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Full text of "A scientific and practical treatise on American football for schools and colleges"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



Scientific and Practical Treatise 



AMERICAN FOOTBALL 



Scboote ant> Colleges 



BY 

A. ALONZO STAGG 

AND 

HENRY L. WILLIAMS 



HARTFORD, CONN. 

Press of The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company 
1893 



Copyright, 1893, 

by 
A. A. STAGG and H. L. WILLIAMS, 

All rights reserved. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Preface, 3 

Introductory chapter for Beginners and Spectators, 7 

Training, 12 

The Center-rusher, . . . . . . . 18 

The Guard 26 

The Tackle, 34 

The End-rusher, ....... 43 

The Quarter-back, 50 

The Half-backs and Full-back, . . . . 58 

Plays, with diagrams, 75 

Index of Plays, 216 

Team Play, 221 

Field Tactics, . . 233 

Signals, ......... 257 

Axioms, 262 

Rules, 265 



711196 



PREFACE. 



THE game of football is fast becoming the national 
fall sport of the American youth. Among the 
larger eastern colleges, where it has been fostered and 
developed, football has now been raised to a definite 
science, but in the west the game is, as yet, compara- 
tively in its infancy 

The demand has been rapidly increasing among the 
smaller colleges and large preparatory schools from year 
to year for competent coachers, and it is evident that 
there is felt a wide-spread want for some source of 
definite information which shall describe the manner of 
executing the various evolutions, the methods of inter- 
ference, and the more difficult and complicated points of 
the game. 

It is with the desire of meeting this want so far as 
is possible, and with the hope of stimulating a love for 
the game and of raising the standard of play among the 
school-boys of this country, to whom the colleges and 
universities must look for the material out of which to 
construct their future elevens, that the authors have pre- 
pared this volume. 

The endeavor has been made to begin with simple 
steps in the early development of the game and advance 
by gradual stages to the most difficult evolutions and 
scientific tactics which have been mastered up to the 

(3) 



present day. In working out this principle the aim 
throughout has been clearness and precision. 

While it is the primary desire to furnish in this work 
a practical aid in the attainment of a higher standard 
of play among the preparatory schools and colleges, still 
it is hoped that the general public will find it an assist- 
ance to the better understanding of American football, 
which has come to hold such a prominent place in popu- 
lar favor. THE AUTHORS. 

September 15, 1893. 



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INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER 

FOR 

BEGINNERS AND SPECTATORS. 



American football is played on a rectangular field, 
three hundred and thirty feet long and one hundred and 
sixty feet wide, enclosed by heavy white lines marked in 
lime upon the ground. For the convenience of the 
referee in fulfilling his duties, the field is marked by ad- 
ditional lines five yards apart crossing from side to side, 
the fifth from either end being indicated by an especially 
heavy one known as the ' ' twenty-five yard line. " The 
" center of the field " is located at the middle point of the 
eleventh line. 

At the center of the goal lines at each end of the field 
two goal posts, from fifteen to twenty feet high, are 
erected eighteen and one-half feet apart, and connected 
by a cross-bar ten feet from the ground. Two ' ' teams " 
of eleven men each contest in the game. Seven of 
them, called the rushers, or forwards, stand opposing a 
corresponding seven of the opposite eleven, whenever 
the ball is down for a " scrimmage." The one in the 
middle is known as the center rusher, or center, and on 
either side of him are the right and left guards, the right 
and left tackles, and the right and left ends, respectively. 
The four remaining players are the quarter-back, right 
and left half-backs, and the full-back, who stand behind 

(7) 



8 

the line of rushers and occupy positions which vary ac- 
cording to whether they or their opponents have the ball. 
The positions which the players will occupy when about 
to execute the different movements of the game are shown 
by the diagrams in the chapter describing the various 
evolutions. At the beginning of the game the ball is 
placed at the center of the field. The side in possession 
of the ball constitutes the side of attack, and endeavors 
to carry it down the field by kicking or running with it, 
in order to place it on the ground behind the opponents' 
goal line. The other side, forced to act upon the defen- 
sive, are drawn up in opposition, and strive to check their 
advance and to get possession of the ball themselves, so 
that they may no longer act upon the defensive, but 
become, "in turn, the attacking party. 

The rules of the game (see final chapter), place certain 
restrictions upon the attacking side and upon the defense, 
and it is the attempt made in accordance with these rules 
by each side to retain the ball in their possession and 
carry it down the field through all opposition, in order to 
place it behind their opponents' goal, which furnishes in 
rough outline the essential features of the American 
game of football. 

Before the game is to begin the captains of the re- 
spective teams decide by a toss of the coin which side 
shall first be given possession of the ball. The side having 
the ball then places it down upon the center of the field 
and arrange themselves in any formation which they de- 
sire, behind the line on which the ball is placed, in prepa- 
ration to force it into the enemy's territory. The side 
acting on the defensive are obliged to withdraw ten yards 
toward their own goal, and are there drawn up in oppo- 
sition to await the attack of their opponents until after 
the ball is put in play. 



As the " center rusher" of the attacking side puts the 
ball in play by touching it with his foot and passing it 
back to some other player for a run, or a kick down the 
field, the rushers upon the defensive side are at liberty to 
charge forward to meet the attack. The clash following 
this charge constitutes the first actual encounter of the 
game. 

When the runner with the ball is caught, or " tackled," 
thrown upon the ground, and there held so that he can 
advance no further, he calls " down," whereupon the ball 
is " dead" for the moment, and cannot be carried for- 
ward or kicked until the center rusher again puts it in 
play according to rule. 

As soon as " down " is called, an imaginary line, cross- 
ing the field from side to side and passing through the 
center of the ball, immediately comes into existence. 
Each player must remain on the side of this line toward 
his own goal until after the ball is " put in play," and it is 
one of the duties of the umpire rigidly to enforce this 
regulation. Should any player cross this line and fail to 
return before the ball is " snapped back " it constitutes an 
" off side play," for which the rules provide a penalty. 

To again put the ball in play the center rusher places 
his hand upon it at the spot where " down " was called. 
The rushers then "line up" opposing one another, the 
line of attack being drawn closely together for a greater 
concentration of energy, while the defensive rushers are 
slightly spread apart to facilitate breaking through the 
line and stopping the advance, when the ball shall be 
put in play. The captain upon the attacking side then 
shouts some signal, understood only by his own men 
which indicates the evolution that he wishes his eleven to 
execute ; whereupon the center rusher puts the ball in 



play by " snapping it back," that is, by rolling it back 
between his legs. 

Immediately behind the center rusher the quarter-back 
has taken his stand. He receives the ball as it is " snap- 
ped back " and instantly passes it to one of the half-backs 
or a man in the line, for a run, or to the full-back for a 
kick down the field. Thereupon the first ' ' scrimmage " of 
the game takes place as the opposing team attempts to 
break through the line and stop the play. 

One side is not allowed to retain indefinite possession 
of the ball without making gain or loss. The rules pro- 
vide that if the side having possession of the ball shall 
fail to make an aggregate gain of five yards, or a loss of 
twenty yards, in three consecutive "scrimmages", the 
ball shall be forfeited to the other side at the spot where 
it was last down. 

Advances by running are made by the player directing 
his course through one of the six openings in the rush line, 
or around the ends, according as the signal may direct. 
The signal also indicates the player who is to receive the 
ball. The runner is assisted in his course by the players 
who border on the opening through which he is to go. 
These seek to enlarge the space by pushing their oppo- 
nents to one side. He is further assisted by others of his 
ow r n players, some of whom precede, to "block off" the 
opponents from " tackling " him in front, while still others 
follow to push him further if he is checked. The players 
who are to precede and the players who are to follow 
change with the play according as each man is enabled 
by his position to adjust himself to it. 

Four points are scored when one side carries the ball 
across the goal line and makes a "touch down." The 
side making the " touch down " is then allowed to carry 
the ball out into the field as far as they may desire in a 



line perpendicular to the goal line and passing through 
the point where it was "touched down," in order that 
one of their number may attempt to kick it between the 
goal posts above the cross-bar. The other side mean- 
while are obliged to take their positions behind the goal 
line. Should the attempt be successful, it will constitute 
a "goal," and two additional points be added to the score. 
But whether the attempt be successful or not, the ball 
must be delivered to the other side, who will take it to the 
center of the field and put it in play in the same manner 
as at the beginning of the game. 

If the ball can be kicked between the posts and above 
the cross-bar by a " drop-kick " or " place-kick " by any 
one of the players, without having been previously carried 
across the goal line, it will constitute a "goal from the 
field," and will count five points. 

In case the ball is kicked or carried across the boundary 
line on either side it will be " out of bounds " and must 
be brought into the field at right angles to the line at the 
point where it crossed. This is done by the side which 
first secures it after it passes out of bounds. 

It is usual to bring the ball into the field from ten to 
fifteen yards and then to place it upon the ground for a 
" scrimmage " as from a regular down ; though the ball 
may be passed to any one of the players, in at the point 
where it went out, provided that it is thrown in at right 
angles to the side line ; or it may be " touched in " at the 
same point. 

The game is divided into two halves of three-quarters 
of an hour each, and the team succeeding in scoring the 
greatest number of points during that time are declared 
the winners. 

The reader should thoroughly acquaint himself with the 
rules in detail, before passing on to a study of the book. 



TRAINING. 

In the early days of college athletics and amateur 
sports the popular belief was universally accepted that a 
most rigorous diet must be entered upon if the young 
aspirant for college honors would fit himself properly 
to represent his alma mater in the boat, on the running 
track, or in individual contests. Many an alumnus who 
pulled an oar on the crew in the fifties and sixties, will 
recall visions of raw beef, a limited bill of fare, and a 
prescribed daily amount of water that made the train- 
ing of thirty years ago a hardship for which dim dreams 
of possible glory seemed a doubtful compensation. 

These old ideas have now changed almost entirely, 
and the young collegian of to-day, who secures a position 
on any one of the college teams, and obtains a seat at 
the " training table," is an object of envy rather than of 
compassion to his classmates. The training table diet of 
to-day is almost sumptuous, and few men in college en- 
joy better living than the members of the university ath- 
letic organizations. Roast beef, lamb chops, beef steak, 
roast lamb, and broiled chicken, oatmeal, rice, mush, 
and the cereals, potatoes served in all styles but fried, 
stale bread, onions, garden vegetables in season, eggs, 
dry toast, apple sauce, baked apples, prunes, grapes, 
oranges, figs, dates, and fruits in season (with the ex- 
ception of raw apples), rice and bread puddings, furnish 
an abundant variety from which to choose. 

A few things only are put upon the proscribed list : 
Pies, cakes, salads, all forms of pork, veal, rich dress- 

(12) 



rngs, fried food, ice-cream, confectionery, soda water, 
so-called soft drinks, (and it is needless to say drinks of 
a stronger nature,) tea, coffee, and chocolate, should be 
cheerfully and absolutely given up. From the first day 
of training it should be rigidly enforced that all pipes, 
cigars, and cigarettes be laid aside, absolutely, until 
the contests are over. 

Regularity in all the daily habits of life is of the great- 
est importance. The hours for rising, for meals, and for 
retiring should not vary from day to day; and in so far 
as it is practicable to do so, it would be advantageous to 
have the regular practice come at that portion of the day 
in which the important games of the season will take 
place. 

That the football player should have long hours of 
restful sleep is a point too frequently overlooked. While 
it is impossible to state a definite time that shall apply 
to all cases, a sleep from ten o'clock in the evening 
until seven the next morning, and a short walk before 
an early breakfast, will be found to be of the greatest 
benefit in all instances. Probably a large proportion of 
the cases of over- training, that occur during the foot- 
ball season, are caused by late iours, irregularity of 
habits, and insufficient rest. Had these points been care- 
fully attended to, the hard work upon the field would 
have produced no hurtful result. When the recreation 
period of the players makes it necessary that the daily 
practice shall come immediately after the noon meal, 
it will be found more healthful to have the practice hour 
preceded by a light lunch, and postpone the hearty 
dinner until night. But should the daily play come in 
the morning, or in the middle of the afternoon, it will 
be better to have the dinner hour at noon. 

Over-training is something which is much easier to 



prevent than to remedy when once it is an accomplished 
fact. In preparatory schools, where a less violent and 
less tiring system of training is followed, no thought need 
be given to this point, but in the larger colleges one or 
more cases of over-training among the valuable men is 
apt to occur toward the end of a season of hard work. 

Should any one of the players get into this condition, 
he should be given an absolute rest for several days, and 
then be allowed to play only part of the time during each 
remaining day of practice. An immediate change of diet 
with a removal of all training-table restrictions, will also 
be found of value. 

When a faithful worker finds himself coming upon the 
field day after day with a worn and tired feeling, no 
longer able to play with his former dash and energy, 
and his speed gradually decreasing, he should at once 
suspect that his muscles are becoming over-tired, and 
so fatigued that they cannot recuperate between one 
day's work and the next. 

The practice of drinking water during the game is ex- 
ceedingly bad, and never should be permitted, though 
rinsing the mouth is admissible. The best results will 
be obtained if no water whatever is swallowed until more 
than an hour after the practice is over. The habit which 
some players have of chewing gum during the game is 
pernicious. After the first week or two has passed, the 
mouth will be found to be far less dry where no gum is 
used, than where a constant flow of saliva is kept up 
by he act of mastication. 

During the season there undoubtedly will be a number 
of rainy days. These by no means should be lost. As a 
rule, it is best to practice upon the field as usual, since the 
most important game of the season may come in bad 
weather, and the experience of having frequently played 



in the mud with a wet and slippery ball will prove inval- 
uable. 

On special occasions light work in the gymnasium, 
tackling the bag, and practicing the sjgnals indoors, may 
be substituted with advantage. Every team should be 
provided with a tackling-bag. This may be made of 
leather or canvas, and should be from four to five feet 
long, a foot in diameter and stuffed with hay, hair, or ex- 
celsior, to represent the body of a man. No better prac- 
tice can be had for low hard tackling than to have such a 
bag suspended by a long rope from a rafter in the gym- 
nasium over a number of floor mats, letting the men run 
half the length of the floor and spring for it from some 
ten feet away as it swings slowly backward and forward. 
But except on such special occasions when no out-door 
practice is taken for the day, indoor gymnasium work 
should be given up, as the exercise upon the field de- 
mands every energy. 

During the last few weeks of the season, when the final 
eleven has practically been decided upon, and team play 
is being developed, an opportunity should be found each 
day to send the eleven up and down the field in their reg- 
ular positions, upon short runs of from five to fifteen 
yards, with no opposing rush line drawn up against them, 
in order that the signals may be thoroughly drilled into 
each player and substitute, and all learn to work together 
as one man. It is of the highest importance to have a 
number of substitutes, each of whom is thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the signals, as the replacing of a player in 
case of accident by one in the slightest degree unfamiliar 
with the signals will destroy team play and cause the 
side a loss much greater than the value of the man who 
has left the field. 

The number of regular games a week a team can play 



i6 



to advantage cannot be definitely stated. The condition 
of the men and their especial needs must determine this. 
As a rule, more than two match games a week cannot be 
played if the best results are to be obtained. A hard 
game should not be played within less than a week be- 
fore one which is considered to be of great importance, 
if it can be avoided, on account of the danger of having 
a valuable man disabled, and in order that there may be 
an abundance of stored-up energy upon the day of the 
important contest. 

During the last few days before the final game, the 
practice should, be short, but sharp while it lasts, with a 
considerable amount of time devoted to practicing the 
signals, falling upon the ball, and perfecting team play. 
On the day immediately preceding the game an absolute 
rest should be taken. 

It is a mistake to attempt to play the full hour and 
a half on each day of practice throughout the season. 
About two half hours of sharp work, with a rest of 
five minutes between, will produce the best results, 
and in the earlier regular games each half should be 
limited to thirty minutes. 

The daily practice of the team upon the field will not 
afford sufficient opportunity to the backs to become pro- 
ficient in kicking and catching the ball. When it is pos- 
sible; a half hour should be devoted by them at some other 
portion of each day throughout the entire season to punt- 
ing, catching, and goal kicking. Numerous minor sprains 
and bruises will necessarily be received during the season, 
for which hot water and flannel bandages will be the best 
remedy. 

In case of a sprained ankle or a serious bruise to 
one of the muscles of the leg, a long period of disability 
may result from continued playing, and the captain 



'7 

should insist that a player so hurt should leave the field 
at once. A thin leather anklet had better be worn in- 
side the shoe by each player in the team as a safeguard 
and protection. 

When a man has a bruised and sensitive knee, a moist- 
tened sponge, the size of a fist, placed just under the 
knee cap will afford relief and protection. Sprains and 
bruises of a serious nature are more liable to occur 
during the first few weeks of practice than at any other 
time in the season. This is due to the fact that many 
of the men have just returned from long vacations of 
ease and idleness, and their muscles are not ready to 
endure the sudden strains and wrenches to which they 
immediately find themselves subjected. The careful 
captain will see to it that the promising new candidates 
for his team and the old men are all gathered together 
from one to two weeks before the season of actual play- 
ing is to begin, and put through a series of light exer- 
cises, given short runs, made to pass, kick, and fall on 
the ball, and are given such general light work for wind 
and muscle as shall enable them to engage in the regular 
practice without danger. Thick sweaters and overcoats 
should always be in readiness to put on after playing, 
and proper care taken to guard against catching cold. 

Cleanliness is a hygienic necessity during the football 
season, and every team should, if possible, have hot and 
cold water shower baths connected with their dressing 
rooms. 

Long hot baths are weakening, and should be avoided; 
though upon special occasions, when a cold has settled 
in the muscles, a Turkish bath may prove of great 
value. 

The captain's word upon the field is absolute law, and 
should be followed with unquestioning obedience. 



THE CENTER-RUSHER. 

The prevailing idea in time past has been that the 
largest and heaviest man who could be procured should 
be used for the center-rusher, or snapback of the eleven. 
So universal has this idea become that it has long been a 
common joke to say of an especially large and stout per- 
son: " He would make a good center- rusher." Every 
new team formed, as a rule, selects the center according 
to this axiomatic fallacy. It is easy to see how this prin- 
ciple of selection became established under the old push- 
ing style of game, and it still should hold sway, provided 
it brings with the selection certain qualities of mind, and 
certain physical capacities, which will enable the center 
to be one of the most active and effective agents on the 
field. 

The center occupies a unique position on the eleven in 
that he starts the play after each down, and is the only 
member of the team who cannot run with the ball from a 
scrimmage, because it is impossible to make him a third 
man advantageously. His work, therefore, is limited in 
that particular. By reason, also, of his having to pro- 
tect the quarter-back after he snaps the ball, and because 
he is invariably entangled with the opponents, it is im- 
possible for him to become a valuable running interferer. 
What work in interference he is able to do is limited to 
blocking the opponents from breaking through the line, 
or running behind their own line to head off the runner 
with the ball at one side. Possibly, when very clever and 
swift, he may be able to cut across the field to interfere 
with a half-back or the full-back. The center should 

(18) 



make a practice of doing this latter work on every play 
around the end, and on every play between the tackle 
and end. Perhaps he may not be able to get ahead of 
the runner, but he will be of valuable assistance by check- 
ing some of the opponents from running behind their line 
and tackling him. Now and then, also, he will be able to 
get ahead of the runner and go down the field with him. 

From these statements it might appear that it did not 
matter especially whether the center rusher was a slow 
runner or not, and that emphasis should be laid on his 
possessing size and weight, which are understood as 
necessary to the proper filling of that position. The truth 
is, that while a slow runner, if he has cleverness for that 
position and is strong and weighty, will be able to do 
fairly well as a center, he cannot begin to be as service- 
able to his team as if he were also a fast runner. Grant- 
ing that a fast runner will not be able to do much inter- 
fering, or running with the ball, he will still be able to 
use his speed most helpfully in breaking through the line 
to tackle ; in crossing over to one side to head off a run- 
ner ; or in going down the field on a kick. Furthermore, 
his speed will be most helpful in playing a quick game, 
because he is thus able to follow the ball so closely that 
there will be no delay in putting it in play. This is a 
most important point in the center's play. He must be 
on hand to receive the ball the instant it is down. 

It is impossible to play a quick game where the center 
lags, or to prevent one on the part of the opponents. 
"When there are not many large men who are fast run- 
ners it is better, perhaps, to place the speedy man in the 
position of guard and take a slower man for center. 

The ideal center will be one who is swift of foot in ad- 
dition to his other powers. He should be a large man, 
not a ponderous man, unless he is quick and strong. He 



20 

should be especially strong in his legs and back, for he 
must stand steadily on his feet against the continuous 
pushing and wrestling which he receives, directly from 
the opponents, and incidentally from the guards on either 
side of him. If he is easily moved, or toppled over, he 
will be likely now and then to snap the ball poorly, thus 
making the quarter-back uneasy and flurried in handling 
it. Steadiness is a most necessary part of the center's 
work and it cannot well be overlooked in the selection of 
a man to fill that position. Further, as in every position 
on the eleven endurance is a prime requisite, so is it in 
this. More of it is needed, however, than in most 
others, because the work is much harder. No short- 
winded, fat man can long stand the hard work of that 
position, if he does his duty. Not only is great physical 
labor required of the center, but he must also be con- 
stantly subjected to knocks and bruises from the plung- 
ing and tearing of the rushers and half-backs as they try 
to break through the line. 

No man, therefore, can play in this position who is not 
physically courageous, and who is not able to rise to his 
work after each assault with new grit and determination. 
He should be a man who is cool and collected at all times; 
combative, but never losing control of his temper; one 
who endures worrying without being rattled by it; one 
who never gives up and is bound to conquer. Nowhere 
in the line is there need for such steadiness as in the cen- 
ter. From him every play starts, in a scrimmage, and a 
little unsteadiness on his part will be likely to make havoc 
with the quarter-back's work, and hence with the offensive 
play of the whole team. Nothing can be more fatal to 
quick and steady play, for it is sure to produce hesitancy 
in action in some of the players, with hurried action in 
others. 



In assuming his position for a scrimmage, the center 
may follow either of two methods of standing, when snap- 
ping the ball : one, where one foot is placed back for a 
brace, the ball being snapped between the legs and a little 
to one side ; the other, where both feet are widely spread 
to interfere with opponents, as they attempt to break 
through, and to avoid getting into the way of the ball 
which can be snapped straight back. Where the first 
position is followed, the center should be able to work 
equally well with either foot forward, in order to secure 
certain advantages in handling his opponent. The center- 
rusher should make a study of the best way of snapping 
the ball back, and then hold it the same way every time. 
He should confer with the quarter-back on this point, as 
the latter is to handle the ball, and it may be easier to 
take it when snapped in a particular way. 

There are two methods followed in snapping the ball : 
one, in which the ball is held on the small end and sent 
back swiftly/with little effort, in such a way that the 
quarter-back catches it in the air all ready to pass ; the 
other, where the ball is laid on its side and rolled along 
the ground to the point where it is stopped by the quarter- 
back and then picked up in very good position for pass- 
ing. This latter method is more generally used because it 
does not require as delicate work on the part of the center 
in giving the snap ; but speed is sacrificed by it and there 
is greater liability that the ball shall be deflected from its 
course by touching the legs. It would be well for the 
center to learn to use either hand in snapping, for it will 
often prove an advantage. The center-rusher will do well 
to make a study of snapping the ball by both methods of 
standing, and by both ways of holding it until he settles 
on the one best suited to him. He should then practice 
this against an opponent until he is able to stand firmly 



22 

on his feet and send the ball back accurately, at a uniform 
rate of speed each time. In case the ball is placed on 
end, it is better to have it lean toward the opposing center 
at an angle of about sixty degrees. It can be held more 
firmly in this position and can also be sent back more 
swiftly, with a bound into the air. Care must be taken 
not to send the ball too swiftly. While the center is 
practising to secure steadiness, accuracy, and uniformity 
in snapping the ball, he should likewise practise getting 
his opponent out of the way. 

In putting the ball in play, the center has the advan- 
tage of being able to select the time to snap and he can 
choose it to meet his own purpose. Besides, he knows 
the exact instant when he intends to send the ball back 
and can get the start of his opponent. The center, there- 
fore, is master of the situation when he has the ball. It 
is for these reasons that he can frequently be down the 
field on a kick as soon as the ends, and yet not expose the 
full-back to great danger in having the ball stopped. 

There are various ways for the center to handle his 
man and get him out of his way. He may plunge forward 
at the instant he snaps the ball, carrying his opponent 
before him ; he may lift him to one side or the other, ac- 
cording to the play called for and the position of the op- 
ponent ; he may fall on him if he is down too low ; or he 
may get under him and lift him in the air, if his opponent 
reaches over him. 

In any one of these methods, the opportune moment 
must be seized like a flash and the action be quick and 
powerful. A slow, strong movement will never succeed. 
Long and faithful practice is necessary before the center 
can acquire this quickness and power. In his eagerness 
to take advantage of his opponent, he must never fail to 
wait for the quarter-back's signal before snapping the 



2 3 

ball. A little forgetfulness on this point might prove 
disastrous. 

The center can be a most valuable man in defensive 
play if he understands his position. By giving his op- 
ponents a quick pull forward or to one side at the instant 
the latter snaps the ball ; by lifting him suddenly back- 
ward ; or by grasping his arm, the center can frequently 
break through more quickly than either guard or tackle. 
Whenever he succeeds in getting through, he will be a 
strong obstacle to all dashes between himself and the 
guards, and he will sometimes be able to interfere with 
the quarter-back's pass. Another way in which the cen- 
ter may play on the defense is to spend all his energy for 
a moment in getting his opponent out of his way and then 
spring at the runner. In this case the center must throw 
off his opponent quickly, and not allow himself to be 
carried backward. At the same time he must not attempt 
to break through the line. 

When the play is around the end, or even at the tackle, 
the center should move quickly from his position and 
pass around behind his own line to meet and tackle the 
runner. When the opposite side is about to kick, the 
center should do his utmost to break through the line and 
stop it ; but sometimes it may be better instead to make 
an opening for the quarter-back. He is helped in doing 
this, by the opposite center himself, as he plunges for- 
ward to block him. In such a case a good opening can 
be made for the quarter-back, if the center will place him- 
self in front of his opponent a little to one side, and then 
pull the latter forward to the right or left. The guard at 
the side on which the opening is made should know of 
this plan so that he may not spoil it, either by pushing 
his opponent in the path or by getting in the way himself. 
If there is danger of his doing this, it will be better for 
him to help enlarge the opening for the quarter-back. 



2 4 

On the defensive the center may play a little to one side 
or the other of his opponent, or directly in front, to suit 
the situation. It is most unwise for the center to assume 
the same position every time, for by so doing he gives the 
opposite center only one problem to work out and that 
one probably the same each time. Where the center takes 
an extreme side position, unless he does it just before the 
ball is snapped, he gives the captain of the other eleven 
a fine chance to call for a play which will take advantage 
of the situation. 

There is abundant opportunity for the display of head- 
work in outwitting the opposing center in breaking 
through the line. The line is so compact at this point 
that it is not an easy task to slip by, especially as the 
opposing center is watching to take his man at a disad- 
vantage Various methods are resorted to in breaking 
through the line. Sometimes the center, acting on the 
defense, is thrown head foremost to the ground by a 
quick, hard pull, the attacking center stepping aside or 
over him as he falls. He may also be turned sidewise 
just enough to slip past him, or he may be lifted back 
perhaps into the face of the runner. The most common 
method employed by the center in getting through is to 
catch the arm of the opponent on the side on which it is 
desired to go through, give it a jerk, and dash into the 
opening. 

The center in defense must insist on the ball being 
down where it belongs. Some center-rushers have a way 
of moving the ball forward several inches further than 
it should be. There is no occasion for generosity under 
such circumstances, and the center must feel that it is his 
duty to stand up for the rights of his team by constantly 
guarding against any infringement of this kind. On the 
other hand, a constant bickering over an inch or two of 



25 

ground may be made of such importance that the game 
is interfered with and delayed to such an extent that a 
much greater gain would have resulted were the ball 
put in play the instant the signal called for it. 

A good referee will see to it that the ball is snapped 
each time from the proper spot. 

It is always the duty of the center-rusher to keep close 
to the opponent who brings the ball in from the side line, 
in order to protect the rights of his team. Likewise, it is 
well to " pace in " the opponent who brings the ball to the 
twenty-five yard line, in order to prevent a quick play 
being made when his own side are not in position. The 
guards assist him in this. 



THE GUARD. 

The main work of the guards may be summed up as 
blocking, that is, guarding; making openings for the pas- 
sage of the runner whenever certain signals are given; 
running behind the line to interfere for the man with the 
ball; running with the ball occasionally; breaking through 
the opposing line to interfere with the quarter-back in 
passing the ball; and tackling the runner or stopping a 
kick. The guards and the center have the most labo- 
rious work on the eleven, if they do their duty, for they 
practically have no respite from hard work. They must 
bear the brunt of the heavy plunging of their opponents 
through the center, and at the same time struggle to 
break through the opposing line, which is doing its ut- 
most to prevent them. They must do this without a let- 
up just as long as the other side has the ball, and, more- 
over, in that part of the line which is most compact. 
Then, when their own side has the ball, they are expected 
to use their strength and wits from the moment the ball 
is put in play until it is again down, in blocking, making 
openings, and in interfering for the player who is at- 
tempting to run. Further, they have little time to catch 
their wind, for almost the first point which should be 
drummed into them by the captain or coach is to be al- 
ways on hand the moment the ball is down, to make 
or prevent a quick play. It can be truly said that no 
team is well trained until the center part of the eleven, as 
indeed the whole team, is prompt on this point. While 
the guards have all this hard work, they seldom have a 

(26) 



2 7 

chance to distinguish themselves, either by a run, a clean 
tackle, or a fine interference which is apparent to the un- 
trained eye of the spectator. On the other hand, it does 
not take much yielding at the center to bring forth the 
criticism that that part of the line is weak. 

On account of the nature of their work, the guards 
should be large and powerful, like the center. It is even 
more necessary that they should be quick, agile, and 
swift, than the center, because the guards should always 
go through the line when the opponents have the ball. 
On their success in doing this largely depends the strength 
or weakness of the team's defense. 

The chief point in defensive play is to tackle the runner 
before he reaches the line, and the guards are large fac- 
tors in doing this. Unless this is done, the ball can be 
steadily carried down the field when not lost by a fumble, 
for any team is able to gain five yards in three consecu- 
tive trials when the runner is allowed to re'ach the line 
each time before being tackled. Any means, therefore, 
which the guards can employ to interfere with the 
quarter-back before he has passed the ball, or the runner 
before he has reached the line, should certainly be used. 
All the strategy and tricks known in wrestling which can 
be applied to the situation should be eagerly sought and 
practiced. The great point to remember is to apply the 
power quickly and hard, to summon all the strength for 
the initial effort, and to work desperately until free from 
interference. Only by doing this can the guards hope to 
break through and secure the quarter-back or runner be- 
hind the line. Slow pushing, however powerful, will ac- 
complish little. If held in check until the runner and the 
pushers strike the line it is only a question of how many 
yards the runner will gain before the mass breaks and 
falls forward. 



28 

In applying his power the guard, as well as his com- 
panion rushers, has an immense advantage in being per- 
mitted to use his hands and arms freely in getting his op- 
ponent out of the way. This enables him to put into practice 
all the skill he possesses in handling an opponent who is 
allowed to block only with the body. The guard also 
has another advantage in being free to move whenever he 
pleases, but he must remember that the opening for the 
runner may be made on either side of him and be careful 
not to give his opponent help in making it. It assists the 
guard greatly in breaking through if the tackle draws 
out the opposing line as much as is wise in a good de- 
fense. This separation should be wide enough to allow 
the players in defense to break through easily without in- 
terfering with each other. It is also usually helpful in 
breaking through to be restless, but cautious at the same 
time, in order not to give the opponent an advantage. 

The guards and the tackles especially should watch for 
signs which shall indicate what the play will be, and then 
go through the line as low as possible for a tackle. They 
should break through to the right or left of their op- 
ponents as seems best at the moment. In order to 
break through quickly they must have their eyes on the 
ball when it is snapped and spring forward the instant it 
is put in play. Quick glances may be cast at the oppo- 
nents while still constantly watching the ball. 

The guards, with the center, are usually called upon to 
meet the heavy charges in the opening plays from the 
center of the field. These, as a rule, come in the form of 
wedges. Two points should be carefully regarded by 
these center men in attacking a wedge: first, to approach 
the wedge with the body bent in a position for greatest 
power and for meeting the wedge low down; second, to 



29 

focus on the mass in such a way that it cannot break 
through between them without being separated, and so 
giving the guards a chance to tackle the runner. In do- 
ing this it should be the aim to focus as nearly as possible 
upon the point of the wedge, in order to check its ad- 
vance and throw the forwards back on the runner. The 
runner will then be forced to come out, if he has not al- 
ready become entangled in the mass. In making the 
attack the guards and center should run with dash and de- 
termination, at the same time watching close!)' for the 
runner and trying hard to tackle him. 

Two successful ways of attacking a wedge have been 
originated. One member of the center trio will some- 
times jump over the heads of the forwards and try to 
fall on the runner and thus secure him, or he will hurl 
himself headlong at the feet of the oncoming wedge and 
cause it to trip over him. To make either one of these 
attacks well the player must be perfectly fearless, and 
should also use good judgment. In the former case the 
player must time his jump and not land short of the run- 
ner, or he will be pushed quickly to the ground or carried 
along on the heads of the forwards; neither must he 
jump so far over that he will miss his man. If he throws 
himself in front of the wedge he should not do it too 
soon, lest the wedge will be able to avoid or step over 
him. 

When a wedge is formed in the line on a scrimmage the 
guards and center must be sure to get low, or they will 
be carried along before it. The point of the wedge must 
be held in check. In resisting the attack of a revolving 
wedge the guards should separate slightly from the 
center and join with the tackle in trying to penetrate the 
mass to secure the runner. This should be done in st i ch 



30 

a way that the defense shall not be weakened. Care 
should also be taken by the side of the line away from 
which the wedge revolves not to add impetus to it by push- 
ing too far. 

The position of the guard varies slightly in defense and 
offense. In offense the first thought must be to protect 
the quarter-back until he has passed the ball; his next 
to block his man long enough to prevent him from reach- 
ing the runner. His third thought, which may also influ- 
ence the way he stands while he attends to the former 
work, is to make the opening if the play is in his quarter. 
His fourth thought, which will be influenced by his first 
and second, is to get in his interference ahead of the 
runner when practicable, or follow him as closely as pos- 
sible and do what he can to assist. In fulfilling all these 
duties he will be limited in his freedom of movement. 
He cannot stand too far from the center rusher, and he 
may be compelled to stand shoulder to shoulder with him. 

Further, he will have to assume a position which best 
enables him to carry out his duties.' It may be well for 
him to stand with both feet on a line, or it may be better 
to have one or the other foot behind, according to his pur- 
pose. It is nearly always better for him to bend forward, 
or even to get down very low if his opponent tries to get 
under him. The bent-over position is better for meeting 
attacks, because the weight is well forward and low 
down and the body is better braced and not 'so much ex- 
posed to effective handling. In this position, also, one 
can move forward better for making an opening. 

In blocking the legs should usually be spread widely 
apart. They should not be spread so much, however, 
that the guard will not be able to move quickly whenever 
his opponent shifts his position. In blocking, as in break- 



3i 

ing through the line, the guard should try hard to get his 
power into action before his opponent. This can be best 
done by a shoulder check. 

The general position of the guard must be determined 
by the play in hand and the way the opponent stands. 
He may be forced to move out a little because his oppo- 
nent does so, but he must be careful that the opening be- 
tween him and the center is not occupied by the quarter- 
back or some other free player, in which case the tackle 
will sometimes be obliged to step in and take the oppos- 
ing guard. Neither the guard nor any other rusher 
except the center should ever take a fixed position in 
standing. 

On the defensive much depends on strong blocking by 
the guards, for weak blocking is fatal at the center of the 
line. The quarter-back, being so near to the guards, is 
in imminent danger in case of weak blocking, and he can 
little afford the loss of a fraction of a second in handling 
the ball, much less a fumble. Under these circumstances, 
if a fumble occurs, the quarter-back must always fall on 
the ball and not run any risks of losing it. Furthermore, 
in weak blocking the runner has little chance on a dash 
into the line, for in place of an opening he finds an oppo- 
nent. " Block hard " has come to be one of the axioms 
of the game. Blocking for a kick is treated fully in the 
chapter on team play. 

The guard has an advantage over the center in making 
an opening for the runner in only one particular, and that 
is that he is freer to move in his position. The center 
rusher is largely dependent on the position which his op- 
ponent takes in standing to help him out in this matter, 
since he cannot move his relative position from the oppos- 
ing center more than the latter allows; but he can often 
3 



32 

influence that position to suit his own purpose. By clever 
generalship and strategy he may be able to induce his op- 
ponent to do the very thing he needs to help him out in 
his play. Some of the ways of handling an opponent are 
given in the description of the duties of the center 
rusher. 

When the guard is going to run with the ball he should 
take a position which will enable him to get away from 
his opponent quickly, but he should not make his inten- 
tions evident. For this reason it is better for the guard, 
as well as for the tackle, not to take a set position until 
the signal is given; but if one is taken, let it be such that 
it would not make it necessary to change in order to run 
with the ball. The one who is to run with the ball should 
seek in every way to conceal the purpose of the play. 

The guard is in the most difficult position from which 
to get under headway in order to run with the ball. As 
commonly played, the guard swings round the quarter- 
back and dives into an opening between the tackle and 
guard on the other side of the center. The very begin- 
ning of his run is the most difficult part. He cannot run 
fast from his position, for he has only a step or two to 
make before he must turn sharply around the quarter- 
back and run in almost an opposite direction. If he runs 
back too far he will be tackled before he reaches the line, 
and if he turns in closely, he is likely to run against his 
own men as they are struggling with their opponents. 
It needs, therefore, careful judgment and a great deal of 
practice to be able to run well from this position. 

Long-legged guards, as a rule, find it easier to take a 
long step backward with the foot next the center, and use 
that as a purchase from which to circle around the quarter- 
back. Some guards prefer to take three or four short, 



33 

quick steps in making the turn around the quarter-back. 
Any way which will enable the guard to get under head- 
way most quickly is the method which should be used. 
It will be easy for the quarter-back to place the ball in 
the guard's hands, and it will probably be better for him 
to carry it under the arm away from the center. 

When the guard runs around to interfere, he should 
place himself so that he can get away quickly and not 
" give the play away." If the guard is to run around in 
order to interfere by getting ahead of the runners, the 
quickest possible start is necessary. There must be no 
delay whatever, even when the guard is a fast runner, or 
else the runner with the ball will have to slow up so much 
that he cannot make the play. Whenever the guard runs 
around to interfere or to run with the ball, the tackle 
should keep the opposing guard from following him. 
The guard can sometimes do this himself by pushing his 
opponent back just as he starts, but it must be done in 
such a way that it will not delay him. 



THE TACKLE. 

The tackle occupies the most important position on the 
rush line. It is possible to get along with a lumbering 
center and slow guards if they are able to block well and 
make good openings, but it is not possible to have slow 
tackles and play good football at the same time. The po- 
sition which the tackle occupies in the line explains this, 
and it is best appreciated when it is understood that the 
tackles should take part in more than half the defensive 
work of the team. 

The tackle occupies the most responsible position be- 
cause he assists in checking two distinctly different styles 
of play. On the side toward the center he is to help the 
guard in blocking the heavy plunges which are frequently 
aimed at that point of the line, while on the other side he 
has to work with the end-rusher against all plays between 
them and on all plays around the end. To play this po- 
sition properly on the defensive, therefore, requires a 
master mind and an equipment of physical capacity and 
skill unequaled by any position on the eleven. 

Next to the half-back the tackle, from his position in 
the line, has the best opportunity for running with the 
ball. In fact, he can be used with telling effect, if a good 
runner, in supplementing and resting the half-backs. 
Again, he is the end-rusher's chief assistant in going 
down the field on all kicks, and he must be under the 
ball almost as soon as the end himself, in order to prevent 
the catcher from dodging inside the end men. 

(34 



35 

The points mentioned are sufficient to show that the 
tackle should be a man of considerable weight, because 
he has to bear a great deal of the heavy plunging into the 
line. The greater the weight the better, provided, of 
course, that the other requirements are met. As a rule, 
it is rare that a man weighing over one hundred and 
eighty pounds can meet these requirements, and it is 
more often that men weighing one hundred and sixty-five 
or seventy pounds are selected for this position on the 
best teams. The general build of the man also qualifies 
his usefulness. The one hundred and sixty-five pounds 
will be much more effective in a man from five feet six to 
five feet ten inches in height than in one above that 
height. In truth, the man of stocky build can usually 
fill this position much better, because his weight is nearer 
the ground and he is always in a position to make a low 
tackle. As a great deal of his tackling should be dashing 
and brilliant, right in the midst of interference where he 
must throw himself instantly, a tall man would be at a 
disadvantage. A thick-set, round-bodied man with large 
arms and legs would also be a much harder man to stop 
when running with the ball. 

Of equal importance with weight, the points which 
should determine the selection of the tackle are agility, 
speed, and the ability to tackle in the face of interference. 
The name of the position indicates the work of the 
player. He is to tackle. Even speed can to a small de- 
gree be dispensed with if the man is quick and agile and 
is a sure tackier. Quickness in getting through the line, 
agility in avoiding interference, sure tackling, getting 
down the field on a kick, and running with the ball are 
essential qualifications to look for in selecting a man to 
fill the position of tackle. 



36 

The tackle must be endowed with more than the ordi- 
nary amount of shrewdness and judgment. To a certain 
extent this can be acquired by long practice, but the 
tackle must be of quick perception and good judgment 
naturally in order to play the position in the best manner. 

When acting on the defensive the distance which he 
should stand from the guard and the manner of going 
through the line, either to the inside or outside of his op- 
ponent, should be determined by previous judgment as 
to where the play is to be made and influenced by an in- 
stantaneous perception as the play starts. The position, 
too, must be taken with the utmost caution and selected 
at just the right distance from the guard to best meet the 
play and still be able to defend his position on either 
side. There is need of the closest and quickest observa- 
tion and cleverest judgment. 

Moreover, as many of the plays cannot be determined 
beforehand, such a position must be taken as will best 
enable the tackle to check any play which can be made. 
He must then be on the alert for the very first indications 
of the play and act on them, and at the same time he 
must still keep the closest watch for later developments 
which change the direction in which the ball will finally 
be carried. 

Playing up close to the guard is always dangerous un- 
less it is necessary to do so in order to stop a wedge play, 
for the tackle could then be blocked in very easily from 
helping, if an attack were made on the space between him- 
self and the end man, or in a play around the end. He 
therefore would cut himself off from defending two-thirds 
of his territory and the most defenseless part of the line. 
Playing far away from the guard is also dangerous, for 
he then leaves the part of his territory which is nearest 



37 

the opposing half-backs too much exposed and gives his 
opponent a chance to block him off from defending it. Of 
course, if the tackle were free from the checking of an 
opponent, he could play some distance away from the 
guard and still defend the space between them ; but the 
fact that there is a player opposite who is giving all his 
attention, wit, and energy to securing an advantage over 
him, gives a turn to the problem which he cannot ignore 
in making his calculations. The tackle takes a certain 
position ; the opponent takes one also. It may be a little 
to the right or a little to the left of him, or it may be 
directly in front of him. The tackle may change his 
position a little and then the opponent perhaps change 
his, but their relative positions may, or may not, be 
changed ; or possibly his opponent may remain in the 
same place. Just this action or inaction on the part of 
the opposing tackle is sufficient to help him determine 
how he should play in his defense, and is one of the signs 
to be considered in deciding upon his own position and 
action. 

The tackle should usually play right up to the line, on 
the defense. Sometimes with a very quick opponent, it 
may be better to play a little back from the line. He 
should be restless, and on the alert for an opportunity to 
go through on the side of his opponent offering the 
best advantage. He should watch the ball closely and 
spring the instant it is snapped. His course of action in 
reference to his opponent must be to get him out of the 
way as quickly as possible. It may often be best for the 
tackle simply to drive his opponent back with hard, quick 
pushes. This might frequently be best when the play is 
between him and the guard, because the time for prepara- 
tion to tackle is exceedingly short before the runner will 



38 

be going past, and the whole attention must be given to 
securing a momentary freedom from interference, for a 
quick.spring. The tackle has a great deal of this quick 
tackling to do because the runs are so frequently made in 
his region. Much of this also must be done right in the 
midst of interference, when the only chance to get the 
runner is by hurling himself headlong at him as he 
passes. 

On end plays the tackle must break away from his op- 
ponent as quickly as possible. He will have no time then 
to carry his man before him except, perhaps for an 
instant, as he pushes him back to get by him. Yet he 
must make sure to knock his opponent sufficiently off his 
balance to prevent his following him and giving him a 
shove at a critical moment. In defense on an end play, 
everything depends on the tackle reaching the runner 
before he begins to turn in order to circle the end, and 
before he has swung in closely behind his interference. 
The runner then has not yet gotten under full speed 
and the interferers are somewhat scattered and looking 
toward the end. The tackle has the best chance for de- 
feating end runs ; in this he is ably seconded by the end 
man, the two working together, in fine team play. 

The tackle must go through the line on the defense. 
The plan of waiting until it is seen where the run will be 
made and then running behind his line to help, if the play 
appears to be on the other side, is disastrous to a good de- 
fensive game. It not only is dangerous, because it leaves 
the way clear for a splendid run on a double pass, but it 
is also especially harmful because it gets the tackle into 
the habit of waiting for every play to become well start- 
ed, and this is fatal to a strong defense. If the play is 
around the other end, the tackle should follow the run- 



39 

ner around and try to overtake him. It is sometimes 
possible for a fast runner to do this when he breaks 
through quickly. In following the man with the ball, the 
tackle must be on the watch constantly for a double pass. 
If he suspects one is to be made, he must be sure not to 
be drawn in or blocked as he runs behind the line. It 
would be better, in that case, to go straight through. 
The tackle can do more to defeat a double pass than any 
other player, for, if he plays his position well, he will 
meet the runner when there is not more than one inter- 
ferer to combat. If he then does not tackle the runner, 
he can force him to run so far back of the line that the 
rest of the team will be able to come to his assistance be- 
fore he circles the end. 

When the opponents are going to kick, the tackle has 
an especial burden resting on him because he is in a very 
advantageous position for breaking through quickly and 
stopping the ball. No other rusher should reach the full- 
back so quickly, unless, perhaps, the guard, because none 
other is so well placed and at the same time interfered 
with so little. 

He should, therefore, go through with all his strength 
and speed, and jump high in the air to stop the ball. 
His hands should be raised at the same time in order to 
place as high an obstacle in the way of the ball as is 
possible. The tackle on the same side as the kicking 
foot has a better chance to stop the ball than his com- 
panion on the other side, and he must, therefore, put 
forth his utmost efforts. Frequently, the tackle, like the 
guards and center, can work some clever team play in 
conjunction with an extra man, whereby one or the other 
can go through the line with little opposition. 

There are a variety of tactics which can be employed 



40 

in getting through the line, and every tackle should be 
able to use them at will. Those are best which enable 
the tackle to get through quickly and at the same time 
permit him to watch the runner closely. This is a point 
which ought to be deeply impressed on the minds of all 
the rushers. The situation changes so quickly when a 
run is being made that it is not safe to have the eyes off 
the runner for a second. The methods usually employed 
in breaking through the line are : striking the opponent 
in the chest quickly and hard, and following it up with 
a shove to one side when he is off his balance ; whirl- 
ing suddenly around him, using either foot as a pivot; 
ducking quickly to one side ; making a feint to go one 
side and going the other ; striking the opponent with 
the head or shoulder and lifting him aside ; stepping a 
little to one side as the opponent comes forward and 
swinging him through behind him. The tackle can 
sometimes secure an advantage for breaking through by 
pushing his opponent back from the line just before the 
ball is snapped. He must be very free to move, and go 
through with a jump. It is better to keep as low down 
as possible in doing this. 

The position which the tackle should take on the 
defense against mass plays from the center of the field is 
shown in the diagrams further on. He should move off 
from the guard sufficiently to protect the side of the field 
and at the same time be able to spring back close to him on 
any play directly forward. It is his special duty to tackle 
the runner if he comes out at the side of the formation. 
In case the runner does not come out before the oppos- 
ing rushers meet, the tackle should dive in and secure 
him, if possible, but in doing this he must be careful not 
to leave too great a space between himself and the guard, 



as an opening through which to send the runner may be 
intended at that very point. 

It is impossible to lay down rules of action for the 
tackle on wedge plays in the line. He must work accord- 
ing to his best judgment based on the situation ; but an 
important factor in successful play will be to put in the 
work low down. If he is caught by the wedge in an up- 
right, or nearly upright position, he will be rendered 
absolutely useless. For this reason, it is often best to 
dive in at the side of the wedge about knee high and 
try to tackle the runner, or cause him to fall over him. 
If the wedge is revolving, it is often best for the tackle 
to fall down in front of it. The tackle must consider it 
his first duty to assist the center and guards in checking 
the wedge, and leave the other players to attend to the 
runner if he comes out from behind or at the side. 

On the offense, the tackle cannot leave any unpro- 
tected space between himself and the guard, if it be occu- 
pied by an opponent. He must therefore always take 
the inside man. This may require him to play close to 
the guard. From this position he must do all his run- 
ning with the ball, all his blocking, all his interference 
for the runners, and make all his openings ; varying his 
attitude toward his opponent to meet the special need of 
the moment. In making his opening the tackle has to 
outwit and combat a very free opponent, one who, as a 
rule, is constantly changing his position. This renders it 
difficult, sometimes, to make an opening because fre- 
quently it has to be done while the opponent is changing 
his position, and when, perhaps, the tackle himself is not 
in a favorable position for making that particular open- 
ing. Likewise, when trying to block his opponent, the 
tackle must follow him closely and keep in front of him,. 



42 

and must be all on tiptoe to dart forward to get in a body 
check before the opponent acts. 

When the tackle runs with the ball or moves away 
from his position to accompany the runner, he is much 
more at liberty in choosing his place in the line. His 
great aim should be to take a position which should not 
be noticeable by its strong contrast to previous ones, and 
yet, at the same time, be one which he can use to the 
greatest advantage in the play in hand. Usually that 
position should be up in the line not more than two or 
three feet from the guard, but sometimes it is better to 
stand a little behind the line. 

It is most important to the tackle when he runs with 
the ball that he get away from his opponent with the ut- 
most quickness, and then, that he run with tremendous 
speed and power. The secret of successful running 
from any position lies in this. The practice given to im- 
proving in this particular should be faithful and constant. 
The run of the tackle cannot be successful until there is 
added to the quick start and strong headway, such train- 
ing in taking his course that he will neither run too near 
the line, nor too far back from it ; and the ability to circle 
around the quarter-back and take the ball from him 
without a diminution in speed, and then plunge into his 
opening with a force which cannot be stopped short of 
several yards. Much depends on the course taken. The 
tackle's failure in running often results from slowing 
up to turn into the right opening and thus losing his 
power. Instructions in running and holding the ball are 
given in the chapter on the half-back and full-back. 



THE END-RUSHER. 

The end-rushers fill two of the most important positions 
on the eleven. In defense, their especial duty is to pre- 
vent the long runs of the game. It is an unusual thing 
for a long run to be made through the center part of the 
line on account of the support given the rushers by the 
quarter-back and half-backs. Let a runner once get 
around the end with one or two interferers ahead of him, 
as is usually the case when such runs are made, and he is 
likely to go a long distance down the field and not infre- 
quently make a touchdown. In defending his territory 
against these runs the end stands at the most remote part 
of the field for assistance to be rendered him. He is at 
the extreme part of the rush line and has no one close to 
him to help him. His nearest neighbor, the tackle, must 
be depended on for most of the assistance, and when he 
cannot render it, the end is put to the test of tackling a 
runner preceded by a group of interferers. In such an 
emergency a deep responsibility rests upon the end- 
rusher, because he is probably the last man left to pre- 
vent a long run and perhaps a touchdown, producing a 
sensation akin to that of the full-back when he alone 
stands between the runner and the goal. 

Moreover, the end-rusher has to meet the runner under 
most trying circumstances^ The runner and the inter- 
ferers have gotten well under way ; they have passed the 
most dangerous spot in the line and are coming on at 
great speed. The interference is now more focused and 

(43) 



44 



effective in arrangement than it has yet been. There are 
more interferers and they are more closely bunched. At 
the same time, the end well knows that he is an especial 
mark on all sides. He realizes that a particular man is 
appointed to do his utmost to check his play and that if 
this man fails to do it, the work is to be attended to by 
the other interferers who come immediately after. Under 
these difficulties in tackling and maneuvering, it is not 
strange that every captain is most careful in the selection 
and training of his end men. 

The kind of man who could play a brilliant game at 
end, might not, perhaps, be able to fill any other position 
in the rush line, yet this is not necessarily true. His 
qualification would be questionable only as regards build 
and weight. There are most brilliant end players who 
only weigh about one hundred and fifty pounds, and 
sometimes a little less, but the tendency now is toward 
selecting slightly heavier players for that position in order 
to gain more weight with which to meet the tremendous 
on-rush of the interferers. - But it is not infrequent that 
the light, agile, cat-like men are much more likely to 
tackle the runner, and so are selected in preference to 
those possessing plenty of weight but less skill. The 
tackling of these light, quick men is necessarily most 
brilliant, because they do not bore their way through to 
the runner but seize a momentary opening to put in their 
telling work. Such a man, as has been said, could not 
play in any other position in the rush line, for he would 
not be heavy enough to stand the hard pushing and 
plunging to which, for example, the tackle is subjected. 
With the exception of meeting .the end plays and plays 
between the end and tackle, the end-rusher does not have 
the hard, wearing work of the other rushers. Not that 



45 

he does not have plenty of work to do, but he is not con- 
stantly combating an opponent and struggling with 
might and main to get through the line, thus being sub- 
jected to the little knocks and bruises which the other 
rushers have to endure. 

The end-rusher is at liberty to take any position he 
chooses on the offense. His one thought, however, should 
be to take that position from which he can best operate 
in helping out the play. Many end-rushers fail to do 
this. Some ends play up in the line and follow their op- 
ponents wherever they move, no matter how far out they 
go. Others take a stand a little back of the line, about a 
yard or two from the tackle, shifting this now and then 
as the play suggests and admits. This latter is generally 
the best position which can be taken for helping in the 
interference, and it is also a better position from which to 
start if the end-rusher is to run with the ball himself. 
Whenever the end-rusher is going to take the ball he 
should carelessly assume a position a little nearer the 
quarter-back perhaps almost behind the tackle. Other- 
wise, the distance which he would be obliged to run be- 
fore he reached his opening would be so great that the 
opponents would have enough time in which to intercept 
the play. On this play the quarter-back should give the 
ball to him by a short pass and then run ahead to inter- 
fere. 

If the end-rusher plays up in the line he should always 
take the inside man when acting on the offensive. This 
is a point frequently forgotten, and oftentimes is the rea- 
son why end runs are stopped before the runner reaches 
the end. The end-rusher should also remember to help / 
the tackle whenever the latter takes the ball. In this case 
it may be necessary for the end-rusher to step in and 



46 

block the opposing tackle, but if the tackle can break 
away from his opponent without assistance it is better 
that the end should follow the tackle right around. When 
the tackle is to go into the line the end can do no better 
than place his hands on his hips and steer him into the 
opening. If the end-rusher does this well he can be of 
great assistance to the tackle in running, and at the same 
time prevent him from being caught from the rear. The 
best way to play the end position in making the different 
evolutions, is shown in the chapter containing diagrams. 

On kjcks into touch the end-rusher must cover the ball 
well and secure it the instant the full-back puts him on 
side. Whenever an opponent secures it the end-rusher 
on that side must be on the watch to prevent his quickly 
putting it in play at the point it crossed the line. He 
should also be on the watch for all side-line tricks. The 
other end man should return quickly to his position 
to guard his field against a throw in from the side or any 
quick play. The end-rushers must be sure to keep their 
eyes on any outlying men who might receive the ball on 
a.pass. 

V/ " Be the first man down the field on a kick " is the 
motto early instilled in the would-be end-rusher, and to 
do that and be there in time to tackle the catcher before 
he starts is no small accomplishment. It means that 
with a good punter, who has perhaps the wind behind 
him to propel the ball, the end must be exceedingly 
quick in starting and very swift of foot. If the end fails 
to get down the field in time, the ball will be carried or 
kicked back, whereas a swift runner might be able to pre- 
vent this. Moreover, the full-back ought not to be com- 
pelled to limit his kick because of the slowness of the 
end-rusher. 



47 

It requires long practice and much careful study to de- 
termine just the direction the ball has taken almost at the 
moment it is kicked without wasting time in turning 
around or in looking over the head into the air. Likewise 
it requires practice to decide upon the best way of ap- 
proaching the man to whom the ball is kicked. It is a 
common fault for end-rushers to run blindly down the 
field without knowing the exact direction which the ball 
has taken, when a little study of the faces and actions of 
the half-backs will indicate in a second whither the ball is 
going. 

Another common fault with the end-rusher is the failure 
to tackle the man who gets the ball. This results largely 
from over running him. The player with the ball simply 
jumps to one side at the proper moment and lets the end 
go by in his headlong run, and then goes down the field. 
The one remedy is that he should slacken speed a little 
as he approaches and watch for a chance to tackle. 

Care should be taken by the end-rusher as he runs 
down the field to approach the player who has received 
the ball so that he will be_Jorced to run on the inside of 
him. Then, in case the end misses his tackle, "Tie will fall 
into the hands of the other rushers, now near at hand. 
The position of the end-rusher when a kick is about to 
be made, should be such that he can protect the field. 
Usually he draws off well from the tackle. This must be 
done without fail when he has a large field to guard, that 
is, when the other end of the line is near the side of the 
field. The general form of the rush line as it advances 
when a kick is to be made, is described in the chapter on 
team play. 

It may be said further, that usually the end-rusher 
should start his line of direction slightly towards the side 
4 



lines until he gets the first inkling of the direction the 
ball has taken. He should then bear in or out still far- 
ther, according as seems best. This would not be good 
advice to the end-rusher who stands close to the side line. 
The reason for the end taking such a start is that he 
should protect the whole field against a run, and the least 
protected part should be attended to first. This sugges- 
tion has especial weight when there is a great deal of 
space between the end-rusher and the side line. 

The end-rusher must be especially watchful at the start 
for signs of a short kick, or for one which goes to the 
side. Sometimes these are caused by inaccurate kicking, or 
by the partial stopping of the ball by an opposing rusher. 
In any event, he must be careful not to over-run the ball, 
and must secure it whenever an opponent puts him on 
side by touching the ball. If the end is in doubt where 
the ball is, he should glance around quickly and find out. 
The end-rushers must be especially careful when the ball 
is kicked from near the side of the field, for it often hap- 
pens that only one end can be near the opponent when 
he catches. 

The end-rusher should be under the ball when it falls, 
and if the opponent is a good catcher he should usually 
force him to make a fair catch. If, however, the end- 
rusher is where he is absolutely sure of securing the 
catcher if he should run, it may sometimes be better for 
him to give the opponent a slight chance to run for the 
sake of increasing his liability to drop the ball. This lia- 
bility is further increased by a hard tackle just at the 
moment the catcher starts. The end should be on the 
watch to secure the ball at such times. He should also 
make sure that the catcher does not pass the ball to a 
companion near at hand. 



49 

There are many conditions to be met by the end as he 
goes down the field on a kick which cannot be described. 
He must note them as they come and act accordingly. 
One of the hardest of these is to know how to handle 
bounding and rolling balls. Observing the angle at 
which the ball descends, also the way it acts for two or 
three bounds after it strikes, will give some information 
on which to base action, but there is a constant uncer- 
tainty ; and in those cases where the ball is revolving on 
an axis constantly shifting as it goes through the air, 
there is no certainty of its action after it strikes the 
ground. It therefore takes the most careful playing at 
such times on the part of the end-rusher, for one of the oppo- 
nents may dart in opportunely and seize the ball and go 
sprinting up the field. If there is any chance for this, 
and he is not well supported with helpers, the end-rusher 
should immediately touch the ball and force a down for 
the other side. Furthermore, when a kicked ball is likely 
to go over the line in goal, the end-rusher should do his 
utmost to touch it just before it reaches the five-yard line 
so that it shall be down at that spot and shall not be 
brought out to the twenty-five yard line. 



THE QUARTER-BACK. 

As popular opinion has always assigned the snap-back's 
position to the largest man on the eleven, so likewise has 
it given the quarter-back's position to the smallest man. 
There is less reason in having the smallest man quarter- 
back than the largest player at center. Indeed, there is 
no question that a swift, agile man of one hundred and 
sixty or one hundred and seventy pounds would be the 
most useful quarter-back, if his other qualifications are 
equal. The trouble is that the man of such a weight, who 
was qualified to fill the quarter-back's position, would be 
the man who would be most needed at tackle or end, or 
as a running-back. There is rarely more than one man 
with these qualifications on the best teams, while there 
are usually several men of sufficient speed and agility 
among the candidates, who perhaps could not be useful 
in any other position, and yet are too skillful players to 
loose. The result is that on university elevens the 
quarter-back is usually a man who weighs from one hun- 
dred and forty to one hundred and fifty-five pounds, is 
agile and swift, is a hard worker, with great endurance 
and unlimited pluck. Well does he need all of these 
qualities, for he must always be in the thick of the fight. 
No play can take place from a scrimmage without his 
being a medium in its execution, not only in the passing 
of the ball, but also, if he does his duty, in assisting the 
runner on his way up the field. Not that he runs ahead 
of the runner every time, for he is unable to go in front 
on some plays, but he can always get behind to push if 

(50) 



5' 

the runner is stopped, or to block off those who try to 
tackle him from the rear. 

The quarter-back's position demands a peculiarly heady 
player at the same time that it calls for agility and quick- 
ness. No other player on the eleven is forced to do as much 
thinking and planning while in the midst of most skillful 
and invaluable work. He has no chance to "soldier," 
either mentally or physically, as the rest of the eleven 
may do, to a limited extent, occasionally during the pro- 
gress of the game if so disposed. His brain must be as 
clear as his muscles are quick and steady. He has to 
translate with absolute exactness every signal which is 
given, and as accurately carry it out by forwarding the 
ball in the most advantageous manner possible to the 
player who is to receive it. On no account, then, must a 
man be selected for this position who is inclined to be- 
come " rattled," for the position itself is enough to render 
unsteady the coolest man. 

When the quarter-back is appointed to give the signals 
for the play a new duty emphasizes the importance of his 
being a heady player, for he then is made the general of 
the game. By having this duty to perform the chances 
for his making a mistake in giving the ball to the wrong 
player are perhaps slightly decreased, but the demand 
for clever judgment and shrewdness in field tactics more 
than offsets this. 

The quarter-back must know no physical fear. He 
must be fearlessly unconscious that there are several op- 
ponents almost within reach of him who are doing their 
utmost to fall upon him. No nervousness must enter in- 
to his work ; else he is not the man for the position. 

In assuming his position on a down, the quarter-back is 
allowed considerable freedom. Some players prefer to 



5 2 

receive the ball close up to the center-rusher and then 
move away as they pass it on to the runner ; others take 
a position between the two, just as far away as is possi- 
ble while still being able to reach the center conveniently 
for giving the signal. 

The quarter-back who plays close up to the center ren- 
ders himself liable to be interfered with in his pass by the 
opposite center and guards, who may reach over to check 
his play ; at the same time he cannot so well take part in 
the interference on end plays. On the other hand, the 
quarter-back who takes his position far behind the center 
is limited in some of his plays. He can be of more assist- 
ance, perhaps, in helping on the end plays, but it will be 
impossible for any of the guards and tackles to run with 
the ball with any chance of gaining ground, because they 
will have to run so far behind the line to receive the ball 
that they will easily be tackled. When the quarter-back 
takes this position he will have to give the signal in some 
other way than that usually followed. It has been cus- 
tomary for the quarter-back to press the calf of the center 
rusher's leg, or some other part of his body, with his thumb 
when he is ready for the ball ; but there are reasons why 
some other signal would be better at times, and the giving 
of the signal would be of little moment if there is to be 
a decided advantage gained by playing so far behind the 
center. It is accepted as the best way for the quarter- 
back, in playing his position, to stand bent over, at arms 
length from the center, with his eyes fixed on the ball. 

He has already learned the position of the player who 
is about to receive the ball as he glanced around at his 
team when the signal for the play was given. The in- 
stant that he gives the signal for the ball to come back 
he turns quarter round, throwing his right or left foot 



53 

well behind for a brace, according as he wishes to pass 
the ball to the right or left. The quarter-back must 
not take his final position for receiving the ball before 
the signal for the ball to come back is given ; otherwise 
the opponents will have time to study out his method of 
passing for the different plays and can guess in what 
direction the run will be made. It is all done so quickly 
in the other case that there will be no time to anticipate 
the play. 

The quarter-back should never give his private signal 
for the ball until the captain has given the signal for the 
play, and then only after he comprehends it himself. In 
a well drilled eleven the quarter-back understands the 
signal for a play the instant it is given, and yet it is not 
a rare occurrence in important games for signals to be 
mixed or the key numbers to be left out. In that case the 
quarter-back should not signal for the ball until the signal 
for the play is made plain or a new one given. It is now 
a common practice for the quarter-back to give the signals 
for the play himself, whether he is captain or not. This 
has grown out of the fact that he is in one of the best 
positions for observing the whole field, and also because 
he will no longer need to interpret the signal after it is 
given, but can call for the ball as soon as he thinks best. 
This facilitates the play somewhat and lessens the liabil- 
ity of making mistakes in translating the captain's signal. 

There are three styles of passing a ball used by quarter- 
backs. Two of these make use of only one arm in for- 
warding the ball one by an overhand and straight-arm 
movement especially valuable for passing long distances, 
but too slow for ordinary use; the other by an underhand 
pitch with an easy, natural swing of the arm. This lat- 
ter style is the quickest of the three, for no time is lost in 



54 

raising the arm into a position for delivering the ball. 
This pass supplements the movement of the ball along the 
ground most quickly and naturally. In the third style of 
passing both hands and arms are used and it is closely 
allied to the one-arm underhand pass. This insures ac- 
curacy, but places limitations on the distance the ball can 
be thrown. It is commonly used in all short passing. It 
would be of great advantage if a quarter-back could pass 
accurately with either hand. 

In receiving the ball from the center the quarter-back 
should stop it with the hand which corresponds to the leg 
already placed behind for a brace and immediately adjust 
the other hand to it for a pass. This is done by placing 
one end squarely in the hand from which the pass is to be 
made and spreading out the fingers. The hand should 
then be bent at the wrist until the ball rests against the 
forearm. The ball is now in a position for a pass. Care 
should be taken to have the hand squarely behind the 
ball, also to have the long axis of the ball parallel with 
the forearm. The easiest way to make a long pass is to 
swing the arm at full length just below the level of the 
shoulder. 

The quarter-back must need give considerable time to 
practicing all parts of his work in receiving, handling, and 
passing the ball. It is no easy matter to receive the ball 
as it comes bounding back from the center-rusher and 
adapt it to the hands for accurate passing while quickly 
turning into position to deliver it to the runner; but it is 
necessary for the quarter-back to do this in order not to 
be interfered with by the rushers who break through the 
line, and also not to delay the runner. It requires long 
practice, also, to be able to handle the ball and be off the 
instant the ball is in the hands, but it is an achievement 



55 

which enables the quarter-back to be of great service in 
end interference. Unless, however, there is the most 
skillful handling of the ball it is impossible for the quarter- 
back to get ahead of the runner without delaying him. It 
requires much practice to be able to do quick and accurate 
passing to be able to place the ball at just the right dis- 
tance ahead of the runner and at just the right height and 
at just the right speed, so that he shall not be delayed an 
instant, and can give his whole thought to running and 
dodging. 

Too great stress cannot be laid upon quick work by the 
quarter-back. It means success or defeat to some of the 
plays. At the same time the quarter-back must be ex- 
ceedingly careful in handling and passing the ball. It 
is better to be a little slow than to be quick and unsteady. 
He must never become excited and lose his self-control, 
for that would be disastrous to all careful work and also 
would be likely to cause him to make mistakes in signals. 

On all dashes through the center it is better for the 
quarter-back to make short passes of the ball at the run- 
ner's waist. The ball must not be passed fast and it 
must be most accurately placed, for the runner is bent 
over for a plunge and is not in a position to handle it, 
unless on a slow and accurate pass. These points are 
worthy of the most careful consideration, for much of the 
fumbling by the half-backs is due to poor passing. What 
would ordinarily be an excellent pass if the half-back 
were at some distance, would be a poor one when he is 
coming forward at full speed, with his body somewhat 
bent at the waist, and his attention partly on the ball and 
partly on the opening he is to take. In this case, also, 
a high pass is harder to catch than a low one, because 
the hands will have to be raised quickly from their posi- 
tion at the waist. 



56 

The quarter-back should also use the greatest care in 
his pass to the full-back for a kick, for a poor pass will 
most likely result in the opponents stopping the kick and 
securing the ball on four downs, if not on a fumble. The 
full-back can kick most quickly when the ball is passed 
at his waist. 

Some quarter-backs prefer to hand the ball to the run- 
ner as he dashes by, whenever that is possible. This 
method, without doubt, is best when the guard or tackle 
runs around for a plunge through the line between center 
and guard, or guard and tackle, on the other side of the 
center. In this case the quarter-back will turn half 
around, with his back to the center-rusher, the ball being 
held by the ends between the extended hands. In most 
other cases an advantage is gained \>y passing the ball, 
because the quarter-back will not be in danger of being 
tackled by the opposing rushers or quarter-back, as they 
break through the line, and also because he will be free 
after his pass to give his whole attention to helping the run- 
ner. He may do this either by going through the opening 
and pulling the runner after him ; by grasping him and 
going through with him ; by shoving him hard when he 
strikes the line; or by jumping into an opponent who has 
broken through in the path of the runner. Occasionally 
it may be better to hand the ball to the runner when the 
quarter-back runs out to the side to interfere for him; but 
even in that case, a short pass usually facilitates the play 
because the quarter-back can run faster and do better in- 
terference when free from the ball. It is of great assist- 
ance in getting into the interference on end plays for the 
quarter-back to be able to pass the ball accurately on the 
run, for every fraction of a second counts in making a 
helpful connection. 



57 

On the defense the quarter-back usually hovers in the 
rear of the center and guards, watching his opportunity 
to go through and tackle the opposing quarter or half- 
backs. 

A powerful style of defensive play has now, however, 
been largely adopted, in which the quarter-back takes a 
position behind one of the tackles, while a half-back is 
brought up to a corresponding position behind the other 
tackle. They there await the play without attempting to 
go through on the instant the ball is snapped, and as the 
line of their opponents separates for the play, the one on 
whose side of the center the opening is made dives into 
it to meet the runner before he can strike the line. 

He must know just when to go through the line and 
when to wait in order to see where to meet the play; also 
through which opening in the line to go in order to best 
check the play. Some shrewd guessing can be done , which 
will help determine this by noting all the signs of the di- 
rection of the play spoken of in the chapter on team play. 
The center and guards, and sometimes the tackles, should 
help the quarter-back find his opening and assist him in 
getting through. The quarter-back should always be 
helped through when the opposing team is going to kick, 
since it will be much easier for htm to go through quickly 
on account of his size and quickness in starting. If the 
rushers and the quarter-back work together on the de- 
fense the latter can be a most valuable adjunct to their 
play, because he is free to move anywhere. When a run- 
ner is checked or tackled, the quarter-back, as indeed all 
the eleven, should endeavor to pull the ball out of his 
hands before he calls " down." The quarter-back often 
has a good chance to do this when the runner is entan- 
gled in a mass. 



THE HALF-BACKS AND FULL-BACK. 

The half-backs and the full-back, who is practically a 
third half-back, stand usually from two to four yards 
behind the center of the line. They group themselves at 
short distances from one another and in a way to best 
assist in carrying out the play which is about to be made. 
There is a difference in the latitude given the half-backs 
and full-back on different teams in arranging themselves 
for each play. Some captains require these men to 
occupy the same position on every play, claiming that it 
is of great advantage in obscuring the play to have a 
fixed arrangement. On other teams the half-backs and 
full-back are allowed to move about, and shift their 
places to the position in which they think they can best 
help out the play. 

There is also a great difference among teams in the 
placing of the half-backs and full-back in reference to 
each other and also in reference to the rush line. In 
general, the full-back is stationed behind the center and 
usually about a yard or a yard and a half further from 
the line than the half-backs. On some teams, these three 
play close together, separated by not more than a yard 
or a yard and a half ; on others, they are separated from 
two yards to three yards and a half. There is also a 
decided difference in the distance behind the line which 
the backs play. This varies from two to five yards. 

The arrangement of the backs should, in a measure, 
depend on the style of game to be played ; and the style 

(58) 



59 

of game should be determined by the composition of the 
team. That is to say, that if it is deemed wise to play a 
center game, it can best be done by bunching the backs ; 
while, on the other hand, the combinations can be best 
made for an end game when the backs are more spread 
apart. 

Captains who are limited in the selection of their play- 
ers will find it well worth their while to consider the 
arrangement of the backs, both in regard to their relative 
distance from each other, and also in regard to the 
distance which they stand behind the line. Indeed, there 
is an opportunity for fine generalship in deciding upon 
the place for these ground gainers. 

When the three men who are to occupy positions 
behind the line have been decided upon, there is also 
need of careful consideration in determining which posi- 
tion each one of the three shall fill. The full-back is 
usually selected for his ability to kick, and yet, it is some- 
times better that the man occupying that position should 
act as a half-back until the signal for a kick is given, and 
then drop back ; while a half-back sometimes could do 
more effective work in the middle position during the 
general play. If one of the backs is slow, his best posi- 
tion is usually at full-back, for there he receives the 
greatest protection and help. The light, quick men can 
succeed better at half-back than the slow, heavy men. 

It frequently happens that one of the backs invariably 
carries the ball under the right arm and is able to use 
only the left effectively in blocking off, or vice versa. 
This fact should be considered in determining which 
position the men shall occupy. 

It is unfortunate for a half-back to be so limited, but 
many of them are r and they do not practice with the 



6o 

other arm enough to train it. Some naturally run in one 
direction better than in another ; or some are surer and 
stronger of foot, perhaps, when running around on a 
particular side. A player is sometimes put in the right or 
left position because the interference is stronger on that 
side ; or possibly the arrangement is made to take ad- 
vantage of a certain known strength or weakness in the 
team which they are to meet. 

The half-backs and full-backs are largely the ground 
gainers for the team and most of the advances into the 
enemy's territory are made by them. For this reason, 
only men who possess special qualifications are selected 
to fill these positions. In quickness and agility they 
should equal the quarter-back ; in point of speed, ability 
to dodge, courage, and dash, they should be unequaled 
by any man on the team. Again and again they must 
rush headlong into the line, oftentimes only to be hurled 
back by the opposing rushers who plunge through upon 
them. Yet, never losing courage, again and again they 
must come to the rally, now attacking the opponent's 
center by heavy plunging now trying to make a detour 
around the wings. 

Too great emphasis can not be placed on quick starting. 
The inability to get under headway quickly is very often 
the difference between a first-rate half-back and a second- 
rate one. The second-rate half-back may be just as fast 
a runner, and may be just as hard to stop when once 
under way, but he does not get under headway nearly so 
often, because he loses so much time on his start that he 
is tackled before he passes the critical point in the run. 
On all plunges into the line the utmost speed must be 
used in conjunction with the quick start. The distance 
is very short in which to get under headway, and there is 



6i 

need of the greatest force to project the runner through 
the resistance, as well as need to reach that point of re- 
sistance in the shortest time. It is common with many 
elevens to have one heavy back to do the plunging into 
the line, but frequently this man is so slow in his start 
that he is not so effective for line-breaking, against a 
strong defense, as the lighter man would be. It very 
frequently happens that in choosing the half-backs, men 
have to be selected who have only part of the qualifica- 
tions for the position ; who perhaps can run fast, or, again, 
are what are termed ' ' fighters," but lack some of the other 
requisites When such is the case, the captain should 
immediately take means to train these men in the other 
necessary qualifications for good half-back play. It is 
indispensable that a half-back should be able to run into 
a line hard time and again, and with no fear or hesita- 
tion. It is likewise most necessary that a half-back 
should be a powerful runner and not easily stopped ; one 
who does not fall easily but keeps his feet well when 
tackled, and struggles on for the gain of a few feet. But 
he would be a much more useful man if, at the same time 
with this pluck, determination, and ability to stand on his 
feet under difficulties, and keep struggling forward, he 
also had the ability to dodge an opponent or ward him 
off with the extended arm, instead of running straight 
into him. 

Dodging in running can be cultivated through the 
study and practice of its points of deception. The un- 
derlying principle is the quick movement of the body, 
or portion of the body, from a point where it would 
have been if it had continued in the same direction. 
In the most simple form of dodging the runner sud- 
denly changes his direction. As usually practiced, the 



62 

runner is obliged to slow up a great deal, in order to 
change his course. In all dodging, the runner, if at 
topmost speed, must slacken speed a little, just before he 
reaches the tackier, in order to reduce the size of his 
stride so that he may have a proper balance for project- 
ing the body in another direction, or so that he may make 
certain preliminary body motions which cannot be made 
when at full speed. 

There are several ways of dodging, but one man sel- 
dom possesses more than one or two. The zigzag dodge, 
which used to be so common when individual running 
and poor tackling were in vogue, is performed by a com- 
bination of leg and body feints. Its weakness is that it 
retards tbe runner too much. In another dodge the run- 
ner strides suddenly one side with a long step. This 
is a very effective method for long-legged runners. In 
another, the runner sways his body from one side to 
the other, the legs being planted wide apart as each 
step is taken in a zigzag course. The runner moves in 
the same general direction until the opponent is reached 
and then darts to one side. Still another dodge is made 
by drawing the hips away, and in this dodge a clever vise 
of the arm is valuable. It is one of the most effective, 
since the hips are usually the part aimed at in tackling. 
Another way is to duck under a tackier: by bending the 
body low at the waist. This is practiced most effectively 
by small men and is most valuable against high tackling. 
Another method is to turn the body completely around 
when about to be tackled, upon one foot as a pivot. 
This comes into splendid use when the tackier has been 
unable to grasp the runner with both hands. In another 
form of avoiding a tackier, the runner, on being ap- 
proached from the side, slows up a little ; whereupon 



63 

the opponent delays just long enough to allow him to 
go around by putting on a burst of speed. 

Good dodging is not complete unless there is added to 
it the power to use the arms well in warding off. The 
latter supplements the former most effectively when well 
done. When the tackling is high, or when the runner is 
well bent over, the arm should be extended against the 
face or chest of the opponent. Often, on a long dive or 
reach for the hips by the tackier, the runner can break 
the hold by striking down with his arm. All the above 
styles of dodging can be acquired by practice. It is bet- 
ter to practice them with only one-or two men to act as 
opponents, after the movement has been learned. 

There is another requisite needed by the half-back in 
addition to dodging, and that is the ability to follow an 
interferer or interferers well. Half-backs differ greatly 
in skill on this point. The work of escaping a tackier 
should not rest wholly in the interferers' hands, as it so 
often does. The half-back should supplement the latter's 
work by taking advantage of the protection given him to 
work every ruse and feint he knows. Where there are 
several interferers, there is a chance for the runner to 
move from one to the other as occasion suggests. It 
needs quick wit and agility to follow interferers well, but 
much can be learned by practice with or without oppo- 
nents, and every half-back should devote himself to per- 
fecting his play in this particular. 

The half-backs must be good catchers, not only of 
kicked balls, but also, and especially, of balls passed 
from the quarter-back. Oftentimes, the fault of a muff 
or a fumble can be laid to a poor pass, but if the quarter- 
back is unsteady on his part, there is all the more reason 
that the half-backs and full-back be skillful catchers. If 
5 



t 

64 

weak in catching, much practice should be given by the 
half-backs to perfecting themselves. They should work 
at this in conjunction with the quarter-back in order that 
they may get used to each other. In catching short 
passes, it is usually better to catch the ball with the 
hands. This is surer because the hands can adapt them- 
selves much better than the arms to the position and 
shape of the ball when a man is running. In running 
sidewise to the pass, as it is necessary to do in so many 
plays, the arms could not be used without checking the 
speed ; while there need be no diminution in speed when 
the ball is caught in the hands, provided the quarter-back 
does his work well. 

There are three ways of carrying the ball, and each 
has its proper occasions for use. When the play is 
straight through the center the general order to the half- 
back is to put the head down on a level with the waist, 
gathering the ball up under the body with both arms, be- 
cause there could be no use for an arm to ward off an 
opponent until the line has been penetrated, and there is 
great danger of losing the ball by the pulling and haul- 
ing to which the runner is subjected. After the runner 
is well through the line and has a chance to run freely, he 
should transfer the ball to the side of the body opposite 
the arm with which it is necessary to ward off. The 
runner should look for opponents as he emerges from the 
opening, and likewise for interferers. Where the play is 
through the more open part of the line the runner should 
usually carry the ball under the arm which is away from 
the opponents who are likely to meet him first, shifting it 
to the other arm when necessary. - In this case, likewise, 
it is occasionally better to carry the ball in both hands 
until there is need for warding off an opponent, at which 



65 

moment the bail can be easily shifted to whichever arm 
it is desired. This provides for any emergency. This 
way of carrying the ball is especially valuable in dodg- 
ing, since the ball can be placed quickly under either arm 
and a better defense made ; for if forced to dodge, the 
runner may transfer the ball to the arm away from his 
opponent and have the other free to ward off. By moving 
the ball from one side to the other in front of the body 
while running, the dodge will be made more effective. 

In carrying the ball under the arm it should be held 
well forward, because it can be held more tightly in this 
position. The reason why the ball is often pulled out from 
under the arm is that it is held so far back that the strong 
muscles of the chest are of little assistance. When held 
in this position the ball is often forced out from under the 
arm when the runner is thrown to the ground. By test- 
ing these two positions it will be easily seen which is the 
safer way. If a runner is inclined to lose the ball he 
should practice squeezing it in the most approved man- 
ner until he has trained himself to hold it fast under all 
circumstances. 

We have already spoken of the runner getting under 
headway quickly. It is also necessary that he should run 
with all his speed ; whether he plunges into the center 
part of the line or follows the interference out to the 
wings (unless he is obliged to slow down in order to 
receive the ball, to let a runner in ahead of him, or to get 
by an opponent). No runner is so invincible in all his 
play as he who rushes with all his strength ; who shows 
by his every movement the determination and power 
with which he is charged ; who inspires in his opponents 
a hesitancy and dread of tackling him ; who never gives 
up when tackled but keeps struggling on, twisting, 



66 

squirming, and wriggling himself out of the grasp of one 
after another until he can no longer advance. Such a 
man is worth a dozen who hesitate. 

The dashing runner is the one who usually makes the 
advances. If he goes through an opening he goes 
through on a jump. Such a man, when checked, will 
keep his feet and legs going like a treadmill and will bore 
his way through in spite of resistance. This sort of 
pushing accomplishes wonders. For effective applica- 
tion of power it is worth vastly more than the same 
amount of force applied slowly, for the attack is sudden 
and continuous. Its effectiveness, however, is altogether 
dependent on the head being well bent over, so that the 
whole weight and impetus of the body is forward, for the 
legs are then in a position tc exert the greatest power. 

Another reason for running into the line well bent 
over, is that it is much more difficult to tackle a runner 
when in that attitude. It is impossible to get under a 
short man in order to make a low tackle when he is com- 
ing straight toward one, and the result is that the tackier 
receives the runner's head in his stomach, or if he be good 
in the use of his arm, he will very likely have a hand 
thrust into his face or against his chest. At such times, 
the runner is very often able to slip past. 

Again, running with the head down enables the runner 
always to fall forward when tackled. This usually means 
a further gain of two or three yards. 

In running low care should always be taken not to lose 
the balance. After considerable practice the balance can 
be very well kept when running much bent over and still 
great speed be maintained. As soon as the line is cleared 
and there are no opponents very near, the runner should 
assume a more upright position so that he can run at his 
utmost speed, lowering his head whenever he thinks best. 



67 

In making the end plays, the runner need not put his 
head down except, perhaps, when it is necessary to duck 
under a tackier. He must now put on speed up to the 
full limit of the interferers, following them very closely, 
now using this one and now that, according as the danger 
shifts. He must constantly be on the alert for changing 
his position to take advantage of every little help, or to 
prevent being pocketed, at the same time being ready to 
break away from his interferers if he sees he can gain 
more by so doing. In general, the runner should keep 
behind his helpers until the last, but now and then an 
opportunity comes which he ought to accept. 

The light-footed, agile man who can keep his balance 
well is physically best capacitated for running behind in- 
terferers. To do it well the runner should be able to 
change his stride to meet the emergencies which arise in 
passing from one iaterferer to another, or in following 
very close when a long stride would cause him to stumble 
over his interferers. 

Another requirement which the backs, or at least one of 
them, presumably the full-back, should have, is the ability 
to kick. It would be well if all three possessed this 
ability, for there are times, now and then, when conster- 
nation could be brought to the opponents by the half-back 
returning a kick. But this could happen only occasionally, 
and it is much more important that the half-backs be 
especially strong in running with the ball, for that will be 
their main work. The full-back however, should be a 
skillful kicker both in punting and drop-kicking. 

It requires long practice to punt well. The oval shape 
of the ball precludes simply tossing or dropping it from 
the hands and then kicking it, to get the best results. 

The mechanical construction and adjustment of the 



68 

muscles of the leg and body in their relation to kicking 
require careful study. Long practice is necessary to be 
able to regulate the power, and at the same time deter- 
mine the angle and direction which the ball shall take. 
All the practice which the full-back can get to acquire 
skill in punting will be well repaid, for it will make him 
of inestimable value to his eleven. 

Where the full-back does not know how to punt, the 
following directions will be found helpful : Hold the bal' 
between the hands, the ends pointing to and from the 
body, lacings up. Extend the arms horizontally in front 
and bend forward with the body until the ball is held just 
below the level of the waist. Take a short step forward 
with the foot not used in kicking, and at the same time 
drop the ball from the hands, and bring the kicking leg 
quickly forward to meet the falling ball about knee high. 
Do not try to kick hard at first. Attend simply to drop- 
ping (not tossing) the ball without changing the relative 
position of the> axis. This must be closely regarded or 
there will never be any certainty as to where the ball will 
go. The first point noticed by a novice will be that the 
ball reaches the ground before his foot meets it. This 
shows that the foot was not started forward soon enough. 
One way to obviate that difficulty is to drop the ball from 
a higher point ; but the best point has already been 
selected and the tardy member must be trained to be on 
time. It will also be noticed that sometimes the ball will 
meet the leg above the ankle. The aim should be to have 
the ball fit into the concave of the extended foot, and it 
will probably be necessary to give the ball a slight toss 
forward in order to make the kick powerfully. Care 
should be taken when doing this that the ball is not 
turned, or tossed so far that power is lost. In practicing 



6 9 

in this way it will at first be noticed that the whole force 
of the blow will be given by using the leg from the knee 
down. This, one can readily see, would weaken the 
blow because the leverage is short and the muscles which 
extend the lower leg not especially powerful, and at the 
same time it is very trying to the knee joint. The most 
powerfn kick would be one which had the leverage of 
the full length of the leg, thus bringing into play the 
strong abdominal muscles to add speed and power. In 
making .this kick, the leg should be extended at full 
length (with toes pointed) and should swing on the hips 
as an axis. After the forward kick has been learned so 
that it can be well executed, the side kick may be at- 
tempted. In this case the ball is dropped a little to the 
outside. The great advantage in the side kick is, that if 
not too much on one side, a very considerable increase in 
power can be gained, because a longer swing can be 
given to tbe leg, and because the swing is further as : 
sisted by some additional muscles which give increased 
power. Another advantage is that the full-back can take 
a step to the side and kick around an opponent. 

In practicing, do not keep the leg rigid through all the 
swing. The muscles must be sufficiently lax to make 
the swing easy, the rigid contraction coming just before 
the foot reaches the ball. 

The angle at which the ball is kicked can be regulated 
by elevating or lowering the point of the ball farthest 
away from the body, or by dropping the ball in such a 
way that the position of the foot in the arc described by 
it shall regulate the direction which the ball shall take. 
If the kicker wishes to make a high kick, he drops the 
ball so that the foot reaches it when knee high or above, 
and when he wishes to make a low kick he allows the ball 



7 o 

to get closer to the ground before his foot meets it. By 
trial, it will be found that a point varying from about six 
inches above to six inches below the height of the knee 
is the place of greatest convenience and power. 

After punting and drop kicking has once been learned, 
the whole practice should be centered on kicking quickly. 
The ball should be caught, adjusted, dropped, and kicked 
just as quickly as possible. In practicing this, it will be 
found expedient to have several balls for the quarter- 
back to pass. After practicing for a few weeks in this 
way the full-back will find that he can stand considerably 
nearer the rush line and still avoid having the ball blocked. 

The drop kick is made by dropping the ball on one of 
the small ends and kicking it with the toe at the instant it 
rises from the ground. Some kickers prefer to have the 
ball lean toward them at a slight angle as it strikes, others 
to have the ball lean slightly toward the goal, and still 
others drop it with the long axis vertical. The latter style 
is most commonly used. Practice in all these will deter- 
mine in which position the foot meets the ball most nat- 
urally. The ball should be kicked with a free and easy, 
though quick, swing of the leg. If close under the goal 
the kick may be made more quickly with a short half swing, 
whereas in punting the leg is swung from the hip and the 
large abdominal muscles of the body brought strongly into 
play. In drop kicking very accurate, rapid, and effective 
work can be accomplished when the swing is made almost 
altogether from the knee joint with only a slight swing 
from the hip. Beginners frequently make a great mis- 
take in drawing the foot far back in preparation for a 
long drop kick. By extending the leg below the knee 
quickly and suddenly, so that the point of the toe will 
meet the ball at the instant it rises from the ground, great 



distance can be attained with little apparent outlay of 
force. 

It requires a great deal of practice to be quick and ac- 
curate at the same time. The full back should place 
himself a little farther from his rush line in attempting 
the drop kick than in punting, because the ball starts 
lower and it is not so easy to control the angle it takes. 

In trying for a goal from a place kick the ball should 
be brought out to a spot from which the angle to the goal 
and the distance from it are most favorable for the trial. 
If the touchdown is made directly behind the goal, or near 
it, the ball should not be carried far out into the field. A 
point should be selected where there will be no danger of 
the opposing rushers stopping the ball and from which it 
will be easy to kick the goal. Some men prefer to make 
the trial from a point not more than ten yards away, 
while others carry the ball out fifteen or twenty yards. 
The former, always make a quick half swing of the leg in 
kicking, lifting upward with the foot as they kick; the lat- 
ter usually kick with the leg swinging full and free from 
the hip. 

The ball should be held between the outstretched hands 
of the quarter-back or some other player as he lies ex- 
tended flat upon his stomach. The best way of holding 
the ball is to place the fingers of one hand behind it about 
three inches from the lower end, the fingers of the other 
hand being placed at a corresponding point at the top and 
slightly in front of the ball. The ball should be held in 
firm but easy balance, and the fingers should be so placed 
that it will be easy to turn it and least interfere with it 
when placing it down for a kick. Great care must be 
given to holding the ball steady. 

When the spot has been selected from which the trial 



7 2 

is to oe made, and the player who is to noli the ball has 
prostrated himself in firm balance on the ground, at right 
angles to the line of direction, and on the right or left side 
of the kicker, according to the foot which he is to use, the 
ball being properly held between the fingers with the 
elbows resting on the ground, the kicker must proceed to 
sight the ball. He first asks the holder to turn the lacing 
of the ball toward him; next he tells him how he wishes 
the ball to point and at what angle, if any, using such ex- 
pressions as "head forward" and "head up," meaning 
that the ball is to be tipped away from the kicker in the 
first instance and held vertically in the second. Other ex- 
pressions like "head out" and " head in " indicate that 
the point of the ball is to be moved in or out in reference 
to the player holding it. 

The sighting of the ball toward the goal can be done 
best by using the lacings as a guide, the holder being di- 
rected to twist the ball out or in , in reference to himself, 
by the expressions "lacings out," "lacings in." When 
the ball has been well aimed and everything is ready the 
kicker should tell the holder to " touch it down," at the 
same time moving forward to kick. In touching the ball 
down the holder must be very careful not to change the 
position. As the ball touches the ground the lower hand 
is removed in order not to interfere with its course. It is 
well to remove beforehand all pebbles or tufts of grass at 
the spot selected for placing the ball down, for a slight 
unevenness is often sufficient to prevent a goal. 

The kicker should keep his eye on some point on the 
ball as he steps forward and aim to kick it in that 
spot. Practice beforehand will determine the best place 
to give the impetus. When the ball is vertical this spot 
will be found by trial to be very near the ground ; when 



73 

the ball leans toward the kicker the best point for the 
kick is just below the lacing. The height of the point 
above the ground is nearly the same in both cases, but the 
point on the ball changes as the ball leans. If there is a 
wind blowing the kicker must take into consideration its 
force and direction in pointing the ball. 

In catching kicked balls and long passes, it is usually 
better to catch them with the arms. Every effort should 
be made to take the ball when about waist high, for at 
that point the arms can be better adjusted to it. The 
body also, here much softer, can at this part be drawn in 
to form a sort of pocket, as it were, for the ball. Care 
must be taken not to have the ball strike high up on the 
chest, for it is then difficult to shape the arms well to re- 
ceive it and the ball rebounds much quicker from its firm 
walls. 

There are two ways of catching with the arms. In 
one, the arms work in conjunction with the body, the 
latter being used to stop the ball while the arms close 
around it. In this style, one hand and forearm should be 
held lower than the point of contact with the body, while 
the other hand and forearm should be held above that 
point. The arms should be bent and should not usually 
be extended far from the body. In the other case, the 
ball is caught entirely with the arms and hands. This 
can be done only when it is kicked well into the air. The 
arms are held parallel in front of the body about six inches 
apart, being half bent at the elbows and wrists. The in- 
stant the ball strikes, the hands are curled forward over it. 
The fault of catching in this way usually lies in the catcher 
failing to bring his elbows near enough together and so 
leaving a space for the ball to go through. 



74 

In nearly all plays the backs, from the nature of their 
duties, are among the first men to start. Their position 
behind the line renders their every motion conspicuous, 
and the watchful rushers upon the opposing team will be 
upon the constant lookout for some movement, glance, or 
position of the body that betrays the direction of the 
play which is about to be executed. On this account the 
backs should take the greatest precaution to conceal their 
intentions. It is of assistance sometimes in deceiving 
the opponents to assume a position as if being about to go 
in one direction when an entirely different move is in- 
tended, but if this is practiced too frequently it will de- 
feat its own end. 



EXPLANATION OF THE DIAGRAMS. 

Before passing on to consider the following plays, a 
few words of explanation will be necessary. 

The side of attack in every instance, when in their 
regular positions, will be represented by the solid dots 
( ), and the side acting on the defensive by rings 
(O O O). When it is desired to represent a player in a 
position other than that which he originally occupies 
the figures O O O will be used. The broken line 

( ) will represent the course of the ball in 

the pass and the direction taken by the runner who 
receives it. 

A simple dotted line ( ) will be used to in- 
dicate that a player is to follow the runner with the ball, 
while the solid line ( ) indicates that the man 
shall pass in front to act as a line-breaker or interferer. 
The arrows indicate the direction which the players shall 
take. 

The men represented by the letters given in the 
diagrams are as follows : c, indicates the center ; Q B, the 
quarter-back; R H, LH, RE, and L E, the right and left 
half-backs and right and left ends respectively ; the right 
and left tackles are indicated by R T and L T ; while F-B 
represents the full-back. 

It must be distinctly understood that the drawings 
are in a measure diagramatical and do not in all in- 
stances represent accurately the relative distance be- 
tween the players. 

For example : in the diagramatical representation, 
wide spaces are left between the individual men in the 
rush line, while as a matter of fact, when the game is in 
progress, the rushers stand so closely together that they 
can easily touch one another and are frequently placed 
shoulder to shoulder. This manner of representation has 

(75) 



76 

been decided upon as conducive to greater clearness in 
showing the relative positions and directions where a 
number of men are obliged to pass through one opening, 
and in case the beginner is misled by this in any way, 
his error will be readily corrected by careful study in 
other parts of the book. 

In arranging the positions of the side acting upon the 
defensive, the quarter-back has been placed immediately 
behind one of the tackles while a half-back has been 
brought forward and stationed behind the other tackle. 
The abilities of the two half-backs should determine 
which position they shall occupy ; the points to be con- 
sidered being the ability to catch the ball when it is 
kicked, and the qualification for meeting the heavy tack- 
ling in the line. 

Sometimes it is preferable upon the third down, or 
when the ball is to be kicked, that the half-back stationed 
behind the tackle should immediately return to his 
proper position. At all other times the quarter-back and 
half-back usually remain directly behind their respective 
tackles as indicated, after the ball is snapped, until it be- 
comes clearly apparent through which one of the openings 
the opposing side is to make their attack, and then to 
spring forward directly into this breach and meet the on- 
coming runner in the line. 

This is considered a safer and more powerful defense 
than to have either one of these men attempt to break 
through, in the hope of meeting the runner behind his 
own line before he reaches the opening, and is the 
method adopted by the leading college football teams in 
the country. When opposed to a team using the running 
game almost altogether, both half-backs may be sent for- 
ward to support the line, the full-back alone remaining 
well behind the line for safety. 



77 

It will be noticed that the ends upon the side acting on 
the offense are placed near the tackles and are drawn 
slightly back from the line. We believe that the ends 
are in the strongest possible position for an attack in any 
direction when they stand about a yard and a half from 
the tackles, and about a yard back from the line. From 
this position they are of equal value in blocking, should 
the play be made around their end, while in plays 
through the center and around the opposite end, their 
position back from the line enables them to get into the 
play with far greater rapidity, and wellnigh doubles 
their efficiency. From a position in the line the running 
of the end, with the ball, which may be made a power- 
ful play, would be extremely difficult. 

Nearly every diagram represents two plays or more, 
and it should be borne in mind that, whereas in the 
diagram a play may be represented as made to the left, 
the same play may also be made to the right, and vice 
versa. 

In representing the arrangement of the men in the 
wedges and in the opening plays from the center of the 
field, the formation is given which in the majority of 
cases would seem to be most advantageous. But this 
arrangement need not be considered fixed and may be 
changed at the discretion of the captain. 

For special reason, too, it may in some instances seem 
best to alter the arrangement of the interference so that 
the positions of the preceding and following runners shall 
be interchanged. When there is sufficient reason for 
doing so, there should be no hesitation in making the 
alteration. When nothing is said as to duties of a player 
in the description of the diagrams, it will be understood 
that the player blocks his man. 




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his particular man. 


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lity to dodge was trusted to 
t See NOTE, diagram 2. 






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Half-back between guard an 


o send LH between RG and c, the ends 
yard and a half outside of the tackl( 


yards directly behind the guards, RH 
itands between three and four yards b 


he instant the ball is snapped FB, LH, 
en RG and c ; RG lifts his man back 


M 

G 

'S 

1 

o> 

4 

0) 

6 

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B dashes straight into this space, pas 
ig, and jumps into the first man in his 
H receives the ball from QB'S hands as ] 


es into the opening directly behind FB 
:d at his stomach with 0A# hands.* 


tj 

D 

6 
gl 
U 

Is 

rt ft 

= In 


T, simply forcing his opponent to pass 
d the instant the ball is in play, to ar 


xeeds in getting through the line. It 
and make it his especial duty to take 


jD 

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rf 

1 

1 

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ee NOTE, diagram 2. 
ee NOTE, diagram i. 


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with RH ahead oi LH, to break the 
g from behind. 




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LH follows immediately 
i, the ball held as before. J 


his position the moment 


1 

2 
jd 

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o 

1 

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f LT is the same as in diag 
is own man and endeavor 


may be sent through the 
re, instead of following ai 


ion of positions of diagram 5. 
ion in diagram 5. 


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LH. 

LH receive 


^J 


RH and FB to 
QB should, 
LE follows 
LT, going 1 


jj CJ 

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to diminish ' 


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there is no change in the position taken 
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peed, seek to protect and assist him. 


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diagram 8 and NOTE. 


jack between 


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e extra man behinc 
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:re is no change in the position of the men. 
the same way as shown in the preceding 
H endeavors to force the opposing end 
peed and rounds the end outside of him. 
es may arise which offer an advantage in 
than that called for by the signal. While 
nal, for the interferers are working with 
ure long gains for his side by judiciously 


outside of tackle as before. (See diagram 
und the end is shown in diagram 63. 


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c, the positions are the sa 


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veight j ^ strikes the lii> 


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then turns in immediate! 


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is formed as the men stri 


falls in immediately behil 
follows directly in the rea 


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as far as possible, strike 1 




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; position of the men. 


forward for the point 
ile RT forces his man b 


opposing guard with 
i interferes with the 
through and runs dire 


a 

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to interfere. 
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The instant the ball is snapped 
:n RG and RT. RG lifts his man 


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ugh the center of the opening i 


LE receives the ball at x on a 


directly behind LH. 


LT plays as shown in diagram 
After making the pass the best 


prevent the opposing guard or 
trikes the line. 


"S 0> 

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teen. 
RE plays as shown in diagram eight. 


RH plays as LH in diagram eleven. 
FB plays as shown in diagram seven. 


QB plays as shown in diagram eight. 
LH proceeds in the line indicated, at utm 
ing side as he rounds the tackle and con 
; either the opposing LG or I.T breaks-thro 


irevent LE from being stopped before he r 
LT. leavinjr the line as shown in diagrai 


a 

c 

B 

a 

5' 
PI 

4) 
4> 


RT plays as shown in diagram eight. 
LE receives the ball at x from QB, and, p 
field in the line indicated at utmost speed 
NOTE. The end must be careful to run 


opposing rushers as they break through. 


* See NOTE, diagram seven. 






2 






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opposite guard. 


position. 






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RH is nearer the opening and should pass thr 
hind him, but both must take great care that th 


t stopped so that they choke up the opening, an 
ance than help to the runner. 
LT leaves the line as shown in the preceding 
j between RH and FB, with head down and the 


m, or clasped at the stomach with both hands.. 


RG and RT play as shown in diagram six. 


QB and LE following LT immediately, and pust 
LH also follows f directly behind LT to throw 


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* When RT runs he will carry the ball in the left arm. 
e farther from the opponents where it will be less lia' 


a toward the opposing tacklers free for use in warding c 
t See NOTE, diagram seventeen. 








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opposite tackle and end. 


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'ar as possible to the left. 
:>r takes the opposing LT in case he succeeds 


am seventeen and carrying the ball in his 
fteen. 
opposing tackle, if necessary, or follows LT 


revent him from being tackled from behind 


'C 

3 

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; flank of the line, the rushers on that side 
ake the play successful. When the play is 
in turn block with their utmost power. 





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tiis man and forces him as 


; shown in diagram eight 
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nto the line and blocks th 


own in diagram seven, 
close in the rear f of LT to 


m by interference as he r< 


all plays around the rig 
their energy in order to 1 


rushers upon that side wi 


iagram eighteen, 
iagram seventeen. 


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g almost directly behind 
end-rusher if necessary, 
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js LE in diagram sixteen. 




in and take LT'S man, as 
he rounds the end. 


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around the right end, there : 


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eft exposed, bowls him over, 


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tly outside of him, helping t 
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3 shown in diagram nineteen 


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the right end at utmost spec 


play as shown in diagram ni 
RG block their men. 


may be necessary in this pla 
ne ; otherwise he may follow 




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he instant the ball is snapped LG jumps 
from the opposing guard. He whirls di- 
e ball from his hands as he passes, plunges 
; ball held as shown in diagram one. 


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22. Guard between the opposite guard an 

To send the LG around between RG and RT, LG breaks away fr 
;tant the ball is snapped, as shown in diagram twenty-one, re 
as before, and dashes into the opening with head down. 
RG and RT play as shown in diagram six. 
RH starts forward the instant the ball is snapped and, dashi 
tween RC; and RT, strikes the opposing LG with his shoulder wi 
>le force as he passes through, and then proceeds on and takes 


e line. 
FB crosses behind RH and rushing into the same opening plui 
5 tackle or the man immediately behind him. 
RK plays as shown in diagram fourteen. 
QB, LH, and LE follow behind LG and play as shown in diagra: 
LT plays as in the preceding diagram. 
NOTE. Rn and FB must see to it that they break through 1 
ere blocked so that they fill up the opening through which LG, \ 
ediately behind, is to pass. 



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B, plays as does LE in diagram fifteen, 
sid at utmost speed the instant the ball is put 
ig LE, forces him out or bowls him over, 
ated, and passing outside of RT interfere by 


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ost speed. 


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e greatest en 


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iss-crosses with 


ii 

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ill in his position until 
opposite direction anc 


ves the ball, FB, LH, Q 
, dart for the left end, 


.ock their men with th 


rectly for and blocks 1 
e direction indicated, 
down the field. 


- ! C 

d <i> 

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s as does LT in diagra: 
nmediately behind RH 


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g;ram twenty-five. 


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send the 
from his 


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RH recei 
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twenty- 
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exposed. 
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lines indicated 


FB runs direct! 


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om RH, LE draws slightly in an 


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B 
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n play, receives it at x, and pa 
ushes directly into the opposing 
the right end in the line indie; 


to protect him from behind. 


help RT block his man, or take 
rush line and force him in towa 


in diagram twenty-five. 
RH and take the first extra m 
t away with the ball without 1 


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l| 

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13 fl 

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e 

IS 


is LH in note on diagram twent 


,lf-back criss-crosses witt 
site 


:nd LE around the RE on a pass fi 


a line with the half-backs, befor 


ashes forward as the ball is put i 


LE gives him the ball, and then r 
aving received the ball, starts foi 
to his speed, as there is no one 


ay either jump into the line and 
s through on the right side of the 


G, LG, LT, and FB play as shown 


y be necessary for QB to precede 
t end, in order to allow LE to ge 


nd. Otherwise he will play as s 
5e a man comes through the rus! 




3 

Q 
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oo 

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. FB may precede RH and play ; 


eg 


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; end in play around the oppo- 


ss from FB, RE works slightly in and on 
d, while FB moves a little to the left to 


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jives the ball as he passes, 
in the opposite direction and encircles 


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igh the line to the left of center, QB 
y as in diagram twenty-eight. 


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e FB runs close : 


Upon receiving 


.eft end at utmc 


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RT plays as doe 


LE and LT play 
LG blocks his m 


In case anyone 
ediately blocks 


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around the right end on a pass from RE, LE a 


back until he is nearly on a line with the hal 


start toward the left the instant the ball is s 


r3 

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1 

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r2 

4> 

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5 

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5 the ball at x on a pass from QB, and running 
d rushes on into the opposing RE. 


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fe 
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ic first extra man in the line beyond RT, LH 


preceding LE, plays as shown in diagram tw 
the first man through on the right hand side 


wn in diagram twenty-five, 
eceiving the ball, starts toward the right at u1 


LG. 

d RT play as shown in diagram twenty-five. 


M 


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3 


to 

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3 


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i twenty-nine.* 
ps in and takes the opposing tackle as in diagram 


thirty, 
indicated as RE receives the ball, and precedes him 
nt of RG as the latter swings in behind the line. 


(A 

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to 


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p 


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ft S ft 

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i 



a 
a 
o 

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e 
3 

2 
9 

a 

c . 
<u -a 

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| 

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d 


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te 

I 

V 

W 
M 

O 
i-l 


c 
i-, 

J-4 
CO 

i 


from his man as in diagram twenty-one, re- 
RE and rushes directly into the opposing LE. 
s almost reached him, receives the ball from 


:ding diagram, 
-eight. 
ir positions until the instant that RE receives 
; and precede RE at greatest speed to inter- 

RH follows KB and assists him to block the 
e end and takes the first free opponent, 
id plays as shown in diagram twenty-six, 
agram thirty-two. 


-M (U 
_ -4J 


& 

ri 


>> 
d 


(H 

O 


^ 


o> 


rt 


j= 


*S 


H 


a 


rt '-3 


criss-crosses with 
si 


E around the left end on 


1 is snapped LG breaks aw 


II 

S jj 
0) ^. 
J] G 
jD O 

"o '-5 

tn 55 

D O 
t ft 
tn 
ca 
ftS 
x" .d 

ts <5 


~= 

_G 
j?' 

H 


is shown in diagram twei 


d KB remain standing in t 


e 

! 
^ 

ra 

c4 

'd 

S 
.g 

>, 



bo 

G 

1 

ft 
ft 
C 

O 

6 

IH 

3 

j;, 

O 

D 
U 


y or continues on around 


the line as LG reaches RE 
ler men play as shown in 


a 

IN 

id 

S 

O 


d 
G 
u 
to 

o 


3 

^ 

ID 

a 
. f> 

-< 


es the ball 


RE remair 


w 

a 

a 

- 

0) 

a 


tn 


^ . 

s -e a 

3 . 2 

a|<2 


d 

(0 

5 

Ei 



if necessai 


v. 5 

g 

S 
^ "S 

O ^3 
P4 <J 


s 




K 

O 


u 




09 






2 

<*H 




^ 

0) 





10 



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rifl 


IB 


J. 

3 


f, 


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(H 


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09 

O 


^ 


C 


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H 




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1 


in 


i~H 


i 


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C 




M 




ackle criss-crosses with t 


P*T3 



g 

-0 
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<! 5 
ju g 

<0 pJ 

6 &> 

3 

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13 a 

E- g 
j= 

T3 w 


reaches the line RT jumps sudden 



^ 

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1 

^ 



(fl 



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a 

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a 

as 


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a. 
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1 


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13 

3 
to 

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a; 

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a 


:arts back in the opposite directio 


3 

8 

5 

1 
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cc 
u, 

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C 

cS 

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9 

i t3 

o- c 

^i 


<0 

u 

I 

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c 

a 

EH 



a 

| 

s 
a 
a! 


round the end of the line. 


h 


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o 


a 


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tS 


r 


CO 


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to 


to 


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147 



as pi M a 
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is 3 

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P " -/. 
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2 
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iiriSilBl 

a&i^s^^fi 

c 314 ^^!! 

ISfl-gSjaa a 
lylllt 



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rcj ^ rt W'5-2 

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s> 

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M C 
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O 4) 


Gf 
g 

! 

4-1 

OS 
0) 


a 


11 is snapped, 
forces him in. 
leld, as indicated, to 


ut slackening speed, 


3 

g 
c 

to 

1 

3 


n which case FB will 
Id to interfere, while 




(-, 




d) 




a 







r^ 




i ~" 


0) (H 


t 


s 


cfl 

0> 


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c q 




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D 


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c 

u 
ni 
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1 


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B 
o 


tn 

i 

5, 

2 
a 

c 

s 

rt 
2 

2 
9 

I 


tion in the primary arrangement. 
11 is snapped, LT leaves the line, recei 


end, precisely as shown in diagram ni 
line and takes LT'S man as he leaves hi 


play as shown in diagram eight. 


iown in diagram eight. 
. start for the right end the moment th 


:>r the opposing LE, and bowls him ove 
necessary, and then cuts in down t 




T3 

i 

o 

ft 

OS 
(w 

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en 
C 
C 

2 

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a 
a 

s 
o 


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rt 


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c 
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Q 
1 


FB passes on encircling the opposing LI 


nay be made with equal success to i 
his man, and then pass on down th< 
rse just outside of the opposing end-ru 


Double pass 


To send FB around 


i the regular forma 
The instant the ba 


starts for the right 
LE jumps into the 


u 

1 
tt 

at 

bf 


e a" 

OH ClJ 

1 ~ 
a 


RH runs directly f< 
LH assists RH, if 


rfere. 
As FB is about to r 


receives the ball a' 


o 

1 

nd 
a 
V 
4) 

5 

c 


NOTE. The pass i 
st RH in blocking 
swings out in a cou 







fc 


T3 








5 


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n slight 
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line. 
1 the guards, as 


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X i i 

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OH Oj 

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ackles and ends 
ccompanied by 




r. 


ut across in the 
mid it be found 


o 
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C 
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15 

X5 
(D 


38. Slow mass wedge from a do 

slow pushing wedge through the center from a 
s in the wedge formation, as shown in the cut, < 


mself as close as possible to c's right, directly 
firmly against c on the left and slightly back fr 
ing rushers and half-backs take their positions 


imilar manner to that shown in diagram forty-o 
ust be drilled until they can spring into their ] 


The ball should come back at the same momen 
L to FB 1 , and the whole wedge surge forward wil 


0) 

C 

c 
>, 

1 

s 


ay be repeated several times for short gains um 
side are drawn well in to mass against it, whe 


S 

a 

3 

d 

z 

14 

M 

c 
_c 

d 

I 

S 



<u 

^ 

S 
1 

-u 

2 
O 

_>, 
V 

-c 

c 

" 


shown in the diagram; in which case RII and R 
o block the foremost men among the opponent 


g backs come up to help block the play FB may 
11 down the field. 


d 

2 
o 
^ 

I 
c 

"3 
o 

i 

5 

r. 
r. 

pa 

x 

0) 

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o 

2 
S 

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0) 

6 


there should be a little delay in snapping th 
.m more time to draw well in behind the center. 


To send the 
leir position 


ja 

.1 

\> o 


olds himself 
The remain 


l 

c g 

ll 

g e 


instantly. 
has come ir 



rf 


This play m 
he opposing 




ng team, as 
5 indicated t 


the opposin 
ind punt we 


a 

c 

w 
o 

^ 


tnd the end, 
opposing tea 


ij 
3 


SQ 

2 


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2 


-3 
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a 2 

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c 







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to 
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88: 



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155 



, 


i o 

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^ c 5 




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J- 

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-S 
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PH 


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<u bo 

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-4-> r-! 


o 


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C3 C 
ci 0) 

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rt +- 1 


to block 


blind to 
i, whom 


O 


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1 


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6 '55 

2 &< 




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O 


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s 


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ci 

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1 





1 


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3 


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en 


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o 

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0) 

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u 


05 
>, 




erf -.S 






tD 










d) (/j 


(ii 




<u 

a 

o 


/en signal j 
pact format 




t under the 
t demonstri 


bent over 


O C 

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cj 4) 


O 

d 


11 


D 

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w 


bO a! 
S 

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his interfen 
nobserved. 


; successful 


*o 

C 


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m y 

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tv: 


v> _a> 
In bo 


| 


^ ^ 

(H 

O oJ 
t/3 "^ 


S 
o 


11 


0) 


1 

- 
05 

4) 0) 


T3 p 

II 


TD 

o 

2 


4J 

a 

o 

u 
cd 

C 

g 

> 

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in the line is formed at t 
:n are closely drawn into 


I 

o 

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2 
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05 

y 

1 


nt the ball is snapped QB 
r , without making the si 


and stands still in his po 


D -4-J 

G 

s s 

&i O 

bO^ 
^ 

g g 

? Xi 

^ 

-^ 

2 s 

"^ ^ 

?J *3 


osition at the same mom 


A, swinging in a long ci 
osing team more time to 


a) 
d 

a 

_0) 

o 


tn jj 

tn rt 

a S 
5 <U 

'5i S 


> have the ball. When F 
ted, RE darts out to the r 


is play can be worked 
for several downs. 





d) O< 

bo 
g J 

0) ^ 


^ 
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D J-? 
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a '3 

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CO 


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c_i 


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o ja 
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bo 
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/. 

a 

r>. 


^ ~ 

c o 


a 
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"on bo 

rf __i 


tn 


CL 


j_ i_ 


1 

i/l 





the cut 




k 

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v. 
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<M 

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1 


throws 


a 

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i 






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d 




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aj S2 


ri 








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Revolving wedge from a doi 


ng wedge through the line the arrangi 


e same manner as explained in diagrai 


ay immediately, and the entire wedge 
isely Compact body. 
, when the opposing side have massed 


ward progress is nearly blocked, the 


O 

rt 
m 



IH 

V 

^ 
(H 

C 

.S 
^ 



.bo 
"x 

be 

c 

'p 
5 

4J 

C 

a 



"o 

^ 


d attempts to revolve around the opposi 


the opponents are pushing with utmos' 
'gin a I line of advance of the wedge, i 


3 

<L> 

IH 

a 
a 



a 
.2 

in 
S 


with the ball. 


6 


5 


-2 


"Sn 


^^ 

Vk 


en 
6 

p 


1 





a 


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rt <a 


2 


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^ 




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| 


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r. 


B 


1 


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d 




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1 


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2 ^ 


C 




a 
a 

i 


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to 

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bc,c 
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CM 





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Sir 



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i6i 

all I 111^11^ I- Pt 

"3 S <& -^ T3 v5 KJ g ^ o o> j> 

Jg ^ c bo bo*- 1 ^ 5 3 c3 ^ G bo - o 

ftS "^ jS ?J 3 ^ b^x,-, "^ r "" - S ^ ;g .22 J 



o 

c 
9 
o 

u. 

rt 

IH 
V 

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0) 



4) 

43 
^- 

a 
5 

% 

*o 
a 


edge around the I.T, a preliminary signal 
ith the signal which is to indicate the dire 
in the large cut is instantly made, in pre 
ceding diagram. 
;he wedge should have the appearance cf be 


the ball comes into his hands QB whirls i 
ices the ball in the hands of RH. QH tr 
f to the side and a little behind LH, while P 
ittaches himself in a like manner on the o 
Aether in the lines indicated, around LT.* ! 
idge so formed, while RE runs directly in th 
they round the tackle. \ LE throws his em 
s back, and LT forces his man back and to t 
st take great care not to leave his positiol 
n. The formation must be somewhat op 


; be borne in mind that the representation in 
the guards are drawn close in by the s 
r to shoulder with the guards in all plays 





C5 ", 



163 



60 

a 

a; 



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X! 



a 

e 



o 

c 



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G 

o 

u 

rt 

8 

nt 



rt <a 
O v* 



C 

0) a 
> 0) 



bo o 
'55 , 



S 



oj 

s 

-d 

Oj 

<u 
be 

T3 



M 

bO _ 



2 " 
5 S 5 
L. 33 5 8. 



S P 

rt 



s= 

S S 2 
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S s 

- -53 

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w> , 



d 

c 

IS 

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e 

cd o 



fe > 

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< G rt 

13 ? OH - 

O j*T O 1 

.2 "^ o- o 

4-J O -U 

C3 ^^ T^ 

ff C <U -? 

i I &| 

be rt ^ 

j D at S O 

; ;5 .^- tfl r~l 



3 ^ 



i " t3 t-l 
M c3 *-" 

r rt rtj t/5 

C 0) ra 05 

05 ?'* 

s a I &* 

8 sa 8 1 1 



*> 

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0) 



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2 2 g rt 



GO 



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wj * j 

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rt ~* 

12 

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t/1 t/3 



rt 



CO 



o m d y *" 

S -S - S 

t" "- ^ .s 
rt c 73 "> 'o 
i- rt S u 

0) ti t/3 ~ p 

n s t3 ^, ^ 
c .5 c ** K 

p^-3 S 

Zt* v < 



3 72 0- ^ 



s 






PH 



X 

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t/i 
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I 






ram forty-one. 


<0 
4J 

d 

O 1 

1 


z 

1 
x 
be 


eft, accompanied by 
on, and hold closely 


0> 

1 

d 
C 

r-.' D 

I.S 

<u ** 
<d 


) intercept it. 
off toward the side 


;he opposite end, ac- 
3 he has come around 


r -nine. 


, 


bC 





o 




J3 


o 


M 


S-> =3 




IA 


i^ 


V 

hO 

o 


.3 
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*-> 
bj) 

*^, 


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D 



o 


<D 


n 

S 

d 




>s 

D 




5 


"3 
0) d 


09 

"p 

'3 


LE in ca 


u 

3 




I> 


d 


-t 


^i 


Q) 


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r^i 




, 




oi 


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s 


8 


. 


bfl 


d 

b 


-t-> 


ft 


- 1 - 1 2 


H 


bo 

n 


& 


43 


o 

-9. 





-f 


g 


"rt 


a 


rt 


1^ 


rt 
ft 


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o 


3 
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4-1 


a 


d 







3 


IH 


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3 


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ft 


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3 


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$ 


o 


jSj 




tn 


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o 


a 


5 





u 


a 




c 


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tn 


5 


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3 


o 


<<-! 


1 


c3 

C 


o 




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1 








ft 

p 


2 S 

3 


& 


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rt 


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3 


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o 


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aj 


"3. 
j-j 
.5 




the signal the wedge is instantl 
the ball is snapped FB rushes : 
ouches down behind c, shielde 


i tightly massed together. 
then instantly darts out from 


1 
1 

"o 

be 
g 

1 



2 


r * to deceive the other side int 


e opposing team immediately 


is being attempted and rush to 
remains crouched behind c unl 


a 


<-> 

i 

2 


2 


09 


B5 <]j 

, a) 

<u -J3 


TE. Compare this play with th 




3 


ta 
< 




> 


t- K 

d O* 

o 


S 
a 


u 

"^ 




fA 

&H 


& 

T3 


1 


is 


o 
fc 








1 


A 

!? 


X 


'iv: 
S 




1 


c 


89) 
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;o 





i6 7 



_fi 

<B 




.S 
^ 


y 

_d 
c 


4> E* tn 

S.2* 
0> 0> 13 

8 -5 - 

'-^ ) D 


tn o> 

<U c 

bO C 

s 
u^ 




^ 
"n 

.2 

y 


M 

g-a 

^^ 

0) ^ 


K C 
fc 

fl^S 

!1) ^ 
1^ 


to break 


tn .-j 

'3 bo 

bo C 

rt 2 

r^ in 


ly strong 
Dpposing 


9 



1 

S 


.1i 

p 

in 

1 8 

5 ^ 

* .> 
O 'S 

-o g 
c > 
<u So 




J/. 

y 

-C 



vS 

d 


'I 
3 

o 


me to reach the left end, by which 
:n are properly drilled, and then snap 
e springs toward FB, passing him th 


35 * 
fo -w 

cs 

sl 

^ oj 
bO^__ 

'55 < 

IB 
It 

*: 

^ 

bO^J 
3 oj 

s- 

21 


_d 


5 
x 

"^ 

4= 

-4J 

< 

4) 

^ 

5 



C! 

e 

.S 
ij 


/ angle to the left, LE jumps into th 
le QB attaches himself to the rear of : 


-M "Hi 
^^ 

.3? 

^^> 

*$ 

bC^ 

C ^" 

.H <a 

*-> KJ 
&& 

3 ^ 

^ OS 

Si s 

a -! 

n <u 

1/3 o 

*. fe 

5 S 

^4 j 

S m 

s O 


> take the opposing RE if he attempts 


jnds the backs up into the line to mas; 
e ball down the field instead of ru 


^5 O 
' "S 

S-g 

0) 
c! M 

1 

-M <U 


^| 

^ | 

O 

6 -M 

tn tn 

tn 3 
0) -> 

O M 

T3 -g 
0) "S 
J3 -^ 
tn ^ 

Bj 


future similar formations it will coi 
well behind the line as a protection. 


G ^ 


1 


| 


. u/ - 
-M c = 

* ti 


^ 


S! 


e 

CL, -M 


w 

0) 


in A 
0) "^ 


H '^ 

S c^ 


oS o3 


&1 


1 


"a 


1^1 

i - 'S 


g '> 

^1 

s g 


9 



A 

05 


-5 p 

> <u 
.c 


M S 

. -5 

m'$ 


bo 
B 

0) 


T3 ^j 

55 .a 

bo-* 
2 ^ 


bO tj 

'I 
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a 2 

o o> 
tn C 
oS O 


^ u 


s 

(H 


'7. 

c 


g-g g 
1 1 0- 


9 -w" 

'55 c 

o g 
a, S 


'C. 

o 

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5 a> 
d "5 

S 2 

& 'Z^ 


g-E 

OS 
0) 

<u 


0) 
0) 


'55 2 

as 

X 
O u, 


a, 
ft 
o - 

1 3 


- 4-> 

0) sn 

in 03 
O 0> 

&^ 








'" VH tn 


_, o 


(Q 


t! c 


in o 




di - 


-(-> /j 


j3 Cj 





S 


2 


S^< 


Is S 


3 


O o! 
C 


+< 
T3 .-I 


,2 


| - 


2 o 


<^ c 


g 


:i 


tn 


tn o 

VM 0) 

5 3 

13 ^ 'tn 


bo D 
.5 S 
3 S 
S <u 


^ 
o 
^ 


tn ti 
<U o3 

|t 


ll 

S fH 

- 1 t 

^13 


OS 

6 

X 


a; -X 
tn y 

nS O 
o 3 

rrt 


o 4J 
4: x 

o 

.2 ^ 
2 


'3 

% 



a) +-> 


<2 

o 




^ 

2 
3 


O 

S 



b* 


^ 1 

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s ^ rt 
S g 

0) bO 
bo's in 

5 1 3 


5S 

a 

t T3 

8 5 

T3 b= 
2o 


time shouts " 


&| 
1* 

3 ' 5 
J bo 

C 


8 2 

s:s 

2 ^ 

0) U" 

bo s 
T3 rr-j 
4> o 
^ 


" t! 
o c 

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d 


NOTE." ] 
the wedge am 


QB protecting 
position from 


back will serv 
opposing side 



169 



g 


{- a) 
oj bo 




"2 


,E3 D 


IH 

O 


c 3 


tn 

cS 


c 


D -*-* 


e 

o 


bo 

_c 


C rt 


w 'S 




? 


|c| 


1 


i 


IH 


o 


tn tn 


< 


'^ 


** bo 


^ 




c3 


* C 


S 


j 


<+1 


tfl 


rt o3 


c 


OJ 


5 bo 


t/) 0) 

83 




5 


l-< O 

1 rt 


1 

_c 


3 

T! 


a 


tn 
cJ 

C 


C -j 


0) 


a 


o 

B'-S 

g 


EJ *-> 

si 




J3 


xg 

1> o 


3 


C 
bfl 


c 
8 


3 

tn 


'tn O 
bO- 


bo 


o 


<u S 


rT Cj 




1 


D -^ 


tn 


'd 


^3 


2 


G ^ 
tn G 


^ 


<ti 


fcuO ^ 


J 






*d 


35 




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g 




2 


e 


*O 4) 


"* w 







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i 


C t* 


1 


O 


& 


^ 


o3 bo 


> tJ 


S s 




^2 


U3 S 


a, 


V OH 


OS 

^ 


^ 


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... 




* .S 


'o 




K 


> ^ 


4-J 

3 


-M as 

6 * 


3 


rt 


^ +* 


g 


fl 1 


4) C 


Cu <_i 






'bo 


^ 


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a 


M 


"*"" ^ 


11 


c ^ 


** 2 

g-s 

C tfl 


0) 
0) TJ 

a o 




1 

S 


1 

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8? ^ M 

,SS r9 1 

p *- e4 

,-0 a. 


| 

IS 



0) 


Ij rd 


|| 


.S 


C 


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(D 


OT ^ 


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S = 


o 


^ 


rC * 


- J-H 


Q W 


,j 


^d 




7, 


a ^ 


o 


9 

I'a 


1 


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H! 


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u c 


&^ 


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,-T 

rf o 




c 


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1 


al 


la 


d 

1 


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tn 6 

0) ^ 


si 


'$ 


^ 


<o a 







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nt 


tn T^J 


^d 


o 


^3 -. 


t-t ^* 


rt 


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& n 




JH 


2 


-2 


tS tn 


3 


S 


J2 Uc 


Si ^ 


y g 


Play around the opposit 

After the wedge has been formed < 


re may be some delay in snapping t 
xperienced team, both LT and LE ru: 


en it advances. 


In that case the following modifica 


captain, seeing that the opposing L 
understand as a signal to indicate tl 


>osite end. 
QB makes the pass as shown in c 


and then instantly turns and precec 
FB and RE dash toward the right a 


opposing LE. 
RG attempts to lift his opponent b; 


isible. 
As RE starts forward in the line ini 


iiagram eight, and preceding RE, di 
:ceeds in getting around RG, while R 


1 1 

M 0) 

.a a 

tl 

g.a 
=3 S 
S^ 

1 

3 5 

D 

-1 

-d - 
1 


NOTE. This maneuver will prevei 
their men from the opposite end to 


^ 


0> 0> 

rS.S 


A 




1 3 


M* 

eu 
o 


n 


1 


a 


- u 


II 


^ 



Ooo 
u. 




J O 



171 



0) 


o 

o 

c 
2 

0) 

>1 


! c endeavors to 


a 

!S 


x 


is 


^ 
d 




X 

2 Sf 
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led to strike the 


.selves on either 
,g until the man 


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-. Running mass wedge through the 


FB through the center on a running mass play di 
s start forward the instant the ball is snapped. 


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straight ahead of him. 
n dash in and attach themselves behind c on each si 


;s forward at the same moment, and receiving th< 


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If -backs. QB throws himself in the rear of FB, and a 


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point in the play is that all strike the line at as r 
ind form a tightly massed wedge, which is driven 


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he rushes forward. The wedge must never cease p 
is actually downed and absolutely held. 


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the line dash straight for 


nan back and to the left. 


trikes the opposing c with M 
s the opposing guard in a J 


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he receives the ball at x, 


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n reaching the openi 


48. Running mass 


To send the running mass 
backs draw back slightly before 


in order to give the ends more ti 
enable themselves to gain greate 


RE also works over slightly 1 
At the instant the ball is s 


the opening in the lines indicatec 
C lifts his man back and to t 


LE passes through the openi 
his full force, while RE, crossing 


similar manner. 
At the same moment, FB w 


the opening so made, immedial 
the half-backs firmly attaching 


and forcing him through. RT '. 


in diagram thirteen, and toge 
together as before and drive din 


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* When the ends find difficulty i 
as in the preceding play. 



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it has been prearranged that he shall 


retaining it in his hands, and passes ^ 
1 the right end. At the same instant ^ 


right as one man, and dash into the 


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do not betray by their looks, before 


run is to be made. 


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derstood around which e 


the opposing side whom 


by kicking it while still 
play is to be made arouni 


e diagonally toward the 


meet midway between t 
s to interfere for him as 




must see to it that they 


e direction in which the i 


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x feet apart. 


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.ayer selects the man on 
lock. 


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le entire rush lines mov 


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RH and FB precede LI 





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NOTE. The rushers 


te ball is put in play, th< 






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52. Double pa 

To make the double pass c 


as indicated, on the center line 
ten yards between c and QB, ar 


about three yards behind the li 


The instant that QB puts 1 
center of the field in lines nearl 


m 


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toward the center to block the 


LH passes close in front 01 
KB, to take it as he rushes by. 


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speed to encircle the opposing 1 
NOTE. From this same fo: 


kick, in which case the rushers 
the lines indicated in the cut. 


* See description, diagram fifty- 



if ^ 3: 





183 



center with team divided. 

e diagram, on either side of the field, the 


ends about five yards from the side lines, 
icks about three yards, behind the center 


>ther, in order to render the opposing team 


the right or left, or to FB for a kick down 
shown in diagram fifty-one, and makes a 
t x, following it immediately to make the 


D fl^ 
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Dy his opponents as the other three men 


c 

o 

S 

1 

8 
1 


Every man upon the team rushes to his 
a signal the ball is immediately snapped 


the field to RE, who catches the ball upon 


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53. Opening play from the 

The men are arranged as indicated in t 


lers being about two yards apart and th 
s placed about two yards, and the half-1 


QB looks to the one side and then to the 


;rtain whether the ball is to be passed t< 
field. He then puts the ball in play as 
; pass to LH, who receives it on the run 


co 

v: 

fl 

'1 

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t3 

rt 
O 

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V. 


The instant the ball is in play every p. 
5 indicated, except RE, who stands st 


ind close to the side lines, unobserved 
i across the field. 


It is of no consequence if only a small 


kness of the following play for success, 
tion in the line, and without waiting fo 


a long pass made by QB straight across 
run and has the entire field before him. 


1 

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its formation, and 


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tightly with both 
his entire weight 


. run in a compact 








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from the cente 


bound togethel 


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idy to receive it, 


act mass, preser 


:um to advance 1 


is stomach, clas 


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|.. * Princeton opening 


To send the wedge straight dc 


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the entire wedge rushes forwa 


savors by mere force of weight 


straight towards the opponent's 
QB upon receiving the ball pi 
Is and charges forward with 
i behind. 


1 
j-j 

t 
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ot 



4J 
HH 

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s, preserving the formation. 


The wedge formation at the center 


m 




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187 





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J-H *V X t-> ** i-t ^ r-* >W 


ale modification of Princeton we( 


rs in one very important respect from the pr 
wedge formation the guards are placed OK 


ball is put in play, LG and RG spring forwa 
opposing guard and center midway betwee 
ir opponents start. 
ly into his man and attempts to throw him 1 
c in the same manner, attempts to throw hit 
ncing immediately behind is thus saved the s 
ds under full headway, 
charge thus at an angle slightly to the rigt 
c and RG or c and LG, as the case may be. 
highly desirable that the men without the 
found more advantageous to place the tack 
these positions, while the guards are retain 


> 


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yr by touchin 
ing it back. 


ill have had 
will be upon 


tid seizing RI 
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tackles, and half-bj 
row unobstructed 

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the same moment 
time to secure the 


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mediately behind 
apex, and QB direc 
to the original dire 


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that the second we 
utmost speed. 



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'35 


4^ 

*j a> 


jj 




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to 


tn 'g 


CJ 







Cj 




-4-> 

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g 




O 

O 

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o 


cd 

e 

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43 P 
( _O 

rtl 


^ 

1 


< 

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.rrangem 


: putting 


ffective. 



t. 

bC 



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C P 



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a 



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a 5 o^g 
p .s -s ' 
a=3 s 



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DOtu^DiU^OG 
P G4^ ri.fa *-t^- 

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5 



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197 




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199 



ic center. 


o 

C 

a 




s 

c 

.0 


irily the position of RG. 
dashes forward, receive: 


u/ 

bo 

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1 
t/i 

c" 

13 C 
a! - 

o G 
A a 
2 fcj 


.s 

09 



A 

.3 
T; 


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* 
li 
a 

c 

-4->' 




MJ 

1 

2 
a 
a. 

1 


be very effective to have 


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n 

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o 

9 
3 

s 

i 

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4-> 


in 

C 


o 


a 2 


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c 

CJ 




rH 


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Jd 
u 


3 

i-H 




0,04 
B 

. 
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J3 'd 
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jj '-i 


bo 

^C 


I 

S 




I 


4J 

C^ 


y 

d 


IH 

S 




3 

d 


a 

G 

to 


3 21 

3 CH 

G 


U 1 

"S^ 
tt * 


ta 


CJ 







o 

-4-> 
<H 


aroun 


M 




e 

03 


'55 
d 




G I/I 

rt tn 

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8 

H 0) 


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8 


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p 


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aj 


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enter on 


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M 




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center, 


a g 

(X 

oj '55 

s a 


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8. 

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(/i 
g 

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a 

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at the c 


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d 
3 

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s 

OH 




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1 
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o.- 2 

u ^ 


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03 


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0) 


H a 
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G 
(U 
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a 
o 


3 

O 

M 


To send RG to buc 


ces the position at R 
As soon as RG is ii 


it x, and plunges in 
e hard* An openi 


a 

X 

H) 

K 
W 


VI 

"3 
.S 

o 

S 

d 


H 

d 

a 

^5 


1 

o 

^0 


avy and powerful g 
After RG has been 


B 

2 

1 

o 

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tfl 

1 


r3 
^ 

O 

rt 

4-i 


8 

1 


*See NOTE, diagram 






3 


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rt 
U 






0) 


a 


& 






:0 






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y c 

c4 oj 

5 S 



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be 
a 
o 



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OS 
w 

v 

J3 
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1 

,0 

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<M 


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to 

u 

S 

= 


M 

~r d <u 
5, &, bo 

^ -2 .3 


^ 3 

-5- 
J 

y*J *"5 

- 




o 

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0) 

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n opening on 


a> 

5 

cT 
< 
o 
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j 




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fa 

1 



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11 out and receive 


'S 


to make a forward 


* 

o 

en 


J3 

be 

m 


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1 

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n 


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5 ^ o *S 


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n 
a 


IS 

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jj 


own op< 


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3 

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u 

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g g ^ cl 

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x ^ 

59 

g 


iccessful 


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a 

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be 

c 

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nost abso 


must be t 


i t 

as 


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3 








2 

a 


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207 





o 

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Si 


0) t-< 

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in the oppo- 


03 
0) 

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a) 

J2 


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'd 

1 

ct 

a 
IS 


ry line as he 




-2 


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a 


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tfl 

O 

- 
U 


5 

(3 
O 
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>, 

gj 

'E, 
to 

V. 


;he field, keepin 
in his hands rea 


&r*i 

^ ^ otc 

_tn o r^ ^ 

a ^ S a 
S o <u i> 

gS* a 

cJ o -d 


losely and solidl 


!fi tn 

O 1) 

I* 

"75 


-S 

a 

ED 



1 

PH 


a 

t/i 

d 

01 


0) 3 

""" .2 



^ tn 
O w 


th equal success 


e greatest care 


to 



u 


2 ^ 


, o g 

^ r^\ 


4? 


u 


a ^a 


JH 


3 


*d tn" 
t-4 tn 

cj Cj 


'$ 


5 


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U 

in 


r. 

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o 



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t/3 "tj *t5 


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S 
i> 




d 
o 


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1 | 


f. 


A 


FB reaches 


cS >, 

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2 


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s . 

SCO 
0) 

<u .a 


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JH 

5 

4J 





8 


8"o1 
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1^ 2 

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^ 


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IS 


a| 

O (1) 


a^ 

X! 
.fa ^ 


^ *-< 
u tn 

** 


S 




o 


3 t/2 


C 4-1 


^ 


i^ 




to 


4-> XI 


a 


p 







p 


o a 


ctf ^3 -Ji 


u 


,i 


O y 


p 


fll "tn 




4) O 


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r c 


4> 


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2 &H 


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1 


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in 





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O 





209 




<U 

bo 
a 

V 

* 
v 

G 

V 

J3 

4-1 

a 

o 

& 

u, 


4- 

G 
<L) 
U 

o 

c 

nl 


X 

'7. 

t- 
y, 
'7. 

B 
9 

& 

^a 

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o 

f 


-ward several times in succession for short gains 
osing LG has found the way to dive into it low 
t the signal for the play, RG allows his opponent 
j ball is snapped, without resistance, and then 
cks his man and forces him hard to the left. 


1 to LE (instead of FB), who immediately darts 


H 

id 
G 

a 

M *J 

(i. iG 

>^ 
^1 (U 

0) * J 

c_r n> 


i) 
1 



,2 

10 

a 
o 

1 

to 

-j; 

1 

4) 

^ 

C 


^ 

? 

H 




rt 




Q 


PH C5 S 


-^ 




O 






a 

c 


"+J 


" 

2 


*^- ^ ^ 


1 


d 

2 
c 


ci 
-C 

c 


to 

V 

bfl 


"bo 

"3 


OJ 








i "S IS *J 




^ 


a 


2 


_^> 


o 


^C 


U 


C .5?'Sj 


p 


a 


5 


"E, 


.* 





U 


-f 


. - 'C 


c 




g 


1 


^T 


fl 


CJ 


'5 


3 


,{3 "E S fl> 


Oi 


fli 


M 


r^ 


rt 



0) 



_J-j t-, 

1 



^ 5 ^ S 
** s ^ -B 



- 



-9 

-a 



6,1 

O 



"*J_ 

-.O 



-o-o 




So 



o 



213 




'S fl > U3 
ft en !> 13 



215 



s-s s 

H 

* * t-4 



C 

rS 03 ' 

| SP 

5 "3 

u c 



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c 



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c 

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u 
nJ 

(U 



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c 

rt 
4) 

bo 



d 



9 



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rt =J 1 - ^ O S 



| 8 

l^ 
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g-S 
| 

s< 

w 

c8 . 

l! 



g a 

5 a 

tn tn 

.S o 



'7. 



<L> tn 



M 

b ^t 

^ s 

d, n- 



5 -o 

^H C tn 
bo 'S -rH 

jirf 

-d ^2 cs 

fl T3 - 

' rt 3 

III 

1/3 -2 

to 4! 2 

oJ bo 3 



o 

a 

d c 



O rt ^ 

s s 

s s - 

^ 2 

8 H 

.2 '^ -2 

<u '35 

bo o 

cffj o- 

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| Jl 

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-S 5 

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. 3 ft 

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n ^ W> 

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a> <2 
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d; ^ 



bO -a 



216 



CO 




tid center on his own side. 


nd tackle on his own side, 
nd end on his own side. 


-d' 




jy 

o 

c" 
o 

c 
o 

Lf 

5 
'c 
o 
o 

'd 


nd tackle on the opposite side, 
nd end on the opposite side. 


iite end. 




)etwen center and guard. 
d and tackle. 


d 

G 

1 
^ 


*^\* 




d 


d d 


<u 




d 


d d 


UJ 

Q 




_* 


3 


flu 

u- 


X 

UJ 

Q 
Z 


FIRST SERIES. 


If-back between guard 


If-back between guard 
If-back between tackle 


If-back around his own 


SECOND SERIES 


If-back between guard 


If-back between guard 
If-back between tackle 


cx 

& 

0) 

J3 

d 
s 

^ 

S 

d 

4^ 
O 

d 
^p 


THIRD SERIES. 


1-back through the line 
1-back between the gu 


Ll-back between the tac 
ll-back around the end. 






d 


d d 

ffi K 


d 

a 




d 

H 


cj rt 

K ffi 


d 

K 




pT^ fj. 


fafa 






ci 


4o 


06 




eJ 


4^d 


co' 




4 


O CO 






d 


d d 


d 




d 


d d 


d 




J 3 ' 


d d 






,J 


r c3 r o 


d 




id 


d d 


13 




d -d 


"^ *X? 






c 


C S3 


c 




Q 


G C 


C 




c c 


C G 






a 


d d 


d 




d 


d d 


d 




d d 


d d 






M 


co vn 


r^ 




M 


CO W> 


t^ 




M CO 


m r- 






d 


d d 


d 




d 


d d 


d 




d d 


d d 






fc 


g ^ 








H ^ 


^ 




^ J5 


^1 ^ 




























217 







'd d ^4 
b * J w 

g T3 5 




p 
be 


and tackle, 
and end. 






"*-* "^ " 

8 M ctf G 
-M tl) 

C C G 
d d d 




G 
4) 


d 

G 

o 

o 

d 

G 
S 


S c 

J2 ^ 

11 

d J3 

ClT ^ 




bC S rrt 




J3 


*d vl) 






m rr-* t\\ 




^ 


^ 


G r- 


FOURTH SERIES. 


between center and opposite 
between the opposite guard 
between the opposite end am 
around the opposite end. 


FIFTH SERIES. 


le between center and opposi 


le between the opposite guar 
le between the opposite tackl 


le around the opposite end. 


SIXTH SERIES. 


d between the opposite guarc 
d between the opposite guarc 
d between the opposite tackl< 
d around the opposite end. 


SEVENTH SERIES. 


-cross half-back play around 


criss-cross with half-back in 


le criss-cross with half-back i 
d criss-cross with half-back ii 




13 '^ *^ *^ 




o 


o o 


jj 




d d d d 




J 

r. 


si 

^ 


*o d 




C C C C 




X 


d d 


-^ 




3 3 3 3 




"T~ 




d fl 




H W W K 






e> e 


*" 




O O O O 




'5 


W 


h O 




W rf vd OO 




N 


40 


06 




vN ^- O CO 




<N 


4 


O oo 




d d d d 




d 


d d 


d 




dodo 




d 


d 


C 




5 ^ ^ J5 




X 


J5 






^ ^ 5 <5 




fc 








*d T3 T3 T3 




d 


*d T3 


r^J 




Tj 'd ti T3 




r^; 


, ' 


^^ *"O 




G C C C 




a 


c c 


P 




C G G G 




o 


5 


G C 




d d d d 




3 


d d 


ot 




d d d d 




a 


rt 


d d 




c<i m j^ 




H 


w m 


t^ 




M en in r- 




M 





in t^ 




d d d d 




d 


d d 


d 




o o o c 




O. 


O 







^^^^ 




55 


S* 






^fcfcfc 






fe 


^ fc 




CO ^ U^ v^ 




E 


CO O 

(-( M 


fi 




M IN C^ Tf 
IN IN IN IN 




M 


c< 


r- co 

IN C) 



218 





0* 0* 

D <u 

S Hi 

2 

3 

^ t i 

Pt 13, 5 

| .a | 

C Q T3 
" <D C 
^ 0) S 


:nd in play around the opposite 


*. 



0> 

rS 

T3 

o 
ft 

05 

ClJ 

"E, 

c 


; tackle in play around the op- 


-back in play around the end. 
ull-back in play around the end. 
alf-back in play around the end. 


0) 
Q 

o fs 


?2 ^ 


_e 


& 


w 


a) 




5 


rfi 


3 **-< 

S 5 


o 


cc 




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EIGHTH SERIE 

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TEAM PLAY. 

American football is pre-eminently a game for the 
practice and display of what is known as ' ' team play. " No 
other game can compare with it in this particular. Not 
that the individual element in skill, in physical capacities, 
in strategy, and headwork are overlooked, but these are 
made subservient to the intent of the particular play in 
hand, and so adjusted to that play as shall best contribute 
to its success. To get eleven men to use their individual 
strength, agility, and speed, their wit, judgment, and 
courage, first in individual capacity, then working with 
one or two companion players, then as eleven men work- 
ing as one, is a magnificent feat in organization and 
generalship. 

The individual element, perhaps, is most prominently 
set forth in defensive play, although there is abundant 
opportunity in offensive play also for it to show itself; but 
individual and team play are so closely joined, as a rule, 
that the beauty of the latter is heightened as the individual 
efforts of each player are perceived. In defensive work 
the players have more reason to feel their individuality, 
because they are often compelled to combat alone one or 
more opponents before they can get an opportunity to 
tackle the runner. The defensive system, however, gives 
a splendid chance for clever team play in the placing of 
the players, in the general and particular understanding 
that certain men shall nearly always go through to tackle 
behind the line; that certain others shall wait to see where 

(221) 



222 

the attack will be made and there hurl themselves against 
it ; that others shall go through the line, or not, just as 
it seems wisest at the time; and that still others shall 
never involve themselves in the scrimmage, but act only 
\\hen the play has been carried into their territory. 
Furthermore, there is constant opportunity for the 
exercise of team play in the working together of certain 
players of the rush line in defense, and also in the work- 
ing together of any two or three players at special times; 
for example, when one or two men sacrifice themselves to 
clearing away the interferers so that a companion can 
tackle the runner; when one follows hard after the runner 
to overtake him, if possible, even after having missed a 
tackle; or helps check him from further advance when 
tackled, or endeavors to secure the ball. 

In the rush line the center and guards work together 
in defense, having an understanding with each other and 
with the player hovering in their rear, whenever it seems 
best to try to let him through on the opposing quarter- 
back or full-back, or whenever a special defense for certain 
plays seems best. Likewise the ends and tackles are 
closely joined in team play, in that they are the players 
relied on to stop the end plays and those between tackle 
and end. The most perfect adjustment and team work is 
needed in doing this, for they play into each other's hands 
while, at the same time, they seek to tackle the runner. 
Similarly, but less closely, do the guards and tackles work 
together in defense against certain plays. 

It is an essential point in the working out of this 
team play between the different parts of the rush line, 
that the players study most carefully the positions they 
should occupy to meet the different kinds of play how 
far from each other they should stand for this play, how 



223 

far for that. In doing this, they must have regard for 
their own freedom to attack, not allowing themselves to 
take a position where they can easily be tangled up, nor 
one in which they can give their opponents an advantage 
in blocking them. Except on wedge and mass plays, the 
players in defense should draw their opponents apart 
sufficiently to give themselves space to break through on 
either side 

The backs supplement the work of the rushers in 
defensive play, arranging themselves behind the rush 
line at such distances from each other and from the 
forwards, as shall give the strongest defense. In that 
degree in which they make their work strong in team 
play, will they give the rushers encouragement and sup- 
port in going through the line. The forwards will thus 
be enabled to play as a unit, because* they know that 
there is a reserve force directly behind them to lend 
them assistance and make their play safe. 

The backs work together in special defense on a kick, 
arranging themselves, either one or both, in front of the 
catcher to protect and encourage him, and to secure the 
ball, if muffed; or one stands behind to make the play 
safe, or to receive the ball on a pass from the catcher for 
a run or kick. The ends sometimes come back with their 
opponents at such times, to bother them all they can and 
to be in a position to interfere for the catcher, if he runs. 
The backs, also sometimes have a chance to help one 
another out by blocking off opponents, while one of their 
number makes sure of a rolling ball which, perhaps, has 
been kicked over the goal line or into touch. 

When one side has the ball, it is often possible for the 
opponents to guess in which direction it will be carried, by 
the way the half-backs or quarter-back stand; by their 
'5 



224 

unconscious glances in the direction they will take; by 
certain anticipative movements of the muscles; by false 
starts before the ball is put into play. Further informa- 
tion is often given by the rushers themselves often by 
the rusher who is to carry the ball. Frequently the 
players who are to make the opening indicate by the way 
they stand, by shifting their positions after the signal is 
given, or by certain actions peculiar to them at such times, 
the general direction of the play, and, perhaps, the exact 
place at which it is aimed. All this is most valuable 
information and ought to-be imparted to the rest of the 
team whenever sufficiently positive to be of service. 
Indeed, the team play of the future will not be considered 
satisfactory without a set cf signals being used to spread 
just such information. 

At the same time that it is possible to gather much 
information of this character from the side with the ball, 
it must be remembered that shrewd players, knowing how 
they are watched for these tell-tale signs, have cultivated 
certain false motions, and are using them as points in 
strategy to deceive their opponents into expecting a differ- 
ent play from the one which is actually made. 

From the foregoing, one draws the lesson to hide the 
intended play. At least, the play must not be indicated 
by any of these signs which the green player, and too 
often the experienced player, shows. Thoughtful self- 
control in every particular is what each player must 
cultivate, if he would do the greatest service for his team. 

Now and then, also, in offensive play the maneuver 
resolves itself into a test of individual skill, speed, endur- 
ance, and head work; but this is nearly always the out- 
come of team play in the first part of the movement. 
Occasionally a mishap furnishes a player a chance to make 
a run wholly through his own unaided efforts. 



22$ 

The history of the evolution of the hundred and more 
plays in American football is the history of the develop- 
ment of a "team" game. The perfecting of this has 
largely increased the number of combinations now 
possible and has given a wideness in variety of play, and 
at the same time a definiteness of action for each play, 
which makes it possible for every member of the eleven 
to assist powerfully in its execution. In fact, the execu- 
tion of the play depends on every player doing his 
particular work for that play. Hence, the interdepend- 
ence of the players is very close from the moment the 
ball is down until the run is made, or until a fair catch or 
a down by the opponents declares that the ball has been 
released. It is therefore exceedingly important that the 
adjustment of every factor in the play be made with per- 
fect skill and in exact sequence, from the beginning till 
the end. It is most important, however, that the starting 
of the play be well made, for no amount of cleverness 
afterward can atone for a bungling start. 

Team play from a scrimmage should begin the instant 
the center receives the ball from the hands of the runner 
(which should be immediately after he is stopped). Every 
rusher and back should be in position for the next play, 
and the signal be given before the runner has had hardly 
time to rise from the ground. The delay of one man in 
taking his place might be sufficient to spoil the play, 
whether that man be a rusher or a player behind the line. 

As soon as the ball is in play the rushers must give 
their united support to the quarter-back and the runner, 
blocking their opponents, if necessary, long enough for 
the quarter to pass the ball and the runner to get well 
started. The center and guards especially must work 
together to protect the quarter while receiving the ball 



226 

and passing it, and then all or part of them may move 
elsewhere to help out in the play, or may stay in their 
positions to make an opening for the runner. There 
must be the most united work in these preliminaries to 
the run. Irregular snapping of the ball, either in direction 
or in speed, which causes the quarter to fumble or to be 
delayed in getting it to the runner, a poor pass from the 
quarter, a muff or fumble by the runner, the letting of an 
opponent through too soon, are usually sufficient to spoil 
the play. 

The rushers will do well in the preliminaries if the 
runner succeeds in getting up to the line without en- 
countering an opponent, or in the end plays if he is able 
to get under good headway. They perhaps need only to 
make a strong blockade in those parts of the line where 
the particular play is in greatest danger of being checked, 
but in order to do this well they must regard each other's 
position as well as their own, touching elbows when 
necessary, or separating according to the line tactics 
deemed most effective at the time. 

The work of a part of the rushers consists jn preceding 
the runner whenever possible, working together by 
strategy and combination to make an opening for him 
and his interferers to go through. The others follow 
closely from behind to render what assistance they are 
able. This work comprises the hardest part of the whole 
play, for it must be executed in the face of the strongest 
part of the resistance. The rushers can block their men 
for a second or two, but to -block them from three to six 
seconds is impossible against good players. It is here 
that the interferers come into especial prominence and 
value, for they are to clear the way of these free oppo- 
nents. It is in anticipating the probable positions of the 



27-1 

opponents in the vital stage of every maneuver, and in 
providing the cleverest team play to meet each con- 
tingency, that a team excels in advancing the ball by 
running. 

Several things are especially necessary to produce skill, 
ful team play. First there should be a wise selection of 
players, and they should be placed in their final positions 
as early in the season as possible. There also should be 
such judgment in the arrangement of these players for 
each position as will produce the least friction in working 
out the plays, and that arrangement will usually be most 
effective in which there is the least delay and ill adjust- 
ment in making the plays quickly. There should be hard, 
systematic daily practice, backed by a close study of every 
play by each player in his particular position. The same 
players should be used together as much as possible, so 
that they can become thoroughly acquainted with each 
other's style of play and know each other's weak and 
strong points. In this way only can the fine adjustments 
and combinations which go to make up team play be 
brought about. 

Team play in interference can only be the result of a 
carefully-planned system in which every player studies 
the general directions laid down for each play with a view 
to perfecting his particular work, varying his position on 
the field whenever necessary, starting like a flash in this 
play and delaying somewhat in that, blocking his man in 
one game perhaps in a certain way and in the next in one 
entirely different, because his opponent plays differently, 
sometimes taking another opponent instead of his own, 
when he sees that he can be of more assistance by so 
doing, and, in fact, doing whatever will most conduce to 
the furtherance of the particular play in hand. 



228 

In most plays the part which each player shall take in 
the interference can be laid out very definitely, but in 
the end play, and plays between end and tackle, only part 
of the interferers are to take particular men; the rest 
block off whatever opponents come in their path. It is in 
this free running that there are frequent chances for the 
display of fine team play in interference in striking the 
opponent at the nick of time, in pocketing him, in forcing 
him in or out as it seems best on the instant (the runner 
being on the watch for either), and in the runner some- 
times slowing up to let an interferer who is close behind 
go ahead to take the man. Very often the reason that 
a play is not successful is because the interferer is too far 
in advance of the runner to be of any service to him. 
Interference must be timely to be effective. It must be 
the projecting of a helper at the moment a point of diffi- 
culty arises the swinging into line of a series of helpers 
in timely sequence as the runner advances. Nor must 
the runner be delayed by the interferers except, perhaps, 
when the guard comes around on an end play where it is 
necessary to slow up a little at a certain point to let the 
guard in ahead. 

The execution of nearly all the play? depends for its 
success on each player doing his duty at the right moment. 
Here and there in certain parts of the play one or more 
players must delay a particular work as much as possible, 
otherwise their action would be immature and so value- 
less ; but for the most part, the movement of each player 
should be quick and definite, and those plays are most 
effectively made in which every player does his duty 
quickly. 

Naturally, the end plays and the plays between end and 
tackle require more delicate adjustment of the players in 



229 

the interference than do the center plays. In the latter, 
the interference nearly always must be done after the 
line has been reached and penetrated. Here the extra 
men, who rush to the opening as soon as they see where 
it is, will be encountered, while in the end runs an 
opponent is likely to show himself here and there and 
everywhere before the runner reaches the line. 

In all mass and wedge plays where the pressure is 
brought to bear on one point in the line, the team play 
is not nearly so delicate and skillful. The virtue in the 
wedge play, be it quick or slow, lies in the power to pro- 
ject great weight and strength on a given point, while at 
the same time closely protecting the runner. 

Every play should be made as safe as possible by 
having at least one player always in a position to get a 
fumbled ball, or in case an opponent secured the ball, to 
prevent him from making a run. Where there are so 
many parts to every play in snapping, handling, passing, 
and catching the ball, there is constant danger of a slip. 
The value of having one or more players behind the 
runner is frequently demonstrated also, when, by the aid 
of a timely push, the runner is able to break loose from 
the grasp of some tackier who has not secured a strong 
hold on him, and so adds several yards to his run. 

In running down the field on a kick the rushers should 
run in parallel lines two or three yards apart, for most of 
the distance, converging as they approach the man with 
the ball, in order to pocket him. The ends approach 
the catcher in such a way that he will be forced to run in 
towards the approaching rushers, if he runs at all. All 
must be on the watch to thwart a pass to another man. 

There is a nice point in judgment to be considered by 
the rushers in going down on a kick. The end men 
being so far away from where the full-back will stand 



230 

when about to kick, can start instantly down the field, 
leaving the half-backs to block off their men if they 
come through too fast ; for the ends' first duty is to be 
under the ball when it falls. Occasionally, when kicking 
from near the side line, it may be necessary for the end 
next the side line to block his man or to push him back 
as he breaks through to go down the field. What the 
ends will do in this case, the tacklers should do nearly 
every time that a kick is made. Both tacklers should 
feel it their bounden duty to support the ends by going 
hard after them the instant they judge their opponents 
cannot reach the full-back in time to interfere with his 
kick. Hence, any tactics which they can put into 
practice which will enable them to block their opponents 
and, at the same time, not delay them in going down the 
field are the ones to be used. The tackles must bear in 
mind that the distance from their positions to the full- 
back is not very great, especially on the side on which 
the full-back kicks ; but while this makes the duty of 
blocking on that side greater, the other tackle can afford 
to take an extra fraction of a second from blocking his 
opponent and use it in a quicker start. 

On the guards and center rests the greatest burden in 
blocking their opponents on a kick; for while there is not 
that openness in the line, as at the tackle and end, which 
will let an opponent through quickly, the distance to the 
full-back is here the shortest and it is usually here that 
tricks are worked by which one or two men are let through, 
one usually being the quarter-back. They must, there- 
fore, be very careful not to be over hurried in going down 
the field, remembering that it is their first duty to block, 
following the tackles and ends as soon as possible. If the 
guards and center are very skillful there need be no great 
delay in doing this, for it is necessary to check their oppo- 



nents only long enough to enable the full-back to punt 
over their heads. Whenever it is possible for the guards 
and center to carry their men before them for a few feet, 
it is generally safe to leave them and go down the field at 
full speed It is comparatively easy for the center to do 
this at the instant that he snaps the ball. Generally 
there is too much blocking done and too little "follow- 
ing the ball." 

In this connection, as a help to the rushers, several points 
must be borne in mind by the full-back in kicking. It is 
not enough for him to kick the ball as hard as he can each 
time it is sent back for that purpose. That would be a 
poor performance of his duties. He must kick for his 
team's advantage always, and therefore must regulate the 
distance, and direct his kick with the utmost skill. Even 
long and puzzling kicks are dangerous unless closely fol- 
lowed up by the rushers; for, let a good dodging half-back 
get free, with one or two interferers in a broken field of 1 
opponents, and he will be almost sure of a long run. 

The full-back must take into account the ability of the 
rushers to get down the field in time to prevent a run or a 
return kick and punt accordingly. He may find it nec- 
essary to elevate the angle of his kick so that it will give 
his men time to get under it, or he may find it best to di- 
rect the ball straight ahead, in order to give his rushers 
the shortest distance to run, and at the same time be able 
to advance in the best formation for checking a run. At 
least, he must punt the ball where it shall be difficult for 
the backs to reach it quickly, and so give the rushers the 
advantage of a longer time to get under it. Especially 
must he be very careful not to kick the ball diagonally across 
the field without weighing well the risk involved, in com- 
parison with the chances for increased advantage; for the 
risks are unusually large in such a kick. It would be well 



232 

for the full-back to give the rushers a signal as to the direc- 
tion he meant to kick. This should always be done when 
he intends to kick off to one side of the field, or when he 
purposes making a high kick or one outside of bound in 
order to put his men on side by running forward. The 
rushers would be able to work some splendid team-play on 
such occasions. 

The question of when to make a fair catch and when to 
run is well worth the consideration of the backs, who are 
the ones almost always called upon to exercise their judg- 
ment on this point. It was formerly judged best, in hand- 
ling a kicked ball, to make a fair catch on all occasions. 
To-day there is a division of opinion, some adhering to 
the old way, while others prefer to run whenever they get 
a chance. 

There are two points to be considered in deciding this 
question: First, whether it is possible to kick a goal from 
the place where the ball will fall, or whether a punt from 
that point would be desirable; second, w r hether it will add 
much to the risk of not catching the ball, if the attempt is 
made to run. It is clear, that when near enough to the 
opponent's goal to try a place kick, every effort should be 
made to secure a fair catch. 

When a goal from the field would be impossible, it is 
almost invariably best to run with the ball, unless this 
would add greatly to the danger of muffing it. Catching 
the ball necessitates a positive loss of ground before again 
putting it in play, and it is doubtful whether this loss is 
compensated by the advantage of putting it in play unmo- 
lested by opponents and behind the whole team under 
slight headway. 

In attempting to run the player will at the worst be 
forced to make a down, which would furnish only slightly 
less advantage than a fair catch, while on the other hand 
it presents opportunities for gain. 



FIELD TACTICS. 

Clever tactics on the football field depend first of 
all on the captain's possessing an accurate knowledge 
of the strength and weakness of his team, both in in- 
dividual play and in team play. This can all be acquired 
during practice by carefully noting every play which is 
made, and giving thought to the strength of the in- 
dividual men and the value of the play in its relation to 
the others, both in regard to the perfection of execution 
and in intrinsic merit from a strategic point of view. 
It also depends upon the captain's observing as soon as 
he enters the field and throughout the game, the inci- 
dents of the day ; the direction and force of the wind ; 
the position of the sun ; and the condition of every part 
of the field. All these points are of great importance 
in good generalship. Lastly, it depends upon the study 
which he makes of the way the opponents arrange 
themselves on the defense, as well as the style of their 
play when in possession of the ball. He must also seek 
to find out by trial which of his plays can be used most 
effectively. 

Having the knowledge of the first and second requisites 
for good generalship, the captain must immediately pro- 
ceed to find out the weakness and strength of the 
opponent's defense, not by trying each play in turn and 
just noting its success, but by using the best tactics the 
occasion demands, and closely -observing the result on 
each play. Every play known to be strong because of 

(233) 



234 

the ability to concentrate or mass the players at some 
part of the line, or for any other reason, should be tried 
at least two or three times early in the game in order 
to give it a fair test, that the captain may know which 
will be his most effective plays. It is a mistake to keep 
pounding away on two or three plays which give an 
advance of a few yards, just on that account, until 
after other reliable plays have been given a fair trial. 
In making this trial, the time should be well chosen, 
both as to position on the field and as to the number 
of the down, and the previous loss or gain, if it is the 
second or third down. It often happens that a powerful 
play is discarded because in one or two trials it did not 
work well. The difficulty may have been in its im- 
perfect execution, or in a neglect of duty on the part 
of one man even, or it might result from the inability of 
one player to do his work because of circumstances 
or tactics on the part of his opponents which he could 
not overcome, but which, later on, he would discover a 
way to meet. 

By confining the tactics to a few plays which have 
proved successful for more or less gain, the captain 
limits his play very decidedly and clearly indicates his 
policy, thereby giving his opponents a knowledge which 
is invaluable in thwarting him. The result will be that 
all the available players upon the opposing team will be 
called from the appointed positions where they had been 
placed in order to meet the most varied style of plays, 
and stationed where they can render these particular 
plays most ineffective. The knowledge that the play 
will probably be one of a few, also gives every player on 
the defense a certainty of action which will make his 
opposition very much stronger. The uncertainty which 



235 

comes from combating a variety of tactics weakens each 
man's defense considerably, and puts him at his wit's 
end to discovei what the play will be and how to meet 
it. It also makes him more liable to be blocked off 
and pocketed. 

Sometimes, to be sure, it is fine strategy to keep pound- 
ing away at some particular point or points in the line, 
in order to draw the attention wholly to this place and 
to draw the men away from other parts of the line in 
order to weaken it for a sudden attack ; but this is 
quite different from the limited style of play so often 
used, and really, if well done, is a mark of clever 
generalship. 

The captain sometimes uses all his plays in succes- 
sion simply because he has been accustomed to run 
through them in practice. This is poor tactics. If it 
has once been clearly proven that a certain play cannot 
for any reason be made, every clear-headed captain will 
realize that it is very, poor policy to waste downs in 
the effort. 

A similar mistake sometimes grows out of giving the 
signals in practice. If the captain or quarter-back in 
giving the signal is not careful, he will get into the way 
of unconsciously arranging the plays according to the 
law of association of ideas, one play following another 
in unvarying sequence. The principle of sequence in 
plays would not be fatal, and, indeed, would sometimes 
be very effective, if the plays are well selected. But 
account should be taken of the physical capacity of the 
players ; the duties which they have just been called on 
to perform ; and the right time and place on the field, 
in reference to the side lines and nearness to the goal. 
The great advantage to be gained lies in having the 



236 

sequence come in the form of a series which is perfectly 
learned, so that play after play shall be made in rapid 
succession. The series, however, should not consist of 
more than from four to six plays, as contingencies often 
arise which seriously injure their effectiveness. In any 
case the series ought to be stopped if for any reason it 
is unwise to make the next play, or if the conditions allow 
a much better move. A simple signal will indicate that 
the series is to be stopped. The great virtue in series 
plays lies in the fact that a certain signal starts the series 
and each play can be made in the quickest manner, 
because the players all know what is coming next and 
are ready the instant the ball is in the center-rusher's 
hands. Series plays are especially effective against a 
team which is slow in lining up. They are very valuable 
also in their moral effect, because of the rapidity and en- 
thusiasm with which the plays are made. 

Under a varied style of play where many movements 
are well executed, the opposing team must exercise the 
greatest headwork and caution in its defense. If the 
other team has not already indicated its policy by clearly 
defining its plays, every one on the opposing eleven will 
be conscious of so much uncertainty as to what the play 
will be, that his attack through the line is likely to be 
cautious and therefore not strong ; or else it is likely to 
be sufficiently daring to give the opponents a decided ad- 
vantage in making their plays. When undue caution is 
exercised on the defense, its effect often is to make the 
players hesitating. This, when extending throughout 
the rush line is fatal to a strong defensive game. A dar- 
ing, reckless defense is far more effective than the 
cautious defense which makes a rush line hesitate, 
because of the moral effect on the other team, if for no 
other reason. 



2 37 

And this leads us to consider the moral effect of certain 
tactics. The three most effective styles of plays when 
successfully used are : a kicking game when there are 
weak catchers behind the opposing line (or when the lat- 
ter are poorly positioned) ; end plays ; and dashes 
through the center in mass or quick wedge plays. These 
three plays, in the order named, have the most disheart- 
ening effect on the opposing team, when the side having 
the ball has a long, accurate, and scientific kicker who is 
able to place his punts well, and also to regulate the 
height and twist which the ball shall take. 

Every football player knows the chances for a fatal 
misplay which hang on a kicked ball : first, because of 
the difficulty of judging it accurately if it be twisting in 
certain ways ; second, because of its exceeding suscepti- 
bility to currents of air which make its gyrations and 
deviations excessively perplexing ; third, because of the 
nicety of final judgment required, even when the player 
is well under the ball, since its shape and elasticity make 
it necessary to allow for its full length and its smallest 
dimension at the same time, also for a quick rebound 
from the arm or hands. The catcher must attend to all 
this in the face of a fierce line of rushers coming down on 
him at full speed, eager to tackle him or to seize the ball 
if he muffs or fumbles it. 

The moral effect of having uncertain catchers behind 
the line is very telling on the team. If all the hard, 
wearying work of the rushers and half-backs to advance 
the ball forty or fifty yards is to be spoiled over and over 
by muffed punts, even though the ball is not lost to the 
other side (as it is likely sometimes to be in such cases), 
there is sure to be a diminution in effort in a short time 
on the part of the whole team. This comes imperceptibly 



2 3 8 

at first, but comes just as surely, and ere long evinces it- 
self in the more determined and successful efforts of the 
other team. 

Almost equally disheartening, if not fully so, is it to 
have runs made repeatedly around the ends; because the 
runs in that locality, if successful, are usually for long 
gains often resulting in touch-downs, and they arouse 
the greatest fears in the minds of all the players from a 
feeling of inability to stop them. The result is that every 
effort is centered on anticipating these end plays, and 
the rushers, instead of going through the line, wait to see 
if it is an end play, in which case they run out to the side 
to stop it. That very moment in which there is a hesitancy 
on the part of the guards and tackles in going through 
the line, is a moment of triumph for the team with the 
ball; for it immediately gives them a decided advantage, 
in that, while perhaps unable before to make progress 
through the center part of the line, they will now have 
two strong points of attack. The chances now are that 
the defense will grow weaker and weaker as the game 
advances, for unless the end runs are well stopped the 
players will decrease their efforts somewhat and the 
tackling will become less and less daring and effective. 

It is hard to say which of these two styles of play really 
has the more discouraging effect on the opposite team. 
If the eleven which has the poor catchers back of their 
forwards are successful in making advance by rushing the 
ball, they have a vast deal to encourage them, even 
though now and then they lose it all through the muffing 
of their backs. The period in which they have the ball 
is one in which their minds are not conscious of the weak- 
ness of their own defense but are completely taken up 
with the good work they are doing, and they are unani- 



239 

mous and bouyant in it.. That period of success does 
much to keep up their spirits during the time when the 
other side has the ball and their fears are so all-powerful. 

When a team is able to make frequent runs around the 
opponent's end, there is perhaps less to actually dis- 
hearten them than in the preceding case, for there is less 
fear of losing the ball. It can be gotten only through a 
failure to advance the five yards in its three trials; through 
a fumble ; through a penalty imposed by the umpire; or 
through a kick. The latter will be tried probably only 
under extreme conditions where there has been a loss of 
yards, while in the kicking game mentioned above, the 
side not in possession of the ball always has the hope of 
securing it. 

That captain is not a good general who follows out the 
same tactics in each game; who, having perhaps worked 
out a system of plays which his men could best execute, 
attempts to apply this system in every game, regardless 
of the composition of the opposing eleven and their sys- 
tems of defense and offense. The captain, in truth, has 
learned a good deal when he has learned what plays his 
team can best execute, and he has most valuable, though 
far from complete, information for conducting a wise cam- 
paign against the opposing eleven. He still has much 
need to exercise his generalship as to whether this point 
of attack should be assailed three or fifteen times; this 
place a few times; and this place not at all, or perhaps 
only once or twice for the sake of trial or strategy. 

Oftentimes, the rusher can give invaluable information 
to the captain as to his own ability to handle his opponent, 
where for example the opponent so places himself con- 
stantly as to render it an easy matter to get him out of 
the way for certain plays, although it is impossible to 
16 



240 

move him on other plays. This is especially true in 
handling a large man who stands constantly in the same 
way; as for instance, well over to the side of his opponent. 
It would be comparatively easy to block such a man for 
opening up a hole in one direction, but almost impossible 
to shove him in the opposite way. Such information 
would furnish the captain valuable data on which to base 
certain tactics, and would inform him that he could doubt- 
less make plays to one side of this man and seldom if ever 
on the other side. 

It would be foolish, even if it were possible, to lay down 
a complete system of tactics which should be followed in 
a game. Indeed, the wonderful part of football is, that 
it is a game which cannot be worked out by rule and 
learned by note. One play does not follow another in 
sequence, but only as the captain or commander of the 
day directs. 

What makes the game preeminently one requiring 
science and brains, is that to be well played the captain 
must use the utmost wisdom and strategy in directing the 
plays, and the players to a man must do their duty in ex- 
ecuting them. Very many points of advantage and dis- 
advantage must constantly be borne in mind, or else the 
best generalship and results cannot follow. It is far from 
true to say that the captain must simply take into account 
the strong and weak points of his opponent's play, 
together with the incidents of the day and field, such as 
the direction of the sun and the condition of the grounds 
in each particular part of the field; he must also have re- 
gard for his men, selecting his plays with such wisdom as 
to secure the greatest economy of physical energy with 
the greatest result, so that no man nor men shall be over- 
worked at any time of the game and thus be incapacitated. 



241 

No captain is a good general who does not know the 
limitations in strength of his ground-gainers, and who 
does not take this into account in directing the play. 
Men differ greatly in their power to repeat a performance 
quickly; essentially, then, in their powers of endurance. 
Some men can do effective work only when in first-class 
condition; that is, when they have had a certain length 
of time to recover after each effort, they can be relied on 
for a good gain, if not a brilliant run. Then, there is a 
vast difference in the kind of play as to the drain on a 
man's strength. End runs, and runs in which a consider- 
able distance is covered, or runs in which there is a good 
deal of dodging and struggling to get loose from tacklers, 
are the most taxing on the wind and strength. Most men 
can stand two or more dashes through the line in quick 
succession, or two or more mass and wedge plays where 
the runner does not run fast for a long distance before 
being tackled. But when a run has been made which has 
called for a vast deal of energy the captain should not 
fail to notice it, and in calling the next two or three plays, 
choose such as do not ask for too much strength from this 
player. The star runner as a rule is the one who suffers 
most from overwork through injudicious leadership. 

This does not preclude the fact that there are occasions 
in the game when some player or players must be forced 
to draw heavily on a reserve fund of energy in order to 
secure a permanent advantage or to prevent disaster. It 
sometimes seems necessary when nearing the opponent's 
goal, that some player be put to his supreme test of 
strength in order to secure points, and likewise, when it 
is necessary to carry the ball away from one's own goal, 
and there is only one man who is sure to meet the crisis ; 
but these are in truth critical periods and are exceptions 
not to be mentioned in this connection. 



242 

We Know tnat it is sometimes considered clever tactics, 
when there are strong substitute players for certain posi- 
tions, to work men in these positions to their utmost limit 
of service, and then "have them get hurt "in order to 
substitute a fresh man or men. If this be shrewd, it is 
at least not honest tactics. 

If a team is not capable of playing an uphill game, or 
is one which is strongly affected by success and repulse; 
or, if the opposing eleven is one which is similarly in- 
fluenced, the tactics should be those most likely to pro- 
duce the exultation of success on the one hand, and 
the feeling of discouragement on the other. The plays 
should be those which can be executed quickly, and 
which have a certainty of gain with little risk of loss ; 
which combine the efforts of every man in the eleven 
sufficiently to make him feel that he has an important 
part in them; which bring the energies of the opposing 
eleven, particularly the rushers, to the severest test, tax- 
ing especially the wind and courage. 

It must always be remembered, as a point in tactics, 
that the side in possession of the ball has a great ad- 
vantage, especially if the other side is weak in defensive 
play, and that it requires a greater outlay in strength 
and wind to check plays than it does to make them. It 
is likewise true that the courage of a team may be meas- 
ured by its promptness and determination in defense. 
If a team repeatedly and continuously comes up to the 
scrimmage, after being outwitted and outplayed, it has 
the true courage, the courage which would probably ena- 
ble them to win if possessed of an equal degree of skill 
in team-play. 

What style of game shall a team play ? That depends 
on many contingencies. Setting aside for the time the 



243 

incidents of the day, such as wind, rain, and sunlight; 
the soft, slippery, and rough places in the grounds; the 
up and down grades ; not even taking into account the 
strength and weakness of the opponents, and the contin- 
gencies which arise, let us consider solely the composition 
of the team, and see if we can deduce any style of play 
which applies to teams made up of certain types of men. 

Without defining the make-up of the team, except on 
general terms, we see that when the rush line is strong and 
heavy, the chances are that they will be able to handle 
their opponents and make good openings for the dashes 
through the line. Plunges through the central part of 
the line will probably be the most effective, if the center 
guards and tackles are large and strong men. If the 
backs are slow and heavy also, a center game will prob- 
ably be the only kind they can play with success. And 
the result is that this will be the style of game adopted; 
not perhaps because the captain has analyzed the reasons 
for the ability of the backs to make advance in that place, 
and their inability to circle the ends, for example; but 
just because that is the part of the line in which they can 
make their gains every time. Perhaps it will occur to 
him that those same backs can be so quickened in start- 
ing and running, and then so well guarded, that they will 
be able now and then to try an end play, or a tackle 
and end play successfully, and by so doing, strengthen 
that very center play. The chance for making a success- 
ful end play is increased where a center game is being 
played, because the ends will be likely to draw in some- 
what to help the center. 

When the center men of the line are rather light, if the 
backs are heavy and slow, the advantage will still be in 
attacking the openings between the center and guards 



244 

and between the guards and tackles; for, if the backs 
and ends mass on these places, as they can do quickly 
and powerfully, they can still force a few yards at a time, 
and now and then break through for considerable gain. 
When well massed, this can be played even against the 
strongest centers. All that the rush line will need to do is 
to hold their men momentarily until the backs get under 
headway, and the combination of so much weight and 
power will be sure to make advance when well directed. 
If it be remembered that the advantage is always with 
the side which has the ball, and if the players, though 
checked now and then, go into each play with undaunted 
courage, advance will surely be made. 

As a general rule, when a team has light, swift run- 
ners behind the line, they should lay the emphasis on 
plays around the end and between the ends and tackles. 
Not that they should confine themselves to those points 
of attack, but it would be foolish for a team composed 
of such material not to perfect the plays in these parts 
of the line, because of the ability of the backs to move 
quickly to these remoter places. Such men, too, are not 
so well built for the hard, plunging work in the center, 
and will probably stand less of it, and be less effective, 
than heavier backs. This of course depends in part on 
the build of the men, but in general it is true. 

But even if the backs are equally good in plunging into 
the line, it would be better policy to keep the line spread 
out, for no runner can make much gain through a close 
line. Swift drives through the line can be made fre- 
quently, and are usually very telling when the line, being 
spread out, is opened up for these little backs to come 
darting through. But if the backs and the central part 
of the rush line are both light, while those of the oppo- 



245 

nents are heavy, the end style of play must of necessity 
be depended on, or the opposing rushers will be able 
to resist the plunges. Furthermore, it will be exceed- 
ingly hard to make holes through the line, and, in fact, 
even to hold their opponents long enough for the backs 
to get up to the line. 

The question of what shall be the proportion of end 
plays and plays between the ends and tackle, to the 
plays through the other four openings in the line depends, 
of course, very largely on the backs. The composition 
of the rush line as to strength and skill, especially the 
center, guards, and tackles, also affects the proportion. 

On the ordinary college and preparatory school team, 
the relative effectiveness of an end game to a center 
game would be much smaller than where the teams are 
better trained, simply because the risks are larger; for, 
while the defense against well executed interference 
would be much weaker, the attack also is much weaker. 
f Every enfl play and play between the tackles and end 
I is attempted with a much greater risk from actual loss of 
/ ground, or with a loss of a down with no gain, than are 
/ the plays in the center. The reason is that the rushers 
\ are given time to break through the line while the runner 
is moving out to the point of attack, and unless well pro- 
I tected he will not reach the opening. 
V Further, this movement for a considerable distance is 
almost entirely sidewise before an advance can be made, 
while in the plays in the central part of the line the 
rushes are made nearly straight forward, except when the 
rushers take the ball, and the runners scarcely ever fail 
to reach the line. The times when there is no gain what- 
ever and when there is an actual loss are compara- 
tively few, for the runner, catching the ball at full 
speed, is up to the line in an instant, and then it be- 



246 

comes a question how far he can advance beyond that 
point. Taking these elements of risk into account, it 
would seem that the proportion of plays at the end to 
plays through the line should not be larger than one to 
three, and oftentimes less, even where a team is able to 
use both styles effectively. The only occasion for a larger 
use of end plays than this would be when the runner sel- 
dom fails to reach the line, and is usually good for a 
gain. In that event the large element of risk has been 
taken away, and the proportion of use should then de- 
pend on the relative amount of gain which the trials 
have shown can be secured from each with the least ex- 
penditure of energy. 

Right here it might be well to add that it requires more 
skillful generalship to know when to use an end play 
than when to make a play through the center. It is 
only occasionally that the ball is down so close to the side 
lines that all four openings in the center are not available 
on account of running outside the line, while it is fre- 
quently the case that the ball is down near enough to the 
side line to limit the end play to one side, that is, to two 
openings. Nor is this enlarged space on one side of the 
field sufficient compensation for the loss of the two points 
of attack, but it adds to the science of the game, as it re- 
quires more varied tactics and maneuvers. 

It is poor tactics to keep trying end plays when it has 
been clearly proven that it is not possible to make them 
and that there is a likelihood of a loss in the trial. If it 
seems best to try the end for the sake of keeping the op- 
posing line spread out so that the center plays can be 
made more successfully, the most propitious times should 
be selected. It should never be on the second or third 
down, because the risk of losing the ball by failure to 
gain the requisite five yards would be entirely too great. 



247 

There are times when an end play should not be used 
at all, or very rarely, on account of the risk involved; 
as, for example, when the ball is being carried out from 
under the goal where it has been forced by the opponents. 
Anywhere within the fifteen or twenty yard line it is 
much better to trust to bringing it slowly out a few yards 
or feet at a time, sufficient, perhaps, to secure only the 
requisite five yards in three trials. Beyond the twenty- 
yard line and up to the thirty-five-yard an end play should 
be tried only on the first down, or, in rare instances, on 
the second down, unless the risk of losing ground, and 
subsequently the ball, is worth taking. In such cases the 
possession of a powerful punter behind the line, who could 
place the ball well out of dangerous territory if necessary, 
might be a sufficient reason for attempting a long kick 
down the field. It does not seem, however, that it is nec- 
essary to run any risk of losing the ball if there is good 
reason for not playing a kicking game, for there will be 
ample chance to try an end play on the first down. Mis- 
takes in generalship are frequently made right along this 
line in nearly every game which is played, an end, run 
being sometimes tried on the third down when there is 
less than a yard to gain. Better gain the yard or two by 
the surest ground-gaining play and then try an end run 
on the very next. 

When inside the opponents' twenty-five-yard line the 
greatest skill must also be used, and the aim should be to 
get the requisite five yards by the most reliable tactics. 
Plays which risk the loss of ground and the ball should be 
sparingly used, and every caution and strategy be exer- 
cised to place the ball across the line. Nor should there 
be less prudence because a team has a good drop kicker. 
The proportion of goals secured from drop kicks is not 



248 

more than one in every four or five attempts, with the best 
kickers in America, and the most certain way to score 
will be to strain every nerve to place the ball across the 
line by steadfastly holding the ball and using the drop 
kick only as a last resource. 

Every now. and then a point is lost unnecessarily when 
the ball is in the possession of a team under its own goal. 
It is judged not wise to kick. Perhaps the wind is strong 
in the opposite direction and there is no reliable punter, 
or perhaps it would simply give the opponents a fair 
catch from which to make a try for goal if kicked. The 
captain also realizes that if the opponents secure the ball 
they will force it over. Two downs may already have 
been used up and ground lost in vain attempts to advance 
the ball by running. There seems to be no other alterna- 
tive, and so another trial is made, but without avail, 
whereupon the ball goes to the other side. Under these 
circumstances it would be well for the captain to remem- 
ber that by making a safety touchdown and allowing the 
opponents to score two, he could have brought the ball 
out to the twenty-five-yard line and prevented a proba- 
ble six points. 

The mistake is often made of frequently using end plays 
when the ground is slippery and soft from rain. Nothing 
can be more foolish, unless the aim is to get the ball on 
firmer ground, for with insecure footing it is impossible 
to start quickly, run fast, or turn and dodge quickly. 
This makes it easy, also, for the opposing eleven to stop 
the runner and nearly always with a loss of ground. The 
same is true, in a measure, when the ground is soft or 
very sandy. It is comparatively hard to make end plays 
even when there are no unfavorable conditions, when the 
ground is firm and level. 



249 

He is a wise general, therefore, who notes the field 
carefully, knowing where all the soft and slippery and 
rough places are, as well as where the good ground is, 
and then keeps them in mind throughout the game, and 
makes his moves wisely in reference to them. Few cap- 
tains take the field sufficiently into account in directing 
the plays, so that the greatest advantage can be secured 
by avoiding the hindrances as much as possible. Again 
and again unsuccessful trials to advance have been made 
in muddy places, when, with one well-planned move, the 
ball could have been placed on solid ground with little or 
no sacrifice, and a vast advantage secured. It is usually 
worth the loss of two or three yards, and oftentimes more, 
to make an end play in order to give a better footing ta 
the backs and the rushers for putting the ball into play, 
for handling it, for making holes, and for starting, run- 
ning, and dodging. 

When the ground is very slippery, all plays which cause 
the runner to move a considerable distance sidewise and 
across the field before turning to advance, and all plays 
requiring a sudden change in direction, whether when 
under strong headway or not, are hard to gain ground 
on, and, therefore, must be used with great judgment. 
Equally hard to make are the plays in which the tackle 
and guard and end carry the ball around for a run 
through one of the openings on the opposite side of the line. 
There is not, however, the chance for so much loss of 
ground in these plays, as usually played, that there is in 
a run out to the end by the half-backs, because the former 
run closer to the line and the play is not so quickly per- 
ceived. 

It naturally follows, then, from what has been said, 
that those plays which send the runner directly forward; 



250 

those in which the impetus from the start is more forward 
than side wise; those in which the runner does not have 
far to run before he strikes the opening; and those in 
which he can get the greatest protection and assistance 
quickly, are the plays to be relied on when the ground is 
soft, sandy, or slippery. 

In bringing the ball in from the side lines, the privilege 
is given of having it down anywhere from five to fifteen 
yards from that line. This option of ten yards should be 
valuable in determining the tactics to be used next. Too 
often is it the habit for the captain to shout out, ' ' Bring 
it in fifteen," whether the "fifteen" would carry them 
into a mud hole, or whether there w r as a positive advan- 
tage in operating from a nearer point to the side line by 
avoiding the usual custom of an end run, and sending the 
runner through on the other side. Generally the fifteen 
yard point is the best place to have the ball down, but 
not always. The ten-yard point has decided advantages 
in making certain side-line plays, because the opponents 
will reason that the chances are in favor of an end play 
being attempted, and will draw one or two men away to 
strengthen their defense in that quarter. These they will 
feel that they can well spare from that side without very 
apparently weakening the defense, because they are pro- 
tected from long runs by the side line. 

The side line does not enter into the consideration in 
field tactics as much as it should. As a rule, it is consid- 
ered a misfortune when the ball is down within less than 
ten yards of this boundary line, because it gives the op- 
ponents a good chance to anticipate the play, which is 
likely to be a run around the other end. The free men 
who are behind the rushers nearest the side line rarely 
fail to move over as far as the center-rusher. This leaves 



the defense of that part wholly to the rushers, supported 
by the side line, and is the best situation possible for mak- 
ing certain plays. Long runs, however, cannot be ex- 
pected, and the captain must be contented to work stead- 
ily up the field by short gains. After several dashes into 
the line, of this kind, an end run suddenly carried into ex- 
ecution may have considerable chance for success. 

This suggests the thought that it is possible to use the 
side line helpfully when the ball is down very near it and 
when it is impossible to make any strong plays because 
of the limitations which must be met in such a situation. 
At such a time, instead of attempting to make a run out 
toward the end, or tackle, which will be expected, the play 
should often be straight forward or on the side toward 
the boundary line, until the runner is finally pushed over 
the line and has the privilege of bringing the ball in to a 
more favorable position from which to operate. 

Furthermore, the position near the side line can be 
made more useful in working tricks than a point nearer 
the center of the field, for reasons which are evident. 

There is no question that kicking the ball has not 
entered into the tactics of football as largely as its possi- 
bilities would warrant. There are many reasons for this. 
First, there is only here and there a team which has a 
reliable kicker. Punting and drop kicking are practiced 
by a few only, and, for the most part, not intelligently and 
successfully. It is a science with several points of skill to 
be acquired. Second, many teams have an uncertain 
punter who does not himself know exactly where the ball 
will go, whether far down the field or just over the rush line, 
along the ground or to one side, and so place such little 
confidence in the value of kicking under so great a risk 
that they will usually trust to a run, even on the third 



252 

down, if the distance which they have to gain is not too 
great. Third, in all but a few leading colleges when the 
teams are evenly matched, the question of points is large- 
ly a question of which side has the ball. (_The offensive 
game is much better developed than the defensive game, 
and it is not infrequent for one team to carry the ball 
from one end of the field to the other without losing it/} 
Under these circumstances the necessity for kicking is 
seldom felt, and they would rather take the risk of not 
gaining the requisite number of yards, than release their 
right to the ball by an uncertain kick. Fourth, it is a 
fact that most punters can not kick accurately if forced to 
punt quickly. They are, therefore, compelled to stand so 
far back of the rush line that the value of their punt is 
decreased by several yards, or else they run the risk both 
of a poor punt and of having it stopped by the opposing 
rushers who break through the line. 

No better proof of the value of a good punter behind 
the line is needed, than to see a game in which one side is 
visibly weaker than the other in its power to advance the 
ball by running, but which, possessing a strong punter, 
is able to keep its opponents in check. Frequent punts 
are doubly effective when the opposite side is without a 
good kicker, or is not accustomed to a kicking game. 

The worth of an accurate kicker is magnified very 
much when there is a wind in his favor. Comparatively 
few games are played without a wind to help or interfere, 
according as it is favorable to one side or the other. 
When the wind is in the favor of one side, they should 
be able to use it to the greatest advantage. The captain 
should be alive to its value, and make it a powerful factor 
in his tactics. It would then be a question whether it 
would not be wise to kick the ball just as soon as it was 



253 

secured, provided, of course, it was not so near the op- 
ponent's goal that it would be wiser to hold the ball and 
attempt to rush it over. Certain it is that a side should 
never fail to kick on the third down except on account of 
the liability of kicking the ball over the goal line when 
inside of the twenty-five yard line, or because so close to 
the goal line that it is worth taking the risk of losing the 
ball in making a supreme effort to get it over. 

When there is danger of the ball being kicked across 
the goal line a clever punter will usually aim to kick 
the ball across the side line into the touch as near the 
goal line as possible. This is intentional and is quite dif- 
ferent from the juvenile efforts which do not take the 
wind or position into account when punting from near the 
side line and send the ball outside, only a few yards away. 

It is sometimes good tactics on the third down, when 
there is considerable doubt whether the required advance 
can be made, to have the full-back kick the ball across 
the side line with no intent perhaps of a gain in ground. 
While giving the opposing team technically an equal 
chance, it is wholly with the purpose of having the end- 
rusher secure the ball, which will be upon the first down. 
The kick must be well placed, of course, and must not be 
so much forward that there will be great risk of the op- 
ponents securing the ball, and also not so far ahead that 
the full-back cannot put his men on side easily. The 
end man on that side must also know of the full-back's 
intention, and place himself well over toward the side 
line. Such a kick cannot be attempted safely when the 
full-back is not able to place his punts with great ac- 
curacy. The occasions when the use of such tactics 
would be wise, might be when the side in possession of 
the ball was able to make good advances by running but 



254 

had lost ground, perhaps through a misplay ; or when 
they had the ball inside their opponents' twenty-five yard 
line and were not in a good position to try a drop kick ; 
or when the risk of making the required gain by running 
would be too great. 

Right here would come in the question of a drop kick 
on the third down when inside the twenty-five yard line, 
and in fair position to make the trial. It is safe to say 
that, in general on the third down, this should be the 
play called for. It is for the captain to decide whether 
the trial is worth the making; whether the nearness and 
angle to the goal, and the quickness and skill of the 
kicker warrant a drop kick in preference to the chances 
of making a further advance by running. 

If a run is attempted without gain the ball will be 
down where it is for the other side. When the kick 
is made on the other hand, there will be a possibility of 
having the ball stopped by the opposing rushers, and 
a run made up the field; or, if the goal is missed, the 
opposing team will be allowed to bring the ball out to 
the twenty-five yard line. 

The captain must weigh all these possibilities before 
making his decision. 

The great advantage in the wind does not consist alone 
in the increased distance the ball can be propelled, but 
also in the increased likelihood that some one upon the 
side which kicked will again secure the ball on a muff 
or fumble. The wind has added to the problem of the 
player who attempts to catch the ball these points of 
difficulty: greater distance covered by the ball, an in- 
creased speed, and a greater probability that the ball 
will suddenly veer to one side or the other from the line 
of direction . 



255 

The increased advantage of a favoring wind is in 
direct proportion to the strength of the wind. If the 
wind is very strong, the side which does not have its 
assistance is severely handicapped, and for the time is 
not able to do any effective kicking. Even with the 
best punters, it is impossible to drive the ball far in the 
face of a strong wind, and then the kick must be low 
or the wind is likely to blow it back near the spot from 
which it was kicked. On the other hand, when kicking 
for distance with the wind, it is usually better to kick 
the ball high, in order that the wind may affect it more 
powerfully during the longer interval of time in rising 
and falling. 

There is also an economic reason for kicking the ball 
whenever it can be wisely done. It is a good way to 
rest the backs in order to save them for the supreme 
effort of carrying the ball across the line; for, if the ball 
has been carried for a considerable distance, they will 
be likely to be somewhat fatigued as they approach the 
goal line, and they will be weakest where and when the 
opposing side always puts in their most determined and 
desperate resistance. 

It is a severe test of a team's courage to bear up 
against a kicking game in the face of a strong wind; 
for, even if they are able to make good gains in return 
by running, the players are constantly fearing a slip or 
fumble, which will give the ball back to the other side 
only to have it returned with all the chances of a mis- 
play, if not a gain in ground. The effect of the wind 
also is to make the side against it think that they are 
working very much harder than their opponents just to 
hold their own. 

There is no question as to the value of having every 
member of the team able to run with the ball when it is 
17 



256 

possible and wise. The more varied the style of play, 
provided it is strong, or is likely to be successful because 
unlocked for, the more powerful would be the plan of at- 
tack and the less effective the defense. This is true for 
two reasons: first, it keeps the opposing team constantly 
guessing as to what the play will be and enables the side 
with the ball to secure advantages through the variety of 
its play; second, it distributes the labor and secures the 
advantage of fresh strength, while it rests the main 
ground-gainers. For these reasons, then, it is well 
worth the while to run the guards, tackles, and ends, 
although these are not in as advantageous positions for 
gaining ground as are the half-backs and full-back. 

The most valuable of the three rush-line positions for 
ground gaining is the tackle, because from that position 
the runner can get under sufficient speed to carry him for- 
ward against opposition, and he can also secure the most 
protection and help. The run also can be made in the 
quickest time and without being immediately noticed. 

The end position, when the end plays behind the line 
and near the tackle, comes next in value of the line posi- 
tions for running with the ball, because of the large num- 
ber of interferers ahead. If rightly played by a fast 
runner, the end will be able to make good advances be- 
tween the tackle and end, and even around the end on the 
other side. 

The guard is in the hardest rush-line position for ad- 
vancing the ball, because it is impossible for him to get 
under speed when making a quick turn around the quar- 
ter-back, and on the other hand he cannot afford to run 
out to the end, because he would be sure to be tackled 
whether he ran close to the line with little interference, 
or ran farther back with better interference but with 
greater risk of loss of ground. 



SIGNALS. 

In the modern game of football it is absolutely neces- 
sary that before each play a signal should be given, which 
will inform every man on the team of the movement 
about to be executed. Every player has a special duty 
to perform each time the ball is snapped, and unless he is 
informed beforehand of the evolution intended, it will be 
impossible to render the requisite assistance. It is of 
equal importance that the opposing team should be kept 
in absolute ignorance in regard to the intention of the 
play, so that they may not anticipate and thwart it. 

That code of signals will be best, then, which will in- 
dicate in the simplest manner the play intended, while at 
the same time being unintelligible to opponents. Too 
frequently such a complicated system of signals is adopted 
that the players themselves become confused, or at least 
are unable to comprehend the order upon the instant, and 
the momentary delay thus caused proves a great disad- 
vantage. There is far less likelihood that the opposing 
team will be informed by the signal what play is in- 
tended, than that they shall discover its probable direc- 
tion by the position assumed or nervousness betrayed by 
some one of the backs or rushers. 

There are three systems of signals which have a prac- 
tical value : Sign signals, word signals, and number sig- 
nals. Sign signals possess one advantage which neither 
of the other two can claim. They can be understood 
with readiness amid the most deafening cheering from the 

(257) 



side lines. It often happens that the cheering is so con- 
tinuous at critical moments during the great' matches, 
where many thousand people are assembled, that for sev- 
eral moments the play is almost paralyzed on account of 
the inability of the captain to make his orders heard. It 
is readily perceived what an advantage it would be to 
have a code of signals which would direct the play 
rapidly and unerringly at such a time. 

On the other hand, there is, perhaps, more danger that 
the opposing team may notice and soon learn to under, 
stand signs than when spoken signals are used, for it is 
necessary that each man on the side shall look at the 
quarter-back or captain at the time when he gives the sig- 
nal (usually this will be when the men are lining up), 
and this will of necessity attract more or less attention to 
what it is expressly desired to cover up. Every team 
would do well, however, to have a complete system of 
sign signals, which they can use at critical times in case 
of emergency. 

The following extract from a code once in operation 
will furnish suggestions which will enable any ingenious 
captain to devise a practical set : Pull up trousers on 
right side RH between c and RG. Pull up trousers on 
left side LH between c and LG. Right hand on right 
thigh RH between RG and RT. Right hand on left 
thigh RH between LG and LT. Right hand on right 
knee RH between RT and RE. Right hand on left knee 

RH between LT and LE. Right hand on collar on right 
side RH around RE. Right hand on collar on leftside 

RH around LE. Right hand on chin RT around be- 
tween LG and LT. Right hand on right hip RE around 
the LE. Pull on jacket lacings kick down the field. 

Similar motions with the left hand will direct cor- 



2 59 

responding plays in the opposite direction. The mo- 
tions should be made so naturally that they will not at- 
tract attention, but in deciding upon movements care 
should be taken not to select those which will be used in- 
voluntarily, lest signals be given sometimes without in- 
tention. 

In the system of word signals peculiar expressions, 
such as " Brace up now," " Now brace," " Hold your men 
hard," "Tear up this line," "We must do better now," 
and the like, introduced by the captain with a few off- 
hand sentences before each play, direct the next move- 
ment. Again, speaking to the left tackle may indicate 
that the left half-back is to run around the right end, 
each man being made to indicate a different evolution; 
and a word of encouragement or-blame thus be made the 
signal for the next play. 

Perhaps the system of signaling by numbers is most 
simple and satisfactory, for it admits of a great variety 
of combinations, and the key will not be readily de- 
tected. Sometimes a long sequence of numbers are called 
out, the signal being conveyed by the first two or three, 
and the others being added merely to mystify the oppos- 
ing side, but a combination of three numbers is rather 
preferable. 

A very simple code may be arranged, in which each 
opening is given a number, and each player a number. 
The combination of two numbers, then, will indicate the 
man who is to receive the ball, and the opening through 
which he is to pass, while a third will be called for the 
sake of deception. For example : We will suppose that 
the openings in the line, as they radiate from the center, 
have been numbered 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively, upon 
the right, and 5, 7, 9, and n upon the left; the center- 



260 

rusher will be No. i, RG will be 2, RT will be 4, RE will be 
6, and RH will be 8 ; while on the left LG will be 3, LT 
will be 5, LE will be 7, and LH will be 9, with FB n. 
We will further suppose that but three numbers are to 
be given each time ; that the first number called will 
mean nothing ; the second number called will indicate 
the player who is to receive the ball ; and the third 
number the opening through which he is to pass. 

To illustrate: The captain calls "9, 5, 8!" The 9 
means nothing. The second number indicates the player 
who is to receive the ball, which in the present instance 
is No. 5, the left tackle. The third number shows the 
opening through which he is to pass in this case No. 8, 
and hence between RT and LE. The interpretation of 
the signal, then, is that LT is to receive the ball, pass 
around the center, and dash into the line between RT 
and RE.* Thus any combination desired may be ef- 
fected. 

If, after a time, the opposing team discovers the sig- 
nal for one or more of the plays, the entire system may 
be changed by simply informing the team by a peculiar 
signal, previously arranged, that the first number will 
thereafter indicate the opening, while the third will indi- 
cate the player who is to take the ball. The three num- 
bers admit of six different arrangements, and the team 
should be drilled upon at least three of them until they 
can execute the plays with equal readiness under each 
arrangement. 

In more difficult systems each play is given a separate 
number, which number may be called out either first, 
second, or third, as determined. Again, letting each 
play be indicated by a particular number, as before, the 



* See diagram nineteen. 



26l 



sum of the last two numbers is taken to make the num- 
ber desired. This latter system, though, perhaps, a little 
more difficult, will prove the most satisfactory. 

If two numbers are to be added together, the captain 
will do well to make one of them quite small, and call 
the larger number of the two first, for the addition will be 
performed by all much quicker and with less effort. 
During the first of the season it will be well to use one 
particular number to represent a play, and when these 
have been thoroughly learned it will be but a compar- 
atively easy matter to change to the sum of any two. 

When the number for the play has reached twenty, it 
may make the signals easier to have all the numbers be- 
tween twenty and thirty indicate a certain other play; 
all the numbers between thirty and forty, another; and 
so on. 

As the kick is a frequent play, and as it is nearly al- 
ways apparent, it may be well to have two numbers, 
either one of which will be the signal for a kick down 
the field. 

Enough has now been said to suggest how a practical 
system of signals may be devised. 



AXIOMS. 

Line up quickly the moment the ball is down and play 
a dashing game from start to finish. 

Never under any circumstances talk about your hurts 
and bruises. If you are unable to play, or have a severe 
strain, tell the captain at once. He will always release 
you. 

When thrown hard always get up as if not hurt in the 
slightest. You will be thrown twice as hard next time if 
you appear to be easily hurt by a fall. 

When coached upon the field never under any circum- 
stances answer back or make any excuses. Do as nearly 
as possible exactly what you are told. 

Always throw your man hard, and toward his own goal, 
when you tackle him. 

Never converse with an opponent during the game, but 
wait until the game is over for the exchange of civilities. 

If you miss a tackle turn right around and follow the 
man at utmost speed ; some one else may block him just 
long enough for you to catch him from behind. 

Never play a " slugging game " ; it interferes with good 
football playing. 

Try to make a touch-down during the first two minutes 
of the game, before the opponents have become fairly 
waked up. 

Play a. fast game ; let one play come after the next in 
rapid succession without any waits or delays. The more 
rapidly you play, the more effective it will be. Therefore 

(262) 



263 

line up quickly and get back in your regular place in- 
stantly after making a run. 

When thrown, allow yourself to fall limp, with legs 
straight, and then you will not get hurt. Do not try to 
save yourself by putting out a hand or arm ; it may be 
sprained or broken. If you are flat on the ground you 
cannot be hurt, no matter how many pile on top of you. 

Always tackle low. The region between the knees and 
waist is the place to be aimed at. When preparing to 
tackle, keep your eyes on the runner's hips, for they are 
the least changeable part of the body. 

Lift the runner off his feet and throw him toward his 
own goal. When not near enough to do this, spring 
through the air at him and hit him as hard as possible 
with the shoulder ; at the same time grip him with the 
arms and drag him down. Always put the head down in 
doing this and throw the weight forward quickly and 
hard. Crawl up on the runner when he falls and take the 
ball away if possible ; at least prevent its being passed. 

When the runner is in a mass, or wedge, drive in and 
lift his legs out from under him, or fall down in front of 
him. 

If the runner's feet are held, push back on his chest 
and make him fall toward his own goal. 

Don't wait for the runner to meet you ; meet the runner. 

Always have a hand in the tackle. Don't " think " the 
runner is stopped ; make sure of it. 

Follow your own runners hard; you may have a chance 
to assist him, or block off for him. Always be in readi- 
ness to receive the ball from the runner when he is tackled. 

Fall on the ball always in a scrimmage, or when sur- 
rounded by opponents. When the ball is kicked behind 
your own goal, or across the side line, do not fall on it 



264 

until it stops unless there is danger of the opponents being 
put on side. 

Put your head down when going through the line and 
dive in with your whole weight. 

Call "down" loudly, but not until it is impossible to 
make further advances. 

Squeeze the ball tightly when tackled, or when going 
through the line. 

Never under any circumstances give up because the 
other side seems to be superior. They may weaken at 
any moment, or a valuable player be ruled off or tem- 
porarily disabled. Let each man encourage the others 
on the team by monosyllables and keep up a " team 
enthusiasm." 

Be the first man down the field on a kick. 

Block your men hard when the opponents have the 
ball. 

Tear up the line, break through and stop every kick 
that is made. 

Never take your eyes off the ball after the signal has 
been given, if you are a man behind the line. 

Do not be contented with a superficial reading on foot- 
ball, but study it carefully, if you would master it. 



RULES ADOPTED 

BY THE 

AMERICA* INTERCOLLEGIATE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION 

FOR 1893. 



(Copyrighted and printed by permission of A. G. Spaulding 
& Bros.) 

RULE i. (a) A drop-kick is madfe by letting the ball 
fall from the hands and kicking it at the very instant it 
rises. 

(b) A place-kick is made by kicking the ball after it 
has been placed on the ground. 

(c) A punt is made by letting the ball fall from the 
hands and kicking it before it touches the ground. 

(d) Kick-off is a place-kick from the center of the field 
of play, and cannot score a goal. 

(e) Kick-out is a drop-kick, or place-kick, by a player 
of the side which has touched the ball down in their own 
goal, or into whose touch-in-goal the ball has gone, and 
cannot score a goal. (See Rules 32 and 34.) 

(f) A free-kick is one where the opponents are re- 
strained by rule. 

RULE 2. (a) In touch means out of bounds. 
(b) A fair is putting the ball in play from touch. 



NOTE. The ball adopted and used by the American Intercol- 
legiate Association is the " Spaulding J." ball. 

(265) 



266 

RULE 3. A foul is any violation of a rule. 

RULE 4. (a) A touch-down is made when the ball is 
carried, kicked, or passed across the goal line and there 
held, either in goal or touch-in-goal. The point where the 
touch-down scores, however, is not necessarily where the 
ball is carried across the line, but where the ball is fairly 
held or called " down." 

() A safety is made when a player guarding his goal 
receives the ball from a player of his own side, either by 
a pass, kick, or a snap-back, and then touches it down 
behind his goal line, or when he himself carries the ball 
across his own goal line and touches it down, or when he 
puts the ball into his own touch-in-goal, or when the ball, 
being kicked by one of his own side, bounds back from 
an opponent across the goal line and he then touches it 
down. 

(c) A touch-back is made when a player touches the 
ball to the ground behind his own goal, the impetus which 
sent the ball across the line having been received from an 
opponent. 

RULE 5. A punt-out is a punt made by a player of the 
side which has made a touch-down in their opponents' 
goal to another of his own side for a fair catch. 

RULE 6. A goal may be obtained by kicking the ball 
in any way except a punt from the field of play (without 
touching the ground, or dress, or person of any player 
after the kick) over the cross-bar or post of opponents' 
goal. 

RULE 7. A scrimmage takes place when the holder of 
the ball puts it down on the ground, and puts it in play 
by kicking it or snapping it back. 

RULE 8. A fair catch is a catch made direct from a 
kick by one of the opponents, or from a punt-out by one 



267 

of the same side, provided the catcher made a mark with 
his heel at the spot where he has made the catch, and no 
other of his side touch the ball. If the catcher, after 
making his mark, be deliberately thrown to the ground 
by an opponent, he shall be given five yards, unless this 
carries the ball across the goal line. 

RULE 9. Charging is rushing forward to seize the ball 
or tackle a player. 

RULE 10. Interference is using the hands or arms in 
any way to obstruct or hold a player who has not the ball. 
This does not apply to the man running with the ball. 

RULE ii. The ball is dead: 

I. When the holder has cried down, or when the referee 
has cried down, or when the umpire has called foul. 

II. When a goal has been obtained. 

III. When it has gone into touch, or touch-in-goal, ex- 
cept for punt-out. 

IV. When a touch-down or safety has been made. 

V. When a fair catch has been heeled. No play can 
be made while the ball is dead, except to put in play by 
rule. 

RULE 12. The grounds must be 330 feet in length and 
1 60 feet in width, with a goal place in the middle of each 
goal line, composed of two upright posts, exceeding 20 
feet in height, and placed 18 feet 6 inches apart, with 
cross-bar 10 feet from the ground. 

RULE 13. The game shall be played by teams of eleven 
men each, and in case of a disqualified or injured player 
a substitute shall take his place. Nor shall the disqualified 
or injured player return to further participation in the 
game. 

Amendment adopted at a special meeting of the Inter- 
collegiate Association, 1893: " No member of a graduate 



2 68 

department, nor a special student shall be allowed to 
play, nor any undergraduate who has registered or 
attended lectures or recitations at any other university or 
college nor by any undergraduate who is not pursuing a 
course requiring for a degree an attendance of at least 
three years." 

RULE 14. There shall be an umpire and a referee. No 
man shall act as an umpire who is an alumnus of either 
of the competing colleges. The umpires shall be nomi- 
nated and elected by the Advisory Committee. The 
referee shall be chosen by the two captains of the oppos- 
ing teams in each game, except in case of disagreement, 
when the choice shall be referred to the Advisory Com- 
mittee, whose decision shall be final. All the referees 
and umpires shall be permanently elected and assigned 
on or before the third Saturday in October in each year. 

RULE 15. (a) The umpire is the judge for the players, 
and his decision is final regarding fouls and unfair tactics. 

(b) The referee is judge for the ball, and his decision is 
final in all points not covered by the umpire. 

(c) Both umpire and referee shall use whistles to indi- 
cate cessation of play on fouls and downs. The referee 
shall use a stop-watch in timing the game. 

(d) The umpire shall permit no coaching, either by 
substitutes, coaches, or any one inside the ropes. If such 

coaching occur he shall warn the offender, and upon the 
second offense must have him sent behind the ropes for 
the remainder of the game. 

RULE 16. (a) The time of a game is an hour and a 
half, each side playing forty-five minutes from each goal. 
There shall be ten minutes' intermission between the two 
halves. The game shall be decided by the score of even 
halves. Either side refusing to play after ordered to by 



269 

the referee, shall forfeit the game. This shall also apply 
to refusing to commence the game when ordered to by 
the referee. The referee shall notify the captains of the 
time remaining, not more than ten, nor less than five, 
minutes from the end of each half. 

(b) Time shall not be called for the end of a three- 
quarter until the ball is dead ; and in the case of a try-at- 
goal from a touch-down the try shall be allowed. Time 
shall be taken out while the ball is being brought out, 
either for a try, kick-out, or kick-off. 

RULE 17. No one wearing projecting nails or iron 
plates on his shoes, or any metal substance upon his per- 
son, shall be allowed to play in a match. No sticky or 
greasy substance shall be used on the person of players. 

RULE 18. The ball goes into touch when it crosses the 
side line, or when the holder puts part of either foot 
across or on that line. The touch line is in touch, and 
the goal line in goal. 

RULE 19. The captains shall toss up before the com- 
mencement of the match, and the winner of the toss shall 
have his choice of goal or of kick-off. The same side 
shall not kick off in two successive halves. 

RULE 20. The ball shall be kicked off at the begin- 
ning of each half; and whenever a goal has been ob- 
tained, the side which has lost it shall kick off. (See 
Rules 32 and 34.) 

RULE 21. A player who has made and claimed a fair 
catch shall tak"e a drop-kick, or a punt, or place the ball 
for a place-kick. The opponents may come up to the 
catcher's mark, and the ball must be kicked from some 
spot behind that mark on a parallel to touch line. 

RULE 22. The side which has a free-kick must be be- 
hind the ball when it is kicked. At kick-off the opposite 



270 

side must stand at least ten yards in front of the ball 
until it is kicked. 

RULE 23. Charging is lawful for opponents if a pun- 
ter advances beyond his line, or in case of a place-kick, 
immediately the ball is put in play by touching the 
ground. In case of a punt-out, not till ball is kicked. 

RULE 24. (a) A player is put off side, if, during a 
scrimmage he gets in front of the ball, or if the ball has 
been last touched by his own side behind him. It is im- 
possible for a player to be off side in his own goal. No 
player when off side shall touch the ball, or interrupt, 
or obstruct opponent with his hands or arms until again 
on side. 

(b) A player being off side is put on side when the ball 
has touched an opponent, or when one of his own side 
has run in front of him, either with the ball, or having 
touched it when behind him. 

(c) If a player when off side touches the ball inside the 
opponents' five-yard line, the ball shall go as a touch- 
back to the opponents. 

RULE 25. No player shall lay his hands upon, or in- 
terfere by use of hands or arms, with an opponent, unless 
he has the ball. The side which has the ball can only in- 
terfere with the body. The side which has not the ball 
can use the hands and arms, as heretofore. 

RULE 26. (a) A foul shall be,, gran ted for intentional 
delay of game, off side play, or holding an opponent, 
unless he has the ball. No delay arising from any cause 
whatsoever shall continue more than five minutes. 

(b) The penalty for fouls and violation of rules, except 
otherwise provided, shall be a down for the other side; 
or, if the side making the foul has not the ball, five yards 
to the opponents. 



RULE 27. (a) A player shall be disqualified for unnec- 
essary roughness, hacking or striking with closed fist. 

(b) For the offenses of throttling, tripping up or inten- 
tional tackling below the knees, the opponents shall re- 
ceive twenty-five yards, or a free-kick, at their option. In 
case, however, the twenty-five yards would carry the 
ball across the goal line they can have half the distance 
from the spot of the offense to the goal line, and shall not 
be allowed a free-kick. 

RULE 28. A player may throw or pass the ball in any 
direction except towards opponents' goal. If the ball be 
batted in any direction or thrown forward it shall go 
down on the spot to opponents. 

RULE 29. If a player when off side interferes with 
an opponent trying for a fair catch, by touching him or 
the ball, or waving his hat or hands, the opponent may 
have a free-kick, or down, where the interference oc- 
curred. 

RULE 30. (a) If a player having the ball be tackled 
and the ball fairly held, the man so tackling shall cry 
" held," the one so tackled must cry " down," and some 
player of his side put it down for a scrimmage. The 
snapper back and the man opposite him cannot pick out 
the ball with the hand until it touch a third man; nor can 
the opponents interfere with the snapper-back by touch- 
ing the ball until it is actually put in play. Infringement 
of this nature shall give the side having the ball five 
yards at every such offense. The snapper-back is en- 
titled to full and undisturbed possession of the ball. If 
the snapper-back be off side in the act of snapping back, 
the ball must be snapped again; and if this occurs three 
times on same down, the ball goes to opponents. The 
man who first receives the ball, when snapped back from 



272 

a down, or thrown back from a fair, shall not carry the 
ball forward under any circumstances whatever. If, in 
three consecutive fairs and downs, unless the ball cross 
the goal line, a team shall not have advanced the ball 
five or taken it back twenty yards, it shall go to the op- 
ponents on spot of fourth. " Consecutive " means with- 
out leaving the hands of the side holding it, and by a 
kick giving opponents fair and equal chance of gaining 
possession of it. When the referee, or umpire, has given 
a side five yards, the following down shall be counted 
the first down. 

(b) The man who puts the ball in play in a scrimmage 
cannot pick it up until it has touched some third man. 
" Third man " means any other player than the one put- 
ting the ball in play and the man opposite him. 

RULE 31. If the ball goes into touch, whether it bounds 
back or not, a player on the side which touches it down 
must bring it to the spot where the line was crossed, and 
there either 

I. Bound the ball in the field of play or touch it in with 
both hands at right angles to the touch line, and then run 
with it, kick it, or throw it back; or 

II. Throw it out at right angles to the touch line; or 

III. Walk out with it at right angles to touch line any 
distance not less than five nor more than fifteen yards, and 
there put it down, first declaring how far he intends walk- 
ing. The man who puts the ball in must face field or op- 
ponents' goal, and he alone can have his foot outside 
touch line. Any one except him who puts his hands or 
feet beween the ball and his opponents' goal is off side. If 
it be not thrown out at right angles either side may claim 
it thrown over again, and if it fail to be put in play fairly 
in three trials it shall go to the opponents. 



273 

RULE 32. A side which has made a touchdown in their 
opponents' goal must try at goal, either by a place-kick or 
a punt-out. If the goal be missed the ball shall go as a 
kick-off at the center of the field to the defenders of the 
goal. 

RULE 33. (a) If the try be by a place-kick, a player of 
the side which has touched the ball down shall bring it up 
to the goal line, and, making a mark opposite the spot 
where it was touched down, bring it out at right angles to 
the goal line such distance as he thinks proper, and there 
place it for another of his side to kick. The opponents 
must remain behind their goal line until the ball has been 
placed on the ground. 

(b) The placer in a try-at-goal may be off side or in 
touch without vitiating the kick. 

RULE 34. If the try be by a punt-out the punter shall 
bring the ball up to the goal line, and, making a mark op- 
posite the spot where it was touched down, punt out from 
any spot behind line of goal and not nearer the goal post 
than such mark, to another of his side, all of whom must 
stand outside of goal line not less than fifteen feet. If the 
touchdown was made in touch-in-goal the punt-out shall 
be made from the intersection of the goal and touch lines. 
The opponents may line up anywhere on the goal line ex- 
cept space of five feet on each side of punter's mark, but 
cannot interfere with punter, nor can he touch the ball 
after kicking it until it touch some other player. If a fair 
catch be made from a punt-out the mark shall serve to de- 
termine positions as the mark of any fair catch. If a 
fair catch be not made on the first attempt the ball shall 
be punted over again, and if a fair catch be not made on 
the second attempt the ball shall go as a kick-off at the 
center of the field to the defenders of the goal. 



274 

RULE 35. A side which has made a touch back or a 
safety must kick out, except as otherwise provided (see 
rule 32), from not more than twenty-five yards outside the 
kicker's goal. If the ball go into touch before striking a 
player it must be kicked out again, and if this occurs 
three times in succession it shall be given to opponents as 
in touch on twenty-five-yard line on side where it went 
out. At kick-out opponents must be on twenty-five-yard 
line or nearer their own goal. 

RULE 36. The following shall be the value of each point 
in the scoring: 

Goal obtained by touchdown, 6 

Goal from field kick, - - 5 

Touchdown failing goal, - 4 

Safety by opponents. - - 2 



IS matari-il + iU- MI 

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