


27-2 


„ 25 


1,520,000 


220,000 




29,340,000 


5-8 


27-3 


5-8 


27-1 



oj the Fishery Board for Scotland. 

TABLE I.—contimted. 



267 



Date. 


Number of 

Eggs 
Collected. 


Number of 

Eggs 
found Dead 


Number of 
Fry 

put 0\lt. 


Total Stock 
in Boxes. 


The Sea 

Water in the 

Pond 

at Noon. 


The Sea 

Water on the 

Beach 

at Noon. 






in Boxes. 






Temp. 


Sp. gr. 


Temp. 


Sp. gr. 


Mar. 26 


1,220,000 


260,000 


4,300,000 


26,000 


Cent. 




Cent. 




„ 27 


1,240,000 


320,000 




26,920 


6-0 


27-2 


5-8 


27-3 


,, 28 




280,000 




26,640,000 


6-2 


27-3 


5-8 


27-1 


„ 29 


1,960,000 






28,600,000 


6-4 


27-5 


5-8 


27-2 


„ 30 




450,000 




28,150,000 


6-3 


27-4 


5-9 


27-5 


„ 31 


2,240,000 


340,000 




30,050,000 


6-1 


27-2 


6-0 


27-3 


April 1 






4,000,000 


26,050,000 


6-2 


27-6 


5-8 


27-4 


,, 2 


2,040,000 


420,000 




27,670,000 


6-4 


27-3 


5-9 


27-3 


„ 3 








27,670,000 


6-1 


27-1 


6-2 


27-0 


„ 4 


1,560,000 


520,000 




28,710,000 


6-6 


27-4 


6-2 


27-2 


,, 5 


1,040,000 






2?, 750, 000 










„ 6 




280,000 


6,000,000 


23,470,000 


6-4 


27-5 


6-3 


27-1 


:, 7 




480,000 




22,990,000 


6-1 


27-3 


6-2 


27-4 


„ 8 


1,960,000 


300,000 




24,650,000 


6-4 


27-6 


6-2 


27-3 


„ 9 


1,160,000 






25,810,000 


7-0 


27-3 


6-6 


27-2 


n 10 


560,000 


470,000 




25,900,000 


7-2 


27 •4- 


6-8 


27-0 


„ 11 


800,000 






26,700,000 


6-8 


27-7 


6-6 


27-3 


„ 12 


720,000 






27,420,000 


7-0 


27-8 


6-4 


27-0 


„ 13 




320,000 




27,100,000 


6-8 


27-6 


6-4 


27-4 


n 14 


1,220,000 






28,320 000 


6-5 


27-4 


6-1 


27-8 


„ 15 


440,000 


280,000 


8,000,000 


20,480,000 


6-0 


27-5 


6-0 


27-3 


„ 16 


400,000 






20,880,000 


5-9 


27-8 


6-1 


27-4 


„ 17 


400,000 


400,000 




20,880,000 


5-4 


27-4 


6-0 


27-2 


„ 18 








20,880,000 


5-1 


27-6 


5-8 


27-7 


„ 19 


800,000 


320,000 




21,360,000 


5-0 


27-3 


5-8 


27-4 


„ 20 


440,000 




4,400,000 


17,400,000 


4-8 


27-2 


5-1 


27-2. 


„ 21 


340,000 


240,000 




17,500,000 


4-9 


27-4 






„ 22 


400,000 


260,000 




17,640,000 


5-0 


27-3 






„ 23 


400,000 






18,040,000 










„ 24 








18,040,000 


5-8 


27-4 


5-8 


27-2 


„ 25 




340.000 




17,700,000 


6-4 


27-6 


6-1 


27-5 


„ 26 


820,000 






18,520,000 


6-6 


27-5 


6-4 


27-3 



268 Fart III. — Ttventy-secoTid Annual Report 

TABLE l.—contimted. 



Date. 


Number of 

Eggs 
Collected. 


Number of 

Eggs 

found Dead 

in Boxes. 


Number of 

Fry 

put out. 


Total Stock 
in Boxes. 


The Sea 

Water in the 

Pond 

at Noon. 


The Sea 

Water on the 

Beach 

at Noon. 










Temp. 


Sp. gr. 


Temp. 


Sp. gr. 


April 27 




180,000 




18,340,000 


Cent. 
6-3 


27-8 


Cent. 
6-1 


27-3 


„ 28 








18,340,000 


6-0 


27-5 


6-2 


27-5 


„ 29 




160,000 




18,180,000 


6-4 


27-3 


6-2 


27-2 


„ 30 


400,000 




7,300,000 


11,281,000 


... 








May 1 








11,281,000 










n 2 








11,281,000 










n 3 


400,000 






11,680,000 










„ 4 




160,000 




11,520,000 










„ 5 


300,000 






11,820,000 










,, 6 








11,820,000 










J. 7 






5,500,000 


6,320,000 


7-0 


27-2 


7-3 




„ 8 








6,320,000 


7-6 


27-3 


7-4 




» 9 








6,320,000 


8-0 


27-5 


7-2 




„ 10 


60,000 


140,000 




6,240,000 


8-4 


27-1 


7-6 




,, 11 








6,240,000 


8-3 


27-2 


7-7 




„ 12 




60,000 




6,180,000 


7-5 


27-3 


7-2 




„ 13 


60,000 






6,240,000 


8-1 


27-5 


7-4 




,, 14 






4,300,000 


1,940,000 


8-8 


27-4 


7-6 




„ 1& 


40,000 






1,980,000 


8-6 


27-2 


7-3 




,. 16 


20,000 






2,000,000 


91 


27-4 


7-8 




,, 17 


















„ 18 


















„ 19 


















„ 20 






2,000,000 












Totals, 


65,940,000 


12,340,000 


53,600,000 













of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



269 



TABLE II. — Showing particulars in connection with the 
Distribution of Fry. 



Date. 


Locality. 


Temp, 
of the 
Water. 


Condition 
of Weather. 


Number 
of Fry 
Planted. 


March] 6 


About three miles off Aberdeen Bay. 


5-4° 




4,000,000 


„ 20 


Three miles off Girdleness. 




Fair. 


3,800,000 


„ 26 


Off Aberdeen Bay, between three and 
four miles. 


5-3° 




4,300,000 


April 1 


In Aberdeen Bay, three and a half miles 
off. 






4,000,000 


„ 6 


Off Fraserburgh, two miles off Lighthouse. 


5-6' 




6,000,000 


„ 15 


Off Fraserburgh, outside the breakwater. 




Sea rough. 


8,000,000 


„ 20 


About two miles off Aberdeen. 


5-9* 




4,400,000 


„ 30 


About three miles off Aberdeen. 






7,300,000 


May 7 


Three and a half miles off Girdleness. 


6-2° 




5,500,000 


., 14 


About three and a half miles off Aberdeen 
Bay. 


7.3° 




4,300,000 


„ 20 


Fraserburgh, about two and a half miles 
off. 


7-r 


Wind light. 


2,000,000 



270 Part III. — Tiventy-second Annual Report 



VI.— ON THE POST-LARVAL AND EARLY YOUNG STAGES OF 
THE WITCH {PLEURONEGTES CYNOGLOSSUS, Linn.). 
By H. Chas. Williamson, M.A., D.Sc, Marine Laboratory, Aber- 
deen. (Plate XVI.) 

A very complete series of post-larval and young witches has been 
collected by I)r. Fulton and these he has handed to me for descrip- 
tion. 

This form is especially interesting in that it has a very long post-larval 
period; it reaches a large size before it takes up a bottom habitat, i.e. 
before its transformation from a bilaterally symmetrical fish to a flat-fish. 

Drawings of eight post-larval and two young stages are shown in 
Plate XVI. An extended and detailed description is not necessary, as 
these serve sufficiently to indicate the general form and the arrangement 
of the black pigmentation so far as the latter has survived preservation. 
All of the specimens had been preserved in a solution of formaline in 
seawater. 

Cunningham* was the first to observe the larva of the witch, and 
his description may be here incorporated. He says— " The larva is 
not diflferent from that of the other species of Pleuronedes ; its length is 
3'9mm. ; there is no pigment in the eye; a number of very minute points 
are scattered down the sides." About 48 hours after hatching, " the 

length is now increased to 5-9min ; the median fin-fold is 

much wider ; the eye is slightly pigmented, and pigment is largely 
developed in the skin of the body ; the cutaneous chromatophores form five 
well-marked transverse stripes arranged in longitudinal series along the 
sides, three of them on the tail, are in the region of the rectum, and one 
about the pectoral fin." 

Holtt gives a more detailed account of the larva and early post-larva. 
The additional particulars which he furnishes are the following : — The 
larva, hatched from an egg captured in the sea, " had pigment of a pale 
chrome colour by reflected light, and of a dark yellow by transmitted light. 
This extended over the head, eye, and throughout the trunk and free 
caudal region, and over the yolk .... In the next stage black 
pigment is associated with the yellow, and also appears independently 
along the margin of the dorsal fin. In a specimen, two days old, hatched 
from artificially fertilized eggs the length is 5-5mm. We now find a 
change in the arrangement of the pigment, which is broken up into three 
distinct bars in the post-anal region. Moreover, the yellow pigment now 
exhibits a greenish colour by transmitted light." 

A drawing of an early post-larval stage (derived from artificially 
fertilized eggs) ten days after hatching accompanies the following 
description: — "The eyes are black, with a bluish lustre; the lower jaw is 
very prominent, the pectorals very large, the otocysts large. The post-anal 
region is very slender, especially the part ventral to the notochord ; the 
latter is very stout. The urocyst is larger than before. A ventral patch 
of black chromatophores has appeared midway between each post-anal 
pigment bar. The most anterior bar, that in the region of the pectoral 
fins, has lost its distinction. Pigment is absent from the dorsal fin in this 
region, whilst there has taken place a considerable development of pig- 
ment in the lower jaw and anterior ventral region ; the coloured pigment 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinhurgh, xxxiii., Pt. I., 1887. 
\Sc. Trans. Roy. Dublin Society (2), iv., 1893. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 271 

is now orange by transmitted light, except in the median fin, where it is 
brown " (Holt . 

Previous to the publication of the paper just referred to, Petersen* had 
described a post-larval pleuronectid measuring 32mm. in length. He 
considered it to be a Halibut {Hippoglossus vulgaris). Kylef and Holt and 
ByrneJ have recently described post-larval stages of the witch, and these 
agree closely with Petersen's form, which is apparently really a witch. 
It has, moreover, the spinous armature of the operculum to which Holt and 
Byrne draw special attention. § The fin-ray formulae for these specimens 
were as follows: — Petersen's — Dorsal, w, 104; Anal, 88 ; Caudal, 82. 
Kyle's specimens (two in number) — Dorsal, 103 (105); Anal, 83, 85; 
Caudal, 18. Holt and Bryne— Dorsal, 108 ; Anal, 95. 

The post-larval witch is a characteristic form which cannot be con- 
founded with any other known species. Its main characters are its long and 
narrow post-anal body ; the well-marked triple-bar arrangement of pigment 
on the same ; the prominent head and snout, and its extended transforma- 
tion period. Kyle in this connection says, in referring to the two examples, 
12 and 14mm. long respectively, described by him, that their "most striking 
features, in addition to their length and relative thinness, are the long head, 
the projecting snout, with the deep depression over the eyes, and the 
early stage of metamorphosis." In Dr. Fulton's collection the largest 
post-larval {i.e. pelagic) witch measures 40mm., while the smallest young 
witch {i.e. transformed) measures 44mm. Holt describes one of the 
latter which measured 42mm. 

The only other pleuronectid of our waters which approaches the witch 
in having a lengthy post-larval period is the Lemon Sole {Pleuronedes 
microcephalics). Post-larvse of this form have been found measuring 
27mm. (Holt), but the general shape of the pelagic stages of this species 
Is very different from that of the witch ; the outline of the former is oval, 
whereas that of the latter is elongated. 

The witches from which the drawings were made exhibited black pig- 
ment only. The pigment other than black has disappeared since they 
were preserved; and in some cases the black pigment has faded consider- 
ably. This probably accounts for the fact that some variation on the 
pigmentation is found in the forms described, especially as regards the 
marginal fin. The outer edge of the marginal fin was, moreover, some- 
times frayed, and in consequence the presence of pigment there was not in 
these cases determined. 

It is hoped that the sketches here supplied will aid in the diagnosis of 
preserved examples. A number of the drawings are of natural size ; the 
majority are enlarged. It is sufficient to note that the post-larval char- 
acters are constant ; the general form, which is more readily indicated by 
the sketches than by a word-picture, is, when taken along with the bar 
arrangement, sufficient to indicate the species. A brief note will be 
given of each of the stages illustrated. 

The first (Fig. la) is an early post-larval example, measuring in total 
length 5 ■2mm., in greatest breadth "TSmm. It has the typical pleuronectid 
form, viz. a short abdomen and a long post-anal region. The marginal 
fin shows no trace of fin-rays ; the caudal fin is still diphycercal. The 
pigment is well marked. At the point of the mandible there are a few 
black pigment spots, and in the pectoral region there is a ventral group 
of spots. On the hind dorsal area of the abdomen a group of large 
chroraatophores is visible, and along the keel of the abdomen there is a 

* Report of the Danish Biological Station, iv., 1893. 

•\ Journal of tlte Marine Biological Association, vol. vi., No. 4, Dec. 1903. 

+ Report on the Sea and Inland Fisheries of Ireland, 1901, Pt. II., Dublin, 1903. 

§ Dr. Petersen has informed me that he is satisfied that the form is a witch. 



272 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

row of similar pigment corpuscles. The eyes are black. The post-anal 
region is marked by three main transverse bars of cbromatophores ; they 
are equi distant from one another. Each bar consists of a dorsal and a 
ventral moiety. The hindmost is in the region of the future caudal fin, 
and is large. Between the bars there are three pigment groups situated 
ventrally on the edge of the muscle-segments ; they may be termed secon- 
dary groups, in contradistinction to the main broad bars. Of the post-anal 
pigment groups just mentioned, the hind main bar alone extends on to the 
marginal fin. Only one pigment spot was, in addition, found on the 
marginal fin ; it was situated on the ventral fin. A ventral view of this 
post-larva is shown in Fig. lb. 

In Fig. 2 a specimen similar in size to one of those described by Kyle 
is reproduced. It measures 12"5mm. in length, and in greatest iDreadth 
reaches about 3mm. A greater amount of pigment is found in this 
individual than in the preceding. Along the ventral edge of the muscle- 
segments in the post-anal region a few more intermediate or secondary 
pigment spots are seen, and some pigment was made out on the ventral 
marginal fin in large and small spots. Anterior to the anus the condition 
of the preceding specimen holds. The caudal pigment is now diffuse ; 
the caudal fin-rays are being laid down and the tail region is becoming 
heterocercal. The rudiments of the interspinous bones are indicated by a 
somewhat opaque part of the marginal fin, next the muscle-segments. 

The interspinous hones, still very small, are to be made out in the next 
figure (3), a drawing of a post-larva mea.suring 14mm. in length and 
5mm. in greatest breadth. In this specimen the large pigment corpuscles 
on the hind part of the optic lobes were prominent. A natural-size 
sketch of this post-larva is given in Fig. 9. 

A witch 18mm. in length is reproduced in Fig. 4. The fin-rays are 
now almost completely formed, and the tail is nearly homocercal 
in character. A row of small pigment spots along the junction of the 
ventral interspinous bones and the fin-rays is made out. 

In Fig. 5 all the interspinous bones and the fin-rays are formed. This 
example is of the same size as the specimen recorded by Holt and Byrne. 
In length it measures 25mm., in greatest breadth it reaches 7'5mm. 
The fin-ray formula is — Dorsal, about 110 : Anal, about 95 ; Caudal, 22. 

Fig. 7a is an enlarged drawing of a witch measuring 34mm. In it 
the pigment was not very prominent ; it had probably faded. 

A post-larval form, measuring 38mm., is shown in Fig. 12. Trans- 
formation is not yet completed. A drawing of the left side of the head 
of this example appears in Fig. 8. 

A completely metamorphosed witch, measuring 44mn)., is reproduced 
in Fig. 13. Holt described one which was a little smaller, viz. 42mm. 

The migration of the left eye to the right side of the fish is a slow 
process. In the fish measuring 25mm. it has moved to a noticeable 
extent. It then appears a little above the ridge, when the fish is viewed 
from the right side (Fig. 5). In the large post-larva, 38mm. (Fig. 12), 
the eye is on the ridge ; in another, measuring 40mm., the migration was 
not completed (Figs. 6a and 6b). 

Dr. Fulton examined the last-mentioned specimen (40mm. long) 
shortly after it was killed in formaline. He found that the only pigment 
then visible was black. It was distributed as follows: — On the snout 
and jaw there was a collection of little specks ; on the front of the lower 
jaw a like collection. A group of spots was present on the optic lobes, 
while a broad band of spots was conspicuous on the hind part of the 
abdomen. On the median line there were, on the post-anal body, six 
equi-distant pigment patches. The dorsal interspinous region showed 
eight fainter patches, while five or six similar patches were seen on the 
ventral interspinous region. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 2*73 

During the post-larval period the pigment on the two sides of the body- 
remains practically identical. It is only in the larger specimens, e.g. 
38mm., that it is possible to detect a lighter shade of pigment on the left 
side than on the right. 

With the transformation, however, a very marked difference is noted 
(Fig. 13). The fish itself becomes more opaque, and its upper surface 
(the previous right side), shows a large quantity of pigment. Posterior 
to the anus there are on the upper surface seven broad patches across 
the median line of the body ; on the dorsal fin there are five broad patches 
with intermediate smaller patches, and on the ventral fin three broad 
patches with smaller intermediate groups. The under or blind side, 
however, retains the post-larval pigmentation ; in this case it resembled 
that found in the post-larva measuring 38mm. (Fig. 2). 

Holt and Byrne draw attention to the presence of spines on the 
operculum of the post-larvse. I have found this spinous armature in the 
example measuring 12'5mm. (Fig. 2). In the preceding specimen, 
5 ■2mm. (Fig. 1), it was not made out. It was found in all the succeeding 
post-larval witches, and the spines were equally developed on both sides 
of the body. The sketches indicate with approximate accuracy the 
number and arrangement of them. 

In the metamorphosed example, 44mm. long (Fig. 13), teeth were found 
on the operculum. Two large teeth projected from the posterior part of 
the operculum, and dorsal to these three were two (or three) other similar 
teeth. They were equally developed on both sides of the fish. 

No spines were made out on the operculum of either side in the young 
witch measuring 59mm. in length. 

Small teeth (in the jaws) were made out in the smallest member of 
the series, and they were present in all the other post-larval stages. They 
are not numerous. Teeth were not seen in the smaller bottom form. 



LITERATURE. 

Cunningham.— "The Eggs and Larvse of Teleosteans," Traris. Roy. Soc, 

Edinburgh, vol. xxxiii., Pt. L, p. 97 (Plates I. to VII.). 1887. 
Cunningham. — "Marketable Marine Fishes." London, 1896. 
Holt.—" On the Eggs, Larval and Post-larval Stages of Teleosteans," Sc. Trans. 

Boy. Dublin Society, ser. 2, iv., p. 455, Plates I. to XV. 1893. 
Holt and Byrne.— " On a Young Stage of the White Sole {Pleuronecfes 

cynog/ossns)," Report on the Sea and Inland Fisheries of Ireland for 1901, 

Pt. II., p. 67, Plate III. Dublin, 1903. 
Kyle.— " Halibut (TJippoglossus vulgaris, Flem.) or Pole-Dab {Pleuronectes 

cynoglossus," Journal of the Marine Biological Association, vol. vi., No. 4., 

Dec. 1903, p. 618, 1 plate. 

M'Intosh and Prince.- "On the Development and Life-Histories of the 

Teleostean Food and other Fishes," Trans. Boy. Socy., Edinburgh, Vol. 

XXXV., Part III. (No. 19), Plates L to XXVIII. 
M'Intosh and Masterwan.—" British Marine Food-fishes." London, 1897. 
Petersen.—" On some Zoological Characters of Young (Post-larval) Flat-fishes," 

Report of the Danish Biological Station, iv., Appendix II., 2 plates, p. 126. 

Copenhagen, 1893. 



274 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Beport 



N.B.~ 



Explanation of Plate XVI. 
-No attempt has been made in the drawings to insert the proper number of 
interspinous bones and fin rays. 

loglossus, 5'2nira. long; •75mm. 

greatest breadth, . . x ca 19 

do., ventral view. 

12*5mm. long ; 3mm. greatest 

breadth, . . . x ca 6 

14mm. long ; 3mm. greatest 

breadth, . . . x ca Q 

18mm. long ; 5mm. greatest 

breadth, . . . x ca 6 

25mm.- long ; 7 ■5mm. greatest 

breadth, . . . x ca 6 

40mm. long ; right side, . x ca 6 

40nim. long ; left side, . x ca 6 

34mm. long ; 13mm. greatest 

breadth, . . . x ca 

38mm. long : left side, . x ca 6 

14mm. long, natural size. 
28mm. long, do. 

34mm. long, do. 

38mni. long, do. 

44mm. long, do. 

59mm. long, do. 



Fig. 


la. 


Post-larval, Pleun 


mecte-i 


Fig. 


lb 


Do., 


do., 


Fig. 


2. 


Do., 


do., 


Fig. 


3. 


Do., 


do., 


Fig. 


4. 


Do., 


do., 


Fig. 


5. 


Do., 


do.. 


Fig. 


6a. 


Head of post-larval 


,do.. 


Fig. 


6b. 


Do., 


do.. 


Fi|. 


7. 


Post-larval, 


do., 


Fig. 


8. 


Do., 


do., 


Fig. 


9. 


Do., 


do., 


Fig. 


10. 


Do., 


do., 


Fig. 


11. 


1)0., 


do.. 


Fig. 


12. 


Do., ■ 


do., 


Fig. 


13. 


Young, 


do.. 


Fig. 


14. 


Do., 


do., 



r B RBPORT. 19fl4. 




Pi6>. 9-H. A. H. W*LiiE. 



Tar yinrn—PtatrnnrcUi cj/nt>glouut. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 275 



VII.— ON SOME PARASITES OF FISHES NEW TO THE SCOT- 
TISH MARINE FAUNA. 

By Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S. 

Plate XVII. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Preliminary Note, 275 

Part I. Copepoda Parasita — 

Fam. Dichelestidai, . . . . ... . . 275 

Part II. Trematoda — 

Fam. Tristomatidas, ....... 278 

Part III. Note on a Post-larval Fish attacked by Podon 

Leuckarti, .......... 279 

Description of the Plates, ........ 280 



Preliminary Note. 

Some time ago Dr Fulton, Scientific Superintendent to the Fishery 
Board, kindly handed to me for examination aspecimen of Trygon pastinaca, 
Lin., which had heen captured in the Dornoch Firth on October 22, 1903. 
This specimen measured about \ik inches across the pectoral fins and about 
24i inches from the nose to the extremity of the very slender tail; it was 
thus not more than about the average size of this kind of fish, yet it 
yielded on examination no fewer than four different species of ectozoa. 
Two of these species belong to the Copepoda and two to the Trematoda, 
and only one of them, viz., Brachiella pastinacce, van Beneden, appears 
to have been previously described. Descriptions and drawings of these 
apparently new forms are given here. 

Moreover, while examining some organisms set aside from former 
collections, I found a specimen of Lerncea lusci, Bassett-Smith, obtained off 
Aberdeen in January, 1902 ; as this parasite has not before been recorded 
from Scottish waters, I have had a short description, with drawings of it, 
prepared for this paper. 

I have further to state that at the end of this paper will be found a 
description and drawing of a very curious Natural History group consist- 
ing of a larval fish, somewhat emaciated, and two small Crustaceans, which 
appear to be attacking the fish ; for this interesting specimen I am indebted 
to my friend and colleague, Dr Henry Charles Williamson. 

The drawings have been prepared by my son, Mr A. Scott, A.L.S. 

I propose to describe the various organisms mentioned in the order in 
which they are referred to above. 

PART I.— COPEPODA PARASITA. 

Fam. Dichelestid^. 
Genus Eudactylina, van Beneden (1853). 

Eudactylina minuta, T. Scott. PI. xvii., figs. 111. 

Description of the Female. — The length of the specimen represented by 
the drawing (fig.l), measuring from the forehead to the end of the f ureal 



276 Part III. — Twentij-second Animal Beport 

joints, is about 1- 1mm. (about ^ of an inch), but that represented by figure 
2 is slightly larger, and measures about 1*4 mm. The segments, especially 
along their dorsal aspect, are rough with minute scattered spines. The 
body is slender, as in the species previously described, but the fourth and 
fifth segments are rather more dilated than the others. The cephalosome 
is about equal in length to that of the first two segments of the metasome 
combined. The first segment of the metasome is a small one, while the 
next two are each rather longer and stouter than the one immediately 
preceding ; the last segment of the metasome is considerably smaller than 
the third one. The segmentation of the urosome (abdomen) somewhat 
resembles that of Budadylina swiiUs, A. Scott. 

The antennules, which are short and stout, are apparently five-jointed, 
as in those of the species referred to, and their armature is also similar to 
that of Eudadylina similis, but, on the other hand, there is a distinct 
difference in the proportional lengths of the joints, — the third being longer 
than the second joint and the fourth scarcely twice as long as the ultimate 
one (fig. 3). 

The antennae, which are moderately elongated, have a general resemblance 
in their form and structure to those of the other described species; but the 
second joint, which is about as long as the third, is produced on the inner 
aspect and near the distal end so as to form a single stout and prominent 
spine, and a single powerful hook-like spine with a thickened base carrying 
a few small setae is articulated to the extremity of the third joint (fig. 4). 

The mandibles and maxillge do not present any marked difference from 
those of Eudadylina acuta, van Beneden. 

The first maxillipeds, which resemble the same appendages in Eudady- 
lina similis, are armed with a moderately stout terminal claw, and the end 
joint is furnished with a row of minute course denticles along the inner 
edge (fig. 5). 

The second maxillipeds are large and strong and^form powerful chelse; 
they are somewhat similar in structure to those of Eudadylina similis, but 
the extremity of the claw which impinges against the lower spoon-like 
process has the stout apical tooth with a rounded hood-like covering 

(fig- 6)- . . 

In the first pair of thoracic feet both branches are two-jointed, and both 

are moderately stout ; the inner branches are sparingly fringed with minute 

setfe, and armed with two apical spines of unequal length ; the outer 

branches, which are rather shorter than the inner, are each furnished Avith 

a fringe of minute set£e on the outer margin of the first joint, while the 

end joint bears several spines round its outer margin and apex ; the inner 

spine is of moderate length, but the others are small (fig. 7). 

The structure of the second pair has a general resemblance to that of the 
same pair in Eudadylina similis and E. acuta. The inner branches, which 
are distinctly three-jointed, are considerably smaller than the outer ones, 
the first joint bears a longitudinal row of small spines on its inner aspsct, 
while the end joint carries two apical spines of moderate but unequal 
length. The outer branches are stout and elongated, and, like the inner 
ones, appear to consist of three joints, but the articulation between the first 
and second joints is apparently nearly obsolete; two short spines which 
have their bases dilated spring from the outer margin and near the distal 
end of the elongated first joint; the third joint, which is short and rounded 
at the extremity, is provided with a single and moderately stout subter- 
minal spine, as shown in the drawing (fig. 8). 

The third and fourth pairs are nearly alike, and resemble the same two 
pairs in Eudadylina similis, except that the inner branches are furnished 
with a number of scattered spinules on their outer aspect ; the outer 
branches are each of them rounded at the extremity, and provided with 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 27*7 

a single elongated terminal seta, there are a few spines on the outer 
margins of the second and third joints, while the first joint bears a fringe 
of minute spines along its outer edge (fig. 9). 

The fifth pair, which are broadly foliaceous and resemble in their 
general outline the same appendages iu Eudactylina acuta, van Beneden, 
are furnished with several transverse rows of minute spines and three 
apical seta^ (fig. 10). 

The furcal joints, which are rather longer than the last abdominal seg- 
ment, are each of them armed with two terminal spines — a stout one at 
the apex and a somewhat smaller one on the outer edge, as shown in the 
figure; a small seta springs also from near the middle of the outer 
margin (fig. 11). 

Habitat. — On the gills of a specimsn of the " Sting Eay," Trygon 
jpastinaxa, Linn., captured in the Dornoch Firth on October 22, 1903. 
No males of the Eudactylina were observed. The fish, as already stated, 
measured about 14| inches across the pectoral fins, while its length from 
the snout to the extremity of the tail is about 24^ inches. 

Eemarks. — This Eudactylina appears to differ from previously described 
species by its smaller size — being little more than half the length of the 
smallest hitherto recorded, and from its being found on a different host. 
But there are also structural diflferences which separate it from other forms. 
I will recapitulate one or two of these : it difi'ers in the proportional 
lengths of the joints of the antennules, in the armature of the antennae, in 
the armature of the first maxillipeds, in the structure of the second pair of 
thoracic feet, and in the proportional lengths of the segments of the thorax. 

Though a number of specimens were obtained, only a small proportion 
of them were in good condition for dissection. 

Eudactylina acuta, Van Beneden. 

1853. Eudactylina acuta, Van Beneden, Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 
vol. XX,, pt. 1, p. 235 ; Mem. Acad. Roy. Belg. (1861), 
p. 150, PI. XXV. 

In my notes on the parasites of fishes in Part III. of the Twentieth 
Annual Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland (published October 2nd, 
1902), I describe the occurrence of Eudactylina acuta on the gills of an 
Angel-fish, RMna squatina (Lin.), captured in January 1902 about eight 
or nine miles south-east from Bychan Ness, and the description of the 
parasite is illustrated by a series of drawings. My son had already- 
obtained the same Eudactyline on the gills of Angel-fishes captured in 
the Irish Sea, but there did not appear to have been any previous record 
of it from Scotland. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Robert Duthie, Fishery Officer — presently 
stationed at Girvan, Ayrshire — I am enabled to record this interesting 
parasite for the second time from Scottish waters, which, like the speci- 
mens previously referred to, was found on the gills of an Angel-fish. 
This fish, which was captured by turbot-net fishermen in the seaward 
part of the Clyde estuary and landed at Girvan on May 25th (1904), was 
secured by Mr. Duthie, who kindly forwarded it to me for examination. 
The fish was an immature female, and measured two feet nine and a-half 
inches (nearly 83 centimetres) from the front of the head to the extremity 
of the caudal fin. This Eudactyline is an addition to the parasitic 
Oopepod-fauna of the Clyde. 

Lerncea lusci, Bassett-Smith. PI. xvii., figs. 12 and 13. 

1896. Lerncea lusci, Bassett-Smith, Ann. and Mag. Kat. Hist. 
(6), vol. xviii., p. 13, pl. iv., fig. 6. 

The form described under this name is considerably smaller than the 



^78 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

more common Lerncea branehialts, and hitherto it appears only to have 
been observed on the gills of the Brassie or Wliiting Pout (Gadus luscus, 
Linn.). The specimen I have to record was obtained on the gills of a 
Brassie captured about ten miles off Aberdeen on January 16, 1901. 
This parasite measures a little over half an inch from the head to the end 
of the genital segment. The neck is slender and short, and the append- 
ages of the cephalon are moderately developed. Dr. Bassett-Smith 
describes the posterior appendage as being sometimes as long as the neck, 
which is also characteristic of the specimen now recorded (fig. 13). The 
genital segment is considerably dilated and strongly sigmoid, except at 
the posterior end where, in marked contrast to Lernsea hranchialis, it is 
only slightly curved ; the twisted egg sacs are proportionally not so slender 
as in that species. 

Lernaea lusci does not appear to have hitherto been recorded from 
Scottish waters, having been probably regarded as a form of L. hranchialis. 
Figure 1 2 shows the specimen attached to the gill-arch of the fish. 

BmcJiiella pastinacce, Van Beneden. 

1851. BracMella pastinacce, Van Beneden, Ann. des. Sci. Nat., 
3rd ser., t. xvi., p. 118, pi. iv., figs. 8, 9. 

Two specimens of this BracMella were obtained in the nasal fossae of 
the Trygon in which the Eudactylina just described was found. One 
specimen occurred in each of the two fo'jsjE. These two specimens which 
were posted to the artist along with a few other things in order to have 
drawings of them prepared, failed to reach their destination, and I am there- 
fore unable to furnish figures of this species. 

PART II.— TREMATODA. 

FaM. TRISTOMATIDiE. 

Thaumatocotyle concinna, gen. et. sp. nov. PI. xvii., fig. 15. 

A large sucker-disc, so characteristic of several of the Trematoda, is 
attached to the distal end of the body by a very short stalk which is 
apparently flexible. The sucker is nearly circular in outline, and its ventral 
surface is divided into thirteen marginal compartments which are separated 
from each other by narrow muscular bands ; the compartment at the lower 
end of the sucker is larger than any of the other twelve and is of the 
form of an equilateral triangle, the blunted apex of which is directed 
inwards and reaches fully half way toward the centre of the sucker ; the 
other twelve marginal compartments are of nearly equal size and are sub- 
quadrate in form, as shown in the drawing (fig. 15). Two moderately 
slender rods spring from two adjacent muscular bands near the centre of 
the disc, and extending to the circumference of the sucker terminate in 
little hook-like processes — one on each side of the lower triangular 
compartment. 

The anterior end, which terminates somewhat abruptly and has a broadly 
triangular outline, is bifurcated in the middle. On the ventral aspect, 
close to the margin on each side of the fork and extending from it to the 
outer angle, there are arranged three small discs which may probably 
function as suckers. 

The length of the specimen represented by the figure is about 3 milli- 
metres (nearly ^ of an inch), while the breadth at the widest part is 
equal to about one fifth of the length ; the body is flattened and in some 
specimens nearly transparent, so that the internal structure may to some 
extent be discovered. 



o/ the Fishery Board for Scotland. 279 

This Trematode does not agree with any genus or species known to me. 
Habitat .—In the nasal fossae of Trygo7i pasiinaca, captured in Dornoch 
Firth, October 1903. 

Heterocotyle pastinaccB, gen. et sp. nov. PL xvii., fig. 14. 

Several specimens of the Trematode described under this name were 
obtained on the same Trijijon pastinaca with the form just recorded, but 
they were found not in the nasal fossae but on the gills along with 
Eudactylina mimda described in the first part of this paper. 

In this Trematode the posterior sucker is slightly oval in outline— the 
transverse diameter being greater than that which is longitudinal in the 
proportion of about 13 to 11. The edge of the sucker is indistinctly 
crenate, and its ventral surface is divided into eight compartments, which 
extend from the circumference to near the middle, where they are 
interrupted by a small diamond-shaped space representing- the point of 
attachment of the sucker to the body. The two lowest compartments are 
of a slightly larger size than the four upper ones, but the compartment on 
each side is about double the size of the one immediately above. More- 
over, these side compartments, together with the two lower ones situated 
between them, are each sub-divided into tvFO portions by a circular line, 
as shown in the drawing (fig. 14). About the middle of the band which 
divides each large lateral compartment from the lower one, there is 
attached a short rod that terminates in a strong hook. 

The body is of a narrow ovate form and is considerably depressed ; the 
greatest width is equal to nearly three and a half times the length ; 
the total length of the specimen represented by the drawing is only 
1-44 mm. (about g^-g- of an inch). The anterior end is narrowly truncate, 
and is without any lateral appendages, as in PhyUonella or Placunella, 
which it otherwise resembles. 

Besides the occurrence of the four different kinds of parasites from 
the Sting Ray mentioned here. Prof, van Beneden has obtained on 
specimens of the same species of fish taken on the coasts of Belgium, not 
only the Brachiella pastinacoi — which he found both in the nasal foss?e 
and on the gills — but also Lerneopoda galei and Ergasilina rol>usta ; the 
first he obtained in the nasal fossae and the other on the gills. The same 
writer also records finding five different kinds of Cestoids in the 
intestines of Tnjgon* 

PART HI. 

Note on a Post-larval Fish Attacked by Podon leuckartl 

Plate XVII.— Fig. 16. 

It is fairly well known to students of the Entomostraca that these 
organisms live to some extent on animal as well as on vegetable matter, 
and also that they do not always confine themselves to decaying sub- 
stances, but that living specimens, if small enough and in a 
weak or sickly condition, are not exempted from being attacked by 
them. When examining a gathering of living Entomostraca in whicu 
Ostracoda are frequent, we may occasionally observe a number of these 
minute Crustaceans crowding round some object of general interest, anu, 
when the reason for the crowding is investigated, find that they are busy 
feeding on a dead or dying companion, 

*Les Poissous des c6tes de Belgique leuis Parasites et leurs Commenceaux, pp. 14, 
15 (1870). 



280 



Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 



But although such incidents are not of rare occurrence among the 
Entomostraca, the example to which I would direct attention, where a 
post-larval fish is apparently being attacked by two members of the 
family Polyphemedae, is somewhat unusual. Larval and post-larval fishes 
have no doubt many enemies, among which may be included other fishes 
as well, and it has also been shown that even the harmless-looking 
Sagittae feed upon such larvje,t but this is the first time I have observed 
Entomostraca presumably attacking a post-larval fish in the manner 
shown by the drawing. 

As stated in the preliminary note, I am indebted to Dr. Williamson 
for this interesting specimen. The fish, he tells me, is a Pleuronectid — 
probably Pleuronedes platessa — but its emaciated condition made its 
correct identification somewhat doubtful. That these Crustaceans have 
become accidentally attached to the specimen is hardly likely, for the 
position they occupy and the firm hold they have of the fish, evidenced 
by their adhering while extraneous matter was being brushed off, and by 
their continuing to adhere firmly though subjected to a good deal of 
tossing about, does not favour such an explanation, but tends rather to 
support the opinion that they have intentionally seized hold of the young 
rieuronectid, but whether for the purpose of attacking or merely for 
resting I am not prepared to say. The specimen is, however, sufficiently 
interesting to be recorded here. The fish was observed in a tow-net 
gathering collected last year and supposed to be from the North Sea. 
The two Crustaceans belong to the same species, viz., Podon leuclcarti. 

*Annals of Scottish Natural History, A.\)\\\, 1892, p. 142. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 
PLATE XVII.. 



Eudactylina minuta. 



Diam. 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4- 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 



Female, side vieAv, 
Female, dorsal -saew, 
Antennule, 




• 








X 79 
X 61 
X 521 


Antenna, 
First maxilliped, 
Second maxilliped. 
Foot of first pair. 
Foot of second pair. 
Foot of fourth pair, 
Foot of fifth pair, 
Furcal joints and last twc 


segments of a 


^domen 






X 521 
X 521 
X 390 
X 521 
X 260 
X 260 
X 260 
X 260 




Lernce 


lusci. 











9-5 



Fig. 12. Female, side view, . . . . . . x 9 

Fig. 13. Parasite on gill of Gedus luscus, . . . . x 3 

Trematodes. 

Fig. 14. Thaumatocotyle concinna, . . . . . x 96'6 

Fig. 15. Heterocotyle pastinacoe, . , . . . x 53 

Fig. 16. Larval fish with two specimens of Podon /ewc^Tirie attached to it, x ,3975 




I' 7 



2i 



Ei 

fa 
ha 
as 
So 
El 
sh 

fo) 
pr 

COJ 

be( 

PO! 

by 

the 
tos 

SUf 

res 
int( 

gat 
The 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



Fig. 
Fig. 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 281 



VIII.— ICHTHYOLOGICAL NOTES. 

By Dr. T. "VVemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., Superintendent of 
Scientific Investigations. 

[Plate XVIII,] 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

The Young of the Conger, - - - - - - 281 

A Larval Fierasfer, -.....- 283 

The Sting Ray, - - - 283 

The Pilchard, 284 

The Fecundity of the Sprat, - - - - - - 285 

An Albino Plaice, -.....- 286 

The Thickback (Solea varieyuta), - - - . - 286 

Reversed action of the Gill-cover in Plaice, . - . . 287 



The Youxg of the Conger (Leptocephalus). 

Two specimens of the young of the conger eel were caught in the 
Moray Frth by means of the small-meshed net around the otter trawl, 
which has been so productive of rare forms, and as such specimens 
are very rarely obtained in British seas, and they differ from one 
another in age and chai-acters, I have thought it desirable to give a 
description and figures of them here. 

The first specimen (Fig. 1) was obtained on 27th December on Smith 
Bank, a well-known fishing ground off the coast of Caithness, in 28 fathoms 
of water. It was not recognised at the time among the other fishes 
caught and the lot were preserved in formaldehyde and taken to the 
marine laboratory at the Bay of Nigg. It was only later, when the 
material was being worked up, that the specimen was discovered. With 
the exception of a slight abi-asion on the posterior half it was in good 
condition ; the imperfection was probably due to the fish having been 
caught by doubling as it passed through the mesh of the net. On 
examination some weeks after it was caught it was found to be trans- 
lucent, Avith a whitish opacity, the perfect transparency of the living 
form having been afiected by the preservative. It was quite soft and 
flexible, resembling a tapeworm in these respects, as well as in its 
extremely flattened foi-m. In extreme length it measured 145mm., 
(5| inches), and it is therefore among the largest of the specimens 
recorded. Its weight, after the superfluous water had been removed, was 
only 0"61 grammes, and its volume was I'l cubic centimetres as nearly 
as could be determined. Its bulk in proportion to its length, as will be 
seen below, was thus very much under that of the other older but 
shorter specimen. 

The extreme dorso- ventral height of the body was 13"5mm., and it 
was broadest from about 70 to 95mm. from the head ; the height just 
behind the head was 7mm., or about half of the other. The thickness 
of the body was difficult to determine ; it was much thicker behind the 
head, where it measui'ed about 2mm., and from this point to the 
posterior extremity it gradually diminished, the greater part of it being 
rather under than over 1mm. in thickness. The length of the head 
from the tip of the snout to the gill-cleft measured 10mm., and its 
height at the eyes was 5mm., the breadth being 3mm. just behind the 



282 iPart III. — Twenty-second Annual Report 

eyes. The eyes were relatively large, measuring 2'5mrri. in diameter 
(they are represented as rather too large in the enlarged figure, and as 
a little too small in the other figure) ; the anterior edge is situated about 
3mm. from the tip of the snout. The snout is blunt and obtuse and 
rounded, and longer than the lower jaw, which is moi'e pointed. The 
cleft of the mouth ends rather behind the middle of the eye, and each 
jaw is armed with a series of somewhat long, fine, slender teeth, those 
in front being the longest ; of these, 34 were made out in the lower jaw 
and 30 in the upper. 

The pectoral fins, placed immediately behind the gill-opening, were 
small and delicate, measuring about 3'5mm. in length. 

With regard to the pigment, there were two minute specks of black 
on the lower part of the gill-cover on the left side and four similar 
specks on the corresponding position on the other side. A Hnear series 
of black specks runs along each side of the ventral margin, beginning 
about 11mm. behind the pectoral fin; they are most distinct in the 
anterior portion but are continuous to the tail, and in the posterior 
part they are much more miuute, numerous, and crowded, giving the 
appearance of a very fine black line. Along the lateral line there is a 
single linear series of corresponding chromatophores, of which 35 were 
counted, and beginning about 35mm. behind the head ; they are usually 
situated at the junction of myotomes, and are most numerous towards 
the tail. No other pigment specks wer-e observed. 

Of the myotomes — which are very distinct except at the tail — I 
counted 142, but, as stated, those at the posterior extremity are 
indistinct. 

The second specimen (Fig. 2) was of a difierent kind in several respects. 
It was taken in 24 fathoms, also in the Moray Firth but south of Smith 
Bank, on 12th February. In shape it is vermiform rather than 
tfenioid, and appears to correspond to the L. punctatus of Kaup, and 
which has been shown by Grassi and Calandruccio to be the stage from 
which the perfect conger is directly developed. It measures 123mm. 
(4| inches) in extreme length, and weighed, after the superfluous water 
was removed by blotting paper, 1*675 grammes, its volume being TScm, 
It will be seen by comparing these figures with those referring to the 
other specimen that the reduction in length is accompanied by a 
considerable increase in bulk, since the shorter specimen weighed over 1 
gramme more than the other, its weight being nearly three times 
greater. The volume, as stated, did not increase in the same proportion ; 
the discrepancy is perhaps due to the tissues of the younger being less 
solid, perhaps to defect in the determination of the volume. 

The extreme breadth of this specimen is 10"5mm. and its thickness 
3mm. Its thickness is maintained in a fairly uniform way for the first 
two thirds of the length of the body, after which it diminishes rapidly. 
The distance from the tip of the snout to the commencement of the 
dorsal fin is 44mm. and fi-om the same point to the anus 55mm. The 
head is 9mm. in length, 4'5mm. high, and 3"5mm. broad, and the top is 
more rounded than in the younger specimen. The eye is somewhat 
smaller, measviring 2mm. in diameter and placed 2-5mm. from the end 
of the snout. The lower jaw is shorter than the snout, but not to the 
extent represented in fig. 2b. Teeth, so conspicuous a feature in the 
younger specimen, could not be made out. The pectorals were more 
developed, being longer and, especially, broader. Of the myotomes, not 
so distinct as in the other form, 141 were counted. The black chro- 
matophores were arranged as in the younger specimen, but none were 
observed on the head. Those along the lateral line are more conspicuous 
than those placed along the ventral margin, of which there are 26 in 
front of the anus, and they are much more numerous behind, being 
crowded together, as in the first specimen, towards the tail. 



of tlic Fishery Board for Scotland. 283 

The literature dealing with these young foinis need not be given hei*e, 
as Cunningham has given a veiy full account of it in some of his papers,* 
and he has described a specimen of Leptocephcdus Morrisii which he 
obtained at Plymouth in June, 1895.t Besides the classical papers of 
Grassi and Calandruccio, reference may be made to two papers, one by 
Eigenmann on " The Egg and Development of the Conger Eel," and the 
other by the same author and C. H. Kennedy, on the " Leptocephalus 
of the American Eel and other American Leptocephali," both published 
in 1901.t 

A Larval Fierasfer. 

On 8th October last 3''ear a larval Fierasfer was taken in a tow-net 
used on board a fishing boat at a distance of about 185 miles E. by N. 
of Aberdeen ; the net was used between the surface and twenty fathoms, 
the depth at the place being between fifty and sixty fathoms. (PI. 
XVI II., fig. 3, 3a). 

The specimen measured 64mm. (2i inches) in length and exhibits the 
slender form characteristic of the genus ; the yolk, as indicated in the 
figure, forms a considerable mass. The remarkably elongated first dorsal 
ray was appai'ently damaged, but enough of it is left to show the 
presence of the skinny lobes with which it is provided. 

Fierasfer is remarkable for its habit in the adult condition of living 
within Holothurians in a condition of commensalism, but it would 
appear that its larval pelagic life is one of considerable duration. It is 
an extremely rare fish, and even Emery, who has written the classical 
monograph on it,§ was able to obtain only a few specimens. 

Outside the Mediterranean, specimens have raiely been obtained. 
According to Couch, Edwards found six specimens, between 6 and 7cm. 
long, in March, 1863, on a sandy bottom ofi'the coast of Banfli', but the 
record stands in need of confirmation and is passed over by Day. The 
latter author mentions only two examples of F. dentatus, both got on the 
south coast of Ireland, one in 1836 and the other in 1852, and there 
does not appear to be ary other good British record of its occurrence. 

Only other three specimens appear to be recorded for the north of 
Europe. One was taken by a fisherman in from 100-200 fathoms on 
the Jutland Reef, to the west of the Scaw — and thei^efore not a gi-eat 
distance from the locality where the specimen here recorded was 
obtained— and it is now in the Royal Museum at Stockholm. The 
second specimen was got near Stavanger in 1881, and was described by 
Collet ; it is in the Bergen Museum. |i The third was a specimen of 
F. cccus, obtained by H.M.S. Triton in the Faroe Channel, on 9th August, 
1882, close to the surface. It measured 104mm. in length, and has 
been described by Giinther.^ 

The Sting-Ray {Trygon pastinaca). 

On the 22nd October a specimen of the sting-ray was taken in the 
trawl by one of the trawlers engaged in scientific work in the Dornoch 
Firth in from 8-13 fathoms. It was a female, measuring in extreme 
length 63'Ocm., and in extreme breadth 37-5cm. It is noteworthy that 

*Journ. Marine Biol. Assoc, vol. iii, p. 281 ; vol, ii, p. 36. 

^Ihid.,\Y, p. 74. 

XBuU. U. S. Fish Comm. far 1901, pp. 37-81. 

§" Fierasfer. Studi intorno alia sistematica, I'anatomia e la biologia delle specie mediter- 
ranee di questo genere." Atti R. Accad. d. Lincei, vii., 1879-80. 

II Christian. Vidensk. Forkandl. 1882, No. 19. 

U "Report on the Pelagic Fishes collected by H.M.S. 'Challenger' during the years 
1873-1876," page 27, 1899. 



284 Part III. — Twenty-second Annual Repori 

the torpedo described in the Nineteenth Annual Report* was caught near 
the same place. On this specimen Dr. Scott found some new and 
interesting parasites {see p. 275.) ^ 

Tliis fish is said by Day to be not uncommon off the mouth of the 
Thames and along the south coast, and Dr. Murie states that on the coast 
of Kent and at Burnham specimens from 1 g to 2 feet are not vmcommon, 
while in the estuary of the Thames it is not abundant and only small 
specimens are found. t Holt refers to two small specimens trawled off 
Plymouth, and several taken on the trawling grounds off" Salcombe ; and 
he says the fish is well known to the local fishermen and hardly deserves 
special mention as a rare fish in that district. J 

It is, however, a very rare fish in Scottish waters. Parnell met with 
only one example, which was caught in a salmon-net in the Firth of 
For'th,§ and Mr Eagle Clarke, who has brought together all the descrip- 
tions of rare species of the Fii-th of Forth since the time of Parnell, met 
with only one specimen which he examined in 1897, and which was 
caught ofl^ the Isle of May, and it is the only instance he knows of since 
Parnell's record. 1| It does not appear, either, that the indefatigable 
Edwards of Banff" ever came across a specimen. 

It is noteworthy that this species, like the torpedo, usually has the 
skin smooth and soft ; though Day mentions that there are occasionally 
some tubercles along the middle line of the back in the scapular region. 
The one is protected by its electric oi'gan and the other by the 
formidable serrated spine with which its tail is pi'ovided, and which is 
capable of causing dangerous wounds ; they thus diff"er from the ordinary 
rays in this respect. 

The Pilchard [Clupea pilchardus). 

On the 20th June last year a pilchard was taken in a drift-net 
employed in catching herrings, about 15 miles off Buckie, in the Moray 
Firth, where it was landed. I am indebted to Mr. Alexander Suther- 
land, the Fishery Officer of the district, for the record. It measured 
8 1 inches in length. 

In Scottish waters the pilchard is a very rare fish. Parnell, writing 
in 1837, says that it was then very rare, although some thirty years 
before it was common, and in certain localities found in equal abundance 
with the herring ; as no authority is quoted the statement may be based 
on Parnell's own observations. He says that a few were occasionally 
taken in the summer months on the Berwick and Dunbar coasts, but 
that since 1816 no pilchard had been observed in the Firth of Forth. 
Day also states that pilchards were more than usually abundant at 
Yarmouth in 1780, 1790, and 1799, but he does not mention his 
authority. 

They are, however, occasionally taken at long intervals. Thus Eagle 
Clarke states that Mr. Logan records in the " Proceedings of the Boyal 
Physical Society of Edinburgh" (vol. ii., p. 289) that in March, 1861, 
considerable numbers of young pilchards were brought to the Edinburgh 
market along with heriings and sprats ; they were only caught in large 
quantities for a few days in March, but they had occurred sparingly 
with herring during the previous winter months. Dr. Murie^I^ says that 

* Part III., p. 290. 

t " Report on the Sea Fisheries and Fishing Industries of the Thames Estuary," p. 169, 
Kent iind Essex Sea Fisheries Committee, London, 1903. 
XJourn. Marine Biol. Assoc, v., p. 198, 1898. 
§ " Fishes of the Firth of Forth," p. 440, 1838. 
II Annals of Scottish Natural Histon/, Oct. 1900, p. 215. 
TOiJ. cit., p. 104. 



of ths Fishery Board for Scotland. 



285 



a considerable number were taken off Harwich in September, 1868 ; 
and a few stragglers are still brought in with the herrings at Yarmouth, 
according to Patterson in the Zoologist for 1897. , 



The Fecundity of the Sprat. 

Observations on the fecundity of the sprat have been apparently 
rarely made, no doubt from the rarity of ripe sprats among those caught 
by fishermen, the only statement on the point, as far as I am aware, 
being in my paper on the Fecundity of Fishes in the Ninth Annual 
Report of the Fishery Board.* In their work on British Marine Food 
Fishes, Professor M'Intosh and Mr. Masterman say that " the mature 
female appears to carry about 5000 or 5400 eggs, more or less," which 
agrees generally with Avhat is stated in the paper referred to, but it is 
not mentioned whether their remark is based on my observations or on 
others of their own confirming it. 

Ripe sprats having been caught in the Moray Firth in the 
small-meshed net used on board trawlers the opportunity was 
taken to investigate the point again, the previous observation having 
been founded on only one specimen, and that not very well preserved. 
As mentioned elsewhere, it is a striking feature in the ripe sprat that 
it is impossible to tell from the external appearance that it is ripe. 
There is no swelling caused by the ovaries or testes as in most other 
fishes, and on opening the fish the ovaries were found to be very small, 
although the eggs were mature and nearly mature. The contrast with 
the ripe herring, for example, is marked, and yet the eggs in the latter 
are demersal, while most fishes with pelagic eggs have greatly enlarged 
ovaries and exhibit abdominal tumefaction at the spawning time. It 
appears, however, that all this is in conformity with the number of 
eggs spawned by the sprat. The fish which I examined in 1890, 
referred to above, measured 4^ inches in length, and was found to con- 
tain about 1404 large eggs, and about 4000 smaller ones ; the ovaries 
weighing 6 "5 grains. 

The following are the particulars of five females examined. 





Length. 


"Weight. 


Weight of 
Ovaries. 


Piece 
Examined. 


No. of 

Eggs. 


Total Eggs. 


1 


Mm. 
122 


Grammes. 
12-8 


Grammes. 
0-38 


Grammes. 
•032 


228 


2713 


2 


120 


12-0 


0-492 


-041 


274 


3488 


3 


124 


12-8 


0-441 


•037 


158 


1880 


4 


122 


10-5 


0-458 


•058 


297 


2346 


5 


120 


11-8 


0-541 




147 


2484 



The eggs enumerated were those which were large and yolked, but 
there were many smaller, and in point of fact it would be difiicult to 
draw a line anywhere between the large and the small, and to say that 
so many belong to this spawning season and so many to the next. The 
average number of eggs in these specimens was 2582, the small unyolked 
being excluded, which is rather greater than the number given for them 
in the early paper referred to. On the whole, however, on the 
assumption that the small eggs develop and become matiu-e during the 

* Part III., p. 268. 



286 Fart III.— Twenty-second Annual Report 

course of the spawning season, the number stated in the paper may be 
about right, viz., 5000. The duration of the spawning season is not 
well known. The floating eggs were procured by the Garland from 
23rd March to 19th August,* and it so happened that the extreme 
dates were in the same year, so that the period mentioned, comprising 
149 days or very nearly five months, may be taken to represent the 
extent of the spawning season. How long the individual sprat goes on 
spawning is not known, but considering that the period embraces the 
warmest part of the year, and that growth is greater then, it is 
probable that at least the 5000 eggs are shed. But even in that case, it 
is evident that the sprat is one of the least fecund of fishes and, 
so far as known, the least of all among the fishes whose 
eggs are pelagic. Amid the varied complexities in the life of marine 
fishes the explanation is not easy to discover. That the comparatively 
early age at which the sprat may reach maturity is not the sole 
explanation — though doubtless an important factor — is shown by the 
fact that the whiting, which reaches maturity in its second year, 
produces a ver-y much larger number of eggs. 

An Albino Plaice. 

Last year a few post-larval plaice were discovered in the hatching 
apparatus, and among them was a small albino specimen, or one in 
which the pigment was almost entirely absent. The only pigment 
present was a few scattered chromatophores along the rays of the 
dorsal, ventral, and caudal fins, on the anterior part of the head between 
the eyes, the edge of the lower jaw, and between the jaw and the 
pectorals, and about a couple of dozen of minute specks scattered over 
the posterior half of the body, mostly near the tail. The eyes were 
fully pigmented. The pigment was a dark umber. The body of the 
little fish was transparent, the bottom of the hatching-box being visible 
throvigh it. It lived for about a year, and it differed in habit from the 
other small plaice living with it in that, while they were nearly always 
on the bottom, it preferred the side of the box, to which it clung, close 
to the surface of the water. The peritoneal lining of the abdominal 
cavity shone through the tissues with a metallic bronze appearance. 

The Thickback {Solea variegata). 

Two specimens of this species of sole were taken in the small-meshed 
net in the Moray Firth — the first on 27th December in 28 fathoms at 
Smith Bank, and the other on the following day in 30 fathoms off 
Burghead. They were both females — the first measuring 14-8cm. with 
the roe well developed, and the second 16*3cm. The latter weighed 
38 grammes, the ovaries weighing 1-1 grammes, and the eggs were well 
advanced, the larger measuring •84mm. in diameter. It is evident, 
therefore, that this fish spawns in the Moray Firth, but it is rare. 

It is common on the south coast of England, especially (according to 
Cunningham)t south of the Eddystone, in from 30 to 40 fathoms. Two 
specimens were taken by Holt during the Irish Survey. It has also 
been occasionally captui'ed on the west coast of Scotland, Gunther 
describing two immature specimens caught ofi' Can tyre in 65 fathoms 
in March 1888,$ and a few small specimens have been taken by the 
Garland in the Firth of Clyde. Day says that it was met with occasion- 
ally off Banff by Edwards, but I have not traced the record, 

* Masterman — "A Review of the Work of the 'Garland' in connection with the 
Pelagic Eggs of the Food Fishes," Ihid., Part III., Fifteenth Report, p. 234. 
t " Marketable Marine Fishes " p. 259. 
XProc. Roy. Soe.. Edin. xv., p. 220. 



F. B. REPORT. 1904 



PLATE XVIII 




A. H. Walkbr 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 287 

The Growth of the Halibut. 

A specimen of the halibut, which was obtained for me by Mr. Ingram, 
the Fishery Officer at Aberdeen, may possibly throw some light on the 
growth of this fish. It was caught at Iceland by hook in the spring, 
and landed at Aberdeen. It measured 64"0cm. (25 inches) in length, 
and weighed 2'350 kilogrammes. On the under surface, extending the 
whole length and breadth of the fish, were certain markings, part of 
which was plain and part obscure. The following was vei-y clear : — 
" T. M. 1901," and it was succeeded by what appeared to read "AGLI," 
but may have been meant to represent "AUGT," or August. The 
marks were obviously made with a knife, and the curves were angular ; 
the cicatrix was very narrow and linear and attached to the subcutane- 
ous tissue, and I suppose it occupied the same relative position in the 
surface of the fish at first, the skin growing equally all over. 

I am informed by Mr. Ingram that the mate of the vessel which 
brought in the fish (the Cas2Jania) states that in his time it was a 
common custom for the fishing apprentices at Grimsby to " engrave " 
their names in this way on small halibut, and then +^vow them over- 
board. If the date is authentic, it would show that tiie growth of the 
halibut in proportion to the size it attains is not rapid, because it implies 
that about two years and eight months elapsed after the marking was 
made, and the fish must at the time have been of a certain size. But 
a plaice of about the length given would be probably more than six or 
seven years old at least. 

Reversed Action of the Gill-cover in Plaice. 

It may be worth recording that the plaice in the large pond at the 
Bay of Nigg Laboratory frequently exhibit a reversal of the usual action 
of the gill-cover under certain conditions. In the process of respiration 
fishes take in water by the mouth, and by a process like thit of 
swallowing expel it by the gill-openings. But when the tame plaice in 
the pond cling to the side at feeding-time, they very commonly push 
their snout and head for some distance out of the water, and it may 
then be observed that the water is spouted upwards from their mouth 
as a little fountain, an inch or so in height. In this case it is evident 
that the water is drawn in through the gill-openings behind, passes 
over the gills, and is then expelled by the mouth. The observation has 
some interest in connection with the known habits of some other fishes. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 

Fig. 1. Leptoeephalus Morrisii, natural size. 

(la.) Head enlarged, side view. 

(16.) ,, ,, dorsal view. 

Fig. 2. Lei^tocephalus pundatus, natural size. 

(2a.) Head enlarged, side view. 

(26.) ,, ,, dorsal view. 

Fig. 3. Fierasfer dentcUufi, larva, natural size. 

(3a. ) Anterior part enlarged. 



INDEX. 



Abekdeen Bay : Trawling Investigations 
in, 19, 22, 23, 30, 32, 37, 38, 43, 44, 47. 

Albino plaice. 286. 

An£;el fish (Ehina squatina) : Parasites 

of, 277. 
Anglers : Proportion marketable, 14. 
Anonyx nugax, 256. 



B.\LLANTRAE : Herring Fishing, 12. 

Brachidla prtstinaciv, 279. 

Brill : Proportion marketable, 14. 

Relation of length to weight, 219. 

Size at maturity. 18. 

Burghead Bay : Hauls in, 20, 23, 27, 33, 
39, 42, 44, 47. 



Calocaris macandrece : Attachment of 

eggs in, 117. 
Cancer pagurus : see Crab (edible). 
Carcinufi mcenas : see Shore Crab. 
Catfish : Proportion marketable, 14. 
Choniostomatida;, 250. 
Coal-fish : Proportion marketable, 14. 
Cod : Proportion marketable, 14. 

Proportion of immature landed, 19. 

Relation of length to weight, 229. 

Size at maturity, 18, 158. 

Common Dab {Phuronectt'i limanda) : 

Proportion marketable, 14. 

Relation of length to weight, 212. 

Size at maturity, 18. 

Conger : Young stages of, 281. 

Copepoda parasita, 275. 

Crab (edible) (Cancer pagurus) : Life 

History of, 9, 100. 

Carapace : Changes in, 136. 

Casting of, 121. 

Distribution of, 122. 

Eggs of, 112. 

Growth of, 125. 

Impregnation, 101. 

Influence of temperature on, 125. 

Migration of, 136. 

Mode of attachment of eggs, 108, 

115. 
Muscular system of abdomen of 

male, 103. 

Spawning, 108. 

Crangon vidgaris : Attachment of eggs 

in, 118. 

Dab, Common : see Common Dab. 
Dichelestidfe, 275. 

Dornoch Firth : Hauls in, 22, 24, 28, 34, 
40, 45. 



Eggs of Decapod Crustacea : Mode of 
attachment of, 116. 

of edible Crab : Mode of attach- 
ment of, 108. 

Eudactylina, 275. 

acuta, 277. 

mimda, 275. 

similis, 276. 

Eudordla deformis, 258. 

Fierasfer, 283. 

Flounder [Pleuronecles flesus) : Propor- 
tion marketable, 14. 
Relation of length to weiglit, 214. 

Gadus esmarkii : see Norway Pout. 
Galathea dispersa : Attachment of eggs 

in, 117. 
Growth : see Rate of. 

Influence of temperature on, 159. 

Gurnard : Proportion marketable, 14. 
Relation of length to weight, 236. 

Haddock : Proportion marketable, 14. 

Proportion of immature landed, 19. 

Relation of length to weight, 226, 

241. 

Size at maturity, 153. 

Hake : Proportion marketable, 14. 
Halibut : Growth of, 287. 

Proportion marketable, 14. 

Relation of length to weight, 220. 

Harpinia pectinata, 257. 
Hatchery ; Work of, 8. 
Herring : Investigations on, 12. 

Relation of length to weight, 236. 

Heteranthessius, 259. 
Htterocotyle pastinacce, 279. 
Hoplonyx cicada, 256. 
Hyperia medusarum, 256. 

Idothea neylecta, 257. 
Immature Fish : Definition of size — limits 
of, 17, 18, 19. 

Proportion landed. 

Isle of May : Hauls off, 48. 

Jeanella, 259. 

KixxAiRD Head : Hauls off, 37. 

Lemon Dab {Phurotiectes niicrocepha- 

ius) : Relation of length to weight, 209. 

Proportion of immature landed, 18. 



290 



Part III. Index. 



Lemon Dab : Proportion marketable, 14. 

Size at maturity, 18. 

Lernoia hranchialis, 278. 

k^sci, 277. 

Leptocephalus Morrisii, 281. 

punctatus, 282. 

Ling : Proportioia marketable, 14. 
Little Sole (Solea lufea) : Relation of 

length to weight, 216. 
Lobster (Homarus vulgaris) : Attachment 

of eggs in, 117. 

Spawning of, 117. 

Long Rough Dab : Relation of length to 

weight, 2-22. 
Lossiemouth : Hauls off, 26, 28, 47. 
Lumpenus lampetriformis : Eggs of, 203. 

Rate of growth of, 202. 

Relation of length to weight, 238. 

Size at maturity, 203. 

Spawning of, 203. 

Lumpsucker : Caught in trawl, 23. 
Lybster : Hauls off, 30, 35, 45. 

Maia squinado : Attachment of eggs in, 

116. 
Megahiropus agilis, 257. 
Metopa horealis, 257. 
Monstrilla, 243. 

anglica, 246. 

duhia, 247. 

gracilicauda, 245. 

grandis, 243. 

longicorriis, 244. 

lo7igiremis, 244. 

MonstrillidK, 243. 

Moray Firth : Trawling Investigations 

in, 19. 
Munida rugosa : Attachment of eggs of. 

116. 

Neplirops norvegicxis : Attachment of 

eggs, in, 118. 
Norway Pout (Gadus esmarkii) : Rate of 

growth of, 195. 
Relation of length to weight, 234. 

Pandalus montagui : Attachment of eggs 

in, 118. 
ParanthesshiH, 259. 
Parasites of Fish, 275. 
Paratylus falcatus, 257. 
Pilchard (Clupea pilchardus), 284. 
Plaice : Albino specimen of, 286. 

Duration of spawning, 262. 

Hatching of, 262. 

Proportion marketable, 14. 

Proportion of small caught by 

trawl, 30, 33, 40. 

Proportion of immature landed, 18. 

Relation of length to weight, 145, 

205, 240. 

Reversed gill-action in, 287. 

Size at maturity, 18, 156. 

Platypsyllus, 258. 

Podon leuckarti, 279. 

Pogge (Agonus cataphractus) : Relation 

of length to weight, 239. 
Proportion of Immature Fish landed, 16. 
PNeudocuma similis, 258. 



Rate of (irowth of Fishes : Relation of 

length to weight, 142. 
Rate of Growth of Norway Pout, 195. 

Sharp- tailed Lumpenus, 202. 

Sprat, 171. 

Witch, 186. 

Shore-grab (Carcinus mcenas) : Impreg- 
nation of, 101. 

Eggs of, 119. 

Spawning of, 119, 120. 

Skates and Rays : Proportion market- 
able, 14. 

Smith Bank : Hauls at, 25, 30, 36, 43, 
45. 

Sole (Solea vulgaris), 14. 

Solea variegata : see Thickback Sole. 

Sphceronella aniphilochi, 253. 

callisoma, 252. 

cliLthw, 252. 

minvta, 251. 

paradoxa, 251. 

pygimea, 253. 

Sprat {Clupta sprattas) : Fecundity of, 
285. 

Growth of, 171. 

Rate of Growth of, 171. 

— — • Relation of length to weight, 238. 

Spawning of, 172. 

Stenothorheres egregius, 250. 

Sting-ray [Trygon pastinaca), 283. 

Parasites of, 275. 

Tarbet Ness : 'Hauls off, 45. 
Temperature : Influence of, on Growth of 

Fishes, 159. 
Thaumaleus rigidns, 248. 
Tostratus, 250. 

— Thompsoni, 248. 

zefla7idicus, 249. 

ThauTnatocotyle concinna, 278. 
Thickback Sole (Solea variegata), 286. 
Trawling Investigations, 6, 13. 

in Aberdeen Bay, 19. 

in Moray Firth, 19. 

Proportion of Marketable and Un- 
marketable Fishes, 13. 
Trematoda, 278. 
TristomatidEC, 278. 
Trygon pastinaca : see Sting-ray. 
Tryphana malmi, 256. 
Turbot : Proportion marketable, 14. 
— — Relation of length to weight, 216. 

Witch (Pleuronectes cynoglossus): Growth 

of, 186. 
Post-larval and young stages, 187, 

270. 

Proportion marketable, 14. 

Proportion of immature landed, 19. 

Proportion of sexes, 195. 

Relation of length to weight, 210. 

Size at maturity, 195. 

Spawning of, 186. 

Whiting: Proportion of immature landed, 

19. 

— Proportion marketable, 14. 

Relation of length to weight, 224. 

Size at maturity, 18, 150. 



Glasgow : Printed by J AS. HEDDERWICK & SONS, 
For His Majesty's Stationery Office. 



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