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Full text of "Scientific investigations"

TWENTY-THIRD 
ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



FISHERY BOARD FOR SCOTLAND, 

Being for the Year 1904. 

IN THREE PARTS. 

Part I.— GENERAL REPORT. 
» Part II.— REPORT ON SALMON FISHERIES. 

Part III.— SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS. 



PART Ill.-SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS. 



ipresenteJ) to botb Ibouses of ipavliament b^ CommanJ) of Ibis /lliajest«. 




r 3^J/ 



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■n."- 



CONTENTS. 



General Statement, . 

Trawling Investigations, . 

The Hatching and Rearing of Food-Fisl 

The Growth and Age of Fishes, 

The Life-History of the Lol)ster, 

The Parasites of Fishes, . 

The Marine Crustacea, 

The Tay Sprat Fishery, 

The Young of the Conger, 

The Spawning of the Cod in Autumn in the North Sea 

Investigations on the Herring in the Firth of Clyde, 

General Index to the Scientific Reports, 

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 

I. Trawling Investigations. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., 
Scientific Superintendent, . . , . . 



PAGE 
5 

6 
7 
8 
10 
10 
11 
11 
11 
11 
12 
12 



13 



II. A Contribution to the Life-History of the Lobster (Homarns 

vidgaris). By H. Chas. Williamson, M.A., D.Sc, Marine 
Laboratory, Aberdeen (Plates I. -IV.), . . .65 

Experiments in Lobster-Culture, . . .65 

The Rearing of Lobsters, . . . .68 

The Larval Stages, . . . . .73 

History of the Adult Lobster after the Eggs had 

Hatched, ...... 84 

Proportion of Berried Hens in the Catch of Lobsters, . 88 
The Casting of the Lobster, . . . .89 

The Rate of Growth, ..... 95 

The Behaviour of the Lobster, . . .95 

Examination of the Ovary, . . . .98 

Spawning, ...... 100 

Hatching, ...... 103 

Literature, ...... 104 

Description of Plates, . . . . .106 

III. Observations on some Parasites of Fishes New or Rare in 

Scottish Waters. By Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S., etc. 

(Plates V. and VI.), 108 

Preliminary Note, . . . . .108 

Part I. Copepoda Parasita, .... 108 
Part II. Trematoda, . . . . .115 

IV. Report on the Operations at the Marine Hatchery, Bay of Nigg, 

Aberdeen, in 1904. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S E., 
Scientific Superintendent, . . . . .120 

V. Zones of Growth in the Skeletal Structures of Gadida3 and 
Pleuronectidfe. By J. T. Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S. 

(Plates VII. -IX.), 125 

1. Previous Investigations, .... 125 

2. General Description of Lines of Growth, . . 128 
Literature, ...... 139 

Description of Plates, ..... 139 



IV 



Contents. 



«yi. On some New and Rare Crustacea from the Scottish Seas. 
Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S., etc. (Plates X.-XIII.), 
Preliminaiy Note, .... 

Sub-order Calanoida — 

Fam. Pseudocyclopiidfe, 
Sub- order Cyclopoida — 

Fam. Cyclopidpe, .... 
Sul)-order Harpacticoida — 

Fam. Longipediidte, 

Fam. Stenheliidoi, .... 

Fam. Laophontidte, 

Fam. Cletodeidse, .... 

Fam. Harpacticidie, 

Fam. Asterocheridjw, 

Fam. Nicothoidfe, .... 

Fam. Choniostomatidfe, 
Isojooda Valvifera^ 

Fam. Arcturidse, .... 
Description of the Plates, 



By 



141 
141 

141 

14.S 

143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
149 

151 
151 



VII. A Note on the Hatching of the Crab (Cancer Pagurus). By 
H. Chas. Williamson, M.A., D.Sc, Marine Laboratory, 
Aberdeen, ....... 



154 



VIII. On the Tay Sprat Fishery, 1904-1905. 
University College, Dundee, 



By John Fletcher, 



156 



IX. General Index to the Scientific Reports of the Fishery Board 
for Scotland, 1883-1904, with a List of the Papers contained 
in them. Prepared by Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., 
Superintendent of Scientific Investigations, . . 166 



X. Ichthyological Notes. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., 
Scientific Superintendent, . 

The Young of the Conger {Leptocephalus), 
The Anchovy (Engr-aulis encrasichohis). 
The Catfish {Annarhichas hipu)>). 
An Albino Plaice, 
The Spawning of the Cod in Autumn in the Noi'th 
Sea, ...... 



251 
251 
252 
262 

252 

253 



TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT. 



TO THE MOST HONOUKABLE 

THE MARQUESS OF LINLITHGOW, K.T., G.O.M.G., 

His Majesty's Secretary for Scotland. 



Office of The Fishery Board 

FOR Scotland, 

Edinburgh, 30^/i June 1905. 

My Lord Marquess, 

In coutinuation of our Twenty-third Annual Report, 
we have the honour to submit — 

PART III.— SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS. 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 

This part of the Twenty-third Annual Report deals with the 
scientific investigations conducted by the Board in 1904 in con- 
nection with the sea fisheries of Scotland, so far as these have been 
completed, by means of the Parliamentary Vote g-ranted for the 
purpose. 

The scientific work has been carried out and the scientific report 
prepared under the supervision of Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, the 
Scientific Superintendent. 

The researches have been made for the most part at the Board's 
Marine Laboratory at the Bay of Nigg, Al)erdeen, which was 
erected and equipped some years ago. The sea-fish hatchery is 
also situated at the same place, and a statement as to its opera- 
tions during the year will be found below. The provision of a 
suitable boat in connection with the Laboratory would be of much 
advantage in carrying on the investigations. 

The investigations into the condition of the fishing grounds, more 
particularly in the Moray Firth and Aberdeen Bay, which were 
begun five years ago by means of steam-trawlers, were continued 
last year as frequently as circumstances allowed. One of the 
chief objects of these trawling investigations is to ascertain as far 
as possible the changes v/hich may 03cur in the abundance of the 



6 Part III. — Tineidii-third Annual Report 

food and other fishea on the grounds visited in different years and 
at different seasons, hut observations are also made on the repro- 
duction of the fishes, their spawning, food, and on various other 
questions connected with their life-history and habits, and at the 
same time collections of the plankton, or floating organisms, are 
obtained, and experiments made with large-meshed and small- 
meshed nets. 

Altliough the employment of commercial vessels in these 
investigations is associated with certain inseparable disadvantages, 
it is possible with the large ship, the efficient trawl, and the 
experienced trawlers on board, to make a much more thorough 
examination of the bays than was formerly the case. From the 
fact, moreover, that the trawling operations are carried on under 
tlie same conditions as in commercial fishing, opportunities are 
afforded for certain observations of importance, as the proportion 
of the marketable and unmarketable fishes which are caught, the 
relation between the sizes of the fishes captured and the dimensions 
of the meshes of the net, and the amount of destruction of 
immature fish that occurs on different grounds and at diff"erent 
seasons. 

For some years past, as mentioned in previous reports, by an 
arrangement with the Technical Education Committee of the 
County Council of Aberdeenshire, representative fishermen from 
various parts of the coast of that county have visited the Labora- 
tory and Hatchery in spring to receive demonstrations on various 
aspects of the life-history and habits of fishes, such as may be of 
interest and use to them in the course of their calling. The 
fishermen have been much interested in the instruction they 
received, and as it appeared to the Board advantageous to 
encourage the desire for such knowledge on their part they issued 
a circular to the other sea-board County Councils inviting them 
also to send fishermen if they thought proper so to do, to attend a 
similar series of demonstrations. This invitation was accepted by 
the County Council of Argyleshire, a number of fishermen from 
that shire subsequently visiting the Laboratory and Hatchery, and 
it is under consideration by some of the others. 

Tkawling Investigations. 

In the course of the year the results of 91 hauls of the large 
otter-trawl in the closed waters were recorded, of which 75 were 
taken in the Moray Firth, 14 in Aberdeen Bay, and two in Sand- 
side Bay, on the north coast. The examination of the grounds was 
made in January, March, April, September, October, November, 
and December, the localities in the Moray Firth which were most 
thoroughly investigated being Burghead Bay and adjacent parts of 
the south coast, the Dornoch Firth, and the grounds off" the coast 
of Caithness. Some hauls were also taken at Smith Bank and in 
the deeper portions of the Firth at the so-called "witch-grounds." 

The aggregate number of fishes of all kinds caught in the 
recorded hauls was 63,525, and of these 44,538, or 70 per cent., 
were marketable, the other 18,987, or 30 per cent., being thrown 



oj ilie Fisher;/ Board for Scotland. 7 

overboard as unmarketable, either because they beloiifred to species 
that are unsaleable, or, more commonly, because though edible they 
were too small to he taken to market. 

The number of fishes captured in the various hauls and the pro- 
portion of the marketable and unmarketable are given in the tables 
appended to Dr. Fulton's report on the subject. The gi-eater 
number of the marketable fishes consisted of plaice and haddocks, 
the former constituting 58 per cent, and the latter 25 per cent, of 
the total in this class ; the proportion of none of the others reached 
three per cent. Among the unmarketable fishes, common dabs 
formed 32 per cent, and haddocks 30 per cent. The total number 
of turbot obtained vsras 54, and there were 394 brill, nine halibut, 
and five soles, and all these were marketable. 40 catfish and 22 
hake were caught, all of which were marketable. 

The investigations in the Dornoch Firth at the end of March 
were of interest from the discovery of a shoal of spawning cod on 
the edge of the rough and rocky ground. vSeveral scores of cod 
were taken in each haul of the net, the largest number in a four 
hours' drag being 282. They were all spawning, eggs and milt 
flowing freely from them, and they were all of large size, the 
smallest females measiiring from 33 to 35 inches and the smallest 
males from 29 to 30 inches. It was judged that the vessel was 
operating only on the fringe of the spawning shoal and that the 
greater bulk of the cod were on the rocky ground. Besides the 
cod, large numbers of spawning flounders were caught on this 
ground, where few of this species are obtained except in spring, and 
also spawning coalfish and plaice, in smaller numbers, and common 
dabs ; very few haddocks were obtained and none of them were 
spawning. 

It is probable that this area, lying about three miles from the 
shore in from 13 to 16 fathoms, is one of the important breeding- 
grounds for the food fishes in the Moray Firth. 

The experiments made with a small-meshed net fastened around 
and outside the cod-end of the trawl confirmed the conclusions 
come to previously, that, contrary to the general opinion of fisher- 
men, a very large proportion of the small fish, especially round fish, 
which enter the trawl as it is dragged along the bottom escape 
alive through the meshes, which appear to be distended by the 
resistance of the water. 



The Hatching and Rearing of Food-Fishes. 

During last year the hatching of plaice was continued at the 
Marine Hatchery, Aberdeen, the number of eggs of that species 
collected from the spawning pond amounting in the season to an 
aggregate of about 39,600,000. The number of plaice-fry that 
hatched out and were retained in the hatching apparatus until 
approaching the post-larval stage was approximately 34,780,000, 
or 88 per cent., and they were liberated off Aberdeen Bay at various 
times in March, April, and May. The number was considerably 
below the total in 1903, when it was estimated that 65,940,000 
eggs were collected, the fry obtained numbering 53,600,000. The 



8 Part TIL — Twenty-third Annual Report 

principal reason of the decrease was the difficulty in obtaining 
large adult plaice in the pi-eceding autumn and winter to replenish 
the breeding stock in the pond, plaice of the class required being 
then exceedingly and unusually scarce on the grounds from which 
they are obtained. 

The floating eggs were ol>served in the water of the spawning- 
pond about tlie middle of January, but they were then present in 
very small numbers, and the first collection was made on the 26th 
of that month, or three days later than in 1903. The last collec- 
tion was on the 29th April, or more than a fortnight earlier than 
in the previous year. This is, no doubt, partly to be attributed to 
the smaller numljer of the spawners in the pond, as above 
mentioned, but it appears to have been also owing to the relatively 
greater intensity of spawning in the earlier part of the season in 
1904, nearly 28 per cent, of the eggs being collected before the 
end of February, as compared with 18 per cent, in the same period 
in 1 903. As usual, the greater number of the eggs were obtained 
in March, viz , 55"7 per cent., the percentage in that month in the 
preceding year being 56"2. 

The duration of the period of development until hatching takes 
place varies with the temperature of the water at the time. At 
the beginning of the season, in January, when the temperatare is 
low, the average time of incubation is about three weeks, while at 
the end of the season, when the temperature is several degrees 
higher, they hatch in about a fortnight. The larval fishes, after 
issuing from the eggs, are retained in the apparatus for several 
days until the yolk-sac is partly absorbed, and it is calculated that, 
taking the two periods together — the time of incubation and the 
period referred to subsequent to hatching — the eggs and larvte are 
protected in the apparatus for about half of the time from the 
spawning of the egg until the young plaice is transformed and 
assumes the form and habit of the adult. 

Since the establishment of the hatchery, the total number of 
plaice eggs dealt with amounts to 443,092,000, the fry liberated 
numbering 363,250,000. The number of fry of other fishes 
produced is as follows: — lemon soles, 5,727,000; turbot, 5,160,000: 
cod. 4,010,000 ; and other kinds, 2,000,000. 

Owing to the circumstance that the hatchery is worked in 
conjunction with the Marine Laboratory, the expense of the 
hatcliing operations at the Bay of Nigg iy not large compared with 
the number of fry produced, the annual expenditure in connection 
with it being estimated at about £100. As previously stated, the 
establishment was visited during the hatching season by represen- 
tative fishermen from the shires of Aberdeen and Argyle, to whom 
the various processes adopted, as well as the fertilisation of the 
eggs and the development of the fish, were explained. 

The Growth and Age of Fishes. 

During the last few years a consideralile amount of attention 
has been given to the study of the age of fishes and the rate at 
which they grow, and a number of papers dealing with the growth 
and age of the plaice, cod, haddock, whiting, and other forms have 
appeared in the recent reports of the Board. It is a subject that 



of the Fishenj Board for Scotland. 9 

has an important bearing on several problems connected with sea 
fisheries. 

One method by which the growth and age of fishes is determined 
is by the tabulation of the measurements of large numbers taken 
at the same time and place. From the fact that the spawning 
season of a species, and, therefore, the rate at which a new genera- 
tion makes its appearance, is usually limited to a few months of the 
year, the range of the sizes and the average size of the difterent 
generations or annual series differ from one another. By the 
tabulation of large numbers of measurements it is thus possible to 
distinguish different generations and to assign the range of size 
and the age of the fishes belonging to them. With the earlier 
generations this method is in most cases quite satisfactory, but 
owing to the A^ery different rate at which members of the same 
generation grow, the larger of an earlier generation overtaking and 
exceeding in size the smaller members of the next older generation 
— a process which increases with age — it becomes difficult or im- 
possible to separate the older generations from one another by this 
method. 

Another method that has of late been largely adopted consists in 
determining the number of the zones or lines of growth in certain 
of the hard parts of the body. Fishes do not grow continuously 
throughout the year, their growth exhibiting a usually well- 
marked periodicity in relation to the changes of the temperature of 
the water, being as a rule, and in most places, rapid in summer and 
slow in winter. This periodicity is indicated by lines or zones on 
some of the skeletal structures, notably on the ear- bones, or 
otoliths, the scales, and certain bones of the skeleton, the structure 
which shows them best varying somewhat in different species. By 
counting the lines or zones it is thus possible to tell the age of a 
fish, just as by a similar method, and for a like reason, the age of a 
tree may be discovered by the number of rings present in a section 
of the trunk. 

To the present report Mr. J. T. Cunningham contributes a paper 
on this subject, dealing specially with the plaice and the cod. He 
describes the structure and formation of the ear-bones and scales, 
and the mode in which the lines or zones are produced. One of the 
chief objects of the observations was to test the question how far 
the lines of growtli in the skeletal structures of fishes were trust- 
worthy indications of age — wdiether the annual increments of 
growth or deposit could be definitely distinguished and counted in 
all cases. He shows that it is often necessary to test the indica- 
tions of one structure by an examination of the others, though in 
many instances the age of the fish may be well determined by the 
examination of one of them alone. 

The result in regard to the two species mentioned is to show 
generally that they do not grow so fast or reach maturity so soon 
as is commonly supposed. It was found that cod at two years of 
age measure from ten to thirteen or fourteen inches in length, at 
three years from seventeen to nineteen, and at four years about 
twenty-seven inches, so that they would spawn as a rule in their 
fifth year. Plaice from two-and-a-half to about four inches were 
one year old, from about four to six-and-a-half inches they were 
two years old, while those at three years measured up to 12 inches. 



10 Part III. — Ti(wnt//-fhird Annual Report 

At 13 and 14 inches they were mostly four years of age, 
while some in which the lines of growth indicated five years 
measured 11^, 14|, and 18f inches, and one measuring 20 inches 
was shown to be four years old. 

The paper is illustrated by three plates showing the otoliths, 
scales, and bones. 

The Life-History of the Lobster. 

In the present report will be found a paper, illustrated by four 
plates, in which Dr. H. 0. Williamson gives the results of his 
observations on the life-history of the lobster. An account is 
furnished of the experiments on lobster-culture which were made 
at the hatchery, the " berried " or egg-bearing females being kept 
in a suitable tank, the larva; as they hatched being carried away in 
the overflow to receptacles where they were retained. Hatching 
was found to take place during the night, and the first young 
lobsters were observed on 11th July. 

The larval and early young stages which were reared at the 
Laboratory are described and figured in detail. Certain dimorphic 
forms of the zoea were discovered among the larva, and they 
attracted attention, since, so far as known, such forms have 
not hitherto been recorded and described. Attention was directed 
to the behaviour of the lobsters during the time they were kept in 
confinement at the Laboratory, that is to say, three years in certain 
cases. Among them only one was known to have spawned its 
eggs. Casting occurred frequently, more frequently apparently 
than normally occurs with lobsters in the sea, and tlie increase in 
size immediately after moulting was found to be very small ; 
reproduction, moreover, seemed to be inhibited. 

Various observations made on the condition of the ovary, the 
periods of spawning and hatching, the number of eggs carried by 
the female, the growth of the lobster, and on other points connected 
with its life-history and habits, are incorporated in the paper. 

Dr. Williamson also furnishes a further note on the life-history 
of the edible crab, treating specially of the hatching of the young. 

The Parasites of Fishes, 

Dr. Thomas Scott, who is still prosecuting his researches on the 
parasites of fishes, contributes a paper on these organisms to the 
present report, in which several species not previously recorded 
from the Scottish seas are described, the descriptions being 
illustrated by a number of figures. This paper contains descriptions 
of seventeen species, twelve of which belong to the Crustacea and 
five to the Trematoda. 

One of the crustacean species described is found living in the 
nasal fossa3 of several kinds of fishes, as the cod, haddock, whiting, 
&c. Another was obtained in the mouth of a three-bearded rock- 
ling, and others on a sturgeon, a porbeagle shark, and other fishes. 

The Trematoda, which are leach-like in form, were obtained on 
the gills of the grey gurnard, the ballan wrasse, and the bass 
(Ldbrax lupus). 



of the Fi slier ij Board for Scotland. 11 

The Marine Crustacea. 

A paper, illustrated by four plates, is also contributed to the 
present report by Dr. Thomas Scott on a number of marine 
Crustacea, obtained in collections made during ^'arious fishery 
investigations, especially the trawling investigations in the Moray 
Firth. 

All the forms described are small ; they are for the most part 
free-swimming in their habits and belong to the Copepoda, a group 
that constitutes a large proportion of the food of the edible fishes 
in their young stages. Of these free-swimming crustaceans four 
are new to science and are now described for the first time. A few 
species that live as parasites on other crustaceans are also recorded. 
They belong to the somewhat abnormal Choniostomatidaj ; two of 
these are also new to science and are now described for the first 
time in this report. 

The Tay Sprat Fishery. 

A paper is included in the present report in which Mr. John 
Fletcher gives an account of the bag-net fishing for sprats on the 
Tay in the season 1904-1905. The methods and course of the 
fishing and the situation of the ground where the sprats are taken 
are described, but the chief part of the paper deals with the 
composition of the catches. In forty-six samples examined at 
various periods from Octoljcr to February inclusive, comprising 
43,871 fishes, the number of young herrings was found to be 
26,037, the sprats numbering 16,992 ; there were also 581 specimens 
of other food fishes, mostly whiting and cod, as well as 261 
specimens of unmarketable and inedible forms. The herrings 
measured from If inches to 7 inches in length. 

The quantity examined represented about one-thousandth part 
of the entire season's catch. On the basis mentioned tables are 
given showing the estimated composition of the catches throughout 
the season, from which it appears that in the 1348 crans taken the 
number of young herrings was approximately nearly 23^ millions, 
while the sprats numbered a little over 21 millions. The percentage 
proportion of herrings increased gradually and steadily from the 
commencement of the season in October, v/hen it was 20*4, to 
January, when it was 78'2. 

The Young of the Conger. 

In last year's report two specimens of the young of the conger 
(Leptocephalus) at different stages w^ere described, the earlier being 
known as Leptocephalus Morrisii and the older as L. pundatus, and 
both were taken in the Moray Firth. Last May another specimen 
of L. pundatus was captured in Aberdeen Bay in from four to five 
fathoms of water and brought alive to the Laboratory, as well as 
the head part of a third specimen. They are described by 
Dr. Fulton in the present report. Leptocephali are exceedingly 
rare, and the capture of four in so short a time is of interest. 

The Spawning of the Cod in Autumn in the North Sea. 

Dr. Fulton also describes further observations in connection with 
the discovery that shoals of cod spawn in August, September, and 



12 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

October on certain grounds lying off the coast of Norway, and 
about 190 miles N. by E. of Aberdeen. The previous description 
appeared in the bulletin (Fuhlications de Circonstancc) of the 
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. The fact 
that the cod, whose great spawning-time, as is well known, is in 
spring, should also spawn in autumn is of interest. It has been 
shown, moreover, that the temperature of the water at the grounds 
referred to when spawning occurs is tlie lowest for the year. 

Investigation on the Hereing in the Firth of Clyde. 

In connection with the winter herring fishing at Ballantrae 
Bank, off the coast of Ayr, arrangements were made for an 
investigation of the conditions of the fishing in relation to the 
operation of the Bye-law, No. 18, by which the use of the seine for 
the capture of herrings within a defined area there is prohibited. No 
fishing however took place last year. Only one trial was made by 
a single boat, and the catch was only about seven hundred small 
herrings. The " appearances " of herrings were not favourable, 
and the market prices, as given in the newspapers, were so low 
that the men did not think it worth while to start the fishing and 
give up the cod-net and line fishing. That there were herrings on 
the Bank was shown by their presence in the stomachs of cod and 
saithe, as reported by the Fishery Officer, and by the coating of 
herring spawn on the cod nets. 

An investigation is also being made on the herrings in other 
parts of the Firth of Clyde, more especially in Lochfyne, where 
monthly observations are made on the temperatures, the abundance 
of herring-food, &c., and marking experiments have been instituted 
to determine, if possible, the migratory movements of the herrings. 

General Index to the Scientific Eeports. 

A paper, prepared by Dr. Fulton, is given in the present report, 
embodying a general index to the scientific reports of the Board 
since the commencement of scientific investigations in 1882. The 
reports are twenty-two in number, and as they embrace a great 
variety of subjects connected with the sea fisheries in their 
scientific aspects, it is hoped the index may l^e useful to those 
engaged or interested in fishery investigations. 

We have the honour to be. 

Your Lordship's most obedient Servants, 

ANGUS SUTHERLAND, Chairman. 

D. CRAWFOED, Deputi/-Chairman. 

D'ARCY W. THOMPSON. 

W. R. DUGUID. 

L. MILLOY. 

D. MEARNS. 

H. WATSON. 

WM. C. ROBERTSON, Secretary. 



SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. 



I.— TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS. By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, 
F.R.S.E., Superintendent of Scientific Investigations. 

Introductory. 

The investigations into the condition of the fishing grounds in certain 
parts of the closed waters, particularly in the Moray Firth and Aberdeen 
Bay, which were begun a few years ago by the employment of commercial 
steam trawlers, were continued last year as frequently as circumstances 
allowed. Trawlings were made in January, March, April, September, 
October, November, and December, the total number of recorded hauls 
in the closed waters amounting to 91, of which 14 were made in Aber- 
deen Bay, 75 in the Moray Firth, and 2 in Sandside Bay, on the north 
coast of Scotland. The localities in the Moray Firth which were most 
thoroughly examined were Burghead Bay and adjoining parts of the 
south coast, the Dornoch Firth, and the grounds off the coast of Caith- 
ness. A few hauls were also taken on Smith Bank, and in the deeper 
parts of the Firth, at the so-called " witch-grounds." 

The aggregate number of fishes taken in the course of these trawlings, 
so far as they were completely recorded, was 63,525, and of these 44,538 
were taken to market, the remaining 18,987 being thrown overboard, 
either because they belonged to species which are not edible, or, more 
commonly, because they were too small to be marketable. The propor- 
tions of the marketable and unmarketable in each of the recorded hauls 
are given in the Tables appended. 

Records were also made of a number of hauls of a steam trawler which 
fished at the Faroes in the month of May, and these are likewise 
included in the Tables. 

One of the chief objects of these trawling investigations is to ascertain 
as far as possible the changes which may occur in the abundance of the 
food and other fishes in the closed waters in different years and at 
different seasons, but observations are also made on the reproduc- 
tion of the fish, their spawning, food, (fee, and on various other matters 
connected with their life-history, while at the same time records 
are made of the surface and bottom temperatures of the water on the 
various grounds visited. The employment of commercial vessels for this 
purpose is associated with certain disadvantages ; but from the fact that 
the actual trawling work, is carried on precisely as it is when fishing for 
market purposes, opportunities are afforded for a number of observations 
bearing on this method of fishing, as, for example, the proportion of the 
marketable and unmarketable fishes which are captured, the relation 
between the size of the fishes taken and the size of the meshes of the 
net, the vitality of the fishes, &c. Collections are also made of the floating 
organisms, or plankton, and of fish eggs and larvse, and experiments con- 
ducted with small-meshed nets with the view of procuring collections of 
fishes of various sizes in connection with the study of their rate of 
growth, distribution, &c. 



14 



Part III. — Tiventtf-tliird Annual Report 



With the large commercial trawl, the efficient ship, and the experienced 
trawlers in charge, it is possible to make a much more thorough and 
extensive examination of tlie grounds than was previously possible. 

The work has been sometimes carried on under dithculty, inasmuch as 
since the reduction of the Vote for Scientific Investigations, when the 
International researches were initiated, no assistance was available, and it 
was impossible for me alone to conduct these experiments with the regu- 
larity that was desirable. In autumn of last year, Dr. H. C. William- 
son was re-appointed to the scientific stafi' of the Board, and I have to 
thank that gentleman for his assistance in these investigations. 



I. 

The first of the series of investigations in Aberdeen Bay and the Moray 
Firth was made in January, from the 14th to the 23rd, the steam 
trawler " Ern " being employed, one of the objects being to obtain 
a supply of large living plaice for the hatchery at the Bay of Nigg. 
Besides Aberdeen Bay, the places visited were the grounds off the Ord of 
Caithness and Lybster, Dunnet Bay, and Sandside Bay, these two being 
situated on the north coast. Three hauls were made in Aberdeen Bay 
on the 14th, a strong wind blowing from the south-west with rain. The 
first was in from 5 to 20 fathoms, off Newburgh, for four hours and 
five minutes, and the catch was small, comprising 387 fishes, of which 
360 were marketable and 27 unmarketable. Haddocks and codling 
formed the bulk of the catch, there being few plaice, and they were all 
small. The other two hauls were also taken ofi Newburgh, in from 4| 
to 9 fathoms, and they were still less productive, the respective totals 
being 218 and 293 fishes, the hauls lasting for four hours and four 
hours and five minutes. Plaice were again very scarce, and haddocks w^ere 
not numerous, but a considerable number of codling were taken. Among 
the fishes in the second haul were 14 herrings and 22 sprats. In the 
three hauls, lasting for twelve hours and ten minutes, 898 fishes were 
taken, of which 783 were marketable and 115 unmarketable. The 
numbers of marketable and unmarketable of the various species were as 
follows : — 





Cod, 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Plaice. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


5 


186 
12 


431 
19 


27 


71 


5 


198 


512 


27 


71 




Com. Dab. 


Long 
Rough Dab. 


Sprat. 


Herring. 


Starry Ray. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


28 
1 


4 


22 


14 


16 


29 


4 


22 


14 


16 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



15 



While all the plaice were marketable, there were none of medium size, 
and none large ; all were small. The majority of the haddocks, on the 
other hand, were large or medium, viz., 330 large, 109 mediums, and 
54 small or thirds. 

In the Moray Firth the first haul was made on the l7th, off Lybster, 
in about 25 fathoms, a strong breeze blowing from the south-west. 
The number of fishes obtained in the four hours' drag was 352, of 
which 206 were marketable and 146 unmarketable. The catch com- 
prised 20 cod, 146 haddocks, and 128 plaice; all the haddocks 
except 46 small were unmarketable, and most of the plaice were 
also small. The next haul was made in rather deeper water, 34 to 36 
fathoms, a little farther off, and a rather better catch was got, viz., 522 
fishes, of which 330 were marketable. Haddocks and plaice were again 
most numerous — 315 and 162 respectively — and they were, as a rule, 
larger, especially the plaice, 112 being either large or medium. Other 
seven drags were taken off Lybster in from 23 to 35 fathoms, with as a 
rule, poor results, though the weather had improved and the sea was 
smooth. Omitting one of these, in which the net was split and only 108 
fishes secured, the total number of fishes caught in the thirty-three hours 
and ten minutes fishing was 3478, of which 2005 were marketable and 
1473 unmarketable. The largest total number taken in any one haul 
was 522 ; the largest number marketable in any haul was 330, and the 
lowest 118. Haddocks and plaice formed the bulk of the fish caught, 
the former numbered 1898, of which rather more than half were market- 
able ; the latter numbered 875, all of which were marketable. The total 
of the marketable haddocks and plaice according to size was as follows : — 





1st 


2ud 


3rd 


4th 


Total 


Haddock 


63 


80 


46 


780 


969 


Plaice 


118 


387 


342 


28 


875 



The accompanying Table gives the particulars of the marketable and 
unmarketable fishes of the eight hauls : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


"Whiting. 


Coal-fish. 


Cat-fish. 


Brill. 


Plaice. 


L 
IL 

Total 


29 


67 

58 


969 
929 


204 


2 


2 


2 


875 


29 


125 


1,898 


204 


2 


2 


2 


875 




Lemon 
Dab. 


Witch. 


Common 
Dab. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Herring. 


Starry 
Ray. 


Skate. 


Angler. 

3 
9 


L 
IL 

Total 


39 


2 


254 


7 


1 


3 


12 
11 


39 


2 


254 


7 


1 


8 


23 


12 



On the 18th, owing to the comparatively poor catches on the grounds 
off Lybster, the vessel left for the north coast to try Sandside Bay, but 
the wind in the Pentland Firth was so strong that it was forced to 
return. On the following night Sandside Bay was reached and three 



16 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Re2>ort 



hauls were made there. The first was imperfect, being a " foul " shot, 
owing to a turn in the net, and only 127 marketable fishes were secured, 
mostly plaice and haddocks ; the depth was from about 40 to 43 fathoms. 
In the next haul on the same ground, in 40 to 43 fathoms, lasting four 
hours and five minutes, 324 fishes were taken — 169 being marketable and 
155 unmarketable. Most consisted of haddocks and plaice ; there were 
also 14 gurnards and 31 dog-fishes. A third haul for four hours and 
ten minutes, in from 28 to 40 fathoms, was still less productive, the total 
being 250 fishes, 175 being marketable and 75 unmarketable. The 
numbers of haddocks and plaice of the various classes according to 
size, in the two hauls were these : — 





1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 


Total 


Haddock 


5 


56 


10 


62 


133 


Plaice 


20 


46 


46 


— 


112 



The following Table gives the marketable aud unmarketable fishes 
caught in the two hauls, the time of fishing being 8 hours aud 15 
minutes : 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Gurnard. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


2 


4 
9 


133 
112 


32 


30 


2 


13 


245 


32 


30 




Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Common 
Dab. 


Skate. 


Dog-fish. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


112 


58 


35 


16 


31 


112 


58 


35 


16 


31 



Dunnet Bay was then tried, and a haul taken in 30 to 36 fathoms. 
After towing for an hour and three-quarters the net caught, and on being 
brought up it was found that the ground rope was broken, and a good 
deal of the net missing ; what was left contained five marketable fishes. 

The vessel accordingly returned to the Moray Firth and started fishing 
south of Lybster, on the grounds off the Ord of Caithness. The wind 
was still from the south-west and very squally. The first haul, for 4| 
hours, was made in 23 and 24 fathoms, and 405 fishes were secured, of 
which 170 were marketable and 235 unmarketable. Among the former 
were 19 cod, 107 haddocks, and 78 plaice, as well as some lemon dabs 
and common dabs. The second haul for the same time on the same 
ground, in 23 to 25 fathoms, was slightly better, 446 fishes being taken — 
169 marketable and 277 unmarketable. Haddocks, plaice, and dabs were 
the chief fish represented. Other six hauls were taken on this ground, 
the catches being under those described, and in one of the hauls the trawl 
net was practically destroyed, nothing coming up but the ground rope. 
In the seven hauls, the duration of which was 29 hours and 35 minutes, 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



17 



the aggregate number of fishes caught was only 2086 — 895 being market- 
able and 1191 unmarketable — which was extremely poor fishing. The 
numbers of haddocks and plaice of the various sizes taken in the hauls 
were as follows : — 

1st 2nd 3rd 4th Total 

Haddock 57 164 65 — 286 

Plaice 91 186 192 18 487 

The particulars as to the marketable and unmarketable in the seven 
drags are these : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Haddock. 


Whiting. 


Coal-fish. 


Cat-fish. 


Conger- 
Eel. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


36 


38 
29 


286 
478 


72 


4 


3 


2 


36 


67 


764 


72 


4 


3 


2 




Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Common 
Dab. 


Long 
Rough Dab. 


Skate. 


Angler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


487 


33 


439 


129 


16 
11 


33 


487 


33 


439 


129 


27 


33 



The vessel then steamed to the so-called " witch-grounds," off Kinnaird 
Head, and made two drags there on the 23rd. Owing to want of time 
the unmarketable fishes in these drags, which were very numerous, were 
not recorded. In the first, for four hours and fifteen minutes, in from 
40 to 45 fathoms, 168 marketable fishes were obtained, chiefly haddocks 
and witches ; the ofifal, or unmarketable fishes, filled seven baskets, the 
contents of one of which were counted, viz., 306 dabs, 183 long rough 
dabs, 94 haddocks, and 42 whitings. In the second drag, in from 40 to 
50 fathoms, 163 marketable fishes were secured, comprising 4 cod, 7 
codlings, 62 witches, and 90 haddocks ; the ofial or unmarketable fishes 
filled three baskets, and were not enumerated . Small haddocks, too small 
to be marketable, were numerous in this locality ; the numbers of the 
various classes of marketable haddocks were, 1st 35, 2nd 65, 3rd 68. 

Another haul for an hour and ten minutes was made here in about 50 
fathoms with the small-meshed net laced around the cod-end, in order to 
catch the small fishes, as described in previous reports; 2812 fishes were 
taken, belonging to 18 species, as follow : — 



Cod, - - - - 


7 


Witch, - 


39 


Haddock, - 


249 


Lemon Dab. 


3 


Whiting, - 


122 


Common Dab, - 


- 986 


Poorcod, 


7 


Long Rough Dab, 


- 1048 


Norway Pout, 


250 


Herring, 


2 


Three-Bearded Rockling, 


2 


Sprat, 


3 


Four-Bearded Rockling, 


5 


Lumpenus, - 


65 


Grey Gurnard, - 


2 


Spotted Dragonet 


15 


Plaice, 


4 


Hagfish, 


3 



18 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



The quantity of fish landed at the end of the voyage, according to the 
market returns, amounted to 99 cwt., as follows : — 

Cod. Codling. Ling. Saithe. Hake. Haddock. Whiting. Turbot. Halibut. Brill. 
23 4 1 2i J 16' \ I \ % 

Lemon Dab. Plaice. Witch. Megrim. Conger. Skate. Cat-fish. 
^ 27 6J J J 3 i 



II. 

The second series of trawlings was made at the end of March and the 
beginning of April, the steam trawler " Star of the Wave " being 
employed. The first place visited was Burghead Bay, where several 
hauls were taken, in from 4 to 16 fathoms, on 28th and 29th. 
In the first, which was carried into water of 30 fathoms depth, 1202 
fishes were taken — 780 being marketable and 422 unmarketable. The 
fishes most abundantly represented were common dabs, plaice, haddocks, 
and witches ; there were also 24 brill and 19 lemon dabs, all marketable, 
as well as 5 herrings. All the haddocks and most of the plaice were 
small. The next three hauls were made nearer the shore, in water of 
from about 4 to 16 fathoms. In the first of these 975 were secured — 
574 being marketable and 401 unmarketable. Common dabs and 
plaice were best represented, numbering respectively 360 and 325 — 
90 of the dabs and 302 of the plaice being marketable. The catch 
also included 89 haddocks — all small, and 37 marketable — 6 catfish, 
20 lemon dabs, and 35 witches. The second haul brought up 698 fishes, 
mostly plaice and dabs, the marketable fishes including 23 brill, 2 
turbot, 10 lemon dabs, and 9 witches, as well as 18 haddocks, 3 cod, and 
2 catfishes. The third haul, for five hours and twenty-six minutes, 
yielded 2331 fishes, of which 1181 were marketable and 1150 unmarket- 
able. The catch included 1116 common dabs, 576 plaice, 208 haddocks, 
30 lemon dabs, 13 brill, and 2 turbot; there were also in this haul 28 
anglers, 8 herring, and a lumpsucker. 

The aggregate number of fishes in the three inshore drags referred to 
was 4004, 2168 being marketable and 1836 unmarketable. The numbers 
of haddocks and plaice of the various classes according to size were as 
follows : — 

1st 2nd 3rd 4th Total 

Haddock 16 — 204 — 220 

Plaice 96 276 416 335 1123 

The details of the four hauls referred to are summed up in the 
accompanying Table : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whiting. 


Co.al- 
fish. 


Cat- 
fish. 


Gur- 
nard. 


Tur- 
bot. 


Brill. 


Floun- 
der. 


L 
IL 

Total 


8 


19 
27 


440 
99 


220 
53 


2 


17 


11 

8 


4 


100 


9 


8 


46 


539 


273 


2 


17 


19 


4 


100 


9 



[Contimied. 



of the Fishery Board joi- Scotland. 



19 





Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Witch. 


Com. 
Dal). 


Long 

Rough 

Dal). 


Thorn- 
back. 


Herring. 


Angler. 


Lump- 
sucker. 


L 
IL 

Total 


1,345 
95 


79 
2 


141 
60 


483 
1,630 


198 


69 
16 


13 


30 
25 


3 


1,440 


81 


201 


2,113 


198 


85 


13 


55 


3 



Some other hauls were made in this district, but in somewhat deeper 
water. In the first of these off Burghead, in 44 to 45 fathoms, and 
lasting four hours and twenty minutes, 1638 fishes were captured, 
1280 being marketable and 358 unmarketable. The number of haddocks 
increased to 817, most of them being small; plaice diminished to 
twenty, mostly large and medium ; there were also 269 Avitches, 106 
lemon dabs, a megrim, a brill, and 8 cod. In the next haul, lasting 
three hours and thirty-five minutes, in the same depth, 4030 fishes 
were obtained, 2483 being marketable and 1547 unmarketable; nineteen 
species were represented. Haddocks were most abundant, numbering 
1927 ; there were 1358 dabs, 282 witches, 251 whiting, 27 lemon dabs, 
and 10 plaice. Ten Norway pouts, a herring, a bib, and 2 Lumpenus 
were also taken, as well as 5 marketable hake. The next haul was 
begun in the same place, the vessel towing towards Lossiemouth, where 
the net was hauled in 16 fathoms. The drag lasted for two hours and 
twenty- five minutes, and 1427 fishes were taken, comprising 837 had- 
docks, 139 whitings, 40 plaice, 51 lemon dabs, 6 witches, as well as 4 
cod, 2 ling, and a Norway pout. 

In these three hauls in deeper water the total number of fishes 
caught was 7095, 4846 being marketable and 2249 unmarketable, the 
time of fishing being ten hours and twenty minutes. The sizes of the 
haddock and plaice taken were as follows : — 

1st 2nd 3rd 4th Total 

Haddock 235 154 3113 — 3502 

Plaice 17 44 14 — 75 

The particulars are given in the following Table : — 





Cod. 


Cod- 
ling. 


Hake. 


Ling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Gur- 
nard. 


Brill. 


1 
Plaice 'Lemon 
^^^'^^•j Dab. 


Witch. 


I. 

IL 
Total 


19 


10 
5 


22 


2 


3,502 
79 


530 
12 


17 

8 


5 


75 ' 176 

- ' 8 

I 


429 
128 


19 


15 


22 


2 


3,581 


542 


25 


5 


75 184 


557 




Megrim. 


Com. 
Dab. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Grey 
Skate. 


Angler. 


Nor- 
way 
Pout. 


Her- 
ring, 


Bib. 


Lum- 
penus. 


I. 
IL 

Total 


2 


47 
257 


1,720 


10 


2 


10 
5 


11 


1 


1 


2 


2 


304 


1,720 


10 


2 


15 


11 


1 


1 


2 



20 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



A haul for four hours was made in thirteen fathoms off Lossiemouth, 
the vessel trawling around a dan, but the catch was very poor, the 
number of marketable fishes secured being 191, and the unmarketable 
79, a total of 270. There were 107 plaice, 36 haddocks, eight brill, a 
cod, a catfish, and a lumpsucker in the catch. 

The next place visited was the Dornoch Firth. On 30th March the 
trawl was dropped in sixteen fathoms, with Dunrobin Castle bearing 
N.W. and Tarbert Lighthouse about S.^E. ; a sweep was made around 
the bay into four fathoms and out again, the haul lasting for four hours. 
The weather was fine and the sea smooth. 

In the hauls made here a special cod-end with large meshes was used, 
and the catches, especially of the unmarketable fishes, were therefore 
smaller than would have been the case otherwise ; the records cannot 
thus in this respect be compared with the foregoing. 

The catch consisted of 400 fishes, of which 354 were marketable. The 
plaice numbered 138, and there were 69 cod and 123 flounders. In the 
next haul, in the same locality, 210 fishes were taken, the catch com- 
prising 43 cod, 87 plaice, 38 flounders and 29 skates and rays. Other 
four drags were made here, and the aggregate catch for the six hauls, 
comprising twenty-four hours and five minutes fishing, was 1932 fish, 
1837 being marketable. 

The details of the catches are given in the adjoining Table ; what is 
stated above as to the mesh of the cod-end must be borne in mind. 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Coal- 
iish. 


Haddock. 


Ca 


t-fish. 


Brill. 


Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


I. 

IL 

Total 


754 


5 

1 


9 


35 


12 


4 


581 
6 


33 


754 


6 


9 


35 


12 


4 


587 


33 




Witch. 


Flounder. 


Common 
Dab. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Sprat. 


Grey 

Skate. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


15 


235 
32 


57 
17 


3 


92 
11 


2 


5 
23 


15 


267 


74 


3 


103 


2 


28 



Large and medium-sized haddocks were present in the catches, the 
numbers taken being— large 86, medium 80, small 130, fourths, 152; 
many of the smaller haddocks would escape through the mesh of the 
cod-end used. 

The fishing in the Dornoch Firth on this occasion was of special 
interest, for several reasons. Cod were taken in quite unusual numbers, 
a shoal of spawning fish having been hit upon, and each haul of the 
net was characterised by the large number of cod present. On hauling 
the net, the cod-end, in which the fish were contained, could be seen 
floating at the surface some distance away from the vessel ; this is 
always the case with large catches of the greater round fishes. The 
greatest number of cod caught in one haul of four hours was 282, but in 
each drag the net contained many scores. Owing to the weight of fish 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland, 21 

the cod-end was not brought in to the deck at Hrst in the ordinary way, 
but a hole was cut in it as it lay alongside the vessel and the cod 
removed by a "clip" and passed along to the fish-hold; then the net 
was brought aboard. As mentioned, the cod were all spawning, eggs and 
milt flowing freely from them, and I Avas struck with their large size. 
There were no small cod among them. It was not possible to measure 
them all, but the smallest and the larger were put aside and measured. 
The smaller female fishes ranged from 33 to 35 inches ; two males 
measured 29^ and 30 inches ; among a few " codling " taken I found 
one measuring 27| inches, quite immature. Several smaller-sized cod 
were brought up in a state of decay, and had been lying on the ground 
dead for some time ; whether these had been caught previously by some 
other trawler, escaped from the net and perished, was unknown. The 
skipper (S. Caie) stated that at Faroe they sometimes get as many as 
sixty score of cod (1200) in a single drag of three hours' duration. 

Besides the cod, several of the other fishes taken at this place were 
ripe and spawning. Among the few coalfish caught I found a female, 
measuring 40^ inches, half spent, with the eggs flowing freely, and 
several of the males were also mature. Most of the flounders, of which 
267 were taken — 235 of them marketable — were also spawning, and it 
is evident from a comparison of the records at other times of the year 
that shoals of flounders come out from the shallower waters — no doubt 
largely from the stretch of brackish water west of Gizzing Briggs — at 
this season in order to spawn. Spawning females were found from ten 
inches upwards, and spawning males from a size of eight inches. Some 
plaice were also found ripe and spawning, though the number of this 
fish taken was relatively small, and still more were spent. Among the 
common dabs the condition was not so far advanced, most of the larger 
ones having the reproductive organ large and ripe, and a few were 
just commencing to spawn. 

On this ground, therefore, spawning cod, coalfish, flounders, plaice, and 
common dabs were found on the 30th and 31st March. It lies about 
three miles from the nearest land, on the edge of, and partly over, the rough 
ground that under ordinary circumstances is avoided by trawlers, the 
depths being from thirteen to fifteen or sixteen fathoms. It is possible, 
I may say, to fish over the rough ground when cod or other round fishes 
are present in large numbers, the trawlers explaining that the cod-end, 
and perhaps most of the net, is buoyed up from the bottom by the fish. 
The locality lies well within the Dornoch Firth, and I think it will be 
found that there is some peculiarity about the currents here that tends 
to distribute the floating eggs, the movement of the water being north- 
wards, rather as an eddy.* From the small number of plaice got it is 
not certain that they spawn on these grounds in any great numbers, and 
the same remark may be made about the coalfish. Clearly, however, 
cod and flounders spawn there in great numbers. 

Before leaving the Dornoch Firth a haul was made for half an hour 
with the small-meshed net around the cod-end, the trawl going into four 
fathoms. The number of fishes taken was 1107, belonging to ten species, 
as follows : — 



Codling, - 


1 


Plaice, 


74 


Haddock, 


2 


Flounder, - 


53 


Whiting, 


27 


Common Dab, 


46 


Herring, 


16 


Sprat, 


870 


Little Sole, 


2 


Common Pipefish, 


16 



* Vide. Fulton, "The Currents of the North Sea and their Relation to Fisheries,' 
Fifteenth Annual Rejwrt, Part III., p. 343. 



22 



Fart III. — Twenty-third Annual liep07i 



The vessel then steamed to the south coast of the Moray Firth and 
took a haul with the small-meshed net around the cod-end, between 
Findhorn and Burghead, in 30 to 32 fathoms, the haul lasting for an 
hour. The total number of fishes obtained was 1753, belonging 
to eighteen species, as follows : — 



Codling, 


10 


Plaice, 


1 


Coalfish, 


1 


Lemon Dab, 


14 


Haddock, 


19 


Common Dab, 


68 


Whiting, 


20 


Witch, 


221 


Norway Pout, 


- 387 


Long Kough Dab, 


516 


Herring, 


36 


Megrim, 


1 


Sprat, 


74 


Flounder, 


4 


Lumpenus, 


- 365 


Thornback, - 


1 


Dragonet, 


2 


Angler, 


13 



Smith Bank was then visited, and a haul made there with the small- 
meshed net for twenty-five minutes (the net catching on the bottom after 
that interval and being hauled) in 22 fathoms. The number of fishes 
caught was 1545, belonging to thirteen species, as follows : — 



Codling, 
Haddock, 


34 
- 444 


Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 


2 
10 


Whiting, 


- 502 


Common Dab, 


99 


Ling, - 
Poorcod, 


1 

- 436 


Long Rough Dab, 
Catfish, 


6 
3 


Norway Pout, 
Gurnard, 


6 
1 


Herring. 


1 



Before returning to Aberdeen a haul with the small-meshed net was 
taken in Aberdeen Bay, in the northern part, but the net came up much 
torn and no fishes were caught ; there was a heavy sea and a strong wind. 

According to the market statistics, the quantity of fish landed 
amounted to 246| cwts., as follows : — 

Cod. Codling. Saithe. Haddock. Whiting. Turbot. Brill. Lemon Dab. Plaice. 
178^ I If 17 nil 2i 211 

Dabs. Witch. Skate. Cat-fish. Monk. 
2i 5i 9 3^ 1 



III. 



The next series of trawlings was made at the end of September and 
the beginning of October, the steam trawler " Star of the Ocean " being 
employed. The first place visited was the deep hole off Fraserburgh, 
where a haul was made in 75 fathoms, a dan being put down in 70 
fathoms. In sounding, a depth of 130 fathoms was got in the locality, 
fine dirty sand being on the armature of the lead. The net became 
fast and it was hauled in two hours in 35 fathoms. The catch 
comprised 1177 fi.shes, of which 900 were marketable and 277 un- 
marketable. Haddocks were best represented, the number taken being 
825, but most of them were small. There were also 44 cod and 170 
codling, 44 whiting, 11 gurnards, 18 lemon dabs, 11 megrims, and 1 
witch, with some other fishes. No plaice or common dabs were caught. 

Burghead Eay was then visited and a couple of drags made in from 
5 to 12 fathoms. In the first, which lasted for four hours and ten 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



23 



minutes, 597 fish were caught, 184 being marketable and 413 unmarket- 
able. The catch was made up mainly of small haddocks and plaice, 
together with common dabs. In the second haul, for four hours and ten 
minutes, 1339 fishes were secured, of which 556 were marketable and 
783 unmarketable. The catch was again chiefly composed of small 
haddocks. In these two hauls, the time of fishing being eight hours 
and twenty minutes, 1936 fishes were taken, of which 740 were market- 
able and 1196 unmarketable. The haddocks numbered 1565, no less 
than 999 of them being too small to be marketable. The numbers of 
haddocks of the various classes were these : — 



Haddock 



1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 


Unmarketable 


Total 


27 


48 


491 


— 


999 


1565 



The plaice were also, as a rule, small, but the separate sizes were not 
noted. 

The details regarding the different species are as follows: — 





Cod- 
ling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Gur- 
nard. 


Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Common 
Dab. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Ang- 
ler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


4 


566 
999 


27 

16 37 


135 

8 


5 


127 


6 


3 


2 


4 


1,565 


43 


37 


143 


5 


127 


6 


3 


2 



A number of hauls were then taken between Eurghead Bay and 
Lossiemouth, in water from 7 to 12 fathoms deep. In the first, 
which lasted for three hours and fifteen minutes, 498 fishes were caught, 
287 being marketable and 211 unmarketable. The catch comprised 347 
haddocks — nearly half of them too small to be taken to market — and 42 
cod. In the second, for four hours and thirty-five minutes, 892 fishes 
were caught, 458 being marketable and 434 unmarketable. Haddocks 
again formed the bulk of the catch, numbering 587, of which less than 
half were marketable, and there were also 145 plaice and seven cod. 
Most of the other hauls made in this place were less productive, but in 
one the number was considerably exceeded. It was for four hours and 
five minutes, and 3157 fishes were captured, of which 972 were market- 
able and 2185 unmarketable. The catch comprised 1425 haddocks, 879 
being too small to go to market ; 358 plaice, all but 6 marketable; 108.2 
common dabs, 201 gurnards (none taken to market), 51 codling, 4 cod, 
2 turbot, 8 brill, and 5 lythe or pollack. 

In the seven hauls between Burghead and Lossiemouth, the duration of 
fishing being twenty-eight and a half hours, the total number of fishes 
caught was 6637, or an average of 2328*9 per ten hours' fishing ; the 
marketable fishes numbered 2880, or an average of 1010*4 per ten hours, 
the unmarketable numbering 3757, or an average per ten hours of 
1318*3. Of 2871 haddocks caught rather more than half, viz., 1474, 
were unmarketable, while of 1203 plaice only 7 were too small to be 
taken to market. In one of the hauls 5 lythe were caught, in another 
4 coalfish, too small to be marketable; and in another 4 fine black 
soles, a fish which is very rarely caught in these waters. Of the 1397 
haddocks, 96 were large, 204 mediums, and 1097 small or thirds ; a 
classification into thirds and fourths was not adopted on this occasion. 



24 



Pai't III. — Twenty-third Annual Beport 



The accompanying Table gives the particulars of the catches of the seven 
hauls combined. 





Cud. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Coal- 
fish. 


T .> Gur- 


Turbot. 


Brill. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


61 


90 
21 


1,397 
1,474 


33 
46 


4 


5 


589 


4 


17 


61 


111 


2,871 


79 


4 


5 


589 


4 


17 




Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Black 

Sole. 


Witch. 


Common 
Dab. 


Angler. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Wras.se. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


1,196 

7 


37 


4 


2 


26 
1,527 


86 


7 

o 


1 


1,203 


37 


4 


2 


1,553 


86 


10 


1 



A haul was also made on the usual ground off Lossiemouth, in 17 
fathoms, for one hour and forty-five minutes. The catch consisted of 
605 fishes, 405 being marketable and 200 unmarketable, all the latter 
consisting of gurnards. There were 314 haddocks and 80 plaice ; about 
half of the haddocks were large and mediums, and half small, while all the 
plaice were large and mediums. In the hauls in Burghead Bay, and 
between it and Lossiemouth, several hundred squids and a few- edible 
crabs were taken. 

The vessel then steamed to the Dornoch Firth, where a drag with the 
small meshed net around the cod-end was made for an hour and five 
mmutes in from 10 to 12 fathoms. The catch of both nets num- 
bered 1035 fishes, of which 697 were marketable, mostly of small 
haddocks ("thirds"). The numbers of the various species were as 
follows : — 



Codling, - 


3 


Plaice, 


- 12 


Haddock, 


- 833 


Common Dab, - 


- 32 


Whiting, 


- 133 


Gurnard, - 


' 22 



Another drag was made here, but the net had a twist on it, and only 133 
fishes were caught in the four hours that the haul lasted, 56 being 
marketable. 

The grounds off Lybster were then visit(;d on 3rd October, and a drag 
taken for four hours and ten minutes in from 26 to 34 fathoms. The 
catch comprised 991 fishes, 400 being marketable and 591 unmarketable. 
Haddocks formed the bulk of the catch, numbering 811, of which only 
340 were marketable ; there were also 60 gurnards, 23 codlings, and 58 
lemon dabs, as well as smaller numbers of other species. Two dog-fishes 
were taken in the net, and also a number of squids. 

The next place visited was Smith Bank, where a haul about the middle, 
in 19 and 20 fathoms, was taken for an hour and ten minutes. 
The cod-end contained an immense quantity of gurnards, which filled 
fifteen baskets. One which was counted contained 178 of various 
sizes, so that on this basis the total number would be about 2670. There 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



25 



were also in the cod-end 79 haddocks, nearly all small, 13 plaice, and 76 
comoion dabs. The contents of the small-meshed net filled six baskets, 
one of which contained 348 small haddocks, 93 dabs, 4 whitings, 3 
codlings, 103 gurnards, and 4 lemon dabs, so that the total number of 
small fishes which had passed through the meshes of the cod-end would 
number about 3300, mostly haddocks and gurnards. 

Two hauls were then made in Aberdeen Bay in the neighdonrhood of 
Newburgh, in from 5 to 13 fathoms. In the first, for four hours 
and ten minutes, 384 fishes were caught, of which 242 were marketable 
and 142 unmarketable. Haddocks, plaice, whitings, and dabs formed 
the greater part of the catch, most of the haddocks being unmarketable. 
In the next drag 572 fishes were obtained, 274 being marketable, 5 of 
which were turbot. The particulars of these two hauls, the time of fishing 
being eight hours and fifteen minutes, are as follows : — 





Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Gur- 
nard 


Turbot. 


Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Common 
Dab. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Angler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


41 
103 


48 
21 


13 


5 


364 


3 


55 

298 


3 


2 


144 


69 


13 


5 


364 


3 


353 


3 


2 



The statistics showed that the total quantity of fish landed at the 
market amounted to 65 1 cwts., as follows : — 

Cod. Codling. Ling. Hake. Haddock. Turbot. Brill. Lemon Dab. Plaice. 
14| 3 14 i. 211 J I I 18 

Dabs. Witch. Skate. Cat-fish. 
^ i 2 J 



TV. 



Early in November another series of hauls was made in Aberdeen Bay 
by the "Ocean Bride." The first, for three and a quarter hours, was 
between the "Black Dog " and Newburgh, in 11 to 13 fathoms, and 689 
fishes were caught, of which 422 were marketable and 267 unmarketable. 
Haddocks numbered 185, all but 15 large enough to go to market ; 
there were 73 plaice, 163 common dabs, 9 cod, 63 codling, 154 
Avhiting, as well as a halibut and 3 turbot. Other five recorded 
hauls were made in the same locality in from 4i to 13 fathoms, 
and the total ntimber of fishes taken in the twenty-one hours and 
forty minutes of actual fishing was 2398, 1410 being marketable and 988 
unmarketable. The particulars are given in the following Table : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whiting. 


Gurnard. 


Ling. 


Coal-fish, 


I. 

IL 

Total 


62 


181 
9 


685 
66 


69 
293 


9 


1 


2 


62 


190 


751 


362 


9 


1 


2 



[Continued. 



26 



Fai't III. — Twenttj-thifd Annual Report 





Hal i lint. 


Tiirhot. 


riaicc. 


f!onimon 
Dal.. 


Long 

Rough Skate. 
Dal.. 


Angler. 


I. 
11. 

Total 


2 


3 


346 


59 
230 


76 293 

1 


12 


2 


3 


346 


239 


76 


293 


12 



The next series of trawling observations was made iu the Moray Firth 
in the latter part of November, the trawler employed being the "Bracon- 
hill." Burghead Bay was first visited, and three hauls were taken there 
on the 21st and 22nd in from 5 to 15 fathoms. Iu the first the 
number of fishes secured in the three hours and fifteen minutes the drag 
lasted was 462, of which 421 were marketable. The bulk of the catch 
consisted of plaice, of which 405 were caught, mostly small and mediums. 
Haddocks were scarce, only 28 being taken, and they were all unmarket- 
able. Seven brill were also included in this catch. In the next haul, 
for three hours and fifty minutes, 1385 fishes w^ere obtained, 1145 being 
marketable and 240 unmarketable. The number of plaice was large, 
viz., 1072, and they were all marketable, chiefly small and mediums. 
Four turbot and 12 brill were also caught in this drag. The other 
two hauls on this ground were equally productive, the catches totalling 
1307 and 1493 fishes respectively, the greater proportion being market- 
able, and consisting chiefly of plaice. 

The vessel then steamed to the so-called " witch-ground," off Cromarty, 
and made a haul there in 27 to 30 fathoms for an hour and ten 
minutes with the small- meshed net around the cod-end ; there was a 
strong breeze from the N.N.E., with snow showers and a rough sea. 
The number of fishes in the cod-end was 310, of which 67 were market- 
able ; they chiefly consisted of whitings, witches, and dabs. The small- 
meshed net contained the following fishes : — 



Codling, - 


2 


Long Rough Dab, 


- 152 


Haddock, 


- 17 


Common Dab, - 


- 94 


Whiting, - 


- 349 


Witch, - 


- 21 


Norway Pout, - 


- 83 


Gurnards, 


4 


Hake, 


4 







Two other hauls were taken in this locality, the catches of which were 
not recorded ; in the second the net was split and the ground rope 
broken, and the vessel lay to till morning and then returned to Burghead 
Bay, where a series of hauls were made. In the first of these, in 
from 7 to 19 fathoms, for four hours and a half, 1139 fishes 
were secured, of which 939 were marketable and 200 unmarketabie. The 
plaice numbered 917, and the haddocks 155, all of the latter except five 
being too small for market ; a turbot and 1 1 brill were also taken. 
In the next drag 1U49 fishes were taken in the four hours and ten minutes 
it lasted, almost all marketable, viz., 998, and mostly plaice, Avhich num- 
bered 962. In the third drag, for four hours and fifteen minutes, 1283 
fishes were captured, 1199 of which were marketable; and in a fourth 
haul 1339 were taken, 1262 being marketable, plaice again forming the 
greater portion of the catch, which also included 7 turbot 18 brill. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



27 



The vessel then proceeded to the Dornoch Firth, where three hauls 
were made. One of these was not recorded, and the first of the others 
was a small-raeshed drag, which lasted for one hour and was made in from 
6 to 10 fathoms, a moderate breeze blowing from the W.S.W. with 
rain, and the sea being smooth. In the cod-end there were 396 fishes, 
284 of which were marketable and 112 unmarketable. Most of the 
catch consisted of plaice, but there were also 57 large and medium had- 
docks, a cod, and a few dabs. The contents of the sraall-meshed net 
were as follows : — * 



Codling, - 
Whiting, - 
Common Dab, 
Witch, w 



26 


Long Eough Dab, 


1 


408 


Plaice, 


- 30 


127 


Herring, - 


- 573 


1 


Sprat, 


- 79 



The second drag, in about 8 fathoms for four hours, gave 1650 
fishes, of which 1594 were marketable. The catch included 1252 plaice, 
5 cod, 348 haddocks, a halibut, and 2 turbot. The two drags, 
representing five hours' fishing, yielded 2046 fishes, 1878 being market- 
able. In this total the plaice numbered 1481 and the haddocks 409. 
The marketable and unmarketable fishes are as follows : — 





Cod. 


Cod- 
ling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Coal- 
fish. 


Hali- 
but. 


Tur- 
bot. 


Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Com. 
Dab. 


Thorn- 
back. 


I. 
11. 

Total 


6 


7 
10 


389 
20 


31 


1 


1 


2 


1,457 
24 


3 


12 

80 


3 


6 


17 


409 


31 


1 


1 


2 


1,481 


3 


92 


3 



Both among the haddocks and the plaice the proportion of the small 
fishes was inconsiderable compared with some other hauls. The numbers 
of the different classes were as follows : — 





1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th Unmarketable Total 


Haddock, 


223 


166 


— 


— 20 409 


Plaice, 


4 


426 


307 


720 24 1481 



Before leaving the Firth some further hauls were made in Burghead 
Bay on the 26th. In the first of these, in from 6 to 19 fathoms 
and for four hours and a half, the number of fishes caught was 1017, 
922 being marketable. Haddocks were sparingly represented, the bulk 
of the catch consisting of plaice— 857 — and 2 turbot, 17 brill, 
and 2 witches were also included in the total. In the next haul, in 
16 to 20 fathoms, for four hours and twenty minutes, 1013 fishes 
were taken, 909 being marketable ; they consisted mostly of plaice. 
The third haul was not completely recorded ; it included nine baskets of 
plaice. 

In the ten hauls made in Burghead Bay during this trip, the duration 
of actual fishing being being forty hours and five minutes, the total 
number of fishes obtained was 11,487, or an average of 2865'6 per ten 
hours' fishing the marketable numbered 10,038, the average per ten 
hours being 2504 '4, and the unmarketable amounted to 1449, the 



28 



Part III. — Twenty-third Anmial Report 



average being 361-2. The particulars are given in the accompanying 
Table : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Coal- 
fish. 


Gur- 
nard. 

144 


Halibut. 


Tur- 
bot. 


Brill. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


19 


12 
59 


12 
340 


160 


1 


3 


19 


121 


19 


71 


352 


160 


1 


144 


3 


19 


121 




Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Black 
Sole 


Witch. 


Com. 
Dab. 


Long 
Rough 
Dab. 


Skate. 


Angler. 


I. 

n. 

Total 


9,404 
56 


20 


1 


20 


378 
644 


- 
10 


28 
9 


27 


9,460 


20 


1 


20 


1,022 


10 


37 


27 



The number of haddocks, it will be observed, was very small, and the 
remark is true indeed of round fishes generally. The ten drags yielded 
only one dozen marketable haddocks, the same number of codlings, while 
all the whitings were unmarketable. Flat-fishes, on the other hand, were 
abundant. Nineteen turbot, 121 brill, 3 halibut, and 9404 plaice 
were taken to market, as well as 20 lemon dabs, a black or common 
sole, and some others. A considerable proportion of the plaice consisted 
of mediums, as the following statement shows : — 



1st 2nd 3rd 4th Unmarketable Total. 
Plaice, 91 4110 5090 113 56 9460 

In Aberdeen Bay, on the 28th, a haul was taken with the small-meshed 
net around the cod-end, in 19 to 21 fathoms, the drag lasting for one 
hour and fifteen minutes. The catch was a very poor one, consisting of 
only 18 marketable fishes and 61 unmarketable, in the cod-end, or 
79 altogether, and it comprised 30 haddocks aud 31 whitings, and only 
6 plaice. The small-meshed net contained the following : — 



Codling, 


48 


Common Dabs, 


53 


Haddock, 


46 


Long Rough Dabs. - 


11 


Whiting, 


- 806 


Herring, 


1 






Sprats, - 


6 



The total quantity of fish landed as a result of this trip amounted to 
183| cwts., as follows: — 

Cod. Codling. Haddock, Turbot. Halibut. Brill. Lemon Dab. Plaice. Dabs. 
9f n 6a 1^ i 4 146^ 3| 

Witch. Conger Skate. 
3^ I 5 



ofth.e Fisher 1/ Board for Scotland. 29 



VI. 

la the early part of December another series of trawlings was made, 
the steam trawler employed being the " Loch Lydoch." In the Moray Firth 
Burahead Bay was the first place visited. A haul there on the 6th, in 
from 16 to ik fathoms, but chiefly under 7, for four hours, gave 
1007 fishes, of which 849 were marketable and 158 unmarketable. 
Plaice formed the bulk of the catch ; 747 were obtained, all 
but 9 being marketable. There were also 8 cod, 4 turbot, 21 
brill, and 3 lemon dabs. Only 20 haddocks were taken, and they 
were all unmarketable. The plaice amounted to nine level basketfuls, 
five consisting of mediums, one of large, and the rest thirds. The 
weather was fine, the sea calm, with a gentle westerly breeze. 

The second drag, for four-and-a-quarter hours, was made in the same 
place and in the same depths, and the catch amounted to 1082 fishes, 939 
being marketable and 142 unmarketable. The number of plaice caught 
was 853, all being mai'ketable ; 11 were large, 291 medium, and 551 
small. Included in the catch were 18 cod, 2 turbot, 13 brill, and 
a cat-fish. Haddocks were very scarce, only seven being taken, 
one of which was marketable. In the same locality the third drag, for 
four hours and ten minutes, in frora six to nine fathoms, yielded 1120 
fishes, of which 950 were marketable and 170 unmarketable. There 
were 860 plaice, all marketable, twelve being large, 318 medium, and 530 
small. There were also ten brill, twelve cod, and thirty-two haddocks, 
of which only six were marketable. 

The next haul extended into deeper water, viz., twenty fathoms, but was 
mostly about eight or nine, and in the four hours and five minutes it 
lasted 953 fishes were taken, of which 897 were marketable and 56 
unmarketable. The catch included 823 plaice, all marketable, two turbot, 
nineteen brill, a cod, and a few dabs. There were twenty-one haddocks, 
all unmarketable. 

A drag for an hour with the small-meshed net around the cod-end of 
the trawl yielded in the latter 208 fishes, plaice again predominating. 

The small-meshed net contained 329 fishes, as follows : — 

Codling, 
Whiting, - 
Common Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 

The vessel then steamed to the Dornoch Firth, where a few hauls were 
made. The first, with the small- meshed net around the cod-end, lasted 
for an hour, and was made in from 4 to 9 fathoms. The number of 
fish taken was 213 — 178 being marketable and 35 unmarketable. The 
catch included 1 cod, 3 codling, 18 haddocks, all marketable, 156 plaice, 
and a few others. 

A few other hauls were made around a dan, placed in 12 fathoms. 
In the first of these, the drag lasting four hours and twenty minutes, 934 
fishes were secured, of which 811 were marketable. The catch included 
737 plaice, 55 of which were unmarketable, and 117 haddocks, all but ten 
of which were marketable. The next haul was not completely recorded ; 
it included two baskets of medium and one of small plaice, one basket of 
large and one of small haddocks. Another drag made in from 8 to 
12 fathoms, and lasting for five hours, yielded 850 fishes, 742 being 
marketable and 108 unmarketable. Plaice formed the bulk of the catch, 
746 being taken, of which 33 were unmarketable ; only 7 haddocks 
c 



8 


Sand-eel, - 


6 


134 


Herrings, - 


- 129 


18 


Sprats, 


- 23 


1 







30 



Part III. — l\oenti/-third Annual Report 



were taken in Ihis drag, all marketable. In the three recorded hauls, the 
duration of fi.shing being ten hours and twenty minutes, 1999 fishes 
were caught, 1733 being marketable and 2GG unmarketable. The pro- 
portion of large and small haddocks and plaice was as follows : — 

1st 2nd 3rd 4th Unmarketable Total 
Haddocks, 4 18 110 — 10 142 

Plaice, — 406 498 640 95 1639 

The details as to the marketable and unmarketable are these : — 




Some further drags were made in Burghead Bay with, on the whole, 
good catches of fish. The depth was usually from 6 to 9 fathoms, 
the length of the haul about four hours, and the aggregate number of 
fishes for a haul varied from 631 to 1027. Plaice formed the greater 
part of the catches, but there vrere also a good few cod, turbot, and brill, 
while haddocks remained singularly scarce. The aggregate numbers in 
the eleven recorded hauls here during the voye.ge — the duration of the 
fishing being forty-two hours and twenty minutes — were 9253 fishes, 
8032 marketable and 1221 unmarketable. The following Table shows the 
proportion of marketable and unmarketable of each kind : — 





Cod. 


Codling. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Cat-fish. 


Gur- 
nard. 


Coal- 
fish. 


Halibut. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


71 


37 
172 


42 
137 


148 


1 


15 


1 


1 


71 


209 


179 


148 


1 


15 


1 


1 


I. 
II. 

Total 


Turbot. 
15 


Brill. 


Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Witch. 


Common 
Dab. 


Long 

Rough 

Dab. 


Flounder. 


136 


7,530 
50 


8 
1 


17 


530 
623 


32 


2 


15 


136 


7,580 


9 


17 


1,153 


32 


2 




Thorn- 
back. 


Sandy 
Hay. 


Sand Eel. 


Sprat. 


Angler. 


Cottus 
Scorpius. 


Herring. 


I. 
IL 

Total 


6 


1 
16 


1 


1 


41 


1 


11 


6 


17 


1 


1 


41 


1 


11 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



31 



It will be observed that only 179 haddocks were taken, and of these only 
42 were marketable, or a proportion of about one haddock per hour's 
fishing. None of the 148 whitings caught were marketable, while 37 
out of 209 codlings were marketable. There were 15 turbot and 136 
brill, all of them being marketable. The bulk of the marketable fishes 
consisted of plaice, of which altogether 7580 were taken, all but 50 
being marketable. The proportion of large and small among the plaice 
was as follows : — 



1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 


Unmarketable 


Total 


62 


3222 


3854 


394 


50 


7580 



The vessel then steamed to Smith Bank, where a haul was made for 
an hour with the small-meshed net around the cod-end in from 19 to 22 
fathoms. In the trawl-net there were only 28 fishes, viz., a codling, a 
brill, and 26 plaice, all marketable. The small-meshed net contained 1968 
fishes, belonging to ten species, as follows : — 



Codlings, - 


- 53 


Sand-eel, 


1 


Haddock, - 


4 


Armed Bullhead 


1 


Whiting, 


- 1861 


Liparis, 


3 


Gurnard, 


2 


Herring, 


12 


Common Dab, 


- 27 


Sprat, 


4 



On the way to port a few hauls were taken in Aberdeen Bay. a strong 
N.E. wind blowing, with a rough sea and heavy rain. The first drag was 
for an hour, in from 17 to 19 fathoms, in the northern part, off the 
quarries, and the small-meshed net was used. The trawl contained 143 
fishes, of which 103 were marketable. The catch comprised 6 cod, 54 
codling, all marketable, 41 plaice, and a few others. In the next drag in 
the same locality, for four hours and five minutes, in from 17 to 19 
fathoms, 182 fishes were caught, of which 136 were marketable and 46 
unmarketable. Among the former were 19 cod, 24 codling, 2 halibuts, 
and 78 plaice. In neither haul were any haddocks taken. 

The following Table shows the proportion of the marketable and 
unmarketable fishes : — 





Cod. 


Cod- 
ling. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Hali- 
but. 


Plaice. 


Com. 
Dab. 


Long 
Rough 
Dab. 


Thorn- 
back. 


Grey 

Skate. 


Ang- 
ler. 


I. 
II. 

Total 


25 


78 
5 


10 


2 


119 


12 

24 


10 


33 


2 
4 


1 


25 


83 


10 


2 


119 


36 


10 


33 


6 


1 



The total quantity of fish landed hj this vessel, as a result of its trip, 
amounted to 118g cwts., as follows: — 



Cod. 
16S 



Codling. 
3 



Haddock. 
4 

Plaice. 



Turbot. 
1 



Halibut. 
i 



Brill. 
3 



Lemon Dab. 



Dabs. 
3 



Skate. 

3 



Catfish. 



;;2 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Eeport 

A Trip to Taic Faeroe Grounds. 

In April a trip to Faeroe was made by Mr. W. Chalmers, on board the 
steam trawler " Star of the Wave," and records were taken by him and 
the skipper, Mr. 8. Caie, which are here included. The vessel left 
Aberdeen on the morning of the 22nd and arrrived at Faeroe early in the 
morning of the 24th, the voyage occupying forty and a half hours. 
Nearly all the fishing took place to the south-east of Fuglo, in deep water, 
and the weather was stormy, the vessel being compelled to lay to for 
twelve hours. The first haul was made about six and a half miles oflF, 
Fuglu bearing N.W. ; the trawl was dropped in 55 fathoms and hauled 
after four hours in 73 fathoms. The catch comprised 1048 fishes, of 
which all but three were marketable. Here it may be said that the ollal 
or unmarketable fishes in the drags at the Faeroe deep water grounds bear 
a very small proportion to the marketable fishes, and offer a contrast to 
what usually obtains in, say, the Moray Firth. In this haul the number 
of codlings was very large, viz., 520, all of them marketable ; there were 
5 cod, a ling, a tusk, 16 halibuts, 400 haddocks, mostly large and all 
marketable, 30 lemon dabs and 9 plaice, as well as 21 cat-fish, and a few 
others. In the next haul, on the same ground, the net Avas split, and a 
complete record was not made of the catch. It included, however, a 
basket of codling, 1 cod, 906 haddocks (all but 1 marketable), 4 halibuts, 
a ling, 11 cat-fish, 18 plaice, and 28 lemon dabs ; there were 15 offal fish. 
The next drag, also on the same grounds, in from 53 to 57 fathoms, for 
four hours, yielded 898 fish, all but 24 marketable. They consisted of 
the same kinds, codling being less numerous, and the haddocks numbered 
778, all of them being marketable. 

A number of hauls were made on this ground on the 24th and 25th, 
in some of which the net was split, and in one the cod-end (of single 
twine on this occasion for experimental purposes) gave way and most of 
the catch was lost. In one of the drags, for four hours, 15 baskets 
of large haddocks, one of mediums, and one and a half of smalls were 
taken, with about 200 cod, and a number of halibut, plaice, and ling. On 
the afternoon of the 25th the weather was so bad that the vessel had to 
run for shelter, and the next forenoon fishing was resumed about 15 miles 
off Videro in 60 to 67 fathoms, but with poor results, the net being split 
and a gale blowing. In the evening, fishing off Fuglo was resumed, and 
a number of hauls were taken in from 48 to 75 fathoms, haddocks, cod- 
lings, and cod forming the bulk of the catches. 

Altogether the vessel made 29 hauls in the Faeroese waters, leaving for 
Aberdeen on the morning of the 30th, and arriving in the port early on 
the morning of May 2. In some of the hauls the net was torn, and in 
other cases the catch was not completely enumerated. In 17 recorded 
hauls, the aggregate time of fishing being sixty-seven hours and twenty 
minutes, 13,932 fishes were captured, of which 13,767 were marketable 
and 164 unmarketable. The ratio per ten hours of fishing was 2069-2 
fishes, the marketable being 2044-8 and the unmarketable 24-4 per ten 
hours. The total number of the principal species taken in these hauls, 
and the ratio per ten hours' fishing, are given in the following Table : — 



[Table. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 





Cod. 


Cod- 
ling. 


Ling. 


C'oal- 
tish. 


Had- 
dock. 


Whit- 
ing. 


Cat-fish. 


Tusk. 


No. . 
Average 


538 
79-7 


3,275 
486-4 


12 

1-8 


77 
11-4 


8,846 
1312-9 


5 

0-74 


175 
•26-0 


3 

0-44 




Halibut. 


Plaice. 


Lemon 
Dab. 


Common 
Dab. 


Turbot. 


Megrim. 


Angler. 


No. . 
Avornge 


165 
24-5 


191 

28 '4 


331 
49-0 


180 
27-0 


4 
0-6 


1 

15 


61 
9-0 



The number of cod in any of the drags varied greatly— from nil to 
160; the number of codling ranged from 50 to 520 and 484, and in 
these hauls they were all "marketable. The total of haddocks in the 
different hauls varied from 242 to 1153, and they were all marketable. 
Cat-fish were got in each of the 17 drags, their numbers varying from 4 
to 21 ; halibut were t-aken in 16 of the hauls, the numbers ranging from 
nil to 34 in the different hauls. Plaice were also got in each haul, the 
numbers varying from 4 to 27. Among lemon dabs, also taken in each of 
the drags, the numbers varied from 2 to 46. 

At already stated, the proportion of the unmarketable fishes from these 
grounds is small, and the sizes of the marketable are also large. The 
sizes of the haddocks and plaice taken were as follows : — 





1st 


2nd 


3rd 


4th 


Unmarketable 


Total 


Haddock, 


5,999 


535 


1,944 


— . 


— 


8,478 


Plaice, 


175 


16 


— 


— 


— 


191 



The haddocks in one of the hauls referred to, 362 in number, Avere not 
classiKed ; and among the " 1st " in the above list are a number of " extra 
large." 

One haul was made for thirty minutes with a small-meshed net around 
the cod-end, in from 58 to 63 fathoms, south-east of Fuglo. The catch in 
the cod-end numbered 114 fishes, all marketable, comprising 1 cod, 48 
codling, 49 haddocks, 2 cat-fish, 1 halibut, 2 plaice, 3 lemon dabs, 7 
common dabs, and 1 thornback. Only 9 fishes were in the small-meshed 
net, viz. 3 haddocks, 253, 257, and 271mm. ; 1 common dab, of 159mm., 
and 5 sand-eels. 

Among the halibut were some small ones whicb were brought back and 
measured ; they ranged from 220mm. to 312mm. (eight and three-quarter 
inches to twelve and a quarter inches), and Avere 7 in number. 

The cod were stated to be spawning, and the haddocks far advanced. 
The quantity of the roes of haddocks and cod obtained and brought to 
market Avas ten and a half boxes. 

According to the market statistics, the total quantity of fish landed 
from this voyage amounted to 39 1| cwts., as follows : — 



Cod. Codling. 
\\\i 84 



Ling. 
6 



Tusk. 



Saithe. 
16 



Haddock. 
112 



Dabs. Skate. Cat-fish. 
f 2 26 



Halibut. 
lOi 



Monk. 
2 



Lemon Dab. 
6 



Plaice. 
14 



34 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



Place 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 




Remarks. 




» 


Q 








No 


No. 








< 


1 


s 

o 

oa 


Fms. 


o 


1 


Name. 


taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 

No. 






1904. 
























1. Aber- 


Jan. 14. 








5 to 


7.0 


11.5 


Cod, 


2 




2 




deen Bay, 










20 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


57 


9 


66 




off New- 
















Haddock (1), 


123 








burgh. 
















„ (2), . . 
„ (3), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (3), .. 
Starry Ray, 


79 
54 
— 256 

'45 


"s 

5 
"5 


264 
5 
45 

5 




360 


27 


387 


2- II 


" 


41-7 


45'3 


48-0 


4i to 
!) 


11.30 
a.m. 


3.30 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock U), 

Whiting 

Plaice (3), 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Herring, . . 
Sprat, 


1 

79 
20 

'20 

28 


ii 

18 

"1 
4 
14 

22 


1 
79 
31 
18 
20 
29 

4 
14 
22 


Wind S.W. ; strong 
breeze ; rain. 


148 


70 


218 


3. 


" 








8 to 9 


3.55 
p.m. 


8.0 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

II (2), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (3), 
„ (4). 

Starry Ray, 


2 
50 
187 
30 
— 217 

2" 

4 

— 6 


"3 
4 

ii 


2 
53 

2i7 
4 

"e 
11 




275 


18 


293 


4. Off 


Jan. 1" 








25 


3.30 


7.30 


Cod, 


20 




20 


S. W. strong breeze. 


Lybster. 












a.m. 


a.m. i Codling 


12 


3 


15 




















Haddock (3), 


46 


100 


146 




















Whiting 




15 


15 




















Plaice (1), 


4 
























„ (2), 


IS 
























„ (3), 


83 
























II (4), 


28 
— 128 




i28 


1 


















Com. Dab, . . 




28 


28 


1 


206 


146 


352 


5. 




42-4 


46-9 


47-0 


34 to 


10.0 


2.10 


Cod 


3 




3 


S.W. light breeze; 












36 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(4)i .. 

Whiting, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 

II (2), .. 

,1 (3) 

Com. Dab, 
Starry Ray, 


4 

12 

10 
135 
— 157 

"1 

36 
76 
50 
— 162 


24 

io 


4 

sis 

24 
1 

162 
10 

582 


sea smooth. 




330 


192 








1 











Il 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



35 



6. Off 
Lybster. 



1904. 
Jan. 17, 



Temperature. 



Depth 

in 
Fms. 



34 to 
35 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



2.50 
p.m. 



7.0 
p.m. 



7.30 
p.m. 



46-6 



47 



32 to 
34 



5.0 
a.m. 



11.30 
p.m. 



9.20 
a.m. 



Fish Caught. 



11.0 12 
a.m. noon 



Cod, 

Codling', . . 

Haddock (1), 
„ (2), 
„ (4), 

Whiting, . . 
Coal-fish, .. 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3), .. 

Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Skate, 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Coal-fish, .. 

Haddock (1), 
„ (2), 
,. (4), 

Whiting, .. 

Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), . 

„ (3), .. 

Com. Dab, . . 

Skate, 

Angler, 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 
„ (2), 
„ (4), 

Whiting, . . 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. 

., (3), .. 

Com. Dab, . . 

Skate, 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 

,. (2). 

Plaice (2), . . 



No. 
taken to 
Market. 



1 

7 
4 
2 
94 
— 100 

1 
38 

109 
48 
— 195 

2 



No. 
thrown 
Over- 
board. 



Total 
No. 



1 
6 
2 
9 
14 
168 
— 191 

14" 
61 
32 
—107 

"3 
3 



313 



14 
140 
— 162 

10" 
45 
73 
—128 



1 
3 

60 

43 

— 103 
1 

108 



104 
16 



KO 
4 



204 

16 

1 



460 



291 
14 



107 

48 

10 

3 



488 



254 
25 



128 

28 



103 
1 



Remarks. 



2 Net split. 



Net all split. 

Left for Sandside 
Bay, but forced to 
return ; too much 
wind in Pentl«nd 
Firth. 



36 



r<iri lll.—Tv:eniii-llnrd Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




a) , d 




. 






No. 








< 


S 


S 
o 


Fms. 


o 


01 

1 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1904. 
























10. Off 


Jan. 18. 








25 to 


4.30 


8.30 


Codling, . . 


12 


17 


29 




Lybster. 










26 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), .. 
(2), .. 
(4), .. 

Whiting 

Brill, 

Lemon Dab, 
Plaice (1), 

„ (2), .. .. 

Com. Dab, 

Long Rough Dali, 


10 
2 

72 

— 84 

1 
33 
7 
31 

— 38 


i90 
38 

.. 

'72 

7 


274 

38 

1 

33 

'38 
72 

7 




168 


324 


492 


11. „ 


Jan. 18 










9.35 


1.35 


Cod, 


2 










and 9. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
„ (4), . . 

Whiting, .. 


14 

6 

8 
143 
— 1,57 


11 

'96 
30 


25 

253 
30 


















Plaice (1), . . 


6 
























„ (2), . . 


38 
























„ (3), . . 


40 

— 84 




'84 




















Com. Dab, . . 




46 


46 




















Skate, 


4 




4 




















Angler, 




8 


8 




261 


191 


452 


12. „ 


Jan. 19. 


44-4 


46-7 


46-0 


23 to 
24 


3.30 
a. m. 


S.0 
a. m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock a), 

(2), .. 

(+), ■ • 

Whiting, .. 
Brill, 

Lemon Dab, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2) 

„ (3), .. .. 

Herring, . . 

Skate, 

Angler, 


6 
14 
30 

28 

— 72 

1 
6 
3 
14 
16 

— 33 




17 

161 

42 

1 

6 

'33 
1 
2 

i 


S.W. light breeze ; 
sea smooth. 


118 


146 


264 


13. Sandside 


Jan. 20. 








40 to 


1.30 


5.35 


God 


1 




1 




Bay 










43 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
„ (4), .. 

Whiting, . . 
Grey Gurnard, . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3), .. 

Com. Dab, , . 

Skate, 

Dog-fish 


4 

28 
41 . 

— 71 

'so 

9 
20 
16 

— 45 
IS 


6 

'68 
20 
14 

16 
31 


10 

i39 
20 
14 
30 

"45 
18 
16 
31 




169 


155 


324 













of the. Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 



37 







Temperature. 


Depth 
in 

Fms. 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


Remark?. 


Place. 


Date. 




1 


1 


Q 


■2 
■3 


No. 
Name. taken to 


No. 

thrown 

Over- 


Total 

No. 






< 


3 


1 




Si 






Market. 


board. 






14. Sand- 


1904. 
Jan. 20. 


45-1 


47-5 


47-7 


28 to 


C.IO 


10.20 


Cod, 


1 


"3 


1 
3 




side Bay. 










40 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling-, . . 
Haddock (1), 


3" 




















,, (2), 


28 
























13), 


10 
























'4), 


21 
— 62 


'44 


ioo 




















Whitinft-, .. 




12 


12 




















Grey Gurnard, .. 




16 


IG 




















Lemon Dab, 


'28 




28 




















Plaice (1), .. 


11 
























„ <2) 


26 
























;, (3',.. .. 


30 
— 67 




'67 




















Com. Dal), . . 


17 




17 




175 


75 


250 




1,1. Off Ord 
of Caith- 


Jan. 21. 


42 1 


48-2 


46-5 


23 to 
24 


a.m. 


9.30 
a.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock 'li. 


19 
4 
19 


'i2 


19 
16 


Wind S.W. ; very 
squally at nights. 


ness. 
















'21 

Whiting, .. 
Lemon Dab, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), .. 

„ (31, .. 

Com. Dab, .. 
Long Rougli Dab, 
Angler, 


26 
14 

— 59 

io 

11 

27 
40 

— 78 


■48 
4 

i28 
27 
16 


107 
4 
10 

'78 

128 

27 

16 




170 


235 


405 




16. ,, 










23 to 


11.0 


3.15 


Cod, 


1 




1 














25 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (11, 

:; '3': :: 

Whiting, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Plaice (1), . . 

,, (2) 

::?::: :: 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Skate 


3 

2 
48 
10 

— 60 

"1 
16 
14 

-^ 

7 

— 84 

"i 


2 

"78 
17 

i46 

28 

6 


5 

i38 

17 

1 

16 

'84 

146 

28 

10 




169 


277 


446 




17. „ 










23 to 


4.0 


8.15 


Cod 


2 




2 














24 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 


6 
1 


2 


S 




















„ I2», ..|12 
























;, <3>, 


10 
















i 








— 23 


30 


'53 




















Whiting, . . 




1 


1 




















Lemon Dab, 


"7 




7 




















Plaice (1), . . 


16 
























„ (2)... 


32 
























„ (3), .. 


20 
— 68 




'68 




















Com. Dab, 




'17 


17 




















Angler 




5 


5 




106 


55 


161 













38 



Part III.—Twmty-third Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 





Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 






1 


Place. 




t 


Depth 
in 










Remarks. 1 


Date. 




aJ 


S 
o 










No. 1 










1 

&4 


Fms. 


o 


3 


Name. 


No. 
aken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 


1 







< 


3 
03 


1 




J3 






Market. 


board. 


'P 


1904. 
























18. Off Ord 


Jan. 21 








23 to 


9.0 


1.10 


Cod, 










of Caith- 


and 22. 








24 


p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling 


8 




8 




ness. 
















Haddock (1), 

„ (2), . . 
„ (3). .. 


4 
36 

18 

— 58 


41 


'99 


















Whiting, .. 




5 


5 


















Plaice (1), . . 


17 


-. 






















„ (2) 


30 
























„ (3), .. 


22 

— 69 




'69 




















Com. Dab, 




'32 


32 




















Long Rough Dab, 




14 


14 




















Skate 


3 




3 




















Angler 




i2 


12 




138 


104 


242 


19. „ 


Jan. 22. 








24 


7.0 
a.m. 


11.5 
a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), •• 

Whiting, .. 
Cat-fish, .. 
Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3) 

„ (4) 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab , 
Skate 


10 
2 
15 
22 
13 

50 

"l 

8 
20 
37 

5 

— 70 

"5 


'87 
8 

'36 

14 


10 

2 

i37 

8 

1 

■70 

36 

14 

5 


Wind N.W., strong 
breeze ; ver.v dull. 


138 


145 


283 


20. „ 




41-0 


48-7 


45J-0 


24 to 
25 


11.45 
a.m. 


4.10 
p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3), .. 

Whiting 

Cat-fish, . . 
Conger-Eel, 
Plaice (1),.. 

„ (2) 

„ (3) 

„ (4) 

Com. Dab 

Long Rough Dab, 
Skate, 


"2 

"1 
2 
11 
26 
29 
6 
— 72 

'"2 


8 

162 
16 

'50 

21 

3 


8 
2 

162 
16 

1 
2 

'72 

50 

21 

5 




79 


200 


279 


21. „ 










23 to 


4.35 


8.45 


Cod, 


4 




4 














25 


p.m 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 


7 
16 


' 5 


12 






i 












,, (2), 


20 


























— 36 


"92 


128 




















Whiting, . . 




21 


21 




















Plaice (1) 


14 
























„ (2) 


22 
























„ (3), .. .. 


10 
— 46 




'46 




















Com. Dab, . . 




'30 


30 




















Long Rough Dab, 


.. 


26 


25 




















Skate 


2 


2 


4 


■ 


95 


1 175 


270 






1 





of the Fisher 11 Board Jor Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 



39 



Temperature. 



Place. 



Date. 



1904. 
22. Witch Jan. 23. 
Ground, 
off Kin- I 
naird 
Head. 



Depth 

in 
Fms. 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



Fish Caught. 



40 to 
15 



4.30 
a.m. 



1 No. 
No. I thrown 



8.45 
a.m 



Name. 



taken to 
Market. 



Cod 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(4), •• 

Whiting, .. 

Witch, ' . . 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 



Over- 
board. 



78 



(658) 
(294) 

1(2,142) 
(1,281) 



168 (4,375) 



Remarks. 



Total 

No. 



"Offal" consisted 
of seven baskets, 
one of which was 
counted. 



40 



Part HI. — Tiw.nty-lhird Annual llrj)ort 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



Place. 



1. Burghead 
Bay. 



Date. 



1904. 
Mar. 28. 



Temperature. 



Mar. 28 
and 29. 



UsiX. 29. 



Depth 

in 
Fins. 



9 to 30 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



4. ,30 
p. m. 



6 to 16 



4 to 10 



8.30 
p.m. 



8.55 12.55 
p.m. a.m. 



1.15 
a.m. 



5.35 
a.m. 



Fish Caught. 



I No. 
No. thrown 
taken to Over- | 
Market, board. 



Total 
No. 



Cod, 

Codling:, . . 
Coal-fish . . 
Haddock (3), 
Whiting, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

,, (3), . . 

Lemon Dab (1), 
Witch (I), .. 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab 
Thornbaok Ray, 
Angler, 
Herring, . . 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (3), 
Whiting, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

» (2),.. 

„ (3),.. 

,. (4), .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback Ray, 
Angler, 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 

(3), 

Whiting, .. 
Cat-fish, 
Grev Gurnard, 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), . . 

„ (3), . . 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch, 

Com. Dab, . . 

Long Rough Dab 

Thornback, 

Angler, 

Lumpsucker, 



2 
200 
130 

5 
24 



!06 



-222 

19 

112 

53 



28 
104 

70 
100 



-302 
20 
15 
90 
33 
7 



574 



3 
1 

17 
— 18 
7 



23 
45 
SO 
120 

— 245 

10 



80 



11 



19 

313 

14 

6 

17 
5 



20 
270 



5 
191 
4 
1 
1 



8 

2 

220 

150 

5 

24 



222 

19 

131 

366 

14 

17 

17 

5 



325 
20 
35 

360 
41 



317 
12 
14 
271 
4 
12 
1 











of the Fis) 


Lcry 


Board foo' Scotland. 








41 


TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 








Daie. 




Depth 
in 








Remarks. 


Place. 




6 


rj 




■d 




, No. 










£ 


o 


Fms. 








No. 


thrown 


Total 








c 


t- 


ij 




o 


3 
c3 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


5 


ffl 




E5 


ffi 




Market, 


board. 








1904. 
























4. Burghead 


Mar. 29. 








4toie 


5.5U 


11.10 


Cod, 


2 




2 




Bay. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 


16 
15 


"9 


25 


















(3), .. 


150 
— 1C5 


43 


26s 




















Whiting, .. 


CO 


15 


75 




















Cat-fish, . . 


4 




4 




















Grey Gurnard, . . 


11 


7 


18 












i 






Turbot, 


2 




2 




















Brill, 


13 




13 




















Plaice (1), .. 


:^3 
























„ (2),.. .. 


92 
























„ (3),.. 


226 
























„ (4) 


235 
— 57G 




576 




















Lemon Dab, 


30 




30 




















Witch, 


5 


16 


21 




















P^ounder, . . 




9 


9 




















Com. Dab, . . 


2C0 


856 


1116 




















Long Rough Dab, 




180 


180 




















Angler 


'23 


5 


28 




















Herring, . . 




8 


8 




















Thornback, 


'i4 


1 


15 




















Lumpsucker, 




1 


1 






1181 


1150 


2331 


5. Ofl" Los- 
siemouth. 


J, 








13 


1.35 
p.m. 


5.35 
p.m. 


Cod, 
Codling, .. 


1 
2 






1 
2 


Trawling round 
*' Dan." 


liOSsiemoiilli 
















Haddock (1), 


6 










liearing- W. 
















(2), .. 
(3), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Grey Gurnard, . . 

Brill 

Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2),.. 

„ (3) 

„ W 

Lemon Dab, 



30 

— 30 
24 
1 
10 
8 
9 
43 
39 
16 
— 107 
2 






'36 
24 

1 
10 

8 

i67 

2 




















Long Rough Dab, 




10 


• 10 




















Com. Dab, . . 




68 


68 




















Ijumpsucker, 




1 


1 






191 


79 


270 


C. Off 


Mar. 30. 








44 to 


12.40 


5.0 


Cod, 


S 




s 




Burghead. 










45 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling 

Hake 

Haddock (1), 

.. (2), . . 

„ (3), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Gre\' Gurnard, . . 
Brifl 


4 

67 

28 

693 

— 788 

146 

3 

1 


2 

•29 
6 

1 


6 
5 

817 

152 

4 

1 




















Plaice (1), . . 


5 


























„ (2, .. 


13 


























„ (3),.. 


2 
— 20 






'20 




















Witch, 


180 


'39 


269 




















Lemon Dab, 


105 


1 


106 




















Megrim, . . 


1 




1 




















Com. Dab, . . 


14 


"69 


83 




















Angler, 


5 


2 


7 




















Long Rough Dab, 




150 


150 




















Thornback, 


'.'. 9 


9 






1280 


35S 


1638 










I 







42 



Fart III. — Ticenty-ihird AnniLol Report 









TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE L 






Place. 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


Remarks. 




6 


A 










No. 










^ 


O 


Fms. 


, 


(U 




No. 


thrown 


Total 








.. 




-w 




r, 


g 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


3 


S 




J3 


K 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 
























7. Off 


iMar. 30. 








44 to 


5.20 


8.55 


Cod, 


( 




7 




Burghead. 










45 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


3 




3 




Covesea, 
















Haddock (1), 


138 








S.W. by W. 
















(2), . . 
(3). .. 

Whiting, . . 

Hake 

Grey Gurnard, . . 

Brill 

Plaice (1),.. 

„ (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch 

Megrim, . . 
Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Herring, . . 
Norway Pout, 
Angler", 
Grey Skate, 
Thornback, 

Bib, 

Lumpetiittt, 


102 
1658 

1898 

246 
17 
1 
1 
3 
C 
1 
— 10 
26 
245 
1 
25 

"s 


29 
5 

"l 
37 

98 

1358 

1 

10 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 


1927 

251 

17 

1 
1 

"io 

27 

282 

1 

123 

1358 

1 

10 

5 

2 

1 

1 

2 




2483 


1547 


4030 


8. 










16 to 


9.15 


11.40 


Cod 


4 




4 














44 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Ling, 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Grey Gurnard, . . 

BriU 

Plaice (1), . . 

>, (2) 

„ (3), . . 


3 

2 
30 
24 
762 

— 816 
138 
13 
3 
9 
25 
11 


3 

'21 
1 

7 


6 
2 

837 

139 

20 

3 




















Lernon Dab, 

Witch 

Com. Dab,.. 
Long Rough Dab, 
Angler, 
Norway Pout, 


45 

45 
4 

8 

2 


"6 
2 

90 
212 

1 
1 


45 

51 

6 

98 

212 

3 

1 




1083 


344 


1427 


9. Dornoch 










5 toll 


3.30 


7.30 


Cod, 


69 




69 


Weather fine ; sea 


Firth. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Thornback Ray, .. 
Grey Skate, 


1 

2 

7 

1 

133 

7 

1 

30 

95 

8 


"5 

"e 

28 
4 
3 


1 
2 

7 

1 

138 

7 

1 

36 

123 

12 

3 


smooth. 


354 


46 


400 









o/ the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



43 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




t 


c 










No. 










c3 


o 


Fms. 


, 






No. 


thrown 










< 


U 

CO 






o 




Name. 


taken to 
Market. 


Over- 
board. 


No. 






1904. 
























10. Dornoch 


Mar. 30. 








5 to 


8.0 


12.0 


Cod, 


43 




43 




Firth. 










16 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Cat-fish, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. .. 

,. (3) 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Flounder, . . 
Thornback Ray, . . 
Grey Skate, 


2 

16 
14 
57 
— 87 
1 
6 
30 
19 
5 


"2 

2 

"5 


2 

'87 
1 
S 
38 
19 
10 




11. „ 


Mar. 31. 








10 to 


1.0 


5.0 


Sprat, 

Cod 




2 


2 




199 


11 


210 


282 




282 












15 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock, . . 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 


5 

3 

13 

8 

— 21 

9 

7 




5 
3 

"21 

9 




12. „ 










10 to 


.5.55 


10.0 


Thornback, 

Cod 


6 









333 




333 


259 




259 












10 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Brill, 

Plaice (1), . . 
„ (2) 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch 

Flounder, . . 
Com. Dab, 


1 
1 

2 
31 
14 

45 

7 
6 
4 

1 


1 

"2 

4 


2 
1 
2 
2 

'45 
7 
6 
6 
5 




13. „ 




441 


41-5 


41-4 


5 to 


10.50 


2.50 


Thornback Ray, . . 
Cod, 


24 


7 


31 




352 


14 


366 


43 




43 












10 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Coal-fish 

Cat-fish, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

,, (2),.. 

„ (3) 

„ (4) 

Flounder, .. 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback, 


2 
2 
15 
31 
73 
147 

— 266 

82 

1 

20 

20 


1 

"5 


2 
2 
2 

267 

82 

1 

25 

20 




14. „ 










7 to 


5.25 


9.25 


Grey Skate, 
Cod, 




6 


6 




438 


12 


450 


58 




58 












15 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 

Haddock (1), 
C-tt-fish, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 

,. (2) 

„ (4),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 

Witch 

Flounder, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Thornback, 
Grey Skate, 


3 

24 
5 
11 
13 

5 
— 29 

8 

1 

18 

*i5 


"3 

"9 


3 

24 
5 

29 
8 
1 

18 
3 

15 
9 




161 


12 


173 



44 



Part III. — Tweiity-tkird Annual Rcqiort 











TRAWLING INVESTKiATIONS— TABLE 


I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down . 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 




6 


^ 




ri 






No. 










1 


3 


Fins. 




S 




No. 


thrown 


Total 
















o 


c3 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


C/2 


o 

a 

41-8 




J3 


rM 




Market. 


board. 




1. From off 


1904. 
April 1. 




41-3 


goto 


9.0 


10.0 


Cod, 


7 




7 




Findhorn 










32 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Coal-fish, .. 


1 




1 




to off 
















Haddock (1), 


5 








Bm-g-liead. 
















(2), 
(3), 



























IC 


1 


'i? 




















Whiting, . . 


17 


3 


20 




















Witch, 


1G5 


10 


175 




















Megrim, . . 


1 




1 




















Lemon Dab, 


9 




9 




















Com. Dab, . . 


10 


2 


12 




















Long Rough Dab, 


1 


13 


14 




















Flounder, . . 


1 


3 


4 




















Thornback, 


1 




1 




















Angler 




13 


13 




















Herring, . . 




27 


27 




















Norway Pout, 




40 


40 




















Luinpeniis, 




12 


12 




















Sprat, 




3 


3 




229 


127 


356 


2. Smith 










22 


3.20 


4.5 


Codling, .. 


10 




12 


Net caught on bot- 


Bank. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1, 2), . . 
(3), . . 

WTiiting, . . 
Cat-fish, . . 
Plaice, 
liBmon Dab, 


20 

15 

— 41 
3 
3 
2 



"l 
1 


'42 
4 
3 

2 
G 


tom and was 
hauled. Small- 
meshed net ex- 
periment. 


65 


4 


69 


3. Deep 
Hole, off 


Sept. 2S. 




541 


535 


75 


11.45 


1.45 


Cod 

Codling, . . 


44 

150 


20 


44 
170 




Fraser- 
















Ling, 




1 


1 




burgh. 
















Haddock (1), 


110 
























., (2), .. 
(3), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Grej' Gurnard, . . 

Cat-fish 

Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 

Megrim 

Long Rough Dab, 
Grey Skate, 


99 
421 

— C30 
44 

1 
18 

1 
11 

1 


ii 

44 
C 


825 
44 
11 

1 
18 

1 
11 
44 




900 


277 


1177 


4. Burghead 


Sept. 20. 








5 to 8 


1.20 


5.30 


Codling, . . 


1 




1 




Ba>. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), 

Grey Gurnard, . 
SapphirineGurnard , 
Lemon Dab, 
Plaice (3), . . 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Thornback, 
Angler, 


7 

3 
CI 
— 71 

2 
108 

2 


300 
5 

1 

"8 

92 

C 

1 


371 
5 
1 
2 

116 

92 

6 

2 

1 




184 


413 


597 




























... 



of the Fishery Board far iScoUand. 



45 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 

in 












Remarks. 




» 


^ 










No. 










C3 


o 


Fms. 


^ 






No. 


thrown 


Total 
No. 








^ 


;- 


s 




o 


ri 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 








-j^ 


x 


« 




t/j 


K 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 
























5. Burghead 


Sept. 29. 








G to 


6.5 


10.15 


Codling, .. 


3 




3 




Bay. 










Ul 


a. ni. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), .. 

Grey Gurnard, . . 
Whiting, . . 
Plaice (3), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab,.. 
Thornback, 
Angler, 


20 

45 
430 
495 

27 

27 

3 

1 


699 
32 
16 

35 
1 


1194 
32 
43 

27 

3 

35 

1 
1 




556 


783 


1339 


C. Between 






54 


540 


7 to 


11.15 


2.30 


Cod 


4'J 




42 




Lossie- 










12 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


15 




15 




mouth and 
















Haddock (1), 


25 


•■ 






Burghead. 
















(2), .. 
(3), .. 

Whiting 

Grey Gupnard, . . 

Plaice 

Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Angler, 
Com. Dab, . . 


It 

138 

— 177 
33 

" U 

7 
2 


i70 

6 

22 

4 

9 


347 
39 
22 
11 

7 
2 
4 
9 




287 


211 


498 


7. ,, 


-• 








9 to 
10 


4.55 
p.m. 


9.30 
p. m. 


Cod, 

Codling 

Haddock (1), 

(■2), 

(3), 

Whiting, . . 
Grev Gurnard, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, .. 
Angler, , . . 


14 
22 
15 
250 

— 287 

"l45 
5 


300 
18 

28 

55 
33 


14 

587 
18 
28 

145 

5 

55 

33 




458 


434 


892 


8. Between 


Sept. 29 








StolO 


10.0 


20 


Cod, 


2 




2 




Hopeman 


and 30. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


9 




9 




and Cove- 
















Whiting, .. 




15 


15 




sea Light. 
















Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 
„ (3), .. 

Grey Gurnard, . . 

Brill 

Plaice 

Lemon Dab, 
Black Sole, 
Com. Dab,.. 

Angler 

Thornback, 
Wrasse, 


19 
33 

175 

227 

3 

423 

4 

4 

4 

1 


"l9 

89 
42 


227 

19 

3 

423 

4 

4 

89 

42 

4 

1 




677 


165 


842 









46 



Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 









•1 


L'RAV 


VLl^J 


a Lis 


VKS 


riGATIONS— Ti 


\.BLE 


I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught. 






riai'e. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 










Remarks. 




a) 


jj 




■6 






No. 










ci 


S 


Fms. 


o 


1 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


CO 


p 




03 


tn 




Market. 


board, 






1904. 
























9. Off 


Sept. 30. 




53'5 


54-0 


7 to 9 


C.55 


11.15 


Codling, . . 


6 


1 


7 




Ilopenian. 












a.m 


a m. 


Haddock (1), 

:: it :: 

Grev Gurnard, . . 

Brill, 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Thornback, 


3 

5 

16 

— 24 

1 
53 
77 

— 130 

11 
9 
1 


34 
123 

i44 


'58 
123 

1 

130 

11 

153 

1 




182 


302 


484 




10. Off 










17 


1.0 


2.45 


Codling 


2 




2 




Lossie- 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 


97 








mouth. 
















(2), .. 
(3), 


67 
150 
— 314 




3i4 




















Whiting, .. 


9 .. 


9 




















Grey Gurnard, . . 




200 


200 




















Plaice (1),.. 


30 
























„ (2),.. 


50 
— 80 




"so 






















405 


200 


605 




11. Between 










7 to 9 


3.25 


7.30 


Cod, 


3 




3 




Lossiemouth 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


6 




6 




and 
















Haddock (2), 


48 


25 


73 




Burghead. 
















Grey Gurnard, . . 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), .. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Angler, 
Thornback, 


1 
3 

14 

31 
— 45 
1 
3 


132 

'41 
2 

1 


132 
1 
3 

'45 

1 
44 

2 

1 




110 


201 


311 


12 „ 


Sept. 30 








7 to 


9.35 


1.30 


Cod, 


4 




4 


A few crabs. 




&Oct. 1 








10 


p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 

Lvthe 

Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3). .. 

Whiting, .. 
Grey Gurnard, . . 

Turbot 

Brill, 

Lemon Dab, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. .. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Angler, 


32 
5 
23 

80 
443 

— 546 

2 
8 
7 

143 

209 

352 

14 


19 

879 

7 

201 

"6 

1068 

3 


51 
5 

1425 
7 
201 
2 
8 
7 

358 

1082 

3 




















Thornback, 


2 


2 


4 




972 


2185 


3157 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 



47 



13 Between 

Ijossiemouth 

and 

Burghead. 



1904 
Oct. 1. 



Temperature. 



14. Dornoch 
Firth. 



Depth 
in 

Fnis. 



to 10 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



•2.55 
a.m. 



6.45 
a.m. 



Fish Caught. 



16. Off 
Lybster. 



10 to 
12 



9.35 
a.m. 



Cod, 

Codling, . 
Coal-fisli, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2). 

(3), 

Gre.v Gurnard, 
Turbot, 
Brill 

Plaice (1), . . 
n (2), . . 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Angler, 



10.40 
a m. 



6 to 10 



Oct. 3. 



53-9 53-9 



Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 
(2), 
(3), 

Grey Gurnard, 
Plaice 
Com. Dab, 



4 p.m. 



26 to 
34 



8.20 
a.m. 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Grej' Gurnard, 
Plaice (1), .. 
„ (2). .. 

Com. Dab, 
Thornback, 



12 30 
p.m 



No 
No. thrown 
taken to Over- 
Market, board. 



121 
2 



Total 
No. 



Remarks. 



259 



154 

64 

1 

2 



91 

2 

121 

2 



453 



93 
83 
506 



682 
12 



Codling, 
Haddock (1), 
(2), 
,. (3), 

Whiting, .. 
Grey Gurnard, 
Plaice 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab 
Thornback, 
Dog-fish, . . 
A)igler. 



742 
22 
12 
30 



3 
32 
305 



340 
4 



811 

4 

60 

9 

58 

14 



A quantity of squid 



48 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLP] I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 














Depth 














Place. 


Date. 




S 


i 


in 




■c 






No. 




Remarks. 








C3 


Fms. 








No. 


thrown 


Total 
No. 








c 


u 


■^ 




o 


"3 


Name 


taken to 


Over- 








< 


3 
CO 


o 






K 




Market. 


hoard. 






1904 
























17. Smith 


Oct. 3. 






53-8 


19 to 


2.0 


3.10 


Codling, . . 


1 




1 


Small-meshed net 


Bank, about 










20 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Whiting 


1 




1 


experiment. Tow- 


middle. 
















Haddock (1), 

„ (2), . . 
., (3), .. 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2) 

Grey Gurnard, . . 
Com. Dab, 


8 

4 

67 

79 

'i 
11 
- — • 13 


76 


'79 

"i3 

(2670) 
76 


ed S.S.W. and 
back. Fifteen bas- 
kets of gurnards ; 
one (counted con- 
tained 178, large 
and small. 


18. Aberdeen 


Oct. 4. 








6 to 13 


12.20 


4.30 


Haddock (1). 


4 








Bay, N. of 












a.m. 


a.m. 


(2), .. 


2 








NewlDurgh. 
















„ (3), .. 

Whiting 

Grej- Gurnard, . . 

Plaice (3) 

I..emon Dab, 

Com. Dab, 

Long Rough Dab, 


33 
39 

48 

" 99 

1 

55 


103 
21 
13 

3 


142 
69 
13 
99 

1 

55 

3 




19. Aberdeen 






53-0 


53-2 


5 to 13 


5.15 


9.20 


Angler, 
Haddock, . . 




2 


2 




24-; 


142 


384 


2 




2 


Bay. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Turbot, . . 
Plaice (1) 

„ (2), .. .. 

„ (3),.. 

Lemon Dab, 


5 
36 
98 
131 

265 

2 




5 
265 




20. Aberdeen 


Nov. 8. 


49^ 


49-0 


50-0 


11 to 


11.45 


3.0 


Com. Dab. 
Cod, 




298 


293 


N.W. good breeze ; 


274 


298 


572 


9 




9 


Bav. 










13 


a.m. 


p.m 


Codling, . . 


56 


"7 


63 


sea choppy. 


Shot off 
















Haddock (1), 


43 








Black Dog 
















m. 


25 








and trawled 
















(3). 


102 








as far as 


















170 


'15 


185 




Newburgh. 
















Whiting 

Grey Gurnard, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Turbot, . . 
Plaice (2), .. 
„ (3),.. .. 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Skate, 


51 

1 
3 
31 
42 

73 

59 


103 

1 

i64 

27 
5 


154 
1 
1 
3 

'73 

163 

27 

5 




21. Aberdeen 










7 to 12 


3.30 


6.35 


Angler, 

Cod 




5 


5 


N.W. strong 


422 


267 


689 


12 




12 


Ba.'v. Off 












p.m. 


p m. 


Codling, . . 


13 




13 


breeze. 


Newburgh. 
















Haddock (1), 
(2), 

Whiting, .. 

Ling, 

Grey Gurnard, . . 

Plaice (2) 

., (3) 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Skate, 
Angler, 


51 
20 

— 71 

1 

s' 

7 

15 


io 

26 

"s 

'33 

12 
46 

2 


'81 
26 

1 
8 

is 
33 
12 

46 

2 




112 


137 


249 














• 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



49 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 




a> 


^• 




-^ 




N 


0. 












s 
o 


Fms. 


^ 






No. thrc 


)wn ^ 


tal 








^ 


u 






o 


1 


Name. 


taken to Ov 


Td. N 










< 


3 


1 




S 


K 




Market, boa 






22. Aberdeen 


1904. 
Nov. S. 








aato 


7.10 


10.15 


Cod, 


13 




13 


Wind S. ; moderate 


Bay. 










13 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 

Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (2), . . 

., (3) 

Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Skate, 


9 
1 

8 
14 

— 22 

lo" 

16 

— 26 


3 

26 

31 
10 
79 


9 
1 

25 
20 

26 
31 
10 
79 


breeze. 


23. Aberdeen 


Not. 8 










10.45 


2.30 


Angler, 
Cod, 




2 


2 


1 
Wind S. , increasing 


71 1 


51 2 


22 


4 




4 


Bay. Off 


and 9. 










p.m. 


a. ni. 


Codling, . . 


18 




18 


in force. 


Coliieston. 
















Haddock, . . 
Whiting, . 
Plaice (2), . . 

„ (3) 

Com. Dab, 

Long Rough Dab, 

Skate, 


17 
18 
15 

12 
— 27 


i4 

53 

22 
'9 
46 


31 

71 

27 

22 

9 

46 




24. Aberdeen 


Nov. 9. 








5 to 10 


3.0 


f..20 


Angler, 

Cod 




2 


2 


Offal not recorded. 


84 1 


46 2 


30 


3 






Bay. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


18 








Between 
















Haddock (1), 


27 








Newburgh 
















(2), .. 


18 








and 
















(3), . . 


8 








Black Dog. 
















Plaice^2) 

„ (3),.. :. 


— 53 
11 

17 

— 28 








25. Aberdeen 




470 


49-0 


50-0 


4jto 


6.45 


11.10 


Com. Dab, . . 
Cod, 


13 






Moderate breeze ; 


115 






10 




10 


Bay. Off 










12 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


57 




57 


sea choppy ; rain. 


Coliieston. 
















Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
(3), .. 

Whiting 

Plaice (2), . . 
„ (3), .. 

Com. Dab 

Long Rough Dab, 
Skate, 


190 

50 

27 
— 267 

64" 

39 

— 103 


il 2 
47 

'. i 
20 

13 
64 


78 
47 

03 
20 
13 
64 




26. Aberdeen 










Tito 


11.45 


3 50 


Angler, 
Cod, 




1 


1 




437 1 


56 5 


93 


14 




14 


Bay. 










12 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


28 


'2 


30 




Between 
















Haddock (1), 


104 








Black Dog 
















(2), 


34 








and 


















— 138 


13 i 


51 




CoUieeton. 
















Whiting 

Coal-flsh 

Halibut, . . 

Plaice (2) 

•, (3) 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Skate, 


"l 
1 
73 
29 
— 102 


38 

'. i 
20 
5 
53 


38 

1 
1 

i)2 

20 
5 
53 




284 1 


31 4 


15 



50 



Part III. — Tiventi/-third Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



Place. 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


Remarks. T 




6 


., 




^ 






No. 










c4 


o 


Fms. 




« 




No. 


thrown 


Total 








^ 




iJ 




o 


i 

K 


Nam 


e. taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


3 


n 




Si 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 
























Burghead 


Nov. 21. 




48 


50 


10 to 


12.45 


4.0 


Cod, 


1 




1 


Wind and rain. 


Bay. 










15 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock, 

AVhiting, 

Brill. 

Plaice (1), 
„ (2), 
„ (3), 

Com. Dab, 

Skate, 


6 
. . 179 
220 
405 

8 


28 
11 

2 


28 
11 

7 

405 

8 






















421 


41 


462 




•• 


" 








7 to 25 


5.0 
p.m. 


8.50 
p.m. 


Codling, 
Haddock, 
Whiting, 
Grev Gurn 
Turbot, 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), 
„ (2), 
„ (3), 

Lemon Da 
Com. Dab, 

Skate, 
Angler, 


ard, . . 

4 

12 
7 
. . 335 
. . 730 

1072 

b, .. 7 
34 
16 


8 

20 
25 
31 

i50 

"o 


8 
20 
25 
31 

4 
12 

1072 

7 

184 

16 

6 




1145 


240 


1385 




Nov. 21 








5 to 7 


9.15 


1.20 


Codling, 




2 








and 22. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock, 
Whiting, 
Grey Gurn 
Turbot, 
Brill, 
Plaice (2), 
„ (3), 

Lemon Da 
Com. Dab, 
Skate, 
Angler, 


ard, . . 

2 

'.'. '.'. 5 
. . 361 
. . 652 

1013 

b, .. 3 

20 

5 


43 
33 

40 

'ig 

120 

"2 


43 

33 

40 

2 

•5 

1032 
3 

140 
5 

2 




1048 


259 


1307 


Burghead, 


Nov. 22. 








10 


1.45 


5.0 


Cod, 


3 




3 




E.S.E. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, 
Grev Gurn 
Halibut, 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), 

„ (2). 

,, (3), 

Lemon Da 
Witch, 
Com. Dab 
Skate, 
Angler, 


ard, . . 

.. .. 1 
13 
8 
. . 399 
. . 704 

1111 

b, .. 1 

61 


19 

45 

'25 

260 
3 
6 


19 

46 

1 

13 

li36 
1 
5 
261 
3 
6 




119S 


298 


1493 









of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



51 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 




oi 


^ 










No. 










% 


o 


Fms. 


o 


.2 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


m 


CQ 




J3 


HI 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 
























Witch 


Nov. 23. 








27 to 


11.30 


12.40 


Cod 


2 




2 


N.N.E. strong 


Grounds. 










29^ 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 




9 


9 


breeze ; snow 


Off 
















Haddock, . . 




21 


21 


showers ; sea 


Cromarty. 
















Whiting, . . 
Grey Gurnard, . . 
Turbot, . . 
Plaice (2), . . 
Witch, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Skate 


2 

52 
2 

2 


103 

7 

40 
63 


103 

7 

2 

7 

52 

2 

40 

63 


rough. 


67 


243 


310 


Burghead 


Nov. 24. 




48-0 


50 


7 to 19 


8.10 


12.40 


Cod, 


2 




2 




Ba^-. 












a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 

Coal-fish 

Haddock (2), 
Whiting, .. 
Grey Gurnard, 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. 

„ (3), .. 

Com. Dab, 
Angler, 


1 

5 

1 
11 
14 

458 
445 
917 


4 

150 
23 

8 

14 

1 


6 

1 
155 
23 

8 

1 

11 

9i7 
14 

1 




939 


200 


1139 












6 to 20 


1.5 


5.15 


Codling, . . 


3 


6 


9 


Wind N.N.E. ; 














p.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (2), 

Whiting 

Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), .. .. 

M (3), .. 

Com. Dab, 
Angler, 


7 

6 
8 
445 
509 

962 

20 


10 
13 

20 


17 
13 
6 

962 

40 

2 


atroni; breeze ; 
sea rough. 


998 


51 


1049 








48-2 


50-4 


5 to 19 


6.0 
p.m. 


10.15 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock, .. 
Grey Gurnard, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Turbot, 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

,. (2),.. 

„ (3),.. 

Lemon Dab, 
Black Sole, 

Witch 

Com. Dab, . 

Skate, 

Angler 


4 

■ \ 
28 
14 
503 
546 

1063 

1 
1 

12 

85 

2 


3 

40 

5 

'29 
4 
3 


4 
3 

40 
5 
1 
2 

28 

1063 
1 
1 
12 
114 
6 
3 


Cod end slightly 
split. This haul 
was mostly 
worked in 5 to 6 
fathoms. 


1199 


84 


1283 









52 








Part III.- 


— Twenty 


-third Anmial 


Report 






TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 








Kemi.rks. 




o 


c 




73 




1 No. 








c 


1 

S 


o 

o 


Fms. 


o 


1 


Name. 


No. thrown 
taken lo Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


cq 




js 

M 


H 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 












8.0 












Burgheac 


Nov. 25. 








5 to 12 


3.45 


a.m. 


Cod, 


8 




S 


W.S.W gentle 


Bay. 












a.m. 




Codling, . . 
Haddock . . 
AVhiting, .. 
Grey Gurnard, . . 
Turbot, . . 
Brill 


7 

7 
18 


"2 

19 
14 

7 


9 
19 
14 
7 
7 
18 


breeze ; sea rough. 


















Plaice (1), . . 


10 






















„ (2), .. 


595 






















,, (3) 


528 
1133 




li33 




















Lemon Dab, 


5 




5 




















Witch, 


1 




1 




















Com. Dab, . . 


83; 31 


114 




Dornoch 
















Angler, 


4 


4 




1262, 77 


1339 








Firth. 


,, 








6 to 


1130 


12.30 


Cod, 


1 




1 


Wind W.S.W. ; 












10 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

Whiting, .. 
Plaice (2), . . 

„ (3), .. .. 

„ (4) 

Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback, 


1 

32 
25 
57 

57' 
67 
89 

213 

12 


"8 

4 
31 

ie 

50 
3 


9 

61 
31 

229 
62 
3 


moderate breeze : 
sea smooth ; rain. 


284 


112 


396 












8 


5.0 
p.m. 


9.0 
p.m. 


Cod 

Codling, .. 
Coal-fish, .. 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

Halibut 

Turbot, . . 
Plaice (1), .. 

-, (2) 

., (3) 

„ (4),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 


5 
6 
1 

191 

141 

332 

1 
2 

4 
369 
240 
631 

1244 

3 


"2 
16 

30 


5 

8 

1 

348 
1 
2 

1252 

3 

30 


Weather fine. 


1594 


56 


1650 


Burghead 


Nov. 26. 








6 to 19 


5.0 


9.30 


Codling 




7 


7 




Bay. 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock, .. 

Whiting. .. 

Grey Gurnard, . . 

Turbot, . . 

Brill, 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2), .. 

,. (3), .. 

„ (4),.. 

Witch, 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Skate, 


2 

17 

12 

417 

385 

43 

857 

2 

2 

37 

5 


15 

22 

1 

50 


16 

22 

1 

2 

17 

857 
2 
2 

87 
5 






922 


95 


1017 











of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 



53 







Temperature. 


r^Dolr', Fish Caught. 












inpnt.hi_ 


1 










Place. 


Date. 




u 


P in 
5 Fms. ' 




TJ 




1 
No. 


No. 

hrown 


Total 


Remarks. 








V 




o 


^ 


Name. taken to 


Over- 


No. 








< 


3 

03 


o 

« 


03 


H 


Market. 


board. 






Burghead > 
Bay. 


1904. 
fov. 26. 






.. ] 


6 to 
20 


3.20 


7.40 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock, .. 

Whiting 

Grey Gurnard, . . 
Halibut, . . 


1 
"l 


"s 

15 
19 

7 


1 
8 
15 
19 

7 

1 




















Turbot, . . 


1 






1 




















Brill 


4 






4 




















Plaice (1), . . 


12 
























„ (2), .. ..418 
























, (3) 371 


























., (4). . . 


70 




























—871 


12 


S83 




















Lemon Dab, 


1 




1 




















Com. Dab, . . 


30 


30 


60 




















Long Rough Dab, 




10 


10 




















Angler, 




3 


3 




909 


104 : 


1013 




Nov. 26 
and 27 








Stol5 


8.15 
p.m. 


12.30 
a.m. 


Cod, 
Codling, . . 


4 


"3 


4 
3 
23 


Worked mostly in 
6 to 7 fathoms. 


















Haddock, . . 




23 




















Whiting, .. 




10 


10 




















Grey Gurnard, . . 




2 


2 




















Plaice (Medium), 


7 bskts. 
























„ (Small), .. 


2 „ 
9 bskts 
























Com. Dab, 




'41 


'41 




















Long Rough Dab, 




7 


7 




















Angler 




5 


5 




Aberdeen 


Nov. 28. 








19 to 


10.0 


11.15 


Codling, . . 




11 


11 
30 
31 


- 


Bay. 










21 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Haddock, .. 
Whiting, . . 


11 


19 
31 




















Plaice (2), 


"e 




6 




















Lemon Dab, 


1 




1 




18 


61 


79 


Burghead 
Bay. 

1 


Dec. 6. 


43-5 


45-0 


45-3 


4^ to 
16 


2.0 
p.m. 


6.0 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Haddock, . . 

Whiting, .. 

Grev Gurnard, . . 

Turbot, 

Brill, 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2) 

„ (3) .. .. 

Lemon Dab, 

Com. Dab. 

Long Rough Dab, 


s 

6 

4 
21 
18 
272 
448 

—738 

2 

70 


27 
20 
18 

7 

"9 

1 

57 

9 


8 
33 
20 
18 
7 
4 
21 

747 
3 

127 
9 

5 

1 
2 
2 




















Herring, . . 






5 




















Cottus scorpitis, . . 






1 




















Sandy Ray, 






2 




















Angler, 




2 




849 


158 


1007 




1 



54 



Part III. — Tu-enty-third Anniuxl Report 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE L 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




. Deptl 
in 


1 












6 


g 








1 No. 




Remarks. 






< 




o 

1 

PQ 


Fm.s. 


o 


1 


No. thrown 
Name. taken to Over- 
Market, board. 


Total 
No. 






1904. 
























Burghead 


Dec. C. 








4J to 


6 32 


10.47 


Cod 


18 




18 




Bay. 










16 






Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Grey Gurnard, . . 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Piaice (1), . . 

„ (2), . . 

„ (3), .. .. 

Com. Dab,.. 


6 

1 

"l 

2 

13 
11 
291 
551 

— 853 
45 


7 
6 
32 

"7 
'89 


13 
7 

32 
1 

7 

13 

853 
1 134 






Dec. 7. 








6to9 


3.35 


7.45 


Angler, 
Cod, 




1 


1 




939 


142 


1081 


12 




12 














a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (2), 
Whiting, .. 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2),.. 

., (3),.. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Sandy Ray, 

Herring 

Angler, 


8 
6 

io 

12 
318 
530 

— 860 

2 

51 

"l 


31 
26 
12 

65 

12 

9 

1 

14 


39 
32 
12 
10 

860 

2 

116 

12 

10 

1 

14 




950 


170 


1120 












7{to 


8.5 


12.10 


Cod 


1 




1 














20 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock, . 
Whiting, .. 
Grey Gurnard, . . 

Turbot 

Brill 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. .. 

.. (3),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Witch, 
Com. Dab, 
Long Rough Dab, 
Sandy Ray, 
Angrier, 


"2 
19 

5 
821 
497 
— 823 
1 
5 
46 


5 
21 
7 
1 

14 
1 
3 
4 


5 

21 

7 
1 

19 

823 
1 
5 
60 
1 
3 
4 




897 


56 


953 






38-3 


44-2 


45-5 


7i 


1.43 
p.m. 


2.43 
p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Whiting, .. 

Brill 

Plaice (1),.. 

„ (2) 

„ (3),.. .. 

Com. Dab, 
Sandy Ray, 
Herring, . . 

Sprat 

Sand-eel, . . 


"2 

2 

56 
118 

—176 
2 


3 

2 

'i4 
2 
5 
1 

1 


3 
2 

2 

176 
16 
2 
5 

1 
1 


Small-meshed net 
experiment 


180 


28 


208 








— ■ 



















— 



o/ the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS- TABLE I. 



55 



Place 



Dornoch 
Firth. 



Temperature. 



1904. 
Dec. 7. 



Depth 

in 
Fms. 



Time Trawl 
Down. 



Dec. 7. 
and 8. 



6.50 
p.m. 



7.50 
p.m. 



8 to 12 



Burghead 
Bay. 



Dec. 9 
and 10. 



8.20 
p.m. 



Fish Caught. 



Name. 



Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (2), 
Whiting, . . 
Plaice (2), .. 
„ (3), .. 

Lemon Dab, 
I Thornback Raj-. 
Solenette, . . 



12.40 
a.m. 



4.20 
p.m 



8.30 
p.m. 



6 to 9 



8.40 
p.m. 



12.45 
a.m. 



Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(3), • 

VMiiting, . . 
Plaice (2), . . 

„ (3), .. 

„ (4). . . 

Lemon Dab (1), 
Megrim (1), 
Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback Ray, 



Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

„ (4), 

Whiting, . . 
Turbot, 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2)... 

„ (3), .. 

„ (4), .. 

Witch, 
Com. Dab, 
Flounder, . . 
Thornback, 



Cod, 

Codling, .. 

Haddock (1), 

Whiting, . . 

Brill, 

Plaice (1), . . 
„ C^). • • 
„ (3). .. 
,. (4)... 

Com. Dab, . . 
Angler, 



I No. I 
No. thrown 



taken to 
Market. 



1 
1 

18 
1 
75 
74 
— 149 



Over- 
board. 



Total 
No. 



-107 

17l"' 

197 

314 

— 682 

1 

1 

17 

3 

811 



43 
9 

123 



3 
13 

284 
254 
67 
— 607 
2 
60 
1 



701 



117 
4 



6 

97 

1 

138 



3 

316 
278 

17 

-614 
84 



613 
157 



23 



715 



614 

216 

2 



Remarks. 



56 



Part III. — Twenty -third Annual Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



1 







Temperature. 




1 Time Trawl „■ u « 

Dnwn Fish Caught. 






Place. 






_ Depth] 










Date. 




0) 


S 


m 
Fms 




■c 






1 No. 




Remarks. 






< 


in 


o 
1 




Si 


i 


Name. 


No. throw- 
taken to Over 
1 Market, board 


" Total 
No. 






1904. 






















Burghead 
Bay. 


Dec. 1' 


\ 42-1 


44-4 


45-5 


45 to 8 7.30 
a.m 


11.30 Cod, 

a.m. Codling, . . 


3 
3 


4 


3 

7 


















Haddock, .. 




8 


8 


















Whiting, . . 




11 


11 


















Brill, 


8 




8 


















Plaice (1), . . 


1 
























„ (2), . . 


250 
























., (3)... 


260 
























„ (4), . . 


38 
— 549 


4 


553 




















Lemon Dab. 


1 




1 




















Com. Dab, 


24 


is 


39 




















Flounder, . . 


1 




1 


- 


589 


42 


631 












6 to 9 


12.10 


4.30 


Cod, 


7 




7 


Wind W.S.W.; 














p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 

Haddock, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (2). . . 

.. (3),.. 

» (4),.. 

Com. Dab, 


2 

12 
202 
103 
29 

334 

5 


'3 
9 

"5 
17 


5 

9 
12 

339 
22 


light breeze ; sea 
smooth. Net 
split. 


360 


34 


394 


- 


•• 








6ito9 


5.0 
p.m. 


9.5 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (2), 
Whiting, .. 
Coal-fish 


10 

7 
6 

1 


is 

11 
31 


10 
22 
17 
31 
1 


Net slightly split. 


















Halibut 


1 






1 




















Turbot 


1 






1 




















Brill, 


16 






16 




















Plaice (1) 


4 


























,. (2) 


328 


























„ (3), .. .. 


343 


























.. (4),.. .. 


104 




























- 779 


13 


792 




















Lemon Dab, 


2 
















1 








Com. Dab, 


72 


'47 


119 




















Long Rough Dab, 




4 


4 




















Angler, 




9 


9 




















Thornback, 




2 


2 




895 132 1 


1027 


" 


•• 






.. e 


i 
to 9 


5.40 
p.m. 


10.10 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling 

Haddock, . . 

Whiting, .. 

Brill, 

Plaice (2), . . .2 

.. (3) 2 

.. (4) 1 

I!om. Dab, 

Long Rough Dab, 

Thornback, 


5 
2 

4 
30 
63 
09 

-602 
50 


11 

8 
12 

"9 
34 

1 
3 


1 

5 
13 

8 
12 

4 

eii 

84 
1 
3 




















Angler, 




5 


5 






663 


83 


746 


r 











of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



57 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish 


Caught 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 




1) 


S 
o 

o 










No. 








< 


.■3 

5 


Fms. 


o 

CO 


(U 

1 

X 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 

Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 

No. 






1904. 
























Burghead 


Dec. 11. 








9 to 12 


8.0 


12 


Cod 


3 




3 


N.E. strongbreeze; 


Bay. 












a.m. 


noon 


Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Whiting, .. 
Turbot, . . 
Brill, 
Plaice (1), .. 

„ (2), . . 

„ (3),.. 

„ (4), . . 

Witch, 

Com. Dab, 

Long Rough Dab, 

Angler, 


1 
12 

"3 

9 

4 

354 

207 

30 

595 

10 
21 


ie 

19 

3 

"4 

'42 
5 

4 


17 
31 
3 
3 
9 

599 

10 

63 

5 

4 


rain ; sea rough. 


654 


93 


747 


Dornoch 










8 to 12 


1.40 


6.40 


Cod 


2 




2 


Strong breeze from 


Firth. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(3), . . 


4 
2 
5 


22 


26 

"7 
9 


N.E. 


















Whiting, . . 




9 




















Grev Gurnard, . . 




3 


3 




















Plaice (2), . . 


160 
























„ (3) 


227 
























„ (4) 


326 
— 713 


33 


746 




















Com. Dab, 


16 


39 


55 




















Thornback Ray, . . 




2 


2 




742 


108 


850 


Smith Bank. 


Dec. 12. 








19 to 


n.5 


12..'; 


Codling, . . 


1 




1 


Small-meshed net 












22 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Brill, 
Plaice (•-'), .. 


1 
26 




1 
26 


on cod end. 


28 




28 


Aberdeen 


Dec. 13. 








17 to 


10.30 


11.30 


Cod, 







6 


Small-meshed net 


Bay. Off 










19 






Codling, . . 


54 




54 


over cod end ; 


Quarries. 
















Whiting 

Plaice (2) 

„ (3) 

Com. Dab, . . 
Long Rough Dab, 
Grey Skate, 
Thornback, 


33 

8 
— 41 

2 
103 


10 

"8 
1 
4 

17 

40 


10 

'41 

8 

1 

6 

17 

143 


N. E. strong 
breeze; sea 
rough; and heavy 
rain. 






41-2 


43-2 


48-0 




12.35 
p.m. 


4.40 
p.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 

Halibut, . . 

Plaice (2), . . 

„ (3),.. 

Com. Dab 

Long Rough Dab, 

Thornback, 

Angler, 


19 
24 
2 
58 
20 

— 78 
12 

"1 


"5 

ie 
9 

16 


19 
29 
2 

.. 
78 
28 

9 
16 

1 




136 


46 


182 


























— 


— ... 



58 








Fart III.— 2 


'wenty -third Annual Report 










TRAWLIN(i INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 






Place. 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


Remarks. 




d 


^ 






No. 












o 

o 

P3 


Fnis. 


o 
ji 

CO 


1 

a 


Name. 


No. 

taken to 
Market. 


thrown 
Over- 
board. 


Total 
No. 






1904. 
























Faercie. 


Apr. 24. 








r,r, to 


4.20 


8.20 


Cod 


5 






5 


Stormy. 


Fuglo, 










73 


a.m. 


a. m. 


Codling 


520 






520 




be-aring; 
















Haddock (1), 


190 










N.W. 
















(2), .. 
(3), . . 

Ling, 
Tusk, 
Cat-fish, . . 

Halibut 

Plaice (1), . . 
„ (2), . . 

Lemon Dab, 


42 
168 

400 

1 

1 

21 

16 

8 

1 

— 9 

30 






400 

1 

1 

21 

16 

"9 
30 




















Com. Dab, 


33 


' 2 


35 




















Long Rough Dab, 




1 


1 




















Thornback, 


"s 




8 




















Angler, 


1 




1 




1045 


3 


1048 


Puglo, 










53 to 


8.50 


12.50 


Cod, 


1 




1 


Stormy ; net split. 


N.W. by W. 










73 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 


1 b 
656 


skt.' ' 






















(2), 


49 


























(3), .. 


200 
— 905 




1 


906 




















Ling 


1 






1 




















Cat-fish 


11 






11 




















Halibut 


4 






4 




















Plaice (1), . . 


18 






18 




















Lemon Dab, 


28 






28 




















Com. Dab, 


27 


10 


37 




















Long Rough Dab, 




1 


1 




















Thornback, 


3 


1 


4 




















Angler 


4 


2 


6 




Puglo, 










53 to 


1.40 


5.40 


Cod, 


2 


^^~^^^ 


2 


Stormy ; tow-net 


bearing 










57 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 


50 






50 


torn to pieces. 


N.W. byW. 
















Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
(3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 

Plaice (1) 

Lemon Dab, 


496 
41 
241 

—778 
1 

11 

6 

7 

15 






778 
1 

11 
6 
7 

15 




















Com. Dab, 


1 


23 


24 




Fuglo, 










57 


6.5 


10.5 


Angler, 
Cod, 


3 


1 


4 


Stormy ; net split. 


874 


24 


898 


86 






W.N.W. 












p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 


9 b 


skts.' 














! 








Haddock (1), 


595 
























(2), . . 


Jb 


skt. 
















i 








(3). .. 


103 




























Ling, 


15 




























Tusk, 


2 




























Coal-fish, . . 


6 




























Cat-fish, . . 


8 




























Halibut, . . 


12 




























Plaice (1), . . 


51 




























Lemon Dab, 


7 




























Com. Dab, 




9 
























Angler, 




1 














1 
































1 













of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 










59 




TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I 










Temperature. 




Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 








Remarks. 




<0 


d 








1 No. 








u 


1 


o 


Fms. 


o 


0) 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 


o 
P3 




J3 
CO 


W 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 














- 










Fuglo, 


Apr. 24 








57 to 


11.5 


3.5 


Cod, 


7 






7 


Cod-end gave way ; 


W.N.W. 


and 2.5. 








05 


p.m. 


m 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 

Halibut 

Plaice (1) 

Lemon Dab, 


11 
106 
9 
23 
— 138 
1 
1 
5 
3 
10 






11 

iss 
1 
1 
5 
3 

10 


most of fishiest; 
no offal. 




176 




176 


Faeroe. 


Apr. 25. 








63 


3.5 


7.0 


Cod, 


200 






Strong wind ; 














a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


4 b 


skts.' 






weather stormy; 


















Haddock (1), 


15 bskts. 










split net. 


















(2), .. 


1 




























(3), .. 


— 17.> „ 




























Ling, 


3 




























Coal-fish, .. 


17 




























Halibut 


8 




























Plaice (1), . . 


lib 


skt.' 




















7.40 


12 


Cod, 


1 




1 


Wind and snow. 














a.m. 


noon. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock, . . 
Ling, 

Cat-fish, . . 

Halibut, . . 

Plaice (1), . . 

„ (2), . . 

Lemon Dab, 


166 

362 

5 

10 

6 

7 

1 

— S 

14 






166 
362 

5 
10 

6 

"8 
14 




















Com. Dab, 




13 


IS 




















Thornback, 


2 


1 


3 




















Angler, 


6 




6 






580 


. 14 


594 


Fuglo, 










63 to 


12.40 


5.40 


Haddock (1), 


1 bskt. 








N.N.W. 










71 


p.m. 


p.m. 


(3), .. 

Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Angler, 


1 >, 

" "5 
3 
3 

5 

1 













15 miles 


Apr. 26. 








60 to 


11.30 


1.30 


Cod, 


3 




3 


Heavy swell ; wind 


N.W. 










67 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Haddock (1), 


7 








N.N.W. ; very 


Videro. 
















(2), .. 
(3), .. 

Ling 

Com. Dab, . . 
Angler, 


2 

4 

— 13 

1 
1 
1 






'i3 
1 
1 
1 


stormy; net split. 




19 




19 






1 



60 






Fart III- 


— Tiventy 


-third Annual 


Report 








TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS-TABLE I. 










Temperature. 






Fish Caught. 






Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 








Remarks. 




OJ r^ 




. 




No. 












O 


Fms. 


o 


V 


Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 


& 




J3 
CO 


K 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 
























N.W. 


Apr. 26. 








60 to 


2.15 


6.15 


Haddock (1), 


170 






Strong wind and 


Videro. 










69 


p. ni. 


p.m. 


Ling, 

Halibut, . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Angler, 


17 

— 187 
2 
4 
7 
2 




i87 
2 
4 
7 
2 


heavy swell. 


202 




202 


Fuglo, 


Apr. 26 








48 to 


9.15 


12.15 


Cod, 


70 




70 


Blowing a gale 


bearing 


and 27. 








49 


p. m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


2G4 




264 


from west. 


N.W. 
















Haddock (1), 

„ (2», .. 
(3\ .. 

Coal-fish, .. 

Cat-fish 

Halibut, . . 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback, 


168 
21 
53 

242 

8 

15 

13 

7 

1 

— 8 

11 


"l 

"s 

7 

2 


•• 

242 
8 
15 
14 

"s 

14 
7 
2 




631 


13 


644 




Apr. 27. 








48 to 
50 


12.50 
a.m. 


4.50 
a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (]), 

„ (2), . . 
(3). .. 

Coal-fish 

Oat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Starry Ray, 
Angler, 


152 
198 
31 
58 

— 287 
15 
7 
10 
13 
29 

1 


"l 

5 
2 

1 


152 

287 
15 
7 

10 

13 

30 

5 

3 

1 


Very stormy. 


514 


9 


523 


Fuglo, N W. 


■• 








48 to 
63 


5.15 
a.m. 


9.15 
a.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
., (3). . . 

Coal-fish, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 


3 
484 
1034 
33 
86 

1153 

3 
5 
5 
9 
7 
24 




3 

484 

1153 
3 
5 
5 
9 
7 
24 


Stomiy. 


















Angler, 




2 


2 




1693 


2 


1695 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



61 



TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 





Date. 


Temperature. 


. DeptF 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 
1 


Fish Caught. 


Remarks. 


Place. 




<u 


i 




. 






1 No. 










1 


Fms. 


i. 


"i 


Name. 


No. thrown 
taken to Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


3 


m 






a 




Market 


board 






1904. 
























Fuglo, 


Apr. 27 








63 


11.0 


3.0 


Cod 


18 




18 


Stormy. 


bearing 












a.m. 


p. m. 


Codling, . . 


148 




148 




N.W. 
















Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 
., (3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 

Cat-fish 

Halibut, . . 

Plaice (1), . . 

., (2), . . 

Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Thornback, 
Starry Ray, 
Angler, 


902 
33 
82 
— 1017 
8 
13 
7 
9 
2 

11 

7 
2 
2 
1 
4 


"1 
12 

"3 


l6i7 

8 

13 

7 

ii 

8 
14 
2 
1 
7 






1238 


16 


1254 












63 to 


3.20 


7.20 


Haddock (1), 


123 






Stormy ; split net ; 












75 


p.m. 


p.m. 


-. (3), .. 

Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, 
Angler, 


66 
— 189 

1 
1 
3 

"2 


"3 


189 
1 
1 
3 
3 
2 


two tow-nets at- 
tached to warps. 




196 


3 


199 












73 to 


7.55 


11.55 


Cod, 


29 




29 


Weather stormy. 












75 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

,. (2), .. 
(3), .. 

Tusk 

Ling, 
Whiting, .. 

Cat-fish 

Halibut, . . 
Turbot, 
Plaice (1), . . 
-. (2) 

I^emon Dab, 
Megrim, . . 
Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback, 
Grey Skate, 
Angler 


144 
432 
56 
149 

637 

1 

6 

5 

18 

8 

4 

21 

2 

— 23 

30 

1 

"e 

2 
5 


"1 

'i2 
17 

"2 


144 

637 

1 
6 
5 
18 
S 
4 

'23 
31 

1 
12 
23 
2 
7 




919 


32 


951 




Apr. 28. 








65 to 
73 


12.25 
a.m. 


4.25 
a.m. 


Cod, 

Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
,, (3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 
Oat-fish, .. 
Halibut, . . 

Plaice (1) 

„ (2),.. .. 

Lemon Dab, 


55 
108 
957 
32 
49 

— 1038 
17 
15 
IS 
7 
2 
— 9 
28 


"4 


55 

108 

1038 
17 
15 
18 

"9 
32 


Stormy. 


, 
















Com. Dab, 


13 


6 


19 




* 
















Thornback, 


7 


9 


16 




















Angler 


4 


1 


5 




1312 


20 


1332 



62 



Part III. — Ihventy -third Anmml Report 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught. 








Place. 


Date. 




Depth 
in 












Remarks. 






^ 


•6 


1 


No. 










»5 


o 


Fms. 


Name. 


No. thrown 
aken to Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


CO 


& 




oa K 




Market. 1 board. 






1904. 
























Fuglo, 


Apr. 9S. 








C.5 


4.55 


8.55 


Cod, 


4 




4 


Wind S.S.E. 


bearing 












a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . . . 


111 




111 




N.W. 
















Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
(3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 
Cat-fish, .. 
Halibut, .. ..1 

Plaice (1) 

Lemon Dab, 
Thornback, 
Angler, 


154 
11 
194 

— 359 
2 
13 
3 
11 
15 
1 
1 


1 


359 

2 

13 

3 

11 

15 

1 

2 




520 


1 


521 












58 to 


9.50 


10.20 


Cod, 


1 




1 


Heavy swell ; small- 












6S 


a.in. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 

(3), . . 

Cat-fish, . . 

Halibut 

Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Com. Dab, . . 
Thornback, 


48 
20 
7 

22 

— 49 
2 
1 
2 
3 
7 
1 




48 

'49 
2 
1 
2 
3 
7 
1 


meshed net. 


114 .. 


114 














63 to 


11.0 


3.0 


Cod 


160 




160 


Heavy swell. 








. 




65 


a.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

(3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Skate, 
Angler, 


112 

267 
71 

215 

— 553 
5 
7 
8 
5 
5 
3 
4 




112 

553 

5 
7 
8 
5 
5 
3 
4 




862 




862 












54 to 


3.30 


7.30 


Cod, 


1 




1 


Heavy sea running. 












65 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling, . . 
Haddock (1), 

(2), . . 
„ (3), .. 

Co»l-flsh, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
„ (2)... 

Lemon Dab, 

Skate, 

Angler 


144 
138 
25 

238 
—401 
3 

7 
S 
9 

-So 

16 
2 
4 


2 


144 

401 
3 

8 

'io 

16 
2 

6 


1 


596 


2 


598 









1 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



63 







Temperature. 




Time Trawl 


Fish Caught 














Depth 














Place. 


Dati;. 




d 


s 

o 


in 










No. 




Remarks. 








ci 


Fms. 




V 




No. 


thrown 


Total 
No. 








i; 


w 


s 




o 


3 


Name. 


taken to 


Over- 








< 


XI 


^ 




en 


K 




Market. 


board. 


1 




loot. 
























Fus;16, 


Apr. 28 








54 to 


8.15 


12.15 


Cod, 


61 






61 


Very stormy ; wind 


blaring 


and 29. 








02 


p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


144 






144 


S.E.; net split. 


N.W. 
















Haddock (1), 

,. (2), .. 
,, (3), .. 

Tusk 

Cat-fish, . . 
Plaice, 
Lemon Dab, 


190 
73 
85 

— 348 
1 
9 
9 
11 






348 
1 
9 
9 
11 






Apr. 29. 










1.35 


5.35 


Angler, 

Cod 


2 






2 


Blowing a gale. 


585 




585 


55 




55 














a.m. 


a. m. 


Codling, . . 

Haddock (1), 

(2), 

Ci), .. 

Coal-fish 

Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice, 


134 

272 
11 
29 

— 312 
3 
4 
3 
4 






134 

3i2 
3 
4 
3 
4 




















Lemon Dab, 


29 


3 


32 




















Com. Dab, 




6 


6 




















Angler, 




3 


3 














.54 to 


6.15 


10.15 


Dog-fish, .. 
Codling, . . 




4 


4 


Hea\-y swell. 


544 


16 


560 


3 




3 












75 


a.m. 


am. 


Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 

Cat-fisli, . . 
Halibut, . . 

Plaice 

Lemon Dab, 


78 

9 

27 

— 114 

10 

3 

2 

5 






ii4 
10 
3 
2 
5 




















Dog-fish, . . 




8 


8 




Fuglo, 










56 to 


10.40 


2.40 


Angler, 
Haddock (1), 




1 


1 


S.E. wind. 


137 


9 


146 


41 






bearing 










75 


a.m. 


p.m. 


(2), .. 


4 










W.N.W. 
















(3), .. 

Coal-flsh, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 

Plaice (1) 

» (2) 

Lemon Dab, 
Starry Rav, 


9 

54 

9 
7 
1 

7 

2 

9 

3 
1 






54 

9 

7 

1 

"9 
3 

1 




Fuglo, 










55 to 


4.15 


8.15 


Angler 

Cod, 


1 






1 


Stormy. 


85 




85 


8 




8 


bearing 










60 


p.m. 


p.m. 


Codling 


160 






160 




N.W. 
















Haddock (1), 

(2), .. 
„ (3). .. 

Coal-fish 

Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 
Angler, 


140 
15 
88 

— 243 
2 
5 
3 
6 
2 
1 






243 
2 
5 
3 
6 

1 




430 




430 































64 



Part III. — Tventy-third Anmial ReiJort 
TRAWLING INVESTIGATIONS— TABLE I. 



Place. 


Date. 


Temperature. 


Depth 
in 


Time Trawl 
Down. 


Fish Caught. 


Remarks. 






^■ 










No. 










1 


o 


Fms. 


o 




Name. 


No. 
taken to 


thrown 
Over- 


Total 
No. 








< 


p 
w 


ca 




02 


a 




Market. 


board. 






1904. 
























Fuglo, 


Apr. 29 








55 


8.50 


12.50 


Cod, 


61 






61 




bearing 


and 30. 










p.m. 


a.m. 


Codling, . . 


264 






264 




N.W. 
















Haddock (1), 

„ (2), .. 
„ (3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 
Halibut, . . 
Plaice (1), . . 
Lemon Dab, 


163 
21 
99 
— 283 
5 
4 
34 
27 
46 






283 

5 

4 

34 

27 

46 




















Angler, 


4 


4 


8 




728 


4 


732 


'• 


Apr. 30 








54 


1.25 
a.m. 


3.0 
a.m. 


Cod 

Codling, . . 
Haddook (1), 

Coul-fish 

Cat-fish, . . 
Plaice (1) 


9 
100 
71 

7 
1 
4 






9 

100 

71 

7 
1 
4 


Split net ; stormy. 


192 




192 












54 to 


3.30 


7.30 


Cod 


5 




5 














56 


a.m. 


a.m. 


Codling 

Haddock (1), 

(2). .. 

(3), .. 

Coal-fish, .. 
Cat-fish, . . 

Halibut 

Plaice (1), .. 

., (2) 

Lemon Dab, 


170 
298 
19 
110 
—427 
5 
11 
16 
16 
6 
— 22 
23 






170 

427 
5 
11 
16 

22 
23 




















Com. Dab, . . 


16 


5 


21 




















Thornbaok, 




3 


3 




















Angler 


2 




2 




69T 


8 


705 









of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 65 



II.— A CONTRIBUTION TO THE LIFE- HISTORY OF THE 
LOBSTER (HOMARUS VULGARIS). By H. Chas. 
Williamson, M.A., D.Sc, Marine Laboratory, Aberdeen. 

(Platrs I.-IV.) 



CONTENTS. 










PAGE 


Experiments in Lobster-Cultm 


e, . 


65 


The Rearing of Lobsters, 




68 


The Larval Stages, . 




73 


History of the Adult Lobsters 


after the Eggs had Hatched, 


87 


Proportion of Berried Hens in 


the Catch of Lobsters, 


88 


The Casting of the Lobster, . 




89 


The Rate of Growth, 






95 


The Behaviour of the Lobster, 






95 


Examination of the Ovary, . 






98 


Spawning, 






100 


Hatching, 






103 


Literature, 






104 


Description of Plates, 






106 



Experiments in Lobster-Culture. 

In the summer of 1902 the Fishery Board instructed me to carry out 
some experiments in the culture of lobsters and crabs. It was intended 
that the young lobsters hatched out at the Laboratory shoukl be liberated 
on the north coast of Aberdeenshire, in the neighbourhood of Fraser- 
burgh. In order to obtain a supply of larvae a number of berried hen 
lobsters were procured from Girvan and Dunbar in June and July. 
Eight were sent from Girvan and ten from Dunbar ; one was captured in 
the Bay of Nigg. One of the Dunbar lobsters arrived on August 2nd. 
The lobsters were conveyed by rail, packed, in some cases, in straw, in 
other cases in dripping seaweed. The latter method was much the 
better, the lobsters, after their eight to twelve hours' confinement, being 
unpacked in a fresh and lively condition. Some of those packed in straw 
succumbed. In 1904 the stock of berried lobsters were all packed in wet 
seaweed, and none died in transit. 

No special apparatus, with the exception of two tin boxes, was made 
for the experiment. A temporary arrangement of the hatching apparatus 
(Dannevig's), used for the eggs of the plaice, proved successful on the 
whole. The eggs were already far advanced. 

An attempt was made to hatch the eggs detached from the parent 
lobster in one or two cases where the latter had died during transport to 
Aberdeen. A sheet-iron box, which fitted into one of the compartments 
of the hatching apparatus, and which was arranged with a perforated 
bottom through which the water entered, to escape by the top of the box 
through a grating, was employed ; but a considerable death-rate ensued, 
and the eggs were attacked by a fungus. None of the eggs hatched out. 
It was decided to allow the eggs to remain attached to the parent until 
they hatched. A.11 that was necessary then was to keep the adults in a 
suitable tank and to make arrangements whereby the larvae, as they 
hatched out, could be captured and removed to suitable boxes where they 
would be under control. 



66 Part III. — Twenty -th ml Annual Report 

Fullarton adopted the method of keeping the berried females in con- 
finement, in an open pond, until the eggs hatched ; but in his experi- 
ments carried out in 1895 the larvte were allowed to escape to the sea as 
they were hatched. In the present case the young lobsters had to be 
retained. The arrangement was as follows The berried hens, fourteen 
in numher, were kept in a wooden tank measuring about 3 feet by 4 feet 
6 inches by 2 feet deep. The water supply entered at the bottom of 
the box, and the outflow took place from the surface of the water. The 
overflow water was led into the hatchery and distributed into the hatching 
apparatus. As the little lobsters hatched out they were carried down to 
the hatchery and caught and detained in the hatching boxes. 

In order that a large number comparatively of lobsters be kept in a 
small area, it is necessary that they each be provided with a hole or pen 
for shelter. The wooden tank in which the adults were confined 
was prepared in the following manner. A plank of wood about 7 
inches wide was hinged by means of large fencing staples to the side 
of the wooden tank. When horizontal in position it was about 4 
or 5 inches above the bottom. The space beneath this slielf was 
divided off by means of bricks set on edge into as many compartments 
as were required; in this case seven. The shelf rested on the bricks, 
and when the tank was filled it was kept down by a suitable weight, 
some stones or bricks. One shelf was put on each long side. This 
arrangement permitted of ready examination of the lobsters, as when 
the superincumbent stones were removed the shelf floated up, revealing 
the lobsters. They remained there, then, in apparently suitable con- 
ditions. Each lobster stuck to its pen, its body hid by the shelf, and its 
projecting antennae alone betraying its presence. Only one lobster died 
from injuries received through fighting with the other inhabitants of the 
tank. The large chelse were not tied. 

The young hatched out in batches. The eggs of one female do not all 
hatch simultaneously, but over a period. In two cases recorded by 
Herrick, a week elapsed from the time the first larva appeared until all were 
hatched out. Fullarton found the time necessary for hatching a single brood 
varied from a week to three weeks, or even longer. The aeration of the 
eggs attached to the abdominal feet of the female is assured in the 
following manner. The lobster is seen every now and then with its 
abdomen stretched out to its full extent and resting on the inturned edge 
of the telson. The swimmerets are meanwhile gently waved backwards 
and forwards, in this way aerating the eggs and tending to cleanse them. 
When the eggs are ready to hatch this facilitates the escape of the larvK. 
This action was noticed by Coste. The hatching of the lobster eggs at 
Brodick, Fullarton states, occurred in July, August, and September, with 
a maximum in August. 

The first young lobsters were observed in the Laboratory, Bay of Nigg, 
on July 11th; they had then reached the hatching apparatus. They 
apparently hatch during the night, as each morning there was a fresh 
addition to the stock. The little lobsters were in the first zoea stage 
(fig. 66). They were kept in boxes having sieve bottoms, which were 
placed in the top compartments of a hatching apparatus. They measured 
about 1 foot by 1 foot by 1 foot, and were ])ainted black. They received 
light from above only. The number of larvse kept in one box varied, 
but not more than twenty were knowingly confined together. They were 
kept in the top compartments in order that they might obtain a share of 
the food that was being brought in by the water supply, e.g. copepoda, 
diatoms, and larvas of invertebrates. The water was not filtered. It flowed 
into the box by a spout and out by the sieve bottom, the arrangement 
which is followed in hatching the eggs of plaice and cod. 



of the Fisheri/ Board for Scotland. 67 

The lobsters, immediately after being hatched, swam actively about, 
chasing copepoda and any small white particles moving in the water. 
The two species of copepods most common in the water were determined 
by Dr. Scott. A red copepod was Temera longicornis ; a white one was 
Eurytemera affinis. They were both small. 

During the zoca stages, when the lobster is wholly pelagic, that is to 
say before the pereiopods function as walking legs, a period of, roughly, 
three weeks, it swims with its body bent in a quadrant shape, having the 
head and thorax lying horizontal, or inclined slightly downwards, and the 
abdomen and tail directed downwards. If it spies a copepod beneath it 
swims directly down for it in a circling, sort of corkscrew path, and 
follows up its prospective victim, when it escapes with a smart dart off 
for a distance of an inch or two. The pursuit may last for a little time, 
and now and then the lobster catches and devours the copepod. When 
the copepods are swimming above them they also detect them and swim 
directly for them. They also notice them wl)en in front of them and on 
the same level. The copepods are to be seen on the side of the box, and 
the young lobstei's go poking about the side after them. 

The larval lobster, when undisturbed, SAvims forward at a uniform 
speed by means of the exopodites of the pereiopods, turning sharply to this 
side or to that to seize any object that attracts its attention, and which it 
will pursue till it loses sight of it or has its attention distracted by another 
form. When surprised it jerks backward by means of its abdomen and 
telson. 

The young lobsters were usually close to the surface of the water. No 
food was provided regularly for them, except what was brought in with 
the water supply. On a few occasions a little of the liver of the crab 
{Cancer pagurus) was supplied them. They pursued the little white 
portions as they fell through the water, usually catching them before they 
reached the bottom. They ate up the live zoese of Cancer pagurus when 
these were poured into the box. 

While the lobster in the zoea stages no doubt eats dead organisms, as 
Cunningham relates, it is much more active in the pursuit of living 
animals. It follows, from the fact of its pelagic existence, that it must 
feed on living forms. 

The lobsters were kept for varying periods. When set free they were 
mostly in xhe second and third stages ; some were in the first stage. A 
few were reared to the megalops stage on the food in the water supply. 
The total number set free was about 3000. They were distributed as 
follows : — 

August 6, 1902. — 1000 larvte set free a little over 1 mile north of 
Fraserburgh. 

August 7, 1902. — 1000 larvse set free about | mile off" Cairnbulg 
August 19, 1902.— 1000 larvte set free about" i mile ofl' St, Comls. 

The fry were conveyed in large glass (sulphuric acid) carboys by rail 
to Fraserburgh, All the lobster fry (1000) were on each occasion stowed 
in one carboy. The number of fry in the first consignment was counted, 
and from that datum the numbers in the subsequent lots were deduced. 

No special cooling preparations were found to be necessary for the 
journey. Experiments were made to test the effect of a possible rise in 
the temperature of the water during the transportation. The temperature 
of the sea-water in the hatchery was 12'5° C, A few lobster fry were 
put into a jar containing half-a-gallon (= § litre) of water. The jar 
was heated slowly until the water reached a temperature of 20° C ; i't 
was then allowed to cool. Next day the lobsters were, with two 
exceptions, all lively ; two had succumbed. 



68 Pa7't III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

For the journey to Fraserburgh the larvse were packed at 3.15 p.m., 
and were set free at 7.15 p.m., at which time they were all quite lively. 

The vitality of the young lob.ster under certain conditions is remark- 
able. Herrick kept them alive in small flat dishes, without change of the 
vpater, from one to four days at a time, or until they moulted to the 
second stage. A case in point occurred at the Laboratory. After one of 
the journeys to Fraserburgh a few larvae had been loft in the dregs of 
water in one of the carboys. They were discovered 10 days later, and 
were then alive and active. Two small crabs {Carcinus mamas) were 
kept for a week in a little glass cell without change of water, and 
apparently sufiered no ill-effects. 

There was a considerable mortality among the larval lobsters when in 
the hatchery. As has been so ofteii noted, a proportion of the deaths 
occurred during moulting. The dead lobsters were sometimes partly 
eaten. No case was seen of one zoea attacking and killing another, such 
as Herrick witnessed. A case of cannibalism was noticed in the 
megalops stage. One megalops was seen eating the tail of another which 
was still alive. The telson and part of the abdomen had been eaten off 
when discovered. A cause of considerable mortality is probably starva- 
tion. It is difficult to supply suitable and sufficient food. 

All the lobster eggs were hatched out by September 10, 1902. 

The Rearing of Lobsters. 

There are two well-marked stages in the life of the lobster fry : these 
are (1) the first swimming stage, when just hatched (fig. 66, pi. iv.), 
and (2) the stage when it for the first time takes on the form, and, to a 
certain extent, also the habits, of the adult (fig. 72, pi. iv.). The former 
is the first zoea stage, the latter is the megalops stage. Previous to the 
first zoea stage there is the protozoea, a stage of short duration. The 
lobster has been described as issuing from the egg as a protozoea. This 
condition was not observed by the writer. It moults very soon after, 
and becomes a zoea of the first stage. H. Q. Couch was the first to 
figure and describe the protozoea. He wrote as follows: — "Several of 
the ripest bunches of ova were taken oti', and by gentle agitation many 
of the young escaped and swam about very freely, like those of the 
common crab, and some were artificially extracted to leave no doubt to 
rest on their parentage. Their bodies are large, stout, and of a deep blue 
colour, while the other parts are semi-transparent and dotted with red. 
The eyes are large, sessile, situated on a festoon at the lower and anterior 
margin of the dorsal shield, and marked at the circumference with radia- 
ting lines. The interior margin of the shield is waved, and irregularly 
prominent ; the posterior and lateral surfaces are more remarkably so, 
and are rough, with minute papillary eminences ; and the lower margin is 
marked with seven minute plaited folds, beneath the five central ones 
are situated five claws on either side. They are jointed as in the adult, 
and the anterior pair are shorter and stouter than the others, and ter- 
minate in a pair of nippers. The tail is longer than the diameter of the 
body, is extended and composed of five annulatious. The termination is 
forked, but the fork is composed of two flat fan-like expansions separated 
by a fissure which extends nearly as high up as their articulation." 

Saville Kent and Fullarton also give drawings and descriptions of this 
stage. 

I^he megalops stage is one in which the lobster in its habits resembles 
more a prawn {Palcemon), as Saville Kent pointed out. The interval 
which exists between the first zoea and the megalops has been filled in 
by a varying number of stages. Herrick, for the American lobster, 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 69 

makes the period one of three zoea stages, and between hatching and the 
arrival of the young at the raegalops condition there elapses from eight 
to eighteen days. Saville Kent said that the European lobster reached 
the megalops stage at about the sixth cast, i.e. five stages precede it, viz. 
the protozoea and four zoea stages. A month or six weeks are occupied 
in arriving at the stage beyond the megalops, which I have denominated 
the first young stage. My own observations lead to the conc'usion that 
the period just mentioned will very rarely be exceeded ; it is probably often 
as short as one month. Certain larvae which were in the zoea condition 
in October and November remained for five weeks in one stage, however. 

Sars illustrates three zoea stages. Chadwick has published a descrip- 
tion of the protozoea, three zoea stages, megalops, and first young stages. 
The time occupied by each stage, with the exception of the protozoea, is 
given as a week. 

Rathke says the maxillipedes and pereiopods have a general resem- 
blance to the legs of schizopods, viz., Mysis, but the resemblance is 
lost in the fifth pereiopod. In the denomination of the larval lobsters 
it has been customary, therefore, to refer to the early pelagic stage as 
the " mysis " stage. This is due to the fact that its pereiopods resemble 
those of Mysis, in having setae-bearing exopodites. But this is an onto- 
genetic, not a phylogenetic, character, as the name is apt to imply. The 
main swimming organ of a zoea is the exopodite, and the number of 
setose exopodites is directly proportional to the size of the larva. The 
little elongated zoea of the shrimp [Crangon vulgaris) has three pairs of 
exopodites in its first stage, but its increase in bulk in the third zoea 
stage demands additional swimming power, and a fourth pair of exopodites 
appear, viz. attached to the rudimentary first pereiopod.* In this case 
the exopodite is developed, and becomes functional in the third zoea stage, 
whereas the chela becomes functional for the first time on the megalops 
stage, i.e. the sixth larval stage. The exopodite of the chela at the same 
time vanishes, while the other exopodites, those of the maxillipedes, are 
reduced and function no longer for swimming. In the case of the 
lobster larva we have to deal with a large form, which requires a 
powerful swimming organ. That is secured by the development of 
the exopodites on the pereiopods, but with this difference from the 
shrimp, that the pereiopods themselves are also functionally developed 
— in the form of maxillipedes. The zoea of the lobster is provided, 
then, with eight maxillipedes, each of which has a setose exopodite. 
On the arrival of this form at the megalops stage the latter disappear or 
are so reduced that they are no longer swimming organs. The quadrant 
shape in Avhich the body of the zoea is bent, by concentrating the 
weight of the animal, has a direct relation to its propelling organs. The 
tiny zoea of Carcinus mcenas has only two pairs of exopodites. It is bent 
in an arc ; thereby the weight is concentrated. 

There, appears, then to be no valid reason for departing from the term 
" zoea" for this period of the life of the lobster. And the term "mega- 
lops " is an appropriate name for the stage Avliich is analogous as well as 
homologous to the megalops of the Brachyura. It is a transition stage 
between the zoea and the adult. 

In this country the rearing of lobsters has been carried out by Saville 
Kent, Cunningham, Weldon, Fowler, and Chadwick. On the Continent 
Captain Dannevig has done the most extensive work in this subject ; 
lately Appellof has carried on rearing experiments. 

Many difficulties meet the experimenter in lobster-culture. Questions 
of the food, of the cannibalism of the larvse, and of the mortality which 

* Vide Williamson. 



70 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

occurs during moulting all arise. Saville Kent kept the little lobsters in 
jars and fed them with a little minced fish ; the water was changed 
every day. Eeceptacles on the intermittent syphon system were, he 
considered, especially well suited for lobster-rearing. Weldon and 
Fowler used for the food of the lar?se the yolk of a hard-boiled egg, 
crushed crab (^Oarcinus mamas, Poriunus depurator), boiled liver, the 
contents of the tow net (at that period chiefly Nodiluca and 
copepoda), and live shrimp larvse ; they were all partially, none abso- 
lutely, successful, Cunningham usually fed the larvae with particles 
obtained by crushing and pounding common shore-crabs, but he made 
special and careful trials of live food. Living minute animals 
caught in the sea in the tow-net were introduced, but none of the 
larvaj were seen to try to catch them. The fish larva? and the larvae 
of a shrimp were not attacked. But the fish larvae and little shrimps, if 
killed before being put into the jar, were immediately seized. He 
concluded that the young lobsters are naturally carrion feeders, devourers 
of dead food, although inclined to cannibalism. 

Mead found that the fry fed upon all sorts of minute organisms (cope- 
pods, diatoms, etc.), and readily ate some kinds of flesh if it was chopped 
into fine pieces and kept suspended in the water, where they came in con- 
tact with it. The best food was the soft parts of clams {Mya arenaria.) 
Chadwick fed the lobster fry " daily upon the finely-minced liver of the 
shore-crab (Carcinus mcenas), and the edible crab [Cancer' 2)a[/uru!>), and 
for a time they appeared to thrive on it, but at the time of the ecdyses 
or shell-castings many died, and comparatively few reached the ' lobster- 
ling ' [megalops] stage." 

Appellof reared the young lobster over the larval stages till the age, in 
one case, of seven months. A great mortality occurred owing to the 
inability of the larvai to get rid of the integument when moulting. 
According to this zoologist, as soon as the third casting has pa.ssed, and 
it has reached the fourth stage [megalops], it swims, but soon goes to 
the bottom, and behaves like an adult. In the fifth stage the swimming 
power goes ; they are then very sedentary. 

Herrick describes a variety of food which he found in the stomachs of 
lobster larvae, viz. (1) diatoms in abundance, chiefly Navicula and the 
long tangled ribbons of Tahellaria ; (2) remains of Crustacea, probably 
parts of young lobsters ; (3) bacteria in large numbers ; (4) cotton and 
linen fibreS; and parts of algcC. " The food of the larval lobster must 
necessarily consist, for the most part, of minute pelagic organisms, such 
as copepods and crustacean larvae. "When watched in confinement they 
may now and then be seen giving chase to copepods, often without success. 
The young lobster, however, shows little discrimination in its food. It 
seems to snap up almost any moving object, living or dead, which it is able 
to seize and swallow." Herrick has stated that one difficulty arises in 
raising the young of the lobster in close quarters, from the fact that the 
young invariably preferred to feed on one another. The death-rate was, 
however, he considers, due in part to other causes. In this connection, 
an extract from the Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission, vol. xvii., 
1897, p. 135, is interesting: — "During the spring and summer particular 
attention was paid to the food, habits, and growth of the young lobster, 
and much valuable information was obtained at "Wood's Hole, where 
extensive experiments were conducted on the holding of fry during the 
larval stages. The experiments indicate that, under natural conditions, 
the young lobster is much less a cannibal than has been believed, eating 
his fellows only when natural food is not available." 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 7 1 



Larv.b — General Description. 

The zoeae are beautifully coloured in two predominant tints. On the 
dorsum, in the gastric region, the double luuiinous Ijlue spot is con- 
spicuous. Then generally all over they are pigmented blue on the dorsum 
of the thorax and abdomen, and yellovv or red on the sides. Certain 
zoeae, which to the naked eye have a slight bluish colouration, are seen, 
on examination with transmitted light, to have a great quantity of yellow 
I^igment all over the body, the carapace, abdomen, and limbs, with the 
dorsum of the thorax and of the abdomen blue. Others are to the naked 
eye brilliantly coloured with daik red, which is seen by means of the 
microscope to be distributed similarly to the yellow in the zoe'ce just 
described. There are different shades of yellow : some lighter, others 
darker. Occasionally the colouration shows to the naked eye a mixture 
of red with bluish purple. In 1904 most of the lobster zoeas were red, 
but others were green, showing no red to the naked eye. Some were of 
a very pale green. 

The young lobster, while it is still a zoea, is, from its pelagic existence 
during a period of at least three weeks, exposed to many dangers. Its 
helpless condition, combined with its fairly lai'ge size, and conspicuous 
colouration, will, no doubt, result in its extensive destruction. Its life 
near the surface of the water will, however, give it, on the whole, probably 
a better chance of escape from small fishes than if it were swimming 
close to the bottom. 

While it is a zoea the lobster swims with its head bent downwards, 
and it attacks the food usually from above. It sees a white piece of the 
liver of the crab {Cancer paijur us) falling a good bit below it, and swims 
do-wn in a spiral till it reaches it. It, however, chases copepods on a level 
with it, and also below it. When it is about to cast it seeks the bottom 
of the box. Some which, were put into a glass tank kept boring away 
at the bottom in an endeavour to get down out of the strong light 
apparently. 

The keen sight of the zoea is a remarkable contrast to the purblind 
condition of the adult lobster. 

In the megalops stage the young lobster for the first time crawls. It 
also swims, but now it swims forwards by means of its pleopods, with 
the two long chelae held extended straight in front, in this way protecting 
its rostrum from any rude shock which collision with an object might 
produce. It also swims and floats in a manner similar to that known as 
" treading water," when it tries to grasp anything near the surface, and 
it turns round on its long axis after copepods at the surface of the water. 
It can also dart backwards by means of a rapid stroke of its telson, after 
the manner of the adult, but this in both stages usually follows surprise, 
and is adopted for escape. It sinks whenever it ceases using its swim- 
merets or telson. The megalops swims more than the later stages. It 
seems to support itself more easily in the water than they do. Its 
method of swimming is by means of its pleopods, that of a Crangon or 
PalcBvion. 

In this stage the antennas are short, and their length seems to vary a 
little in different individuals. Certain megalopa have antennae which 
reach just in front of the tip of the chela when it is stretched straight 
out alongside the rostrum. Others have much shorter antenna?. The 
setose exopodites are only present in some of the examples of this stage. 

The megalops is the homologue of the sixth stage of Crangon vulgaris, 
in that it has practically the adult characters, save for its very short 
antennae; It crawls about on the bottom of the box, and resists any wave 



72 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

motion of the water which would tend to float it away. It clings with 
all its pereiopods to the silk cloth of the bottom until the wave motion 
ceases, when it starts crawling again. Immediately the box is agitated, 
again it halts and holds on. 

In its alnlity to notice particles of food, the megalops appears to be as 
keen-sighted as the zoea. Mead contrasts the habits of the zoca and 
megalops. 

The next, that is the first young stage, swims about after copepods, and 
is to be seen swimming forward with the two chelse extended together 
straight in front. The antennae of this stage are longer than in the 
megalops, and the following stage has still longer antennae. 

The stages subsequent to the megalops are even more difficult to 
dislodge from the corner of the box. They cling tenaciously to the 
bottom (silk gauze) until the water is withdrawn and they are left 
stranded. Then they loose their hold to follow up the water. This fact 
probably accounts for these stages never being met with in the tow-net. 
They are really bottom forms, and in shallow water would require to be 
able to stick well to stones or in crevices to prevent their being washed 
away. 

A young form will sometimes swim round the edge of the box with the 
ofi' antenna stretched out in front and the near one thrown back along 
the body. 

Appellof remarks regarding the first young stage that they hide in dark 
corners or under stones. They are then very stationary. He draws 
attention to the great caution shown by the young lobster, and considers 
that, in consequence of that trait, a relatively large percentage of them 
should survive. 

On the approach of winter the little lobsters in the Laboratory became 
very sluggish. In November and December 1902 they were rarely seen, 
except when the boxes were lifted. They stuck to the darkest corner of 
the box, and did not move about so much as they did earlier in the year. 
During these months there were hardly any copepods in the water supply, 
and this may have had something to do with their sluggishness. The 
increasing cold was, however, doubtless the main predisposing cause of 
their inactivity. 

One of the most noticeable features that accompanies the transition from 
the zoca to the megalops is the sudden change in the character of the 
anim.il. The zoea swims about in an aimless way, except for the 
moments when it pursues a copepod. It paddles persistently, and when 
it strikes against the side of the box it jerks away quickly. It is not 
disturbed by noticing anything ; all it appears to see is the little particles 
of food. It evidently sees short distances only. The main point is its 
indifference to possible danger ; it does not attempt in any way to conceal 
itself. In the zoea stage the lobster had no fear or premonition ; in the 
megalops, it assumes with the adult garb the haunting fear of attack, 
which leads it to hide itself in some protecting crevice. It comes to 
rest in the darkest corner of the box, and while swimming about is 
always on the alert for a possible foe. For everything, food and pro- 
tection, it has to be completely self-dependent. The desire to hide 
appeared with the necessity. The bottom life is, without doubt, a 
dangerous one, possibly more so than the pelagic existence it had just 
passed through. Its eye still enables it to pick up copepods ; it is large, 
as in all the early stages of decopod Crustacea. It no longer swims 
aimlessly about, but simply occasionally on a foraging expedition. 

All the larvae ate crab's liver, and hunt it by sight as it falls. And in 
the case of the megalops, when a little crabs' liver was introduced into the 
box, the lobster became very excited and rushed hither and thither, 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 73 

following the scent dispersed by the current of water flowing through the 
box. 

One little lobster took up its abode for a day or two in a Purpura 
shell which lay on the sand that covered the bottom of the aquarium, 
but when it attracted attention, it had excavated in the sand a hole 
below the shell, and in it it lay. The hole was deep to the front, and 
was a neat fit. The lobster pushed out a quantity of sand, two armsfull, 
in front of it, and removed larger grains of sand and a little piece of 
debris with its maxillipedes. When returning from a promenade round 
its prison it carefully tested its lair before it backed into it. It was alone 
in the aquarium. Now this lobster did not imitate an adult or any other 
young lobster in taking up its abode in the shell, or in digging a cave in 
the sand. When food was tumbled in it seemed to resent its approach. 
It appeared to be attracted by the scent at first, and then it put some fresh 
mussel that tumbled into its cavity out of the hole, while some mussel 
that was apparently old was left in. It was noticed that the mussel stuck 
to the pereiopods. 

Another little lobster, in its wandering about among the sand and mud, 
got its pereiopods and maxillipedes covered with fine debris which, no 
doubt, consisted, in considerable part, of diatoms. It was observed to 
pick off the debris and put it into its mouth. Sometimes the mud in 
the aquarium was all punctuated as if it had been probed all over with 
the legs of the lobster. 

The Larval Stages. 

In the lobster the zoea is a much more specialised organism than in 
certain of the other decapod Crustacea, e.g. Crangon and Carcinus. One 
important respect in which the former differs from the two latter is in 
the possession of functional gills. The presence of the gills determines 
the form of the appendages concerned in the respiratory function, viz. 
the second maxilla, and the maxillipedes which are employed in securing 
a circulation of water through the branchial chamber. The gills and 
their arrangement being very nearly similar to the condition in the 
adult, it follows that the function of the appendages is that which they 
perform in the adult, and their form is therefore practically that of the 
adult. In Crangon and Carcinus the maxillipedes have no respiratory 
function to perform in the zoea ; they and the second maxilla are in form 
quite dissimilar from the adult condition. The adult form of these 
appendages are similar but not identical in the lobster and Crangon. 

The stages which will now be described have not been determined by 
following a lobster in its successive moults. They have been dis- 
criminated from the general collection of larvfe which were developing 
in the hatchery. In the case of the higher stages, e.g. last zoea stage, 
megalops, first and second young stages, the casts connecting adjacent 
stages were observed. 

During the research it was found necessary to redissect this form 
which has already been treated by Sars and others, while the American 
species has been worked out by Smith and Herrick in elaborate detail, and 
profusion of drawings. 

The drawing in the present case represents the condition found in the 
appendage examined. The opportunity did not occur to dissect several 
zoese of the same stage with a view to determine the variation in each 
limb, and from that to fix the normal condition. When a comparison 
has been instituted between the limbs of different zoea?, variation in the 
hair arrangement, and in the nature of the hairs themselves, has been 
noted. 



74 Pari III. — Ttventy-third Ajinual Report 

lu the sketch the exact number and arrangement of the hairs, Sec, 
lias been attempted, except in the case of figs. 7 and 16, and the draw- 
ings of the protopodite joints. The exact number of set?e is not introduced 
on the exopodites, pleopods, uropods, or, in certain cases, on the telson. 
In the draAvings of the complete larva the perciopods are represented 
senii-diagrammatically. 



The Appendages of the First Zoea. 

The appendages present in the first zoea stage are — (1) the Eyes ; (2) 
Antennules ; (3) Antennse ; (4) Mandibles ; (5) First Maxillfe ; (6) Second 
MaxilLne ; (7) First Maxillipedes ; (8) Second Maxillipedes ; (9) Third 
Maxillipedes ; (10) First Pereiopods ; (11) Second Pereiopods ; (12) Third 
Pereiopods ; (13) Fourth Pereiopods ; (14) Fifth Pereiopods. It possesses 
all the cephalic and thoracic appendages which the adult has. The 
telson is triangular. The pleopods and uropods are not yet developed. 

A detailed description is not necessary ; in addition to the drawing of 
each appendage, short notes will be merely added here. 

Eye, 0., fig. 4, pi. i. 

The eye is large, and has a very short stalk. 

Antennule, a., fig. 2, ih. 

The antennule is crowned with three sesthetascs, one of which is 
specially large, and two hairs. A minute hair was found at the base of 
the pesthetascs on the antennule of one side, but not on that of the other 
side. A little short of the end of the antennule there is a little tubercle 
surmounted by a short plumose hair. In Sars' drawing of the appendage 
the plumose hair is shown larger than in the form here described. 
Herrick's drawing of the antennule of the first stage of the American 
lobster shows a more differentiated appendage. 

Antenna, A., figs. 1 and 24, ih. 

The endopodite or fiagellum (fig. 24) is two-jointed. It bears on its 
extremity four plumose seta?. The antenna represented by Herrick has 
a segmented or annulated endopodite. 

The scale of one side had 23 seta; ; that of the other side had 25 
setae. 

Mandible, Mn., figs. 5, 6 and 18, ih. 

The apparent joint in the mandible (fig. 5) above the origin of the 
palp seems to be simply the edge of its jointing with the cephalon. 

The two hairs on the palp (fig. 18) have their distal halves finely 
serrated. 

An enlarged drawing of the cutting edge of the mandible is shown in 
fig. 6. 

First Maxilla, \rii., fig. 27, ih. 

On the lower lobe the group of four hairs which have been, for con- 
venience, represented as pointed downwards, should be directed upwards. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 75 



Second Maxilla, 2m., fig. 9, ih. 

The second maxilla is really a maxillipede ; it forms with the maxilli 
pedes a series of appendages which, in addition to subserving a feeding 
function, also share the mechanical part of the respiratory process. This 
is performed by means of the epipodites. 

The epipodite of the second maxilla is the lower half of the scaphog- 
nathite, while the exopodite is represented by the upper half. 

The division of the second maxilla into joints is difficult to follow. 
My interpretation of the arrangement is as follows: (1) a basal joint ; 
(2) immediately above that a bi-lobed joint; (1) and (2) form the 
protopodite. Above No. 2 there is a three-lobed joint, the endopodite. 
The scaphognathite, which seems to be divided at its middle into two 
joints, represents in its top half the exopodite, and in its lower half the 
epipodite. 

There are 81 plumose setae on the margin of the scaphognathite, and 
four small hairs on the surface. 

On the elongated top lobe of the endopodite the long hairs are 
sparsely plumose ; they are stiff spine-like hairs, with short, stiff cilia 
given off in pairs. The tips of the hairs are curved. 

There are 20 hairs on the second lobe ; they also have curved 
extremities. They are, with three sparsely ciliated exceptions, plain 
hairs ; one hair only was distinctly serrated on its distal half. 

The third lobe bears 13 hairs on the margin, and two on the under- 
surface. They resemble those on the second lobe ; only a few are 
ciliated. 

On the fourth lobe there are stout hairs sparsely furnished with stiff 
cilia on their proximal halves, and serrations on their distal halves. 

The fifth lobe has long, stifT plumose bristles. 

First Maxillipede, \m.p., figs. 7, 10, and 23, ih. 

The first maxillipede (fig. 7) has a large first protopodite joint bearing 
a large epipodite. The upper lobe of the epipodite appears to be seg- 
mented off. The second protopodite joint is a flattened lobe bearing a 
large number of serrated spines on its margin (fig. 23). 

The endopodite is two-jointed (fig. 10), and bears several long sparsely 
plumose bristles. 

Second Maxillipede, 2wp., figs. 29, 14, and 19. 

From the first protopodite joint there arises two processes, united at 
their bases, one of which is a rudimentary gill, while the other is an 
epipodite (fig. 14). Both are hollow. An interesting condition was 
noticed in the gill, which may or may not be constant. The subject was 
not investigated. In the side of the gill there was a pore opening into 
a central cavity (fig. 14). The gill is not segmented. Between the 
wall of this central cavity and the outer wall there is a space which 
communicates with canals in the protopodite. The hollow of the 
epipodite communicates with a canal in the protopodite. In the draw- 
ing the canals are dotted ; the basement tissue is striated. 

The exopodite and endopodite arise from the second protopodite joint 
(figs. 29 and 19). 

The exopodite, which is furnished with two terminal hairs and a little 
terminal protuberance, has a long basal joint and a long flagejlum in- 
completely divided by two septa. 



76 Part III. — Twenty-third Annital Report 

The endopodite consisted of four joints ; that is one less than what it 
has later, and which the first stage specimen dissected l)y Ilerrick had. 
The first long joint in the present case showed a trace of division into 
two. 

The armature of the endopodite consists of serrated thorns resembling 
those on the same appendage in the VI. and VII. stages of Crangon. So 
far as was made out, they were, without exception, serrated. The serra- 
tions are minute, except in the large thorns. In fig. 29 the teeth are 
exaggerated. 

Third Maxillipede, Smp., figs. 8 and 16. 

Two gills and an epipodite are attached to the first joint of the pro- 
topodite. One of the gills is a podobranch, the other an arthrobranch 
(fig. 16). On the edge of the epidodite there are three hooks, of which 
the two larger are anterior. There is a second arthrobranch. 

The exopodite had two terminal seta3 and ten on each side. The 
annulations on the exopodite appear to be complete joints. 

The endopodite has five joints. The spines are, almost without excep- 
tion, serrated. Those on the under-surface (of the sketch) have two rows 
at least of large teeth ; the other spines have small serrations, of which 
there are two rows at least. The long terminal spine has very few ser- 
rations. 

Perbiopods. 

The pereiopods drawn are all of the right side. 

The pereipod consists of seven joints, viz. (1) first protopodite joint — 
Coxopodite ; (2) second protopodite joint — Basipodite ; endopodite 
joints, viz. (3) Ischiopodite ; (4) Meropodite ; (5) Carpopodite ; (6) 
Propodite ; (7) Dactylopodite. 

The setose exopodite arises from the basipodite. 

First Pereiopod, Ijjer., figs. 11, 20, and 28. 

There are four gills connected with this limb — a podobranch, two 
arthrobranchs, one pleurobranch, and an epipodite. 

The endopodite has five joints, but the distal limit of the ischiopodite 
is shown by a line merely across the limb ; it is not a movable junction. 

On the propodite the spines, almost without exception, are serrated ; 
those on the same side as the dactylopodite have prominent serrations, 
those on the opposite side very small serrations. 

There were 22 or 24 setae on the exopodite. 

Second Pereiopod, %jer., figs. 22, 21, 12, and 15. 

As in the preceding, appendage the first joint on the endopodite is 
marked by a line crossing what would otherwise be a first long joint of 
this branch ; giving five joints in all. The hand has serrated spines ; 
those on one side having larger serrations than those of the other side. 
There are three teeth on the inner edge of the dactylopodite. 

There were 24 setae on the exopodite. 

Four gills and an epipodite are connected with this limb. 

Third Pereiopod, 3per., figs. 13, 17, 25, and 26. 

The endopodite is incompletely segmented ; it has four joints. 
The spines on the claw of the propodite have large serrations. 
The exopodite had 24 (26) setae. 
Attached to the appendage are four gills and an epipodite. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 77 

Fourth Pbreiopod, 5per., figs. 42, 52, and 45. 

The endopodite shows five joints. On the propodite the spines have 
very large serrations on their distal halves, and smaller teeth on their 
proximal halves. On the other side the spines have small serrations. 
There are two kinds of serration on the long spine of the dactylopodite. 
At the base of this spine there is a tooth on the dactylopodite. 

The exopodite had 24 (26) set^e. 

Four gills and one epipodite are connected with this limb. 

Fifth Perbiopod, Sper., figs. 42, 52, and 45. 

On the endopodite there is a little tooth at the base of the terminal 
spine. 

The exopodite had 22 setaj. 

One gill, a pleurobranch, is connected with the fifth pereiopod. 

Branchle. 

The number and the arrangement of the gills of the first stage zoea 
are similar to the condition in the adult. Two of the gills, however, are 
here rudimentary. In fig. 49, pi. ii., the branchial cavity is shown. 
The gills are represented in the positions they occupy, but are shown 
much more slender than they actually would appear. They are packed 
close together. The division of the gills into podobranchife, arthro- 
branchiie, and pleurobranchise is clearly shown in the case of the majority 
of the gills, but some there are which, from their position, might be 
regarded as pleurobranchs. In the adult, however, they are arthro- 
branchs, and very probably are arthrobranchs in the larva. They are 
the gills on the top row of the arthrobranchs in the following scheme. 
The Table exhibits the arrangement of the gills in the first zoea stage 
{vide fig. 49). The gi^ls are arranged in the branchial chamber in four 
rows. The highest row consists of four pleurobranchs belonging to the 
second to fourth pereiopods. The next row consists of five arthrobranchs 
which are connected with the third maxillipede and first four pereiopods. 
The third row comprises another set of five arthrobranchs attached to 
the same appendages. The fourth row includes .six prodobranchs, borne 
by the second and third maxillipedes and the first four pereiopods. The 
first and last of the series are rudimentary gills. Each of the above- 
mentioned appendages, with the exception of the fifth pereiopod, has an 
epipodite. On the coxopodite of the last pereiopod there is a small process 
which may represent the epipodite. 

Herrick says that in the American lobster there is no rudimentary gill 
attached to the second maxillipede. 

la Fig. 49 the following letters are used : — pl.-br., Pleurobranch ; 
ar.-hr.j Avthrobranch ; pd.-br., Podobranch. 



[Table, 



78 



Part III. — Twenty-third Anmial Bepoot 



Branchicti of First Zoea Stage. 



1st Row 


PL 


PI. 


PI. 


PI. 








2ncl „ 




Ar. 


Ar. 


Ar. 


Ar. 


Ar.* 




3rd „ 




Ar. 


Ar. 


Ar. 


Ar. 


Ar. 




4th „ 




Pd. 


Pd. 


Pd. 


Pd. 


Pd. 


Pel. 


5J ;> 




Ep. 


Ep. 


Ep. 


Ep. 


Ep. 


Ep. 


Appendage. 


5 per. 


4 per. 


3 per. 


2 per. 


1 per. 


3 mp. 


2 mp. 



Abdomen. 

On the dorsum of the abdomen there are three single spines and a pair 
of hooks. The spines arise from the third, fourth, and fifth abdominal 
segments, and the pair of hooks are situated on the hind border of the 
sixth segment. In the larva of the American lobster there is a small 
hook on the second segment also. 

There are four pairs of rudiments of pleopods ; they are paired 
swellings projecting below the ventral line. Each is widely separated 
from the other pleopod of the pair. The integument is apparently per- 
forated for the outward growth of the appendage, in a manner similar to 
the bud of a new limb. Inside, a fold can be seen. 

In each segment there is a pair of nerve ganglia. In the examination 
of the first stage of Carcinus the ganglia are noticed, but were not 
recognised.t There is a little tooth on the side near the anus. On the 
hind border of the telson there are 16 (17) little setfe on either side of 
the median spine. In the dorsal view of the abdomen and telson the 
exact number of set^ is not shown on the hind border of the telson. 



Food op the Zoea. 
he stomach of one zoea contained the integument of a copepod. 

Subsequent Stages. 

As mentioned above, there has been some difference in opinion regard- 
ing the number of stages into which the zoea period is normally divided. 
In the European lobster Sars distinguished three stages ; Saville Kent 
made out four distinct stages ; Chadwick has described three stages. 
Herrick, for the American lobster, discriminated three zoea stages only. 

The difficulty arises from the fact that during the zoea period the 
different developing appendages do not proceed paH passu; and while, 
no doubt, there is normally a correlation between the organs which results 
in a certain stage of development in the one being usually associated 
with another certain stage in the second appendage, still the variation 

* The ai-throbranch in the second row, connected with the third maxillipede, 
is hidden by the adjacent arthrobranch of the first pereiopod. 

t Vide Williamson. The Larval and Early Young Stages of the Shore-Crab {Carcintis 
fiianas), p. 157. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 79 

is comparatively very large. How is the number of zoea stages to be 
fixed 1 The most direct method is to watch a zoea in its development 
from hatching till it reaches the megalops stage, when it changes its mode 
of life and assumes the form of the adult. In the zoea period every 
moult ushers in a new stage. As will be shown later, however, the 
megalops is not a fixed condition ; a large amount of variation occurs in 
its structure. The development of a single example would not be 
sufficient ; a number would be necessary. In the zoese of Cranrjon and 
Carcimcs variation was noticed, especially in the size of larvai of the same 
developmental stage. These zoea3 are of very small size, whereas the 
lobster larva is large. The variation, then, in the latter is of much 
greater absolute size. The variation in size and in the development of 
the appendages together result in a multiplication of forms. Causes 
which are at present unknown — they may be food, temperature, salinity 
of the sea-water, &e. — stimulate development in certain or all the 
characters in some larva?, while apparently similar conditions of environ- 
ment result in delayed development in other specimens. The method 
adopted in the present case has been to group the zoeae into as many groups 
as they naturally fall into. Of these there are three. But the extent of 
variation is sufficiently large to bring into prominence three other distinct 
forms. In the first group of zoese there are two dimorphic forms, and it 
might be inferred from that fact that we had simply to deal with two 
parallel series, but that does not appear to be the case. One case at least 
occurred where a larva belonging to one series passed by a moult 
apparently into the other series. 

The zol'a stages are very readily distinguished by the stage of develop- 
ment of the pleopods. During the zoea period the pleopods develop and 
become functional for the first time in the megalops. This occurred, 
without observed exception, in the case of Ormigon and Carcinus. 

In Homarus the first zoea has the rudiments of the pleopods; they 
do not project from the abdomen ; they are merely paired swellings 
on the posterior part of the under-surface of the abdominal segment. In 
Stage II. the pleopods project as unjointed bifid processes. In Stage III. 
they are large two-bladed appendages. 

In the first zoea the cornea of the eye is attached to the carapace ; the 
eye is sessile. In the second and third stages it is quite free from the 
carapace; the eye is distinctly stalked. 

The telson in the first zoea is triangular, its hind margin fringed with 
plumose setfe. No uropods are present. The uropods appear in Stage 
III. 

In each stage there is a marked variation in size, and the large indivi- 
duals usually show considerable divergence in structure from the small 
specimens of the same stage, in respect to the developing appendages. 

In Stage I. one or two large specimens, la. (fig. 67), but not all, 
showed a telson differently shaped from that of the smaller. But 
between these two, some larvae showed intermediate forms of the 
telson. Then a difference in the size of the ventral swellings (pleopods) 
on the abdomen was noticed, but the more prominent swellings were not 
confined to zoeae having the second form of telson. 

In Stage II. (fig. 68) the outstanding difference between the larvae was 
that of size; a dimorphic form was not noticed here. 

In Stage III. (fig. 69) difference in the size and structure of the pleopods 
is common. The dimorphic form of the third zoea (fig. 71, pi. iv.) is 
one which, in structure, is intermediate between Stage III. and the 
megalops. 

None of these dimorphic forms have, so far as I am aware, been 
previously recorded and described. It is possible that their origin may, 



80 Part III. — Twenty-third Anmml Report 

in some measure, be due to the environment ; the conditions, favourable 
and unfavourable, of their life in the Laboratory may have resulted in 
stimulating these irregular forms. The lobsters were under the influence 
of this environment for a month or so while in the egg, and afterwards 
during the whole of their free existence. The parent lobsters were from 
two wKlely separated localities, viz. the East and AVest Coasts of Scotland. 
The young forms were mixed together in the hatchery. The different 
origins of the parents might be accompanied by variation in development 
of the larvffi. 

It is convenient to discuss the stages in the order of their sequence. 

Stage I.— Saville Kent breaks up this stage into two stages, which he 
separated by two characters : — 

(1) Difference in size. 

(2) Diflference in the number of dorsal spines on the carapace. 

Difference in size is not a character of value; and as regards the 
second, I have not been able to discover this difference. 

A very marked difference was found, however, between certain of the 
first zoe^e, in the shape of the hind border of the telson. In the majority 
the hind margin makes with the hooks at the angles of the base a return 
curve of comparatively small radius (fig. 30). In some of the larger speci- 
mens la. (fig. 67) the telson is broader, the curve of the hind margin is a 
much shallower one, the lateral hooks being directed posteriorly instead 
of inwards (fig. 46). The setae on the hind border are very short, while 
in the first described case the setai were fully half the length of the 
median spine. Now, in Crangon vulgaris;'' the second stage difiers from 
the first in having a telson of slightly different shape, accompanied bya 
greater number of spines on the hind border. There is also a difference in 
size. This fact would suggest the possibility of the two forms in Stage I. 
being independent stages, but the length of the seta3 Avas found to be 
variable, and cases occurred where it was impossible to say, from the 
length of the seta?, to which form the individual belonged. I have coine 
to tiie conclusion that there is not sufficient differentiation to warrant its 
elevation to a separate stage. 

The second zoea (fig. 68, pi. iv.) is the first stage in which the pleopods 
project. They are unjointed bifid processes. They issue, by foramina 
in the integument, from the posterior part of the under-surface of the 
2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th abdominal joints. The telson (fig. 48, pi. ii.) has 
16 little setaj on either side of the median spine. On the outside of the 
set£e there is a little spine at the base of the lateral hook. The uropods 
are not yet free, but may be traced through the integument of the telson. 
Two zoea of this stage measured 10 and 12mm. respectively— a very con- 
spicuous difterence in bulk. 

The third zoea shows a certain amount of variation, and between the 
third zoea and the megalops, and in the megalops, variation is well marked. 
The dimorphism was noticed in respect to two characters especially, viz. 
those which are in process of development in the zoea period, e.g. the 
antennae and the pleopods. 

The third zoea (fig. 69, pi. iv.) is characterised by the possession ot 
uropods. The telson, which is square, is toothed along its hmd border 
(fig. 35, pi. ii.). There were 18 teeth on either side of the median spine 
in the soecimen examined. On one side there was a little setose hair. 
Two or 'three short plain hairs were found on the dorsal surface of the 
margin. The pleopods (fig. 37) are larger; each consists of a thick stem, 
bearing two paddle-shaped processes. They are constricted off from the 
stem, but not by movable joints The paddles are set across the abdomen, 

* Vide Williamson. 



of the Fulicnj Board for Scotland. 81 

and are fringed on both edges of their distal halves with short, stout plain 
hairs. The exopodite overlaps the endopodite on the anterior side of the 
latter. In the third pair of pleopods of one larva there were 21 hairs on 
the exopodite, viz. 13 on the outer side, 2 terminal, and 6 on the inner 
side, i.e. next the endopodite. The endopodite was somewhat smaller 
than the exopodite, and bore 19 hairs, viz. 3 terminal and 8 on each side. 
The endopodite extends as a continuation of the stem of the appendage. 
There is a variation in this stage which is common ; it is the case wherein 
the pleopod is furnished with rather longer fringing hairs, a proportion, 
larger or smaller, of which are sparsely plumose. The pleopods api)arently 
function to a slight extent in this stage. 

The two forms observed of the third stage then are: — Illff, zoese 
having pleopods fringed with short plain hairs ; Illb, zoefe having 
pleopods fringed with rather longer hairs, which are in part sparsely 
'plumose (fig. 36, pi. ii.). It is possible that III6 is the more common. 
This was the structure of the pleopod in the III. zoea stage described by 
Smith. 

The most striking secondary form is one which partakes of the 
characters of both zoea and megalops. It will probably be more con- 
venient, then, to define the normal or average megalops before proceeding 
to discuss the intermediate variation. 

The zoea has certain prominent characters ; these are the dorsal hooks 
on the abdomen, the purely maxillipede form of the pereiopods, the 
swimming exopodites of the thoracic appendages, and the stumpy 
antennae, which do not function as feelers. The pleopods in the zoea are 
not fringed with long plumose setse. 

The megalops stage is marked by the antennse being long, minutely 
jointed, and used as feelers. The pereiopods function for walking ; the 
exopodites are greatly reduced. The pleopods are furnished with long, 
densely plumose setae, and have become powerful swimming organs. The 
dorsal hooks on the abdomen are absent. 

The intermediate stage, which is, for convenience, labelled thus " IV." 
in the plates, was quite common among the larvai that were reared. Fig. 
71, pi. iv., represents the most common condition of this form ; for it also 
varies. The antennule and the antenna are still not fully developed ; 
the former is single, and bears at its extremity a bunch of hairs. The 
antenna is longer than it is in Stage III. ; it shows some segmentation, 
and coming joints are indicated externally by the presence of little hairs ; 
it is not a functional feeler. In other respects this form is a zoea. The 
spine and hook armature of the abdomen is that of the zoea. The 
pereiopods and their exopodites are in the zoea condition. Drawings of 
the first peroiopod are given in figs. 43, 44, and 38, pi. ii. The part of 
the second protopodito joint which bears the exopodite is now segmented. 
The epipodite is also segmented off from the first protopodite joint (figs. 
44 and 38). The protopodite of the second pereiopod is represented in 
fig. 39, pi. ii. Tlie endopodite has five joints — a chelate tip. 

It resembles a megalops in its pleopods, telson, and the hand of the 
first pereiopod. The pleopods are large, and fringed with long j)lumose 
setae. On the third pleopod (fig. 51, pi. ii.) there are on the exopodite 
33 setae, and on the endopodite 30 sette. The exopodite overlaps the 
endopodite on the anterior surface. The hand of the first pereiopod was 
long, resembling that of a megalops rather than that of the zoea (fig. 43, 
pl.ii.). 

The Stage " IV." varies to the extent of having its pleopods furnished 
with comparatively short hairs, some of which at least are sparsely 
plumose. This is the condition found in the modification of the third 
stage zoea, labelled Illft. The largest specimens are usually furnished 



82 Part III. — Ticeidij-third Annual Report 

with the pleopods of the megalops. The telson of the "IV." stage, 
whicli was drawn, had no median spine on the hind border ; in this 
stage a median spine is usually present. 

Stage " IV." attracts attention from the fact that in general shape and 
large size it resembles a megalops. The use of the pleopods for 
swimming give it the characteristic megalops appearance. It swims 
with the chelje stretched straight out in front of it. It may be 
regarded either as a backward megalops, or as a precociously developed 
zoea. From the point of view of the former, the antennae, which are so 
prominently employed by the megalops, have developed more slowly 
than the pleopods. We have, in fact, a megalops which has carried over 
certain zoea characters, viz. antennules, antennae, the purely maxillipede 
form of the pereiopods, and the abdominal hooks. There are other cases 
in which minor zoea characters are carried over and exhibited in the 
megalops ; they will be referred to later. If the second view is adopted, 
we are led to the interesting conclusion that an organ may by precocious 
development become functional in a stage which is normally without it. 

Might not an unusually rapid growth of the zoL'a in size necessitate the 
earlier provision of swimming organs to assist the exopodites which were 
sufficient in the smaller stages 1 Or might a lower salinity react by 
stimulating the development of greater swimming power? The zoiia has 
attained to the body of a megalops, and the result is the provision of the 
means of moving it about. 

Boas describes considerable difference in structure between the larvae 
and adults of the fresh-water and sea-water forms of Palaemonetes 
varians. The larva of the former is larger than that of the latter. 

The megalops stage is illustrated by several figures. Fig. 72, pi. iv.. 
shows the lobster in this stage. The pereiopods are represented by figs, 
60, 61, 62, and 58, pi. iii., while the abdomen and telson are shown in 
figs. 57 and 63, pi. iii. 

The exopodites of the pereiopods are present, and setose, though very 
much reduced ; but variations in the exopodites are common. In the 
stage following the megalops, viz. the first young stage, the exopodites 
are reduced to little processes {vide figs. 59, 65, 70, pi. iv.). 

While dissecting a megalops the first pereiopods broke off at the 
junction between the basipodite and the ischiopodite. These joints, so 
far as could be made out, were fixed, as they are in the adult. This is 
the fracture plane of Fredericq. The broken limb showed a clean but 
not very regular break (fig. 58, jdI. iii.). The muscles in the ischiopodite 
run right down and terminate at the proximal end of that segment. The 
muscles of the exopodite may have something to do in effecting the 
fracture. 

The pleopods are similar to those of Stage " IV." (fig. 51, pi. ii.). The 
setae have long, stiff cila, and resemble generally the seta^ on the pleopod 
of the megalops of Crangon vulgaris. 

The telson of the megalops had a median spine on the hind border. 
This spine is usually absent ; it is a zoea character. 

The chela resembles that of the first young stage (fig. 65), but the 
tubercles on the meropodite are a little less prominent. 

The first young stage resembles much the megalops {vide fig. 70, pi. iv.), 
but is usually larger. The exopodites of the thoracic limbs are small 
processes, no longer setose. The antenna? are longer than in the megalops. 
The pleopods are similar to those of the megalops. The rostrum is 
bifurcate. On the whole, the lobster in the first young stage resembles 
much in its habits the lobster in the megalops stage. It does not appear 
to swim quite so much. 

The first pereiopod of this stage is figured in figs. 65 and 59, pi. iii 



q/ the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



83 



The little hairs on the propodite and dactylopodite are probably sensory. 
Fig. 64, ih., gives a dorsal view of the telson. 



Variation of the Megalops. 

A typical megalops may be described as follows. It walks about by 
means of the pereiopods, which are now of the adult form, and it swims 
by means of its large pleopods. The exopodites of the thoracic appen- 
dages are present, but in varied structure. They may be seto.se, or 
much reduced, and without setae. The antennae now project as far in 
front as the chehe can reach, and are used, as in the adult, as feelers. The 
rostrum is bifurcate at the tip. The eyes, like those of the zoea, are 
very large. 

The megalops varies in several ways — the following were specially 
noted : — 

(1) It as often as not has one or more of the dorsal abdominal 
hooks of the zoea persisting. 

(2) It may have the median spine on the hind border of the telson — a 
zoea character. 

(3) The exopodites may vary very much. Some or all of them may 
be setose, or they may be reduced to little processes, as in the first young 
stage. The exopodite of the first pereiopod does not usually have any 
seta?. 

The following Table gives an analysis of 12 megalopa with respect to 
three characters. The sign + signifies the presence, and - the absence, 
of the character ; if no sign is entered the character had not been noted. 





Dorsal Hooks 

on 

Abdomen. 


Median 

Spine on 

Telson. 


Exopodites — 

some 

Setose. 


Exopodites 
reduced to 
small pro- 
cesses. 


4 Megalopa, 


+ 




+ 




1 Megalops, 


+ 






+ 


5 Megalopa, 


- 




+ 




1 Megalops, 






+ 




1 Megalops, 




+ 







Forms Resulting from the Casting of III. and "IV."ZoEyE. 

Particulars were kept of various casts of the III. zoea and of the 
" IV." stage. The resulting forms were observed, and are entered in the 
followinji Table : — 



[Table. 



84 



Part III. — Twtinijj-lhird Annual Report 



Stage. 


Cast into 


Special Characters of 
Resulting Form. 


Ilia. 
II [a. 


" IV." 
"IV." 


Pleopcids and Telson of Megalops. 


III«. 
IIW. 
III6. 
III6. 


Megalop;-. 

"IV." 
Megalops. 

55 


Siiort Antennte. 
Pleopods of Megalops. 


III6. 






III6. 






"IV." 


55 


In some respects, e.g. Exopodites 
of Pereiopods, resembled First 
Young Stage. 


" IV." 


5) 


55 5! 55 



Growth of the Young Lobster. 

The larval stages of the Ameiican lobster have been fully treated by 
Herrick, who followed its life-history from the time of hatching to the 
tenth stage, when the animal is over one inch long and about three months 
old. He says that the young lobster ceases to swim in the sixth stage. 

In the Laboratory here the young lobsters have been kept for various 
intervals up to ten months. Rearing experiments were carried on in the 
summer of 1902 and the summer of 1904. In the case of the lobsters 
which were kept for several months, it was not possible to tell in wdiat 
month they were hatched, but as the greatest number of the fry hatched 
out in August, the middle of that month has been taken as the date from 
whi(!h to calculate the age of the young lobsters. The growth in the 
cases here cited is possibly abnormally slow. 

A. 1902 Brood— Hatched in August 1902. 

1. September 28-30th 1902. — Megalopa issued from three specimens 

of the large " IV " zoea. 
„ October 30th. — One megalops cast. 
,, November 6th 1902. — Another megalops cast. 

2. October 1st. — A zoea cast into a zoea of " IV " stage. 

„ November 7th.— The " IV " zoea was partly cast to megalops. 

„ December 5th. — The megalops was dead ; l"6cm. 

3. October 2nd. — A zoea cast ; a megalops issued. 

4. November 7th.— A megalops cast. 

5. November 21st. — A first young stage lobster cast. 

„ December 4th. — The soft lobster, second young stage, was found 
dead ; l'4cm. 

6. December 13th. — A lobster of the second young stage died ; l'7cm. 

7. January 15th, 1903. — A first young stage lobster died ; l-7cm. 

8. ,, 17th. — A first young stage lobster died ; I'Bcm. 

9. „ 27th, — A second young stage lobster died ; l*7cm. 

10. May 29th, —A second young stage lobster cast. 

„ June 11th. — The soft lobster, third young stage, died DScoi 

11. May 31st. — A second young stage lobster cast. 

„ „ . —The soft lobster, third young stage, died ; 2"2cm. 



of the Fisher ij Board for Scoiland. 



85 



B. 190^ Brood— Hatched in August 1904. 

12. October 27tli 1904. — Young lobster, first youug stage, cast. 

„ November 3rd. — The soft lobster, second young stage, died ; Tcm. 

13. 31st October. — Young lobster cast. 

,, November 3rd. — ^oft lobster died ; 2*r)cn]. 

14. June 4th 1905. — One young lobster, the sole remaining, measuring 

l*9cm , cast. 
„ „ 14th. — The young lobster died ; 2-lcm. 

Casting of zoea3 occurred as late as October and November and of 
megalops and later stages in October, November, May, and June. 

Length of Different Stages. 

The last zoea stage lasted, in the case of No. 2, from October 1st to 
November 7th, a period of five weeks. 

The megalops stage lasted, in the case of two examples in No. 1, from 
September 30th to October 30th and November 6th, i.e. four and five 
weeks respectively. 

Appellof records that two lobsters in the same jar differed from one 
another by a month in arriving at the sixth stage. Casting took place 
also in winter. 

Sizes of the young lobsters which died, and their approximate ages (from 
hatching) at death : — 







Length 


Number in 


Stage.* 


Age. 


in 


preceding 






Cms. 


List. 


M 


2 months 


1-G: 1-7 




M 


2i 

2 55 


1-6 


2 


+ 2 


^2 55 


1-7 


12 




2i 

-"2 55 


2-5 


13 


+ 2 


3| „ 


1-4 


5 


+ 2 


4 „ 


1-7 


6 


+ 1 


5 „ 


1-7 


7 


+ 1 


5 


1-8 


8 


+ 2 


5 


1-7 


9 


+ 3 


9 


2-2 


11 




10 


2-1 


14 


+ 3 


10 „ 


1-8 


10 



* The following contractions arc used in this cohiniti : — "M," Megalops; "+1," 
first young stage, i.e. stage immediately following Megalops; " +2," second young 
stage, &c. 



[Table. 



86 Part III. — Tweniij-ihird Annual Report 

Additional measurements of lobsters of different stages : — 



Date. 


Stage. 


Measui-ements. 
Mm. 


Sept. and Oct. 
1902. 

Sept. 1902. 


" IV " Zoca. 
M. 

+ 1 


1-5: 1-5: 1-6: 1-G. 

1-5: 1-5: 1-5: 1-5: 
1-6: 1-6. 

1-55: 1-55: 1-6: 1-65: 
1-7: 1-7. 



Death of THii: Young Lobsters, First Young Stage and Later. 

The majority of the young lobsters reared at the Laboratory have died 
shortly after casting. As a rule, the death took place gradually, as if a 
disease had seized them immediately on casting. The lobster became at 
once sluggish, moved about with dilhculty, and simply ebbed away. 

October 23rd (No. 3). — One of the young lobsters cast, but became weak 
immediately after, and was hardly able to move a limb. It was removed 
to a larger vessel with a good supply of water, and it seemed to be 
reviving on the 28th. On October 31st it was livelier ; it could move 
its pleopods, but seemed to be paralysed in the thorax ; a faint movement 
of the antennules was noticed. It had a large swelling on its left side at 
the hind part of the carapace. It was dead on November 3rd. 

On Odoher 31st (No. 5) a lobster that had not cast recently was seen 
to be almost dead ; there was just a little movement detected in the last 
pleopod. On November 3rd it was dead and covered with a fungoid 
growth. 

On November 3rd (No. 6) a lobster Avhich was half-cast was found as 
if dead. No movement was noticed. The lobster was torn asunder, and 
it was then seen that life still remained, as vermiform movements of the 
organs were detected. A puff of white fluid material was squeezed from 
the anterior half of the body, and examined by means of the microscope. 
It was seen to consist of great numbers of infusors of various kinds, the 
majority being very small and roundish in shape ; others were long, 
pear-shaped. Some were progressing with an eel-like motion. Sporo- 
sphcres consisting of a mass of minute infusors were made out. The 
water in which the lobster was had no infusors in it when a droj) was 
examined. 

The death of the young lobsters is, without doubt, due to the rapid 
development in them of these infusor parasites. It is possible that during 
the casting process the infusors may gain admittance to the body, and 
their rapid nndtiplication there results in the death of the host in a few 
days. 

One lobster, the largest reared, measuring 1 inch (2-5cni.) in length, 
reached that size by a cast on October 31st 1904. On November 3rd it 
appeared to be dead. On examination a little movement was detected in 
its limbs. It was removed to a large jar, but did not recover. 



of the, Fishery Board fur Scotland. 87 

Berried Lobsters of Summer 1902. 

The parent lobsters from which the supply of larvte was obtained in 
1902 were kept alive in the Laboratory after the hatching finished. Two 
survived till the spring of 1905, The history of these and of other 
lobsters which were kept in confinement will now be detailed. 

One lobster was found clean hatched on August 2nd 1902, and by 
September 10th all but one had hatched out their eggs. The exception was a 
lobster upon which a quantity of dead eggs remained attached to the swim- 
merets. On September 2.2nd one lobster cast its shell ; when examined 
on October 14th the shell of this individual was not hardening quickly. 
None of the others cast, and none spawned. If spawning actually 
occurred none of the eggs became attached to the adult. The lobsters 
were ten in number on January 16th 1903. None, so far as could be 
made out, had spawned ; one had still a quantity of empty egg-capsules, 
visible to the naked eye, attached to the swimmerets. The soft lobster 
died on June 6th 1903. 

On July 6th 1903 eight of the 1902 hatchers survived. During that 
month six cast their shells ; one cast in August, and the eighth died in 
July. Of the six Avhich cast in July, three died in the process of casting. 

The four soft lobsters bad not spawned in October, in which month a 
male lobster was introduced into the tank with them. On January 13th, 
1904 the male lobster was still with them ; none had become berried. 

One of the females was found cast on July 19th 1904, and it died 
the following day. A second cast on July 29th. The third was 
found dead on August 30th 1904, There were left at that date two 
lobsters ; one of these had cast its shell in 1903, and also in 1904 ; the 
other had cast in 1903. The male lobster remained with the latter. 
Both females were still unberried on 21st October. Neither had spawned 
by January 12th 1905. The lobster that cast in 1904 was found dead on 
February 16th 1905, and the remaining specimen bad died by April 6th 
1905. 

During the two years and nine months the majority cast their shells, 
but none became berried. 

A Female that Spawned. 

A marketable* female lobster arrived from Dunbar in December 1902. 
It had a clean shell, and did not appear to have been berried. It cast 
its shell on September 2nd 1903. When examined on the 12th 
October following it measured 10| inches in length. It was not 
berried on January 13th 1904, but on July 14th it was found to have a 
small quantity of eggs attached to the swimmerets. The eggs Avere early, 
just spawned. No male lobster was present when the eggs were spawned. 
These appeared to be healthy, dark green in colour, with a clear dotted area 
to one side. The lobster had lost all its eggs but two by October 21st 

1904, and when examined on November 19th of the same year it was 
clean. On the subsequent examinations, viz. January 12th, May 6th, 
and June 19th 1905, the lobster was still clean. It moulted on July 2nd, 

1905, and was killed then. This cast has not been entered in the table 
on p. 90. 

Berried Lobsters of 1903. 

Some berried lobsters, eight in number, were obtained from Dunbar in 
September 1903. Two had well-developed eggs, and the eggs hatched 
soon after arrival. By September 24th two more had hatched their eggs ; 
a few eggs remained attached to one lobster. The four others had black 

* A lobster is marketable when it is eight inches, and over in total length of body. 



88 Part III. — Tiventy-ihird Annual Report 

eggs, which appear to have been freshly extruded. They were not 
retained at the Laboratory ; the clean-liatched lobsters were preserved 
alive. During the winter that followed none, so far as was noticed, 
spawned, and on January 23rd 1904, of the three that reraair.ed, none 
was berried. One lobster cast on July 9th 1904. The cast shell was 
clean ; the autennte which had been most exposed to the light had some 
algpe growing on them. It died on July 14th. The second lobster cast 
on July 13th, and the third on July 25th. 

By October 21st 1904 only one survived, and it was not berried. It was 
examined again on November 19th 1904, January 12th 1905, May and 
June 19th 1905, and on each date found to be unberried. 

Berried Lobsters of 1904. 

A stock of berried lobsters, 20 in number, were obtained from Girvan 
and Dunbar in June and July 1904. All but five hatched their eggs by 
the end of August. These were still berried on October 12th 1904. Of 
the others, one cast in August, one cast in September, four more had cast 
by October 12th 1904, a seventh cast on October 29th 1904, and the 
eighth was found cast on November 1st 1904. Of the fifteen which 
hatched their eggs, eight cast their shells by November Isfc. The 
remainder, seven in number, were examined on December 15th 1904, 
January 12th 1905, May 8th and June 19th 1905. None had become 
berried. At the examination in May one had died. 

Six of the soft lobsters had died by November 16th 1904; none of 
them had spawned. On J;inuary 12th two were alive, but they had 
succumbed by May 6th 1905. 

When the berried lobsters were examined on October 12ih 1904 the 
external eggs showed, under the microscope, a considerable pink area at 
one pole, wherein were to be made out the pigmented eyes and the rudi- 
ments of the limbs. The great mass of the egg consists of black yolk. 
The lobsters had probably spawned their eggs just before they were 
captured in July. 

On January 12tli 1905 the reddish or amber-coloured area had increased 
a little ; it extended well round the black yolk. The eye of the embryo 
has a prominent black retina ; the limbs are distinct. 

When examined on May 6tli 1905 the eggs showed a further increase 
in the red area ; it extended almost completely round the yolk, but was 
still narrow in most of the eggs. At this date four lobsters remained ; of 
these, one had got rid of its eggs. Two were clean on June 19th 1905. 
The eggs of the two others were far advanced. 

Proportion op Berried Hens in the Catch of Lobsters. 

As to the proportional numbers of berried to unberried females cap- 
tured by the fishermen, Herrick's observations showed that in April 
and May the largest percentage of berried females were captured in 
Wood's Hole Harbour. In these months the benied females formed 40 
and 36 per cent, respectively of the total number of female lobsters 
taken. 

Ehrenbaum found that at Heligoland the berried hens were taken in 
largest numbers in July, August, and September, during which months, in 
the period covered, the percentages were 35, 46, and 44 respectively of 
the total females. 

Cunningham's statistics of the lobsters caught in the Cornwall district 
show that in April, May, June, and July the berried females form a 
considerable proportion of the total catch. In the three years 1895- 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 89 

1897 the proportion of berried hens during the months March to July, 
amoimted in some cases to 50 per cent, of the females captured. For 
the four mouths April to July, at Cadgwith in 1899, out of a total of 443 
females, 108 Avere berried hens. 

Meek has published statistics of the catch of lobsters and crabs during 
the past six years, 1899-1904, both inclusive. The monthly totals at 
Seahouses and Beadnell are given for each year. Tlie lobsters are classified 
as hard, small, and berried. The largest number of berried females were, 
as in Cornwall, captured in April, May, June, and July. For the six 
years the berrieel hens made up on the average in these months 28, 34, 
32 '7, and 22*8 per cent, respectively of the females captured at Sea- 
houses. 

The Casting of the Lobster. 

The Male Lobster. 

A male lobster obtained in October 1903 was kept in a tank along 
with four soft female lobsters. On April 14th 1904 it was found to have 
cast, and on July 14th following it was already hard. It was noticed that 
it was an eager feeder. When examined on November 19th it appeared 
to be soft to the touch, and on November 21st it had again moulted; 
that was after an interval of seven months only from the previous cast. 
It was killed by the female lobster that was with it in the tank. It had 
bled to death ; the injuries were not very extensive. It measured at its 
death \\h inches in total length. 

Two male lobsters which were kept in confinement by Brook cast 
twice in each of two successive years. One, measuring 7^ inches in 
length, cast in (1) May and again in (2) September 1883, and also in (3) 
May and (4) October 1884. The size after each cast was (1) 7Jf inches, 
(2) 8]-f inches, (3) 9f inches, (4) 9f inches. The second male lobster 
measured 6^|- inches. It cast in (1) July and (2) December 1883, and 
in (3) June and (4) November 1884. The size after each cast was (1) 
7y^jr inches, (2) 8 inches, (3) 8^ inches, (4) 9|- inches. 

The Casting Periods. 

The lobsters which moulted at the Laboratory did so in the following 
months : — April, July, August, September, October, and November. All 
these observations refer to adult lobsters 8 inches and over in length, 
which were nearly all females. Most of the females were lobsters which 
were berried when they arrived at the Laboratory. In the following 
Table they are indicated by the letters e.h. (eggs hatched). 

The Table which follows shows the date on which the lobster cast, its 
length before casting, and sex. The interval of time that has elapsed 
since the eggs were hatched is given in one column, and the interval 
between two successive casts is shown in the three cases where it occurred. 

The numbers indicate separate moults : the same lobster appears twice 
in three cases. 



[Table. 



90 



Part III.— Twenty-third Annual Reiiort 













Interval 




Period 










Size 




between 


Interval 


of 












Hatching 


from 




No. 




Date. 


before 
Casting. 


Sex. 


the Eggs 

and 
Casting. 


Previous 
Cast. 


Captivity 
before 
Casting. 










Inches. 












1 


Apri 


1 14, 1904. 




6 










2 


July 


6, 1903. 


12i 


? e.h. 


1 Year. 










3 


Tl 


15, „ 


I2I 


$ e.h. 


1 „ 










4 


J) 


20, „ 


11 


$ e.h. 


1 „ 










5 


11 


21, ,5 


lOf 


2 e.li. 


1 „ 










6 


■>■! 


22 

■"-'5 55 




$ e.h. 


1 „ 










7 


:■> 


90 

-^-'5 55 


11 


$ e.h. 


1 „ 










8 


5? 


1904. 


Hi 


? e.h. 


1 „ 










9 


55 


55 


iif 


$ e.h, 


1 5, 










10 


!» 


55 


12 


$ e.h. 


I ,5 










11 


JJ 


55 


12| 


2 e.h. 


2 Years. 


1 Year. 








12 


55 


55 


11 


$ e.h. 


2 5, 


1 5, 








13 


July 


28, 1902.* 




6 












14 


August, 1903. 


11 


$ e.h. 


1 Year. 










15 


55 


1904. 




$ e.h. 


1 month. 








16 


Sept 


, 1902. 


n 


$ e.h. 


1 55 










17 


55 


1904. 




2 e.h. 


1 „ 










18 


„ 


55 




2 e.h. 


1 „ 










19 


55 


2, 1903. 


11 


2 e.h. 


1 Year + 




















1 month 








20 


55 




■^5 55 


[10i]t 


2 




... 


9 months. 


Was berried 
in July 1904. 


21 


Oct., 


1903. 


iif 


2 






1 Year. 




22 


55 


1904. 




2 e.h. 


2 months. 








23 


55 


5? 




2 e.h. 


2 ,5 










24 


55 


12, 1904. 


i'u 


2 e.h. 


2 „ 


!.. 








25 


55 


29, „ 


101 


2 e.h. 


2 55 










26 


Nov. 


I5 „ 


11 


2 e.h. 


3 55 










27 


55 


21, „ 




S 




7 months. 












* Cast 


at Dunbar. 




t 


Size of soft lo 


bster 







The total number of casts recorded above is 27. They occurred in the 
months of April, July, August, September, October, and November. A 
summary of the casts is here introduced. 



[Table. 



of the Fishery Board jor Scotland. 91 

TABLE SHOWING THE I^UMBER OF OaSTS IN EACH MoNTH. 





Sex. 


< 


^ 
g 


6 




-^3 

be 
< 


2 

(D 

CO 


o 

O 


o 


Number of Casts ■ 
of each Sex [ 


2 


1 






1 
11 


2 


5 


5 


1 
1 


Total for. month 


1 






12 


2 


5 


5 


2 



So far as the class of female lobsters here dealt with is concerned, 
there are two fairly distinct casting seasons. One, which is at its maxi- 
mum in July, claimed those females which were not berried during the 
previous winter,* while the second is an autumn casting season, the 
principal months being apparently September and October. In the 
autumn season those females that were berried during the previous winter 
and spring cast ;* that is to say if they cast at all during that year. The 
two seasons overlap, however. On September 2nd one of the first class 
of lobsters cast, and the list includes, for August, one of each class. 

The two cases in which the lobsters cast two years in succession, viz. 
!N^os. 11 and 12, are interesting, from the fact that the view has been held 
that the adult lobster would not cast two years in succession. Appellof 
maintains that view. The frequent castings of Brook's specimens and of 
the two males recorded above are important as indicating a possible 
divergence in rate of growth from the female. 

It certainly seems that in captivity the casting process becomes more 
frequent than in the case of the lobster in the sea. The inactive existence 
of the creatures, and the absence of any search or exertion on their part 
in the quest for food, may have predisposed them to vegetate in place of 
reproducing. The food supplied was not excessive in quantity ; it con- 
sisted of shelled mussels {Mijtilus edulis) and fish. 

The Increase in Size on Casting. 

One fact has been noticeable in connection with, the moulting that 
occurred at the Laboratory, and that is the small increase in size that has 
followed the casts. 

It is sometimes difficult to accurately measure the moulted shell, owing 
to the rupture of the connection between the cai'apace and the abdomen 
which occurs during the change, but care was taken to replace the parts 
as nearly as possible in their natural relationship before measurement. 
In the following Table the sizes of the lobster before and after the moult 
are set forth. As a rule, the soft lobster was measured within a day or 
two of the cast. All the lobsters in the Table are females. The lobster 
is measured from the tip of the rostrum to the hind edge of the telson. 

* There was one exception. One female which was berried during the winter cast 
in the July following. Vide p. 87. 



92 



Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 









Size (inches) of 






No. 


Month. 


Size 
(inches) 
before 


Soft Lobsters. 


Immediate 
Increase 
in Size. 


Length 

of Time 

in 


Measured 


Measured 






Casting. 


just after 


after an 


Captivity. 








the Cast. 


Interval. 
















Inch. 




1 


July. 


12i 


121 


13 





1 Year. 


2 


?) 


121 


12f 


12i 


1 

4 


,, 


3 


M 


10| 


10| 




1 
4 


!> 


4 


)5 


12| 


13 




1 
4 


2 Years. 


5 


J> 


11 


Hi 




I 


)» 


6 


JJ 


lU 


Tlf 




I 


1 Year. 


7 


5> 


Hi 


111 




3 

8 


}■) 


8 


>J 


12 


i2i 




1 
2 


>) 


9 


Sept. 


11 


11§ 




5 

8 


>» 


10 


J) 


9i 




io.i 




I month. 


11 


Oct. 


Hi 


12 




1 
4 


1 Year. 


12 


)) 


lOi 


11t\ 




5 
1 6 


2 months. 


13 


)j 


Hi 


111 




1 

4 


9 


14 


Nov. 


11 


11 







3 „ 



These figures indicate that there was no great increase in size just after 
the cast, whatever may happen during the time that the shell is harden- 
ing. Herrick found that the lobster grew considerably during that time. 
While most of the lobsters mentioned in the Table had been in captivity 
for a year or more, there are four cases in which the length of confine- 
ment was only that of a month or two. In the case of one lobster, 
the increase in size nine mouths after the moult was one inch. 
I-n the other short-period cases the increase was just as small 
as with the lobsters which had been over a year in the Laboratory. 
In two cases, in fact, the soft lobster was, as far as could be 
ascertained, exactly the same size as the hard lobster. It w^is not 
possible to separate all the soft lobsters and measure them subsequently 
to see what increase took place during the hardening of the 
shell. In the case of the first two lobsters, which were re-measured, after 
intervals of two and one Aveek respectively, an increase of ^ inch in each 
case took place. Ehrenbaum agreed with the earlier observations of 
Herrick and Rathbun in noting the slowness in the growth of the older 
lobsters. He instances a case where a lobster, measuring 40'2cm. (16 
inches) in length, only increased its length by a millimetre (gV inch) on 
casting. Vitzou gives measurements to show the increase that takes 
place in diff"erent parts of the body after casting; he demonstrated the 
fact that while the carapace and abdomen increased in size at once, the 
large claws only showed a marked increase 17 hours after the moult. 

Salter describes in detail the operation of casting. The lobster cast in 
July. Immediately after it had got rid of its shell it concealed itself 
among a mass of seaweed that it had before casting collected in a corner 
of the tank. Brook observed that a male lobster buried some food 
before casting, and after another cast it partially buried its cast integu- 
ment in the sand. 



of tlic Fishery Board for Scotland. 93 



The " Hardening of the Shell. 

The shells of the soft lobsters hardened only very slowly, in this 
respect differing from cases reported by other observers. A male lobster 
that cast when in a box floating in Dunbar harbour in July 1902 was 
33 days later hard. It had lost nearly all its pereiopods, and so had 
difficulty in walking. It arrived at the Laboratory on September 30th, 
and lived there until December 30th 1902. Herrick say.s that six to eight 
weeks are required to complete the hardening process, a period also 
given by Prince. Ehrenbaura gives a period of from three to four 
weeks. Meek records a lobster that, having cast on September 12th, 
regained its hardness of shell in one month. 

The lobsters in the Laboratory were not eager for food immediately 
after the moult. The food was shelled mussels usually, with fish 
occasionally. The integument, once it became stiffened, remained for a 
long time more or less pliable, as if the calcified layer of the shell were 
poorly developed. Whether the slow hardening is due to the nature of 
the food or of the sea-water is not known. The shells, many months 
after the cast, were deficient in lime and cut easily like brown paper. 

The lobster that cast on September 22nd 1902 was still soft to the 
extent that the integument is flexible and yields to pressure, when it 
died, viz. on June 6th 1903. Another which cast about the middle of 
August was fairly hard a fortnight later. Three lobsters which moulted 
in July 1903, and one that moulted in August of the same year, were in 
the following July 1904 still softish in the shell. They were in good 
condition, for two of them cast during that month. The fact, then, that 
their shells had not become as hard as that of the lobsters caught in the 
sea, did not apparently constitute any weakness in the animals. 

A female which cast on 19th October 1903 was fairly hard on December 
30th 1903. One of the casters of 1901- was kept until April 2nd 1905, 
when it was found dead. It was fairly hard, but the carapaces and 
integument of the abdomen cut easily with a knife. On the shell there 
was a considerable number of the shells of an annelid. The colour of 
the carapace Avas a dull black. It is possible that the food supply is not 
sufficiently varied to supply all the materials necessary for the building- 
up of the shell. 

One of the lobsters that cast in July 1903 was on October 21st 1904 
not very hard. It was found dead on February 17th 1905, and it was 
then hard. 

A female lobster cast in July 1904; on May 6th 1905 it was still 
rather soft. 

The shell of a soft lobster, when put into alcohol, turns red ; the colour 
of the hard shell— blue-black — is not affected by the alcohol. 



Indications of Approaching Moulting. 

When the stock of lobsters was examined on 21st October 1904 one of 
the lobsters, a female, that had hatched its eggs a month or two previously, 
attracted attention. The carapace was raised posteriorly and separated a 
little from the first abdominal joint ; the skin between the carapace and 
the abdomen was bulged out. Ventrally the soft parts between the abdo- 
minal segments were turgid. The absorption areas on the chela were a 
deep bright blue, and yielded a good deal to pressure, showing that 
absorption of the calcareous layer had been going on there. The lobster 
was separated from the others, and it cast on November 1st. 

G 



94 Part III. — Tioeiity -third Annaal Hepori 

On 29th October 1904 a female cast. It had been isolated a short 
time before. It was then very limp, and half dead in appearance. It 
was swollen at the junction of the carapace with the abdomen, and some- 
what dropsical in appearance. It was not at all smart with its chelaj. 

Ehrenbaum says that the lobster merchant is able to distinguish a 
lobster that is about to cast, by the softening of the ventral edges of the 
carapace. 

The Cast Shell. 

The colour of the dactyls of the chelae is noticeable. The back edge of 
the dactyl is clean and purple in colour, and the pores are well marked. 
The cast stomach is empty. There is a glairy skin under the carapace, 
and united to the membranous lining of the integument of the abdomen. 
It ruptures easily, and is often found sticking out as a fold at the junction 
of the thorax and abdomen Vitzou, who witnessed the moulting of the 
lobster, describes this skin as a homogeneous, gelatine-like layer, which, 
under the microscope, shows no cellular structure. It is, he says, a 
secretion of the lower layers of the new carapace ; it passes out by 
endosmose to lie between the old shell and the new integument. Its 
presence there facilitates the casting. 

The Soft Lobster. 

The soft lobster, when just cast, is extremely soft and pliable ; the tip 
of the chela can be made to touch the telson. The stomach is full of 
little ossicles, which are derived from the breaking-up of the gastroliths. 
The lobsters at the Laboratory very often failed to rid themselves of 
their integument. A considerable number died from this cause. 

A lobster that moulted on September 22nd 1902 was kept in one of 
the compartments of a wooden hatching apparatus until October 14th 
1902. When in the wooden box it had not eaten food (fish) at all 
eagerly. It was at the latter date put into a tank, the bottom of which 
was covered with sand and gravel. It began immediately to eat small 
pebbles and gravel. Hard lobsters also have been occasionally seen 
picking up coarse gravel with the pereiopods and putting it into their 
mouths. 

When a lobster casts in a tank in which there are other lobsters it is 
usually attacked by them, sometimes before it has finished casting, and 
it is sometimes fatally injured. A soft lobster occasionally bleeds to 
death in consequence of what appear to be comparatively slight wounds. 
On July 15th a lobster was found to have lost both chelfe in moulting; 
it had been attacked and had cast off both claws. One chela was 
shrivelled just as it is when it is first withdrawn from the shell, and 
before it has swollen out. The other chela had swollen out to its full 
size. Both claws were cast off at the fracture plane. Couch observed 
that " the rejection of the limb can be efi^ected with the same ease 
while the crust remains soft after exuviation." This fact militates 
against the view that strong rigid supports are necessary round the 
fracture plane to permit of the defensive mutilation on the part of the 
crustacean. 

In another case a hard lobster had lost one chela, and the other bore 
the scar of a bite. During moulting the scar prevented the withdrawal 
of this limb, so it was thrown off at the fracture plane. A bud had 
formed in place of the previously lost limb, and after the cast a diminu- 
tive chela was present; the hand (propodite and dactylopodite) measured 
2^ inches long, while the normal-sized hand measures 4 to 5 inches. Brook 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 95 

found that the lost smaller pereiopods were reproduced to their full size 
after one cast. 

Rate of Growth. 

Coste* stated that the lobster begins to reproduce in its fifth year. 
It casts from eight to ten times in the first year, five to seven in the second, 
three to four in the third, and from two to three in the fourth. After 
the fifth year the changes are only annual. 

Eecent researches on the rate of growth of the European lobster by 
Appellof are summarised in a recent number of the Fish Trades Gazette.f 
A lobster, hatched in 1900, cast on 20th June and 5th September 1902, 
and at the latter date measured 3^ inches long. In the following year it 
cast on 22nd June and 21st August, its length then being 4| inches; 
it was then three years old. Another lobster, when caught in 1901, 
measured 4| inches; it cast twice in 1902, and measured 7 inches. In 
1903 it cast once, and was then 8g inches. Appellof concludes that the 
lobster on the west coast of Norway takes six or seven years before it 
reaches a length of 8| inches, that is to say, maturity. The number of 
casts which have occurred up to that stage is 17 to 19. Meek concludes 
that the lobster is 9-10 inches long when four to five years old. 

Herrick considered that the American lobster when 10 inches long was 
about 4J years old. In the 33nd and SSrd Reports of Commissioners of 
Inland Fisheries of Rhode Island certain data are given bearing on the 
rate of growth of that lobster. A method of rearing the larv?e in cloth 
bags was found to be very successful, a whirling motion was maintained 
in the water while the lobsters were in the zoea condition. Lobsters 
were reared from the zoea condition and kept until over two years old. 
The following are the average sizes at different ages : — • 



3 months old 




1 3 


inches long, 


10 „ 


av. 


2 


j» 


1 year 


M 


H 


)> 


2 years 


» 


H 


J) 


2 years + 4 months 


J5 


4i 


>5 



The Behaviour op the Lobster. 

The main motive of a lobster's activity is defence — caution ; and, in 
defending itself, a blind unrelenting vengeance is a fitting corollary. It 
first procures a hole within which to lie waiting for its prey, and to which 
it may retire after a foray. Any animal that appoaches it is a foe. No 
animal, lobster or other, is safe to approach and make its presence known. 
In this highly organised form, its keenness in attack, and relentless hold 
when it once has gripped its antagonist, are due to its want of sight. The 
want of sight, in its true sense, in the lobster and crab places a disability 
on them, and reduces the eflfectiveness of animals which would otherwise 
be powerful competitors of the smaller inhabitants of the sea. Herrick 
says that the eye of the lobster is so sensitive to light that it 
cannot bear strong light; strong light blinds it. One immediate 
difiiculty then which is experienced in keeping lobsters in confinement 
is their tendency to fighting, which usually results in the loss of a 
chela to one of the combatants. When a lobster is seized by its big 

* Vide Buckland. 
+ July 9, 1904. 



96 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

claw it very often has to yield it up, whereupon the other unconcernedly 
drops it. Lobsters which have been confined together show many traces 
of the attentions that havo been paid to one another. The chela is, in 
many cases, missing, or, if it persists, has one or more scars of bites, which 
had crushed through the shell. Very few of the lobsters have anytliing 
but short stumps of their antennse, these organs having been snipped off 
more or less close to the head by their companions. These accidents 
usually happen when the lobsters are wandering about seeking for dark 
corners and sheltering holes. After they have settled down in their holes 
they stick to their habitations and do not come so much into competition 
with one another. When they are first introduced into a tank it is well 
to have the big claws tied, and by the time the claws work free their 
owners will have settled down in their new quarters. If there is suffi- 
cient accommodation in the form of holes of inviting darkness, they will 
soon get peacefully distributed ; but at first a lobster will sometimes try 
to evict one lobster from the hole which it has selected as its abode. One 
lobster was seen to yield up the recess, which was immediately taken 
possession of by the aggressor. 

On each occasion when the tank is emptied for cleaning, and for the 
purpose of examining the lobsters, it is usually necessary to disturb the 
shelter-holes, which are formed with stones. When the tank is filled 
again the lobsters do not seem to recognise one another at once. They go 
cautiously about seeking shelter, on the watch for foes and ready to fight 
any lobster they may meet. Under such conditions, then, it is not 
surprising that chelfe are lost, or some other injury incurred, before they 
are all satisfied as to hiding accommodation. When they settle down they 
allow for one another's presence and get on without quarrelling. This is, 
of course, due to a healthy respect which they have for one another's 
fighting powers. The truce is nothing but an armed neutrality. If any 
one of the lobsters loses its fighting power through casting its shell, it is 
at once attacked. And that occurs in cases where lobsters have lived 
together for months. Four lobsters were in a large tank undisturbed 
for four months. When the tank was emptied each lobster was handled. 
Two days after the tank had been refilled the chela of one of the inmates 
was lying loose on the sand. 

More especially do the lobsters take advantage of any one of their 
number that casts its shell. Very seldom does the soft lobster escape 
without serious injury. Female lobsters attack a soft female. The male 
which cast in November 1904 was so injured by the female which was with 
it in the tank that it bled to death. How a male would act towards a 
female that cast in its presence was not indicated during the experiments, 
as that case did not occur. 

A female lobster that cast on July 13th 1904 had a hard male lobster 
introduced into the box in which it was. The male did not appear to 
mind the listless and inactive female ; it certainly did not attempt to 
grasp it or fight it. On July 19th the female was found to have been 
bitten in the cephalic region ; one chela had been lost and one or more of 
the remaining pereiopods bitten oflf. This is very different treatment to 
that meted out by the male crab to the moulted female. In the latter case 
the male protects her. 

The extremely defenceless condition of the soft lobster was especially 
seen in one case. A female that moulted in August had lost both chelce. 
It was kept by itself until October, by which time it had become fairly 
hard. A lobster that had just cast had both chelae, but was very soft. 
The two were put together into a small tank. In a few days the soft 
lobster was found dead ; its antennae, eyes, and part of one chela were 
eaten ofi". 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 97 

Peculiar Action of a Group of Lobsters. 

On October 29th the four female lobsters which cast during the 
summer were very restless. They were walking about in the tank, or 
standing, as it were, on tip-toes, and having the abdomen bent, with the 
edge ot the telson close up against the fifth pereiopod. Occasionally they 
extended the abdomen and moved the swimmerets backwards and forwards. 
The male lobster which is with them was also out of his hole, standing on 
tip-toes, with the abdomen extended straight out and moving his 
swimmerets actively. The lobsters appeared to be quite friendly, and 
did not attempt to bite one another. The supply of water running into 
the tank was not very large at this time. Whether this had in any way 
influenced the action of the lobsters is an open question. It had not 
been observed before. 

The Senses of the Lobster. 

The lobster when it walks has the telson turned in on the abdomen, 
and it marches on the " points of its toes," backwards as well as forwards. 
It is practically blind ; it sees nothing properly, at least that is the 
case where it is exposed to the comparatively strong light which 
during the day illumines the tanks in the Laboratory. It has 
simply the sensation of light and shadow. It tests a shadow 
with its antennse, or sometimes where a strong shadow is thrown 
on it, it jumps at it with its cliel^ outstretched and snapping. It 
is dependent on its antennse for guiding it in safe places. It is 
especially careful in testing any hole before it is satisfied with it. It 
discovers the cavity by means of its antenna, which is waved well out 
to the side and in front as it walks. It searches the innermost depths 
of the hole with the antenna, and then inserts its chela. If the examina- 
tion with the chela is also satisfactory, it immediately turns and backs 
smartly into the hole. In feeding it is guided to the food by the 
antennules. A piece of food which is dropped near a lobster may fall 
quite unnoticed unless it happens to touch the antenna or the pereiopods. 
It is not seen at all. But sooner or later, according as the distance is 
short or great, the scent of the food, carried by the currents set up by the 
exopodites of the maxillipedes, reaches the lobster. The lobster is 
immediately excited, although previously it was lying quite inert in its 
hole. It whips the water with its antennules in a staccato fashion, and 
feels about with the antennfe and chel« ; at first without leaving its hole. 
At once both antennules are seen to be whipping in the direction in 
which the food is lying, and an active search is made with the antennse. 
If they do not succeed in locating the bait, the lobster rather reluctantly 
leaves its hole, but cautiously, feeling all round about with its antennse. 
It goes off straight in the direction in which the food is lying, and if it misses 
it with its antennfe and chelae, walks over it and gets it with its chelate 
pereiopods ; it usually picks up its food with the second pereiopod. 
Meanwhile the expected feast has by association stimulated the maxilli- 
pedes, which are actively Avorking as if they were already masticating the 
food. Once the food is seized it is conveyed to the maxillipedes, and the 
lobster retreats to its hole, there to enjoy its meal. Two lobsters were 
noticed to have stored up in one case some mussels, in the other a dead 
sand-eel {Ammodytes fohianus), in the inner recesses of their caves. 

Effect op Cold on Lobsters. 

In the winter the lobsters kept in the tanks of the Laboratory became 
very sluggish, and ate very little if any food. When taken out of the 
water and exposed to the frosty air they become very inert. 



98 Pa7't ill. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 

The Effect of the Exposure of the Lobsters to Strong Light. 

A number of lobsters have been kept out of doors, in tanks which were 
without covering. In two of the tanks the bodies of the lobsters were 
hidden by the wooden shelf which formed the common roof to their pens ; 
one large concrete tank aflforded them no cover whatever. In the former 
the anteunse of the inmates were exposed to direct daylight, and they 
very often had pieces of seaweed and smaller ectozoa growing on them 
during the summer. Two females were kept in the concrete tank from 
the autumn of 1902 till September 1903. At the latter date they were 
completely covered and hidden by a prolific growth of seaweeds, 
Laminaria sp., young mussels, &c., which completely occupied the 
dorsum of each shell-fish {vide fig. 73, pi. iv.). The covering appeared 
to be of some inconvenience to the lobster in walking. While the 
growth of the seaweeds was, no doubt, directly due to the exposure to 
daylight, it is probable that it was permitted by the host as a shelter in 
the exposed tank. The shells of the pair were clean when they were 
put into the tank. Herrick records examining a number of lobsters 
which were adorned with more or less extensive collections of seaweeds 
and other ectozoa. On none of the lobsters captured in the sea and sent 
to the Laboratory was there any coat of seaweed. The ectozoa usually 
consisted of tubes of Serpula sp., Balanus sp. One of the two cast its 
shell on 19th October 1903, and a drawing has been made from the cast 
shell (fig. 73, pi. iv.). It lived until May 1904. The other lobster did 
not cast, but remained covered with seaweed during the winter ; it also 
was found dead in May 1904. 

Body Fluid. 

The body fluid of the lobster is richly albuminous. It is colourless 

when fresh, but soon congeals on exposure to air to a clear jelly with a 

slightly blown tint. Alcohol (94 per cent.) causes the blood to 
coagulate at once. 

Dissection. — Examination of the Ovary. 

Almost without exception, the ovaries of the lobsters examined, 
measuring 9 inches and over in total length, were found to contain eggs as 
large, or nearly as large, as ripe eggs. When the eggs are large, yolked, and 
approaching ripeness the ovary is black in colour ; the eggs themselves 
are black, although the yolk is really a very dark-green colour. The 
ovary turns red in alcohol. 

The lobsters were broadly distinguished as (a) berried, {b) lobsters 
which had lately hatched their eggs, (c) soft. 

(a) Bemed Hens. 

(1) December 21, 1904. — A lobster (from Dunbar) measured 
11^ inches in length. The shell was clean. The external eggs were black, 
showing no pink-coloured part, simply a light-green formative pai't. The 
eggs were evidently early. The ovary was white, but contained green 
eggs measuring "4 and "5 mm. The smaller green eggs contained simply a 
core of green yolk, surrounded by a periphery of white yolk (by trans- 
mitted light). The oviducts were filled with a greenish fluid. 

(2) February 19, 1905. — In a lobster (from Dunbar) the external eggs 
were well advanced ; the pink area was about one-fifth of the whole egg. 
The ovary was large and black in colour. 



of the Fisher ij Board for Scotland. 99 

(b) Lobsters which were not carrying eggs, hut which had iiatcued 
their eggs in the summer preceding the date of examination. 

(1) December 2, 1902.— Lobster 10 inches long. The shell was dirty, 
encrusted with Serjnda sp, TJie ovarian eggs were large, black, oval in 
shape, measimng 1-5 x I'S : 1-4 x 1-3 : 1-35 X 1*3 : 1-45 X I'Smm. 
There were also rows of white eggs between the large eggs. The ovary is 
mottled here and there on the surface with yellow bodies, which appear 
to be fat masses. 

(2) December 1, 1902. — The ovary of another adult was all over 
externally of a uniform dull black colour. 

(3) December 28, 1902. — A lobster measuring 10| inches in total 
length had been two days in formaline before it was examined. The 
ovaries were large, black, with a tinge of green. There were some white 
and some yellow small eggs scattered over the aurface between the large 
eggs. The large black eggs measured 1*45 x 1'35 : 1-32 X l-3mm. 
They were polygonal in shape, and stood out boss-like on the surface of 
the ovary. The smallest yolked eggs were white, the intermediate in 
size yellow ; even some very large eggs were yellow. The yellow colour 
was probably due to the introduction of the green yolk into the white eggs. 
From the burst eggs it was seen that the yolk consisted of minute green 
corpuscles, and also a large quantity of colourless fat corpuscles. The 
chorion of the egg is very thin and easily ruptures. There were a few 
small eggs yellowish white in colour measuring '8 x "GSmm. The 
yellow bodies in the ovary measured about 1 x -SSmm. The outer 
skin of the ovary is very thin. 

(c) Soft Lobsters. 

(1) A lobster that hatched its eggs in the summer of 1903 cast its 
shell and died during July 1904. It appeared to be well nourished. 
The ovary was large; the eggs measured 1'75 x 1*4 : 17 : 1"65 X r4 : 
l"5mm., &c. They were irregular in shape and very soft. A portion 
of the ovary was cut out and flicked about in sea-water with a camel-hair 
brush, and the eggs separated easily from the follicular tissue, in which 
were the yellow bodies noticed above. 

(2) A lobster that hatched its eggs in the summer of 1904 cast its 
shell in September 1904. It was killed by the other lobsters. The 
ovary was large, dark-green in colour, and friable ; the eggs readily 
detached themselves from the delicate follicular membrane. They were 
irregular in shape, and measured TSS x 1"15 : ri5 : 1"9 x 15 : 1"4 x 
1-35 : 1-35 X 1-25 : l-3mm. 

(2-4) Three others which hatched their eggs in 1904 cast and died in 
October 1904. In each the ovary was large and the eggs apparently ripe. 

(5) Another hatcher of 1904 stock was found dead on October 23rd 
1904. The ovary was large and full, each egg being sharply separated 
off from the others. When viewed with a lens the surface of the ovary had 
a honeycomb appearance. The eggs separate readily from the follicular 
tissue. 

(6) A sixth of this lot was found dead on November 16th 1904. The 
ovary was large, black, with apparently ripe eggs. 

(7) A 1902 hatcher cast in 1903 and also in July 1904; it died 
immediately after casting. The ovary was to all appearance ripe. 

(8) Another 1902 hatcher cast in 1903 and lived till August 1904, 
when it was killed. On dissection it was found to be in apparently good 
condition. The ovaries were large, and the eggs appeared to be ready for 
spawning. 



100 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

(9) A third specimen of the 1902 stock which had cast in 1903 was 
kept until February 17th 1905, when it was found dead. The ovary was 

'large and black. The eggs appeared to be ripe, and had at one pole a 
clear green cap. 

(10) The last survivor of the 1902 lot died on April 2nd 1905. It 
had cast in 1903 and also in 1904. The ovary was large, black; but 
otherwise the lobster appeared to be poorly nourished. 

Hard Lobster. 

A lobster which was not berried when captured was dissected on 
December 1st 1903. It measured 11 inches in length. The shell was 
clean, black. The ovary was black. The eggs were yolked, but only 
about half the diameter of ripe eggs. The eggs separated fairly freely, and 
measured 1 X "8 : "72 x '65 : 1 x •9mm. These were black yolked eggs. 
There was also a considerable quantity of white eggs, all small and of 
various sizes ; the largest of those noticed was oval, and measured 
•45 X •3mm. 

Meek records a lobster measuring 114 inches in length which hatched 
its eggs in the beginning of July and lived till September 12th 1901. 
The ovary was dark green, and was well developed. It exhibited no signs 
of preparation for casting. 

Spawning. 

Of all the adult female lobsters which have been kept at the Laboratory 
during the past three years, only one was known to have spawned. Some 
of those which were from time to time dissected had ovaries which were 
practically ripe. The lobsters were kept for longer or shorter intervals. 
One batch of females which were berried in 1902, and which hatched 
their eggs in the summer of that year, were represented at the Laboratory 
till April 1905. No member of this group showed any eggs attached 
externally. That they were not altogether unhealthy was shown by the 
fact that they nearly all moulted once, in two cases twice, during the 
period named. So it was with the other females ; they cast readily, but 
did not succeed in spaAvning, or, if they spawned, the eggs did not 
become attached. Moreover, none of those dissected had a spent ovary. 
In the case of the adult crabs some spawned, but in one or two of these 
only a few eggs became attached. 

The lobster which became berried was received from Dunbar in 
December 1902, at which time it was not berried. It cast its shell on 
September 2nd 1903. On January 13th 1904, when it was examined, it 
was not berried, but on July 14th a small quantity of eggs were found 
attached to the swimmerets. The eggs were early and apparently just 
spawned ; they were dark-green with a clear granular area on one side. 
This lobster was not with a male lobster when it spawned. On October 
21st 1904 there were only two eggs remaining attached, and when it 
was examined on November 19th 1904 the remaining two had dis- 
appeared. 

As to the time when spawning takes place, Ehrenbaum gives the 
period covering July, August, and probably September. FuUarton 
obtained lobsters with very early eggs— yolk nnsegmented — between 
July 18th and August 25th. Herrick says, for the American lobster, that 
the definite spawning season is the summer, July and August, but that a 
minority extrude their eggs in the fall and winter, if not also in the 
spring. Allen obtained females with freshly extruded eggs during the 
latter half of July. Appellof agrees with the period announced by 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 101 

Ehrenbaum, but extends it to the middle of October. Meek found newly- 
spawned lobsters in July and August. The lobster which spawned during 
Cunningham's experiments in Cornwall did so in October, and Scott's 
specimen extruded its eggs during the same month at Piel Laboratory. 

There is thus indicated an extended spawning season, including the 
months of July, August, September, and October. It may be that there 
are here two distinct groups of spawners — summer and autumn spawners — 
the first including lobsters that were not berried during the winter 
immediately preceding, while the autumn spawners are those which were 
berried during the winter, hatched their eggs in the summer, and extruded 
another batch of eggs in the autumn. 

The question whether or not the European lobster may carry external 
eggs two years in succession does not arise, Cunningham's observation, 
confirmed later by Scott's dcscrijjtion of the process, having demonstrated 
that possibility. As for the American lobster, Herrick maintains, in a 
later work, the position taken by him on this question in 1895. He 
founds his contention that the American lobster does not carry eggs 
externally two years in succession on the condition of the ovary in various 
lobsters which had lately hatched the eggs. He maintains that the ovary 
requires two years to develop to ripeness. 

The factors which determine the spawning of the lobster are obscure. 
It is remarkable that only one lobster spawned in the Laboratory, 
although in several cases the ovaries of specimens which were dissected 
were apparently ripe. The rate of development of the ovary is dependent 
on some factor that is not apparent. The ovaries referred to would 
probably have been completely ripe in a short time. The complete 
ripening seemed to be inhibited by some influence, which might have 
been the absence or insufficiency of male lobsters. Even where a male 
lobster was present with the female spawning did not take place, and 
when the one lobster spawned no male was present. Otherwise the 
lobsters, it may be inferred, were under comparatively suitable conditions, 
for there was an uniformity shown in their history while in confinement. 
Moulting was common. What is the reason for the abstention from 
spawning'? The artificially-supplied food may have induced growth 
rather than reproduction. 

The lobster may spawn the same year in which it has cast its shell. 
Trybom's experiments* in labelling lobsters in order to determine their 
migrations indicated two females, measuring 8| inches long, liberated in 
June, had in November cast their shells and spawned ; they then measured 
a little over 9 inches in length. 

The actual modus of spawning has been described by Coste, Scott, and 
others. 

Ehrenbaum describes a condition of the lobster which follows when a 
ripe lobster has been prevented from spawning. The eggs are absorbed 
and the blood becomes dark green or black in colour. The dark blood 
shows through at certain parts of the body and the lobster is known as a 
black lobster. Lobsters in this condition are found among those con- 
fined in floating boxes. The ovaries are much reduced in size, and the 
majority of the eggs have lost the green yolk, and have become of a 
yellowish colour. 

The Ripe Egg and the Formation of the Perivitelline Sj)ace. 

The ripe egg, newly spawned, was measured by Scott and found to be 
I'Smm. in diameter. 

*Fith Trades Gazette, July 30, 1904. 



102 Part III. — Twenty -third Annual Report 

During the examination of the ovaries of the lobster no case was found 
in which the eggs showed a perivitelline space when in the ovary. Large 
ovarian eggs, however, as a rule, develop a perivitelline space if left some 
time in sea-water. A lobster that cast on July 9th 1904 died five days 
later. The ovarian eggs measured 1-75 x 1'4: 1*7: 1*65 x l"4: r5mm. 
The eggs were teazed out in sea-water and two or three hours afterwards 
showed considerable perivitelline spaces. The space usually shows more 
on one side than on the other ; it is clear and colourless. 

A lobster that hatched its eggs in the summer of 1904 and cast 
immediately afterwards was dead on October 23rd 1904. Some ovarian 
eggs were separated and put into sea-water. An hour afterwards the 
eggs, in most cases, showed a more or less well-marked perivitelline space. 
Next morning the eggs kept in the sea-water overnight had very large 
perivitelline spaces. The eggs Avere yellow — dead. 

The egg of the lobster has two envelopes: — (1) Outside — the chorion. 
(2) Within the chorion, and closely applied to the egg — the vitelline 
membrane. This envelope is well seen sometimes when a perivitelline 
space has been developed in sea-water. 

77ie External Eggs. 

When the eggs are just spawned they are of a deep greenish black 
in colour, with a little clear area at one pole. As development proceeds, 
the clear area becomes pink in colour, and by the month of October in 
some lobsters the future limbs and the black pigmented eyes were already 
made out. The transparent pink area steadily grows larger at the 
expense of the black yolk, until, when the eggs are nearly ready to hatch, 
the black yolk may be reduced to half, or even much less, of the mass of 
the egg. The black yolk occupies the cephalic and gastric regions in the 
larva. 

The external esgs measured on May 17th were of the following 
dimensions:— 2-2 x 2: 2-15 x 2-1: 2-1 x 2-05: 2-25 x 1-95: 2-25 x 
2: 2-15 X 2: 2-1: 2-1: 1-95 x 1-9: l-95mm. The eggs are, for the 
most part, oval. They were well developed, the pink area being about 
one-fifth of the whole mass of the egg. In some of the eggs examined in 
June the black yolk had disappeared ; most of the eggs showed a large 
mass of black yolk. 

When ready to hatch, the eggs are of various colours, viz. transparent 
pink, transparent blue, transparent green, except for the black area 
which marks the yet unused-up yolk. The largest eggs show the least 
black area ; in them the black has practically disap)peared. The eggs 
increase greatly in size before hatching, and at that time it is diflicult to 
dissect them off the swimmerets without rupturing the zona radiata. 
The following measurements of various eggs were made in August 1902; 
the eggs were, as a rule, distinctly oval in shape : — 

Pink egg,* 2-5mm. ; pink eggs, 28 x 1-95: 2-4 x 2-15: 2-35 x 
2-25mm. 

Egg, blue and yellow, 2-5 x 2-45: *3-2 x 2-55 : *2-9 x 2-4mm. 

Egg. deep blue, 2-35 x 2-3mm. 

Egg, red, 2-05 x i-g-. *2-9 x 2-6: *3-15 x 2-8: 2-8 x 2-6mm. 

In the last egg the heart of the embryo was seen beating. 

The Number of External Eggs. 

Buckland calculated the number of eggs borne by a female. He first 
counted the number on one foot and from that deduced the total. 
This was 24,960 eggs. Ehrenbaum found that the larger the 

■" Zona ruptured. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



103 



lobster the larger the number of eggs which it carried. A lobster 10 
inches long had 8000 eggs, while one 15 inches in length bore 32,000. 
Herrick found in the American lobster that the number of eggs varied 
from 3000 to 70,000. The eggs of two lobsters were estimated at the 
Laboratory in the following manner: — They were snipped ofi" the 
swimmorets and dried in a water-bath. A small portion was detached 
and weighed, the number of eggs in it was counted, and the total 
number was got from the total weight. One measuring Hi inches in length, 
11,300 eggs, while the other, 12^ inches long, had the same number. 

It is remarkable that so small a number of fry was obtained from the 
parent lobsters kept in the Bay of Nigg. This is partly accounted for 
from the fact that a greater or less quantity of the eggs is lost when the 
berried hens are handled, and during transport. This does not, however, 
seem sufficient to account for the whole of the shortage. 

Hatching. 

Hatching occurred at the Laboratory during July, August, and Sep- 
tember. The earliest larvae appeared about the middle of July, the 
majority hatched in August, and a few in September. 

According to Coste* hatching takes place in March, April, and May. 
Allen records that hatching took place in one instance in March. Fabre- 
Domergue, and Bietrix t observed the hatching of the lobster, and 
describe the process in detail. The larvae issue early in the night. 

The whole brood of any one female does not hatch out at once, but 
over a period, the larvae issuing in two or more batches {vide Coste, Herrick, 
and FuUarton). The incubation period, according to Ehrenbaum, Herrick, 
and FuUarton, is about eleven months. During an incubation period so 
extended it is to be expected that a certain variation will have occurred 
in the point of development reached by different eggs. This would result 
in spreading the hatching of the eggs over a period which probably does 
not usually exceed a fortnight or three weeks. The first larval lobsters 
were observed on July 11th, and one of the females was found to have 
hatched all her eggs on August 2nd. The larvae usually appeared in 
the morning. 

Measurements of the Lobster. 

Occasionally lobsters are measured by the length of their barrels, i.e. of 
the carapace, from the extremity of the rostrum to the hind border. In 
several cases the relation between the total length and the length of the 
barrel has been noted, and the data are entered below. 



Total Length of Lobster. 


Length of Barrel. 


$ 9^ inches. 
2 10| „ 
$ 11 „ 
? Ill ., 
12* „ 
6 13" „ 


4y^^ inches. 

4f „ 
5 1 

5^ 

^8 »' 



* Vide Buckland. 

t Fish Trades Gazette, Sept. 26, 1903. 



104 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



LITERATURE. 

Allen. — "The Reinodiictiou of the Lobster." Journal of the Marine Biological 
Association. N.S., Vol. IV., 1895-1897. P. 60. 

Ai'i'ELLoF. — " Mittheilungen aus der Lehensweise des Humnieis." Jtlitlheil. d. 
Deutichen See-Fisherei — Vcreins, Nr. 4. Berlin, 1899. 

Boas. — " Ueber den ungleichen Entwicklungsgang der Salzwasser- iiud der Suss- 
wasser - Form von Pakemonetes varians. " Zoologischen Jahrhiichern 
(Spcngel). 4ter Baud. s. 793. 

Bkook. — "Notes on the Reproduction of Lost Parts iu the Lobster {Homariis 
vulgaris)," Proc. Roy. Physical Society of Edinburgh. Vol. IX,, 1887. P. 370. 

BucKLAND. — Blue-book. — Reports on the Crab and Lobster Fisheries of England 
and "Wales, of Scotland and of Ireland. London, 1877. [C. 1695.] 

Chauwick. — "Experiments on Lobster- Rearing." Report for 1904 on Lancashire 
Sea-Fisheries Laboratory, and the Sea-Fish Hatchery at Piel. Liverpool, 
1905. 

Couch, Jonathan. — "On the Process of Exuviation and Growth in Crabs and 
Lobsters and other British Species of Stalk-Eyed Crustaceau Animals." The 
Eleventh Annual Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytecrmic Society. Fal- 
mouth, 1843. 

" A Particular Description of some Circumstances hitherto little known, 

connected with the Process of Exuviation iu the Common Edible Crab." The 
Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Royal Cornwcdl Polytechnic Society. 
Falmouth, 1858. 

R. Q. — " Ou the Metamorphosis of the Decapod Crustacea." The Eleventh 

Annual Report of the Royal Gornwall Polytechnic Society. Falmouth, 1843. 

Cunningham. — " Lobster Rearing." Cornwall County Council Technical Instruction 
Committee. Report of the Lecturer ou Fishery Subjects for the Years 
1897-1898, 1899-1900. 

Ehuendaum. — "Der Helgolander Hummer." Wissenschaftliche Mecrcsuntersuch- 
ungen, Kiel w. Helgoland, Neue Folge, 1 Baud. Kiel u. Leipzig, 1894. 

EwAiiT, and Fulton. — ^"The Scottish Lolister Fishery." Sixth Annual Report of 
the Fishery Board for Scotland, 1888. P. 189. 

Faxon. — "Embryological Monograph— Crustacea." Mem. Museum Compar. Anat., 
Vol. IX. No. ]. Cambridge, U.S.A., 1882. 

Fullauton. — " The European Lobster : Breeding and Development." Fourteenth 
Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland, Pt. III., pp. 186 et seq. (Plates 
Vl.-VIII.). Edinburgh, 1896. 

HeuFvIck. — "The American Lobster: a Study of its Habits and Development." 
Bulletin U.S. Fish Commission for 1895. Washington, 1895. Pp. 1-252, 
Plates 1-54. 

" The Reproductive Period of the Lobster." U.S. Fish Commission Bulletin 

for 1901. Washington, 1902. Pp. 161-166. 

Kor.schelt-Heidek. — ' ' Text-book of Embryology. " London, 1899. 

Hayek, P. — " Carcinologische Mittheilungen." Mittheil. Zool. Stat. Neapel, 
II. Bd. 1881. 

Mead. — "Habits and Growth of Young Lobsters, and Experiments in Lobster- 
Culture." State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Thirty- 
Second Annual A'eport of the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries, made to 
the General Assembly at its January Session, 1902. P. 35. 

Mead, and Williams. — "Habits and Growth of the Lobster, and Experiments in 
Lobster-Culture." State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. 
Txcenty-Third Annucd Report of the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 
Providence, 1903. P. 57. 

Meek. — "The Crab and Lobster Fisheries of Northumberland." Northumberland 
Sea-Fisheries Committee. Report on the Scientific Investigations for the year 
1904. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 105 

MoiiTEN.sEN.— " Undersogelser over Vor Almindelege Rejes (Palamon Fahricii, 
Rtk.)." Kjobeuhavn, 1897. 

Prince. — "Natural History of tlie Lohster, with special reference to the Canadian 
Lobster Industry." Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Department of 
Marine and Fisheries, Fisheries Branch. Ottawa, 1897. 

Rathe, Heixr.— " Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Dekapoden." Wiecjm. Archiv. 

VI. Jahrg. I. Bd. P. 241. 
Salter. — "On the Moulting of the Common Itohi^Uv {Homarus vulgaris) ^.nA the 

Shore Crab (Carcinus ^ntetias)." Jour, Proe. Linn. Society London. Vol. IV. 

Zoology, 1860. 

Sars, G. 0. — "On Hunimereus postembryonale Udvikling." Selskahs Fordhand- 
linger, pp. 1-28, tali, i., ii. Christiauia, 1874. 

Saville Kent. — "The Artificial Culture of Lobsters." Inteimational Fisheries 
Exhibition, London, 18S3. The Fisheries Exhibition Literature. Vol. VI., 
Conferences, Part III. London, 1884. P. 327. 1 Plate. 

gcoTT. — "On the Spawning of the Common Lobster." No. XI. Report for 1902 
on the Lancashire Sea-Fisheries Laboratory and the Sea-Fish Hatchery at 
Piel. Liverpool, 1903. 

Smith, Sidney I. — " Tlie Early Stages of the American Lobster {Homanm 
Americanus, Edwards)." Trans. Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
Vol. II. Newhaven, 1871-1873. P. 351. 

Stebeing. — " A History of Crustacea : Kccent Malacostraca " International Science 
Series. Vol. LXIV. London, 1693. 

ViTZOU. — " Eecherches sur la Structure et la Formation des teguniens chez les 
Crustaees Decapodes." Archiv. de Zool. Exper. et Generate, t. x., 
pp. 451-576, Plates XXIII. -XXVIII. Paris, 1882. 

Weldon, and Fowler. — "The Rearing of Lobster Larvte." Journal of the Marine 
Biological Association, Vol. I., N.S., 1889-1890. Pb mouth, p. 367. 

Williamson, H. C. — "On the Larval Stages of Decapod Crustacea — the Shrimp 
{Crangon vulgaris, Fabr. )." Nineteenth Annual Report of the Fishery 
Board for Scotland, Pt. III., 1901. 6 Plates. 

" On the Larval and Early Young Stages, and Rate of Growth, of the Shore- 
Crab (Carcinus meenas)." Twenty-first Annual Report of the Fishery Board 
for Scotland, Pt. IIL, 1903. 7 Plates. 

"Contributions to the Life-History of the Edible Cva,h (Cancer 2Mgurtcs)." 

Eighteenth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland, Pt. III., 1900. 

"Contributions to the Life-Histories of the Edible Crab (Cancer pagurus) 

and of other Decapod Crustacea : Im^jregnation, Spawning, Casting, Distribu- 
tion, Rate of Growth." Twenty -second Animal Report of the Fishery Board 
for Scotland, Vt. III., I90i. 



LIST OF LETTEES AND FIGURES USED. 

I., la., II., Ill,, " IV."=First to " Fourth" Zoea Stages. 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7= Joints of Limb, viz. (1) Coxopodite, (2) Basipodite, 
(3) Ischiopodite, (4) Meropodite, (5) Carpopodite, (6) Propodite, (7) Dactylopodite. 



a. — Antennule. 
A. — Antenna. 
ab. — Abdomen. 
en. — Endopodite. 
ep. — Epipodite. 
ex. — Exopodite. 
Ir. — Labrum. 
Im. — First maxilla. 



2m. — Second maxilla. 

J/w.— Mandible. 

mp. — Maxillipede. 

0. —Eye. 

1-5 per. — First-Fifth Pereiopods. 

Pleo. — Pleopod. 

T.— Telson. 

Th. — Thorax. 



106 



Part III — Tiuerity-third Annual Report 






Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 


Fig. 


35. 


Fig- 


36. 


Fig. 


37. 


Fig. 


38. 


Fig. 


39. 


Fig. 


40. 


Fig. 


41. 


Fig. 


42. 


Fig. 


43. 


Fig. 


44. 


Fig. 


45. 


Fig. 


46. 


Fig 


47. 


Fig. 


48. 


Fig 


49. 


Fig 


50. 


Fig. 


51. 


Fig 


52. 


Fig 


53. 


Fig 


54. 


Fig 


55 



Fig. 56, 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
PLATE I. 

All the Figures are of the Fir.st Zoea. 

Antenna and antennnle, ..... 

Antennule, ....... 

Labrum, ....... 

Eye and rostrum, ...... 

Mandible, ....... 

Cutting edge of mandible, ..... 

First maxillipede, ...... 

Third maxillipede, ...... 

Second maxilla, . . . 

Palp (?) of first maxillipede, .... 

First pereiopod (chela), ..... 

First protopodite joint and gills of the second pereiopod. 
Third pereio[)od, ...... 

Epipodite of second maxillipede, .... 

First protopodite joints and gills of the second pereiopod, 
Third niaxilliiiede, ...... 

Propodite and dactylopodite joints of the third pereiopod, 
Palp of mandible, ...... 

Protopodite of the second maxillipede, 

Propodite and dactylopodite joints of the chela (first pereiopod), 
Propodite and dactylopodite joints of the second pereiopod. 
Second pereiopod, ...... 

Edge of endopodite of the first maxillipede, 

Flagellum of antenna, ..... 

First protopodite joint of the third pereiopod. 

First protopodite joint of the third pereiopod (second view), 

First maxilla, ...... 

Protopodite of the chela (fir-st pereio])od), . 

Second maxillipede, ..... 

PLATE II. 

Abdomen, zoea, first stage, ventral view, (/=ganglion. 
Abdomen, 2nd and 3rd joints, zoea, first stage, side view, 
Abdomen, 2nd and 3rd joints, zoea, stage \a, side view, . 
Abdomen, 5th joint, zoea, second stage, ventral view, 
Propodite and dactylopodite joints of the fourth pereiopod, zoea 

first stage, ...... 

Telson, zoea, third stage, ventral view, 

Cast 4th pleopod of zoea, third atagc. 

Abdomen, 3rd and 4th joints, zoea, third stage, . 

Protopodite joints of first pereiopod, zoea, "fourth" stage, 

2a. + 2/* = 2nd protopodite joint, 
Protopodite joints of second pereiopod, zoea, "fourth" stage. 
First protopodite joint of fourth pereiopod, zoea, first stage, 
Setce of hind border of telson, zoea, first stage, 
Fifth pereiopod, zoea, first stage, .... 
First pereiopod, zoea, "fourth" stage. 
Protopodite joints, first (1), second (2a + 2?)), e?i=endopoditc, 

ea; = exopodite, zoea, "fourth" stage, 
Protopodite, first joint, fifth pereiopod, zoea, first stage, . 
Telson, zoea, la stage, ..... 
Abdomen, side view, zoea, first stage, 
Telson, zoea, second stage, a = anus. 
Side of thorax, zoea, first stage, showing the arrangement of the 

gills. 
Abdomen, zoea, first stage, dorsal aspect. 

Third pleopod, zoea, " fourth " stage, . . . . 

Propodite and dactylopodite joints of fifth pereiopod, zoea, first 

stage, ........ 

Fourth j^ereiopod, zoea, first stage, . . . , 

First protopodite joint, fourth pereiopod, zoea, first stage. 

One of the serrated spines on propodite of fourth pereiopod, zoea, 

first stage. 
Telson, zoea, " fourth " stage, ventral view, 



X 


47 


X 


57 


X 


62 


X 


33 


X 


33 


X 


120 


X 


62 


X 


33 


X 


57 


X 


175 


X 


19 


X 


62 


X 


19 


X 


220 


X 


62 


X 


33 


X 


62 


X 


120 


X 


62 


X 


62 


X 


19 


X 


175 


X 


57 


X 


62 


X 


62 


X 


62 


X 


33 


X 


33 


X 


19 


X 


44 


X 


19 


X 


19 


a 

X 


62 


X 


19 


X 


33 


X 


19 


X 


33 


magnified. 


magnified. 


magnified. 


X 


19 


9 

X 


33 


X 


62 


X 


19 


X 


15 


X 


19 



57 

62 
19 
62 



11 




Bi/rnntiis iMt^f/un^.—Zoea, First St 



^ 



PLATE II. 




H O W 



Hoinarnn vutgaria. —ZoeA, I.-'IV " Btagei 



1 

I 



p B, BEPORT, 1906. 




Homarns wr/^i/arts.— Megalops, and First Young Stage. 



u 



f B REPORT. 1906 




'3 A. H Walker: ooetfin, H.C. W. 



Hominiii iii(!((iri«.— Zoea, L- IV ■ -Meaiiliii'S. and First Young 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



107 



PLATE III. 

Fig. 57. Telson, megalops. All the setfe ai'e not filled in, . . x 19 
Fig. 58. Fracture end of first peveiopod, megalops. 

Fig. 59. Protopodite joints of first pereiopod, first young stage, . . x .33 

Fig. 60. Proto])odite joints of first pereiopod, first young stage (second 

view), . . . . . . . . X 33 

Fig. Gl. Fifth pereiopod (part of), megalops, . . . . x 33 

Fig. 62. Second pereiopod (part of), megalops, . . . , x 33 

Fig. 63. Telson, megalops, side view, . . . . . x 19 

Fig. 64. Telson, first young .stage, dorsal view, . . . . x 15 

Fig. 65. First pereiopod, first young stage, . . . . x 15 



Fig. 


66. 


ml 

Fig. 


67. 
68. 


Fig. 


69. 


Fig. 
Fig. 


70. 
71. 
72. 



Fig. 73. 



PLATE IV. 

Zoea, first stage, 

Zoea, la stage, 

Zoea, second stage, 

Zoea, third stage, . 

First young stage, . 

Zoea, ' ' fourth " stage, 

Megalops, . 

Adult lobster covered with growih of seaweeds, mussels, &c., 



reduced. 



108 Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 



111.— OBSERVATIONS ON SOME PARASITES OF FISHES 
NEW OR RARE IN SCOTTISH WATERS. 

By Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S., &c. 

Plates V. and VI. 



In Part III. of the Twenty-second Annual Report of the Fishery Board 
for Scotland, I published a small paper on some parasites of fishes new to 
the Scottish marine fauna. Since the issue of that paper several other 
rare and interesting species have been examined, and these I now propose 
to describe. 

The species to be described belong for the most part to the Copepoda ; 
but there are also five species belonging to the Trematoda. As these 
parasitic Copepoda and Trematoda are quite distinct groups, my observa- 
tions on them are, as in the previous paper, divided into two parts, viz., 
Part I. Copepoda parasita, and Part II. Trematoda. 

I liave been indebted for several of the species described here to Dr. 
H. 0. Williamson ; Mr. Bowman and Mr. Irvine have also obtained a 
few interesting species for me. Canon A. M. Norman has also allowed 
me the privilege to examine one or two rare Copepoda in his collection, 
sent to him many years ago from the Moray Firth by the late Thomas 
Edward of Banff. 

My son, Andrew Scott, A.L.S., has prepared the drawings which 
illustrate this paper. 

PART I.— COPEPODA PARASITA. 

Family ERGASiLiDiE. 
Genus Bomoloclius, Nordmann (1832). 

Bomoloclws solece, Claus. 

This species of Bomolodms has quite recently been obtained in the 
nostrils of Gadus luscus, which adds another to the number of fishes now 
known to harbour these Copepods in their nostrils. It was in the nostrils 
of Gyclopterus lumpus that the first specimens were observed, early in 
1 900, but soon afterwards they were obtained in the nostrils of some other 
fishes, and notably in those of the cod Gadus morliua, where they appear 
to be of quite frequent occurrence. The fishes in whose nostrils the 
copepods have been most commonly obtained are those belonging to the 
gadidae. The following are the names of the fishes : — Cijclopterus lurnpus 
L., the Lumpsucker. Gadus morrhua L., the Cod-fish. Gadus ceglefinus 
L., the Haddock. Gadus merlangus L., the Whiting. Gadiis luscus L., 
the Brassie. Gadus pollacliius L., the Lythe. Molua molva L., the 
Ling. Phuronedes platessa L., the Plaice, and Pleuronedes flesus L., 
the Flounder. Bomolodius solece was first found on the back of the 
common Sole— /SoZea vulgaris, Quen. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 109 

FaM. CALIGIDiE. 

Genus Caligus, 0. F. Miiller (1785). 

*CaUgus ahhreviatus, Kroyer. PI. v., figs. 1-6. 

1863. Caligus ahbreviatus, Kr., Bidrag til Kundskab orn 
Synltekrebsene ; Naturh. Tidsskr., 2R., 2B., p. 61, pi. iii., 
fig. 3, a-k. 

Description of the Female. — The Female represented by the drawing, 
(fig. 1) measures 5mm. (i of an inch). The cephalic shield is nearly 
circular in outline, but is rather widest behind the middle; the width of 
the frontal plate is scarcely half the width of the cephalic shield at the 
widest part ; lunulae very clearly defined. Abdomen and furcal joints 
very short, as represented in the drawing. 

The antennules have the basal joints robust and broadly sub-triangular, 
but the end joints are long and narrow (fig. 3). 

The second maxillipeds are robust, and form powerful grasping organs 

(fig- 5). 

The sternal fork, which is moderately stout, and the branches of which 
are not greatly divergent, has a resemblance to the same appendage in 
LepeophiJieirus Thompsoni, Baird (fig. 4). 

The fourth pair of thoracic legs are elongated ; the basal joint is 
moderately stout and one-branched ; this branch is slender and composed 
of two joints, and the end-joint is about twice the length of the first, and 
is armed with a long, slender and claw-like terminal spine and a short 
spine near the distal end of the outer margin ; the first joint is also 
furnished with a spine on the outer distal angle (fig. 6). 

Habitat. — On a Ballan Wrass, Lahrus hergylta, captured in the Moray 
Firth in October 1904, and on another fish of the same species captured 
in the North Sea. Kroyer also obtained his specimens of the Caligus on 
the Ballan Wrass. 

A young specimen represetiting the Chalimus stage of this Caligus is 
represented by figure 2, and was obtained along with the adult form. In 
this specimen the siphon is still present, showing a somewhat dilated 
and biarticalated base ; the antennules are composed of two short subequal 
joints, the cephalic shield is elongate-ovate in outline, and the abdomen 
is very short. The frontal plate slopes posteriorly, and the development 
of the lunulas is considerably advanced. 

Caligus minimus, A. W. Otto. 

1828. Caligus minimus, Otto, Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop., 

vol. xiv., p. 354, pi. xxii., fig. 7. 
1840. Caligus minutus, M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. iii., 

p. 450. 
1901. Caligus minimus, A. Scott, Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc, 

vol. XV., p. 349, pi. i., figs. 1-8. 

Habitat. — On a Bass, Labrax lupus, captured above Queensferry on 
February 4, 1903. This appears to be the first record of C. minimus 
for the Forth district. 

* This species closely resembles, and is probably identical with, Caligus centrodonti 
Baird. {Cf. Brit. Entom., p. 272-3, Tab. xxxii., figs. 6, 7.) 
H 



110 Part Til. — Twenty -third Annual Report 

Genus Pseudocaligus, A. Scott (1901). 

Pseudocaligus hrevipedis (Bassett-Sniith). 

1896. Ccdigus hrevipedis, Bassett-Smith, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist. (6), vol. xviii., p. 11, pi. iii., fig. 1. 
1901. Pseudocaligus hrevipedis, A. Scott, Trans. Liverpool Biol. 
Soc, vol. XV., p. 350, pi. ii., figs. 1-4. 
Habitat.— Yowndi attached to the base of the tongue of a Three-bearded 
Rockling, Onos tricirratus, captured at the mouth of the River Dee, 
Aberdeen, November 23, 1904. Eight specimens of a Bomolochus, 
probably B. onosi, were also found on the same fish adhering to the gills 
and gill- arches. 

Genus Lepeophtheirus, Nordmann (1832). 

Lepeophtheirus sturionis, Kriiyer. PI. v., figs. 7-14. 

1837. Lepeophtheirus sturionis, Kr., Tidsskrift, i., Tab. vi., fig. 6. 

Description of the female. — The female of this species has a general 
resemblance to that of Caligus diaphamis, Nordmann, but is much larger, 
being fully half an inch in length (about J 4mm.). 

The cephalic shield is nearly circular in outline, and the frontal plate, 
which is not very prominent, is without lunulas. 

The last thoracic segment is considerably shorter than the cephalic 
shield, and is only slightly longer than broad. 

Abdomen moderately narrow and elongated, being equal to nearly 
three-fourths the length of the last thoracic segment. Furcal joints very 
short (fig. 7). 

The basal joints of the antennules are considerably dilated, and the 
end joints though short are also tolerably stout (fig. 8). 

Antennse robust and armed with a large and strong claw, the distal end 
of which is bent at nearly a right angle, as shown in the drawing (fig. 9). 
The mandibles resemble those of L. pedoralis, O. F. Miiller. 
The basal-joint of the second maxillipeds is moderately stout and 
elongate, and armed with a short but strong terminal claw (fig. 11). 

The " palpi," though slightly dilated at the base, have the sides nearly 
parallel, and the two branches of the bifid extremity are tolerably 
elongated (fig. 10); the small appendage at the bases of the palpi bear 
each one moderately large spine and two small ones, as shown in the 
drawing. 

Sternal fork very stout and with triangularly divergent branches 
(fig. 12).* 

Fourth pair of thoracic legs stout, each with a single three-jomted branch; 
the outer distal angle of the first joint in each branch terminates in a 
small tooth, a stout spine springs from the outer distal angle of the 
second joint, while the end joint is armed with three terminal spines of 
varying lengths (fig. 13). 

The short furcal joints bear a few small apical setse or spines (fig. 14). 

Habitat.— Taken from a Sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, Linn., captured 

about 16 miles S.E. by E. of Aberdeen, and landed at the Fish Market, 

Aberdeen, on December 29, 1904. I am indebted to Mr. Bowman, 

Aberdeen, for thir. addition to the marine copepod fauna of Scotland. 

*Kroyer in Naturh. Tidsskr. 1 Band (1837), PI vi., fig. 66, shows the ends of the 
branches of the sternal fork slightly bifid ; but the figure in Naturh. Tidsskr, 3 R., 
2 B. (1863), PI. xvii., fig. 4, represents the sternal fork of another form bluntly pomted 
at the ends, and with which our fignre is identical. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. Ill 

Fam. Dichblestiid.e. 
Genus Dichelestmm, J. F Hermann (1804). 

DichelesUum sturionis, Hermann. PI. v., figs. 17-24 ; pi. vi., figs. 1-6. 

1804. Dichelestium sturionis, Herm., Mem. Apterologique, p. 

125, Tab. v., figs. 7-8. 
1837. Dicheledium sturionis, Kroyer, IS'aturh. Tidsskr., 1st B., 

p. 299, Tab. ii , figs. 5 and 5a ($). 

Description of the Female. — The lengtli of the female represented by 
the drawing (pi. vi., fig. 1) is 17*8mm (nearly f of an inch). Body 
elongated and narrow ; cephalic segment nearly as broad as long, widest 
behind the middle, sides angulated, truncate, and obscurely trilobed in 
front. Thoracic segments four, first and second subequal, length equal to 
about half the breadth, and narrowly rounded at the sides ; third seg- 
ment rather shorter than the one which follows, and each with a shallow 
transverse suture that divides it into two slightly unequal portions. 
Genital segment narrow, and about one and a half times the length of 
the one which immediately precedes it ; the ultimate segment ovate, small, 
being scarcely half the length of the genital segment. Furcal joints 
short. Ovisac long and slender (pi. vi., fig. 1). 

Antennules short, slender, and apparently composed of eight subequal 
joints (pi. v., fig. 17). 

Antennse robust, extremities chelate, and forming powerful grasping 
organs (pi. v., fig. 18). 

The mandibles resemble those of Caligus or Lepeoptheirus very closely, 
but differ in having a stouter basal part, and in the long slender 
rod-like portion being only three- jointed, the last joint being coarsely 
serrated on the inner edge (pi. v., fig. 20). 

Maxillae small, two-branched ; primary branch stout, tapering distally 
and furnished with two slender apical setse; secondary branch very small 
(pi. v., fig. 21). 

The first maxillipeds appear to be three-jointed. The first joint, 
which is large and tolerably dilated, is about as long as the next two 
combined ; the distal end of the second joint is fringed with short 
bristles, and the end joint, which is very small, is furnished with a short 
terminal claw, and a few small marginal spines are shown in the drawing 
(pi. v., fig. 22). 

The second maxillipeds, short, very robust and strongly chelate (pi. v., 
fig. 23). 

The thoracic legs are short and stout. The first and second pairs are 
two-branched. The branches of the first are indistinctly two-jointed, and 
the outer branches are furnished with a small spine on the outer distal 
angle of the first joint, while the end-joint bears five moderately stout 
spines on its rounded extremity ; the inner branches bear each two 
terminal spines (pi. vi., fig. 3). The second pair are rather more dilated 
than the first, and both branches are similarly armed (pi. vi., fig. 3). 

The fourth pair is composed of a single uniarticulate branch in the 
form of an elongated lamelliform plate which bears a few minute teeth 
round the distal end (pi. v., fig. 24). 

The male, which resembles the female, but is considerably smaller, 
being scarcely half an inch in length, and the genital segment is also 
proportionally shorter (pi. vi., fig. 2) ; there is also a difference in the 
second and fourth pairs of thoracic legs, as shown in the drawing (pi. 
vi., figs. 5 and 6). In other respects the male is very similar to the 
female. 



112 Pari III. — Twenty -third Anniial Report 

Habitat. — Taken from a sturgeon, Acipenser sturio, captured about 
16 miles S.E. by E. of Aberdeen and brought into the Aberdeen Fish 
Market, December 29, 1904. The same species of Dichelestlum has also 
been found by my son, Andrew Scott, on the gills of a sturgeon 
captured near Barrow-in-Furness, Lancashire. I am indebted to Mr. 
Bowman of Aberdeen for this further addition to the marine copepod 
fauna of Scotland. 

The structure of the mouth organs, and especially of the mandibles, 
indicates a close relationship of Dichelestium with the Caligidje. 

Genus Anthosoma, Leach (1816). 

Anthosoma crassum (Abilgaard). PI. v., figs. 15 and 16. 

1794. Caligus crassus, Abgd., Mem. de Copenhagen, Act. Soc. 

Nat. Havn. 
1837. Antliosoma Smithi, Kroyer, Naturh. Tidsskr., 1st B., p. 

295, Tab. ii., figs. 2 and 2(c ($). 
1850. Anthosoma Smithi, Baird, Brit. Entom., p. 296, pl. xxxiii., 

fig. 9. 
1861, Anthosoma crassicm, Steenstrup and Liitken, Bidrag til 

Kundskab, p. 397, pl. xxii., fig. 24 (d"). 

This interesting species was found on a shark, supposed to be a 
Porbeagle shark, Lamna cornubica, captured off the coast of Scotland by 
one of the trawling steamers that make only short runs from Aberdeen. 
The steamer, which captured the shark in October 1904, is one of those 
belonging to Mr. Davidson, Aberdeen, and is locally known as a " short 
tripper." Two specimens of the Anthosoma were obtained ; one of them 
is a female with ovisacs, the other, which is smaller, is probably a male. 
The drawings, figures 15 and 16 on plate v., represent a dorsal and 
ventral view of the female. This specimen measured about 15 millimetres 
exclusive of the ovisacs, and about 62 millimetres — nearly 2i inches — to 
the extremity of these appendages. 

The female, which is tolerably elongated, appears, when seen jrom 
above to be of an ovate outline ; it is narrow in front, and a brownish 
horny shield, which gradually expands towards the posterior end, covers 
the head and a considerable portion of the thorax ; an obscure constric- 
tion marks the junction of the head with the thorax ; two large foliaceous 
elytraform, circular plates, the inner margins of which partly overlap each 
other on the dorsal aspect, cover entirely the remaining portion of the 
thorax not covered by the dorsal shield, and also the abdomen and furcal 
joints. These plates are ornamented by numerous minute scattered 
punctures or depressions, as shown in the drawing (fig. 15). 

The antennules are short, slender, and composed of six joints which are 
very sparingly setiferous; but the antennae — described by Baird as the 
first pair of footjaws — are strong and powerful ; they are longer than the 
antennules and composed of three joints, and armed with strong, terminal, 
hook-like claws. 

The first maxillipeds are slender and feeble, and appear to consist of 
three joints ; they are provided with a small, terminal, claw-like spine. 

The second maxillipeds are short, very stout and powerfully clawed. 

The thoracic legs are in the form of thin and broadly foliaceous plate, 
each having a distinct notch on the inner margin. 

The abdomen is short and the furcal joints narrow and moderately 
elongated, as in figure 16, which shows the ventral aspect of the 
specimen. 

The shield is of a chitinous texture, of a brownish colour on the sides. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 113 

but merging into blackish brown along the middle and towards the 
proximal end ; the elytraform plates and thoracic feet, which also appear 
to be chitinous, are whitish with a slight tinge of yellow. 

I am indebted to Mr. Irvine for the opportunity of examining and 
describing this interesting species. 

Drs. Steenstrup and Liitken in the work referred to above give a 
series of excellent figures illustrative of the structure of the male of 
Anthosoma, and it would appear from the description and figures of these 
authors that the large foliaceous and elytraform dorsal plates which cover 
the posterior part of the female are absent in the male. 

Fam. Lbrn^id^, 
Genus Fennella, Oken. 

Pennella filosa (Linne). 

1754. Pennatida filosa, Linn., Syst. Nat. et, Amoen. Acad., vol. 

iv. 
1767. Pennatula filosa, Linn., Syst. Naturse, Ed. 12, vol. ii , pp. 

13-22. 
1870. Pennella Orthagorisci, E. P. Wright, Ann. and Mag., Nat. 

Hist. (4), vol. v., p. 42, pi. 1. 

The Rev. Canon A. M. Norman, to whom I am often indebted for 
information and help in Natural History research, has, with his usual 
kindness, permitted me to examine a specimen of this curious copepod 
parasite which he received many years ago from the late Thomas 
Edward of Banff, who found it on a short sunfish, Orthagoriscus mala, in 
the Moray Firth. The species is recorded in Smiles' Life of Edward, 
among the many other Natural History rarities mentioned at the end of' 
that work, under the name of Pejinella fibrosa. Liimceus in his 12th 
Edition of Systema Naturae, referring to the host of Pennella filosa, says, 
" Habitat in M. Mediterranei Xiphiis." 

Genus Lerncea, Linne (1767). 

Lerncea lusci, Bassett-Smith. PI. vi., fig. 18. 

1896. Lerncea lusci, Bassett-Smith, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(6), vol. xviii., p. 13, pi. iv., fig. 6. 
1904. Lernma lusci, T. Scott, 22nd F.B. Ptept., Pt. III., p. 277, 

pi. xvii., fig. 12 and 13. 

A Lerncea apparently belonging to this species was found adhering to 
a small Gadus luscus sent to the Laboratory from the fish market at 
Aberdeen on January 12, 1905. The various species belonging to the 
genus Lermea fix themselves to the gills or gill-arches of the fishes 
infested by them, but the specimen now recorded had its head buried 
in the flesh of the fish some distance behind the operculum, as shown in 
the drawing (fig. 18). This is the first example of the kind I have met 
with. 

Fam. CHONDRACANTHirA:. 
Genus Sphyrion, Cuvier (1830). 

Sphyrion lumpi, Krbyer. 

1863. Lesteira lumpi, Kr., Bidrag til Kundskab, Nat. Tidsskr., 
BR. 2 B., p. 325, Tab. xviii., fig. 5, a-g. 



114 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

Sphyrion Iwjipi, T. Scott, 19th F.B. Kept., Pt. III., p. 128, vol. 
vii., fig. 13. 

A fine specimen, the most perfect I have seen of this curious species, 
was presented to me by Mr. Irvine of Aberdeen ; it was obtained by him 
on one of a number of cattishes, Anai'rhicas lupu^, landed at Aberdeen 
Fish Market from a Norwegian trawler. The fishes were captured in 
about 200 fathoms, and tlierefore beyond the limits of the Scottish area. 
An imperfect specimen was taken from a Lumpsucker captured in April 
1900 in the nets of the salmon fishers near the Laboratory at Bay of 
Nigg, Aberdeen, and is described and figured in Part III. of the 
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 

Genus Chondracanthus, De la Roche (1811). 
CJwndracanthus depressus, sp, n. PI. vi., figs. 7-13. 

Description of the Female. — This species resembles in its general 
appearance the Ghondracantlms flurce of the Long Rough Dab, Drepanop- 
setta platessoides, but it is more depressed. The cephalon, which is suId- 
quadrangular, is scarcely as long as broad, the next two segments are also 
wide and very short, while the last thoracic segment is distinctly con- 
stricted in the middle and very depressed ; it is broader in proportion to 
its length than the same segment in Cho7idracanthus Jlurce, being about 
as broad as it is long. The postero-lateral processes are somewhat narrow, 
cylindrical, and sigmoid, and curved inward so as to approach close to each 
other, and sometimes overlap (fig. 8). The abdomen is very short. 

The specimen represented by the drawing (fig. 7) measures about 5 mm. 
(4- of an inch), exclusive of the ovisacs, which are tolerably short and 
thick. 

The antennules are short and very robust ; they are simple in structure ; 
and the distal extremity, which appears to be obscurely jointed, bears 
scattered apical spinules (fig. 9). 

The antennfB are somewhat similar to those of Chondracanthus cornutus. 

The mandibles, which are stout, moderately elongated, and strongly 
curved, taper gradually to the attenuated distal extremity ; they are each 
armed with a row of small but moderately stout denticles along each 
margin, as shown in the drawing (fig. 10). 

The first maxillipeds are greatly dilated at the base, and the terminal 
joint, which is also stout, tapers to a blunted apex, the internal margin 
is coarsely toothed on the distal half (fig. 11). 

Thoracic feet two pairs, short, stout, and bifid, or with two rudi- 
mentary branches ; both branches are stout, but the outer is shorter and 
scarcely so much dilated as the inner. Though the first pair are as robust 
as the second they are scarcely so long ; the two branches in both pairs are 
covered more or less with minute prickles, as shown in the drawings (figs. 
12 and 13). 

Habitat. — On the gills of the Flounder, Pleuronectes flesus, captured in 
the Firth of Forth and St. Andrews Bay. 

This form differs from any of the species previously described by the 
very short anterior thoracic segments and by the last segment being 
depressed and of a broadly quadriform outline, as well as by the structure 
of the thoracic legs. 

A form which appears to be a variety of the species just described, and 
which has also been observed on the same kind of fish, differs in being 
rather more elongated and less depressed. The antennules are larger, 
with a slightly difi'erent armature ; the two pairs of thoracic legs are also 
larger and more robust, and the inner branches more distinctly triangular 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 115 

in outline. Only one or two specimens of this form have yet been 
observed, and as it resembles Cliondracanthus dejjressus in some respects 
I record it for the present as variety ohlon<jus of that species (see figs. 
14-17, pi. vi.). 

Fam. Lern^opodid^. 

Genus Brachiella, Cuvier (1817). 

Brachiella trigke, Claus 

1901. Brachiella triglce, T. Scott, 19th F.B. Kept., Ft. III., 
p. 133, pi. vii., figs. 24-29. 

Habitat. — Obtained on the gills of a Streaked Gurnard, Triglalineata, 
captured at Station VIII., Firth of Forth, in September, 1897, but only 
now recorded. The Forth is a new station for this species. 



PART II. 

On some Species of Trbmatoda xot previously recorded. 

The ecto-parasitic vermes of fishes are not uncommon, but as many of 
them, and especially of the Trematoda, are of small size and more or less 
flattened, and as their colour approximates closely to that of the fishes on 
which they live, they are readily missed when the fishes are being 
examined. 

There is evidently a considerable variety of forms among these Tre- 
matodes. That some of them are elegant in outline as well as in structure 
is shown by the beautiful drawings in MM. van Beneden and Hesse's 
work, Recherches sur les Trematodes Marins. 

In the following notes I record a few curious forms exhibiting some 
peculiarities of structure which differ somewhat from those described in 
previous papers on these organisms, published in Part III. of the Annual 
Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland for 1895, 1901, 1902, and 
1904. I also give at the end of the present paper a list of all the species 
recorded in these various Reports. 

TREMATODA. 

Fam. Polystomatid/E. 

Genns Pkyllocotyle, van Benden and Hesse (1863). 
Phyllocotyle gurnardi, van Beneden and Hesse. PI. vi., figs. 19 and 20. 

1863 Phyllocotyle gurnardi, v. Ben. and Hesse, Rech. sur les 
Trem., p. 103, pi. x., fig. 1-7 (not Phyllocotyle gurnardi, T. 
Scott in Part III. of the 19th Report, p. 147, pi. viii., 
fig. 23). 

Under this name I record a species of Trematode found on the gills of 
specimens of the Grey Gurnard (Trigla gurnanlus, Lin.) from the Moray 
Firth. 

The body of this Trematode is lanceolate, very flat, and moderately 
slender at the anterior end, but becomes wider posteriorly ; the distal end 
is rounded, and furnished on the ventral aspect with six marginal 
suckers of moderate size and of a rather complicated structure— three 
on each margin ; an elongated process, slender and narrow, and with 



116 Pari III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

parallel sides, springs from the rounded end ; this process is armed at the 
extremity with four hooked teeth, the two outer teeth are large and 
strong, with an expanded base, but the other two are smaller and more 
slender (fig. 20). 

According to the authors of the Recherches, this species when extended 
measures about 5 ram., but in the specimen represented by the drawing 
(pi. vi., fig. 19, of this paper), the body is considerably contracted in 
length, and is consequently wider, the peduncle at the posterior end, 
which when fully extended is very slender and narrow, is also shortened 
in the specimen figured. This peduncle is very fragile, and is therefore 
occasionally incomplete, and for that reason, and also laecause it can be 
folded back under the body of the animal, it may at times easily escape 
being noticed. 

Genus Pledanocotyle, Diesing. 

Pledanocotyle Lorenzu, Monticelli. 

1899. Pledanocotyle Lorenzii, Monticelli, Di una nova Specie del 
genre Pledanocotyle ; Atti. K. Acad, delli Sci. di Torino, 
vol. xxxiv., p. 1, pi. 1 (separate copy). 

1901. Phyllocotyle gurnardi, T. Scott, 19th F.B. Rept., Pt. III., 
p. 147, pi. viii , fig. 23. 

A Trematode recorded by me under the name of Phyllocotyle gurnardi 
in the Nineteeth Annual Keport of the Fishery Board for Scotland 
(1901), was afterwards recognised as belonging to a species described by 
Dr. F R. Sav. Monticelli two years previously under the name mentioned 
above. 

This Pledanocotyle had been obtained by Dr. Lorenz some years before 
on a species of Gurnard, Trigla sp. The slender posterior peduncle, so 
characteristic of Phyllocotyle gurnardi, is apparently absent in Pledano- 
cotyle. The Scottish specimens from Trigla gurnardus were examined 
by Dr. F. R. Sav. Monticelli, and recognised by him as belonging to the 
species he had described in 1899. 

As already pointed out, the peduncle in Phyllocotyle, being so slender 
and fragile, is easily damaged, and when it gets torn off' or folded under 
the body, and when the body is shortened by contraction — a contingency 
not uncommon when fishes infested by the parasites are preserved in 
spirit or formaldehyde — the one Trematode may easily be mistaken 
for the other. 

Genus Microcotyle, van Beneden and Hesse (1863). 

Microcotyle donavani, van Beneden and Hesse. PI. vi., fig. 21. 

1863. Microcotyle donavani, v. Ben. and Hesse, Recherches, 
p. 114, pi. xii., figs. 1-11. 

This species was found on the gills of a Ballan Wrasse {Lahrus 
bergylta, Ascan.), obtained by Dr. H. C. Williamson in the Moray Firth 
on October 23, 1904, and also on a Ballan Wrasse captured in the 
North Sea by ]\Ir. Bowman. 

The species is narrow and elongated, and at the posterior end there is 
a row of small suckers along each margin ; the number of suckers in each 
row appears to vary to a small extent. In the specimen represented by 
the drawing (fig. 21) the number in each row is about thirty-four. 

Microcotyle donavani does not appear to be a rare form ; the authors 
of the Recherches state that it has been found in abundance on the 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



1» 
117^- 



same species of Lah'us in the month of March. Several specimens were 
found on the gills of the Lahrus from the Moray Firth and from the 
North Sea, but none were very perfect. This species of Microcofyle is 
not only very slender, but is also without consistence, and therefore 
easily injured. The length of the specimen represented by the drawing 
is 5 '3 mm. Figure 22 is a front view of one of the suckers seen under 
a moderately high magnification. 

Microcotyle labmcis, van Beneden and Hesse. PI. vi., fig. 21. 

1863. Microcotyle lahracis, v. Ben. and Hesse, Recherches, 
p. 112, pl. xii., figs. 12-18. 

This species has a general resemblance to M. donavani, but difi'ers in 
possessing about double the number of suckers at the posterior end 
(fig. 21). The structure of the cesophagian bulb also differs in the two 
species. 

The length of the specimen represented by the drawing is about 7mm, 
Habitat. — On the gills of the Bass, Labrax lupus. I am indebted to 
my son for specimens of this species. 

FaM. GYRODACTYLIDiE. 

Genus Dipledanum, Diesing (1858). 

Dipledauum (equans, Diesing. PI. vi., fig. 24. 

1858. Dipledanum cBquans, Diesing, Revis, derMyzhelm., p. 77. 

1863. Dipledanum cequans, v. Ben. and Hesse, Recherches, 
p. 122, pl. xiii., figs. 9-22. 

This Trematode is common on the gills of the Bass, Labrax lupus, but 
being very small it is easily missed. The length of the specimen repre- 
sented by the drawing (fig. 24) is about 2mm. 

In Dipledanam ceiiuans the head is armed with two moderately strong 
hooked spines on each side of a deeply concave cleft ; this cleft is occupied 
by a process thickly covered with minute prickles, as shown in the 
drawing. 

I am indebted to my son for this small but interesting species. 

The folloAving is a list of species belonging to the Trematoda that have 
been described or recorded, and for the most part figured, in Part III. of 
the Annual Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland. The species now 
recorded are included in the list. The names are arranged in alphabetical 
order. 



Name of the Species. 



Annual Report where published, 

and Number of Plate where 

figured. 



Acanthocotyle montieeUii, T. Scott, 
Anthocotyle merluccii, v. Ben. and Hesse, 
Callocotyle kruyeri, Diesing, 
Dadycotyle polladiii, v. Ben. and Hesse, 
Dipledanum aequans, Diesing, - 
Epiidella Mppoglossi, 0. F. Miiller, 
Heterocotyle pastinacce, T. Scott, - 



20th Report ; Pl. xiii. ; 1902. 
19th „ Pl. viii. ; 1901. 



Present Report ; Pl. vi. 
19th Report; no figure. 
22nd „ Pl. xvii. ; 1904. 



118 



Part III. — Tweniy-third Annual Report 






Name of the Species. 



Microcotyle donavani,v . Ben. and Hesse, 

,, lahracis, ,, ,, 

Odohofhrium alosce (Hermann), - 
,, esmarkii, T. Scott, - 

„ harenf/i, v. Ben. and Hesse, 

,, scoiiihri, Kuhn, 

,, merlangi, Kuhn, 

Onclwcotyle appendiculata, Kuhn, 
PhylJocotyle (jurnardi, v. Ben. and Hesse, 
Phyllonella soleta, ,, ,, 

*Plecta)iocotyle lorenzi, Monticelli, 
Pterocotyle morrhiue.^ v. Ben. and Hesse, 

,, palmata, Leuckart, 

Thaumatocotyle concinyia, T. Scott, 
Tristoma moke, Blanchard - 
Trochopus Uneatas, T. Scott. 
Udonella caliyarum, Johnston, 



Annual Report where published, 

and Number of Plate where 

figured. 



Present Report ; PI. vi. 

19th Report; PI. vi'ii. ; 1901. 

>» >> J) )) 

„ „ No figure. 

„ „ PI. viii.; 1901. 

13th ,. PI. iv. ; 1895. 

19th „ PI. viii. ; 1901. 

Present Repert ; PI. vi. 

19th Report; PI. viii.; 1901. 



22nd 
19th 



Pl.'xvii. ; 1904. 
PI. viii ; 1901. 



* Described in 1901 as Phyllocotyle gurnardi. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



*4. 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



PLATE V. 



Caltgus abbreviatus, Kroyer, 



1. Female, dorsal view 

2. Female, young . 

3. Antennule 

4. Sternal fork 

5. Second maxilliped 

6. Foot of fourth pair 



Lepeophtheirtis sturionis, Kroyer 



7. Female, dorsal view 

8. Antennule 

9. Antenna . 

10. One of the "palpi " 

11. Second maxilliped 

12. Sternal fork 

13. Foot of fourth pair 



Fig. 14. Last segment of abdomen and furcal joints 



Anthosoma crassum, Abgld. 



Fig. 15. Female, dorsal view 
Fig. 16. Female, ventral view 



Diam. 







X 


14 






X 


27 






X 


72 






X 


120 






X 


45. 






X 


108 


r. 

X 


6-6. 






X 


72. 






X 


45 






X 


67-5. 






X 


45. 






X 


90 






X 


28. 






X 


31 


I. 

X 


6 






X 


6 



F B. REPORT. 1905. 




t ^ 



A 4. 



^^^- 




A. Scott, del ad nat. 



.f 



t^ 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



119 



Dichekstium sturionis, Hermann. 



Fig. 17. Antennule, female 

rig. 18. Antenna, female . 

Fig. 19. Antenna, male . 

Fig. 20. Mandible 

Fig. 21. Maxilla . 

Fig. 22. First maxilliped, female 

Fig. 23. Second maxilliped, female 

Fig. 24. F-)ot of fourth pair, female 











X 


46 










X 


17 










X 


17 










>; 


60 










X 


46 










X 


23 










X 


15 










X 


28 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 

Ficr. 



Fig. 

Fig- 
Fig. 
Fig. 



PLATE VI. 

Diclieletitium ■'itiirionis, Herm. 



1. Female, dorsal view 

2. Male, dorsal view 

3. Foot of first pair, female 

4. Foot of second pair, female 

5. Foot of second pair, male 

6. Foot of fourth pair, male 



Chondracanthus depressiis, sp. n. 



7. Female, dorsal view 

8. Posterior appendages of same 

9. Antennule 

10. Mandible. 

11. First maxillij)ed . - 

12. Foot of first pair 

13. Foot of second pair 



Chondracanthus depressu><, var. ohlongus. 



14. Female, dorsal view 

15. Antennule 

16. Foot of first pair 

17. Foot of second pair 



Lernece lusci, Bassett-Smith. 



Fig. 18. Gadus lucus with parasite in situ 

Trematoda. 

Fig. 19. Phyllocotyle qumardi, v. Ben. and Hesse 

Fig. 20. Extremity of peduncle of the same 

Fig. 21. Microcotyle donavani, v. Ben. and Hesse 

Fig. 22. The same — one of the posterior suckers 

Fig. 23. Microcotyle labracis, v. Ben. and Hesse 

Fig. 24. Diplectanum cequaiis, Diesing 



X 


4-6. 


X 


4-6. 


X 


46. 


X 


46. 


X 


46. 


X 


24. 


Diam. 


X 


12. 


enlai 


•ged. 


X 


60. 


X 


260. 


X 


260. 


X 


55. 


X 


55. 


X 


12. 


X 


60. 


X 


55. 


X 


55. 



reduced. 







X 


45. 






X 


260. 






X 


27. 






X 


390. 






X 


18. 






X 


45. 



** 



120 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



IV.— REPORT ON THE OPERATIONS AT THE MARINE 
HATCHERY, BAY OF NIGG, ABERDEEN, IN 1904. By 
Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., Superintendent of Scientific 
Investigations. 



During the season of 1904 the operations at the Marine Hatchery 
were continued in connection with the hatching of the eggs of the plaice, 
as in previous years, and a number of lobstei'S were also dealt with. 
The hatching apparatus and the various ponds in connection with the 
establishment continue to perform the work for which they were 
intended in a satisfactory manner. An account of these and of the 
methods employed in the collection of the eggs and their treatment in 
the hatchery has been given in some of the previous reports, to which 
reference may be made for the detailed description. 

It need only be said here that the adult fishes which act as the brood 
stock are confined throughout the year in a large tidal pond, where 
they are regularly fed, almost entirely with common mussels, and that 
at the spawning-time the fertilised eggs, shed freely into the water, are 
collected daily, or almost daily, by means of a large net of mosquito 
netting, and are then transferred to the incubating apparatus in the 
hatchery. 

The duration of the period of development, until hatching takes 
place, varies according to the temperature of the water at the time ; 
the pei-iod is longer at the beginning of the spawning season, when the 
temperature is low, than towards the end of the season, when the 
temperature has risen considerably. At the beginning of the work in 
January the average time of incubation before the eggs hatch is about 
three weeks, while at the end of the season they hatch in about a fort- 
night. The larval fishes, after they are hatched from the eggs, are 
kept in the appax-atus for several days until the yolk-sac is partly 
absorbed, and they are then transferred to the sea in appropriate ap- 
paratus. Experience has shown that the best results are got by 
liberating the fry before the yolk has been quite used up, and when 
they are able to feed for themselves. 

It is calculated that, taking the two periods together — the time of 
incubation and the period referred to after hatching — the eggs and 
larvse are protected in the apparatus for about half of the time from the 
spawning of the eggs to the transformation of the post-larval fish, i.e. 
to the adoption of the adult form and habit, after which, owing to the 
protection afforded by concealment in the sand, the natural mortality 
is, relatively speaking, small. 

In the season of 1904 the floating eggs were first observed in the 
water of the spawning pond about the middle of January, but they 
were few in numbers. The first collection was made on the 26th of 
that month, about the same date, that is, as in the preceding year. 
The last collection was made on the 29th April, or more than a fort- 
night earlier than in 1903. This is probably partly accounted for by 
the greater relative intensity of the spawning in the earlier part of the 
season in 1904, but it is also, no doubt, connected with the fact that 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 121 

the number of the adult fishes furnishing eggs, and therefore of the 
eggs collected, was considerably under what it was in 1903. As pointed 
out in previous repoits, a certain number of the plaice confined in the 
pond die each year, and this loss is ordinarily made up by a renewed 
supply of living adult fishes in the autumn, which are obtained from 
the trawlers employed for scientific purposes in Aberdeen Bay or the 
Moray Firth, the vessels being provided with large tubs for the 
collection of the fish, and a constant circulation of water maintained until 
port is reached. In the autumn and winter of 1903 the same practice 
was followed, but it was found that large adult plaice, suitable for the 
hatchery, were exceedingly and unusually scarce, and thus the stock in 
the pond was only partially replenished. 

The total number of eggs collected from the spawning pend thiough- 
out the season was 39,600,000, as compared with 65^940,000 in the 
previous year. Most of them, as is usually the case, were obtained in 
March, which is the chief spawning month of the plaice. The numbers 
collected in the various months, and the percentages on the total 
number, are given in the following table, which also contains for com- 
parison the corresponding monthly percentages for the previous season 
in 1903:— 





Number of Eggs 


Percentage, 


Percentage, 




Collected. 


1904. 


1903. 


January, 


660,000 


1-6 


0-3 


February, 


10,320,000 


26-1 


18-0 


March, - 


22,040,000 


55-7 


56-2 


April, - 


6,580,000 


16-4 


24-1 


May, 


- 




1-3 



It will thus be seen, as above indicated, that spawning was, on the 
whole, a little earlier in 1904 than in 1903, nearly 28 per cent, of the 
aggregate number of eggs being collected before March in the former 
year, as compared with 18 per cent, in the same period in the latter year. 

The estimated number of fry which were obtained from the eggs 
amounted to 34,780,000, and they were liberated in seven lots at 
various dates in March, April, and May, off Aberdeen Bay, a fishing 
yawl being employed for the purpose. 

Particulars as to the collection of eggs from the pond and the libera- 
tion of the fry will be found in the tables which are appended. 

The expense of the hatching opei'ations as carried on at the Bay of 
Nigg is small, compared with the number of fry produced. This is 
owing to the fact that the hatchery is worked in conjunction with the 
Marine Laboratory, for which pumping operations are required 
throughout the year. The annual expenditure that may be ascribed to 
the hatching work is about £100, the pi'incipal items being the main- 
tenance of the appai-atus, food for the fishes, and extra coals. 

The hatchery was visited by delegations of fishermen sent for instruc- 
tion by the County Councils of Aberdeenshire and Argyllshire, to whom 
a series of demonstrations was given. 



[Tables. 



122 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



TABLE I. — Showing the Daily Progress of the Hatching Operations, 
and the Temperature of the Water, during the Hatching 
Season 1904. 













Temperature 


Date. 


Number of 

Eggs 
Collected. 


Number of 

Eggs 

found Dead 

in Boxes. 


Number of 

Fry 

put out. 


Total Stock 
in Boxes. 


of Water. 


Cent. 


Fahr. 


January 20 










5-9 


42-6 


21 










5-2 


41-4 


;; 22 










6-0 


42-8 


23 










5-2 


41-4 


24 














25 










3-8 


38-8 


26 


160,000 






160,000 


4-6 


40-3 


27 


200,000 






360,000 


6 


42-8 


28 








360,000 


5-4 


41-7 


29 


300,000 






660,000 






30 








660,000 


5-4 


41-7 


31 








660,000 


5-6 


42-1 


February 1 


320,000 


40,000 




940,000 


5-4 


41-7 


2 


300,000 






1,240,000 


5-2 


41-4 


3 


240,000 


120,000 




1,360,000 


4-8 


40-6 


4 








1,360,000 


4-6 


40-3 


5 


400,000 


140,000 




1,620,000 


5-0 


41-0 


6 


400,000 






2,020,000 


4-4 


39-9 


.. 7 








2,020,000 






8 


520,000 






2,540,000 


4-6 


40-'3 


9 








2,540,000 


5-2 


41-4 


10 


560,000 


180,000 




2,920,000 


4-8 


40-6 


11 








2,920,000 


5-0 


41-0 


12 








2,920,000 


5-0 


41-0 


13 


840,000 






3,760,000 


61 


43-0 


11 








3,760,000 


4-8 


40-6 


15 








3,760,000 


6-0 


42-8 


16 




200,000 




3,560,000 


5-6 


42-1 


17 


1,200,000 






4,760,000 


5-3 


41-5 


18 


640,000 






5,400,000 






19 




160,000 




5,240,000 


3-2 


37-8 


20 


560,000 






5,800,000 


4-6 


40-3 


21 








5,800,000 


4-6 


40-3 


22 


760,000 






6,560,000 


5-0 


41-0 


23 


1,000,000 






7,560,000 


5-2 


41-4 


24 


840,000 


160,000 




8,240,000 


5-0 


41-0 


25 








8,240,000 


4-8 


40-6 


26 


960,000 






9,200,000 


4-4 


39-9 


27 








9,200,000 


4-4 


39-9 


28 


780,000 


120,000 




9,860,000 


4-6 


40-3 


29 








9,860,000 


4-2 


39-6 


March x 


1,120,000 






10,980,000 


4-4 


39-9 


2 








10,980,000 


5-0 


41-0 


3 


1,020,000 






12,000,000 


5-0 


41-0 


4 




180,000 




11,820,000 


5-2 


41'4 


5 








11,820,000 


5-8 


42-4 


6 








11,820,000 


3-6 


38-5 


7 


1,600,000 


220,000 




13,200,000 


3-8 


38-8 


8 


1,720,000 






14,920,000 


4-8 


40-6 


9 


1,660,000 






16,580,000 


5-0 


41-0 


10 








16,580,000 


6-4 


43-5 


11 


1,200,000 






17,780,000 


6-8 


44-2 


12 


1,400,000 


220,000 




18,960,000 


5-3 


41-5 


• 13 


800,000 






19,760,000 


5-4 


41-7 


14 








19,760,000 


6-2 


43-2 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 

TABLE I. — continued. 



123 



Date. 


Number of 

Eggs 
Collected. 


Number of 

Eggs 

found Dead 

in Boxes. 


Number of 

Fry 

put out. 


Total Stock 
in Boxes. 


Temperature 
of Water. 

1 


Cent. 


Fahr. 


March 15 
16 
17 
18 
19 


880,000 

1,740,000 
840,000 


180,000 
240,000 


4,000,000 


16,640,000 
16,460,000 
16,460,000 
18,200,000 
18,800,000 


6-3 

6-8 
5-8 
7-0 
7-2 


43-3 
44-2 
42-4 
44-6 
44-9 


20 

Hi 

„ 22 
23 
24 


1,060,000 

1,600,000 
860,000 


200,000 
140,000 




18,800,000 
19,860,000 
19,660,000 
21,260,000 
21,980,000 


6-8 
6-9 
6-8 
6-8 


44-2 
44-4 
44-2 
44-2 


25 

27 
28 
29 


760,000 
1,100,000 

840,000 
1,200,000 


160,000 
300,000 


5,000,000 


17,580,000 
18,680,000 
18,680,000 
19,220,000 
20,420,000 


5-8 
5-8 
5-6 
5-2 
6-0 


42-4 
42-4 
42-1 
41-4 

42-8 


30 

31 

April 1 

2 

3 


640,000 
760,000 
680,000 


240,000 
220,000 


4,000,000 


20,820,000 
20,820,000 
17,580,000 
17,360,000 
18,040,000 


6-2 

7-4 
7-0 

5-8 


43-2 
45-3 
44-6 
42-4 


4 
6 

;: 8 


1,000,000 

520,000 
480,000 


180,000 
220,000 


4,280,000 


17,860,000 
18,860,000 
18,860,000 
19,160,000 
15,360,000 


6-2 

7-8 
8-0 
8-4 
8-2 


43-2 
46-0 
46-4 
47-1 
46-8 


9 
10 
11 
12 

13 


680,000 
560,000 


300,000 
160,000 




16,040,000 
16,040,000 
16,300,000 
16,140.000 
16,140;000 


8-0 
7-6 
7-3 

7-4 


46-4 
45-7 
45-1 

45-3 


14 
15 
16 
17 

„ 18 


440,000 

840,000 


IJO.OOO 


6,000,000 


16,580 000 
16,580.000 
10,400,000 
10,400,000 
11,240,000 


7-2 
7-5 
7-6 
8-2 
9'6 


44-9 
45-5 
45-7 
46-8 
49-3 


19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


400,000 


120,000 




11,240,000 
11,120,000 
11,120,000 
11,520,000 
11,520,000 


9-4 

7-8 
7-8 
7-6 
7-4 


48-9 
460 
46-0 
45-7 
45-3 


24 
25 
26 

27 
28 


200,000 


160.000 


7,000,000 


11,720,000 

11,560,000 

4,560,000 

4,560,000 

4,560,000 


8-b 

8-6 
8-0 

8-9 


46-4 
47-5 
46-4 
48-0 


29 

30 

May 1 

2 

3 


20,000 


80,000 




4,500,000 


9-0 
10-0 

9-'8 
9-2 


48-2 
50-0 

49-'6 

48-6 


., 4 






4,500,000 




9-2 


48-6 


Totals, 


39,600,000 


4,820,000 


34,780,000 




1 



124 



Fart III. — Tiventy -third Annual Report 



TABLE II. — Showing particulars in connection with the 
Distiibution of Fry. 



Date. 


Locality. 


Temp, 
of the 
Water. 


Condition 
of Weather. 


Estimated 
Number 
of Fry. 


March ] 5 
,, 25 

April 1 

„ 8 

„ 16 

,, 26 

May 7 


About 1^ miles off Aberdeen Bay. 
„ 2* „ 

>) 1? )j ' >> )> 
„ 2 

., n „ 

„ 2A 

„ u „ 


C. 

5-2 

5-0 

5-6 
6-0 


Fine. 

!> 
>) 

^> 
»> 


4,000,000 
5,000,000 
4,000,000 
4,280,000 
6,000,000 
7,000,000 
4,500,000 


34,780,000 



of the Fisher I) Board for Scotland. 125 



v.— Z0]^Et5 OF GROWTH IN THE SKELETAL STRUCTURES 
OF GADID.E AND PLEURONECTID.^. By J. T. Cunning- 
ham, M.A., F.Z.S. (Plates VII~IX.) 



Previous Investigations. 

The primary object of Reibisch's investigations was to ascertain what 
relations existed between the number of eggs produced by a plaice and its 
size or age, whether if the number of eggs varied, it depended on the size 
or on the age of the fish or on both. In describing his method of enume- 
rating the eggs to be shed in the following spawning season, Reibisch 
shows that he was not acquainted with my own paper on the develop- 
ment of the ovarian egg in Teleostei in general and Pleuronectidje in 
particular published in the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science in 
1SJ<. J^or he explains the opacity of the larger eggs in the ovary in 
August as due to oil-drops -"durch die Aufnahme einer grossen Zahl 
kleiner fett tropfchen zu erkliiren"— whereas I have shown that in 
Pleuronedes ova there are no oil-drops, but only yolk granules, while in 
the developing eggs of sole, mackerel, &c., both yolk granules and oil- 
drops are present and are easily distinguished from one another. 

Reibisch found great variations in the number of ripenin" eo-gs in 
plaice, and these numbers could not be brought into correspondence" with 
either the weight or the length of the fish. He then found that the 
various numbers formed three principal groups, between which few or no 
numbers were found : thus there were large numbers of fish with eees 
from 50,000 to 170,000, or from 220,000 to 270,000, but scarcelv any 
hsh whose number of eggs lay between 1 70,000 and 220,000. It seemed 
therefore probable that the groups of numbers corresponded to different 
ages, and Reibisch sought for a method of ascertaining the age of the fish 

He rejects entirely the markings of the scales as indications of the aoe 
in the plaice, stating that the lamination of the scale can be used for the 
purpose in view in the carp, but that this is impossible in the case of the 
plaice. The reasons he gives are that the presence of an annual lami- 
nation (Jahresschichtung) is scarcely to be demonstrated in the simple 
cycloid scales of the plaice, and further, that in almost all regions of the 
latter there occurs a transformation of the cycloid to the ctenoid form 
hut he seems to have misunderstood Iloffbauer's work on the carp for 
that author deduces the age, not from the lamelL-e, if such exist, but from 
the varying distance between the concentric lines of the scale, and these 
also occur in the scales of plaice. I have shown by my observations, 
described below, that the distinction of the growth of successive years in 
the scales of the plaice, from the different intervals between the concentric 
lines IS not impossible. The remarks of Reibisch concerning the 
transformation of the scales into the ctenoid form in the plaice refers 
to the Baltic variety on which he worked, in which spinules on the scales 
are strongly developed, especially in adult males. But this does not affect 
the anterior embedded part of the scale, and I have not noticed spinules 
on the scales I have e.xamined. The spinules are developed in adult males 
m the North Sea, but they are usually confined to limited portions of the 



126 Part III. — Tiventy-thinl Annual Report 

skin, and I have not met with spinulated scales hitherto among those I 
have examined for indications of age. 

Eeibisch therefore turned his attention, at Hensen's suggestion, to the 
otoliths. He describes the appearance of these structures as seen by 
transmitted light. He states that the first year's deposit consists of a 
very dark, i.e. opaque, nucleus or kernel; this is surrounded by a narrow 
transparent ring, then follows a broad dark zone, which is again sur- 
rounded by a light /.one, and this again is bounded by a dark contour. 
He states tliat the nucleus and the first clear ring with part of the dark 
zone are formed during pelagic life, the outer clear zone during the 
sojourn in shallow water near the coast, while the dark contour is formed 
only when the fish has migrated into deeper water, about January or 
February. It will be seen that my results agree closely with those of 
Eeibisch, except in the last point, for I have not noticed that the dark 
zone of the second year had begun to appear in specimens collected in 
March and April, and it seems to me that it is formed in summer, 
Reibisch figures the otolith of a specimen ll'Scm. long taken at the end 
of February, in which he believes the deposit of the second year had 
begun and was visible at the anterior and lower side of the otolith. He 
figures also an otolith from a specimen 16"5cm. long taken at the end of 
February which similarly shows the beginning of the third year's deposit, 
and another from a specimen 23"ycm. which shows three complete years 
and the beginning of the fourth. This specimen was a ripe male taken 
on the 9th March, and the deposit of the fourth year in the figure is 
almost as wide in some parts as that of the third. It seems tome difiicult 
to believe that this could have been formed in a few weeks, and more 
probable that it represents the whole deposit of the previous year, so that 
the specimen was four years old. It is in cases of this kind that the 
difficulties of the method arise, and they can only be settled by ascertain- 
ing with certainty at what time of the year the boundary line between the 
annual zones is formed. Reibisch assumes that the new opaque deposit 
begins in January or February, while my own opinion at present is that 
it does not commence till much later. 

Reibisch concludes from his investigations that sexual maturity occurs 
always at the end of the third year, and that the reason why the fish are 
so different in size and weight at this period of life is that they were 
hatched at different periods of the same season. In my experiments on 
the rearing of flounders in captivity at Plymouth I also found that the 
majority began to spawn at the end of their third year, but a few were 
ripe at two years of age. 

Reibisch concludes that the darker layers in the deposit of one year 
in the otolith corresponds to the lower temperature of the water in which 
the plaice lives, and the more transparent layers to the warmer tempera- 
ture. He also states that the excretion of carbonate of lime is weaker in 
the first half of the year, when the temperature is low. According to his 
reasoning therefore, the more opaque layers are those in which the 
proportion of carbonate of lime is least, and these are formed at the time 
when the lower temperature of the surface penetrates to the deeper water, 
which is usually from January to March. The annual period indicated 
by a complete zone in the otolith would, on this view, coincide with the 
calendar year and commence in January. 

My conclusions, from my own observations so far as they have gone, 
are not in harmony with those of Reibisch on the above points. In the 
first place, it seems to me probable that the opacity would increase, not 
diminish, in proportion to the amount of carbonate of lime present : this 
is certainly the case in bone and calcified cartilage, and it is also the case 
in the scales, where the radiating and concentric lines hefween the sclerites 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 127 

are very transparent. Secondly, I liave not found that the external layers.. 
in the otoliths of plaice killed between November and April were dark •, 
opaque layers, but, on the contrary, in otoliths at this period the peri- ^ 
pheral layers were of the more transparent kind. Thirdly, the conclusions 
of Keibisch seem to me to be in contradiction to the facts concerning the 
first or central region of the otolith, and Reibisch excludes the deposit 
of the first year from consideration on the ground that during this year 
the young fish are exposed to very varying conditions of whose influence 
on the organism we know next to nothing. I fail to see the force of this 
remark ; it seems to me we have as much ground for reasoning about the 
first year as about any other. Now, though the eggs are produced early in 
the year, when the water is cold, the young plaice do not complete their 
metamorjjhosis until May or June. The first specimens which I received 
this year from Dr. Fulton were caught at four to eight fathoms on May 10. 
In these the only part of the otolith formed was the central kernel, and 
apparently not the whole of that. Therefore, it is evident that the opaque \ 
portion of the first year's zone, outside the nucleus, is formed in summer, not"^ 
in winter, in warm water, not in cold ; and the condition of the otolith 
with only the first year's zone, from fish caught in February or March, 
equally proves that the more transparent zone is formed in winter, not 
in summer. 

This interpretation might seriously afi'ect the conclusions of Reibisch 
concerning the age of the fish which he examined, as it seems probable 
that he has interpreted, in some cases, as the commencement of the fourth 
year's deposit, a zone which in reality represents a whole year of age. 
Thus fish which he has taken to be three years old might in reality have 
lived four years. 

Jenkins investigated the determination of age from the otoliths in 
herring and other Clupeidie. He finds that in the herring there are 
layers in the otolith as in the plaice, but with some difierences. The 
central nucleus is always transparent, not opaque ; the opaque zones are 
much broader in proportion than in the plaice, and separated by very 
narrow transparent zones, which, according to Jenkins, are formed at the 
beginning of the new year. It would seem more probable that, as in the 
plaice, these form the end of the year's deposit. Jenkins' paper is illus- 
trated by photographs of the object, in which the different zones are not 
always very distinct. The structure could, I believe, have been shown 
more satisfactorily by drawings. Jenkins finds that the herring of the 
Western Baltic have the following lengths at successive years of age : — 

1st year, 11-3-12-lcm. 

2nd „ 15-6-16-4cm. 

3rd ,, 19-0-1 9 -Scm. 

4th „ 21-7-22-5cm. 

5th „ 23-7-24-5cm. 

Jenkins rejects the conclusion held by nearly all naturalists who have 
investigated the herring, that two season-races can be distinguished, on 
the ground that ripe or nearly ripe or spent herrings can be found in 
the Western Baltic at all times of the year. 

He has misunderstood a statement which he quotes from myself, that 
two spawning periods have undoubtedly been observed in the same 
neighbourhood, stating that it is in contradiction to Heincke's assertion 
that herring spawn is never found twice in the year on the same spot. 
There is really no contradiction. Anyone acquainted with the subject 
knows that spring or winter spawning herring and summer or autumn 
spawning herring are captured by fishermen in large numbers in the same 



128 Tart III. — Timnty-third Annual Report 

district, for instance, in the Western Baltic, where Jenkins studied, 
but I have never stated that they use the same spawning grounds. 

Jenkins finds that the herring becomes sexually mature in its third 
year. 

2. General Description of Lines op Growth. 

One of the chief objects of my observations was to test the question 
how far the lines of growth in the skeletal structures of fishes were trust- 
worthy indications of age, whether the annual increments of growth or 
deposit could be definitely distinguished and counted in all cases. The 
most direct and satisfactory basis for the assumption thai, the age of 
individual fishes can be ascertained by inspection of lines of growth in 
certain structures would be an extensive study of such lines in fish whose 
age was known by direct evidence, but hitherto such study has not been 
possible to any great extent. All I have been able to do is to ascertain 
the age of specimens of different sizes as indicated by the lines and zones 
of growth, and to compare the conclusions so reached with those to be 
derived from other sources, such as the season in which the specimens 
were collectetl, their size, and the evidence available concerning the 
rate of growth from experiments with fish reared in captivity. 

Another object which was in view in the investigation was that of 
discovering, as far as possible, the mode in which the lines of growth were 
produced, what differences of structure caused the lines, and what was 
the relation between the seasonal changes in external conditions and the 
processes of growth taking place in the structures concerned. 

In the plaice successive more or less parallel lines and zones are visible 
in the otoliths, iu the scales, in the coracoid element of the pectoral 
girdle, which consists of calcified cartilage, and the surfaces of the verte- 
bral centra bounding the conical depressions in their anterior and posterior 
faces. 

The otoliths consist of a number of thin layers deposited one over the 
other around a common centre. The structure may be described as a 
concentric stratification, and, apparently, when once deposited a layer 
undergoes no subsequent change. The otoliths are thin and flat, but 
one surface is more convex than the other, and this more convex surface 
is in the natural position within the ear-capsule directed inwards and 
the flat surface outwards. I find the most convenient way to extract the 
otoliths is to split the skull with a knife from behind forwards, the 
ear-capsules being then exposed, as they are not separated from the 
cranial cavity by bone. The otoliths have a longer and a shorter 
diameter, and along the direction of the longer diameter there is a groove 
on the central part of the convex side. They appear to be formed as 
concretions excreted by the epithelium lining the sacculus of the 
auditory vesicle. 

Examined in water when freshly removed from the skull of the fish, 
the otolith exhibits both concentric and radiating lines, so that its 
structure resembles that of a scale, but the mode of formation is different, 
the otolith being formed externally to the epithelium of the auditory 
sac, which is derived originally from the epidermis (epiblast), while the 
scale is formed within tlie derma (mesoblast). At first sight it might be 
supposed that the successive deposits were formed only at the edge of the 
otolith, but by examining a transverse slice of the object cut roughly 
with a knife, it is seen that each successive layer extends over the whole 
surface, but is exceedingly thin on the two flat surfaces and thicker at 
the edge. The structure is such as would be produced if a sphere com 
posed of concentric uniform layers of plastic material were very much 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 129 

compressed so as to form a flat disc. The thin layers on the two faces 
being transhiccnt, the surfaces of contact between successive layers are 
seen as lines approximately parallel to the outer edge. The layers are 
thin and very numerous, but they are grouped into broader zones by 
differences of ojjacity. Each zone is usually distinctly deflned from that 
which succeeds it externally, the line of division being due to a sudden 
increase in opacity in the laj-ers which form the coniniencement of the 
next zone. By transmitted light the more opaque layers appear dark, 
and rhe more transparent layers light. All my figures show the appear- 
ance of the otoliths by transmitted light, the otoliths being examined in 
water as transparent objects. When the light is shut off from below and 
the object seen by reflected light, the appearances are reversed, the opaque 
regions appearing white and the transparent dark. My observations 
agree closely with Heincke's description of the structure as seen by reflected 
light, but I find that examination by transmitted light shows the structure 
more distinctly. The central area or first zone shows minor subdivisions, 
but the limits of these are not so distinct as the more external boundaries, 
and the whole of this central area appears to be formed in the first year 
of life. It consists of a central very opaque nucleus, followed sometimes 
first by a transparent zone, then one more opaque, and then a broader 
more transparent. But these minor zones are not always distinct, 
while the limit of the whole central area is usually quite definite. 

The radiating lines are due to narrow grooves on the surface termina- 
ting in notches on the edge, and seem to be formed by folds in the 
membrane of tlie auditory vesicle containing the otolith. 

The scales of the plaice, like those of the cod, exhibit a number of 
concentric lines formed by ridges on the outer surface of the scale, but 
these ridges are very much finer, closer together, and less regular than 
in the scales of Gadidse. In the anterior embedded portion of the scale 
the ridges are divided up into short bars by radiatijig bands which appear 
transparent by transmitted light, but in the posterior more superficial 
part of the scale these radiating lines are absent, and the ridges appear as 
continuous wavy lines. Separate sclerites cannot be distinguished as in 
the cod, although doubtless the ridges and the radiating lines in the one 
case correspond to those in the other. Successive zones can usually be 
distinguished in consequence of the fact that the lines or ridges are closer 
together in certain zones than in others. A complete zone may be con- 
sidered to be the result of one year's growth. The summer's growth com- 
mences with lines or ridges which are rather far apart, and after a certain 
distance the lines become more closely crowded ; then the next summer's 
growth is indicated again by lines farther apart (fig. 10, pi. viii.) The 
transition from the crowded lines to those further apart on the outside is 
somewhat sudden, so that the commencement of the new summer's 
growth is often fairly distinct. But in most cases the zones are somewhat 
difficult to distinguish, and it would be by no means easy to form a con- 
fident judgment of the age of the fish by examination of the scales alone. 
The conclusion drawn from the scales must be confirmed or tested by 
examination of the otolith. 

I have not found any sufficiently distinct lines of growth in the oper- 
cular bones, as Heincke states, but tuch lines are visible in the elements 
of the pectoral girdle and in the concave faces of the vertebrae. In neither 
case, however, are such good indications given as in the otolith. I have 
represented the appearance of a vertebra and of the pectoral elements in figs. 
13, 14, pi. viii. The pectoral girdle of the plaice consists of a somewhat thick 
ossified cleithrum, thicker and less expanded ventrally than that of the cod, 
and a scapula and coracoid consisting chiefly of calcified cartilage. The 
coracoid comprises two parts, a thin ossified ventral portion bordered by a 



130 Part III. — Tv r III ij- third Annual Eeport 

slender curved rod of bone, and a aoniewhat quadrate dorsal portion of 
calcified cartilage. The centre of growth is at the junction of the bony rod 
with the cartilaginous plate, and at intervals there are lines parallel to one 
another where calcification is more complete, and the cartilage conse- 
quently more opaque. The scapula shows similar lines, and they are 
parallel to the edges where the two elements meet. The basal elements 
with which the fin rays articulate are represented by a small plate of 
cartilage with three or four minute points of ossification. 

The faces of the vertebr?e show by reflected light opaque white bands 
separated by darker, more transparent lines, and these are probably 
annual increments of growth, but it is difficult to be sure of counting the 
complete number, as the more central ones seem always doubtful and 
indistinct. 

In the cod the scales (fig. 15) exhibit concentric and radiating lines 
as in the plaice, but the radiating lines occur all round the scale, and 
the concentric lines are much more distinct and farther apart. Careful 
examination shows that the two systems of lines are due to the fact that 
the outer surface of the scale is made up of rings of separate elements, 
which may be conveniently termed sclerites. Each sclerite consists of a 
flat base with a projecting ridge, the ridges being placed in line with 
those of the neighbouring sclerites of the same ring. The ridge is 
situated near the outer border of the sclerite, and the edge of it is turned 
towards the hilum or focus of the scale, so that there is a depression or 
concavity on the inner side of the ridge. These sclerites are evidently the 
structures described by INIarett Tims as scalelets in the passages quoted 
from his paper by J. Stuart Thompson {Jour. Mar. Biol. Asm., No. 1, 
1904). He states, however, that each scalelet consists of a basal plate 
with a minute spine projecting from its upper surface, a description which 
he has apparently taken from the appearance presented in transverse 
section, whereas the apparent spine is merely the section of a longitudinal 
ridge on the sclerite, as I have stated. The ridges on the sclerites are also 
identical with the rolls or cylinders which cover the surface of the scale, 
according to Ussow's description. 

According to Marett Tims, the scalelets are covered with a delicate 
epidermis. In my sections I find cell-nuclei both on the upper and lower 
surface of the scale, and have no doubt that the scale is covered with cells, 
to whose activity its formation is due. These cells or their nuclei are 
particularly evident at the edges of the scale, where it increases 
i)i extent, and where the new sclerites are successively formed. Nuclei 
can also be seen in the concavity on the inner side of the ridge of 
the sclerite, which agrees with Klaatsch's statement " that the cells 
arrange themselves on the surface of the scale in curved rows, and form 
always in front of themselves the substance out of which the rolls are 
made." I find, however, that the new sclerites are formed only at the edge, 
and that the above description of the cells and " rolls" or ridges applies 
only to the upper surface of the scale. Fig. 17, pi. ix., shows the appear- 
ance of a transverse section of the skin of a cod under a low power. The 
epidermis is of considerable thickness, and consists of small cells whose 
boundaries are not distinct in the preparation, but whose nuclei are seen 
as dots. The lowest layer of nuclei are somewhat elongated in a direction 
vertical to the lower surface of the epidermis. Beneath this lower layer 
are seen large oval masses of black pigment, the sections of the chromo- 
blasts. In the middle region of the epidermis are a number of rounded 
cavities. The specimen from which the preparation was made was pre- 
served with formaline, and I am unable to state whether these cavities 
exist in the living skin or are the result of the action of the formaline. At 
the surface of the epidermis are seen two minute somewhat fusiform 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. lol 

bodies composed of elongated cells : these are sense-organs, which in the 
cod are freely distributed over the surface of the skin, in addition to the 
special organs of the lateral line. The derma below the epidermis 
consists of fine fibres having a horizontal direction, with numerous nuclei, 
and in this occur the scale-pockets containing sections of the scales. Of 
these, three layers at three different levels are seen in most sections, in 
consequence of the fact that the scales are imbricated, and overlap one 
another, so that portions of three different rows of scales are cut by one 
section vertical to the surface. The relations of the sclerites to the lower 
homogeneous portion of the scale are shown in the figure, but the cellular 
investment of the scale is not represented, as it is not sufficiently distinct 
under a low power. 

The ridges on the scales are seen to be farther apart in some regions, 
more closely crowded in others, so that zones may be distinguished. In 
other words, the sclerites formed at some periods of the growth of the 
scale are narrower than at others, so that their ridges are closer together. 
There is good reason for believing that the narrower sclerites are formed 
in winter, when the temperature is low. In the cod I find that the end 
of a year's growth is usually indicated by one or two markedly narrow 
rings, while the gradual narrowing of the scleritet; as this boundary is 
approached, though it can be made out, is not at first obvious. In these 
points my observations agree generally with the descriptions and cenclu- 
sions of Mr. J. Stuart Thompson, who, however, though he studied 
several species of Gadidje, did not investigate the cod. In larger and 
older specimens several annual zones can be distinguished, each termi- 
nated by a winter zone, between which and the summer growth there is 
often a distinct contrast. The distinction however, is not so obvious as 
in the earlier or inner zones, and it would be very difficult, from the scales 
alone, to form a decided conclusion as to the age of a cod. 

Dr. Heincke has pointed out, in his paper in the Report of the Inter- 
national Investigations, shortly to be published, that lines of growth are 
more or less distinctly visible in various bones of fishes, while the lines 
and zones of the otolith have previously been investigated in the plaice 
and herring. In the cod I have examined the bones of the pectoral 
girdle, of the operculum, of the skull, and of the vertebral column. 

The pectoral girdle difiers from that of the plaice in several particulars. 
-The cleithrum (the large superficial bone behind the branchial cavity, 
formerly known as clavicle) is thinner, and only the scapula is directly 
attached to the posterior and inner aspect of the cleithrum. There is a 
long and strong post clavicle. The cleithrum is ossified, but the scapula 
and coracoid consist of calcified cartilage. There is no scapular foramen. 
There are four distinct and partially ossified fin-supports, instead of one 
cartilage, as in the plaice. The form of the parts is shown in fig. 20, pi. ix. 
I could not satisfactorily make out annual zones in any of these structures. 
On the thin transparent part of the cleithrum there are sometimes visible 
some lines parallel to the edge, but they are very indistinct. Also in the 
coracoid there are slightly opaque lines parallel to the edge, but still less 
distinct, and no definite conclusions as to the age of tbe fish can be drawn 
from them. I am unable, therefore, to agree with Heincke, who states 
that the age of cod can be determined from the coracoid and scapula. 

I have found the bones of the operculum and skull equally unsuitable 
for the purpose here in view. In the vertebral column of a specimen of 
some size, parallel lines are distinctly visible in almost every part and on 
every process, including the walls of the anterior and posterior cavities, 
the neural spines, and the transverse processes, but I have found it 
impossible to use them as satisfactory indications of age. On the walls 
of the conical hollows of the centra numerous concentric lines appear, 



132 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

lines of greater opacity appearing white by retlected light, aud tliese lines 
are arranged iu bands separated from each other by bands of darker, 
more transparent bone. Each of these bands may indicate a year's 
growth, being the summer growth separated from that of the next 
summer by a baud where there is less calcareous matter. But it is 
difficult to decide exactly how many such annual zones are present. 
Even when one or two of the outer zones seem distinct, the number of 
the central earlier zones cannot be distinguished with certainty. One 
may count three at one time, and at the next attempt there seem to be 
four or five, and the total number always remains doubtful and uncertain. 

The otolith in cod and other Gadida? is large and opaque, and by 
examining it as a whole nothing can be ascertained of its internal 
structure. It is therefore, according to Heincke, useless for the purpose 
of determination of the age of the fish. I have found, however, that the 
successive laminpe of which it is composed can be seen quite distinctly 
in transverse slices simply cut from the central region of the otolith with 
a scalpel. Such slices are, of course, rather thick, and their surfaces are 
rough and irregular. Nevertheless, when they are placed in water in a 
watch-glass and examined with a low-power objective, they are sufficiently 
transparent to show the successive laminae of which the otolith is 
composed, and the laminae in certain zones being much more opaque than 
in the zones between these, the whole section is distinctly divided into 
regions which I believe to indicate the annual increments, and which, 
therefore, show the age of the fish. 

The otolith {i.e. the sagitta or largest otolith) of the cod is somewhat 
elliptical in outline, with rather pointed ends, and two surfaces, one 
convex and rather smooth, the other concave and more irregular. The 
convex surface is turned inwards, i.e. towards the brain, and somewhat 
downwards, the concave outwards and upwards. The convex surface is 
marked by a shallow longitudinal groove, into which fits the ridge of 
sensory epithelium, called the macula acustica of the sacculus. The edge 
of the otolith is divided by radial grooves into lobes which are chiefly de- 
veloped on the concave surface, and the central part of the concave surface 
projects slightly as a convexity. Fig. 16, pi. viii., shows the appearance 
by transmitted light of a transverse slice as above described. There is a 
central opaque nucleus surrounded by successive laminae which are thicker 
in the parts corresponding to the edges of the otolith than in those 
eorresponding to the sui faces. The nucleus is nearer to the convex 
surface than to the concave. The nucleus is surrounded by a number of 
opaque lamina^, and these are succeeded by a number of more transparent 
ones. Then comes another zone of opaque laminae, while the most external 
are again more transparent. According to my interpretation, the opaque 
zone represents the deposit of one summer, the transparent that of one 
winter, so that the two zones together represent the result of one year'.s 
growth and indicate one year of age. The fish from which the otolith 
figured was taken was therefore two years old. 

For practical purposes, to determine the age of a number of specimens 
quickly, I find the best method is to examine a few scales in Avater, 
noting the number of winter zones, and the age apparently indicated, 
and then to extract an otolith by splitting the skull in the median 
plane, and to cut a transverse slice of the otolith in the manner described 
above. In this way the conclusions drawn from the scales can be tested 
and confirmed or modified. It may be asked why I have not prepared 
thinner and more perfect transverse sections of the otolith by grinding 
down thick slices. I have tried this method in the plaice, and not found 
it very successful. The piece to be ground down, after one surface has 
been ground smooth, must be fixed on a glass slide with Canada balsam in 



of the Fishery Board for tScutland. 13o 

order to grind the other suriace. After the operation the section is 
opaque from the scratching of the surface, and if it is clarified aud 
mounted in balsam it becomes too transparent, so that the contrast 
between the opaque and transparent zones is largely lost. I have not yet 
tried the method for transverse sections of the cod's otolith, but doubt 
if it would be suitable, and in any case the time required makes it useless 
for practical purposes. 

The following are the details of my observations on specimens of 
Plaice, Cod, and other species : — 

Young Plaice and Dabs collected by Shrimp-net in Aberdeen 
Bay in May 1904. 

The plaice in this sample ranged from 5"5 to 8"7cm. in length, 
aud there were very few of them. Unfortunately, they were pre- 
served in formaline, and when I came to examine them I found that 
the action of this reagent had altered the otoliths .so that the lines of 
growth could not be distinctly seen. Formaline has a decalcifying 
action, and although in these specimens the otoliths were not destroyed, 
they were rendered quite opaque and granular, so that the usual structure 
was scarcely visible. It seemed probable, however, that they had the 
characters of the central deposit of the first year, without any .sharp 
dividing lines separating distinct zones. In this case there can be little 
doubt that the fish were one year old, as the new brood of the current 
year are still, in May, in the pelagic stage, and it is unlikely that fish so 
small should be more than one year old. 

The scales are apparently not aftected by the formaline as the otoliths 
are; that is to say the characteristic concentric lines are quite distinct. 
The posterior or embedded part of the scale consists of five radiating 
rows of short curved lines, not regularly parallel but irregular, separated 
by plain bands, while the anterior part of the scale is marked by con- 
tinuous successive lines approximately parallel to the edge of the scale 
(fig. 1). There is no division of these series of lines into zones, and 
the whole may be regarded as the growth of one year. 

Young Plaice prom Solway Firth, collected about April 17, 1905. 

The results of examination of the otoliths in these specimens are as 
follows, males and females being given separately : — 

MALES, IMMATURE. 

(i) B'licm. in length. — Only one central area visible. It contains a 
central opaque nucleus, the part around which is slightly more opaque 
than the external zone. Concentric lines of lamination faint (fig. 4). 

(2) 6-9cm. in length. — Only one central area. 

{3) 7 •1cm. in length. — Only central area, concentric lines of lamina- 
tion around the opaque nucleus. 

{-!/) 7 '1cm. in length. — Central area only as in other cases, but near the 
outer edge a distinct transparent band with an opaque band outside it at 
the extreme edge. This might possibly be the commencement of the 
second year's deposit. 

{5) 9 '8cm. — Only one zone. 

(6') 9'9cm. — Two zones. 

(7) lO'dc.m. in length. — Two distinct zones, that is to sa}'' a distinct 
zone outside the central area. The central area is ■95mm. in the shorter 
diameter, the total transverse diameter of the otolith being l"92mm. 



134 Part III. — Tivenli/ -third Annual Report 

(S) 10\Scm. — Two zones quite distinct. 
(.9) IS' Jon. — Shows three zones. 

FEMALES, IMMATURE. 

(i) S'9cm. in letiyfh. — Only central area present. 

{2) 9-2cm. in length. — Otolith shows two distinct zones, the external 
one being defined by a sharp boundary line, and commencing with 
several lamina? of very opaque deposit (fig. 8, pi. vii.), 

{3) lO'dcuK in length. — Two zones visible, the central area small and 
not quite so sharply defined as usual — 12-Ocm. 

{J/) 15:5cm. in length. — Two zones rather less distinct than usual, 
central area showing distinct lamination. 

{5) 15'9cm. — Shows three distinct zones. 

According to these results, therefore, males from 6-6cm. to 9"8cni. in 
length are one year old, and at lO'Scm.. or 4i inches, are two years old. 
Females may be one year old up to S-9cm., or very nearly 4 inches, 
while others from 9"2cm. to 15'5cm., or 4 to 6 inches, are tAvo years 
old, and one of 15- 9cm., or about 6? inches, is three years old. 

According to Heincke, in the Report of the International Committee, 
vol, iii., the plaice at the Sylt are from 10cm. or less to 14cm. at one 
year of age, lOcra. to 19cm. at two years, and 13cm. to 28cm. at three 
years. These sizes are taken from specimens collected in March, and 
therefore comparable with those from the Solway Firth examined by me. 
The results therefore agree, but Heincke's observations have the defect 
that males and females are not distinguished in them. 

Specimens of Plaice received from Aberdeen on May 8, 1905, 

AND caught a few DAYS BEFORE. 

These specimens, of which 14 were carefully examined, ranged in length 
from 4'8cm. to 11 •4cm., and only one Avas identified as a female. The 
others were either male or their sex could not be determined. They must 
be considered as belonging to last year's brood, as the young plaice of 
the current year have but just completed their metamorphosis. 

(i) .(/.'Scm. long. — Sex not determined. One zone only in otolith, 
transparent ring next to the nucleus not seen. One year old. 

(;,-') 4' San. long. — Sex not determined. One zone only in otolith ; but 
there was a narrow, more transparent zone next to the nucleus, as in 
Reibisch's description of the first year's growth. One year old, 

{3) 5c.m. long. — Apparently male. One annual zone only in otolith, a 
broad region of somew^hat opaque layers round the central nucleus, more 
transparent narrower zone at outer edge, that is the transparent region 
next to the nucleus as described by Reibisch, was not visible. Con- 
centric single layers distinct in the middle zone. 

{4) 6-7cm., probably male. — One zone in otolith. 

(J) 5-7'cm., probably male. — One zone in otolith. 

(6') 6-7 an., female. — One zone only. 

(7) 7'3cni., probably male. — One zone only. 

(S-IO). — Three specimens, 8'5cm. long, apparently male, all showing 
one zone only. 

(11) 9-6cm.,male. — One zone only. 

(12) 9'8an., male. — One zone only. 
(IS) lOScm., male. — One zone only. 
{14) 11-JfCm, male, — One zone only. 



of the iishcrij Board, for Scotlanrl. lo5 

Plaice ubceived from Aberdeen, April 1, 1905, and collected 
just before that date. 

MALE. 

(i) lo'lcm., immature. — Otolith shows two zones, the third of the 
current year may have begun, but shows no distinct contrast with the 
second zone. The scales also show two zones, but not so easily dis- 
tinguished. 

FEMALES. 

(1) 12cm. long, immature. — Only one zone, or central area ; fish, 
therefore, one year old (tig. 9, pi. vii.). 

(~) 14cm., immature. — Otolith shows only one undivided area, may be 
considered one year old. Scales also show no division into zones. 

{3) locm., immature. — Two distinct zones in otolith, outer zone 
sharply defined from central region, indicating two years' growth. 

{Jf) 15cm., immature. — Two distinct zones in otolith ; the central 
region is much smaller than the whole otolith of (2), and does not show 
distinct lamination as that does. The calcified cartilage of the coracoid 
also shows two zones, but the boundary line is rather faint. 

(•5) 16'7cm., im.mature. — Otolith with central region and one outer zone 
separated by distinct boundary line. On the outer border there are a feAv 
opaque layers, which may be the commencement of this year's deposit, 
but they are not defined by a distinct boundary from the second zone. 

(6') 20'7cm., immature. — Otolith shows yb?/r distinct zones. It seems 
difficult to believe that this fish, not quite 8^ inches long, and quite 
immature, should be really four years old, in which case it would be 
at least five years of age before it spawned for the first time. 

(7) Plaice, 22-9cm., immature. — Only one distinct boundary, with very 
dark and opaque layers outside it. Several fainter lines in the central 
area, but these I regard as all occurring in the first year's growth. 

With the exception of {1), (2), and (6), therefore, all these specimens 
were two years old and at the commencement of their third year. 

Larger Plaice, caught 21 miles S.S.E. of Aberdeen, about 
March 8, 1905. 

male, 

(1) 26-?cm., immature. — Testes a mere narrow band along the anterior 
interspinous bone at posterior border of body cavity. Otolith shows 
three complete zones, with no distinct indication of the beginning of the 
fourth. ^lay be taken to be three years old. 



* {1) 20cm. long, iunnafure. — Five distinct zones in otolith. It Avould 
appear, therefore, that this tish would be at the end of its sixth year when 
it began to spawn. 

{2) oJf'7cm., immature. — Ovary very small, without yolked eggs. Four 
complete zones in otolith, last one scarcely as wide as the others, but still 
too wide to be considered the deposit of the season now commencing. 

{3) 37'5cm., immature. — Otolith shows five distinct zones, including, 
of course, the central area. The fish, therefore, five years old. The fifth 
zone is not quite so wide as the fourth. In the scales also five zones can 
be distinguished, but not so certainly or clearly as in the otoliths. 



130 Part III. — T I rent II -third Annual Bcport 

In the coracoid four complete zones are visible, and an outer fifth, 
which is narrower. In the sub- and inter operculum I can make out 
no distinct zones or boundary lines. 

(.^) nOcm. (iihout 1 ft. 8 in.) vulture, irilh ripe orarie.<. — In the 
right otolith six complete zones visible and a peripheral seventh. I was 
in some doubt whether this last was the seventh annual growth in pro- 
gress, or whether it was really complete in the preceding winter and the 
eighth about to commence. The latter view seems more probable, so 
that this fish is seven years old. As it is far beyond the limit of size 
for immature plaice, it may have spawned either once or several times 
previously. 

The zones in the scales were ratiier difficult to distinguish, but tliere 
Avere apparently seven, including the central region and the extreme 
external zone. In the coracoid also there were visible six complete zones 
and a seventh at the periphery. The latter was narrower than the 
others, and opaque, like the commencement of a year's growth. At present 
I do not know Avhen the new growth commences, but in examining other 
specimens subsequently I have assumed that the outermost zone in 
specimens collected in March and April represents the last complete 
year, aud not the commencement of the new annual growth. 



Heads and Pectoral Regions op Plaice sent from Aberdeen, 16th 
December 1901: Sex not stated. 

(1) 36''^r)iK {10k inches actual measure) iient). — Otolith shows three 
zones, that is to say central area, complete second zone, and external 
zone. The fish is therefore in its third year ; the third year would be 
completed some time in the commencement of next year. 

(;?) SI- 2cm. {12h inches actual measurement). — Otolitli shows same 
condition, indicating that the fish is in its third yeai-. If I understand 
him aright, this would be placed by Heincke in the second group, plaice 
which have lived two complete years and are in their third. In this 
case, the fish is larger than the maximum for this age of plaice on the 
Sylt grounds off the German coast (fig. 12). 

(3) 35cm. {H inches actual measurement). — Otolith shows four com- 
plete zones, and a fifth at the margin. Same number could be made out 
in the scales, in the coracoid, and in the conical hollow on the faces of the 
vertebrae (pi. viii., tig. 11 otolith, fig. 10 scale). 

{.'/) 37-5cm. (15 inches actual measurement). — The otolith shows 
seven zones, including both the central area and peripheral zone. Accord- 
ing to this, the fish was in its seventh year (pi. vii., fig. 5). The first three 
zones are strongly separated, but the fourth and sixth boundary lines were 
much less distinct, and it seemed possible that they might be accidental 
and not annual lines. In this case, however, the fourth and fifth zones 
would be of disproportionate width, so that it seems more probable that 
the fish is really in its seventh year and not in its fifth. 

(5) Jf.6'8cm. (IS'^ inches actual measurement). — The otolith shows 
five zones, including the peripheral one. In this specimen I examined 
the hollow of the vertebral centra and the coracoid, and have figured 
them (fig. 14). In these also five zones can be distinguished, though the 
central area of the vertebral surface is scarcely visible, that is to say it is 
difficult to make out its boundary line. 

I also examined a large plaice 50 5cm. long, bought at a fishmonger's 
in London last autumn. The otolith showed six zones. The fish was a 
mature female, and was therefore in its sixth year. 



oj the Fishery Board for Scotland. 137 

Cod from Aberdeen, caught October 1900. 

Length of fish 8-6cm. (3f inches). Length of scale from side of body 
•94mm., breadth •46mm. Number of concentric lines on scale 10 or 11. 
No winter zone. Age six or seven months. 

Specimens of Cod from Aberdeen, caught November 10, 1904, 

Of the following four specimens only parts of the skin and pectoral 
girdle were examined, so that only the scales give indications of age. 

{1) Length of fish Jp'Ocm. {1 ft. Oi in), $, immaturp. — Length of 
scale 2'4mm. Two winter zones distinguished Within the first winter 
zone 9 or 10 rings, from first to second 19 or 20, outside tlie second 
6 or 7. Age inferred two years and about six months. The rings 
in this and other cases are counted on the posterior part of the scale, as 
they do not all seem to extend round the whole scale. 

(^2) Length of fish tj^cm. {I ft. .9f in.), S, immature. — Number of 
lines in first annual zone 9 or 10, in second 13, in third 10, beyond 9. 
Probable age three years six months. I was not quite certain in this 
case about the number of winter zones in the outer part of the scale ; the 
total number of complete annual zones may have been two or three, but 
three seemed more probable. 

(5) L^ength of fish O.tfCiii. {2 ft. I'iin.), $, immature. — First zone 10 lines, 
second 12 to 14 lines, third 12 lines, outside 8 or 9. Some doubt as in 
previous specimens. Age of fish three years six months, or possibly two 
years six months. 

(4) Length of fish 73cm. (2 ft. 5^ in.). — S with large testes but not 
ripe, probably mature. First zone 10 lines, second 12 to 15, third 12 to 
15, beyond 4 or 5. Probable age three years six months. 

Specimens of Cod caught at Aberdeen about March 9. 

(i) Length of fish 2Jf.-Scm. (10 in.). — Otolith shows two annual 
zones. Scale also shows two zones; number of rings in first 13 or 14. 
Age inferred two years. 

(2) Length offish oO'onn. (i2j^ in.). — Both scales and otolith indicate 
two annual zones. Inferred age two years. 

(o) Length of fish 30'7cm. {12\ in.). — In the scales a single winter 
boundary zone is quite evident. It is also evident that the ridges are 
close together at the edge of the scale, showing that the winter growth 
was nearly or quite finished when the fish was killed. Inferred age two 
years. A transverse section of the otolith also showed two annual zones 
(pi. viii., fig. 16). ^ 

{J/) Ljcngth of fish 33'5cm. {13t in.). — In scales one complete annual 
zone and another outside it. It seemed as if the two or three outermo&t 
rings belonged to the commencement of the new summer's growth, but I 
was not sure of this. Number of rings in first annual zone 14-15, in 
second 16, beyond 3. Transverse section of otolith also showed two 
complete annual zones. Both in scales and otoliths a slight interruption 
was visible in the first summer's growth, but this did not seem to be a 
definite winter zone. Such an interruption might occur probably enough 
occasionally from unfavourable conditions. Age inferred two years. 

The following specimens of cod were obtained at the same time, and 
the heads were sent to me, with labels indicating the size and condition 
of the fish : — 

{1) Length of fish 44' 3cm. {17 ^ in.), 1| Ujs. weight.— 2 with small 
ovary, probably immature. Otolith in transverse sectio shows three 
annual zones. Inferred age three years. 



138 Part III. — Tirentij-third Annual Report 

(2) Length of Jhh J^o'Scm. {18\ in.), 2\ lbs. weight. — Scales behind 
liead show two winter zones besides the external edge, in other words 
three annual zones. First zone 12 rings, second 17 to 19, third about 13. 
Otolith also shows three annual zones quite distinctly. Inferred age 
three years. 

(o) Length of fish. 07- 5cm. (3 ft. 3 in.), S^ lbs. weight. — (^ with 
small ovary, apparently imnaature. Scale from pectoral region shows 
three winter zones besides the outer edge, in other words four annual 
zones complete. The first zone contains 14 rings, the second 20, the 
third IG, the last only 7. It might be supposed that the last zone was 
only the commencement of the present season's growth, or, on the other 
hand, the fourth winter zone iniglit not be complete, as the water is still 
cold in March. I thought it most propable that the fish was four complete 
years old. In the transverse section of the otolith four complete zones 
were visible. In this specimen I examined the pectoral girdle and the 
concave faces of the vertebrae. In the coracoid I could with difficulty 
make out three boundary lines in addition to the outer edge, but they 
were very indistinct, and would be untrustworthy without the other 
indications. In the hollows of the vertebra? there were numerous con- 
centric lines, but the boundaries of annual zones were not distinct. 

According to these latter results, the cod at two years of age is 10 to 13 
or 14 inches in length, at three years 17 to 19 inches, at four years 27 
inches; but of course it would require the examination of a large number 
of specimens to ascertain the average and range of sizes at these ages. 

Specimens op Cod from Experiments described by Dr. Fulton in 
Twenty-second Report of the Board (for 1903). 

In the last Report Dr. Fulton, in his paper on " The Rate of Growth 
of Fishes," described certain experiments on the influence of temperature 
on the gi'owth of cod and other fishes, experiments which were carried 
out in tanks in the Board's Marine Laboratory at Aberdeen. Several of 
the specimens which formed the subjects of these experiments were sent 
to me by Dr. Fulton, and I have examined them with the following 
results. Some of the specimens were from Tank I., in which the water 
was of the natural temperature, not artificially heated. Dr. Fulton does 
not give any dates in connection with these experiments, but I presume 
that the codling were put into the tank in the autumn of 1903. They 
were then from 12cm. to 15cm. long, or six inches and less. It is not 
certain, but seems most probable, that they were then in their first year. 
They were killed on August 4, 1904, and then sent to me. 

(-?) Cod, Tanli I., 20-^cm. long. — The otolith in transverse section 
shows two annual zones, i.e. a central opaque region, then a zone of more 
transparent lamina^, then a- zone of opaque laminse again. The trans- 
parent zone corresponds to the previous winter, and the specimen supports 
the view that the opaque lamina? are deposited in summer, as they 
extended almost to the edge, showing that they were being formed when 
the fish was killed in August. The specimens were preserved in formaline, 
and the skull bones were rather soft, but the layers of the otolith were 
not obscured. In the scales also a winter zone was visible, the ninth to 
twelfth rings being narrower and closer together. 

{2) 2Ji,-8cm. — In this also I made out two annual zones in the otolith, 
though the winter zone was not quite so transparent. In the scales the 
winter zone included rings 15 to 21 and was quite distinct, beyond it 
were only seven or eight rings. 

These specimens, therefore, were in their second summer, according to 



of the Fishery Board jor Scotland. 139 

the structural indications, and this conclusion seems to he in accordance 
with the actual age. 

Whiting from Tank /., '24.'8cm. long. — Otolith shows one complete 
year and commencement of second, i.e. dark central region, then trans- 
parent zone, then dark external zone. The scales also show a distinct 
winter zone ; there are 14 summer lines, then 12 winter lines, ending in a 
very distinct boundary of one or two very narrow rings ; outside this 
boundary the new summer growth shows only seven or eight rings. 
Evidently the growth of the year is not very large even at the beginning 
of August. The.se whiting were llcra. to 20cm. long when put into the 
tank, and it might be thought that they must then have been in their 
second year, but the structural indications are that the fish were only in 
their second year when killed. 

Cod from Tanl- No. .^, length S6-6cm. ; killed November 5. 1904- — 
I only received one specimen from this tank, which was kept artificially 
warm during the winter 1903-04. This, however, had not prevented the 
appearance of the boundaries between the annual zones of growth, for the 
transverse slice of the otolith distinctly shuwed two annual zones, and 
showed also a transparent zone externally in addition to the layers seen in 
the specimen killed in August. The scales also showed one winter zone 
at rings 15 to 20, and outside this 19 rings. To anyone who refers to 
Dr. Fulton's paper this will not seem surprising, for his tables show 
that, in spite of the artificial increase of temperature in the tank 
in winter, the cod grew nearly twice as fast in the last 55 days of the 
experiment than in the first 100. The growth was therefore slower in 
the winter, and the reduction of growth is shown by the winter zone in 
otolith and scales. 



LITERATURE. 

Thomson, J. Stuart — "Periodic Gi-owth ot Scales in Gadid;e as an Index of 

Age." Jour. Mar. Biol. A.<-i., Vol. xii., No. 1, 1904. 
Reibisch, Johannes — "Ueber die Eizahl bei Pfeitrouecfes p/afey>Na und die 

Altersbestimniiing dieser Form aiis den Otolithen." WissejiHchaJtlidie Uiifer- 

siichiuigen Komm. rhutuch. Metre, Bd. iv., Abt. Kiel, 1900. 
Jenkins, J. T. — " Altersbestimmung durch Otolithen bei Clupeidcn." IJiid, Bd. 

vi., Abt. Kiel, 1902. 
Ftti.ton, T. W. — "The Rate of Growth of Fishes." Tirenty-Aecond Annual 

Report, Fishery Board for Scotland, Part III., 1904. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES. 



PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1. Scale ot Plaice, 8'7cni. long, caught near Aberdeen, May 1904. Zeiss 

ao Oc.3 camera. 
Fig. 2. Otolith of Plaice, 5 'Gem. long, hatched in the spring ot 190.S, reared in 

small tank, and killed Nov. 5, 1904. Zeiss a, Oc.2. 
Fig. 3. Scale of same specimen, actual length •29mm. Zeiss A Oc.3. 
Fig. 4. Otolith of Plaice, 6'6cm. long, J, from Solway Firth, caught April 1905. 
Fig. 5. Otolith of Plaice, 37"5cm. (15 inches) long. Zeiss a„ Oc.2. Shows 

seven zones, indicating apparently seven years of age. 
Fig. 6. Otolith of Plaice, 12-2cm. long, from Solway Firtli, caught April 1905. 

Zeiss a-. Oc.2 camera. Shows two annual zones. 
Fig. 7. Otolith of Plaice, 22-9cm. long, caught near Aberdeen, Api'il 1, 1905. 

Zeiss a,„ Oc.2 camera. 
Fig. 8. Otolith of Plaice, 9'2cm. long, $ immature, from Sohvay Firth, April 

1905, Zeiss a-. Oc.2 camera. 



140 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

Fig. 9. Otolith of Plaice, 12(;m. long, § immature, caught near Aberdeen, April 
1, 1905. Shows only one year's growth 

PLATE VIII. 

Fig. 10. Scale of Plaice, .Socm, long (14 inches), from Aberdeen. Zeiss A Oc.2. 

Shows five annual zones of growth. 
Fig. 11. Otolith of same specimen. Zeiss a.^ Oc.2. Shows also five zones of 

growth, with slight irregularity in fourth zone. 
Fig. 12. Otolith of Plaice, 31-2cm. long (12^ inches), from Aberdeen. Sliows 

three aimual zones. 
Fig. 13. One of the anterior vertebra of Plaice, 182 inches long, from Abeideen, 

showing the zones of growth in the concave face of the vertebra. 
Fig. 14. Coracoid and scapula of same specimen, showing five zones of growtii. 
Fig. 15. Scale of Cod from Dr. Fulton's experiments, killed August 1904, in its 

second 3'ear. Zeiss A Oc.2 camera. Shows two annual zones. 
Fif. 16. Cod, 30-7cm. long, caught near Aberdeen, March 1905. Transverse 

section of otolith, showing two annual zones of growth. 

PLATE IX. • 

Fig. 17. Transverse section of skin of Cod from Dr. Fulton's experiments. Pre- 
served with formaline. Zeiss A Oc.3. 

Fig. 18. Portion of same section under higher power, to show nuclei on upper 
and lower surfaces of scale, and at edge. 

Fig. 19. Surface view of scale of Wliiting under higher power, shf)wing nuclei 
on upper surface and their relation to the ridges of the sclerites. 

Fig. 20. Pectoral girdle of Cod. C/. = Cleithrum (clavicle). Co. = Coracoid. 
S. = Scapula. 



\ 



F. B. REPORT, 1906. 



PLATE VIII. 



i- \ 







F. B. REPORT, 1905. 



PLATE IX. 



17 



..^fn^tk. 












***:i 



- ■ - ^^i:^i.MgrJ^ 




of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 141 



VI.— ON SOME NEW AND RARE CRUSTACEA FROM THE 
SCOTTISH SEAS. 

By Thomas Scott, LL.D., F.L.S,, etc. 

(Plates X.-XIII.) 



Preliminary Note. 

The Crustacea mentioned in the foilovving notes were obtained for the 
most part in collections made during various Fishery investigations 
carried out under the direction of Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, Scientific 
Superintendent of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 

Several of the forms described appear to be new to science, others have 
not before been recorded from the Scottish seas, and one or two belong 
to a curious parasitic group of minute Copepoda found usually in the mar- 
supium of Crustacean species belonging to the Amphipoda, Sympoda, and 
others of the smaller Malacostraca. 

The following are the species described : — 

Pseudocyclopia giesbrechfi, Wolfenden — male described for the 

first time. 
Euryte lonr/icauda, Philippi, var. minor — new variety. 
Longipedia coronata, Claus — new to Scottish fauna. 
Stenhelia pygrrKea, Norman and Scott — new to Scottish fanna. 
Ameira elegcms, sp. n. 
LaopJionte longiremis, sp. n. 
Cletodes sarsi, sp. n. 
Dyspontius curticaudatus, sp. n. 
Spha'Tonella aone, sp. n. 

,, vararensis, sp. n. 

,, minuia. 

„ „ var. 

,, sp. from Ilemilami^rops rosea. 

Arcturella dilatata — now first recorded from the Forth estuary. 

Description op the Species. 

SUB-ORDER CALANOIDA. 

Fam. PsEUDOCYCLOPIIDjE. 

Genus Pseudocyclopia, T. Scott (1892). * 
Pseudocydopia Gieshrechti, Wolfenden. PI. x., figs. 1-9. 

1902. Pseudocydopia Gieshrediti, Wolfenden, Journ. Mar. Biol. 
Assoc, Plymouth, vol. vi., No. 3, January, 1902, p. 370, 
pi. iv. 

* The Tenth Annml Report of the Fisher;/ Board for Scotland, III., p. 246 (1892). 



142 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

The female of this species was described and figured by Dr. Wolfenden 
in the Journal of the Marine Biological Association for January, 1902, 
but the male appeared to be unknown. 

The male specimen (fig. 1), which I now propose to describe, agrees so 
closely with Dr. Wolfenden's definition and figures of the female that, 
after making allowance for sexual differences, I have no hesitation in 
ascribing it to the same species. 

The cephalothorax is robust, and appears to be composed of only four 
segments, but the fifth is so small as to be almost entirely obscured by' 
the fourth ; the abdomen is slender and much shorter than the body ; 
rostrum not much produced The length of the specimen figured is 
about "Smm. (about /j- of an inch). 

Antennules (fig. 1) moderately slender, except towards the proximal 
end ; they are shorter than the cephalothoracic segment, and composed of 
seventeen joints ; the basal joint is large and stout and rather more than 
half as long as the entire length of the remaining joints, which are all 
short — the tenth, fourteenth, fifteenth and last are, however, rather 
longer than any of the other twelve. The formula shows approximately 
the proportional lengths of all the joints : — 

Proportional lengths of the joints, 58-5-6-4-3-4-4-7-7'9'6-6-7-9-12-8-10 
Numbers of the joints, - - - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

Posterior antennae, outer ramus scarcely so long as the inner one, and 
composed of five joints — the third and fourth joints are very small and 
sparingly setiferous (fig. 3).* Mouth appendages similar to those of the 
other described species. 

All the four pairs of swimming feet (figs. 4-7) are also similar to those 
of the other described species, except that they are rather more hispid, but 
especially the inner branches of the fourth pair, and the outer branches 
also to some extent. In this pair the joints are more or less covered 
with minute prickles, as shown in the drawing (fig. 7), and the same 
character distinguishes the fourth pair in the female described and 
figured by Dr. Wolfenden. 

Fifth pair are elongated and unequal on the two sides ; the left leg 
is long and slender, for though the first and second joints are short, 
the other is of considerable length, and is probably longer than the 
drawing shows it, as the extremity is apparently slightly damaged ; a 
dense fringe of small delicate hairs extends along part of the proximal 
half of the inner margin of the slender end joint, and terminates distally 
at a small hook-like process (fig. 8). The right leg is considerably dilated 
at the proximal end of the second joint, but becomes attenuated towards 
the distal extremity ; the third joint is narrow, and terminates interiorly 
in one or two finger-like processes ; while the end joint, which is very 
slender, and tapers gradually to a pointed apex, is furnished with a small 
process exteriorly near the proximal end, as shown in the drawing (fig. 8.). 
The abdomen is composed of five moderately short segments, and the 
furcal joints are also short (fig. 9). 

Habitat. — Firth of Forth, west of Queensferry. Dredged Nov. 17, 
1893, but only now described and figured. 

Eemarks. — One of the characters peculiar to the genus Pseudocyclopia 
is the presence of a long, moderately stout spine which springs from the 
inner distal angle of the first basal joint of the third pair of legs and 
reaches to about the end of the inner branch, as shown in figure 6. 

* Dr. Wolfenden describes the posterior antennae as one-branched, but the outer ramus 
so characteristic of the Pseudocyclopiidse as of the other Calanoida had probably become 
accidentally detached, and had thus given to the posterior antennae an appearance some- 
what unique among Calanoids. 



oj the Fishery Board for Scotlaiid. 143, 

SUB-ORDER CYCLOPOIDA. 

Fam. Cyclopid^. 
Genus Euryle, Philippi (1843). 

Earyie longicauda, Philippi, var. minor. PI. x., figs. 13 and 14 

J^urytelongicauda is a moderately common species, and has already 
been recorded rom the Firth of Forth and other places. Two forms a 
smaller and a larger, have occasionally been observed, but they appear'to 
differ very little rom each other except in size. Figures 10 and ^3 on 
plate X show a female of the usual size and one of the small variety 
Thehrst measures about l-2mm. and the other "Smm. in^ength the 
drawings of them are similarly enlarged. But though they d ffer so 

b ttren'thL".1'of "' 'P^"" '\ \'''''''^ any structural diS^ene 
^,il v^ T • ' convenience sake, however, the small form mi-ht be 
d^mguished as var. minor. The fifth foot in this variety is slightly 
£::Ui:^lf and armature from that of the other, a's shoTbJ 
krFirtl of Forth. ^' ^ '""' "P"^^"^^^ ^^^^ -^ ^-^ ^outJ 

SUB-ORDER HARPACriCOIDA. 

Fam. Longipediid^, 

Genus Longipedia (1863). 

Longipedia coronata, Glaus. PI. x., figs 15-17. 

ScrtUsh^^a^er^'^a.^''^ '^°''" *^'* '^' longipedia usually recorded from 

bably limited to moderately deep water. I have only observed it n ^wn 

i:^z:'\':' -''7 ^^-^- -^•^ -asion coiiL^ed "; o •£% 

Z w/y . ^'^^*-^^^^^« ^^.'•^^^«««. Glaus, which is scarcely' so lar^^e as 

abdomen bears two s Wt ton. • ^ ^ while the last segment of the 
nie^.unspinro„^r;LtrirdL^^^^^^^^^^ ^' ^^^ P^-^-- 

colSly~D;"& ^c'^^'wir^ Fraserburgh'- Sepimber 29, 1904. 
SDecTmen. ^Th. Williamson, to whom I am indebted for the 

specimens. The same species was also obtained in one of thp " PnU 
seeker "gatherings, and is recorded in the Bulletin of the Coi inHl n^ fl 
International Bureau for November, 1904. ^ """"'^ °^ ^^^ 

*Sars' Crustacea of Norway, vol. y.. p. H, pi. ^.^ ^g_ j ^^g^^^^ 



144 Pffi'i III.—Twent\i-tUrd Annual Bepori 

Fam. Stbnheliid.b. 
Genus Stenhelia, Boeck (1864). 

Stenhelia pygmoea, Norman and Scott. 

1905. Stenhelia pygnuea, N. and S., Ann. and Mag. Nat. His. (7), 

vol. XV., p. 284. 

This small species has recently been noticed in a g^^^hering of Crustacea 

collected at Station II., Firth of Forth, on December 26 1894^ It 

was described by Norman and Scott from a specimen dredged near 

Eddvstone Lighthouse by Rev. Canon A. M. Norman.t 

TpygrnJis one of the smaller species belongmg to this genus and 
measures only about ^ of an inch in length ; it appears to differ from 
Xi descrSd specie^by the peculiar structure of the antennules and of 
L first pair of swimming feet, and by the form and armature of the fifth 
pair. 

Genus Ameira, Boeck (1864). 

Ameira elegans, sp. n. PI. x,, figs. 18 and 19 ; pi. xi., figs. 1-9. 

Description of the Female.-The body, which is moderately elongated 
andsnde has a general resemblance to Canthocamptus palustns, hut 
?1s rltber'less robust and somewhat smaller; the specimen figured 
measured only -Tmrn. (nearly ^ of an ^l^^ .-. ^^^f (P| ^i"' ^".iV" seti- 

Antennules moderately elongated eight-jomted ^f P^""//^^^'^ ^ 
fprnn.; • the second ioint is considerably longer, and the hftii and seventn 
smXer' than the others (pi. xi., fig. 2).' The formula shows the lengths :- 

Proportionate length of the joints, 13 • 23 • U • 15 . 9 • 10 ' 7 • H 

19^45678 
Number of the joints, - - - i ^ o 

The antenna (posterior antenna) are moderately large, and are each 
furnthefwTth a small uniarticulate outer ramus bearing a few apical 

''Mindibt^nLot oblong, masticatory end obliquely truncated, and 
armed w'thsmalte;th ; ma^ildible palp small, the basal part furn.hed 
w"h two seta, at the extremity-one being ^^0-^ fPiniform and on 
plumose-and a small uniart culate ^^^-ch beani^g a few setee 
articulated to the distal half of the basal part (P^-J^ "' ^f^derately lone 
The second maxillipeds are stout, and armed with a moderately ion, 

'Thrs^lrmi'n'^ee^reseile those of Canthocamrtus F'f ^f > ^ut 
differ in r^w minor particulars, as shown by the dravNungs. In the hrs 
pdr which 1 modeLely stout, the first joint of the inner branches 
reaches to slightly beyond the end of the outer branch, the next two 
Its are short but the end joint is rather longer than the other ; in the 

°'l^the'sl£\hW-n?foSth pairs the inner branches are all shorter 
than the omer The middle joint of the second pair bears a single seb^ 
'"nner distal angle ; but the end joint, which is rather longer than 

. Thi, s.theri„6 ->. o.ly p.rti.U, e^mined »t the time it was colleeted, and .t h., 
not even yet been exhaustively dealt with 
tCf. A,». and mg. Nat BUI. for Mareh, 1906, p. 284. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 145 

the other two, is provided with two setae on the inner margin, two spines 
on the outer margin, and also with two long spines of uneqi;al length and 
a long seta at the apex ; the inner branches have the outer edge of each 
joint fringed with minute bristles, and a moderately long seta springs 
from the distal angles of the first and second joints and from the lower 
half of the third joint ; the third joint is also armed with a terminal 
spine and two long terminal setfe (pi. xi., fig. 6). 

The armature of third and fourth pairs is similar to that of the second, 
except that there are two setse instead of one on the lower half of the 
inner margin of the last joint of the inner branches (pi. x., fig. 19, and 
pi. xi., fig. 7). 

The fifth pair resembles, to some extent, the same appendages in female 
specimens of Ccmthocamphis palustris, but the inner portion of the 
primary joints, which are broadly sub-triangular, have the apex more or 
less distinctly truncated rather than rounded. The armature of the inner 
portion of the primary joints consists of five apical setae, of which the 
three inner ones and the outermost are only of moderate length, but the 
other — the second from the outside — is greatly elongated. The secondary 
joints are oblong, with the outer and inner margins nearly parallel, the 
length being equal to about twice the width at the broadest part ; outer 
margin nearly straight, inner slightly convex, apex obliquely truncate and 
furnished with six setae ; the second from the inside is very long, while 
the second from the outside is short ; the others are of varying lengths, as 
shown in the drawing (pi. xi., fig. 8). Furcal joints very short (pi. xi., 
fig. 9). 

Habitat. — West of Dunbar, near low water, collected by hand-net 
Ocober 16, 1894, as well as in a collection from Musselburgh collected 
the same year ; rare. 

Remarks. — Though this species resembles Canthocamptus palustris in 
some respects, the difference in the proportional lengths of the joints of 
the antennules and of the outer and inner branches of the first pair of 
swimming feet, and also in the form of the fifth pair, and especially of the 
secondary joints of that pair, is sufficient to distinguish it. 

Fam. Laophontid^. 
Genus Laophonte, Philippi (1840). 

Laophonte longiremis, sp. n. PI. xi., figs, 10-20. 

Description of the Female. — Body slender, and somewhat similar to 
Laophonte thoracica in general appearance. The cephalothoracic segment 
is equal in length to the next three taken together, gibbous on the under 
side, the ventral margins boldly rounded, the depth being nearly equal to 
the length of the segment ; the remaining segment short. Furcal joints 
about equal in length to the last abdominal segment. Length of the 
specimen represented by the drawing (fig. 10) "Gmm. (about -^ of an 
inch). 

Antennules long, slender, and composed of seven joints (fig. 11); first 
and second joints subequal, considerably longer than the first, the next 
three small, but the end joint is nearly as long as the combined lengths of 
the three preceding joints, as shown in the formulag : — 

Proportional lengths of the joints, - 16 • 25 • 22 • 7 ' 4 • 7 • 16 
Number of the joints, - - - -12 34567 

A long, slender, sensory filament springs from the upper distal angle 
of the fourth joint, as shown in the drawing. 



146 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 

The posterior antennae are moderately slender and elongated, and the 
end joint is armed with a hook-like process on the outer distal angle in 
addition to the usual terminal setae (fig. 12) ; outer ramus small, uniarticu- 
late, and provided with two marginal and two terminal setaj. 

Mandibles small and armed with a few bluntly-rounded teeth on the 
biting edge; palp small and furnished with a minute uniarticulated 
branch (fig. 13). 

Maxillae and first maxillipeds as in L. tliorarica. 

Second maxillipeds also similar to those of that species, the terminal 
claw being long and slender (fig. 14). 

In the first pair of natatory legs the inner branch has the joint slender 
and nearly twice the length of the entire outer branch, and it bears a few 
minute bristles on the inner margin ; the end joint is small and armed 
with a moderately stout and elongated claw. The outer branches are 
composed of three subequal joints, but the last is rather smaller than 
either of the other two (fig. 1 5). Outer branches of the second, third, 
and fourth pairs all three-jointed, elongated, and slender, and bearing long 
slender spiniform marginal setae and very long terminal bristles, as shown 
by the drawing (figs. 16-18); inner branches short, two-jointed, and 
scarcely reaching to the second joint of the outer branches ; first joint 
considerably .shorter than the second, and each furnished with a single 
seta near the end of the inner margin ; the end joint of the inner branches 
of the second and fourth pairs has a single seta on the lower half of the 
outer margin, two on the inner margin, and two at the apex ; but in the 
third pair there are three set:^ on the inner margin of the end joint of the 
inner branches. 

Moreover, a single seta springs from near the middle of the inner 
margin of the end joint of the outer branches of the second pair, and two 
from the inner margins of the same joints of the third and fourth, but 
otherwise the armature of the outer branches of the second, third, and 
fourth pairs is much alike. 

Fifth pair of moderate size, jDrimary joint broadly oblong ; the inner 
distal angle slightly produced, and furnished with three setae on the inner 
margin — one being near the middle and two near the distal end ; the 
produced part bears one seta also on its inner margin and three others of 
small size and unequal length at its apex. The primary joint also carries 
a slender spiniform seta on the outer distal angle ; the secondary joint is 
narrow and elongated, the length being equal to fully four times the 
width at the broadest part ; it is provided with about four setae on tlie 
outer margin, one on the inner margin, and one on the produced and 
narrow apex (fig. 19). 

Habitat. — In an old quarry at Granton, Firth of Forth, which is open 
to the sea ; collected August 25, 1894 ; rare. This species differs 
from any other known to me ; no male has yet been observed. 

Fam. Cletodeidje. 
Genus Cletodes, Brady (1872). 
Cletodes Sarsi,^ sp. n. PI. xii., figs. 1-9. 

Description of the Female. — This species is somewhat intermediate 
between Cletodes neglecta and G. longicaudata, but differs from G. neg- 
lecta in having longer furcal joints, and from G. longicaudata in the 
furcal joints of that species being still more elongated (fig. 1). The 
length of the specimen figured is about -Smm. {-^ of ^^ inch). 

* Named in compliment to Herr Professor G. 0. Sar.s, the eminent Norwegian 
carcinologist. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 147 

The antennules (fig. 2) are very short, and composed of five joints ; the 
length of the second joint is about equal to that of the last, but the pen- 
ultimate joint is very small, as shown by the foi'mula : — 

Proportional lengths of the joints, - 5 • 13 • 9 • 2 • 13 
Number of the joints, - - - 1 2 3 4 5 

The posterior antenuaj are of moderate size, the end joint has the inner 
margin fringed with minute bristles, while two short setse spring from 
the distal half of the same max'gin ; the outer rami is very small and uni- 
articulate, and furnished with two or three setfe (fig. 3). 

The mandible, maxilla?, and first maxillipeds are similar to those of 
G. negleda. The second maxillipeds are very small, the end joint has 
the inner margin fringed with fine bristles and bears a long and very 
slender claw (fig. 4), 

All the four pairs of swimming feet are moderately short, and are some- 
what similar to each other in structure ; the outer branches are three- 
jointed and bear moderately long, slender spines or seta? ; the end joints of 
the outer branches of the first and second pairs are each provided with 
four terminal setae, but the third and fourth pairs have five seta? round 
the end of the last joint; these joints of the third and fourth pairs also 
differ from those of the first and second in that they become gradually 
and distinctly broader towards the distal extremity, as shown in the 
drawing (figs. 7 and 8) ; the inner branches are all two-jointed, short, and 
narrow ; the first joint is very small, but the second is elongated ; the 
inner branches in the first pair scarcely reach beyond the end of the 
second joint of the outer branches, while in each of the second, third, 
and fourth pairs the inner branches are slightly shorter than those of the 
preceding pair ; the inner branches of the first and second pairs are each 
furnished with two, and the others with three, terminal setpe (figs. 5-8). 

The fifth pair are small ; the primary joint, which is very short, is pro- 
duced interiorly into a narrow plate, which becomes somewhat wider 
towards the distal end, and is furnished with a short and moderattdy elon- 
gated spine, which is articulated to a notch near the middle of the inner 
margin, and also with a stout and moderately long spine and an elongate 
seta on the truncate apex ; the secondary joint is long and very narrow ; 
a short seta springs from near the middle and another from near the 
distal end of the outer margin. Moreover, a moderately long and spini- 
form seta springs from near the distal end of the inner margin of the 
secondary joint, and there is also a slender apical seta (fig. 9). 

The furcal joints are rather longer than the combined lengths of the 
last two abdominal segments, and they each bear a small bristle on the 
upper half of the outer margin and another on their dorsal aspect. 

Habited.— Yuth of Forth, 1901 ; rare. 

Fam. Haepacticid.«, 
Genus Harpadicus. 

Harpadicus uniremis, Kroyer. PI. x., fig. 20. 

This species, which is so fully described and figured by Professor G. 0. 
Sars in the new volume of his Crustacea of Norway now in course of pub- 
lication, has been observed in one or two places round the Scottish and 
English coasts —I have even obtained it in material washed from the 
filters in use at the hatchery at the Bay of Nigg. 

In this species the limbs are strongly hispid, and it is otherwise quite 
distinct from the other described .species belonging to the genus found on 



148 Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Beport 

our shores. Figure 20 in plate x. shows one of the fifth pair of thoracic 
feet of a female specimen. 

Fam. Asterocherid^. 

Genus Dyspontius, I'horell (1859). 

Dyspontius curticaudatus, sp. n. PI. xiii., figs. 1-10. 

Description of the Female. — Length 'Smm. (about -^^ of au inch) ; 
somewhat similar to Dyspontius striatus in general appearance, but con- 
siderably smaller, except that the abdomen is also distinctly shorter, and 
the cephalosome rather more distinctly triangular in front. The 
abdomen and furcal joints are very short, and are together scarcely longer 
than the combined lengths of the preceding segments of the metasome 

(fig. 1). 

The antennules are short, moderately stout, sparingly setiferous, and 
composed of eight joints ; second and last joints subequal and longer 
than any of the others ; the fourth is short, being only about half the 
length of the joint on either side, as shown in the annexed formula : — 

Proportional lengths of the joints, 14 • 25 - 10 • 5 • 10 • 8 • 10 • 23 
Numbers of the joints, - - -12345678 

A short sensory filament springs from about the middle of the end joint 
(fig- 2). 

The antennae (posterior antennse) are moderately elongated, four- 
jointed, and armed with three moderately stout terminal spines, the 
middle one being considerably elongated and the outer very small ; the 
outer ramus is rudimentary (fig. 3). The siphon reaches to about the end 
of the cephalosome. 

The mandibles are very slender, and a small portion of the distal end 
of the inner margin is coarsely dentate, as shown in the drawing (fig. 4). 

The maxillae are somewhat similar to those of Dyspontius striatus, 
but are rather stouter, and the inner ramus is proportionally scarcely so 
elongate, being only slightly longer than the outer ramus ; the terminal 
setae of the outer and inner rami are also similar to those of that species 
(fig. 5). 

The first maxillipeds resemble those of Dyspontius fringelta, Giesb., 
very closely ; they are furnished with a small fringe of setae near the end 
of the second joint ; the terminal claw is moderately short (fig. 6). 

The second maxillipeds have the second joint elongated, but the third 
and fourth, which are subequal in length, are together not much more 
than half the length of the second joint ; the terminal claw is stout and 
moderately short, and about equal to the combined lengths of the two 
preceding joints (fig. 7). 

The swimming feet resemble those of Dy. ^pontiles striatus. In the first 
pair neither of the two branches bear terminal spines ; the first joint of 
the outer branch, which is nearly twice as long as the next, carries a short 
seta on the distal angle of the outer margin, and another on the lower 
half of the inner margin ; the second joint bears a short spine on the outer 
angle and a seta on the inner margin, while the last joint is furnished 
with two small spines on the outer margin, two setae on the inner margin 
and two more setae at the apex ; the first joint of the inner branches bears 
one and the second two set;e on their inner margin, while the third carries 
three on the inner margin, one small seta on the outer margin, and two of 
moderate length at the apex, as shown in the drawing (fig. 8) ; the second 
pair, which were somewhat similar to the third, were damaged and no 



of tlte Fishenj Board for Scotland. 149 

drawing is fiiven of them. In both branches of the third pair the armature 
of the first and second joints resembles that of the same joints in the first 
pair, but in the third joint of the outer branches there are three short 
spines on the outer margin, five setfe on the inner margin, besides a 
moderately stout terminal spine ; while that of the third joint of the 
inner branches has three setae on the inner margin, a small seta on the 
outer margin, and a stout spine with a seta in front of it at the apex 

(fig- 9)- 

In the fourth pair the outer branches only are developed, and resemble 
the outer branches of the third pair ; the inner branches are represented 
by a minute digitiform process (fig. 10). 

Tlie fifth pair very minute. 

Habitat. — Dredged in the vicinity of Culross, a few miles above 
Queensferry, Firth of Forth. 

This form is in some respects similar to Dys2)07itius striatus, but it 
differs in having only eight-jointed antennules and in the abdomen being 
very short. The male is unknown. 

Fam. Nicothoid.e. 
Genus Nicothoe, Aud, and M. Edw., 1826. 

Nicothoe astaci, Audouin and M. Edwards. 

1826. Nicothoe astaci, Aud. and M. Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., 1st 
ser., vol. ix., p. 345, taf. 49, figs. 1-9. 

Dr. H. C. Williamson, while examining a lobster so-nt to him from 
Dunbar, observed this curious parasite adhering to one of the gills and 
kindly handed it over to me. This is the first specimen of Nicothoe I 
have seen from the Forth district. The distribution of this species, so 
far as concerns the British Islands, appears to be coextensive with its 
host. 

Fam. Choniostomatid.e. 

Genus Spheronella, Salensky (1868). 

S2^hcBronella minuta, T. Scott. PI. xii., fig. 18; pi. xiii., fig. 16. 

This small form — parasitic on the Amphipod Perioculodes longimanus 
(Spence Bate) — was described in Part III. of the Twenty-second Annual 
ileport of the Fishery Board for Scotland, published in 1904 (pi. xv., figs. 
11-15). One or two more specimens of Perioculodes infested with the 
same species of Spheronella were recently observed in gatherings of 
small Crustacea collected in the Moray Firth by Dr. H. C. "Williamson, 
to whom I am indebted for the specimens. Figure 18, plate xii., shows a 
Perioculodes with a parasite in situ, and figure 16, plate xiii., shows an 
enlarged drawing of an adult female bearing two ovisacs, each of which 
is about as large as the parasite itself. 

Sphmronella minuta, var, valida. Pi. xiii., fig. 17-20. 

This form, which was obtained in the marsupium of an amphipod, 
Melampho'pus cornidus, Norman, resembles Spheronella minuta so closely 
except in size, that I can only regard it as a large variety of that species. 
The female, which is represented by the drawing (fig. 17, pi. xiii.), 
measures •73mm. in length, or about one and a half times the size of 
S. minuta. The body is globular in form and the appendages, so far as 



150 Part III. — Ttuenty- third Annual Report 

they could be made out, appeared to be closely similar to the correspond- 
ing appendages in S. minuta. No males have yet been observed. The 
Amphipod was obtained in a gathering of small Crustacea collected off the 
east side of Inchkeith, Firth of Forth, in May, 1901. 

Sphceronella aoro', sp. n. PI. xii., figs. 10-17, 

Female moderately large ; its outline, when seen from above, had an 
obscurely quadrate appearance and was about as long as broad ; the head 
forms a small rounded protuberance in front ; length "Semm. (about -^ of 
an inch) ; ovisacs large (fig. 10). 

Antennules apparently four-jointed, but the end joint is very small ; 
the penultimate joint, which is equal to about one and a half times the 
length of the one that precedes it, is furnished with a number of short 
seta^ (fig. 12). 

The first msxillipeds are uniarticulate, very robust, and armed with a 
stout terminal claw (fig. 14). 

The second maxillipeds are moderately stout, elongated, and four- 
jointed ; the second joint is as long as the third and fourth combined, 
while the third is narrower than the second and rather longer than the 
ultimate joint; terminal claw short and stout (fig. 15). 

The male, which measures about •28mm. has a somewhat close 
resemblance to the male of Sj^hceronella chinensio, H. J. H.* The 
cephalo-thoracic plate is widest posteriorly where the breadth is about 
equal to the length ; the sides, which are nearly straight, converge towards 
the proximal end, which is trilobed, the median lobe being larger than 
that on either side, abruptly truncate in front and produced slightly 
beyond the lateral lobes, which are bluntly rounded. Posterior portion 
of the body short, semicircular in outline, and covered with short 
bristles (fig. 11). 

The antennules of the male differ slightly from those of the female ; 
they are rather shorter and stouter (fig. 13). 

The second maxillipeds differ considerably from those of the female ; 
the second joint is moderately stout, but comparatively shorter than in 
the second maxillipeds of the female, and furnished with two or three 
transverse rows of short bristles ; the two end joints are slender, the 
ultimate one being very small and bearing a moderately stout claw (fig. 

The thoracic legs appear to be uniarticulate and armed with one long 
and one short terminal seta (fig. 17). 

Habitat. — In the marsupium of Aora gracila (Bate), from a townet 
gathering collected in the Dornoch Firth by Dr. H. C. "Williamson, 
which he kindly handed over to me for examination. 

Sphceronella varar ends, sp. n. PI. xiii., figs. 12-15. 

This Spheronella Avas found in the marsupium of an Amphipod, 
Megaluropus agilis, Norman, captured in Burghead Bay, Moray Firth, by 
Dr. H. C. Williamson, on Dec. 12, 1904, and kindly handed over to 
me along with some other interesting things. One or two females of this 
parasite were observed, but no males. The females are of an ovate form, 
widest in the middle, and nearly one and a half times longer than broad; 
head somewhat produced and broadly truncate in front. The specimen 
represented by the drawing measured "SSmm. (about -^ of an inch) and 
carried two ovisacs, each nearly as long as the parasite itself ; the ovisacs 
were ovate in form, broadly rounded on the outer, but flattened on the 

*The " Choniostomatidse," by H. J. Hansen, pp. 106 and 112, PI. II. and PI. I[I. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



151 



inner aspect (fig. 12). The female as seen from the side is moderately 
and evenly rounded on the dorsal aspect and somewhat flattened below, 
as shown in figure 13. 

The antennules appear to be four-jointed, but the end joint is very 
small, while the penultimate joint is nearly as long as the preceding two 
joints taken together (fig. 14). 

The second raaxillipeds are moderately large and composed of four 
joints ; the first and second joints are robust, and the second is consider- 
ably more elongate than the next two joints combined, which are short 
and narrow, and furnished with a short terminal claw (fig. 15). This 
form does not agree with any species known to me. No males were 
observed. 

(?) Sphiero7iella sp. from a Hemifaviprops rosea (Norman). 

A moderately large Sphcvronella, bright red in colour, was quite 
recently obtained in the marsupium of a specimen of Hemilamprops rusea 
(Norm.) captured in Loch Fyne by Dr. Williamson. So far as I am 
aware no Choniostomaton has yet been recorded from this species of the 
Lampropidse. 

ISOPODA VALVIFERA. 

FaM. ARCTURIDiE. 

Genus Ardtcrella, G. 0. Sars, 1897. 

Arcturella dilatata, G. 0. Sars. PI. xiii., fig. 11. 

1897. Arcturella dilatata, G. 0. Sars, Crustacea of Norway, vol. 
ii., p. 92, pi. xxxviii. 

A male specimen of this species was obtained in some material dredged 
ofi" St. Monans on May 22, 1901. The species appears to be widely 
distributed, but moderately rare. The late Dr. Robertson has recorded 
this species from the Firth of Clyde, and I have observed one or two 
specimens in gatherings dredged off Fair Island in October, 1900. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 

Fig- 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 



PLATE X. 

Pseudocydopia giesbrecliti, Wolfenden. 



1. Male, side view . 

2. Antennule 

3. Antenna . 

4. Foot of first pair . 

5. Foot of second pair 

6. Foot of third pair 

7. Foot of fourth pair 

8. Foot of fifth pair. 

9. Abdomen and furoal joints 



Euryte longicauda, Philippi. 



10. Female, dorsal view 

11. Antennule 

12. Foot of fifth pair 





Diani. 


X 90 




X 260 




X 260 




X 260. 




X 260. 




X 260. 




X 260. 




X 260. 




X 195. 


X 90 


X 195 




X 390 



152 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



Euryle longicatula, var. minor. 

Fig. 13. Female, dorsal view .... 
Fig. 14. Foot of fifth pair .... 

Longipedia coronata, Claus. 

Fig. 15. Foot of (ieconcl pair, female 

Fig. 16. Foot of fifth pair, female 

Fig. 17. Last segment of abdomen and fiircal joints 

Ameira elegans, sp. n. 

Fig. 18. Second maxilliped, female 

Fig. 19. Foot of third pair .... 



X 90. 
X 390. 



X 90. 

enlarged. 

X 195. 



X 780. 
X 260. 



Harpacticus uniremis, Kroyer. 



Fig. 20. Foot of fifth pair 



enlarged. 



PLATE XI. 

Ameira elegans, sp. n. 

Fig. 1. Female, side view 

Fig. 2. Antennule 

Fig. 3. Antenna . 

Fig. 4. Mandible . 

Fig. 5. Foot of first pair 

Fig. 6. Foot of second pair 

Fig. 7. Foot of fourth pair 

Fig. 8. Foot of fifth pair 

Fig. 9. Last segment of abdomen and furcal joints 



Fig 

Fig 

Fi 

Fi 

Fig 

Fig 

Fig 

Fig 

Fig 

Fig 



Laophonte longireviis, sp. n. 

10. Female, side view 

11. Antennule 

12. Antenna . 

13. Mandible. 

14. Second Maxilliped 

15. Foot of first pair . 

16. Foot of second pair 

17. Foot of third pair 

18. Foot of fourth pair 

19. Foot of fifth pair 

20. Last segment of abdomen and furcal joint 



X 


60. 


X 


260. 


X 


390. 


X 


780. 


X 


260. 


X 


260. 


X 


195. 


X 


390 


X 


195. 


X 


135. 


X 


520. 


X 


520. 


X 


780. 


X 


780 


X 


300. 


X 


260. 


X 


260. 


X 


260 


X 


390 


X 


195 



PLATE XII. 
Cletoden Sarsi, sp. n. 



Fig. 


1. 


Female, dorsal view 










X 


180. 


Fig- 


2. 


Antennule 










X 


780. 


Fig. 


3. 


Antenna. . 










X 


780. 


Fig. 


4. 


Second maxilliped 










X 


780. 


Fig. 


5. 


Foot of first pair 










X 


780. 


Fig. 


6. 


Foot of second pair 










X 


780. 


Fig. 


7. 


Foot of third pair 










X 


780. 


Fig. 


8. 


Foot of fourth pair 










X 


780. 


Fig. 


9. 


Foot of fifth pair 










X 


780. 






SphceronelJa aora-, sp. n. 




Fig. 


10. 


Female, dorsal view . . . . . . x 


60 


Fig. 


11. 


Male, dorsal view 










X 


180. 



F. B. REPORT, 1905 



PLATE X. 




REPORT, 1305 




'j'V.'.-,'„7, 


■ItilMl™-'^ 


?| 




m 


# 




1 


A. Scott, ikl 


11 

arf nat. 



B. REPORT, 190S. 



I 




r. B. REPORT, 1905. 




of the Fishenf Board for Scotland. 



15:^ 



Fig. 12. Antennule, female 

Fig. 13. Antennule, male . 

Fig. 14. First maxilliped, female 

Fig. 15. Second maxilliped, female 

Fig. 16. Second maxilliped, male 

Fig. 17. Foot of ? second pair 



Sphcurondla minuta, T. Scott. 
Fie. 18. Perioculodes longimamifi with the Sphmrontlla in situ, . 









X 


780. 








X 


780. 








X 


780. 








X 


780. 








X 


780. 








X 


390. 



X 22-5. 









PLATE XIII. 














Dyspontim cui'ticaudatim, sp. n. 


Fig. 


1. 


Female, dorsal view . . . . . . x 80. 


Fig. 


2. 


Antennule 










X 263. 


Fig- 


3. 


Antenna . 










X 520 


Fig. 


4. 


Mandible . 










X 390 


Fig. 


5. 


Maxilla . 










X 520 


Fig. 


6. 


First Maxilliped 










X 350 


Fig. 


7. 


Second maxilliped 










X 280 


Fig. 


8. 


Foot of first pair 










X 187 


Fig. 


9. 


Foot of third pair 










X 260. 


Fig. 


10. 


Foot of fourth pair 










X 260 



Arxturella dilatata, Sars. 



Fig. 11. Male, dorsal view .... 

Sj'hcerondla vararensis, sp. n. 

Fig. 12. Female, dorsal view .... 

Fig. 13. Female, side view .... 

Fig. 14. Antennule ..... 

Fig. 15. Second maxilliped .... 

Sphceronella minuta, T. Scott. 

Fig. 16. Female, with oWsacs .... 

Sphivronella minuta, var. valida. 

Fig. 17. Female, dorsal view .... 

Fig. 18. Female, side view .... 

Fig. 19. Antennule ..... 

Fig. 20. Second maxilliped .... 



X 20-6. 



X 90. 

X 120. 

X 780. 

X 780. 



72. 
780. 
780. 
780. 



154 Pari III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



VII.— A NOTE ON THE HATCHING OF THE CRAB {CANCER 
PAGURUS). By H. Chas. Williamson, M.A., ]).Sc., Marine 
Laboratory, Aberdeen. 



In the summer of 1902 a quantity of the fry of the edible crab was 
distributed in the sea off the coast of Aberdeenshire. 

Nine berried crabs (breester, pea-parten) were obtained chiefly in the 
neighbourhood of Aberdeen. They were kept in two concrete tanks 
until the larvse hatched out. Shelter was afforded the crabs in cavities 
formed by building stones up on the sand-covered bottom of the tank. 
"When the fry hatched out it was attracted to the glass front of the 
tank, from which side the light entered, and when present in quantity 
the fry formed a thick white cloud. The young crabs were drawn off 
into the carboys by means of a syphon. All the fry of the crab 
deposited near Fraserburgh and Findochty was in the first zoea stage. 
The crab fry was disposed of as follows : — 

August 6, 1902. — About 1 million set free about 1 mile north of 
Fraserburgh. 

August 7, 1902. — About 2 millions set free about | mile off 
Cairnbulg. 

August 19, 1902. — About 1 million set free about | mile off St. 
Combs. 

September 15, 1902. — About | million set free about | mile north of 
Findochty. 

The method of estimating the numbers of crab fry was as follows. 
The fry that was set free was provided by nine berried crabs, and at the 
low average of half a million eggs to each crab, should number 
ik millions. The proportion of this total set free at each of the four 
above-mentioned places was apportioned approximately by the number of 
carboys required for the consignment. 

The crabs hatched out in August, September, and October. The 
vitality of the crab fry was tested in the following manner. Crab fry 
were crowded into a glass jar. The water was heated to 17|^ C, and 
then allowed to cool. Next forenoon the majority was alive and lively. 

On one of the journeys the water in one of the carboys was cooled to 
about 7° C. The crab fry in this carboy did not, at the end of the 
journey, appear to be in any better condition than those which had been 
filled with water at the temperature of the hatchery. 

The crabs which furnished the fry were kept alive when the hatching 
was finished, and some lived until the spring of 1905. The history of 
the members of the 1902 group throws some light on certain of the 
problems of the life-history of this species. It has been already outlined.* 

In January 1903 two of these crabs were dissected; one had died, 
the second was killed. In the former the ovary was white, with a very 
slight pink tinge. There were a few red eggs in a bunch near the 
oviduct. The eggs were degenerating ; they were disorganised internally. 

* Vide Williamson. " Contributions to the Life-histories of the Edible Crab (Cancer 
pagiirus) and of other Decapod Crustacea, &c." — Twenty-second Annual Report of the 
Fishery Board for Scotland, Part III., 1904. 



of the Fishery Board, for Scotland. 155 

One spermatheca was empty ; the other had a large quantity of sperms 
in it. The swimmerets had still some empty egg-capsules attached. In 
the crab which was killed the ovary was the colour of the external eggs. 
It was friable. The spermatheca contained a good quantity of sperms. 
The endopodites of the swimmerets were clean. 

In October 1903 two of the crabs spawned. One which was killed 
had an ovary that appeared to be ripe ; the eggs measured -37 and •4mm. 
in diameter. There was a copious supply of sperms in the spermatheca. 

On January 13th 1904 another crab was found to have spawned. On 
February 14th 1904 two of the non-berried crabs were dead. In one, 
measuring 6 inches across, the ovary was small and white, but mottled to a 
considerable extent here an-i there with red eggs. This crab had evi- 
dently spawned this season, although the eggs had not remained attached 
to the swimmerets. There was a small quantity of sperms in each 
spermatheca. The second crab measured 7| inches across. The ovary 
was dropsical. There was a large quantity of sperms in both spermatheca. 
There were lots of empty egg-capsules on the endopodites of the 
swimmerets. 

On October 31st 1904 there were five crabs remaining of the 1902 
batch. One Avas berried. On November 19th 1904 two of the crabs were 
berried. In l^ecember 1904 and January 1905, three crabs were found 
dead. On January 12th 1905 two crabs remained; one of these was 
berried. Both crabs were found dead on May 6th 1905. During the 
whole period not one of the crabs cast. 

Casting. — The Absorption Areas on the Chela. 

In a previous paper I described the absorption which takes place on 
the three proximal joints of the chela at the time when the crab casts, 
whereby the withdrawal of the chela from the shell is facilitated. I was 
not aware at that time that a detailed description accompanied by drawings 
had been published by J. Couch.* 

* J. Couch. '' A particular description of some circumstauces hitherto little known, 
connected with the process of Exuviation in the Common Edible Crab." TtveaUi-slxth 
Annual Report of the Roi/al Cormrall Polytechnic Society, 1858. 



156 Part III.—Tweniy-tliird Annual EepoH 



VIII.— ON THE TAY SPKAT FISHERY, 
1904-1905. 

By John Fletcher, University College, Dundee. 



The sprat fishing during the past season has been exceptionally poor. 
Only 1348 crans of sprats, including young herrings, were taken out of 
the river this season, as against 14,966 crans during the season of 
1883-1884. 

The 1348 crans consisted of somewhere about 44 million young 
herrings and sprats, of which some 52 per cent,, or 23 million, were 
young herrings measuring from 4"3 centimetres to 17"5 centimetres in 
length, and the other 21 million, or 42 per cent., were sprats measuring 
from 4 centimetres to 15 centimetres. 

Of the 1348 crans, some 894 crans were sold as fresh fish and sent off 
to the markets of London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, and other 
English towns ; and some 454 crans (containing over 7 million young 
herrings) were sold to local farmers for manure. 

The 894 crans of fresh fish brought to the fishermen a sum of some- 
where about =£220, and the 454 crans of manure brought in only some 
.£20. 

A certain number of young herrings and sprats were also destroyed 
while the men were engaged at the sparling fishing further up the river. 

During October, November, and December, 1904, the number of sprat 
boats engaged at the sparling fishing varied from 5 to 20, and each net 
brought up along with the sparlings from 1 to 6 buckets of young 
herrings and sprats per day. During the latter half of January 1905 the 
number of boats varied from 10 to 26, and these were getting from 3 
buckets to 1| crans of young herrings and sprats. Very few were 
caught during the month of February. 

The young of other fishes are also annually destroyed by the sprat and 
sparling fishermen, but apparently not in any great quantities. The 
useful forms include the young of the whiting, cod, plaice, dab, flounder, 
and sparling, while among the inedible kinds were young and adult 
agoni, cotti, liparis, lumpsuckers, sand-eels, sticklebacks, &c. 

The Broughty-Ferry winter herring fishermen and the sprat fishermen 
strictly observed the line of division suggested at the Local Enquiry of 
January 1904, viz.: — a line drawn between Broughty-Ferry and Tayport, 
the sprat fishers being restricted to the part of the river above that line, 
and the Broughty-Ferry men never going beyond it. 

During the course of this season's investigations 46 samples of mixed 
sprats, young herring, and other fish were bought and examined. The 
46 samples consisted of : — 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



157 



Young Herring, . 

Sprats, 

Young Whiting, 
„ Cod, 
„ Plaice, 
,, Sparlings, 
,, Flounders, 
,, Dabs, 
., Lythe, 



Agonus cataphractiis, 
Sand-eels ( Ammodytes fobianusj, 
Viviparous Blennies, . 
Lumpsuckers. Cyclopterus lumpus, 
Gohius miniitus, .... 
Butter-Fish. Centronotus gunnellus, 
Liparis vionfagui, 
Pipe-fish, Syngnatlms, sp., . 
Fifteen-spined Stickleback, 
Three-spined Stickleback, 



26,037 

16,992 

317 

136 

68 
26 
18 
15 
1 

43,610 

168 
40 
10 
9 
9 
9 
8 
5 
2 
1 



261 



In most cases, also, the sprats and herrings were carefully measured 
with a view to determining the rate of growth of the species and the 
probable growth of the fish caught. These measurements will be dealt 
with on another occasion. 

Number of Sprats Measured. 



October, ....... 

November, ...... 

December, ...... 

January, ••.... 

February, 


977 
3438 
2238 
2112 
2233 


Number of Herring JMeasured. 

October, 

November, ...... 

December, ...... 

January, ..... 

February. ...... 


10,998 

733 
2983 
2269 
2287 
1983 




10,255 



The 43,000 sprats and young herring examined represented about 
one thousandth part of the entire season"^ -atch. The catch was carefully 
inspected on every day when fish were landed throughout the season, but 
on some days no large samples were counted, a rough estimate 'only 
being made of the proportion of sprats and herrings which made up the 
catch. By these two methods the following Table has been drawn up, 
showing the approximate composition of the catch throughout the season! 
An asterisk denotes the days when the estimate was only a superficial one. 



158 



Fart III. — Twentiz-third Aimual llejjorl 
October. 



Date. 


No. of Crans. 


Estimated 

No. of Young 

Herring. 


Estimated 
No. of Sprats. 


Estimated 
Total No. of 

Fish. 


1904. 
October 20 

,, 24 . 

„ 27* . 

„ 28 . . 

„ 31 . . 


4 

n 

4 


2,.520 
39,168 
12,960 

3,456 
33,048 


47,880 
76,032 
.30.240 
111,744 
89,352 


50,400 
ll.^),200 

43,200 
115,200 
122,400 


151 


91,152 


355,248 


446,400 



November. 



Date. 


No. of Crans, 


Estimated 

No. of Young 

Herring. 


Estimated 
No. of Sprats. 


Estimated 

Total No. of 

Fish. 


1904. 










November 1 . 


15 


30,240 


401,760 


432,000 


2 . 




1 Mh 


59,616 


933,984 


993,600 


o^ 




h 


288 


3,312 


3,600 


4 . 




2 


19,584 


38,016 


57,600 


5* . 




1 4 


34,560 


80,640 


115,200 


J) 7 . 




6 


58,215 


174,645 


232,860 


10 . 




9 


49,248 


4,875,552 


4,924,800 


„ 11* . 




'^ 


17,280 


69,120 


86,400 


„ 12* . 




3 


17,280 


69,120 


86,400 


14 . 




23 


331,200 


331,200 


662,400 


„ ir.* . 




311 


272,160 


635,040 


907,200 


16 




58 


668,160 


1,002,240 


1,670,400 


17* 




30i 


404,064 


1,474,336 


1,878,400 


18* 




3 

i 


3,240 


7,560 


10,800 


19* 




1 '^ 


12,960 


30,240 


43,200 


21 




! 23^ 


257,184 


419,616 


676,800 


22« 




49 


987,840 


423,360 


1,411,200 


23 




m 


456,192 


19,108 


475.300 


24 




781 


1,763,424 


497,376 


2,260,800 


25* 




m 


558,720 


139,680 


698,400 


26* 




Vh 


403,200 


100,800 


504,000 


28 




321 


664,560 


271,440 


936,000 


29* 




. \ llf 


236,880 


101,520 


338,400 


30 






lOf 


275,544 


34,056 


309,600 




485f 


7,581,639 


12,133,721 


19,715,360 



J 



of the Fishery Board for Scotlatid. 



159 



December. 



Date. 


No. of t'rans. 


Estimated 

No. of Young 

Herring. 


Estimated 
No. of Sprats. 


Estimated 

Total No. of 

Fish. 


1904. 










December 1* . 


3 


69,120 


17,280 


86,400 


5 . . 


12 


20,160 


30,240 


50,400 


7 . . 


66i 


896,760 


1,011,240 


1,908,000 


. 8* . . 


68i 


982,800 


982,800 


1,965,600 


9 . . 


^ 


191,520 


82,080 


273,600 


10* . 


4^ 


90,720 


38.880 


129,600 


12 . 


23i 


534,672 


142,128 


676,800 


14 . 


9 


150,336 


108,864 


259,200 


15* . 


2i 


45,360 


19,440 


64,800 


16 . 


i 


6,696 


504 


7,200 


19 . 


5 


100,800 


43,200 


144,000 


20* . 


50f 


876,960 


584,640 


1,461,600 


21* . 


35i 


618,440 


408,960 


1,022,400 


22 . 


7:}: 


116,928 


91,872 


208,800 


23* . 


35 


504,000 


504,000 


1,008,000 


26* . 


24i 


211.680 


493,920 


705,600 


27 . . 


17 


141,984 


347,616 


489,600 


28* . 


27 


233,280 


544,320 


777,600 


29* . 


13 


112,320 


262,080 


374,400 


31* . 


5 


43,200 


100,800 


144,000 


408| 


5,942,736 


5,814,864 


11,757,600 



lao 



I'nii III. — Tirejt\\i\-i]iir'l A'lDnial Beport 
Januaky. 



Date. 


No. of Crans. 


Estimated 

No. of Young 

Herring. 


Estimated 
No. of Sprats. 


Estimated 

Total No. of 

Fi.sh. 


1905. 










January 4* . , \ 8| 


1.01,200 


100,800 


252,000 


5 




19 


377,568 


169,632 


.-.47,200 


„ 6* 




ji 


155,520 


103,680 


259,200 


,, 9 




ik 


78,3.36 


44,064 


122,400 


„ 10 




19 


383,040 


164,160 


547,200 


:, 13 




97i 


2,212,032 


588,168 


2,800,800 


„ 14* 




22 


506,880 


126,720 


633,600 


„ 16 




4?- 


117,9.36 


11,664 


129,600 


„ 17* 




1.^ 


34,560 


8,640 


43,200 


„ IS 




42f 


861,840 


369,360 


1,231,200 


„ 19* 




64 


1,474,560 


368,640 


1,843,200 


,, 20 




66i 


1,602,720 


305,280 


1,908,000 


„ 21^ 




40 


967,680 


184,320 


1,152,000 


,: 23 




21^ 


532,440 


93,960 


626,400 


„ 24* . 




2-1 


57,600 


14,400 


72,000 


„ 25 




4 


87,552 


27,648 


115,200 


„ 26* 






2 


46,080 


11,520 


57,600 


„ 27 






k 


6,048 


1,152 


7,200 








428| 


9,654,192 


2,693,808 


12,348,000 



February. 



Date. 


No. of Crans. 


Estimated 

No. of Young 

Herring. 


Estimated 
No. of Sprats. 


Estimated 

Total No. of 

Fish. 


1905. 










February 1 






i 


5,472 


1,728 


7,200 


3* 






i 


10,080 


4,320 


14,400 


„ 7 






1 


14,976 


13,824 


28,800 


8* 






H 


51,480 


42,120 


93,600 


9 






2f 


49,896 


29,304 


79,200 


„ 13* 






1 


6,480 


4,320 


10,800 


,. 14 






i 


3,024 


4,176 


7,200 


„ 20* 






i 


3,600 


3,600 


7,200 


„ 23 






1 


17,064 


4,536 


21,600 


„ 24 






i 


5,112 


2,088 


7,200 








n 


167,184 


110,016 


277,200 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 
1904-1905. 



161 



Mouths. 


Estimated 
No. of 
Crann. 


Estimated 

No. of Young 

Herring. 


Estimated 
No. of 
Sprats. 


Estimated 

Total No. of 

P'ish. 


Estimated 

Percentage 

of Young 

Herring. 


October, 


m 


91,162 


355,248 


446,400 


20-4 


November, . 


ISol" 


7,581,639 


12,133,721 


19,715,360 


38-5 


December, . 


408- 


r», 942, 736 


5,814,864 


11,757,600 


50 '5 


January, 


428i 


9,654,192 


2,693,808 


12,348,000 


78-2 


February, . 


»^ 


167,184 


110,016 


277,200 


CO-3 
50-4 


1,3471 


23,436,903 


21,107,657 


44,544,560 



It will be observed that the percentage of heniug gradually and 
steadily increased from the commencement of the season until January, 
and was still at a high level when the fishing closed. 

Tay Sprat Fishikg Investigations — 1904-1905. 
Causes of Failure of the Fishing. 

This season's sprat fishing has lieen one of the poorest for many years, 
great distress prevailing amongst the fishermen during the first half of 
the season, or from October till the end of December. 

During that time both fishermen and buyers were losiug money, and, 
at most, the fishermen were only able to pay for the wear and tear of 
gear, dock dues, and victualling. 

The principal causes of complaint were : — 

(1) The scarcity and poor quality of the fish. 

(2) The low prices obtained for the fish. 

(3) The alleged excessive railway rates. 

The mild open winter, want of south-easterly gales, and almost total 
absence of spates may have something to do with the scarcity of fish in 
the river, but, so far, I have not been able to prove that such causes have 
any influence upon the movements of the fish. 

As the bag-net captures all sizes and every kind of fish that enters the 
river, it follows that the very large numbers of young sprats and young 
herring, together with the usually considerable numbers of young cod, 
whiting, Agoni, shrimps, &c., all go to make up the so-called rubbishy 
stuff sent from Dundee to the English markets. 

This mixture of fish has no chance beside the prime sprats sent from 
Inverness, where the fishing is carried on by means of drift-nets. 

The railway companies charge from 6s. to 10s. per barrel for fish sent 
to the English markets. This rate is doubtless a severe handicap on the 
trade considering the small value of the produce, though it can scarcely 
be deemed high considering the bulk of the goods and the distance from 
Dundee to the great English towns 

General Account of the Fishing. 

By common agreement among the fishermen, the Tay sprat fi.shing 
begins on the 25th of September and ends on the 25th of February. 



162 Pari III. — TvMntij-tkird Aniti'ul Beporl 

This year's regular fishing, however, did not begin until the 20th of 
October, owing to the scarcity and poor quality of the fish. 

The fishing boats are small yawls or smacks, from 38 to 48 feet along 
the keel, and manned by two, three, or four of a crew, the usual number, 
however, being two during poor seasons and three or four when fish are 
very plentiful. Each boat is valued at somewhere about £70, the net 
alone costing <£12. 

Some 29 boats are registered at the ports of Dundee and Perth, but the 
majority of these belong to Newburgh, St. Andrews, Easthaven, Car- 
noustie, Tayport, and Broughty-Ferry. 

The boats go out either in the morning or afternoon, according to the 
abundance of fish or state of the tide, and fishing is continued throughout 
the night. 

The fish are brought into the Dundee tidal-basin in the morning and 
are usually sold by auction, the auctioneer getting .3| to 4 per cent, of 
the gross return. 

The fish are caught by means of a huge conical bag-net, which 
measures from 40 to 52 yards in length, with a mouth of from 21 to 24 
feet square. 1 measured one as it lay stretched out on the quay and 
found it to be some 42 yards in length, with a mouth 23 feet square. 

The mouth of the net is attached to two booms, an upper boom, 23 feet 
in length, which floats on the surface of the water, and a lovrer boom of 
the same length, weighted with iron, which sinks to various depths 
according to the strength of the tide. 

The net consists of four parts, each part with a size of mesh smaller 
than the preceding part. 

The first part attached to the two booms was 13 yards long, with a 
mesh of 1^ of an inch from knot to knot, or, according to the fishermen, 
of 36 rows of meshes to the yard. 

The second part is known as the " enter " ; it measured 10 yards in 
length and had a mesh of ^ of an inch from knot to knot, or, according 
to my informant, of 52 roAvs of meshes to the yard. 

The third part of the net is known as the sleeve ; it was 3 yards in 
length, with a mesh of f of an inch, or 64 rows of meshes to the yard. 

The fourth part of the net is known as the sprat-end; it measured 19 
yards in length and had a mesh of y^ of an inch from knot to knot, or, 
according to the fishermen, it contained 110 rows of meshes to the yard ; 
the last three yards of the sprat-end were used as a tail end for hauling 
the net on board. 

The Tay sparling fishing begins and ends at the same time as the sprat 
fishing, and is engaged in by the same men, who use the same boats and 
bag-nets but attach a small meshed herring-end or tail to the nets in 
place of the usual sprat end. 

The sparling fishing is usually carried on when sprats and herring are 
not very plentiful in the river, and is usually confined to the upper parts 
of the estuary or from four to twelve miles above or west of the Tay 
Bridge. 

The majority of the sprat and sparling boats are too old and rickety 
for any other kind of fishing except river-fishing. Their deck construc- 
tion, accommodation, and gear are quite unsuited for winter herring 
fishing outside the river. A good many winter herring, however, are 
caught in the river along with the sprats and young herring during the 
months of January and February. 

The sprat and sparling fishermen take part in various occupations 
during the summer time. Some of the men take part in the Tay 
salmon fishing; a few work on board the^river passenger steamers, sand 



of the Fishery Board for tScot/and. 163 

boats, &c. ; a few are tradesmen (masous, &c.) ; while the rest are 
general labourers. 

Tay Sprat-Fishing Grou7ids. 

The Tay sprat-fishing grounds are included in that part of the estuary 
extending from luvergowrie and Balmeriuo, some 3 miles above or 
west of the Tay Bridge, down to, or a little beyond, Tayport and 
Broughty-Ferry, between 4 or 5 miles east of the Tay Bridge. 

From Broughty-Ferry, the estuary increases uniformly in width as far 
as 3 miles above the Tay Bridge, where it is 2| nautical miles wide. 

At Dundee it is 1| nautical mile in width, and at Broughty-Ferry, 
some 4| miles below the Tay Bridge, the estuary is only | mile across. 

Many sandbanks extend over this particular part of the estuary, 
which are dry 4 to 7 feet at low water, the width of the navigable 
channel being about g mile. 

Sandbanks also exist in the main channel itself, composed of cleaner 
and coarser sand than most of the surrounding sandbanks. Contrary to 
expectation, the sandbanks of the Tay are found to vary very little in 
form from one year's end to another. Extensive flats and sandbanks are 
present on either side of the main channel above or west of the Tay 
Bridge. 

Abreast of Invergowrie and Xinewells, the main channel is marked ofi' 
l)y two red and two black buoys, and forms here a very important sprat 
and herring fishing ground. 

About opposite the west end of Dundee an important sandbank exists, 
some 1 50 yards in width at low water. The deep channel on the south 
side of it formed the principal ground for this and last year's sprat and 
herring fishing. This particular sandbank is known as the Middle Bank, 
and its narrow east end is marked oflfby the Chequer buoy. 

A somewhat variable and extensive shoal projects from the southern 
shore of the estuary, about half-way between Newport and Tayport ; it 
is called the Newcome Spit, and consists of a mass of clean sand and 
shells six times as coarse as the Middle Bank. The neighbourhood of 
the Newcome Spit is also a favourite sprat and herring fishing ground. 

At Broughty-Ferry there are no sandbanks, and the river hers is fully 
10 fathoms deep at low water. 

Seaward of Broughty-Ferry the eftuary widens rapidly, and the 
bottom consists largely of coarse sand full of rounded water-worn stones. 

At Monifieth Bay this material is said to form a suitable spawning 
ground for winter herring. 

Tides. 

Spring tides flow up the river Tay as far as two miles above the city 
of Perth, and sprats and herring are got by the sparling fishermen as far 
up as Newburgh, but only in very small quantities. 

Low water of ordinary spring tides at Dundee Harbour is 7*5 feet 
below ordnance datum, and high water of ordinary spring tides is 
16i feet above that level. The extreme range of high water at Dundee 
varies between 19 feet 6 inches and 3 feet 7 inches, and extreme low 
tides sometimes fall 1 foot 5 inches below low water of ordinary spring 
tides. 

The tides have an important bearing upon the quantity of fish caught 
in the river, and also restrict the fishing to those parts of the river 
where the currents are strong enough to open the bag-nets. 

During the flood of neap tides the currents are too weak to open the 
nets, and fishing can only take place then during ebb-tide, while during 



164 P<'yt in. — Tioen'if-llnn'l Aiinwil Report 

the height of spring tides the currents in the ueigliVjourhuod of Craighead 
and Newcome Spit are too strong, and occasionally damage or carry the 
nets away altogether. 

Fishing is also entirely stopped for a short time, extending from half • 
an-hour to three-quarters of an hour, during the slack water between 
tides. 

Many of the fishermen are of opinion that most of the tish enter the 
river during spring tides and make their way to the sea again as the 
tides slacken; this, however, was not borne out by the daily returns of 
the fishing during the past season. 

The main mass of the flood tidal current, after sweeping through 
between Broughty-Ferry and Tayport, Hows in the direction of West- 
Ferry Bay and the Stanuergate, then south-west between the Chequer 
Buoy and the Newcome Spit. It next flows west between the Middle 
Bank and the Fife shore, then north again in the vicinity of the Tay 
Bridge to Ninewells and Invergowrie Bay. The returning ebb tide flow- 
ing in the opposite direction passes over much the same course. 

All the important sprat and herring fishing-grounds lie in the above 
course, and the fish when not very plentiful in the estuary appear to 
always follow more or less these main tidal currents on their way from 
and to the sea. When the fish are very plentiful, on the other hand, 
they are caught in all parts of the estuary. 

The presence of the flood tide is perceived on the north side of the 
estuary in several ways. First, the saltness of the water at spring tides 
upon the north shore is between 10 and 25 per cent, greater than that 
upon the south shore till the ebb tide has fairly commenced. Secondly, 
the current of the flood tide is so strong in the vicinity of Dundee as to 
give an inclination to the surface of the water, so that at half flood the 
level is 2 to 3 inches higher than it is on the opposite side of the 
estuary. 

The deeper parts of both tidal currents are much Salter and, during 
the cold months, warmer, than the surface waters ; but there is generally 
a greater difference in salinity and temperature between the surface and 
bottom layers of water upon the flood than upon the ebb, these layers 
tending to intermix somewhat less upon the flood-tide than upon the ebb. 

At the Abertay Lightship stationed at the mouth of the Tay, the salt- 
ness of the surface water, near low water and during heavy land floods, 
is sometimes as low as two-fifths of that of sea-water. 

The normal ratio, however, of sea-water to land-water in the estuary 
is such that at the middle of its length — -at Dundee — there is just as 
much fresh water as salt, and at the Pile Lighthouse, | of a mile below 
Tayport, the quantities of sea-water and land-water are, on the average, 
as 2 to L The ratio of the land- water to sea- water at Dundee usually 
fluctuates between one-fifth and four-tifths. 

So far as I can make out meanwhile, the movements of the sprats and 
herring in the river are not influenced to any marked extent by variations 
in temperature, although both kinds of fish appeal not to wander very far 
from the slightly warmer water of the main flood tidal currents. 

Some Notes on the Natural History of the Sprat and Winter Herring. 

Sprats and winter herring frequent bays, inshore waters, and estuaries. 
They usually ascend the estuaries of rivers in large numbers during the 
months of October, November, December, January, and February. The 
main shoals appear to remain in the Tay estuary for short periods, 
extending from two to five or more days at a time, and then gradually 
make their way to the sea again. 



of til c Fi^iherij IJuard for >ScoU"}id. 165 

Sprats and immatiue herring are amongst the must timid and restless 
of all fishes. They swim usually in separate shoals, but in the estuary of 
the Tay, where the main channel is bo shallow and narrow, they very 
often mix and swim together. 

Hardly any two fish in the sea have so many and varied enemies as 
the sprat and herring. This incessant persecution by numerous enemies, 
and consequent restlessness, may possibly partially account for the pre- 
sence of both fish in such large numbers in the estuaries of rivers. 

The fishermen, in trying to explain the presence of the fish in such 
large numbers in the Tay estuary, believe that the sprat and herring 
Imve a liking for brackish waters, and some scientists are under the 
impression that the fish seek the colder waters. 

Several] considerations, however, seem to be against such ideas. Both 
fish, while in the estuary, appear to remain in the main tidal currents, 
where the water is somewhat warmer than the surrounding waters. 
Experiments also show that in very cold waters fishes give up feeding 
altogether, probably because the ferments upon which digestion depends 
do not act, or at anyrate very slowly. 

The fishermen also believe that the fish ascend the estuary to feed on 
the small organisms in the water, but this is also more or less erroneous. 
The majority of the herrings' stomachs examined were found to be empty ; 
only a few contained a very small quantity of Crustacea, while the sprats' 
stomachs were invariably found to be quite empty. Moreover, iu the 
river at this season, the fish would get little or no food material to 
swallow, as careful examination of samples of water have shown. 

Fishermen are also of opinion that the state of the tides is related to 
the quantity of fish in the river, that during spring tides the fish are 
more plentiful than during neap tides ; but after carefully comparing the 
daily catches with the state of the tide, I am unable to show a close con- 
nection. Certainly on several occasions the best fishing was at or near 
the spring tides, e.g., November 23, December 7 and 22, and January 
17-21 ; but there was fairly good fishing during neap tides about Novem- 
ber 1 and 15, December 27, and very good about January 12. 

They, again, believe that rough weather, especially strong south-easterly 
gales, drive the fish into the river, but this also I am unable to prove. 

During the great scarcity of fish in the month of November, I 
questioned many of the fishermen as to the state of the water in the 
river. Ona and all believed that they had never seen such a lot 
of fire (phosphorescence) in the river as during that time. This 
phosphorescence, along with the clearness of the water, enabled 
the fish to see the nets and thus avoid them. This I believe to be 
partially true, for if the fish swim in small, narrow, separate shoals, as tiiey 
appear to do when not very plentiful in the river, then they might 
conceivably take fright at the glowing anchor and the chain, itc, and 
thus at the same time swim clear of the open mouth of the bagjiet. 
Against this idea, however, is the fact that very seldom were the nets 
brought up absolutely empty, while nearly every boat managed to 
capture from 5 to 3 crans of fish. During the daytime, however, it is a 
fact that little or no fish are caught if the water is very clear and the fish 
not very plentiful in the river. The fish avoid the light and swim at a 
much lower level, and thus avoid the open mouth of the bag-net. 



166 Part HI. — Twenty-third Annual Bcporl 



IX.— GENERAL INDEX TO THE SCIENTIFIC REPOin^S OF 
THE FISHERY BOARD FOR SCOTLAND, 1883-1904, 
WITH A LIST OF THE PAPERS CONTAINED IN THEM. 
Prepared by Dr. Thomas Wemyss Fultox, F.R S.E., Superin- 
tendent of Scientific Investigations. 



For some years it has been felt as a want, both by the staff of the 
Board and by those engaged elsewhere in fishery investigations and 
research, that there existed no general index to the numerous scientific 
papers contained in the Annual Reports of the Fishery Board. These 
reports now number over a score, extending back to the year 1882, and 
they necessarily contain a large amount of matter dealing with mai'ine 
biology and physics, and relating to fisheries and fisheiy problems. 1 
have endeavoured to supply the want referred to by the compilation of 
the index and list of scientific papers printed in the following pages. 

In the index the numbers referring to the various reports are 
enclosed within brackets ; from the sixth report onward, that namely 
for 1887, the reference is to Part III. of the Annual Report, the 
reports since the year named being divided into three parts, the third of 
which is that devoted to scientific investigations. In the list of papers 
the figures in brackets refer to the year of publication. 

List of Papers. 

Barrett, Dr. W. H. 

Note on the Liver of a Haddock in which a Sand-eel was partly 
Embedded. 3, p. 70, Pis. III.- V. (] 885). 

Beard, Dr. J. 

On the Development of the Common Skate {Raja hatis). 8, p. 300, 
Pis. IX.-XI. (1890). 

Brady, Professor G. S. 

1. Notes on Entomostraca. 5, p. 328, PI. XIX. (1887). 

2. De.scription of a new series of Cyclops. 6, p. 232 (1888). 

Brook. George. 

1 and 2. On the Development of the Herring. 3, p. 32, PI. J. 
(1885); 4, p. 31, Pis. I., II. (1886). 

3. Note on some of the specimens sent in bv the Officers of the 

Board. 3, p. 67 (1885). 

4. Report on the Herring Fishery of Loch Fyne and the adjacent 

districts during 1885. 4, p. 47 (1886). 

5. Report on the Food of the Haddock. 4, p. 128 (1886). 

6. Report on the Food of the Cod. 4, p. 134 (1886). 

7. Ichthyological Notes. 4, p. 222, Pi. IX. (1886). 

8. The Spawning-period of the British Food -fishes. 4, p. 242 

(1886). 

9. Notes on the Food of Young Gadidai. 5, p. 326 (1887). 
10 Notes on the Spawning of the Pike. 5, p. 347 (1887). 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 167 

Brook, George, and W. L. Calderwood. 

Report on the Food of the Herring. 4, p. 102 (1886). 

Brook, George, and Dr. Thomas Scott. 

List of the Marine Fauna collected at the Tarbert Laboratory 
during 1885. 4, p. 231 (1886). 

Calderwood, W. L. 

1. Notes on the Copepods of Loch Fyne. 4, p. 147 (1886). 

2. Notes on the Greenland Shark (Lfemargiis microcephalus). 4, 

p. 228, PI. X. (1886). 

3. Notes on an Intra-uterine specimen of the Porbeagle {Lamia 

cornubica). 6, p, 263 (1888). 

Clarkson, Dr. R. D. 

On the Nutritive Value and Relative Digestibility of Fresh Fish. 
5, p. 221 (1887). 

Cleve, Professor P. T. 

Report on the Phyto-plankton collected on the Expedition of 
H.M.S. " Research," 1896. 15, p. 297, PI. VIII. 

Cunningham, J. T. 

Zones of Growth in the Skeletal Structures of Gadida- and 
Pleuronectidffi. 23, p. 125 (1905). 

Daniel, Dr. Alfred. 

Abstract of a Report on the Fishery Statistics of Scotland. 7, 
p. 178(1889). 

Dannevig, Harold C 

1 to 5. Reports on the Hatching Operations at Dunbar Marine 
Hatchery during the Spring Sea.son, 1894, 12, p. 210 
(1894); 1895. 13, p. 123 (1895); 1896, 14, p. 150 (1896); 
1898, 17, p. 205, PL VIII. (1899); 1899, 18, p. 330 
(1900). 

6. The Influence of Tem])erature on the Development of the 

Eggs of Fishes. 13, p. 147, PI. I. (1895). 

7. On the Rearing of the Larval and Post-larval Stages of the 

Plaice and other Flat-fishes. 15, p. 175, PI. IV. (1897). 

8. Report on the Operations at Dunbar Marine Hatchery for 

the period July 1896 to December 1897, with some Notes 
on Rearing Experiments with Flat-fishes. 16, p. 219 (1898). 

9. On the Rate of Growth of Plaice. 17, p. 232, PI. IX. (1899). 
10 and 11. Reports on the Hatching Work at the Marine 

Hatchery, Bay of Nigg, Aberdeen, during the Spring 
Season, 1900, 19, p. 229 (1900) ; 1901, 20, p. 440 (1902). 

Day, Dr. Francis. 

Note on a new Blenny (Lavipenus lampetrceformis). 2, p. 78, 
PI. X. (1884). 

Dickson, Dr. H. N. 

1. Report on Phj'sical Inve.stigations carried out on board 
H.M.S. "Jackal," 1893-94. 12, p. 336, Pis. XVI.-XIX. 
(1894). 



168 rart J J J. — Tircnttj -third Anniud Report 

Dickson, Dr. H. 'N.—cojiHuued. 

2. Report on Physical Investigfttions carried out on board 
H.M.S. "Research" during August 1896. 15, p. 280 
(1897). 

Duthie, Robert. 

The Fisheries of Shetland. 10, p. 202 (1892). 

Edington, Dr. Alexander. 

1 . An Investigation into the Nature of the Organisms present in 

"Red" Cod, and as to the cau.se of the Red Coloration. 

6, p. 207, PLs. VI.. A^I. (1888). 

2. On the Saprolegnia of Salmon Disease and Allied Forms. 

7, p. 368, PI. IX. (1889). 

Ewart, Professor J. Cossar 

1. Natural History of the Herring. 2, p. 61, Pis. IV.-IX. (1884). 

2. Note on some of the specimens forwarded by the Officers of the 

Board. 2, p. 79, Pis. Xl.-XIII. (1884). 

3. Ohservations on the Spawning of Cod. 3, p. 52 (1885). 

4. Report on the Progress of Fish-cidture in America. 3, p. 78 (1 885). 

5. Are Herring Ova likely to Develop Normally on the Deep 

Offshore Fishing Banks? 4, p. 43 (1886). 

6. On the Artificial Hatching and Rearing of Sea-fish. 5, p. 230. 

Pis. VII.-X. (1887). 

7. Notes on the Nature of " Red " Cod. 6, p. 204 (1^88). 

Bwart, Professor J. C, and Sir J. R. G. Maitland, Bart. 

1. Report on the Trawling Experiments on the East Coast. 
5, p. 43, Pis. I.-III. (1887). 

2 and 3. Reports on the Trawling Experiments of the " Garland," 
and the Statistics of the East Coast Fisheries. 6, p. 25, 
Pis. I.-V. (1888); 7, p. 15. Pis. I., II. (1889). 

Bwart, Professor J. C, and J. Duncan Mathews. 

On the Nature of Thames and Forth Whitebait. 4, p. 98 (1886). 

Bwart, Professor J. C and Dr. T. Wemyss Pulton. 

1 . The Scottish Lobster Fishery. 6, p. 189 (1888). 

2. Repox't on the Spawning of the British Marine Food-fishes. 

7, p. 186 (1889). 

Fletcher, John. 

On the Tay Sprat Fishery, 1904-1905. 23, p. 156 (1905). 

Fryer, C E. 

The Preparation of Sprats and other Fish as Sardines. 5, p. 218 
/ (1887). 

Fullarton, Dr. J. H. 

1. Solway Shrimp and Flounder Fishings. 7, p. 175 (1889). 

2. On the Habits of Pecten, and on the Clam Beds of the Firth of 

Forth. 7, p. 341, PI. YIII. (1889). 

3. Report on Bait Experiments. 7, p. 352 (1889). 

4. The Cockle Beds of Barra. 8, p. 211, PI. IV. (1890). 



of the FUlierii Board for Scotland. 169 

PuUarton, Dr., J. H.—con/inued. . 

5. Oyster-culture in France and Holland. 8, p. 220 (1890). 

6. On the Development of the Scallop {Pecteu opercnlaris, L.). 8, 

p. 290, Pis. V.-VIII. (1890). 

7. On the Suitability of Scottish Waters for Oyster-culLure. 9, 

p. 184(1891). 

8. On Bouchot Mussel-culture and the Bouchot Experiments at 

St. Andrews. 9, p. 212 (1891). 
9 and 10. On the Development of the Plaice. 9, p. 311, Pis. 
Vn.-IX. (1891) ; 11, p. 274, PK XIII.-XVT. (189.3). 

11. The Clyde Mussel Beds. 10, p. 194, PI. V. (1892). 

12. On the Oviposition and Growth of the Lesser Sand-eel 

{Ammodjjtes tobimms, L.). 12, p. 31 :^. (1894). 

13. On the Historv of ^lu.ssel-culture at Montrose dining the past 

Six Years. " 13, p. 137 (1895). 

14. On the Larvf)l and Post-larval Development of the Brain of 

the Lesser Sand-eel. 13. p. 276, Pis. XL-XIIl. (1895). 

15. The European Lobster, Breeding and Development. 14, 

p. 186, PI, VL-YIII. (1896). 

Pullarton, J. H., and Dr. Thomas Scott. 

Mussel-farming at Montrose. 7, p. 327, PI. Vll. (1889). 

Pulton, Dr. T. Wemyss. 

1. An Account of the Contemporary Work relating to Fisheries, 

including Abstracts of the more important Papers. 6, 
p. 276 (1888). 

2. Reports from Hei- Majesty's Diplomatic and Consular Ofllcei's 

Abroad on the best means of Increasing the Demand in 
Foreign Countries for Scotch -cured Herrings and other 
Fish. 7, p. 158 (1889). 

3. Abstract of Reports by Mr. Thomas Scott on his Special 

Investigations on board Steam Trawlers. 7, P- 171 (1889). 

4. Abstract of a Report by Dr. Alfred Daniell on the Fishery 

Statistics of Scotland. 7, p- 178. 

5. Inquiries into the Nature of the Food, the Spawning, Habits, 

kc, of Marine Food-fishes, 7, p. 182 (1889). 
6 to 18. Report on the Trawling Experiments of the "Garland," 
and on the Statistics of East Coa.st Fisheries. 8, p. 22, Pis. 
I.-III. (1890); 9, p. 21, Pis. I., II. (1891); 10, p. 23, 
Pis. I. and II. (1892); 11, p. 23, PI. I. (1893); 12, p. 23 
(1894); 13, p. 17 (1895); 14. p. 17 (1896); 15, p. 17 
(1897); 16, p. 17 (1898); 17, p. 17 (1899); 18, p. 19 
(1900); 19, p. 17 (1901); 20, p. 17 (1902). 

19. The Distribution of Immature Sea-fish, and their Capture by 

various Modes of Fishing. 8, p. 157 (1890). 

20. The Spawning and Spawning Places of Marine Food-fi.shes. 

8, p. 257 (1890). 

21. The Proportional Numbers and Sizes of the Sexes among Sea- 

fishes. 8, p. 348 (1890). 

22. Notes and Memoranda. 8, p. 351 (1890). 

23. Notes on Oontemporai-y Work relating to Fisheries in this and 

other Countries. 8, p. 359 (1890). 

24. The Chief Fishing Grounds on the East Coast of Scotland, with 

Charts showing their Position and Extent. 9, p. 177, Pis. 
III., IV. (1891). 

25. The Capture and Destruction of Immature Sea-fish. 9, p. 201 

(1891). 



1 70 P((rf TIT. — Ttventij-iliird Annual Report 

Fulton, Dr T. VTevoYss— continued. 

26. The Comparative Fecundity of Sea-fishes. 9, p. 243 (1891). 

27 to 31. An Account of Contemporary Scientific Fishery Work 
and Fisheries in this and other Countries. 9, p. 388 
(181)1); 10, p. 327 (1892); 11, p. 48G (1893) ; 12, p. 383 
(1894); 13, p. 332 (1895). 

32. On Over-fishing of the Sea and the Culture of Sea-fish. 10, 

p. 171, Pis. III., IV. (1892). 

33. Observations on the Reproduction, Matuiity. and Sexual 

Relations of the Food-fishes. 10, p. 232, PI.' VI. (1892). 

34. An Experimental Investigation on the Migrations and Rate of 

Growth of the Food-fishes. 11, p. 176 (1893). 

35. An Account of the Sea-fish Hatchery at Dunbar. 12, p. 190, 

PI. I. (1894). 

36. The Capture and Destruction of Immature Sea-fish. The 

Relation between the Size of the Mesh of Trawl-nets and 
the Fish Captured. 12, p. 302 (1894). 

37. The Capture and Destruction of Immature Fish. The Relation 

between the Size of Hooks and the Size of Fish Captured. 

13, p. 133 (1895). 

38. The Relation of Marine Currents to Ofishore Spawning Areas 

and Inshore Nurseries. 13, p. 153, PI. II. (1895). 

39. Review of the Trawling Experiments of the "Garland" in the 

Firth of Forth and St. Andrews Bay in the years 1886-1895. 

14, p. 128, Pis. I., II. (1896). 

40. The Past and Present Condition of the Oyster Beds in the 

Firth of Forth. 14, p. 244, Pis. X., XI. (1896). 

41 . The Currents of the North Sea and their Relation to Fisheries. 

15, p. 334, Pis. X., XI. (1897). 

V- 42. On the Growth and Maturation of the Ovarian Eggs of 
Teleostean Fi.shes. 16, p. 88, PI. I. (1898). 

43. The Ovaries and Ovarian Eggs of the Angler or Frog-fish 

{Lophius piscatorius) and of the John Doiy {Zeus faher). 

16, p. 125, Pis. II., III. (1898). 

44. On the Migratory Movements and Rate of Growth of the Grey 

or Common Gurnard. 17, p. 210 (1899). 

45. Report of an Inquiry on the Action of the Herring Seine-net. 

18, p. 242 (1900). 

46. Additional Note on the Surface Currents of the North Sea. 

18, p. 370 (1900). 

47. Investigations made on board Steam Trawlers. 19, p. 58 

(1901). 

48. On the Rate of GroAvth of the Cod, Haddock, Whiting, and 

Norway Pout. 19, p. 154, Pis. IX.-XVI. (1901). 
49 to 53. Ichthyological Notes. 19, p. 282 (1901); 20, p. 539 
(1902); 21, p. 228(1903); 22, p. 281, PI. XVIII. (1904); 
23, p. 250 (1905). 

54. North Sea Investigations. 20, p. 73, Pis. I.-III. (1902). 

55. Rate of Growth of Sea-fishes. 20, p. 326, Pis. XIV.-XXI. 

(1902). 

56. Investigations on the Abundance, Distribution, and Migration 

of the Food-fishes. 21, p. 15, PI. I. (1903). 
57 to 59. Reports on the Operations at the Maiine Hatchery, Bay 

of Nigg, Aberdeen. 21, p. 180 (1903); 22, p. 262 (1904); 

23, p. 120(1905). 
60. The Distribution, Growth, and Food of the Angler. 21, 

p. 186 (1903). 
61 and 62. Trawling Investigations. 22, p. 13 (1904); 23, P- 13 

(1905). 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 17 J 

Fulton, Dr. T. Wemyss— co?i^j?«tet?. 

63. On the Rate of Growth of Fishes. 22, p. Ul, Pis. VI.-XII. 

(1904). 

64. General Index to the Scientific Reports of the Fishery Board 

for Scotland, 1883-1904. 23, p. 166. 

Pulton, Dr. T. Wemyss, and Dr. J. H. FuUarton. 

Notes on Contemporary Work relating to Fisheries in this and 
other Countries. 7, p. 384 (1889). 

Gibson, Dr. John. 

1. Report on the Physical Observations made for the Fishery 

Board for Scotland during the Autumn of 1883 in the 
Moray Firth. 4, p. 189, Pis. VI., VII. (1886). 

2. Report on Observations relating to the Physics and Chemistry 

of the North Sea during 1888 and 1889, and including a 
Review of the Analytical Work hitherto undertaken for the 
Fishery Board for Scotland. 7, p 409, Pis. X.-XIII. (1889). 

Gibson, Dr. John, and Dr. H. R. Mill. 

1. Report on the Apparatus required for carrying on Physical 

Observations in connection with the Fisheries. 6, p. 309, 
Pis. IX., X. (1888). 

2. Repoi-t on a Physical and Chemical Examination of the Waters 

in the Moray Firth, and the Firths of Inverness, Cromarty, 
and Dornoch. 6, p. 313, Pis XI.-XIV. (1888). 

Gray, David. 

Notes from Personal Observations on the Habits of the Greenland 
Whalebone Whale. 7, p. 365 (1889). 

Greenfield, Professor W. S., and Dr. John Gibson. 

Further Report on the Examination of River Waters for Micro- 
organisms. 5, p. 331 (1887). 

Greenfield, Professor W. S., and Dr. G. Sims Woodhead. 

Fui-ther Report on the Examination of River Waters for Micro- 
organisms. 4, p. 176 (1886). 

Halliburton, Dr. W. D. 

On the Blood of Nephrojis norivegicus. 4, p. 171 (1886). 

Heincke, Professor Priedrich. 

The Natural History of the Herring. 17, p. 274 (1899). 

Herbertson, Dr. Andrew J. 

Report on the Physical Observations carried on by the Fishery 
Board for Scotland during 1893. 13, p. 302 (1895). 

Hoyle, Dr. William B. 

Report on the Biological Investigations on the Sea to the West of 
Lewis during July and August 1887. 6, p. 215. PI. XV. 

(1888). 

Kyle, Dr. Harry M. 

1 . Report oii the Pelagic Ova, Larvae, and Young Fishes procured 
by the s.s. "Garland" during the greater part of 1896, 
15, p. 246 (1897). 



172 Ptrri TIL — Ttrenlij-third Annual Report 

Kyle, Dr. Harry yi.— continued. 

2. Note on the lleproductive Organs of a Heimaphrodite Ling. 

15, p. 396 (1897). 

3. On the Post-larval Stages of the Plaice, Dab, Flounder, Long 

Rough Dab, and Lemon Dab. 16, p. 225, Pis. X., XI. 
(1898). 

4. Contributions towards the Natural Historv of the Plaice. 18 

p. 189, Pis. IX., X. (1900). 

5. The Classification of the Flat-fishes {ffeterosomata). 18, p. 335, 

Pis. XL, XII. (1900). 

Lawrence, George. 

Note on a Tumour found attached to the Stomach of a Saithe. 

13, p. 236 (1895). 

M'Intosh, Professor W. C. 

1 to 5. Reports of the St. Andrews Marine Laboratoiy. 2, p. 47 
(1884); 3, p. 55, PI. IL (1885); 4, p. 201, Pi. VIIL 
(1886) ; 5, p. 354 (18S7) ; 6, p. 265 (1888). 

G and 7. On the Pelagic Fauna of the Bay of St. Andrews during 
the months of 1888. 7, p. 259, Pis. III. -VI. (1889) ; 8, 
p. 270 (1890). 

8. Report on the Pelagic Ova, Larval, and Young Food-fishes 

procured by the " Garland." 8, p. 270 (1890). 

9. Further Observations on the Life-histories and Development of 

the Food and other Fishes. 9, p. 317, Pis. X.-XIIl. 
(1891). 
10 to 15. Contributions to the Life-liistories and Development of 
the B^ood and other Fishes. 10, p. '273, Pis. XVI., XVII. 
(1892); 11, p. 239, Pis. VIII.-XII. (1893); 12, p. 218, 
Pis. II.-IV. (1894); 13. p. 221, Pis. VI.-VIII. (1895; 

14, p. 171 (1896) ; 15, p. 194, Pis. V.-VIL (1897). 

16. The Pelagic Fauna of the Bay of St. Andrews. 11, p. 284 

(1893). 

17. Remarks on Trawling. 12, p. 165 (1894). 

Maclagan, Nellie. 

List of Edible British Fishes, with their English, Latin, French. 
Italian, and German Synonyms. 2, p. 74 (1884). 

Maitland, Sir J. R. G., Bart. 

Note on the Intercrossing of Members of the Genus Salmo. 7, 
p. 382 (1889). 

Masterman, Dr. Arthur T. 

1. G«eneral Report on the Pelagic Eggs, Larval, and Young Fishes 

procured by the "Garland " in 1892 and 1893. ll, p. 250 
(1893). 

2. On the Skeleton of the Tunny. 12, p. 272, Pis. XL, XIL 

(1894). 

3. On the Rate of Growth of the Marine Food and other Fishes. 

13, p. 289 (1895). 

4. On Hermaphroditism in the Cod. 13, p. 207, PI. XIV. (1895). 

5. On the Rate of Growth of the Food-fishes. 14, p. 294, 

Pis. XIL, XIIL (1896). 

6. A Review of the Work of the " Garland " in connection with the 

Pelagic Eggs of the Food-fishes (1890-96). 15, p. 219 
(1897). 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 173 

Matthews, J. Duncan. 

I. Report on the Sprat Fishing during the Winter of 1883-84. 

2, p. 48, PI. III. (1884). 
2 and 3. Report as to Variety among the Herrings of the Scottish 

Coasts. Part I. 4, p. 61 (1886) ; 5, p. 295 (1887). 

4. Note on the Ova, Fry, and Nest of the Ballan Wrasse (Labrus 

maculatus). 5, p. 245, PI. XI. (1887). 

5. On the Structure of the Herring and other Clupeoida. 5, p. 257, 

Pis. XV.-XVIII. (1887). 

6. The Food of the Whiting (Gadus merlangus). 5, p. 317 (1887). 

Mill, Dr. Hugh Robert. 

1 . On the Physical Conditions of the Waters of the Firth of Forth. 

5, p. 349, Pis. XX.-XXIII. (1887). . 

2. Report of Physical Observations on the Sea to the West of 

Lewis during July and August 1887. 6, p. 349, Pis. XV.- 
XVII. (1888). 

3. Report on the Physical Observations carried on by the Fishery 

Board for Scotland in the Firths of Forth and Tay, and in 
the Clyde Sea Area. 9, p. 353, Pis. XVI., XVII. (1891). 

4. Report on Physical Observations bearing on the Circulation of 

the Water in Loch Fyne in April and September 1896. 
15, p. 262 (1897). 

Mill, Dr. Hugh Robert, and Dr. Andrew J. Herbertson. 

Report on the Physical Observations carried on by the Fishery 
Board for Scotland in the Firths of Forth and Tay, and in 
the Clyde Sea Area, as well as the Observations made on 
board the cruisers " Jackal " and " Vigilant " round the 
Scottish Coasts. 11, p. 395, PI. XVIII. (1893). 

Milroy, Professor T. H. 

The Physical and Chemical Changes taking place in the Ova of 
certain Marine Teleosteans during Maturation. 16, p. 135 
(1898). 

Murray, Dr. George. 

Report on Observations on Plant-plankton. 15, p. 212 (1897). 

Murray, J. 

The Fishing Grounds of the Stonehaven District. 6, p. 223 (1 888). 

Norman, Rev. Canon A. M. 

On a Crangon, some Schizopoda, and Cumacea new to or rare in 
the British Seas. 4, p. 155 (1886). 

Pearcey, Frederick G. 

The Echinoderms of the Moray and Cromarty Firths. 20, p. 304 
(1902). 

Prince, Professor B. B. 

1. Notes on the Development of the Angler Fish {Lophius 

piscatorms). 9, p. 343, Pis. XIV., XV. (1891). 

2. Some Features in the Egg and Larva of the Skulpin {Calliony- 

mus lyra). 9, p. 349, PI. XIII. (1891). 



174 Part III. — Tinenty -third Annual Report 

Prince, Professor B. E., and Dr. J. Lindsay Steven. 

On two Lai'ge Tumours in a Haddock and a Cod. 10, p. 323, 
PI. XVII. (1892). 

Sandeman, G-eorge. 

1. On the Multiple Tumours in Plaice and Flounders. 11, p. 391, 

PI. XV 11. (1893). 

2. On a Tumour from a Tunny. 11, p. 392, PI. XII. (1893), 

3. Parasitic Skin Disease in Montagu's Sucker. 11, p. 393, 

PI. XVII. (1893). 

4. A Cod with one Eye. 11, p. 394 (1893). 

5. Notes on the Physiology and Pathology of Fishe.s. 12, p. 291 

(1894). 

Scott, Dr. Thomas. 

1. Notes on the Contents of the Stomachs of Herring and 

Haddocks. 6, p. 225 (1888). 

2. Description of a new Copepod. 6, p. 232 (1888). 

3. A Revised List of the Crustacea of the Firth of Forth. 6, 

p. 235 (1888). 

4. Notes on Interesting Fishes. 6, p. 264 (1888). 

5. Some Additions to the Fauna of the Fii-th of Forth, with Notes 

of some Rare East Coast Forms. 7, p. 311 (1889). 
6 to 12. Additions to the Fauna of the Firth of Forth. 8, p. 312, 

Pis. XII., XIII. (1890); 9, p. 300 (1891); 10, p. 244, 

Pis. VII.-XIII. (1892); 11, p. 197, Pis. II.-V. (1893); 

12, p. 231, Pis. V.-X. (1894); 13, p. 165, Pis. III., IV. 

(1895); 14, p. 158, Pis. III.-IV. (1896). 
13, The Invertebrate Fauna of Inland Waters. Report on 

Loch Coulter and the Coulter Burn, Stirlingshire. 8, 

p. 334 (1890). 
14 to 20. The Invertebrate Fauna of the Inland Waters of Scotland. 

9, p. 269, Pis. v., VI. (1891); 11, p. 220, Pis. VL, VII. 

(1893); 12, p. 284(1894); 13, p. 237, Pis. IX., X. (1895); 

14, p. 167 (1896); 15, p. 316, PI. IX. (1897); 16, p. 248 

(1898). 

21. The Marine Fishes and Invertebrates of Loch Fyne. 15, 

p. 107, Pis. I.-III. (1897). 

22. Notes on the Animal-plankton fi-om H.M.S. " Research." 15, 

p. 305 (1897). 

23. On the Distribution of Pelagic Invertebrate Fauna of the Firth 

of Forth and its vicinity dining the seven years from 1889 
to 1895, both inclusive. 16, p. 153, Pis. IV.-VII. (1898). 

24. Some Additions to the Invertebrate Fauna of Loch Fyne. 16, 

^ p. 261, Pis. Xir.-XV. (1898). 

25. The Invertebrate Fauna of the Inland Waters of Scotland. 

Report on Special Investigation. 17, p. 132, PI. VII. (1899). 

26. Notes on recent Gatherings of Micro-crustacea from the 

Clyde and the xVIoray Firth. 17, p. 248, Pis. X.-XIII. 
(1899). 

27. Notes on some Crustacean Parasites of Fishes. 18, p. 144, 

Pis. V.-VIII. (1900). 

28. The Fishes of the Firth of Clyde. 18, p. 272 (1900). 

29. Notes on some Gatherings of Crustacea collected for the most 

part on board the Fishery steamer "Garland," and ex- 
amined auring the past year (1899). 18, p. 382, Pis. 
XIII.-XIV. (19C0) 



of the Fisherij Board for Scotland. 175 

Scott, Dr. Th.omB,S— continued. 

30 and 31. Notes on some Parasites of Fishes. 19, p. 120, Pis. 
YIL, VIII. (1901); 20, p. 288, Pis. XIL, XIII. (1903). 

32. Notes on Gatherings of Crustacea collected for the most part 

by the Fishery steamer " Garland," and the steam trawler 
" St. Andrew," of Aberdeen, and examined during the year 
1900. 19, p. 235, Pis. XVII., XVIII. (1901). 

33. Notes on the Gatherings of Crustacea collected by the Fishery 

steamer " Garland," and the steam-trawlers " Star of Peace " 
and "Star of Hope," of Aberdeen, during the year 1901. 
20, p. 447, Pis. XXII.-XXV. (1902). 

34. Observations on the Food of Fishes. 20, p. 486 (1902). 

35. On some New and Rare Crustacea collected at various times in 

connection with the Investigations of the Fishery Board 
for Scotland. 21, p. 109, Pis. II.-VI. (1903). 

36. Some further Observations on the Food of Fishes, with a Note 

on the Food observed in the Stomach of a Common 
Porpoise. 21, p. 218 (1 903). 

37. Notes on some Rare and Interesting Marine Crustacea. 22, 

p. 242, Pis. XIII.-XV. (1904). 

38. t)n some Parasites of Fishes new to the Scottish Marine 

Fauna. 22, p. 275, PI. XVII. (1904). 

39. Observations on some Parasites of Fishes new or rare in 

Scottish Waters. 23, p. 108, Pis. V., VI. (1905). 

40. On some New and Rare Crustacea from the Scottish Seas. 23, 

p. 141, Pis. X.-XIIl. (1905). 

Scott Dr. Thomas, and Mr. Robert Duthie. 

1 and 2. The Inland Waters of the Shetland Islands. 13, p. 174» 
PI. V. (1895); 14, p. 229, PI. IX. (189G). 

3 and 4. An Account of the Examination of some of the Lochs of 
Shetland. 15, p. 327 (1897) ; 16, p. 253 (1898). 

Smith, W. Anderson. 

1. West Coast Fauna of " Garland " Expedition. 9, p. 297 (1891). 

2. Report on Spanish Sardines. 10, p. 160 (1892). 

3. The West Coast Expedition of the " Garland " during July and 

August 1892. 11, p. 167 (1893). 

4. On Protective Resemblance in the Lumpsucker. 11, p. 390 

(1893). 

Smith, Dr. W. Ramsay. 

1 to 4. On the Food of Fishes. 7, p. 222 (1889); 8, p. 230 
(1890); 9, p. 222 (1891); 10, p. 211 (1892). 

5. A Case of Hermaphi-oditism in a Haddock. 9, p. 352 (1891). 

Stewart, Professor Charles Hunter. 

Note on the Carbonic Acid and Micro-organisms in the Air at 
various Stations during the cruise of H.M.S. "Jackal." 
7, p. 472 (1889). 

Stirling, Professor William. 

1. On the Chemistiy and Histology of the Digestive Organs of 

Fishes. 2, p. 31, Pis. I., II. (1884). 

2. On Red and Pale Muscles in Fishes. 4, p. 166, Pis. III.- V. 

(1886), 



176 Part III. — Tiaenti/ -third Annual Report 

Stirling", Professor Willisbm—continmr/. 

3. Some Economic Products from Fish and Corresponding 
Vegetable Products. 4, p. 256 (1886). 

Tosh, Dr. James R. 

1. List of some of the Pelagic Ova, Larvae, and Young Fishes 

obtained off the East Coast in May, &c., 1904. 12, p. 300 
(1894). 

2. On the Rate of Growth of certain Marine Fishes. 12, p. 333 

(1894). 

Wallace, William. 

List of some of the Pelagic Ova, Larvae, and Young Fishes collected 
by the ''Garland" during the latter half of 1895. 14, 
p. 223 (1896). 

Williamson, Dr. H. Charles. 

1. On the Rate of Growth of certain Marine Food-fishes. 11, 

p. 265 (1893). 

2. Li.st of some of the Pelagic Ova, Larvae, and Young Fishes 

obtained by the s.s. "Garland" and boat " Dalhousie " in 
1894. 12, p. 298 (1894). 

3. On the Anatomy of the Pectoral Arch of the Grey Gurnard 

(Trigla gurnardus), with Special Reference to its Innerva- 
tion. 12, p. 322, Pis. XIII.-XV. (1894). 

4. On the Reproduction of the Eel. 13, p. 19:i (1895). 

5. List of the Pelagic Ova, Larvae, and Young Fishes procured 

by the s.s. " Garland " and boat " Dalhousie." 13, p. 258 
(1895). 
6 On the Variation in Size of certain Pelagic Ova. 13, p. 271 
(1895). 

7. Note on some points in Teleostean Development. 16, p. 211, 

Pis. VIII., IX. (1898). 

8. On the Pelagic Fish Eggs and Larvae of Loch Fyne. 17, 

p. 79, Pis. II.-VI. (1899). 

9. Contributions to the Life-histories of the Edible Crab. 18, 

p. 77, Pis. I.-IV. (1900). 

10. On the Mackerel of the EaHt and West Coasts of Scotland. 

18, p. 294 (1900). 

11. On the Larval Stages of Decapod Crustacea. The Shrimp 

{Urangon vulgaris, Fabr.). 19, p. 92, Pis. I.-VI. (1901). 

12. A Comparison between the Cod, the Saithe, and the Lythe in 

respect to certain External and Osteological Characters. 
20, p. 228 (1902). 

1 3. On the Larval and Early Young Stages and Rate of Growth 

of the Shore Crab. 21, p. 136, Pis. VII.-XIII. (1903). 

14. ContribvTtions to the Life-histories of the Edible Crab {Cancer 

2)agwus) and of other Decapod Crustacea. 22, p. 100, 
Pis. I.-V. (1904). 

15. On the Post-larval and Early Young Stages of the Witch. 

22, p. 270, PI. XVI. (1904). 

16. A Contribution to the Life-history of the Lobster {Homarus 

vulgaris). 23, p. 65, Pis. I.-IV. (1905), 

17. A Note on the Hatching of the Crab (Cancer pagurus). 23, 

p. 154 (1905). 



of the Fishery Board jor Scotland. 



177 



Wilson, Dr. John. 

1 and 2. Keport on the Development of the Common Mussel. 
4, p. -218 (1886) ; 5, p. 247, Pis. XII.-XIV. (1887). 

Wilson, Peter. 

The Solway Fishmg. 4, p. 255 (1886). 
Woodhead, Professor Gr. Sims. 

Note on Caseous Tumours found in the Muscles of the Hake. 3, 
p. 76 (1885). 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Aberdeen Bay, bye-law closing, against 

beam -trawling, (5) 44, (6) 26. 
larval fishes of, (8) 289 ; (11) 264 ; 

(14) 225. 
pelagic eggs of fishes in, (8) 289 ; 

(11)264; (12)300; (14)225. 

physical conditions of, (5) 65. 

post-larval fishes of, (8)289; (11) 

264; (14)225. 
trawling experiments in. Set "Gar- 
land." 
trawling investigations in. See 

Trawling investigations. 

trawling stations in, (5) 65. 

yoinig fishes of, (8) 289 ; (11) 264; 

(14*) 225. 
Aberdeen district, fish landed by net and 

line boats and steam-trawlers, (6) 155. 
monthly "takes" of fish in, from 

April to December, 1887, (6) 97. 
statistics of fish landed by net and 

line boats and trawlers, (6) 160. 
Aberdeenshire, fishing grounds ofl", (9) 

181. 
Abraalba, (15) 128. 

prismatira, (15) 129. 

Acanthias indgaris. See Dog-fish, picked. 
Acanthocercus sordidus, (9) 291 ; (11) 

232. 
Acanthocotyle elegans, (20) 301. 

lohiancoi, (20) 300. 

monticeUii, (20) .SOO. 

oUgoterns, (20) 301. 

Acanthodoris pilosa, (15) 116. 
Acantholeheris curvirostris, (13) 245, 250 ; 

(14) 239 ; (15) 330, 333 ; (16) 250, 252 ; 

(17) 141, 144, 14.5, 184, 200. 
Acanthonotus ovjenii, (8) .328. 

testudo, (8) 328. 

Aeartia, distribution of, in the Firth of 

Forth, (16) 186. 
bifilosii.^, (10) 244 ; (19) 239 ; (20) 

454. 
dausi, (12) 235 ; (15) 147, 305, 306, 

&c. ; (16) 177, 182 ; (17) 252 ; (19) 239 ; 

(20) 504. 



Aeartia discaudatus, (9) 300 ; (10) 245 ; 

(19) 239. 

longu-emLs, (10) 244 ; (11) 203 ; (16) 

177. 

>ietiyer, (9) 301. 

sp., (16)210. 

Acera brdlata, (15) 116. 

Acerina vulgaris. See Ruff. 

Aceros phi/flomjx, (19)236, 261 ; (20)510. 

Acidmtorna ohesiivi, (12) 262 ; (19) 258 ; 

(20) 497, 510 ; (22) 257. 
Acipenser sturio. See Sturgeon. 
Achceus cranchii, (15) 130. 
Achirina, (18) 351, 352, 358. 
Achirus, (18) 358. 

Achy-Lochy, Argyle, invertebi'ate fauna 

of, (15) 318. 
Adis suprrinithla, (15) 120. 
AcnvKi ft-sfitdincdis, (15) 122. 
Acontiophorus elongntus, (12) 261 ; (16) 

278. 

ornatm, (20) 449, 472. 

scutatns, (6) 242. 

Acroperus harpa', (8) 339 ; (9) 273, 277, 

292 ; (11) 232 ; (12) 286 ; (13) 188, 245, 

250 ; (14) 168, 239 ; (15) 321, 333 ; (16) 

252, 260; (17) 140, 145, 149, 150. 

leucocephcdus, (9) 292. 

nanus, (9) 293 ; (11) 233. 

Act>t07i tornatilis, (15) 115. 

Action of light on larva?, (5) 246. 

Actinia equina, (15) 163. 

Actinife, larval, parasitic, en Hydro- 

medusaB, (6) 281. 
Actinozoa of Loch Fyne, (15) 163. 

as food for haddocks, (4 i29 

Adheres percarum, (19) 132. 

Adamsia palliata, (15) 163. 

Adeorbis subcarinatus, (15) 120 ; (20) 

522. 
JEga bicarvnata, (15) 135. 

monophthalma, (18) 180. 

stroma, (18) 180. 

tridens, (18) 180. 

JEgirus punctilucens, (15) 116. 

jEsopia cormda, (18) 359. 

.Etidius armafvs, (15) 307, 311, 313 ; (19) 

238; (20)451. 



178 



Part III. — Ticenty -third Annual Report 



) 352. 

(15) 321, 
149, 155, 

(13) ISS, 
; (17)140, 



Aflalo, Ml- F. G., (18)280. 
Age of cod, (19)228. 

common dab at maturity, (20) 371. 

haddock, (19)214. 

at maturity, (20) 410. 

plaice, (17) 238 ; (20) 357. 

at maturity, (20) 359, 360. 

sardine, (8) 374. 

sharp-tailed Litmpenus, (22) 203. 

sprat, (22) 180. 

whiting, (19) 186. 

at maturity, (20) 400. 

witch, (22) 195. 

Aglaophenia myriophyllum, (15) 164. 
Aglaia complanata, (5) 328 ; (8) 320. 
Agonus cafaphractus. See Armed bull 

head. 
Alaska, fisheries of, (9) 401. 
Alauna rostrata, (6) 253. 
Albino plaice, (22) 286 ; (23) 252. 
Alcyonium digitatnm, (15) 163. 
Alcyonicola fumforinis, (14) 164. 

palmatam, (7) 347. 

Alderia modtsta, (8) 331 : (15) 117. 
Alexia Mdentata, (15) 117. 
Alkalinity of Firth of Forth, (I 
AUorchestes )iilssoni, (6) 246. 
Alona affinis, (14) 168, 239 ; 

333 ; (16) 252, 260 ; (17) 140 

160, 164, 173, 179. 180, 184. 
costata, (9) 293 ; (11) 233 : 

189, 250 ; (14) 168 ; (15) 321 

184. 

exigua, (16) 260. 

falcata, (11) 234. 

guttata, (9) 275, 293 ; (11) 233 ; (12) 

286 ; (13) 188, 190, 245, 250 ; (14) 168, 

239 ; (15) 321, 333 ; (17) 140, 145, 150, 

155, 160, 164, 168, 173, 184. 
intermedia, (13) 188 ; (14) 239 ; (15) 

330, 333 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 145, 150, 155, 

173, 184, 200. 

leydigii, (9) 292. 

neglecta, (13) 188, 189, 245, 250, 255; 

(14) 239 ; (16) 259, 260- 
quadrangularis, (9) 273, 293; (11) 

233 ; (12) 286, 288 ; (13) 188, 245, 250 ; 

(14) 239 ; (15) 321, 333 ; (16) 252, 260 ; 
(17) 140, '150, 155, 160, 164, 168, 173, 
184 ; (20) 505. 

rustica, (13) 188, 189, 245, 255 ; 

318, 321, 326, 333 ; (16) 250, 252 ; 

140, 145, 155, 173, 184, 200. 
temiicauda, (9) 275, 292; (17) 

184, 200. 
Alonella excisa, (9) 293. 
exigua, (9) 273, 293 ; (11) 233 ; 

188, 190, 245, 250 ; (14) 168 ; (15) 321, 

333 ; (17) 140, 145, 150, 155, 164, 173, 

184, 200. 
nana, (9) 273, 277, 293, 296; (11) 

233 ; (13) 188, 245, 250 ; (14) 168, 239 ; 

(15) 821, 323 ; (17) 141, 145, 150, 155, 
164, 173, 184. 

pygmcea, (9) 293 ; (11) 233. 

Alonopsis elongata, (9) 273, 292, 293 ; (11) 
232 ; (12) 286, 288 ; (13) 188, 190, 245, 
250 ; (14) 168, 239 ; (15) 321, 333 ; (16) 
252, 257, 260 ; (17) 140, 145, 149, 150, 
153, 155, 164, 173, 177, 184. 



(15) 

(17) 

168, 



13) 



Alteutha depremt, (6) 241 ; (8) 320 ; (15) 

152; (16) 177, 210. 

iuterrupta, (6) 241 ; (15) 152. 

purpurociiirta, (6) 241 ; (19)250. 

Alvania uby-idcola, (15) 120. 

cancellata, (15) 119. 

carinata, (15) 120. 

reticulata, (15) 119. 

Amathia cariiio-spino-sa, (7) 321. 
Amafhilla homari, (15) 140; (16) 170, 

177, 210 ; (19) 263, 271 ; (20) 500, 519, 

525 ; (22) 257. 

sahini, (7) 321. 

Ameira ambigua, (21) 114. 

elegans, (23) 144. 

exigua, (12) 243. 

exilis, (12) 242. 

longicaudata, (10) 250 ; (15) 149 ; 

(21) 115. 

longipes, (8) 318 ; (19) 248 ; (21) 114. 

longiremis, (12) 241, 242 ; (15) 149. 

propinqua, (20) 449, 460. 

pusil/a, (21) 114. 

rejexa, (12) 240 ; (20) 503. 

temiicornis, (20) 449, 459. 

Ammodiscus charoides, (16) 275. 

gordialis, (8) 314 ; (15) 166. 

incertus, (J) 314. 

sho)ieanns, (16) 275. 

Ammodytes lanceolatus. See Sand-eel, 

greater. 

tohianus. See Sand-eel, lesser. 

Ammopleurops lacteus, (18) 359. 
Ammotrypane au/ogaster, (15) 159. 
Ampelisca cequicornis, (6) 248. 
assimilis, (11) 214; (20) 477, 503, 

510, 516, 523. 

helliana, (11)214. 

hrevicornis, (19)259; (20) 478, 491, 

523, 524. 

eschrichtii, (15) 138. 

Icevigata, (6) 230, 248; (11) 214; (15) 

138 ; (17) 264. 
macrocephala, (6) 248; (19) 259; 

(20) 510, 516, 520, 523, 529. 
spinipes, (11) 214, 215; (15) 138; 

(17) 264 ; (19) 259 ; (20) 477, 496, 516, 

519 ; (22) 257. 
temdcorui% (6) 248 ; (11) 214 ; (15) 

138. 

fm<^", (6) 248 ; (15) 138 ; (20) 523. 

sp., (16)210. 

Amphidotus rordntus, (20) 510. 

Amphilochoides Jioeckii, (14) 159. 

intermedins, (14) 159 ; (19) 236, 260 ; 

(20) 478, 510. 
odontonyx, (11) 215 ; (14) 159 ; (17) 

265; (19)260; (20) 510. 
pusillus, (11) 215; (12) 263; (17) 

265. 
Amphilochus manudens, (6) 246; (11) 

215; (15) 138; (20)510. 

sabrince, (8) .326. 

tennimanus, (17) 265 ; (20) 478, 491, 

516, 523. 
Amphioxus lanceolatus. See Lancelet. 
Amphipoda of Lochs and Inland Waters. 

See Fauna, Invertebrate. 

of Firth of Forth, (16) 170. 

of Loch Fyne, (16) 262. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



179 



Amphithiie littorina, (6) 249. 

podoreroides, (6) 248. 

ruhricata, (15) 141. 

Amphithoptis /atipes, (8) 328. 
Amphiurahalli, (20)312. 

chiajii, (15) 161 ; (20) 314, 319, 324. 

filiformis, (15) 161 ; (20) 314, 319, 

324. 

elegaiis, (15) 162 ; (20) 312, 319, 324. 

Amphora oval is, (9) 274. 
Amyrnone uigrans, (18) 389. 

fiphcerica, (4) 150 ; (6) 239 ; (15) 149. 

Aiiapagurus chiroacanthit-s, (15) 131 ; (20) 

510. 
hyndmanni, (6) 258 ; (15) 131 ; (20) 

496. 
lan'is, (6) 258 ; (15) 131 ; (20) 516, 

522. 
Anarrhkhas lupus. See Cat-fish. 
Anceus muxillaris, (7) 321 ; (15) 135. 
Anchialus agilii^, (18) 404. 
Anchorella hren'co/lis, (19) 135. 

emarginata, (18) 176. 

ovalis, (19) 133. 

rugosa, (9) 306 ; (IS) 176. 

scombri, (19) 135. 

stellata, (18) 178 ; (19) 1.33. 

nncinata, (9) 306 ; (15) 155; (18) 177. 

Anchovies, fisheries for, (8) 352. 

migration of, (13) 333. 

in English Channel, (8) 362. 

in Scottish waters. (8) 15, 351. 

Anchovy, embryo of, (16) 214. 

fishing, relation of temperature to, 

(9) 415. 
life-history and development of, (6) 

306. 

larva of, (16) 215, 216, 217. 

occurrence of, at Aberdeen, (20) 

539. 
occurrence of, in Firth of Forth, 

(20) 539. 
occurrence of, in Wigton Bay, (23) 

252. 
researches on, by Marion, (8) 353, 

372. 
spawning period of, (4) 252 ; (6) 

306. 
Ancylopsetta, (18) 356. 
Ancylus fluviatili.% (8) 338, 340, 341 ; 

(13)244, 249; (16) 251. 

facu.stris, (15) ,320. 

Anderson, M. J. G., (12) 24. 

Mr J. M., (12)218. 

Anemonia sidcata, (15) 163. 
Anemophila peltata, (21) 129. 
Ar\gG\-fish (Rhina sqxiatina, {A) 227; (18) 

292. 

occurrence of, (20) 541. 

parasites of, (20) 295. 

Angler, monk, or frog-fish (Lophius 

piscaforiiis), (18) 276 ; (19) 138. 

age at maturity, (21) 194. 

change of volume of eggs of, during 

maturation, (16) 142. 

character of yolk in, (16) 118. 

development of, (9) 15, 343. 

distribution of, (21) 186. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 176. 



(6) 



Angler, eggs of, (10) 297 ; (16) 150 ; (21) 

189 

fecundity of, (9) 251. 

food of, (7) 231, 236, 237, 240, 252 ; 

(8) 232, 245, 249, 251, 256 ; (9) 232, 

239, 240 ; (10) 229 ; (20) 486, 492 ; (21) 

180, 195. 

growth of, (21) 186, 189. 

intraovarian eggs of, (16) 100. 

larv^of, (21) 189. 

• maturation of eggs of, (16) 127. 

mature and immature, (8) 166. 

method of preparing, for market, 

(20) 101. 

migration of, (21) 189. 

ovaries and ovarian eggs of, (9) 245 ; 

(16) 125. 
parasites of, (9) 306 ; (18) 157, 181 ; 

(19) 138; (22)277. 
proportion of males to females, (8) 

.349; (10)239. 
size at maturity, (10) 238 ; (21) 

194. 

spawning of, (7) 197 ; (21) 189. 

young, measurements of, (21 )187. 

scarcity of, (8) 177 ; (21) 187. 

Anguilla vulgaris. See Eel, common. 
Animal colouring matters, (7) 386. 
Ankerkuil fishery in Holland, (6) 307. 
Annelid parasites of Sagitta, (14) 165. 
Annelids and other forms as bait, 

298. 

as food of cod, (4) 136, 145. 

as food of haddocks, (4) 129. 

as herring-food, (4) 126. 

Anodonta rygnma, (9) 271 ; (17) 159, 185. 
Anomalorera pater sonii, (4) 150; (6)238; 

(15) 147 ; (16) 177, 188, 189, 210 ; (17) 

252; (19) 239. 
Anomia ephippium, (7) 347 ; (15) 123. 

pafel/iformis, (15) 123. 

Anonyx ampulla, (7) 320 ; (11) 212. 

denticulatus, (8) 326. 

edwardsii, (6) 246. 

holholli, (6) 230 ; (8) 326. 

longipes, (7) 320. 

nugax, (11) 212 ; (19) 258 ; (22) 243, 

256. 
Anstruther district, fish landed by net, 

line, and steam-trawl boats in, (6) 136. 

monthly " takes " of fish in, (6) 117. 

monthly "take" of line and net 

boats from inshore grounds, (6) 168. 

statistics of fish caught in, (6) 117. 

total quantity of white fish landed 

by net and line boats in 1884, 1885, 

1886, 1887, (6) 187. 
Antedon Jnfida, (15) 161. 

rosacea, (6) 230. 

Anthocotylc merluccii, (19) 148. 
Anthosoma craxsum, (23) 112. 

S7Hithi{2S) 112. 

Anurcea aculeata, (9) 280. 

cochlearis, (9) 280. 

Aora gracilis, (6) 248 ; (15) 

523. 
Apherusa bispiiimsa, (15) 139 

210 ; (20) 516. 
borealis, (12) 264; (16) 170, 210 

(19)262; (20)491,516,527. 



140 



(20) 
(16) 170, 



180 



Part III. — Twenty -third Annual Report 



Aphoristia ornatu, (18) 359. 
Aphrodite aculeata, (15) 160. 

sp., (6)230. 

Aphya peUucida, spawning period of, (4) 

245, 
Apionichthys, (18)358. 
A ply sia punctata, (15) 116. 
Aporrha'is pes-pelicani, (15) 118. 
Apstein, Dr, (17) 100. 
Arachnactis, sp., (15) 307, '308, 310. 
Area ptctunculoides, (20), 449. 
Archer, Mr Walter, (12) 294, 297. 
Arcturella dilatata, (19) 236, 271 ; (20) 

497 ; (23) 151. 
Arcturus gracilis, (6) 252. 

intermedia, (6) 252. 

longicornis, (6) 252. 

Area of closed waters in Firth of Forth 

and St. Andrews Bay, (14) 130. 
Arenicola. See Lobworm. 
Argentina sUus. See Smelt, greater 

silver. 
Argentina sphyrcena. See Smelt, lesser 

silver. 
Argillacia cylindrica, (7) 319 ; (15) 142. 
Argina pescata, (7) 341. 
Argissa hamatipes, (11) 213, 214; (16) 

170, 177, 210 ; (17) 265 ; (18) 401 ; (19) 

259 ; (20) 513, 516, 527. 

typica, (11) 213. 

Argidus foliaceus, (18) 179. 

Armed bullhead or pogge {Agonit-i catapJi- 

ractuii), (4) 232 ; (9) 310; (15) 110; (18) 

276; (21) 74; (23) 157. 

age when first mature, (21) 77. 

eggs of, (3) 60. 

distribution of, (21) 74. 

distribution of adult and immature 

of, (8) 177. 

fecundity of, (9) 250. 

food of, (20) 486, 492. 

growth of, (12) 334 ; (21) 76. 

mature and immature, (8) 177. 

parasites of, (18) 162 ; (19) 141. 

post-larval forms, (7) 308. 

proportion of sexes in, (21) 74. 

relation of length to weight, (22) 

239. 

size at maturity, (10) 238. 

spawning of, (7) 197 ; (13) 230; (21) 

74. 

vitality of eggs of, (13) 230. 

Arnoglossns grohmanni, (18) 357. 

laterna. See Scald-fish. 

megastoma. See Megrim. 

Arpacticii~9 nobilis, (21) 130. 

Artificial hatching and rearing of sea-fish. 

See Hatching. 

baits, (7) 352. 

Artotrogus boeckii, (6) 242 ; (11) 210. 

magniceps, (4) 154 ; (6) 233, 242. 

normani, (6) 232 ; (20) 473. 

orbictdaris, (15) 154 ; (16) 272 ; (18) 

400. 
papi/latus, (6) 232, 233, 234, 242 ; 

(17) 262, 263. 
Ascidia iiitestinalis; (9) 301. 

mentula, (15) 114. 

Ascidicola rosea, (6) 239 ; (15) 149 ; (20) 

525. 



Ascidiella scabra, (15) 114. 

virginea, (15) 114. 

Asconiyzon echinirola, (11) 210. 

ornatm, (20) 472. 

simulans, (16) 270. 

Ascroft, Mr R. L., (11)489. 

Asellopsis hispida, (8) 318. 

.4.se/^«.s' aquafirm, (13), 249; (17) 139, 

167, 168, 186. 
Axpid.iscu-'i fasri.it lis, (10) 258. 
Aspidoeda normani, (16)279; (17)268; 

(20) 480 ; (22) 254. 
Aspjidophryxus peltatus, (15) 169 ; (18) 

403. 
Astacilla, sp., (20) 497. 

gracilis, (6) 252. 

intermedia, (6) 252 ; (19), 271. 

longicornis, (6) 252 ; (15) 136. 

Astactis gammarus, (15) 131. 
Astarte compressa, (15) 125. 

elliptica, (15) 125. 

sulcata, (15) 125. 

— • — triangularis, (15) 125. 
Asterias glacialis, (15) 161. 

murrayi, (15) 161 ; (20) 111, 319, 324. 

rubens, (15) 161 ; (20) 311, 319, 326. 

spawning period of, (4) 216. 

var. attemtata, (20) 311, 319, 

324. 
Asterionella formosa, (9), 274, 282. 
Asterocheres echinicola, (16) 270 ; (18) 

399. 

iilljeborgl, (16)270. 

violacens, (16) 270 ; (20) 472. 

Asteromphalus atlanticus, (15) 297. 

heptactis, (15) 297, 298. 

ralfsiamim, (15) 297. 

Asterope mariw, (8) 325 ; (15) 145 ; (20) 

497, 511, 517. 

teres, (5) 328 ; (15) 145. 

Astronyx loveni, (20) 313, 319. 
Astropecten irregidaris, (20) 307, 319, 

324. 

limicola, (7) 113 ; (15) 165. 

Astrorhiza arenaria, (19) 236, 257. 
Atelecyclus heterodon, (6) 257. 

septemdentatus, (6) 257 ; (19) 279. 

Athelges paguri, (6) 251 ; (15) 136. 
Atheresthes stomias, (18) 352. 
Atherina hepsetus, eggs of, (9) 419. 

fishery for, in France, (9) 419. 

presbyter. See Smelt, sand. 

Atlantic water in North Sea, (12) 352. 
Attheyella crassa, ,(12) 286, 288 ; (13) 188, 

244, 249 ; (14) 168, 2.39 ; (15) 320, 332; 

(16) 252, 260 ; (17) 140, 145, 148. 
cryptorum, (11) 225, 227, 228, 229, 

2.36. 

cuspidatvm, (16) 260. 

dutUei, (14) 239, 241 ; (17) 159, 164, 

183, 189. 
macandreiore, (13) 249, 253; (14) 

168, 169. 

propinqua, (11) 227, 236. 

pygmoia, (12) 286; (13) 188, 244, 

249 ; (14) 168, 2.39 ; (15) 330, 331, .3.32 ; 

(16) 252, 260 ; (17) 140, 145, 150. 
spinosa, (9) 272, 276 ; (11) 225, 227, 

229, 236. 
zschokl-ei, (1.3) 188, 244, 249; (14) 



of the lishery Board for Scotland. 



181 



239 ; (15) 320, 332 ; (16) 252, 260 ; (17) 

140, 145, 159, 164, 168, 173. 183. 
Atwater, Professor : Experiments on the 

digestibility and composition of fish, 

(5) 222. 
Atylus hispinoHus, (6) 247. 

svammerdamii, (6) 247. 

— — vedlomen-n-s, (7) 321. 
Aurelia aurita, (15) 136 ; (16) 210. 
Auriculina in-scu/pta, (15) 121. 

ohliqua, (15) 121. 

Austria as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 168. 
Autumn spawning of cod, (23) 253. 
Autonoe longipes, (14) 161 ; (20) 503. 
Axinus croulinensis, (15) 127. 

ferruginosus, (15) 127. 

flexuosus, (15) 127. 

Azevia, (18) 356. 



B 



Bacilhis flaviia yelatiiwsus, (6) 210. 

punctiformans, (6) 210. 

rubescenv, (6) 205, 212. 

Bacteria, forms of, observed in river 

water, (4) 177, 183 ; (5) 331. 

in living fish, (6) 287. 

in water of Tay, (4) 187. 

Bacteriastrum delicattdmn, (15) 298. 

varians, (15) 214. 

Bacterium innominatum, (6) 210. 

ruhiginosnm, (6) 208. 

Bag-net fishing, destruction of young 

fislies by, (4) 206 ; (8) 190 ; (23) 156. 

for sprats, (4) 205 ; (23) 161. 

Bag-nets, (10) 172 ; (23) 161. 

Bain, Mr Walter, (8) 23, 257 ; (9) 21, 

177; (10)23; (11)24. 
Baird, Professor Spencer, (5) 234 ; (6) 

14, 301. 
Buirdia comjilanata, (15) 142. 

iitjlafa,{8) 321 ; (16) 263 ; (19) 256. 

Bait, annelids as, (6) 270. 

artificial, (7) 352, 353 ; (8) 362. 

Buccinum undatum as, (7) 347, 352, 

356. 

bullock's liver as, (7) 354. 

clam as, (7) 352, 354, 356. 

cockle, (7) 328, 352, 354, 356. 

crabs as, (18) 140. 

cuttle-fish as, (7) 354. 

deficiency of, (6) 11, 12, 22. 

earthworms as, (7) 354, 356. 

enquiries into the supplies of, (7) 11. 

experiments on preserving mussels 

for (5) 358. 
experiments on the value of diiferent 

baits, (7) 352. 

fisheries, (9) 17 ; (10) 16. 

Helix aspersa as, (7) 356. 

nemoralis as, (7) 356. 

herring as, (7) 352, 354, 356. 

limpet as, (7) 352, 354, 356. 

ling as, (7) 356. 

lugworm as, (7) 352, 354, 356. 

lumpsucker ova as, (6) 273. 

mussel as, (7) 354. 

mussels preserved in boracic acid 

as, (7) 354. 



Bait, Nephrops norveyiciis as, (7) 356. 

shell-fishes as, (4) 217 ; (6) 273. 

snails as, (7) 354. 

Solen siliqua as, (7) .352. 

squid as, (7) .352, 356. 

whelk as (7) 354. 

Baited hooks, injuries to, (4) 203. 
Bakmi, (6) 262 ; (16) 201, 202, 208 ; (20) 

533. 
Balanoglossus, (7) 387. 
Bcdamis [Cypris stage), (20) 489, 492, 495, 

500, 501, 503, 505, 507, 511, 517, 520, 

521. 

balanoides, (6) 236, 251; (15) 155. 

crenatns, (6) 237 ; (15) 155. 

hameri, (6) 237 ; (15) 155. 

porcatus, (6) 236 ; (15) 155. 

tintinnahidum, (6) 237. 

Ballan wrasse. See Wrasse, ballan. 
Ballantrae Bank, alleged injurious action 

of herring seine at, (18) 259. 
herring spawning ground at, 

(2) 65. 

as spawning ground for Loch 

Fyne herrings, (18) 253, 260. 
herring fishery, statistics of, 

(18)261. 

herring fishing at, (4) 57. 

seine-net fishing at, (11) 5 ; (12) 18; 

(13) 13 ; (14) 14. 
Baltimore Fishery School, (6) 301. 
Barra, cockle-beds of, (8) 19. 

mackerel of, (12) 17 ; (13) 13. 

Barrett, DrW. H., (3) 70. 

Basking shark. See Shark, basking. 

Bass {Lahrax lupus), (6) 275; (21)229; 

(23) 109, 117. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

Bateson, Mr W., (7) 385 ; (8) 362. 
Bafhyporeia norvegica, (11) 213; (19) 

259 ; (20) 477, 516, 535. 

pelagica (11) 213. 

jyilom, (6) 246 ; (11) 213. 

roberlsonii, (11) 213; (15) 137. 

sp., (16)210. 

Bay of Biscay, statistics of catches of 

trawler at, (20) 135. 
Beam-trawl, action of, on eggs of herrings, 

(3) 58. 

efficiency of, compared with otter- 
trawl, (20) 118, 123, 124, 125; (21) 30. 

vitality of fish caught by, (8) 183. 

nets, new inventions, (7) 29. 

Beam-trawlers, fish landed by, (10) 13 ; 
(11) 11,27; (12) 181. 

illegal operations of, (9) 3, 4, 6, 

statistics of, (9) 89 ; (12) 177. 

Beam-trawling. See also Trawling. 

(7) 2; (10) 10, 16, 181 ; (11) 9, 10. 

area of water closed to, (12) 8. 

capture of immature fish by, (8) 

179 ; (9) 29. 

effect of, on eggs of fishes and 

young fishes, (12) 193. 

effect of. on invertebrate fauna and 

fish-food, (i2) 184. 

enquiry on influence of, (14) 10, 17. 

influence of, (15) 8 ; (8) 8 ; (12) 8. 

in Ireland, enquiry on, (8) 361. 

investigations of, (13) 11, 17. 



182 



Part III. — T If enty -third Annual Report 



Beam -trawling in relation to the fishing 

grounds and fishes, (12) 176. 
quantities of fish caught by, (9) 

24, 25. 

regulations of, in Ireland, (12) 388. 

regulations regarding, (12) 9. 

report on, (9) 21 ; (10) 23. 

result of closure of inshore waters 

to, (12) 167. 
Beard, l)r John, (8) 15, .300. 
Beaumont, Dr, experiments on digesti- 
bility of fish, (5) 223. 
BeJa trerelyaiia, (15) 118. 

turricola, (15) 118. 

Belgium as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 165. 
destruction of immature fish in, 

(8) 374. 
enquiry on the destruction of im- 
mature fish in, (9) 416. 

fishery enquiries in, (9) 416. 

Bellia areiiaria. (10) 264. 
Be/one ru/(/ari.<i. See Garfish. 
Beneden, Professor van, (9) 416. 
Bergylt. See Haddock, Norway'. 
Berry, Mr, Danish Consul-General, (13) 

11. 
Bib, brassie, or whiting-pout [Gudus 

hiscus), (IS) 282. 

caught by bait, (7) 356. 

eggs of, ■'(4) 212; (8) 28; (16) 91, 

114, 115: (17)82-84,93,94,96, 104, 106. 

• fecundity of, (9) 256. 

food of, (6) 240 ; (8) 251 ; (20) 486, 

511 ; (21) 221. 

in Loch Fyne, (4) 232 ; 15, 111. 

mature and immature, (8) 177. 

parasites of, (19) 141 ; (22) 278 ; (23) 

108, 113. 
proportion of males to females, 

(8) 349. 
question of specific distinction from 

poor-cod, (4) 208. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

spawning of, (7) 197 ; (8) 268. 

spawning period of, (4) 247 ; (17) 98. 

Biddulphia, sp., (15) 213. 

Bietrix, M., (9) 418. 

Biloculina depressa, (7) 312; (15) 165; 

(20) 510, 537. 

elongata, (7) 312 ; (15) 165. 

ohlonga, (20) 510. 

riufjens, (7) 312 ; (15) 165. 

siiJirotmula, (20) 510. 

Bimaculated sucker [Lepadogaster hima- 

culatus), (15) 257, 259 ; (17) 126. 

development of, (14) 178. 

eggs of, (3) 60. 

Binnie, Mr F., (9)311, 389. 

Biological station at Puffin Island, work 

of, (9) 393. 
Black Loch, Argyllshire, invertebrate 

fauna of, (15) 318. 
Black-mouthed dog-fish. See Dog-fish, 

black-mouthed. 
Black sole. See Sole. 
Blanchard, Dr K, (9) 421 ; (13) 165. 
Blennms jjholis. See Shanny. 
Blenny, sharp-tailed. See Lumpenus, 

sharp-tailed. 



Blenny, viviparous {Zoarces viriparu-s), 

(18)' 280. 

eggs of, (4) 213. 

embryo of, (3) 57. 

food of, (20) 486, 501. 

food of 3'oung of, (3) 58. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

spawning period of, (4) 245. 

young of, (3) 57. 

Yarrell's (Chirolophi-'i yakrila), (4) 

213, 222. 232; (6) 276; (8) 358; (15) 

110; (18) 280. 
Blood of Nephrops nori-e(jicus, (4) 171. 
Blue shark. See Shark, blue. 
Boar-fish (Capros aper), spawning period 

of, (4) 245. 
Boeckia arenkola, (10) 262 ; (18) 399. 
Bodotria arenosa, (6) 253 ; (19) 273. 

• scorpioides, 20, 510. 

Bohusliin, fisheries of, (9) 408. 
Boliriita dilatata, (7) 315 ; (16) 276. 

htrvjata, (16) 276. 

plicata, (16) 276. 

punctata, (7) 315 ; (16) 276. 

Bolocejxi tiiedue, (15) 163. 
Bomolorhiis onosi, (20) 288 ; (23) 110. 
,solea', (11) 212 ; (18) 146 ; (19) 121 : 

(20) 288 ; (23) 108. 

zengopteri, (20) 290. 

Bonito (Thynnus pelamys), (18) 277. 

belted (Pe/amys sarda), (18) 277. 

Boop.^etta, (18) 361. 

Bopyroides hippo/ yt is, (17) 266. 

Boracic acid, curing of dried fish with, 

(6)212. 
Boreophaufiia inermis, (7) 327. 
raschii, (4) 157 ; (6) 254, 255 ; (7) 

324; (8)330; (15) 133; (16) 158, 160, 

209; (17)267. 

as herring-food, (4) 123, 124. 

Borgers, M. Auguste, (9) 207, 416. 

Boring worms, (4) 217. 

Borodine, DrN., (12)404. 

Bosmina longirostris, (9) 273, 280, 282, 

291 ; (12) 286, 288 ; (13) 188, 245, 250; 

(14) 168, 239 ; (15) 321, 333 ; (16) 252, 

258, 260 : (17) 138, 140, 145, 149, 155, 

164, 168, 173, 184; (20)505. 
lou<iispina, (9) 282, 291; (11)231; 

(14) 168, 239 ; (16) 260 ; (17) 138, 140, 

148, 153, 164, 171, 173, 176, 177, 178, 

179, 181, 182, 184. 
Boston fish bureau, report of, (13) 338. 
Botachus rylindratus, (15) 148. 
Bothince, (18) 351. 
Bothriocephalus latus, (9) 273. 
Bothns nmximxis. See Turbot. 

rhombu.s. See Brill. 

Botryllophilm ruber, (18) 388 ; (19) 242. 
Bottemanne, Mr C. J., (10) 350. 
Bouchot system of mussel culture, (7 

331, 334; (8) 17 ; (9)212. 

cost of, (9) 218. 

mussel culture and the Bouchot 

experiments at St. Andrews, (9) 16, 

212. 
Boulenger, Mr, (18) 335. 
Bounty system in Canada, (12) 391. 
Bourne, Mr Gilbert C, (6) 298 : (7) 384, 

387 ; (8) 361. 



of ihe Fishery Board for Scotland. 



183 



Brachiella hispinosa, (19) 132. 

impiidica, (18) 169. 

insidiosa, (18) 175. 

merluccii, (IS) 175. 

oralis, (19) 133. 

pasfinacii', (22) 275, 278. 

rostrufa, (IS) 174. 

triiihi', (19) 133: (23) 115. 

Brachiopoda of Loch Fyne, (15) 129. 
Brnrhy pleura, (18)361. 
Brackish water, Crustacea of, (15) 317. 
Brady, Sir Thomas, (8) 21 ; (9) 20. 

Professor G. S., (5) 328 ; (6) 29, 232; 

(9) 269 ; (10) 244. 
Bradya elegana, (13) 166 ; (15) 149 ; (19) 
247. 

fusca, (13) 166. 

hirsufa, (13) 166 ; (17) 253 ; (19) 247. 

minor, (13) 166; (21) 113. 

-si mil i.'^, (15) 149; (19) 248. 

(ypira, (13) 116; (17)253; (19)247; 

(20) 503, 517. 
Bradyidius anna/IIS, {Id) 264; (17)248, 

270 ; (18) 383 ; (19) 238 ; (20) 451. 
Bradypontius dielifer, (17) 262. 

magniceps, (15) 154 ; (20) 473. 

normani, (15) 154 ; (20) 473. 

papillatiis, (17) 262. 

Brain of sand-eel, development of, (13) 

276. 
Brama raii. See Bream, Raj's. 
Branch iostoma lanceolat am. See Lancelet. 
Brand, herring, complaints regarding 

trustworthiness of, (7) 170. 
Brassie. See Bib. 

Bream, black sea (Otnthurus lineatus), (4) 
244 ; (20) 540. 

common sea- (Pagellus centra- 

dontus), (4) 244 ; (18) 27*4. 

Ray's (Brama raii), (18) 277. 

Brill {Bhombits Uvvis, Botlms rhomlms), 
(18) 257, 285 ; (21) 51. 

development of, (9) 317 ; (10) 294. 

distribution of, (21) 51. 

distribution of adults and immature, 

(8) 172. 

■ distribution of eggs of, (15) 242. 

distribution of young, (10) 280. 

eggs of, (16) 91, 114, 115; (17)83, 

93. 

fecundity of, (9) 262. 

food of, (7) 240 ; (21) 52. 

growth of, (9) .391 ; (11) 195. 

mature and immature, (8) 172. 

migrations of, (21) 51. 

parasites of, (18) 154 ; (19) 141. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 307. 

sexual proportions of , (8) 349; (10) 

239. 

size at maturity of, (10) 238. 

size-limit between mature and im- 
mature, (22) 18. 

spawning period oi, (4) 2.50 ; (7) 

192 ; (8) 265 ; (10) 232, 234 ; (15) 243 ; 
(17) 98. 

young of, (11) 246. 

Brisftopsis lyrifera, (7) 316; (15) 162; 

(20) 317, 319, 324. 
Brodick lobster pond, (18) 119; (12) ; 
(14) 14, 190. 



Brook, Mr George, (3) 32 ; (4) 31, 128, 

134, 222, 231, 242 ; (5) 326, 347 ; (8) 363. 
Brosmius hrowie. See Tusk. 
Brown, Dr H. Reynolds, (12) 297. 
Bucrinum undafum, (15) 118; (20) 507, 

511. 

as bait, (7) 347, 352, 356. 

egg cases of, (7) 337. 

Buch, Mr, (6) 16. 

Buchan Deep, (9) 181. 

Buckhaven haddock and cod line fishery, 

(6) 95, 96 ; (7) 9 ; (8) 29 ; (9) 28 ; (10) 

29; (11)30; (12)31 ; (14)23. 
Buckland, Mr F., (10) 173. 
Biigida turbinata, (15) 156. 
Bidimina elegaus, (8) 315. 

elegantissima, (8) 316 ; (16) 276. 

fusiformis, (8) 316. 

marginata, (15) 166. 

■ pupoides, (7) 315 : (8) 316. 

Bulla idricnlus, (6) 265 ; (15) 116. 
Bullhead, Norway (Cotitts lilljehorgii), 

(18) 275. 
Burbot {Lota vulgaris), (4) 249. 
Burdett-Coutts, Baroness, (6) 301. 
Burghead Bay, deep-water fishes present 

in, (21). 35. 
trawling investigations in. See 

Trawling investigations. 
Butter-fish. Sec Gunnel. 
Byhli^ gaimardi, (6) 248 ; (19) 236, 260. 
Bj'e-law closing the J'irth of Forth, St. 

Andrews Bay, and Aberdeen Bay to 

beam-trawling, 1886, (5) 44. 
Bye-laws concerning trawling, (5) 44 ; (6) 

2, 26; (7) 15; (8)22; (11)9, 23. 
Byrne, Mr W. L., (20) 541. 
Bythocythere const ricta, (7) 318 ; (15) 

144. 

recta, (8) 324. 

simplex; (6) 244 ; (15) 145 ; (20) 503, 

511, 520, 523. 
turgida, (8) 324; (15) 144; (20) 

497, 511, 520. 
Bythotrepjhes cederstromii, (9) 295. 
longimamis, (9) 273, 280, 295 ; (11) 

234; (12) 286; (14) 168; (17) 138, 

144, 148, 153, 163, 171, 176, 177, 178, 

179, 181, 182, 185, 201. 



C 



C'icum ylabrvm, (15) 119. 

Cadulus sidifusijormis, (20) 449. 

Caine, Mr W. S., M.P., (12) 287. 

Caithness, hauls off, (21) 18. 

Calanus elongatus, (18) 383. 

finmarchicus, (6) 228, 237 ; (10) 246 ; 

(15)145,305,306, 387-312; (16) 177- 

180, 207, 210; (17) 114; (20)491, 494, 

500, 504, &c. 

as herring-food, (4) 125. 

distribution of, in Firth of 

Forth, (16) 180. 

pelagic eggs of, (8) 363. 

hyperhoreus, (20) 450. 

pctrvas, (17) 248 ; (18) .383. 

Calderwood, Mr W. L., (4) 102, 147, 228; 

(5) 45 ; (6) 263 ; (7) 183 ; (9) 331, 391 ; 

(11) 490. 



184 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



Caligus abhreviatns, (23) 109. 

hrevipedis, (20) 291 ; (23) 110. 

crasms, (23) 112. 

cmius, (18) 148. 

diaphauus, (9) 304; (18) 149. 

isoni/j; (9) 310 ; (18) 149. 

mn/kri, (9) 305; (18) 148. 

minimKK, (23) 

mimUu.% (23) 109. 

normanni, (18) 151. 

obscwufi, (18) 153. 

prodticfits, (19) 124. 

rapax, (9) 305 ; (15) 155 ; (16) 177, 

190, 210; (18) 148. 

scombri, (19) 124. 

Caliyidium vagabundum, (20) 473. 
Calocaris macandrei, (6) 265; (15) 131; 

(20) 448, 480. 
Callianassa subterranea, (19) 2/8. 
Calliax-is ((dridfica, (18) 405. 
Callicolylc l-royri, (20) 299, 536. 
Calliobdella lo'pliii, (19) 138. 
CaUionymus lyra. See Dragonet, gem- 

nieous. 

macnlafits. See Dragonet, spotted. 

Calliope JinriaUi, (8) 328. 

ossiani, (8) 328. 

Calliopius bidentatus, (6) 247. 

lanmiscuhi.% (6) 247 ; (20) 500. 

rathkei, (14) 160. 

Callisoma (•renata,{''i)^\Q ; (15)137; (16) 

170, 176, 210; (IS) 181 ; (20) 516. 
Gallinta <ii,qantea, (7) 341. 
Campbell,' Captain R., (11) 24 ; (12) 24 ; 

(13) 18, 165. 
Campamdaria verticillata, (15) 164. 
Gamptocercus ynacrurus, (11) 232; (12) 

286 ; (13) 245 ; (15) 330, 311, 333. 
rectirostris, {11) UO, 155, 171, 173, 

179, 184, 200. 
Campylaspia afjinis, (8) 330. 

costata, (15) 135 ; (19) 236, 276. 

rubicunda, (8) 330; (15) 135; (16) 

167, 209 ; (17) 267 ; (18) 403 ; (19) 236, 

276 ; (20) 510. 
Campylodincus costatus, (9) 274. 
Canada, enquiry regarding the cure of 

herrings, (8) 364. 

fisheries of, (12) 390. 

fishery work in, (8) 364 ; (9) 396 ; 

(10)334; (11)493; (12)390. 

lobster fisheries of, (6) 192. 

money spent on fisheries in, (12) 

390. 

statistics of fisheries of, (9) 396. 

Cancer maxillar'ts, (7) 321. 

pagurus. See Crab, edible. 

Cancerilla tubtdnta, (11) 211; (20) 449, 

473. 

tubtdom, (19) 236 

Cancerilla covfusa, (19) 236, 252; (20) 

481. 
Candace pectinata, (8) 317; (10) 246; 

(16) 177, 189, 210 ; (17) 251, 270 ; (19) 

239; (20)517,532; (21) 113. 
Candona acuminata, (8) 338, 339, 340, 

341, 344 ; (9) 286 ; (17) 140, 184, 190. 

ambigua, (9) 277, 296. 

■ Candida, (8) 322, 336, 337, 339, 340, 

341, 343 ; (9) 273, 276, 282, 283, 284, 



286, 288 ; (11) 2.30 ; (12) 286 ; (13) 188, 
245, 250, 2.55 ; (14) J68, 239 ; (15) 318, 
321, 3.33 ; (16) 252, 257, 260 ; (17) 140, 
145, 150, 155, 160, 164, 16S, 173, 184, 

Caiidonu rompresm, (15) 321, 326; (16) 
2,52; (17) 140, 164, 184. 

deiecta, (8) 343, 

diajihana, (8) 344. 

fab(t'formis, (8) 341, 344 ; (9) 277, 

284 ; (17) 140, 160, 168, 184. 

hyaHna, (9) 277, 284, 288 ; (15)318, 

321 ; (16)250, 252 ; (17) 140, 145, 150, 
173, 184, 191. 

kimideii, (5) 328 ; (8) 336, 337, 339, 

340, 341, 344; (9) 273, 277, 282, 284, 
286,288; (11)230; (13)245; (14)168; 
(15) 321 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 145, 150, 155, 

160, 164, 168, 173, 184. 

lactea, (8) .339, 340, 343 ; (9) 273, 

276, 282, 286, 288 ; (12) 286 ; (15) 318, 
321 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 160, 164, 184, 

liicens, (8) 343. 

pubescens, (9) 273, 276, 282, 286, 

288, 296 ; (13) 245. 

reptans, (8) 342. 

rostrata, (8) 336, 337, 340, 341 ; (9) 

276, 284; (17) 160, 168, 173, 184. 

similifi, (8) S42. 

Cantharus Untatus, spawning period of, 
(4) 244. 

Canthocamptui^ brevipes, (11) 235, 236. 

crassas, (11) 235, 2,36 ; (20) 505. 

cryptorum, (11) 225. 

cmpidatus, (15) 319, ,320, 323, 330, 

331,332; (16)258. 

hirticornis, (13) 188, 244, 251 ; (14) 

162, 293 ; (15) 317, 330, 331, 332 ; (16) 
251, 2,52, 257, 260; (17) 140, 183, 189. 

imus, (20) 457. 

incompicuus, (18) 390; (21) 117. 

inornatus, (15) 319, 320, 323 ; (16) 

250, 252; (17) 144, 145, 150, 155, 1,59. 

161, 168, 183, 188. 

minutus, (8) 338, 339, 341 ; (9) 272, 

276, 282, 284 ; (14) 239 ; (15) 318, 320 ; 

(16)252,257,260; (17) 140, 145, 150, 

155, 159, 164, 168, 173, 183, 188 ; (20) 

505. 
palnstris, (9) 302; (14) 239; (15) 

317. 

parvus, (14) 162; (21) 117. 

pygmams, (11) 235, 2.36. 

schmeilii, (16) 250, 252; (17) 140, 

141, 164, 172, 173, 183, 188. 
staphylinus, (13) 249 ; (14) 167, 168, 

239 ; (15) 320, 332 ; (16) 2.52, 260 ; (17) 

140, 145, 150, 155, 159, 164, 168, 173, 

183 ; (20) 505. 

zschoM-ei, (20) 505. 

Canu, Dr, (11) 16, 345 ; (14) 151. 
Canuelta perplexa, (11) 201; (18) 389; 

(19) 245 ; (20) 525. 
Capelin {Mallotus villosus) as food for 

cod, (4) 134. 

attacked by squids, (3) 68. 

Caprella acanthi/era, (6) 250 ; (15) 141. 

linearis, (6) 250; (15) 141 ; (18) 402. 

lobata, (6) 250. 

sepfentrlonalis, (18) 402; (19) 267, 

271 ; (20) 507, 519. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



185 



Caprella tubemdata, (6) 250. 

fypica, (6) 250. 

Capros aper. See Boar-fish. 

Capture of immature fisli. See Fish, 

immature. 
Capture and destruction of immature 

fish, (13) 133. 
Capture of immature fish by different- 
sized hooks, (13) 133. 
Capulus hungaricu-^, (15) 120. 
Caranr trachurus. See Horse-mackerel. 
Carcharia.s glaucus. See Shark, blue. 
Carciiiw mmias, (6) 251 ; (15) 130; (20) 

507, 533, 534. 

development of, (21) 142. 

effect of cold on movement of, (22) 

125. 

eggs of, (21) 138. 

external sexual characters of, (21) 

160. 

hatching period of, (21) 137. 

impregnation in, (22) 101, 107. 

larval stages of, (21) 139. 

megalops of, (21) 139. 

— — moulting of, (21) 173. 

rate of growth of, (21) 163. 

sizes of the different stages of, (21) 

162. 
spaivning of, (21) 138, 174 ; (22) 118, 

120. 

zoijaof, (21) 139. 

Cardium, (6) 231 ; (20) 503, 507, 510. 

echinatum, (15) 126 ; (20) 527. 

edule, (15) 126. 

exigunm, (15) 126. 

-fasciatum, (15) 126. 

nodosxim, (8) 330 ; (15) 126. 

papillosum, (15) 126. 

. (S'ee al-'<o Cockle. 

Carelopihus ascanii. See Blennj% Yarrell's. 
Caridion gordoni, (15) 132 ; (19) 278. 
Carp (Gypriims carpU), spawnirg period 

of, (4) 252. 
Caryophyllia .wiithii, (15) 163. 
Caseous tumours in muscles of hake, (3) 

76. 
CassiduUna crassa, (16) 276. 
Casting of edible crab, periodicity of, 

(22) 121. 

of lobster, periodicity of, (23) 89, 95. 

Cat-fish [Anarrhiclias lupwi), (21) 63. 

distribution of, (21) 63. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 176. 

early stages of, (8) 286. 

eggs of, (3) 58 ; (5) 356 ; (9) 253 ; 

(16) 91 ; (23) 252. 

fecundity of, (9) 253. 

food of, (7) 448 ; (8) 231, 244, 251 ; 

(9) 232, 235, 239, 240 ; (10) 229 ; (20) 
312, 486, 5(J0 ; (21) 220. 

hatching period of, (8) 286. 

mature and immature, (8) 176. 

migration of, (21) 64. 

minimum size at maturity, (8) 161, 

162, 163. 

on deep-water grounds, (21) 23. 

ovaries of, (3) 58. 

parasites of, (9) 306 ; (18) 176 ; (19) 

140; (23) 114. 



Cat-fish, proportion of males to females, 
(8)349; (10)239. 

rarity of small specimens of, (21 ) 64. 

size at maturity, (10) 238. 

spawning period of, (4) 245 ; (7) 

197; (8)269; (21) 64; (23) 252. 

young of, (4) 213. 

Cecrops latreillii, (9) 305 ; (18) 157 ; (19) 

126. 
CeUaria fisttdosa, (15) 156. 
Cellepora avicularis, (15) 156. 

pumicosa, (15) 156. 

ramulosa, (15) 156. 

Centrolabrus exoletus, (4) 223, 232 ; (15) 

111; (18)282. 
Centronotus gunnellus. See Gunnel. 
Centropnges Immatus, (4) 149 ; (6) 237 ; 

(15) 146 ; (16) 177, 210 ; (19) 238 ; (20) 

532, 533. 

as herring-food, (4) 125. 

typictis, (4) 149 ; (6) 237 ; (15) 146, 

305, 306, 308, 311, 314 ; (16) 177, 210 ; 

(17) 250 ; (19) 238 ; (20) 494, 513, 521. 
Cephalopods eaten \>y anglers, (21) 199. 

eaten by king-fish, (21) 219. 

Cepola ruhescens. See Red Band Fish. 
Cerapus ahditus, (6) 249. 

crassicornin, (11) 215. 

diffonnis, (6) 249. 

Cerafaiilina hergonii, (15) 214, 298. 
Ceratium, sp., (15) 213. 

furca, (15) 298, 301. 

funis, (15)298, 301. 

longicoiiie, (9) 280. 

tripos, (15) 298, 301. 

Ceratoneis arcus, (9) 274. 
Cerehratulus angulatus, (12) 265. 
Cerianthus lloydii, (10) 266. 
Cerioda}>hnia laticandata, (13) 250; (15) 

321 ; (17) 160, 168, 184, 191. 

punctata, (9) 282, 290, 296. 

quadrangulata, (13) 188, 245, 250; 

(15) 330 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 167, 168, 184, 

191. 

reticulata, (9) 277, 283, 289 ; (13) 

250 ; (17) 158, 184. 

rotunda, (15) 321. 

Cerithiopsis tuhercularns, (15) 119. 
Cervinia hradyi, (17) 252 ; (19) 250. 
Cetacea, development of, (6) 302. 
Chabry, M., (9)418. 
Chcetoceros atlanticns, (15) 298. 

horeali^, (15) 214, 298. 

commutatus, (15) 214. 

— — constrictus, (15) 214. 

rontortus, (15) 214. 

criophilus, (15) 214, 298. 

currens, (15) 298, 299. 

curvisefus (15) 214, 298. 

dehilis, (15)214. 

decipiens, (15) 214, 298, 299. 

diadcma, (15) 214. 

didymiis, (15) 214. 

— — peruvianus, (15) 298, 299. 

scolopendra, (15) 214. 

septentrionalis (15) 214. 

Chcetopterus variopedatus, (15) 159. 
Charopiims dalmanni, (9) 310 ; (18) 169, 

170 ; (19) 130. 
dnhius, (18) 170 ; (19) 130. 



186 



Part III. — Tiveyit {/-third Annual Report 



Ch'iropiiuts ramosus, (18) 171 ; (19) 130. 
Charts showing areas of North Sea in 

oonnectioii with trawling statistics, (20) 

137. 
C'/iasc(tiiO]jse/la, (IS) 361. 
Gheirocrates assimUis. (14) 160; (15) 140; 

(19) 264; (20) 478,' 
i7itermedins, (14) 160 ; (15) 140; (18) 

402 ; (20) 492, 496, 527. 
sundtwalli, (14) 160 ; (15) 140 ; (20) 

478, 523. 
Chemical composition of water of the 

North Sea, (7) 448. 
Cheraphilus echimdatus, (15) 132. 

nanus, (16) 156, 157, 209. 

neglectiis, (4) 155; (15) 132; (19) 278. 

Cliicago Exhibition, fishery exhibits at, 

(13) 338. 
Chini'i'txi monsfrosa, (21) 224. 
Chirolophis galerita. See Blenny, Yar- 

rell's. 
Chiton, (6) 231 ; (20) 527. 

cinereiis, (15) 122. 

fa-'^riridaris, (15) 122. 

■ mriKjii/alns, (15) 123. 

— — mannoreuH, (15) 123. 

ruber, (15) 123. 

Chittenden and Cummins, experiments on 

the digestibility of fish, (5) 222. 
Chondracanfhus annidatus, (18) 164. 

davatus, (IS) 165. 

cor nut us, (9) 306 ; (18) 164. 

depressus, (23) 114. 

flur(e,.(l8) 166. 

'limand'e, (18) 167. 

lophii, (9) 306 ; (18) 167. 

merluccii, (10) 262 ; (18) 166. 

omatus, (18) 168 ; (19) 129 ; (20) 

298. 

sokre, (18) 165. 

triq/,1^, (18) 163. 

zei, (10)262; (18) 167- 

Choniostoma hanseni, (22) 254. 

mirahdis, (22) 254. 

Chydorus barhatus, (13) 188, 190, 245, 

2.50; (14) 168, 239; (15) 321,333; 

(16)252,260; (17)140, 145, 1-50,155, 
164, 173, 185 ; (20) 505. 
ccelatus, (16)252; (20) 505; (17) 

140, 145, 150, 155, 168, 173, 185, 201. 
globosus, (9) 280, 282, 295 ; (13) 188, 

250; (14) 239 ; (15) 330, 331, 333; (16) 

252 ; (17) 140, 155, 185, 201. 

latus, (14) 168, -239; (17) 145, 155, 

185, 201. 

vimeri, (11)234. 

oralis, (13) 188, 190 ; (15) 321 ; (17) 

164, 185, 201. 
spharicus, (8) 339, 341 ; (9) 273, 277, 

282, 284, 295; (11) 234; (12) 286, 

288 ; (13) 188, 245, 250 ; (14) 168, 239 ; 

(15) 321, 333 ; (16) 250, 252, 260 ; (17) 
140, 145, 149, 150, &c. ; (20) 505. 

Cingida trifasclata, (15) 120. 
Ciona intestinales, (15) 114. 
Circe minima, (8) 331 ; (15) 126. 
Circulation of water in Loch Fyne, (15) 

262. 
Circulatory .sj'stem in teleostean embryos, 

(16) 213. 



Girolana borealis, (18) 180 ; (19) 270. 

Kpinipes, (15) 135. 

Cirratulus, sp. , (15) 158. 
Citharirhthys, (18) 355, 356. 

sordidus, (18) 356. 

Citharus, (18) 355, 356. 

iiuf/natu/a (18) 356. 

City of Edinburgh, oyster beds of, (14) 

13, 245. 
Cladocera of Duddingston Loch, (17) 

167, 168. 

of Firth of Forth, (16) 177. 

of Lochs and Inland Waters. See 

Fauna, invertebrate. 
Clam or scallop [Pecten), development of, 

(8) 15, 290. 
Clam-bait beds, (7) 341 ; (9) 17. 
Clam-beds of the Firth of Forth, (7) 11, 

341 ; (14)269. 

yield of, (10) 17- 

Clark, Mr W. Eagle, (13) 165. 
Clarkson, Dr R. I)., (5) 221. 
Classification of fiat fishes, (18) 335, 351. 
Ctathrorystis rosea- persicina, (6) 204. 
Clathurella linearis, (15) 117. 

purpurea, (15) 117. 

reticulata, (15) 117. 

teres, (15) 117. 

Clausia cluthe, (18) 396. 

elonqata, (6) 237. 

Clavella duthce, (20) 292. 

hippoylossi, (18) 159 ; (19) 126. 

labracis, (19) 127 ; (20) 292. 

Cleethorpes, tish-liatching at, (8) 361. 
Cleland, Professor, (4) 211. 
Cleta horrida, (10) 255. 

lameUifera, (6) 240. 

lata, (i0)257; (21) 191. 

7ni)iulirornis, (10) 255. 

serrata, (8) 318. 

similis, (6) 239. 

Cletodes curvirostris, (12)250; (15) 151. 

hirsutipts, (15) 171 ; (19) 249. 

irraa<i, (12) 250 ; (19) 249. 

limicola, (6) 240 ; (8) 319 ; (21) 120. 

linearis, (11) 204; (15) 151; (19) 

249. 
longicaudata, (8) 319 ; (15) 151 ; (20) 

465, 503. 

monensis, (19) 249. 

neglecta, (21) 120. 

perplexa, (17) 257 ; (19) 249. 

propinqua, (6) 240 ; (21) 121, 

sarsi, (23) 146. 

.^imilis, (13) 168 ; (16) 268. 

tenuipes, (15) 170 ; (17) 256. 

tenuiremis, (11) 204. 

Cleve, Professor P. T., (15) 297. 
Clio borealis, (7) 325. 

pyramidata, (19) 236. 

retujia, (7) 325. 

Clione borealis, (6) 280; (7) 325; (16) 155, 

209 ; (22) 256. 
Close time for crab fishing, (18) 140. 
Closed areas, physical characters of, (14) 

130. 
Closure of waters to beam -trawling, 

results of, (14) 12, 133. 
Closure of areas offshore, (14) 148. 
Clupea alosa. See Shad, allis. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



187 



Clupea finta. See Shad, twaite. 

harengus. See Herring. 

pilchardtis. See Pilchard, sardine. 

sprattus. See Sprat. 

Clupeoids, structure of, (5) 257. 

Clyde mussel-beds, (10) 17, 194. 

Clymene amphistoma, (15) 158. 

— — gracilis, (15) 158. 

Ciypeoniscus hanseni, (14) 165. 

Coal-fish, green-cod or saithe (Gadu.i 

virens), (18) 283 ; (21) 59. 
anatomical differences of, from cod 

and pollack, (20) 250. 
comparison between, and cod and 

pollack, (20) 228, 2-44. 

development of, (12) 19. 

distribution of, (21) 59. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 176. 

distril)ution of eggs of, (15) 243. 

eggs of, (10)287; (11)242; (14)171; 

(16)91, 114. 
eggs of, in Firth of Clyde, (15) 249 ; 

(17) 82, 83, 84, 93, 96, 103, 106. 

fecundity of, (9) 257. 

food of, (20) 313, 487, 517 ; (21) 20. 

food of voung of, (5) 327 ; (8) 254. 

liabitatof youngof, (5) 326 ; (21) 60. 

in Loch Fyne, (4) 233 ; (15) 111. 

mature and immature, (8) 176. 

migrations of, (21) 60. 

osteology of, (20) 228, 251. 

parasites of, (18) 180. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 307. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

spawning areas of, (15) 243. 

in Dornoch Firth, (23) 20. 

period of, (4) 247 ; (7) 195 ; 

(8) 268 : (10) 232 ; (15) 243 ; (17) 97. 

specific description of, (20) 248. 

specimens of, stranded on beach, (4) 

209. 

tumour on stomach of, (13) 236. 

Cobbler. See Scorpion, sea-. 
Coccoiiei-s pediculus, (9) 274. 

srutel/um, (9) 274. 

Cochlodesma pr<etenue, (15) 129. 
Cockle-beds of Barra, (8) 211. 
Cockle as bait, (7) 328, 352, 356. 

and its habits, (8) 212. 

Cockles, (8) 19, 215. 

Cod [Galm caUarias), (18) 282 ; (21) 54. 

age of, (19)228. 

anatomical differences from coal-fish 

and pollack, (20) 250 

53. 

carbo-hydrates in liver of, (2) 39. 

comparison between, and coal-fish 

and pollack, (20) 228, 244. 

composition of, (5) 228. 

C3^stic tumour in head of, (4) 215. 

digestibility of, (5) 228. 

digestion in, (2) 39. 

distribution of, at various stages, 

(21) 54. 

distribution of adults and immature, 

(8) 173. 
distribution of eggs of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15)249. 



Cod dried, in Spain, (10) 170. 

eggs of, (3) 53 ; (7) 305; (8) 284; (15) 

249 ; (16) 91, 114, 115 : (17) 82-84, 93, 

96, 103, 106. - 
Sars' discovery that they float, 

(16) 88. 

in Firth of Forth, (15) 221. 

fecundity of, (9) 254. 

fishery at Iceland, (13) 346. 

at Lofotens, (13) 339, 

in Newfoundland, decline of, 

(13) 336. 

feeding on herring, (4) 135. 

feeding on herring-eggs, (4) 135. 

food of, (4) 134 : (7) 227, 234, 235, 

237, 239, 240, 247, 257 ; (8) 231, 239, 

249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256; (9) 

235, 237 ; (10) 215, 224 ; (20) 307, 308, 

312, 313, 486, 505. 

food of, seasonal change in, (4) 135. 

food of young of, (5) 326 ; (8) 254. 

fungoid growths on preserved, (6) 

204. 
growth of, in tanks, (5) 235 ; (7) 

404 ; (19) 228. 
growth, rate of, (5) 243 : (11) 195 ; 

(15) 176; (19) 154, 214; (23) 128, 130, 

137. 

habitat of larva, (15) 194. 

habitat of joung of, (5) 326, (15) 

194. 
hatching of eggs of, (2) 47 ; (13) 9, 

123. 
hatching of, in America, (3) 84 ; (9) 

401; (12)394; (13)337. 
hatching of, in Newfoundland, (8) 

365 ; (9) 398 ; (13) 335. 
hatching of, in Norway, (5) 235 ; 

(6) 305 ; (8) 374 ; (12) 398 ; (13) 339 ; 

(17) 208. 

hermaphroditism in, (13) 297. 

influence of temperature on hatching 

of, (5) 242. 
influence of temperature on growth 

of, (22) 159, 164, 170. 

life-history of, (15) 194. 

lines of growtli in otoliths of, (23) 

128. 

lines of growth in scales of, (23) 130. 

mature and immature, (8) 173. 

migrations of, (11) 189 ; (15) 375. 

migrations of, in relation to food, 

(4) 135. 
■ minimum size at maturity, (8) 161, 

162, 163. 

nature of "red," (6) 204. 

observations on spawning of, in 

tanks, (3) 52. 

osteology of, (20) 228, 251. 

parasites of, (18) 180, 181 ; (19) 121, 

149 ; (23) 108. 

post-larval, (7) 307. 

proportion of immature, landed by 

trawlers, (22) 19. 
proportion of males to females, (8) 

349. 

rearing of, (7) 404. 

relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 148, 229. 
— — sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 



188 



Fart III. — TiuenUj-third Annual Report 



Cod, size of, at first-maturity, (19) 228 ; 

(22) 158. 

size-limit between mature and im- 
mature, (22) 18. 

spawning at Faen'ie, (23) .S3. 

spawning grounds of, (7) 195 ; (8) 

266 ; (15) 194, 223 ; (23) 20, 253. 

in Dornoch Firth, (23) 20. 

spawning of, in autumn in North 

Sea, (23) 253. 

spawning period of, (4) 246 ; (7) 

195 ; (8) 266 ; (10) 232, 234 ; (15) 222 ; 

(17) 97 ; (19) 227 ; (23) 253. 

specific description of, (20) 248. 

tumour in, (10) 324. 

varieties of, (7) 404. 

voracity of, (4) 134. 

with one eye, (11) 294. 

young, caught bv bag-net fishing, 

(23) 157. 

young, not common on deep-water 

grounds, (19) 289. 
Ccelenterata, pelagic, of Firth of Forth, 

(16) 194. 
Cold, influence of, on fishes, (9) 420. 
Cohopttra, (8) 339 ; (9) 273. 
Collocheres gracilicauda, (19) 252. 
Colour, change of, in fishes, (3) 69. 
Comber. See Serranus cabrilla. 
Common dab. See Dab, common. 

eel. See Eel, common. 

gurnard. See Gurnard, grey. 

mussel. See Mussel, common. 

sole. See Sole. 

Comparative abundance of young and 

old fish at different seasons, (6) 8. 
Comparative growth of round fishes and 

flat fishes, (20) 334. 
Comparison of amounts of fish landed by 

line fishermen and beam-trawlers, (6) 7. 
Composition of flesh of salmon, (5) 222, 

228, 229. 
Conchecea elegans, (20) 476, 517. 
Conchoderma auritum, (6) 236. 

virgata, (6) 236. 

Configuration of the sea on the north- 
west of Scotland, (6) 350. 
Conger-eel (Conger tmlgari-^), (15) 113 ; 

(18) 288. 

eggs of, (9) 392. 

fecundity of, (9) 243. 

food of, "(20) 308, 313, 487, 534. 

parasites of, (18) 160, 180 ; (19) 127. 

reproduction of, (9) 392 ; (10) 236. 

spawning period of, (4) 253 ; (9) 392. 

young of, (22) 281 ; (23) 251. 

Conger niger. See Conger-eel. 
Congerkola pallida, (18) 160; (19) 127. 
Coniothecium hertheramli, (6) 205. 
Contemporary fishery work, (6) 276; (7) 

384; (8) 359; (9) 388; (10) 326; (11) 

486; (12)383; (13)332. 
Co-operation in mussel-growing, (7) 340. 
Copepoda as food for herrings, (4) 102, 

124. 

of young lobster, (23) 67. 

effect of variations in salinity on, 

(17)118. 

eggs of, (8) 363. 

food of, (15) 216. 



Copepoda of Loch Fyne, (4) 147 ; (15) 

145; (16)264. 
of Lo3h Fyne, seasonal abundance 

of, (4) 147; (17) 114. 
of Loch Fyne, vertical distribution 

of, (17) 116. 
of Lochs and Inland Waters. See 

Fauna, invertebrate. 

of the English Channel, (7) 335. 

parasites of fishes, (18) 145, 179; 

(19) 121. 

parasite of lobster, (19) 255. 

parasitic, (20) 288 ; (23) 108. 

relation of temperature to abund- 
ance of, (17) 114. 

volumetric determination of, (17) 

» 112. 

Corlnda gihha, (15) 128 ; (20) 503, 510. 

Coregonns pollan. See Pollan. 

vandesius. See Vendace. 

Corella parallelogramma, (15) 114. 
Corefhron hystrix, (15), 298, 299. 
Corisjnlis. See Wrasse, rainl)ow. 
Cornuspirafoliacea, (7) 311 ; (15) 165. 

involvens, (16) 274. 

pfanorbis, (7) 311. 

striolata, (7) 311. 

Cornwall Sea Fisheries Committee, (13) 

10. 
Coronhium afflne, (19) 266 ; (20) 479, 511. 

honellii, (6) 249 ; (15) 141. 

crasskorne, (6) 230, 249 ; (14) 161 ; 

(15) 141. 
grossipes, (6) 249; (19) 266; (20) 

492, 507, 525, 527. 

longicorne, (6) 249. 

spinicorne, (6) 249. 

tenuicorne, (6) 249. 

Coryaeus anglicus, (14) 163; (18), 397; 

(19) 251. 
Corystes casswelaunus, (6) 257 ; (18) 404. 
Coscinodiscus anguste-lineatu>i, (15) 299. 

concinnns, (15) 214. 

curvahdus, (15) 299. 

excentricus, (15) 214. 

minor, (15) 299. 

ocidus iridis, (15) 300. 

• radiatns, (15) 214. 

Cottvs, young stages of, (9) 323. 

long-spined (Cottus buhalis), (4) 232; 

(15) 110; (18)275. 

eggs of, (16)91. 

fecundity of, (9) 249. 

size at matui-ity, (10) 238. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

lilljehorgii. See Bullhead, Norway. 

scorpivs. See Scorpion, sea-. 

Couch's whiting. See Whiting, Couch's. 
Couper, Mr Wm., (8) 23; (9) 21, 177; 

(10)23, 188; (11)24. 
Crab and Lobster Act, (18) 139. 
Crab as l)ait, (18) 140. 
— digestibility of, (5) 228. 
edible (Crangon pagurus), (6) 256 ; 

(15) 1.30 ; (20) 534. 

berried females, (18) 79. 

-— casting of, (18) 83, 104. 

changes in carapace of, (22) 136. 

characters of mature female, 

(18) 79. 



of the Fishery Board jor Scotland. 



189 



Crab, edible, contributions to life-history 

of, (22) 100 ; (23) 154. 

description of eggs of, (18) 88. 

description of swimmerets of, 

(22) 110. 

—development of ovarv of, (18) 

31. ~ ' \ > 

distribution of, (18) 113 : (22) 

122. 
— effect of cold on movements of, 

(22) 125. 
external sexual characters of, 

(18) 99. 

exuviation in, (18) 104. 

frequency of casting in, (18) 

109. 

fry of, (23) 154. 

fry, vitality of, (23) 154. 

hard and soft, (18) 102, 105. 

hatching of, (21) 181 ; (23) 154. 

— impregnation in, (22) 101. 

increase of size in casting, ( 1 8) 

110. 

life-history of, (18) 77. 

migration of, (18) 119, 125: 

(22) 135. 
mode of attacliment of eggs in, 

(22) 108, 115. 

muscular system of, (22) 103. 

number of eggs of, (18) 89. 

periodicity of spawning and 

casting in, (22) 121. 
period of hatching of eggs of, 

(18) 88. 
process of fertilisation in, (IS) 

82. 
process of hardening in, (18) 

107. 
proportional numbers of the 

sexes in, (18) 99. 
rate of growth of, (18) 113; 

(22) 125. 
regeneration of limbs in, (18) 

111. 
regulation of fishery for, (18) 

77, 134. 
relation of migrations of, to 

temperature, (18) 124. 

repair of injuries in, (18) 111. 

ripe eggs of, (22) 112. 

size of, at maturity, (18) 79. 

spawning of, (18) 85, 88 ; (22) 

108. 

spermatheca of, (22) 105. 

statistics of fishery of, (18) 134. 

zoea of, (18) 88. 

shore. See Carcinus tiKnias. 

Crangon allmanni, (6) 260 ; (15) 132 ; (16) 

156, 210 ; (20) 489, 491, 510, 513, 516, 

520, 522, 523, 524, 525, 535, 536. 

bispinosus, (6) 260. 

fasciatus, (4) 156; (9) .309. 

nanus, (6) 260 ; (20) 480, 522. 

neglectus, (4) 155 ; (9) 309. 

ndgar-is. See Shrimp. 

Crania anomala, (15) 129. 
Crenilahrus melops. See Goldsinny. 
Cressa dnbia, (10) 262; (15) 139: (17) 

265. 
schiodfei, (10) 262. 

N 



Crihdla oculata, (20) 310. 

madreporite of, (6) 280. 

spawning period of, (4) 216. 

Grihropontius nortnani, (20) 472. 
Crista denticulata, (15) 157. 

eburnea, (15) 157. 

Cristatella muceda, (14) 239, 242; (15) 

318. 
Crisfellaria calcar, (7) 314. 

crepidula, (7) 314; (15) 166. 

rotulafa, (7) 314 ; (15) 166. 

Cromarty Firth, echinoderms of, (20) 304. 
■ physical and chemical examination 

of the water of, (6) 313, 320, 336. 

trawling investigations in, (20) 93. 

Cromarty, trawling investigations off, (21) 

17 ; (22) 21, 43, 47. 
Cross-fertilisation of fish, experiments in, 

(8) 358. 
of grey gurnard with whiting, (8) 

358. 

of lemon dab and turbot, (8) 358. 

of lumpsucker with flounder, (8) 358. 

Cross-fish. See Asteria-s rubens. 
Cruise of the "Jackal," (7) 412. 
Cruisers, duties in reporting vessels fish- 
ing, (20) 89. 
Crustacea as food of cod, (4) 136, 146. 

as food of haddocks, (4) 129. 

decapod, life-history of, (22) 100. 

mode of attachment of esrgs in, 

(22) 116. ^^ 

of Firth of Forth, (16) 156. 

relation of yolk to size and de- 
velopment of zoea, (19) 114, 115. 
from Clyde and Moray Firth, (17) 

248. 

larval stages of decapod, (19) 92. 

larval and young of Firth of Forth, 

(16) 197. 

notes on, (18) 382. 

of brackish water, (15) 317- 

of Firth of Clyde, (16) 277. 

of Firth of Forth, (6) 235. 

of Loch Fyne, (15) 129 ; (16) 292. 

of Loch Lomond, (17) 139. 

of plankton collected by "Garland," 

(16) 156. 

parasites of, (22) 250, 254. 

pelagic eggs of, (17) 114. 

significance of metamorphosis in the 

higher, (19) 115. 
Crustacean parasites of fishes, (18) 144 ; 

(19) 120 ; (20) 288. 
Cryptothiria balani, (6) 251 ; (15) 136. 
Crystallogobius in Clyde, (15) 252. 

in Moray Firth, (15) 257. 

nilssonii, post-larval form of, (13) 

232. 
Ctenolabrus rupestris. See Goldsinny, 

Jago's. 
Ctenophora of Firth of Forth, (16) 194, 

196. 
of Faeroe-Shetland Channel, (15) 

307, 308, 309, 310. 
Cuckoo ray. See Ray, cuckoo. 
Cucumaria frondosa, (20) 306, 319, 321. 

fudcola, (20) 306, 319, 324. 

hyndmani, (15) 162. 

lactea, (20) 306, 319, 324. 



190 



Bart in. — Tiventy-tldrd Annual Report 



Gncumaria pentactes, (15) 162. 

Culture of sea-fishes, (10) 15, 326, 333, 
336, 340, 342, 343, 346. 

Cuma hella, (4) 165. 

■ cercaria, (4) 165. 

edwardsii, (6) 253 ; (IS) 403. 

pulchella, (8) 329 ; (17) 267 ; (19) 236. 

trispinosa, (6) 253. 

Cumdla pyqmcm, (15) 135 ; (17) 267 ; (18) 
403 ; (19) 274 ; (20) 480. 

Cumopsis edwardsii, (18) 403. 

goodsiri, (6) 253 ; (16) 167, 209. 

longipes, (18) 403. 

Cunningham, Mr J. T., (6) 298 ; (7) 
385, 386 ; (8) 351 ; (9) 243, 319, 390, 
392; (10) 162, 169, 211, 238, 327 ; (11) 
194, 196, .239, 265, 489; (23) 125, 

Currents and the transport of pelagic 
eggs, (14) 16; (15) 337, 367. 

and their relation to spawning areas, 

(15) 337, 374. 

cause of movements of surface, (15) 

356. 

direction of, in Moray Firth, (15)343. 

direction of, on east coast of Scot- 
land, (15) 346. 

direction of surface, in Shetland- 
Orkney area, (15) 340. 

effect of, in drifting pelagic eggs, 

(17) 119. 8 1- s ss , 

effect of wind on surface, (15) 356. 

effect of tides on surface, (15) 360. 

influence of, in transporting fish 

larvje, (15) 368. 
of Faeroe- Shetland Channel, (15) 

287, 340. 
of North Sea, direction and rate of, 

(12) 351 ; (15) 11, 334, 338. 

of North Sea, reversal of, (15) 361. 

of North Sea, seasonal variations of, 

(15)355. 
rate and depth of surface, in North 

Sea, (15) 364. 
relation of, to migrations of fishes, 

(15) 375. 
surface, relation of, to fisheries, (15) 

367. 
Cuspidaria abbreviata, (15) 129. 

costellafa, (15) 129. 

cuspidata, (15) 129 ; (16) 155, 209. 

Cuttle-fish, damage to fish by, (10) 208, 

299. 
Cyclichna alba, (20) 510. 
Cyclocypris globosa, (8) 336, 337, 340- 

342; (9)282; (11)230; (12) 286; (13) 

250; (14) 168, 169; (15) 321; (16) 

252 : (17) 140, 145, 150, 155, 173, 183. 
Itevis, (15) 321, 333 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 

140, 145, 150, 155, 164, 168, 183. 
serena, (15) 317, 321, 326, 333; (16) 

252 ; (17) 140, 145, 150, 155, &c. 
Cydogaster liparis. See Sea-snail. 

montagui. See Sucker, Montagu's. 

Cydopicera gracilicanda, (6) 242; (10) 

262; (11) 209, 210. 

lata, (11) 210. 

niqripes, (4) 154 ; (6) 242 ; (10) 267 ; 

(11)209, 210; (17)262. 
pnrpurocinta, (11) 209, 210; (17) 

262; (18) 400. 



Cydopina elegans, (12) 237. 

gracilis, (12) 237; (15) 148; (18) 

386 ; (19)240. 

littoralis, (6) 238 ; (15) 148. 

longifiircata, (19) 236,240. 

Cydops cequoreus, (6) 238 ; (9) 288 ; (15) 

317. 
affijiis, (9) 275, 276 ; (12) 288 ; (13) 

244, 249; (15) 320, 332; (17) 141, 150, 

183, 187. 
albidus, (14) 168, 169 ; (15) 320, 332 ; 

(16)251,257, 260; (17) 138, 139, 144, 

145, &c. ; (20) 505. 

hicolor, (16) 250, 251. 

bicuspidatus, (13) 188, 244; (14) 

168, 169 ; (15) 317, 320; (17) 140, 150, 

155, 159, &c. 
CydoiJ.s bisetosns, (15) 317, 320; (16) 250, 

251 ; (17) 140, 145, 155, 164, 168, 173, 

183. 

brevicornis, (18) 389. 

crassicornis, (8) 338, 339 ; (9) 272, 

276, 282, 283, 284. 

dybowsUi, (17) 140, 141, 183, 186. 

ewartii, (6) 232, 238 ; (11) 223. 

fimbria/ lis, (11) 225 ; (12) 286 ; (13) 

188, 244, 249 ; (14) 168, 239 ; (15) 320, 

332 ; (16) 251, 260; (17) 140, 144, 145, 

148 ; (20) 505. 
fuscns, (16) 251 ; (17) 145, 150, 155, 

173, 183. 

gigas, (8) 336. 

— — kaiifmanni, (11) 224. 

langnidus, (17) 173, 183, 186. 

leuckarti, (15) 320, 322; (17) 138, 

139, 153, 183, 186. 
macrurus, (12) 286 ; (13) 249, 251 ; 

(14) 168, 169 ; (15) 320; (17) 144, 145, 
164, J 83, 186. 

magnotaims, (12) 286. 

nanus, (17) 172, 173, 183, 186. 

phaleratHs,{9) 276; (13) 249; (15) 

320; (17) 159, 168, 183, 187. 

pidchellus, (8) 338. 

sernilatus, (8) 341 ; (9) 272, 276, 

282-284, 286 ; (11) 223 : (12) 286, 287 ; 

(13) 244, 249 ; (14) 168, 239 ; (15) 320, 

332; (16) 251, 260; (17) 140, 145, 149, 

150, &c. ; (20) 505. 
signatus, (12) 286, 288; (13) 188, 

244, 249. 
stremms, (8) 336 ; (9) 272, 279, 283 ; 

(12) 286 ; (13) 188, 244 ; (14) 168, 239 ; 

(15) 320, 332 ; (16) 251, 257, 258, 260 ; 
(17) 138, 139, 144, &c. 

tenuicornis, (9) 276, 282, 283. 

thomasi, (9) 276, 279, 284 ; (12) 288 ; 

(13) 249, 251. 

varkans, (15) 319, 320, 322. 

vernalis, (14) 168, 169; (15) 320; 

(16) 251, 258, 260; (17) 140, 150, 155, 

'viridis, (9) 276, 283, 286, 288 ; (11) 

223 ; (12) 286, 288 ; (13) 188, 244, 249 ; 

(14) 168, 239 ; (15) 320, 332 ; (16) 251 ; 

(17) 138, 139, 144, 145; (20) 505. 
Cydopsefta, (18) 356. 
Cydopsina ladnulata, (17) 251. 
Cydopterus lunipus. See Lumpsucker. 
Cydosirema nitens, (15) 121. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



191 



Cyclotella operculata, (9) 27-1. 
Cyams pal/idu.s, (18) 160; (19) 127. 
Cylichna cylindracea, (15) 115. 

nitidtda, (9) 309. 

Cylindrohheris marke, (8) 325. 
Cylindropsyllns fairliensis, (17) 258. 
kevis, (8) 320; (10) 258; (15) 151; 

(20) 468. 

minor, (10) 260 ; (18) 394. 

Cymatophura so/ea, (9) 274. 
Cymhasoma rigida, (7) 316 ; (8) 332 ; (9) 

304; (22)248. 
Cymhella anglica, (9) 274. 

cishda, (9) 274. 

cymbiformis, (9) 274. 

Cynoglosshm, (18) 351, 352, 358, 359. 
Cynoglossns semilavis, (18) 359. 
Cynthia armata, (4) 162 ; (7) 323. 

flemingii, (4) 162 ; (6) 255. 

Cypria exculpta, (8) 338, 340, 341 



J72, 276, 284, 286 ; (15) 321 ; (17) 



(9) 
155, 



159, 164, 173, 183, 189. 
Icen's, (9) 276, 283, 286, 288 ; (13) 

188, 249; (16) 260. 
ophthcdmica, (8) 336, 337, 338. 340- 

342 ; (9) 272, 276, 282-284, 286, 288 ; 

(11) 230 ; (13) 188, 245, 249 ; (15) 321, 

333 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 140, 145, 150, 155, 

159, 164, 168, 183 ; (20) 505. 
Serena, (8) 336, 337, 340-342; (9) 

272,275, 276, 282-284, 286-288; (11) 

229, 230 ; (12) 286 ; (13) 188, 245, 250 ; 

(14) 168; (16)259, 260. 
Cypridina marue, (8) 325. 
Cypridopsis aciUeafa, (9) 283, 286 ; (13) 

245 ; (15) 318. 

newfoni, (17) 160, 183. 

obesa, (8) 343. 

vidua, (8) 339-341, 343; (9) 272, 

276, 282, 283, 286 ; (13) 188, 245, 250 ; 

(14) 239. 
ril/osa, (8) 336, 337, 339-341, 343 ; 

(9) 272, 276, 282-284, 286, 288; (13) 

188, 245 ; (14) 239 ; (15) 321, 333 ; (16) 

252, 260 ; (17) 140, 160, 164, 173, 183. 
Cyprina, sp., (20) 527. 

islandica, (7) 317, 341 ; (15) 126. 

Cyprinotus prasinus, (15) 318. 
Cyprinus carpio. See Carp. 
Cypris acuminata, (8) 344. 

affinis, (8) 342. 

browniana, (5) 328, 330. 

Candida, (8) 343 ; (11) 230. 

cinerea, (5) 328 ; (8) 342 ; (11) 230. 

compre-ssa, (8) 342, 344; (11) 230. 

— — elongata, (8) 343. 

exsculpta, (8) 341. 

fahceformis, (8) 344. 

fuscata, (9) 286 ; (13) 245, 2.50 ; (17) 

164, 173, 183. 

gibba, (8) 344. 

globosa, (8) 342 ; (11) 230. 

granulosa, (8) 341. 

incongniens, (9) 282; (17) 159, 183, 

189. 

jurinii, (5) 328 ; (8) 343. 

Icevis, (8) 342 ; (11) 230. 

obliqua, (9) 276, 280, 282 ; (14) 168 ; 

(16) 252 ; (17) 140, 155, 183, 189. 
oruala, (8) 343. 



Cypris prasina, (9) 285, 286, 288. 

pxibera, (9)276; (17) 159, 161, 167, 

168, 183, 189. 

reticulata, (8) 339, 340, 342 ; (9) 

284; (15)319, 321. 

reptans, (8) 342. 

sella, (8) 343. 

serena, (8) 342 ; (11) 229. 

striolata, (8) 341. 

strigata, (8) 342. 

tessellata, (8) 342. 

tmne/acta, (5) 328 ; (8) 343. 

vidiia, (8) 343. 

virens, (5) 328; (9) 286; (14) 168, 

239 ; (17) 164, 183. 

— — virens, var. monolijera, (5) 329. 
westivoodii, (8) 343. 

Cyproidia hrevit'ostris, (18) 401. 

damnoniensis, (15) 138 ; (18) 401. 

Cyproisflava, (17) 1C8, 183, 190. 

Cyrianassa elegans, (4) 164. 

Cyrtophium tuberculatum, (19) 266. 

Cyt here albo77iaculata, (Q) 243 ; (15) 142. 

angulata, (6) 243 ; (15) 143. 

antiquata, [Q) 243 ; (15) 143; (20) 

497. 

aurantia, (7) 318. 

ca-stanea, (7) 317. 

cluthce, (5) 328 ; (11) 142. 

concinna, (6) 243 ; (15) 143 ; (20) 

503, 523. 

confusa, (7) 317 ; (9) 288 ; (15) 142 ; 

(20) 527. 

convexa, (6) 243 ; (15) 142. 

crispata, (6) 243 ; (15) 142. 

cuneiformis, (7) 317. 

cyamos, (6) 243. 

dunehnensis, (6) 243 ; (16) 263 ; (20) 

503, 511, 52.3. 

emaciata, (16) 263 ; (20) 503. 

emarginata, (16) 263. 

Jinmarchica, (8) 321 ; (20) 503. 

gibbosa, (9) 288, 307 ; (15) 142, 318. 

impressa, (7) 317. 

inflata, (19) 256. 

jonesii, (6) 243 ; (15) 143; (20) 537. 

limicola. (6) 243 ; (20) 523. 

lutea, (6) 242 ; (15) 142 ; (20) 520. 

marginata, (15) 142. 

• • minna, (19) 257. 

mytiloides, (7) 316. 

■ navicida, (7) 317. 

jKllucida, (6) 242 ; (7) 317 ; (9) 286, 

288 ; (15) 318 ; (20) 525. 

porcellanea, (15) 142, (20) 503, 517. 

pulchella, (8) 325. 

quadridentata, (6) 243 ; (16) 263. 

robertsoni, (6) 243 ; (15) 142. 

semiovata, (8) 321. 

semipunctata, (5) 328 ; (7) 317 ; (15) 

142. 

tenera, (6) 242 ; (16) 263. 

tuberculafa, (6) 243 ; (15) 143 ; (20) 

503, 511, 517. 

ventricosa, (7) 317. 

villosa, (6) 243 ; (15) 143. 

viridis, (6) 243 ; (8) 321. 

tvhitei, (8) 321 ; (16) 263. 

Cythereis whitei, (8) 321. 

Cytherella abyssorum, (19) 257. 



192 



Part III. — Tiveniy-third Annual, Report 



(6) 245 ; 
(16) 264. 

; (15) 

(15) 144; (20) 



Cytherella beyrichi, (19) 257. 

scotica, (19) 257. 

Cytheridea cJoiuiata, (6) 24.3. 

Inmstris, '(9) 272, 273; (13) 188; 

(14)2.39 ; (15) 330, 333 ; (17) 140, 164, 

184, 191. 
papillom, (6) 243; (15) 143; (20) 

497 503. 
punct'u/ata, (7)317; (15) 143; (20) 

503. 

suhflavescens, (5) .328 ; (15) 143. 

torosa, (9) 288 ; (15) 318. 

Cytherideis suhulata, (5) 328 ; 

(20) 503. 
Cytlm-ois fischeri, (8) .324 
Cytheropteron alatum, (15) 144. 
angidatnm, (5) 328; (7) 318 

144. 

arcuatum, (16) 264. 

depressimi, (7) 318. 

humile, (12) 262; 

517. 

inflatnm, (15) 144. 

idtismnum, (6) 244; (15) 144; (20) 

497, 511. 

midtifomni, (8) 321. 

nodostm, (6) 244 ; (15) 144. 

punctatu7n, (8) .323 ; (15) 144. 

suhcircinatum, (7) 318. 

Cytherura acuticostata, (6) 244 ; (8) 323 ; 

(15) 144. 

affinis, (8) 322. 

angidata, (6) 244 ; (15) 144. 

bodotria, (8) 322. 

celhdosa, (6) 244 ; (15) 144. 

dathrata, (6) 244 ; (16) 264. 

— — cormUa, (8) 322 ; (15) 143. 

cimeata, (6) 244. 

Jlavescens, (6) 244. 

fidva, (8) .323. 

gibba, (8) ,322 ; (9) 288 ; (15) 143. 

iiisolita, (6) 244. 

lineata, (8) 322. 

mucronata, (8) 323. 

■ nigrescens, (9) 288 ; (15) 144. 

producta, (7)318; (15) 144. 

■ quadrata, (6) 244. 

robertsoni, (8) 322. 

■ sarsii, (8) 323. 

sella, (15) 144. 

similis, (7) 318 ; (15) 144 ; (20) 501. 

simplex, (8) 323 ; (16) 263. 

striata, (6) 244 ; (15) 144. 

undata, (6) 244 ; (15) 144. 



D 



Dab, common {Pleuronertes limanda), (15) 

112 ; (18) 286. 

age of, at maturity, (20) 371. 

distribution of, (21) 44. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 170. 
— — distribution of eggs of, (15) 238. 
— — distribution of post-larvse and young 

of, (16) 244. 
duration of pelagic stage of, (20) 

361. 
eggs of, (7)304; (8) 285; (16) 91, 

114; (17) 82-84, 93, 96, 104, 106. 



Dab, common, eggs of, in Firth of Clyde, 

(15) 250. 

eggs of, intraovarian, (16) 96. 

egg resembling that of, (11) 243. 

embryo of, (16) 215. 

fecundity of, (9) 205. 

food of, (7) 225, 2.32, 2.35, 2.36, 237, 

238, 239. 243, 253, 257 ; (8) 230, 235, 
246, 250, 251, 2.52, 253, 254, 256; (9) 

224, 233, 236, 238, 241 ; (10) 213, 218, 
221, 230 ; (20) 306, 312, 313. 487. 526. 

growth of, (11) 194, 265; (20) .335, 

360, 370. 
growth, relative, of females and 

males, (20) 371. 

increase in numbers of, (14) 146. 

mature and immature, (8) 170. 

migrations of, (11) 187. 

minimum size at maturitj', (8) 161, 

162, 163. 

on deep-water grounds, (21) 45. 

parasites of, (18) 150, 167. 

post-larval stages of, (7) 307 ; (16) 

225, 228. 

proportion of immature, landed, (22) 

18. 
■ proportion of males to females, (8) 

349. 
relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 212. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

sizes of, (14) 143. 

size at maturity, (10) 238. 

size-limit between mature and im- 
mature, (22) 18. 
spawning areas of, (7) 189 ; (15) 238; 

(23) 20. 
spawning period of, (4) 251 ; (7) 

189 ; (10) 234 ; (15) 238 ; (17) 98 ; (20) 

360; (21)45. 

young, date of appearing of, (16) 244. 

young, diagnostic characters of, 

(16) 228. 

Dab, lemon (Pleuronectes microcephcdus), 

(15) 112; (18) 353; (21) 46. 
cross-fertilisation of, with turbot, 

(8) 359. 

decrease of, (14) 12, 146. 

development of, (9) 327. 

distribution of, (21) 46. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 168. 

distribution of young of, (21) 47. 

duration of post-larval stage of, (22) 

271. 

dwarf mature specimens, (21) 48. 

eggs of, (8) 285 ; (16) 91, 114, 115; 

(17) 83, 84, 9.3, 96, 106. 

experiments in breeding of, (14) 

151. 

fecimdity of, (9) 264. 

food of, (7) 224, 234, 238, 239, 242 ; 

(8) 230, 234, 249, 250, 252, 253, 255, 

256 ; (9) 223, 235, 236, 238-241 ; (10) 

313, 220 ; (20) ,306. 313, 525. 

growth of, (11) 195, 271. 

hatching experiments with, (16) 219. 

hatching of, (12) 11 ; (14) 151. 

mature and immature, (8) 168. 

migrations of, (11) 187 ; (21) 46. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



193 



Uab, lemon, niinimuni size at maturity, 

(8) 161, 162, 163. 

on deep-water grounds, (21) 46. 

■ parasites of, (18) 165, 180. 

post-larval stages of, (16) 225, 236. 

proportion of immature, landed by 

trawlers, (22) 19. 
— — proportion of males to females, (8) 

349. 
rearing of larvaj and post-larvai of, 

(16) 223. 
— — relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 208. 

sexual proportions of, (10)239. 

sizes of, (14) 143. 

size of, at maturity, (10) 238. 

sizes of, on deep-water grounds, 

(21) 47. 
size-limit between mature and im- 
mature, (22) 18. 
spawning period of, (4)251 ; (7) 188, 

387 ; (8) 261 ; (10) 234 ; (17) 98 ; (21) 

48. 

specific gravity of eggs of, (7) 386. 

Dab, long I'ough (Drepanopsttta plates- 

soidts), (18) 285. 
abundance of, on deep-water 

grounds, (19) 64, 290; (21) 223. 
distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 170. 

eggs and larvi\} of, (13) 14, 220. 

eggs of, (8) 285 ; (9) 319, 320 ; (16) 

91, 114: (17) 82-84, 96. 

eggs of, in Firth of Clyde, (15) 248. 

fecundity of, (9) 261. 

food of, (7) 225, 232, 236, 237, 239, 

244, 254; (8) 231, 236, 247, 250, 251, 

252, 253, 254, 255, 256 ; (9) 225, 234, 

236-238, 241 ; (10) 214, 218, 222, 230 ; 

(20) 311, 313, 487, 521 ; (21) 223. 

growth of, (16) 245 ; (20) 372. 

growth of, comparison of rate in 

different regions, (20) 385. 

in Loch Fyne, (15) 112 ; (18) 352. 

increase in numbers of, (14) 146. 

maximum sizes of, (20) 380, 381, 

386. 
minimum size at maturitj', (8) 161, 

162, 163. 

parasites of, (18) 166. 

post-larval stages of, (16) 225, 235. 

proportion of males to females, (8) 

349 ; (10) 239. 
relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 198, 222. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size at maturity, (10) 239. 

sizes of, (14) 143. 

spawning areas of, (7) 172, &c. 

spawning period of, (4) 250 ; (7) 

172, 191 ; (8) 264; (10) 234 ; (17) 98. 
Dactylio-solen mitarcticus, (15)298, 300. 

mediterraneus, (15) 298, 300. 

Dactylocotylt 2^ollachii, (19) 149. 
Dactylopm brerkorim, f9) 303 ; (21) 128. 
coronatus, (12) 255"; (20) 468 ; (21) 

128. 
flavus, (9) 302 ; (11) 205, 206 ; (15) 

152; (21) 128. 
I iff oralis, (21) 124. 



Dactylopus longirostris, (21) 126, 127. 

minutus, (9) 303 ; (17) 258 ; (21) 126. 

niixtus, (21) 126. 

parvus, (21) 128. 

pectinat us, (IQ) 269. 

rostratus, (11) 205. 

■ similis, (15) 152. 

.<itromU, (12)254 ; (15) 152 ; (21) 127. 

temdremus, (9) 302 ; (17) 258 ; (21) 

127. 
tishoides, (4) 149 ; (6) 240 ; (9) 303 ; 

(15) 152; (20)532. 

vararensis, (21) 125. 

Danaia dubia, (10) 262. 

Daniell, Dr A., (7) 178. 

Danish Fisherj- Association, (13) 340. 

Dannevig, hatching apparatus of, (5) 238. 

hatching experiments bj% (5) 241. 

Captain G. M., (5) 235 ; (6) 15, 276; 

(7) 384, 402 ; (8) 21 ; (9) 19, 409 ; (10) 

9, 190, 346, &c. 
Mr Harald, (12) 9, 208, 210; (13) 

15, 123, 147 ; (14) 9, 150, &c. 
Daphndla brachynra, (9) 273, 275, 277, 

289 ; (13) 245, 250 ; (14) 168 ; (15) 321; 
(16)252,260; (17) 163. 

unngii, (9) 289. 

Daphne crystalliua, (9) 289. 

mucronata, (9) 290. 

puhx, (9) 290. 

vetula, (9) 290. 

Daphnia cucuUaia, (9) 291. 

falcata, (17) 148. 

ga/eata, (13) 245 ; (17) 150, 153, 176, 

177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 184. 
jardinii, (9) 280, 290, 296 ; (12) 286; 

(13) 250 ; (14) 168 ; (15) 316, 321. 
lacus(ns,{\6) 250 ; (17) 138, 140, 157, 

158, 160, 163, 164, 167, 184. 
loiigispma, (9) 273, 280, 283, 287, 

290 ; (13) 188, 189 ; (14) 239, &c. 
mucronata, (9) 290. 

nasuta, (17) 170, 171, 173. 

puhx, (8) 336; (9) 273, 277, 283, 

284, 288, 290 ; (13) 250, &c. 

reticulata, (9) 289. 

si7na, (9) 290. 

retula, (8) 336 ; (9) 290. 

Daphniaj of fresh-water lochs, (17) 192. 

Darwinella sterensoni, (9) 281, 282. 

Darivinia compressa, (7) 320. 

Darwinida sterensoni, (13) 245, 250 ; (15) 
319, 321, 326 ; (16) 250, 252 ; (17) 140, 
184, 191. 

Dasychone argus, (15) 158. 

Dawson, Mr Robert A., (11) 493. 

Day, Dr, (7) 388. 

Daylight fishing for herring, (4) 58. 

Decalcifying action of formaline, (23) 133. 

Decapod Crustacea, larval stages of, (19) 
92. 

of Plymouth, (7) 385. 

larval, as herring-food, (4) 126. 

Decipxda ferruginosa, (15) 126. 

Dee, bacteria in water of, (5) 335. 

Deep-water grounds compared with in- 
shore grounds, (20) 117. 

plaice on, (21) 41. 

• trawling investigations on, (20) 

114; (21) 19, 27. 



194 



Part HI. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



Ddavalia nviiila, (11) 204 ; (17) 254 ; (21) 
116. 

gieshrechti, (17) 254. 

mimica, (15) 150 ; (17) 254. 

minutissima, (21) 116. 

palustris, (11) 203, 205; (15) 317. 

re/exa, (11)204; (12)244; (21)116. 

robusta, (11)204; (15) 150 ; (21) 116. 

Delphinus. See Dolphin. 
Dendrophrya erecta, (8) 317 ; (16) 274. 

radiata, (8) 317 ; (16) 274. 

Denmark, administration of fisheries in. 

(7) 406. 

as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 166. 

biological station in, (8) 374. 

■ — • — depredations of seals in, (9) 412. 
Denmark, fisheries of, (12) .399 ; (13) 340. 

fishery regulations in, (9) 411. 

Fishery Society of, (6) 305 ; (7) 406. 

fishery work in, (6) 305 ; (7) 405 ; 

(8)374; (9)410; (10)347; (11)499; 

(12)399; (13)342. 
legal sizes for immature fishes in, 

(8) 374. 

loans for boat-building in, (6) 305. 

nature of scientific fishery investiga- 
tions in, (9) 412. 

oyster fishery of, (7) 406. 

plaice fishery in Cattegat, (7) 407. 

regulations regarding immature fish, 

(9)411. 

stiine-trawling for plaice in, (7) 406. 

statistics of fisheries of, (9) 411. 

steam-trawling in, (9) 411. 

survey of fisheries of, (9) 410. 

system of insurance for fishing boats, 

(9) 412. 

trawling in, (7) 406. 

Density observations, (12) 339. 

report on, (13) 302. 

of water, efiect of wind on, (15) 

264. 
variations in, of water of Loch Fyne, 

(15) 263. 
Dentalina leguonen, (7) 314. 
Dentalium entalis, (15) 123. 
Dentex indgaris, spawning period of, (4) 

244. 
Dentronotus Jrondosxis, (15) 117. 
Depletion of fishery grounds, (10) 8. 
Dercotha punctatus, (6) 249. 
Dermatomyzon gibheriim, (12) 260. 
nigripes, (15) 154 ; (16) 177, 190, 

210; (17) 262. 
Development and life-history of the food- 
fishes, (6) 265 ; (10) 20. 
of bi-ain in lesser sand-eel, (13) 15, 

276. 

of Carcinua mrenas, (21) 142. 

of common mussel, (4) 218 ; (5) 247. 

of eggs of fishes, duration of, (15) 

370. 
influence of temperature on, 

(13) 15, 147. 
of food fishes, (11) 18, 239 ; (12) 19, 

218 ; (13) 15, 147 ; (14) 171. 

of herring, (4) 31. 

of ovary, oviduct, &c., in certain 

osseus fishes, (6) 281. 



Development of pollack, (14) 171. 
Dexainine spnnofia, (6) 247 ; (16) 140. 

sp., (16)210. 

theu, (14) 160 ; (15) 140 ; (19) 262. 

red/onieu-sis; (7) 321. 

Diaphuna hpalina, (15) 115. 
Diaphano'ioma hrachyurmn, (17)177, 179, 

184, 191. 
Diaptomns castor, (8) 336 ; (16) 259, 260. 
— ijraciHv, (9) 272, 276, 279, 282, 288 ; 

(11) 223 ; (12) 286 ; (13) 249 ; (14) 168 ; 

(15) .320; (17U38, 139, 143, 144,148, 

150, 153, 155, 157, 158, 159, 163, 164, 

167, 168, 171, 176, 177, 179, 181, 182, 

184. 
hircns, (16) 249, 251 ; (17) 148. 177, 

179, 181, 182, 18.3, 188. 
laciniatus, (16) 249 ; (17) 170, 171, 

183, 187. 
serricornis, (12) 288 ; (13) 188, 244 ; 

(14) 239. 
irierzejskii, (15) 316, 319, 320, 331, 

332 ; (16) 249, 257, 259 ; (17) 155, 156, 

1 8.3 188 
Diaslonqiremis, (4) 148; (6) 237 ; (9) 287, 

288, 300 ; (10) 244. 

as herring-food, (4) 126. 

Diastopova obelia, (15) 157. 
Diastylis biplicafa, (15) 134. 

cornutns, (19) 2.36, 274 ; (20) 510. 

lucifera, (6) 2-53 ; (19) 274 ; (20) 480, 

516 523. 

rathlii, (6) 253 ; (15) 134 ; (20) 522. 

rostrata, (20) 479, 516 ; (22) 257. 

■ riigom, (4) 165 ; (6) 253 ; (8) 329, 

330 ; (15) 1.34 ; (16) 167, 209 ; (20) 510. 

strigata, (4) 165. 

tmnida, (19) 274 ; (20) 480. 

Dia-'f i/foid<:-s bijylicata, (20) 510. 
Diasiijlops-M resima, (19) 236, 274. 
Diatoma ttiiite, (9) 274. 

vidgare, (9) 274. 

Diatoms as food of cojjepods, (15) 216. 

as food of fishes, (15) 216. 

as food of marine animals, (15) 215. 

as food of young fishes, (16) 244. 

discolouration of sea by, (15) 216. 

distribution of, (15) 212. 

from Faeroe-Shetland Channel, (15) 

297. 

marine, (15) 15. 

reproduction in, (15) 217. 

seasonal abundance of, (15) 212. 

vertical distribution of, (15) 213. 

Dichelesiiimi stnrionis, (23) 111. 
Dickson, Dr. H. N., (12) 21, 336; (15) 280. 
Dktyocha fibula, (15) .302. 

■ lijjecidum, (15) 302. 

Didymus-plankton, characters of, (15)302. 
Difflugia acuminata, (14) 243. 

corona, (9) 274. 

globidaria, (9) 274. 

marsupiformis, (9) 274. 

jyyriformis, (9) 274. 

Digestion in fishes, (2) 31 ; (22) 170. 
Digestive organs, chemistrj' of, (2) 31. 

histology of, (2) 31. 

Digestibility of fresh fish. (5) 221. 

of Whitefish [Coregomis dupei- 

formis) (5) 228. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



195 



Diminution of flat fishes, (12) 9. 
Diminutive sucker. See Sucker, Mon- 
tagu's. 
Dinematura cohoptrata, (18) 156 ; (19) 

125. 
——prochicfa, (18) 156 ; (19) 124. 
Dinemoura alata, (18) 156. 

lamnre, (18) 156. 

serrata, (19) 125. 

Dinophilus mefameroides, (7) 385. 
Diosaccus tenuicornis, (15) 151. 
Diphasia fallax, (15) 164.1 
Diphys campanulifera (15) 310, 311. 
Diplectanum cequans, (23) 117. 
Diplodonta rotundafa, (8) 330. 
Dip/ozoonpamdo.rxm, (4) 215. 
Discorhina globulaj-is, (15) 167. 

• orhicxdaris, (16) 277. 

-rosacea, (15) 167. 

Diseases of fish, cysts in eyes of Norway 
pout from Clyde, (19) 284. 

of fishes, (3) 66 ; (4) 214 ; (11) 20, 

39 1 392. 
Distribution of edible fishes, (6) 33 ; (18) 
113 ; (22) 122. 

of eggs of ling, (15) 244. 

of food fishes, (21) 40. 

of food fishes, value of statistics 

thereanent, (21) .38. 

of pelagic eggs, (13) 15, 258 ; (15) 13. 

— — of pelagic invertebrate fauna of the 
Firth of Forth and its vicinity, (16) 
153. 

vertical, of pelagic fish eggs, (15)2.50. 

Ditylum Brightwellii, (15) 214. 
Dog-fish, black - mouthed [Pristiuru-i 
melanmtomm), (4) 226 ; (15) 11.3, 168; 
(18) 291. 

larger spotted {ScyUinm catulus), 

(18) 291. 

• lesser spotted {Scylliorhiiius cani- 

cida), (15) 168. 

food of, (21) 226. 

picked {Acanthias vulgaris), (4) 

227 ; (15) 113; (18)291. 

food of, (21) 221. 

■ • parasites of, (20) 297. 

Dog-fishes, (4) 227 ; (10) 207. 

Dog Hole, trawling investigations at, 

(21) 17, 45, 46, 49, 52, 55. 
Dolphin, white-beaked {Delphinus 
{Lagenorhynchus) albirostris), occur- 
rence of, (20) 541. 
Dolphins, use of fire-arms against, (7) 

398. 
Dornoch Firth, physical and chemical 
examination of the water of, (6) 313, 
318, 336. 

spawning of cod, &c. , in, (23) 20. 

trawling investigations in. Set 

Trawling investigations. 
Doris johnstoni, (15) 116. 

rejMnda, (15) 116 ; (16) 155, 209. 

tiibercidata, (15) 116. 

Doropygus gibber, (18) 386. 

normani, (9) 301 ; (20) 455. 

porcicaxida, (15) 148; (18)386. 

pidex, (18) 386. 

Dory. See John Dory. 
Dosinia exoleta, (15) 126. 



Dosinia lincta, (15) 126. 
Doto coronafa, (16) 155, 209. 
Doull, Mr John, (9) 177 ; (10) 188. 
Dragonet, gemmeous (Gallionymus hjra), 

(3) 68 ; (4) 232 ; (7) 356 ; (15) 110; (18) 

278 ; (20) .5.35. 

change of colour in, (3) 69. 

colour of sexes of, (3) 69. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 177. 

eggs and larva of, (9) 349 ; (15) 250. 

eggs of, (4) 212; (8) 285 ; (14) 223 ; 

(16) 91-114; (17) 82-84, 93, 99, 103, 

106. 

eggs of, in Firth of Clyde, (15) 250. 

fecundity of, (9) 252. 

food of, (8) 256 ; (20) 486, 495. 

mature and immature, (8) 177. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 309. 

proportion of males to females, (8) 

349. 

reproduction of, (10) 243. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

spawning of, (4) 212 ; (7) 197 ; (8) 

269; (17)99. 
spotted {CaUionymus maculatus), 

(18)279; (19)288. 

eggs of, (19) 288. 

food of, (20) 487, 496. 

parasites of, (18) 162, 168; 

(19) 129; (20)298. 

Drechsel, Capt. C. F., (7) 384; (8) 21, 
353; (9) 11, 19, 177, 410; (10) 347; 
(11) 21, 486 ; (13) 16. 

Drtpanopsetta elassodon, (IS) 352. 

plafessoides. See Long rough dab. 

Drepanothrix dentata, (13) 188, 245, 250; 
ll4) 168, 289 ; (15) 330, 331, 333 ; (16) 
2.30, &c. ; (17) 141, &c. 

Dried fish cured with boracic acid, (6) 212. 

Drift-bottle experiments on surface cur- 
rents, (15) 334. 

Dryope crenafipalmata, (6) 249. 

Duddingston Loch, amphipoda of, (17) 
168. 

cladocera of, (17) 167, 168. 

copepoda of, (17) 167, 168. 

invertebrate fauna of, (17) 165. 

isopoda of, (17) 167, 168. 

moUusca of, (17) 169. 

ostracoda of. (17) 167, 168. 

temperatures of, (17) 166. 

Dufl-, Mr W., (10) 23 ; (11) 24. 

Dulichia falcata, (6) 250 ; (15) 141 ; (20) 
479, 492, 501, 503, 511, 517, 520, 523, 
527. 

monocantha, (16) 277 ; (19) 236, 267 ; 

(20) 479, 511, 517, 523. 

porreda, (9) 308; (19) 267; (20) 

479, 492, 501, 511, 523. 

-sp., (16)210. 

Dunbar, creeks at, (12) 202. 

hatchery, description of, (12) 10, 

196. 
work at, (11) 14; (12)10,210; 

(14) 150. 
Marine Laboratory, (8) 8 ; (9) 5, 6, 

14 ; (10)7; (11)8. 
Dunbeath, trawling investigations off, 

(20) 94. 



196 



Part III. — Tiveniij-tliird Annual Report 



Dunckcr, l)r, (16) 22S ; (18) 226. 

Duration of reproductive life, (10) 238. 

Durham, Mr Herbert E., (6) 280. 

Dusky Perch. See Strraims gi'jun. 

Dutch fisheries, (6) 15, 307. 

fishermen, (10) 209. 

Duthie, Mr Robert, (9) 177, 181 ; (10) 
202, 288, 289 ; (11) 242, 246 ; (12) 17, 
187,218; (13) 15, 174; (14) 15, 229, 
&c. 

Dyopedos porrecta, (9) 308. 

Dyspontius curticaudatus (23) 148. 

normani, (20) 473. 

striatus, (6) 232. 



E 



Earth worms as bait, (7) 356. 

East Coast fisheries, development of, (10) 

16. 
Ehalia cranchii, (6) 257. 

• tuherosa, (6) 257 ; (15) 130 ; (20) 536. 

Echinocardium cordatum, (15)162; (20) 

317, 319, 324. 

■jlai-e.^cem, (20) 317, 319, 324. 

Echiiiocyamus pustllus, (6) 230 ; (20) 316, 

319, 324, 510, 527. 
Echinoderms of Cromarty Firth, (20) 304. 

of Loch Fyne, (15) 160. 

of Moray Firth, (20) 304. 

as food of cod, (4) 136, 145. 

as food of haddocks, (4) 129. 

Echinoplmira aculeata, (19) 236, 272. 

Echinuii acutus, (20) 315, 319, 324. 

escuhntus, (7) 324 ; (15) 162 ; (20) 

316 319 324. 
miliaris, (6) 230 ; (15) 162 ; (20) 315, 

319, 324. 

norvegicus, (20) 315, 319, 324. 

sphcera, (7) 347. 

Echiurxis oM/urus, (8) 332. 
Echthrogaleus coleoptratiui, (18) 156; (19) 

125 ; (20) 292. 
Ectinosoma armi/trtim, (13) 166. 
atlanticum, (9) 301, 302 ; (15) 149, 

307, 315 ; (20) 532. 
curticorm, (13) 166 ; (15) 149 ; (17) 

253; (21) 113. 

erythrops, (8) 318 ; (16) 267. 

gracih, (13) 166; (17)253; (18) 389; 

(21) 113. 
herdmani, (13) 166 ; (15) 149 ; (17) 

253; (21) 113. 

longicome, (13) 166. 

melaniceps, (8)318; (15)149; (20) 

457, 492. 

nor7nani, (13) 166. 

propinqmim, (13) 166. 

2Jygm<n(m, (13) 166 ; (15) 149. 

sar^i, (15) 149 ; (20) 503, 511. 

spinipes, (6) 239. 

tenuicorne, (13) 166. 

tenuipes, (13) 166. 

Edington, Dr A., (6) 207 ; (7) 12, 368. 

Edwardsia callimorpha, (15) 163. 

— — carnea, (15) 163. 

Eel, common (Anguilla vidgaris), (15) 

113; (18)288. 

composition of, (5) 228. 

digestibility of, (5) 228. 



Eel, eggs of, (8) 356. 

external differences between males 

and females, (13) 203. 

fecundity of, (8) 356. 

— — female reproductive organs of, (13) 

198. 

food of, (20) 487, 533. 

larvifcof, (13) 333. 

male, (13)202. 

male, reproductive organs of, (13) 

198. 
migration and reproduction of, (8) 

354; (13)206. 

migrations of, (8) 354. 

oil-globules in intraovarian eggs of, 

(16) 98. 

• pathological changes in, (12) 295. 

problems remaining to be solved, 

(13)218. 
— — reproduction of, (13) 14, 192. 

ripe eggs of, in June, (4) 212. 

spawning period of, (4) 253. 

young of, (3) 63 ; (13) 213. 

pout. See Burbot. 

Eel, conger. See Conger eel. 

Effect of hooks of liners on fish-food, (12) 

19. 
EgeonfcLsciatus, (16) 156, 157, 209. 
Eggs of fishes, absorption of water in 

matm'ation of, (16) 116. 

absorption of yolk in, (16) 2H. 

artificial hatching of, (7) 403. 

attached to zoophytes, (3) 69. 

change in specific gravity of, 

at maturity, (16) 115. 
change in volume in demersal, 

during maturation, (16) 141. 
change in volume in pelagic, 

during maturation, (16) 141. 
changes in constituents of, 

during maturation, (16) 146. 
— — changes in percentage of water 

in, during maturation, (16) 143. 
changes in specific gravity of 

pelagic, during maturation, (16) 142. 
character of yolk in demersal, 

(16) 132. 
— — characters of embryo from 

demersal and pelagic, (16) 90. 
characters of protoplasm of, 

(16) 136. 
chemical composition of ger- 
minal vesicle, (16) 137. 
■ chemical composition of yolk 

of, (16) 136. 
— chemical composition of vitel- 
line membrane, (16) 137. 
collected by "Garland," (10) 

300, &c. 
comparison of those of herring 

and sprat, (6) 304. 
comparison of yolk in demersal 

and pelagic, of teleosteans, (16) 89, 

90. 
demersal, modes of attachment 

of, (16) 93. 
development of , in ovaries, (12) 

386. 
diffei'ent character of yolk in 

demersal and pelagic, (16) 98, 99. 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



197 



Eggs of fishes, ditficultjf of diagnosing, 
when preserved, (15) 246. 

distribution of pelagic, (10) 

201 ; (13) 15, 258 ; (15) 219. 

duration of development of 

embryo, (15) 370. 

effect of currents in drifting 

pelagic, (17) 119. 

germinal vesicle of, (16) 106, 

121. 

growth of yolk in, (16) 116. 

haddocks feeding on, (4) 133. 

hatched at Dunbar, (13) 8, 

9, 123. 

histological changes at matura- 
tion of, (16) 120. 

identification of, (1?) 81. 

in relation to trawling, (7) 401. 

increase in volume of, at matu- 
rity, (16) 112, 114. 

• influence of light on develop- 
ment of, (15) 178. 

influence of salinity on, (7) 403. 

intraovarian, (16) 100. 

intraovarian, of common dab, (16) 

96. 

of angler, (16) 125. 

of grey gurnard, (16) 96. 

of haddock, (16) 96. 

of John Dory, (16) 102. 

-— of Norwegian topknot, (16) 97. 

of torsk, (16) 115. 

in small plaice, (20) 356. 

maturation of, (16) 126. 

membranes of, (16) 104. 

methods of determining specific 

gravity of, (16) 138. 

methods of preserving, (14) 223. 

natural destruction of, (5) 231. 

oil-globules in, (16) 97. 

oil-globules in intraovarian of 

eel, (16) 98. 

physical characters of yolk, 

(16) 136. 

primitive circulation in, (16) 

211. 

rate of diminution of yolk in 

plaice, (16) 223. 

reaction of yolk, (16) 137. 

relation between oil-globules 

in, and oil in fish, (7) 386. 

relation of character of j'olk to 

time taken in development, (16) 123. 

relation of J'olk to size and 

development of zoea in Crustacea, (19) 
114, 115. 

remarks on, (3) 61. 

report on, procured by " Gar- 
land," (15) 246. 

role of phosphorus in matura- 
tion of, (16) 150. 

seasonal abundance of, in Loch 

Fyne, (17) 94. 

specific gravity of, (16) 142. 

specific gravity of demersal, 

(16)142. 

specific gravity of pelagic, (17) 

116. 

teleostean, maturation of, (16) 



Eggs of fishes, total volume of, produced 
by various fishes, (16) 123. 

unidentified, (11) 245, 246. 

variation in buoyancy of 

pelagic, (17) 117. 

variation in size of, (13) 15, 271. 

variation in specific gravity of 

pelagic, (16) 114. 

weight of, (16) 145, 

zona radiata of, (16) 104. 

Eggs of fishes, pelagic, cause of buoyancy 
of, (IG) 112. 

carried by currents, (8) 258; 

(15) 337 ; (16) 238. 

cause of floating of, (16) 90. 

change of volume in, during 

maturation, (16) 142. 

character of j^olk in, (16) 118. 

devoured by Crustacea, (9) 395. 

direction of drift of, (15) 374. 

distribution of, (15) 13. 

distribution of, vertical, (15) 

250. 

— distribution of, vertical, in 

LochFjTie, (17) 108, 116. 

drift of, in Loch Fyne, (17) 121. 

■ eaten by herring, (17) 119. 

estimate of the number in Loch 

Fyne, (17) 109. 

from Aberdeen Bay, (8) 289 ; 

(11)264; (12)300. 

from Firth of Clyde, (9) 335- 

336 ; (15) 247, 251. 

from Firth of Forth, (8) 286, 

288; (9) .336-349; (10) 304-315; (11) 
257 ; (13) 260-263. 269 ; (14) 226 ; (15) 
221, 247, 251. 

from Loch Fyne, (17) 79. 

from Montrose, (8) 287; (11) 

254; (12)300; (14)225. 

from Moray Firth, (8) 287 ; (9) 

340 ; (11) 254 ; (12) 300 ; (1.3) 268, 270; 
(14) 224 ; (15) 255. 

from Orkney, (13) 269. 

from St. Andrews Bay, (8) 

286, 287 ; (9) 340 ; (11) 263; (12) 298, 
299, 301 ; (13) 260, 261, 264; (14) 225. 

from Stonehaven, (12) 300. 

in Loch Fyne, comparison of 

number with number of copepods, (17) 
112. 
in Loch Fyne, stage of develop- 
ment of, (17) 100. 

of angler, (21) 189. 

of armed bullhead, (16) 91. 

of Atherina hepsetus, (9) 419. 

of ballan wrasse, (5) 245. 

vitality of, (5), 246. 

of bib, (16) 91, 115 ; (17) 94. 

— - of brill, (10) 279 ; (16) 91, 114, 115. 

of Carcinus imenafi, (21) 138. 

of cat-fish, (5) 356 ; (16) 91 ; (23) 252. 

of coal-fish, (10) 287 ; (11) 242 ; (12) 

218; (13)273; (16)91, 114. 

distribution of, (15) 243. 

in Firth of Clyde, (15) 249. 

of cod, (13) 272 ; (14) 223 ; (16) 91, 

114, 115. 

distribution of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15) 249. 



198 



Part III. — Twenty -third Annual Report 



Eggs of cod, occurrence of, in Firth of 

Forth, (15)221. 
Sar's discovery that they float, 

(16) 88. 

of common dab, (13) 274 ; (14) 223 ; 

(15)238; (16)91, 114. 
distribution of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15) 250. 

of conger, (9) 392. 

of copepoda, (8) 363. 

of Crustacea, (17) 114. 

of decapod Crustacea, mode of 

attachment, (22) 116. 

of diminutive sucker, (16) 91. 

of dragonet, (14) 223 ; (16) 91, 114 ; 

(17) 99. 

__ in Firth of Clyde, (15) 250. 

of edible crab, characters of, (22) 112. 

description of, (18) 88. 

mode of attachment of, (22) 

108, 115. 

number of, (18) 89. 

time of hatching of, (18) 88. 

of eel, (8) 356. 

of four-bearded rockliug, (16) 91, 

115. 

of fi v'e-bearded rockling, (13) 273. 

of floimder, (13) 274 ; (14) 223 ; (16) 

91, 114. 

distribution of, (15) 231. 

distribution of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15) 250. 
of gadoids, difficulties in diagnosis 

of, (17) 81. 
of Galafhea dispersa, mode of 

attachment of, (22) 117. 
of grey gurnard, (14) 223; (16) 91, 

114, 115. 

distribution of, (15) 239. 

distribution of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15) 249. 

of gurnard, red, (16) 91, 114, 115. 

of haddock, (13) 271 ; (16) 91, 114, 

115. 

— : distribution of, (15) 224. 

distribution of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15) 249. 
duration of development of, 

according to temperature, (19) 211. 

of hake, (12) 224 ; (17) 93. 

of halibut, (4) 224 ; (10) 285 ; (11) 

242; (16)91, 114. 

of herring, (16) 91. 

change in volume of, during 

maturation, (16) 141. 
— — duration of development of, 

(6) 306. 

of horse-mackerel, (15) 205. 

of Jago's goldsinny, (17) 94. 

— of John Dory, (16) 125. 

chai'acters of mature, (16) 133. 

maturation of, (16) 131. 

of king-fish, (19) 290. 

of lemon dab, (16) 91, 114, 115. 

specific gravity of, (7) 386. 

of lesser sand-eel, (16) 91. 

T — of lesser silver smelt, (16) 91 ; (19) 

286. 

of lesser weever, (16) 114. 

of ling, (16) 91, 114, 115. 



(16) 
(15) 

of 



Figgs of lobster, mode of attachment of, 

(22) 117; (23) 101, 102. 

of long rough dab, (16) 91, 114. 

in Firth of Clyde, (15) 248. 

of long-spined cottus, (16) 91. 

of lumpsucker, (10) 243 ; (16) 91. 

volume of. (16) 141. 

of mackerel, (16) 91, 114 ; (17) 93. 

specific gravity of eggs of, (7) 

386. 
of megrim, (10) 292 ; (12) 224 

91, 114. 
of megrim in Firth of Clyde 

250. 

of moUusks, (4) 217. 

of Muller's topknot, (17) 94. 

— — - of Munida rugosa, (22) 116. 
of Nephrops norcerjicus, mode 

attachment of, (22) 118. 

of Norway haddock, (19) 288. 

topknot, (12) 228 ; (16) 91. 

of Phrynorhomhusuni'macidatus,[Vl) 

94. 

of pike, (5) 347. 

of pipe-fishes, development of, (13) 

333. 

of plaice, (13) 273 ; (16) 91, 114, 11.5. 

change in volume during 

maturation of, (16) 141. 

distribution of, (15) 229. 

distribution of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15) 248. 
drifted into Firth of Forth, 

(15)230. 

of pollack, (10) 288 ; (17) 93. 

of poor-cod, (11) 239; (14) 223. 

of rockling, (14) 223. 

of rocklings in Firth of Clyde, (15) 

250. 

of sand-eel, (12) 313. 

of sardine, (8) 373 ; (9) 418, 420. 

of scaldback, (17) 94. 

of sea-scorpion, volume of, (16)91, 

141. 
of sharp-tailed Lumpenus, (19) 287 ; 

(22) 203. 

of shore-crab, (22) 119. 

of shrimp, (19) 93. 

mode of attachment of, 

118. 

of smelt, (16) 91. 

of sole, (16)91, 114, 115. 

in Firth of Clyde, (15)250. 

of solenette, (16) 91, 114, 115. 

specific gravity of, (7) 386. 

of spotted dragonet, (19) 288. 

of sprat, distribution of, (15) 234 

distribution of, in Firth 

Clyde, (15) 249. 
of teleostean fishes, changes 

maturation of, (16) 89, 110. 
changes ■which render them 

pelagic, (16) 89. 
characters at maturity of, (16) 

110. 
chemical composition of, (16) 

135. 
— — - distension of, in maturation, 

(16) 89. 
formation of yolk in, (16) 98. 



(22) 



of 



at 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



199 



Eggs of teleostean fishes, growth and 

maturation of, (16) 88. 

nature of, (16) 88, 89. 

physical and chemical changes 

in, during maturation, (16) 135, 138. 
significance of the yolk in, 

(6) 280. 

of thickback, (22) 286. 

Tomopferii onisciformis, (6) 282. 

of turbot, (10) 274 ; (12) 223 ; (13) 

14, 224, 274 ; (15) 187 ; (16) 91, 114. 

change in specific gravity in 

development, (15) 188. 

distribution of, (15) 242. 

of tusk, (10) 288 ; (16) 91, 114. 

of whiting, (13) 272 ; (16) 114. 

distribution of, (15) 223. 

of witch, time taken to hatch, (16) 

91, 114, 115; (22) 186. 

Egypt, fisheries of, (13) 347. 

Ehrenbaum, Professor, (9) 406; (10)343; 
(11)21,487; (13) 16; (16) 227; (18) 
335; (19)92. 

Eiscladus longkaudatus, (10) 265. 

Ekstrum's topknot. *See Topknot, Nor- 
way. 

Electric light, value of, in tow-netting, 

(7) 387. 

use of, in deep-sea research, (7) 395. 

use of, in fishing in Spain, (8) 370. 

" Electric " organ in skates, the, (6) 

277. 
Electric ray. See Torpedo. 
Eledmie, sp., (21) 199. 
Elyfiia viridis, (15) 117. 
Emarginula cra-ssa, (15) 122. 

fissura, (15) 122 

Embryology of the retina of teleosteans, 

(6) 280. 
Emigration of amoeboid corpuscles in the 

star-fish, (6) 28C. 
Enchelyopus (Zoarces), vinparm. See 

Blenny, viviparous. 
Encyonema cce.spitosutn, (9) 274. 
Engrmdis encrasicholus. See Anchovy. 
Enhydrosoma curvatum, (8) 319 ; (15) 

152; (21) 122, 123. 

gracile, (21) 122. 

minutum, (21) 123. 

Ensatella americanna, (7) 341. 
Enterocola eruca, (9) 301. 

ftdgens, (9) 301 ; (18) 386. 

Enteropsis vararends, (19) 241. 

Entomostraca, notes on, (5) 328. 

of lochs and inland waters. See 

Fauna, invertebrate. 
Eolis coronata, (20) 5J1. 

23apillosa, (15) 117. 

sp., (16)209. 

Eopsetta, (18) 352. 
Ephimedia ehlana, (15) 169. 
Epihdella hippoglossi, (19) 142. 
Epimeria cornigera, (8) 328; (15) 139; 

(18) 401 ; (19) 236, 262 ; (20) 510, 516. 
tubercidata, (15) 169 ; (17) 265; (18) 

401. 
Epithemia sorex, (9) 274. 

turgida, (9) 274. 

Ergasihis gasterostei, (18) 146. 
nanus, (19) 122. 



ErgasUus sieboldii, (19) 124. 
Erifhthonius ahditus, (6) 249 ; (15) 141 ; 

(18) 402. 

deformis, (6) 249 ; (20) 501, 523. 

hunferi, (14) 161 ; (19) 265 ; (20) 501. 

Erpetocypris o/ivacea, (9) 282. 

reptaiw, (8) 340, 341, 342; (9) 272, 

276, 282, 283, 284, 286, 288 ; (13) 188, 

245, 250. 

rohertsoni, (9) 281, 282. 

strigata, (8) 336, 337, .341, 343 ; (9) 

272, 284. 
tumefacfa, (8) 336, 337, 339, 340 

(9) 272,' 282, 284, 286. 
Erythropn elegans, (15) 134; (17) 268 

(18)403, 404; (20)491. 
yoenii, (7) 322; (16) 158, 160,209 

(20) 448, 480, 516, 520, 522. 
■ — distribution of, in Firth of 

Forth, (16) 161. 

pygmcea, (4) 158 ; (7) 322. 

sermta, (7) 322 ; (8) 330 ; (15) 169 ; 

(16) 262 ; (17) 268 ; (18) 404 ; (19) 236, 

277 ; (20) 510, 523, 524. ^ 
Escaroides rosacea, (15) 157. 
Esox lucius. See Pike. 
Etropus, (18) 357. 
Eucalaims crassus, (15) 307, 312; (18) 

382; (19)236, 237; (21) 110. 
elongatus, (15)305, 307, 309, 310, 311, 

312 ; (18) 383 ; a9) '-236, 237 ; (21) 110. 
Eucampla grccnlandica, (15) 214. 

zodiacus, (15) 214. 

Eucanuella spinifera. (19) 236, 245 ; (20) 

456. 
Euchcefa norvegka, (15) 146, 305, 307, 308, 

309, 310, 311, 314 ; (17) 113, 248. 
Eucythere anglica, (6) 244. 

argus, (6) 244. 

dedivis, (6) 244 ; (15) 143. 

Eudactylina, acaiithii, (20) 296. 

acuta, (20) 293 ; (22) 277. 

minida, (22) 275. 

similis, (20) 295. 

Eudendriimn rameuvi, (15) 164. 
Eudorella deformis, (8) 329. 

emarginata, (20) 516. 

inermis, (7) 322. 

marglnata, (17) 267. 

tnmcatula, (7) -622 ; (15)134; (16) 

167, 299 ; (17) 267 ; (20) 503, 510, 516. 
Eudorellopsis deformis, (8) 329 ; (17) 267; 

(19) 274 ; (20) 510 ; (20) 243, 258. 
Eugyophrys, (18) 357. 

Eidima hilineafa, (15) 121. 

incur ra, (15) 121. 

intermedia, (15) 120. 

polita, (8) 331 ; (15) 120. 

Eidimella acicula, (15) 121. 

scilloi, (15) 121. 

Eumenia Jeffrey sii, (15) 159. 
Eunice norvegica, (15) 159. 
Eunicicola clausii, (20) 481. 
Euoiiyx clielatus, (19) 236, 258. 
Eupagurus hernhardus, (6) 258 ; (15) 130; 
(20)511.516, 535. 

cuanensis, (6) 258 ; (20) 522, 527. 

prideaux, (15) 130. 

pubescens, (6) 258 ; (15) 131 ; (20) 507. 

sculptimanus, (6) 258 ; (15) 130. 



200 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual. Beiwrt 



Euphau-sii rascliii, (4) 157. 
Eupogehia deltura, (19) 278. . 
Eurycercus lamellatus, (8) 339 ; (9) 273) 
277. 283, 291 ; (11) 232 ; (12) 286 ; (13, 

188, 245, 250, &o. 
Eurycopt phalaiKjium, (15) 135. 
Eurydicc achata, (20) 493. 

ptdchra, (6) 251 ; (15) 135 ; (16) 168, 

210; (19)271. 
Eurynome aspera, (6) 256. 
ELcrynotus imolam, (16) 279; (20) 481. 
Eury.stJien.s trythropJdhabnun, (6) 248. 
Euryte loiKjicaiula, (23) 143. 
Enrytemora affinls, (1(1) 245 ; (11) 203; 

(18)385; (19)238; (23)67. 

daimi, (13) 249, 251. 

hirundo, ( 10) 245. 

ladnulata, (15) 317 ; (17) 251, 270. 

vdox, (18) 384 ; (20) 495, 507, 525, 

527 532 534 
Etmrus lomjipes, (15) 139 ; (17) 265 ; (18) 

402 ; (19) 262. 
Eidhemido compresm, (10) 265, 266 ; (16) 

170, 176, 210. 
Evadne nordmannii, (6) 245; (15) 141, 

306, 308, 309, 310, 311 ; (16) 210 ; (20) 

532, 533. 
Ewart, Professor J. C, (5) 43; (6) 25, 

189, 203, 277, 282, 287, 289, 295 ; (7) 
^ 9, 182, 384 ; (8) 351 ; (9) 320. 

Exhaustion of Forth oyster-beds, (14) 13, 

260. 
ExocetiLs rolitand. See Ftying-fish. 
Expense of fish-hatching, (21) 181 ; (23) 

121. 
Experiments in cross-fertilisation of fish, 

(8) 358. 
on currents and the transport of 

pelagic eggs, (13) 153. 

on mesh of nets, (12) 302. 

on migrations of fish, (15) 375. 

with small-meshed nets, (21) 40. 



F 



Facelina drummondii, (15) 117. 

Faeroe, trawling investigations at, (23) 
32. 

Faeroe-Shetland Channel, animal plank- 
ton of, (15) 305. 

currents of, (15) 287. 

diatoms from, (15) 297. 

direction of surface currents in, (15) 

340. 

physical observations in, (15) 280. 

salinity observations in, (15) 282. 

temperature observations in, (15) 

282. 

Father-lasher. See Scorpion, ea-. 

Fauna of Firth of Forth, 7 311 ; (9) 
14, 300; (10) 18; (11) 17, 197 ; (12) 
231; (13) 15, 167 ; (14) 15, 158. 

West Coast, of " Garland " expe- 
dition, (9) 13, 297. 

invertebrate, of inland waters of 

Scotland, (8) .334; (9) 269; (U) 220; 
(12) 284 ; (13) 237 ; (14) 167 ; (15) 316 ; 
(16) 248. 

of Duddingston Loch, (17) 

1.32, 165. 



Fauna, invertebrate, of Loch Achnacloich, 
(9) 269. 

of Loch Uoon, (17) 132. 

of Loch Coulter and Coulter 

Burn, (8) 334. 

of Loch Garry (Ailsa Craig), 

(16)251. 

of Loch Leven, (17) 132. 

of Loch Lomond, (17) 132. 

of Loch Strathbeg, (9) 269. 

of Lochs in vicinity of Glas- 
gow, (13) 237. 

— ■ — • of Lochs of Argyleshire, (9) 

269; (12)289; (15)316; (16) 251. 

of Lochs of Bute, (15) 316 ; (16) 

251. 

of Lochs of Caithness, (9) 269. 

of Lochs of Fifeshire, (9) 269. 

of Lochs of Forfar (15) 316 ; 

(17) 132. 

of Lochs of Inverness, (9) 269 ; 

(11)220; (17) 132. 

of Lochs of Orkney, (9) 269. 

of Lochs of Outer Hebrides, 

(13)237. 
of Luchs of Perthshire, (12) 

284 ; (13) 237 ; (14) 167 ; (17) 132. 
of Shetland lochs, (13) 174; 

(14) 229 ; (15) 316, 328, 329 ; (16) 248. 
distribution of pelagic, in Firth 

of Forth, (16) 153. 

Faforinua albus, (15) 117. 

Fecundity of sea-fishes, (9) 12, 243 ; (10) 
190 ; (15) 370. 

of fishes with demersal eggs, (15) 

376. 

with pelagic eggs, (15) 376. 

proportional number of ova pro- 
duced by different species, (9) 248. 

— — variation of, in individuals of same 
species, (9) 248. 

Fedderson, Mr A., (6) 16, 276. 

Fierasfer, sp. , larval, from North Sea, (22) 
283. 

Fifteen-spined stickleback. See Stickle- 
back, fifteen-spined. 

Filignma implexa, (15) 157- 

Firth of Clyde, condition of fishing 
grounds in, (6) 5. 

Crustacea of, (16) 277 ; (17) 248. 

description of trawling stations in, 

(18) 20. 

fishes of, (18) 272. 

importance of investigations in, ( 14) 

18. 
larval fishes of, (9) 335, 336 ; (15) 

251. 
methods of fishing for herrings in, 

(18) 249. 

migrations of gurnards in, (17) 216. 

pelagic eggs of, (9) 335-336 ; (15) 

247, 251. 

pelagic fauna of, (15) 71. 

physical observations in. in 1896, 

(15) 94. 

post-larval fishes of, (9) 335, 336 

(14) 227 ; (15) 251. 
trawling experiments in, (6) 32 

(12) 12 ; (14) 11, 21 ; (15) 22 ; (16) 22 ; 

(17)23; (18)20; (20)29. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



201 



Firth of Clyde, young fishes of, (9) 335, 

336; (15)251, 259. 
Firth of Forth, alkalinity of, (5) 352. 

amhipocla of, (16) 170. 

as a nursery for young fish, (5) 48. 

bj'e-law closing, against trawling, 

(5) 44. 

cladocera of , (16) 177. 

copepoda of, (16) 177. 

Crustacea, revised list of, (6) 235. 

• ctenophora of, (16) 194. 

cuniacea of, (16) 167. 

■ — decapod Crustacea of, (16) 156. 
dependence of, on eggs spawned 

offshore, (15) 230. 

distribution of Acartia in, (16) 186. 

— - — distribution of Calmius fijimarrhmts 

in, (16) 180. 
distribution of Erytlirops goiisii in, 

(16) 161. 
distribution of Euphasiidse in, (16) 

159. 

distribution of Mj-sidae in, (16) 163. 

distribution of Parathemisto m, (16) 

173. 
distribution of pelagic invertebrate 

fauna of, in 1889-1895, (16) 153. 

distribution of Sagiffa in, (16) 190. 

distribution of Schizopoda of, (16) 

164. 
distribution of Temora longicornis 

in, (16) 183. 
fauna of, additions to, (7) 311 ; (8) 

312 ; (9) 300; (10) 244 ; (11) 197 ; (12) 

231 ; (13) 165 ; (14) 158. 
— — fisheries of, (9) 178. 

former productiveness of, (5) 47. 

hydromedusa? of, (16) 194. 

isopoda of, (16) 168. 

larval and young Crustacea, dis- 
tribution of, in, (16) 197. 
— larval fishes in, (8) 286, 288 ; (9) 

336 ; (10) 304 ; (11) 257 ; (13) 260, 263, 

269 ; (14) 226 ; (15) 250, 251. 

migrations of gui'nards in, (17) 210. 

oyster-beds of, (14) 13, 244, 265 ; 

(15) 14. 

pelagic crelenterata of, (16) 194. 

pelagic eggs of fishes in, (8) 286, 288 ; 

(9) 336-340 ; (10) 304-315 ; (11) 257 ; 

(13) 260, 261-3, 269 ; (14) 226 ; (15) 

221, 247, 251 ; (16) 203. 

pelagic fauna of, (15) 64 ; (16) 153. 

pelagic vermes of, (16) 190. 

physical conditions of, (5) 50, 349. 

physical observations in, (15) 89. 

post-larval fishes of, (8) 286, 288 ; 

(9) 336-340 ; (10) 304-315 ; (11) 257 ; 

(13) 260, 261-3,269 ; (14)226 ; (15)251. 

salinity of, (5) 350. 

schizopoda of, (16) 158. 

temperature observations in, (5) 353. 

trawling experiments, comparison 

of periods, (14) 146 ; (20) 21. 
trawling experiments, decrease of 

plaice and lemon dabs in, (14) 146 ; (20) 

23, 26, 28. 
trawling experiments, increase of 

common dabs and long rough dabs in 

closed area, (14) 146 ; '(2U) 25, 26, 28. 



Firth of Forth, trawling investigations 

in, (6) 27 ; (12) 13, 17, 24 ; (14) 128 ; 

(20) 20. 

trawling stations in, (5) 52 ; (14) 131. 

— — use of seine in sprat fishery in, (18) 

244. 
young fishes of, (8) 286, 288 ; (9) 

336-340 ; (10) 304-315 ; (11) 257 ; (13) 

260-263, 269 ; (14) 226 ; (15) 251. 
Fish, application of the term " im- 
mature," (8) 192. 

artificial hatching of, (5) 230. 

as food of cod, (4) 136, 146. 

— — as food of haddocks, (4) 131. 

bacteria in living, (6) 287. 

circulatory system in teleostean 

embryos, (16) 213. 
Commission of United States, work 

of, (3) 79, 80. 

composition of (5) 221. 

observations on, (15) 190. 

Fish-culture in America, progress of, (3) 

78. 

in (knada, (12) 392. 

in France, (12) 403. 

■ in Lancashire, (13) 334. 

in New South Wales, (12) 393. 

in the United States, (12) 394. 

Fish, definition of "large " and "small," 

caught by line, (8) 187. 
destruction of, in Australia by 

Peridinia, (9) 400. 
difficulties of diagnosis of young 

flat, (16)226. 
digestibility of, compared with 

beef, (5) 223. 
distribution of young gadoids, (19) 

289. 

economic products from, (4) 256. 

elasmobranch, cranial nei*ves of, 

(7) 385. 

excretory products in the gut in 

embryo teleosteans, (16) 217. 
experiments on digestibility of, (5) 

223. 
experiments on vitalitj' of, caught 

by trawl, (8) 184. 

• extracts of, (4) 257. 

fat in muscles of, (5) 226. 

feeding during spawning period, 

(4) 101. 

fresh, digestibility of, (5) 221. 

fresh, nutritive value of, (6) 221. 

Fishes, growth of. See CTrowth. 
Fish-hatching at Howietoun, (5) 230. 

conditions of, (5) 237. 

Dannevig apparatus for, (5) 238. 

expense of, (21) 181. 

in Newfoundland, (13) 335. 

in Norway, (5) 234 ; (7) 403 ; (17) 

208. 

jar for adhesive eggs, (5) 238. 

principles of, (5) 231. 

report on, (17) 205. See also 

Hatching. 
Fish, hybridism in, (7) 382. 
immature, biological definition of, 

(8) 160. 

their distribution and capture 

by various modes of fishing, (8) 157. 



202 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



Fish, immature, capture and destruction 

of, (7) 5 ; (9) 201 ; (12) 18, m2. 
captui'e by bag-net or stow-net 

fishing, (8) 190; (23) 156. 
capture of, by hooks. (8) 378 ; 

(13) 14, 133. 

capture of, by liners, (8) 187. 

capture of, by lines and beam 

trawls, (9) 29. 
— — capture of, by shrimp nets, (8) 

185 ; (9) 206. 
capture of, by trawling, (8) 

179, 195. 
capture of, in North Sea, (13) 

332. 
comparison of territorial and 

extra-territorial waters regarding, (8) 

177. 
comparative destruction of, by 

trawl and hook, (6) 3. 
conference on the destruction 

of, (8) 360 ; (9) 201, 389 ; (10) 345. 

definition of, (8) 160, 163. 

destruction of, (8) 362. 

destruction of, by seines, (8) 

190. 
destruction of, by weirs, (8) 

190. 
distribution of, (8) 10, 157 ; 

(13) 333. 
distribution of, according to 

depth and distance from shore, (8) 

166, 167, 169; (10)333. 
distribution of, in inshore and 

offshore waters; (8) 163. 
distribution of, ofi'shore, (9) 

4, 182, 391, 395, 406. 
— enquiry as to destruction of, 

in Belgium, (9) 416. 
• enquiry as to destruction of, 

in Holland, (9) 412, 413. 
enquiry as to presence of, in 

deep water, (9) 391. 

enquiries regarding, (8) 159. 

escape of, from otter-trawl, 

(20) 327. 
experiments on vitality of, (12) 

.387. 
investigations on, in Denmark, 

(13) 340. 
— — legal sizes for, in Denmark, (8) 

374. 

■ legal sizes for, in Italy, (8) 375. 

legislation for the protection 

of, (8) 157. 

limits of, (22) 18. 

limits suggested for sale of, 

(12) 385. 
minimum sizes fixed for, (8) 

158. 

nurseries of, (9) 4. 

— — official enquiries regarding des- 
truction of, (8) 159. 
practical difficulty of enlarging 

mesh of trawl-nets for protection of, 

(8) 196. 
— — principles of the protection of, 

(8) 192, 196. 
— proportion of, to adults taken, 

(8) 164. 



Fisli, immature, protection of flat fish, 
(14) 148. 

proportion of, landed by line 

fishermen, (8) 378. 
proportion of, landed by trawl- 
ers, (22) 16. 

regulations proposed regarding, 

in England, (9) 393. 
— — regulations regarding, in Bel- 
gium, (9) 416. 
regulations regarding in Den- 
mark, (9) 411 ; (10)247. 

regulations regarding, in 

France, (9) 202. 
regulations regarding, in Hol- 
land, (9) 413 ; (10) 350. 

regulations regarding, in Italy, 

(9) 202. 

regulations regarding, in New 

South Wales, (9) 399. 

size of, among different species, 

(22) 17. 

their distribution and capture 

by various modes of fishing, (8) 157. 

used for manure, &c. , (8) 158. 

— — importance of accurate measure- 
ments of, (20) 326, 330. 

influence of cold on, (9) 420. 

landed, imperfection of statistics of, 

(20) 76. 

lateral sense organs of, (16) 216. 

limit of size dividing mature from 

immature, (8) 161, 163. 

meal, (6) 297. 

method of determining solids of, 

(5) 222. 

method of preparation of, in tins, (5) 

220. 

methods of rearing larvae of, (15) 177. 

migrations of, in relation to 

currents, (15) 375. 

notes on teleostean development, 

(16)211. 

numerical variation at different 

seasons, (6) 36. 

nurseries of j'oung, (8) 177. 

oils, (4) 258. 

preservation of, (4) 259 ; (6) 289. 

proportion of mature and immature, 

caught by trawling, (8) ISO. 

relative abundance of, (6) 91. 

relative proportion of small, cap- 
tured, (6) 36. 

rearing experiments with flat, (16) 

219. 

rearing post-larval plaice, (16) 223. 

reproduction and development of 

teleostean, (7) 386. 

respiration of teleostean embryo, 

(16) 213. 

supply on German coast, diminution 

of, (9) 405. 

transport of live European, 

America, (8) 363. 

■ weight and sizes of, brought 

Aberdeen market, (22) 89. 
Fisher Bank, catches from, (21) 38. 
— — plaice on, (21) 41. 

statistics relating to, (21) 38. 

trawling investigations on, (21) 25. 



to 



to 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



203 



Fisheries in extra-territorial waters, 
international conference on, (9) 389. 

of Denmark, (13) 340. 

of England and Wales, (9) 393 ; (12) 

380. 

of France, (8) 372 ; (9) 420. 

of Holland, (13) 340. 

of North Sea, question of regulation 

of, in Germany, (9) 405. 

of Shetland, (10) 202. 

of Solway, (4) 255. 

Fishermen, decline in number of, (10) 8. 

technical instruction to, (22) 264. 

Fisher}^ Commission of 1883, recom- 
mendations of, (5) 43. 

regulations, (10) 189. 

statistics. .See Statistics, fishery. 

Fishes, change of colour in, (3) 69. 

comparison of embryos from 

demersal and pelagic eggs of, (16) 90. 

comparison of larvse of, from 

demersal and pelagic eggs, (16) 123. 

cojjepod parasites of, (18) 145. 

crustacean parasites of, (18) 144. 

description of measuring tables for, 

(20) 330. 

development of teleostean, (6) 302. 

different rate of growth of sexes of, 

(20) 333. 

diseases of, (3) 66. 

feed little at low temperatures, (22) 

162, 171. 

food of. See Food. 

growth and maturation of the eggs 

of teleostean, (16) 88. 
influence of temperature on growth 

of, (22) 159. 
influence of temperature on rapidity 

of digestion in, (22) 171. 
larvfe of, transported by currents, 

(15) 368. 

larval, of Aberdeen Bay, (8) 289 ; 

(11)264; (14)225. 

of Firth of Clyde, (9) 335, 336 ; 

(15)251. 
of Firth of Forth, (8) 286, 288 ; 

(9) 336-346; (10) 304-315; (11) 257; 

(13) 260-263, 269 ; (14) 226 ; (15) 251. 
of Loch Fyne, (15) 254; (17) 

121. 
of Moray Firth, (8) 287; (9) 

340 ; (11) 254 ; (13) 268, 270 ; (14) 224; 

(15) 255. 
of Montrose, (8) 287 ; (11) 254 ; 

(12)300; (14)225. 

of Orkney, (13) 269. 

of St. Andi-ews Bay, (8) 286 ; 

(11) 263 ; (12) 299, 301 ; (13) 260, 261- 

264; (14)225. 

marine, of Loch Fyne, (15) 107. 

marking experiments with, methods 

employed, (8) 354. 
migrations of, in relation to tem- 
perature, (20) 336. 
— — mode of capture of, by liners, (4) 

201. 
natural destruction of eggs of, (5) 

231. 
nature and composition of ovarian 

fluids of, (16) 149. 



Fishes, nature of eggs of teleostean, 16 
89. 

of Firth of Clyde, (18) 272. 

of Loch Fyne, list of, (4) 232. 

old ideas as to spawning places, (8) 

164. 

on lines, injuries to, (4) 203. 

ovaries of teleostean, (16) 92. 

parasites of, (19) 120 ; (20) 288 ; (22) 

275 ; (23) 108. 

parasites on young plaice and 

flounders, (16) 242. 

physical and chemical changes in 

ova of teleostean, during maturation, 
(16) 135, 138. 

post-larval, of Aberdeen Bay, (8) 

289; (11)264; (14) 225. 

of Firth of Clyde, (9) 335, 336 ; 

(14) 227 ; (15) 251. 

of Firth of Forth, (8) 286, 288 ; 

(9) 336-310; (10) 304-315; (11) 257; 
(13) 260-263, 269 ; (14) 226; (15) 251. 

of Loch Fyne, (15), 254; (17) 

121. 

of Montrose, (8) 287 ; (11) 254; 

(12) 300; (14)225. 

of Moray Firth, (9) 340; (11) 

254 ; (13) 268, 270 ; (14) 224 ; (15) 255. 

of Shetland, (14) 227. 

of St. Andrews Bay, (8) 286, 

287 ; (11) 263 ; (12) 299, 301 ; (13) 260, 
261, 264 ; (14) 225. 

vertical distribution of, (17) 

127. 
proportion of marketable to un- 
marketable, taken by trawlers, (22) 13. 

rate of growth of. Si'e Growth. 

relation of length to weight, (22) 

142. 

■ relative sensitiveness of, to sudden 

changes in temperature, (22) 162. 

remarks on growth of, (3) 64. 

respiration of teleostean embryo, 

(16)213. 

sense organs and perceptions of, (8) 

362. 

spawning periods of. See Spawning 

periods. 

specific gravity of ovarian fluid of, 

(16) 138. 
— — synonyms of British, list of, (2) 74. 

unmarketable, description of, (22) 14. 

with demersal eggs, fecundity of, 

(15) 376. 
— — with pelagic eggs, fecundity of, (15) 
376. 

young, distribution of, in Moray 

Firth, (15) 257. 

in Loch Fyne, proportion of 

food fishes, (17) 127. 

of Aberdeen Bay, (8) 289 ; (11) 

264 ; (14) 225. 

of Firth of Clyde, (9) 335, 336 ; 

(15) 251, 259. 
of Firth of Forth, (8) 286, 288 ; 

(9) 336-340; (10) 304-315 ; (11) 257; 
(13)260-263, 269; (14) 226; (15) 251 

of Loch Fyne, (15) 254. 

at Montrose, (8) 287 ; (9) 341 ; 

(10) 304 ; (11) 254 ; (12) 300 ; (14) 225. 



204 



Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 



Fishes, young, of Moray Firth, (8) 287 ; 

(9) 340; (10) 304; (11) 254 ; (13)268, 

270; (14) 224; (15) 255. 
of St. Andrews Bay, (8) 286, 

287 ; (11) 263 ; (12) 299, 301^ (13) 260, 

261, 264 ; (14) 225. 
on deep-water grounds, (19) 

189. 
Fishing, capture of immature fish by 

various methods of, (8) 179. 

gear, amount of, (10) 179. 

grounds, extension of, (10) 188. 

method of ascertaining produc- 
tiveness of, (21) 38. 

of Firth of Clyde, (6) 5. 

of Stonehaven district, (6) 222. 

on the east coast of Scotland, 

(9) 11, 177. 
Five-bearded rockling. See Rockling, 

five-bearded. 
Flat fislaes, arrangement of muscles in, (4) 

168. 

classification of, (18) 335. 

comparison of nasal organ in, (18) 

338. 
decrease in supply of, (11) 9, 10, 11, 

12, 24, 27 ; (12) 9, 384. 
decrease of, in closed areas, (14) 12, 

146. 

diagnostic characters of, (13) 333. 

diminution of, (10) 8. 

fluctuations in abundance of, (14) 

136, 138. 
geographical distribution of sub- 
families of, (18) 362. 
growth of, compared with round 

fishes, (20) 334. 
landed by trawlers at Aberdeen, 

(20) 77. 

mature and immature, (8) 166. 

most important characters in classi- 
fication, (18) 348. 

numbers and sexes of, (8) 348. 

olfactory organ of, (18) 338, 349, 

363. 

origin of, (18) 362. 

probable migratory movements in 

winter, (6) 8. 
proportion caught by trawlers which 

are marketable, (22) 15. 
proportion of immature, landed by 

trawlers, (22) 16. 

rearing experiments with, (16) 219. 

relative importance of external 

characters of, (18) 335. 
relative quantities caught by line 

fishermen and beam-trawlers, (6) 7. 
size of mouth in, as a character in 

classification, (18) 336. 

spawning of, (8) 260. See Spawning. 

value of hypural elements of, in 

classification, (18) 346. 
value of pectoral arch and ventral 

fins in classification of, (18) 340. 
value of sinistral or dextral 

character, (18) 336. 

variability in asymmetry of, (18)363. 

vertebral column and alimentary 

canal of, in regard to classification, 

(18) 343. 



F/eminyia zetlandica, (15) 120. 
Fletcher, Mr J., (23) 156. 
Flounder {Pkiironccfe.s Jlesm), (18) 286. 
cross-fertilisation of, with lump- 
sucker, (8) 358. 
<late of appearance of young, in 

harbours, (16) 246. 

digestibility of, (5) 228. 

distribution of, (21) 42. 

distribution of eggs of, (15) 231. 

eggs of, (2) 47 ; (7) 304 ; (8)285 ;( 16) 

91. 114; (17) 82-84, 93, 96, 104, 106. 

eggs of, in Firth of Clyde, (15) 250. 

fecundity of, (9) 265. 

fishing in Solway, (7) 175. 

food of, (7) 226, 234, 240 ; (8) 231, 

238, 249, 250 ; (9) 227, 235, 238 ; (10) 

215, 223 ; (20) 487, 527. 

growth of, (9) 391. 

growth of, in tanks, (7) 405. 

in Loch Fyne, (15) 112 ; (18) 353. 

mature and immature, (8) 172. 

migrations of, (21) 42. 

minimum size at maturity, (8) 161, 

162, 163. 

multiple tumours in, (3) 66 ; (4) 214. 

• parasites of, (18) 150 ; (19) 121 ; (23) 

108. 

post-larval stages of, (16) 225, 236. 

proportion of males to females, (8) 

348, 349; (10)239. 
relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 214. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 237. 

sinistral and dextral forms of, (7) 

326 ; (18) 363. 

size at maturity, (10) 238. 

spawning areas of, (7) 190 ; (8) 263 ; 

(15)232; (21)43; (23)20. 
spawning jieriod of, (4) 251 ; (7) 

190; (8)263; (10)234; (15) 232; (17) 

98; (21)43. 
Fluctuations in the abundance of the 

food fishes, (14) 134. 
Fluke, sail. *S'ee Megrim. 
Flying-fish (Exocetns roHtans), (18) 288. 
Food, diatoms as, (16) 244. 
fishes, classification of marketable, 

by trawlei's, (21) 40. 
development of, (8) 15 ; (13) 

14, 220; (14) 15, 171. 
development and life-history 

of, (6) 265 ; (9) 317. 

distribution of, (21) 38, 40. 

effects of closure of waters on 

size of, (14) 142. 

eggs of, (14) 223. 

fluctuations in abundance of, 

(14) 134. 
general remarks on post-larval 

forms, (6) 269. 

habits of young of, (4) 214. 

hatched at Dunbar, (13) 8, 9, 

123. 
— hatching and rearing of, (13) 

8, 123. 
hatching of, (14) 8, 150; (15) 

10. 

life-histories of, (14) 15, 171. 

migrations of, (21) 40. 



of the Fisher)/ Board /or Scotlmid. 



205 



Food fishes, rate of growth of, (13) 15, 

289. 

of allis shad, (20) 533. 

of cat-fish, (20) 312, &c. 

of coal-fish, (20) 313, &c. 

of cod, (4) 134 ; (20) 307, &c. 

of common dab, (20) 306, &c. 

of common eel, (20) 533. 

of conger, (20) 308, &c. 

of cuckoo ray, (20) 536. 

fifteen-spined stickleback, (20) 

505. 
of fishes, (6) U, 225 ; (7) 9 ; (9) 12, 

222; (10) 18, 211 ; (13) 333: (21) 218. 
of fishes, report on, (4) 100 ; (20) 

486. 

of five-bearded rockling, (20) 519. 

of food fishes, (8) 12, 230. 

of Fuller's ray, (20) 535. 

of great pipe-fish, (20) 534. 

of greater sand-eel, (20) 520. 

of grey mullet, (20) 504. 

of gurnard, (22) 28. 

of haddock, (4) 128 ; (6) 225, 230 ; 

(20) 306, &c. 

of hag-fish, (8) 255. 

of hake, fi) 240. 

of halibut, (20) 308, 312, &c. 

of herring, (4) 102 ; (6) 225. 

of lemon dab, (20) 306, &c. 

of lesser silver smelt, (20) 528. 

— of long rough dab, (20) 311, &f. 

of Macrurus l<tci>t, (20) 501. 

of marine animals, diatoms as, (15) 

215. 

of minnow, (17) 174. 

of plaice, (20) 306, &c. 

of pollack, (19) 267. 

of porbeagle sJiark, (19) 290. 

of post-larval plaice, (15) 180, 181, 

183; (16)224. 
post-larval turbot and lemon dabs, 

(15) 188, 189. 

of sand-smelt, (20) 504. 

of sardine, (7) 390 ; (8) 372. 

of scald-fish, (20) 524. 

of shell-fishes, (13) 333. 

of shrimp, (9) 406. 

of sole, (9) 390. 

of straight-nosed pipe-fish, (20) 534. 

of three-spined stickleback, (20) 504. 

of tope, (4) 213. 

of turbot, (20) 312, 313, &o. 

of twaite shad, (20) 533. 

of viviparous blenny, (20) 501. 

of whiting, (5) 317- 

of young coal-fish, (5) 327. 

of young cod, (5) 326. 

of young flat fishes, (12) 387. 

of young Gadida?, (5) 326. 

of young lobster, (23) 69, 70. 

Foraminifera of Loch Fj'ne, (15) 165 ; 

(16) 273. 

of West Coast lochs, (9) 197. 

Foreign countries, demand for Scottish 

fish in, (7) 8. 
trawlers fishing in closed waters of 

Moray Firth, (20) 19. 
in Moray Firth, quantity of 

fish landed by, at English ports, (20) 19. 

O 



11, 175, 341. 
19, 23, &c. 



Forfar Loch, amphipoda of, (17) 159. 

cladocera of, (17) 160. 

copepoda of, (17) 158, 159. 

invertebrate fauna of, (17) 156. 

muUusca of, (17) 159. 

ostracoda of, (17) 159. 

temperatures of, (17) 157. 

Forfarshire, fishing grounds off, (9) 180. 
Forkbeard, greater (Phycis hlennoides), 

(3) 69 ; (4) 224 ; (7) 326. 
lesser, or tadpole hake, (Raniceps 

mimms), (2) 80; (15) 111 : (18) 284. 

very young stages of, (15) 209. 

Formaline, decalcifying action of, (23) 

1.33. 
Fox shark. See Shark-thresher. 
Frayilaria construens, (9) 274. 

mutahili-<, (9) 274. 

striatula, (15) 214. 

virescens, (9) 274. 

France as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 164. 
fishery work in, (7) 389 ; (8) 371 ; 

(9)418; (12)402; (13)347. 

mussel-growing in, (7) 392. 

shrimp fisheries of, (7) 394. 

Frog-fish. See Angler. 
Fry from hatchery, method of trans- 
porting. (14) 156. 
transported to West Coast, 

(14) 10, 1-55. 
Fryer, Mr C. E., (5) 218 ; (6) 191. 
FuUarton, Dv J. H., (7) 

.352, 384 ; (8) 15, 17, 18, 
Fuller's ray. See Ray, Fuller's. 
Fulton, Dr T. Wemyss, (6) J 89, 276; 

(7) 8, 9, 158, 171, 182, 222, 352, 384, 

.387; (8)7, 11, 13, 21, &e. 
Fultonia hirsuta, (20) 449, 466. 
Fttrsiis retrorersii-^, (7) 325. 



G 



Gadicuhis argenteu>!. See Pout, silvery. 

Gadidif , food of j'oung, (5) 326. 

lines of growth in skeletal struc- 
tures of, (23) 125. 

young, as herring-fond, (4) 127. 

Gadii-^ ceglefiniis. See Haddock. 

• argenteu-f. See Pout, silverj-. 

hlennoides. See Forkbeard, greater. 

call arias. See Cod. 

esmarbii. See Pout , Norway. 

htscus. See Bib. 

merlangus. See Whiting. 

minutus. See Poor-cod. 

morrhua. See Cod. 

pollachius. See Pollack. 

poutassou. See Whiting, Couch's. 

virens. (See Coal-fish. 

Galathea andreicsii, (6) 259. 

dispersa, (6) 259 ; (15) 131 ; (18) 403. 

dispersa, mode of attachment of 

eggs in, (22) 117. 

intermedia, (6) 259 ; (15) 131. 

nexa, (6) 259 ; (15) 131. 

squamifera, (6) 259; (15) 131. 

strigosa, (6) 259 ; (20) 507. 

Galetift canis. See Tope. __ 

Galvina farrani, (15) 117. 



206 



Part III. — Twentij-third Annual Report 



Galvhm picta, (15) 117. 

Gammarun cornigera, (8) 328. 

duaheni, (13) 188, 244, 249; (14) 

160, 239, 242; (15) 318, 320, 322, 331, 
332; (16) 250, 251, 257, 259 ; (19) 263. 

edwarchii, (7) 321 ; (8) 332. 

degans, (8) 327. 

locuHtu, (6) 248 ; (8) 332 ; (15) 140, 

317 ; (20) 492, 493, 495, 500, &c. 

marinui, (10) 265 ; (15) 140. 

puhx, (8) 338; (9) 272, 276, 285, 

289 ; (12) 288 ; (14) 239 ; (15) 320, 3.30, 
&c. ; (16) 257, 259 ; (17) 139, 150, 159, 
&c. 

sahini, (7) 321. 

spinosuH, (10) 264. 

sp., (16) 210. 

Gammaropsis erythropilitliahna, (6) 248 ; 

(15) 141 ; (16) 170. 177, 210. 
maculata, (20) 510. 

nana, (14) 161 ; (20) 510, 520. 

Gannets, destruction of herring by, (4) 

58. 
Garfish (Belone vulgaris). (18) 287. 

spawning period of, (4) 252. 

" Garland," comparison of catches of, 

with those of trawlers, (19) 19. 
Crustacea collected bj', (18) 382; 

(19) 235. 
description of, (5) 44 ; (11) 7 ; (14) 

7, 125. 

description of net of, (8) 179. 

detection of illegal trawling by, (9) 

3, 6. 
inability of, to carry on the investi- 
gations in Moray Firth, (12) 8, 15 ; (13) 

8; (14)8; (19)8, 9; (20) 17. 
inetificiency of, for the work, (8) 8 ; 

(9)4; (10) 11; (11) 7, 8; (12) 8, 15; 

(13)7, 8; (14)7,8; (15) 7, 8; (16) 7, 

S; (17) 7, 8; (18) 7, 8; (19)7, 8, 9; 

(20)7, 17, 29; (21) 7. 
invertebrate fauna collected by, 

(16) 153, 155. 

invertebrate fauna taken in trawl- 
net of, (7) 10 : (8) 14, 67 ; (9) 13, 40 ; 
(10) 18, 41 ; (11) 17, 41 ; (12) 20, 45 ; 
(13) 15, 73 ; (14) 78 ; (15) 15, 79 ; (16) 
15, 57. 

investigations of, into the distribu- 
tion, &c. , of immature fishes, (7) 5, 15 ; 

(8) 157, 189 ; (9) 9, 201 ; (12) 19, 302 ; 
(13) 14, 133. 

investigations of, on the food of 

fishes, (7) 8, 222 ; (8) 12, 230 ; (9) 12, 

222: (10) 18, 211. 
investigations of, on migrations of 

fishes, (8) 14, 353; (10) 18; (11) 16, 

176; (17) 14,210. 
investigations of, on oyster-beds, 

(9) 13, 16, 184; (11) 15; (14) 13, 
244. 

investigations of, on the spawning 

and spawning grounds of fishes, (7) 4, 
9, 186 ; (8) 9, 12, 257 ; (10) 18, 232. 

list of pelagic eggs, larval, and 

young fishes collected by, (8)287 ; (12) 
298; (13)258; (14) 15,223. 

— — pelagic fauna collected by, (7) 10 ; 
(8) 14, 67 ; (9) 13, 40 ; (10) 18, 41 ; (11) 



17, 41 ; (12) 20, 45 ; (1.3) 15, 64 ; (14) 
63 ; (15) 15, 64. 

"Garland," pelagic ova, larvte, and 
young fislies procured by, (11) 19, 250 ; 

(13) 14, 15,258; (15)219, 246. 
purchase of, (5) 44. 

review of trawling experiments of, 

from 1886-95. (14) 128. 

sale of, (21) 7. 

temperature and physical obser- 
vations by, in Aberdeen Bay, (5) 55; 
(6)31 ; (7)97; (8) 109; (9) 115; (10) 
116 ; (11) 122 ; (12) 116 ; (13) 88 ; (14) 
96 ; (17) 64. 

Firth of Clyde, (6) 81 ; (9) 133; 

(14) 98 ; (15) 94 ; (16) 74 ; (17) 65 ; (18) 
59 ; (20) 57. 

Firth of Forth, (5) 71 ; (6) 55 ; 

(7) 37; (8) 41 ; (9) 40; (10)41 ; (11) 
23, 41, 416, 470 ; (12) 7, 45 ; (13) 82 ; 

(14) 89 ; (15) 89 ; (20) 53. 
Montrose, (8) 107; (9) 113; 

(10) 115 ; (11) 121 ; (12) 113 ; (13) 88. 
Moray Firtli, (6) 70 ; (7) 100 ; 

(8) 116 ; (9) 121 ; (10) 120 ; (11) 126 ; 

(12) 123; (13) 89; (14) 96; (15) 91; 
(16) 72 ; (17) 61 ; (19) 43 ; (20) 52. 

Orkneys, (8) 119 ; (9) 132 ; (13) 

92. 
St. Andrews Bay, (5) 77 ; (6) 

61 ; (7) 77 ; (8) 91 ; (9) 94 ; (10) 100 ; 

(11)100; (12)98; (13)86; (14)94; 

(15) 90. 

trawling experiments of, (5) 43 ; (6) 

2, 25 ; (7) 3, 15 ; (8) 8, 22 ; (9) 6. 21 

(10) 7, 10, 23 ; (11) 9, 23 ; (12) 12, 23 

(13) 11, 17; (14) 10, 17; (15) 8, 17 

(16) 8, 17; (17) 7, 17; (18)8, 19; (19) 
8, 17 ; (20) 8, 17. 

Aberdeen Bay, (5) 55, 67 ; 

(6) 31 ; (7) 18, 97 ; (8) 25, 109 ; (9) 6, 
24,115; (10)116; (11)9,122; (12) 
13, 55, 116; (14) 54; (17) 42. 

Firth of Clyde, (6) 5, 32, 81 ; 

(9) 6, 24, 133 ; (12) 28 ; (13) 21 ; (14) 
21, 59; (15) 22, 44, 54; (16) 22, 34, 
49 ; (17) 10, 23, 44, 55 ; (18) 8, 20, 33; 
(20) 29, 45. 

Firth of Forth, (5) 43, 46, 61, 

71 ; (6) 2, 27, 55, 63, 73 ; (7) 16, 37 ; 
(8) 23, 41 ; (9) 6, 22, 40 ; (10) 11, 24, 
41 ; (11) 9, 24, 41 ; (12) 13, 24, 45 ; (13) 
11, 18, 37; (14) 11, 18, 35; (15) 33 ; 

(17) 11, 24 ; (20) 10, 11, 12, 20-29, 38. 
Montrose Bay, (7) 15, 18, 97; 

(8)25,107; (9)6,24,113; (10)115; 

(11) 121 ; (12) 13, 113; (13) 54; (14) 
53. 

Moray Firth, (6) 31, 70 ; (7) 

15, 100; (8) 25, 116 ; (9) 6, 24, 121 ; 

(10) 120 ; (11) 9, 126 ; (12) 13, 23, 27, 
123 ; (13) 12, 20, 56 ; (14) 20, 55 ; (15) 

18, 38, 53 ; (16) 18, 29, 48 ; (17) 8, 18, 
35, 53 ; (19) 18, 28 ; (20) 18, 44. 

trawling experiments of, Orkneys, 

(8) 25, 119 ; (9) 132 ; (13) 62. 
St. Andrews Bay, (5) 54, 65, 

77 ; (6) 2, 29, 61, 67, 78 ; (7) 18, 77 ; 

(8) 23, 91 ; (9) 6, 23, 94 ; (10) 11, 25, 

100 ; (11)9, 25, 100 • (12) 13, 25, 98 ; 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



207 



(13) 11, 19, 50; (14) 11, 19, 49 ; (15) 

36; (17) 11, 24. 
"Garland," west coast expedition of, 

(11) 167. 
work of, in connection with the 

natural history of fishes, (G) 26, 33, 36; 

(7)4, 8. 15; (8) 7,23; (9) 11,21 ; (10) 

7, 12, 17 ; (10) 20, 23 ; (11) 18, 19, 23 

(12)7, 19,20, 23; (13) 7, 13, 14, 17 

(14)7, 15, 17; (15) 7, 13, 14, 15, 16 

(16)7 ; (17)7, 13, 14; (18) 7, 8, 19. 
Garry Loch, Ailsa Craig, invertebrate 

fauna of, (16) 250. 
Garstang, Mr W., (8) 361. 
Gasferosteus aculeatun. See Stickleback, 

three-spined. 
spinachia. See Stickleback, fifteen- 

spined. 
Gasfrapseffa, (18) 356. 
Gasfrosacais sjjinifer, (6) 254 ; (16) 158, 

160, 209 ; (19) 277 ; (20) 510, 513, 516, 

535. 
Gaudryina filiformis, (S) 315. 
Gemellaria loricata, (15) 156. 
Germanj', fishery work in, (6) 303 ; (8) 

375 ; (9) 403 ; (10) 343. 
■ as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 167. 
Fishery Association of, (6) 203; (9) 

403. 
fishery expedition of the "Holsatia" 

in the Baltic, (9) 407. 
— — fishery expedition of " Sophie," (9) 

405, 406. 

fisheries, development of, (9) 404. 

diminution of catches, (9) 405. 

fisherj' statistics of, (9) 403. 

imports of herring into, (9) 406. 

Kiel Commission, work of, (6) 14, 

303 ; (9) 407. 
minimum legal sizes for fishes in, (6) 

303, 304. 
Gihbula cineraria, (15) 122. 

magus, (15) 122. 

tumida, (15) 122. 

umhilicata, (15) 122. 

Gibson, Mr James, (9) 177. 

Dr John, (4) 189 ; (5) 331 ; (6) 309 ; 

(7) 409. 
Giglioli, Professor H., (6) 276, 308; (7) 

401; (8)353,375; (9)422; (10)353; 
(11)487; (13) 16. 
Gilt-head. See Pagrus auratus. 
Gitana sarsi, (8) 325 ; (17) 265 ; (20) 478. 
Globigerina, (15) 306, 308, 310 ; (20) 510. 
Globigerinidie, (7) 311, 315; (15) 167. 
Glolndina gihha, (7) 315. 
Glutinous Hag. See Hagfish. 
Glycera tesselata, (15) 159. 
Glycimeris generosa, (7) 341. 
Glyptocephalus, (18) 353. 
Gnathia maxillaris, (16) 168, 210; (18) 

180 ; (20) 510, 516. 
Gobin, M., (9) 420. 
Gobius. See Goby. 

ruthensparri, (4) 232 ; (15) 110. 

spawning period of, (4) 245. 

sp., (17) 125. 

Gobj', black (Gobius niger), (15) 110 ; (18) 
278. 



Goby, Jeffrey's (Gobius jeffreysii), (18) 278. 

parasites of, (19) 138. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 309. 

post-larval form resembling a, (13) 

232. 

spotted or speckled (G'o^^Mfs minutus), 

(4) 232 ; (15) 110 ; (18) 278 ; (20) 516. 

food of, (20) 487, 494 ; (23) 157. 

parasites of, (18) 162 ; (19) 128. 

two-spotted (Gobius flavescens), (18) 

278. 
Goldsinny (C^-enilabrus melops), (18) 281. 

Jago's (Cieno/abrus rupestris), (4) 

232 ; (15) 111 ; (18)281. 

eggs of, (4) 223 ; (17) 83, 93, 94, 96. 

parasites of, (20) 292. 

spawning of, (4) 223. 

Gomphonema acuminata, var. , (9) 274. 

capitatum, (9) 275. 

• intricatum, (9) 274. 

olivaceiim, (9) 274. 

Goniodoris nodosa, (15) 116. 
Gonoplax angidata, (15) 168. 
Gotch, Mr Francis, (6) 279. 
Gourret, Dr Paul, (9) 419. 
Grautia ciliata, (15) 164. 

compressa, (15) 164. 

Graptoleberis reticulata, (11) 233. 

testudinarius, (11) 233; (12) 286, 288; 

(13) 188, 245, 250 ; (14) 239 ; (15) 330, 
333; (17) 145, 173. 
Gray, Mr D., (7)365. 
Grayling (Thymallus vulgaris), parasite 
of, (18) 179. 

spawning period of, (4) 252. 

Greater argentine. See Smelt, greater 
silver. 

forkbeard. ^ee Forkbeard, greater. 

- — silver smelt. .S'ee Smelt, greater 
silver. 

weever. See Weever, greater. 

Greece as a market for Scottish-ciired 

herrings, (7) 163. 
Green, Rev. W. Spotswood, (9) 394. 
Green-cod. See Coal-fish. 
Greenfield, Professor W. S., (4) 176 ; (5) 

331 ; (6) 21. 
Greenland shark. See Shark, Greenland. 

whale. .S'ee Whale. 

Grey gurnard. See Gurnard, grey. 

mullet. See Mullet, grey. 

skate. See Skate, grey. 

Grounds, efi"ects of change of, on fishery 

statistics, (21) 38. 
Ground seines, fishing by means of, (8) 

190. 
Growth of fishes, (9) 327, 328 ; (10) 7, 282, 
283, 328 : (11) 192, 265, 490 ; (12) 333 ; 
(13)289; (20)326; (22) 141. 

coalescence of sizes of older 

generations, (20) 333. 

comparative, of round and flat 

fishes, (20) 334. 

description of small-meshed 

net used in collecting fishes, (20) 327. 

different in males and females, 

(20) 333. 

in relation to locality, (20) 336. 

lines of, in opercular bones, (23) 

129. 



208 



Part IIT.— Tirent ij-third Annual Report 



Orowth of fishes, lines of, in otoliths, 
(23) 128. 

in skeletal structures, (23) 125. 

rate of, in relation to season, 

(17) 239. 

influence of temperature on, 

(20) 335 ; (22) 159. 

methods of determining, (20) 

326. ^ 

relation of length to weight, 

(22) 142. 

— remarks on, (3) 64. 

researches on, in Denmark, 

(13) 340. 

tank experiments on, (17) 232. 

of ovarian eggs of teleostean fishes, 

(16)88. 

variability, (IS) 212. 

of angler, (21) 186, 189. 

of armed bullhead, (21) 70. 

of brill, (9)391 ; (11) 195. 

of cat-fish, (11)271. 

of cod, rate of, (11) 195 ; (15) 176 ; 

(19) 154, 214; (23) 128, 130, 1.S7. 

.young, (5) 243. 

in tanks, (5) 235; (7) 404; 

(19) 228. 

of Carcimis nuvva-s, (21) 163. 

of conunon dab, (11) 194, 265 ; (20) 

335, 360, 370. 
■ — relative of male and female, 

(20) 371. 

of edible crab, I'ate of, (18) 113 ; 

(22) 125. 

of five-bearded rockling, (15) 208. 

of flounder, (9) 391. 

~ in tanks, (7) 405. 

of grev gurnaid, (17) 210, 228 ; (11) 

267. 

of haddock, (5) 48 ; (15) 198 ; (19) 

154, 190 ; (20) 334, 401. 

of halibut, (22) 287. 

of herring, (4) 48 ; (5) 235 ; (14) 294. 

of lemon dab, (11) 195, 271. 

of lesser weever, (21) 71. 

of ling, (11)269. 

of lobster (23) 85, 95. 

^ of long rough dab, (16) 245 ; (20) 

372. 

comparison of, in different 

regions, (20) 385. 

of Norway pout, (19) 154, 155 ; (22) 

195. 

of plaice, (II) 192 ; (17) 232 : (20) 

334, 337 ; (23) 125, 133. 

comparative rate of, in Scot- 
land and Denmark, (17) 246. 

comparative, of females and 

males, (20) 356. 

in Sohvay Firth, (20) 346. 

■ on East Coast, (20) 347. 

relation of temperature to, (20) 

342. 

results of Dr Petersen's ob- 
servations on, (17) 239. 

of small plaice arrested in winter, 

(20) 342. 

of sardine, (8) 374. 

of sharp -tailed LumpenuA, (22) 202. 

of sole, (9) 391. 



Growth of sprat, (22) 171. 

of starry ray, (21) 230. 

of turbot, (11) 195. 

of whiting, (8) 175; (11) 196; (15) 

204 ; (19) 154, 166 ; (20) 335, 386. 

in diflferent regions compared, 

(20) 399. 

of witch, (22) 186. 

Guerne, Baron Jules de, (11) 21, 487 ; 
(13) 16. 

Gnernia coalitu, (8) .326; (17) 265; (19) 
262: (20)478. 

Gvinardiajluccida, (15) 214. 

OiuiPjiotopfioriis gfolmlaris, (18) 387. 
Gunii, Dr R. Marcus, (6) 280. 
Gunnel (PAo/w gunndhis), (4) 232; (15) 
110; (18)280:" (23), 157. 

food of, (20) 486, 500. 

parasites of, (20) 298. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 309. 

spawning time of, (4) 213. 

young stages of, (9) 326. 

Gurnard, cuckoo. See Gurnard, red. 

grey (Trigla gnruardiif^), (4) 232; 

(9)306, 310; (15) 110. 

abnormal egg of, (9) .322. 

— — age at matuiity, (17) 231. 

anatomv of tlie pectoral arcli 

of, (12) .322. 

caught chiefly by day. (17) 220. 

cross-fertilisation of, with 

whiting, (8) 358. 
distribution of adult and im- 
mature, (8) 176. 

distribution of eggs of, (15)239. 

distribution of eggs of, in Firth 

of Clyde, (15) 249. 

eggs of, (2) 47 ; (7) 305 ; (8) 

285; (16) 91, 114, 115 ; (17) 82-84, 9,3, 
96. 

fecundity of, (9) 249. 

food of, (7) 227, 2.33, &c. ; (8) 

231, 238, 247, 250-256 ; (9) 227, &c. ; 
(10) 215, 224, 230 ; (20) 486, 490 ; (21) 

219 ; (22) 29. 

intraovarian eggs of, (16) 96. 

mature and immature, (8) 176. 

migrations of, (17) 210. 

migration of immature, (17) 

227. 
minimum size at maturity, (8) 

161, 162, 163 ; (17) 223. 

on deep-water grounds, (21)24. 

parasites of, (18) 150, 163, 169, 

180, (19) 132, 134, 147 ; (23) 115, 116. 
proportion of males to females, 

(8) 349. 

rate of growth of, (17) 211, 228. 

relation of lengtli to weight, 

(22) 235. 
relation of migrations to repro- 
duction, (17) 222. 
seasonal distribution of post- 
larval, (17)229. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size at maturitj% (10) 238. 

spawning areas of, (15) 241. 

spawning of, (7) 193 ; (8) 268. 

- — ■ spawning period of, (4) 244 ; 

(10)234; (15)240; (17)222, 



oj the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



209 



(Tiirnard, Lanthorn [Triijla ohscura), 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 
red or cuckoo (Trufla cncidiis), (4) 

206 ; (18) 275. 

eggs of, (16) 114, llo ; (17) 93. 

food of, (20) 487, 489. 

on East Coast, (20) 540. 

parasites of, (19) 143. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

Sapphirine ( Triyfa hlruvdo), (2) 80 : 

(4) 206 ; (18) 276 ; (19) 143. 

food of, (20) 487, 489. 

parasites of, (20) 299. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

streaked {Tru/la /iuert/o), (4) 232; 

(15) 110; (18)275. 
parasites of, (19) 133, 143 ; (23) 

115. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

Gut-poke in herring, (4) 49. 
Gymnachirus, (18) 359. 

fnsciatus, (18) 358. 

Gymnome.ra, (11) 234. 
Gypsina inharcns, (15) 167. 



H 



H.^DUocK {Gwlus crij/e/i7iaa), abundance 

of small, (18)282 ; (21) 32. 
age of, at maturity, (19) 214 ; (20) 

410. 

arrangement of muscles in, (4) 168. 

average size at maturity, (22) 153. 

digestibility of, (5) 228. 

■ digestion in, (2) 40. 

dispersal of, after spawning, (21) 

20, 22. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 174. 

distribution of eggs of, (15) 224. 

duration of development of, accord- 
ing to temperature, (19) 211. 

eggs of, (7) 306; f8) 284 ; (IH) 91, 

114, 115 ; (17) 82-84, 93, 96, 103, 106. 

— - eggs of, in Firth of Clyde, (15) 249. 

fecundity of, (9) 255. 

feeding on fish-eggs, (4) 133. 

feeding on herring-eggs, (4) 133. 

food of, (4) 128; (6) 225,230; (7) 

229, 233, &c. ; (8) 231, 241, &c. ; (9) 
229, 235-242; (10) 216, 226, 231 ; (20) 
306, 486, &c. 

growth of, (5) 48, 240; (15) 198, 

199 ; (19) 154, 190: (20) 334, 401. 

— — habitat of young of, (15) 196. 
^— habits of young, (4) 208. 

hatching of, in U.8.A., (13) 339. 

hermaphroditism in, (9) 352. 

intraovarian eggs of, (16) 96. 

large old specimens of, inshore, (21) 

35. 

large specimen of, (6) 265. 

larval and post-larval stages of, (19) 

211. 

life-history of, (15) 194. 

mature and immature, (8) 174. 

mental activity of, compared with 

whitings and codlings, (22) 163. 
minimum size at maturity, (8)161. 

162, 163. 



Haddock, on deep-water grounds, (19) 

289. 
— - parasites of, (18) 177 : (19) 121, 135 ; 

(23) 108. 

pelagic habit of young, (20) 401. 

proportion of immatiu'e, landed by 

trawlers, (22) 19. 
proportion of males to females. (8^ 

349; (10)2.39. 
proposals for hatching of, (5) 240. 

relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 145, 226, 241. 

rises from bottom after spawning, 

(19)289. 

sand-eel embedded in liver of, (3) 70. 

scarcity of very small, on bottom, 

(19) 289. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size at first maturity, (10) 238 ; (19) 

213. 

sizes of, (14) 144. 

size-limit between mature and im- 
mature, (22) 18. 
spaAvning period of, (4) 246 : (7) 

193 ; (8) 265 ; (10) 232, 234 ; (17) 97 ; 

(19) 211 : (21) 20. 21, 28. 

tumour on, (10)323. 

young, different habitat from 3'uung 

cod and whiting, (8) 174. 
Norway or Bergylt, {Sebco'ite-s iior- 

cegicus), (4) '222; (19) 288; (22) 20, 

21, 23, 28, 29. 

food of, (20) 489 ; (21) 218. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

Haddon, Professor A. C, (6) 281 ; (7) 

387. 
Haeckel, Professor, on plankton investi- 
gations, (9) 407. 
Hfvmohaphts atiihiqivm, (18) 162 ; (20) 

298. 
ajdopterina, (9) 310 ; (18) 162 ; (20) 

298. 
Ha-mop'^i'f rorax, (9) 275. 
Hagfish (Myxine glutinosa), (8) 177, 375 ; 

(18)293. 

caught on lines, (3) 66. 

eggs of, (3) 66. 

food of, (8) 255. 

mature and immature, (8) 177. 

reproductive organs of, (3) 66. 

spawning of, (8) 269. 

structure of tail of, (4) 211. 

Hake (Merluccius viiUiari>i), (10) 262 ; 

(15) HI ; (18)283; (21)62. 
— — caseous tumours in muscles of, (3) 

76. 

distribution of, (21) 62. 

eggs of, (17)9.3. 

food of, (7) 240. 

mature and immature, (8) 177. 

parasite ot, (18) 166, 175, 178; (19) 

135, 148. 

spawning period of, (4) 248 ; (7) 195. 

• young of, (8) 177 ; (21) 63. 

Haleciuni muricatum, (15) 164. 

Halia frispinosa, (6) 253. 

Halibut ( Hipporjlosus imlqarLiJ, (8) 265 ; 

(15) 112; (18)284, 352 J (21) 53. 

composition of, (5) 228. 

— - digestibility of, (5) 228. 



210 



Part III. — Ttventy-third Annual Report 



Halibut, (listiil)ution of, (21) 53. 

eggs of, (4) 224 ; (10) 285 ; (11) 244 ; 

(16)91, 114; (17)82, 83, 96. 

fecundity of, (4) 224 ; (9) 261. 

food of, (20) 308, &c. 

general size of those caught by 

trawl, (21) 53. 

growth of, (22) 287. 

nursery of young of, (9) 182. 

parasites of, (18) 151, 159, 174 ; (19) 

106, 140, 142. 

relation of length to weight, (22) 

220. 

ripe eggs are pelagic, (4) 224. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

spawning period of, (4) 249 ; (7) 

192 ; (10) 234. 

young specimens of, (4) 209 ; ( 10) 

285. 

Halichondria albescens, (15) 165. 

panicea, (15) 165. 

Halimedon miiUeri, (10) 263. 

parvimanus, (10)263; (15)139; (20) 

491, 503, 510, 513, 523. 
Halirages bispinosus, (6) 247. 
Halisarca dujardinii, (15) 165. 
Halliburton, Dr W. D., (4) 171. 
Halosphora viridis, (15) 298, 302. 
Halosydna gelatinom, (15) 160. 
Haminea liydatis, (15) 116. 
Hansen, Dr, (22)251. 
Haploops setosa, (15) 138. 

tubico/.a, (12) 26S ; (17)264; (20) 

478 ; (20) 523. 
Haplophragmmmcanariense, (8)322; (15) 
166. 

psmdospirale, (7) 313; (15) 166. 

Harmer, Mr S. F., (8)361. 
Harpactichs chelifer, (4) 152 ; (6) 240 ; 
(15) 152 ; (20) 505. 

flexiis, (8) 319 ; (16) 269. 

. fulvus, (6) 241. 

nobeli.% (6) 240. 

obscurus, (13) 170. 

uniremis, (23) 147. 

Harper, Mr Donald, (9) 177. 
Harpina crenulafa, (17) 264. 

plumosa, (6) 24(3. 

Harpinia crenvlata, (20) 491. 

neglecta, (15) 138 ; (20) 497, 503, 510, 

516, 523. 

.pecfinata, (22) 243, 257. 

Harporhynclm>i fcdcatun, (11) 234; (13) 
188, 245, 250 ;" (14) 168, 2.39 ; (15) 333 ; 
(16 252, 258, 260; (17) 140, 185, &c. ; 
(20) 505. 
Harvey, Rev. Mr, (11)21. 
Hatcheries for sea-iish, (8) 7. 

in U.S.A., (13)337. 

proposals for, in Firth of Forth, (5) 

240. 
Hatchei'y, collection and acclimatisation 
of the spawners, (13) 124. 

difficulties with spawning fishes, (16) 

222. 

distribution of the fry, (13) 129. 

Dunbar, space insufficient for 

spawners, (13) 9. 

erected at Dunbar, (10) 9, 192. 

expense of, (21) 181 ; (23) 8, 121. 



Hatchery, experiments with lemon soles, 
(13) 131. 

fishes in the pond, (13) 125.. 

filtration of water at, (13) 123. 

for sea-fishes at Dunbar, (13) 7, 123. 

for sea-fish at Dunbar, account of, 

(12) 196. 

for Lancashire Sea Fisheries Com- 
mittee, (13) 334. 
— — French, at St. Vaast la Hougue, 

(13) 345. 

hatching process at, (13) 127. 

irregular spawning at, (13) 126. 

numbers hatched at, (13) 130. 

proposed for Cromarty Firth. (5)241. 

report on operations at Bay of Nigg, 

(19) 229 ; (20) 440 ; (21) 180 ; (22) 262 ; 

(23) 120. 
report on operations at Dunbar, (12) 

210; (14)150; (16)219; (17)205; (18) 

330. 
specific gravity of tlie water at, (13) 

127. 

temperature of water at, (13) 128. 

Hatching and rearing of food fishes, (10) 

8; (13)8. 

of cod, (12) 11. 

— in America, (3) 84. 

in Norway, (17) 208. 

results of, in IJewfoundland, 

(13) 335. 

of crabs, (21) 181 ; (23) 154. 

of food-fishes, (12) 8 ; (14) 8, 150. 

of lemon soles, (12) 11, 207 ; (14) 9, 

151. 
of lobsters, (12) 11 ; (21) 181 ; (23) 

65. 
of plaice, (12) 10, 204, 210; (14) 9, 

152; (16)219; (18)330; (19)229; (20) 

441; (21) 180; (22)262. 

of sea-fish, (5) 230 ; (11) 13. 

— best conditions for, (9) 391. 

discussion on, (5) 232. 

need of, (9) 4, 5. 

iu Canada, (9) 396 ; (13) 493. 

in Denmark, (9) 412. 

in France, (9) 420. 

in Newfoundland, (9) 398 ; (11) 

13, 495. 
in Norway, (9) 409; (11) 13, 

496. 

in United States, (9) 401, 402. 

of soles, (12) 11, 205. 

of turbot, (12) 11, 206; (13) 131; 

(14) 10, 150; (16)219. 
HmiMorius arenarms, (10) 264. 
Heape, Mr \V., (6)298. 

Hebriclean smelt. See Smelt, lesser silver. 
Hebrides, fauna of lochs in, (13) 237. 
Heincke, Professor F., (9) 405 ; (10) 343, 

345; (11)21,487; (13)16; (17)274; 

(18) 335 ; (23) 129. 
on the characters of sprats and 

herrings, (2) 53. 
Helcion pellucidum, (15) 122. 
Heligoland in relation to German fisheries, 

(9) 404. 
Helix nemorcdis and H. aspersa as bait, 

(7) 356. 
Helleria cocdita, (8) 326. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



211 



Hemidiscus cuneiformis, (15) 300. 
Hemilamprops astiimilis, (4) 1S4. 

cristata, (4) 164. 

rosea, (4) 164 ; (15) 134 ; (17) 267 ; 

(19) 274 ; (20) 510, 513, 522. 

uniplicata, (4) 165 ; (15) 134. 

HemimysU lamnrnn', (15) 133 ; (16) 158, 

162, 209 ; (17) 268. 
Hemirhomhus aramaca, (18) 356. 
Henricia sangiiinolenfa, (15) 161 ; (20) 

310, 319, 324. 
Hensen, Professor V., (6) 304; (9) 177, 

407; (17) 100.. 
Herbertson, Mr A. J., (11) 20, 395; (13) 

15, 302. 
Herdnian, Professor W. A., (7) 384 ; (8) 

362 ; (9) 392 ; (11) 492 ; (12) 387. 
Herma'a bifida, (15) 117. 
HermawUa arenicola, (16) 270 ; (18) 399. 

rofitrata, (12) 259. 

Hermaphroditism in a haddock, (9) 352. 

in the cod, (13) 297. 

Hermione hystrix, (15) 160. 
Herpetocypris reptans, (14) 239 ; (15) 318, 

321, 333 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 140, 159, 164, 

167, 168, 183. 

sfriqata, (15) 321 ; (16) 252; (17) 164. 

168, 183, 190. 

tiimcfacta, (U) 168; (17) 159, 164, 

183. 
Herring {Clupea harengus) (18) 288. 

acclimatised to fresh water, (4) 210. 

acclimatised to fresh water killed 

by sea-water, (4) 210. 
action of piitrifjang fish on move- 
ments of, (2) 66. 
action on deposited herring spawn, 

(18) 263. 

as bait, (7) 352, 356. 

attacked by squids, (3) 67. 

" bank herring" of Baltic, (17) 284. 

carbo-hydrates in liver of, (2) 38. 

caught in bag-nets fishing for sprats, 

(23) 157. 

in otter-trawl, (21) 65. 

in trawl-nets in deep water in 

North Sea, (19) 288. 
in deep water in Loch Fyne, 

(18) 253. 

characters of sexes of, (4) 93. 

close-time for, (4) 59. 

coast-, or spring-spawners, (17) 281. 

• collection of statistics of, in Clyde, 

(4) 61. 

composition of, (5) 228. 

condition of ripe ovaries in, (4) 96. 

■ daylight fishing for, (4) 58. 

— — description of maties, (4) 75. 

destruction of, by gannets, (4) 58. 

of young of, in Jcuil or bag-nets 

in Holland, (8) 366, 367. 
of young of, by bag-nets, (2) 

58 ; (4) 98 ; (23) 156. 

development of, (3) 32 ; (4) 31. 

of embryo of, (3) 44. 

devoured by skates, (4) 103. 

devours pelagic eggs, (17) 119. 

difference of larval, from larval 

sprat, (6) 304. 
digestibility of, (5) 228. 



Herring, digestion in, (2) 36, .37. 

• digestive organs of, (2) 33, 41. 

distinctions from sprat, (2) 48. 

distinctions from sprats when 

young, (4) 100. 

distribution on bottom, (21) 65. 

eggs of, (3) 32, 35, 58 ; (16) 91. 

action of l)eam-trawl on, (3) 59. 

■ artificial fertilisation of, (2) 

68 ; (3) 36. 
change of volume in, during 

maturation, (16) 141. 
development of, in deep 

water, (4) 43. 

devoured by cod, (4) 135. 

devoured by haddock^ (4 133. 

duration of development of, 

(6) .306. 

size of, (4) 96. 

embryo of, (3) 47. 

enemies of, (4) 58 ; (18) 269. 

enquiry as to occurrence of ripe, in 

eastern part of North Sea, (9) 405. 
enquiry in Canada regarding the 

cure of, (8) 364. 
enquiry on action of seine-net in 

fishery for, (18) 243. 

fecundity of, (4) 95 ; (9) 267. 

feeding in ripe condition, (4) 95. 

— discrimination in, (4) 103. 

on fish-eggs, (4) 127. 

on herring eggs, (4) 127. 

on sand-eels, (4) 127. 

on young herrings, (4) 126. 

on young sprats, (4) 126. 

feeds chiefly between spawning 

periods, (4) 103. 

fins of, (5) 270, 272. 

Fishery Acts, review of, (18) 242. 

fishery, disputes between seiners and 

drifters, (18) 246. 
in Firth of Clyde, method of 

fishing, (18) 249. 

in Loch Fyne, (4) 47 ; (18) 252. 

in Loch Fyne, statistics of, 

(18) 256. 
■ in Loch Fyne and Kilbrennan 

Sound, statistics of, (4) 56. 

in Holland, (13) 340. 

in Sweden, (12) ,396. 

in Sweden, adoption of 

Scottish methods in, (9) 408. 
regulations regarding use of 

seine in Loch Fyne, (18) 242. 
Royal Commission of enquiry 

as to use of seine, (18) 245. 
signs of the presence of 

herrings, (18) 255. 
use of small-meshed nets in, 

(6) 295. 
food of, (2) 35 ; (4) 48, 102, 105 ; 

(6) 225, 228 ; (20) 487, 529. 

— — in Loch Fyne, (4) 125. 

on East Coast, (4) 127. 

on West Coast, (4) 128. 

young, (3) 50. 

functions of pyloric appendages in, 

(2) 37. 
growth of, (3) 50 ; (5) 235 ; (14) 294 ; 

(23) 127. 



212 



Furl III. — Tirditij-lhinl Annual Rrpori 



Herring, growth ot, in Jvoch Fyne, (4) 48. 

larval, (14) 15, 294. 

gut-poke in, (4) 49. 

Iceland, raee of, (17) 282. 

influence of mesh on size of takes, 

(4) 66, 75. 
of temperature on spawning of 

herring, (6) 306. 
investigation on development of 

Zuiderzee, (6) 306. 
lines of growth in otoliths of, (23) 

127. 

local form or race of, (17) 279. 

maturity and immaturity of, (4) 

68 ; (8) 187. 
migrations of, (2) 62 ; (4) 52, 68 ; 

(11) 191 ; (17) 286. 

experiments on, (10) 173. 

minimum size at maturitj', (4) 96. 

Meyer's experiments on growth of, 

(3)49. 

natural history of, (17) 274. 

natui-al history of winter, (23) 164. 

nets, description of, (18) 250. 

" Northern Bank," (17) 283. 

of White 8ea, (17) 285. 

of Zuiderzee, (8) 366, 367. 

parasites of, (19) 145. 

percentage ripe in various months, 

(4) 95. 

proportion of, in " whitebait,' (4) 98. 

taken in sprat fishing, (23) 

157. 
of sexes of, (4) 93 ; (8) 350 ; 

(10) 239. 

qualities of Loch Fyne, (4) 49. 

race of autumn-, or sea-, of southern 

North Sea, Skagerak, and Kattegat, 

(17)283. 
autumn- or sea-, of southern 

North Sea, (17) 284. 
autumn- or sea-, of Baltic, (17) 

284. 

at Ballantrae, (17) 283. 

coast, of northerly North Sea, 

(17) 283. 

in English Channel, (17) 285. 

in Firth of Forth, (17) 283. 

in Loch Fyne, (4) 48, 53. 

of southei-n North Sea and 

West Baltic, (17)283. 

spring-, at Bohusliin, (17) 283. 

. spring-, of Norway', (17) 282. 

races of, considered, (4) 61 ; (17) 275, 

racial distinction of winter and 

summer fish, (5) 300. 
relation between cliaracters of 

"races" of, and environment, (17) 285. 
relation of, to abundance of cope- 

poda, (17) 115. 

to "bank waters," (17) 286. 

length to weight, (22) 144. 148, 

236. 
of size of, to salinity of water, 

(17) 286. 
of fishery at Ballantrae to Loch 

Fyne fishery, (4) 57. 
retention of vitality in ova and milt 

of, (4) 32. . 
ripe milt of, (3) 33. 



Herring, Scottish-cured, Austiia as a 

market for, (7) 168. 
Belgium as a market for, (7) 

165. 
Denmark as a market for, (7) 

166. 

France as a market for, 

Germany as a market for, (7) 

167. 
(Greece as a market for, (7) 

163. 

Italy as a market for, (7) 163. 

Montenegro as a market for. 

(7) 16.3. 
— Netherlands as a market for, 

(7) 165. 
Norwav and Sweden as a 

market for, (7)*'l66. 
Roumania as a market for, (7) 

164. 

Russia as a market for, (7) 167. 

Servia as a market for, (7) 163. 

Spain and Portugal as markets 

for, (7) 163. 
Switzerland as a market for, 

(7) 166. 
Turkey as a market for, (7) 

164. 
United States as a mai'ket for, 

(7) 169. 

sea-, or autumn-spawners, (17) 281. 

seine-net fishing for, (15) 14. 

seine-net, alleged injurious action 

of. (18) 253, 255. 

sexual maturity of. (4) 94. 

size of, (4) 65, 69, 72, 75 ; (5) 315. 

— — skeleton of, (5) 257. 

skull of, (5) 274. 

" Southern Bank," (17) 284. 

— — - spawning ground at Ballantrae, (2) 

64. 
— — spawning grounds of, (9) 11, 178. 
spawning of, in Loch Fyne, (4) 50 ; 

(18) 253. 
spawning of, question of bi-annual, 

(4)51,95. 
spawning period of, (2) 62, 63, 66, 

67 ; (4) 50, 94, 25.3. 
spawning period of, in English 

Channel, (6) 299. 

spawning places of, (17) 279. 

spawning process in, duration of, (4) 

95. 

spring-, of eastern Baltic, (17) 284. 

spring and autumn spawners, (17) 

280. 
" streamlings " or ulromlinijs of 

Baltic, (17) 283, 284. 

structure of, (5) 257. 

varieties of, (2) 61 ; (4) 61 : (5)295. 

weekly close-time for, (4) 59 

winter-spawning of, (4) 94. 

young of, (3) 59. 

caught in trawl, (8) 177. 

— in fresh water, (3) 65. 

Hersilioden liftoralis, (11) 203. 
Herwig, Dr, (9)404; (13) 16. 
Heterocotyle padinact, (22) 278. 
Heteromysisformosa, (7) 323; (16) 158, 

160,209; (19) 276. 



of the Fislurij Board for Scotland. 



21; 



Heteromyxi," micropit, (7) 323. 

Heferopsi/Uus rurticaudatus, (12) 252. 

Heterosomata. <See Flat fishes. 

Hippasterias phrygiana, (20) 308, 319, 
324. 

Hippocampus antiquorum. See Sea- 
horse. 

Hippoglossina, (18) 352, 356. 

Hippoglossiim', (18) 351, 352, 358. 

Hippoglosso-rhomJ)ina, (18) 352, 354. 

Hippoglossoides limandoides. See Long 
rough dab. 

Hipjtog/o'^siis vidgaris. See Halibut. 

Hippolyti (oidreirsii, (6) 260. 

bar/eel, (6) 260. 

cranchii, (6) 260. 

fa-sagera, (6) 260; (15) 132; (16) 

156, 157, 209. 

gaimardti, (7) 324. 

paudahforniis, (7) 324. 

prideauxiaiia, (15) 168. 

pmiola, (6) 260. 

-"ecurifroiht, (6) 260. 

spimis, (6) 260. 

fhonisoiii, (6) 261. 

rariaii-'^, (6) 260 ; (15) 132 : (16) loiy, 

157, 209. 

Hippomedon dentictdafux, (16) 210 ; (20) 

516, 523, 535. 

ho/boll I, (8) 326. 

Hippothoa distan>>, (15) 156. 

Hirudinea, (19) 137. 

Hirndo hippoglossl , (19) 142. 

History of mussel-culture at Montrose, 

(13) 137. 
Hjort. Dr Job., (17) 115 ; (23) 253. 
Hoek, Dr P. P. C, (6) 15, 16, 276, 305; 

(7) 384 ; (8) 21 ; (9) 10, 19. 202, 412 ; 
(10) 189, 349; (11) 21, 487, 500, 501, 
503; (12) 400, 401 ; (13) 11, 16, 341. 

Hoftniann, Prof. C. K., (6) 306 ; (13)341. 

Holibut. See Halibut. 

Holland, ankerkuil fishery in, (6) 307. 

Fishery Board of, (6) 305. 

fishery work in, (6) 305 ; (7) 399 ; 

(8) 365 ; (9) 412 ; (10) 349 ; (11) 500 ; 
(12)400; (13) 340 

fisheries of, (7) 399; (9) 415; (12) 

400 ; (13) 340. 
State Commission for Sea Fisheries, 

(6) 305. 
wonderkuil fishery in Zuiderzee, (6) 

306 ; (8) 366. 
Hohpedium gibhcnun. (9) 280, 289 ; (11) 

231 ; (13) 250 ; (17) 143, ]84,&c. 
Holothuria phanlapus, (20) 307. 

rrqyhaiui-s, (20) 307. 

Holt, Mr E. AV. L., (9) 327, 395; (10) 

211, 233, 237, 276-280, 286, 288, 294, 

296, 328 ; (11) 244, 247, 488 ; (12) 205, 

302 ; (13) 332, 333 ; (16) 226. 
Hoiimrus gammarns, (6) 259. 

vulgaris. See Lobster. 

Homceoscelus medittrranea, (22) 254. 

minuta, (22) 254. 

Homelyn ray. See Ray, homelyn. 
Homologyra afomns, (15) 119. 
Hojilony.c cicada, (15) 137 ; (22) 243, 256. 
Horse-mackerel or scad (Caranx (rac/i- 

urtis), (8) 357. 



Horse-mackerel or scad, eggs of, (15)205. 

food of, (20) 486, 494. 

reproduction of, (13) 333. 

spawning period of, (4) 245. 

• young stage resembling a, (15) 

205". 
Horse-mussel, (4) 219. 
Howes, Professor G. B., (13) 297 ; (18) 

335. 
Howietoun, fish-hatching at, (5) 230. 
Hoyle, Dr. Wm. E., (6)215. 
Hubrecht, Professor, (6) 306. 
Huntemannia jadensis, (17) 255 ; (18) 

395. 
Hutchison, Mr W., (18)79. 
Huxley, Professor, (9) 416 ; (10) 173. - 
Hyale lubborl-iaiiri , (15) 137. 

nilssoni, (6) 246 ; (20) 519. 

Hyalodaphnia beroUnensis, (9) 291. 
Hyas amneus, (6) 255, 261 ; (15) 129. 
coarctatus, (6) 256 ; (15) 130 ; (20) 

536. 
Hyalinii'cea, tabicola, (15) 159. 
Hybrid between Calif ornian trout (S. 

irideus) and Salmo fario, (7) 383. 
between hybrid parents in sal- 

monida', (7) 384. 
between Lochleven trout and hybrid 

of Howietoun salmon par and Loch- 
leven trout, (7) 384. 
between Lochleven trout and hybrid 

of S. salar (male) and Lochleven trout 

(female), (7) 384. 
between Lochleven trout and sal- 
mon, (7) 383. 
between salmon and Lochleven 

trout, (7), 383. 
between turbot and brill, (13) 

333. 

of poor-cod, (11) 241. 

Hybridism in fish, (7) 382. 

among salmonidtB. (7) 382. 

among sea-fish, (8) 16. 

Hydractinia echinafa, (15) 164. 
Hydrobia stagnaJis, (15) 120. 

ulva', (7) 382 ; (9) 287, 288. 

Hydrographic changes in North Sea, (12) 

21. 
research in the Baltic and North 

Sea, (13) 339. 

survey, (11) 8. 

Hvdromedusiv of Firth of Forth, (16) 

l94. 
Hydrozoa as food of cod, (4) 136. 
— — as food of haddocks, (4) 129. 

of Loch Fyne, (15) 163. 

Hyperammimi arborescens. (16) 274. 
Hyperia galba, (6) 249,251; (15) 136: 

(16) 170, 210 ; (17) 264 ; (18) 401 ; (20) 

500, 513, 519. 

, as herring food, (4) 104, 123. 

gracilipes, (10) 265. 

medusarum, (6) 228, 249 ; (22) 243, 

256. 

oblivia, (6) 250 ; (10) 265. 

(auri/ormis, (9) 310. 

Hyperiidaj, (6) 228, 229, 249 ; (10) 265 ; 

(15) 136 ; (18) 401. 
Hyperoche faun'formis, (15) 136 ; (16) 

170, 171, 210; "(17) 264; (18)401. 



214 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



Iceland, race of herring at, (17) 282. 
statistics of catches of trawlers at, 

(20) 135. o 

Ichthyohdella anarr-hich(v, (19) 140. 

hippo fflosd. (19) 140. 

marina, (19) 140. 

sanguinea, (19) 140. 

Ichthyological notes, (4) 222; (19) 282; 

(22) 281 ; (23)2.51. 

research, committee on, (21) 38. 

Idothea haUica, (16) 168, 210 ; (20) 489, 

505, 519, 525, 527. 

emarqinata, (6)252; (16) 168, 169, 

^ 210 ; (19) 271 ; (20) 500, 519. 525. 

qramdosa, (20) 479. 

'linearis, (6) 2,52 ; (16) 168, 169, 210 ; 

(19) 271 ; (20) 519. 

marina, (6) 252 ; (14) 165. 

■ nejjle.cta, (22) 243, 257. 

pelaifica, (6) 252 ; (15) 135 ; (19) 

271 ; (20) 500, 519, 533. 

tricuspidafa, (6) 252 ; (15) 135. 

Idj/a clufhw, (17) 259 ; (19) 250. 

furcata, (4) 153 ; (6) 241 ; (15) 153 ; 

(20) 511. 

gracilis, (13) 171 ; (15) 153. 

longicornis, (15) 153 ; (19) 251. 

minor, (1,5) 153 ; (19) 251. 

Ilyocryptns sordidus, (9) 273, 291 ; (11) 

232 ; (12) 286 ; (13) 188, 245, 250 ; (14) 

239; (15) .321, 330, 333 ; (16) 250, 252 ; 

(17) 141, 184, &c. 
Ilyocypris hiplicafa, (15) 321, 326, 330; 

(16) 252 ; (17) 160, 164, 168, 184. 

gibha, (8) 341, 344; (9) 273, 277, 

282, 283, 286, 288 ; (13) 188 ; (15) 333. 

Ilyodromns olivacca, (17) 160, 168, 190. 

roberfsoni, (15) 321, 326 ; (17) 173, 

190. 

violacea, (17) 161. 

Ilyopfiyllus coriareus, (18) 396. 

Immature fish. See Fish, immatui'e. 

Impoverishment of fishing grounds, neces- 
sity of improved statistics to deter- 
mine, (20) 82, 86. 

of fishing grounds, system of statis- 
tics to determine, (20) 75. 

Inadinn dorseUensis, (6) 2.55; (15) 129 ; 
(20) 537. 

leptocUruH, (20) 510. 

Inadequacy of present limit of territorial 
waters, (12) 12. 

Industrial fishing school, (6) 301. 

Influence of locality on growth, (20) 336. 

of temperature on the development 

of fishes' eggs, (13) 15, 147. 

Infusorian parasite, (15^ 172. 

Injuries to food-fishes, (10) 207, 299. 

Inland waters of Scotland, invertebrate 
fauna of. See Fauna, invertebrate. 

Innervation of free rays in gurnard, (12) 
328. 

Inopseffa, (18) 353. 

Inshore waters, spawning of fish in, (7) 
183. 

Intensity cf fishing, as shown by marked 
fishes re-caught, (15) 375. 

Intercrossing in the genus Salmo, (7) 12. 



(15) 
(16) 



139 



170, 



International conference on fisheries of 

extra-territorial waters, (9) 389. 
Investigation Committee, statistics 

for, (21) .38. 

phj'sical investigations, (15) 280. 

Intraovarian eggs of common dab, (16) 

96. 
fluid in teleosteans, nature of, (16) 

93. 
Inverness Firth, physical and chemical 

examination of the water, (6) 313, 318, 

336. 
Invertebrate fauna of inland waters of 

Scotland. See Fauna, invertebrate. 
Investigations made on board steam - 

trawlers, (19) 58; (20) 92; (22) 13; 

(23) 13. 

offshore desirable, (13) 8. 

Iphimedia minuta, (12) 264 ; 

(22) 257. 
ohem., (6) 247 ; (15) 139 ; 

177, 210. 
IphinoH gracilis, (6) 253. 

serrafa, (19) 273 ; (20) 479, 510. 

frisijinom, (15) 134 ; (16) 167, 209. 

Ireland, Congested Districts Board of, 

(12) 389. 

decline of oyster fishery in, (6) 300. 

enquiry on beam-trawling in, (8) 

361 ; (9) 395. 
— fisheries of, (6) 300 ; (12) 388. 

fishery work in, (9) 394 ; (10) 331. 

instructions in fishery matters in, 

(12)389. 
investigation of marine fauna of 

south-west of, (7) 387. 
survey of the fishing grounds on 

south and west coasts of, (9) 394. 
Irenceus patermnii, (6) 238. 
Ischyrocerus angiiipes, (19) 236, 264. 
minufus, (14) 161; (18) 402; (19) 

264. 
Mas clavipes, (17) 251 ; (18) 384. 
Isle of Man, Fishery Committee of, (13) 

335. 
Isle' of May, eels of, (12) 295. 
Isocardia cor, (8) 332. 
Isopoda of lochs. See Fauna, inverte- 

Italy, fishery work in, (6) 308 : (7) 401 ; 
(8) 375 ; (9) 422 ; (10) 353. 

as a market for Scottish-cured her- 
rings, (7) 163. 

beam-trawling in, (7) 401. 

department of fisheries in, (6) 308. 

legal sizes for immature fish in, (8) 

375. 

Royal Commission of Fisheries in, 

(6) 14. 

statistics of fisheries of, (9) 423. 

stocking of lakes and rivers in, (8) 

375. 

Ito, MrK., (6)308. 

Itunella tenniremis, (15) 151. 



J 



" Jackal," H.M.S., (12) 21, 301. 

cruise of, in the North Sea, 1888, 

(7) 412. 



of the Fisher II Board jor Scotland. 



215 



Ja'ra alhifrons, (6) 251 ; (15) 317. 

nordmanni, (6) 252; (15) 136, 330. 

Jaraieson, Mr Peter, (7) 183, 188 ; (8) 

257 ; (9) 244, 311. 
Janassa capillata, (6) 249. 
Janira maculosa, (6) 252 ; (15) 136 ; (16) 

169, 210. 
Japan, fisheries of, (6) 307, 308; (11) 

503 ; (13) 347, 349. 

fishery investigations in, (13) 348. 

fishery statistics of, (13) 348. 

Jassa falcata, (19) 265. 

piml/a, (19) 265. 

Javea nocturna, (IS) 4(J4 ; (20) 480. 

Jenkins, Dr Travis, (22) 181. 

.John Dory (Zeus/abei-), (4) 2.32 ; (15) 

110; (18) 278. 
characters of mature eggs of, (16) 

133. 

eggs of, (16) 125. 

intraovarian eggs of, (16) 102. 

maturation of eggs of, (16) 131. 

mature and immature, (8) 177. 

parasite of, (18) 167. 

spawning period of, (4) 245. 

j^oungof, (8) 177. 

Johnston & Sons, Messrs Joseph, (9) 21. 

Mr James, (8) 9, 17, 23. 

Jonesiellafusi'forniis, (16) 267 ; (18) 390. 

hi/ama', (U) 202. 203. 

spinulom, (9) 301; (15) 150; (20) 

495, 503, 525. 
Jordan, Professor, (6) 302. 



K 



KelHa nitida, (7) 324. 
Kidston, Mr R., (9) 269. 
Kiel commission for scientific investiga- 
^ tion of the sea, (6) 14, 303 ; (9) 407. ' 
Kincardineshire, fishing grounds off", (9) 

180. 
King-fish or Opah [Lampris luna), (2) 80; 

(•21)228. 

food of, (21)219. 

occurrence of, (20) 541. 

ovaries and eggs of, (19) 290. 

parasites of , (19) 136. 

Kinnaird Head, trawling investigations 

off", (22) 37. 
Kisbinouye, Dr K., (13) 347. 
Krithe hartomnsk, (8) 322; (15) 143; (20) 

503, 511. 
Kroyera altimarimi.s, (6) 246. 

arenaria, (7) 320. 

hrevicarpa, (10) 263. 

Kroyeria haplochele-s, (10) 263. 

Kyle, Dr H. M., (15) 246 ; (16) 225 ; (17) 

274 ; (18) 189, 335. 



Lahidocera wollastoni, (17) 251 ; (18) 385; 
(21) 113. 

Lahrax lupus. See Bass. 

Lahrus, post-larval forms of, with re- 
marks on colour of pelvic fins, (6) 268. 

maculatus or hergylta. See Wrasse, 

ballan. 

mixtus. See Wrasse, striped. 



Lacuna dwarlcala, (15) 119. 

pallidnla, (15) 119. 

Loimarcjus microcephalus. See Shark, 

Greenland. 

muricatus, (9) 305. 

Lrvhnatophilus armatus. (19) 266. 

(ubercvlafus, (19) 236, 266. 

LcKtmonice JiHcornis, (15) 159. 
La^vicardium norvegicimi, (15) 126, 
Lafoea diimosa, (15) 164. 

frnticosa, (15) 164. 

Lafystius sturionis, (7) 320. 
Lagena cosfafa, (16) 276. 

globosa, (15) 166. 

gracilis, (16) 276. 

gracillima, (15) 166. 

hexagona, (7) 314 ; (15) 166. 

ye^rey.w, (15) 166. 

laevigata, (16) 276. 

Icevis, (15) 166. 

lagenoides, (16) 276. 

lineata, (16) 276. 

lyella, (16) 276. 

marginata, (15) 166. 

melo, (8)316; (15) 166. 

orhignyana, (16) 276. 

pulchella, (8) 316. 

semistriafa, (16) 276. 

squc(mosa, (7) 314 ; (15) 166. 

striata, (15) 166. 

sulcata, (15) 166. 

williamsoni, (16) 276. 

Lagenida marginata, (7) 312. 
Lake fisheries in America, (12) 391. 
Lamellaria perspicua, (15) 120. 
LcLmippe alcyonii, (14) 164. 

duthiersii, (14) 164. 

forhesi, (19) 256. 

proteus, (14) 164 ; (19) 256. 

r^d>ra, (14) 164. 

Lemma, conmbica. See Shark, porbeagle. 
Lampern (Petromyzonjluviatilis), spawn- 
ing period of, (4) 254. 
Lampris luna. See King-fish. 
Lamprops cristata, (4) 164. 
fasciata, (4) 163, 164 ; (6) 253 ; (15) 

134 ; (17) 266 ; (19) 274 ; (20) 492, 

495, 510. 
Lamps used to attract fish, (7) 399. 
Lancashire Sea Fisheries Committee, (11) 

8, 13 ; (12) 205, 386 ; (13) 10, 333. 
Lancelet (Amphioxus lanceolatus), (7) 

.386; (18)293. 
Lankester, Professor E. Ray, (13) 338. 
Laophonte curticauda, (6) 240, 242 ; (20) 

119, 464. 
denticornis, (12) 246 ; (19) 248 ; (21) 

119. 

depressa, (12) 245 ; (15) 151. 

gracilis, (21) 119. 

hispida, (8) 318 ; (15) 151 ; (21) 119. 

horrida, (4) 151 ; (10) 255, 256 ; (15) 

151. 

inopinata, (10) 256 ; (21) 119. 

intermedia, (13) 168 ; (19)248 ; (21) 

119. 
lamelli/era, (4) 151 ; (6) 240 ; (15) 

151 ; (21) 119. 

morale, (12) 247 ; (21) 119. 

longicaudata, (8) 318 ; (16) 268 



210 



Pari III. — Tu'entii-third Ainival Report 



/a(ii///i<iii/i loiKjIri mix, (28) 145. 

moliammed, (15) 317. 

mrrata, (8) 318 ; (15) 151 ; (17) 256 ; 

(21) 120. 
ximilU, (4) 151 ; ((}) 239 ; (10) 256 ; 

(15) J51 ; (20) 464. 

simulam, (12) 248 ; (15) 151. 

,spinosa, (18) 393. 

thoracica, (6) 240 ; (15) 151 ; (17) 

25H ; (21) 119. 
Lnophonfndrx typicm, (12) 249 ; (21) 120. 
Laji/iis/in.t x/urioiiis, (18) 181. 
Large and small fish captured by beam- 
trawlers and line fishermen, (8) 30. 
Large and small fish, distribution of, (7) 

171 ; (10) 30. 
Lark swallowed bv cod (4) 134. 
Larvie of angler, (21) 189. 

obtained l)y " Garland," (13) 258. 

of cod, habitat of, (15) 194. 

of lobster (23) 69. 

of plaice, reai'ing of, (15) 175. 

of shrimp, description of stages of, 

(19)94. 
— development of appendages of, 

(19) 96. 

moulting of, (19) 94. 

movements of, (19) 93. 

Larval fishes, (8) 14 ; (12) 298 ; (18) 250. 
in Firth of Clyde, (15) 250, 

251. 
in Firth of Forth, (15) 250, 

251. 
, post-larval, and young fishes, (8) 

286. 

forms of food-fishes, (7) 301. 

and young Crustacea, (16) 197. 

stages of Carciniis moencis, (21) 139. 

of decapod Crustacea, (19) 92. 

of four-bearded rockling, (8) 

363. 

of lobster, (23) 73. 

of the shrimp, (19) 92. 

La.saa ruhra, (15) 125. 
Latchet. Set Gurnard, sapphirine. 
Lateral sense organs of fish, (16) 216. 
Lathonura j-ectiro-sfris, (17) 155, 156, 

172, 173. 184, 199. 
Latoua uttifera, (11) 230 ; (13) 188, 250 ; 

(14) 239"; (15) 330, 331, 333 ; (16) 258, 

260. 
Lauderia anmdata, (15) 214. 
Launce. nS'ee Sand-eel. 

larger. Ste Sand-eel, larger. 

lesser. Ste Sand-eel, lesser. 

Lawrence, Mr George, (13) 236. 
Leach ia ijrari/i-<, (6) 252. 

inf( rmrdia, (6) '252. 

Ltda minuta, (15) 125. 
Leeches, parasitic, on fish, (19) 137. 
Lemarrfus muricatun, (18) 158. 
Lemon dab. See Dab, lemon. 

sole. See Dab, lemon. 

Lenticidites rotvlata, (7) 314. 
Lepadogaster himacidatus. See Bimacu- 
lated sucker. 

gonanii. See Sucker, Cornish. 

Lepas anafi/era, (6) 236. 
Lepeop/hfkeirus hippoglossi, (18) 151. 
noixlmanni, (18) 151. 



Lepeophlheirti" ohticurus, (18) 153. 

pert oralis, (9) 305; (15) 155: (18) 

150. 

pollachii, (18) 153 ; (20) 291. 

stromi, (18) 152. 

Htiiriomx, (23) 110. 

thompwni, (9) 305 ; (18) 152. 

Lepidarti/lia ar/iiariuH, (10) 264. 

dyliscm, (10) 264. 

Lepidepecrevm rarimifmn, (12) 262. 

longiconir, (19) 236, 258. 

Lepidoiiolux squama/ )!■■<, (15) 160. 
Lepidojjsd/a, (^^) 361. 

hilimafa, (18) 353. 

Lepidorhomhtui hoscii, (18) 357. 

ir/uff'. See Megrim. 

LepraUia cruenta, (15) 156. 

pallasiano, (15) 156. 

Lcpfnapidia brerepes, (9) 308; (15) 136. 
Lepfocarin minutus, (17) 259. 
Leptocephalus, description of, (22) 281 ; 

(23) 251. 

mon-isii, (22) 283: (23) 251. 

punctaius, (22) 282; (23)251. 

Leptocheirns piloms, (15) 140 ; (18) 402 ; 

(20) 497. 
Leptocylindriis danicus, (15) 214. 
Li'ptodora hi/a/iiia, (9) 272, 273, 296 ; 

(11)235; (12)286; (15)321,326; (17) 

138, 185. &c. 
Leptognathia hrevimaiia, (17) 266 ; (19) 

269. 
brevirtmis, (17) 266 ; (19) 269 ; (20) 

503, 510. 

longiremis, (19) 26P. 

Leptomysis grarilis, (7) 323; (15) 133; (16) 

158, 209 ; (17) 268 ; (18) 403 ; (19) 277. 
lingrura, (4) 159: (6) 254; (15) 

133 ; (16) 158, 162, 209 ; (17) 268. 
Lepton uitidiim, (7) 324 ; (15) 126. 
Leptopbijllns herdmani, (IS) .394. 

minor, (18) 39.3. 

typicns, (12) 2.54. 

Lepfopontia rurvicauda, (20) 449, 463. 
Leptorhyiichusfalcahis, (11) 234. 
Leptosiylis villosa, (19) 236, 274. 
Lernaia asellina, (9) 306. 

branchialis, (9) .307 ; (18) 161. 

cormda, (9) 306 ; (18) 164. 

njclopterina, (18) 162. 

dalmainiii, (18) 169 ; (19) 130. 

elonqafa, (18) 171 : (19) 132. 

— lumpi, (19) 128. 



Z«6r/, (22) 275, 277 



(23) 113. 
:19) 128. 



minuta, (18) 161 

pecf oralis. (9) 305 : (18) 150. 

spraffa, (9) .306 : (18) 161 : (19) 127. 

nnrhiaJa, (9) 306 ; (18) 177. 

Lerna'cnirus spratta, (18) 161 : (19) 127. 
Lernaopoda c/n/ha'. (IS) 173. 

elongata, (4) 228; (IS) 171, 172, 

173; (19) 1.32. 

galei, (18) 172. 

Leraentoma asellina, (9) 306 ; (IS) 163. 

cornufa, (9) 306 ; (15) 155 ; (18) 164. 

lophii, (9) 306 ; (15) 155 ; (18) 167. 

Lerneouema monillaris, (9) 306. 

spratta, (2) 57 ; (9) 306 ; (18) 161. 

Lesser forkbeard. See Forkbeard, lesser. 
sand-eel. See Sand eel, lesser. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



217 



Lesser spotted dog-fish. *S'ee Dog-fish, 
lesser spotted. 

weever. See Weever, lesser. 

Lesteiralumpi, (19) 129; (23) 113. 
Lestes lumpi, (19) 128. 
Lestrigonus Icinaliani, (6) 249. 

spinidorsali.% (10) 265, 266. 

Lencon cercaria, (4) 165. 

defortnis, (8) 329. 

nmsiru, (6) 253 ; (20) 503, 510, 522. 

nasicus, (15) 134; (16) 167, 209; 

(17) 267 ; (19) 274. 
LcucotliOiiUlljchorqii, (12)264 ; (15) 139 ; 
(19) 261; (20) 491, 503, 516, 523, 
527. 

.^pinkarpa, (8) 327 : (15) 139. 

Leueothoida?, (12) 264. 
Leydigia quadrangular is, (9) 276, 277, 
292, 296 : (15) 250 ; (17) 160, 161, 184, 
200. 
Liachirns nitidus, (18) 359. 
Lichenopora tiispida, (15) 157. 
LichomoJgus agilis, (10) 264. 

albeni^, (1*6)269. 

arenicolus, (10) 260, 262. 

eoncinnns, (10) 261. 

forficida, (11) 208 ; (15) 153. 

fucicolus, (6) 241 ; (1 1) 211 ; (15) 153; 

(19)252; (21) 131. 

/Hm7/a^».'*, (9) 304 ; (15)153; (20) 

470. 

Ursutipes, (11) 206 ; (20) 470, 501. 

insignis, (11) 207. 

liber, (10) 261 ; (20) 470. 

liU oralis, (10) 260, 266. 

niaximus, (15) 154. 

pouched, (11)207. 

ttioreUii, (10) 261 ; (18) 399. 

Life-histories and development of the 
food-fishes, (11) 239; (12) 218; (13) 
220; (14) 171. 
Life-history of cod, (15) 194. 

edible crab, (18) 77. 

haddock, (15) 196. 

— - lobster, (23) 65. 

whiting, (15) 201. 

Ligia oceanira, (6) 252. 
Light, influence of, on development of 
fish-eggs, (15) 178. 

action of, on larva\ (5) 246. 

effect of, on lobsters, (23) 98. 

Lilljehorqia Icinaliani, (16) 262; (18) 402; 

(19)264; (20)479. 
Lima hians, (15) 123. 

loscombi, (15) 123. 

snbauriculata, (15) 123. 

TAmacina retroversa, (15) 115, 305, Sec. ; 

(16) 155, 156, 209 ; (22) 256. 
Limanda aspera, (18) 353. 

limanda, (18)358. 

Limapontia nigra, (7) 324. 

Livimva palustris, (9)272; (15)320; (17) 

139, 159, 185. 
peregra, (8) 336, 337, &c. ; (9) 272, 

276, &c. ; (13) 188, 244, 249; (14) 168, 

239 ; (15) 320 ; (16) 251, &c. ; (17) 139, 

155, 156, 159, 185. 
fruncatnla, (8) 336, &c. ; (9) 272, 

276, &c. ; (13) 244, 249 ; (15) 320, 332 ; 

(17) 139, 185. 



Limnicythere inopinuta, (9) 273, 277, &c.; 
(13) 188, 245 ; (15) 518, 321 ; (16) 252 ; 
(17) 140, 160, &c. 

sancti-patrici, (9) 272, 273 ; (15) 321; 

(17) 164. 
Limnoria lignorum, (4) 211 ; (6)252; (15) 

135. 
Line-fishing, description of method of, 
(4) 201. 

definition of " large " and "small " 

fish caught by, (8) 187. 

experiments of "Garland" on, (8) 

189. 

in territorial waters, (9) 24, 25, 26, 

29. 

and the destruction of immature 

fish, (8) 187. 
Lines of growth in skeletal structures of 

fishes, (23) 125. 
Linens marimis, (15) 160. 
Ling {Molva rulqaris), distribution of, (4) 
233; (15) 111"; (18)284; (21)62. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 176. 

eggs of, (4) 212; (8) 284; (16) 91, 

114, 115 ; (17) 82, 8.3, 84, 93, 96. 

eggs, distribution of, (15) 244. 

fecundity of, (9) 2.58. 

food of, (8) 251 ; (20) 487, 519. 

mature and immature, (8) 176. 

parasites of, (19) 122, 149 ; (20) 288 ; 

(23) 108. 

proportion of males to females, (S) 

349; (10)239. 

spawning period of, (4) 248 ; (7) 195, 

(8) 268 ; (10) 232 ; (15) 244 ; (17) 99. 

young of, (3) 62 ; (4) 209. 

Lioglossina, (18) 352, 356. 
Liopsetta, (18) 352, 353. 
Liparis montagui. See Sucker, Mon- 
tague's! 

vulgaris. See Sea-snail. 

Lirio2ie balani, (6) 251. 
Liriopsis balani, (6) 251. 
List of common and scientific names of 
fishes, (8)40; (10)40. 

of pelagic ova, &c., obtained hj the 

" Garland," (8) 287 ; (14) 223. 
Liston Bank, (8) 200 ; (17) 210. 
Ijittiodeo maia, (6)258; (15) 130. 
Little sole. See Sole, little. 
Littorina litorea, (7) 328, 337 ; (15) 119. 

obtusata, (15) 119. 

— rudis, (15) 119. 

Lituolafindens, (8) 314. 

Liverpool Biological Society, work of, (9) 

392; (13)33.5. 
Lobster (Homarus rul(/aris), casting of, 
(23) 89, 92, 95. 

copepod-parasite of, (19) 255. 

development of, (14) 186. 

digestibility of, (5) 228. 

diminution in size of, (6) 190, 192. 

distribution of, (6) 195. 

effect of cold on, (23) 72, 98. 

of strong light on, (23) 98. 

eggs of, (23)101, 102. 

embryonic stages of, (14) 207. 

experiments in breeding of. (14) 

190, 



218 



Part III. — Tventij-thinl Annual Beport 



Lobster, experiments in hatching and 

rearing of, (8) 362 ; (23) 65. 

fishery, (6) 9, 189. 

at Bognor and Selsey, (6) 300. 

at Heligoland, (9) 405. 

in (Canada, (6) 192. 

in Newfoundland, regulation.s 

regarding, (13) 336. 

in Scotland, ^6) 189. 

in United States, (6) 192. 

foi5d of the zoea of, (23) 78. 

fry of, (7) 403 ; (23) 68, 69. 

growth of, (23) 85, 95. 

hatching of, (9) 5, 391, 396, 398, 402; 

(10)10; (12)11; (14)196; (21)181; 

(23) 65. 

in Canada, (9) 396 ; (12) 393. 

in Newfoundland, (8) 365 ; (9) 

398; (13)335. 

in Norway, (7) 405. 

in United States, (8) 364. 

imports of, (6) 191. 

larval stages of, (14) 207 ; (23) 67, 

69, 73. 

legislation regarding, (6) 198. 

life-history of, (6) 195 ; (23) 65. 

of American, (9) 402. 

megalops stage of, (23) 68, 83. 

methods of fishing for, (6) 196. 

mode of attachment of eggs in, (22) 

117. 

mysis stage of, (23) 69. 

Norway. See Nephrops norvegicus. 

Norwegian exports of, (6) 193. 

pond at Brodick, (14) 14, 190. 

ponds in Spain, (13) 347. 

price of, (6) 197. 

proportion of "berried" hens, (23) 

88. 
rate of growth of embryo of, (14) 

190. 

rearing experiments with, (9) 391. 

senses of, (23) 97. 

sexual maturity of, (14) 202. 

signs of approaching moiilting in, 

(23) 93. 
spawning of, (6) 196, 299 ; (14) 199 ; 

(18)86; (22)117; (23) 100, 101. 

young, food of, (23) 67, 69, 70. 

vitality of, (23) 67. 

zoea of, (23) 67, 74, 78. _ 

Lobworm (Arenicola piscatorium) as bait, 

(7)352, 356; (15) 159. 

reproduction of, (4) 217. 

Lochs and inland waters, invertebrate 

fauna of. See Fauna, invertebrate. 
Loch Fyne, ampliipoda of, (16) 262. 
chemical conditions of water 

in, (15)266. 
circulation of water in, (15) 

262 
comparison of spawning season 

in, with East Coast, (17) 99. 

copepoda of, (4) 147 ; (16) 264. 

— ^ Crustacea of, (16) 262. 

density of water of, (15) 263. 

disti'ibution, vertical, of eggs 

in, (17) 116. 
drift of pelagic eggs in, (17) 

120, 



Loch Fyne, estimated number of pelagic 

eggs in, (17) 109. 

fauna of, (4) 231. 

food of herrings in, (18) 2.52. 

— — — — foraminifera of, (16) 273. 

herring fishery in, (18) 252. 

hex-ring fishery statistics of, 

(18) 256. 
herrings in deep water in, (18) 

253. 
invertebrate fauna of, (16) 

261. 

— invertebrates of, (15) 107. 

isopoda of, (16) 262. 

■ larval and post-larval fishes 

of, (15) 250, 2,34 ; (17) 121. 

— marine fishes of, (15) 107. 

migrations of gurnards in, (17) 

216. 
— mixture of herring shoals in, 

(18) 253. 

ostracoda of, (16) 263. 

pelagic fish-eggs of, (15) 244, 

247 ; (17) 79. 

physical conditions of, (15) 262. 

ph5'sical observations in, (15) 

262; (17) 128, 130. 
plaice fry put into, (14) 155 ; 

(17) 207. 
proportion of young food-fishes 

to others in, (17) 127. 
relation of herring to copepoda, 

(17)115. 

— — schizopoda of, (16) 262. 

— seasonal abundance of copepoda 

in, (17) 114. 
seasonal abundance of pelagic 

eggs in, (17)94. 
spawning of herrings in, (18) 

253. 
spawning seasons of fish in, 

(17) 96. 

tidal observations in, (15) 268. 

vermes of, (16) 273. 

vertical distribution of cope- 
poda in, (17) 116. 
A'olumetric determination of 

copepoda in, (17) 112. 

J'oung fishes in, (15) 254. 

Loch Lev en trout, spawning period of, 

(4) 252. 
— • — temperature observations in. See 

Temperature. 
Lceops, (18) 361. 

Lofoten Isles, cod fishery at, (13) 339. 
Loligo, sp., (3) 67. 

sagittata, (6) 264. 

• indgaris, as bait. 

Long rough dab. See Dab, long rough. 
Long-spined Cottus. See Cottus hnJialis. 
Lonqipedia coronata, (6) 239; (10) 249; 

(11) 198, 201 ; (15) 149 ; (20) 492, 49-5. 

minor, (15) 149 ; (19) 245 ; (20) 503. 

paguri, (11)201,202. 

Lophius piscatorius. See Angler. 
Lophonectes, (18) 361. 
Lopliophorus iimgnis, (20) 46. 
Lossiemouth, trawling investigations off, 

(25) 93, 101 ; (22) 26, 28, 47 ; (23) 20, 

24, 46, 



of the Fisher ij Board for Scotland. 



219 



Lota vulgaris. See Burbot. 
Loxocondia elliptica, (8) 321. 

frarjilis, (8) 325. 

guttata, (6) 244 ; (15) 143. 

impressa, (7) 317 ; (15) 143 ; (20) 

520. 
Loxoconcha muUifora, (8) 321 ; (15) 143. 

pudlla, (8) 325. 

tamarindus,(lo)2U; (15) 143; (20) 

523. 

viridis, (8) 321 ; (13) 188. 

Lucina borealis, (15) 128. 

spinifera, (15) 128 ; (20) 505. 

Ludnops'is undata, (15) 127. 
Luidia ciliaris, (20) 308, 319, 324. 

sarsi, (20) 308, 319, 324. 

sacignii, (20) 308. 

Lumhriconereis nardonh, (15) 159. 
Lumbricus ten-estrU as bait, (7) 356. 
Luminous organs in the British pearl- 
sides, (6) 281. 
Lumpenus, sharp - tailed {Lumpenus 

lampjetraformis), desci'iption of, (2) 78 ; 

(12) 225. 

age of, (22) 203. 

at Aberdeen, (4) 210. 

distribution of, (19) 287. 

eggs of, (12) 226; (19) 287; (22) 

203. 

food of, (20) 486, 502 ; (21) 220. 

in Firth of Clyde, (15) 167. 

in Firth of Forth, (7) 326. 

in Loch Fyne, (15) 110 ; (18) 280. 

in North Sea, (19) 287; (21) 29, 35. 

in stomach of anglers, (21) 198. 

in stomach of picked dog-fish, (19) 

287. 

mature and immature, (8) 177, 357. 

rate of growth of, (22) 202. 

relation of length to weight, (22) 

238. 
spawning period of, (19) 287 : (22) 

203. 
Lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus), in 

Loch Fyne, (4) 232 ; (15) 110. 

caught in trawl-net. 

colour changes in, (10) 243. 

cross-fertilisation of, with flounder, 

(8) 358. 
eggs of, (3) 60 ; (7) 306 ; (10) 243 ; 

(14) 173. 

as bait, (6) 273. 

volume of, (16) 141. 

fecundity of, (9) 253. 

food of, (3) 60 ; (20) 486, 497. 

comparative absence in 

stomach of female, (20) 499. 

large specimen of, (3) 69. 

oviposition of, (9) 244. 

parasites of, (19) 121, 128, 129 ; (23) 

108. 

power of adhesion of, (4) 212. 

protective resemblance in young of, 

(11) 390. 

rate of growth of, (12) 333. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size at maturity, (10) 238. 

spawning of, (7) 197 ; (8) 269. 

young, mode of distribution of, (17) 

128. 



Lunan Bay, trawling investigations 

(20) 96. 
Lunatia pulchella, (15) 120. 

nordida, (15) 120. 

Lundberg, Dr. Rudolf, (7) 405 ; (9) 20, 

408; (13) 16. 
Lutraria elliptica, (15) 127. 
Lybster, trawling investigations off. See 

Trawli"ng investigations. 
Lynceida?, (11) 232. 
Lynceus acanthocercoides, (9) 292. 

affitiis, (9) 293. 

costal us, (9) 293. 

elongatus, (9) 286, 292. 

excuus, (9) 286, 293. 

exiguus, (9) 293 ; (11) 233. 

globosm, (9) 295. 

guftatus, (9) 277, 293. 

harpce, (9) 292 ; (11) 232. 

kevis, (9) 294. 

lamellatus, (9) 291. 

leucocephalus, (9) 292. 

longirostris, (9) 291. 

macrurus. (9) 292 ; (11) 232. 

nanus, (9) 293. 

qiiadrangularis, (9) 277, 282, 292, 

293; (11)233. 

spharicus, (9) 295 ; (11) 234. 

tenuicaudis, (9) 277, 292. 

testudinarius, (11) 233. 

trigonellus, (9) 294. 

truncatus, (9) 294 ; (11) 234. 

uncinatu><, (9) 294. 

Lyonsia norvegica, (12) 265 ; (15) 129. 
Lysianax costa', (15) 137. 
Lythe. See Pollack. 



M 



Machcerina subulata, (20) 503. 

temiissima, (15) 145 ; (20) 497, 520. 

M'Donald, Col. Marshall, (8) 21. 
M'Intosh, Professor W. C, (4) 201 ; (5) 

354 ; (6) 265, 279, 281 ; (7) 259, 387 ; 

(8) 8. 14, 21, 270, 283; (9) 211, 244, 

269, 317, &c. 
Mackay, Captain, (7) 188. 
Mackerel {Scomber scomber), (4) 232 ; (6) 

276; (15)110; (18) 277; (21) 30, 33, 

68. 

arrangement of muscles in, (4) 168. 

attacked by squids, (3) 68. 

caught in deep water in winter, (21 ) 

69. 

caught in otter-trawl, (21) 68. 

composition of, (5) 228. 

curing of, (12) 388. 

digestibility of, (5) 228. 

eggs of, (16) 91, 114 ; (17) 82, 83, 84, 

93, 96, 106. 
enquiry respecting Scottish, (12) 17 ; 

(13) 13. 

fecundity of, (9) 252. 

fishing, (13) 13. 

in Ireland, (9) 396 ; (12) 388. 

at Kinsale, (12) 390. 

in United States, (12) 393, 395. 

food of, (20) 486, 493. 

• larval and post-larval, (17) 125. 

life-history of Mediterranean, (8)372, 



220 



Part III. — Tirentij-ihml Annual Jieport 



Mackerel of east and west coasts of 
Scotland, (18)294. 

parasites of, (19) 124, 135, 146. 

question of racial differences among, 

(18) 294. 

question of sexual differences 

among, (18)312. 

sizes and sex of, (18) 302. 

spawning period of, (4) 245 ; (17) 

98 ; (18) 327. 

specific gravity of eggs of, (7) 386. 

weight of ripe and unripe, (IS) 32S. 

Maekie, Mr R., (10) 28G. 
Maclagan, Nellie, (2) 74. 
MacMunn, l)r A. C, (7) 386, 387. 
Macrocypris minna, (19) 236, 257. 
Macromysis flexuosa, (15) 133. 
Macropodia /onc/irofitris, (15) 130. 

rosfrata, (15) 130 ; (16) 156, 209. 

Macropsis slabber!, (6) 254 ; (8) 332 ; (16) 

158, 162, 209 ; (19) 277 ; (20) 532. 
Macrostylis spinifera, (19) 236, 272. 
Macrothrix hirsuticomis, (14) 239, 242. 

laticornis, (11) 231. 

Macrurus hnvw, food of, (20) 501. 

occurrence of, (20) 541. 

Mactru fJlipfica, (15) 127. 

stvltorum, (6) 231. 

»nhtruncata, (15) 127. 

Madreporite of Cribtlla oadata, (6) 280. 
Mcpra bate.i, (14) 160. 

qrossimana, (6) 247 ; (7) 327. 

'loveni, (7) 327 ; (19) 264; (20) 478, 

516, 520. 
othonii^, (6) 247 ; (15) 140 ; (18) 402 ; 

(19) 264. 

Mair, Mr William, (8) 257 ; (9) 21, 177, 
244 ; (10) 23, 29 ; (11) 24, 29, 30 ; (14) 
22, 56. 

Maitland, Sir J. Ramsay-Gibson, (5) 43 ; 

(6) 25 ; (7) 12, 382 ; (10) 192, 331. 
Maldam biceps, (15) 158. 
Mallotus rillosxis. See Capelin. 
Malm, Dr, (9) 408 ; (10) 344 ; (13) 16. 
Mancopsetfa, (18) 361. 

Mangelia attenuata, (15) 118. 

l,i'vi(iata, 15) 118, 

Maraenobiotus rejdorshei, (14) 168, 169; 

(16)249; (17)172, 173, 183, 189. 
Margarita helicina, (15) 122. 
Margintdina glabra, (16) 277. 
Marine Biological Association of the 

U.K., (6) 298; (8)361; (9) .390 ; (12) 

385 ; (13) 332. 
laboratory, Plymouth, (6) 15, 

298 ; (7) 385. 

station at Puffin Island, (8) 362. 

currents, transport of fish eggs liy, 

(13) 13, 135; (14)15. 

diatoms, (15) 15. 

Fisheries Society, (6) 300 ; (8) 161. 

fishes of Loch Fyne, (15) 107- 

food-fishes : food, spawning, and 

habits of, (7) 182. 
laboratory at Arcachon, work of, 

(7) 392. 

at Boulogne-sur-mer, work of, 

(7) 390. 
at Concarneau, work of, (7) 

389 ; (8) 373 ; (9) 418. 



Marine laboratory at Helder, (9) 413. 

• at Heligoland, (9) 405. 

at Marseilles, work of, (7) 392; 

(8) 371 ; (9) 418. 
at St. Andrews, (6) 279; (13) 

8. 
at St. Andrews, description of, 

(3) 55. 
pisciculture, practical results of, (13) 

10. 
Marion, Professor, (7) 384, 392 ; (8) 21, 

.371 : (9) .389, 418; (10) 160. 189, 294, 

352; (11)21, 239, 487 ; (13) 16. 
Marketal>le and luimarketablc fishes, 

classification of, (21) 40. 
Marking fish by labels, (7) 406. 
Marl deposits in Loch Doon, (17) 174. 
Mars Bank, (9) 181. 
Masterman, Dr, A. T., (11) 250; (12) 

272; (13) 289, 279; (14)294; (15) 

219. 
Matthews, J. Duncan, (5) 245, 257, 295 ; 

(6) 25 ; (9) .331 ; (17) 274. 
Maturation of eggs. See Eggs. 
Maturity, average size of haddock at, 

(22) 15.3. 
average size of plaice at, (18) 190; 

22; 156. 
average size of whiting at, (22 

150. 
minimum size of grey gurnai'd at, 

(17) 223. 

of edible crab, size at, (IS) 79. 

of fishes, (10) 18. 

of plaice, variation of size at, in 

different regions, (20) 358. 

sexual, in sturgeon, (6) 303. 

size at which fishes reach, (10) 230. 

of cod at, (19) 228 ; (22) 158. 

of edible male crab at, (18) 97. 

of female edible crab at, (18) 

79. 

of haddock at, (19) 213. 

of Norway pout at, (19) 164. 

of plaice at, (20) 357. 

of sprat at, (22) 181. 

of whiting at, (20) .399. 

of witch at, (22) 195. 

Maurolicns pennant ii. See Pearl sides. 
Mazocra's alosee, (19) 145. 
Measui'ements of fish, importance of, (20) 

326, 330. 
Measuring-table for fishes, (20) 330. 
Medusida? interfering with trawling 

operations, (20) 94, 95, 103. 
Meek, Mr Alex., (17) 117 ; (22) 136. 
Megalnropus agilis, (8) .326; (18) 402; 

(20) 478, 491, 510 ; (22) 243, 257. 
Megamcera othonis, (6) 247. 
Meqampjhopns cornutus, (14) 161 ; (20) 

479, 517. 
Megrim (LepidorhomJnis vhiff'), (7) 325 ; 

(12) 224 ; (18) 286, ,357 ; (21) 50. 
abundant in deep water on north- 
eastern grounds, (21) 50. 

development of, (10) 292. 

distribution of, (21) 50. 

eggs of, (16)91, 114. 

egg resembling tliat of, (12) 224. 

in Firth of Clyde, (15) 250. 



of the Fisher 1/ Board for Scotland. 



221 



Megrim, fecundity of, (9) 263. 

food of, (7) 237, 240 ; (8) 254, 256 ; 

(20) 523. 

mature and immature, (8) 172. 

projiortion of males to females, (8) 

349 ; (10) 239. 

size at maturity, (10) 238. 

spawning of, (7) 192. 

3feli(a dentata, (14) 160. 

gladiosa, (6) 247. 

obfusafa, (6) 247 ; (15) 140 ; (20) 

501, 510. 

2:)roxima, (6) 247. 

3Idosira oiHchalcea, (9) 274. 

varians, (9) 274. 

Melphidippa spinosa, (10) 264. 
Mefphidippella macera, (16) 170, 177, 

210 ; (17) 265 ; (19) 263. 
Melville, Mr John, (9) 177, 343. 
Memhranipora flemingii, (15) 156. 

pilosa, (15) 156. 

Meridian circidare, (9) 274. 

Merluccius imlyaris. See Hake. 

Merry-sole. See Lemon dab. 

Mesh of trawl-net, (8) 182. 

experiments on influence of, 

(12)306; (19) 62. 
influence of size of, on fish 

caught, (19) 62. 
relation between, and the fish 

captured, (12) 306 ; (19) 62. 
Mesochra liUjehorgii, (6) 239; (11) 228, 

229. 

macintosld, (13) 167 ; (20) 461. 

propinqua, (14) 162. 

rohertsoni, (11) 228, 229. 

spinicauda, (13) 167 ; (18) 391. 

Methods of fishing for herrings in Clyde, 

(12) 18. 
— — of fishing in relation to statistics, 

(20) 79. 

of rearing fish larva;, (15) 177. 

Metapa cdderi, (7) 319; (16) 170, 177, 

210 ; (20) 516, 527. 

horealis, (19) 260 ; (22) 243, 257. 

hruzelii, (14) 159. 

nasuta, (14) 159. 

norvegica, (19) 261. 

pollexiana, (6) 246 ; (17) 265 ; (20) 

478. 

propinqua, (12) 263. 

pmiUa, (20) 478, 516. 

robust a, (17) 265. 

nibrovitfata, (19) 260 ; (20) 510, 527. 

Metopella nasuta, (19) 261 ; (20) 497, 510. 
Metopina robusta, (19) 236, 261. 
Metridia armata, (4) 148 ; (9) 300; (15) 

147. 

as herring-food, (4) 126. 

hihernica. (15) 146, 307, 308, 309, 

310, 311, 314 ; (16) 177, 189, 210 ; (17) 

251, 270. 

longa, (20) 454. 

liicens, (18) 385 ; (19) 239 ; (20) 454, 

511, 513, 517, 532 ; (21) 113. 
Microchirus minutus, (18) 359. 

variegata, (18) 359. 

Micrococcus albus tran:4ucens, (6) 208. 

calyciformis, (6) 209. 

rotundus magnus, (6) 210. 



Micrococcus spongiosus, (6) 209. 

Microcotyle donovani, (23). 

labracis, (23) 117. 

Microcrustacea from Clyde and Moray 
Firth, (17) 248. 

Microdeutopus a7ioma/us, (15) 140. 

damnoniensis, (15) 140. 

Microjassa cunibi-ensis, (19) 265. 

3Iicroniscus ccdani, (15) 172, 309, 311. 

Micro-organisms, determination of num- 
ber in water, (4) 178. 

in river- water, (3) 73 ; (4) 176 ; (5) 

331. 

in river-water, methods of detect- 

ing, (3) 73. 

Microporella impressa, (15) 156. 

Microprotopus maculatus, (14) 161 ; (18) 
402 ; (20) 527. 

Microstella atlantica, (9) 301. 

Microsfomus (18) 353. 

Midwater net, description of, (5) 356. 

Migrations of brill, (11) 189. 

of cod, (11) 189 ; (15) 375. 

of dab, (11) 189. 

of edible crab, (18) 119, 125; (22) 

135. 

relation of, to temperature, 

(18) 124. 

of fishes, (10) 19. 

■ — in relation to currents, (15) 

375. 

value of statistics in connec- 
tion with, (11) 16, 176 ; (21) 38. 

of grey gurnard, (17) 210. 

adults and immature together 

(17) 223. 

in relation to reproduction 

(17) 222. 

of grey skate, (11) 191. 

of gurnard, relation of, to changes 

in temperature, (17)216. 

of herring, (10) 173; (11) 191 ; (17) 

286. 

of immature gurnards, (17) 227. 

of lemon sole, (11) 187. 

of plaice, (11) 175 ; (15) 375. 

in relation to maturity, (8) 

168. 

of thornback ray, (11) 191. 

of turbot, (II) 189. 

Migratory movements of sea-fishes, (8) 

14, 353. 
Miliolina agglutinans, (7) 313; (8) 313; 

(9) 288 ; (15) 165. 

auberlana, (16) 274. 

bicornis, (7) 313 ; (16) 274. 

contort a, (15) 165. 

ferussacii, (7)313; (15) 165. 

fusca, (8) 313; (16) 274. 

Uibiosa, (16) 274. 

oblonga, (7) 312 ; (16) 274. 

secans, (7) 312 ; (15) 165. 

semimaum, (7) 312 ; (15) 165 ; (20) 

497, 510, 527. 

subrotunda, (9) 288 ; (15) 165. 

tricarinata, (8) 313 ; (15) 165. 

trigomda, (7) 312; (8) 313; (15) 

165. 

venusta, (16) 274. 

Miliolites ringens, (7) 312. 



222 



Fart III. — Tivenfy-third Annual Report 



Mill, Dr H. R., (5) 349; (6) 309, 313, 

349; (7) 409; (9) 18, 353; (10)330; 

(11)8, 20, 395 ; (12) 336 ; (15) 262. 
Miller, Mr Donald, (8) 23, 257 ; (9) 21. 
Milliken, Mr i\., (9) 177 ; (10) 202. 
Milroy, Trofessor T. H., (16) 135. 
Minnow.s, food of, (17) 174. 
Misophria pallida, (12) 237 ; (15) 148 ; 

(17)253. 
Mitchell, Professor J. C, (13) 347. 
Mohianus gyrans, (19) 237. 
Miibius, Dr, (4) 102. 
Modiola modiolus, (15) 124. 
Modiotarki discors, (15) 125 ; (20) 510. 

marmorata, (15) 124. 

Modiolicola insignes, (12) 259. 
Molleria costulafa, (15) 121. 
Mollusca as food of cod, (4) 136, 146. 

as food of haddocks, (4) 130. 

as herring-food, (4) 127. 

of Loch Fyne, (15) 114. 

of lochs and inland waters. See 

Fauna, invertebrate. 

of plankton, (16) 155. 

Molluscs as bait, (6) 273. 

development of, (8) 15. 

eggs of, (4) 217. 

Molua molva. See Ling. 
Molva indgaris. See Ling. 
Monaco, H.H. Prince of, 

vestigations of, (7) 384, 

373 ; (11) 21, 487 ; (13) 16, 153. 
Monima fimbriata, (19) 125. 
Monk. 'See Angler. 
Monochirus hispidus, (18) 359. 
Monoculodes affinis, (8) 326. 
carinatd, (8) 326 ; (15) 139 

491. 

longimanus, (6) 246 ; (8) 326. 

packardi, (15) 139 ; (17) 265. 

stimpsoni, (8) 326. 

ticbe7xulatus, (15) 169. 

Monocidus ophthalmmis, (8) 342 ; (11) 

230 

pedicuhis, (9) 295 ; (11) 234. 

pulex, (9) 290. 

qiiadricornis, (11) 223. 

reticxdatus, (9) 289. 

villom, (8) 343. 

Monolene, (18) 357. 

MoHocpilus dispar, (9) 295 ; (13) 245 ; 

(17) 140, 141, 155, 156, 164. 
tennirostris, (9) 272, 273, 295, 296 ; 

(17) 185, 201. 
Monrich Bank, (9) 181. 
MonMrilla anglica, (22) 242, 246. 
dana, (15) 153 ; (17) 261 ; (18) 398 ; 

(22) 246. 

dubia, (22) 242, 247. 

gracilicauda, (22) 242, 245. 

grandis, (22) 242, 243. 

helgolandica, (16) 190. 

loncjicornis, (22) 242, 244. 

longiremis, (20) 449, 469 ; (22) 244. 

rigida, (9) 304 ; (16) 190 ; (22) 248. 

sp., (16) 20. 

Montacuta Udentata, (15) 125 ; (20) 496, 

497, 503. 

ferruginosa, (20) 527. 

substriata, (15) 125 ; (20) 317. 



scientific in- 
395 ; (8) 359, 



(20) 



Montacuta, lumidula, (15) 126. 

Montagua alderi, (7) 319. 

didnn, (10) 262. 

marina, (7) 319. 

Montagni monoculoidM, (6) 246. 

pollexiana, (6) 246. 

Montagu's sucker. See Sucker. 

Montenegro as a market for Scottish- 
cured herrings, (7) 163. 

Montrose, larval fishes at, (8) 287 : (H) 
254; (12)300 ; (14)225. 

pelagic eggs of fishes at, (8) 287 ; ( 1 1 ) 

254; (12)300; (14)225. 

post-larval fishes of, (8) 287; (11) 

254; (12) 300; (14)225. 

young fishes at, (8) 287 ; (9) 341 ; 

(10) 304 ; (11) 254 ; (12) 300 ; (14) 225. 
Moraria anderson-sviithi, (11)228; (14) 

168, 239 ; (15) 302, 318, 330, 332 ; (16) 

250, 252; (17) 140, 145, 183, &c. 
brevipes, (15) 320, 325 ; (17) 155, 159, 

161, 173, 189. 

poppei, (15) 319, 320, 325. 

Moray Firth, fishing grounds in, (9) 

182. 

closure of, (11) 9, 23 ; (12) 14. 

Crustacea of, (17) 248. 

direction of currents in, (15) 343. 

echinoderms of, (20) 304. 

fishing by foreign trawlers in closed 

waters of, (20) 19. 
importance of investigations in, (14) 

18, 25. 
invertebrate fauna in trawl-net, (15) 

81. 
larval fishes of, (8) 287; (9)340; (11) 

254; (13) 268, 270; (14) 224; (15) 

255. 

migrations of gurnards in, (17) 215. 

pelagic eggs of fishes in, (8) 287 ; (9) 

.340; (11) 254; (12) 300; (13) 268, 270; 

(14) 224; (15) 255. 

pelagic fauna of, (5) 67. 

__ physical and chemical examination 

of water, (6) 313, 318, 336. 
__ physical observations in, in 1896, 

(15) 91. 

post-larval fishes in, (8) 287 ; (9) 340; 

(11) 254 ; (13) 268, 370 ; (14) 224 ; (15) 
257. 

statistics showing the quantities ot 

fish caught by line fishermen in, (14) 
23. , . 

temporary opening of, to trawlers in 

1896, (20) 126. 

trawling experiments in, (12) 27 ; 

(13) 12; (14) 11, 20; (15) 18; (16) 18; 
(17) 18; (19)18; (20)18; (22)19; (23) 
13, 14,26. 

trawling stations, description of, (19) 

18 
"young fishes of, (8) 287 ; (9) 340 ; (10) 

304 ; (11) 254 ; (13) 268, 270 ; (14) 224; 

(15) 255. ^ , 

Morocco, fisheries on Atlantic coasts ot, 

(9) 421. 
Mortimore, Mr Thomas, (12) 21. 
Motella cimbria. See Rockling, four- 

mustela. See. Rockling, five-bearded. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



223 



Motella, tricirrata. See Rockling. three- 
bearded. 

Mitgil chelo. See Mullet, lesser grey. 

capita. See Mullet, gi'ey. 

Muller's topknot. See Topknot, MuUer's. 

Mullet, grey (Mugil capito), (18) 281. 

food of, (20) 486, 504. 

lesser grey {Mugil chela), (6) 276. 

food of, (21) 221. 

parasites of, (19) 123. 

red {Mulhis harhatm), (18) 274. 

occurrence of, at Aberdeen, (20) 

540. 

• — spawning period of, (4) 244. 

thick-lipped grey. See Mullet, 

lesser gre}'. 

Mull MS hnrbatus. See Mullet, red. 

surmuletus. See Mullet, red. 

Multiple tumours in plaice and flounders, 

(3) 66. 

Munida hamffica, (6) 259. 

rondeletii, (6) 259. 

rugosa, (6) 259; (15) 131; (J 7) 

266. 

eggs of, (22) 116. 

Mimna hoecki, (17) 266. 

kroyeri, (6) 252 ; (17) 266. 

Murray, Dr George, (15) 212. 

Mr J., (6) 223. 

Sir John, (8) 23, 257 ; (9) 177, 178, 

244 ; (10) 23 ; (11) 24 ; (17) 114, 236. 
Muscles, arrangement of, in teleosteans, 

(4) 167. 

colour of, (4) 167. 

of fishes, red and pale, (4) 166. 

— of fish, fat in, (5) 226. 

histology of, (4) 169. 

Mussel bait, (8) 16. 

common {Mytilm edulis), (7) 328, 

387, 356, 349 ; (15) 124. 

age at maturity of, (4) 221. 

artificial fertilisation of eees of, 

(5) 250. 

cultivation of, (4) 222. 

development of, (4) 218 ; (5) 

247. 
development of eggs of, (5) 

249. 
development of genital glands 

of, (5) 248. 

eggs of, (5) 249, 250. 

embryos of, (5) 253. 

growth of, (4) 222. 

habits of, in early stages, (5) 

255. 

• — reproduction of, (3) 56 ; (4) 219. 

sperms of, (5) 250. 

culture, (12) 387. 

at Montrose, history of, (13) 

137. 

in Northumberland, (9) 394. 

farming at Montrose, (7) H, 327. 

at Montrose, common bed, (7) 

335. 
at Montro.se, description of the 

mussel-beds, (7) 331. 
beds at Montrose, fauna of the 

beds, (7) 336, 337. 
at Montrose, Ferryden and 

Usan Society's beds, (7) 331. 



Mussel-beds at Montrose, Messrs John- 
ston and Son's beds, (7) 333. 
at Montrose, method of cultiva- 
tion, (7) 320. 

fisheries in Holland, (9) 415. 

Mussels, (6) 21, 22; (10) 16. 

decline in, (9) 17. 

experiments on the preservation of, 

for bait, (5) 358. 

poisoning by, enquiry on, (7) 393. 

sale and consumption of, in France, 

(7) 392. 
Mya arenaria, (7) 341 ; (9) 287, 288 ; (15) 

128 ; (20) 527. 

truncata, (15) 128. 

Myology of pectoral arch in gurnard, (12) 

325. 
Mysida?, distribution of, in Firth of Forth, 

(16) 163. 
Alysidion ahyssornm. 

caminune. 

Mysidapais angusta, (4) 158 ; (7) 323 ; (9) 

308 ; (15) 133 ; (16) 158, 162, 209 ; (17) 

268; (18)403; (20)480. 
didelphyA, (7) 322; (15) 133; (16) 

158, 161, 209 ; (17) 268 ; (19) 276. 
gibhosa, (4) 158 ; (6) 254 ; (15) 133 ; 

(16) 158. 161, 209; (17) 268; (18) 

403. 

hispida, (7) 323. 

Mysis arenosa, (4) 159. 

auraufia, (4) 161 ; (6) 255. 

chamadean, (6) 254. 

carniUa, (4) 159. 

didelphys, (7) 322. 

erythrajjhthcilma, (7) 322. 

flexuosa, (6) 254. 

gracilis, (7) 323. 

gritfithsicf, (4) 162. 

inermis, (4) 159 ; (6) 255. 

lamonue, (4) 159 ; (6) 255. 

ornata, (6) 255 ; (7) 324. 

rostratus, (4) 162. 

spiritiis, (6) 255. 

truncatula, (4) 159. 

vulgaris, (6) 255 ; (9) 285 ; (13) 244. 

Mysis stage of lobster, (23) 69. 
Mytihis edulis. See Mussel, common. 
modiolus, (4) 218 ; (7) 347, 352, 356: 

(11) 208. 
Myxine glutinosa. See Hagfish. 

N 

Names of fishes, common and scientific, 
(7) 36. 

Nannastacus imguicidatus, (15) 135; (18) 
403 ; (19) 276 ; (20) 480. 

Nannopus palustris, (12) 253; (18)394; 
(20)466; (21) 124. 

Naples, zoological station at, (6) 308. 

Nassa incrassata, (6) 231 ; (15) 118. 

pygm.o'a, (15) 118. 

reticidata, (15) 118. 

Natica alderi, (20) 496, 497, 503. 

grcmlandica, (19) 236. 

National Sea Fisheries Protection As- 
sociation, (8) 360. 

Natural history of the herring, (17) 274. 

Nature of "red" cod, (6) 10, 203, 207. 



224 



Part III. — TwenUj-third Annual Report 



Nautilus ammonoidea, (8) 317. 

calcar, (7) 314. 

crepidula, (7) 314. 

crisp^is, (7) 315. 

inflata, (8) 315. 

linearis, (7) 314. 

Navicula fusiformis, (15) 300. 

ga><tru7n, (9) 274. 

gibha, (9) 274. 

limosn, (9) 274. 

membranacea , (15) 214. 

mesolepta, (9) 274. 

pnsilla, (9) 274. 

radiosa, (9) 274. 

reinhardti, (9) 274. 

smithii, (9) 274. 

viridula, (9) 274. 

Nebalia bipes, (15) 141. 
Nematocelis iimjalops, (10)^267. 

Nematode parasite, (15) 172. 

Nematops, (18) 361. 

Nematopus elegans, (4) 158. 

goesii, (7) 322. 

pygmcea, (4) 158. 

serratus, (8) 330. 

Nemertea, (15) 160. 

Nemertidce, (12) 265. ,„,. „^ 

Neobradya pectinifer, (10) 249 ; (21) 117. 

Neomenia earinata, {\5) \5^. 

Neomvsi>< ndgaris, (13) 188; (lo) 1.^^; 
a6) 158, 163, 209 ; (18) 403 ; (20) 532 

Neopontius angidaris, (16) 271 ; (17) -b.4. 

NepheUs octoculata, (9) 273 ; (1^) 318. 

Nephrons norvegirus, (6) 2d9 ; (7) 35b ; 
(16)198; (20) .507, 516 ; (21)225. 

blood of, (4) 171. . 

mode of attachment of eggs in, (22) 

118. 

Nephthys ciliata, (15) 160. 

hombergi, (15) 159. 

Neptunae antiqim. 

Nereicola concimia, (20) 449, 455. 

Nereis dumerilii, (15) 159. 

pelagica, (15) 159. 

swarms of sexual form, (12) 18/. 

Neritina fluvialilis, (9) 288. 
Nerophis aquoreus. See Pipe-tish, 
straight-nosed. 

lumbriciformis. See Pipe-hsh, worm. 

Nest of ballan wrasse, (5) 245. 
Net Petersen's, for the capture of young 
fishes, (20) 329. 

small-meshed, for coUectmg small 

fishes (20) .327. 
Nets, experiments with small-meshed, 
(21)40. , , , 

for the capture of post-larval and 

young fishes, (20) 328. c, . ■ u 

Netherlands as a market for hcottish- 

cured herrings, (7) 165. 
Newfoundland, administration of fish- 
eries in, (8) 365. 

fishery work in, (8) 365 ; (9) 398 ; 

(10)336; (11)495; (13)337. 

hatching of cod in, (8) 365. 

hatching of lobsters in, (8) 365. 

physical observations at banks of, 

(9) 420. 
New South Wales, fisheries of, (9) 399 ; 

(10) 341 ; (12) 393. 



New South Wales, fishery administration 

in. (9) 398. ^^ „^, 

New Zealand, fisheries of, (9) 400 ; (13) 

introduction of European hshes to, 

(9) 401. 
mcothoe astaci, (19) 254 ; (23) 149. 
Nielsen, Mr A., (8) 359; (10)336; (11 

21, 487, 496; (13) 16, 335. 
Nika ednlis, (9) 309 ; (15) 132, 168 ; (20) 

491, 523, 524, 535, 537. 
Nitzschia dosterium, (15) 300. 

fraudulenta, (15) 300. 

lineola, (15) 300. 

migrans, (15) 300. 

seriata, (15) 298_, 300. 

sigmoidea, (9) 274. 

thermalis, (9) 274. 

Nodosaria communis, (15) 166. 

ohliqua, (16) 277.^ 

pauperata, (16)277. 

peri'ersa, (16) 277. 

pyrula, (7) 314; (16) 276. 

scalaris, (15) 166. 

Nonionina asterizans, (15) 167. 

depressula, (9) 288 ; (15) 167. 

elegans, (8) 317. 

orbicularis, (16) 277. 

scapha, (16) 277. 

Normal Company, factory of, (4) 257. 
Norman, Canon A. M., (4) 155, 231 ; (10) 

244. 
Normanella attenuata, (20) 449, 464. 

dubia, (12) 250 ; (15) 151. 

Normanion quadrimanus, (17) 264 ; (19) 

•■258. . ^ 

North-Eastern Sea Fisheries Committee, 

(13) 10. 

North Sea, absence of algffi on large areas 
of bottom of, :9) 406. 

cause of the movement of the sur- 
face currents in, (15) 356. 

currents in, (12) 351. 

currents of, in relation to fisheries, 

(15)11,334. 

direction and rate of currents, (io) 

338 
division into areas for statistical 

purposes, (20) 87. 
_ - effect of tides on surface currents 

in, (15) 360. 

investigations, (20) 73. 

movement of Atlantic water into, 

(15) 339. 

over-fishing in, (10) 170. 

. physics and chemistry of, (7) 13. 

prevailing winds in, (15) 360. 

rate and depth of surface current 

in, (15)364. ^ . ^ 
relation of surface currents in, to 

fisheries, (15)367. ^ . ,_^ 
reversal of surface current in, (15) 

361. , , f 
seasonal variations of currents of, 

(15)335. . . . ,,,, 
special fishery statistics of, (^i) 

37. 

surface currents of, (18) 370. 

Northumberland Sea Fisheries Com- 
mittee, (13) 10. 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



225 



Norway and Sweden as a market for 

Scottish-cured hei'rings, (7) 166. 
Norway, artificial fertilisation of ova in, 

(7) 403. 
Association for the Promotion of 

Norwegian Fisheries, (9) 304. 

bullhead. See Bullhead, Norway. 

fish-culture in, (5) 234 ; (13) 339. 

fisheries of, (6) 304 ; (7) 402 ; (9) 

fish-hatching in, (7) 403 ; (17) 208. 

409 ; (10) 346 ; (11) 496 ; (12) 398 ; (13) 

341. 

haddock. See Haddock, Noi'way. 

hatching of cod in, (6) 305 ; (8) 374; 

(9) 409. 

hatching of flat fish in, (7) 405. 

hatching of lobsters in, (7) 405. 

lobster. Set Nephrops noriKgicns. 

pout. See Pout, Norway. 

rearing of cod in, (7) 404. 

scientific fishery work in, (6) 304. 

Norwegian topknot, ^'ee Topknot, Nor- 
wegian. 
Notes and memoranda, (8) 351. 
Nothrin tuhicola, (15) 159. 
Xo/o(]elphys agilis, (6) 238 ; (7) 326 ; (15) 

148. 

aUmanni, (6) 238 ; (15) 148. 

prasina, (15) 148 ; (18) 38d. 

Notodromas monacha, (9) 276, 282. 
Notodelphys cceridea, (7) 326. 
Notopterophoms papilio, (15) 148. 
Notosema, (18) 356. 
Nucula nitida, (15) 125. 

nudtus, (15) 125. 

sulcata, (15) 125. 

tennis, (15) 125 ; (20) 503. 

Nudibranchiata, (8) 331 ; (15) 116, 
Numerical variations of fish at different 

seasons, (6) 36. 
NummulinidK, (7) 311 ; (8) 317 ; (15) 167. 
Nurse hound. See Dog-fish, larger 

spotted. 
Nutritive value of fresh fish, (5) 221. 
value of pale and dark muscles of 

fish, (5) 225. 
Nyctiphanes, (6) 226, 227, 229, 262 ; (10) 

267 ; (20) 494. 
norvegica, (4) 157 ; (6) 254, 255 ; (7) 

324 ; (8) 330 ; (15) 132 ; (17) 113, 268 ; 

(20) 510. 
as herring-food, (4) 123. 



O 



Observations made at trawling stations 
(14) 133. 

• on the life-histories and develop- 
ment of the food and other fishes, (9) 
14, 317. 

Oc/oboihrium alosw, (19) 145. 

esmarkii, (19) 147. 

harengi, (19) 145. 

lanceolatum, (19) 145. 

merlangi, (13) 172; (19) 146. 

palmatum, (19) 149. 

Hcomhri, (19) 146. 

Octocotyle harengi, (19) 145. 

Acomhri, (19) 146. 



Octocotyle truncata, (19) 146. 
Octodactylus inhcerens, (19) 149. 
Octopus indgaris, (15) 114 ; (20) 534. 
Octostoma merlangi, (19) 146. 

scombri, (19) 146. 

Odostomia acuta, (15) 121. 
— — con»picua, (15) 121. 

pallula, (15) 121. 

ur/ihilicaris, (15) 121. 

unidentata, (15) 121. 

(Ediceros norregicus, (7) 320. 

parvimanus, (10) 263. 

Offshore fishing grounds, investigations 

of, (9) 21, 388. 

waters, spawning of fish in, (7) 183. 

work, importance of, (14) 8. 

Oidium morrhiuc, (6) 205. 

Oikopleura cophocerca, (6) 279 ; (15) 114. 

flabeUum, (15) 114. 

Oil-globules, formation of, in eggs of 

fishes, (16) 97. 
Oithona setiger, (9) 301 ; (20) 454. 
simMis, (15) 148, 305, 306, 307, 308, 

309, 310, 311, 315; (16) 177, 190, 

210. 
spinifron^, (4) 150 ; (6) 238 ; (20) 

504. 

spinirostris, (6) 238 ; (9) 301. 

Old-wife. See Cantharus lineatus. 
Olsen, Mr 0. T., (8) 359 ; (9) 177, 389. 
Ommastrephes, sp. , (3) 67. 

todarus, (6) 264. 

Onchocotyle appendiculata, (19) 149. 
Oncidium celticum, (15) 117. 
Oncopterin*, (18) 360. 
One-spotted topknot. See Topknot, one- 
spotted. 
Oniscus arenarius, (10) 364. 
Onoba striata, (15) 120. 
Onos. See Rockling. 
Opah. See King-fish. 
Opcrculina ammoiioides, (8) 317 ; (15) 

167. 

incerta, (7) 314, 

Opercular bones of fishes, lines of growth 

in, (23) 129. 
Ophiactis ballii, (15) 163 ; (20) 312, 319. 
Ophiocampttis brevipes, (13) 249. 

sarsi, (13) 188, 244, 249. 

Ophiocoma minuta, (15) 163. 

nigra, (15) 162 ; (20) 312, 319, 324, 

punctata, (20) 314. 

Ophioglypha albida, (6) 230. 
Ophiopholis aculeata, (6) 230, (15) 162 ; 

(20) 312, 319, 324. 
Ophiothrix fragilis, (15) 162; (20) 313, 

319, 324, 

pentaphylhim, (6) 230. 

Ophiura affinis, (15) 161. 

albida, (15) 161 ; (20) 314, 319, 324, 

327, 
ciliaris, (15) 161 ; (20)313, 314, 319, 

324. 

robusta, (20) 314, 319, 324, 

Oralien asellinus, (18) 163. 

Orbicidina xmiversa, (20) 510. 

Orl)is foliacea, (7) 311. 

Orbulina universa, (7) 315 ; (15) 167, 

Orchestia gammareilus, (6) 246. 

litforea, (6) 246 ; (15) 137 ; (17) 264, 



226 



Pa7't III. — T went;/ -third Anmcal Report 



Orchestia mediterranea, (17) 264. 
Orchomene hatei, (12) 262; (15) 137. 

' humilis, (19) 258. 

serrafa, (6) 246 ; (7) 327. 

Orchomenella mimda, (15) 137. 

nana, (20) 516. 

Orcymis thynnus. See Tunny, short- 
finned. 
Organisms present in "red" cod, (6) 

204, 207. 
Orkney, fishing grounds off, (9) 182. 

larval fishes of, (13) 269. 

pelagic eggs of fishes at, (13) 269. 

Orfhagoriscus mola. See Sun-fish. 
O.wierus eperlanus. See Smelt. 
Osseous fishes, development of ovary 

and oviduct of, (6) 281. 
significance of the yolk in the 

eggs of, (6) 280. 
Ostracoda as herring-food, (4) 126. 
of lochs and inland waters. See 

Fauna, invertebrate. 
Ostrea eclulis, (15) 123. 
Otoliths of cod, lines of growth in, (23) 

128. 
of fishes, lines of growth in, (23) 

126, 128. 
of herring, lines of growth in, (23) 

127. 
of plaice, lines of growth in, (23) 

128. 
Otter-trawl, efiBciencyof, compared with 

beam-trawl, (20) 118 ; (21) .30. 
escape of small fishes from, (20) 

327. 

extent of bottom swept by, (20) 122. 

influence of introduction of, (20) 

84. 

introduction of, (20) 118. 

relative proportion of flat fishes and 

round fishes caught by, (20) 123. 
statistics of catches with, compared 

with beam-trawl, (20) 123. 
width and height of mouth of, when 

fishing, (20) 121. 
Ova. See Eggs. 

Ovarian eggs of teleostean fishes, matura- 
tion of, (16) 88. 
fluid, nature and composition of, in 

teleosteans, (16) 149. 

specific gravity of, (16) 138. 

Ovaries of teleostean fishes, (16) 92. 

of teleostean fishes, fluid of, (16) 93. 

Ovary and oviduct in osseous fishes, 

development of, (6) 281. 
Over-fishing and its remedies, (11) 12. 

how to deal with it, (10) 188. 

of the sea and sea-fish culture, (10) 

5, 171. 
Oxyethira, sp., (14) 243. 
Oyster-beds of Firth of Forth, (14) 13, 

244 ; (15) 14. 
of Forth, cause of exhaustion of, 

(14) 262. 
comparison of, with productive 

beds, (14) 273. 

condition of, (14) 265. 

investigation of, (14) 265. 

remedial measures proposed, 

(14) 275. 



Oyster-beds, statistics regarding, (14) 
261, 262. 

temperature and salinity of 

water on, (14) 271. 

Oyster-culture, (12) 387. 

in France and Holland, (8) 220. 

in Holland, (9) 415. 

in United States, (9) 402. 

in Zealand, investigation of, (6) 

306. 

suitability of Scottish waters for, 

(9) 184. 

Oyster fishery, decline of Irish, (6) 300. 

in Canada, (9) .397. 

— in Denmai'k, (7) 406. 

in New South Wales, (9) 399. 

in New Zealand, (9) 4(X). 

research on worm disease in Austra- 
lian, (9) 400. 

Oysters, (8) 17. 

exported from Holland, (13) 341. 



Pachydesma crassatelloides, (7) 341. 
Pagellus centrodontus. See Bream, com- 
mon sea-. 
Payrus auratus, spawning period of, (4) 

244. 
Pagurus bemhardus, (6) 230, 236, 258 ; 

(11)202, 206. 

forhesii, (6)258. 

hi/iidmami.i, (6) 258. 

I'rris, (6) 258. 

thomsoni, (6) 258. 

7didianus, (6) 258. 

Pala'mon sqiiilla, (6) 261. 
Palinimis, spawning period of, (6) 299. 
— — vidgans, (7) 385 ; (15) 131. 
Palmipes memhrayiacea , (8) 332. 

-placmfa, (20) 309, 319, 324. 

Pandalina hrevirostris, (19) 279 ; (20) 

501, 516. 
Pandalus, spawning period of, (6) 299. 

annidicornw, (6) 261. 

hrevirostris, (6) 261 ; (15) 132 ; (16) 

156, 157, 209. 

marginata, (18) 403. 

montagui, (15) 132 ; (16) 156, 157, 

209 ; (17) 266 ; (18) 403 ; (20) 480, 489, 

491, 500, &c. 
Pandarus hicolor, (18) 157. 
Panthalis cerstedi, (16) 273. 
Paracalanus hibernicus, (9) 300 ; (15) 

147; (17)271. 
parvus, (12) 235 ; (15) 307, 308, 310. 

311, 312; (17)248; (18)383. 
Paracypris politn, (15) 142. 
Paradoxostoma ahhreviatmn, (6) 245. 

affine, (8) 325 ; (15) 145. 

drmatum, (8) 324, ,325. 

ensiforme, (6) 245 ; (16) 264. 

fischeri, (8) 324. 

flexuosmn, (6) 245 ; (15) 145. 

hibernicum, (8) 324. 

hodgei, (8) .325 ; (15) 14,5. 

obliquum, (5) 328; (8) 324; (16) 

264. 

no7^na7ii, (16) 264. 

prdchelhim, (15) 145. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



227 



Paradoxotstoma saniiense, (S) 324. 

variahile, (8) 324; (15) 145; (20) 

492, 511. 
Parajassa lidagica, (19) 265, 271 ; (20) 

507, 519. 
Paralkkthys, (18) 352, 356. 

maculosus, (18) 356. 

Paramesochra duhia, (10) 252. 
Paramisophria cluthce, (15) 147 ; (18) 

385 ; (19) 239. 
Paramphithoe assimilis. (12) 264. 

bicuspis, (6) 246. 

fuckola, (6) 247. 

monocuspis, (12)264; (19)262; (20) 

491 501 510 527. 
Paramund hilobata, (16) 262 ; (17) 266 ; 

(19)236,272; (20)510. 
Paraiithessius dubius, (21) 1.30. 
Parapontellahrei-icornis, (4) 149 ; (6) 238 ; 

(15) 147 ; (16) 177, 189, 210 ; (17) 252 ; 

(21) 113. 
Parartotroqus richardi, (11) 210, 211 ; 

.(18)401.' 
Parasites, crustacean, of fishes, (18) 144 ; 

(19) 120; (20)288. 
of fishes, (19) 120 ; (20) 288 ; (22) 

275 ; (23) 108. 

of allis shad, (19) 145. 

of angel-fish, (20) 295 ; (22) 277. 

of angler, (18) 167, 181 ; (19) 138. 

of armed bullhead, (18) 162; (19) 

141. 
of ballan wrasse, (19) 139; (23) 109, 

116. 

of bass, (23) 109, 117. 

of bib, (19) 141 ; (22) 277, 278 : (23) 

108, 113. 
— of black goby, (19) 138. 

of brill, (l8) 154; (19) 141. 

of Ccdanus finmarchicus, (15) 172. 

of cat-fish, "(18) 176 ; (19) 140. 

of coal-fish, (18) 180, 

of cod, (18) 180, 181 ; (19) 121, 149 ; 

(23) 108. 

of common dab, (18) 150, 167. 

of common trout, (19) 132. 

of conger, (18) 160, 180 ; (19) 127. 

copepod, of fishes, (18) 145, 179; 

(19) 121. 

of Crustacea, (22) 250, 254. 

of cuckoo ray, (18) 170 ; (19) 130. 

of fifteenspined stickleback, (18) 

141. 
of flounder, (18) 150 ; (19) 121 ; (23) 

108. 
cf four-bearded rockling, (19) 122; 

(20) 289. 

of Fuller's rav, (18) 174. 

of grayling, (l8) 179. 

of grey gurnard, (19) 147 ; (23) 115, 

116. 
of grey skate, (18) 156, 164, 170, 

171, 180; (19) 130, 151. 

of gunnel, (20) 298. 

of gurnards, (18) 150, 163, 169, 180; 

(91) 1.32, 1.34; (23) 115, 116. 
of haddock, (18) 177 ; (19) 121, 135 ; 

(23) 108. 
of hake, (18) 166, 175, 178; (19) 

135, 148. 



Parasites of halibut, (18) 151, 159, 174; 

(19) 126, 140, 142. 
of herring, (19) 145. 

— — of homelyn ray, (19) 130. 

of Jago's goidsinny (Ctenolabruti), 

(20) 292. 

of John Dory, (18) 167. 

of king-fish, (19) 136. 

of lemon dab, (18) 165, 180. 

of lesser grey mullet, (19) 123. 

of ling, (i9) 122, 149 ; (20)288 ; (23) 

108. 

of lobster, (19) 255. 

of long rough dab, (18) 166. 

oflumpsucker, (19) 121, 128, 129; 

(23) 108. 

of mackerel, (19) 124, 135, 146. 

of MuUer's topknot, (20) 290. 

of Norwaj' pout, (19) 147. 

of picked dog-fish, (20) 297. 

of pike, (19) 139. 

of plaice, (18) 150, 163, 164; (19) 

121 ; (23) 108. 
of pollack, (18) 153 ; (19) 121, 150 ; 

(20) 291 ; (23) 108. 
of porbeagle sliark, (18) 156, 171; 

(19) 125, 132 ; (20) 292 ; (23) 112. 

of red gurnard, (16) 143. 

of Sagifta, (14) 15, 165. 

of salmon, (18) 152, 172. 

of sapphiriue gurnard, (19) 143; (20) 

299. 

of sea-scorpion, (19) 138, 139. 

short sun-fish, (18) 151, 157, 159; 

(19) 126, 144. 

of skates, (19) 141. 

of sole, (18) 146, 165 ; (19) 121, 139, 

142 ; (23) 108. 
of speckled goby, (18) 162; (19) 

128. 
of spotted dragonet, (18) 162, 168; 

(19) 129; (20) 298. 

of sprat, (18) 161 ; (19) 127. 

of starry ray, (20) 295, 299. 

of sting-ray, (22) 275, 276, 278, 279. 

of streaked gurnard, (19) 133, 143. 

of striped wrasse, (19) 127 ; (20) 291, 

293. 

■ of sturgeon, (23) 110. 

of thrasher shark, (19) 125. 

of three-bearded rockling, (20) 289, 

291 ; (23) 110. 
of three-spined stickleback, (18) 

147, 179 ; (19) 122. 
of thornback ray, (18) 156. 171 ; 

(19) 130, 151 ; (20) 299, 300. 

of tope, (18) 157, 172. 

of torsk, (18) 180. 

of turbot, (18) 152, 165 ; (19) 137, 

143. 

of twaite shad, (18) 176 ; (19) 145. 

of whiting, (18) 178; (19) 121, 146, 

149 ; (23) 108. 

of MuUer's topknot, (19) 122. 

on young flat fishes, (16) 242. 

Parasitic copepods, (20) 288. 

larval actinite on hydromedusae, (6) 

281. 
skin disease in Montagu's sucker, 

(11) 39.3. 



228 



Part III. — Tweniy-tJdrd Annual Report 



Parasitic worms on fish, (19) 137. 
Paj-astepho.s paUidU'S, (21) 111. 
Paratachidiu>< (jracUis, (6) 239. 
Paratanais hatei, (19) 269. 

forcipaULs, (6) 251. 

ParathuUdtris c/ausii, (9) 303. 
Parathemisto, distribution of, in Firth of 

Forth, (16) 173. 

compresna, (10) 265. 

gracilipes, (10) 265; (15) 305, 306, 

309, 310, 311, 315. 
ohlivia, (6) 227, 228, 250, 251 ; (10) 

265 ; (16) 170, 171, 173, 179, 210 ; (18) 

401 ; (20) 513, 516, 533. 
Paratylm falcatus, (14) 160; (20) 527; 

(22) 243, 257. 
swammerdami, (15)140; (16) 170, 

210 ; (19) 271 : (20) 492, 510, 516, 519. 

uncinatus, (14) 160 ; (19) 262. 

vedlomtnsis, (15) 140. 

Pardachirus pavoninug, (18) 359. 
Pariamhus typicus, (15) 141 ; (16) 170, 

177, 210 ; (20) 527, 529. 
Park Loch, Can tyre, invertebrate fauna 

of, (16)250. 
Parophrys corniita, (18) 353. 
Partheiiia interstincta, )15) 121. 

mfescens, (15) 121. 

spiralis, (15) 121. 

Padpho'a sivado, (15) 132, 162 ; (20) 480. 
Patella vulgafa, (15) 122. 

as bait, (7) 352, 356. 

PateUina corrugata, (8) 317 ; (15) 167. 
Pathology of fishes, notes on, (12) 291. 
Paton, Dr Noel, (12) 297. 
Peachia hastata, (4) 216 ; (6) 279. 
Pearcey, Mr F. G., (17) 248 ; (20) 17, 304. 
Pearl-sides, British (Maw-olicus pen- 

nantii), luminous organs of, (6) 281. 
Pecten maximus, (15) 123. 

opercularis, (15) 124. 

as bait, (7) 352, 356. 

See Clam. 

pes-httrce, (15) 124. 

pusis, (15) 124. 

similis, (6) 231 ; (15) 124. 

striatus, (15) 124. 

tlgrinum. (6) 231 ; (15) 124. 

varms, (15) 123 ; (20) 496, 497. 

Pectenaria belgica, (15) 158. 

tomopteris, (20) 529. 

Pectoral girdle of fishes, lines of growth 

in, (23) 131. 
Pediastrum selenaa, (9) 282. 
Pediculus aalmonis, (18) 173. 
Pelagic eggs of fishes. See Eggs, pelagic. 
and larvaj found far from 

shore, (9) 392. 
as guide to spawning seasons, 

(15) 220. 

devoiired by Crustacea, (9) 395. 

distribution of, (13) 258 ; (15) 

13, 219. 
larval, and young food fishes 

collected by the "Garland," (8) 283; 

(9) 334 ; (11) 254 ; (12) 298 ; (13) 258. 
occurrence of, as guide to 

spawning areas, (15) 219. 
preservative solutions for, (11) 

253. 



Pelagic eggs, report on, (11) 18, 250. 

• unknown forms of, (9) 320-321. 

fauna of St. Andrews Bay, (6) 274 ; 

(7) 10, 259; (8)270; (11) 17, 284. 
— in relation to the food of fishes, 

(6) 281. 
Pelamys sarda. See Bonito, belted. 
Pelonaia corrugata, (8) 332. 
Pelodna variabilis, (16) 274. 
Peltidium depressum, (4) 153; (6) 241. 

interruptum, (4) 153 ; (6) 241. 

2mrpureum,(o)32S; (15) 152; (19)250. 

Peltogaster carcini, (6) 236. 

piaguri, (6) 236 ; (15) 156. 

Peltorhamptis, (18) 360. 
Periella fibrosa, (23) 113. 

jfilosa, (23) 11.3. 

• orthagoriscus, (23) 113. 

Pennatulajilosa, (23) 113. 

Pennell, Mr Cholmondeley, enquiry on 

Forth oyster-beds by, (14) 258. 
Pe.racuntha triincata, (9) 276, 277, 294 ; 

(11) 234 ; (13) 245, 250 ; (14) 168 ; (15) 

321 ; (17) 141, 145, 150, 155, 173, 185. 
Perch {Perca flnviatilis), spawning period 

of, (4) 244. 
Peridiniece, (15) 213. 
Peridinium, injurious effects of shoals of, 

on fish, (9) 400. 

divergens, (15) 298, 302. 

labulatum, (9) 280. 

Perioculodes longimanus, (15) 139 ; (16) 

170, 177, 210 ; (20) 491, 503, 516, 523. 
Perissias, (18) 357. 
Perrierella audouirviana, (15) 137; (19) 

258. 
Petalomera declivis, (11) 215. 
Pefalosarsia dedii-is, (16) 167, 209 ; (19) 

236. 274 ; (20) 510 
Petersen, Dr C. G. Joh., (7) 384 ; (8) 21 ; 

(9) 20, 389, 412; (10) 348; (11) 21, 

487, 500 ; (12) 302, 400 ; (13) 16, 340 ; 

(16)226; (17)239. 

on growth of plaice, (17) 239. 

Petersen's net for the capture of young 

fishes, (20) 329. 
Petromyzon fi^iviatilis. See Lampern. 

marinus. See Sea-lamprev. 

Pettersson, Professor Otto, (11) 8; (12) 

236 ; (13) 339 ; (18) 374. 
Phvnna zettandica, (20) 449, 453. 
Phascolosoma strombi, (15) 160. 
Phasiauella stylifera, (7) 324. 
Pherusa bicuspts, (6) 246. 

fricicola, (6) 247. 

Philine catena, (15) 116. 

pruinosa, (15) 116. 

punctata, (15) 116. 

scabra, (15) 116 ; (20) 510, 527, 529. 

Philomedes brenda, (15) 169. 

interpuncta, (6) 245 ; (15) 145 ; (20) 

503, 511, 517. 
Photis longicaudafa, (10) 265; (17) 265; 

(19)264; (20)511, 52.1 

■ temdcornis, (20) 501, 510. 

PJioxocephalus/ulfom, (8) 327 ; (19) 259. 

holbolli, (15) 138 ; (20)510. 

oculatus, (19) 259 ; (20), 477. 

Phoxus holbolli, (7) 320. 
plnmosus, (6) 246. 



o/ the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



229 



Phrynorhomh us unimaculata. 

See Topknot, one-spotted. 

Phryxxis ahdominalis, (6) 251 ; (18) 403 ; 

(19) 272 ; (20) 510. 

paguri, (6) 251. 

Phtisica marina, (15) 141 ; (19) 267 ; (20) 

523; (20)511. 
Phyciii hlennoides. See Forkbeard, 

greater. 
Phyllocolyle gurnardi, (19) 147 ; (23) 115. 
PhyUonella soleo', (19) 142. 
Physa fonfinalis, (9) 272, 276 ; (13) 249 ; 

(15)320; (17) 139, 159, 185. 
Physical and chemical changes in eggs of 

teleostean fishes during maturation, 

(16) 135. 

characters of closed areas, (14) 130. 

conditions of water of Firth of 

Forth, (5) 50, 349. 

of Loch Fyne, (15) 262. 

of St. Andrews Bay, (5) 54. 

configuration of Loch Fyne, (15) 262. 

investigations, (11)8, 20, 395 ; (13) 

302. 

in Sweden, (13) 339. 

international, (15) 280. 

on board H.M.S. "Jackal," 

(12)21, 337. 
observations, (7) 13, 409, 412 ; (8) 

19 ; (9) 18, 188, 353 ; (10) 7 ; (14) 8. 
chemical condition of water in 

Loch Fyne, (15)266. 
in connection with the fish- 
eries, (6) 309. 
in Faeroe-Shetland Channel, 

August 1896, (15)280. 
in Firth of Clyde, 1896,(15) 

94. 

in Firth of Forth, 1896, (15) 89. 

in Loch Fyne, (15) 262; (17) 

128, 130. 

in Moray Firth, 1896, (15) 91. 

in St. Andrews Bay 1896, (15) 

90. 

report on, (4) 189. 

report on those made on 

H.M.S. "Research" during August 

1896, (15)280. 
work done on board H.M.S. 

" Jackal," July and August 1887, (6) 

359. 
Physiology of fishes, notes on, (12) 291. 
Phyto-plankton collected by H.M.S. 

" Research," report on, (15) 297. 
Picked dog-fish. See Dog-fish, picked. 
Pike (Esox Indus), digestibility of, (5)228. 

eggs of, (5) 347. 

parasites of, (19) 139. 

• rate of deposition of eggs of, (5) 

349. 

saury (Scomheresox saurus), (18)287. 

spawning of, (5) 347. 

spawning period of, (4) 252. 

Pilchard (Clupea jnlchayrlus), (10) 14, 

161. 

development of, (12) 386. 

from Moray Firth, (22) 284. 

skeleton of, (5) 289. 

spawning period of, (4) 253. 

See also Sardine. 



Pilidiiim fulvuiii, (15) 122. 
Pinnothereti piaum, (6) 230, 257. 
Pionocypris vidua, (15) 321, 326 ; (16) 

252 ; (17) 140, 155, 164, 167, 183. 
Pipe-fish, bi'oad-nosed (Siphoiiostoma 

typhle), (15) 113; (18)288. 
deep-nosed. See Pipe-fish, broad- 
nosed. 
great (Syngnathus acus), (15) 113; 

(18) 288; (23) 157. 

fecundity of, (9) 268. 

food of, (20) 487, 534. 

straight-nosed [Nerophis lequoreus), 

(15) 113; (18) 289. 

food of, (20) 487, 534. 

— — worm (Nerophis lumbrici/ormis). 

(15) 113 ; (18)289. 
Pipe-fishes, development of eggs of, (13) 

333. 
Piscicola scorpii , (19) 139. 
Piddium amnicum, (8) 336. 
fontinale, (8) 336, 338 ; (9) 271, 276, 

284, 285 ; (13) 244 ; 17) 139, 185. 
nitidum, (8) 336, 338, 340 ; (9) 271, 

276, 284; (13) 188, 244 ; (17) 139, 159, 

185. 
pmsillum, (8) 336, 337, 338, 339, 340; 

(9) 271, 276, 281, 283, 284 ; (12) 285 ; 

(13) 188, 244, 249 ; (14) 168, 239 ; (15) 

320, 332; (16) 259 ; (17) 155, 159, 185. 

roseum, (8) 341 ; (9) 288 ; (15) 320. 

Place of fishing of Aberdeen trawlers in 

1901 and 1902, (21) 38. 
of fishing, necessity of ascertaining, 

for statistics, (21) 38. 
Placopsi/ina hidla, (19) 236, 257. 
Plagusia 7)iarmorafa, (18) 359. 
Plaice [Pleuronectes jj/afevsa), (18) 286. 

abnormal specimen of, (10) 298. 

— age of, (20) 357. 

age of, at maturity, (20), 359, 

360. 

age-groups of, (17) 238. 

albino, (22) 286 ; (23) 251. 

classification of, (18) 353. 

conditions affecting abundance of 

small, on beaches, (17) 233. 
date of settling of young, on beach, 

(16)241. 

decrease of, (14) 12, 146. 

development of, (9) 14, 311 ; (10) 7 ; 

(11) 18, 274. 

— of post-larvce of, (15) 179. 

diagnostic characters of young, (16) 

228. 
difficulty of distinguishing immature 

from spent, (18) 192. 

distribution of, (21) 21, 24, 26. 

of immature, (14) 148. 

of, near shore, (20) 347- 

of po.st-larv£e of, (16) 238, 240. 

of, regular, according to depth 

and size, (8) 166. 
of, vertical, according to size, 

(17)242. 

— of young and adult, (21) 40. 

duration of pelagic stage in, (20) 339. 

eggs of, (7) 303; (8) 284; (16) 91, 

114, 115 ; (17) 82, 83, 84, 93, 96, 103, 

106. 



230 



Fart III. — Tweniy-tMrd Annual Report 



Plaice, eggs of, change of volume during 
maturation, (16) 141. 

eggs, distribution of, (15) 229. 

distribution of, in Firth of 

Clyde, (15)248. 

retention of, byfemale, (18)330. 

— — • size of intraovarian, in small, 

(20) 356. 

embryo of, (16) 215. 

fecundity of, (9) 263. 

food of, (7) 223, 231, 236, 237, 238, 

239, 241, 252; (8) 230, 232, 245, 249, 
250, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256; (9) 222, 
233, 236. -237, 239, 240, 241 ; (10) 212, 
217, 219, 229 ; (20) .306, 487, &c. 

food of post-larvje, (15) 180; (16) 

224. 

food of small, (20) 524. 

growth, rate of, (11) 192 ; (13) 289 ; 

(17) 232 ; (20) 334, 337 ; (23) 125, 133. 

■ growth of, in Solway Firth, (20) 346. 

growth of, on East Coast, (20) 347. 

growth, comjiarative, at Dunbar 

and in Denmark, (17) 24(3. 

growth, comparative, of females 

and males, (20) 356. 

' growth of small, arrested in winter, 

(20) 342. 

hatching of eggs of, (12) 10; (13) 

9, 123; (14) 152; (16) 220; (17) 205; 
(18)330; (21) 180; (22)262. 

immature, abundance of, in shallow 

water, (22) 28. 

non-migratory, (8) 168. 

at Grimsby, (12) 386. 

landed at Grimsby, (13) 332. 

large hauls of, (20) 107. 

Iarva3 of, (12) 168, 215. 

larval and post-larval stages of, (15) 

175. 

lines of growth in otiliths of, (23) 

126, 133. 

in scales of, (23) 125. 

mature and immature, (8) 166. 

maturity, minimum size at, (8) 161, 

162, 163. 

maturity, average size at, (18) 190 ; 

(22) 156. 

maturity, average size at, in north- 
ern North Sea, (18) 199. 

maturity, average size at, in North 

Sea, Kattegat, and Baltic, (18) 199. 

— maturity, average size at, in south- 
ern North Sea, (18) 197. 

maturity, size at, (10) 238 ; (20) 357. 

maturity, size at, in diflferent regions, 

(20) 358. 

measurements of young, (17) 236. 

migrations of, (7) 406; (11) 179; 

(15)375; (21)40. 

migrations of, experiments on, (9) 

412. 

migiations of, extent of, (21) 42. 

migrations of, in relation to matur- 
ity, (8) 168. 

movement of, in inshore waters, (11) 

16, 185. 

• movement, rate of, (21) 42. 

multiple tumours in, (3) 66 ; (4) 214. 

• mutilated specimen of, (21) 229. 



Plaice on Fisher Bank, (21) 41. 

parasites of, (18) 150, 163, 164; (19) 

121 ; (23) 108. 

peculiarly coloured, (13) 234. 

- — • percentage of marked, recovered, 

(15)375. 
period of greatest growth of, (17) 

239. 

post-larval stages of, (16) 225, 228. 

pi'oportion of males to females, (8) 

348, 349 ; (20) 357. 
proportion of immature, landed by 

trawlers, (22) 18. 
• quantity of small, taken in shallow 

water by otter-trawl, (22) 28. 
rearing of post-larval, (15) 14; (16) 

223. 
relation of distribution of, to depth 

of water, (20) 347, 3.52. 
relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 145, 205, 240. 
relation of spawning period of, to 

temperature, (15) 248. 
— - — relation of temperature to growth of, 

(20) 342. 
relation of temperature to spawning 

of, (20) 344. 
reversed action of gill-cover in, (22) 

287. 

■ sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size and age of, at maturity, (17) 246. 

size-limit between mature and im- 
mature, (22) 18. 
size-limits, various, proposed, (18) 

190. 
size of, on deep-water grounds, (21 ) 

41. 
sizes, maximum, of male and females, 

(20) 357. 

sizes of, (14) 143. 

small, ditficulty of preserving, alive 

on trawlers, (20) 107. 
spawning of, influence of change of 

temperature on, in confinement, (20) 

441. 
spawning grounds of, (8) 259 ; (15) 

230 ; (23) 20. 
spawning period ot, (4) 250 ; (7) 

171, 187 ; (8) 260 ; (10) 234 ; (15) 230 ; 

(17)97; (20)338. 
spawning period, duration of, in 

large tank at hatchery, (22) 262. 
special distribution of young, on 

beach, (17)2.35. 
stage at which larvaj begin feeding, 

(16)224. 

tenacity of life in, (23) 252. 

variability of, (18) 201. 

— — varieties of, (20) 336. 

young, caught in bag-net fishing, 

(23) 157. 
Plankton in fresli-water lochs, distribu- 
tion of, (17) 133. 

of Forth, (16) 155. 

method of collecting, (15) 212. 

notes on animal, collected by H.M.S. 

" Research," (15) 305. 

plant, (15)212. 

didymus-, characters of, (15) .302. 

phyto-, repoi't on, (15) 297. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



231 



Plankton, sira-, characters of, (15) 302. 
— styli-, (15) 303. 

tricho-, characters of, (15) 302. 

tripos-, chai-acters of, (15) 302. 

Planorhis allms, (8) 336 ; (9) 271, 276, 
281, 285 ; (13) 249 ; (15) 320, 331, 332; 

(16) 251 ; (17) 139, 155, 159, 185. 
contorfus, (8) 336, 341 ; (9) 271, 276, 

281, 284, 285 ; (13) 249 ; (15) 320, 330, 

332; (17) 155, 159, 185. 
glaher, (13) 244 ; (15) 330, 332 ; (17) 

139, 185. 
nautikus, (9) 271, 276, 288; (13) 

188, 244 ; (14) 239 ; (15) 320, 332 ; (16) 

251, 257, 259 ; (17) 159, 185. 

var. cristata, (13) 244. 

nitidus, (9) 284 ; (13) 249 ; (15) 320 

(17) 139, 159, 185. 

spirorhis, (8) 339 ; (9) 283, 284. 

vortex, (9) 285. 

PlnnorJmlina mediterranensis, (15) 167. 
Platirhthyv deUatus, (18) 353. 
Platophrys, (18) 357. 

laferua. See Scald -tish. 

Platyhdella solece, (19) 139. 
PlntycheUpus littoralis, (11) 203, 205; 

(15) 317. 
Platyijsyllus minor, (20) 449, 455. 
Platysomatichthys hippoglossoides, (18) 

352. 
Playfair, Sir Lyon, (10) 173. 
Pledanocotyfe lorenzii, (23) 116. 
Pleonexes gammarodes, (15) 141. 
Pleiirohranchus plumula, (15) 116. 
Pleiirogonium inerme, (17) 266 ; (19) 236, 

272. 
— — ruhicundum, (17) 266. 

spinodssimum (17) 256 ; (19) 272. 

Pleuromma armatum, (15) 147. 
Pleuronectes cynoglossus. See Witch. 

flesus. See Flounder. 

limanda. See Dab, common. 

megastoma. See Megrim. 

microcephalus. See Uab, lemon. 

platessa. See Plaice. 

Pleuronectid, B., eggs and larvte of, (9) 

319. 
Pleuronectidje, (18) 351, 352 ; and see 

Flat-fishes. 
Pleuronectids, post-larval forms, (7) 

306. 

remarks on young, (10) 274. 

young, specimens of, (11) 246. 

Pleuronectinte, (18) 351, 352, 353, 358. 
Pleuronichthys, (18) 353. 
Pfeurophyllidia loveni, (7) 325. 
Pleurosigma acuminatum, (9) 274. 

spencerii, (9) 274. 

Plezirotoma septangtdaris, (20) 522. 

trevelyana, (20) 522. 

turricola, (20) 522. 

Pleuroxus hamatus, (9) 294. 

hastatus, (9) 294. 

kevis, (9) 277, 294; (13) 250; (15) 

321. 
trigonellus, (9) 273, 277, 283, 294 ; 

(12) 286 ; (13) 245, 250 ; (14) 168 ; (15] 



(15) 14-i 



spawning 



321, 

&c. 



331, 333; (17) 140, 150, 155, 185, 



friincata, (9) 294. 



Pleuroxus uncinatus, (9) 273, 275, 277, 

294; (13)250; (15) 321; (17) 140, 

160, 164, 185. 
Pcecilopsefta, (18)361. 
Podalirius typicus, (6) 250, 274. 
Podoceropsis excavafa, (15) 141 ; (20) 501. 

rimapalma, (6) 248. 

sophio', (6) 248 ; (15) 141. 

Podocerus capiUatus, (6) 249. 

cumhrensis, (16) 262. 

falcatus, (6) 249. 

Herdmani, (14) 161 ; (16) 262. 

palmatus, (17) 266. 

pelagicus, (6) 249. 

pidchellus, (6)249. 

inmlhis, (14) 161 ; (15) 141 ; (17)265. 

Podon intermedius, (15) 142, 305, 306, 

307, 308, 310, 311, 315 ; (20) 476. 

leuckartii, (20) 476, 532, 533. 

attacking post-larval fish, (22) 

279. 
jjohiphemoides, (9) 308; 

(16)210; (20)476,477. 
Podopsis slahheri, (6) 254. 
Pogge. See Armed bullhead. 
Poisoning bv raw fish, (7) 408 
Pole-dab. ^'ee Witch. 
PoUan {Coregonus pollan), 

period of, (4) 252. 
Pollack (Gadus pollachius), (18) 283. 
anatomical differences from cod and 

coal-fish, (20) 250. 
— — comparison between, and cod and 

coal-fish, (20) 228, 244. 

development of, (14) 171- 

distribution of, (21) 60. 

eggs of, (10) 288 ; (14) 171 ; (17) 82, 

83, 93, 96. 
food of, (7) 240 ; (8) 251 ; (19) 267 ; 

(20) 517. 

habits of young of, (4) 209. 

hatched in United States, (13) 337. 

in Loch Fyne, (4) 2.33 ; (15) 111. 

migration of, (21) 61. 

■ osteology of, (20) 228, 251. 

parasites of. (18) 153 ; (19) 121, 150 ; 

(20) 291 ; (23) 108. 
proportion of males to females, (8) 

349. 
quantities landed by trawlers, (21 ) 

61. 
spawning period of, (4) 248 ; (7) 

194 ; (8) 268 ; (11) 246 ; (17) 99 ; (20) 

251 ; (21)61. 

specific description of, (20) 248. 

Polycarpa rustica, (15) 114. 
Polycera quadrilineata, (15) 116. 
Polycirrus aurantiacus, (15) 158. 
Polycope compressa, (7) 318, 319. 
— orbicularis, (7) 319 ; (8) 325; (15) 145. 

punctata, (15) 145. 

Polydora, (4) 217. 

(Leucodore) ciliata, (9) 400. 

Polymnia nasidensis, (15) 158. 

nehulosa, (15) 158. 

Polymorpliina compressa, (8) 316 ; (16) 

277. 

gibha, (7) 315 ; (15) 167. 

lactea, (7) 315 ; (15) 166. 

lanceolata, (16) 277. 



232 



Part III. — Twentij-lhird Annual Report 



Polymorphina obloiujd, (7) 315 ; (16) 277. 

rofundata, (15) 167. 

tiororia, (16) 277. 

tuhulosa, (15) 167. 

Polynoe ><qnnmala, (15) 160. 
Polyphemus octihis, (9) 295 ; (11) 234. 
pedicuius, (9) 273, 277, 280, 295; 

(11) 234 ; (12) 286 ; (13) 188, 245, 250 ; 

(14) 168 ; (15) 333 ; (16)252, 260 ; (17) 

138, 140, 144, 145, 185, &c. 
Polyprion ainericamiti. See Stone basse. 

eernium. See Stone basse. 

PolyMoma appendicidatum, (19) 151. 
Polyatomella crispa, (7) 315 ; (15) 167. 

striato-ptmctata, (15) 167. 

umhilicatula, (9) 288. 

Pontella hreHcornis, (17) 252. 

wo««sto??i, (17) 251 ; (18)385; (21) 

113. 
PontohdeUa muricafa, (19) 141. 
Pontocratea altamariniis, (6) 246; (15) 

139; (20)491, 492, 510, 529. 
- — - arenariw^, (20) 516, 523, 525. 

haplocheles, (10) 263. 

norvegicus, (7) 320. 

PontocypHs acupunefata, (8) 320. 

myti/oides, (7) 316 ; (15) 142. 

trigondlu, (8) 321 ; (15) 142. 

Ponfophilus spinosus, (15) 131 ; (19) 278. 
Pontopolites typicus,^ (12) 251 ; (15) 151. 
Poor-cod {Gadus minut'us), (18) 282. 
eggs and larvae of, (11) 2.39; (17) 

82, 83, 84, 94, 96. 

■ in Loch Fyne, (4) 232 ; (15) 111. 

peculiar example of, (11) 241. 

— — question of specific distinction from 

bib or whiting-pout, (4) 208. 

spawning period of, (17) 98. 

Porania ptdvillut<, (15) 161 ; (20) 309, 319, 

324. 
Porbeagle. See Shark, porbeagle. 
Porcellana longicornis, (6) 258 ; (15) 130; 

(16) 198 ; (20) 489. 

platycheles, (6) 257. 

Porcellidium fasciatum, (10) 258. 

- — fimhriatum, (4) 153; (6) 242; (9) 

304; (15) 15.3. 
PoreUa comprexxa, (15) 156. 
Porpoise, food of, (21) 226. 
Porpoises, damage to fisheries by, (7) 394. 
Portugal as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 163. 
Porfumnus latipes, (6) 257. 

variegatus, (6) 257. 

Portunus arcuatus, (19) 280. 

depurator, (6) 256 ; (15) 130. 

holsatus, (6) 256 ; (20)489, 507, 511, 

535, 537. 

marmoreutt, (6) 256 ; (15) 130. 

puher, (6) 256 ; (15) 130 ; (19) 279. 

pusillus, (6) 256, 265 ; (15) 130 ; (20) 

507, 526. 
Post-larval fish attacked by Podon, (22) 

279. 
fishes, distribution of, in Moray 

Firth, (15)257. 
forms of food-fishes, (6) 269 ; (7) 

306 ; (14) 223. 

and young fishes, nets for the 

capture of, (20) 328. 



Post-larval plaice, rearing of, (15) 14. 

Potamocypris fulnt, (5) 328 ; (9) 272, 
276, 282, 284, 286, 288 ; (13) 245 ; (15) 
321, 3.30, 333 ; (16) 252 ; (17) 160, 183, 
194. 

Potter, Mr M. C, (8)361. 

Pouchet, Professor G., (7) 389; (8) 21, 
373; (9) 19, 389; (10) 160, &c. 

Pout, Norway (Gadun e»markii), (18)282. 

abundance of, in northern part of 

North Sea, (19)282. 

abundance of, on deep-water 

grounds, (19) 64 ; (21) 20, 25, .30, 35. 

— age of, (19) 166. 

as food for other fishes, (19) 

166. 

cysts in eye of Clyde speci- 
mens of, (19)284. 

distribution of, in North Sea, 

(19) 282, 283. 

food of, (20) 486, 511; (21) 



221. 



195. 



(20) 539. 



(22) 234. 
200. 



164. 



growth of, (19) 154, 155; (22) 

maximum sizes of, (19) 166. 

occurrence of, on East Coast, 
I. 

parasites of, (19) 147. 

relation of length to weight, 
L 

reproductive organs of, (22) 

size of, at first-maturity, (19) 



(16) 158, 162, 209 ; 
133; (16) 158, 163, 



211 ; 
349 



(6) 
(10) 



spawning period of, (19) 164. 

silvery (Gadus {Gadiculutf) argen- 

(eus), (19)284. 
occurrence of, at Aberdeen, (4) 

210 ; (20) 540. 
Pmniza, (16) 242. 
Pirmnus flexuoenoi. 

(20) 492, 507. 
inernm, (15) 

209 ; (18) 403 ; (20) 493, 516, 525. 

neglecfus, (15) 13,3. 

Preservation of fish, (6) 289. 
Priaptdtts caudatuft, (8) 332. 
Prince, Professor E. E., (4) 

280 ; (8) 8 ; (9) 15, 318, .343, 

275, 323 ; (13) 147. 
Prince Albert of Monaco. See Monaco. 
Pristiurus melanosfomus. See Dog-fish, 

black-mouthed. 
Productiveness of fishing grounds, 

method of ascertaining, (21) 38. 
Pioportion of fish caught in a given area, 

(14) 146. 
Proportional numbers and sizes of the 

sexes among sea-fishes, (8) 348. 
Protective resemblance in j'oung lump- 
suckers (11) 390. 
ProteUa phasma, (6) 250; (16) 263 ; (18) 

402 ; (19) 267 ; (20) 501. 
Proteonina fusiformis, (8) 314. 

p.seudo- spiralis, (7) 313. 

Proto goodsiri, (6) 250. 

pedata, (6) 250 ; (20) 492. 

ventricosa, (6) 250. 

Protomedeia fasciata, (6) 248 ; (20) 479, 

491, 503, 517, 520, 523. 



of the Fisherii Board for Scotlcvnrf. 



233 



Protomedeia hirsufimaiia, (6) 248. 
Psammohia ferrrensis, (15) 127. 

tdUneUa, (6) 231. 

Psammodiscus ocel/afus, (18) 357. 
Psammofiphcerafu-^ca, (8) 314; (19) 236, 

257. 
Psettina?, (18) 351. 
Pstttichthys melanoMicU'<, (18) 352. 
Psetfode.^ (18) .354, 356. 

ertimeii (18) 356. 

Psetidanfhessius gracilis, (12) 260. 

liber, (12) 258 ; (15) 154 ; (20) 470. 

sauvagei, (12) 260. 

thorellii, (12) 259 ; (18) 399. 

Pseudione affiuis, (17) 266 ; (18) 403. 

cremd'ata, (17) 266. 

hyiuhnanni, (15) 136. 

Pseudocalanus as herring-food, (4) 125. 
armatus,{\5) 146; (16) 264; (17) 

248 ; (20) 451. 
elomjatus, (4) 148 ; (6) 237 ; 

246 ; (15) 146, .305, 306, &c. ; (16) 

188, 210 ; (20) 450, 494, 503, &c. 
Pseudocaligus brevipedis, (20) 291 ; 

110. 
Pseudocmna bistriata, (4) 165. 
cercaria, (4) 165 ; (6)253 ; (15) 134 ; 

(16) 167, 209 ; (19) 236 ; (20) 491, 503, 

510, 513, &c. 

pidclidla, (20)480. 

mnilh, (19) 274; (20) 480; 

243, 258. 
Pseiulocydopia caudata, (12) 236 ; 

267 ; (20) 451. 

crassicornis, (10) 246 ; (16) 267. 

giesbrechti, (23) 141. 

minor, (10) 247. 

Pseudocydops crassiremis, (12) 237. 
obtusatus, (8) 317; (20) 454; 

112. 
Pseudocythere caudata, (7) 319 ; 

145. 
Pseudolaophonte aculeata, (18) 393. 

spinosa, (18) 393. 

Pseudomesochra longifiircafa, (10) 

462. 
Fseiulophcenna typica, (21) 112. 
Paeudopsyllus dongatns, (20) 449, 471 

(21) 130. 
Pseudorhombua, (18) 354, 356. 

. russeUii, (18)356. 

P.Hen(lO'<irielln frontalit^, (4) 163. 
Pxeudotachidius coronatus, (16) 267 

256; (20)461. 
Pseudotanais forcipatiis, (6) 251 ; 

270. 
Pseudothalestris major, (13) 170 ; 

250. 

jjygmcea, (13) 170. 

Pmudowefiitwoodia andreivi, (12) 257. 
Psolux phantapus, (15) 162; (20) 

319, 324. 

change of colour in, (4) 216. 

Psyllocampttisfairlieims, (17) 254. 
Pterinopsyllus insignis, (12) 238 

240; (20)461. 
Pterocotyle morrhuce, (19) 149. 

palmata, (19) 149. 

Pterygocera arenaria, (10) 264. 
Ptilocheiru.^ hirtutimanus, (6) 248. 



(10) 
177, 

(23) 



(22) 
(16) 



(21) 
(15) 



449, 



(17) 
(19) 
(19) 



307, 



(19) 



Puffin Island Biological Station, work of, 

(7)387. 
PulrimUina auricula, (16) 277. 
Puncturdla noachuia, (15) 122. 
Purpura lapillus, (7) 337 ; (15) 118. 
Pyropthacus horologium, (15) 298, 302. 



Q 



Quinqueloculina agglutinans, (7) 313. 

bicornis, (7) 313. 

-feruAsacii, (7) 313. 

secans, (7) 313. 



R 



Race-variability, (18) 220. 

Races of herring, (5), 295 ; (17) 275. 

Rae, Dr J., (9) 269. 

Raefifele on the eggs of fishes in relation 

to trawling, (7) 401. 
Raia. See Skate, ray. 

balls. See Skate, grey. 

blanda, (13) 332. 

circularis. See Ray, cixckoo. 

clavata. See Ray, thornback. 

fullonica. See Ray, Fuller's. 

' macrorhynchus. See Skate, flapper. 

maculata. See Ra}', homelyn. 

oxyrhynchus. See Long or sharp- 
nosed skate. 

radiata. See Ray, starry. 

Raniceps raninus. See Fork beard, lesser. 

trifurcatus. See Forkbeard, lesser. 

Rate of growth of fishes. See Growth. 

of movement of plaice, (21) 42. 

Ramidiiria, (18) .356. 

Ray, cuckoo (Raia circularis), (6) 277 ; 

(15) 113; (18) 29.3. 

food of, (20) 536 ; (21) 224. 

parasites of, (18) 170 ; (19) 130. 

proportion of sexes in, (21) 

230. 

electric. See Toipedo. 

Fuller's (Raia fullonica), (6) 277 ; 

(18) 292. 

abnormal specimen of, (4) 210. 

food of, (20) 535. 

parasite of, (18) 174. 

proportion of sexes in, (21)230. 

homelyn (Raia maculata), (15) 113; 

(18) 293. 

parasites of, (19) 130. 

sandy. See Ray, cuckoo. 

shagreen. See Ray, Fuller's. 

spotted. See Ra}^ homelyn. 

starry (Raia radiata), (6) 278. 

— food of, (20) 487, 536. 

growth of, (21) 231. 

parasites of, (20) 295, 299. 

proportion of sexes in, (21) 230. 

size at maturity, (10) 238, 

sting ( Trygon pastinaca), from 

Moray Firth, (22) 283. 
parasites of, (22) 275, 276, 278, 

279. 
thornback (Raia clavata), (15) 113 ; 

(18) 293. 

food of, (20) 487, 535. 

migrations of, (11) 191. 



234 



Part III. — T went //-third Annual Report 



Ray, thornback, parasites of, (18) 156, 

171 ;(19) 130, 150; (20)299. 
prop(jrtioii (jf sexes in, (21) 

230 ; (22) 28. 

"purses" of, (4) 212. 

size at maturity, (10) 238. 

Rays, relative number of sexes among, 

(21) 236. 

size of males and females, (21)230. 

Rearing fish larvas, methods of, (15) 177. 
of larval and post-larval stages of 

the plaice, (15) 175. 
of young food-fishes, experiments 

in, (13) 333. 
Red band fish (Cepola ruhescens), (18) 

280. 
" Red cod," nature of, (6) 10, 204, 207. 

organisms present in, (6) 204, 207. 

Red and pale muscles in fish, (4) 166. 
Regulation of fisheries, (11) 13 ; (18) 140. 
Reibisch, Dr J., (23) 125. 
Relation of size of mesh to the size of fish 

captured, (12) 306. 
Relative quantity of fish taken by line 

and by trawl, (6) 47 ; (7) 20 ; (.12) 28. 
proportion of small fish captured by 

the "Garland," (6) 36. 
Bemigulus tridens, (19) 251. 
Reophax deflugiformis, (16) 275. 

fi-ndens, (8) 314. 

fusiformis, (8) 314 ; (16) 275. 

moniliforme, (16) 275. 

nodidosa, (8) 314. 

—— scorpiwus, (15) 166. 

scottii, (16) 275. 

Report on the apparatus required for 

carrying on physical observations in 

coianection with the fishei'ies, (6) 309. 
from tlie Fishery Board's jnarine 

station at St. Andrews, (6) 265, &c. 
on the biological investigations 

carried out on board H. M.S. "Jackal," 

(6) 215. 
on physical and chemical examina- 
tion of the water in the Moray Firth, 

(6) 313. 
— — on physical observations bearing 

on the circulation of the water in 

Loch Fyne, (5) 262. 
on physical observations on the sea 

to the west of Lewis, (6) .349. 
Reproduction in diatoms, (15) 217. 

of fishes, (10) 18. 

of the eel, (13) 14, 192. 

Reproductive organs of fishes, weight of, 

(10)241. 
"Research," H.M.S., animal plankton' 

collected by, (15) 305. 
physical observations made on 

board of, (15) 280. 
report on phyto-plankton collected 

by, (15) 297. 
Respiration of teleostean embryo, (16) 

213. 
Retina of teleosteans, embryology of, 

(6) 280. 
Review of the trawling experiments of 

the "Garland" in the Firth of Forth 

and St. Andrews Bay in the years 

1886-95, (14) 128. 



lihampJmtonm. See Garfish. 
JViiii't sijuittina. See Angel-fish. 
Rhiacalaiuis girjac, (19) 236, 237; (20) 

450. 
RMzosolenia alaUi, (15) 298, 300. 

Xmnyens, (15) 214. 

semispimi, (15) .300. 

setigera, (15) 214. 

sJirnhsolii, (15)214. 

sto/ferfolhii, (15) 214, 301. 

styliformis, (15) 298, .301. 

Rhizothnx curvata, (8) 319; (21) 123. 
Rhoda raschii, (20) 480. 
Rhodine lov6ni, (15) 158. 
Rhombinc-e, (18) 352, 357, 358. 
Rhomboidichthys, (18) 360. 

mancus, (18) 357. 

Rhombosolea, (18) 360. 
Rhombus Itwis. See Brill. 

nvxoticiis, (18) 357. 

maximus. See Turbot. 

normgiciis. See Topknot, Norway. 

Rhynchomyzon jmrpurocindum, (17) 262; 

(18)400; (20)472. 
Richard, M., (13) 16. 
Rigor mortis in fish and its relation to 

putrefaction, (6) 282. 
Rissoa parva, (15) 119. 

violacea, (15) 119. 

River-watdr, micro-organisms in, (3) 73 ; 

(4) 176 ; (5) 331. 
Robb, Mr James, (20) 136. 
Robertson, Mr John, (9) 177. 
Robertsoni tenuis, (6) 239 ; (17) 254 ; (20) 

503, 517, 523. 
Roche, Dr, chief inspector of French 

fisheries, (13) 10, 16, 345. 
Rockling, five-bearded (Motella (O)ios) 

mtistela), (4) 233; (8) 357; (15)111; 

(18) 284. 

fecundity of, (9) 259. 

food of, (20) 519. 

— - — - growth of, (15) 208. 
post-larval and young, stages 

of, (15) 206. 

reproduction of, (3) 66. 

spawning period of, (4) 249. 

four-bearded {Motella (Onos) cim- 

bria), (4) 222 ; (8) 357 : (18) 284. 

eggs of, (16) 91, 115. 

fecundity of, (9) 258. 

food of, (21) 222. 

larval stages of, (8) 363. 

parasites of, (19) 122; (20) 289. 

three-bearded (Motella (Onos) 

tricirrata), (4) 224 ; (8) 357 ; (18) 284. 

food of, (8) 255. 

— parasites of, (20) 289, 291 ; (23) 

110. 

spotted (Onos maculatus), (18) 284. 

Rocklings, eggs of, (7) 306; (8)284; (14) 

223. 

in Firth of Clyde, (15) 250. 

larval, (8) 284. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 308. 

spawning period of, (17) 99. 

Roperia tesseUata, (15) 214. 
Rosie, Mr D., (9) 177. 
Rossia macrosoma, (15) 115. 
oweni, (15) 115. 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



235 



Botalia heccarii, (15) 167 ; (20) 497, 503, 

510. 

nifkla, (8) 316 ; (15) 167. 

Botalina inflata, (8) 315. 

ochracea, (8) 315. 

Rothesay Aquarium, (6) 16, 20. 

Rough hound. See Dog-fish, lesser 

spotted. 
Roumania as a market for Scottish- 
cured herrings, (7) 164, 
Round fishes, fluctuations in abundance 

of, (14) 137, 140. 
growth of, compared with flat fishes, 

(20) 334. 

mature and immature, (8) 173. 

numbers and sexes of, (8) 850. 

spawning of, (8) 265. 

Royal Commission on Trawling, (14) 128. 

of Fisheries in Italy, (6) 14. 

Ruff [Actrina vulgaris) , spawning period 

of, (4) 244. 
Runcina coronata, (15) 116. 
Russia as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 167. 

fisheries of, (7) 408 ; (12)404. 

fishery work in, (12) 404. 

Ryder, Professor J. A., (6) 302, 330. 



S 



Sabella pavonia, (15) 158. 

penicillus, (15) 158. 

Suhellaria alveolata, (20) 312. 
Sxhei/ijJulus sarsi, (12) 258. 
Saccandna spluera, (19) 236, 257. 
Saccul'ma carcini, (6) 236; (15) 156. 

■ • triangularis, (6) 236. 

Sagitta as herring-food, (4) 126. 

distribution of, in Firth of Forth, 

(16) 190. 

parasites of, (14) 165. 

hipumtata, (15) 160, 306, 307, 309, 

311; (16) 190, 196, 207 210; (20), 

513, 516. 
Sagrina dimorpha, (16) 275. 
Sail-fluke. See Megrim. 
St. Andrews Bay, bye-law closing, 

against beam-trawling, (5) 44. 
larval fishes of, (8) 286, 287; (11) 

263 ; (12) 299, 301 ; (13) 260, 261, 264 ; 
(14) 225. 

migratory movements of gurnards 

in, (17)215. 

pelagic and other fauna of, (6) 274. 

pelagic eggs of fishes in, (8) 286, 

288; (9) 340; (11)263; (12)298,299, 

.301 ; (13) 260, 261, 264 ; (14) 225. 

fauna of, (15) 66. 

physical observations in, in 1896, 

(15)90. 

conditions of, (5) 54. 

post-larval fishes oi, (8) 286, 287 ; 

(11) 263; (12) 299, 301 ; (13) 260, 261, 

264 ; (14) 225. 

trawling experiments in. See 

" Garland." 

stations in, (5) 55. 

young fishes of, (8) 286, 287; (11) 

263 ; (12) 299, 301 ; (13) 260, 261, 264 ; 

(14)225. 



St. Andrews, Fishery Board's Marine 
Laboratory at, report from (4) 201 ; (5) 
354 ; (6) 265, 279 ; (S) 8 ; (9) 6 ; (10) 7 ; 

(11) 8, 18. 
Saithe. See Coal-fish. 

Salemkyu tuberosa, (20) 449, 474; (22) 

225. 
Salinity, effect of, on fish eggs, (5) 241. 
in relation to size of herring, (17) 

286. 

influence of, on variabilit}', (18) 239. 

observations in Faeroe-Shetland 

Channel, (15) 282. 

of Firth of Forth, (5) 350. 

Salmo fario. See Trout, common. 

— — fontinalis, spawning period of, (4) 

252. 

levenensis. See Loch Leven trout. 

salar. See Salmon. 

irutta. See Sea-trout. 

Salmon (Salmo salar), (18) 287. 

composition of flesh of, (5) 222, 228, 

229. 
— — digestibility of, (5) 228. 

disease, (4) 178. 

fecundity of, (9) 267. 

food of, (12) 292. 

parasites of, (18) 152, 172. 

Salmon, seasonal changes in viscera of, 

(12) 291. 

spawning period of, (4) 252. 

of Rhine, spawning of, (6) 307. 

Salmon-trout. See Sea-trout. 

Salpa vulgaris, (15) 307, 310, 311. 

Sa7naris, (18) 361. 

Sand-eel embedded in liver of haddock, 

(3) 70. 

greater [Ammodytes lanceolatus), 

(4) 233 ; (15) 112. 

eggs of, (9)332. 

fecundity of, (9) 259. 

food of, (20) 487, 520. 

mature and immature, (S) 177. 

spawning period of, (4) 249. 

lesser {Ammodytes tohianus), de- 
velopment of brain in, (13) 276. 

eggs of, (12) 313. 

fecundity of, (9) 2,59. 

growth of, (12) 313. 

larvEe of, (12) 315. 

oviposition of, (12) 31.3. 

reproduction of, (3) 66. 

sexual pi'oportions of, (10) 239. 

spawning period of, (4) 249. 

Sand-eels as food for herring, (4) 127. 

egg and early stages of, (9) 331. 

post-larval forms, (7) 309. 

young of, (3) 66. 

Sandeman, Mr George, (11) 391, 392, 

393, 894 ; (12) 21, 291. 
Sanderson, Professor Burdon, (6) 279. 
Sand-fluke. See Megrim. 
Sand-smelt. See Smelt, sand-. 
Sandy ray. See Ray, cuckoo. 
Sapphirine gurnard. See Gurnard, 

sapphirine. 
Saprolegnia of salmon disease and allied 

forms, (7) 12, 368. 
Sarxina litoralis, (6) 204. 
ventriculi, (6) 204. 



236 



Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 



Sarcodictyon catenata, (15) 163. 
Sardine. *%« a/w Pilchard. 

age of, (8) 374. 

development of reproductive organs 

of, (8) 373. 
eggs of, (8) 373 ; (9) 418, 420 ; (10) 

161. 

fecundity of, (9) 418. 

fishery in Gulf of Marseilles, (9) 

419. 

food of, (7) 390 ; (8) 372. 

growth of, (8) 374. 

movements of, (10) 161. 

researches on, (9) 418, 420. 

Spanish, report on, (10) 160. 

spawning of, (8) 372. 

trade of, inGalicia, (8) 371. 

Sars, Professor G. 0., (6) 15 ; (19) 92. 

on development of cod, (3) 53. 

discovery of the floating eggs of the 

cod by, (16) 88. 
Sarsiella capsula, (20) 475. 
Saury pike. See Pike, saury. 
Sauvage, Dr H. E., (7) 384, 390; (9) 

177; (13) 16. 
Saxicam rugosa, (6) 231 ; (15) 128; (20) 

496. 
Saxicavella plicata, (15) 128. 
Scad. See Horse-mackerel. 
Saeurgus cirrhosa, (15) 114. 
Scalaria, (20) 510. 
Scaldback. See Scald-fish. 
Scald-fish {Ar7ioglossus {Platophrys) 

latenia), (17) 94 ; (18) 286, 357. 

■ eggs of, (17) 83, 84, 94, 96, 106. 

food of, (20) 487, 524. 

in Scottish waters, (21) 511. 

Scales of fishes, lines of growth in, (23) 

125. 
Scallop. See Clam. 
ScapJiander lignarius, (15) 115. 
Sca2jholeheri» corinita, (9) 275, 290. 
mucronata, (9) 277, 290, 296; (13) 

250 ; (14) 239, 242 ; (15) 321 ; (17) 141, 

160, 184, 191. 
Schist ocephalus solidns, (9) 273. 
Schisfomysis arenosa, (15) 134. 
ornatus, (15) 134 ; (16) 158, 209 ; (17) 

268 ; (20) 491, 516, 522, 536. 
spiritus, (16) 158, 163, 209 ; (20) 491, 

493, 516, 519, 523. 
Schizopoda as herring-food, (4) 123. 

of Firth of Forth, (16) 158. 

distribution of, (16) 164. 

of Loch Fyne, (16) 262. 

Schizoporella unicoriiis, (15) 156. 
Schizothcerus nuttalli, (7) 341. 
Sderochilus contortus, (6) 245 ; (15) 145. 
Scolecithrix abysmlis, (15) 310, 311, 313. 

hrevicornis, (20) 449, 452. 

hibernica, (15) 146; (17) 248; (19) 

238; (20)451. 

pygmcva, (17) 249. 

Scomber scomber. See Mackerel. 
Scombresox saurus. See Pike, saury. 
Scope! ocheirus crenatus, (7) 319. 
Scopthalmtis norvegicus. See Topknot, 

Norway. 
unimxiculat'us. See Topknot, one- 
spotted. 



Scorpion, sea- {CoUus acorpius), (4) 212, 

232; (15) 109. 

eggs of, (3) ,59 ; (4) 206. 

- — — eggs and young of, (14) 181. 

fecundity of, (9) 248. 

feeding on sprats, (4) 206. 

food of, (20) 486, 489. 

rate of growth of, (12) 3.33. 

parasites of, (19) 138, 139. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 309. 

spawning pei'iod of, (4) 244 ; (7) 197. 

volume of eggs of, (16) 141. 

Scotland, direction of currents on east 

coast of, (15) 346. 
Scott, Mr Andrew, (9) 269, 281 ; (10) 

244; (11) 197 ; (12) 231 ; (13) 165, &c. 
Dr Thomas, (4) 231 ; (6) 225, 232 ; 

(7) 11, 171, 183, 222; (8) 14, 16, 23, 

230, &c. 
Scotfia broivniana, (9) 281, 282. 
Scottish Fishery Acts, (10) 172. 

lobster fishery, the, (6) 9, 189. 

mackerel fishing, (12) 16. 

Scottocheres elongatus, (16) 278. 
Scoftomyzon gibbermn, (15) 155. 
ScrobicuJfirin pipernta, (7) 328. 

prUmaticii, (20) 510. 

Scutellidium fasckitum, (4) 154; (10) 

258; (15) 153. 

tisboides, (10) 258 ; (18) 396. 

ScyUium canicnla. See Dog-fish, lesser 

spotted. 
catulus. See Dog-fish, larger 

spotted. 
Sea-birds, destruction of fish by, (8) 20. 
Sea Fisheries Committee of Lancashire, 

(14)8. 
■ Parliamentary Committee on, (12) 

384. 
(Scotland) Amendment Act, (5) 

43. 
Sea-fowl swallowed by cod, (4) 134. 
Seahorse (Hippocampus antiquorum), 

(18) 289. 
Sea-lamprey (Petromyzon marivus), 

spawning period of, (4) 254, 
"Sea-mouse" (Aphrodite), (6) 231. 
Sea-ponds at Dunbar, (10) 10. 
Sea-Scorpion. See Scorpion, sea-. 
Sea-snail, common, or sucker (Cyclor/aster 

Hparis), (4) 232 ; (15) 110 ; (18) 279. 

change of colour in, (3) 69. 

Sea-trout. See Trout, sea-. 

Sea-water, methods for determining the 

specific gravity of, (4) 192. 
Sea, west of Lewis, physical observations 

in, (6) .349. 
Seals, damage to fisheries by, in Den- 
mark, (9) 412. 
Seasonal changes in fishes, (12) 291. 
Sebastes marinus. See Haddock, Norwaj*. 

norvegicits. See Haddock, Norw'a3\ 

Seine-net, action of, in herring fishery, 

(18) 242. 
in herring fishery, introduction of, 

(18)242. 
fishing for herrings, suppression of, 

(18)243. 
fishing for herrings at Ballantrae, 

(11) 15; (12) 18; (13) 13; (14) 14. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



237 



Seines, destruction of immature fish by, 

(8) 190. 
Selache maxima. See Shark, basking. 
Selioides holhroei, (20) 481. 
Semele decisa, (7) 341. 
Sense-organs of fishes, (8) 3B2. 
Senses of lobster, (23) 97. 
Sepia officinalis as bait, (7) 352. 
Sepiola rondeletii, (15) 115. 
Sergesfes atlanticus, (15) 310, 311. 
Serp^da hicornis ventricom, (7) 313. 

contortupHcata, (15) 157. 

friquetra, (15) 157. 

- — — vermicidaris, (15) 157. 
Serraims cahrilla, (2) 79 ; (4) 222. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

gigas, spawning of, (4) 244. 

hepatus, embryo of, (16) 214. 

Sertularellafusiformis, (15) 164. 

7-ugosa, (15) 164. 

Sertularia abietina, (15) 164. 
— — argentea, (15) 164. 

filicula, (15) 164. 

pumila, (15) 164. 

Servia as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 163. 
Seve, M., (9)416. 
Sex, relative numbers of males and females 

among skates nd rays, (21) 229. 
Sexes, numbers and size of, among sea- 
fishes, (8) 348. 
of plaice, maximum size of, (20) 

357. 
Sexes, proportional number of, in edible 

crab, (18) 99. 
proportion of, among plaice, (20) 

357. 
Sexual characters in crab, (18) 99, 
characters, external, of Carcinu-s 

iruenas, (21) 160. 

colouration in fishes, (10) 242. 

differences among mackerel, ques- 
tion of, (18) 312, 

proportions in witch, (22) 195. 

relations of sea-fishes, (10) 18, 239. 

Sex-variability, (18) 207. 

Shad, ai'tificial propagation of, (3) 82. 

allis [Clupea a/osa), (18) 288. 

• food of, 487, (20) 533. ^ 

parasites of, (19) 145. 

twaite (Clupea fiii(a), occurrence of, 

on East Coast, (20) 540. 

food of, (20) 487, 533. 

parasites of, (18) 176 ; (19) 145. 

skeleton of, (5) 287. 

spawning period of, (4) 253. 

Shagreen ray. See Ray, Fuller's. 
Shanny [Blennim pho'lis), (4) 208; (18) 

279. 
Shark, basking (Selache maxima), (18) 

291. 

blue (Carcharias glaiicus) (18) 290. 

Greenland (Lcemargus microce- 

jjhalm), (2) 80; (4) 227, 228 ; (21) 80. 

caught in trawl, (4) 227. 

cranial nerves of, (7) 384. 

dissection of, (4) 228. 

food of, (4) 228. 

parasites of, (4) 228. 

skull of, (7) 385. 

Q 



Shark, porbeagle (Lamna cornuhica), (19) 
290. 

food of, (4) 210 ; (19) 290 ; (20) 

487, 5.37. 

intra-uterine specimen of, (6) 

263. 

parasites of, (18) 156, 171 ; (19) 

125, 132; (20)292; (23) 112. 

thresher (J[/o/*m.s vulpes), (18) 290. 

• parasites from, (19) 125. 

Shell-fishes used as bait, (4) 217. 
Shetland Isles, fauna of lochs of, (13) 
174. 

fisheries of, (10) 202. 

fishing grounds off, (9) 182. 

post-larval fishes at, (14) 227. 

Shaw-Lefevre, Mr, (10) 173. 
Shore-crab. See Carcinus mamas. 
Short- spined cottus. See Sea scorpion. 
Shrimp, common (Grangon mdgaris), (6) 
259 ; (15) 131 ; (20) 491, 492, 507, 511, 
519, 528, 535, 536. 

association of, with young plaice, 

(17) 235. 

description of larval stages of, (19) 

94. 

development of appendages in larvfe 

of, (19) 96. 

ear of, (19) 97. 

eggs of, (19) 93. 

feeding on larval herrings and 

smelts, (9) 406. 

fisheries, trap used in France in, (7) 

394. 

fishing, (8) 185. 

— — capture of immature fish 

by, (9) 206. 

in Solway, (7) 175. 

food of, (9) 406. 

larval stages of, (19) 92. 

life-history of, (9) 406. 

— — - mode of attachment of eggs in, (22) 
118. 

morphological significance of origin 

of gills in, (19) 114. 

moulting of larvae of, (19) 94. 

movements of larvae of, (19) 93. 

— • — net, description of, (8) 164. 

origin of gills of, (19) 113, 114. 

rearing of larvae of, (19) 93. 

• spawning period of, (6) 299 ; (9) 

406. 

trap, description of French, (9) 

209. 

trawling in France, (9) 210. 

trawling in Thames, immature 

fishes caught by, (4) 205. 

trawl-net, (7) 16, 29. 

zoeaof, (19) 114. 

Shrimping and the destruction of imma- 
ture fish, (8) 185, 194. 
Sida hrachyura, (9) 389. 

crystallina, (9) 275, 277, 289; (12) 

286 ; (13) 245, 250 ; (14) 168 ; (15) 318, 
321 ; (16) 252; (17) 138, 144, 184, &c. 
Sigmoilina tenuis, (16) 274. 
Significance of the yolk in the eggs of 

osseous fishes, (6) 280. 
Silicoilagellates, (15) 302. 
Silvery pout. See Pout, silvery. 



238 



Pari III. — T iventy-third Annual Report 



Sim, Mr Geo., (4) 102, 210, 
Simocephalus vetulun, (9) 277, 282, 283, 

290; (13)245,250; (15)321 ; (16)252; 

(17) 138, 140, &c. 
Simpson, Capt. R. E., (9)S, 21, 184, 269 ; 

(10) 7, 23, 244. 
Sinclair Bay, trawling investigations in, 

(20) 94. 
Sipho gracilis, (15) 118. 
Siphonodentalium lofotense, (15) 123 ; (19) 

236. 
Siphonostoma typhle. (See Pipe-fish, broad- 
nosed. 
Siphoncecetes colktti, (8) 328 ; (19) 266 ; 

(20) 511. 

cra><fiicornis, (11) 215. 

typicus, (8) 328. 

Sira-plankton, characters of, (15) 302. 
Siriella armata, (4) 162; (7) 323; (15) 

134; (16) 158, 160, 209; (18) 404 ; (19) 

277 ; (20) 480 ; (22) 257. 

brooki, (4) 162; (15) 134. 

clausii, (4) 160 ; (15) 134 ; (18) 404. 

crassipes, (4) 161 ; (6) 254, 255. 

jaltenses, (16) 158, 160, 209. 

norvegica, (4) 161; (7)327; (15) 

167 ; (17) 268. 
Sixerns, boats, (10) 204. 
Size of mature and immature fish, (8) 163. 
Skate, blue. See Skate, grey. 

digestion in, (2) 40. 

flapper [Haia macrorhynchun), (15) 

168 ; (18) 292. 
grey or common, (JRaia batis), (9) 

306, 310 ; (18) 292. 

cranial nerves of, (7) 384. 

development of, (8) 15, 300, 

"electric" organs in, (6) 277. 

food of, (20) 487, 535. 

migrations of, (11) 191. 

parasites of, (18) 156, 164, 170, 

171, 180 ; (19) 130, 151. 

proportion of sexes in, (21) 

230. 

size at maturity, ( 10) 238. 

long or sharp-nosed (Baia oxyrhy- 

nchtis) (18) 292. 
Skate-leech, (19) 141. 
Skates, breeding and spawning periods 
of, (8) 301. 

" electric" organs of, (6) 277. 

feeding on herrings, (4) 103. 

food of, (7) 231, 234, 236, 237, 239, 

251 ; (8) 231, 244, 249, 250, 251, 253, 
255, 256 ; (9) 232, 235-237, 239-241 ; 
(10) 228, 231. 

mature and immature, (8) 172. 

parasites of, (19) 141. 

relative number of sexes in, (21 ) 229. 

Skates and Rays, distribution of adult 
and immature, (8) 172. 

proportion of males to females, 

(8) 349. 
Skeletal structures of fishes, hnes of 

growth in, (23) 125. 
Skeletonema costatum, (15) 213, 214. 
Skenea planorbis, (15) 119. 
Skulpin. See Dragonet, gemmeous. 
Small-meshed net aroiind trawl-net, 
description of, (19) 60. 



Smelt or sparling (Oamenis eperlanus), 
(18) 287. 

attacked V)y squids, (3) 68. 

eggs of, (16)91. 

fecundity of, (9) 267. 

greater silver (Ai-geniina sihis), 

occurrence of, in North Sea, (19) 286; 
(20)540; (21)27. 

spawning period of, (4) 252. 

food of, (21)224. 

Hebridean. See Smelt, les.ser silver. 

lesser silver (Argent iim sphyneiia), 

(18) 287 ; (19) 285. 

eggs of, (19) 286. 

food of, (20) 487, 528 ; (21) 223. 

spawiung period of, (19) 286. 

sand- (Atheri?ia presbyter), (4) 232 ; 

(15) 110; (18) 280. 

food of, (20) 486, 504. 

spawning period (jf, (4) 245. 

Smith, Mr Anderson, (7) 384, 385, 392 ; 
(8) 17, 360 ; (9) 13, 16, 187, 268, 269, 
297, &c. 

Dr W. Ramsay, (7) 9, 222 ; (8) 

12, 23, 230 ; (9) 12, 21, 177, 222, 352 ; 
(10) 18, 23, &c. 

Prof. Sidney J., (6) 302. 

Smith Bank, (11)9. 

spawning plaice on, (8) 259. 

trawling investigations at. See 

Trawling investigations. 
Smittia reticulata, (15) 156. 
Smooth dab. See Dab, lemon. 
Socarnes vahli, (14) 158. 
Soft lobster, characters of, (23) 94. 
Solaster endeca, (15) 161 ; (20) 310, 319, 
324. 

papposus, (7) 347; (15) 161; (20) 

310, 319, 324. 
Sole, common or black (Solea vidgari><), 
(48) 286. 

Ciinningham on, (9) 390. 

on east coast of Scotland, (21) 

32 54 229 

'— — distribution of, (15) 112 ; (18) 

359 ; (21) 54. 

eggs of, (7) 304 ; (16) 91, 114, 115. 

— in Clyde, (15) 250. 

fecundity of, (9) 266. 

food of, (7) 236 ; (9) 390 ; (20) 528. 

growth of, (9) 391. 

hatching of, (12) 11. 

natural history of, (9) 390. 

parasites of, (18) 146, 165 ; (19) 121, 

139, 142 ; (23) 108. 

pathological conditions of, (12) 294. 

rearing of, in ponds, (9) 391. 

spawning grounds of, in Irish Sea, 

(13) 334. 

period of, (4) 251; (7) 190, 

385 ; (8) 265 ; (9) 390. 

period of, at Marseilles, (8) 

372. 

lemon. See Dab, lemon. 

little, or solenette (Solea lutea), (18) 

287. 

distribution of, (21) 53. 

specific gravity of eggs of, (7) 386. 

eggs of, (14) 223 ; (16) 91, 114, 

115; (17)82, 83,93,96. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



239 



Sole, common or black, egg resembling 

that of, (10)295. 

food of, (8) 455. 

mature and immature, (8) 172. 

minimum size at maturity, (8) 

161, 162, 163. 
proportion of males to females, 

(8) 348. 

relation of length to weight, 

(22) 144, 216. 

■ sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size of, at maturity, (8) 172 ; 

(10) 238. 
spawning period of, (7) 191 ; (17) 

99. 

witch. See Witch. 

Solea impar, (18) 359. 

Meinii, (18) 359. 

lascaris, (18) 359. 

hitea. See Sole, little. 

ocellata, (18) 359. 

variegata. See Thickback. 

tnilgaris. See Sole, common. 

Soleatalpa, (18) 359. 

unicolor, (18) 358. 

Soleidc-e, (18) 258, .351, 358. 
Soleinaj, (18) 351, 352, 359. 
Solei-pleuronectinas, (18) 352, 360. 
Solen, (20) 496-497, 510. 

ensis, (15) 127. 

pellucidus, (15) 127. 

siliqua, (15) 127. 

as bait, (7) 352. 

Solenette. See Sole, little. 
Solway, fisheries of, (4) 255 ; (7) 175. 

shrimp fishing, (7) 175 ; (8) 185. 

Sophrosyne rohertsoni, (15) 137. 

Spain, administration of fisheries in, (7) 

396. 

fisheries of, (12) 403 ; (13) 347. 

fishery M-ork in, (7) 396; (8) 368; 

(9) 421 ; (10) 350 ; (12) 403 ; (13) 348. 
imports of fish into, (9) 422. 

oyster-cultiire in, (7) 397. 

salting and preserving establish- 
ments in, (8) .369. 

sardine fishery of, (7) 399. 

submarine light in fishing, (7) 399. 

trawling in, (8) 370. 

whales on coast of, (8) 370. 

Spain and Portugal as markets foi Scot- 
tish-cured herrings, (7) 163. 

Spanish sardines, report on, (10) 14, 160. 

Sparling. See Smelt. 

Spatangidiiim ralfsianum, (15) 297. 

Spatangus purpureus, (15) 162; (20) 317, 
319, 324. 

Spawn-collector, floating, (12)207. 

Spawners at hatchery, difficulty with, 
(14) 152. 

Spawning areas offshore, (14) 15. 

areas, relation of currents to, (13) 

13; (15)374. 

of cod in autumn in North Sea, (23) 

253. 

of cod, &c., in Dornoch Firth, (23) 

20. 

of edible crab, (18) 85, 88. 

of fishes, males ripe before and after 

females, (8) 257. 



of 



Spawning of flat fishes, (14) 147. 

ofishore, (10)236. 

of grey gurnard, relation 

migrations to, (17) 222. 
of lobster, (6) 299; (18) 86 ; (22) 117 ; 

(23) 100. 

of mackerel, (18) 327. 

of pike, (5) 347. 

of plaice at Hatchery, (23) 120. 

of plaice, relation of temperature 

to, (20) 344. 

of salmon in Rhine, (6) 307. 

of shore-crab, (22) 118, 120. 

of sprat, (21) 67. 

period in Loch Fyne compared 

with East Coast, (17) 96. 

of anchovy, (4) 252 ; (6) 306. 

of angler, (7) 197; (8) 269; 

(21) 189. 

of Ai^hia peUucida, (4) 245. 

of armed bullhead, (7) 197 ; 

(21) 74. 

of Aste^'ias rubens, (4) 216. 

of ballan-wrasse, (4) 246. 

of bass, (4) 244. 

of bib, (4) 247 ; (8) 268 ; 



98. 



(17) 



of boar-fish, (4) 245. 

of brill, (4) 250 ; (7) 192 ; (8) 

265 ; (10) 232, 234 ; (15) 243, 370 ; (17) 
98. 

of burbot, (4) 249. 

• of Cantharus lineatus, (4) 244. 

of Carcimis mcvnas, )21) 138, 

174. 

• — of carp, (4) 252. 

of cat-fish, (4)245 ; (7) 197 ; (8) 

269; (21)64. 
of coal-fish, (4) 247 ; (7) 195 ; 

(8)268; (10)233; (15) 243, 370; (17) 

97. 
of cod, (4) 246 ; (7) 195 ; (8) 

266 ; (10) 233, 234 ; (15) 222, 370 ; (17) 
97; (19)227; (23)20, 252. 

Spawning period of common dab, (4) 
251 ; (7) 189 ; (8) 262 ; (10) 2.34 ; (15) 
238, 370 ; (17) 98 ; (20) 360 ; (21) 45. 

— — of common eel, (4) 253. 

of conger-eel, (4) 253 ; (9) 392. 

• — of Couch's whiting, (4) 247. 

of Cribrella oculata, (4) 216. 

of Dentex vidgaris, (4) 244. 

of five-bearded rockling, (4) 

249. 

of flounder, (4) 251 ; (7) 195 ; 

(8)263; (10)234; (15) 232, 370; (17) 



of garfish, (4) 252. 

of gemmeous dragonet, 

197; (8)269; (17)99. 
of Gobius ruthemparri, 

245. 



(7) 
(4) 



• of grayling, (4) 252. 



• of areater weever, (4) 244. 
of grey gurnard, (4) 244 ; (7) 

196; (8)268; (10)234; (15) 370; (17) 

222. 
of haddock, (4) 246 ; (7) 195 ; 

(8)265; (10)232, 234; (15) 370; (17) 

97; (19) 211. 



240 



Part Til. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 



Spawning period of hagfish, (8) 269. 

of hake, (4) 248 ; (7) 195. 

of halibut, (4) 249 ; (7) 192 ; 

(8)265; {10)233. 
of herring, (4) 50, 51, 95, 253 ; 

(18) 253. 

of herring in Channel, (6) 299. 

of horse-mackerel, (4) 245. 

of John Dory, (4) 245. 

'■ of lampern, (4) 254. 

of lanthorn gurnard, (4) 244. 

of larger sand-eel, (4) 249. 

of lemon dah, (4) 251 ; (7) 188, 

386; (8) 261; (10) 234, 370; (17) 98; 

(21) 48. 

of lesser sand-eel, (4) 249. 

of lesser weever, (4) 244 ; (21) 

70. 
of ling, (4) 248 ; (7) 195 ; (8) 

268; (10) 233 ; (15) 244, 370 ; (17) 99. 

of little sole, (7) 191 ; )17)99. 

of lobster, (23) 101. 

of Loch Leven trout, (4) 252. 

of long rough dab, (4) 250 ; (7) 

191; (8)264; (10)234; (15) 370; (17) 

98. 

of lumpsucker, (7) 197. 

of mackerel, (4) 245 ; )17) 98 ; 

(18) 327. 

of Norway pout, (19) 164. 

of Pagrus auratus, (4) 244. 

of Palinums, (6) 299. 

of Pandalus, (6) 299. 

of perch, (4) 244. 

of pike, (4) 252. 

of pilchard, (4) 253. 

of plaice, (4) 250 ; (7) 187 ; (8) 

260; (10)234; (15)370; (19) 97; (20) 

338. 
of plaice, observations in lai'ge 

tank in hatchery, (22) 262. 
of plaice, relation of, to 

temperature, (15) 249. 
of pollack, (4) 248 ; (7) 194 ; 

(8)268; (17)99; (20)251. 

of poUan, (4) 252. 

of poor-cod, (17) 98. 

of red gurnard, (4) 244. 

• of red mullet, (4) 244. 

of rockling, (17) 99. 

of Salmo fario, (4) 252. 

of Salmo fontinal is, (4) 252. 

of salmon, (4) 252. 

of sand-smelt, (4) 245. 

of sardine, (8) 372. 

• of sea-lamprey, (4) 254. 

of sea-scorpion, (4) 244. 

of sea-trout, (4) 252. 

of SerranuH cabrilla, (4) 244. 

of Serranus gigas, (4) 244. 

of sharp-tailed Lumpenus, (19) 

287 ; (22) 203. 

of short-finned tunny, (4) 245. 

of shrimp, (6) 299 ; )9) 406. 

of smelt, (4) 252. 

of sole, (4) 251 ; (7) 385 ; (8) 

265 ; (9) 390. 

of sole at Marseilles, (8) 372. 

of sprat, (4) 253 ; (15) 234, 370 ; 

(21)67; (22) 172. 



Spawning period of stone bass, (4) 244. 

of streaked gurnard, (4) 244. 

of sturgeon, (4) 254. 

of surmullet, (4) 244. 

of turbot, (4)250 ; (7) 192 ; (8) 

264 ; (10) 233, 234 ; (15) 242, 370 ; (17) 

98. 
of tusk, (4) 249 ; (7) 197 ; (9) 

259; (10)233. 

of twaite shad, (4) 253. 

of vendace, (4) 252. 

of viviparous lilenny, (4) 245. 

of whiting, (4) 247; (7) 194; 

(8) 267; (10) 233, 234; (15)370; (17) 

97 ; (19) 185. 
of witch, (4) 251 ; (7) 190 ; (8) 

263 ; (10) 234 ; (17) 99 ; (22) 186. 
of Zeugopterus pnnctatus, (4) 

250. 
of Zeugopterus unimacidatus, 

(4) 250. 
relation of duration of, to num- 
ber of eggs, (16) 124. 
relative intensity of spawning 

at diflferent times of, (17) 99. 
and spawning places of marine food- 
fishes, (7) 171, 182; (8) 13, 257, 258; 

(10) 232. 

of angler, (8) 269. 

of bib, (8) 268. 

of cat-fish, (8) 269. 

of coal-fish, (7) 195 ; (8) 268 ; 

(15)243. 
of cod, (7) 195; (8) 266 ; (15) 

194 ; (23) 252. 
of common dab, (7) 190 ; (8) 

262 ; (15) 238. 
of fishes, (7) 4; (8) 258; (10) 

31, 32, 235; (14) 12. 
offloimder, (7) 190; (8) 263; 

(15)232; (21)44. 
of food - fishes, conditions 

determining, (8) 258. 
of food-fishes, old ideas on, (8) 

164. 

of gemmeous dragonet, (8) 269. 

— of grey gurnard, (7) 196 ; (8) 

268 ; (15) 241 ; (17) 222. 

of haddock, (7) 193 ; (8) 265. 

of hake, (7) 195. 

of halibut, (7) 192 ; (8) 265. 

of herring, (17) 279. 

of lemon dab, (7) 189 ; (8) 261. 

of ling, (7) 195 ; (8) 268. 

of little sole, (7) 191. 

of long rough dab, (7) 191 ; (8) 

264. 

■ of lumpsucker, (8) 269. 

of plaice, (7) 187 ; (8) 259, 260. 

of pollack, (7) 194. 

of sprat, (15) 2.S5 ; (21) 67; 

(22) 172, 176. 

of turbot, (7) 192 ; (8) 265. 

of whiting, (7) 194 ; (8) 267 

(15) 227. 

of witch, (7) 190 ; (8) 263. 

relation of bottom to, (8) 258. 

pond, (21) 181. 

process, duration of, in individual 

fishes, (17) 227. 



of the, Fishery Board for Scotland. 



241 



Specific gravity observations, (7) 429. 

gravity of pelagic eggs, (17) 116. 

Sperms of common mussel, (5) 250. 
Spey Bay, trawling investigations in, 

(20) 104. 
Sphm-ium corneum, (8) 336 ; (9)271, 285 ; 

(15)320; (17) 159, 185. 
-; — lacnstre, (8) 338 ; (9) 276. 
Sphceroma ciirtam, (15) 135. 

rugicauda, (8) 329 ; (15) 317. 

Sphceronella ahi/ssi, (22) 254. 

acanthozonis, (22) 254. 

affiim, (22) 254. 

amphilochi, (22) 242, 253. 

aorw, (23) 150. 

antillensis, (22) 254. 

argissce, (22) 254. 

afyli, (22) 225. 

honnieri, (22) 225. 

caUopii, (22) 225. 

callisonue, (22) 242, 252. 

capensis, (22), 255. 

chine)m8, (22) 225. 

dHth<e, (22) 242, 252. 

ciirtipes, (22) 253. 

danica, (22) 253. 

decorata, (22) 253. 

drdichid', (22) 253. 

elegant nla, (22) 253. 

front alts, (22) 253. 

giardii, (22) 253. 

(lifanopvidi.-^, (22) 253. 

'holholli, (22) 253. 

in,'<lg)ii-^, (22) 253. 

intermedia, (22) 253. 

irregidari-s, (22) 253. 

leptocheira, (22) 253. 

longipes, (22) 253. 

marginata, (22) 253. 

messinensis, (22) 253. 

metopoe, (22) 253. 

microcephala, (22) 253. 

minuta, (22) 242, 251 ; (23) 141. 

— — mimnopsidis, (22) 253. 

paradoxa, (22) 242, 251. 

pygmcea, (22) 242, 253. 

vararensis, (23) 141. 

Sphyrion Imnpi, (19) 128 ; (23) 113, 114. 

Spiria/is retrovtrsus, (7) 325. 

Spiri/Hna arenacea, (7) 314. 

foliacea, (7) 311. 

vivipara, (8) 316. 

perjorata, (8) 316. 

Spirling. See Smelt. 

Spiroloculiwx canalicidata, (15) 165. 

limbata, (15) 165. 

planidata, (16) 274. 

Spirontocaris cranchii, (15) 132. 

gaiinardii, (15) 132. 

pmiola, (16) 156, 157, 209 ; (17) 279 ; 

(20) 480. 

securifrons, (15) 132; (18) 403; (19) 

278 ; (20) 516, 535, 537. 

Spiropagurus hyndmanni, (6) 258. 

bv^vis, (6) 258. 

Spirorhin horealis, (15) 157. 

Spistda Holidissima, (7) 341. 

Spongilla fluviatilis, (17) 156. 
Spotted ray. See Ray, homelyn. 

Sprat (Glwpea sprattus), (18) 288. 



Sprat, age of, (22) 180. 

and winter herring, notes on 

natural history of, (23) 164. 

as food for herrings, (6) 228. 

as food for turbot and brill, (21) 

52. 

as "sardines," (10) 162. 

in trawl-net, (8) 177 ; (21) 67. 

destruction of young herring in 

fishing for, (2) 57 ; (23) 156. 

difference of larval, from larval 

herring, (6) 304. 

distinctions from herring, (2) 48 ; 

(4) 100. 

distribution of, (21) 67. 

distribution of eggs of, (15) 234. 

of eggs of, in Firth of Clyde, 

(15) 249. 

eggs of, (6) 304 ; (7) 305 ; (8) 285. 

eggs of, Hensen's observations on, 

(6) 304. 

fecundity of, (9) 268 ; (22) 285. 

food of, (20) 532. 

fishery in Firth of Forth, regulation 

of use of seine in, (18) 244. 

■ in Firth of Tay, (23) 156. 

fishing, (2) 57 ; (4) 205. 

proportion of young herring 

taken in, (23) 157. 

growth of, (4) 100 ; (22) 171. 

mature and immature, (8) 177. 

maturity of, (2) 55, 56. 

method of preparation of, as 

"sardines," (5) 218. 

on coast of France, (10) 162. 

parasites of, (18) 161 ; (19) 127. 

preyed on by herrings, (4) 126. 

proportion of, in "whitebait," (4) 

98. 

relation of length to weight of, (22) 

144, 148, 238. 

ripe ovaries of, (22) 285. 

size at maturity, (22) 181. 

skeleton of, (5) 291. 

spawning period of, (2) 56 ; (4) 253 ; 

(15)234; (21) 67; (22) 172. 

spawning places of, (15) 235. 

Squids, capelin attacked by, (3) 68. 

hei'rings attacked by, (3) 67. 

injuries to hooked fishes by, (4) 204. 

mackerel attacked by, (3) 68. 

note on an extra large specimen of, 

(6) 264. 

sparling attacked by, (3) 68. 

Star-fish, emigration of amseboid cor- 
puscles in, (6) 280. 
Star-fishes, depredations of, (4) 204. 

injurious to line-caught fish, (10) 

299. 
Starry ray. See Ray, starry. 
Statistics, fishery, charts showing pro- 
portional distribution of fish, (20) 89. 

comparison of drags of trawl 

from different grounds, (20) 80. 

comparison of, for different 

areas of North Sea, (20) 82. 

discussion on, (20) 75. 

imperfections of, (20) 75. 

influence of change of ground 

on, (20) 83. 



242 



Part III. — Twcniy-tJtird Annual liepurt 



Statistics, fishery, information regarding 
the place of fishing necessary, (20) 88. 

in relation to method of fish- 
ing, (20) 79. 

in relation to place where fish 

caught, (20) 80. 

■ necessity of ascertaining dura- 
tion of fishing operations, (20) 90. 

necessity of ascertaining place 

of capture of fish, (20) 80 ; (21) 38. 

necessity of dealing with 

catches of individual vessels, (21) 38. 

new system of, described, (20) 

75. 

report on, (7) 178. 

of Buckhaven haddock line-fishing, 

(5) 130. 

of East Coast fisheries, (6) 18, &c. 

of fish caught by forty-three East 

Coast fishing boats, 1887, (5) 132. 
of fish caught by line and net boats 

in inshore grounds, (5) 82. 
of fish caught by line-fishermen, 

(14) 21. 
of fish caught by line-fishermen and 

beam-trawlers, (7) 19; (8)26; (9) 24; 

(12) 28, 179. 
of fish caught by line-fishermen in 

the Moray Firth, (14) 23, 120. 

of fish caught by trawlers, (20) 74. 

of fish caught in Aberdeen district, 

(6) 97. 

of fish caught in Anstruther district, 

(6) 117. 
of fish caught in Leith district, (6) 

124. 
of fish caught in Montrose district, 

(6) 108. 
of fish caught in Stonehaven district, 

(6) 100. 
of fish caught within the area 

restricted from trawling in Anstruther 

district, (5) 131. 

of fishermen and boats, (10) 12. 

of fishing boats, (7) 27. 

of fishing boats and fishermen 

engaged, (9) 8. 
of fish landed. Act empowering 

collection of, (20) 78. 
of fish landed, imperfection of, (20) 

76. 
of fish landed in Leith district in 

1884, 1885, and IS86, (5) 217. 
of fish landed by net and line boats 

and by steam beam-trawl boats, 

1886-7, (5) 206. 
of "flounder, plaice, and brill," 

analysis of, (20) 77. 

of great-liners, (20) 86. 

of line-caught fish from territorial 

waters, (12) 30; (14) 21. 

of North Sea fisheries, (21) 37. 

of Scottish fisheries since 1809, 

(10) 15, 174. 

of Tay sprat fishery, (23) 157. 

Stauroneis anceps, (9) 274. 
Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., (10) 244. 
Stegocephaloides aurates, (15) 138. 
christimiiensis, (15) 138; (17) 265; 

(20) 478. 



Stegop/ax hrevkomin, (20) 510. 

hrtrirodriii, (19) 260. 

longii'ostriti, (18) 401. 

Stenhelia hlanchardi, (18) 390. 

confnsa, (20) 449, 458. 

dtnticulata, (12) 240. 

dispar, (12)239. 

hir.KiUa, (12) 239 ; (20) 457. 

hispida, (12) 239; (15) 149; (19) 

248 ; (20) 457. 
i7na, (6) 239 ; (8) 318 ; (15) 149 ; (20) 

457; (21) 114. 
intermedia, (15) 169 ; (19) 248 ; (20) 

457. 

pygmcea, (23) 144. 

reflexa, (13) 167. 

Stenorkynchus phalangium, (6) 256. 

rontratus, (6) 256. 

Stenothocheres egregins, (22) 242, 250. 

sa7'si, (22) 225. 

Stenothoe marina, (7)319; (15) 138; (16) 

170, 177, 210; (17) 265; (20) 516, 527, 

529. 

monoculoides, (6)246; (15) 138. 

poUfxiaiia, (6) 246. 

Stephanojiyxi.s turris, (15) 214. 
Stephoa fidtoni, (16) 266; (18) 383. 

gyrans, (15) 146 ; (19) 237 ; (21) 110. 

minor, (16) 266 ; (20) 450. 

scofti, (20) 450; (21) 110. 

Steven, Dr J. Lindsay, (10) 323. 
Stewart, Dr C. Hunter, (7) 412, 472. 
Sthenometopa rohuata, (20) 478. 
Stichaster roseus, (15) 161 ; (20) 309, 319, 

324. 
Stickleback, fifteen-spined, [Gadtrosteua 

spinachia), (18) 281 ; (23) 157. 

fecundity of, (9) 254. 

food of, (20) 486, 505. 

in LochFyne, (4) 232 ; (15) 111. 

nest of, (4) 212. 

parasite of, (18) 147. 

• three-spined {Gasterodeusaculeatus), 

(18) 281 ; (23) 157. 

food of, (20) 486, 504. 

parasites of, (9) 273 ; (18) 147, 

179; (19) 122. 
Sfilifer turtoni, (7) 324. 
Stiliger modestufi, (8) 331. 
Sting ray. See Ray, sting. 
Stirling, Professor W., (2) 31 ; (4) 166, 

256. 
Stomatopora gramdata, (15) 157. 
Stomphia churchia;, (15) 163. 
Stone bass [Polyprion americanus), (18) 

274. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

Stonehaven, pelagic eggs of fishes off, 

(12) 300. 
Storms, effect of, on marine faiuia, (4) 

215. 
Stow-net fishing and the destruction of 

immature fish, (8) 190. 
Streaked gurnard. See Gurnard, 

streaked. 
Strehlocercus minutus, (17) 141, 184, 199. 
Striped wi'asse. See Wrasse, striped. 
Stronqyiocentrotus droebachiensis, (20) 

316V319, 324. 
Sturgeon (Acipenser stnrio), (18) 289. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



243 



Sturgeon caught in trawl, (21) 228. 

parasite of, (23) 110. 

sexual maturity in, (6) 303. 

spawning period of, (4) 254. 

Styelopsig grossidaria, (15) 114. 

Styli-plankton, (15) 303. 

Stylophorus hypocephalus, (18) 169. 

Suherites domuncula, (15) 165. 

Jicus, (15) 165. 

Succmea putris, (9) 285; (17) 159, 184. 

Sucker, Cornish (Lepadoijaster gouanii), 
(18) 279. 

Montagu's (Cyclogasfer {Liparis) 

montagui), (4)212, 232; (6) 269; (15) 
110; (18)279. 

eggs of, (3) 60 ; (16) 91. 

fecundity of, (9) 253. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 309. 

— post-larval condition of, (6) 269. 

rate of growth of, (12) 334. 

variety of, (3) 64. 

Suitability of Scottish waters for oyster- 
culture, (9) 16. 

Sulcator arenarius, (10) 264. 

Sunmnphithoe hamatus, (6) 249. 

hamulus, (6) 249, 

iSuuaristes pagnri, (11) 201, 202. 

Sun-fish, short (Orthagoriscus mola), 
(18) 289. 

parasites of, (18) 151, 157, 159 ; (19) 

126, 144; (23) 113. 

Surface- currents of North Sea, (IS) 370. 

Surface-drift in North Sea, dii-ection of, 
(15)339. 

Surirella biseriata, (9) 274. 

linearis, (9) 274. 

ovalis, (9) 274. 

Surmullet. See Mullet, red. 

Sutherland, Mr A., (9) 177. 

Sweden, fisheries of, (12) ,395 ; (13) 338. 

of Bohuslan, (9) 408. 

— fishery work in, (7) 405 ; (9) 407 ; 
(10)344; (11)498; (12)395; (13)340. 

Swedish fisliermen, (10) 209. 

Switzerland as a market for Scottish- 
cured herrings, (7) 166. 

Sympleustes latipes, (19) 262. 

Synaptn digitata, (15) 162. 

Syiiaptxra pertoralis, (18) 359. 

Synatiphihi-'i Inteiis, (19) 251. 

Synchelidium hrevicaiyum, (15) 139 ; (17) 
265 ; (20) 491, 510, 516. 

Syngimthua acus. See Pipe -fish, greater. 

Syrrhoe hamatipes, (11)213. 



Tabellaria flocculosa, (9) 274. 

Tachidius brevicwnis, (9) 302 ; (10) 250; 

(18) 380. 

crassicornis, (10) 250 ; (11) 203. 

discipes, (9) 302. 

littoralis, (15) 317 ; (19) 248. 

Tadpole hake. See Forkbeard, lesser. 
Talitrus locuata, (6) 245 ; (15) 137. 
Tanais tomentoa^is, (15) 135. 

vittatus, (6)251. 

Tanaopgis laticaudatus, (15) 135; (17) 

266; (19)269. 
Tajjex 2mlla><tra, (15) 126. 



(22) 



16) 



(15) 
(20) 



ut 



Tapes virginea, (15) 126. 

Tarbet Ness, trawling investigations off, 

(21)37; (22)27. 
Taurla medusarum, (9) 310. 
Tay, bacteria in water of, (4) 187. 

sprat fishing in, (23) 156. 

Tealia crassicornis, (15) 163. 
Technical instruction to fishermen, 

264 ; (23) 6. 
Tecnitella legumen, (16) 274. 
Telene rotundata, (8) 330. 
Teleostean development, notes on, 

211. 

fishes, sense organs of, (7) 385, 386. 

Tellinabalthica, (7) 228 ; (15) 128. 

crassa, (15) 128. 

fabnla, (15) 128. 

prisinatica, (20) 529. 

teymis, (15) 128 ; (20) 510, 522. 

Temora affinis, (10) 245 ; (18) 385, 

longicaudata, (6) 237. 

longicornis, (4) 148; (11) 203 

146, 305, &c. ; (16) 182, 183, &c. 

494, 500, 503, &c. 

as herring-food, (4) 125. 

distribution (jf, in Firth 

Forth, (16) 183. 

relo.v, (6) 237 ; (18) 384. 

Temorella relox, (6) 237. 

Temperature of bottom water on east 

coast of Scotland, (15) 371. 
of surface water on east coast of 

Scotland, (15) 371. 
of water, influence of wind on, (15) 

264. 
influence of change of, on spawning 

of plaice in confinement, (20) 441, 
low, on feeding of fishes, (22) 

162, 171. 
low, on movements of edible 

crab, (22) 125. 

low, on lobster, (23) 72, 98. 

on movements of shoi-e crab, 

(22) 125. 

— — on development of fish, (15) 178. 

on duration of development of 

fish eggs, (13) 15; (15)370. 
on growth of fishes, (20) 335 ; 

(22) 159. 
on growth of lobster embryos, 

(14) 14. 
on hatching of cod eggs, (5) 

242. 
— on migrations of gurnard, (17) 

216. 
on rapidity of digestion in 

fishes, (22) 171. 

on spawning of herring, (6) 306, 

variations of, on movements of 

fish, (13)339. 
in relation to the Dutch anchovy 

fishing, (9) 415. 
migrations of fishes in relation to, 

(20) 336. 

range of, in shallow water, (20) 336, 

relation of, to copepoda, (17) 114. 

relation of, to growth of plaice, (17) 

239 ; (20) 342. 
relation of, to spawning of plaice, 

(20) 344, 



244 



Part III. — Twenty-third Annual Report 



Temperature, relative sensitiveness of 
fishes to sudden changes in, (2'2) 162. 

observations, (7) 431 ; (12) 338. 

of sea and ponds, Dunbar, (17) 

205. 

Aberdeen Bay. See 

Faeroe-Shetland Channel, 



— — — m 

"Garland. 

in 

(15) 282. 



' Garland 



in Firth of Clyde. 



See 
See 



in Firth of Forth, 

" Garland." 

in Loch Achray, (17) 152. 

in Loch Arklet, (17) 142. 

in Loch Doon, (17) 170. 

in Duddingstone Loch, (17) 

166. 

in Forfar Loch, (17) 156. 

in Loch Katrine, (17) 147. 

in Loch Leven, (17) 161. 

in Loch Lochy, (17) 180. 

in Loch Lomond, (17) 136. 

in Loch Ness, (17) 175. 

in Loch Oich, (17) 178. 

in Montrose Bay. See ' ' Gar- 
land." 

in Moray Firth. See "Gar- 
land." 

in St. Andrews Bay. See 

" Garland." 

report on, (13) 15, 302. 

Tenacity of life in plaice, (23) 253. 

Tephritis, (18) 354, 356. 

sinensis, (18) 356. 

Terehellides stroemii, (15) 158. 

Terehratulina caput-serpentis, (15) 129. 

Territorial waters, deliverance of Parlia- 
mentary Committee respecting, (12) 

deliverance of Listitute of 

Liternational Law respecting, (12) 12. 
■ — fish caught in, (10) 13, 28 ; (12) 

30. 
inadequacy of present limit of, 

(11) 13; (12) 11, 12, 385. 

limits of, (11) 13 ; (12) 11. 

Tetragoniceps hradyi, (10) 253. 

hrevicauda, (18) 392. 

consimilis, (12) 244; (16) 268. 

incertus, (10) 254, 260; (21) 117. 

macronyx, (10) 253 ; (17) 256. 

mcdeolata, (10) 252, 253, 254; (IS) 

391, 

pygmmtis, (21) 117. 

Texhdaria gramen, (8) 315 ; (16) 275. 

pyjincea, (15) 166. 

sagiUula, (8) 315; (15) 166. 

trochus, (16) 275. 

variabilis, (8) 315. 

Thalassiosira gravida, (15) 214. 

nordenskioldii, (\5) 214:. 

Thalassiothrix longissima, (15) 214, 301. 
Thalestris dausii, (4) 152; (9) 303; (15) 

152; (21) 130. 

forficuloides, (12) 255 ; (15) 152. 

ha'rpactoides, (10) 257, 258 ; (11) 203. 

helgolandica, (9) 303 ; (17) 258. 

longimana, (4) 152; (6) 240; (15) 

152; (16)177, 210. 



Thalestris mysis, (4) 151 ; (13) 170; (15) 

152. 

peltata, (16) 269 ; (21) 129. 

rufocincta, (6) 240; (10) 257; (16) 

269; (21) 130. 

rufo-violascens, (9) 303. 

semdatus, (8) 319; (9) 302; (16) 

177, 210. 
Thaumaleus daptaredii, (22) 248. 

rigidius, (22) 242, 248. 

rostratus, (22) 242, 249. 

tliompsoni, (20) 449, 470 ; (22) 242, 

248. 

zetlandicus, (22) 242, 249. 

Thaumatocotyle concimia, (22) 278. 
Thelepus circinatus, (15) 158. 
Themislo hrevispinosa, (6) 255. 

compressa, (10) 265. 

longispinosa, (6) 255. 

Thersites gasterostei, (18) 146; (19) 122. 
Thickback {Solea variegata), (18) 287. 

in Moray Firth, (22) 286. 

eggs of, (22) 286. 

Thick-lipped grey mullet. See Mullet. 
Thomson, Mr George M., (13) 336. 
Thompson, Mr J. C, (8) 363. 

Mr J. Stuart, (23) 130. 

Mr Lindsay, (11) 21, 487. 

Professor D'Arcy, (18) 361; (19) 

114, 125. 
Thorellia brunnea, (8) 318 ; (15) 148. 
Thornback ray. See Ray, thornback. 
Thoulet, Professor M. J., (9) 420; (13) 

345. 
Thracia papyracea, (15) 129. 

villosiuscula, (15) 129. 

Tliree-bearded rockling. See Rockling, 

three-beai'ded. 
Three-mile limit of territorial waters 

in relation to fisheries, (11) 13; (12) 

11. 
Thresher shark. See Shark, thresher. 
Thurso Bay, trawling investigations in, 

(20) 95. 
Thymallns indgaris. See Grayling. 
Thynnus pjelamys. See Bonito. 
Thyone rapharms, (15) 162; (20) 307, 

319, 324. 

fitsits, (15) 162 ; (20) 307, 319, 324. 

Thysanoessa horealis, (10) 267. 

neglecta, (16) 158, 160, 209; (17) 268 ; 

(18) 403. 

na7ia, (4) 157. 

norvegica, (4) 157 ; (6) 254. 

raschii, (4) 157 ; (6) 254. 

Thysanote impndica, (18) 169; (20) 299. 
Tidal observations in Loch Fyne, (15) 

268. 
Tides affecting sprat fishing in Tay, (23) 

163. 
Tides, influence of, on surface drift, (15) 

360. 
Tomopteris onisciformis, (6)282 ; (15) 157, 

307, 311; (16)210. 

ciliated organs of, (6) 282. 

eggs of, (6) 282. 

Tope (Galeus canis), (18) 290. 

food of, (4) 213. 

parasites of, (18) 157, 172. 

Toper. See Tope. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



245 



Topknot, MuUer's (Zeugoptervs punc- 

fatu.^), (4) 226; (8) 285; (21) 229. 

eggs of, (7) 304 ; (17) 83, 93. 

in Firth of Forth, (S) 357. 

in Loch Fyne, (15) 112; (18) 

357. 

on East Coast, (21) 229. 

parasites of, (19) 122 ; (20) 290. 

spawning period of, (4) 250. 

young stages of, (13) 333. 

Norway (Zeugopteru-i. {ScopjJithal- 

miis, Rhomhus) norvegicus), (12) 19, 

227; (18)28.5,357. 

eggs of, (16) 91. 

intraovarian eggs of, (16) 97. 

one-spotted (Zeiigopterui: unimacu- 

latm), (18) 285. 

eggs of, (17) 83, 93, 96. 

habits of, (4) 225. 

in Loch Fyne, (15) 112. 

ripe eggs of, (4) 226. 

spawning period of, (4) 250. 

Topknots, yoinig of, (11) 246. 
Tornatina mamillata, (15) 115. 

nitidula, (15) 115. 

obtusa, (15) 115. 

truncatula, (15) 115. 

umbilicata, (15) 115. 

Torpedo [Torpedo nohUiana), (2) 79 ; (19) 

290. 
Torpedo marmorata, (2) 79. 
Torsk. See Tusk. 
Torida morrhua, (6) 205. 
Tosh, Dr J. R., (12) 19, 20, 300, 333. 
Trachelifer, (17)269. 
Trachelohddla lophii, (19) 138. 

pnnrtafa, (19) 138. 

<itriata, (19) 138. 

Traciiinn.s draco. See Weever, greater. 

vipera. See Weever, lesser. 

Trawlers, flat fishes landed by, (20) 77. 
observations made on commercial, 

(20) 73. 

routine work on board, (19) 58. 

statistics of fish caught by, (20) 74. 

Trawl-net, influence of mesli on size of 

fishes caught, (19) 62. 
invertebrate fauna taken by. See 

" Garland." 
relation of size of mesh to capture 

of immature fish, (8) 182; (12) 302; 

(19) 64. 

used by "Garland," description of, 

(14) 129, 130. 
Trawl-nets, mesh of, (13) 334. 
relation between size of mesh and 

fish captured, (12) 302. 
Trawling, action of net on bottom in, (8) 

360. 
and the fisheries, observations on, 

(12) 15. 

area of fishing extended, (20) 83. 

areas frequented by Aberdeen 

vessels in 1891 and 1901, (20) 140. 
at Iceland, statistics of catches at, 

(20) 1.35. 

capture of immature fish by, (6) 3 ; 

(8) 179, 195. 
change of grounds by Aberdeen 

trawlers, (20) 126. 



Trawling, comparative experiments with 
otter- trawl and beam -trawl, (20) 118. 

— comparative productiveness of 
different areas in North Sea, (20) 138. 

comparison of adjacent closed and 

unclosed areas, (7) 22. 
comparison of amounts of fish landed 

by beam-trawlers and line-fishermen, 

(6)7. 
comparison of catches of trawlers 

from different parts of the North Sea, 

(20) 135. 
effect of change of grounds in 1891 

and 1901 on statistics, (20) 141. 
enquiries of (iJovernment com- 
missioners regarding, (6) 17. 

enquiries of committee, (6) 2, 17. 

extension of fishing to north-eastern 

parts of North Sea, (20) 126. 

for herring. See Seine-net. 

grounds at first frequented bj' the 

Aberdeen tiawlers, (20) 127. 

in Australia, (9) 400. 

in Bay of Biscay, statistics of 

catches, (20) 135. 

in France, (9) 419. 

in Holland, investigations on, (13) 

341. 
in Ireland, enquiries regarding, (9) 

395. 

in Italy, enquiry regarding, (7) 401. 

in Japan, investigations on, (13) 348. 

in Spain, enquiries regardJing, (7) 

396, 398; (13) 346. 

limits of closed waters, (8) 370. 

regulations regarding, (13) 346. 

increase of abundance of fish in 

protected waters, (6) 18. 
increase of small fish in protected 

waters, (6) 2. 
influence of size of mesh of net on 

fish caught, (19) 62. 
in relation to eggs of fishes, (7) 401. 

method of treating information as to 

place of fishing, (20) 137. 

necessity of regulating, in Firth of 

Clyde, (6) 5. 
on beach, effect of clear water on 

result of, (17)2.33. 

on deep-water grounds, (19) 60. 

place of fishing, how ascertained, 

(20) 136. 
proportion of marketable and un- 
marketable fishes, (19) 60, 61. 
I'ecords as to place of fishing, (20) 

135. 
regulations closing waters against, 

(20) 128. 
relation of mesh of net to fish cauglit, 

(8) 182. ^ 
result of successive hauls on same 

ground, (21) 34, 36. 
small-meshed net used for collecting 

small fishes, (20) 327. 
speed at which net is towed, (20) 

122. 
statistics of catches for a period of 

years, (20) 126. 

vessels, changes in, (12) 169. 

vitality of fish caught by, (8) 183. 



246 



Part III. — Tioenty -third Annual Report 



Trawling experiments of " Garland." Set 
" Garland." 

at Orkney. See "Garland." 

description of, (14) 133. 

in Aberdeen Bay. See 

"Garland." 

in Aberdeen Bay, description 

of stations, (5) 55. 

in Clyde, description of stations, 

(18) 20. 

inefficiency of " Garland" for, 

(20) 29. 

in Firth of Clyde. See "Gar- 
land. " 

in Firth of Forth. See " Gar- 
land." 

in Firth of Forth, descriptitjn 

of stations, (5) 52. 

in Firth of Forth, comparison 

of periods, (20) 21. 

in Forth and St. Andrews Bay, 

conclusions from, (14) 144. 

in Montrose Bay. iS'ee " Gar- 
land." 

in Moray Firth. Set "Gar- 
land." 

in Mora}' Firth, desciiption of 

stations, (19) 18. 

in St. Andrews Bay. See ' ' Gar- 
land." 

in St. Andrews Bay, descrip- 
tion of stations, (14) 130. 

origin of, (14) 128. 

review of results of , (14) 11,145. 

investigations by steam-trawlers, 

(19)58; (22) 13; (23) 13. 

by steam-trawlers at Faeroe, 

(23) 31-33, 58-64. 

by steam -trawlers in Aberdeen 

Bay, (19)' 68, 79, 85; (20) 92, 95, 96, 
98, 99, 102-106, 109, 110, 112 ; (22) 19 ; 
(23) 13, 14, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 48, 49, 
53, 57. 

— ■ by steam-trawlers in Burghead 

Bay, (20)93, 97, 98, 101, 104, 111, 113; 
(23) 18, 19, 22, 26, 27, 29, 30, 42, 44, 
45, 50-57. 

by steam-trawlers in Cromarty 

Firth, (20) 93. 

by steam-trawlers in Dornoch 

Firth, (20) 94, 97, 101, 104, 107, HO ; 
(23) 20, 21, 24, 26, 29, 42, 43, 47, 52, 
55, 57. 

by steam-trawlers in Dunnet 

Bay, (23) 16. 

by steam-trawlers in Lunan 

Bay, (20) 96. 

by steam-trawlers in Moray 

Firth, (19) 18, 69, 80, 88 ; (20) 18 ; (22) 
19 ; (23) 13, 14, 26. 

• by steam-trawlers in North 

Sea, (20) 73. 

by steam-trawlers in Sandside 

Bay, (23) 15, 36, 37. 

■ by steam -trawlers in Sinclair 

Bay, (20) 94. 

by steam-trawlers in Spey Bay, 

(20) 104. 

by steam -trawlers in Thurso 

Bay, (20) 95. 



Trawling investigati(jns by steam- 
trawlers off Dunbeath, (20) 94. 

Ijy steam-trawlers off the Firth 

of Forth, (22) 48. 
by sleam-trawlers off' Lossie- 
mouth, (20) 93, 101 ; (23) 20, 24, 
41, 46. 

by steam-trawlers off Lybster, 

(20) 106, 112, 114; (23) 15, 24, 34, 35, 
36, 47. 

by steam trawler oQ' Ord of 

Caithness, (23) 15, 37, 38. 

by steam-trawlers on deep- 
water gromids, (19) 67, 71 ; (20) 114. 

by steam-trawlers on Smith 

Bank, (20) 95, 96, 106, 114; (21) 18; 
(22) 25, 30, 36, 43, 45 ; (23) 13, 22, 24, 
31, 44, 48, 57. 

by steam-trawler on "Witch 

grounds," (23) 13, 17, 26, 39, 50. 

Trehiux candatns, (9) 306 ; (18) 155. 

Tremadota parasita, (19) 137 ; (20) 299 ; 
(22)278; (23) 115. 

Tricho-plankton, characters of , (15)302. 

Trichopsetta, (18) 356. 

Trkhotropis horealis, (15) 119. 

Triforis jjerverm, (15) 118. 

Triyla cnciilus. See Gurnard, red. 

(jnrnardus. See Gurnard, grey. 

hirmulo. See Gurnard, sapphirine. 

lineata. See Gurnard, streaked. 

lucerna. See Gurnard, lanthorn. 

obscura. See Giirnard, lanthorn. 

Triylops imirrayi, (13) 165 ; (16)8; (18) 
276. 

Triloculina hrongniartii, (7) 313. 

ohlonga, (7) 312. 

Triopa clarigera, (15) 116. 

Tripos-plankton, characters of, (15) 302. 

TriMoma coccineum, (19) 144. 

moke, (19) 144. 

IVitceta gibbosa, (14) 160 ; (19) 262, 

Tritonia hombergi, (15) 117. 

Trivia enrop<ea, (15) 118. 

Trochamina ivflata, (8) 315, 322; (16) 
275. 

macrescens, (8) 315. 

ochracea, (8) 315. 

plicata, (16)275. 

roberfsoni, (16) 275. 

squamata, (15) 166. 

squamata-gordialis, (8) 314. 

Trochopus linearis, (19) 143. 

Trochus gramdatus, (15) 168. 

lyonsii, (8) 331. 

montacuti, (8) 331. 

tumidus, (6) 231. 

zizyphinui, (8) 331. 

Troplion muricatus, (15) 118. 

truncatus, (15) 118. 

Trophonia glmica, (15) 158. 

Trout, catarrh of gills of, (12) 294. 

common, parasites of, (19) 132. 

sea- [Salmo trntta), (18) 287. 

spawning period of, (4) 252. 

Trnncatulina lobcdida, (9) 288 ; (15) 167. 

nngeriana, (16) 277- 

Tryblionella angustata, (9) 274. 
Trygon pustinaca. See Ray, sting. 
Tryphanit malmi, (22) 243, 256. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



247 



Tryphosa ciliata, (7) 327. 

horringii, (14) 158. 

longipes, (7) 320 ; (22) 257. 

nanoides, (22) 256. 

sarsi, (15) 137. 

Tryphomlla horringii, (19) 258 ; (20) 523. 
Tryphosites loiigipes, (15) 137. 
Tub-fish. See Gurnard, sapphirine. 
Tuhifex rivulorum, (9) 273. 
Tumour attached to stomach of a saithe, 

(13)236. 
Tumour, cystic, in head of cod, (4) 215. 

from a tunny, (11) 392. 

Tumours, caseous, in muscels of hake, 

(3) 76. 

in haddock and cod, (10) 323. 

multiple, in plaice and flounders, 

(3)66; (4)214; (11)391. 
Tiuiny [Orcynm thynnms), (18) 277. 
description of one caught in Firth 

of Forth, (4) 206, 

parasites of, (4) 207. 

skeleton of, (12) 272. 

spawning period of, (4) 245. 

Tupper, Sir Charles, (8) 359 ; (6) 192. 

Turbo politus. 

TurhoniUa ruja, (15) 121. 

Turbot {Rhombus maximum), (15) 112; 

(18) 285, 357. 

abnormal specimen of, (2) SO. 

cross-fertilisation of, with lemon 

dab, (8) 358. 

development of, (13) 14, 224. 

distribution of, (21) 51. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 171; (21)51. 

distribution of young, (10) 279. 

— — eggs and larv.-e of, (12) 19, 222. 
eggs of, (7) 304 ; (8) 285 ; (10) 274 ; 

(13) 14, 224; (14) 151, 172; (15) 187; 
(16)91, 114; (17) 82, 83, 84. 93, 96, 
104. 

eggs of, distribution of, (15) 242, 2-50. 

experiments in breeding of, (14) 150. 

fecundity of, (9) 262. 

food of, (7) 234, 240 ; (8) 249, 250, 

252, 253, 255 ; (20) 312, &c. ; (21) 52. 

growth of, (11) 195. 

hatching of, (12) 11; (13) 9, 131; 

(14) 150; (16) 219. 

larvie of, (13) 14, 244. 

mature and immatvire, (8) 380. 

migrations of, (11) 189 ; (21) 51. 

minimum size at maturity of, (8) 

161, 162, 163. 
parasites of, (18) 152, 165 ; (19) 1.37, 

143. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 307. 

proportion of males to females, (8) 

349. 
relation of length to weight in, (22) 

144, 216. 
remarks on gravid forms at Dunbar, 

(13) 244. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size-limit between mature and 

immature, (22) 18. 
spawning period of, (4) 250 ; (7) 

192 ; (8) 264 ; (10) 232, 236 ; -(15) 242 ; 

(17) 98. 



Turbot, spawning places of, (7) 192 ; (8) 

264. 

young of, (11) 246. 

Turkey as a market for Scottish-cured 

herrings, (7) 164. 
Turner, Sir William, (20) 541. 
TmTitella, (7) 347 ; (20) 497. 

ferebra, (15) 119 ; (20) 522. 

Turfonia minuta, (15) 125. 

Tusk (Brosmiu.s brosme), ( 10) 260 ; (21 ) 63. 

development of, (10) 289. 

eggs of, (10)288; (16) 91, 114, 115. 

fecundity of, (9) 259. 

parasite of, (18) 180. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

— • — small size of testes of, (10) 240. 

spawning period of, (4) 249 ; (7) 196. 

Tweed, mici'o-organisms in water of, (4) 

179, 184; (5)332. 
J'yphlotanais brevicoynis, (19) 268 ; (20) 

479. 



U 



Udonella caliiforum, (19) 144. 

Uiiciola planipes, (17) 265 ; (19) 266 ; (20) 

479, 511, 520. 
Undinopsis hradyi, (18) 384 ; (20) 451. 
United States as a market for Scottish- 
cured herrings, (7) 169. 
fishery work in, (6) 301 ; (7) 388 ; 

(8) 363 ; (9) 401 ; (10) 342 ; (12) 393 ; 

(13) 336. 
money spent on fisheries in, (12) 

393. 
piscicultural work in, (9) 402 ; (13) 

336. 
report on fishery industries of, (7) 

388. 
work of Fish Commission, (6) 14, 

16, 30; (8)363; (12) 393 ; (14) 8. 
Uraster ruhens, (7) 347. 
Urothoe elegans, (8) 327. 

marina, (14) 159 ; (15) 138; (18) 401. 

norvegica, (15) 138. 

pulchella, (14) 159. 

U.se of small-meshed nets in the herring 

fishing, (6) 295. 
Utriculus obfusus, (20) 510. 
Umgerina angulosa, (8) 316 ; (16) 277. 



Vaarsild, (17) 282. 
Vaginulina legumen, (16) 277. 

linearis, (7) 314. 

Valvata cristafa, (9) 271, 284, 288 ; (15) 

320; (17) 159. 
piscinalis, (8) .336; (9) 271, 276, 

281, 285 ; (12)285 ; (13)249 ; (15) 320; 

(17) 139, &c. 
Vah-ulina austriaca, (16) 275. 
Variability of characters in species, (18) 

294. 

various forms of, (18) 207. 

Variation in the size of fishes' eggs, (13 

15, 271. 

of lobster megalops, (23) 83. 

Variations, method of treating, (18) 201. 
Varigny, M. de, (12) 297. 



248 



Part III. — Tiventy-lMrd Annual Report 



Vannthompso)iia crlttata, (14) 158; (15) 

134. 

rosea, (4) 164. 

Vela, Senor R. Gutierran, (8) 21, 353 ; 

(9)389, 421; (11)487; (12)403. 
Velutellafltxills, (15) 120. 
Velutina lii'.vi(jata, (15) 120. 
Vendace {.Coregonu-'i vandedus), spawning 

period of, (6) 252. 
Venilia gracilis, (6) 253. 
Vemis camia, (15) 127. 

fasciata, (15) 127 ; (20) 527. 

gallina, (15) 127. 

minima, (8) 331. 

ovata, (15) 127. 

Vera^per, (18) 352. 

Vermes of Loch Fyne, (15) 157; (16) 273. 

pelagic, of Firth of Forth, (16) 190. 

Vermiculvm Income, (7) 313. 

oblongmn, (7) 312. 

Verneuilina pol y>ilropha, (16) 275. 
Verrucca stromia, (6) 237 ; (15) 155. 
Vertebra' of fishes, lines of growth in, 

(23) 130. 
Vertehra/iiia xiriata, (7) 312. 
Vertigo ant irtilii 10, (14) 168, 169. 
Veisicularia spiiiosa, (15) 157. 
Virhiti8 fanciger, (6) 260. 

varians, (6) 260. 

Virgulariamirahilis, (15) 163. 

Virgulina schreiherdana, (7) 315 ; (16) 

276. 
Vitality of eggs of ballan wrasse, (5) 

246. 
— — of fishes cauglit in trawl-nets, 

of young lobsters, (23) 67. 

Viviparous blenny. ^e Blenny, v'ivi- 

parous. 
Volvox glohator, (9) 275. 
Volvula acuminata, (15) 115. 



W 



Waddington, Mr H. T., (22) 125. 
Walker, Mr A. 0., (10)244. 
Wallace, Mr William, (14) 223. 
Walpole, Sir Spencer, (10) 173. 
Wattel, M. Raveret, (7) 384 ; (8) 21 ; (11) 

21, 487; (13) 16. 
Weber, Prof. Max, (6) 306. 
Webster, Mr H. A., (7) 384. 
Weever, young stages of, (9) 324. 
greater and lesser, question of 

specific distinction of, (4) 207. 
greater {Trachinus draco), (4) 207 

(7) 326 ; (8) 357. 
spawning period of, (4) 244 

(7) 197. 
lesser (Trachinus vipera), (4) 207 

(18) 277 ; (21) 69. 
• eggs of, (14) 223; (16) 114 

(17) 83, 93, 96. 

• embryo of, (16) 214. 

fecundity of, (9) 251. 

food of, (20) 486, 493. 

larger on East Coast than on 

West, (21) 71. 

migration of, (21) 70. 

proportion of sexes in, (21) 70. 



Weever, lesser, size of males and females, 

(21) 70. 

spawning period of, (4) 244. 

Weirs, destruction of immature fish by, 

(8) 190. 

fishing by means of, (8) 190. 

Weldon, Mr \V. F. R., (6) 299 ; (8) 361. 
West Coast expedition of "Garland," 

(11) 15, 23, 167. 

fishing ground on, (7) 5. 

of Scotland, vertebrate fauna of, (7) 

385. 
Westn'oodia carinata, (8) 326. 
nohilis, (4) 152; (6)240; (15)152; 

(21) 130. 
Westivoodilla cicada, (10) 263. 

hyalina, (10) 263. 

Whale, notes on Greenland whalebone, 

(7) 365. 

Whales in Spanish waters, (8) 370. 

Whelks, injuries to hooked fishes by, (4) 
204. 

Whiff'. Set Megrim. 

Whitch. See Witch. 

White, DrP., (7)385. 

Whitebait, (22) 171. 

nature of, (4) 98. 

Whitefish {Coregonu>< clupeiformis), com- 
position of, (5) 228. 

digestibility of, (5) 228. 

Whiting {Gadm merlangus), (18) 282. 

age of, at first-maturity, (19) 189; 

(20) 400. 

— — arrangement of muscles in, (4) 168. 

cross-fertilisation of, with grey 

gurnard, (8) 358. 

distribution of adult and immature, 

(8) 175. 

distribution of eggs of, (15) 225. 

eggs of, (7) 306 ; (8) 284 ; (16) 91, 

114 ; (17) 82, 8.3, 84, 93, 96, 10.3, 106. 

fecundity of, (9) 256. 

food of, (5) 317 ; (7) 230, &c. ; (8) 

231, 243, 249, 251, 252, 253, 255, 256 ; 

(9) 230, 235, &c. ; (10) 217, 227, 231 ; 
(20) 486, 513. 

growth of, (8) 175 ; (11) 196 ; (15) 

204 ; (19) 154, 166 ; (20) 335, 368. 
growth of, comparative, in different 

regions, (20) 399. 
immense shoals of young, in Firth 

of Forth, (8) 175. 

in Loch Fyne, (4) 232 ; (15) 111. 

larva of, (16)215. 

life-history of, (15) 194. 

mature and immature, (8) 175. 

parasites of, (18) 178 ; (19) 121, 146, 

149 ; (23) 108. 

pelagic habit of young, (20) 387. 

post-larval forms of, (7) 308. 

proportion of immature, landed by 

trawlers, (22) 19. 
proportion of males to females, (8) 

349. 
relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 148, 224. 

sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 

size, average, at maturity, (22) 150. 

size-limit between mature and im- 

matui'e, (22) 18. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



249 



Whiting, size, minimum, at maturity, (8) 

161, 162, 163. 
size of , at first -maturity, (19) 189; 

(20) 339. 

sizes of, (14) 144. j 

spawning areas of, (15) 227. 

spawning period of, (4) 247 ; (7) 194; 

(8) 267 ; (17) 97 ; (19) 185 ; (21) 20. | 
vertical distribution of early stages i 

of, (19) 187. 
young, caught in bag-net fishing for 

sprats, (23) 157. 
on deep-water grounds, (19) 

289. 
Couch's [Gadus poutamou), (18) 283; 

(19) 284. 

occurrence of, in Firth of Forth, 

(20) 539. 

spawning period of, (4) 247. 

pout. Ste Bib. 

Widegren, (4) 102. 

Wigton Bay, occurrence of anchovy in, 

(23) 252. 
Williamson, Dr H. Chas., (11) 17, 265, 

490 ; (12) 19, 298, 322 ; (13) 14, 15, 192, 

258, 271 ; &c. 
Wilmot, MrS., (9) 396; (10) 335; (11) 

493. 
Wilson, l)r John, (4) 218 ; (5) 247. 

Mr Peter, (4) 255. 

Wind, annual resultant of monthly means, 

(15) 356. 
effect of, in changing density of 

water in Loch Fyne, (15) 264. 
effect of, in changing temperature of 

water in Loch Fyne, (15) 264. 
eSect of, on surface currents, (15) 

356. 
Winds, prevailing, in the North Sea, (15) 

360. 
Witch {Pleuronectes cynoylossus), (15) 112; 

(18)286, 353; (21)49. 

abundant in Moray Firth, (21) 49. 

age of, (22) 195. 

distribution of, (21 ) 49. 

distribution of young of, (22) 190. 

duration of post -larval period, (22) 

270, 271. 
eggs of, (16) 91, 114, 115; (17) 82, 

83, 84, 93, 104. 
time taken by, to hatch, (22) 

186. 

fecundity of, (9) 264. 

food of, (7) 226, 238, 239, 246 ; (8) 

231, 237, 250, 254 ; (9) 226, 238, 342 ; 

(10)214, 223; (21)223. 

growth of, (22) 186. 

mature and immature, (8) 172. 

post-larval, (22) 187. 

post-larval and early young stages 

of, (22) 270. 

post-larval and young, (22) 270. 

proportion of immature, landed by 

trawlers, (22) 19. 
proportion of sexes among, (8) 349 ; 

(22) 195. 

rarity of young, (21) 49. 

relation of length to weight, (22) 

144, 210. 
sexual proportions of, (10) 239. 



Witch, size-limit between mature and im- 
mature, (22) 18. 
size, minimum, at maturity, (8) 161, 

162, 163. 
— - size of, at maturity, (10) 238 ; (22) 

195. 
spawning period of, (4) 251 ; (7) 190; 

(8) 263 ; (10) 234 ; (17) 99 ; (22) 186. 

sole. See Witch. 

Wolf-fish, ^ee Cat-fish. 

" Wonderkuil " fisherj' in Zuiderzee, (6) 

306 ; (8) 366. 

fisliing-net, (8) 157. 

Wondyrchroum, ancient trawl-net, (8) 

157. 
Wood's HoU Station, U.S., Fish Com- 
mission, (6) 302. 
Woodall, Mr John, (12) 205. 
Woodhead, Professor G. Sims, (3) 76 ; 

(4) 176. 
Worms, parasitic, on frsli, (19) 137. 
Wrasse, ballan (Lahrus maatlafi(s), (4) 

232; (15) 111 ; (18)281. 

food of, (4) 210. 

larvaj of, (5) 246. 

ova, fry, and nest of, (5) 245. 

parasites of, (19) 139; (23) 

109, 116. 

spawning period of, (4) 246. 

small-mouthed. See Centrolahrus 

exoletus. 

rainbow (Corisjulis), (18) 282. 

striped {Labrus mixtiis), (4) 232; (15) 

111; (18)281. 

food of, (21) 221. 

parasites of, (19) 127 ; (20) 291, 

293. 



X 



Xantho hydrophilus, (18) 404. 

incisus, (18) 404. 

Xanthoccdanus hwealis, (20) 449, 452. 
Xestoleheris aurantia, (7) 318 ; (15) 143. 

depressa, (6) 244 ; (15) 143. 

Xiphichilus fennimmus, (6) 245. 
Xylophaga dorsalis, (14) 158 ; (15) 128. 
Xystrmrys, (18) 352, 356. 



Yarrell's blennj'. See Blennj'. 

Yolk of teleostean eggs, chemical com- 
position of, (16) 1.36. 

of teleostean eggs, phj'sical charac- 
ters of, (16) 136. 

. See Eggs. 

Young fishes, destruction of, bj' sprat 
and sparling fishermen, (23) 156. 

lobsters, food of, (23) 69, 70. 

vitality of, (23) 67. 



Zaus goodsiri, (8) 319 ; (16) 269 ; (19) 250. 

oralis, (8) 319. 

spinafus, (4) 153 ; (6) 241 ; (15) 152 ; 

(16) 258, 260. 
Zeusfaber. See John Dory. 



250 



Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 



Zeiigopterus megastoma. See Megrim. 

norvegicus. See Topknot, Ncjrway. 

punctatiLs. See Topknot, MuUer's. 

unimacnlafjo*. See Topknot, one- 
spotted. 

Zippora memhranacea, (15) 119. 

Zizyphinus miUegraHHf<, (15) 122. 

montagui, (15) 122. 

zizyphitms, (15) 121. 

Zoarces viviparus. See Blenny, vivi- 
parous. 

Zoea of Carcinus mcenai^, (21) 139. 

of edible crab, (18) 88. 



Zoea of lo})ster, (23) 67. 

of shrimp, (19) 114. 

Zoantharia, (10) 266. 

Zones of growth in skeletal structures of 

fishes, (23) 125. 
Zonitt.'i radial idii.s (14) 168, 169. 
Zosime fasiformix, (18) 390. 

spdmdosa, (9) 301. 

tyjjica, (11) 202; (15) 149; (19) 

248. 
Zuiderzee as a nursery for plaice, (9) 414. 

fisheries in, (8) 366 ; (9) 414. 

fishes which spawn in, (8) 368. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 251 



X.— ICHTHYOLOGICAL NOTES. 

By Dr. T. Wemyss Fulton, F.R.S.E., Superintendent of Scientific 

Investigations. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

The Young of the Conger {Leptocephalus), - - • - 251 

The Anchovy {Engraiilis encrasicholns), ... - 252 

The Catfish (Anarrhichas lupus), . - . - - 252 

An Albino Plaice, ---.--- 252 

The Spawning of the Cod in Autumn in the North Sea, - - 253 



The Young op the Conger {Leptocephalus). 

In last year's Report I described and figured two specimens of 
Leptocephalus* both taken in the Moray Firth, one in December and 
the other in February. On 4th May last the Laboratory attendant, 
while using a small trawl of veiy fine netting, fitted on an iron frame, 
like a dredge-frame, for the capture of newly-transformed flat-fishes, 
caught a third specimen, and part of another. The drag was made in 
Aberdeen Bay, opposite the Bathing Station, in from four to five 
fathoms of water, and the fish in the net were brought ashore alive and 
placed in a tank in the tank-house at the Marine Laboratory. Next 
morning, on examining the tank, the Leptocephcdus was discovered 
alive, concealed in a chink. Besides this living specimen, the head part 
of another of apparently the same stage and dimensions was found 
adhering to the net ; it had been cut ofi' about a centimetr-e behind the 
head, probably by tiie action of the edge of the iron frame dragged 
along the bottom. Other similar hauls in the same locality were made 
on succeeding days, but no other specimens were secvired. 

The living specimen was transferred to a large glass basin, on the 
bottom of which sand was strewn, and a stone with sea-weed growing 
on it was placed in the centre. Tow-nettings and also collections of 
Crustacea from the beach, as well as minced mussels latterly, were 
placed in the tank. Here the young conger lived and thrived until 
13th June, when it disappeared. It was observed by the attendant in 
the morning, but was missed a few hours later. The overflow was 
cari'ied away by two S -shaped glass tubes, acting as syphons, and 
removing the water at a little distance below the surface. The bore of 
these tubes was about four millimetres in diameter, and it is not easy to 
understand how the Leptocephalus could have made its exit through 
either of them. 

As it was desired to rear it if possible, it was not removed from the 
vessel for examination. So far as could be judged, it was about five 
inches in length and about a centimetre in breadth, and corresponded 
closely to the second of the two forms described last year, and identified 
as L. punctatus, of Kaup. The myotomes and the median row of black 
dots could be seen distinctly, but none were observed on the ventral 
margin. It was slightly whitish, but translucent and almost trans- 

* Tiienly- Second Annual Report of the Fisheri/ Board Jor Scotland. Part III., p. 281. 



252 Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Report 

parent, and its eyes wei'e the only conspicuous part of it, the silvery lustre 
contrasting with the intense black pigment, of which there was also a 
somewhat triangular patch on the uppei' surface. 

At fii\st it habitually lurked in concealment under the overhanging 
edge of the stone, only its head being visible. On being distui'bed its 
first movement was to withdraw the head also, but if the disturbance 
continued, it came out from its lair and swam slowly round the vessel, 
close to the sand, with an undulatory or serpentine movement, stopping 
every now and again and swaying its head to one side or the otlier as if 
examining the bottom, which it occasionally tapped suddenly with its 
snout. Later, it took up a position on the top of the stone, among the 
weeds, with its body entwined among the stems. 

In the part of the other specimen, examined later after preservation 
in formaline, the depth behind the head was 6mm, and the thickness 
3mm., the diameter of the eye being TSmm. The lower jaw was con- 
spicuously longer than the upper, projecting considerably beyond it; 
minute dots of dusky pigment existed on the tip of the snout, and still 
more markedly on and around the tip of the lower jaw, extending 
backwards under it. The tissues had a solid consistence. This speci- 
men thus appears to differ somewhat from the one I described last year. 

The Anchovy {Engraulis encrasicholus). 

In some previous reports I have described the occvirrence of the 
anchovy in Scottish watei-s.* Ou 29th June, last year, a specimen was 
taken in a sparling (or smelt) net, near Creetown, Wigton Bay, and 
was sent by Mr. W. Poole, of that place, to Mr. R. Duthie, the Fishery 
Officer of the district, whom I have to thank for the specimen. Com- 
pared with other Scottish specimens that have come into my hands, it 
is unusually large. The end of the tail is damaged, and its length, as it 
is, is 178mm., or 7 inches, but when perfect it probably measured about 
184mm. According to Day, the anchovy rarely exceeds 6 J inches, but 
he mentions that Dunn has obtained specimens off the Cornish coast 
measuring eight inches in length. 

The Catfish {Anarrhichas lupus). 

The spawning period of this fish has not yet been well determined; 
it may therefore be worth while recording that on 6th August last, 
among a number which were caught by a trawler in 49 fathoms, six 
miles north-west of Foula Island, which lies to the westwards of the 
Shetlands, some of the females had the eggs well advanced. The fish 
were opened by Captain Samuel Caie and the eggs were sent in bottles to 
the Marine Laboratory. In three cases the eggs measured from 3mm. 
to 4mm. and were obviously immature, but in one instance they were 
fully mature, measuring 6mm., and they were isolated and separate, and 
apparently ready for extrusion. 

M'Intosh and Mastermant are probably right in supposing that the 
main spawning time of this fish is from November to January, with a 
margin on either side ; but the existence of a fully ripe female at the 
beginning of August shows that spawning may begin much earlier than 
November. 

An Albino Plaice. 

I am indebted to Mr. James Kobb for a specimen of an albino plaice 

* Eighth Annual Report of the Fishen/ Board for Scotland, Part III., p. 351 ; 

Tuentitth. \hii., p." 539. 

t British Marine Food Fishes, p. 201. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 253 

which was caught by the steam trawler " Chinkiang," 25 miles S.-E. by 
E. from Aberdeen in March last, and which was received alive at the 
Marine Laboratory. It was 14| inches in length and was everywhere 
destitute of pigment, except on the upper surface of the head and gill- 
cover and at the root of the ventrals, where a small patch existed. The 
ocular side was as white as the blind side. The fish was put into a tank 
along with other flat-fishes and was exceedingly conspicuous as it lay on 
the bottom. It lived for over two months and was found dead on 19th 
May. 

In the Eeport for last year * I described another albino plaice, so 
that they are not extremely rare. 

The specimen above described was interesting also as giving an 
example of the tenacity of life in this species. It was caught by the 
" Chinkiang " about two in the morning, put with the other plaice and 
brought to market ; it was being packed in a box in the usual way about 
ten o'clock, when it was discovered by Mr. Robb, who sent it to the 
laboratory in fresh water as preferable to the impure water of the 
harbour. 

The Spawning of the Cod in Autumn in the North Sea. 

Under this title, I contributed last year to the Publications de 
Circonstance (No. 8, 9) of the International Council for the Exploration 
of the Sea, a paper in which I described the occurrence of shoals of 
spawning cod in autumn, on a ground known as the " Eeef," lying 
about 180-190 miles E. by N., or E. by |-N., from Aberdeen, that is to 
say, close to the deep water of the Norwegian Channel, and about 
seventy or eighty miles from the coast of Noi-way. A few additional 
observations on the subject may be here mentioned. 

Last year the fishing on this ground was begun about the middle of 
July by one of the steam liners (the " Vigilant "), and later by others, 
and it was continued till late in the year. Mr. Forbes, the skipper of 
this vessel, informed me that the grounds on which they were fishing 
were situated 195 and 196 miles E. |-N. from Aberdeen in 55 and 56 
fathoms of water. He states that there is another patch of rough 
ground about 50 miles to the northwards where they also get spawning 
cod in autumn. In August I noticed the ripe cod in the fish-yards and 
traced them to the " Eeef " grounds, and I got Mr. Forbes to keep a 
tally of the cod taken on tAvo of his voyages. The first occasion was" 
30th August and the position was 165 miles E. |-N., the depth being 
56 fathoms. The number of cod caught was 18 score, or 360 fish, and 
the number from which the milt or eggs were observed to be running 
as they were brought on board was 37 males and 28 females, or nearly 
19 per cent. On this occasion, I was informed, the vessel was not qviite 
on the proper grounds ; they were a little too far north and, owing to 
fog, they were unable to see the sun to determine their position. When 
on the right ground, they say that practically all the cod taken are 
either spawning or full, or spent. The next occasion was the 14th 
September, the position being nearly the same, viz., 196 miles E. |-N., 
and the depth 55 fathoms. Forty-one score of cod, or 820 fish, were 
taken, and the number observed to be "running" was 83 females and 
67 males, or again nearly 19 per cent. One or two ling were also found 
to be spawning, but as a rule they were beginning to "fill up." 

It is of interest to note that the largest average catches of cod 
obtained by the Aberdeen steam-liners are taken from the area in 

*Fage 286. 



254 



Part III. — T t vc lit ij -third Annual Report 



which these grounds are situated. The statistics of the vessels in 1903, 
for which 1 am indebted to Professor D'Arcy Thompson, show the 
following, in cwts. per 100 lines used, for Square XX., in which the 
" Reef " lies :— 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


ilay. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Cod, 
Codling, - 








30-0 


60-6 
5-7.5 


09-6 
2-6 


92-8 
4-6 


114-8 
37-5 


1611 
5-24 


1431 
4-69 


109-6 
6-2 





And the complete statistics for the various Squares in the Noi'th Sea, 
in which the vessels fished in the last five months of the year are 
these : — 





XIII. 


XVI. 


XVII. 


XVIII. 


XX. 


XXI. 


XXII. 


XXIII. 


XXIV. 


XXV. 


XXVI. 


XXVIII. 


XXIX. 


August, - 










114-8 


55-1 










63-7 




0-8 


September, - 




75 






161-1 






13-3 


35 








0-6 


October, - 










143-1 






31-9 


50 


174-2 






39-5 


November, 






40-9 


23-6 


109-6 




20-2 


63-5 










44-6 


December, 


83-3 




69- 


31-8 






42-4 


54- 








34-1 


54-1 
















j-„ i. 




,1.1, „ 


e vv 


^ 







Square XXV., it may be said, lies to the south of XX., contiguous 
with it. 

Dr. Hjort, of the Norwegian Fishery Board, who visited the grounds 
in the "Michael Sars," the Norwegian investigation steamer, last 
August, has pointed out as an interesting fact that the temperature at 
the place where the spawning cod are found in autumn is the lowest 
for the year in the locality, while on the coastal banks, where the 
spawning takes place in spring, the temperature is also at the lowest 
during the spawning time. 



o/ the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



255 



INDEX. 



Aberdeen Bay, trawling investigations 
in, 13, 14, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, 48, 49, 
53, 57. 

A cipenser sturio. See Stvirgeon. 

Albino plaice, description of, 252. 

Ameira elegans, 144. 

Ancho^y (Ewjraulis encrasicholus), 
occurrence of, in Wigton Bay, 252. 

Annarhichas litpit'?. See Cat-fish. 

Anthosoma crassum, 112. 

smithi, 112. 

Arcturtlla dilatata, 151. 

Autumn spawning of cod, 253. 

Bacj-net for sprat fishing, description 

of, 161-162. 
Barret, Dr W. H., 166. 
Basse [Labrax lupus), parasites of, 109, 

117. 
Beard, Dr J., 166. 
Behaviour of lobsters, the, 95. 
Bib (Gadits luscns), parasite of, 108, 113. 
Body fluid of lobster, 98. 
Bomolochus onosi, 110. 

solew, 108. 

Brachiella triyJce, 115. 

Brady, Profes.sor G. S., 166. 

Brook, George, 166, 167. 

Burghead Bav, trawling investigations 

in, 18, 19, 22. 26, 27, 29, 30, 42, 44, 

45, 50-57. 

Caldekwood, W. L., 167. 
Caligus ahbreviatvs, 109. 

brevipedis, 110. 

crassiis, 1 12. 

minhmis, 109. 

7ninutus, 109. 

Casting, increase in size of lobster on, 

95. 

of lobster, 89. 

Cat-fish (Annarhichas lupus), eggs of, 

252. 

parasite of, 114. 

spawning time of, 252. 

Causes of failure of the Tay sprat fishery, 

161. 
Chondracanthus depressus, 114. 
Clarkson, Dr R. D., 167. 
CI et odes sarsi, 146. 
Cleve, Professor P. T., 167. 
Coal-fish, spawning of, in Dornoch Firth, 

20. 
Cod [Gadus callarius), lines of growth 

in otoliths of, 128. 

lines of growth in scales of, 130. 

parasite of, 108. 



Cod, spawning of, at Faeroe, 33. 

in autumn in North Sea, 253. 

in Dornoch Firth, 20. 

Cold, effect of, on lobsters, 72, 98. 

Conger, j'oung (Leptocephakis), specimens 
of, 251. 

Contribution to life-history of the lobster, 
65. 

Conveyance of J'oung lobsters, 68. 

Copepoda, as food of young lobster, 67. 

— — parasita, 108. 

Crab, eggs of, 154. 

fry of, 154. 

vitality of, 154. 

Crabs, hatching of, 154. 

Crustacea, new and rare, from the Scot- 
tish seas, 141. 

Cunningham, J. T., 167. 

Dabs, common, spawning of, in Dornoch 
Firth, 20. 

Daniel, Dr Alfred, 167. 

Dannevig, Harold C, 167. 

Day, Dr Francis, 167. 

Decalcifying action of formaline, 133. 

Description of bag-net for sprat fishing in 
Tay, 161-162. 

of larvte of lobster, 71. 

Destruction of herring and sprats by bag- 
nets, 156. 

of young fishes by sprat and spar- 
ling fishermen, 

Dichelestium st urionis. 111. 

Dickson, Dr H. K, 167. 

Diplectammi aquans, 117. 

Dornoch Firth, spawning of cod, etc. in 
20. 

trawling investigations in, 20, 21, 

24, 26, 29, 42, 43, 47, 52, 55, 57. 

Dunnet Bay, trawling investigations in, 
16. 

Duthie, Pvobert, 168, 175. 

Dyspontivs curticaudus, 148. 

Edington, Dr Alexander, 168. 
Eggs of cat-fish, 252. 

of crab, 154. 

• of lobster, 101, 102. 

external, of lobster, 102. 

■ I'ipe, of lobster, 102. 

Enrjraulis encrasicholus. See Anchuvy. 

Euryte longicauda, 143. 

Eurytemora affinis, 67. 

Ewart, Professor J. Cossar, 168. 

Expense of hatching operations, 121. 

External eggs of lobster, 102. 



256 



Part III. — Twenty -third Annual Report 



Faeroe, cod spawning at, 33. 

grounds, small percentage of 

unmarketable fish at, 33. 
ti'awling investigations at, 31-33, 

58-64. 
Fishes, parasites of, 108. 
young, destruction of, Ijy sprat and 

sparling fishermen, 156. 
Fletcher, John, 168. 
Flounder {PfeuronectesJIesus), parasite of, 

108. 
Flounders, spawning of, in Dornoch 

Firth, 20. 
Food of young lobsters, 69, 70. 
Formaline, decalcifying action of, 133. 
Fry from hatchery, liberation of, 124. 
Fryer, C. E., 168. 
FuUarton, Dr J. H., 168. 
Fulton, Dr T. Wemyss, 168, 169, 171. 

Gadiu^, zones of growth in the skeletal 
structures of, 125. 

Gadus hiscus. See Bib. 

General Index to the Scientific Reports, 
166. 

Gibson, Dr John, 171. 

Gray, Da\id, 171. 

Greenfield, Professor W. S. , 171. 

Grounds of Tay sprat fishery, 163. 

Growth of lobster, 85, 95. 

zones of, in the skeletal structures of 

fishes, 125. 

Gurnard, grey (Trigla gnniardus), para- 
sites of, 115, 116. 

streaked (Trig/a lineata), parasite 

of, 115. 

Haddock {Gadus cvglefinns), parasite of, 

108. 
Halliburton, Dr W. D., 171. 
Hard lobsters, 100. 
Hardening of the shell in lobster, 93. 
Haj-pacticus uniremis, 147. 
Hatchery at Bay of Nigg, operations at, 

120. 

scarcity of adult plaice for, 121. 

Hatching of cwtbs, 154. 

of lobster, 65. 

operations, expense of, 121. 

Heincke, Professor Friedrich, 129, 171. 
Herbertson, Dr Andi'ew J., 171. 
Herring, lines of growth in otoliths of, 

127. 
Herrings, proportion of young, taken in 

sprat fishing, 157. 
Homams vulgaris. See Lobster. 
Hoyle, Dr William E., 171. 

ICHTHYOLOGICAL NoteS, 251. 

Index to Scientific Reports, 166. 

Jenkins, Dr J. T., 127. 

Kyle, Dr Harry M., 171. 

Labrax lupus. See Basse. 

Lahrus hergylta. See Wrasse, ballan. 

Lamna cornuhica. See Shark, porbeagle. 

LaopJionte longtremis, 145. 

Larval stages of lobster, 69. 

Lawrence, George, 172. 



LepeophtheiruH sturionis, 110. 
Leptocephalns morrisii, 251. 

punctatu.s, 251. 

Lerwfa Inscl, 113. 

Lcsteira lump!, 1 1 3. 

Liberation of fry from hatchery, 124. 

Lines of growth in opercular bones, 129. 

in otoliths. 126, 128. 

in pectoral girdle, 131. 

■ — in scales of cod, 1.30. 

in scales of fishes, 125, 129. 

■ in scales of plaice, 125, 129. 

in skeletal structures of fishes, 

125. 

in vertebrae of fishes, 130. 

Ling {Molua molva), parasite of, 108. 
Lobster (Homarus vulgaris), appendages 

of the first zoea, 74. 

behaviour of, 95. 

body fluid of, 98. 

cast, shell of, 94. 

casting of, 89. 

contribution to life-history of, 65. 

conveyance of, 65, 68. 

description of larvie of, 71. 

effect of cold on, 72, 98. 

effect of the exposure of, to strong 

light, 98. 

eggs of, 101, 102. 

— — external eggs of, 102. 

food of the zoea, 78. 

forms resulting from the casting of 

zoea, 83. 

fry, stages in life of, 68, 69. 

growth of, 85, 95. 

hard, 100. 

hardening of the shell in, 93. 

hatching of, 6.5. 

increase in size of, on casting,- 95. 

indications of approaching moulting 

in, 93. 

larval, description of, 67. 

— • — male, description of, 89. 

measurements of, 103. 

megalops stage of, 68. 

"mj'sis" stage of, 69. 

ovaries of, 98. 

protozoea stage of, 68. 

ripe egg of, 102. 

senses of the, 97. 

size of, liefore and after casting, 92. 

soft, characters of, 94. 

spawning of, 100, 101. 

variation of the megalops of, 83. 

young, copepoda as food of, 67. 

food (jf, 69, 70. 

vitalitj- of, 67. 

zoea stage of, 67. 

Longipedia coronata, 143. 

Lossiemouth, trawling investigations off, 

20, 24, 41, 46. 
Lumpsucker [Cydopterus lumpus), para- 
site of, 108. 
Lybster, trawling investiu'ations off, 15, 

24, 34, 35, 36, 47. 
Lvthe. See Pollack. 



M'Intosh, Professor W. C, 172. 

Maclagan, Nellie, 172. 

Maitland, Sir J. R. G., Bart., 168, 172. 



of the Fishery Board for Scotland. 



257 



Masterman, Dr Arthur T., 172. 
Matthews, J. Diincan, 168, 173. 
Measurements of the lobster, 103. 
Megalops stage of lobster, 68. 
Methods adopted in hatching lobster, 65. 
Microcotyle donavani, 116. 

labrack, 117. 

Mill, Dr Hugh Robert, 171, 173. 

Milroy, Professor T. H., 173. 

Moray Firth, trawling investigations in, 

13, '14, 26. 
Movements of larval lobster, 67- 
Murray, Dr George, 173. 

Mr J., 173. 

" Mjsis " stage of lobster, 69. 

Natural history of the sprat and winter 

herring, notes on, 164. 
Nicotlue astaci, 149. 
Norman, Rev. Canon A. M., 173. 
Notes on the natural history of the spx'at 

and winter herring, 164. 

Operations at the Bay of Nigg hatchery, 
120. 

Opercular bones, lines of growth in, 129. 
Ord of Caithness, trawling investigations 

oft; 15, 37, 38. 
Otolith of cod, lines of growth in, 128. 

of fishes, lines of growth in, 126, 128. 

of herring, lines of growth in, 127. 

of plaice, lines of growth in, 126, 

133. 

Parasite of ballan wrasse, 109, 116. 

of basse, 109, 117. 

of bib, 108, 113. 

of cod, 108. 

of common sole, 108. 

of flounder, 108. 

of gre}^ gurnard, 115, 116. 

of haddock, 108. 

of ling, 108. 

of lumpsucker, 108. 

of plaice, 108. 

of pollack, 108. 

of porbeagle shark, 112. 

of streaked gurnard, 115. 

of sturgeon, 110. 

of three-bearded rockling, 110. 

of whiting, 108. 

Parasites of fishes, 108. 
Peai-cey, Frederick G., 173. 
Pectoral girdle, lines of growth in, 131. 
Penella fibrosa, 113. 

Jilosa, 113. 

orthagorisci, 113. 

Pennatulafilosa, 113. 

Pei'iod of Tay sprat fishery, 161. 

Phyllocotyle fjnrnardi, 115. 

Plaice, albino, description of, 252. 

(Phuronectes platessa), lines of 

growth in otohths of, 126, 133. 

lines of growth in scales of, 125. 

— otoliths of, 126, 133. 

parasite of, 108. 

spawning of, in Dornoch Firth, 30. 

tenacity of life in, 252. 

Pledanocotyle lorenzii, 116. 
Pleuronectidfe, zones of growth in the 

skeletal structures of, 125. 



Pollack (Gadus x^oUachius), parasite of, 

108. 
Prince, Professor E. E., 173. 
Proportion of berried hens in the catch 

of lobsters, 88. 
Protozoea stage of lobster, 68. 
Pseudocaligus brevipedis, 110. 
Pseiidocydopia giesbrechti, 141. 

Railway ratesfor fish from Dundee, 161. 
Reibisch, Dr J. , 125. 
Rockling, three - bearded {Onos tricir- 
ratus), parasite of, 1 10. 

Sandemax, George, 174. 

Sandside Bay, trawling investigations 

in, 15, 36, 37. 
Scales of fishes, lines of growth in, 125, 

129. 
Scarcity of sprats in Tay, 156. 
Scientific papers in annual reports, list 

of, 166. 
Scott, Dr Thomas, 167, 169, 174. 
Senses of the lobster, 97. 
Shark, porbeagle {Lamna cornubica), 

parasite of, 112. 
Size of the lobster before and after 

casting, 92. 
Skeletal structures of fishes, zones of 

growth in the, 125. 
Smith, Dr W. Ramsay, 175. 

W. Anderson, 175. 

Smith Bank, trawling investigations on, 

13, 22, 24, 31, 44, 48, 57. 
Soft lobster, characters of, 94. 
Sole, common (Solea vulgaris), parasite 

of, 108. 
Spawning cod, etc., in Dornoch Firth, 20. 
of cod in autumn in the North Sea, 

253. 

of lobsters, 100, 101. 

of plaice at hatchery, 120. 

Sphceronella aoroe, 150. 

minuta, 149. 

Vttrarensis, 150. 

Sphyrion lumpi, 113, 114. 

Sprat and herring, destruction of, bj' 

bag-nets, 156. 
and winter herring, notes on natural 

history of, 164. 

fishing in Tay, 156, 163. 

• in Tay, tides affecting, 163. 

in Tay, proportion of herrings 

taken in, 157. 
Sprats, low prices of, in Tay, 161. 

poor quality of, in Tay, 161. 

scarcity of, in Tay, 156. 

Statistics of Tay sprat fishery, 157. 

Stenhelia 2)ygmace, 144. 

Steven, Dr J. Lindsay, 174 

Stewart, Professor Charles Hunter, 1 75. 

Stirling, Professor William, 175. 

Sturgeon [Acipenser sturio), parasite of, 

110. 
Sun-fish (Orfhagoriscus mo/a), parasite of, 

113. 

Tay sprat fishery, 156. 

fishery, period of, 161. 

sprat fishing grounds in, 163. 



258 



Part III. — Tiventy-third Annual Rejjort. 



J 



Temora lonyiconiit), 67. 

Tenacity of life in plaice, 253. 

Thompsun, Mr J. Stuart, 130. 

Tides affecting the Tay sprat fishery, 163. 

Tosh, Dr James R., 176. 

Trawling investigations, 13. 

_ at Faeroe, 31-33, 58-64. 

-^ in Aberdeen Bay, 13, 14, 22, 

25, 28, 31, 34, 48, 49, 53, 57. 
in Burghead Bay, 18, 19. 22, 

26, 27, 29, 30, 42, 44, 45, 50-57. 
in Dornoch Firth, 20, 21, 24, 

26, 29, 42, 43, 47, 52, 55, 57. 

— in Dunnet Ba\', 16. 

in Moray Firth, 13, 14, 26. 

in Sandside Bay, 15, 36, 37. 

off Lossiemouth, 20, 24, 41, 46. 

off Lvbster, 15, 24, 34, 35, 36, 

47. 

off Ord of Caithness, 15, 37, 

38 
' on Smith Bank, 13, 22, 24, 31, 

44, 48, 57. 
on " witch-grounds,'' 13, 17, 

26, 39, 50. 
Trematoda parasita, 115. 
Trigla yurnardus. See Gurnard, grey. 
lineata. See Gurnard, streaked. 



Variatiox of the megalops of lobster, 
83. 



Vertebra of fishes, lines of growth in, 

130. 
Vitality of crab fr}', 154. 
r *'f young lobster, 67. 

Wallace, William, 176. 

Whiting (Gadus merlanyus), parasite of, 
108. 

Wigton Bay, occurrence of anchovy in, 
2.52. 

Williamson, Dr H. Charles, 176. 

Wilson, Dr John, 177. 

Mr Peter, 177. 

" Witch-grounds," trawling investiga- 
tions on, 13, 17, 26, 39, 50. 

Woodhead, Dr G. Sims, 171, 177. 

Wrasse, ballan {Lahrus herqylta), para- 
sites of, 109, 116. 



Young fishes, destruction of, bj' sprat 
and sparling fishermen, 156. 

lobsters, food of, 69, 70. 

vitality of, 67. 

of the conger {Leptocephalm), 251. 

ZoEA, lobster, the appendages of the 
first, 74. 

stage of lobster, 67. 

Zones of growth in the skeletal struc- 
tures of fishes, 125. 



^ 



^ 




WHSE 04383 



■•:-{Mii