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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

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HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



SUBCOxMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECUBITi' 

ACT AND OTHEE INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 



OP THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH COXGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



FEBRUARY 8, 1956 



PART 1 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




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.3. 



UNITED STATES / 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Public Library 
SuperinteTTlf^nt of Documents 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia, Chairman 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

THOMAS C HENNINGS, Je., Missouri ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, lUinois 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration op the Internal Security 
Act AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C HENNINGS, Je., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 
BiCHAED Aeens and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 11 a. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker presiding. 

Present: Senators Wellver, McClellan, Jenner, and Butler. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; and Benjamin Mandel^ 
research director. 

Senator Welker. May I have the attention of any members of the 
press who are in the photographic section. Will you gentlemen please 
do the committee a favor and not take any pictures of the \\-itness 
Rastvorov, either here in the committee room or any place on the 
Capitol Hill. I wish you would help us out in this matter, because 
the witness has asked the committee that the photographers cooperate 
with us on that, and I am sure you will be happy to do so. 

Thank you very much, gentlemen. You have always been very 
fine. 

Mr. Morris. Will you stand please? 

Senator Welker. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn. 
Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before the 
subcommittee of the Judiciary, the Internal Security Subcommittee, 
wiU be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God. 

Mr. Rastvorov. I swear. 

Senator Welker. Will you give your name. 

TESTIMONY OF YURI RASTVOROV 

Mr. Rastvorov. My name is Yuri Rastvorov. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. R-a-s-t-v-o-r-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your first name? Will you spell your 
first name? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Y-u-r-i. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the \^dtness has given his address to 
the committee, and we do have his name. I see no need of the address 
appearing in the public record at this time. 

Senator Welker. Very weU, it will be ordered that the address 
do not appear in the public record at this time. 

1 



2 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Air. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, did you hold a rank in the Soviet 
Secret PoHce? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. What rank did you hold? 

Air. Rastvorov. I was lieutenant colonel. 

Air. Morris. Until what year? 

Air. Rastvorov. I was promoted in 1954. 

Mr. Morris. And you held that rank until when? 

Air. Rastvorov. Until my coming to this country. 

Air. AIoRRis. In other words, you defected from the Soviet organi- 
zation in what year? 

Mr. Rastvorov. In January 1954. 

Air. Morris. Where were you at that time? 

Air. Rastvorov. I was in Tokyo. 

Mr. Morris. You were in Tokyo. And were you working for the 
Soviet Secret Police at that time? 

Air. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe for the committee the nature of 
your assignment at the time of your defection in 1954? 

Air. Rastvorov. Well, I was intelligence officer of AIVD and I 
worked in Tokyo under the cover of second secretary of Soviet mis- 
sion, the project doing intelligence work there. 

Senator Welker. Will you describe for the committee what MVD 
is, please, Mr. W'itness. 

Air. Rastvorov. MVD; intelligence service is the main task. In- 
telligence service of MVD is gathering political information about 
other countries. 

Senator Welker. Gathering it for whom? 

Mr. Rastvorov. For Soviet Union. 

Senator Welker. Very well; proceed. Counsel. 

Air. Morris. And how long. Air. Rastvorov, were you in the 
Soviet Secret Police? 

Air. Rastvorov. W^ell, I was hired in 1943 and worked constantly 
up until 1954. 

Air. AloRRis. Air. Chairman, this witness is being presented to the 
committee as a competent witness to testify in connection with the 
series of hearings that Senator Eastland announced will commence 
today. I wonder if you, Senator, w^ill read Senator Eastland's opening 
statement on these hearings. 

Senator W^elker. Very well. [Reading:] 

The Internal Security Siibconiirittee i.s beginning a series of hearingis on the 
scope of the Soviet activitj- in the United States. We shall try to determine to 
what extent Soviet power operates through the Communist Party here and to 
what extent other organizations have been devised to effectuate its purposes. 
We shall study the structural revisions that the Conin^unists have made in their 
network, in order to avoid detection, and endeavor to trace tlie niovenient of 
.individual agents through these changing structures. 

Under consideration during these hearings will be the activities of Soviet 
agents and agencies registered with the Department of Justice and such other 
agents or agencies not now registered whose activities may warrant legislative 
action. We shall endeavor to determine to what extent the Soviet activity here 
is calculated to contribute to Soviet expansion abroad and to what extent it is 
working to underniine the structure and composition of our own Government here. 

As the facts bearing on these issues are gathered in the public record of this 
subconuTTiittee, we shall be able to make recommendations or determinations as to 
whether the Internal Security Act of 1950 and other existing laws should be 
repealed, amended or revised or new laws enacted. This is the first hearing in 
this series. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Rastvorov. May I smoke, Mr. Chau-man? 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; you make yourself comfortable. 

Mr. Rastvorov, will you tell us the nature of the Soviet Intelligence 
System as it operates from Moscow? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I make a drawing, if joii like. 

Mr. Morris. Very good, you may do that. 

Senator Welker. Let the record show that the witness is now 
proceeding to the blackboard to make a drawing. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Practically speaking, the Soviet Intelligence 
Service consists of two parts. The first part is Political Intelligence 
Service, or they call it Intelligence Service of MVD. 

I use the word "MVD" because it is a complication for everybody 
because of many changes. They call it MVD, ]MGB, now they call 
it KGB. That is wh}^ it is very complicated. 

I am going to use onlv MVD. 

Mr. Morris. Is that^he old MKVD and the GPU? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. MVD consists of two branches. One 
branch is counterintelligence service. 

Air. Morris. You say counterintelligence service? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; counterintelligence service, and another is 
tlie intelligence service. I worked in tliis intelligence service. This 
is part of Soviet intelligence service. Another is GRU, which we 
can say is military intelligence service. 

Senator Welker. Military intelligence service? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; military intelligence service. 

Senator Welker. May the chairman inquire, Is the intelligence 
service divided into two branches? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. One political and the other military? 

Mr. Rastvorov. The other military. 

Senator Welker. The political one is the one you have designated 
on the blackboard as being MVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. The military one is the one you have designated 
on the blackboard as being GRU? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; and GRU consists of two subsections. 
First it is a military intelligence, I mean, field intelligence service. 

Senator Welker. Field intelligence service? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; and another is the Navy intelligence service. 
Sometimes they work independently, but now they are merged again 
and represent only one service, military intelligence service. 

Well, then the Central Committee of Communist Party, practically 
speaking, they have also their own intelligence service, and it is 
independent  

Senator V/elker. Just a minute, let's go slowly over that again. 
Will you repeat that slowly? 

Air. Rastvorov. The Central Committee of the Communist Party 
has its own intelligence service. 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, we can say before they call it Comintern. 
As you know, during the Second War, this organization was dissolved 
and after that they started to call it just the Central Committee of 






4 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Communist Party, and used the name Central Committee of Com- 
munist Party, which maintains contact with local Communist parties, 
the Communist parties in other countries, for intelligence purposes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was that changed when the Comintern was 
dissolved? Was that a substantial change, or was that a change in 
form only? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, just to give an idea to the world that the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union didn't interfere any more in 
the method of foreign countries. 

Mr. Morris. Was there a substantial change or just the name? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Just the name. 

Mr. Morris. Did it carry on in every way as usual? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; it was carried before and carried now. 

Mr. Morris. The same way, no change? 

Mr. Rastvorov. The same way; yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us how the MVD operated in Japan, 
on your last assignment there? 

Senator Welker. The witness is now taking his chair. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, MVD Intelligence Service maintains 
their sections in all countries with which they maintain so-called 
diplomatic relationship, and in each country they have special in- 
telligence groups, MVD intelligence groups. The people of this 
group operate in the countries under the diplomatic covers, in other 
words, second secretary, firet secretary, third secretary, and so on. 

Mr, Morris. Now, what cover did you use? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I used the cover of second secretary of Soviet 
mission in Tokyo. 

Mr. Morris. And as such you were a member of MVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you say that you know from your experience 
of 11 years with the MVD that in 'every country where the Soviet 
Union maintains diplomatic relations, such as with the United States, 
that there is in existence an MVD operator? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, that is correct. 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. Counsel. How do you know 
that, Mr. Witness? How do you know that? Were you told that? 
Were you instructed? Do I make my question clear? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I have a right to judge because I work in the 
Service 11 years and I know many things. That is why I have 
judged to tell you true about this. 

Senator Welker. I reahze that, Mr. Witness, but I want to get 
the background for the record, that as an agent, an intelligence agent 
working under the second secretary in Tokyo, you knew that the 
Soviet Union had its intelligence service in the MVD in every country 
with which it had diplomatic relations, is that correct? 
Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, this is correct. 

Senator Welker. Was that common knowledge to you as an agent 
as well as to other agents of the Soviet conspiracy? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, this is very common knowledge to me. 
Senator Butler. In how many embassies did you serve under 
cover as an MVD agent? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I served only in Tokyo twice from 1946 to 1947, 
and from 1950 to 1954, only in one country, and I have never been 
in other countries. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE mSTITED STATES 5 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, you actually knew the individuals 
who assumed these particular positions in various countries, did you 
not, and worked with them? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, that is true. 

Mr. Morris. For instance, could you tell us, do you know of 
your own knowledge that the MVD maintains an intelligence 
organization in the United States? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, I knew many people who work here under 
cover, all kinds of official covers, in this particular country. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder, Mr. Rastvorov, if you could sketch for 
the committee the names of the chief resident agents of the MVD 
say, from 1940 to the most recent date that you can testify to. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, can I write down on the blackboard again? 

Mr. Morris. By all means. Will you start from the most recent 
one that you knew and work backward, Air. Rastvorov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Start with the last one you knew of and work back- 
ward. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I am not going exactly by years and months, 
but I give you approximate ideas about these people. First name 
Ovakimyan, who operated in this country as a boss up until 1941. 
He was arrested here, probably in 1940, because he was involved in 
some case, but the United States authorities permitted him to leave 
this country. He operated in this country up until 1941. 

After he returned to Moscow, he became Deputy Chief of Intelli- 
gence Service of MVD. His rank is major general, and he worked 
up until 1946, and in 1946 he was fired because of disagreement with 
Minister of MGB, who was at that time General Abakumov. Re- 
cently he was shot. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that for us, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. A-b-a-k-u-m-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was the one that was shot, Mr. Rastvorov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Abakumov was shot a year ago as associate of 
Beria, but he wasn't at all. But they decided it better to justify their 
actions, and told people all over the world he was associate of Beria, 
but it wasn't true. He was his enemy in many ways. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, will you hold it just one minute, 
please? Mr. Chairman, as these names are being identified, there are 
here, in the event that you may want them, evidences of activity on 
the part of these particular people, some of which has come up in our 
record and some of it just is in the files as staff information. 

I was just wondering to what extent you would like to have that in 
our record now. In other words, the activity of Ovakimyan as it 
crossed our paths in previous investigations. 

Senator Welker. May the chairman confer mth Senator McCleUan 
and Senator Butler. Do you think it advisable that we have our 
research director put into the record what activities, if any, the named 
participant had with the Soviet Intelligence at that time? 

Senator McClellan. I just came in, Mr. Chairman. I hardly 
know what has preceded. 

Senator Welker. Well, we had just started, John. 

Senator McClellan. I would leave it entirely to the Chair's 
discretion at this point. 



6 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. Thank you very much. Then I will order that, 
as a name appears in the testimony of this witness, if it is wise in the 
determination of our counsel, Mr. Morris, our research director may 
read into the record at that point, any evidence or any activity on 
behalf of the named ^^^tness or the named participant which might 
have bearing on this hearing. 

Mr. Morris. In the case of Ovakimyan, Senator, I would like to 
put it in later on, depending on certain things being checked for 
security purposes. 

Senator Welker. Very well. We will withhold it, then. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did Mr. Zarubin take over as chief resident 
agent? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, he came to this country, I think, in 1943, 
and his name was here Zubilin. 

Senator Welker. May I pose this little corrective measure. The 
second name that you placed on the blackboard is? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Zarubin, but he was known here as Zubilin. He 
was third secretary in this country, under cover of third secretary, 
but practically he was boss of MVD intelligence service. 

Mr. Morris. Is he the man who is now the Ambassador to East 
Germany? 

Mr, Rastvorov. No, it is another, common name, there are so 
many Zarubins in that country, but it is another man. 

Mr. Morris. That is East Germany, now? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, no, it is another man. 

Senator Welker. Do you know where Mr. Zarubin is now? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, he came from United States, I think, in 
1944, and he became boss of German Section. His rank is major 
general, and he was fired from the service in 1947 because of alco- 
holism, and now he is retii'ed, drinking peacefully. 

Senator Welker. Has he retired or did he get shot? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was fired, because of his bad behavior. He is 
alcoholic type. 

Senator Welker. He is an alcoholic? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. So therefore, he is retired. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Both of these men that you have named, No. 1 
and No. 2, it is your testimony that they worked here in the 
United States in the Soviet Embassy? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Very well, sir. 

Mr. Rastvorov. I don't know about first man. He didn't belong 
to the Embassy staff, but he worked here in some trade organization. 

Senator Welker. I see. Very well. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Probably Amtorg, or some trade organization, I 
don't know exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I, as an example, put into the 
record at this time excerpts from the security report that we have used 
previously in hearings of the Internal Security Committee, which 
indicates somewhat the nature of the activities of Mr. Zarubin or 
Zubilin with American Communists here in the United States? 

Senator Welker. Ver}' well, proceed. 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 7 

Mr. Morris. On page 31 of the security report that was previously 
in the record and has been identified previously, the report reads: 

At the time of this meeting, Zubilin was working the Comintern apparatus. 
Nelson — 

That is Steve Nelson, is it not Mr. Mandel? 
Mr. Mandel. Yes. 
Mr. Morris (continuing) : 

Nelson advised Zubilin that his work on behalf of the apparatus had been 
predicated upon a note from Moscow, which had been brought to him by a courier 
from New York, and that Earl Browder was fully cognizant of the fact that he, 
Nelson, was engaged in secret work for the Soviets. 

Nelson discussed thoroughly with Zubilin the various personalities engaged in 
work for the Comintern apparatus on the west coast, using for the most part 
cover names in referring to them. The principal activities which were not being 
conducted to Nelson's satisfaction were contacts with Japanese Communists in 
the relocation centers and the handling of literature and other documentary 
material which was being transmitted to points in the South Pacific by Communist 
seamen couriers. 

And then there goes on. Senator, three more paragraphs much of 
the same thing which shows Zubilin did operate with American 
Communists at the time. 

Senator Welker. Without objection, this will be placed in the 
record at the appropriate point. 

(The information above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 1" 

and is as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 1 

At the time of this meeting, Zubilin was working the Comintern apparatus. 
Nelson advised Zubilin that his work on behalf of the apparatus had been predi- 
cated upon a note from Moscow which had been brought to him by a courier from 
New York and that Earl Browder was fully cognizant of the fact that he, Nelson, 
was engaged in secret work for the Soviets. 

Nelson discussed thoroushly with Zubilin the various personalities engaged in 
work for the Comintern apparatus on the west coast, using for the most part cover 
names in referring to them. The principal activities which were not being con- 
ducted to Nelson's satisfaction were contacts with Japanese Communists in the 
relocation centers and the handling of literature and other documentary material 
which was being transmitted to pohits in the South Pacific by Communist seamen 
couriers. 

Nelson also discussed thoroughly with Zubilin what were vaguely described by 
him as "Russian activities," to distinguish them from the political and propaganda 
work of the Comintern. In connection with these "Russian activities" he pointed 
out that a number of the officials of the Communist Party were alarmed by the 
fact that Soviet representatives would approach party members in California 
and give them specific assignments, presumably of an espionage nature, and 
would instruct them to say nothing to their superiors in the party regarding the 
assignments given them by the Soviets. Nelson suggested to Zubilin that in 
each important city or State, the Soviets have but one contact who was trust- 
worthy, and to let that man handle the contact with party memliers who were to 
be given special assignments by the Soviets. 

At the time of this meeting, JSTelson complained to Zubilin about the inefficiency 
of two persons working for the apparatus. (These persons who later were identi- 
fied through investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as Getzel 
Hochberg and Mordecai Rappaport, were relieved of their duties for the Apparatus 
and actually transferred to other cities from those in which they had been work- 
ing — Hochberg from New York to Detroit, and Rappaport from the San Francisco 
Bay area to Los Angeles. Calif.) 

Vassili Mikhailovich Zubilin, with aliases, V. Zarubin, Vassili Luchenko, and 
"Cooper," was born January 22, 1900, in Moscow, according to the protocol form 
filed with the State Department by the Soviet Embassy. In January 1942, he 
was appointed Third Secretary of the Embassy of the U. S. S. R. in Washington, 
D. C. He was subsequently raised in grade to Second Secretary. He was 

72723—56—2 



8 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

finallv recalled to the Soviet Union and departed August 27, 1944. While in the 
United States, he was accompanied by his wife, Elizabeth Yurevna Zubilin, and 
his 12-vear-old son. 

It will be recalled that Vassih Zubilin, Second Secretary of the Soviet Embassy, 
Washington, D. C, and the reported head of NKVD activity in the United States, 
was working with the Comintern apparatus in connection with his intelligence 
program. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, do you have anything else of particular 
appropriateness at this time that you would like to read into the 
record? 

Mr. Mandel. The last paragraph of that memorandum, I think, 
relates to the United States, and might be added, Mr. Morris: 

Vassili Mikhailovich Zubilin, with aliases, V. Zarubin, Vassili Luchenko, and 
"Cooper," was born January 22, 1900, in Moscow, according to the protocol 
form filed with the State Department by the Soviet Embassy. In January 1942, 
he was appointed Third Secretary of the Embassy of the U. S. S. R. in Washing- 
ton, D. C. He was subsequently raised in grade to Second Secretary. He was 
finally recalled to the Soviet Union and departed August 27, 1944. 

Mr. Morris. Will you continue with your identification? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I want to add that the wife of Zarubin, 
Elizabeth Zarubin now, I didn't mention this, she came to this country 
with Mr. Zarubin and worked as intelligence officer in this country. 

Later, when he returned back, she worked in a German section of 
MVD Intelligence Service as a desk officer. He is very experienced in 
intelligence service, in intelligence operations against Germany during 
the war. Well, Zarubin was replaced by Gregory Dolbin. 

Mr. Morris. That is D-o-l-b-i-n? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. And I think he was here from 1944 or 1945 
up until 1947. 

Mr. Morris. And did you know that he was the chief resident 
agent here in the United States? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, and Dolbin served as a boss of intelligence 
group in Tokyo during the Second War, I think, from 1940 to 1944. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know him personally? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I know him personally, because he was my boss 
in Moscow headquarters. He was boss of Japanese subsection, and 
I worked under him. 

Mr. Morris. And did you know that he came to the United States 
to be the chief resident agent? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; I know. He told me, himself, about this. 

Senator Butler. And what were the years that he was here? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It's approximately, probably I made a mistake, 
but approximately from 1944 or 1945 to 1947. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Chairman, I have something I would like to 
read into the record at this point. 

Senator Welker. The Senator from Maryland, Senator Butler. 

Senator Butler. Referring to the Institute of Pacific Relations 
hearings, part 10, page 3646. Senator Willis Smith was at that time 
questioning Mr. Lattimore. He asked him this question: 

Senator Smith. Mr. Lattimore, have you had any Russian visit you in your 
home? 

Mr. Lattimore. I think one. You mean one not an American of Russian 
origin? 

Senator Smith. I mean a person from Russia. 

Mr. Lattimoke. Yes; I think one. 

Senator Smith. Who was that? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 9 

Mr. Lattimore. He was a man named Dolbin, D-o-l-b-i-n, who had been 
assigned by the Russians to accompanj- Mr. Wallace in Siberia, and then he was 
attached for a while here; I am not sure whether it was the Russian Embassy or 
the Russian United Nations delegation. And I invited him over to my house. 

Senator Smith. How long did he visit you? 

Mr. Lattiiiore. I think he drove over for lunch and drove back the same day. 

Senator Smith. Now, when was that? About when? * * * 

Mr. Lattimore. Probably 1945. 

Now, you have reason to believe that Mr. Dolbin was here? 

Mr. Rastvokov. Yes; this is the same man. 

Senator Butler. In 1945? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Butler. He was the chief resident agent of the Soviet 
Secret Police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Butler. And you believe this Mr. Dolbin to be the same 
man that Mr. Lattimore refers to? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, you knew from your own discussions 
with Mr. Dolbin that he accompanied the Wallace mission to Siberia 
in 1944, do you not? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. He was the same man, and as you know, in 
the United States was organized so-called Progressive Party, and the 
Soviet Government was very interested to maintain, to help this party 
and to develop this party as a political power against other parties of 
the United States, and they did their best to woo Mr. Wallace, and 
that is why, when Mr. Wallace made a trip in that country, I have for- 
gotten exactly the 3^ear 

Mr. Morris. 1944. 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think it's 1944; Mr. Dolbin was assigned as an 
official who accompanied him. He started trip from the Far East, 
from Kolomar area, and Dolbin explained to me that the pohcy 

Mr. Morris. When was this? When did he tell you this? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He told me in 1945 when he was in Moscow, and 
he told me that the Government officials instructed him to be very 
careful and to show Mr. Wallace what Government wanted to show 
him. 

For instance, in Kolomar area for these purposes, concentration 
camps were removed from the route along which he traveled, and Mr. 
Dolbin guarded him very closely and didn't permit him to look at the 
things which was undesirable for government, in other words, for 
concentration camps and so on, and so on. 

And Mr. Wallace, I must say he was deceived when he told that 
he wasn't seeing any particular PW camps in that area. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, after Mr. Dolbin, who succeeded him as 
the Chief Resident Agent of the Secret Police at that time? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It was another man, a man by the name of 
Sokolov who was, in Tokyo, Chief Resident of InteUigence Service 
of MVD, I thmk, in approximately 1944. 

Mr. Sokolov came to this country in 1947-48 and he stayed here 
up until 1949. He was recalled to Moscow and was reprimanded 
because of his failure to achieve inteUigence aims in this country. 

Mr. Morris. And who succeeded Mr. Sokolov? By the way, did 
Mr. Sokolov have a cover here? 



10 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; he was some official cover in Embassy in 
Washington. I don't know exactly, probably first, second, or third 
secretary, I don't know exactly. By the way, Dolbin, after he came 
home, got sick, and now he is in insane hospital. 

Mr. Morris. Insane hospital? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. Mr. Sokolov was replaced by Ambassador 
in United States Panyushkin. 

Mr. Morris. This man was an Ambassador; wasn't he? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Wliich is extraordinary information, for the Ambas- 
sador to be Chief Resident Agent. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know the present Soviet Ambassador to the 
United States? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, I know he is Mr. Zarubin. He doesn't 
belong to Intelligence Service. 

Mr. Morris. He, unlike Panyushkin, was not an intelligence man, 
to your knowledge? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, no, Panyushkin was intelligence man. He 
holds rank of major general of MVD Service. 

Senator Welker. You stated that Zarubin was not a member 
of 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, but I am going to add couple of words about 
how Ambassador, Soviet Ambassadors in foreign countries operate. 

Senator Welker. How they operate and how they are picked, can 
you help us on that? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. Practically speaking, not all of them 
belong to Intelligence Service, but being the boss of diplomatic mission, 
he has right to interfere in operation of Intelligence Service, and the 
chiefs of Intelligence Service, Military Intelligence Service and Poli- 
tical Intelligence Service, in other words, MVD and GRU, they brief 
Ambassadors constantl}" about political information and information 
which tliey get from their sources, from their agents in this country. 

That is why ambassadors, Soviet ambassadors abroad, including 
Mr. Zarubin, are aware of intelligence operations in the country. 

Mr. Morris. They may be aware of it, but in the case of Mr. 
Zarubin, the present Ambassador, he may not be actually an officer 
in the system. 

Mr. Rastvorov. He is not, but he knows about this business 
very well, because he built his policy according to knowledge, accord- 
ing to information 'which he got from Intelligence Services, Military 
and MVD. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did Mr. Panyushkin leave the United States 
in that capacity? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think he left approximately 1950. 

Mr. Morris. And who succeeded him? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Mr. Wladkin succeeded him as Chief of Intel- 
ligence Service in Washington, D. C, and the previous years during 
the Second War, he was in China as a diplomatic official, under cover 
of diplomatic official, but practicall}^ was engaged in intelligence 
operation. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did he remain as the Chief Resident 
Agent of the Secret Police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I don't know whether he left or not, but he stayed 
here recently. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES H 

Mr. Morris. Wliat, 1955? 

Mr. Rastvorov. 1954, I think. 

Mr. Morris. 1954-1955? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know of your own knowledge who the present 
Chief Resident Agent of the MVt) is? 

Mr. Rastvorov. At the present time I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, is there any other person in the 
United States, in the territorial area of the United States, that serves 
as a Chief Resident Agent of a section of the MVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, they have two sections in the United States. 
First of all, its Washington, D. C, Soviet Embassy, which is used for 
intelligence operation, and second its United Nations Organization 
where they have MVD intelligence group. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, the MVD, as far as the geographical 
limits of the United States is concerned, is broken down into two 
separate sections. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly. 

Mr. Morris. One section is directed by the Chief Resident Agent 
in Washington, which covers the United States proper, and the other 
is directed by the Chief Resident Agent in New York, whose juris- 
diction is United Nations and United Nations affairs? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Counsel, may I inquire. You have told us this: 
That in the United States and its territories wliicli you are familiar 
with, the Soviet intelligence has two bases of operations, one is the 
Soviet Embassy here in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And the other is United Nations in New York 
City. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Under what part of United Nations does this 
intelligence agency operate in New York, in the United Nations? 
What section is that? 

Air. Rastvorov. Soviet section. 

Senator Welker. Soviet section? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Can you describe to the committee how they 
operate there? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, they operate in the same way they operate 
here. They are doing intelligence job and practically no difference. 
They do the same job. 

Air. Morris. Do you know of your own experience the identity of 
some of the AlVD officers who have been assigned to this particular 
subsection? 

Air. Rastvorov. I can mention one name. One man by name 
Sumskoi. 

Mr. AloRRis. Spell that, please. That is S-u-m-s-k-o-i? 

Air. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Now, what does he do? Where does he operate? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He considered himself as official of Soviet Section, 
United Nations Organization; but, practically, he is one of the leaders 
of intelligence service there. 

Air. AloRRis. Do you know him personally in your experience with 
theAIVD? 



12 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; I Imow him personally. 
Mr. Morris. Have you worked with him in inteUigence work? 
Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; we have worked in the same headquarters. 
Senator Welker. Where? 
Mr. Rastvorov. In Moscow. 

Senator Welker. You worked in the same headquarters with 
Sumskoi in Moscow? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. In other words, in intelligence headquarters 

of MVD in Moscow. tt • j 

Senator Welker. Do you know when he came to the United 

Nations? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He came in the late forties. 
Senator Welker. In the late forties? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have the names of any other MVD people 
in the United Nations? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Unfortunately, I have forgotten the last name ot 
man who came to this country year ago, and who, according to his 
experience, probably the Chief of Intelligence group m United Na- 
tions Organization. r .i, ^ ^■ 

Mr Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, will you suspend any further testi- 
mony on that particular individual until you can refresh your recol- 
lection on that subject? . ^. . i . „ 

Mr Rastvorov. Well, this man was m Chma about 7 or 6 years 
during the Second War. Then he came to Moscow in 1947 or 1948, 
came "to China again, and he was sent to United Nations m 1945. 
This man worked for a long period of time with Mr. Panyushkm 
and is his personal friend. ^^ . , ^ . , , „ 

Mr Morris. He came to the United States m what yearr 

Mr. Rastvorov. In 1955. He stays now here ,, , , 

Mr Morris. Mr. Chairman, this witness will be recalled at a 
later date, and I think possibly we can go into this particular subject. 

Senator Welker. I take it vou don't want to go into this matter. 

Mr. Morris. He doesn't remember his last name. Do you know 
the individual? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr Morris And you have spoken with him m the past. ^ 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. I study intelligence in intelligence school 

in 1944 in Moscow. . ,14. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, he may be able to give us the man s last 

name. , -r. i /-1 i 

Senator Welker. I understand. Proceed, Counsel. 
Mr. Morris. Did you, for instance, know Mr. Gubichev.^ 
Mr Rastvorov. Yes; I know him. I saw him when he came Irom 

this country after unsuccessful operation against Coplon, as everybody 

knows. . ^ 1 ., 

Mr. Morris. You say against Coplon.'' 
Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; the girl. r^ t,- 1 

Mr. Morris. You mean she worked against Cubichcv' 
Mr Rastvorov. No; she was recruited by him, and because ot 

unsuccessful operation, he was recalled and later fired from the 

service. 

Mr. Morris. Because? 

Mr Rastvorov. Because of his unsuccessful operation. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 13 

Mr. Morris. Because the Coplon girl had been arrested? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; and he was arrested, himself. This is 
practically one of the reasons why he was fired, because they couldn't 
trust him any more. 

They have a very definite policy about this, that people who have 
once been arrested by counterintelligence service of local governments, 
they never trust them any more, 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you could tell us, Mr. Rastvorov, pre- 
cisely how — ^this is drawing on yom" own experience, now, of 11 
years — ^how the MVD operates in a particular country, stressing in 
particular its connection with the local Communist Party. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I don't know exactly how the MVD — no, 
that is not exactly what I mean. I give you good example of how 
they operate with local Communist Party, if I present to you my 
experience in Tokyo. 

Mr. Morris. Yes; that is what we want you to do, draw on your 
own experience. 

Mr. Rastvorov. In Tokyo — the Communist Parties practically 
all over the world consist of two groups. One group is legal party, 
in other words, which operates openly, and another group illegal group 
who under cover, who pretend to be local citizenship, good citizens, 
in other words. 

Senator McClellan. What we call a front organization? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No ; you don't know about them anything. 

Senator McClellan. You don't know they are Communists? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, no. 

Senator McClellan. Do they use some group title? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, they don't associate with so-called front 
organization at all. They are just average citizen engaged in party 
activities illegally, in other words. Nobody loiows about it. 

Senator Welker. In other words, underground activity. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Underground. 

Mr. Morris. Are some of these people important persons in Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Some of the people that you knew and worked with 
in this connection, are they important persons in Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Oh, yes; I am going to tell it now. 

Central Connnittee of Communist Party maintains their relationship 
with this illegal part of Communist Party abroad, which are under 
cover, and MVD intelligence group abroad maintain direct contact 
with this underground part of Communist parties. For instance, in 
Tokyo the chief of intelligence group, by name Kotelnikov. All these 
people mentioned here, they maintain contact with illegal part of 
Communist Party in Japan; chief resident of intelligence service 
in Tok3'o, Colonel Kotelnikov. 

Temporarily the man by name Shibaev, colonel, who came to 
Japan in 1951. Then, chief resident of intelligence group in Tokyo, 
Kasparov, who was in United States in the beginning of the 
forties, and last, chief resident of intelligence service in Tokyo, nmn 
by name Nosenko. They maintain contact with illegal par. of 
Communist Party in Japan. 

In other words, each Communist Party all over the world have 
so-called intelligence section which consists of people, of very devoted 
people, and this intelligence service have liaison man who maintain 



14 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

contact with MVD intelligence people who get instruction from 
foreign Directorate of Central Committee of Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Do they maintain connections with both the secret 
and the legal Communist parties? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, only tlie illegal. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Only the illegal? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, only the most devoted people, the most 
trusted people, and tlu'ough this channel they send money, they send 
instruction and everything. 

Mr. Morris. Are these people in the illegal Communist Party, do 
they acknowledge publicly that tliey are Communists? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No; nobody knows about them. 

Mr. Morris. If they are asked, do they deny Communist Party 
membersliip? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know that they do? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And who are these people, generally, without naming 
them, because this is not our jurisdiction, but will you tell us in general 
what positions they hold in the Japanese Government? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I did not m,ention Japanese Government. It is 
not exactly, they don't belong to Government. Probably they are 
just local citizens, probably businessmen and so on. They are all 
kinds of people, but they are members of Communist Party. 

Senator Welker. Counsel means the residents of Japan, those 
who live in Japan. They may not be connected with the Government. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly. Some of them belong to the 
Government. 

Mr. Morris. I didn't expressly mean were they actually working 
for the Government, but what are their relations with the Japanese 
Government and the Japanese Diet and the Japanese community? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I just can't answer this question, because I don't 
know. 

Mr. Morris. Well, you worked with them, didn't you? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Weh, I don't follow your question. Repeat again. 
I just don't follow it. 

Mr. Morris. These members of the illegal party, of the under- 
ground party, did you have occasion to work with them? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I didn't work with them. These people 
mentioned here worked with them, but not me. 

Mr. Morris. And whom did you work with? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I worked with agents, but it is a different story. 
They didn't belong to Communist Party. Some of them were officials 
of government, some of them were businessmen, some of them were 
newspapermen and so on, all kinds of people. 

Mr. Morris. People that you worked with? 

Air. Rastvorov. Yes, but I didn't work with the people from this 
illegal part of Communist Party of Japan. In other words, only 
these people were responsible for this. 

Mr. Morris. I see. What I was trying to get, Mr. Rastvorov, 
was what the type of person was that you worked with. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I had several agents, and some of them 
worked in the Government in the Foreign Office of Japanese Gov- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 15 

ernment, some of them worked in G-2 of American Armed Forces in 
Japan, some of them were correspondents. 

Senator Welker. You mean some of them worked for intelhgence 
service? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. The United States Ai-my in Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That is the point I was trying to make, Senator. 
Will you give us, by some actual examples, how the MVD works, 
particularly with respect to connections with the Communist Party, 
local Communist parties? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, why, they maintain clandestine contact in 
such way through the MVD people, in other words, through intelli- 
gence service, and in order to be sure that local counterintelligence 
service in Government cannot know about this relationship with 
Communist Party, in other words, the first task to show to the world 
they don't interfere in internal matter of these countries, and the 
best way to do it is maintain, contact through intelligence service^ 
because people by experience know how to maintain secret contact 
with Communist Party, with local Communist parties. 

And that is the reason they behave in such way. And this is 
patterned not only for Japan, this is patterned in other countries 
including United States of America. 

Mr. Morris. Is the Communist Partv used as a recruiting area, 
for the MVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. In some way, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us of any practical example? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, as I mentioned before, they have their 
own intelligence service, and this intelligence service is in charge of 
recruiting people for their own purposes and the purposes of the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Could you tell us what devices are used by the MVD 
in order to further their purposes? In executive session, Mr. 
Rastvorov, you told the subcommittee of some devices that were 
used in order to effectuate the purposes of your mission. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Repeat again question, please. 

Mr. Morris. In executive session, Mr. Rastvorov, you told the 
subcommittee of examples of how the MVD operated in order to 
accomplish its mission. For instance, you mentioned that there was 
blackmail used. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Oh, yes, I understand very well; first of all, 
their task is to penetrate in government organizations of all countries, 
including United States, and for these purposes they are trying to 
find people who can give them or supply them available information, 
and for these purposes the}' are looking for people who, by their 
ideological belief, stay closer to the Soviet Union. 

In other words, they use, as a base for recruitment, ideological belief 
of people. In other words, people who sympathize the cause of Com- 
munists. This is the first for recruitment approachment. And second, 
blackmail, all kind of blackmail. For instance, in many cases they 
frighten people and force them to work as agents, the people who have 
relatives in the Soviet Union, in other words, the people who have 
relatives under Communist control, for instance in European countries, 
satellite countries and the Soviet Union, itself. 



16 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Well, this is practically the two main bases for recruitment of people. 

Mr. Morris. You say this particular situation, wherein an other- 
wise loyal American would have a relative in a Communist country —  — 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And that would be the principal base of recruiting 
agents? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, j^ou know it's blackmail, is a general word. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us exactly what it is. 

Mr. Rastvorov. All kind of blackmail. First of all, personal be- 
havior of the person. If a person behaves in some abnormal way 

Mr. Morris. You say normal, or abnormal? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Abnormal. For instance, like people, man who 
behave abnormally as a man, I am talking about homosexuals. For 
instance, in Moscow during the second war, the military attache, by 
name, Faymonville — — 

Mr. Morris. Would you mind spelling that, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I don't know how to spell it. 

Mr. Morris. You mean the American? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; he was military attache in Moscow during 
Second World War. 

Mr. Morris. That is not the military attache, Mr. Faymonville? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, you are probably right, and he was ap- 
proached by counterintelligence service in AIoscow for recruitment of 
this man, because the counterintelligence service knew about his 
abnormal behavior, but their approach was unsuccessful, because the 
man refused to work with Soviet Intelligence Service, I mean, with 
counterintelligence service. This is example of blackmail. 

I'll give you another example. When the counterintelligence 
service in Moscow recruited one Japanese official who was second 
or third secretary of Japanese Embassy in Moscow, for these purposes, 
they planted their agent, who was girl, and girl forced the man and 
he fell in love with her and then she pretended to be pregnant, and 
during so-called abortion, he was caught by police, and in order to 
reveal this very unpleasant fact for him, he decided to work with 
Soviet Intelligence Service, and later he was recalled to Tokyo and 
worked as Soviet intelligence agent in Tokyo for many 3^ears. 

This is another example of blackmail. Well, they use, of course, 
money as a means for recruitment, and many, many things. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any experience, yourself, with the use of 
money? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I hadn't myself, but in many cases it worked very 
well against people. 

Mr. Morris. You mean the MVD was using money? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. You knew of that? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Did you know of it? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Tell us from your knowledge, what they did with 
this money, how much they would give to people. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, they paid them according to their informa- 
tion. More valuable information, more important information, they 
pay more for this. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 17 

Less important, they pay, of course, less. It depends on how agent 
is important for intelHgence service. They follow this rule. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, without mentioning any names, were 
any Americans involved in these money transactions? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I tell you only one thing. In Tokyo the Soviet 
intelligence group wasn't so successful against Americans. 

Mr. Morris. Was not? 

Mr. Rastvorov. But there were several attempts to approach 
people. For instance, one officer of G-2 who was major 

Mr. Morris. Don't give his name. 

Mr. Rastvorov. I am not going to — who was major, he was ap- 
proached through letters from her sister. 

Senator Welker. His sister? 

Mr. Rastvorov. She was a girl. She was major in G-2. Intelli- 
gence officers approached her and tried to deliver her letters, which 
was %\Titten by her sister who lived, at that time, in the Soviet Union. 
In other words, as I mentioned before, it's another way to approach 
people and to recruit people, to frighten them. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, they were trjnng to use this device, 
on an American G-2 major? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Exactly. 

Senator Welker. Wliat would they do to these agents that they 
attempted to blackmail by using their relatives behind the Iron 
Curtain? Would they threaten to kill the relatives? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. In other words, they always, sometimes in 
a police form, sometimes in an unpolite form, that ''If you don't agree 
to work with us, think about what is happening to your relatives." 
In other words, a direct threat to the life of their relatives. It is 
so-called blackmail. It is the worst kind of blackmail. 

Senator Welker. The worst kind of blackmail. And did you see 
that used or was it attempted to be used many times? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, I can give you another example, if you like it. 

Mr. Morris. And in doing this, Mr. Rastvorov, we are not prepared 
today to go into individual cases. We would like just to have a 
hearing to cover the general framework of the thing, so if you do 
mention cases, I \\i\\ ask that you will not mention the names of the 
individuals involved until we can look into each case. Do you 
understand? 

Senator Welker. So without mentioning the names, give us this 
other example that you stated you would. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I give you another example, same example, 
for instance. The man who belonged to diplomatic staff of Soviet 
Embassy in Moscow was married Russian girl. They arrested her 
sister and told the girl and forced the girl to work as an agent of 
Soviet Intelligence Service, and later this girl, being threatened, and 
for sake of her sister, forced her husband to be agent of the Soviet 
Union. 

Mr. Morris. Was her husband an American? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No; he is Japanese, also. 

Mr. Morris. Japanese? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. And this man was very important at that 
particular time, because he was cipher clerk in a Japanese Embassy 
in Czechoslovakia in a period when Foreign Minister Matsuoka, 
Molotov, and Hitler negotiated. 



18 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Wait just a minute. Matsuoka? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; Matsuoka, Hitler, and Molotov. In this 
particukir time — it was beginning of 1940's, I think — and being cipher 
clerk and knew many things about being cipher clerk, you know his 
job permitted him to know many things, and all negotiations and 
all information about these negotiations between, for instance, Matsu- 
oka and Hitler was known to Moscow, and Beria, himself, was 
responsible for these operations. 

Mr. Morris. Beria, himself? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who is presently the head of the Soviet security 
system? 

Mr. Rastvorov. General Serov. 

Mr. Morris. And he is in Aloscow? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, if it is your wish, we will, instea,d 
of taking further examples at this time, I would like to sketch a 
further area that this witness is competent to testify on. 

Senator Welker. Very well, proceed. Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any experience with Tass Agency? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. If you like, I can explain how this agency 
works. 

Mr. Morris. Would you do that? 

vSenator Welker. Describe for the record what Tass Agency is. 
We all know it, but I want the record to show it. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, officially, this is the Government section, 
in other words. They call it Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union. 
It is a part of one of the sections of Government of the Soviet Union, 
and they have 

Senator Welker. That is the news reporting agency of the Soviet 
Union? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It is not Intelligence Service. It is official sec- 
tion of Government of the Soviet Union, but I am going to explain 
how they utilize this agency for intelligence purposes. 

Senator Welker. And it is a news agency from overseas? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly. 

Senator Welker. Very well, now proceed. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Practically speaking, the people who represent 
this Government organ or Tass, about 85 or 90 percent of them 
belong to Intelligence Service, military or political intelligence 
service. 

For instance, in Tokyo, during the war, and after the war, I men- 
tioned several people who belonged to Intelligence Service under 
cover of Tass correspondents. Their names 

Mr. Morris. Are they intelligence personalities who are con- 
nected with Tass? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. This is Colonel Samoilov. He is staft' 
officer of GRU, in other words, Military Intelligence Service, who work 
in Tokyo many years under cover of correspondent of Tass. He was 
chief of local Tass section in Tokyo. His true name, Sonini. 

Mr. Morris. And who is the other gentleman, Mr. Egorov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Another man, by the name Egorov, he is Captain 
Egorov. He also worked as a Tass representative in Tokyo and was 
member of GRU. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 19 

Mr. Morris. That is the Mihtary InteUigence? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Mihtary Intelhgence Service. It is hard for me 
to remember names of other people all over the world If the com- 
mittee needs It probably I can do it later, but anywav, it is an example 

T^ A^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Agency for intelligence purposes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, the Senate is in session now The 
benators will have to adjourn soon. 

Senator Welker. I want to adjourn after we clarify a couple of 
tilings. What was the percentage you stated? 

Mr. Rastvorov. About 80 or QO^percent of people 

Senator Welker. 80 to 90 per cent of the Tass- 



Mr. Rastvorov. Correspondents, belong to Intelligence Service 
Senator VVelker. Correspondents belong to the MUitary Intel- 
ligence Service. 

, Mr Rastvorov To the Military and Political Intelligence Service, 
m other words, MVD. ' 

Senator Welker. In other words, it is vour opinion, that you are 
giving under oath to this committee, that, based upon your informa- 
tion and your belief, that 80 to 90 percent of the Tass correspondents 
are^ either members of the Military or Political Intelligence Service 
ot the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Do you know whether or not Tass has any 
correspondents here in Washmgton, D. C? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, I don't know particularly. 

Senator Welker. As a matter of fact, you know they have them 
all over the world. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly. 

Senator Welker They have them reporting from the Senate 
Gallery over here, don't they? 

Senator McClellan. In order to be a member of the Intelligence 
bervice, they have to be a member of the Communist Party, don't 
they f ^ ' 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. I was. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the general area that we have intended 
to cover today included such things as the testimony from this witness 
which would bear on the feasibility of a bill providing asylum to en- 
courage detectors, information as to the Communist use of passports 
and tiie iniormation bearing on legislation which would possibly alter 
tne statute? ol limitations with respect to former agents coming into 

TrT^^^-^o^ States, together with a description of an organization such 
as VOKS. 

If you gentlemen think it is of importance, we can have the witness 
come back at some other time to cover those general areas 

Senator Welker. Can you go into it now? I think this is a very 
Ime representation of the committee here. 

Mr. Morris. We can. Senator. I am prepared to. I just thought 
tile Senators were leaving. 

Senator Welker. Very well, proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about the operation in VOKS^ 

Mr. RASTvoRoy. This organization, they call the cultural relation- 
snip witii foreign countries, and they have their representation all over 
the world attached to local embassies. 

Mr. Morris. Will vou continue? 



20 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rastvorov. As I mentioned before about Tass, the people who 
maintain the cultural relationship with foreign countries practically 
engage in intelligence operations in foreign countries, and it is no 
different between Tass and the organization by name VOKS. 

In other words, in spite of fact this is official Government organiza- 
tion, section of Government which tries to maintain a cultural 
relationship, but practically speaking, the personnel of this organiza- 
tion abroad consists of intelligence people from Military Intelligence 
Service and from Political Intelligence Service, MVD. 

For instance, in Tokyo and in other countries I knew a couple of 
people who worked under cover of VOKS doing intelligence, engaged 
in intelligence activities. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony, Mr. Rastvorov, that you know 
from your own experience that the organization VOKS, which is the 
cultural organization of the Soviet Union — — 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. i i • 

Mr. Morris. Which is designed to bring about cultiu-al relations 
with other countries, that that, too, is a cover for intelligence 
operations? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Exactly, that's right. n , i 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with an organization called the 
American Russian Institute? ... 

Mr. Rastvorov. I don't know particularly about activities ot this 
oro-anization, but, according to my knowledge, I know that this 
organization was used for intelligence purposes by intelligence service 
in United States, in other words. 

Mr. Morris. You knew that the American Russian Institute was 
used for intelligence purposes? • . t * u- 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly. It is one object of Soviet intelli- 
gence Service for recruitment purposes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chau-man, we have had testimony, considerable 
testimony in the com-se of the last 4 or 5 years, on the activities m and 
around the American Russian Institute. 
You don't mean that everybody connected with that would be a 
Communist, do 3"ou? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Not exactly, of course. 

Mr. Morris. You mean it is an organization that they control. 
Suppose you tell me. How do they operate it? -it 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I repeat again, this organization such as i 
mentioned before, is organization which is subject for recruitment, I 
mean, the people who work in this organization is a subject for recruit- 
ment 'for intelligence purposes of Soviet Intelligence Service. 

Mr. Morris. Is it an organization that the Communists either 
locally or on the MVD level control? 

Mr. Rastvorov. They control by Communist Parties. 
Mr. Morris. By the "local Communist Party? 
Mr. Rastvorov. By the local Communist Party. At the same 
time, their organization, which subject for intelligence purposes, 
Soviet intelligence purposes, military and political. 

Mr. Morris. And you know that from your own experience.^ 
Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr Morris. Could you tell us about the use made ot passports 
by the Soviet Union, by the Military Intelligence and Security Pohce 
of the Soviet Union? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 21 

Mr. Rastvorov. The Military Intelligence Service and Political 
Intelligence Service, MVD, have special sections, so-called section of 
illegal intelligence work abroad. In other words, these sections, 
GRU and MVD, engage in training their own intelligence personnel 
in order later, after sending many illegally to foreign countries, 
and particularly in United States and Great Britain, and for these 
purposes they are very interested in getting documents in foreign 
countries, in other words, all kinds of official documents, and especially 
passports, diplomatic, business passports and so on and so on. 

They are really interested in this and doing then- best to get these 
passports in order to forge them and send people, they call here sleepers 
to these countries, and particularly in United States. The United 
States, at the present time, is the main object for these purposes. 

Mr. Morris. Getting hold of the American passports? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. It is considered to be a very desirable thing for Soviet 
intelligence purposes? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, very. 

Senator Butler. Have you ever seen any evidence of an attempt to 
counterfeit our passports? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, I know people who work in that section who 
engage in this. 

Senator Butler. And they get a good passport and from that as a 
guide the}^ counterfeit others, is that it? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Rastvorov, do you think it is advisable for 
Communists here in the United States to seek and obtain passports 
and travel abroad, go overseas? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Repeat again, please, question. 

Senator Welker. Do you think it is advisable for Communists to 
seek and receive passports from the United States, and travel abroad? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It is advisable for —  — ? 

Senator Welker. Do you think it is a good policy for a Communist 
to get a passport and travel all over the country? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, it is a very good idea for Communist purposes. 

Senator Welker. How is it with respect to om- Government's 
purposes, the United States? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It is very undesirable policy for United States 
Government to permit people, especially Communists or so-called pro- 
Soviet type, to travel in foreign countries, especially in Soviet Union 
and in Eastern Europe with these passports, because it is very dan- 
gerous, as I mentioned before. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know what they do with these passports? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, they use it for intelligence purposes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know that from your own experience? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, I know it. 

Mr. Morris. Could you tell us the pm-pose that the Soviet Union 
has in making use of trade missions to the United States and to other 
countries? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, the general policy of the Soviet Govern- 
ment, to send abroad as many as possible people for intelligence 
purposes, and they use all kinds of organizations, beginning from 
Embassies and all kinds of trade missions, delegations and so forth, 
for inteUigence purposes. 



22 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

In other words, their main pohcy of the the Soviet Government, and 
I repeat again, is to send abroad as many as possible intelHgence 
people for intelligence purposes, for gathering political, economical, 
military and other information about countries. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any examples of a trade mission being 
used for Soviet intelligence purposes? 

Mr. RosTVOROV. They use trade missions, they use Embassies and 
diplomatic missions abroad. 

Mr. Morris. Could you give us any experiences, any examples 
drawn on your own experience? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I give you example. For instance, the head of 
trade mission in Tokyo, Colonel Damnitskii, he is head of trade mis- 
sion in Japan, but he used this official post as a cover for intelligence 
operation in that country, and it is all over the world the same thing, 
and the staff of trade missions also belong to Intelligence Service, 
about 70 or 80 percent. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, do you think it would be beneficial 
for the Congress of the United States to give consideration to encour- 
aging people who might be defectors from the Soviet Intelligence 
System to come to our side? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think it is very wise idea, if United States Gov- 
ernment would get some plans in this respect. For instance, if it en- 
couraged many people to come to this country, to defect, and if United 
States Government can guarantee them spiritual and material assist- 
ance in this country, and citizenship for the people who came to this 
country sincerely and trying to help free world in fight against Com- 
munists. 

Mi. Morris. Continue. 

Mr. Rastvorov. It would be very wise if, for instance, the people 
like me who came to this country and helpmg this country in a com- 
mon struggle against Communists, to give citizenship, not according 
to the rules which exist in this country, for instance. 

If I am a member of Communist Party, then I must wait 10 years 
before I get citizenship, but it would be very encouragement if such 
people can get their citizenship sooner. 

Senator Butler. Of course you understand they can be handled 
on an individual basis. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly, as I mentioned. 

Senator Butler. Without changing the basic law. 

Senator Welker. What you mean is, it would encourage more of 
them to come here, should they be assured that they could have citizen- 
ship? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Given to them because of their help to our 
country? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think it is for each normal peoples to get citizen- 
ship and to become member of this big family. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, there are aspects of this testimony 
that, at staff level, we would like to pursue, and I think at this time 
it would be more advantageous to the committee if we took some 
of the testimony and followed up in concrete form some of the 
points that were mentioned here, and ask Mr. Rastvorov if he will 
come back at some later time to complete the testimony, unless it is 
your wish. Senator, to take some more testimonj^ at this time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 23 

Senator Welker. Senator, do you have an}- cross examination? 

Senator Jenner. I have no questions. 

Senator Butler. May I ask your age? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I am 34. 

Senator Butler. How long have you been engaged in the Intelli- 
gence Branch of the MVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I was in the Intelligence Service 11 3'ears. 

Senator Welker. Without objection, the committee will suspend 
until further call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 12:20 p. m., the committee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A Page 

Abakumov, General 5 

Ambassador to East Germany 6 

America/ American 8, 16, 17 

American Communists 6, 7 

American Russian Institute 20 

Amtorg 6 

Army, United States 15 

Asylum to encourage defectors 19 

B 

Beginning a series of hearings 2 

Beria 5, 18 

Blackmail 1 5-1 7 

Browder, Earl 7 

Businessmen 14 

Butler, Senator 1, 5, 8 

C 

California 7 

Central Committee of Communist Party 3, 4, 13, 14 

Chief of Intelligence Group in United Nations Organization 12 

China 10, 12 

Cipher clerk 17, 18 

Citizenship 22 

Comintern 3, 4, 7, 8 

Communist/Communists 2, 13, 20-22 

Communist country 16 

Communist parties in other countries 4 

Communist Party/Parties 2, 7, 13-15, 19, 20, 22 

Communist Party: 

Central Committee of 3, 4, 13, 14 

Illegal group 13, 14 

Japan 13, 14 

Legal party 13, 14 

Soviet Union 4 

Communist seamen couriers 7 

Communist use of passports 19 

Concentration camps 9 

Congress, United States 22 

Coplon 12, 13 

Correspondents 19 

Counterfeit passports 21 

Counterintelligence service 3, 15, 16 

Cultural relationship with foreign countries 19, 20 

D 

Damnitskii, Colonel , head of trade mission in Japan 22 

Delegations 21 

Detroit 7 

Diplomatic covers 4 

Diplomatic missions 22 

I 



II INDEX 

Page 

Diplomatic relationship 4 

Diplomatic staff 17 

Directorate of Central Committee of Communist Party 14 

Dolben, Gregory 8r-10 

Boss of intelligence group in Tokyo during Second War (1940-44) 8 

Boss in Moscow headquarters 8 

Chief resident agent in United States (1944-47) 8 

E 

Eastern Europe 21 

Eastland, Senator — Opening statement 2 

Egoro V, Captain 18 

Tass representative in Tokyo 18 

Memberof GRU 18 

Embassies 21, 22 

Embassy in Washington 10 

Espionage 7 

European countries 15 

Evidences of activity 5 

Existing laws 2 

F 

Far East 9 

Faymonville, Mr. (military attache) 16 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 7 

Field intelligence service 3 

Foreign agents or agencies, registered 2 

Foreign agents or agencies, not now registered 2 

Foreign countries 4 

Front organizations 13 

G-2.._ 17 

Gr-2, American Armed Forces in Japan 15 

Germany ° 

GPU 3 

Great Britain 21 

GRU 3, 10, 18, 21 

Guaranty to defectors 22 

Gubichev 12 

H 

Hitler 17. 18 

Hochberg, Getzel 7 

Homosexuals 1" 

I 

Ideological belief 15 

Individual agents 2 

Institute of Pacific Relations 8 

Intelligence groups 4 

Intelligence headquarters of MVD 12 

Intelligence operations 20 

Intelligence personnel 21 

Intelligence purposes 22 

Intelligence services 15, 18, 19, 22 

IntelUgence Service of MVD 3, 10 

Internal Security Act of 1950 2 

Internal Security Committee 6 

Iron Curtain 17 

J 

Japan 4, 13-15, 22 

Jai)anese 17 

Japanese Communists 7 

Japanese community 14 

Japanese Diet 14 

Japanese Embassy in Czechoslovakia 17 



INDEX in 

Page 

Japanese Embassy in Moscow jg 

Japanese Government ~~~~~__~ 14 

Japanese Government Foreign Office ~~ 14 15 

Japanese official _ ___"" ' jg 

Japanese Subsection "_"__"""]] 8 

Jenner, Senator '_ " 2 

Justice, Department of ~ I_I 2 

K 

Kasparov jg 

Chief resident of intelligence group in Tokyo " llll I 13 

In United States in beginning of the forties. " ' T? 

KGB llllllllllimill 3 

Kolomar area ~ g 

Kotelnikov, Colonel, chief of intelligence group, Tokyo I _lll 13 

L 

Lattimore, Mr __ _ _ 39 

Legislative action !__!_ '_'_"_ ' 2 

Liaison man _!!__" 13 

Local Communist parties _ __" 4 

Local embassies ~_~ _ ~_~_~_ 19 

Los Angeles, Calif -'_III_I 7 

M 

McClellan, Senator 1 5 

Major " " "" '-^Y 

Maryland I__I~ 8 

Matsuka, Foreign Minister " ~ I7ift 

MGB "///-- -7//. -'_ "///_"/_ "/////_ 3 

Military attache, Moscow ~_~_ ~ jg 

Militarv Intelligence Service 3 in 1S-91 

Minister of MGB ' ' l 

MKVD l-imilllllllllllllllllllllll 3 

Molotov J_ _ jj jg 

Moscow :-::::::::::::::::::y3:7:9:i2, 16-18 

Moscow headquarters g 

MVD. :::::::::::"2-6,' 879-16; Y9-21, 23 

Chief resident agents 5 q-h 

Intelligence Branch/Service '4 jq 

N 

Navy intelligence service 3 

Nelson, Steve ~~ ~ 7 

News agency l..l_l_ 18 

Newspapermen " ~_'_~~ j^ 

New York y jj 

Nosenko, chief resident of intelligence service in Tokvo_l !_!_"" 17 ' 13 

Official covers ^" ~ g 2q 

Officials of government ~7~~I ' 14 

Ovakimyan " r, g 

Arrested here (United States), probably hi 194d_ 7.71 ' ' 5 

Operated in this country as a boss up until 1941 5 

Returned to Moscow, became Deputy Chief of Intelligence of MVD; 

major general _ _ 5 

Fired, 1946 7777777777 5 

P 

Panyushkin, Ambassador 1Q 12 

Ambassador in United States 77_7 7 ' 10 

Chief resident agent " _ _ _ 10 

Major general of MVD Service __ _ 7 7' __" 7 77' 10 

1950 left United States 7'"7 7 10 

Succeeded by Mr. Wladkin 7777_I 10 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 9999 05445 4028 



INDEX 



Page 

„ , 20, 21 

Passports ' 2i 

American 2i 

Business jg 

Communist use of 2^ 

Counterfeit 2i 

Diplomatic ,g 

Personal behavior ^ 

Pictures g 

Political o "f n 1 a_9i 

Political Intelligence Service ^> ■^"' ^^ g 

Progressive Party 2i 

Pro-Soviet g 

P W camps 

^ 7 

Rappaport, Mordecai . _2o 

Rastvorov, Yuri (testimony of) '^^ 

Intelligence officer of MVD, Tokyo.. ^ 

Second secretary of Soviet mission, m Tokyo '^, * 

Lieutenant colonel, Soviet Secret Police _ . - - ^ 

Soviet Secret Police— hired 1943, defected January 1954 ^ 

11 vears with MVD ^ 

MVD agent in Tokyo, 1946-47, 1950-54 ^1 

Age 34 years 2 

Recommendations ^^ 

Recruiting area 20 

Recruitment purposes „ g j_ 

Russia/Russian *' ' - 

"Russian activities" g 

Russian Embassy q 

Russian United Nations delegation 

^ 18 

Samoilov, Colonel ,g 

True name Sonini ,j> 

Chief of local Tass section in Tokyo |° 

GRU staff officer }x 

Military Intelligence Service ^° 

San Francisco Bay jg 

Satellite countries _-_---- „ 

Scope of Soviet activity in the United States s's'lO 12 16 

Second War ' ' ' ' jq 

Secret Police 20 

Security Police g y 

Security report \g 

Senate jg 

Senate Gallery jg 

Serov, General -.o 

Head of Soviet security system ^° 

Shibaev, Colonel j3 

Came to Japan in 1951 g 

Siberia 21 

Sleepers g 

Smith, Senator Willis q 

^■tn ^__„ — — — ___ — — — — ^ 

^ Vhief residenVofinteYligence'Service of MVD in Tokyo, 1944 9 

Came to United States in 1947-48 ^ 

Staved in United States until 1949 ^^ 

Official cover in Embassy in Washington JJ^ 

Replaced by Panyushkin 

Sonini. {See Samoilov, Colonel.) -, 

South Pacific jq 

Soviet Ambassador iq 

Soviet Ambassador to United States ^ 

Soviet conspiracy ^g j^j jy 

Soviet Embassy ' ' 2 

Soviet expansion abroad g 

Soviet Government 



INDEX V 

Paee 

Soviet intelligence 5 21 

Soviet Intelligence Service 3,16 17 20 22 

Soviet power _'_ ' ' 2 

Soviet representatives 7 

Soviets ~ 7 

Soviet secret police ~ 2 9 

Soviet security system ~ 'jg 

Soviet Union^._"_ .'.S~SJ'2,'i,'i5, 17-22 

State Department 7 g 

Statute of limitations 311 19 

Structural revisions that the Communists have made 2 

Sumskoi ~" jj 12 

MVD officer assigned to Soviet section, United Nations in New Yorkl ' 11 
Worked in intelligence headquarters of MVD in Moscow 12 

T 

Tass agency 1 8-20 

Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union 18 

Trade missions ~~~ 21 22 

Trade organization ~ ' g 

Tokyo -"-r'2"8,"9ri'37l6^T8, 20, 22 

U 

Underground activitj' I3 

United Nations Organization n 12 

United Nations, Soviet section ' n 

United States _" 4-6","8-f27l5, 19-22 

VOKS.. ^. 19^20 

W 

Wallace, Mr 9 

Washington, D. C II"_I 19 

Welker, Senator Herman 3~ 1 

West coast 7 

Wladkin, Mr II"II"IIIIIII 10 

Chief of Intelligence Service in Washington, D. C 10 

Diplomatic official in China during Second War 10 

Stayed here (United States) until 1954 or 1955 " H 



Zarubin, Soviet Ambassador to United States 10 

Zubilin, Elizabeth Yurevna 8 

Intelligence office in United States 8 

Desk officer, German section of MVD intelligence service 8 

Zubilin, Vassili Mikhailovich 6_8 

Aliases: 

V. Zarubin 7 8 

Vassili Luchenko 7 « 

"Cooper" ll.-llllllllllllll 7*8 

January 22, 1900, born in Moscow 7] g 

January 1942, appointed Third Secretarv U. S. S. R. Embassy in 

Washington, D. C 7, g 

Chief resident agent. United States 6 

MVD intelligence service boss 6 

Subsequently raised to second secretarv 7 

Recall to Soviet Union; departed August 27. 1944 8 

Accompanied by wife, Elizabeth Yurevna Zubilin, and son while in 

United States 8 

Reported head of NKVD activity in United States working \A'ith 

Comintern apparatus 8 

Boss of German section 6 

Rank, major general 6 

Fired from service in 1947 6 

Gregory Dolbin replaced Zarubin as chief resident agent. United 

States g 

o 



OS/TORY 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECUEITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECUEITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE Oi\ THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOUETH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



FEBRUARY 21, 1956 



PART 2 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

APR 1 3 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia, Chairman 

JAMES O. EASTLAND. Mississippi ALEXANDER ^E^^^^'ffff" 

ESTES KEFAUVER. Tennessee WILLIAM LANOER. North Dakota 

OI IN D JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

THOMAS C HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOHN L MrCI ELLAN, A'rkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN.aiUno.s 

pmrF D \NIEI Texas HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

JOSEPH CO MAHONEY. Wyo.nin, J OHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administkation of the Internal Securitv 
AcT AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN 1). JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER Indiana 

JOHN L. MCCLELLAN. Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER. Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

Richard Arens and Alva C, Carpenter, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



U 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of — Pag* 

Freeman, Harrj' 25 

Jones, Hays _l __ 43 

Lurie, Mrs. Sasha --I---'_"-.I """ . " " 48 



III 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:35 a. m., in room 
318, Senate Office Building, Senator Olin D. Johnston presiding. 

Present: Senators Eastland (chairman of the subcommittee), 
Johnston, and Jenner. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; Alva C Carpenter, associate counsel; and Robert C. 
McManus, investigations analyst. 

Senator Johnston. The committee will come to order. 
This hearing today is being held in order to aid this committee in 
determining to what extent Soviet authority operates through organ- 
izations other than the Communist Party. In our opening statement, 
the committee announced: 

We shall try to determine to what extent Soviet power operates through the 
Communist Party here and to what extent other organizations have been devised 
to eflfectuate its purposes. We shall study the structural revisions that the 
Communists have made in their network in order to avoid detection, and endeavor 
to trace the movement of individual agents through these changing structures. 

tender consideration during these hearings will be the activities of Soviet 
agents and agencies registered with the Department of Justice and such other 
agents or agencies not now registered whose activities may warrant legislative 
action. 

Will you call the first witness? 

Mr. AIoRRis. Mr. Chairman, the first witness will be Harry 
Freeman. 

Mr. Freeman, will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Freeman. I am here. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman is the deputy manager of the Tass 
Agency in this country. Senator, and he is being asked to testify here 
because he is the ranking American in Tass. 

Senator Johnston. Hold up your right hand and be sworn. 

Mr. Rand. Mr. Chairman, before Mr. Freeman is sworr, may I, as 
his counsel, request that the lights be put out and that the cameramen 
be asked to desist from taking further photographs during the hearing? 

Senator Johnston. Put out the brightest lights. We may need 
some lights here, of course. 

Mr. Rand. I am talking about these bright lights. 

Senator Johnston. The bright lights. Well, turn off the bright 
ones. 

25 



26 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rand. Aiul may I request that the photograpliers be asked to 
desist from taking any further photographs during the testimony? 

Senator Jenner. During the testimony. 

Senator Johnston. During the testimony, that is allowed when 
requested. 

Mr. Rand. They will be asked to desist, then, Mr. Chairman? 

Senator Johnston. Yes. 

You may proceed. 

Hold up your right hand. Do you swear that the evidence you give 
licre to this subcommittee hearing will be the truth, the whole truth 
and nothing but tlie truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Freeman. 1 do. 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY FREEMAN, NEW YORK, N. Y., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY HARRY I. RAND, HIS ATTORNEY 



Mr. Morris. Will you give youi- full mime and address to the 
reporter, Mr. Freeman? 

Mr. Rand. Mr. Chairman, I note that the photographers are 
still taking pictures. 1 thought that they were asked to desist from 
doing so. 

Mr. Morris. Is any photographer taking pictures there now? 
' A Voice. No. 

A Voice. T was. 

Senator Johnston. Tlicv were making no pictures of hun. 

A Voice. We can take the committee, can't we? 

Senator Jenner. You can take pictures of the committee. 

Senator Johnston. You can take the pictures of the committee. 
That is all right, just as long as you do not take pictures of the 
witness. 

Mr. Rand. What arc tlicsc photographers doing down here, may 
I ask? 

A Voice. We are on our way out. 

Mr. Rand. They do not seem to be on their way out. 

Senator Johnstox. Do not take any pictures while they are 
testifying. 

Senator Jen\i:r. Now, Mr. Freeman is a newspaperman. He 
must recognize that those boys have got to get a few pictures. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, will you give your full name and address 
to the reporter, please? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. My name is Harry Freeman. 

Mr. AIoRRis. And what is your address? 

Mr. Freeman. My address is 22 East 89th Street, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your occupation? 

Mr. Freeman. My occupation is that of journalist. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And where are you working now? 

Mr. Freeman. I am working at the Tass Agency. And, Air. 
.Morris, if I may l)e of some aid to the committee, may I read a state- 
ment which I liav(> prej)ared for the committee at this point? 

Seiuitor Je\ni;ii. How long is it? 

Senator Johnston. How long is it? 

Mr. Freeman. It is a very short statement, two and a half pages. 

Senator Johnston. Proceed with it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 27 

Mr. Freeman. This commit tee purports, as I understand it, to be 
investigating the activities of the American bureau of Tass. 

The fact is that there is nothing whatever to investigate. The 
activities of Tass are those of any large news bureau. Furthermore, 
the American bureau of Tass is required to, and does, file semiannually 
with the Department of Justice a full report of its activities and 
operations, including its financial expenditures, et cetera. 

It is required under the terms of the Foreign Agents Registration 
Act to keep on file copies of its news stories, papers, documents, et 
cetera, for a period of 3 years. These files are open to inspection by 
the governmental authorities and they have been carefully scrutinized 
b^^ the authorities in question. 

The functions of the Tass bureau, as described in sworn statements 
submitted to the Department of Justice, are as follows: 

Gathering and transmitting American news and United Nations news to the 
U. S. S. R. Our news sources include: The dispatches of American news agencies 
with which we have contractual relations (the Associated Press and the United 
Press) ; newspapers published in New York, Washington, and various other cities 
of the United States and Latin America; magazines and other periodicals; press 
releases and reports issued by governmental and private agencies and institutions. 
In addition, our correspondents directly cover important press conferences, public 
meetings and other developments when circumstances and our resources permit. 

For instance, TABS correspondents cover the meetings of the United Nations 
Security Council and other Ignited Nations bodies; our correspondents in Wash- 
ington cover White House and State Department press conferences and important 
congressional debates, etc. 

On the basis of these sources, we write out daily news reports. After the 
reports are written and edited, they are transmitted through the usual commercial 
communications channels. At the present time, almost our entire wordage goes 
through RCA. Occasionally, when RCA communications are disrupted, we 
transmit via Press Wireless or \\'estern Union. 

Besides our daily cal)le service, we transmit mail articles on subjects of a less 
"spot" character. Our area of coverage includes Latin America as well as the 
United States, and our reports about T^atin America are based on the dis])atches 
of the American news agencies as well as on T>atin American newspapers and 
periodicals. 

We also transmit a commercial service, giving jirices of grains, bristles, furs, etc., 
and other commercial and economic news. All of our news is transmitted to our 
home office in Moscow for distribution to Tass clients. We distribute nothing in 
the United States, except for supplying copies of our news messages to the Soviet 
Embassy in Washington and the delegation of the L". S. S. R. to the United 
Nations. 

As for myself, 1 would like to point out to this committee that my 
whole working life has been devoted to the practice of journalism, and 
nothing else. 

After gra(h]ating from Cornell University in 1926, I found employ- 
ment witli the Brooklyn Daily Eagle and the Brooklyn Times. Early 
in 1927 I joined the staff of the Daily Worker, and remained there 
until the fall of 1928, when I left to do graduate work in history at 
Columbia University. In 1929 I got a jo!) with the Tass agency and 
have been there ever since. 

As a correspondent, I have had the opportunity to cover many of 
the important events of the past quarter of a century, including the 
San Francisco Conference of 1945, which founded the United Nations, 
most of the national conventions of the Republican and Democratic 
Parties, et cetera. 

Twice in the past I have been elected to the vice presidency of the 
Foreign Press Association, and I served for 2 years as a member of 
the standing committee of United Nations correspondents. 



28 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

In conclusion, I would like to say this: 

Last month this committee engaged in an investigation which in 
the opinion of the New York Times represented an effort to harass 
the press and particularly the Times. It appears that now the 
committee has selected the Tass news agency as a target of attack. 

In the light of the known facts about the operations of the Tass 
bureau, the question arises whether tliis committee is genuinely 
interested in the facts or whether it is engaged in an attempt to in- 
timidate and harass the American employees of the Tass bureau and 
to discredit the bureau of a great news agency. 

That is the end of the statement, vSenator Jenner. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I would like to answer the last 
paragraph of Mr. Freeman's statement, tliat this committeie is 
genuinel}^ interested in Tass and its operations because this committee 
has recently had sworn testimony before it that the Tass news agency 
is used for espionage work in this country and throughout the world. 
So we are genuinely interested in your activities, Mr. Freeman. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, could you tell us how many employees 
there are now employed in the United States by Tass? 

Mr. Freeman. The number of employees I think is about 2.3. I 
am not sure. I have the last registration statement which we fded 
with the Department of Justice. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Freeman, if there are any additions to the 
list that you filed with the Department of Justice, we ask that you give 
us the names of those, in addition to those that are listed on the 
registration. 

Mr. Freeman. Right; yes, sir, to the best of my recollection. I 
am not sure that I can recall. We have two people on pensions who 
are not actively engaged in Tass, people who had worked for Tass in 
the past and are now retired on pensions. Their names are Kenneth 
Durant and Laurence Todd. 

Then there is Mr. Leonid Velichansky, who was the acting manager 
of the Tass bureau. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Velichansky is the acting head of the Tass 

bureau? 

Mr. Freeman. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. You said he had the title of acting head? 

Mr. Freeman. Acting manager. 

Mr. Morris. Who was the manager? 

Mr. Freeman. Well, the last manager, Mr. Ivan Beglov, returned 
to the Soviet Union last year. Mr. Velichansky was appointed acting 
manager. He has not been given the title of manager. 

Mr. Morris. Isc \ Now, will you spell Mr. Beglov's name for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Freeman. Mr. Beglov's name is Ivan, I-v-a-n; Beglov, 

B-e-g-1-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. No\v% where is he now, Mr. Freeman? 

Mr. Freeman. He is in the Soviet Union, to the best of my knowl- 

edge. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, you say Mr. Velichansky is the acting 

head of the agency? 

Mr. Freeman. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell his name for the record? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 29 

Mr. Freeman. His name is Leonid, L-e-o-n-i-d; Velichansky, 
V-e-1-i-c-h-a-n-s-k-y. 

Mr. Morris. How long has he been actuig head of the bureau? 

Mr. Freeman. He has been acting head of the bureau since the 
departure of Mr. Beglov, which was in the spring of last year. The 
exact month was in March. One moment. In May; May of last 
year. 

Mr. Morris. All right. I wonder if you would at this point in the 
record, Mr. Freeman, hst for us the heads of the Tass bureau here in 
the United States for the last 15 years. 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. Do you want the dates? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, please. 

Mr. Freeman. Or the approximate dates? 

Mr. Morris. To the best of your ability, Mr. Freeman. 

Mr. Freeman. Kenneth Durant was the fu'st manager of the 
American bureau of Tass. He served as manager from January 1923 
to January 1944. 

Mr. Morris. Now, he w^as an American citizen; was he not? 

Mr. Freeman. He was an American citizen. 

Mr. Morris. But he was the last American citizen to head Tass? 

Mr. Freeman. That is correct. He was succeeded by Mr. "Vladimir 
Pravdin. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. Freeman. Vladimir, V-1-a-d-i-m-i-r ; Pravdin, P-r-a-v-d-i-n . 

Mr. Pravdin was manager of the bureau from January 1944, until 
December 1945. 

The next manager of the bureau was Alexander Alexandrov. As a 
matter of fact, his title for the period was that of acting manager. He 
had the title of acting manager from December 1945, to February 
1948. He was given the title of manager in February 1948, and 
served as manager of the bm-eau until May 1949. 

Following Mr. Alexandrov, a Mr. Madimii- Morev served as acting 
manager. The spelling is Vladimh, V-1-a-d-i-m-i-r ; Morev, M-o-r-e-v. 
He served as acting manager untU March 1950. 

In March 1950, Mr. Ivan Beglov began serving as manager. He 
served from March 1950, to May 1955, when he was succeeded by 
Mr. Velichansky as acting manager. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Mr. Freeman. 

Now, of the present employees, could you tell us how many are 
nationalists of the Soviet Union and how many are American citizens? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. I will read them off and designate, 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. 

Mr. Freeman. I believe I mentioned the namr3 of the two people 
retired from the Bureau, and on pension: Kenneth Durant and Lau- 
rence Todd. Mr. Leonid Velichansky, acting manager of the bureau; 
Harry Freeman — —  

Mr. Rand. I think 



Mr. Freeman. Esther Shields —  —  ' 

Mr. Rand. I think Mr. Morris wanted designations of Soviet 
citizens. 

Mr. Freeman. I am sorry. Mr. Leonid Velichansky, Soviet 
citizen; Harry Freeman, American citizen; Esther Shields, American 
citizen; E. Delgado-Rodriguez, American; Jerome Klein, American; 

72723 — 56 — pt. 2 2 



30 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 

Sasha Liirio, American; P'rodoriek Van Wield en, American; Ha5^s 
Jones, American; Jessie Hai-iis — I am not quite sm*e about her. She 
was born, I beheve, in Canada, but I don't know quite about her 
status. 

Nancy Bell; Rudolpli Israel, Ameiican; Georg:i Bolsliakov, Soviet 
national. I might say about Mr. Bolshakov that he returned for 
vacation some months ago. He is not in the country at the present 
time. He is head of the Washington subbureau, but he is not liere. 

Mr. Morris. Have you heard from him since he returned? 

Mr. Freeman. I have not, Mr. Morris. 

Anatoly Saveliev. Soviet citizen. 

Air. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. Freemax. Anatoly — A-n-a-t-o-l-y ; Saveliev -S-a-v-e-1-i-e-v. 

Mr. Mikhail Lopoukhin; the first name, the Russian spelling, 
would be M-i-k-h-a-i-1; the last name L-o-p-o-u-k-h-i-n. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. P^-eeman, is he the gentleman who escorted 
the visiting Soviet delegations in the ITnited States here recently? 

Mr. Freeman. Well, as I remembei-, he went with the Soviet 
writers' delegation who visited the country recently, and part of the 
tour of the agricultural delegation. I think he accompanied them on 
part of the tour, and not the whole tour. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he do that in the capacity of a Tass cor- 
respondent or just as a friendly guide to his countiymen? 

Mr. Freeman. As I understand it, as a Tass correspondent. 

Vladimir Paramonov, V-1-a-d-i-m-i-r P-a-r-a-m-o-n-o-v, Soviet 
citizen; Mikhail Alyabyev, Soviet citizen. The spelUng of Alyabyev 
is A-1-y-a-b-y-e-v. 

That completes the list of all editorial employees. 

Mr. Morris. How about tiie otiier than editorial employees? 

Mr. Freeman. Well, I can list those if you wish: Harry Fisher, 
American; Ruth Fislier, American; Charles Zimmerman, American; 
lOava Gertsena — K-1-a-v-a G-e-r-t-s-e-n-a, Soviet citizen; Adelaida — 
A-d-e-1-a-i-d-a, Gouk — G-o-u-k; Evgenia, E-v-g-e-n-i-a, Kondakova, 
K-o-n-d-a-k-o-v-a; Soviet citizen. 

That completes it except that we have one part-time typist, who 
fills in a few evenings a week, whose last name I don't recall. It was 
just during tiie United Nations General Assembly when we were 
verv rushed. 

Mr. Morris. And you will supply us with his name, Mr. Freeman? 

Mr. Freeman. I will be glad to. 

(The subcommittee was later advised that the name is Leonard 
Cohen.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, where do these people physically work? 

Mr. Freeman. Well, some in New York and some in Washington. 
If you wish, I can designate which work in New York and which work 
in Washington. 

Mr. Morris. Well, just tell us the ones who work m Washington 
and tiien generalize with respect to the rest of them. 

Mr. Freeman. Mr. Georgi Bolshakov, who is now on leave; 
Mr. Vladimir Paramonov 

Mr. Morris. Where is Paramonov? In Washington? 

Mr. Freeman. In Washington; yes. He is an accredited cor- 
i-espondent. 

Miss Adelaida Gouk, wlio is a teletypist. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 31 

Ml'. Morris. Do you Imve tlie spelling on that one? 

(The reporter answered hi the affirmative.) 

Mr. Freemax. And Miss or Mrs. Evgenia Kondakova was a 
teletypist. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, where is the Washington office of Tass? 

Mr. Freeman. In the National Press Building. 

Mr. Morris. And where is the New York office of Tass? 

Mr. Freeman. In the Associated Press Building in New York. 

Mr. Morris. And all of those New York employees physically 
work in the New York office? 

Air. Freeman. They physically work in the New York office. 
We also have, I might add, an office in the United Nations Building 
which we use occasionally when United Nations meetings are going 
on. Occasionally we are over there. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is that a subdivision of the New York office? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. It is not a regular bureau. It is part of our 
New York bureau. When the United Nations General Assembly 
meets some of us will go over and cover it, or the Security Council 
meetings; some of the correspondents will go over and cover it. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Freeman, you are engaged in the work 
of general reporting; is that I'ight? 

Mr. Freeman. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. How many words a day do j^ou report on an averag(>? 

Mr. Freeman. You mean I ])ersonalW? 

Mr. Morris. The bureau. 

Mr. Freeman. The bureau. On the average day it would be 
between 5,000 and 6,000. I would say our monthly quota is 175,000. 
If it is a very busy daj-, of course, as the newspajjermen around 
these tables know, we will send much moi-e. We may send 10.000 
or 12,000 or 15,000. If it is a quiet day, maybe 2,000 or 3,000. It 
fluctuates. But the quota is 175,000. " 

Mr. Morris. And how do vou transmit those reports to the Soviet 
Union? 

Mr. Freeman. We transmit it through the usual commercial 
communications chamiels. pi'imarily through RCA. We have a 
special, what they call, volume-word arrangement with RCA wliereby 
we get a cheaper rate for sending over .30,000 words a month. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you transmit any of that hiformation that 
you collect to any source in the United States? 

Mr. Freeman. No; except as we say in the registration statements, 
our final news report— copies of our final news report are sent to tlie 
Soviet Embassy in Washington, which receives it just as it receives 
it from the United Press, and so on, and also a copy goes to the Soviet 
delega-tion to the United Nations. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what kind of news do you try to transmit to 
the Soviet Union, Mr. Freeman? 

Mr. Freeman. Well, news of all sorts: Political news, economic 
news, cultural news. We try to report the American election cam- 
paigns. We report the President's press conferences, the Secretary of 
State's press conferences. We report conferences held by Mr. Ham- 
marskjold of the United Nations. We report meetings of the Security 
Council. We try to do little reports on cultural news, important 
plays, books. 



32 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you try to report everything you 
possibly can, as any good reporter would? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes; we try to give them some picture of what is 
happening in the country for our readers abroad. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, I have here a news clipping from the 
Scripps-Howard newspapers. It is dated October 8, 1951. I would 
like to read it to you and ask you generally how this particular bit 
of reporting, if it is accurate, fits in with your general scheme. 

This is from the Washington News • 

Mr. Mandel. The Washington Daily News of October 8, 1951 : 

Employees of Tass, the Russian "news" agency claim to be newspaper reporters. 
But sometimes the information they seek falls more into the category of military 
secrets rather than news. 

John Rudy, public relations director for the National Federation of American 
Shipping, recalls such a case 

About a week after the Korean war started, he said, a girl employee of Tass 
telephoned to inquire about ships in the Pacific. At first, Mr. Rudy said, her 
questions were general, but they soon became specific. 

"How many American ships were in waters near Korea?" she asked. 

Mr. Rudy stalled off her questions, saying he did not have such information at 
his fingertips and most of it was secret, because many of the ships were under 
orders of the Military Sea Transportation Service. 

Back again. 

The same girl called back a few days later and resumed her questioning, Mr. 
Rudy said. This time she was persistent, even though Mr. Rudy again men- 
tioned that the information was classified. 

Well, she wanted to know, how about private vessels not under the Military 
Transportation Service. How many were in Korean waters? What types were 
they? What tonnage? What cargoes? Speed? W^hen built? How many 
ships did the United States have abuilding? How many ships were being built 
abroad? 

Mr. Rudv failed to answer her questions, saying that would be a job for the 
federation's' researcher. He later instructed the research man not to answer any 
such questions for Tass. 

Navy Said No. 

Also he consulted the Navy, which advised him not to give out such infor- 
mation. 

A short time later another employee of Tass, this time a man, called and asked 
the same type of questions. But "he wanted to know about military supplies 
being moved to P^urope. Mr. Rudv didn't answer his questions, either. 

Recently the girl from Tass called Mr. Rudy's secretary and tried to get shipping 
information. Mr. Rudy warned his whole office, so no information was forth- 
coming. 

AH during that period, Mr. Rudy said, no American reporter ever inquired 
about American shipping to the Far East. Mr. Rudy said the subject was raised 
once or twice in social conversations he had with American reporters, but a» soon 
as he mentioned that the information was classified, the American reporters shied 
from the subject. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, in connection with this parti- 
cular report, I had not seen it until this morning, and I phoned Mr. 
Rudy, and he affirmed to me on the phone that the contents of that 
story were correct, and as you know, the committee may subpena him 
to so testify if it is necessary. 

I was wondering, Mr. Freeman, if you would just generally relate 
that particular report, if it is true from your point of view, to your 
function that you perform. 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. I don't mean to cast any aspersions whatever 
on the Scripps-Howard service, which is a great news service. But 
I would say to my knowledge there is no foundation whatsoever for 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 33 

that story, and it is completely out of character with the nature of 
our work. I do not know the basis of the story whatever. I don't 
know whether some innocent query was distorted as to meaning. 
I know nothing about the incident. If I had the precise data, I might 
try to check the original report and see if there is the slightest grain 
of sense in it. 

But all I can say right now is that it has no foundation whatever, 
to my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Aren't those questions that might be asked 
by any, you might say, aggressive newspaper reporter? 

Mr. Freeman. Sir? 

Mr. Morris. Ai-e those not questions that might be asked by any 
aggressive newspaper reporter? 

Mr. Freeman. Some reporters perhaps might ask those. I don't 
think any Tass reporter would. 

Mr. Morris. You mean your contention is, or your statement is, 
that Tass newspaper reporters do not pursue theu- facts with the same 
zeal that some of their fellow American reporters might do? 

Mr. Freeman. A query about movement of ships in the vicinity 
of Korea? I am sure no Tass correspondent would ever ask. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Even though, as I say, Mr. Rudy had made 
that statement himself this morning? 

Mr. Freeman. I feel sure. Yes, I still feel confident in what I 
say. 

Mr. Rand. Judge Morris, may we have an identification of Mr. 
Rudy? I did not get it. 

Mr. Morris. John Rudy is the public-relations du-ector for the 
National Federation of American Shipping. He is here in Washington. 

Senator Johnston. I think we had better have the attorney identify 
himself for the record. I do not believe that has been done. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Attorney, will you identify yom-self for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Rand. Harry I. Rand, attorney, Wyatt Building, Washington, 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Freeman, you are an American citizen; 
are you not? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes, sir; I am. 

Mr. Morris. You were born in the United States? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And you graduated from Columbia University? 

Mr. Freeman. No. I did undergraduate work at Cornell Univer- 
sity. I graduated from Cornell and did a httle graduate work at 
Columbia University later. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, what has been your employment from 
the time you left Columbia? 

Mr. Freeman. My employment — when I left the university, I got 
a job, as I said in my statement, with the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, and 
then with the Brooklyn Times. Then I went to work for the Daily 
Worker from about spring, about March 1927 to September 1928. 
And as I noted in the executive session, your research director there, 
Mr. Mandel, was business manager of the Daily Worker at the time, 
he can confirm it. Then I returned to the university and went to 
Columbia, and did graduate work until I joined Tass early in 1929, 
February or March, as I recall. 



34 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. You also did some work for Amtorg:; did you not? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes; I did. As I mentioned in tlie executive ses- 
sion, while I was going to Colum])ia University, I put in a few hours 
a week there helping edit a catalog. 

Mr. Morris. And then you have been at Tass contmuously smce 

1929? 

Mr. Freeman. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. 1929 is the date? 

Mr. Freeman. 1929. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you, when you took employment with 
Tass, a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness consults w\i\\ his attorney.) 

Mr. Freeman. In this connection, I would like to read you, Mr. 
Morris, a statement that I read you in executive committee, a state- 
ment of office policy in reference to such matters. 

Approximately in 1941 the manager of the bureau, at that time, 
Mr. Kenneth Durant 

The Chairman. Read it a little louder. I cannot hear you. 

Mr. Freeman. I am sorry, sir. . • i • 

In 1941 Mr. Durant, the manager of the bureau, thought it advis- 
able to draw up a statement for the guidance of employees and possi- 
ble employees of the bureau, and this statement read as follows: 

At the time of their original employment, all members of the staff of this bureau 
were informed of the rule against jparticipation in political activity. You are 
reminded that this rule permits no exceptions. Staff members are not expected 
to relinquish the ordinary rights of American citizens, voting, et cetera, but tHey 
are requested not to participate in the work of any political organization or group. 
Anyone who feels unable to comply with this ruling is asked to resign from the 
staff and to refrain from such activity until connection with the bureau is entirely 
severed It is necessary not only to refrain from political activity but also to 
avoid anything which might have the appearance of political activity or which 
might be misconstrued as such. 

Senator Johnston. That does not keep you from answering the 
question that the attorney asked, does it? 

Mr. Rand. May I consult with the witness? 

Mr. Morris. You may, counsel. 

(Counsel consults with the witness.) 

Mr. Freeman. To simplifv the procedure. Your Honor, on these 
questions about Communist Party membership, and so on, the 
answer to Communist Party membership is "No," going back to 
Au<yust 1941. My answer to any question prior to that period is 
to invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment and to decline 

to answer.  n a 

Mr. Morris. Did you resign from the Communist Party in August 

1941, Mr. Freeman? 

(The witness considts with his counsel.) 

Mr. Freeman. 1 decline to answer that. Judge, invoking my 
privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Johnston. That, would lead us to believe that that is 
when you resigned, when you date it at the time you were not going 
to answer the question; would it not? 

Mr FreeM'VN. I cannot help any conclusions or inferences you 
may wish to draw. Senator. I will continue to invoke my privileges 
under the fifth amendment. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 35 

Mr. Morris. Mi-. Freonian, have von not written articles for the 
Daily Worker since you have l)een employed by Tass? 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. FRp:E:\rAX. From 1941 to date the answer is "Xo." Prior to 
that I decline. 

Mr. Morris. Yon refuse to answer? 

Mr. Freem.w. Yes. 

The Chairmw. On what grounds? 

Mr. Freemax. P^'ifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Xow, have you, since you have been a Tass newsman, 
associated with people whom you have known to be active in Soviet 
espionage? 

Mi-. Freemax. \o; not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. Not to your knowledge. Did you know a party 
named Hede Massing, who has testified before this committee? : 

Mr. Freemax. On that. Judge, I will invoke my privileges under 
the fifth amenflment and decline to answer. 

The Chairman. Have you been guilty of espionage? 

Mr. Freemax. No. 

The Chairman. At any time? 

Mr. Freeman. No, Senator, never. 

Mr. Morris. In view of your declination to answer the question, 
Mr. Freeman, about Hede ^^assing, would you want to change your 
answer to the first cjuestion? 

Mr. Freeman. Will you repeat the first (luestion? 

Mr. Morris. The first question, in the interests of saving time, as 
I recall it, was this: Have you, since you have been a Tass corre- 
spondent, associated with anyone whom you knew to be active in the 
Soviet espionage apparatus? 

Mr. Freemax. I will decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you will revise your answer? 

(The witness consults with his comisel.) 

Mr. Freemax. I decline to answer that, and I invoke the fifth 
amendment. 

The Chairmax. AVhat Government departments do you have 
access to, sir? 

Mr. Freeman. Government departments? 

The Chairmax. Yes. 

Mr. Freemax. None whatever, Senator. 1 work in New York 
and I am completely lost in Washington. 

Well, let me amend that. I have been to a few State Department 
press conferences, very few. 

The Chairmax. In Washington? 

Mr. Freeman. In Washington, yes, when we were short-handed in 
Washington. I have come down here occasioiially to lend a hand. 
I have covered a few State Department press conferences. I have 
covered a few White House press conferences. 

The Chairman. Is that all? 

Mr. Freeman. That is all. 

The Ch.airmax. You have been in the Pentagon? 

Mr. Freeman. No, never. I don't even know where it is, to tell 
you the truth. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know that Whittaker Chambers had operated 
in work in the Soviet apparatus? 



36 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Freeman. I decline to answer that, invoking my rights under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever have any associations with Gerhardt 

Eisler? , ., i 

Mr. Freeman. I decHne to answer that, invokmg the fifth amend- 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any knowledge that Gerhardt Eisler 
was working for the Comintern and — Answer that question. 

Mr. Freeman. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any knowledge that he was working for 
a Soviet espionage rmg? 

Mr. Freeman. Again I want to invoke my privileges under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you seen Gerhardt Eisler since August 

1941? 

Mr. Freeman. I will again invoke my privileges under the fifth 

amendment. 

Mr. Morris. You see, Mr. Freeman, the difficulty for the committee 
to determine the facts in this case presented by your testimony here 
today. You have denied in general, acts of espionage. At the same 
time, when we ask you about your association with individuals who, 
this committee has evidence, did act in that capacity, you invoke 
your constitutional privilege. And that leaves us in a difficult posi- 
tion to draw any conclusions, Mr. Freeman. 

Mr. Freeman. It may, Judge. I am not responsible for that. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a Russian espionage agent who served 
as a photographer, named Anton? 

Mr. Freeman. The name means nothing to me. 

Mr. Morris. The name means nothing. I will tell you, he worked 
with Hede Massing's espionage apparatus here in the United States. 

Mr. Freeman. The name means nothing to me. 

Mr. Morris. The name means nothing to you. 

Did you know Paul Massing? 

Mr. Freeman. I decline to answer, and invoke my privileges under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a gentleman named Novikov, a 
Russian? . 

Mr. Freeman. I don't recall the name. Judge. If he was a Soviet 
Embassy official, I mav have met him. 

Mr. Morris. That is right. He was a Soviet Embassy official. 

Mr. Freeman. It is possible that I met him at some reception or 
something of that sort, but the name means nothing to me. 

Mr. Morris. And, Mr. Freeman, did you know Mr. Vladimir 
Rogov? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes; very slightly. He was a Tass correspondent 
who passed through here on the way to London. I don't recall the 
exact year. He dropped in to our office in Tass, and that is the only 
acquaintance I have with him. 

Mr. Morris. Did you make any appointments with him, Mr. 
Freeman? 

Mr. Freeman. Appointments with Mr. Rogov? 

Mr. Morris. Did you make any for him, Rogov? 

Mr. Freeman. No; none whatever. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 37 

Mr. Morris. Did 3011 know a Soviet official named Nikolai 
Zheveinov? 

Mr. Freeman. Nikolai Zheveinov? There was a Nikolai Zheveinov 
who worked in Tass in New York for a period of about a year or two. 
He was a Tass correspondent. I don't recall the exact year. It 
may have been 1944 or something of that sort. But you could ascer- 
tain the dates from our registration statements. I don't recall. I 
think it was 1944 or something of that sort. 

Mr. Morris. Did j^ou know that he was involved in espionage in 
North America? 

Mr. Freeman. I did not know that, and I would be very skeptical 
of such a statement unless I saw evidence that really corroborated it. 

Mr. Morris. I do not know whether you would accept the report 
of the Canadian Commission, but there is reference to him in that. 

Will you read the reference, Mr. Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel (reading): 

Upon this telegram Zabotin wrote his signature and the date, August 14, 1945, 
as above, and on the same date cabled the following reply * * * Martin received 
a reply from Dekanozov with permission to leave for hom.e. As a result of 
Martin's work at the San Francisco Conference and his sickness about a month, 
the latter was unable to write reports on your Tass. 

Then the Canadian Commission comments: 

The Martin referred to in the second paragraph is Zheveinov, of Tass. 

That is from page 377 of the report of the Canadian Royal Com- 
mission. 

Mr. Freeman. I know nothing about that. All I can say is that 
while Mr. Zheveinov functioned as a Tass correspondent in New 
York, he functioned as a bona fide correspondent, and I have no 
reason to doubt that he was anything but a correspondent. 

Mr. Morris. You and Zheveinov shared a hotel room in San 
Francisco together, did you not? 

Mr. Freeman. No. Zheveinov was not in San Francisco. To 
the best of my recollection, no. 

Mr. Morris. And you did not stay there with him at the time? 

Mr. Freeman. No. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in San Francisco during the founding 
sessions of the United Nations Organization? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes, of course. I mentioned that to you. 

Mr. Morris. And did you stay at the Palace Hotel? 

Mr. Freeman. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. But Mr. Zheveinov was not there at the same time? 

Mr. Freeman. No. I am quite sure that Mr. Zheveinov had 
already left our bm"eau. 

Mr. Morris. I mean that could still be. He could have left the 
bureau and he still could have been there, Mr. Freeman. 

Air. Freeman. I can answ^er that with almost a categorical no, that 
he was not. To the best of my knowledge, Mr. Zheveinov was not in 
San Francisco. 

Mr. Morris. What were yom* contacts with Constantine 
Oumansky? 

Mr. Freeman. Constantine Oumansky was the Soviet Ambassador. 

Mr Morris. And did you associate with him frequently? 



72723— 56— -pt. 2- 



38 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr Freem\n. I saw him occasionallv. I remember having dinner 
with iiim once or tmce. I saw him at Soviet Embassy receptions 

and that sort of thing. a/t at i f^ ? 

Mr Morris. Now, we have here— Do you know Mr. Molotov.^ 
Mr Freeman. I met Mr. Molotov in the course of my duties as a 

journahst. I met him at several receptions in San Francisco and in 

Mr Morris I see. Well, here is a photograph of yourself and Mr. 
Molotov which appeared in the Saturday Evening Post. I wonder 
if you would look at that, Mr. Freeman. 

"(A document was shown to the witness.) i rru- 

Mr Freeman. Of course. I remember that photograph. Ihis 
was a photograph taken at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. It was a 
dinner given by the Foreign Press Association m honor ot the tour 
foreign ministers of the Four Great Powers. I was vice president of 
the association at that tune and was seated next to Mr. Molotov, 
and seated at the same table with former Secretary of State 13yrnes 
and Mr Bevan, who was the British Foreign Minister, and I lorget 
who was there for France, actually, and Mr Spaak, the Belgian 
Foreign Minister, who was president of the General Assembly at 

Mr Morris Mr. Freeman, could you tell this committee of any of 
vour associations with Whittaker Chambers, or do I underst^and that 
your position is that with respect to all associations with Chambers, 
vou will invoke your constitutional privilege? ,  -i 

Mr. Freeman. Yes, I will invoke my constitutional privilege on 

Mr Morris. Mr. Chairman, if I may, I would like to have read 
into the record a page from Whittaker Chambers' book. The A\itness. 
The Chairman. Proceed. , . , . , i • .x • 

Mr. Morris (continuing). Because I think it has a bearing on tliis 

problem. 

The Chairman. Proceed. , t,t, • . i m u 

Mr. Mandel. Excerpt from The Witness by Whittaker Chambers, 

pages 217-219: 

In the Communist movement, I met two other intellectuals who were several 
cuts ab^ve the members of the Nearing study group One of them was Sender 
Garlin, the nervous, redheaded young man who had ^"^^iff ^ "^/ ^^^f,.^^ 
with the Communist Party. He was not yet a member of the Communist r arty, 
Though he sZ became oL. At that time he was working as a reporter for the 
Bronx Home News. He introduced me to someone of much greater specific 
gravity tlZhimself-Harry Freeman, the younger brother of Joseph Freeman, 

^^I 7e"ently opened a copy of the Saturday Evening Post to a photograph that 
ran Icross the top of one page. It was a picture of a banquet for Vyacheslav 
Molotov Beside^he Sovfet' Foreign Minister and turned towai-d him defer- 
entiallv in conversation, was my old comrade, Harry Freeinan He ^\a. sleeker 
7nu7\l 1 ad been 25 years before, but, except for the fact that he wore a formal 
black tie not otherwise much changed. He is now, and has been, in effect^ or in 
fact, for mrnyTar^the assistant chief in the United States of Tass, the Soviet 

Government's official news service. n^^^oii Tnivpr^itv 

When I first knew him, Harry Freeman was just out of Cornell ^/uve i^ity 
where he had brilliantly majored in history. He was a very middle-class int el- 
ect! al extremely youtiful-looking, but quietly self-assured and perfectly confi- 
dent of himself.* * * It was an entirely new type of niind to me No matter 
how favo Sle his opinion had been to an individual or ^is political role if that 
person fell from grace in the Communist Party, Harry Freeman changed his 
SpSion about him instantly. That was not strange; that was a commonplace of 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 39 

Communist behavior. What was strange was that Harry seemed to change 
without any effort or embarrassment. There seemed to vanisii from his mind 
any recollection that he had ever held any opinion other than the approved one. 
If you taxed him with his former views, he would show surprise, and that surprise 
would be authentic. He would then demonstrate to you, in a series of mental 
acrobatics so flexible that the shifts were all but untraceable, that he had never 
thought anything else. More adroitly and more completely than any other 
Communist I knew, Harry Freeman possessed the conviction that the party line 
is always right. 

He had been an ardent admirer of Trotsky. "The three greatest minds of our 
times," he said to me more than once, "are Freud, Einstein, and Trotsky." But 
the moment Trotsky fell from power, Harry Freeman became a Stalinist over- 
night, and so completely a Stalinist that he was outraged that I should suggest 
that he had ever been anything else. I dwell on this because he was a faultless 
example of the Stalinist mind — instantly manipulable, pragmatic, motivated by 
the instinctive knowledge that political position (contingent in the Communist 
Part}' on unfailingly correct official views) is indispensable to political power. 
And that power he desired, not for himself, but for revolutionar} ends, for without 
political power, nothing can be achieved in history — certainly not a revolution. 
In personal relations, Harry Freeman was an extremely kind and even sensitive 
man. But his sensitivity never got in the way of his realism. 

I remember that one day, when we were both working at the Daily Worker 
office on First Street, we walked up the Bowery together at noon. We were going 
to have lunch with Ruth Stout, the sister of Rex Stout, the detective story writer 
of Nero Wolfe fame. It was bitter cold and the wretched Bowery floaters, most 
of them without overcoats, were trying to find shelter in doorways or warmth 
beside pathetic fires. A shivering derelict came up to us and asked for a handout. 
Harry glanced past him, which was the proper Communist attitude. Communists 
hold that to give alms is to dull the revolutionary spirit of the masses, but I 
could never get out of my mind the 50-cent piece that .lules Radon had left on my 
bed in New Orleans. I gave the wretched man what change I had in my pocket. 
He seized my hand and kissed it. The gesture was so shocking that I could not 
control my feelings. Harry drew me away. "You must not think about them," 
he said, very gentlj^ for he, too, was deeply moved. "We can't save them 
they are lost. We can only save our generation, perhaps, and the children." 
There spoke the Communist, and, from the Communist position, he was right and 
I was wrong. 

I am convinced that Harry Freeman in his black tie, sitting next to Molotov 
behind the silver and the linen, still believes that he is saving the children. But 
his mind tells him that the way to save them is to exercise a certain kind of political 
power, and to have that power to exercise as a revolutionist, it is necessary to be 
adept in making instant adjustments to the official party line. W^hich is more 
important: The power or the adjustment? As a realist, Freeman would answer: 
The power. 

That is the mind of the Communist bureaucrat It is a kind of mind that, 
even as a Communist, I found alien to me. But it is a mind that I think I under- 
stand, and that I think most of its opponents do not understand, for they suppose 
that it is greedy onl}' for power, and not the revolutionary ends which that power 
has in view. In that lies the danger of underestimating the force of faith that 
moves the enemy, and a failure also to grasp to what degree the revolution has 
grown up and history has transformed the techniques of struggle. There are no 
more barricades. Communist power today rides in tank armies and conspires 
in black ties to overthrow its enemies. But the Stalinist has changed only his 
tie, not his mind. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, would you want to give any testimony 
■with respect to any of the episodes that took place and are referred 
to by Mr. Chambers in The Witness? 

Mr. Freeman. No. I will invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment there. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, do you know John Abt? 

Mr. Freeman. I will claim my privilege under the fifth amendment 
on that. 

Mr. Morris. And did you have knowledge that John Abt was 
active in espionage for the Soviet organization? Did you have 
knowledge of that fact? 



40 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 
Mr. Freeman. I have no knowledo:e of that whatsoever, su-. 
Mr. Morris. But you will not tell us what your associations with 
John Abt have been? 

Mr. Freeman. I have already told you : Aly privilege on that 

question. , ^^ , ^^ „ 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a woman named Ursula Wassermanr' 

She was formerly an"^ American citizen. She formerly worked at the 

United Nations. I think she has renounced her American citizenship. 
Mr. Freeman. I recall having met a girl whom I knew very 

slightly— I think I met her twice in my life — by that name, many 

years ago. , i /. • 

Mr Morris. I see. But vou were not particularly friendly with 

her? 

Mr. Freeman. No, no. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge was Ursula Wasserman a member 
of the Harry Hines'" Waterfront Club of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Freeman. I wouldn't have the slightest idea. She may have 
been or may not have been. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Do you know a woman named Louise 

Bransten? i i r-j i i 

Mr. Freeman. I will invoke my privdeges under the hlth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. About Louise Bransten? 
Mr. Freeman. Yes. ^ 

Mr. Morris. Were you in contact with her during the San l^ran- 
cisco founding of the United Nations in 1945? 

Mr. Freeman. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment, 

sir. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in fact a guest at her home on or about 

April 29, 1945, in San Francisco? , ^. , i 

Mr. Freeman. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment. 
Mr. Morris. Did you go to her home in the company of a woman 

named Elinore Kahn? i i n. i i 

Mr. Freeman. I invoke my privileges under the filth amendment. 

Mr! Morris. Did you ever go to the home of Elinore Kahn in 
company with Louise Bransten? 

Mr Freeman. I invoke my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Mr. and Mrs. Pravdin? The first 
name of the gentleman is Vladimir. 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. I listed him as the manager of our bureau 
for the period— I forget the period. It was approximately 1945. 
He was the manager of our bureau from January 1944 to December 

1945. .. -r. 1- . . 

Mr. Morris. To your Icnowledge, was Mrs. Pravdin a part ot 

EUzabeth Bentley's espionage apparatus? 

Mr. Freeman. Not that I Imow of. 

Air. Morris. There is one other question I would like to ask you 
about Ursula Wasserman, Mr. Freeman. I should have asked it 

sooner. i i v j 

Have you ever given letters to Ursula Wasserman to be dehvered 

to personnel in South America? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. I remember. As a matter of fact, 1 re- 
membered it only because I saw it in a newspaper, something of that 
sort, or I would have forgotten it completely. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 41 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us what- 



Mr. Freeman. Yes. I knew her very slightly. She was going to 
Argentina to do journalism of some sort, and she asked whether 
I would give her a letter of introduction to the Tass correspondent 
there, which I did. I didn't know the Tass correspondent actually, 
but 1 just identified her as an American journalist, which was all I 
knew about her, actually. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, have you ever had any contact with 
an official of the Comintern named Ewart, a German who used the 
name Ewart? 

Mr. Freeman. I will invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment on that. 

Mr. !MoRRis. Have you ever had any contact with the Comintern 
representative who used the assumed name of Cohen? 

Mr. Freeman. The name means nothing to me, but I will invoke 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. He had an office 

Mr. Freeman. I am sorry, Judge. 

Mr. Morris. He had an office, I believe, in the Daily Worker, and 
for a period of time he was asked — A few people were privy to the 
fact that he had arrived in the country and he would be directing the 
Daily Worker, and it is our information that you were privy to that 
secret. 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Freeman. I will invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment on that. 

Mr. Morris. Did this gentleman ever visit you at — Did you 
ever have an apartment in Henry Street, Brooklyn? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Did this gentleman — I believe he is a Scotsman — 
ever visit you at your Henry Street apartment in Brooklyn? 

Mr. Freeman. I will invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Air. Morris. Do 3'ou know Edwin Smith? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Morris. Wlio was Edwin Smith? 

Mr. Freeman. Edwin Smith is a private businessman who dis- 
tributes Soviet photographs to the press. He sells them to the press. 
He also is an agent handling Soviet music. 

Mr. Morris. And you have been a friend of his for many years? 

Mr. Freeman. Not many. I would say about 4 or 5 years. I have 
known him about 4 or 5 years. 

Mr. Morris. Four or five years. Do you know Paul Robeson? 

Mr. Freeman. Very slightly. I have met him at receptions and 
that sort of thing. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended parties or dinners in his honor? 

Mr. Freeman. I don't recall, Judge Morris. I remember having 
seen him at some diplomatic receptions, and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Robert F. Hall? 

Mr. Freeman. I will invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment on that. 

Mr. Morris. Alexander Trachtenberg? 

Mr. Freeman. I will invoke my privilege again. Judge. 

Mr. Morris. Charles Recht? 



42 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Freeman. I will invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. Charles Reclit — that is R-e-c-h-t — you know, he has 
been counsel for the Soviet Embassy in New York, American counselor; 
has he not? 

Mr. Freeman. 1 will invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Hugh Deane? 

Mr. Freeman. There is a — Is he a journalist, a newspaperman? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Freeman. I would not say I know him. I met him once or 

twice. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know William E. Dodd, Jr.? 

Mr. Freeman. Williani E. Dodd? Yes. 

Mr. Rand. Junior? 

Mr. Freeman. Junior? 

Mr. Rand. Junior, you said. Judge Morris? 

Mr. Morris. Junior, yes. 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did he work for Tass? 

Mr. Freeman. He worked for Tass for a short time. I don't 
remember the year exactly. It was quite some time ago, in the 
very early forties. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Howard Fast? 

Mr. Freeman. I "will invoke my privilege under the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know James Allen? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Who is James Allen? 

Mr. Freeman. James Allen is an editor — an author of books and 
an editor. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Freeman, from time to time we have noticed 
that some of the Communist publications, some of the Communist- 
language publications here, make reference to Tass news dispatches 
and refer to Tass Wire Service. 

Mr. Freeman. Well, I suppose they do. But I imagine that 
the New York Times — I see them much more often in the New York 
Times or the New York Herald Tribune or the Washington Post 
than any other newspapers. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony that you do not service those 
papers? 

Mr. Freeman. We do not. We service no papers in this country. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have credentials from the New York City 
Police Department? 

Mr. Freeman. I do. 

Mr. Morris. You do. Are they issued to all your reporters, 
Mr. Freeman? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. As a routine measure? 

Mr. Freeman. As a routine, yes. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Senator. 

The Chairman. You may stand aside, sir. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Rand. Is Mr. Freeman excused? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, he is excused. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 43 

Mr. Rand. Thank you. 

The CHAiRMAisr. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Morris. Hays Jones. 

Mr. Raxd. May we have the same ruling, Senator, with respect to 
the cameras for ]\Ir. Jones? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Gentlemen, I was not present. You do not want the lights on; 
is that it? 

Mr. Rand. We do not want the lights. And if there are photo- 
graphs to be taken, may we have them taken in the beginning and 
not during the testimony? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. I think that is all right. 

Mr. Rand. May we have the lights off? 

The Chairman.'^ Turn the lights off, please. 

Mr. Rand. The committee apparently has little power over the 
press. 

The Chairman. Turn it off. 

A Voice. It is on you, sir. 

The Chairman. Turn the light off. 

A Voice. Off' of you, too? 

The Chairman. Yes, you can turn it off. 

Stand up, sir. 

Do vou solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give is the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Jones. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HAYS JONES, NEW YORK, N. Y. , ACCOMPANIED 
BY HARRY I. RAND, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Rand. Will you take them and then- 



The Chairman. Just wait a minute, su-. I will give the orders. 

Mr. Rand. I am sorry, sir. 

The Chairman. Take your pictures, gentlemen. 

A Voice. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Now proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the 
reporter, Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. My name is Hays Jones; address, 33 West 76th Street, 
New York City. ^ 

Mr. Morris. And what is your occupation, Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. Journalist. 

Mr. Morris. And where do you work? 

Mr. Jones. For Tass News Agency. 

Mr. Morris. And what do you do at the Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Jones. I work in the commercial department and occasionally 
put in a shift in the news department, because of the requu-ement 
there. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been working for Tass? 

Mr. Jones. Approximately 12 years. 

Mr. Morris. What has been the nature of your work at Tass? 

Mr. Jones. We send information on prices and send in commercial 
and industrial statistics, the condition of the market in various com- 
modities, especially the grains and furs and hides and things like 



44 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

bristles, hog bristles, to make paint brushes out of, that is, and other 
things like that. 

Air. Morris. Were you a journalist before you were employed by 
Tass? 

Mr. Jones. I had various occupations. I used to write occasion- 
ally. And I worked on certain other publications. I worked on the 
National Maritime Union Pilot for a while. 

Mr. Morris. But the question is, Mr. Jones, Were you a newspaper- 
man, a journalist, or did you have some other occupation at the time 
of your first employment with Tass? 

Air. Jones. When I was first employed by Tass, I was working as 
a seaman on a ship. 

Mr. Morris. You went from the job as a seaman on a ship to Tass; 
is that right? 

Mr. Jones. That is right. 

The Chairman. In what capacity did 3"ou go to Tass? 

Mr. Jones. I went there on trial. 

The Chairman. In what capacity? 

Mr. Jones. As what they call an editor, which actually is a rewrite 
man. You see, in the agencies like AP, UP, or Tass, and Interna- 
tional, they call the men editors, although actuallj' what they are 
doing is rewriting stories that come in from other sources, like the 
newspapers, like an editor on AP may rewrite a story in the Times, 
the same as we rewrite a story in the Times or from the Tribune, or 
we collect a story from various sources and put it together. 

The Chairman. Were you a Communist at that time? 

Mr. Jones. Not while I worked for Tass, no. 

You mean a member of the Communist Party? 

The Chairman. Sir? 

Mr, Jones. A member of the Communist Party; is that what you 



mean? 



The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jones. Not while I worked for Tass. 

The Chairman. When you went to work for Tass, were you a 
member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. When I worked for Tass, I was not a member of the 
Communist Party. 

The Chairman. All right. The da}^ before you went to work for 
Tass, were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Jones. I was not a member on that day, either. 

The Chairman. A week before, were you a member? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer on the grounds that the fifth 
amendment requires that you can't compel a man to testify against 
himself. 

The Chairman. Whv did vou withdraw from the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Jones. Who said I did? 

The Chairman. I am asking you the question. 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. In fact, in the executive session testimony, Mr. Jones, 
did you not say that you were not a member of the Communist 
Part}^ the day before you worked for the Tass agency 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 45 

Mr. Jones. That is right. 

Mr. AIoRRis. But, as to the day before that, you refused to answer 
on the grounds 

Air. Jones. That I dechned to answer from any time up to the 
time I worked for Tass. 

Mr. Morris. That is a different answer from what you have just 
given Senator Eastland. Senator EastLind asked you if you were a 
Communist Party member the day before you worked for Tass. 

Mr. Jones. Yes. And I testified now, as I testified then, that I 
was not a member of the Communist Parry the day before I went to 
work in the Tass office. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I will ask the question, 1 day before that, 
just 24 hours earlier, were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Rand. One day before what, Judge? 

Mr. Morris. The day before. In other words, 2 days before he 
worked for Tass. 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. \IoRRis. Now, you were associated with the Marine Workers 
Industrial Union; were joii not? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Yes? 

]Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do with the Marine Workers Industrial 
Union? 

Mr. Jones. I edited their weekly magazine called the Marine 
Workers' Voice. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Were you born in the United States, Mr. 
Jones? 

]Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. In what State? 

Mr. Jones. Tennessee. 

Mr. Morris. And vou were a seaman hi your early days; were you 
not? 

Mr. Jones. I was a seaman for a few years. 

Mr. Morris. And then what other employment did you have 
before? 

Mr. Jones. WeU, I worked in logging camps. I worked in con- 
struction camps, carried newspapers to earn a living to go to school on. 
I worked in a librarj', to go to school. A lot of different things. 

Mr. Morris. And then when did you first work for the Marine 
Workers Industrial Union? 

Mr, Jones. I don't remember the date. Some time in 1932, I 
think. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Were you a Communist at the time? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the Alarine Workers Industrial Union was 
dissolved and the organization was incorporated by the National 
Maritime Union; was it not? 

Mr. Jones. No. That is not true. 

Mr, Morris. Will you tell us what happened? 

Mr. Jones. The Marine Workers Industrial Union dissolved, with 
the recommendation that its members join the International Seamen's 



46 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Union which was at that time under the control of a gentlenian 
named Gus Brown, and another one— I forget the names of the other 
two- Dave Grange and a couple of more names I can't remember. 
Mr. Morris. And then how did the National Maritime Union 

evolve from that? , it.i-i-^ 

Mr Jones. The National Maritmie Union started, i think it was, 
in 1936 It might have been early 1937, with an unorganized strike 
on board the steamer California, I think. The strike was led by 
Joseph Curran. It was known as a rank-and-file strike. And alter 
that strike was over, there were some negotiations between that group 
of men of whom I was not one, and the CIO officials, when the 
National Maritune Union was organized. I had nothing to do with it 

at that time. • ^ .i /n  ^. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever act as a courier tor the Communist 

Party? 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer. >r- i o 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a man named George Mmk.'' 
Mr. Jones. I decHne to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 

Mr Morris. Do you know a man named Alfred Wagenknecht? 
Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 

amendment. ^-rr i i i 

Mr Morris. Did you ever tell Alfred Wagenknecht, who was a 
member of the State committee of the Communist Party of Illinois, 
that you had enough dynamite available to blow up ships? 

Mr. Jones. I never had a hand on a stick of dynamite in my lite. 

Mr! Morris. Did you ever tell him you had it available? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Morris. So you deny that? 

Mr. Jones. Absolutely and flatly. I deny that I ever did any 

sabotage in my life. tj • i o 

Mr. Morris. Did Harry Bridges— Do you know Harry Bridges;' 

Mr. Jones. I met him once. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you meet him? 

Mr. Jones. I think it was in Chicago. 

Mr. Morris. What was the occasion? 

Mr Jones. He came through there to a meeting— I forget— they 
had an organizer up there, and he came through town to see his 
organizer, and I just happened to meet him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you on May 29, 1941, attend a meeting 
of the Chicago Workers' School in room 207, 231 South Wells Street, 

Mr.'' Jones. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 

amendment. ^ ^u *. 4^- oao 

Mr. Morris. Did you report that there were at ttiat time 6bZ 
Communist Party members on Great Lakes ships? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Did you say there were 17,000 pieces of literature 
handed out on How to'Prepare for an Emergency? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. And also on how to get together "When orders 

for action came"? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 47 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did 3^011 attend a luncheon for Phil Bart at the 
Sherman Hotel in Chicago on May 11, 1943? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Have you written, Mr. Jones, a pamphlet called 
Seamen and Longshoremen Under the Red Flag? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give this to the witness, please? 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Morris. Will you read that pamphlet for us, read the face of 
that pamplilet. Just read the pamphlet, the face of the pamphlet, 
Mr. Jones. 

Mr. Jones. What? 

Mr. Morris. Just read the face of the pamphlet. 

Mr. Jones. You mean this page? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; everything on the page. 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

In a Soviet America; seamen and longshoremen under the red flag. 

Then there are two 36 's on it, in handwriting, ''By Hays Jones," 
and then "5 cents." 

Mr. Morris. Did you write that pamphlet? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you read the last paragraph in that pamph- 
let? 

Mr. Jones. The last paragraph says, "Join the Communist Party." 

Mr. Morris. The last fidl paragraph, Mr. Jones. 

Mr. Jones. That is a full paragraph. It is spaced off by itself. 
You mean the one before that? 

The Chairman. Read the next one, sir. 

Mr. Jones (reading) : 

The Communist Party needs the American workers today. In spite of the 
mob hysteria and violence and dirt stirred up against the Communists, the 
Communist Party \\ill continue to lead the working class in action more and more 
consciously through unity of all workers to better wages and working conditions, 
to unemployment and social insurance, to the fight against war and fascism, to a 
Soviet America. 

Join the Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Is that today a true statement, Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. I decline to answer it on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment . 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a delegate to the Commtern at any 
time, Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. Never. 

Mr. Morris. Never? 

Mr. Jones. Never. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, do we have anything that would indicate 
that Mr. Jones served in that capacity? 

Mr. Mandel. In the International Press Correspondence for 
October 30, 1928, volume 8, No. 76, is a speech by Comrade Jones 
representing the United States before the Communist International. 

Air. Morris. I wonder if the reporter would show that to the wit- 
ness, please. 



48 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Morris. Was that your speech, Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. My speech? No. 

Mr. Morris. It was not? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. 

Mr. Jones. Jones is a relatively common name. It might be Jesse 
Jones talking, as well as me. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, ]Mr. Jones. 

I have no more questions of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You may stand aside. You are released from your 
subpena. 

Mr. Rand. Is Mr. Jones excused. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. You are excused. 

The Chairman. Who is the next witness? 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Lurie, will you come forward, please? 

The Chairman. Will you stand up, ma'am. 

Do you solemnlv swear the testimony you are about to give is the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. LuRiE. I do. 

The Chairman. Just let them get their pictures. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. SASHA SMALL LURIE, NEW YORK, N. Y., 
ACCOMPANIED BY HARRY I. RAND, HER ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Lurie, I will be very brief. Will you give your 
name and address to the reporter. 

Mrs. LuRiE. Sasha Small Lurie, 345 Bleeker Street. 

The Chairman. I cannot hear you, ma'am. Will you talk into 
the microphone. 

Mrs. LuRiE. I am sorry. I am not accustomed to talkmsr. 

Shall I repeat the whole thing? 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Airs. LuRiE. Shall I repeat the whole thing? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; please do. 

Mrs. Lurie. Sasha Small Lurie, 345 Bleeker Street, New York City. 

Mr. Morris. Are you an American citizen? 

The Chairman. Hold the mike up, please. 

Mr. Rand. Senator, may I inquire whether these cameras which 
are pointed toward us are now operating? 

The Chairman. I do not know. You did not object to it. 

Mr. Rand. I did, Senator. 

The Chairman. No, sir. You objected to the light. 

Mr. Rand. I also, before the Senator came m, objected to the 
cameras 

The Chairman. Sit down, sir. 

Mr. Rand. I am sorry. • i i 

The Chairman. Sit down, sir. You are here to confer with the 

witness. . 

Now, gentlemen, he objects to taking pictures, bo you will liave 

to desist. 
Proceed . 
Mr. Morris. Mrs. Lurie, are you employed by Tass News Agency 

now? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 49 

Mrs. LuRiE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you work in the New York office? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. "\Miat is your job there? 

Mrs. LuRiE. My title is editor. I can best answer that question by 
describing a t^^pical morning's work. 

Mr. Morris. Please do. 

Mrs. LuRiE. I read all the New York Cit}^ daily newspapers and, 
in addition to that, several Chicago newspapers, several Washington 
newspapers, and some out-of-town papers, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 
the San Francisco Chronicle, the Des IVIoines Register. Those are 
typical on any typical day. In addition to that I read a large nmnber 
of magazmes on the day that they happen to come in — weekly maga- 
zines or monthl}', as the case ma}^ be — everything from the United 
vStates News and World Report, Busmess Week and Time, and Life, 
Harper's, Atlantic, Foreign Affahs, et cetera. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you make digests of what 3'ou read? 

Mrs. LuRiE. If it is somethmg newsworthy, I will make a digest of 
it, and write it in the form of a cable. 

Mr. Morris. And then do you actually send it yom-self, or does 
someone in the agency send it? 

Mrs. LuRiE. No. I will then turn it over to the editor in charge, 
who is usually 

Mr. AIoRRis. Do vou have anv guide to determine what is news- 
worthy? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Well, after 11 years, you begin to get the feel of what 
is newsworthy. 

Mr. Morris. I mean, is it from the Soviet point of view, or is it 

Mrs. LuRiE. Oh, no. It is from the point of view of what is news 
in the United States. 

Mr. Morris. And you just transmit it straight 

Mrs. LuRiE. That is right. 

Mr. Morris (continuing). To the Soviet Union? 

Mrs. LuRiE. That is right. And if we ever make a mistake in a 
quotation, we very quickly send a correction. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Lmie, you were born Sasha SmaU? Your 
name was Sasha Small when vou were born? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Yes, su\ 

Mr. Morris. And where were you born? 

Airs. LuRiE. In Montreal, Canada. 

Mr. Morris. And you became an American citizen by virtue of 
your parents' natm-alization? 

Mrs. LuRiE. My father's naturalization. 

Mr. Morris. AI the age of 10, were you? 

Mrs. LuRiE. I was 10 when we came here. 

Mr. Morris. Ten when you came here? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Yes. I believe I was 15 when my father became 
a citizen. 

Mr. Morris. You were educated at Columbia University? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris, \Yhat did you do when you left Columbia University? 

Mrs. LuRiE. For a while I gave music lessons. 

Mr. Morris. You gave music lessons. Then what did you do? 



50 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. LuRiE. I went to work for a publication, the Labor Defender, 
of which I subsequentlv became the editor. 

Mr. Morris. That was in 1938 or 1939? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Well, I went in 1932, or thereabouts— I am not 
absolutely sure of the date— and the Labor Defender went out of 
existence about 1938 or 1939. I don't exactly remember. And it 
was succeeded by a publication called Equal Justice, which I con- 
tinued on. rT> • 1 • ^ t 

Mr. Morris. Now, was the Labor Defender the ofhcial journal ol 
the International Labor Defense. 

Mrs. LuRiE. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Equal Justice succeeded to all the files and the 
records of Labor Defender? 

Mrs. LuRiE. I think so. 

Mr Morris. And you served with Equal Justice for what period.'' 

Mrs. LuRiE. Untirsometime in 1942. I don't remember exactly. 
Sometime in the fall of 1942. 

Mr. Morris. And then what did you do? 

Just wait a minute, Mrs. Liirie. 

Mrs. LuRiE. I am sorry. 

Mr. Morris. Just wait until that is over. 

All right. 

Mr R.\ND. What was the question? 

Mr. Morris. After you left Equal Justice, in 1942, what was your 

Mrs. LuRiE. :Mv next job was in the spring of 1943, with a com- 
mittee that was raising money for the war orphans of Stalmgrad. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you work for that committee? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Until late in 1944. I don't remember exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Was this a paid job? 

Mrs. LuRiE. Oh, yes. . • o 

Mr. Morris. Where was the office of that organization.'' 

Mrs. Lx^RiE. It was on Madison Avenue. 

Mr. Morris. You do not remember where? 

Mrs LuRiE I will remember in a minute. It was at 41st btreet 
and Madison. I think the number was 485. Then it moved to Park 
Avenue. And I think the number on Park Avenue was 103, but 1 am 

not sure. . 

Mr. Morris. Who ran that office, Mrs. Lurie.'' 

Mrs. LuRiE. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Who ran that office? 

Mrs. LuRiE. I don't understand what you mean, who ran it. 

Mr. Morris. W^ell, who was the manager of the oflace? 

Mrs. LuRiE. There was a Mr. Budisch. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name? 

Mrs. Lurie. Budisch. 

Mr. Morris. Will vou spell tliat? 

Mrs. Lurie. I am not sure. I believe it is B-u-d-i-s-c-h. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was he an American citizen? 

Mrs. Lurie. As far as I know, he was. 

Mr. Morris. I mean, even though it was a committee to aid war 
orphans hi vStalingrad, it was strictly an American committee? 

Mrs. Lurie. Oh, it most assuredly was. George Gordon Battle 
was the chairman of it; W. W. Cohn was the president. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 51 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Lurie, what was j^our next job after that? 

Mrs. Lurie. Tass. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Mrs. Lurie. I went to work with Tass. 

Mr. Morris. Right directly with Tass. Now, the day before you 
worked for Tass were you a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness consults with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Lurie. I decline to answer that question under my rights — 
invoking my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party the 
day after you worked for Tass? 

Mrs. Lurie. No. 

Mr. Morris. And j'ou have not been since? 

Mrs. Lurie. I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Were jou a member of the Communist Party when 
you worked for the Labor Defender in 1932? 

Mrs. Lurie. I must decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you were the editor of Labor Defender in 1938 or 1939? 

Mr. Lurie. I must decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist when you worked for Equal 
Justice? 

Mrs. Lurie. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist when you worked for tlie 
Committee for War Orphans in Stalingi-ad? 

Mrs. Lurie. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr, Morris. Mrs. Lurie, we asked you the other day if you can 
recall having \vritten an article for the Liternational Press Corre- 
spondence in Moscow. 

Mrs. Lurie. And I told you I didn't remember. 

Mr. Morris. I see. May I offer these two articles by a woman 
described here as Sasha Small, New York. I ask you if you will look 
at that and see if that will refresh your recollection. There are two 
articles there, Mrs. Lurie. 

Mrs. Lurie. I am ciuite sure I did not contribute these articles to 
the International Press Correspondence. 

Mr. Morris. You are quite sure you did not? 

Mrs. Lurie. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Nonetheless, Mr. Chairman, may they go in the record at this time? 

The Chairman. Yes, 

(The articles referred to were marked "Exhibit No. 2 and Exhibit 
No. 2-A" and are as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 2 

[From International Press Correspondence, vol. 26, pp. 686, 687 April 27, 1935] 

Canadian Labour Defence Victory 

By Sasha Small (New York) 

The Canadian Labour Defence League has recently won a very great victory 
against the forces of ruling-class justice. Not satisfied with their infamous 
section 98, which made the crushing of the Canadian Communist Party possible, 
which was responsible for sending eight of the leaders of the Canadian working 
class to Kingston Penitentiary, the Canadian ruling class, vassals of British 



52 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

imperialism, tried to behead the militant defence movement by charging the 
national secretary of the C. L. D. L., A. E. Smith, with "sedition." 

But the 43,000 members of the C. L. D. L. immediately swung into action, a 
huge wave of mass protest swept the country. Wm. L. Patterson, national 
secretary of the American I. L. D., went to Canada to speak at a mass protest 
demonstration pledging international solidarity, but was deported from the 
Canadian border. The American I. L. D. also sent one of its leading attorneys, 
Leo Gallagher, just returned from a European tour in behalf of the Reichstag 
trial defendants. 

The protest meeting at which Patterson was scheduled to speak was an overflow 
meeting. More than 2,000 workers w^ere turned away, and these assembled 
sent the following protest resolution to the imperialist Bennett: — 

"We view this act as another instance of the attempt of the governmental 
authorities to prevent organisation of defence in the Smith trial. We demand 
that the order of deportation against Comrade Patterson be rescinded, and that 
he be permitted to enter this country any time he or the labour organisations 
deem it advisable." 

The same determination to hamper the defence was shown when the immigration 
authorities attempted to turn Gallagher back from the border on the ground that 
his entry would violate the "contract labour" clause in the immigration law. 
But Gallagher was admitted. And the jury was forced to bring in a verdict of 
"not guilty." 

A. E. Smith was charged with "uttering seditious words." The seditious words 
in question were uttered on November 17, 1933, when a delegation, elected by 
the Eastern Canada Congress for Repeal of Section 98, went to Ottawa to lay its 
demands before Premier IBennett. Among the demands were cancellation of the 
deportation of Tom Cacic to fascist Yugoslavia, recognition of political prisoners 
and improved treatment, investigation into Kingston prison by a delegation from 
the Congress and indictment of those responsible for the attempt on Tim Buck's 
life. When Smith introduced the delegation he said: "Our language may not 
be diplomatic, but it is the language of the working class." Mr. Bennett grew 
very angry. While the delegation was speaking, Mr. Bennett pointed at Smith 
and said: "I don't want to hear from you. Show him out. An agitator who 
stands behind other people and saves his own skin." The delegation w^as thrown 
out. 

In all these charges of sedition, the Government never for one moment denied 
that Tim Buck was fired at in his prison cell at Kingston prison on October 20, 
1932. Last July, when Tim Buck was on trial charged with being responsible 
for the riot in Kingston Penitentiary, he shouted at one of the crown witnesses — a 
])rison guard: "Mr. Henderson, were you one of the men who attempted to murder 
me in my cell?" It was not denied. 

Preparation was made beforehand to prevent the truth of the attempt on Buck's 
life to be brought into Smith's defence. 

The C. L. D. L. sharply put the issues involved before the Canadian masses. 
It showed in the leaflets and resolutions it issued that the issue at stake was the 
endangered life of working-class leaders in jail. 

The Bennett government made no attempt to disprove its responsibility. It 
made only the attempt' o railroad A. E. Smith to jail, where they already hold 
Tim Buck, Tom Eweii -om Cacic, Malcolm Bruce, Sam Carr, John Boychuk, 
Matthew Popovich, Til, Hill. The Bennett government wanted only to break 
the mighty defense orga^nization of the Canadian working class — an organization 
which has carried throu/h several nationwide defense congresses demanding the 
repeal of the hateful ai i notorious section 98; which has collected 459,000 en- 
dorsements of the rep ' campaign, including 118 trade-union locals; which 
handled some 1,000 ar. sts in the year 1933, the greatest majority of which 
resulted in victory for tl e C. L. D. L.; which issued 5,000,000 leaflets in the Tim 
Buck case alone. Takii g only one example of its work, given in the report at its 
first representative national convention, it is easy to see why the Bennett govern- 
ment should be especially determined to crush this militant defence organisation: 

"Another interesting e])isode in Vancouver work: We organized national 
demonstrations throughout the country against the Tim Buck frameup on 
February 20. The Vancouver D. C. C. responded immediately to the instructions 
of the N. E. C, arranged demonstrations and held mass meetings in four halls. 
While the meetings were in session, word came that a whole batch of scabs were 
being brought through the docks to Vancouver Harbor to go to Anyox, where 
the strike was on. Word was passed around and the committee got together 
and very quickly decided that the meeting should disband, go down to the docks 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY DST THE UNITED STATES 53 

and see that the scabs did not go to Anyox. This was done. A big scrap took 
place at the docks, a number of poUce were the worse for the experience, and 
when the scabs were routed, the workers came back to the halls and finished 
their meetings. Here you have the real C. L. D. L. participating in strike strug- 
gles." 

The C. L, D. L. won a great victory in the Smith case. The courtroom was 
jammed each day of the trial. The judge was loaded with protest telegrams and 
resolutions from every corner of Canada. A. E. Smith defended himself with 
the aid of several outstanding attorneys. The C, L. D. L. has correctly estimated 
this victory. They have shown that it was not due to any imaginary "fairness 
of capitalist justice," but due to the intense radicalization of the masses, the 
great mass pressure developed by the C. L. D. L., not only among the workers, 
but also among sections of the middle class; the beginning of real unity in the 
ranks of the workers, despite the sabotage of the reformist leaders. They are 
determined to utilise this victory to strengthen the defence struggle on all fronts, 
to treble their membership and influence, and to force the release of all class-war 
prisoners. 

Exhibit No. 2-A 
[From International Press Correspondence, vol. 64, pp. 1723-1724, December 22, 1934] 

The White Terror 

the scottsboro case before the united states supreme court 

By Sasha SmaU (New York) 

The Scottsboro case, through the appeals of Haywood Patterson and Clarence 
Norris, is once more before the United States Supreme Court. 

On November 7, 1932, this highest court in the land was forced to hand down a 
decision reversing the original lynch verdict against nine innocent Negro boys in 
Scottsboro, Ala., in April 1931. 

The International Labor Defense, which had entered the defense immediately 
after the forces of lynch rule in Alabama had heralded their legal murder decision 
against 8 of the 9 boys, fought for the freedom of the boys every inch of the intri- 
cate way through the tangle of legal machinery, accompanied by the development 
of a nationwide and worldwide mass campaign of defense and support. 

By the time the International Labor Defense had carried the appeal to the 
highest court in the country, the Scottsboro boys had become symbols of frameup 
and national oppression to millions the world over. Street demonstrations, 
parades, demands upon American embassies, militant actions had taken place in 
every major city of the world from Germany to Africa. 

The scene of battle was shifted back to Alabama. This time in Decatur. And 
it was at this second trial that Ruby Bates, one of the girls whose supposed attack 
hau been the cause of the lynch verdict, repudiated her earlier testimony and 
admitted that she had lied. But Haywood Patterson was sentenced to death a 
second time. The greatest wave of mass protest yet see' in the Scottsboro case 
followed this second murder decision. A mass march c ',000 Negro and white 
workers converged upon Washington. The volume of p ^est upon the Alabama 
courts swelled, and as a result Judge Horton reversed L ■> own decision and sen- 
tence, stating clearly that the "evidence preponderated, greatly in favor of the 
defendants" and the case came up for trial in Alabama a' pird time. 

Once more a death sentence for Haywood Patters^'^ i and Clarence Norris 
followed. The struggle continued unabated. All appjp,ls were taken, all the 
necessary motions w"ere made. But the lynchers' ageL^;s on the bench of the 
Alabama State Supreme Court, refusing to release theii^ prey, set December 7, 
1934, as the date of execution for the two boys. 

And for the second time the International Labor Defense was faced with the 
task of bringing this case before the United States Supreme Court. 

The new obstacle which presented its.elf was Samuel S. Liebowitz, the trial 
lawyer engaged by the ILD to conduct the trials in Alabama, in accordance with 
the ILD policy of securing the best legal talent available for the job at hand. 
When Mr. Liebowitz was informed that the ILD had succeeded in getting 
Walter H. Pollak, brilliant constitutional attorney, who had successfully argued 
the first appeal to the United States Supreme Court, to take the appeal there the 
second time, he not only announced that he was out of the Scottsboro case, but 
he proceeded to organize all those elements who had during the S}i years previous 



54 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

socrctly sabotaged or openly fought the boys' defense into an "American Scotts- 
l)oro Committee." The ILD had never considered Liebowitz for the Supreme 
Court appeals since he had never practiced before that Court before, in fact, 
was admitted only a few weeks ago. 

By means of trickery, lies, threats, promises, maneuvers with the lynchers' 
attorney general, Knight, the prosecutor and spokesman of the most reactionary 
industrialists and landlords of the State of Alabama, Mr. Liebowitz and his 
sujiporters have succeeded in sowing confusion in the minds of many people. By 
issuing false statements and slanderous attacks on the ILD to the press, getting 
some woman to impersonate Mother Patterson over the radio, releasing lying 
telegrams to the Amsterdam News (Negro paper printed in Harlem by Liebowitz' 
chief supporter, William Davis, an old enemy of the Scottsboro defense), by 
stating that the ILD collected a quarter of a million dollars in the name of the 
Scottsboro defense which was squandered in "luxurious living by the Communist 
officials of the ILD" — Liebowitz is making every effort to hold on to the Scottsboro 
case which gave him a taste of personal glory and worldwide publicity at the 
expense of the lives of the Scottsl)oro boys. 

As soon as this vicious obstacle was thrown in the path (jf the Scottsboro 
defense the ILD issued a statement clearly explaining its determination to prevent 
"any controversy which would impair the worldwide struggle, which must be 
developed to prevent this legal lynching * * * the International Labor Defense 
ri'peats its statement that it will continue unabated its struggle for the freedom 
of the Scottsboro boys, and will coo])erate fully with anybody and any organiza- 
tion actuated by the purpose of sincerely fighting for the lives and freedom of 
the Scottsboro boys." 

Despite all the disruptive efforts of Liebowitz tlie ILD is clearly and definitely 
in charge of the case, leading both the legal defense fight and the mass defense. 
The appeals, briefs, and writs of certiorari in the cases of Patterson and Norris 
are in the hands of the Supreme Court, filed by the ILD attorneys, Osmond K. 
Fraenkel and Walter 11. Pollak, and accepted by that Court. 

Through the efforts of these attorneys a stay of execution until February 8, 
1935, was secured for the boys. Though Liebowit:? attempted desperately and 
by the most despicable maneuvers of his bodyguard agents and reformist min- 
isters to alienate the parents of the boys from the ILD, all the mothers and the 
aunts of the orphaned boys understand clearly that this is "not a fight between 
attorneys," but a fight for their boys' lives, and they are solidly behind the Inter- 
national Labor Defense. 

The Supreme Court will very shortly announce the date on which the oral argu- 
ment will be hearfl if they decide to hear the appeal of the Scottsboro boys. The 
International Labor Defense, convinced of the correctness of its policy of mass 
defense, supplemented by the best available legal defense, is not waiting on any 
legal development, but is mobilizing all its forces, all the true friends of the boys 
for the struggle. Through its own forces and through the forces of the national 
and local Scottsboro action committees, organized on a broad united-front basis, 
efforts are being made to unite the masses, Negro and white in the factories, in 
the chur^'hes, the A. F. of L., unions, fraternal orders, women's groups, into a 
gigantic mass defense movement. 

The International Labor Defense is making every effort to (clarify the issues 
involved in the Scottsboro case, to show the sharpening of the class lines, to show 
the toiling masses how Scottsboro has become the spearhead of the intensifying 
terror drive against the southern working-class Negro and white, and how it must 
become the rallying point for all tliose who are ready to join the struggle not only 
in defense of nine innocent Negro children but in the struggle in defense of the 
constitutional rights of the Negro people, in the struggle against the rising tide 
of fascism in the United States. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liirie, I ask you if you will look at this pamphlet 
called Women in Action, by Sasha Small. 

I ask you if you wrote that pamphlet. 

Mrs. LuRiE. I must decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. You will not answer that question. I wonder if 
you would read — Who pul)lished tliat particular journal? Does it 
say on the journal? I am not asking you to invok(> your own knowl- 
edge of the situation, but I am asking you if the pampiilet indicates 
who published it. 



SCOPE OF SO\IET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 55 

Mrs. LuRiK. It says here, "Published hy Workers Library Pub- 
lishing, Post Office Box 148, Station D, New York City, February, 
19.35." 

Mr. MoKRis. And will you read the last paragraph? 

Mrs. LuRiE (reading) : 

And we have one force of guidance and leadership that those who came along 
before us did not have to coordinate their activities, to direct their heroism and 
their energies towards — 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. T cannot understand you, Mrs. Lurie. 
A little more clearly. 

Mrs. LuRiE. I am sorry. 
[Continuing:] 

did not have to coordinate their activities, to direct their heroism, and their 
energies towards the accomplishment of our final aim — complete freedom for the 
whole w'orking class. And that force is the Communist Party in whose ranks 
thousands of women are already working daily. The Communist Party is the 
only party which fights f(jr equal rights for women, ecjual pay for equal work, 
social insurance, all the e\eryday needs of workingwomen, farm women, house- 
wives of every nationality and color. It is the only party that carries on the 
traditions of struggle, that leads the struggle towards a system of society where 
strikes and picket lines will not be needed, where hunger and misery will be 
impossible, where children will be assured of healthy, happy lives. Women of 
America, join the Communist Party and march shoulder to shoulder with all the 
toiling masses towards a Soviet America. 

Mr. Morris. And did you write that paragraph? 

Mrs. LuRiE. I decline to answer. 

The Chairman. On what ground, ma'am? 

Mrs. LuRiE. My privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. I have one more pamphlet here: Ten Years of Labor 
Defense, by Sasha Small, published by the International Labor 
Defense. I ask you if you wrote that, Airs. Lurie. 

Mrs. Lurie. Yes; I wrote this. 

Mr. Morris. You did write it? 

All right. May that go in the record, Mr. Chairman? 

The Chairman'. It may go in the record. 

Mr. Morris. By reference. The reporter will not type it in. 

(The pamphlet will be found in the files of the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Lurie, do you have press credentials from the 
New York City police? 

Mrs. Lurie. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. You may stand aside. You are released from the 
subpena. 

We will recess now until 10:30 o'clock Thursday morning. 

Mr. Morris. You are excused, Mrs. Lurie. 

Mi's. Lt'rie. Thank you. 

(Whereupon, at 12:10 noon, ti:e subcommittee adjourned, to recon- 
vene on Thursday, February 23, 1956, at 10:30 a. m.) 



INDEX 



Note. — -The Senate laternal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to th<^ mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A Page 

Abt, John 39,40 

Africa 53 

A. F. of L 54 

Alabama 53, 54 

Alabama State Supreme Court 53 

Alexandrov, Alexander 29 

Acting manager American Bureau of Tass, December 1945 to 

February 1948 29 

Manager February 1948 to May 1949 29 

Succeeded as manager by Vladimir Morev 29 

Allen, James 42 

Alyabyev, Mikhail 30 

Soviet citizen, Tass employee 30 

America/ American 25, 27, 34 

American Bureau of Tass. (See Tass.) 

American citizens, present employees of Tass. (See Tass.) 

American citizen 40, 48, 49, 50 

American committee 50 

American election campaigns 31 

American embassies 53 

American ILD 52 

American reporter 32, 33 

"American Scottsboro Committee" 54 

American ships 32 

American workers 47 

Amsterdam News 54 

Amtorg 34 

Anton (Russian espionage agent) 36 

Anvox 52, 53 

Argentina 41 

AP (Associated Press) 27, 44 

B 

Bart, Phil 47 

Bates, Ruby '53 

Battle, George Gordon 50 

Beglov, Ivan 28, 29 

Manager, American Bureau of Tass, March 1950-May 1955 28, 29 

Returned to Soviet Union May 1955 28, 29 

Succeeded as manager by Leonid Velichansky 29 

Belgian Foreign Minister, Mr. Spaak 38 

Bell, Nancv 30 

Bennett government 52 

Bennett, Premier 52 

Bentley, Elizabeth, espionage apparatus 40 

Bevan, Mr., British Foreign Minister 38 

Bolshakov, Georgi 30 

Soviet national, Tass employee 30 

Head of Washington subbureau (on leave) 30 

Bowery 39 

Boychuk, John 52 

Bransten, Louise 40 

X 



n INDEX 

Page 

Bridges, H arry 46 

British 51 

British Foreign Minister 38 

Bronx Home News 38 

Brooklyn Daily Eagle 27, 33 

Brooklyn Times 27, 33 

Brown, Gus ,^_-j._^^i 46 

Bruce, Malcolm 52 

Buck, Tim ...... 52 

Budisch, Mr. [Budish] 50 

Manager, Committee for War Orphans in Stalingrad 50 

Busi ness Week :._-;^_^_. __.__ 49 

Byrnes (former Secretary of State) 38 

C 

Cacic, Tom (deportation of) 52 

California 46 

Canada 52, 53 

Canadian border ^ 52 

Canadian Communist Party 51 

CLDL (Canadian Labour Defence League) 51, 52, 53 

Canadian Labour Defence Victory 51 

Canadian Royal Commission 37 

Canadian ruling class 51 

Canadian working class 51 

Carr, Sam 52 

Chambers, Whittaker ^ 35, 38, 3i) 

Chicago 46, 47 

Chicago newspapers 49 

Chicago Workers' School 46 

Room 207, 23 1 South Wells Street, Chicago 46 

CIO 46 

Cohen 41 

Cohn, W. W 50 

President, Committee for War Ori)hans in Stalingrad 50 

Columbia University 27, 33, 34, 49 

Comintern 36, 41, 47 

Committee for War Orphans in Stalingrad 50, 51 

41st Street and Madison 50 

103 Park Avenue 50 

Manager, Mr. Budisch 50 

Chairman, George Gordon Battle 50 

President, W. W. Cohn 50 

Communi.st/Communists 25, 38, 39, 44, 45, 47. 54 

Communist bureaucrat. 39 

Communist International 47 

Communist-language publications 42 

Communist Party 25, 34, 38-40, 44-47, 51 , 55 

Communi.st Party courier 46 

Communist Party members (362) on Great Lakes ships 46 

Communist Party of Illinois , 46 

Congressional debates 27 

Constitutional privilege 38 

Cornell University.... 27, 33, 38 

Curran , Joseph .______^, — 46 

D 
Dailv \Vorker_ 27, 33, 35, 39, 41 

First St reet office - 39 

Davis, William __________^ 54 

Deane, Hugh 42 

Decatur, Ala ..- 53 

Dekanozo^' 37 

Delgado-Rodriguez, E 29 

American : i)resent employee of Tass 29 

Democratic Party national conventions : 27 

Des Moines Register 49 

Diplomatic receptions 41 



INDEX III 

Page 

Dodd, William E., Jr 42 

Worked for Tass -- _ 42 

I^iirant, Kenneth 28, 29, 34 

First manager, American Bureau of Tass, January 1923- January 1944. 29, 34 

American citizen 29 

Succeeded as manager by Vladimir Pravdin 29 



Eastern Canada Congress for Repeal of Section 98 52 

Eastland, Senator ,- 25 

Einstein 39 

I^^isler, Cerliardt 36 

Equal Justice 50, 51 

ICspionage 28, 35, 37, 39, 40 

Europe ^- 

European tour 52 

Ewart 41 

I'^wen , Tom 52 

Exhibit Xo. 2. Canadian Labour Defence Victory 51 

Exhibit Xo. 2-A. The White Terror 53 



F 

Far East 32 

FascisTu 47, 54 

Fast , Howard ___^ 42 

Fifth Amendment „ 34-36, 39-42, 44-47, 51, 54, 55 

Fisher, Harry 30 

American: Tass employee 30 

Fisher, Ruth * 30 

American: Tass employee 30 

Foreign Atfairs 49 

Foreign agents or agencies 25 

Foreign Agents Registration Act 27 

Foreign Press Association 27, 38 

Four Creat Po^yers 38 

Fraenkel, Osmond K 54 

F'rance _ 38 

Freeman, Harry (testimony of) 25-42 

22 East 89tli Street, Xew York _- 26 

Deputy manager of Tass Agency, United States _ 25 

1926, graduate Cornell Uniyersity 27, 33 

Employed by Brooklyn Daily Eagle 27, 33 

Em])loyed by Brooklyn Times 27,33 

1 927, joined"statf of Daily Worker 27. 33 

1 928, graduate work Columbia University 27 

1929, job with Tass Agency - - - 27, 33 

Covered San Francisco Conference of 1945 27 

Covered national conyentions of Re])ublican and Democratic Parties. _ 27 

\\ce president twice of Foreign Press Association 27 

Served 2 years as member of standing committee of United Nations 

correspondents 27 

American citizen - - - 29, 33 

Worked for Anitorg 34 

Invoked fifth amendment re Communist Party membership prior to 

August 1 941 .- 34 

Covered State Department press conferences ^ 35 

Covered Wliite House press conferences 35 

Apartment on Henry Street, Brooklyn 41 

Credentials from New York City Police Department 42 

Freeman, Joseph 38 

Freud 39 



Gallaglier, Leo (attorney, American ILD) 52 

Garlin, Sender (reporter Bronx Home News) 38 

General Assembly, President of (Mr. Spaak) 38 



IV INDEX 

Page 

German 41 

Germany 53 

Gertsena, Klava 30 

Soviet citizen : Tass employee 30 

Gouk, Adelaida 30 

Soviet citizen : Tass teletypist 30 

Government departments 35 

Grange, Dave 46 

Great Lakes ships 46 

H 

Hall, Robert F 41 

Hammarskjold, Mr., of the United Nations 31 

Harper's Atlantic 49 

Harris, Jessie 30 

Born in Canada: Tass employee 30 

Harry Hines' Waterfront Club 40 

Henderson, Mr 52 

Henry Street, Brooklyn 41 

Hill, Tim 52 

Horton, Judge 53 

How to Prepare for an Emergency 46 

I 

"In a Soviet America; seamen and longshoremen under the Red flag" 47 

International 44 

International Labor Defense (ILD) 50, 53-55 

International press correspondence 47, 51, 53 

International press correspondence in Moscow 51 

International Seamen's Union 45, 46 

Israel, Rudolph 30 

American citizen: Tass employee 30 

Jenner , Senator 25 

Johnston, Senator Olin D 25 

"Join the Communist Party" 47 

Jones, Hays (testimony of) 43-48 

33 West 76th Street, New York City 43 

Journalist for Tass News Agency 12' years 43 

Commercial & News Depts. for Tass 43 

Worked on National Maritime Union Pilot 44 

Seaman on ship before going to Tass 44 

Went to Tass as rewrite man 44 

Edited Marine Worker's Voice 45 

Born in Tennessee 45 

1932 worked for Marine Workers Industrial Union 45 

Invoked Fifth amendment re Communist Party 44 

American citizen: Tass employee 30 

Jones, Jesse 48 

Justice, Department of 25, 27, 28 

K 

Kahn , Elinore 40 

Kingston penitentiary 51, 52 

Kingston prison 52 

Klein , Jerome 29 

American : Tass employee 29 

Knight, Attorney General (Alabama) 54 

Kondakova, Evgenia 30 

Soviet citizen: Tass teletypist 30, 31 

Korea 32,33 

Korean war 32 

L 

Labor Defender 50, 51 

Official journal of International Labor Defense 50 

Succeeded by Equal Justice 50 



INDEX V 

Page 

Latin America 27 

Liebowitz, Samuel S 53, 43 

Life ' 49 

London 36 

Lopoukhin, Miivhail, Tass employee 30 

Escorted Soviet writers' delegation who visited United States 30 

Escorted agricultural delegation on part of tour 30 

Lurie, Mrs. Sasha Small (testimony of) 48-55 

American: Tass employee 30 

345 Bleeker Street, New York City 48 

Employed in Tass New York office 48, 49 

Born Sasha Small in Montreal, Canada 49 

American citizen by virtue of parents' naturalization 49 

Educated at Columbia LTniversity j 49 

Gave music lessons 49 

1932 worked and became editor Labor Defender 50 

Served with Equal Justice until 1 942 50 

1943 worked with Committee for War Orphans in Stalingrad until 

1944 50 

Went to work for Tass 51 

Invoked fifth amendment re Communist Party 51 

Press credentials from New York City Police 55 

Lynch verdict _" 53 

M 

Mandel, Mr. (research director) 33 

Marine Workers Industrial Union 45 

Marine Workers' Voice 45 

Martin 37 

Massing, Hede _"_"."."." 35, 36 

Massing, Hede, espionage apparatus 36 

Massing, Paul 36 

Military Sea Transportation Service 32 

Mink, George _ 46 

Molotov, Mr 38, 39 

Molotov, Vyacheslav 38 

Montreal, Canada 49 

Morev, Vladimir 29 

Acting manager American Bureau of Tass May 1949 until March 1950_ 29 

Ivan Beglov succeeded him as manager 29 

Moscow 27 

N 

National Federation of American Shipping 32 

National ^Maritime Union 45, 46 

National Maritime Union Pilot ' 44 

Nationalists of Soviet Union, present employees of Tass {See Tass) 

Navy 32 

Nearing study group 38 

NEC ::::::_:::::::::::::::: 52 

Negro 53, 54 

Negro children 54 

Negro people, constitutional rights of 54 

Negro, southern working class 54 

New Orleans 39 

New York 26, 27, 30, 31, 35, 37, 38, 43, 49 

New York Citv dailv newspapers 49 

New York City Police 55 

New York Citv Police Department 42 

New York Herald Tribune 42, 44 

New York Times 28, 42, 44 

Norris, Clarence 53, 54 

North America 37 

Novikov 36 



VI INDEX 

Q Page 

Opening statement 25 

Ottawa ^■^ 

Oumansky, Constantine ^{_ 

Soviet Ambassador ^' 

P 

Pacific 32 

Palace Hotel, San Francisco ^7 

Paramonov, Vladimir - - - - ^0 

Soviet citizen, present employee of Tass in Washington; accredited 

correspondent ^^ 

Patterson, Comrade ^^ 

Patterson, Haywood ^^^ ^^ 

Patterson, Mother ^^ 

Patterson, William L ^2 

National secretary American ILD 52 

Pentagon ^5 

Photographs ^^' f^ 

Pollak, Walter H 5d, 54 

Popvich, Matthew ^;^ 

Pravdin, Mr. Vladimir 40 

Manager Tass January 1944 to December 1045 2i), 40 

Succeeded as manager bv Alexander Alexandrov 29 

Pravdin, Mrs 40 

President's press conferences ^1 

Press wireless ^' 

R 

Radon, Jidcs ^9 

Rand, Harry I ^^ 

Attorney, Wyatt Building, Washington, D. C o6 

Attorney for Harry Freeman 25 

Attorney for Hays .Tones 43 

Attornev for Sasha Small Lurie 48 

JICA - -- 2/, 31 

Recht, Charles 41, 42 

Counsel for Soviet PJmbassy in New York 42 

Reichstag trial defendants ^2 

Republican national conventions ^T 

Robeson, Paul 41 

Rogov, Vladimir ^^ 

Tass correspondent ^^ 

Rudv, John ^-'-'c^C-" ' 

Public Relations Director, National Federation of American Ship- 
ping 32, 33 

Russia ^l 

Russian espionage agent, Anton ^ 

Russian "news" agency i__-'-___ ^^ 

S 

St. r>ouis Post-Dispatch 49 

San Francisco 37, 3» 

San Francisco Chronicle 49 

San Francisco Conference of 1945 ^>< 37, 4U 

Saturday Evening Post ^_^_- 38 

Savi'liev, Anatoly 30 

Soviet citizen : Tass employee ^V 

Scotsman ~~''~- to 

Scottsboro, Ala '- -'^ - ^3 

Scottsboro bovs ^4 

Scottsboro case before the United States Supreme Court, the 53 

Scottsboro defense ^4 

Scripps-Howard 32 

Seamen and Longshoremen Under the Red Flag 47 



INDEX vn 

Pago 

Secretary of State's press conferences 31 

Sedition'-. 52 

Sherman Hotel, Chicago 47 

Shields, Esther L . . - 29 

American citizen, present employee of Tass 29 

Small, Sasha. (See Liirie, Sasha Small.) 

Smith, A. E. (national secretary CLDL) i__ 52,53 

Smith, P^dwin 41 

Distributes Soviet photographs 41 

Agent handling Soviet music 41 

Smith case 53 

Smith trial 52 

South America 40 

Soviet . 25, 29, 30, 49 

Soviet America 47, 55 

Soviet apparatus 35 

Soviet Pvinbassy in New York 42 

Soviet Embassy in Washington 27, 31 

Soviet Embassy official 36 

Soviet Embassy receptions 38 

Soviet espionage 35, 36 

Soviet Foreign Minister 38 

Soviet music !___- 41 

Soviet photographs 41 

Soviet Union 28, 29, 31, 49 

Spaak, Mr ;. 38 

Belgian Foreign Minister 38 

President General Assembly 38 

Stalingrad 50 

Stalinist 39 

Standing Committee of United Nations correspondents 27 

State Department press conferences , 27, 35 

Stout, Rex 39 

Stout, Ruth (sister of Rex Stout) 39 

Structural revisions that the Communists have made 25 

T 

Tass News Agency 25-38, 42-45, 48, 51 

American Bureau, managers of ^^a-._-^^u 29 

Durant, Kenneth (January 1923-.January 1944). 

Pravdin, Vladimir (January 1944-December 1945). 

Alexandrov, Alexander (acting December 1945-Februarv 1948). 

Alexandrov, Alexander (February 1948-May 1949). 

Morev, Vladimir (acting Mav 1949-March 1950). 

Beglov, Ivan (.March 1950- May 1955). 

Velichanskv, ^Ir. (acting Mav 1955). 

Clients ^ _.__J 27 

Present employees 29, 30 

Velichanskv, Tjeonid (Soviet citizen). 

Freeman, Harry (.\merican citizen). 

Shields, Esther (American citizen). 

Delgado-Rodrignez, E. (.\mericaii). 

Klein, Jerome (.\merican). 

T.iurie, Sasha (.\merican). 

Van W'icklen, Frederick (.\merican). 

Jones. Hays (American). 

Harris, Jessie (born in Canada). 

Bell, Nancy. 

Israel, Rudolph (.\merican). 

Bolshakov, Ceorgi (Soviet national). 

Saveliev, .\natoly (Soviet citizen). 

Lopoukhin, Mikhail. 

Paramonov, Vladimir (Soviet citizen). 

.\lyabyev, Mikhail (Soviet citizen). 



VIII INDEX 

Tass News Agency — ^Continued 

Present employees — Continued P^s® 
Fisher, Harry (American). 
Fisher, Ruth (American). 
Zimmerman, Charles (American). 
Gertsena, Klava (Soviet citizen). 
Gouk, Adelaida. 
Kondakova, Evgenia (Soviet citizen). 

Soviet Government's official news service 38 

Statement for guidance of employees 34 

Used for espionage work 28 

Wire service 42 

New York office in Associated Press Building 31 

New York office in United Nations Building 31 

Washington office in National Press Building 31 

Tennessee 45 

Ten Years of Labor Defense (by Sasha Small) 55 

Time 49 

Todd, Laurence 28 

Trachtenberg, Alexander 41 

Trotsky 39 

U 

United Nations 27, 31, 37, 40 

United Nations General Assembly 30, 31 

United Nations Securitv Council 27, 31 

UP (United Press). _-" 27, 31, 44 

United States 27-33, 36, 45, 47, 49, 55 

United States News and World Report 49 

United States Supreme Court .- - - 53, 54 

U. S. S. R 27 

U. S. S. R. delegation to United Nations 27, 31 

"Uttering seditious words" 52 

V 

Vancouver D. C. C 52 

Vancouver Harbor 52 

Van Wicklen, Frederick 30 

American, present employee of Tass 30 

Velichansky, Leonid 28, 29 

American citizen 29 

May 1955, acting manager of American Bureau of Tass 28, 29 

Succeeded Ivan Beglov who returned to Soviet Union 28, 29 

W 

Wagenknecht, Alfred 46 

Member, State committee of Hlinois Communist Party 46 

Waldorf-Astoria Hotel 38 

Washington, D. C 27, 31, 33, 35, 53 

Washington Daily News, The (October 8, 1951) 32- 

Washington newspapers 49 

Washington Post 42' 

Wasserman, Ursula 40' 

Formerly American citizen 40 

Formerly worked at the United Nations 40' 

Renounced her American citizenship 40 

American journalist 41 

Western Union 27 

"When order for action came" 46- 

White House press conferences 27, 35' 

White Terror, the 53^ 

Witness, the 38, 39* 

Wolfe, Nero 3» 

Women in Action (by Sasha Small) 54 

Workers Library Publishing 55 



INDEX IX 

Y Page 

Yugoslavia 52 

Z 

Zabotin 37 

Zheveinov, Nikolai 37 

Soviet official 37 

Worked in Tass in New York 1944 37 

Involved in espionage in North America 37 

Zimmerman, Charles 30 

American citizen, Tass employee 30 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 4127 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECUEITY 

ACT AND OTHEE INTERNAL SECUEITY LAWS 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



FEBRUARY 23, 1956 



PART 3 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Fu-olic L'-^^^ 

APR 1 3 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia, Chairman 

JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee WILLIAM LANQER, North Dakota 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, lUinois 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER. Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 
Richard Arens and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:30 a. m., in 
room 318, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker presiding. 
Present: Senators Eastland (chairman of the subcommittee), 
Welker, and Butler. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; Alva C. Carpenter, associate counsel; and Robert C. 
AIcManus, investigations analyst. 

Senator Welker. The committee will come to order. 
Mr. Morris. Mr. Ege, will you take the stand, please? 
Senator Welker. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn? 
Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the subcom- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 
Mr. Ege. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ISMAIL EGE 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name, your residence, and 
occupation? 

Mr. Ege. My full name is Ismail Ege. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Do you reside here in Washington, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. I do. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this witness has appeared before this 
committee at an earlier date. However, he is being asked to testify 
here today on the nature of Tass News Agency, and he is being asked 
to testify for that limited purpose. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

I take it that counsel is pursuing the hearings today which relate 
to the activities of Tass News Agenc3\ Tass is one of the Soviet 
agencies in the United States which is now under consideration by the 
subcommittee. The subcommittee is seeking to determine to what 
extent Soviet power operates here through organizations other than 
the Communist Party of the United States. 

With that background, counsel, you may proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Ege, where were you born? 

]VIr. Ege. I was born in the cit}^ which is called Orsk. That is in 
the Ural district of Soviet Union. 

67 



58 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. I see. And what was your name when you were 

born? .1*11 

Mr. Ege. My name was Ismail Gusseynovich Aldimedov. 
Mr. Morris. And that is the name under which you hved up until 
the time that you assumed the name of Ege after you came to the 
United States? 

Mr. Ege. Akhmedov is the name I lived under until I was sent as 
vice president of Tass to Germany. Wlien I was sent to Berlin in 
1941, at the end of May, as vice president of Tass, my name was 
changed, and I will come to it later when I explain my activities in 

Germany. . ,t t^ 

Mr. Morris. Yes. But the purpose of my question, Mr. Ege, was 
to indicate that your real name, the name with which you were born, 
was Mr. Aldimedov? 

Mr. Ege. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And the name Ege is a name that you have assumed 
since you have come to the United States? 

Mr. Ege. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, I wonder if you would give us a 
short sketch of vour education. 

Mr. Ege. Good. In 1940, in September, being a graduate of the 
war college of general staff of the Red army, I was appointed to the 
intelligence department of the Red army, general staff of the Soviet 

Army. 

Mr. Morris. In what year was that? 

Mr. Ege. It was September 1940. 

Mr. Morris. 1940? 

Mr. Ege. 1940, yes. 

Senator Welker. Did I understand you, Mr. Witness, to say that 
in September 1940, after your graduation from the war college of the 
Red army, you were appointed then to the intelligence organization 
of the Red army. Is that correct? 

Mr. Ege. That is correct, sir. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us what positions you held in 
intelligence in the Red arni}'^ in 1940 up to the time of your defection 

in 1942? . ^ 1 . IV 

Mr. Ege. In 1940, in September, when I was appointed to the intelli- 
gence department of the general staff of Red army, I was appointed 
at first as deputy chief for the first section of the intelligence depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. The first section? 

Mr. Ege. I am sorry. The fourth section. 

Mr. Morris. The fourth section. 

Mr. Ege. Which was one of agents operations sections. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us what the function of the fourth 
section of the Red intelligence service was? 

Mr. Ege. The fourth section was charged with procuring data on 
technical devices having military significance in the foreign armies, 
and in the technological field and scientific fields with all discoveries 
and devices having potential military significance. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was your rank at that time, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. At that time my rank was major of general staff. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 59 

Mr. Morris. And you were head of this fourth section; is that 
right? 

Mr, Ege. Later on, when chief of the fourth section was missioned 
to Germany, I was appointed chief of fourth section. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, in addition to that particular role in the 
military intelligence, did you have any other military roles prior to 
that time? 

Mr. Ege. I can't understand, sir. 

Air. Morris. Did you have any military assignment prior to 1940? 

Mr. Ege. I did. In order to be appointed in 1940 to the military 
intelligence department, I had to have excellent background in intel- 
ligence, in practical and field experience in the Red Army. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us briefly about that, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. I entered the Red army in 1925, when I was sent by the 
central committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party to Lenin- 
grad to enter Leningrad School of Military Communications. In 
Russian it is called Leningradskaya Voennaya Shkola Svyazi. 

In 1929, I was graduated from the military school of communica- 
tions with the rank of lieutenant and was appointed to field services 
in Caucasia, to the Caucasian Red Banners Army. 

Mr. Morris. Was that an intelligence assignment? 

Mr. Ege. No. It was a field assignment. I was lieutenant in the 
11th Radio Battalion of the Caucasian Army. 

Mr. Morris. But it was not an intelligence assignment? 

Mr. Ege. After a few months of service in this battalion, I was 
selected, because of my knowledge of Turkish, and to some extent of 
German, languages, to the intelligence section of the Caucasian Army. 
That was in 1930. And from that day, I began to work for Soviet 
military intelligence. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, how many years, therefore, of military experience have you 
had with the Red army, including your intelligence as well as your 
nonintelligence work? 

Mr. Ege. My experience with the Red army was uninterruptedly 
from 1925 until 1942, June 3, when I broke with Soviet Government 
and Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you had 17 years' experience with the 
Red army? 

Mr. Ege. Seventeen years of uninterrupted service beginning in 
the field and ending with the central apparatus of the Red army in 
Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, since you covered the point in testi- 
mony. Senator Eastland has appeared. I wonder if you will tell him 
what your assignment was with the fourth section of military intelli- 
gence. 

Mr. Ege. With the fourth section of the military intelligence 
department of general staff, my assignment was at first as deputy 
chief and after a few months as chief of fourth section. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the purpose of that particular section? 

Mr. Ege. The function of the fourth section was procurement, by 
means of espionage, of technical data on foreign armies. By "tech- 
nical," I mean technical devices for military use. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, when did you first work for Tass News 
Agency? 



60 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Ege. For Tass? You mean, when I came personally into 
contact with Tass? Is that the question you are asking? 

Senator Welker. Will you read the question back? 

Mr. Morris. Read the question back. 

(The question was read.) 

Mr. Ege. In May 1941, when I was appointed to field intelligence 
in Germany. 

Mr. Morris. Now, had you heard of Tass New Agency before that 
time? 

Mr. Ege. Many times. Being an intelligence officer working in 
the army and later in the army general staff, I knew, from my expe- 
rience and from my contact with high-rank Soviet officials working in 
the intelligence department and in the intelligence of NKVD, that 
Tass was used as cover many times, as any other Soviet office. 

Mr. Morris. You sa3^ it was used as a cover for what, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. Intelligence activities. 

Mr. Morris. Intelligence activities of which branch? Military 
intelligence or of other intelligence branches of the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Ege. It was used as a cover, not only for military intelligence, 
but for all intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. 

Senator Welker. That is military, political, and everything else 
that they needed? 

Mr. Ege. When I am talking about intelligence agencies of the 
Soviet Union, I mean two main branches of intelligence. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us briefly what they are, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. One is called — it was called RU — Razvedyvatel'noye 
Upravlenyie, which is intelligence. This is military intelligence, 
conducted by general staff. And there is second main branch of 
Soviet intelligence system, which is conducted by Soviet secret police. 

Mr. Morris. That is generally referred to as the MVD, is it not? 

Mr. Ege. That was referred to as MVD. It was called sometimes 
NKVD, Cheka, and so on. But the important thing is that Soviet 
secret police, in the perfect Soviet police state, as was Soviet Union 
of Stalin, was conducting intelligence in a more extensive and military 
intelligence and espionage all over the world. 

Mr. Morris. You say the NKVD was more extensive than the 
military intelligence? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was the military intelligence the service in 
which you performed? You worked under the military intelligence, 
did you not? 

Mr. Ege. I worked under military intelligence. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were there any subdivisions of military 
intelligence? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. WUl you tell us what they were? 

Mr. Ege. May I proceed to the blackboard and show, in a rough 
form, without too much details? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; I wish you would, Mr. Ege. 

Mr. Ege. I would like to show roughly that the Soviet Union 
intelligence system consists in main of two branches. One was 
military intelligence, conducted from general staff of the Red army, 
and second was intelligence conducted by Soviet secret police, which 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 61 

was referred to by many names, as MVD, NKVD, OGPU, Cheka, 
and so on, and which is called now KGB. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Witness, will you mark the figm^e "1'^ 
military intelligence? 

Mr. Ege. I will mark it "Military", "RU", using Russian ab- 
breviations. 

Senator Welker. Very well. And will you mark the other one? 

Mr. Ege. And this one was foreign division of MVD. 

While I am putting "Foreign division," I want to make it clear 
that the function of the Soviet secret police is counterintelligence. 
But besides counterintelligence, it is used to conduct intelligence, 
special military and political intelligence, and that was conducted 
from the foreign division or foreign department of MVD. 

Now, RU, in its own turn, consisted of two main branches. The 
first branch was agents, the branch charged with agent operations. 
This is espionage, the organization of espionage. And the second was 
information branch, which was charged with evaluation, dissemination, 
and analysis of procured espionage data, in order to present all this 
data to proper interested branches of the Soviet Government. 

So information branch was storehouse of facts, of all data. It, by 
the way, disseminated all data prociu-ed by agent operations section. 

The first branch consists in main, as of May 1941, of seven sections 
or divisions. In Russian terms, they were called Otdely. There 
were seven agent sections, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and 
seventh. 

Mr. Morris. In which one did you serve at the beginning? 

Mr. Ege. I served in 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would make those blocks a little 
larger and designate them; would you, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. I will. 

Here are, in block diagrams, shown seven agent operations sections 
of the military intelligence department as to the end of May 1941. 
The first section was charged by organization of military espionage in 
Europe, in Central Europe and in England, the United Kingdom. 

The second section was charged with organization of military in- 
telligence in Turkey, Middle East, and Balkan countries like Bulgaria 
and Rumania. 

The third section was charged with organization of military espion- 
age in United States and China, Japan, and Canada. 

Mr. Morris. The third, you say? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. And the fourth section was charged with organiza- 
tion of espionage in first-class, technically advanced countries all over 
the world, like United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, 
so on. 

Mr. Morris. Whereas the third one was only jurisdictional; the 
fourth one is somewhat functional; is that right? The division? 

Mr. Ege. The third was charged with organization of purely mili- 
tary intelligence, like procurement of data on location of troops, their 
training, their equipment, tlieir number, and military plans for war. 
But the fourth was pure technical interest, on technological develop- 
ment of countries. 

The fifth division, or fifth section, was charged with organization of 
terroristic acts, kidnapings, and organization of strikes, uprising. It 
was very active section, for organization of violent acts. 



62 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

The sixth section was charged with publication of false passports, 
or procurement of real passports, like birth certificates from United 
States, or passports of Americans which took part in Spain and so on, 
and it was charged, too, with financial problems, like making false 
mone}'" or procurement of necessary foreign currency, and so on. And 
it was charged, besides that, with introducing and development into 
intelligence practice of microfilm and the other devices used for com- 
munications between central headquarters and the local branches for 
legal and illegal networks in foreign countries. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, does each one of these subsections of 
military intelligence operate espionage rings, therefore, all over the 
world? Does each one of these subsections have its own ring? 

Mr. Ege. These were not subsections. These were sections. 

Mr. Morris. Sections. 

Mr. Ege. And each one was available, outside of Soviet Union, in 
foreign countries. For that reason they are called agent operation 
sections. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. But did each section have its own 

Mr. Ege. Each section had its own legal and illegal network in 
foreign countries. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Mr. Ege. For instance, first section had in England, in France, 
in Germany, in Spain, in Italy, and so on, its illegal and legal ap- 
paratus. What I meant by "legal" and "illegal," I will come to 
later, if I be asked. 

Now, the second section works in Middle East and in Balkan 
countries, the third acts, as I designate, in United States, Canada, 
China and Japan. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, does the naval intelligence have a 
separate breakup? 

Mr. Ege. About naval intelligence, in 1941 naval intelligence was 
separated, which does not mean that it was always separated, from 
the intelligence department of the Red army. There were times 
when naval intelligence was a part of the military intelligence and 
there were times when it was separated. In 1940 and 1941, naval 
intelligence existed separately. It is quite possible that it now works 
together with RU as one body. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in addition, Mr. Ege, the MVD also had its 
own network and its own series of espionage rings, did it not? 

Mr. Ege. Now, here, MVD had its own networks all throughout 
the world, in all countries. 

Mr. Morris. Go ahead. 

Mr. Ege. So NKVD, or MVD, had its own illegal and legal net- 
works throughout the world. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in addition to that, the central committee of 
the Communist Party, or the old Comintern, also had its individual 
networks, did it not, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. That is a little complicated business. Of course, Comin- 
tern had its own network, but Comintern had contact with RU and 
foreign division of MVD, and they were coordinated by the central 
committee of the Communist Party of Soviet Union. So we cannot 
say that the Comintern was Soviet agency. It was Comintern, but 
Comintern, being devised in the hands of the Communist Party of 
Soviet Union, was used extensively for espionage activity. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 63 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, Mr. Ege, you worked in the fourth 
section of military intelligence, did you not? 

Mr. Ege. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And as such, you learned in 1940 — was that the first 
time or was it earlier — that Tass was a cover for intelligence? When 
did you learn that? 

Mr. Ege. I learned that Tass, and not only Tass, that all Soviet 
institutions acting abroad, like Soviet Embassies, consulates, trade 
missions, and so on, were used as cover for Soviet espionage in 1930 
and later on, all the time I was working for intelhgence department. 
So it did not come to me in 1940, when I was appointed to the central 
apparatus of the intelligence of the Soviet Arniy — it did not come to 
me as a surprise that Tass was used. I knew it already. 

Mr. AIoRRis. All right. Now, Mr. Ege, how many assignments did 
you have under the cover of a Tass correspondent? 

Mr. Ege. Me? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, you personally. 

Mr. Ege. In person — may I sit dov» n? 

Mr. ^loRRis. You may, of course, Mr. Ege. 

Mr. Ege. In person I came into contact with Tass in 1941, in the 
end of Ma}^ 1941, when it was decided, by the high command of the 
Red army's intelligence department, to send me to Germany for 
intelligence mission. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will 3"ou teU us about that in detail, telling us 
all the details of the particular assignment you had for Tass^News 
Agency? 

Air. Ege. It was quite natural that, being an intelligence officer, I 
had to have some covering orders to work in German}'. So 

Mr. Morris. Your rank at the time was major in military 
intelligence? 

Mr. Ege. Major of general staff. 

Mr. Morris. And then 3^ou had'an assignment to go to Germany, 
and it was decided that j^ou were to operate under the cover of Tass 
News Agency; is that right, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. It was decided that my cover would be Tass. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Will you tell us how you operated? 

Mr. Ege. I would lUve to tell it in more detail, because many people 
do not understand how this is done. 

When it was decided that I go to German}-, it was found at first 
cover for me, and as cover, it was decided to use Tass Agency. And I 
was appointed in the end of May 1941, as vice president of Tass 
Bureau in Berlin. Now, it is 

Mr. Morris. Did you use your own name at that time? 

Mr. Ege. When I was working for Tass 

Mr. Morris. When you worked for Tass. 

Mr. Ege. I could not use it, because I could not'go to Germany'as Is- 
mail Akhmedov, major of general staff and chief of fourth section. ^ If I 
would be sent under this name, and with'tny rank, to Germany to 
conduct intelligence operations, there would be no field to work, be- 
cause that person — that is me— will be under Gestapo surveillance, 
and there would be no chance to work. 

So, when it was decided that I go as vice president of Tass, it was 
necessary to change that about my individual data. I worked out, 



72723— 56— pt. 3- 



64 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

under Older of chief, intelligence department, so-caUed legenda, which 
means the cover story. ., » i , i t. 

My real name, as I said, was Ismail Akhmedov. It was necessary, 
the iirst thing, to change this name. So I was given the name of 
Georgi Petrovich Nikolayev. , . .i 

Wiiv I was given Georgi Petrovich Nikolayev and not another 
naine-^for instance, I could take Ibrahimov, for instance, or Steinberg 
or Weissman— when I was given cover. To choose name of Ibrahimov, 
because I am of Turkish blood, I was told by chief of intelligence de- 
partment that if I take the name of Turkish blood, Germans would 
consider me as Asiatic, and they would have a little respect for me. 
And besides that, I was told that being Russian is nowadays a very 
good thing. Anti-Semitism was just originating in those nations of 
the Soviet Union. I was not permitted to take Jewish name like 
Weissman or Steinberg. I was told by the deputy chief of the military 
intelligence that Jews are from now on disgrace and Jews can't be 
trusted with responsible jobs. And that was said by the deputy chief 
of military intelligence, by Major General Panfilov, who was before 
that commissar of tank department, and a very responsible Communist. 

Mr. Morris. Was that during the Hitler-Stalin pact? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. And if he would make that statement 2 years 
before that day — I mean, 2 years before 1941, he would be out of the 
party for anti-Semitism. But in 1941, when pact was between 
Germany of Hitler and Soviet Union of Stalin, anti-Semitism was 
already in fashion. So I became NiJ^olayev, now. 

Now, every person who enters some government service has in a 
natural way to fill out papers, forms for government. And I had to 
fill tliese forms out to give my background, where I have been educated, 
who were my parents, where I was living, when I was born, and where 
I was bom. 

The time of when I was born I gave correct, because there was no 
sense to change it. But the place where I was born was changed. 
I was born in Orsk, as I stated here, which is in Ural. In my cover 
story I became born in Tbilisi, which is Georgia. That is, Nikolayev, 
Georgi Petrovich. 

Now, in reality, I was graduated from war college of general staff 
and before that from some other colleges. For Tass clearance I was 
educated from the Institute of Journalism in Tbilisi. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you put on all your papers that you 
were a graduate of the journalism school? 

Mr. Ege. All data was changed about my life and about my back- 
ground, in order not only to conceal it before German authorities, 
but before Soviet citizens, and from other Tass personnel who were 
working, that in reality I was general staff officer working for intelli- 
gence department. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you even had to deceive the fellow 
Tass people? 

Mr. Ege. Yes, I had to. But these Tass people had no right to 
undfTstand that I was military intelligence officer. Only one person 
in 'i'ass knew that 1 was Akhmedov, chief of the fourth section of 
intelligence department, and that person was Khavinson, who was 
director of Tass in 1941. And according to all this data, when my 
personality was changed, and I was given nonexistent data about 
myself, with this form I went to Tass, and all these papers were sent 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTFV^ITY lisr THE UNITED STATES 65 

to the section of Tass which is called secret section (in charge of per- 
sonnel) and deals with personnel. And I was given a little card of 
Tass stating that I am vice president of Tass in Berlin, and that card 
would give me access to all press conferences and people dealing with 
press. And I was given Soviet passport under the name of Nikolayev, 
Georgi Petrovich, serving as vice president of Tass. 

I was, by order of chief of general staff of Red army, taken to 
reserve of Red army officers, and, after getting the necessary visa and 
so on, I came to Berlin as Nilcolayev, Georgi Petrovich, vice president 
of Tass. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long did you stay there on that assign- 
ment? 

Mr. Ege. I stayed in Berlin until about 3 weeks, for war started 
in the second half of June. It was 24 June perhaps, 1941. I was 
arrested by Germans. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us, while you were there, while you 
were serving as a Tass correspondent, precisely how you operated as 
a military intelligence officer, and tell us generally how Tass operated? 

Mr. Ege. In 1941, at the end of Alay and the first 2 weeks of 
June, Tass bureau in Berlin consisted of few people. There was a 
man called Tarasov. He was president of Tass in Berlin. There 
was Sergei Kudryavtsev. He was Tass correspondent. There was 
Verkhovtsev, who was Tass correspondent, and there was one cor- 
respondent of Tass who came to Germany 2 weeks before me. I don't 
remember his name. Put his name just "X." 

Now, Tarasov, who was president of Tass — his real name was 
Udin, of Jewish origin, and he was working of NKVD, or MVD, as 
we accept it here. I know it exactly because, when I left Moscow 
for Germany, I was told — I was informed briefly — who was working 
in Tass and in what capacity besides being Tass correspondents. 
So I was briefed by the deputy director of intelligence department 
who, as I stated, was Major General Panfilov, that Tarasov is work- 
ing for neighbors. Under neighbors in Russian Sosedy, they refer to 
NKVD apparatus, or NKVD refers to RU. 

The Chairman. Now, what kind of information did they want you 
to get in Germany? 

Mr. Ege. If you would permit, I want to finish first the Tass side. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Ege. So I was told, or briefed, that Tarasov was president of 
Tass, and working for NKVD, as resident. Sergei Kudryavtsev was 
working in intelligence from the time I came to the intelligence depart- 
ment. So I knew him from his dossier, from the files, that he was 
one of the agents of fourth section working under Tass cover, 
Verkhovtsev, I didn't know it exactly, but I was told that he was 
working for NKVD, and that has to be true, for he was special protege 
of Dekanozov. 

Mr. Morris. Special protege of whom? 

Mr. Ege. Protege of Dekanozov, Ambassador of Stalin in Berlin 
in 1946. 

As for Mr. X, he was sent under Tass cover by fourth section. So 
as you see, all apparatus of Tass, starting from president — and here 
I was, Nikolayev, vice president — all apparatus of Tass was used by 
intelligence agencies of Soviet Union as a cover. And there is no 
wonder about that, because it is known very well, and I think that the 



66 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Govcrnmpnt of the Soviet Union can accept it. It is a big power. 
Tlu>y need espionage. And espionage agents need cover, because 
thov have to work. 

Now. I was asked what kind of information we were procuring? 

Is that riirlit? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. The cliairman wants to know what 
kind of information you were getting. 

The Ch.viuman. What kind of information he was to secure. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat kind of information you were to secure. 

Mr. Ege. We were ordered to get hiformation on military data 
and on organization of troops, concentration, their location, their 
method of training, and besides this, to get data, classified data, in 
politiral fiekl, about the organization and character of the German 
Nazi Party, about struggle between ruling members of the Nazi 
Party, about their personal characters, inclinations, about the reason 
why Hess flew to England — it w^as part of intelligence for the Soviet 
Union — and about the war plans of Germany. 

General staft' already knew in more or less exact detail that Germany 
was going to declare war on Soviet Union, but for a reason which is not 
known to me, the Stalin group did not believe that, including Malen- 
kov. So they Avanted to check if Germans were concentrating troops 
on the eastern frontiers and to declare war on the Soviet Union. But 
it was too late to put this task before intelligence forces in 1941, in 
^^ay. They had to proceed with this task 1 year earlier, at least, and 
believe in dispatches which w^ere being dispatched from Germany 
about German preparations. 

So in short, all members of intelligence working under cover of Tass 
were working to get political, military, and technical data on Germany, 
on the Nazi Party and on German preparations. 

The Chairman. Now, did you have information about the Tass 
setup in the United States? 

Mr. Ege. I have no information concerning individuals, because 
that was not my field. But from my background and experience and 
contact with high-ranked Soviet intelligence officers, with the director 
of Soviet intelligence, my contact with the NKVD intelligence officers, 
I knew that Tass was used in United States as in any other foreign 
country, and I might say that it was used more extensively because of 
the freedom for their movements, and from other points of view. 

For instance, in Germany it was not simple work, under cover of 
Tass for Soviet intelligence. It was not so in America, because of less 
restriction, and freedom of speech, and people in United States could 
not believe — and I think still many people cannot imagine or think how 
Tass — or any other Soviet agency working abroad — was extensively 
used as a cover for military espionage. That is beyond their com- 
prehension. 

Mr. Morris. You mean, Mr. Ege, or do I understand you to say 
that^ in the United States, j^ou knew from your o\vn experience from 
Soviet intelligence sources, that in the United States Tass was used 
more extensively than it was in other countries, particularly Germany? 

Mr. Egk. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any other questions along those lines, 
Senator? 

The Chairman*. Go ahead. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 67 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Ege, will you give us, by using concrete examples, 
how this particular Berlin operation of Tass functioned? 

Mr. Ege. \Yliat do you mean by "concrete examples?" 

Mr. Morris. How did you function? Did you send your reports 
to Moscow via cable, or did you send them in through other means 
of communication? 

Mr. Ege. Well, I never used Tass channel for this purpose, because 
Tass is news agency of Soviet Union. It was created in 1925 by 
decree of People's Commissars, as news agency. And no intelligence 
officer or agent can use Tass as a channel. It was their cover. If 
somebod}^ used it as a channel for communications, then that would 
be discovered very quickly, and all is blown up. You have to be 
very secretive. And conspiracy is the principle of intelligence. 

Tass, during our operations in Germany, was cover for us. We 
had Tass cards. We had social standing as Tass correspondents. 
We were being invited to social parties, to conferences, to press con- 
ferences. We had access to press members of other agencies, lilve 
Reuters, AP, UP, Wolff, and any other news agency; and that gave 
us under cover of Tass work using this passport. But no intelligence 
officer would use Tass as his channel of communication to dispatch 
reports. 

For instance, when Kudryavtsev was agent for the fourth section, 
or when I was vice president of Tass, my primar}^ interest was intelli- 
gence. So I could not give my whole time for Tass. I could not get 
all newsworthy news that they were talking about. But I was inter- 
ested in intelligence, and as I talk in Germany, in organization of Nazi 
Party, about the frictions between the parliamentary groups, and so 
on. And, of course, I had to give a little for Tass, because if it would 
be seen that, being a Tass member, I was doing an intelligence job, it 
would be discovered that this strange man is not working for Tass; 
he is getting his money and working at something else. 

So every member of Tass is ordered to work for Tass, giving the 
proper time, and find, by any means, time and chance for his intelli- 
gence activities. I mean, Tass is a cover, but not channel of com- 
munication. 

I would like to tell here to the subcommittee about that news 
character of Tass. It is of political importance. An ideal for a news 
agency is when news agency gathers information and delivers it very 
rapidly in as quick time to its headquarters in order to supply its 
customers with information and news. And this news has to be true 
news, without bias, without opinion. 

Not so with Tass. When we were working for Tass, we were 
ordered to select news in order that it be used in the interests of the 
Communist Party of Soviet Union. 

I would like to direct your attention that Tass works not only out- 
side of Soviet Union. It works inside of Soviet Union. It is onh'^ one 
existing news agency, and it supplies with information the Soviet 
Government, the Soviet press, and having agreement with the news 
agencies all around the world, it supplies, with its information, foreign 
news agencies. 

Now, in Soviet Union, before the war, dming the Second World 
War, after the war, there were events of public interest. There were 
hungers. There were oppositions to Soviet Government. There was 
forced collectivization, deportation of thousands of people to con- 



68 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

centration camps. There was big war. There was a moment when 
the very existence of Soviet Union depended upon help by supphes 
and ariiiamcnts from the United States. ^t rr 

There was period after the war. There was cold war. Meyer iass 
supplied information which was true, authentic, and in the mterests 
of the world public opinion and of the Soviet people. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, you are testifying, then, are you not, 
that the messages, or the radio messages, that were sent from the 
Tass reporters in their Tass capacity are for the most part accurate 

information? , . , • i xi. i. • j 

Mr. Ege. Mostly that is political mformation, and that is used 
for propaganda purposes, mthout bias. And as far as Tass does not 
edit itself and publish, it is retouched and changed and done in the 
best interests of the Communist press, because press is considered, 
according to principle of Communist Party, as one of the weapons 
of the Communist dictatorship, and Tass cannot avoid that. 

Now, besides its political information, Tass gathers commercial 
economic information, too, and that, being dispatched to Moscow in 
central apparatus of Tass, is analyzed and disseminated in its own 
way and put into form of information bulletins and submitted through 
the proper agencies to interested customers, like intelligence depart- 
ment, NKVD, Communist Party headquarters, and Soviet Union 
rulers. 

Wliat is of interest in my time — Tass supplied information not only 
against the interests of the Soviet public. It misleads the Soviet 
citizens with its prejudiced, nonobjective information. Not even 
Soviet Party — even Soviet rulers would not understand what is 
going on truly in the outside world. Tass was biased, instructed to 
select in the way which is more favorable to Stalin. 

For instance, when I was working in Tass in Germany, we were 
ordered to select only news which was talking about German view of 
Soviet Union, about the attitude of Germans to Russians, and all 
Tass members were spending da^^s and nights sometimes finding out, 
from all the texts of newspapers and magazines, little articles when 
Germans were going to attack social and moral views of Soviet Union 
and gathered and sent it in. But I don't know a fact or a day when 
Tass was just engaged in an objective way of gathering news for news. 
That is official side of Tass. And that explains, by the way, why Tass 
is not efficient. 

There is no sense of making parallels between United Press and 
Tass, for instance, or AP, or Reuters. Eighty percent of Tass personnel 
are Soviet agents, and their interests lie in espionage, but not in Tass 
activities. And thev do it as far as they need it as a cover. 

And as such, usually it can be proven by life itself, members of 
Tass, Tass correspondents, are not professional jom-nalists. And 
being not professional journalists, they cannot put this Tass into right 
course. And what they are interested in is espionage, political, 
military and so on. 

Later on, wluni my job was stopped in Germany, I was transferred 
to Turkey, when I had contact with Tass again. And I could give 
this subcommittee how Tass operated in Turkey, bv examples. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you go to Turkey, Mr. Ege? 

Mr. Ege. Wiien \var broke between Germany and Soviet Russia, 
I was arrested by Gestapo and put into concentration camp 3 or 4 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 69 

weeks, and exchanged by Germans for Germans in Soviet Union, 
released from camp, and sent via Turkey back to Soviet Union. 
In^Tm-key I was ordered to stay in Soviet Embassy, and I was 
appointed press attache of Soviet Embassy. 

Mr. Morris. Still as an intelligence officer? 

Mr. Ege. I 

Mr. Morris. Still as an intelligence officer? 

Mr. Ege. Yes; because Turkey was a neutral country, and all 
Soviet apparatus was destroyed in Germany, and it was necessary 
from a neutral country to reorganize and direct agent operations 
against Germany, and I was ordered under the cover of press attach^ 
of Soviet Embassy to renew and to reorganize agent operations 
against Germany. 

So I stayed in Ankara and Istanbul as press attache. 

Mr. Morris. Were you known as Nikolayev there? Were you 
Nikolayev there? 

Mr. Ege. Still Nikolayev, yes, because they would not change my 
passport, and nobody could believe, of course, that I was Akhmedov. 
And I had to wait for years and years until I proved that I was 
Akhmedov. There were persons who knew me from my childhood, 
and they came. The world is too small, and it was proven that I 
was Akhmedov. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Ege, before you leave Berhn completely, 
how did you transmit your reports, your secret military reports? 

Mr. Ege. Usually all Tass members working for intelligence — I said 
that about 80 or 85 percent of Tass correspondents are Soviet agents 
working for some kind of Soviet mtelligence agency — they transmit 
their reports through the diplomatic pouch and through the chief 
residents. 

For instance, here we had Kudryavtsev, Sergei. He could not 
dispatch his news because he was small fry in intelligence. He was 
just agent. What he had to do was to report his findings to his 
chief resident and in his case, I was his chief. So what he had to 
do was to report all data got by espionage to me. The same for 
!Mr. X. And I had to send all this information with my views and 
my own information by diplomatic channel to Moscow. If it was 
urgent, we used wireless, which was in Soviet Embassy. 

Mr. Morris. Did you use a code in that case? 

Mr. Ege. (No response.) 

Mr. Morris. A code? 

Mr. Ege. A cipher. Code is not too strong. You hav^e to have 
special ciphers because it can be monitored and discovered. And 
Tarasov, president of NKVD — all his findings and of other Sov^iet 
agents submitted to him, he would get that information and report 
on that and submit to Lavrov, who was press attache of Soviet 
Embassy in Berhn, and this one would submit all that to Kabulov, 
who was First Counsellor of Sov^iet Embassy, and shot by Soviet 
secret police. 

Mr. Morris. Shot by whom? 

Mr. Ege. By Soviet secret police. 

Mr. Morris. When was that? 

Mr. Ege. When Dekanozov was shot in this group here. And 
Kabulov would all that information send by diplomatic pouch to the 
foreign department of the NKVD, or if it was urgent, send it by wire- 



70 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

less, using his own cipher. So you sec, technical intelligence being 
oro-anizecr ao-onts would transmit their material to theu^ correspoudmg 
resident chiefs, or to thek chief residents, or if they themselves had 
contact with the Moscow headquarters, and send material this way. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when you were press attache in Turkey, Mr. 
Ege 

Mr. Ege. Yes. i • o 

Mr. Morris. What were your connections with Tass at that time.'' 

Mr. Ege. Professional connection, because Tass Agency was sup- 
plier of news, press, and press attache in every embassy is charged 
with getting acquainted with the foreign news of the country where 
he is accredited. So 3^ou have to have, with colleagues, professional 
contact. 

But when I came to Turkey, Tass was like this: Chief of Tass 
bureau in Ankara was a man called Vishn3^akov. This person, 
before coming to Ankara, worked in France, in Vichy, as Tass cor- 
respondent. He was one of the MVD residents in Turkey. Now, 
in Tass there were 

Mr. Morris. This is now the makeup of the Tass Agency in Ankara; 
is that right? 

Mr. Ege. Yes; Ankara and Istanbul. 

Mr. Morris. And Istanbul. 

Mr. Ege (continuing). A Tass correspondent called Mikhaylov. 
He was graduate of general staff, graduate from the Frunze Military- 
Academy, and working for the second section of the military intelli- 
gence department and gathering military espionage data on Turkey. 
He was Tass correspondent officially. And there was Tass corre- 
spondent by name of Morozov. In real life, in actual life, he was colo- 
nel of the Red army, working before that assignment in the information 
branch of the intelligence department of the Red army, and his real 
name was Medvedev. 

There was Alka3-eva — these are all Soviet citizens, by the way. and 
I point out, in Germany, all these were Soviet citizens, too. That 
girl was working for naval intelligence. 

Mr. Morris. Was working for whom? 

Mr. Ege. Tass correspondent Alkayeva, she was working — Alka- 
yeva was a girl. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was she a Soviet citizen, too? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Mr. Ege. And she was working for naval intelligence, having special 
assignment to observe on Bosphorus; that is, she was concerned with 
the movement of Russian vessels. 

Mr. Morris. And she worked for naval intelligence? 

Mr. P:ge. Yes. 

And there was a girl called Okorokova, Augusta. She was an intelli- 
gence agent trained for espionage job. And before assignment in 
Germany, she was in France with Vishnyakov as agent for fourth 
section. 

h In Ankara, she worked for Tass and later she worked for consulate 
as translator and typist. 

Mr. Morris. Was she also a Soviet citizen? 

Mr. Ege. All these persons were Soviet citizens. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 71 

Mr. Morris. And did you have any Turkish nationals working 
them? 

Mr. Ege. No. At that time they did not permit for Tass work 
officials in that capacity. They could use unofficially, but officials 
they could not, because there was war, and they were more restricted. 

And here was me, Nikolayev, press attach^. That was Tass. That 
was me. And I, Nikolayev, was working for the network which was 
under my supervision. Morozov was in the network under my super- 
vision, and Augusta Okorokova was under my supervision. And that 
was part of my network in Ankara and Istanbul. And Sergei 
Kudryavtsev was in Ankara, too, before his promotion to Canada as 
Secretary of Soviet Embassy. He was in the same network. 

Mr. Morris. He was in that network. And is he the gentleman, 
you say, who was assigned to Canada later on? 

Mr. Ege. Yes, Sergei Kudryavtsev, which came to the attention of 
world opinion in atomic spy case, revealed by Gouzenko. 

Mr. Morris. That is the same gentleman? 

Mr. Ege. Yes. 

Now, that was the network of intelligence agencies used by Moscow 
headquarters, and Tass was used, as you see, as a cover here, too. 

Tass is better to use as a cover than embassy. For instance, first 
secretary, second secretary, third secretary are always used by Soviets 
as a cover. But from my experience, foreign counterintelligence 
organizations know that a man with diplomatic passport of Soviet 
Embassy is sometimes a spy anyway. So they organize surveillance 
of him, and usually that person is more suspect when he has diplo- 
matic passport and works in embassy. 

But sometimes it doesn't come to the minds of people that a little 
Tass correspondent is a colonel of the Red army and getting informa- 
tion on espionage. And usually Tass members do not have diplomatic 
passports, but they have more tricks. They can move. They can see 
other journalists, and doing that, they fish into the personal back- 
ground of future victims. 

Mr. Morris. Now, generally, what were the associations of Tass 
people with the local Communist nationals? 

Mr. Ege. I would like you to repeat the question, please. 

Mr. Morris. What were the relations between Tass people, Tass 
operatives, and Communist members in Berlin and Turkey? 

Mr. Ege. I see. 

Tass members are not permitted, without special permission and 
without special orders, to come in contact with foreign Cominunists, 
because it puts into danger this foreign Communist and this Tass 
member. And usually the contacts between local Communist Parties 
and the Soviet intelligence agencies are done by intelligence depart- 
ment of the Red army and foreign department of the NKVD, through 
the means of people who are working as Soviet agents under Tass 
cover. But that would be done in secrecy, and not in an open way. 

For instance, in 1941, Soviet military intelligence had a special 
project to help the family of Thailmann, who was leader of German 
Communists. He was put into prison by Hitler, and his family was 
suffering because of lack of material support, and the intelligence 
department had ordered the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 
to organize help for his family. And it was done through Tass, which 
were covers, because it was necessary to find out his family and help. 



72 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

And that comes. But openly, Tass is instructed to avoid political 
contacts or engage itself in political activity, because doing that, it 
would put itself under some potential danger. 

So they are instructed to stay away. But being intelligence mem- 
bers, they do it clandestinely, in a secret way, without show, without 

noise. . . , i • x- x 4.u 

Mr. >roKr{is. Mr. Ege, in connection with your description ot the 
organization in military intelligence that performs illegal work, do 
you think it is advisable for American Communists, when traveling 
abroad, to be given passports by the United States Government? 

Mr. Ec.E. I do not think so. Because, having this passport, a 
Communist is going overseas, would get very easily into contact with 
the interested persons and do his subversive work. 

Mr. MoRijis. Do you think, Mr. Ege, on the basis of your experi- 
ence in the Soviet Union and on the basis of your life here in the 
United States, that the United States Government is doing enough to 
encourage defections from the Soviet organizations throughout the 
world? 

Mr. EoE. I am sure that the United States has to have a senesof 
steps in encouraging the defection of high Soviet officials from Soviet 
Union. It is in the interests of the United States, because they will 
furnish with the necessary data the United States Government, and 
if there would be war one day between the Soviet Union and the 
United States of America, Soviet defectors could help to save thou- 
sands of lives of American boys. 

But in order to achieve this result, I think there has to be worked 
out a special bill, because what is done on behalf of these defectors 
now is far below what is desired. 

What makes that defector, usually in a free country? I will take 
my own example. I know some other persons. And I went through 
all this ordeal for fight for freedom. 

Here stands close the Soviet Union with millions of its army, secret 
operatives, and Communist Party. And the person who is an agent 
protests against social injustice and then breaks with the Soviet Union 
and defects to the West to tell free people what is danger of com- 
munism. 

That he was a Communist, that he was born in Soviet Union and 
got into some important job is not his fault. He was born in Soviet 
Union. If he was Communist or he had communistic feelings, or he 
was dreamer, and he didn't know what was going on in the outside 
world, or he wanted to do somethmg for human sufferings, but when 
this person saw that communism is not what it is pictured, and is 
wrong, and defects, his ordeal starts after that. 

I would bring to your attention, the example with myself — and 
there was Rastvorov, there was Khokhlov, there was Petrov. What 
was done with them all? They take j^our picture, put in newspapers 
under headline, "Ex-Soviet Spy Major of General Staff, Working 
Against the United States or the Free World, Reveals m His Testi- 
mony." 

The presentation is made. Then he is forgotten. And try after 
this presentation to hunt for a job in this free world. Who will accept 
you, if you be not helped? 

I do not remember any case when it was given proper attention to 
these politicnl refugees, with names — and there were many persons 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 73 

whose names are not known — told to the free world all then- knowledge, 
and in doing so they talk into endangering their lives. They refuse 
all then- future. And to do something, organize something, he has 
to wait, for the reason that he was a Communist, in a Communist 
country, 10 years in order to get citizenship. 

If he is 50 years old, what will he do with this citizenship when he 
is 60 years old? They will not fit him into some kind of job. This 
person can't get Hfe insurance. I can't do it, because I am risk for 
insurance companies. 

And the press in the free world? \Vlien it gives its attention to 
these people, showing the people that they had done something — 
these people were not given chance to go to United States and to tell 
American people about their life in the Soviet Union, not only 
espionage, but common life, how the Soviet workers live. And more 
publicity was given to this commission, this agricultural commission 
from the Soviet Union, more than to any Soviet defector. They 
were writing about their way of drinking, their way of talking, and 
comparing them with American businessmen, and so on. The papers 
were full of it. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Ege, do 3^ou think other present Soviet officials 
would defect if we gave them some encouragement? 

Mr. Ege. If the United States Government officially would help 
them and protect them and give them citizenship and chance to get 
job, they will. But if a person lives for years and has no flag to fight 
under, no constitution to defend and no country where he will be 
accepted, not as an ex-Red, but as a person fighting communism, I 
am sure there would be many cases where high positioned Soviet 
officials will come, but not in this way. And doing it this way, I 
think without their knowledge, many people are pouring water into 
the mills of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. — — • 

Mr. Ege. Excuse me. And you can take the reverse side of it. 
I know how Dimitroff was given citizenship in Soviet Russia. 

Mr. Morris. Dimitroff? 

Mr, Ege. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. He was the Bulgarian? 

Mr. Ege. That is right. He was given within 24 hours Soviet 
citizenship. 

I knew how Dolores Ibarruri and Jose Dias, from Spain, were taken 
into the Soviet Union, and when Soviet soldiers were fighting Germans 
and when there was lack of everythmg, they were living comfortably 
in Black Sea resorts. I know Spanish Communists who were attend- 
ing with us, class in the war college of general staff. They were given 
more privileges than Soviet officers. I Icnow tens of facts of that kind. 

Take Nazim Hikmet, the Turkish poet, when he defected to 
Russia. And there were many other factors. So I think it is our 
duty not only from the humanitarian point of view but from the point 
of interest of the United States to take every measure and to pass, if 
necessary, a bill to encourage all defectors and to encourage life of 
defectors who already live here. 

For instance, if I walk out from here now and if some agent is 
going to shoot me down, I know my family would be without a penny, 
living here. And not only me. There are many persons. And I 
know the only office or agencj^ who appreciates it was this subcom- 



74 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

mittoe. This sul)committoo had the courage to thank the people who 
came before this subcoininittee, because this subcommittee under- 
stands the Communist danger. But this subcommittee is not press; 
it is not Government; and it is not the American pubhc opmion, in 
whole. All these others shoukl understand our side. 

Mr. MouHis. Air. Ege, I wonder if you would tell us why you 
defected; why you personally defected. 

Mr. Ege. 1 defected because, not like many foreign Communists 
who admire Soviet Union, I think the best way is to send them in 
order to be sent bj' their own way. 

I fought for Soviet Union, I was born there. And from. 1917 
until 1942, I saw with my oavti eyes what is communism in theory and 
in practice. I learned the theory from the original books of Marx 
in the Russian language, of Lenin, of Stalin. I saw it in practice. 
And when I saw it, I was disappointed, and I saw that I was used in 
the wrong wa}', because communism is not the way of improving 
human misery by its methods. It is improved by more civilized 
methods in the West. 

Take and just compare the life of a simple worker in an auto plant 
in Detroit, and a worker in a Russian auto plant. You will see the 
difference. Take all human life conditions in Soviet Russia. Could 
they travel outside? What will they do with their savings? They 
have no security for their future. And take their principles. Some- 
body gets dead like Stalin, and they are -coming with new doctrines. 
That is not the way, because they are just bankrupt with this policy. 

I want to be free. I wanted to tell to the free people what is the 
Soviet Union. And I wanted to be on my own and not be bossed 
any more by the intelligence dictators of the Communist Party. 

That is, in short, the reason why I defected from Soviet Russia. 

The Chairman. When did you defect? 

Mr. Ege. I defected June 3, 1942. 

And when I defected, there was war. And in order not to be de- 
serter of war, because I dislike Germany to the same degree as the 
Soviet Union, I came to the consul of the United States in Istanbul, 
and before my defection, I stated to him in a very clear way, in English 
language, that I was Soviet officer, that I am Soviet officer, I told him, 
using the present tense, that I am going to break wdth the Soviets for 
these, these, and these reasons; that I have this Idnd of information. 
And as far as war is going, I would like to be sent like simple American 
soldier to any battlefield to fight Germans, everything, in order to be 
some day an American. 

I was refused because, I don't know for what reason, people could 
not understand, many people. They think when a person is talldng 
about his background in very simple terms, thinking, perhaps in a very 
narrowminded way, that that is one of the turncoats, or one of the 
opportunists. 

^ But if that person thinking this way could experience, himself, what 
is life m the Soviet Union, what it means to be a Communist, and 
what is freedom, he will understand it. 

But foreign Communists, who are working for Soviet agency, 
hvmg here, have no knowledge about the Soviet Union. They are on 
the wrong way. If they will live over there as simple Soviet citizens 
for some years, they will understand it very well. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 75 

It is very easy to talk about Marx and the Socialist fatherland of 
the world, and so on. But when they see, 1 year, of all this suffering, 
they will understand. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. You may stand aside, sir. We certainly thank 
you for your testimony. It has been very, very helpful and very 
important to these hearings. 

Mr. Ege. Thank you. 

(Whereupon, at 12 o'clock noon, the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Agricultural commission from Soviet Union 73 

Akhmedov, Ismail Gusseynovich. {See Ege, Ismail.) 

Alkayeva 70 

Tass correspondent in Ankara 70 

Girl, worked for naval intelligence 70 

Soviet citizen 70 

Special assignment to observe Bosphorus 70 

Ambassador of Stalin in Berlin (Dekanozov) 65 

America/ American 62, 66, 74 

American boys 72 

American businessmen 73 

American people 73 

American public opinion 74 

American soldier 74 

Ankara 69-71 

Anti-Semitism 64 

Army General Staff 60 

Asiatic 64 

AP (Associated Press) 67, 68 

Atomic spy case 71 

Azerbayou Communist Party, central committee of 59 

B 

Balkan countries 61, 62 

Berlin 58, 63, 65, 66, 69, 71 

Bill to encourage defectors 73 

Black Sea resorts 73 

Bosphorus 70 

Bulgaria 61 

Butler, Senator... 57 

C 

Cable 67 

Canada 61, 62, 71 

Caucasia 59 

Caucasian Red Banners Army 59 

Central Europe 61 

Cheka 60,61 

China 61, 62 

Cipher . 69, 70 

Cold war 68 

Comintern 62 

Communism 73 

Communist/Communists 64, 71-74 

Communist danger 74 

Communist dictatorship 68 

Communist press 68 

Communists: 

American 72 

Foreign 71, 74 

I 



n INDEX 

Pago 

Communist Party 59, 68, 72 

Central committee of ^q 

H cadquarters 68 

Local 71 

Communist Party of the Soviet Union 67, 71 

»- Central committee of 62 

Communist Party of the United States 57 

Conspiracy is the principle of Intelligence 67 

Counterintelhgence 61 

D 

Defections from Soviet organizations 72 

Dckanozov 65, 69 

Ambassador of Stalin in Berlin, 1946 65 

Detroit 74 

Dias, Jose 73 

DimitrofT 73 

Given citizenship in Soviet Russia 73 

Bulgarian 73 

Diplomatic passport of Soviet Embassy 71 

Diplomatic pouch 69 

E 

Eastland, Senator 57 

Ege, Ismail (testimony of) 57-75 

Born in Orsk, Ural district of Soviet Union 57 

Ismail Gusseynovich Akhmedov (Russian name) 58 

Ege, assumed name since coming to United States 58 

Graduate War College of General Staff of Red Army 58 

September 1940, appointed to Intelligence Department of Red Army, 

General Staflf of Soviet Army 58 

June 3, 1942, defected Soviet Government and Communist Party 58, 59 

Deputy chief, fourth section of Intelligence Department, with rank 

of major of General Staff 58 

Chief of fourth section 59 

1925, entered Red army 59 

Entered Leningrad School of Military Communications and graduated 

in 1929 with rank of lieutenant 59 

1929, appointed field services in Caucasia, 11th Radio Battalion, 
Caucasian Army 59 

1930, selected for intelligence section of Caucasian Army 59 

1925-42 (June 3), served with Red army 59 

May 1941, appointed to field intelligence in Germany 60 

May 1941, appointed vice president of Berlin Tass Bureau 63 

Changed name to Georgi Petrovich Nikolayev 64 

For Tass clearance, educated from Institute of Journalism in 

Tbilisi 64 

Tass cover story, born in Tbilisi, Georgia 64 

Juno 24, 1941, arrested by Germans 65 

Exchanged for German prisoners in Soviet Union and sent home via 

Turkey 69 

Appointed press attach^ of Soviet Embassy in Turkey (Ankara and 

Istanbul) 69, 70 

Transmitted secret military reports through diplomatic pouch and 

chief residents 69 

Eleventh Radio Battalion _ _ _ 59 

England _"_ _'_"_V.V_'_V.V_V.V_' 'eT, 62, 66 

Espionage 59_62, 66, 68, 70, 71, 73 

Espionage agents 66 

Europe ~ ~ "~~ 61 

Ex- Red IIII. " _~ 73 



INDEX m 

F 

Page 

First Counselor of Soviet Embassy (Kabulov) 69 

Fourth Section Red Intelligence Service 58, 59, 63 

Agents operations section 58 

Procure data on technical devices having military significance on for- 
eign armies by means of espionage 58, 59 

Foreign division 61 

France -^ 61, 62, 70 

Frunze Military Academy 70 

G 

Georgia 64 

German/Germany 58- 70, 73, 7 4 

German Communists 71 

German Nazi Partj^__ 66 

Gestapo 63, 68 

Gouzenko 71 

Government 74 

H 

Hess 66 

Hikmet, Nazim (Turkish poet) 73 

Defected to Russia 73 

Hitler 71 

Hitler-Stalin Pact 64 

I 

Ibarruri, Dolores 73 

Institute of Journalism in Tbilisi 64 

Intelligence agencies of Soviet Union 60' 

Two main branches 60 

RU — Razvedyvatel'noye Upravlenie (military intelligence con- 
ducted by General Staff) 60 

MVD — Soviet secret police, also known as MKVD, Cheka 60 

Istanbul 69-71, 74 

Italy 62 

J 

Japan 61,62 

Jewish/ Jews 64, 65 

K 

Kabulov (first counsellor of Soviet Embassy) 69 

Shot by Soviet secret police 69 

KGB 61 

Khavinson (director of Tass in 1941) 64 

Khokhlov 72 

Kudryavtsev, Sergei 65, 67, 69, 71 

Tass correspondent, Berlin 65 

Agent for fourth section in Ankara 67, 69, 71 

Secretary of Soviet Embassy in Canada 71 

L 

Lavrov, press attache, Soviet Embassy in Berlin 69 

Lenin 74 

Leningrad 59 

Leningrad School of Military Communications 59 

M 

Major of General Staff (Ege, Ismail) 63 

Malenko v 66 

Marx 74, 75 

Medvedev. (See Morozov.) 

Middle East 61, 62 



'II II 




INDEX 



J 9999 05445 4226 



Page 

Mikhaylov ' 70 

Tass correspondent, Ankara 70 

Graduate of General Staff 70 

Graduate Frunze Military Academy 70 

Worked for second section, Military Intelligence Department, in 

Turkey 70 

Soviet citizen 70 

Military Intelligence Department (RU) 60-62, 64, 65, 71, 72 

Seven agent operations sections 61 

1st — Military espionage in Europe, Central Europe, England, 

and United Kingdom 61 

2d — Organization of military intelligence in Turkey, Middle 

East, Balkan countries 61 

3d — Organization of military espionage in United States, China, 

Japan, and Canada 61 

4th — Organization of espionage in first-class technically advanced 
countries like United States, United Kingdom, Germany, 

France 61 

5th — Organization of terroristic acts 61 

6th — Publication of false passports, financial problems, micro- 
film, etc 62 

Morozov, Tass correspondent in Ankara 70, 71 

Soviet citizen 70 

Colonel of Red army 70 

Real name Medvedev 70 

Moscow 59, 65, 67-69 

Moscow headquarters 70, 71 

MVD 60-62, 65, 70 

Foreign division 61, 62 

N 

Naval intelligence 62, 70 

1941, separated 62 

Nazi Party 66, 67 

Nikolayev, Georgi Petrovich. {See Ege, Ismail.) 

NRVD 60-62, 65, 66, 68, 69 

Foreign department 69, 71 

President 69 

O 

OGPU 61 

Okorokova, Augusta 70 71 

InteUigence agent trained for espionage 70 

Agent for fourth section, France, Germany 70 

Worked for Tass in Ankara 70 

Translator and typist for consulate 70 

Soviet citizen 70 

Under Nikolayev's supervision in Ankara 71 

Orsk _'" 64 

Otdely I.IIIIIIII.II.IIIIII 61 

P 

Panfilov, Major General 64 65 

Deputy Director of Intelligence Department II.III ' 64 

Commissar of tank department ~_~_ 64 

Very responsible Communist __ "~_ ~" 64 

Passport. -V.V.'.V.V.V.V eY, 69, 72 

Passports, false _ _ _ 52 

People's Commissars ""I.I "_'_" ~_ 67 

Petrov " ~" _"" " 72 

Press attaches of Soviet Embassy I-~___""' '""_"_ '_' 69 

Press attach^ in Turkey "_"""_ l_~ ___ ~ 70 

Publicity ~_I_I _]___ " 73 



INDEX V 

R Pag* 

Rastvorov 72 

Red army 58-60, 62, 63, 71 

Red army, Moscow 59 

Reuters 67, 68 

RU — Razvedy vatel'noye Upravlenie 60-62, 65 

Two main branches 61 

Agents — espionage 61 

Information 61 

Rumania 61 

Russia/Russian 59, 61, 64, 68, 70, 74 

Russian language 74 

Russian Sosedy 65 

Russian vessels 70 

S 

Second World War 67 

Socialist fatherland of the world 75 

Soviet 57, 60, 64, 69, 71, 74 

Soviet Army 58, 63 

Soviet citizen 68, 70, 74 

Soviet consulates 63 

Soviet defectors 72, 73 

Protect them 73 

Give them citizenship 73 

Chance to get job 73 

Soviet Embassy/Embassies 63, 69, 71 

Soviet Embassy: 

Berlin 69 

Canada 71 

Turkey 69 

Soviet Government 59, 61, 66, 67 

Soviet intelligence 66, 71 

Soviet military intelligence 59 

Soviet officer/officers 73, 74 

Soviet official, high-rank 60, 66, 72 

Soviet officials, present 73 

Soviet Party 68 

Soviet passport 65 

Soviet people 68 

Soviet police state 60 

Soviet Russia 68, 73, 74 

Soviet secret police 60, 61, 69 

Main function, counterintelligence 61 

Also special military and political intelligence 61 

Soviet soldiers 73 

Soviet trade missions 63 

Soviet Union 60, 62, 64-69, 72-74 

Soviet Union of Stalin 60 

Soviet workers 73 

Spain 62, 73 

Spanish Communists 73 

Special bill to help defectors 72 

Stalin 64, 66, 68, 74 

Steinberg 64 

T 
Tarasov 65 

1941 president of Berlin Tass Bureau 65 

Udin, real name ; of Jewish origin 65 

President of NKVD 69 

Tass (Tass News Agency) 57-59, 63-72 

Used as cover for Soviet intelligence 60, 63, 71 

Berlin Bureau 63, 65, 67 

United States Bureau 66 

1941 director, Khavinson 64 



VI INDEX 

Tass (Tass News Agency) — Continued P*B« 

Never used as channel for communication by intelligence officer 67 

Created in 1925 by decree of People's Commissars 67 

Political importance 67 

Commercial economic importance 68 

Works outside of Soviet Union 67 

Works inside Soviet Union 67 

Misleads Soviet citizens 68 

80-85 percent Tass personnel Soviet agents 68, 69 

Vishnyakov, chief of Ankara Tass Bureau 70 

Mikhaylov, Ankara Tass correspondent 70 

Morozov, Ankara Tass correspondent; real life colonel of Red Army, 

real name Medvedev 70 

Okorokova, Augusta, Ankara Tass Bureau 

Nikolayev (nee Ege), press attach^ in Turkey 71 

Tarasov, president of Berlin Tass Bureau 65 

Tbilisi, Georgia 64 

Ten years to get citizenship 73 

Thaiimann 71 

Ijcader of German Communists 71 

Imprisoned by Hitler 71 

Turkey/Turkish 59, 61, 64, 68-71 

Turkish nationals 71 

Turkish Pact . 73 

U 

United Kingdom - 61 

UP (United Press) 67, 68 

United States 57, 58, 61, 62, 66, 68, 72-74 

United States Government 72, 73 

V 

Verkhovtsev 65 

Tass correspondent, Berlin 65 

Special protege of Dekanozov 65 

Vichy, France 70 

Vishnyakov 70 

Chief of Tass Bureau in Ankara 70 

MVD resident in Turkey 70 

Worked in Vichy, France, as Tass correspondent 70 

W 

Weissman 64 

Welkcr, Senator 57 

West 74 

Wireless __ _ ___ _ 69 

Wolff I.-"-III"IIIIII"I 67 

X 

X, Mr g5 gg 

Tass correspondent, Berlin ~ ' 55 

o 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTEEML 8ECUEITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGEESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



FEBRUARY 29, 1956 



PART 4 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Public' Li'-rary 
Cuperintcncle.Tit of Documents 

APR 3 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 



JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi 
ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 
CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 
THOMAS C. HENNINQS, Jr., Missouri 
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas 
PRICE DANIEL, Texas 
JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming 



ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 
WILLIAM LANGER, Nortti Dakota 
WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 
ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 
EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 
HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 
JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINQS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

Richard Arens and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 29, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

and Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10:30 a. m., 
in room 357, Senate Office Building, Senator Olin D. Johnston 
presiding. 

Present: Senators Eastland (chairman of the subcommittee), 
Johnston, and Welker. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; J. G. Sourwine (former 
chief counsel) ; Benjamin Mandel, research director ; Alva C. Carpenter, 
associate counsel; and Robert C. McManus, investigations analyst. 

Senator Johnston (presiding). The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zborowski, will you come forward, please, with 
your counsel? Will you stand and be sworn, please? Raise your 
right hand. 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear the evidence that you give 
before this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Zborowski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARK ZBOROWSKI, ACCOMPANIED BY HERMAN 
A. GREENBERG, ESQ., HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give yom- full name and address to the 
reporter? 

Mr. Zborowski. Mark Zborowski, 2451 Webb Avenue, New 
York City. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, will you identify yom-self? 

Mr. Greenberg. Yes. Herman A. Greenberg, Wyatt Building, 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the subcommittee has received testi- 
mony in executive session that the witness called this morning has 
been a highly placed and highly reliable agent with the Russian 
Secret Police, Soviet Secret Police, and he has been asked to testify 
today in connection with that job. 

Mr. Zborowski, will you give yom- present occupation to the 
reporter, please? 

Mr. Zborowski. I am an anthropologist, and I am employed on 
a project of rehabilitation of disabled people. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify that assignment a little more fully? 

77 



78 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ZnoKOwsKi. It is a project sponsored by the Russell Sage 
Foundation, being done by the Veterans' Administration hospital in 
the Bronx. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you have a grant from the Russell 
Sage Foundation and your work involves work among the Veterans' 
Administration hospitals, is that right? 

Mr. Zborowski. Among the patients of the Veterans' Administra- 
tion Hospital. 

Mr. Morris. "Hospital" or "hospitals," plural? 

Mr. Zborowski. Hospital. 

Mr. Morris. Singular; where is that hospital? 

Mr. Zborowski. In Bronx, New York. 

Mr. Morris. What is the duration of that grant? 

Mr. Zborowski. The duration of that grant is 2 years, with a 
possibility of extension for a third year. 

Mr. Morris. What is the amount of that grant? 

Mr. Zborowski. The amount of that grant is $13,000 a year. 

Mr. Morris. $13,000? 

Mr. Zborowski. $13,000, covering my salary and salaries of the 
people working for me. 

Mr. Morris. Has that grant been supplemented in any way? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Has that grant been supplemented in any way? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was supplemented recently by an additional 
person to work there. 

Mr. Morris. And therefore, the total grant is what amount? 

Mr. Zborowski. At the present time the amount, it is something 
like $15,000. 

Mr. Morris. $15,000? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did not check it exactly, but something like 
$15,000. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you have any income from any other source? 

Mr. Zborowski. I have no income with the exception of royalties 
from a book I published. 

Mr. Morris. From a book you published, royalties? 

Mr. Zborowski. With that exception. 

Mr, Morris. What is the name of the book? 

Mr. Zborowski. "Life is with People." 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was your work immediately prior to your 
receiving this particular grant you told us about? 

Mr. Zborowski. I was engaged on a project on pain 

Mr. Morris. What was that? 

Mr. Zborowski, Pain among people who suffer from various ill- 
nesses. 

Mr. Morris. Under what auspices did you carry that out? 

Mr. Zborow^ski. Under a public health grant. 

Mr, Morris, The Public Health Administration? 

Mr, Zborowski. The Department of Mental Health, the United 
States Mental Health Institute. 

Mr. IMoRRis, In other words, with the Government? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes — it is not a government 

Mr. Morris, What was the amount of that grant? 

Mr, Zborowski, Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. What w^as the amount of that grant? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 79 

Mr. Zborowski. The amount of that grant was $16,000. 

Mr. Morris. And of what duration was it? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was a 3-year duration. 

Mr. Morris. I see 

Mr. Zborowski. It was $8,000 per year, $16,000 for the first 2 
years and $8,000 for the thu-d year, $24,000. 

Mr. Morris. For what years? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was from 1951 until 1954. 

Mr. Morris. 1951, 1952, and 1953? 

Mr. Zborowski. Right. 

Mr. Morris, And what did you do prior to 1951? 

Mr. Zborowski. Prior to 1951 I was a study director in the Ameri- 
can Jewish Committee. 

Mr. Morris. Staff dhector? 

Mr. Zborowski. Study du*ector. 

Mr. Morris. How long did that assignment last? 

Mr. Zborowski. I think that assignment — I was with the com- 
mittee from 1948 until about 1951. That is right, 1947 to 1948 to 
1951. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do prior to that time? 

Mr. Zborowski. I was a librarian with the Yivo Scientific Institute 
and also a consultant with the Columbia University Research on 
contemporaiy culture. 

Mr. Morris. How long did that assignment last? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, it lasted from — with Yivo, I think I was 
from 1945— yes, from 1945, 1946, to about 1949, 1950, I was— I 
don't have the exact dates. 

Mr. Morris. I sea. What did you do prior to 1945? 

Mr. Zborowski. I was working for a few months, I was working 
with the — well, as a translator for the Army service forces. 

Mr. Morris. What was your assignment before that? 

Mr. Zborowski. Before that, I was in a metal factory as an — 
well, the operation of an automatic machine, screw-machine operator, 
and later on a checkup man. 

Mr. Morris. I see. You commenced that work after you arrived 
in the United States? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir — not immediately. 

Mr. Morris. When did you arrive in the United States? 

Mr. Zborowski. I arrived in the United States December 1941, 

Mr. Morris. Where had you come from? 

Mr. Zborowski. I came from Paris. 

Mr. Morris. Paris? 

Mr. Zborowski. Right — I came directly from Vic-Le-BegoiTe 
in the Pyi'enees. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you stay in Paris? 

Mr. Zborowski. I stayed in Paris since 1930 — various times, the 
longest duration was from 1934 until 1940; 1940, that is right. 

Mr. Morris. And where were you born? 

Mr. Zborowski. I was born in Russia; Uman, Russia. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you stay in Russia? 

Mr. Zborowski. Until 1921. 

Mr. Morris. And where did you go in 1921? 

Mr. Zborowski. In 1921 I went to Poland. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you stay in Poland? 



80 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zboroavski. In Poland I stayed from 1921 to 1928. 

Mr. Morris. And where did you go in 1928? . 

Mr. Zboroavski. In 19281 went to Rouen, France, to study medicine. 

Mr. Morris. And you stayed in France until 

Mr. Zborowski. I'stayed in France from 1928 to 1929, then I left 
France for the summer vacation, and I came back, I stayed there a 
year and a half, and returned back to France. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I wonder if we might pass over any 
detailed description of this man's employment until later in the 
hearings? 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever been a Communist? 

Mr. Zborowski. I never been a Communist. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist when you were in Poland? 

Mr. Zborowski. I have never been, I have*^never been a member 
of the Communist Party in Poland. I had Communist ideas in 
Poland. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Young Communists? 

Mr. Zborowski. No; I was not. I was a member of a student or- 
ganization which was dominated by the Communists. 

Senator Welker. Did I understand you to say you had Com- 
munist ideas while in Poland? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sir. . 

Mr. Morris. Were you arrested in connection with your Com- 
munist activity? 

Mr. Zborowski. No; I was not arrested in connection with my 
Communist activities. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever told Mrs. David Dallin that you were 
a Communist in Poland and had been arrested for your Communist 
Party activities? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Was that a true statement? 

Mr. Zborowski. To a certain extent it was. 

Mr. Morris. Will you explain to what extent it was true? 

Mr. Zborowski. Because during the summer of 1929 — 1930, I was 
working in — I was working as a bookkeeper in a labor union and this 
labor union, when I was a student, working there, this labor union 
went on a strike and at a given time everybody present in the office 
of this labor union was arrested, and among them I was arrested, 
also, but I was released. 

Mr. Morris. Well, why did you tell Mrs. Dallin you had been a 
Communist and had been arrested for your Communist activities? 

Mr. Zborowski. Because that was in the interest of my work at 
that time. 

Mr. Morris. It was in the interest of 3''our work to tell her that? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Even though it was not an accurate statement? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you work for the Soviet Secret Police? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Was the Soviet Secret Police known as the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 81 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us in great detail your first connection 
with the NKVD, which is the term used when we are referring to the 
Soviet Secret Police? 

Mr. Zborowski. You want me to start from the beginning? 

Mr. Morris. I do, sir. 

Mr. Zborowski. When I was a student in France and I was in the 
city of Grenoble, I was doing work while a student, I was working as 
a porter 

Mr. Greenberg. What year? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was in 1933 — 1932, 1933, I was in Grenoble, 
working, as a student, working as a porter for a boardinghouse and in 
this boardinghouse I met a gentleman who was at the time a friend 
of the lady owner of this house, and this man, who was of Russian 
origin, suggested to me that I should apply for the repatriation to 
Soviet Russia, on the basis of my birth in the other country. 

Mr. Morris. All right, may I ask you this? 

Mr. Zborowski. Sure. 

Mr. Morris. What papers were you then working on, in other 
words, what particular papers did you have? 

Mr, Zborowski. I lived on the French 

Mr. Morris. On the French 

Mr. Zborowski. French passport — well it is not a passport, it is 
French identification, carte d'identite, a booklet, that was issued to 
every foreigner that lived in this country 

Mr. Morris. Had you forged the paper? 

Mr. Zborowski. That was a perfectly correct paper. 

Mr. Morris. You had papers? 

Mr. Zborowski. Right. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you obtain them? 

Mr. Zborowski. I obtained them in Paris, in the Registry of the 
Prefecture of Police. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us briefly how you obtained them, sir? 

Mr. Zborowski. I obtained them on the basis of my reading my 
own — you see, I had this booklet, it has to be changed every 2 or 3 — • 
I don't remember now how often, but I had one the time I was a 
student, then I changed it, proving my identity by my Polish passport 
which I had. 

Mr. Morris. And did you ever tell Mrs. David Dallin that you 
were living under fradulent papers? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't think I told here I was living on this 
fraudulent paper, I told her, I think, that I was worried, that there 
was a police investigation, I was worried about my status as an alien 
and the problem of my papers in general, I don't think I did teU her 
that I lived on forged papers, because it was not true. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Zborowski, how did you — did the Com- 
munists aid you in any way in getting out of Poland? 

Mr. Zborowski. I left Poland perfectly freely, without any trouble. 

Mr. Morris. Did any Communists assist you in your departure 
from Poland, in any way? 

Mr. Zborowski. Not as I remember. 

Mr. Morris. You are not certain? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I am not certain, there might have been some 
Communists among the people that helped me get out, but I don't 
know whether — ^anj^way, I was not conscious of assistance on the part 
of the Communists. 



82 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Will you continue telling us about yoiu- first connec- 
tion with the Soviet Secret Police? ^ i i u t 

Mr. ZnoROWSKi. At the tune when I was in Grenoble, when i niet 
this Russian man, he suggested to me that I apply for the repatriation 
to Soviet Russia on the basis of my birth in the country. 

I was at the time workmg very hard, one of his reasons to interest 
me there was because I was working very hard in this particular place, 
that I could really devote my tune to study as much as I wanted to, 
and he suggested "that if I would go to Russia I would be able to study 
there and I would not be — I wouldn't be forced to work as hard as I 
was working. 

I accepted this idea. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know, at the time, he was working for 
the Soviet Secret Pohce? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did not, at the tune, know he was workmg for 
the Soviet Pohce, and he brought me 

Mr. Morris. Do you know his name, by the way? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, I can— — • 

Mr. Morris. What is his name? 

Mr. Zborowski. The name is Afanasyeff. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that name? 

Mr, Zborowski. I think it is A-f-a-n-a-s-y-e-f-f. 

Mr. Morris. Proceed. 

Mr. Zborowski. And he suggested to "me I apply for repatriation 
and he brouglit me the blanks which I had to fill out in order to go to 
Soviet Russia. 

I filled them out 

Mr, Morris. When was this? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was in 1933. 

Mr, Morris. Continue with your story. 

Mr. Zborowski. He said, that on his way to Paris he would take 
them with him and he will deposit them with the Soviet Embassy 
or the Soviet office which deals with this problem. 

Mr. Morris. He did say what? 

Mr. Zborowski. That he would take the blanks, the forms that 
I filled 

Mr, Morris. Oh, the forms? 

Mr. Zborowski. And he would take them off with him and he 
said that I probably, that at a certain time I will hear from them, 
and of which I was very skeptical, about the possibility, because of 
my background. 

Mr. Morris. Because of your background; what do you mean? 

Mr. Zborowski, Because my parents are not in favor from Russia, 
because they were rich people, and there was the trouble of the 
so-called bourgeois descent, wdiich was against — which was not in 
favor of anyone in Russia. 

And a certain time passed and he said — and I asked him — and I 
did not have any news from them from this, from the Soviet Embassy, 
I did not; I seen him a number of times while he was in Grenoble, 
but he never told me about any news. 

In nineteen — I guess it was 1932; no, it was in 1934 — in 1934 he 
came over to me and said that if I wanted to — if I wanted, I can go 

to Paris and there will be a man 

Mr. Morris. Will be what? I didn't understand. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN" THE UNITED STATES 83 

Mr. Zborowski. There will be a man. 

Mr. Morris. There will be a "man"? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes; in Paris. 

Mr. Morris. In Paris? 

Mr. Zborowski. From the Embassy or the consulate, who would 
like to talk to me about my application, would like to find out, and 
he proposed I go with him to Paris, and I went with him to Paris 
and in Paris I met this man. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you meet this man? 

Mr. Zborowski. I met this man in a cafe in Paris. 

Mr. Morris. What was the man's name? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't know the name. I know the description, 
but — he told me — he did not introduce himself, but he said, "This 
man will talk to you;" this man, Afanasyeff said, "will talk to you." 
He did not introduce himself, I don't think. 

Mr. Morris. How did you recognize him? 

Mr. Zborowski. I went with this other fellow, this AfanasyeflF. 

Mr, Morris. He took you along? »**« 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right, and he introduced me to this man. 

Mr. Morris. And what name did he use to introduce? 

Mr. Zborowski. He used a given name and he said, "This is the 
man," I think, but I am not very clear about it, I think he gave some 
kind of a Russian name which I am very unclear about it. 

Mr. Morris. But he did give a name but it was unclear? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember, so I didn't want to make any 
statement. 

Mr. Morris. Did you see the man again? 

Mr. Zborowski. I saw him several times. 

Mr. Morris. On any subsequent occasion did'you call him by any 
name whatsoever? 

Mr. ZB0R0W^SKI. Yes, I called him by a Russian name and the 
name of the father. You know, he called himself Ivan Petrovich or 
Nickolai Ivanovich, something of that kind; a first name and the 
father's name, a patronymic. 

Mr. Morris. A what? 

Mr. Zborowski. The father's name, that is the way the Russians 
do. I don't recall exactly whether the first and the father's name, 
but I am pretty sure that that was a pseudonym. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe him? 

Mr. Zborowski. He was a heavy set man, gray, wearing glasses. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Would you tell us of this first meeting in 
the cafe? 

Mr. Zborowski. Beg your pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us of the first meeting in the cafe? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was — this man was present, and this man 
Afanasyeff, and myself. 

Mr. Morris. What was the conversation that took place at that 
time? 

Mr. Zborowski. General questions: Who am I, and what am I 
doing, and what are my plans and where w^as I born — just purely 
informative questions about my background. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the upshot of that meeting? 

Mr. Zborowski. That — he say, weU, he thinks he wUl take it over. 

Mr. Morris. Take over what? 



72723— 56— pt. 4- 



84 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zborowski. It was the— my application for repatriation. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, the only subject discussed m that 
meeting: was your own repatriation? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right, that was the only subject. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien the meeting broke up, did you make any 
arrangements to meet again? i • tvt 

Mr. Zborowski. He said he would inform me through this Mr. 
Afanasveff, if he would like to see me. 

Mr. Morris. All right. What did you do? 

Mr. Zborowski. I stayed in Paris. 

Mr. Morris. You did not go back to Grenoble? 

Mr. Zborowski. No. 

Mr. Morris. Wliy did you stay in Paris? 

Mr. Zborowski. Because I was waiting at the time, that I would 
get an answer from them, from the — from this Embassy. 

Mr. Morris. What was the next development? 

Mr. Zborowski. The next development, I was called a few more 
times by this man who again was talldng to me about various political 
things, about 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute, how did he call you? 

Mr. Zborowski. Come for me. 

Mr. Morris. You said you were called by this man. 

Mr. Zborowski. Through Mr. Afanasyeff. This Mr. Afanasyeff 
would come to me and say this man from the Embassy, wants to see 
me again. 

Mr. Morris. He would come to you in person? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And tell you that the man from the Embassy wanted 
to see you? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right, to meet him again in the cafe. 

Mr. Morris. The same cafe? 

Mr. Zborowski. I guess so — I don't really — I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. What cafe was it? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. What cafe was it? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember the name of the cafe, it was 
somewhere in the vicinity of the Port d'Orlean, Paris. 

Mr. Morris. But you don't recall the precise name? 

Mr. Zborowski. No; I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. What happened at the second meeting? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what transpired in the second meeting 
at the cafe? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, sir, I cannot recall exactly what was the 
second meeting, I know what happened, a certain development took 
place in a series of meetings. 

Mr. Morris. To the best of your recollection, when was the first 
suggestion you would work for the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, in the third or fourth meeting — the third 
or fourth meeting, this man wlio I identified by these two Russian 
names, I don't recall exactly what they were, this man told me that 
if I want to go to Soviet Russia, I have to prove myself a loyal — that 
I will be a loyal citizen of Soviet Russia. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 85 

Mr. Morris. What did you say, now, on the third or fourth 
meeting? ' . 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. This third party, whose name you don't know, told 
you that if you do want to go to Soviet Russia, you have to establish 
the fact you were loyal to Soviet Russia? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right, he never put it in terms of uncover 
work or police force. 

Senator Welker. May I have that last answer? 

Mr. Morris. He said it was never put in terms of police work. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. 

Mr. Zborowski. You asked when he asked me to work for uncover. 
This uncover work never came up in his discussions. 

Mr. Morris. Did you agree to do that? 

Mr. Zborowski. I said, yes, I certainly will, 

Mr. Morris. What was your first assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. My assignment was — he told me that the enemies 
of the Soviet Russia are the Trotskyites. 

Mr. Morris. The Trotskyites? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Proceed. 

Mr. Zborowski. And my assignment was to find out what are 
the Trotskyites doing, what are then activities, and I told the man 
that I don't know how to go about it, I didn't know how to do it, 
and he told me just to go to visit their place and meet the people 
there. 

Mr. Morris. And where is "their place"? 

Mr. Zborowski. At the office in Paris. ' 

Mr. Morris. The Trotskyites in Paris or the International 
Trotskyites? 

Mr. Zborowski, Well, the Trotskyites of Paris, they had an 
office there, people could come up and see and read the papers there. : 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Mr. Zborowski. And I went up there and I seen that, seen the 
papers, read the papers, and I met the people there, and that was my 
activity for a period of time. 

Mr. Morris. Just going to their office and meeting the people? 

Mr. Zborowski. Going to their office and meeting the people, 

Mr. Morris. Who were the people you met there? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Who were the people you met there? 

Mr, Zborowski. There were a number of Trotskyites. 

Mr. Morris. Well, tell us who some of them were, 

Mr, Zborowski. There was a man by the name of Naville. 

Mr. Morris. Spell that. 

Mr. Zborowski. N-a-v-i-1-l-e. There was a man by the name of 
Molinier. 

Mr. Morris. SpeU that. • ko^'. .; 

Mr. Zborowski. M-o-l-i-n-i-e-r. There was a man by the name 
of Rosenthal. _, 

Mr. Morris. Spell that. \ ' 

Mr. Zborowski. R-o-s-e-n-t-h-a-1. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was Mr. Sedov there? : :t 

Mr. Zborowski. Mr. Sedov was not there. 



86 SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Who was Mr. Sedov? 

Mr. Zborowski. Mr. Sedov was the son of Trotsky. 

Mr. Morris. Why didn't he go by the name of "Trotsky," do 
you know? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, I think it was the name of — I think it was 
the mother — his mother's name 

Mr. Morris. Why wasn't he called "Mr. Trotsky"? 

Mr. Zborowski. Why he wasn't called "Mr. Trotsky" — I wouldn't 
be able — I think I would guess that he was afraid to be called by the 
name of "Trotsky," but I am not sure. 

Mr. Morris. Now, then, it is yom- testunony that you went to the 
French office of the Trotskyites? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And you reported back on what you learned? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. To whom did you report? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. To whom did you report on this assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. In the beginning I reported back to this first man 
I met, to this older, heavy set man, who was • 

Mr. Morris. How did you report? 

Mr. Zborowski. I would report — •! would tell him verbally what 
I was — what was happening. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you call him?- 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Where did you call? 

Mr. Zborowski. I didn't call, there was meetings set out between 
him and me. 

Mr. Morris. How did you set out the meetings? 

Mr. Zborowski. He would tell me, "You come back in 2 weeks" — 
I am giving an example: "at 3 o'clock, and then I will see you." And 
the meetings were always set up in a cafe. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony you reported orally? 

Mr. Zborowski, Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Your testimony is that you reported orally? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat was the next stage of your assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. Then this man introduced me to another man. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe this second man? 

Mr. Zborowski. The second man was a tall, dark fellow, pale in 
his face, dark eyes; that is about how I can describe him. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know his name? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't know his name. 

Mr. Morris. WTiat name did you call hun? 

Mr. Zborowski. I called him some kind of a Russian patronymic 
name. 

Mr. Morris. You don't know his name? 

Mr. Zborowski. I tell you, Mr. Morris, that in Russian you don't 
have to use the name so often because you usually say the "you" more 
than any other form. 

Mr. Morris. How many times did you meet with this second man? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, I mot— I don't recall exactly, maybe 5, 
maybe G, maybe 7 times, I don't recall. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE XnSTITED STATES 87 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you, a well educated, 
highly educated and professional man, cannot recall what his name 
was? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. It is you testimony that you cannot recall here^ 
today, the name you used in addressing him? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, sir, it was 22 years ago. The name was 
used very infrequently, because the — because most of the time I used 
the second person plural. 

Mr. Morris. This second man, did you ever call him on the tele- 
phone? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I never called him on the telephone. There 
was given to me a possibility to call him, if I wanted to. 

Mr. Morris. And if you did call, what person were you to ask for? 

Mr. Zborowski, I was to ask for an Armenian — something which 
sounds Hke Barmidgan. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that to the best of your ability? 

Mr. Zborowski. B-a-r-m-i-d-g-a-n, Barmidgan, it was an Arme- 
nian name^ — -it was so many years ago that I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. Well, you do recall the name, then. 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, this name I do recall. 

Mr. Morris. And this is the name of the second man, is that right? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, no, that was not the name, I was supposed 
to call that if I had to call somebody to meet me, that was the name I 
was to use on the telephone. 

Mr, Morris. Now, was this thu-d man, this man with the Arme- 
nian name, was his telephone in the Russian Embassy? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Was his telephone in the Soviet Embassy? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Was that the NKVD telephone in the Soviet 
Embassy? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't know whether the NKVD — it was the 
official telephone of the embassy and I had to ask for the man. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever have occasion to use that telephone? 

Mr. Zborowski. I had occasion to use that telephone, I guess, once. 

Mr, Morris. Wliat was that occasion? 

Mr. Zborowski. That occasion was, that the man did not come for a 
very long time, the man did not come for a very long time, and I 
guess — and I didn't know what happened, and I called this man's 
telephone. 

Mr. Morris. And then what happened when you made the call? 

Mr. Zborowski. Then it was arranged that I call him, that it will 
be the next week, next week or the next 10 days, that he will show up 
at the same time in the same place where we met previously. 

Mr. Morris. In the cafe? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. In the same cafe? 

Mr, Zborowski, In the same cafe, in the same place where we had 
met previously. 

Mr. Morris. How many times did you meet him there, alto- 
gether, now? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Wouldn't it be about a dozen by your testimony? 



88 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zborowski. You are asking me, in the same cafe? I don't 
know, because there was a number of cafes. 

» Mr. Morris. I was asking if the meeting place of the second man 
was the same cafe in which you had met the first man. 

Mr. Zrorowski. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. It was not? 

Mr. Zrorowski. No. You see, every time that we had separated, 
whether for the first or second or third man, we would set up a meeting 
place in one of the cafes, now, the place, which was — if I would call 
them, the place of meeting, for the emergency call, would be the same 
cafe we met the last time, it doesn't mean it was always the same cafe, 
that is why I don't remember the name of the cafe, it was various 
places in Paris. 

I Mr. Morris. What was your second assignment after you had 
reported on the activities of the French Trotskyites; what was your 
second assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. My second assignment was to get — to contact, 
get in touch with Sedov. 

Mr. Morris. When did you first meet Sedov? 

Mr. Zborowski. I think it was in 1935. 

Mr. Morris. What were the circumstances? 

Mr. Zborowski. I met Sedov, if I am not mistaken, if I recall, in 
the Sorbonne, in the hall of the Paris University. 

Mr. Morris. Did you just walk up and introduce yourself? 

Mr. Zborowki. No, I ws introduced by his wife. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you meet his wife? 

Mr. Zborowski. I met his wife in the Trotsky organization in 
Paris. 

Mr. Morris. And did you report that meeting to the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did report that meeting to the NKVD. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you a question. 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

The Chairman. Did you know that Stalin was personally informed 
of your infiltration of the Trotsky organization? 

Mr. Zborowski. I was told that Stalin was informed of— ^ —  

The Chairman. You were one of the most important men in that, 
weren't you? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't think so. 

The Chairman. Well, you knew that Stalin so considered you? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

The Chairman. You knew Stalin so considered you, didn't you? 

Mr. Zborowski. I didn't know that. 

The Chairman. You were assigned a very — given a very important 
assignment, were you not, that had to do with assassination? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

The Chairman. That had to do with assassination. 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't know that it had to do with assassination. 
The assignment was given to find out from Sedov his relationship 
with the Hitler movement, that is what I was told, that Trotsky 
prepared with the Germans a plot against the Soviet Union, and that 
was my assignment. 

The Chairman. You were not given an assignment or told to 
arrange for his assassination? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 89 

Mr. Zborowski. I was given, not an assignment of his assassina- 
tion — I never got an assignment of this kind. 

The Chairman. You were given an assignment to lure him to a 
place where Soviet agents would assassinate him, were you not? 

Mr. Zborowski. At a very later time, I was given such an assign- 
ment. 

The Chairman. You were given such an assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. And I did not execute it. 

Senator Welker. May I interrupt? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Zborowski, you recognize, when you were 
given that assignment, to lure Trotsky to a place where he would 
meet his death 

Mr. Morris. Not Trotsky; Sedov. 

Senator Welker. Sedov — that was kind of an unportant assign- 
ment? 

Mr. Zborowski. May I state. Senator, that I was not given an 
assignment to lure Sedov to a place for assassination. 

The idea was at the time, it was told to me the idea was, to lure 
him to a place where he and me together would be kidnaped and 
brought to Soviet Russia, that was the idea that was explained to me. 

Senator Welker. Yes, I understand, you were given the assign- 
ment to lure this man to a certain place where both of you would be 
kidnaped. 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Senator Welker. And that certainly impressed you as being not a 
very easy assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. WeU, it was an assignment which was against my 
convictions at the time. 

Senator Welker. It was an assignment given you against your 
convictions? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Senator Welker. And you were carrying out orders that had been 
given you? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, at the time this assignment was given to me, 
I didn't carry out the orders any more, at this time, I was playing an 
anti-Soviet role. 

Senator Welker. You were playing an anti-Soviet role? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, without — -without, naturally, admitting that 
to the people — that was for quite a long period of time, already, I 
was sabotaging then* orders. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sii-. 

Mr. Morris. Well, would you tell us precisely how you were carry- 
ing out yom" assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Tell us precisely how you were carrying out the 
assignment. 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, my assignment was, for instance, to report 
to them on the movements of — my assignment was to report on the 
movements of Trotskyites — Sedov — or supply them with documents 
which were of importance to the NKVD, and that was exactly what 
I did not do. 

Mr. Morris. Well, you gave at that time detailed and constant 
reports to the NKVD on his movements; did you not? 



90 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr Zborowski. No; I gave them information so distorted and so 
chano-'ed or so delayed that the information— they could not use it. 
M?. Morris. Is it your testimony that you did not give back 

^X^^Zborowski. It depends on at what period of time because 
the Senator asked me about the period of the luring, for the kidnaping, 
if I am relating to this period of time— — 

Mr. Morris. No; I want you generally- — - ^ . . ^ . , 

Mr Zborowski. From 1937 on, after the first trial, I changed niy 
entire attitude toward the NKVD and the Stalinists and the Stalinist 
policy and since then, since this period of time, as I became con- 
vinced that all the trials were forgeries, that Sedov had nothing to do 
with plotting against Stalin, I changed my entire attitude toward the 
Stalinist policies and since this period of time I began to miscarry the 
orders which I received. 

Mr. Morris. May we take individual cases? 
Mr. Zborowski. "Pardon? 
Mr. Morris. Let us take individual cases. 

Mr. Zborowski. Sure. . i r i 

Mr. Morris. Did you report to the NKVD the arrvial oi the 
Trotsky files at the Nicolaevsky Institute? 

Mr. Zborow^ski. Beg pardon? , , , ^, ..-,-.■ 

Mr. Morris. Did you report the arrival of those hies at tne insti- 
tute? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 
Mr. Morris. Whom did you report that to? 

Mr. Zborow^ski. I reported to the man with whom I was at the 
time in contact. 

Mr. Morris. Was he 1 of the 3 men you have discussed? 
Mr. Zborowski. No, he was a different person altogether. I 
think he was of Georgian origin. He was of Georgian origin, a dark- 
small-fcatured, small, not tall man. 

Mr. Morris. How long after you reported the arrival of the 
Trotsky fde at the Nicolaevsky Institute were those files stolen? 
Mr. Zborow^ski. I don't recall how long after that. 
Mr. Morris. Were they stolen on the night of November 7? 
Mr. Zborow^ski. I guess so, I don't recall when he brought them, 

I know^ that I was told  

Mr. Morris. Do you remember where you were on the occasion 
those files were stolen? 

Mr. Zborowski. To the best of my recollection I was at home. 
Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have received information that 
this witness did report the arrival of the Trotsky files at the 
Nicolaevsky Institute and that this man set up an alibi for himself 
by attending a meeting celebrating the Soviet revolution on Novem- 
ber 7. 

You recall that, at all? 

Mr. Zborow^ski. No sir, I don't recall that, and it happened 
20 years ago, I don't recall that, and I didn't have to set up no 

alibi 

The Chairman. Well, do you remember what your alibi was? 
Mr. Zborowski. It was not an alibi, sir. 

The Chairman. Well, now, you knew those files would be stolen? 
Mr. Zborowski. No, sir. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 91 

The Chairman. Well, we have information you did know that; we 
have information from 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, sir 

The Chairman. Information from men who were formerly high up 
in the Soviet espionage setup. 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, sir, I did not know 

The Chairman. To get that information so that those files could be 
stolen and taken to the Soviet Union. 

Now, didn't you 

Mr. Zborowski. Senator, may I state that I did not know that this 
file was stolen, I say that under oath. 

The Chairman. You are under oath now. 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right, that is exactly it, and I am stating 
under oath that I did not know that these files will be stolen, and I 
did not set up any special alibi because I did not know they were to 
be stolen on this particular night and, the thii-d thing, the files, which 
I informed about, were not the important files of the Trotskyite 
archives, the really important files were sent by myself and some other 
person, I don't recall exactly — Mrs. Dallin, I think, participated, were 
sent to Trotsky — — 

Mr. Morris. When were they sent to Trotsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. When were they sent to Trotsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. They were about in this period of time. 

Mr. Morris. Subsequently, were they not 

Mr. Zborowski. Counsel— — • 

Mr. Morris. Did you not report the arrival of the file 

Mr. Zborowski. But, that was a different 

Mr. Morris. Did you report the arrival? 

Mr. Zborowski. Counsel, excuse me 

Mr. Morris. And it may have been that there were other files you 
considered more important, but we are talking about the fact that 
certain files arrived at the institute. 

Mr. Zborowski. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And you reported that to the NKVD and they were 
stolen? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, I don't remember that I reported the very 
day, I don't remember that, I know I reported on the arrival of these 
files at the Institute of Nicolaevsky, I know that they were stolen 
later on, I did not participate in the theft, neither I knew about the 
preparation of it. 

Mr. Morris. Did you not protest to the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. That they should not have stolen those files because 
they almost revealed your identity because only two people knew? 

Mr. Zborowski. Right, sir, and that exactly proves my point, 
that I was extremely angry that they were stolen at those archives, 
because only two people knew about the archives, and the fact they 
were stolen put me in a precarious position. 

Mr. Morris. To whom did you make this protest? 

Mr. Zborowski. To this person who was probably in charge. 

Mr. Morris. What did he say? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, he laughed it off. 

Mr. Morris. He what? 



92 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zborowski. He just laughed at this and said it was nothing, 
notliing will happen to you— they don't do that. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you continue to give reports on the where- 
abouts and the activities of Sedov to the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you remember when Sedov died? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

^Ir. Morris. Did you call the ambulance? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. That took Sedov to the hospital. 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember calling the ambulance, sir. I 
may iiave. I don't recall. At the time I was very upset and I 
don't remember calling the ambulance. 

I think, though — I am not sure, I think I knew about — I find out 
about the transportation to the hospital subsequently, but I am not 
sure — I may have been the one who called the ambulance. 

Mr. Morris. What hospital was Sedov taken to? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember the name of the hospital. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony you don't remember the name 
of the hospital to which Sedov was taken? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, sir, I don't recall the name of the hospital. 
I can identify it. 

Mr. Morris. Was it the hospital run by Russian emigres? 

Mr. Zborowski. After a while I found out it was run by some 
Russian people. 

Mr. Morris. So, you do remember 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember the name of the hospital. I 
remember the hospital, sir. If you would tell me the name, I will 
tell you whether it is or not, but I don't remember the name of the 
hospital. 

Mr. Morris. Did you report to the NKVD the fact that he was 
in a hospital? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did report the fact he was in the hospital. 

Mr. Morris. And 3'ou reported the name of the hospital, didn't 
you? 

Mr. Zborowski. Probably. 

Mr. Morris. And you visited the hospital, did you not? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And you reported your visit to the hospital to the 
NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, that I don't recall, whether I reported the 
visit to the hospital, I don't remember, I may have, but I don't 
recall. I remember I reported the death of Sedov in this particular 
hospital. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Sedov did die, did he not? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Morris. Weren't there mysterious circumstances surrounding 
his death? 

Mr. Zborowski. There were — there were — ^there was the sup- 
posilion that there were mysterious circumstances, but according to 
the fmal— as I know, according to the final autopsy and post mortem, 
he had died of peritonitis. 

Mr. Morris. Of peritonitis? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 93 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right, and it was a perfectly normal death, 
in the case of his — that is all I know, there was never — there was talk 
about mysterious circumstances, but it is not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. Did you report during this period of time on the 
movements of General Krivit.sky? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was previously, I did report on General 
KJrivitsky. 

Mr. Morris. Who was General Krivitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. General Krivitsky was a member of the Russian 
Intelligence or police at this time, who broke with the Stalinist 
movement. 

Mr. Morris. And when did he first come into your life, directly, 
or by Sedov? 

Mr. Zborowski. He came into my life thi-ough Sedov, who told me 
to go and pick him up from a place where he was hiding. 

The Chairman. You were his bodyguard, were you not? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

The Chairman. You were his bodyguard? 

Mr. Zborowski. I was his bodyguard. 

The Chairman. You were a member of the NKVD, secret agent? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And you were General Krivitsky's bodyguard? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you move General Krivitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Did you move General Krivitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. Taken over to a place where he met Sedov, 
that is right. 

Mr. Morris. And did you report that fact to the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborow^ski. That part, yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Sourwine was the counsel at 
the time, counsel of this subcommittee, at the time this man testified. 
He is here today to advise us on this particular hearing and other 
matters. 

I wonder if he may now ask him questions in connection with 
this testimony. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Zborowsld, do j^ou remember testifying in 
executive session that you did not report to the NKVD where you 
had moved Kj-ivitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't recall exactly — I don't think that- — I 
may have mentioned in executive session that I brought him to any 
special place, I remember, I think I said, in executive session, that I 
moved Krivitsky to meet with Sedov and meet some other person, 
but I didn't know where he went from the place he was hiding, that 
is what I said. 

Mr. Sourwine. Let me read your testimony. 

Mr. Zborowski. Please do. 
Mr. Sourwine. You said: 

I knew, as a matter of fact, exactly where he was but I never disclosed where he 
was. 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sourwine. Isn't that your testimony? 



94 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zbgrgavski. Yes, sir, 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, you told us here today that you did report to 
the NKVD of where you moved Krivitsky. 

Mr. Zborowski, May I straighten it out? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Please do. 

Mr. Zborowski. The question was, where are you— where I moved 
Krivitsky. I said I did not know where I moved Krivitsky, exactly, 
but at a later time I found out, I knew where Krivitsky was, but I 
didn't — the question was with reference, I/think, to the movement of 
Krivitsky from the hiding place to another place, but I didn't know 
which place it was. Subsequently I knew very well where Krivitsky 
was. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The question was, whether you reported to the 
NKVD. 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. The question was whether you reported to the 
NKVD. 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. SouRwiNE. The question was, whether you reported to the 
NKVD, and you now say you did; is that right? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Sour WINE. You say now that you did report to the NKVD. 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir; I did report to the NKVD the fact I 
knew Krivitsky, but I did not report his whereabouts. 

Mr. SouRw^iNE. Oh, now, do you want us to believe that you moved 
this man and that you reported to the NKVD that you had moved 
him but you did not tell the NKVD where you moved him? 

Mr. Zborowski. Counsel, I tried to make it clear, as to taking 
Mr. Krivitsky at the time from one place, to get to another; not to 
a place, not to an apartment or another place, but to meet with 
Sedov or somebody who will take it over, and at the time I men- 
tioned Sedov. I move Ki*ivitsky, I did tell the NKVD that I moved 
Krivitsky to this — not to a place, where he was, but to meet another 
person, I think Sedov, but later on and subsequently, a day or two 
later, I found out where Krivitsky was, but that I did not report to 
the NKVD, they never knew the whereabouts of Krivitsky. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. You did not ever know the whereabouts of 
Krivitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. The address where Krivitsky lived, they never 
knew. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Well, who assassinated Krivitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who assassinated Krivitsky? 

^Tr. Zborowski. The Soviet police. 

Mr. Souk WINE. Well, hadn't you testified the NKVD assassinated 
him? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. How" could they assassinate him if they never knew 
where he was? 

Mr. Zborowski. But they assassinated in the United States, they 
did not assassinate — - —  

Mr. Sour WINE. How do you Imow they assassinated him? 

Mr Zborowski. That was stated in the papers, I think, people in 
the United States, there were ideas that he committed suicide, or 
ideas that he was assassinated — —  



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 95 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know who assassinated Krivitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't know who assassinated Krivitsky. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Another question. You told Mr. Morris that 
you were not on an important assignment in connection with Sedov ; 
IS that right? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did not tell that I was not on an important 
assignment, I mentioned I was — I think the Senator said I was on an 
important assignment, but I did not say I was not on an important 
assignment. 

Mr. Sour WINE. Well, were you not told by a superior that your 
assignment was considered extremely important? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. And you were told by a superior that Stalin 
considered the job you were doing extremely important? 

Mr. Zborowski. I heard about it, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zborowski, did you also report on the activities 
of Mr. Alexander Barmine, who had previously defected from the 
Soviet Union? 

Mr. Zborowski. Only once or twice. 

Mr. Morris. Only once or twice? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, because I was never in close contact with 
Alex. 

Senator Welker. May I interrupt before you go on to another 
subject? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Zborowski, this morning in executive 
session you told of certain of your activities with respect to General 
KJrivitsky. 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Senator Welker. I wish you would tell the committee, as you told 
me in executive session this morning, about your trips to the park, 
your walks with him and your observing him and what you did, 
just as you did in executive session this morning. Would you mind 
doing that? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. For this short period of time, when I 
was the bodyguard of Krivitsky, my assignment was to protect — 
well, to protect him — to be, rather, a witness if anything happens to 
him — and Krivitsky was very much afraid of going out in places 
where he could be hurt by the NKVD and I would go out with him, 
let us say, to a park, to — well, to a cemetery, a French cemetery, 
Pere La Chaise — or, let us say, he had to see one friend of his, and 
I have to bring him up to this friend, to the house of this friend, which 
I did, and tliis was a period of time that Krivitsky was with me for 
walks — my function was to protect him from any — to be a witness. 

Senator Welker. Krivitskj^ was afraid of his life from the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Senator Welker. And you were assigned to be his bodyguard? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, put it that way. 

Senator Welker. Keeping him from getting — people might want 
to take his life 

Mr. Zborowski. Bodyguard — in terms of the physical, of physical 
intervention in case something happened, I don't think I was con- 
sidered as such, not in terms of bodyguarding; in terms of being with 
him and being present, a mtness if anything happened. 



96 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. You were assigned to be a witness? 

Mr. ZnoRowsKi. Well, to protect, not as a person who would fight 
or start fighting as a bodyguard 

Senator Welker. In yoiu- duties when you were assigned to General 
Krivitsky, and feeling that j^ou would have been of help to him, would 
you have tried, would you have gone in and tried to defend him 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, I would; I certainly would. 

Senator Welker. You would not turn your back? 

Mr. Zrorowski. Because at this time I was very anti-Communist 
and anti-Communist minded. 

Senator Welker. At that time you were very anti-Communist? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And you woidd have tried to help General Kri- 
vitsky? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right; yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. Now, tell the committee, please, just how you 
reported. Suppose you went out to the cemetery with General 
Krivitsky. 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. What were your duties with respect to reporting 
that incident? 

Mr. Zborowski. I would say that I was with General Krivitsky on 
a walk, that I spent with him about an hour or so. 

Senator Welker. Yes. To whom would you report that? 

Mr. Zborowski. To the person who I was in contact with at this 
particular time. 

Senator Welker. And that would be the representative of the 
NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Senator Welker. And did you report on those incidents at the 
time they happened or did you just delay —  — 

Mr. Zborowski. No; I would — first of all, I would delay the report. 

Senator Welker. You would purposely delay the report? 

Mr. Zborowski. I would delay the report. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Would you also report to the NKVD about the 
movements of Ignatz Reiss? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did not know anythmg about the movements of 
Ignatz Reiss. 

Mr. Morris. Did Sedov have a meeting planned at Reims with 
Reiss? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't think Sedov ever had to move Ignatz 
Reiss out from Reims. I Imow that Sedov had to meet a lawyer from 
Switzerland. 

Mr. Morris. A lawyer from Switzerland? 

Mr. Zboroski. I think so, but I don't think he met Reiss at Reims. 

Mr. Morris. Where did that meeting take place, the meeting— 
you said he was to meet a lawyer from Switzerland? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where did they meet? 

Mr. Zborowski. I think in Reims. 

Mr. Morris. Who was to be present at that meetmg? 

Mr. Zborowski. I think Sedov had to be present. I don't know 
anything about Ignatz Reiss' movements. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 97 

Mr. Morris. Did you report to the NKVD that Sedov was about 
to meet someone in Reims the following day? 

Mr. Zborowski. No; as I recall, to the best of my recollection, I 
never report such thing to NKVD. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know when Reiss was assassinated he had 
already bought tickets to Reims? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did not; I never knew about a meeting arrange- 
ment. I think there was a meeting with Sedov somewhere, I think 
it was arranged, and I prevented Sedov from going to this meeting 
because I was afraid that it was a trap set for Sedov and I omitted a 
statement in the letter, I just skipped it when reading this letter, I 
think that was arranged, I might be mistaken, I think so. 

Mr. Morris. Well, do you recollect a meeting of the International 
Trotskyites movement in Paris? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have an assignment in connection with that 
particular meeting? 

Mr. Zborowski. I had an assignemnt from Sedov to meet the 
people and to bring them to the place of the meeting. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet them in the subway? 

Mr. Zborowski. Some I met in the subway. 

Mr. Morris. As they reported, did you report their arrival, their 
movement, back to the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, sir. I reported to the NKVD. I reported 
the fact that such a meeting had taken place and I was present at this 
meeting, but the movement of these people I did not report to the 
NKVD. 

Mr. Morris. Did you report the arrival of these people to the 
NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, because I reported the meeting after the 
meeting had took place. 

Mr. Morris. And your testimony is you didn't report back to the 
NKVD until after the meeting took place? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Nor that these people arrived? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know a man, an NKVD agent in 
Paris named Alexeev? 

Mr. Zborowski. I may have known him. As I stated, I don't 
know any NKVD member or agent by their names, so I may have 
known him, but I can recognize him only from his picture, but I 
cannot recognize from the name you are telling me. The name, I 
would say, doesn't tell me anything. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever live in a house that was near the Gare 
d'Austerlitz? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Do you remember meeting an NKVD agent on a 
bench in a park by that station? 

Mr. Zborowski. I guess so. 

Mr. Morris. On how many occasions? 

Mr. Zborowski. I would not be able to tell. Several times. I 
don't know how many. 

Mr. Morris. What was the subject of the conversations you had 
with this NKVD man on the bench? 



98 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ZnoROWSKi. I wouldn't remember what were the subjects, I 
would* onioss. probabl)', it was my activities, reporting on my activities 

with Sedov. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you cannot report here 
the subject of the conversation with the NKVD man? 

Mr. ZnoRowsKi. The specific conversation, it was 22 years ago, I 
don't remember that, of course. 

Senator Welker. May I interrupt? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Witness, you would — Mr. Zborowski, you 
would report to the superior, the NKVD agent? 

Mr. Zrorowski. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Your activities, what you had done? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. You were following out the orders to so report 
to this man you met on the park bench? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Met by arrangement? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And it was some — what did you say — 22 years 
ago? 

Mr. Zborowski. Some twenty — it depends on what 

Senator Welker. And your memory has failed as to exactly what 
you did report to the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. Will you repeat the question? 

Senator Welker. Your memory now has failed or slipped as to 
exactly what you did report? 

Mr. Zborowski. The subject of the conversations? 

Senator Welker. The substance of them. 

Mr. Zborowski. The substance I don't remember. 

Senator Welker. But you do know that you reported to him as 
you were supposed to report to him? 

Mr. Zborowski. Right. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You received money for these assignments? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did not receive money for this assignment, and 
a few times I received money from the NKVD people. 

Mr. Morris. You received a substantial amount of money steadily, 
did you not? 

Mr. Zborowski. Not steadily, I was not receiving regularly any 
substantial amount of money. 

Mr. Morris. Were you receiving amounts of money sporadically? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I was receiving money — for instance, the 
person would tell me, "Do you need any money?" and I would say, 
"I don't need any money," and he would say, "You should need 
money" 

The Chairman. Answer the question. You would receive money? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, I would say so. 

Mr. Morris. In what amounts? 

Mr. Zborowski. In various amounts. 

Mr. Morris. Well, will you tell us to the best of your ability what 
amounts you received, and if you cannot, tell us so. 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, it can be something like 500 francs, from 
200 to 500 francs and something like that, I don't recall exactly how 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 99 

much it was that I took — I tried to avoid taking money from those 
people. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know an NKVD man who was agent in 
Paris named Smirnov? 

Mr. Zborowski. I didn't know the name of any person who resided 
in Paris at the time. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a man who, this committee has re- 
ceived evidence, was the No. 1 NKVD agent working on the whole 
Trotskyites matter by name of Serebrianni? 

Mr. Zborowski. I tell you, I don't know the name — if you showed 
me the picture, I will identify him. 

Mr. Morris. Described as a tall, stooped man. 

Mr. Zborowski. I have known a person who was tall and stooped, 
I think I discussed before 

Mr. Morris. Which man was that? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was one of the people, the second or third 
person I was in contact with in the period 1936 

Mr. SouRWiNE. You said brown hair? 

Mr. Zborowski. Dark haired, tall, stooped man. 

Mr. SouRwiNE. Little gray in that hair? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember that, sir, but I think I told you, 
I described such a person — paleish looking, tall, dark haired man. 

Mr. Morris. Did he, to your knowledge, use the alias of Michel 
or Yasha? 

Mr. Zborowski. Not as I know. 

Mr. Morris. Will you categorically deny that you received 4,000 
francs a month regularly from the NKVD for your activities? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, I will deny that, because 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us how you came to the United States? 

Mr. Zborowski. How I came to the United States? The question is 
how I came to the United States? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Zborowski. I came to the United States as an immigrant on an 
immigrant visa. 

Mr. Morris. In the year 1941? 

Mr. Zborowski. In the year 1941. 

The Chairman. Right there, were you an NKVD agent when you 
came to the United States? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I did not — I broke with the NKVD in 1938 and 
since 1938 I was not an NKVD agent, and I didn't 

The Chairman. Well, now, did the NKVD consider you an agent 
when you came to this country? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't know whether they considered, but prob- 
ably they did. 

The Chairman. They what? 

Mr. Zborowski. Probably they did. 

The Chairman. Probably they did? 

Mr, Zborowski. Yes, sir, because I never formally told them. 

The Chairman. Well, we have witnesses, and I don't want to go 
into details at this hearing 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

The Chairman. I said, I don't want to go into details on this 
question and the questions I am going to ask you at this hearing. 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 



100 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Chairman. But j^our answer is that the NKVD did consider 
you an agent when vou came to this country? 

Mr. Zborowski. I said, the NKVD probably would consider me 
as their agent because I never formally broke with the NKVD, 

The Chairman. You never formally withdrew? 

Mr. Zrorowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
discovered you had been an NKVD agent, in late 1954, you were 
asked about it and you denied it, didn't you? 

Mr. Zrorowski. I did not deny, exactly, I told them my activities 
with the Trotskyites, but I did not state openly I was an NKVD 



agent 



The Chairman. You were not open and frank and truthful with 
the FBI at the verj' first meeting? 

Mr. Zrorowski. No, sir. 

Senator Welker. But you are frank and truthful now and you 
were subsequently? 

Mr. Zrorowski. Yes, I say subsequently I was cooperating with 
the FBI thoroughly, and I truthfully told them all my activities from 
the very beginning to my last refusal of cooperating with the NKVD 
agents. 

Senator Welker. And when you first were interrogated by the 
FBI, you were not under oath? 

Mr. Zrorowski. I was not under oath. 

Senator Welker. You are under oath now. 

Mr. Zrorowski. Yes, sir, I am. 

Senator Welker. And you are acquainted with the penalties of 
perjury? 

Mr. Zrorowski. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. And you understand what that means? 

Mr. Zrorowski. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. And you have told the committee the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Air. Zrorowski. Oh, yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony you do not know the names 
of any of the NKVD agents? 

Mr. Zrorowski. To the best of my recollection, I don't remember 
any of their names. 

Mr. AIoRRis. And you caimot give us the information 

Mr. Zrorowski. I gave the information to the FBI, identified the 
pictures of the people, I did, since I have been cooperating with the 
FBI. 

The Chairman. Do you know the names of NKVD agents that 
contacted you smce you have been in the United States? 

Mr. Zrorowski. No; I don't know the names of the people. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have some more questions, but if 
we cannot continue this hearing today, I would like to reserve them 
for the next session, when we may develop it. 

Air Sourwine said he has some questions. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Sourwine. I would like to ask, did vou' know a man by the 
name of Hans Breusse? 

Mr. Zrorowski. May I write it down? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIYITY IN THE UNITED STATES 101 

Mr. SouRwiNE. B-r-e-u-s-s-e. 

Mr. Zborowski (after writing). No I don't remember. 

Mr. SouRWiNE. Did you know a man named Krai, who was a 
lieutenant in the Soviet Secret Police? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, sir, as I said, I don't know any names of the 
people who were Soviet agents. 

The Chairman. Any further questions. 

Mr. Morris. No questions. 

The Chairman. We will recess until Friday morning at 10:30. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have some witnesses available 
here ; shall I make arrangements for them to come back at that time? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you come back at 10:30 on Friday, please, sir, 
for examination? 

Mr. Greenberg. Mr. Zborowski says he will return at 10:30. 

The Chairman. Then we will recess untU Friday morning at 10 :30. 

(Whereupon, at 11:45 a. m., the subcommittee recessed to recon- 
vene Friday, March 2, 1956, at 10:30 a. m.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index 

A 

Pasre 

AfanasyeflF, Mr 82, 83, 84 

Alexeev, NKVD agent in Paris 97 

Ambulance 92 

American Jewish Committee 79 

Anthropologist 77 

Anti-Communist 96 

Anti-Soviet 89 

Armenian 87 

Army service forces 79 

Assassination 88, 89, 94^96 

Autopsy 92 

B 

Barmidgan 87 

Barmine, Alexander 95 

Bodyguard 93, 95, 96 

Breusse, Hans 100, 101 

Bronx, N. Y 78 

C 

Columbia University Research 79 

Communist/Communists 80, 81 

Communist Party 80 

Communist Party in Poland 80 

Communists, Young 80 

D 

Dallin, Mrs. David 80, 81, 91 

December 1941 79 

Department of Mental Health, United States Mental Health Institute — 78 

E 

Eastland, Senator 77 

Embassy or consulate 83, 84 

Espionage 91 

F 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 100 

Fraudulent papers 81 

France 80, 81 

French cemetery 95, 96 

G 

Gare d' Austerlitz 97 

Georgian 90 

Germans 88 

Government 78 

Greenberg, Herman A., Wyatt Building, Washington, D. C, attorney for 

Mark Zborowski _' 77 

Grenoble 81, 82, 84 

I 



3 9999 05445 4325 



INDEX 



Hitler. 



H Page 

88 

Hospital -- ^2 

I 

Identification, French (carte de'identite) 81 

Immigrant visa ^9 

I vano vich, Nickolai 83 

J 
Johnston, Senator 77 

K 

Kidnaped/kidnaping 89, 90 

Krai (lieutenant in Soviet Secret Police) 101 

Krivitsky, General 93, 94, 95, 96 

Membei" of Russian Intelligence 93 

Broke with Stalinist movement 93 

Zborowski was his bodyguard 93 

Assassinated by Soviet police 94, 95 

L 

Lawyer 96 

"Life Is with People" 78 

M 

Meeting celebrating Soviet revolution 90 

Metal factory 79 

Michel 99 

Molinier, Trotskyite of Paris . 85 

N 

Naville Trotskyite of Paris 85 

New York City 77 

Nicolaevsky Institute 90, 91 

NKVD 80, 81, 84, 87-100 

NKVD agents 100, 101 

NKVD No. 1 Agent, Serebrianni 99 

P 

Paris . 79, 81-85, 88, 97, 99 

Paris, cafe in 83, 84, 87, 88 

Paris University 88 

Passport, French 81 

Passport, Polish 81 

Patronymic 83, 86 

Pere La Chaise 95 

Perjury ' 100 

Petrovich, Ivan 83 

Poland/Polish 7"9", 80, 81 

Port d'orlean, Paris 84 

Pseudonym 83 

R 

Registry of the Prefecture of Police 81' 

Reims gg 97 

Reiss, Ignatz I_I"' ' 96 

Assassinated ~~~ 97 

Repatriation to Soviet Russia ~_ §1, 82, 84 

Rosenthal, Trotskyite of Paris l.._.._ ' ' 85 

Rouen, France " '" 80 

Russell Sage Foundation ~_ __ __ 78 

Russia/Russian "Illll'Iim'si-Si, 86,92 

Russian Embassy _ . 87 

Russian Intelligence ...ll" ~ 93 

Russian Secret Police "__""] "I "" 77 



INDEX m 

S Page 

Secret agent 93 

Sedov, Mr 85, 88, 89, 90, 92-98 

Son of Trotsky 86 

Assassination of 88, 89 

Taken to hospital 92 

Death 92 

Serebrianni, Mr., No. 1 NKVD agent working on whole Trotskyite matter. 99 

Smirnov, Mr., NKVD agent in Paris 99 

Sorbonne 88 

Soviet agents 89, 101 

Soviet Embassy 82, 87 

Soviet espionage 91 

Soviet Russia 81, 82, 84, 85, 89 

Soviet Secret Police 77, 80-82, 94, 101 

Soviet Union 88, 91, 95 

Stalin 88, 90, 95 

Stalinist 90, 93 

Suicide 94 

Switzerland 96 

T 

"Trotsky" 86, 88, 89, 91 

Trotsky files (Nicolaevsky Institute) 90 

Trotskyite archives 91 

Trotskyites 85, 89, 99, 100 

Trotskyites, French 88 

Trotskyites, French office ^ 86 

Trotskyites, International 85, 97 

Trotskyites of Paris: Naville, Moliner, Rosenthal 85 

U 

Uasja 99 

Uman, Russia , t 79 

United States 79, 94, 99, 100 

United States Mental Health Institute 78 

V 

Veterans' Administration Hospital, Bronx, N. Y 78 

Vic-Le-Begorre in the Pyrenees 79 

W 

Washington, D. C 77 

Welker, Senator 77 

Y 
Yivo Scientific Institute 79 

Z 

Zborowski, Mark (testimony of) 77-101 

2451 Webb Avenue, New York City 77 

Herman A. Greenberg, attorney 77 

Anthropologist 77 

Grant from Russell Sage Foundation 78 

Royalties from book Life Is With People 78 

1951-54 worked for Department of Mental Health 78 

1947-51, study director, American Jewish Committee 79 

1945-50, librarian, Yivo Scientific Institute 79 

Consultant, Columbia University research 79 

Translator for Army service forces 79 

Screw-machine operator, metal factory 79 

Checkup man, metal factory 79 

December 1941 arrived United States from Vic-Le-Begorre, Paris 79, 99 

1934-40 stayed in Paris 79 

Born in Uman, Russia, and remained until 1921 79 

1921-28 stayed in Poland 79 



jY INDEX 

Zborowski, Mark(testiinony of)— Continned P»ge 

1928, went to Rouen, France to study medicine 80 

1928-29 stayed in France 80 

"I never been a Communist" 80 

1932-33 worked as porter in Grenoble 81 

1933 — applied for repatriation to Soviet Russia 82 

1934 went to Paris with Afanasyeff 83 

Assigned to find out what Trotskyites doing 85 

Second assignment contact Sedov, 1935 88 

Anti-Soviet role; sabotaging their orders 89 

1937 on; changed entire attitude toward NKVD 90 

Attended meeting celebrating Soviet revolution November 7, when 

Trotsky files were stolen from Nicolaevsky Institute 90 

Visited Sedov in hospital — 92 

Reported Sedov in hospital to NKVD 92 

Reported death of Sedov to NKVD 92 

Reported on General Krivitsky 93 

Bodyguard for Krivitsky 93, 95, 96 

Member of NKVD, secret agent 93 

Stalin considered Zborowski's job important 95 

Reported on Alexander Barmine 95 

Lived in house near Gare d'Austerlitz 97 

Broke with NKVD in 1938 99 

Probably considered NKVD agent when came to United States 99, 100 

Never formallv broke with NKVD 100 

Cooperated with FBI 100 

O 



•-" V^^i £ %^.vi' 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMmiSTKATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MARCH 2, 1956 



PART 5 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Public U-rary 
Cuperintendent of Documents 

APR 3 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER. Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouii HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

Richard Arens and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel 

BENJAMIN' Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of— Pag^ 

Zborowski, Mark --__-___ in-? 

Dallin, Mrs. Lilia --'"-"lllll~llllllll I 136 



HI 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, MARCH 2, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 11 a, m., in 
room 457, Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner presiding. 

Present: Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, chief counsel; Alva C. Carpenter, 
associate counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research du'ector; and Robert C. 
McManus, investigations analyst. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zborowski, please. 

Senator Jenner. Will you be sworn to testify? 

Do you swear the testimony given in this hearing wiU be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God? 

Mr. Zborowski. I do. 

Senator Jenner. You may be seated. 

You are represented by counsel. You may sit there. 

Mr. Greenberg. Thank you. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

.TESTIMONY OF MARK ZBOROWSKI, ACCOMPANIED BY HERMAN 

A. GREENBERG, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zborowski, would you tell us the last time that 
you reported to the NKVD about any of the individuals, namely, 
Sedov, Mr. Barmine, Mr. Krivitsky, about whom we have been 
examining you thus far? 

Mr. Zborowski. That was about the year 1938 or 1939. 

Mr. Morris. In 1938 or 1939? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I am sorry. 1937 or 1938. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Mr. Zborowski. I am sorry. 

Mr. Morris. Can you specifically tell us the last date of your 
reporting on the activities of any one of these individuals? 

Mr. Zborowski. I am unable to put an exact date when it hap- 
pened. I don't remember. It was so many years ago. The only 
thing that I remember, it was in the year 1938. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. And specifically, what was the last act of reporting? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, the most outstanding act in my mind, of 
the act of reporting, was the death of Sedov, which occurred in 1937. 

103 



104 SCOPK OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you broke off relations 
at that time? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Is it yom- testimony that you broke off relations at 
that time? 

Mr. Zborowski. I broke off relations formally later when I stopped 
contacting the people. It was after 1938. 

You asked me 

Mr. Morris. If you broke oft" relations with the NKVD people to 
whom you were reporting at the death of Sedov. 

Mr. Zborowski. I reported on the death of Sedov to the NKVD 
people. That is the most outstanding thing in my memory of report- 
ing on some of the people you have mentioned. 

Now, after the death of Sedov, I still saw those NKVD people on 
ver}'' rare occasions, very rare occasions. Then finally after 1938, I 
didn't see any one of them any more. I think I tried to make it as 
clear as possible. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you certainly saw no 
NKVD people in 1938; is that right? 

Mr. Zborowski. No. In 1939, I was in the foreign service in the 
French Army. The war broke out — with the preparation of the 
war — the war broke out, and since then I haven't seen anyone, 
any more. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I think it was your testimony, was it not, that 
you did not officially break off connections with them; you just did 
not have occasion to see them? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, no. I tried to break oft' completely. I used 
the occasion, the opportunity of the war and of the change of the staff 
of the NKVD people, to break oft' relationship, and I haven't seen 
them any more, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when you broke oft', did you notify them that 
you were no longer working for them? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I did not notify them. I could not notify 
them because of the fear of death, of retaliation. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you just carried out no assignments?- 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that in your mind you felt 
that you had made a break? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. But there were no outward manifestations of that 
state of mind that 3'-ou can tell us about? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right; correct, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Except that you did not associate with them? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Then you came to the United States in what year? 

Mr. Zborowski. I came to the United States in 1942. 

Mr. Morris. In 1942? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, wifi you tell us the circumstances leading up 
to your application for immigration, and such details as who sponsored 
you and how you came into the country? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, when I fled from Paris, I lived in a small 
town m the south of France, and from there I received a letter from 
Mrs. Dalhn telling me that she had^— 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 105 

Mr. Morris. That Mrs. Dalliii is Mrs. David Dallin? 

Mr. Zborowski. Mrs. David Dallin, right; (continuing) that she 
was trying to help me get a permit to get to the United States. Fin- 
ally— 

Mr. Morris. Forgive me, Mr. Zborowski. 

Do you want to take a picture? 

Senator Jenner. Do you want to take a picture of the witness? 

A Voice. Yes. 

Senator Jenner. Do you have any objection? 

Mr. Zborowski. I would like not to have any pictures taken. But 
one picture has already been taken. 

Senator Jenner. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Forgive me. 

Will you continue? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

As I was telling you, I received this letter from Mrs. David Dallin 
telling me that she was trying to get a permit to enter the United 
States. At one time — I don't remember exactly the year and the 
date — I received a letter from the consulate in Marseilles that I can 
apply for a visa, which I did, and I got the immigration visa to the 
United States. 

Mr. Morris. And who sponsored you? 

Mr. Zborowski. Who sponsored me? Who helped me to get in? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Zborowski. Mrs. David Dallin. 

Mr. Morris. T see. But didn't yoi have actual sponsors on your 
application form? 

Kir. Zborowski. My sponsor on my application form — in Paris, 
in France? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember that sponsors were needed. 
I just don't recall any sponsors on the application form in France. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you come to the United States, 
actually? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. When did you actually come into the United States? 

Mr. Zborowski. I came to the United States 7 days after Pearl 
Harbor, December 15, 1942. 

Mr. Morris. 1941. 

Mr. Zborowski. 1941. I am sorry; 1941. 

Mr. Morris. Now, after you came to the United States, did any 
of these people with the NKVD get in touch with you? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. They got in touch with me in 1943 for the 
first time. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances? 

Mr. Zborowski. I used to work — at that time, I used to live in 
Seagate, in Brooklyn, which is a community on the shore of the ocean. 

Mr. Morris. That is near Coney Island, is it not? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right, at Coney Island. At this time I 
used to work on the night shift at the factory, and I remember I came 
from work. I worked a couple of hours, and then I went to the beach. 
It was during the summer. I went to the beach to relax before I was 
to go back to work again. And while I was on the beach, a man 
approached me and told me that: "Finally we did find you." 



106 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Finallv he did find you? 

Mr. Zborowski. He says, "We finally did find you." 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he implied that he had been looking 

for vou? . 1. , . TT -J 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. He implied it. He said, as a 
matter of fact, that he was looking for me everj'^vhere. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us as much about that meetmg as you 
possibly can? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us as much as 3'ou possibly can about 
that meeting, Mr. Zborowski? 

Mr. Zborowski. When he said that — as a matter of fact, this man, 
as 1 mentioned to you in executive session, was identified probably 
correctly by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. And, at the time 
when he approached me, the way he approached me, I didn't have 
any doubt that this man is the one that was looking for me, and I am 
again in their hands. 

And he took me to a cafe on Coney Island and started to asking 

me 

Mr. Morris. He asked you to come to a cafe? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. ^Yhat cafe was that? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember. It is one of the boardwalk 
cafes on Coney Island. 

Mr. Morris. And specifically, what did he ask you? 

Mr. Zborowski. He asked me where I had been, what I am doing, 
what I intend to do. And that is all, to the best of my recollection. 
That is about all there was. Again 

Mr. Morris. He did not give you an assignment? 

Mr. Zborowski. No assignment, at this time. 

Mr. Morris. And then what happened after that? What was 
3-our next contact with him or anyone associated with him? 

Mr. Zborowski. Then there was another person who called me, 
and this person told me to meet him at a cafe, and it was at a later 
period of time already, because I moved to Manhattan. It was 201 
West 108th Street, where I lived. And he called me on the phone and 
told me to meet him. "It is a friend calling," he said. 

Mr. Morris. To meet him where? 

Mr. Zborowski. To meet liim at some bar at Lexington Avenue. 

Mr. Morris. A bar on Lexington Avenue. That is in Manhattan? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how did he identify himself? 

Mr. Zborowski. He didn't identify himself. I was to be there 
and have an illustrated magazine in my hand. 

Mr. Morris. You say he called you on the phone? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Had you given the first man your telephone number? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? No. When I lived in Seagate, I 
didn't have a telephone number. When I lived in Manhattan, I 
had a telephone number. 

Mr. Morris. And was it listed in the book? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And the man who called you the second time, you 
presume looked the number up in the telephone book? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 107 

Mr. Zborowski. I would guess so. I don't know, really. I 
don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how did he commence the conversation? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, he said: "It is a friend calling." 

Mr. Morris. "It is a friend." 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, that is what he said, in English. Then he 
switched to Russian and said — he spoke very poor English and 
switched to Russian, and said: "We would like to see you." 

Mr. Morris. He said he would like to see you? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And he did not say who he was? 

Mr. Zborowski. No. He said, with this illustrated magazine at 
this time. 

Mr. Morris. I didn't understand that. With an illustrated 
magazine? 

Mr. Zborowski. With an illustrated magazine, to identify myself, 
in this cafe, or this bar, rather, at Lexington Avenue. And then he 
at this meeting told me, or threatened me, rather — well, you know — - 
"It is time for you to work." 

Mr. Morris. "It is time for you to work"? 

Mr. Zborowski. Something to this effect. And he said, "Go 
establish your old contacts with your old friends, with the American 
Trotskyit'es, with the Russian immigrants, and so on." 

And'l said, "I can't do that." 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he then asked you to establish 
contact with the Trotskyites, the Mensheviks? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And with whom else? 

Mr. Zborowski. With this group of people whom I knew. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Well, you were meeting these people at that 
time, were you not? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. But I was meeting only very few people. 
I used to meet only, I think, Mrs. Dallin and Mr. Dahin, and maybe 
another person or two. I never met any American Trotskyites here. 
But he said to reestablish contact with the American Trotskyites, 
which I refused. I told him I couldn't do it, and I didn't reestablish 
any contact with them. 

Mr. Morris. Did you refuse? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. I said, again, no: "I will not do that." 
I said, "It is very hard for me. I cannot. I cannot speak the lan- 
guage. I would not be able to do it." 

Mr. Morris. And did you see, or hear from, anyone again? 

Mr. Zborowski. After that, I was called again by this man. 

Mr. Morris. This same man? 

Mr. Zborowski. The same man. 

Mr. Morris. Did he call back on the phone? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. And I think this man was again identified 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. And he again was very 
insisting, very angry, and very threatening, for me to work. And at 
this time, I became almost — I was almost hysterical, and I remember 
very well, I hit my fist on the table and said: "I will not do anytliing 
with you any more." And I walked out. Since then I have not 
seen anyone. 



72723—56 — pt. 5- 



108 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. .\roRRis. Now, did you meet him at a cafe? 

Mr. Zhouowski. Yes. 

Mr. Moiiuis. This was not in a phone conversation? 

Mi-. ZimiiowsKi. No. 

Mr. MoHKis. Now, what cafe was this on Lexington Avenue? 

Mr. Zhouowski. Again, somewhere in the upper 80's, the corner 
of 86th or 87th or 89th, somewhere in there. 

Mr. ^^ouH^'^. And you say, at that time you pounded your fist on 
the tahh^ and said you would not do that? 

Afr. Znoiiow.sKi. That is right. And since then I have not seen 
them. The oidy time, I am not sure whether they were there or not, 
I received an anonymous threatening letter, implving that I will be 
kdled. 

Mr. Morris. You what? I am sorry. 

Mr. Zborowski. I received by mail — ^I received an anonymous 
letter witli the implication that I would be killed. It was a photo- 
graph of a man. In this letter was included a photograph of a man 
who was executed by the allies in Holland for cooperation with the 
Germans. And that was  

Mr. Morris. For cooperation with whom, Mr. Zborowski? 

Mr. Zborowski. With the Germans. 

Mr. Morris. With the Germans. 

Mr. Zborowski. It was a picture of some man, which had certain 
similarity w4th me, certain of the features. The legend on this 
picture was "executed," you see. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Zborowski. And that is what I received in the mail, which 
was quite clearly that that was an implication that I would be —  
something of this kind would be done to me, 

Mr. Morris. Now, what did vou do with that letter, Mr. Zborow- 
ski? 

Mr. Zborowski. I didn't do anything. I destroved it, finally. 

Mr. Morris. The letter and the photograph? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me. 

Mr. Morris. The letter and the photograph? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was a clipping from the newspaper with a 
photograph. It was not separate a letter and a photograph. It was 
a chppmg from the Times of one of the officials in Holland who was 
executed. 

Mr. Morris. Was there a postmark on the letter? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. It was posted — the letter I was very careful 
to see was postmarked Grand Central, New York. And that is all. 

Mr. Morris. Did 3-ou know the identitv of the man who was 
portrayed as killed? 

Mr. Zborowski. No. 

Mr. Morris. The name meant nothing to vou? 

Mr Zborowski. No. It was just a symbol of a threat. That is 
now 1 understood it. 

Mr. Morris. 'JMie reason I am pressing it, it was not the picture 
01 somehody who liad been active, sav, in the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr Morris. Now, is it your testimony that 3'ou did no more 
reportmg to the NKVD after that time? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. Since then 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE TINITED STATES 109 

Mr. Morris. That was what year? 

Mr. Zborowski. That was, if I am not mistaken — again, I am not 
clear — somewhere in 1945, 1 think, the beginning of 1945, or something 
hke that. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Did you receive an assignment to report on 
Victor Kravchenko? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you told us about that now? 

Mr. Zborowski. The same man asked me whether I knew Victor 
Kravchenko. And I said I knew Victor Kravchenko, because I met 
him once at Mrs. David Dallin's house. 

Mr. Morris. When did you meet Mr. Victor Kravchenko? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember. 

Mr. Morris. Approximately? 

Mr. Zborow^ski. Approximately' a few months, a couple of months 
after his defection to the United States. 

Mr. Morris. Which was, as I recall, in May of 1944? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, I met him probably somewhere in the fall 
of 1944, or maybe the winter of 1944. 

Mr. SloRRis. Now, did you 

Mr. Zborowski. I refused — I was given the assignment to foster a 
friendship with Mr. Kravchenko, which I never did. 

Mr. Morris. You were given the assignment of fostering a 
friendship with ]Mr. Kravchenko? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Which you never did? 

Mr. Zborowski. Which I never did. 

Mr. Morris. But you did know him at the time? 

Mr. Zborowski. I knew him at the time I was invited to Mrs. 
Dallin's house at the time that Mr. Kravchenko was there. That is 
the first time I met him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did j'OU report back to this gentleman, the 
NKVD man 

Mr. Zborowski. No. 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute, now. Did you ever report back to 
him anything about Kravchenko? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, that was not reporting. I would like to 
straighten it out. He asked me whether I knew Kravchenko, and I 
said, yes, I knew Kravchenko. 

Mr. Morris. And did you tell him — — 

Mr. Zborowski. Then he says, "Well, if you know Kravchenko 
try to establish friendship with him and try to get him involved in a 
relationship with a^ou," which I refused again; which I didn't do. I 
never met Kravchenko again until I think a certain time for a very 
short, brief period. 

Mr. Morris. And you elected at that time not to tell these things 
to, say the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. You elected at that time not to tell of these episodes 
to the Federal Bureau of Investigation? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And did you tell any American security agency 
whatever about these episodes? 

Mr. Zborowski. No; I never did. 



110 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. In fact, as was brought out the other day, when the 
FBI asked you about it in 1954, you did not admit to your past 
associations even at that time, did you? 

Mr. Zbokowski. I did admit them, but not at the fii'st meeting. 

Mr. Morris. But I say, when they first asked you, you did not 
admit to your past associations with the NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. No. At the first meeting with the FBI, I did not 
admit tliem. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat did you do on that score? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. "\Miat did you do? Will you tell us precisely? 

Mr. Zborowski. They asked me, "Are you an agent?" — some- 
thing — it is hard for me again to repeat verbatim. Probably they 
have the record. They asked me whether I am an agent of the 
NKVD. I said, no. They then went into my activities in Paris, 
whether I was a Trotskyite. I said, yes. 1 told them all my 
biography. 

Mr. Morris. All vour biography, but leaving out your long 
activity with the NKVD? 

Air. Zborowski. That is right. But at the next meeting, I told 
them everything. As a matter of fact, I stated 

Air. AIoRRis. Now, when was this second meeting? Was it in 
1955? 

Air. Zborowski. No. It was 3 or 4 days later. 

Air. AIoRRis. I see. 

Air. Zborowski. I was called immediately. 

Air. AIoRRis. Wlien did vou place the first meeting? 

Air. Zborowski. With the FBI? 

Air. AIgrris. Yes. 

Air. Zborowski. In 1954. 

Air. AIoRRis. Wliat month of 1954? 

Air. Zborowski. I think it was late in the fall or the beginning of 
the Avinter of 1954. 

Air. AIoRRis. Yes. Aly recollection was that you told us before it 
was late 1954. 

Air. Zborowski. That is right. 

Air. AIoRRis. Now, I was wondering, when was the second meeting 
with the FBI? 

Air. Zborowski. It was a few days later. 

Air. AIorris. Now, did they initiate the second call, or did you? 

Air. Zborowski. No. They said to me, "Will you come over?" 

Air. AIorris. They called you? 

Air. Zborowski. Yes. 

Air. Morris. And what happened on that second occasion? 

Air. Zborowski. On the second occasion they said to me that they 
had information that I was a member of the NKVD. When they 
said that to me, I admitted it, and I told them everything. 

Air. AIorris. And you told them evervthing that vou are telling 
us now? 

Air. Zborowski. That is right. 
_ Air. AIorris. Now, you were not able at that time, however, to 
give them the identity of any of these NKVD people? 

Air. Zborowski. I described them very closelv, every one of the 
people that I was in touch with, and later on— I never knew the 
names of the people— but later on their identitv was established. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 111 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zborowski, I wonder if you would listen to a 
description tliat this committee received about Afanasiev, who was a 
Soviet individual who was involved in Canadian espionage. 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I think he was operating as a TASS correspondent. 
He bore the same name. I do not know whether the name is un- 
common or not. I wonder if you would bear with us while Mr. Mandel 
reads you a description of this gentleman and I ask you if it squares 
with the one that you met as an agent. 

Mr. Mandel. This is taken from the questioning, January 4, 1954^ 
in Ottawa, Canada, of Igor Gouzenko, taken from page 17 of the 
proceedings. 

Have you 

Senator Jenner. The question is by whom? Mr. Sourwine? 
Mr. Mandel. Mr. Sourwine. [Reading:] 

Have you, since you walked out of the Soviet Embassj' for the last time, heard 
anything about Mr. Manasiev? 

Answer. Well, no, except that, just after leaving the Embassy, I understand 
he left Canada quite in a hurry. That was one indication. Then, prior to this, 
he was considered an old man in intelligence work. 

Question. He had an intelligence background before he went with Tass? 

Answer. Oh, yes; that is my ojainion. 

Question. Was that military intelligence? 

Answer. No, I believe it was quite different. I believe it was NKVD line. 
Tass was military; Martin cover name. 

Question. Do you know how old a man he was, approximately? 

Answer. I would say, at that time he was about 40. 

Question. That was in 1943? 

Answer. Yes. Perhaps in judging the age of Russians, I would say he perhaps 
even was about 36 or 37, yet he looked like 40 or 41. 

Question. How did he carry himself, erect or was the stooped? 

Answer. He was a little bit stooped, like I said; very lively in his movements 
and actions. 

Question. In considering that question you swung your shoulders a bit from 
right to left. 

Answer. That is right. 

Question. Did he walk that waj'? 

Answer. That's the way he used to walk. And when he talked, I would say 
he was a little on the foxy side. 

Question. All right. Then can you tell us anything else about any distin- 
guishing characteristics of Mr. Afanasiev; did he have any limp or anything else 
that might help us to identifj' him? 

Answer. No, I don't remember of him limping. .A.nother thing I remember, 
he could be irritable. 

Mr. Morris. Does that sound like the same man to you? 

Mr. Zborowski. There are certain points in which there are cer- 
tain similarities, namely the irritability. 

Air. Morris. The inabihty? 

Mr. Zborowski. The irritability. 

Mr. Morris. Irritability. 

Air. Zborowski. But there would be a discrepancy in age, because 
I knew Afanasiev in 1933 or 1934, and at that time he was about a 
man of 36 or 39. 

Mr. Morris. So 11 years later, he would be 47? 

Mr. Zborowski. Otherwise he was a tall man of a militar}' bearing. 
But the point of irritability seems to be for certain. 

Mr. Morris. Have you identified Afanasiev's picture at the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation? 



112 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr Zborowski. T don't think thoy liad a picture of him. 

Mr Morris Mr. Chairman, tliis is an excerpt here from a story 
caUod' ''Stahn's American Snoops," by Paul F. Healy, which has an 
episo(k^ rehiting to this Mr. Afanasiev. Even though we have not 
estabUshed tliis to be the same person, may it go into the record, 
because it does bear generally on this phase of the inquiry? 

Senator Jenner. It may go in the record. ^ , ., . ,^ „ ,. 

(The excerpt above referred to was marked ''Exhibit No. 3 and is 

as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 3 

[From Saturday Evening Post, January 20, 1951, p. 49] 

In 1946 the Canadian correspondents had grown moderately fond of a couple 
of Tass reporters— Xicolai (Big Nick) Zheivinov and Nicolai (Little Nick) 
Afanasiev * * * There was some bitter talk about expelling Afanasiev, but 
Dresentlv he said that he, too, was being summoned honae. However, months 
later, a Canadian newsman visiting in New York bumped into Afanasiev in the 
Associated Press building. Puzzled, the Canadian invited 'Little Nick to have 
a drink and chat. The Russian replied that he was busy at the moment, but that 
if the Canadian would call at the Tass office upstairs later, they could go to 
dinner together The Ottawa man did call at the Tass office at the dinner hour, 
onlv to be informed blandly at the door— no visitor gets inside the ra.iling— 
that no such person as Nicolai Afanasiev was employed there and that, in fact, 
they had never heard of him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Zborowski, when were you first exposed 
here if I may use the word, as someone. who has been active in the 
NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was a few months ago. 
Mr. MoKKis. I see. Privately or publicly? 
Air. Zborowski. Publicly. 

Mr. Morris. When did you first hear about a private exposure, 
asrain if I mav use the word "exposure" or revelation, let us. say? 

^Mr. Zhouowski. Private exposure? 1 didn't get that exactly. 
AVhat do you mean by that? 

Mr. Morris. When you were in this country, certainly you did 
not disclose to Mrs. Dallin, who helped you come into the country, 
that you had been an NKVD agent — — 
Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Air. Morris (continuing). And that you had reported on people 
tliat shf had been intimately associated with? 
Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now. when (lid she first learn that you had been an 
XKVU agent? 

Mr. Zborowski. When did she first learn? I don't know. 
Ml-. -Morris. Let me put it this way. Wlien did you first learn 
that somebody oth(M- than yourself knew about these details in your 
past? 

Mr. Zborowski. 1 think 1 saw Mrs. Else Bernaut — — 
Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 
Mr. Zborowski. B-e-r-n-a-u-t. 

1 saw her in the suminei-, 1 think, of 1954, and she told me that there 
were suspicions that I am an agent of XK\ D, :is a matter of fact, 
very weighty suspicions. 

Mr. AIoRHis. \'ery great sus])ieions, that you were or had been? 
Mr. Zhorowski. That 1 had ix'en in France an agent of NKVD. 
Mr. Morris. T see. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTI\'ITY IN THE IHSTITED STATES 113 

Mr. ZBORO^YSKI. She asked me whether it is true. I said no. 

Mr. Morris. You said it was not? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did she give you her source of information? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Did she give you her source of information? 

Mr. Zborowski. She did not give me her source of information, 
but she said that ]\lrs. DalHn knew that also. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Dalhn knew it also? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, would vou place the time to the best of your 
ability? 

Mr. Zborowski. I think it was in the late summer of 1954. 

Mr. Morris. The late summer of 1954? 

Mr. Zborowski. I think so. I don't recollect that very clearly. 
Maybe it is early summer. I think it was in the summer of 1954. 

Mr. Morris. Now, she was Mrs. Ignace Reiss? 

Mr. Zborowski. (No response.) 

Mr. Morris. Is Mrs. Bernaiit Mrs. Ignace Reiss, the widow of the 
man who was assassinated? 

Mr. Zborowski. I think so. 

Mr. Morris. You are not certain of it? 

Mr. Zborowski. I know that she is the one always seen as the 
widow of Ignace Reiss. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. I did not understand that. 

Mr. Zborowski. I say, she is known to be the widow of Ignace 
Reiss. And I know her 

Mr. MoRPis. She is known to be? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. And I know her as such, but I have no 
other source of information. But I know that she is the widow of 
Ignace Reiss. 

Mr. Morris. Now, would you tell us how the story began to unfold 
from your point of view? 

When did you next hear an accusation or an intimation made 
that you had been an NKVD agent? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, that was at the time when I met Mrs. 
Bernaut. 

Mr. Morris. That was the first time? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did it next come out? 

Mr. Zborowski. It next got out — I got a call from the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, no one else brought the subject up? 

Mr. Zborowski. No one else, to my recollection, ever brought the 
subject up. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you working at that time? 

Mr. Zborowski. At that time I was working in the same place 
where I am working now, namely, in this veterans' hospital. 

iVIr. Morris. I see. Now, did someone from the American Jewish 
Committee ask you if you had been an NKVD agent? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Did someone from the American Jewish Committee 
ask you if you had been an NKVD agent? 

Air. Zborowski. At a verv later time. 



114 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. MoKRis. A later time? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Who was the person who asked you that tune? 

Mr! Zborowski. There was a man who was w^orking as my sub- 
stitute. After I left the American Jewish Committee, he was workmg 
as the du-cctor of research. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify hun, please? 

Mr. Zborowski. His name is Dr. Marshall Sldare. 

Mr. Morris. Spell that, please. 

Mr. Zborowski. S-k-1-a-r-e. 

Mr. Morris. Did he tell you he had heard that you had been 

Mr. Zborowski. He said to me that he heard that I was an agent 
of the NKVD, and that we were supposed to write a book together. 
He said to me that he has to break the contract with me. And he 
ri'fused to produce the book together with me under the same title. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, did you affii-m or deny that? 

Mr. Zborowski. I told him that that is very complex matters, 
and the FBI is investigating me, and I cannot talk to him any more 
about it. So he said that he would go and try to find out on his own. 

Mr. Morris. But you did not deny it to him? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. You did not deny it? 

Mr. Zborowski. I did not deny that I was an agent. I told him 
it is very complex, and there are a lo't of rumors and distortions. 
1 di(hi't go into any details with him. I told him it was in the hands 
of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did 3'ou first discuss this with Mrs. 
Dallin? 

Mr. Zborowski. \^lien did I first discuss it with Mrs. Dallin? I 
made a call to Mr. Dallin. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Dallin. 

Mr. Zborowski. To Mr. Dallin, and I said I would like to talk to 
them about telling my side of the story, namely, that it is not true 
that I was a full-fledged member of the NKVD. I wanted to tell 
them the storj', that I broke with them immediately after the trials, 
and that I in many wa3^s wanted to reestablish the pattern of my 
affection and my friendship with them, which was the true part of 
this picture. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, could you place this? Could you tell 
us what time this was? 

Mr. Zborowski. I don't remember the date. It was very soon 
after — it was probably in October, probably in October of 1955, 
because it was very soon after the executive session. I told them that 
I wanted to see Mrs. Dallin especially because of my gi*eat respect 
and friendship to this person. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a gentleman named Yugov? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. \Mio is Mr. Yugov? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yugov was a Kussian Social Democrat. 
Mr. MoiiRis. What is his first name? 

Mr. Zboroavski. I don't know. Oft'hand, I don't remember his 
first name. 

Mr. Morris. Well now, did he do any work for vou at any time? 

Mr. Zborowski. For me? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 115 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. At one time he wanted to do some — to try 
to get contracts on economic research, contracts for business enter- 

? rises who would be interested in knowing market research, and 
'ugov was an economist. He never worked for me, but at one time 
he wanted to estabhsh something of this kind. It didn't work out, 
and he dropped it. 

Mr. Morris. Did you pay him any money? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I didn't pay him any money. I think at one 
time I lent him — he was in a precarious position, I think, and I lent 
him — but I don't remember that. 

Mr. Morris. Did you pay him anything? 

Mr. Zborowski. There was no work done that I should pay him. 
He wasn't my boss, and I wasn't an employer. 

Mr. Morris. Did you pay him $100 to pubhsh some statistics at 
one time? 

Mr. Zborowski. Not that I remember. Did I ever pay him $100? 
I just don't recollect any such thing. 

Mr. Morris. Can you recall the occasion of the party being given 
on the 10th anniversary of your arrival in the United States 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris (continuing). Which would approximately be Decem- 
ber 1951? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Was there present — I do not have to mention his 
name because you have given it to us in executive session — was there 
present a man, an American, naturahzed, of Russian origin, who spoke 
with a shght Russian accent, who had been traveling, who had just 
come back, or was just about to go to the Caucasus? 

Mr. Zborowski. As I told you in executive session, it was not to 
the Caucasus. It was a man who was traveling a great deal in the 
Orient. And I don't know whether he just came from, or he was leav- 
ing for, but I knew that he was travehng in the Orient as a business- 
man. 

Mr. Morris. Not the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Zborowski. I told you, I think he had business affairs in the 
Soviet Union, but I am not clear, and I cannot state anything. 

Mr. Morris. You say he did have business affairs in the Soviet 
Union, but you do not loiow the exact nature of them; is that it? 

Mr. Zborowski. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I wonder if you would teU us what assignment 
you had — -Now, in connection with your immigration papers, you 
never made a disclosure on them, did you, that you had been with the 
NKVD? 

Mr. Zborowski. No, I did not, because the immigration papers 
asked me if I was ever a member of the Communist Party, and I knew 
that I could tell frankly that I was never a member of the Communist 
Party, and it was questioning my allegiance to the country, and I 
knew that I never had the intention of doing anything harmful to the 
security of this country. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I wonder if you would now give us a rather fuU 
description of your various assignments, or various jobs here in the 
United States, starting with your present one. 

72723— 56— pt. 6 3 



116 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zborowski. My present one was a grant, a study on the re- 
habilitation of disabled people, on the basis of a grant from the Russell 
Sage Foundation. 

Mr. Morris. And what is the precise nature of your work? 

Mr. Zborowski. The precise nature is the application of the 
anthropological matters to understanding of the failures and suc- 
cesses in the rehabihtation of an individual who is disabled, by under- 
standing his background, cultural background, religious background, 
to understand in what way will he react to the program, medical and 
other program, offered to him for rehabilitation, such as paralysis 
or 

Mr. Morris. And you go to veterans' hospitals? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. You go to veterans' hospitals? 

Mr. Zborowski. I have my office in a veterans' hospital. 

Mr. Morris. And you interview the patients at the veterans' 
hospitals? 

Mr. Zborowski. I interview the patients of the hospitals. 

Mr. Morris. Are some of these war veterans? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, they are all war veterans. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, have some of them been in the war? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Have some of them been in the war, the Korean war, 
or World War II? 

Mr. Zborowski. All of them. The}^ are from the Mexican War to 
the Korean war. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, what is the nature of your interviewing 
these particular people? 

Mr. Zborowski. I have a questionnaire, and this questionnaire 
contains about 140 questions, which are only questions of the nature 
of his disability, how he feels, what is the reaction of the family to his 
disability, what is his reaction to the treatment which is given to him. 
It is purely medical and attitudinal — put it that way — with reference 
to the disability. 

Mr. Morris. You have written, I understand, a pamphlet called 
"Cultural Components in Responses to Pain." 

Mr. Zborowski. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And would this generally describe the work that you 
do? 

Mr. Zborowski. It describes a different project, namely, that I try 
to understand how people differ in then- reaction to pain in terms of 
their cultural background, which is not exactly disability. You see, 
I was concerned with the attitudes of people to stress. Pain was one 
stress situation; physical disability is another stress situation. But 
that is about the same type of work. 

Mr. Morris. And this grant is a 3-year grant, I believe you told us? 

Mr. Zborowski. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And you are in your second year? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And to date, how much has been allocated to you 
for this work? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 117 

Mr. Zborowski. Up to now, according to the latest budget, there 
was allocated about $19,000. 

Mr. Morris. $90,000? 

Mr. Zborowski. $19,000; that is for me and my staff. 

Mr. Morris. And there will be an addition to that next year, the 
third year? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, I don't think so. 

Mr. Morris. You don't think so? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, not after the public hearing. 

Mr. Morris. You mean that you have reason to believe that the 
grant will not be continued? 

Mr. Zborowski. Well, I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was there another grant prior to this particular 
one? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Did you have a grant prior to this particular one? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What was the earlier grant? 

Mr. Zborowski. That was from the United States Public Service. 

Mr. Morris. United States — — 

Mr. Zborowski. Public Health Service. 

Mr. Morris. Public Health Service. 

Now, will you tell us about that grant? 

Mr. Zborowski. It was with reference to this study. 

Mr. Morris. Before I get away, that other one was under the 
auspices of the Russell Sage Foundation? 

Mr. Zborowski. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And it is not under the auspices of the Veterans' 
Administration? 

Mr, Zborow^ski. No. 

Mr. Morris. Continue. 

Mr. Zborowski. This previous grant was a grant from the Public 
Health Service on the study on responses to pain, which is a part of 
this published study. It is marked there. 

Mr. Morris. Now, of what duration was that? How long did 
that last? 

Mr. Zborowski. That was also a 3-year study. 

Mr. Morris. Three years. And how much was allocated by the 
United States Public Health Service for that? 

Mr. Zborowski. There was allocated altogether, I think, about 
$24,000. 

Mr. Morris. $24,000? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. For the 3 years? 

Mr. Zborowski. For the 3 vears. 

Mr. Morris. And where did you physically work? 

Mr. Zborowski. I would like to mention, counselor, that I don't 
remember exactly the figures. I have to go back to the books to 
check. 

Mr. Greenberg. Approximately. 

Mr. Zborowski. Approximately. 



118 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr Morris. That is right. We are not asking you precisely. I 
assure you wc are not holding you responsible for any of these precise 

''will you tell us where you physically worked in connection with 

Mr. Zborowski. I physically worked in the Veterans' Admuais- 

tration hospital. . . , . • .• i -^ io 

Mr. Morris. Again in the Veterans' Administration hospital^ 
Mr! Zborowski. The same Veterans' Administration hospital. 
Mr! Morris. Now, did you have an earlier grant? In other words, 

this now takes us back 5 years, 2 years for the Russell Sage Founda- 

Mr. Zborowski. There were no other grants. Before, I worked 
as a study director in the American Jewish Committee. 

Mr. Morris. A study du-ector? 

Mr. Zborowski. A study director, that is right, in the department 
of scientific research in the American Jewish Committee. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you there? 

Mr. Zborowski. I was there approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Morris. And that takes us back 8 years. 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. We are now back to approximately 1948? 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. Yes, in 1948 and 1949, I began 
to work for the American Jewish Committee. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, what did you do just before 1948? 

Mr. Zborowski. In 1948, I was a librarian in the Yivo Scientific 
Institute in Paris. 

Mr. Morris. In what scientific institute? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yivo. It is a Jewish scientific institute. I was a 
librarian. At the same time, I was a consultant for the Jewish group 
with the Columbia project in contemporary research. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us about that? 

Mr. Zborowski. This Columbia research project was established 
on the basis of a grant from the Navy, and there was 

Mr. Morris. Now, this was a grant from the United States Navy? 

Mr. Zborowski. I guess so. And this project had a large number 
of people that had a large number of very specific anthropological 
study groups. One of them was a Jewish study group, and I was a 
consultant with the Jewish study group. 

Mr. Morris. How long did that work last? 

Mr. Zborowski. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. How long did that last? 

Mr. Zborowski. I worked there only part time as a consultant. 
Mv full-time work was with the Yivo Scientific Institute as a librarian. 

\lr. Morris. Now, did you know a woman named Dr. Ruth Bene- 
dict in connection with that? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes, certainly I did know her. 

Mr. Morris. How did she figure in this particular project? 

Mr. Zborowski. She was the director. She was a highly respect- 
able anthropologist. She was the director of the entire project. 

Mr. Morris. She was the director of the project? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNTTED STATES 119 

Mr. Zborowski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was she instrumental in bringing you into this 
project? 

Mr. Zborowski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances? 

Mr. Zborowski. I met her at one of the conventions of the anthro- 
pological meetings, or conventions, and I started talking to her and I 
told her about my ideas of the development of the Jewish culture, and 
she was interested in it. She suggested to me that I would lilce to 
work with them as a consultant. And I was very pleased to have this 
opportunity. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with her book "Races of Man- 
kind," which she coauthored with Gene Weltfish? 

Mr. Zborowski. I am not acquainted with it. It is a pamphlet. 

Mr. Morris. You mean, is your testimony that you are not aware 
of the content of it? 

Mr. Zborowski. Oh, yes, I am aware of the contents. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us your estimate of that particular 
book? 

Mr. Zborowski. It is a popular pamphlet describing various races. 
I have never read it, because it is too popular, as a reading on races, 
for me. I know it is a pamphlet on races of mankind. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet the coauthor. Gene Weltfish? 

Mr. Zborowski. I met with Gene Weltfish, I think, once at a 
convention. 

Mr. Morris. At what convention? 

Mr. Zborowski. Once or twice at a convention. 

Mr. Morris. At meetings? 

Mr. Zborowski. At meetings. She was an anthropologist. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what work did you do prior to that Columbia 
grant? 

Mr. Zborowski. Prior to it? You see, the grant of Columbia was 
only a part-time job, 

Mr. Morris. Yes; I understand that. 

Mr. Zborowski. Prior to that, I worked as a librarian with the 
Yivo Scientific Institute. Prior to that, I had a job a short while — 
for a short period I had a job with a commercial firm sending out 
parcels to France, food parcels to France. 

Air. Morris. And then prior to that? 

Mr. Zborowski. Prior to that for a short period of time for about 
3 or 4 months, I had a job with the language division of the Army 
Service Forces. 

Mr. Morris. The language division? 

Mr. Zborowski. The language division of the Army Service Forces, 
working on the English-Russian dictionary. 

Mr. Morris. How did you obtain that? 

Mr. Zborowski. I obtamed that thi-ough a friend who told me that 
they need translators, or need workers on that. And I applied, using 
my knowledge of the languages. 

Mr. Morris. And prior to that, any other assignment? Any other 
employment prior to that? 



120 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zborowski. Prior to that, I was working as a screw machine 
operator in a metal shop. 

Mr. Mo KRIS. Was that yom- first employment in the United States? 

Mr. Zbokowski. That was practically the first. It was not the 
first because when I came to the country, I worked about 2 months 
as a chemist, a chemical operator, until I got rny eyes poisoned, and I 
had to quit the job, and I got a job as a machine operator. 

That is my complete work history. 

Mr. MoKHis. I have no more questions. 

Mr. Zbokowski. I would like to state, counsel, that when I came 
to this country, and since I have been here, I haven't done anything 
which was against the security or the welfare of this country. I have 
lived the life, I think, of a useful citizen to the best of my ability. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman at this time may we put in the record 
some papers? They are mostly forms taken from various Govern- 
ment files that bear on Mr. Zborowski's work in the United States 
for the United States Government and for the various grants that we 
have heard testimony about. 

Senator Jenner. They will go in the record and become a part of 
this record. 

Mr. AIorris. You may see them if you like. They are routine 
documents. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits No. 4 to No. 
19" and are as follows:) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 121 



Exhibit No. 4 



ORIGINAL 

(To be retained bx 
Clerk of Court) 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



SBBBBBebaQOBcx 



No. 



556846 



PETITION FOR NATURAUZATION 

[Under General Provisions of the Nationality Act of 1S40 (Public, No. 853, 76th Cong.)] 

}L£^ Dl«trlotj. Soutljam ilatrlot^ Hew Jfork^ M.Im 



Tc «• Hm>tM, At Cr«ol 

'iVt fitUHenfof aaloftltatlMt. hnti^ maJa mJfiltJ. rc*pc((/ii% .iMM.' 
(1) My fuB, true, mid correct name is S. 

(2> My present place of residence Ls 

(4) I am --3-9 ^®^"^ °''^' ^^ ^ *^ ^'™ °" "33L'Bii^^'V 



MaFk---Zbo-r.owsy..;.XoraierlyJtordka 

as bon. .„ . T^„,.2rr-TQQS -,-- - m -Ujman^i.,.Ru5aia^,..^,, 



helgM „; 



t.7.5-... 



n. -Uman^-Rusaia 
yTbro^. 

i.X^pomids. vlsfble distinctive marks ...JS-CBr— I^-.l-OJlQn-^-SPrace 



'-ax-iaiL- 



(6) My personal d«crlption is as foIlowB: Sex fjjg.1.^ . color -W^lill.©.. compleilu-. iSlr-j. 

. . C li. ... Tvl. . , n.. .,.., ... L. e/^iir* 



dvtrtet. noTisast ^ K 

color or hair _ 



>M) (Onuuit) 



S^at^,§J,Pjj§§„-J^a_St Ol^l^U^f] jjj j^ maiTleJitbenameotmywL'ccraeKJCi's — -Regjna 

«=.,en,arrWonApr-il-13-,-19-3-7 <^ Paris. , . France 

beo,ahewasb»rna.....zd,in-^§a^--P-oa,sa,4;u-*i.;iii:-.-;ii- -,siii; --™A.ug.^-^a^-Xy-Ly s«~-- 

od entered tbe Cnlted Stat« at ..p.h-X-3;^;^- -£§.-.--- ^ ™ — -Qfte-*— 29-,j5,J.-5!4jf- '" I*™™*"' residence In tbe tJnlted States 



and DOW resld<» at -201 .-W...-LQ8 

(NuBbar »nde 



*.gl. 



-NY. * 

oertiflcateNo. 



. and was ncLtnrolized on . 
..; or became a cltli*n by 



[ii^isr^ ^tD 



(8) I have 1 ehlMren; and tbe ntune, sei. date and place of birtb, and preMrat i)l£co of resldpJice of cEich of said ctiildren wbo Is living' nro as foltowK 

„-.G«Gr.ge«--(*)--Jiine--ll^i93-7--,liorn--ln-..F.ranc.e-,...r.^5.ides.At-.NeW-YM-J^^ 



W My tut place of toreten residence was _.¥iC.--Bi&Q0r.6.,....ll.ran.C 6. 



(OnWitT. dlMtkt. imrui 



<10) I emierated to tbe United States from 



^ ^ _ __ 111 sbOTT--- J^OrtU^SJi — (m ^ly lawful tutry for pennannit rcsidtJiM in the Unltal Ststoi v 

t _„.'Piiila...-Par".-"^ -!!rr.L. under tbename « ..MancLka.CMara)._2hQXCyi5ki 

on g^©jjib«F-29-4,-^;X941^.„-,— o" »" ihome. — 

03 sbown by tbe ccrtiflcato of my arrival attached to thU petition. 



ttol •aomuietl 



a<«^ al TMMl ar MUr u 
(1») Sines my lawful entry for permanent residence I have um. been abstut L ym the United BUtas. for a period or perlo^ls of 6 months or longer, e-i. Ji.t as fullawi; 



DEPABTED FROM THE UNITED STATES 


KETUENED TO THE UNITED STATES 


Post 


Date 

{Month, day, year) 


Vkmel OB Otheb Mum 
or Coxtstancs 


POBT 


Date 

(Month, day, year) 


Vi£5fiEX <m Otusr MKAJta 
or Co:iVKTANCB 














 




























„ 







„.„__ 



(13) I declared my tnloiUlon to l^ecoma a citisen of the United States ca^,^^' 

coort ot ^QUth-erii- JD-Ls-trlct-.-New. JtQrk^-N..lt". 



-Mai!LJA9^^^-r- 



In the ■U->A»-DiSt^1Ct.- 

(¥mz> (Nvb. of soun) 

(14) It is my totentton In cood (ajth to become a 



dtl^n o( the United States jjid to renounce ahwlutely and forever all allegiance nr.d fidelity to any (oreign prince, potentate. State, or Mvcrelgnty of mliom or wblch at 
this tirao I am asubject or ci' liffl. and it Is my inumtion to reside pennanenlly to the United States. (151 I am not. and have not been lor the period ol at leajt 1(1 yean 
Inunedialely preceding the dote of this petition, m anarchist; nor a believer in the unlawful damage. Injnry. or destruction of property, or sabotafe; nor a dtsbeliever to 
or ODposcJ to orgauUed govornmmt; nor a memher of or aftlllatcd wich any organisation or body of persons lenchmj disbeUef in or or.poslllon to organiMd government 
(16 I am able to speaK the Englth language (unless physically unable to do so). (17) I am. and have been doting all ol ths perlwls required by la:v.nttached to tba 
principlls ol the Constitution ol the I'nltsd States and well disposed to the good order and happine.^ ol tbe United States, (la) I have resided rantinuoujly In the 

United States of America for tbe term of B years at least Immediately preceding the date ol this petition, to wit, since U&C-^y., — ^J&iH iiii 

and contlnuoosly in the Slate to which tils petition Is made for tie term of « months at test Immedlalclr ptetedlng tbe daw ol this petition, to wit, stoce 

Pian 9Q .,.1,941 (19) Ihavei^A^ heretofore made petition for natnraliiallon: No. — 

2( __ _ „_ . bthe 

tMikUj Oiw) lV~) * ~Ki»i*W«>"~ (CsiwW (Sw.! tMM- ol *«fU 

Court, and such petition was dismissed or denied" by that Court for tbe following reasons and causes, to wit: . - - 

_ end the cause of SQCh dismissal or denial has since been cored or removed. 

b.d)'TttihiJ hweto'«":"d'mVdV Vpr,Vt'oritis."mf wtitlonfcr nSwiiiratlon. are my dectaraUop ol mtentioD to become acltiim of the Unite i Slates (if such d^toa- 
lion of intention be required by the nalurallratlon law), a eertlflcale of arrival from the Iinmieretlon and Naioralltntlon l^ervlocof "J "id 'awMmtpi Into tte United 
States lor permanent residents' (If such (trtlflcate of arrival be required by the naturalliatlon Uw). and tbe affidavits of at least two verifjing witnesses required by lew. 

(21) Wherefore, I. your petitioner for naturallzatton, pray that I may be admitted • dtluo 0/ the rnMsd States of Anserica, and that my name be cbsoged to 



(22) I, ofore.'aid pjUlioner, do swear (alllrm) that I know the contents of thb petition for namralliatlon «bsctibed by me, that tne same »te true to the test °' "r »™ 
kni~w".B!i5tept^ to matters therein stiud to be alleged upon taformallon and belief, and that as to thoee matters t believe them to be true, and that this peUtlon Is 
sisncd by mewUb my full, true name; SO HELP ME OOD. 



AUEN REOieTK.lTION No.. 

le— 4I073-3 



( si ened)— Maj:k-.Zi)arQwald 



d«i«kuA .1 i.i HIir ir.  



122 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit No. 4-A 



bro ad c a ster 



AFFIDAVIT OF WITNESSES 

Tlw foI(owl]« wltOMMM, Mdb l»ls< ttnttHj. duly, ud reepeodvely tvcvn. depoae And Bar. 

mtuo.Ii Joooph — Gordon . "/ «<»j>^oo i. . 

! mido .1 .12 W . 9 05t^,re%}^ N e w York, N.Y. ■g=^-,--^ -<«i.- 

M,ia».u_g<,r-j^..Kab-ink«ff • ■°y°°™'»"°°''-m&€h-lrn-e~fc«ol— bu-sxiress- 



I aua • dU-cn cK Uw UnlHd 61M<« ol AmerU*; fhavB penonnUl known and tore been aoqoaUilod la th« CiSlUd «»«• w)(S . 
th* petltlODCT Damwl In the petition for nntorajliatlon of which this affldsTlt Is a part, since ^^^ 



to mT PMMiial k»onlc<lte tl» pell Itooff t«i prtdcd, Immodlawly promdlng th« dale of filing this petlUon. to th» United BtatM eontlnuonalT Bta^ 

Kd r^ ,. to th. Stat, of ._N«*f..-YOF-k oonUnooosly stoco — Jfe^— l-iViJi^ V?l.-jr""' ' """ '^'''~°'' 

kDo-rWre that Ihl'r^t'lODfr Is anddurtos all tiiciperio<l«hMhe«nai«TSon of good monj character. BltaclH^ to the prlnclplM^^ 

well .Upl-acd to the good onler and happiness of Ue United Stales, end in my oplnkiu Iha petitioner is in etery way qunlilied to bo admitled adtlion of the Uniuxl States. 

I do '-^MT (ommil that the statamants of fact I have made to' this af&davli of this peUtioa for naturallsaaon 'subscribed by me are true to the best of my knowledge 

and beUaf: 60 U£IiP MS OOD. 



signed 

jJo_s.eph_ -Goxdon. _ 

WIIKS OATH AnMINISTKKED BY CLERE OR DEPUTY CLERK 
OF COURT 

?obscriVd and sworn to before rac byn^ove-Bam.■d petitioner Aii«l wltnessoa in 
Ihc respective foruisof oath shown to said petition and affMlsvit In the oilier of 

dirk of the >.i-i iwt «t NeW' 'Yorkj-N-.-Y'i"" --2-?th- 

d«y"f.May,1947- 



cian/r Thal'Certmcalo of Arrlral No.f)j0n_ lf _ ^ rt^&pTMhe 



_ __ __ _ _ 1 the Im- 

mfi:r:itloo en'ii Naluraliiation Service. ^hf<w'lf»*'fKpM3w1hl p^K-To?'(l^rTnancnt 
rttiilviiM o< tba |«tiitoaor above named, together wilb Ueclaratloo of lotcntioQ 

2.1- of such i>ctltlODer, has bean by me filed with, attached 

a I'lirl of this petition on this dale. 



•*' • • " • v^telMyxS E» w — FMHIiirrtyi 



signed 



_ £or.is-JCabijikofr — 

WHEN OATH ADMINISTERED BY DESIONATED EXAMINEIt 

Subscrlbo'J end swom to before me by above-named petltionor and witnesses Id 

the respective toxins of oath shown In said petition aad affidavit at ...-. 

this — -^gt — day "' ---;t5&y' — ^ ^' "'SP^ 



Disignated Examiner. 
I bebebt CEBTirrThat tbe foregolng^etition for DatoxBllzattoQ was by petitioner 

above named filed la tbe office ot the clerk of said court at 

this day o( A. D. 19 and thai CerOfl- 

cate of Arrival No. frora the Immigration and NatumllES- 

tloa Service, show lug the lawful entry for permanent residence of such petitioner, 

toROther with Peclaratlon No. of soch petition«r, has been by me filed 

wiih, aitacht-d to, and made a part of this petuion on this data. 



Oark, 
"jli^f Clair 



[aSAL] 



tSBAL) 



OATH OF ALLEGIANCE 

I HEREBY DBCLARB. on oath, fhoi I absolutely ond entirely tenouncc and objure all odcgiance ond fidelity to ony foreisn prince, potentate, itote. 
Of lovereignfy cf whom or wHich I have heretofore been a subject or c'tizen; Ihot I will support end defend the Constitution and laws of the United States 
of Amerrco ogoinst all enemies, foreign and domestic; thot I will bear true folth and allegiance to the some; *tgtilXyC^nC3CKIX9C3fey'5^K3tJt'?CitJt9^ 

5^^ifi£SX3C5C^KXX9C9e36eJC5f3GRXX0C*KltoC3ti)fiCOG^^ and^haHtoErthir5bltgVtion"f7^^ any 

mentol reservation or purpose of evasion — So Help Me God. In ocknowlcdgmcnt whereof I hove hereunto affixed my signature. 

"° "~^"-' signed- ....Mark Zborowski _ 

(Signature of petitioner] 



S' 



wtms to In open court, thl«.... JQ^^Jj_day of. June 



, A. D. 19 /)7 



CJer*. 



By ...g^i^^r4_p.^.Bej;gfliaftB 



Vernity Clerk. 

NO'T-^.-lDreoaD'UtloaQf tide or order of nobDIIy. add tba following to the oath of aneflanee before It la Biffnod; "a farther re oon nee the tlUoof (xtr« Utie e 
lilleal which I have hofeiofore held." or "1 farther ruMoncc the order of ooblUtr <gh« the order of oobUU;} to which I bare heretofore belonged." 



Ictition grantwi: Line No. ^p.2 ----_;,.- \i U«t No. 1 7?nj,. and Certificate No67QSi3J iraued. 

Pctitiou denied: 




to 



Reason . 

10 4ior3-3 






<r'' 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 123 

Exhibit No. 5 

Biographical Sketch for Mark Zborowski 

Born: January 27, 1908, Uman (Russia). 
American citizen, since June 30, 1947. 

Education: B. S., University of Paris, 1928. Graduate student in University of 
Rouen, France, department of medicine 1928-30. University of Grenoble, 
France, department of philosophy, 1932. University of Paris, department of 
history and department of sociology 1933-34. University of Paris, Institute of 
Ethnology 1937-38. University of Paris, Ecole des Hautes Etudes d'Histoire de 
Religions 1938. Licencie es Lettres 1937. Diplome in Ethnology 1938. 

Professional experience: Assistant editor, language unit, Army Service Forces, 
1944-45. Staff member Yiddish Scientific Institute in New York 1946-49. 
Research consultant, Columbia University, research in contemporary cultures, 
1947-51. Study director, department of scientific research, American-Jewish 
Committee 1949-53. Consultant, studies in contemporary cultures, center for 
international studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1951-52. Research 
fellow in anthropology, Cornell Medical College 1951-. Director of research on 
cultural components in attitudes toward pain under a grant of United States 
Public Health Service 1951-. 
Publications : 

The Place of Book Learning in Traditional Jewish Culture, Harvard 
Educational Review, XIX, 4, 351-364 (1949). 

(With Ruth Landes:) "Hvpotheses Concerning the East European Jewish 
Family," Psvchiatry, XIII, 4, 447-464 (1950). "The Children of the 
Covenant," Social Forces, XXIX, 4, 351-364 (1951). 

(With Elizabeth Herzog) Life Is With People, New York, International 
Universities Press, 1952. Jewish Belongingness and Group Identification, 
department of scientific research, American Jewish Committee, 1951 (mimeo.) 
"The Polish Soldier" in A Report on National Character, prepared by Colum- 
bia University research in contemporary cultures, 1951, (mim). "Cultural 
Components in Responses to Pain", Journal of Social Issues, VIII, 4, 16-30 
(1952). 

Exhibit No. 6 

American Jewish Committee Application for Employment 

-/18/52: Checked with Kellman's office — negative report 
Form No. P2 

Date on staff: June 16, 1949 
Referred by: 
Position applied for: 
Type of work desired: 
Minimum salary acceptable: $5,200 
Name of applicant: Mark Zborowski 
Present address: 201 West 108th St., New York 25 
Telephone No. MO 2-3289 
Date of birth: Jan. 27, 1908 
Place of birth: Uman, Russia 
Citizenship: American 

Marital status: S (X) W ( ) Sep. ( ) M ( ) D ( ) 
Number children: One 
Other dependents: 
Draft status: 
Date classified: 
Height: 5.7 • 

Weight: 164 

Physical defects, if any: none 

Name, address, telephone number, and relationship of person to be notified in 
case of emergency: Regina Zborowski, wife, 201 West 108th, New York 25. 



72723 — 56 — pt. 5- 



124 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Education 



Name and address of school 


Dates 


Diploma or degree 


Subjects specialized in 




1917-21 
1924-28 
1928-37 






High: avmanazlum, Lodz, Poland 

College: Univprsity of Kouen, France; 
University of Paris, France. 


B. A.. - 




License es Lettres; Di- 
plome Ethnology. 


Sociology, anthropology. 











Foreign languages you 8pea:k, read, or write (check which): Russian, Polish, 
French, German, Yiddish, Hebrew: Speak (X) Read (X) Write (X). 



Record of employment (list in order, most recent 


first) 




Name and address of firm 


Name and title of 
supervisor 


Dates 


Duties 


Salary 


Reason for 
leaving 


Army Service Forces, informa- 


Cecil F. Hubert, 


1944-45 


Assistant edi- 


$4, 000 


End of project. 


tion and education language 


captain, AUS. 




tor. 






section, 165 Broadway, New 












York. 












Yiddish Scientific Institute- 


Mr. M. Elkjii 


1946-49 


Librarian 


4,000 


Unsatisfactory 


Yivo, 535 West 124 Rd., 










conditions. 


New York. 












Columbia University, research 


Dr. Margaret 


1947 


Research con- 


3,800 




in contemporary cultures. 


Mead. 




sultant 


(part 




437 West 59th St. 








time). 





Experience data — Office and clerical 



Number 


Number 




i 
Numbi 1 Number 




months 


years ex- 


Office machhies 


months , years ex- 


Clerical skill 


training 


perience 




training 


penenee 








Adding machine — electric. 






Bookkeeping— full charge. 






Adding machine— manual. 






Bookeepmg— assistant. 






Addressograph. 






Filing. 






Dictaphone. 






Proofreadmg. 






Mimeograph. 






Correspondence. 






Stenotype. 






Typing— words per min. . 






Switchboard (P. B. X.). 






Shorthand — words per mln. . 

Drafting. 
Lettering. 
Statistical records. 



SPECIAL EXPERIENCE DATA 

In what field or subject related to the program of the American Jewish Committee 
have you had experience: Of what type? RCC study of eastern European 
Jewish culture. 

Publications (none listed) 

SPECIAL INTERESTS 

List professional, honorary, or scholastic societies, clubs, community activities and 
other pertinent data not covered elsewhere in application: 
Yiddish Scientific Institute — Yivo 
American Anthropological Association. 

(Signature) ' Mark Zborowski, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 125 

Exhibit No. 7 

The American Jewish Committee, 

Neio York 16, N. Y., August 27, 1951. 
Dr. Samuel H. Flowerman, 

Director, Department of Scientific Research, 

American Jeivish Committee. 

Dear Dr. Flowerman: Upon my return from vacation I found a letter from 
the Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service, informing me that I was 
granted a substantial amount of money to set up a research project to investigate 
the cultural components in attitudes toward pain. This project is considered to 
be the first step toward further research focused on the possibilities of the integra- 
tion of certain methods and conclusions of cultural anthropology into the field 
of medicine. 

I have cherished this idea for several years and, as you understand, was very 
pleased to see it approved and supported by the Government. Therefore, I 
cannot refuse the opportunity to do this pioneer work in an entirely new field, a 
work which besides its scientific possibilities is associated with academic prestige 
and financial advantage. 

Since I shall have to devote most of my time to this project, I am forced to 
resign from the department of scientific research as of October 1, 1951. I 
must admit that I write this letter of resignation with feelings of deep regret; 
first, because I have enjoyed working with you and with your staff; and secondly, 
because we are about to start the field work on the Jewish Belongiugness study, a 
study which, as you know, has always been dear to me. 

Before finishing this letter I would like to repeat again that working with you 
and with the entire department and with the agency has been an extremely 
gratifying experience, personally as well as professionally. I assure you that the 
department of scientific research and the AJC can feel free to call upon me when- 
ever my experience can be of any help. 
Sincerely yours, 

Mark Zborowski. 



Exhibit No. 8 

Medical Sciences Information Exchange 

national academy of sciences national research council 

MH-463 (C) 

Supporting agency: Public Health Service. 

Title of project: Cultural components in attitudes toward pain. 

Give names, departments, and oflficial titles of principal investigators and all 
other professional personnel engaged on the project. 

Mark Zborowski, anthropologist. 

Name and address of agency or institution: Institute for Intercultural Studies, 
Bronx, N. Y. 

Summary of proposed work. (200 words or less — Omit confidential data) : In the 
Medical Science Information Exchange summaries of work in progress are 
exchanged with Government and private agencies supporting research in 
medical and related fields and are forwarded to investigators who request such 
information. Your summary is to be used for these purposes. 

The aim of the proposed project is to continue the study already initiated in 
order to discover the cultural components in the perception, attitude toward, 
control of, response to, and willingness to report on pain. 

The research is based on the hypothesis that human reactions to pain are 
influenced not only by the physiological character of pain, but also by the etholog- 
ical concept of pain prevalent in the society and therefore may vary with each 
culture. 

Data collected under grant M453 provided important leads and clues for the 
described objectives of the project. It is felt, however, that these leads and clues 
call for further, more extensive, investigation and elaboration in order to formu- 
late valid generalizations. 



126 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The anticipated results may be significant for a better understanding of the 
problem of pain in general; may throw new light upon the dynamics of inter- 
personal relationships between people involved in the pain experience, in such 
social settings as the hospital and the family; may provide leads for better under- 
standing of certain reactions to means of pain control; and may provide some 
insight into the dynamics of human adjustment to physical disabilities. Thus, 
the expected results may be of great help to various medical specialists, health 
specialists, social workers and, in general, students of human interrelations. 

(Signature of principal) Mark Zborowski. 
(Investigator) . 

Identify the professional school (medical, dental, public health, graduate, or 
other) with which this project should be identified: 

(School) . 

(Investigator — Do not use this space) 



Grant No. 


Period of operation 


Amount 
approved 


MH-453 


Sept 1, 1951, to Aug. 31, 1952 


$7, 766 


453 CI - 


Sept. 1, 1952, to Aug. 31, 1953 


13, 618 


453 C2- 


Sept. 1, 1953, to Aug. 31, 1954 


13,618 









Exhibit No. 9 

Veterans' Adjviinistration Hospital, 

Bronx, N. Y., January 12, 1964. 
In reply refer to: 5081-lOEG 

The Russell Sage Foundation, 

New York, N. Y. 
Gentlemen: The memorandum submitted to you by Dr. Mark Zborowski 
has been read by Dr. Arthur S. Abramson and myself. We consider it a well- 
conceived project to supply badly needed information. We are entirely in accord 
with it and will do our utmost towards its success. 
Sincerelj^ yours, 

Earl C. Gluckman, M. D., 

Chief, Professional Services. 



Exhibit No. 10 

New York, N. Y., February 1, 1954. 
Dr. Donald R. Young, 

Russell Sage Foundation, 
New York 22, N. Y. 

Dear Dr. Young: Dr. Cottrell suggested to remind you that if the VA project 
comes through I would like to have the funds handled directly by the Russell Sage 
Foundation and not by the hospital. 

In order to secure my complete independence as director of the project I would 
prefer not to be on the payroll of the hospital administration. As I understand, 
the arrangement which I propose is acceptable to the Foundation. 
Sincerely yours, 

Mark Zborowski. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 127 

Exhibit No, 11 

Office of Russell Sage Foundation, 

New York, N. Y., February 17, 1954. 
Dr. Mark Zborowski, 

Veterans' Administration Hospital, 

Bronx, N. Y. 

Dear Dr. Zborowski: As I believe Dr. Cottrell has already told you informally 
over the phone, our board of trustees at its meeting on February 9, 1954, approved 
your proposal for a study of sociocultural aspects of rehabilitation of the disabled 
at the Bronx Veterans' Administration Hospital. The sum of $33,000, or as 
much thereof as may be needed, was appropriated for expenditure at my discretion 
for work in accordance with the proposal submitted, over a 3-year period beginning 
on a date this fall to be agreed upon by you and the foundation. One condition 
of the appropriation was that we receive assurance that the Bronx Veterans' Ad- 
ministration Hospital would cooperate fully, as suggested in your memorandum. 
Such assurance has been received from Dr. John G. Hood. A second condition 
is that the work during the first 2 years of the project shall have progressed to a 
stage which is convincing to the foundation that a third year's work will bring 
the project to completion, with a manuscript ready for submission to the founda- 
tion, before the foundation's commitment for the third year of the project is made 
final. 

You understand that this appropriation is not a grant in the ordinary meaning 
of the word, since the foundation does not now make outright grants but considers 
its appropriations as payments for work done on projects and for anticipated 
manuscripts. Our requirement is that manuscripts prepared as a result of any 
project sponsored by us be submitted for possible publication by the foundation. 
If such a manuscript does not seem suitable for publication by us, the foundation 
will relinquish its right to it with the single reservation that if it is published 
elsewhere, in whole or in part, acknowledgment of the foundation's contribution 
will be made in a form approved by me. 

There will of course be a number of details, such as those concerning manner of 
payment and the like, which will need to be determined in advance of your be- 
ginning work. Such arrangements can be made at your convenience. Mean- 
while a carbon of this letter is enclosed for your signature so that our files may 
have an acknowledgment of your acceptance of the arrangement outlined above. 
I am sure you will not mind this formality as a means of keeping our records 
straight. 

Sincerely yours, 

Donald Young. 



Exhibit No. 12 

[From Program Guide; Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, published by office of the chief medical 
director, Veterans' Administration, Department of Medicine and Surgery. Q-1, M-2, Pt. IL, III May 
20, 1955, pp. 3, 4. and 5] 

A Rehabilitation Research Project 

Arthur S. Abramson, M. D., F. A. C. P. » 

During the last decade, "rehabilitation" has become a keyword in medicine. 
It is especialh' true for such fields as psychiatry and phvsical medicine that the 
treatment of a patient is inconceivable without a rehabilitation goal in mind. 
This word, which became popular with the planning for the return of the disabled 
veteran to the comnmnity after World War II, symbolizes important changes in 
medical philosophy-. The inclusion of the word "rehabilitation" into medical 
vocabulary means a growing awareness as to tho integral unitj' of the mind, body, 
and society. It symbolizes the shift of emphasis from the "medical case" to the 
"total patient." It stands for the concept that the medical treatment of an ailment 
is incomplete and often futile without an effort to adjust the j);itient psychologi- 
cally and socially to its possible eifects. 

• Chief, Physical Medicine and Eehabilitatlon Service, VA Hospital, Bronx, N. Y. 



128 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

With increasing e'npliasis on rehabilitation in the treatment of chronic illness 
and disabilitv, not onlv were new methods and techniques devised bat niany pro- 
fe'^sions were newlv bronpht into the treatment of the patient. The rohat)iiitatioa 
team in the V A. hospital and in manv other hospitals is now a complex body which 
mobilizes the skills and experiences of manj- professions for the medical, psychologi- 
cal, and social welfare of the patient. ^.,., ,. u r 

However, in connection with the coming of age of rehabilitation, a number of 
questions arise among those involved in this field: 

What are the reasons for rehabilitation failure? 

How does the patient understand the efforts of the rehabilitation team.' 

What is the role of societv and the family in rehabilitation failure or success? 

Do all the professions involved in the program have the same rehabilitation 

philosophv? . 1 , .,.^ .. o 

What is the specific role of the hospital environment m the rehabilitation process r 
These are only a few of the questions which, together with many others, are 
constantlv discussed in articles, books, and discussion panels. 

Thus far, the answers given to these questions are based upon individual experi- 
ence of the author or speaker and are drawn from hi? familiarity with the field and 
from his evervdav practice. Seldom are these answers supported by data collected 
in a s\stematic and scientific wav. With few exceptions most of the generaliza- 
tions expressed in rehabilitation literature suffer from the impressionistic character 
of the argument, which often weakens their legitimate validity. Thus there is a 
great need for systematic research in the field of rehabilitation which w^ould provide 
the scientific validation for sought answers. 

The Bronx Veterans' Administration Hospital has decided to initiate such a 
research program in order to analyze some of the rehabilitation problems. Under 
the sponsorship of the Russell Sage Foundation a project was set up at the hospital 
to investigate the "Social and Cultural Aspects of Rehabilitation of the Dis.abled." 
This project is directed by Mark Zborowsl'i, a cultural anthropologist, fellow of 
the Cornell Medical School, who recently completed a public health study in this 
hospital on "Cultural Components in Response to Pain." A research team com- 
posed of chiefs of services involved in the rehabilitation program — Chief, Profes- 
sional Services; Chief, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service: Chief, 
Nursing Service; Chief, Social Work Service; Chief, Counseling Psychology; and 
Chief, Clinical Psychology — was organized in order to assist the director of the 
project in the research. A number of semimonthly seminars were held by the 
research team during the years 1954 and 1955 in order to determine the scope and 
objectives of the study. The discussions have already borne fruit in discovering 
and clarifying a number of interdisciplinary problems. 

The basis for the project is the assumption that the rehabilitation of the patient 
is a function of three factors: 

1. The patient's personality and his social and cultural background; 

2. The patient's social environment which includes the family and the larger 
community; and finally, 

3. The patient's hospital environment which comprises not only all the disci- 
plines whi.'h are involved in the treatment of the patient, such as doctors, 
nurses, therapists, etc., but also the organization and atmosphere of the 
wards and clinics where the patient is being treated. 

In order to investigate the above factors in the rehabilitation of the patient, the 
research team has distributed among its members specific objectives for research. 
Thus the psychologist will study the personality of the patient by giving him a 
series of phsychological tests. The Nursing and Social Work Service personnel, in 
addition to their routine work with the patient, will proceed with a self-study in 
order to determine their own roles in the rehabilitation program, and in order to 
clarify their own attitudes and feelings concerning the program and about their 
relationship to the patient and allied professions. 

The Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service plays a special role in the 
rehabilitation of the patient being a team within a team. Because of its profession! 
heterogeneity, it is especially important to study connnunication and interpersonal 
relationship problems within this group. The objectives of this study would be 
to discover the weak and strong points of these phenomena and their effects upon 
the total team and the patient. This investigation will also be in the nature of 
an intensive self-study in which every staff member will be interviewed as to his 
attitudes and feelings. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



129 



At the same time, the social scientist on the research team will investigate the 
attitudes of the patients and their families toward rehabilitation, their feelings about 
the care which they are receiving and their expectations with regard to the effects 
and results of the treatment. 

Because of the impossibility of investigating the attitudes of all the patients in 
the hospital, four groujjs were selected for study; namely, the paraplegic and 
quadriplegic, the hemiplegic, the amputee and the cardiac patient. In the process 
of the study the project expects to cover from 200 to 250 patients, including their 
families. At the same time the self-study will investigate the attitudes and 
opinions of about 200 to 300 staff members involved in treatment. 

Four extensive questionnaires were devised for interviewing the subjects of the 
study: a questionnaire for interviewing the patient; a questionnaire for interview- 
ing the members of his family; a questionnaire to interview the members of the 
staff of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service; and a questionnaire for 
the members of the Nursing Service. 

The actual collection of the data will take 2 years. After that 1 year will be 
devoted to the analysis of the collected material. The data will be recorded on 
cards especially devised for the project. The final product wUl eventually be 
available in the form of a monograph. 

Although the project will be limited to only one institution involved in rehabili- 
tation and although it will cover only a lelatively small group of patients, the 
sponsors of the project as well as the members of the research team are strongly 
convinced that the final product of the study will be of great importance to every- 
one concerned with rehabilitation because it will proceed in a systematic and 
scientific way and the eventual findings will be supported by a wealth of data 
collected in a well-organized, controlled, and objective manner. 



REHABILITATION PROJECT 



RESEARCH AREAS 



1 

RESEARCH TEAM 



PERSONALITY 



personality testing 



PSYCHOLOGY 



,— PATIENT HIMSELF - 



REHABILITATION 
OF 
PATIENT 



-FUNCTION OF- 



SOCIO-CULTURAL ^°'J'''ne ^ , 
BACKGROUND V""-.. — , '*OrJ, 



SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 



HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENT { 




SOCIAL SCIENTIST 



NURSING SERVICE 



- PMRS 



ILLUSTRATION 1 

Organization of Rehabilitation Research Project at VA Hospital, 
Bronx, New York 



130 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit No. 13 

The Study of Culture at a Distance 

Edited by Margaret Mead and Rhoda M6traux — The University of Chicago Press 

APPENDIX B (p. 454) 

participants in COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY RESEARCH IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURES 

AND SUCCESSOR PROJECTS ' 



Theodora M. Al)el 
Susan Viton Anderson 
Tomoe M. Arai 
Ann Arcaro 
Conrad M. Arensberg 
Freda Arkin 
Mark Atwood 
.AJex Bavelas 
Jane Belo 
Ruth Benedict 
Sula Benet 
Elsa Bernaut 
Roman Bernaut 
Theodore Bienenstok 
Michel M. Borwicz 
Joseph Brain 
Julie Buhler 
Ruth Bunzel 
Elena Calas 
Nicolas Calas 
Naomi Chaitman 
William K. C. Chen 
Louise Giventer Cohen 
Herbert S. Dinerstein 
May M. Edel 
Zekiye Suleyman Eglar 
Erik II. Erikson 
Ralph Fisher 
Rose Shirley Flood 
Denise M. Freudmann 
Helen T. Garrett 
Paul L. Garvin 
Ellen L. Godwin 
Joseph Gordon 
Geoffrey Gorer 



Daniel PI. Gray 
Leonard Guttman 
Leopold H. Haimson 
Barbara Harris 
Elisabeth F. Hellersberg 
Helen B. Henry 
Elizabeth G. Herzog 
Hazel Hester 
Virginia Heyer 
Nelly Schargo Hoyt 
Hsien Chin Hu 
Margaret Huger 
Ruby S. Inlow 
Alicja Marja Iwanska 
Natalie F. Joffe 
Carol Kaye 
Rose R. Kolmetz 
Ruth Landes 
Ruth Hallo Landmann 
Edith Lauer 
Eleanor Leacock 
Elsie Choy Lee 
Leila Rozelle Lee 
Percy Lee 
Nathan Leites 
Paulette D. Leshan 
Michael Luther 
Frances C. Macgregor 
Margaret Mead 
Alfred Metraux 
Rhoda Metraux 
Philip Moseley 
Warner Muensterberger 
James My&bergh 
Joan Nicklin 



Genoeffa Nizzardini 
Irene Norton 
John Orton 
Roger Peranio 
Vincenzo Petrullo 
Evelyn R. Richmond 
David Rodnick 
Elizabeth A. Rodnick 
Marion Marcovitz Roiphe 
Celia Stopnicka Rosenthal 
Irene Rozeney 
Bertram H. Schaffner 
Shepard Schwartz 
Vera Schwarz (Alexan- 

drova) 
Eli Shouby 
Milada Souckova 
Rosemary Spiro 
Gitel Poznanski Steed 
Adolf F. Sturmthal 
Ina Telberg 
Lucy Mary Toma 
Stephan Toma 
Ruth Valentine 
Y. C. Wang 
Anna Wu Weakland 
John Hast Weakland 
Marion Weidenreich 
Eric R. Wolf 
Martha Wolfenstein 
Rose Wolfson 
Mark Zborowski 
Rosalind A. Zoglin 



THE STUDY OF CULTURE AT A DISTANCE (P. 474; 

Weakland, John Hast. 1950. "The Organization of Action in Chinese Culture," 

Psychiatry, XIII, No. 3, 361-370. 
— -. 1951. "Method in Cultural Anthropologv," Journal of the Philosophv 

of Science, XVIII, No. 1, 55-69. " 

Weber, Max. 1930. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism London- 
Allen and Unwin. 

Whiting, John W. M. 1941. Becoming a Kwoma. New Haven: Yale University 

Press. "^ 

Wiener, Norbert. 1948. Cybernetics. New York: Wiley. 
— — --. 1950. The Human Use of Human Beings, Cybernetics and Society. 

Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 
Wilbur George B and Warner Muensterberger (eds:). 1951. Psychoanalvsis 

and Culture. New York: International Universities Press 
\\ inter, W and R. G. Wade. 1951. The World Chess Championship: 1951, 

Botvinnik vs. Bronstein. London: Turnstile Press 
Wolfe Bertram D. 1951a. "The Swaddled Soul of the Great Russians," New 

Leader, January 29, pp. 1.5-18. 

. 1951b. "Swaddhng and the Russians," New Leader, May 21, p. 20. 

1 Thlslist Is not Inclusive. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 131 

Wolfenstein, Martha. 1950. "Some Variants in Moral Training of Children," 
In Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, V. New York: International Universities 
Press. Pp. 310-328. 

 . 1953. "Trends in Infant Care," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 

XXIII, No. 1, 120-130. 

-, and Nathan Leites. 1950. The Movies, A Psychological Study, Glencoe, 



111.: Free Press. 
Wolff, Harold G. 1947. "Pi'otective Reaction Patterns and Disease," Annals of 

Internal Medicine, XXVII, No. 6, 944-969. 
Young, Ernest. 1900. The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe. Second edition. London: 

Constable. 
Zborowski, Mark. 1949. "The Place of Book Learning in Traditional Jewish 

Culture," Harvard Educational Review, XIX, No. 2, 87-109. 
— . 1951. "The Children of the Covenant," Social Forces, XXIX, No. 4, 

351-364. 

-, and Elizabeth Herzog. 1952. Life Is With People, The Jewish Little 



Town in Eastern Europe. New York: International Universities Press. 
Ziemer, Gregor. 1941. Education for Death. The Making of the Nazi. New York: 

Oxford University Press. 
Zulawski, Mark. 1946. "Warsaw," New Poland, January. New York: Polish 

Information Service. 



Exhibit No. 14 

[From the New Leader, November 21, 1955, p. 13] 

The Zborowski Case 

a veteran soviet secret agent is uncovered in new york 

By Henry Kasson 

Washington, D. C. — The Senate Internal Security subcommittee is probing in 
executive session the case of an important Soviet secret agent, hitherto unknown 
to the public. He is Mark Zborowski, 48, a resident of New York since 1941 and 
the author of a widely read book. Life Is With People. 

Zborowski's exposure traces to a former high official of the NKVD, who states 
that in Paris during the Spanish Civil War he learned of the existence of "Etien- 
ne," a Soviet agent then assigned to penetrate Trotksyist organizations. Because 
of Stalin's obsession with Trotskyism in this period, "Etienne's" communications 
were read personally by the late Soviet dictator. Now "Etienne" has been iden- 
tified as Zborowski, and he has confessed to having worked for the NKVD. 

Zborowski, born in 1907 in Uman, Russia, was taken by his parents to Lodz, 
Poland, during the revolution. There he joined the Communist movement, was 
arrested (in about 1930) and jumped bail to flee to France. There his services to 
Soviet intelligence seem to have begun. 

His first assignment was as secretary of the Paris "Union of Returners," a 
Soviet-financed emigre group founded to promote emigre repatriation to Russia. 
The union also served as a reservoir of Soviet agents for many tasks, including 
kidnaping and murder. 

From 1934 till the war, Zborowski worked among the Trotskyites, gradually 
moving through the French Trotskyite group into the smaller Russian group 
headed by Trotsky's son, Leon Sedov. Ultimately Zborowski was let into many 
important secrets of Trotsky's organization. He read many letters to and from 
Trotsky, met Trotskyite leaders from various countries, and participated in 
conferences of the Fourth International. He regularly reported at length, orally 
and in writing, to the NKVD on the activities of Trotsky, Sedov, and their 
followers. Regina Zborowski, his wife, was aware of his services to the NKVD. 

The NKVD planned to kidnap Sedov and take him to Russia; Zborowski was 
slated for an important role in these plans. When Sedov fell ill in February 
1938, Zborowski notified the NKVD of the hospital to which he had been taken. 
Sedov died a few days later. 

Earlier, on November 7, 1936, Trotskv's archives were stolen from the Inter- 
national Institute for Social History, 7 tlue Michelet, Paris. A long investiga- 
tion by the French police proved fruitless. Now Zborowski admits that, after 
helping to bring the archives to the institute, he informed the NKVD, which 
organized the burglary on the basis of his report. 



132 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Zborowski also figured in the case of Ignace Reiss, high NKVD official who 
defected in Holland in July 1937 and was murdered by the NKVD in Switzerland 
2 months later. Dunng those months, the NKVD had Reiss shadowed and the 
assassination organized. Zborowski reported that Reiss would arrive in Reims 
on a certain day, and the NKVD sent the murder gang to the railway station. 

When Gen. Walter Krivitsky, another high Soviet agent, defected in Paris in 
the fall of 1937, Zborowski met him through Sedov and reported on all his moves. 
The NKVD tried unsuccessfully to slay Krivitsky at the Marseilles railway 
station. 

Zborowski was probably involved also in the disappearance of former German 
Communist Rudolf Klement ("Frederick"), secretary of the Fourth Interna- 
tional, who vanished in Paris in July 1938. Both Trotsky and the press accused 
the NKVD of liavmg done away with Klement. 

Zborowski and his family were in France when the Nazis occupied Paris. 
But in December 1941 they succeeded in reaching the United States; they were 
naturalized in 1948. 

Soon after his arrival here, Zborowski contacted the resident NKVD represent- 
atives. (According to his version, they located him; more probably, he found 
his way to them.) His first assignments here were among Russian emigres and 
Trotskyites. His exploits during the war included contacts with and reports on 
Victor Kravchenko, Soviet trade representative whose defection in 1944 was a 
severe blow to Soviet prestige in the United States. It appears that only Mos- 
cow's wartime need of United States friendship prevented the NKVD from 
taking renrisals against Kravchenko. 

In 1945, Zborowski was told bj"^ his NKVD superiors to shift from Russian 
emigres to the American scene. One of his next jobs was with the research project 
in contemporary cultures, sponsored by the Navy, in which the study of Russian 
problems played an important part. In 1952, with a substantial grant from the 
American Jewish Committee, Zborowski published Life Is With People, a history 
of Jewish community life in Russian villages before the revolution. Zborowski 
later worked on a research project on hospitals under the Veterans' Adminis- 
tration. 

Only a fraction of Zborowski's deeds have thus far been revealed, especially 
those of recent years. But from the known facts it is clear that Zborowski has 
been a loyal and important Soviet agent for many years. The MVD is not 
likely to let agents of this caliber go astray. 



Exhibit No. 15 

The American Jewish Committee, 
New York 16, N. Y., November 29, 1955. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Chairman, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Senator Eastland: We learned for the first time, through an article in 
the November 21 issue of the New Leader, that Mark Zborowski has testified 
before your committee, in executive session. Also for the first time, we learned 
that Zborowski has been charged with espionage operations, prior to and since 
1945, here and abroad, in behalf of NKVD, the espionage apparatus of Soviet 
Russia. 

It is possible that in the course of his testimony before your committee, Mr. 
Zborowski may have revealed the fact that at one time he was identified with a 
project sponsored by the American Jewish Committee; that fact was mentioned 
in the article in the New Leader. 

Accordingly, so that the record of your subcommittee in connection with those 
hearings may be complete, we felt that we owed your subcommittee the obligation 
of disclosing the precise relationship between Mr. Zborowski and the American 
Jewish Committee. Mr. Zborowski was engaged as a temporary worker, during 
part of 1950 and 1951, in a subordinate research role on a sociological project 
sponsorerl by the American Jewish Committee. He was one of several persons 
studying the ethnological, cultural, and sociological background of Jews living in 
eastern Europe during the 19th century. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 133 

He first came to our attention while working on a United States Navy project, 
at Columbia University, which dealt with contemporary cultures. The American 
Jewish Committee had no reason to investigate his loyalty to the United States, 
inasmuch as he had met the requirements for employment on an official United 
States Navy Government project. 

After 1951 he was occasionally consulted by the American Jewish Committee 
on various cultural and ethnic problems. This arrangement terminated in 1953. 

We would appreciate your incorporation of this letter into the record at an 
appropriate point, to indicate its relationship to the testimony that Mr. Zborowski 
has given before your subcommittee. 
Sincerel}' yours, 

Irving M. Engel, President. 

Exhibit No. 16 

January 24, 1956. 
To: Director, Russell Sage Foundation. 

From: Director, Research Project Rehabilitation of the Disabled. 
Subject: Request for supplementary grant. 

On January 4, 1955, I requested a supplementary grant of $5,000 per year to 
cover the salarj' of Miss Wang, in her capacity of research assistant in the re- 
habilitation project. This sum was accorded to the project with the provision 
that it will be drawn from the originally allocated funds and a request for a 
supplementary grant will be made in 1956. 

Miss Dorly Wang has joined our staff as of April 1, 1955, devoting four-fifths 
of her time to her work with the project. Up to December 31, 1955, she has 
received the sum of $2,999.97. 

On October 19, 1955, I requested an additional $200 to cover local transporta- 
tion and other miscellaneous expenses, such as telephone expenses, mailing, etc. 
This sum was accorded to the project, also with the provision, that it will be 
drawn from the currently available funds. 

In the progress report of October 10, 1955, I have enumerated the various facets 
of the development of project activities and I attempted to show the multiphcity 
of involvements of the research staff related to collection of data needed for 
successful completion of the project. I would like to emphasize that in order to 
collect the necessary information for the rehabilitation study, we have decided to 
collect information not only from patients but also from all the people directly or 
indirectly involved with rehabilitation, such as family members, doctors, 
therapists, and nurses. ' This task was far beyond the capacities of one person, 
especially as it involved not only interviewing of respondents but also constant 
participant observation on the rehabilitation wards and in the therapy clinics, 
presence at team conferences, followup visits to the patients' homes, which often 
were quite time consuming. Therefore, when the project was allowed to add one 
more person to the research staff, we were in a position to organize better our 
work in terms of a systematic division of labor between myself and my research 
assistant. 

During the past year. Miss Wang concentrated her work primarily on inter- 
viewing the patients, members of their families in their homes, and home followupa 
with the patients who had been discharged from the hospital, in order to investi- 
gate the efficacy of the hospital program and the modes of adjustment of the 
patient to life in society. At the same time, I was involved primarily in working 
with the hospital staff members, namely interviewing members of professions 
(doctors, therapists, social workers, vocational counselors, etc.) ; preparing and 
conducting research seminars; self-study meetings with the social workers and 
nurses; presence at team conferences where the rehabilitation programs for 
patients were planned and evaluated; and, finally, observation of the program in 
action on the wards and in the clinics. 



134 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

As of to date we have collected the following number of interviews with patients, 
patients' families and members of the staff: 
Family interviews 92 

Patient interviews: 

Paraplegics 46 

Hemiplegias 35 

Quadriplegics 19 

Amputees 23 

Others 28 

Total patient interviews 151 

PMRS interviews: 

Doctors 6 

Physical therapists 9 

Corrective therapists 10 

Occupational therapists (complete staff) 13 

Manual art therapists (complete staff) 6 

Total PMRS interviews 44 

Nurses' interviews 55 

Total interviews 342 

As of this date, we had the following number of reports from service: 

Social service 80 

Vocational counseling 46 

Psychology 28 

In addition, during the year, we had on the average 2 monthly meetings of the 
research seminar and 2 monthly meetings of the social service self-study group. 

The complexity of our work, which was described above, will not decrease in 
the future. On the contrary, it will increase because of the need to complete the 
interviewing, organize the collected material, coding of the interviews, and trans- 
ferring them on the key sort cards. Therefore, I would appreciate making 
permanent the allocation of the salary of Miss Wang and the sum of $200 yearly 
for miscellaneous expenses, until the completion of the project. 

The total sum which I request from the Russell Sage Foundation in addition 
to the original grant would be the following: 

Miss Dorly Wang's salary for 1955 $2, 999. 97 

Miss Dorly Wang's salary for 1956 4, 000. 00 

Miscellaneous expenses for 1955 200. 00 

Miscellaneous expenses for 1956 200. 00 

Total 7, 399. 97 



Exhibit No, 17 

Office op Russell Sage Foundation, 

New York, N. Y., February 15, 1956. 
Dr. Mark Zborowski, 

Veterans' Administr aiion Hospital, 

Bronx, N. Y. 
Dear Dr. Zborowski: This letter is in formal confirmation of my telephone 
call last Friday tolling you that our board of trustees' meeting on Thursday, 
February 9, allocated the sum of $7,400 for expenditure in connection with your 
study of the rehabilitation of the disabled, in accordance with the budget given 
in your letter to me of January 24, 1956. This supplementary appropriation is 
subject to the same terms as those outlined in my letter of February 17 1954 
telling you of our favorable action on your original proposal. ' ' 

In accordance with our regular procedure, a carbon of this letter is enclosed for 
your signature so that we may have a formal record of your acceptance. 

All of us here are very much pleased that our trustees agreed with us that 
supplementary fund.s were necessary for the proper continuation of your study 
With best personal wishes, I am, 
Sincerely yours, 

Donald Young. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 135 

Exhibit No. 18 

Department op Health, Edtication, and Welfare, 

National Institutes of Health, 
Bethesda 14, Md., February 24, 1956. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandel, 

Research Director, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Mandel: In accordance with your telephone request of today, I am 
furnishing the following information from our files concerning research grant sup- 
port to Dr. Mark Zborowski: 



Grant No. Amount Grant period 




MH-453 - $7,776 Sept. 1, 1951, to Aug. 31, 1952. 

MII-453 (C)-. 13. 618 Sept. 1, 1952, to Aug. 31, 1953. 

MH^53 (C2) - 13, 618 Sept. 1, 1953, to Aug. 31, 1954. 

Request for support in behalf of Dr. Zborowski was submitted b}' the Institute 
for Intercultural Studies, Bronx, N. Y., over the signature of Lawrence K. Frank, 
treasurer, Institute for Intercultural Studies, American Museum of Natural 
History. The application was reviewed by the mental health study section, 
comprised of 20 nongovernmental special consultants expert in the field, and by 
the National Advisory Mental Health Council which was established by law to 
advise the Surgeon General as to which applications merit support. A resum^ 
of the project is attached on our form entitled. "Notice of Research Project." 
Additional attachments list the names and addresses of the members of the study 
section and council which reviewed the application. 
Sincerely yours, 

Ernest M. Allen, 
Chief, Division of Research Grants. 



Exhibit No. 19 

Veterans' Administration, 
Department of Medicine and Surgery, 

Washington 25, D. C, February 27, 1956. 
Me. Benjamin Mandel, 

Senate Internal Security Committee, 

Washington 25, D. C, 

Dear Mr. Mandel: In reply to your telephone request of February 24, the 
following information is submitted: 

Mark Zborowski, Ph. D., 2461 Webb Avenue, Bronx, N. Y., is employed by the 
Russell Sage Foundation. He is not an employee of the Veterans' Administra- 
tion but serves on an informal basis as a research fellow in the physical medicine 
section at VA hospital, Bronx, N. Y. Dr. Zborowski is engaged in social- 
psychological studies attempting to evaluate the response to pain among ethnic 
groups. Four studies are currently underway on the following subjects: 

(1) Social-economic relationship of the hospital patient after leaving the 

hospital. 

(2) The patient-doctor relationship. 

(3) Patient relationship to the community. 

(4) Anthropology of pain. 

The manager of VA hospital, Bronx, N. Y., Dr. Endre K. Brunner, informs us 
that Dr. Zborowski's work has proved helpful to the doctors and nurses by 
giving them a better understanding of the doctor-patient relationship. 

Since Dr. Zborowski is not an employee of the Veterans' Administration and 

is working at the VA hospital Bronx, N. Y., on an informal relationship without 

compensation it will be possible to terminate this arrangement at any time without 

formal personnel action. I hope this information will prove to be useful to you. 

Very truly yours, 

William S. Middleton, M. D., 

Chief, Medical Director. 



136 SCOPE OF SO\TET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, in the event that we may have to call this 
witness back, will he be made available by phone call? 

Mr. Greexberg. Under the same situation as before, Judge. I 
would be happy, as a courtesy both to the committee and Mr. 
Zborowski, to communicate with him in New York, and I am sure 
he is available. 

Mr. Morris. We thank you for your cooperation. 

Senator Jenner. You may be excused. 

Mr. Greenberg. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. Next witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. LiUa Dalhn, please. 

Senator Jenner. Will you be sworn to testify? 

Do you swear that the testimony you give in this hearing will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Dallin. I do. 

Senator Jenner. Will you have a seat? 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. LILIA DALLIN, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the 
reporter, Mrs. Dallin? 

Mrs. Dallin. My name is Liha Dallin, 310 West 106th Street, 
New York 25, N. Y. And the telephone number is Monument 2-1947. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Dallin, are you the wife of David Dallin, 
the author? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Morris. What is Mr. Dallin's latest book? 

Mrs. Dallin. On Soviet espionage. 

Mr. Morris. I see. He has written that book during the period 
of the last 3 or 4 years, has he not? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. And I was helping him in his work. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? You assisted him in his work? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, has Mr. Dallin written any other books? 

Mrs. Dallin. Oh, Mr. Dallin has written altogether nine books. 

Mr. ]M orris. And he is generally considered to be an expert on 
Soviet affairs? 

Mrs. Dallin. On Soviet affairs; that is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you helped him in all this work? 

Mrs. Dallin. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Dallin, your name has come up in the 
testimony of the preceding witness, Mr. Zborowski. 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I believe you were in the committee room here during 
all of that testimony; is that right? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You know this man, do you not? 

Mrs. Dallin. Oh, yes; certainly. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you first meet Mr. Zborowski? 

Mrs. Dallin. I met fu-st Mr. Zborowski in 1935 in Paris and since 
that time, till the time I found out that he is an agent of NKVD, I 
considered him a very good friend of mine, and I was a very good 
friend of his. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, will you tell us the circumstances of 
your first meeting liim? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 137 

Mrs. Dallin. Mr. Leon Sedov, the son of Leon Trotsky, presented 
me to Mr. Zborowski. 

Mr. Morris. And will you try to tell us where and when? 

Mrs. Dallin. I don't remember exactly, but I think it was in a place, 
in a printing shop, where we were sending out the Russian bulletins, 
the Trotsky Russian bulletin to the subscribers. So he asked me for 
the first time to come and help him, and there I met Zborowski. I 
am not 100 percent sure. Maybe it was in another shop. 

Mr. Morris. Will you go a little more slowly? 

Mrs. Dallin. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Will you go a little more slowly? 

Mrs. Dallin. Okay. 

Mr. Morris. Proceed. 

Mrs. Dallin. Since that time, I became more friendly with him 
since 1936, but I used to meet him, not very often, in Paris, only when 
we sent out the bulletins to the subscribers. Since 1936, the summer 
of 1936, it was the first time when he came to my house in France. 
Since that time, we were very close friends, and we were working 
together and meeting very often, I think every day, in Paris, and then 
later on, here in the United States. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you, of course, had no inkling of the fact that 
he was reporting back to the NKVD? 

Mrs. Dallin. No, I had not. 

Mr. Morris. And did you repose in him a great deal of trust and 
confidence, Mrs. Dallin? 

Mrs. Dallin. Absolutely. I trusted him. I never doubted about 
it. And when once the rumor came out, I defended him, like every- 
body defends his friend. 

Mr. Morris. When did the rumor first come out? 

Mrs. Dallin. The first rumor that I heard about it, was in the 
summer of 1939, when I visited Mr. Leon Trotsky in Mexico. He 
had received an unsigned letter from a man who told hmi that the 
closest friend of his son, not mentioning his name, saying only "Alark", 
is an agent of the NKVD. The letter was rather unpleasant because 
it has too many details, and it was stated in the letter, as far as I 
remember, that, "You tell somebody of your friends in Paris to 
follow the man, and you wall see where he reports, with whom he meets, 
what he is doing." 

And when Mr. Trotsky showed me this letter and asked my opinion 
about him, I felt a little bit uncomfortable, because the details were 
very unpleasant. Too many of them were in the letter. And then I 
thought it over and I talked it over with him, and I said, "That is 
certainly a definitely dirty job of the NKVD, who wants to deprive 
you of your few collaborators that you have in France." 

And, at the same time, he had another letter from another unnamed 
agent, telling him that a woman, meaning me, is coming to visit him, 
and will poison him. 

So we both decided, "See how they work? They want that you 
shall break with the only people that are left, over in France, Russians, 
let us say, in France, in Paris." And we decided that it isn't to be 
taken seriously, but it was a hoax of NKVD. 

Mr. Morris. And you so advised him? 

Mrs. Dallin. And when I came back to Paris, the first thing I did, 
I told Mr. Zborowski. 



138 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. You told Mr. Zborowski? 

Mrs. Dallin. Oh, yes; I told him immediately about it. 

Mr. Morris. And "what did he say about it? 

Mrs. Dallin. Oh, he laughed it off. He said, "You know how 
the NKVD works. They are trying to smear you. They are trying 
to smear you." And it was very convincing. I trusted him, you see. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you recall yesterday the testimony concern- 
ing the theft of the Trotsky archives from the Institute of Yivo? 

"Mrs. Dallix. That is right. I was secretary of the institute when 
Mr. Nicolaevsky was the chief, the head of that institute. 

Mr. Morris.^ I wonder if you would spell Mr. Nicolaevsky's name 
for the record. 

Mrs. Dallin. N-i-c-o-l-a-e-v-s-k-y ; Boris Nicolaevsky. He was 
the head of the institute, the International Institute for Social 
History, and I was the secretary of that institute. 

Senator Jenner. Was this in Paris? 

Mrs. Dallin. In Paris, 7 Rue Michelet, in Paris. You see, we 
decided that it would be safer to bring Mr. Trotsky's archives to the 
institute, that they would be better guarded there and therefore 

Mr. Morris. Now, where had they been at the time? 

Mrs. Dallin. In my house. 

Mr. Morris. In your house? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes; not in the apartment, but somewhere on the 
upper floor, the house where I lived in Paris. And we decided to 
take all the bundles and bring it over to the institute. The institute 
was not yet open for the public, you see. It was only in the process 
of organization at that time. 

Mr. Morris. Now, physically, how many volumes? 

Mrs. Dallin. We made together, I and Zborowski together. We 
made 15 bundles, of such a size, each bundle was this size. 

Mr. Morris. Indicating an area there about 14 inches by 12 inches? 

Mrs. Dallin. That is it. And they were all alike. And then we 
put them in brown paper. We bundled them, and made some marks 
on it with a red pencil from 1 to 15, and we both took a taxi and 
brought it over to the institute on Rue Michelet. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how many people knew that the archives of 
Trotsky were being moved to the institute of Boris Nicolaevsky? 

Mrs. Dallin. Sedov, Nicolaevsky, Zborowski, and mvself. 

Mr. Morris. Just four? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. And then a short time afterwards, still when 
the institute was not yet open for the public, you see — there was 
later a library where people used to come, but it was not yet organized 
for the public— the NKVD broke in during the night from 6 to 7 
November of 1936. They cut out a piece of the door from the back — 
how is it? From the backstairs down. There are two stairs in 
Europe, always, the front stairs and the backstairs, and they went 
into the room and, according to the police, they spent there a few 
hours. 

Mr. Morris. They what? 

Mrs. Dallin. They spent there a few hours, according to the police. 

Air. AloRRis. According to the pohce, the people who broke in 
spent several hours there? 

Mrs. Dallin. Several hours there. There were five rooms in the 
place. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 139 

Mr. Morris. Five rooms? 

Mr Dallin. Yes. So thev went first to my room where 1 was 
working There w^as monev on the table. They didn't touch any- 
thin<^ Then thev w^ent to the big room, which was supposed to be, 
later'on a pubUcVoom for people who wanted to consult the library, 
and then to the left, was Mr. Nicolaevsky's working room, his study, 
and he had a tremendous amount of paper piled there, because he 
has a big archives, and he is very much interested in history. 

So they looked over every bit of paper, put it on the floor, took it 
off of the shelf, put it on the floor exactly the way they took it ott, and 
certainly looked it through, to read everything, and then went to the 
last room where they found the archives. They found the 15 bundles 
because they certainly knew from Mr. Zborowski they found out 
now how they looked, and they were numbered, all ol them, ihey 
took only these 15 bundles, nothing else; no money, no papers, nothmg, 

In the morning, early, when Nicolaevsky came into the office, he 
phoned me about it. We informed the pofice and then began an 
investigation. And it was a riddle to us. Who could have told the 
NKVD that these papers were dehvered to the institute? ^ 

I discussed it many times with Mr. Zborowski, and he said, You 
know, it may be the driver of the taxi that we took." 

I said, "Now, how can he know that we— what we were transport- 
ing in the taxi? We didn't talk about this." 

And finally, that was a riddle that was solved only now because 
Mr Zborowski himself admitted in his conversation with me on 
October 3 that he reported on the archives and, if you wish, I have 
here a short translation of the statement that he made to me in the 
presence of Mr. DaUin and a common friend of ours 

Mr. Morris. What is the date of this? 

Mrs Dallin. The 3d of October of 1955. It was the only tune 
when I saw Mr. Zborowski after I found out that he is an agent of the 

NKVD. ^^ .^, ., , ^ . „ 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now wiU you tell us w^hat is says.^ 

Mrs. Dallin. He said that: 

I renorted to mv NKVD chief on the transfer of Trotsky's archives to the 
InLrStTonal InstiLte for Social History 7 Rue Michelet Pans^ When I 
heard about the committed burglary, I rushed to my chief and vehemently pro- 
tested because this could expose me as an NKVD spy Only four persons knew 
the archives' wliereabouts and I was one of them. The three others were out of 
the question. The answer 

Mr. Morris. Now just a minute. You are now quoting what? 

Mrs. Dallin. What he told me. , r. . 

Mr. Morris. What Mr. Zborowsky told you, when he met you on 
October 3, 1955, explaining his story? . . i j u- 

Mrs. Dallin. That is right. When he met us and told me his 
story When we left, I wi'ote the whole thing down on a Russian 
typewriter. There were 12 pages, and these were a few excerpts from 
these pages [continuing the reading]: 

the answer which I received was, "we never inform our agents ^.^out a forthcoming 
operation because, being nervous, they may betray us. Besides we had to get 
hSS of the docnments that night (it was the anniversary of the November Revolu- 
tion, November 7, 1936) to make in this way a present to btaim. 



140 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

That is what he told us. 

Mrs. Morris. Now, Mrs. DaUin, do you recall the circumstances, 
any circnnistances, surrounding the death of Ignace Reiss? 

Mrs. .Dallin. Yes; I certainly do. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us your own recollection of the assassina- 
tion of Ignace Reiss? 

Mrs. I) ALLix. You see, Ignace Reiss was murdered on September 4, 
1937, near Lausanne in Switzerland. 

Mr. Morris. Near Lausanne in Switzerland. 

Airs. Dalli.v. The story was the following: 

He was a high ranking official of the NKVD, and broke with the 
NKVD in the summer of 1937. He wrote a letter to the central 
committee of the Communist Party, telling them that he didn't 
consider himself any more Communist, and he returns his orders that 
he got from them, and that he breaks with them officially and wants 
to join the Fourth International, the Trotskyite movement, and fight 
for his ideals. 

And he wanted to meet Lev ^ Sedov in order to establish contact 
with Leon Trotsky. It was a rather complicated business among the 
Trotskyites, different factions, and a man of another faction was his 
first contact. So it was a little bit complicated, and Sedov never 
saw Mr. Ignace Reiss. Only it was arranged that they would meet 
in the city of Reims, in France, on the 5th of September 1937, mean- 
ing the day after he was killed. That was arranged previously before 
the whole thing happened. 

About this meeting knew only 5 persons, I think — maybe 6— and 
all of them except me and Zborowski are dead. 

Mr. Morris. How mau}^ people? 

Mrs. Dallin. One second. Sedov • 

Mr. Morris. What is the second name? 

Mrs. Dallin. You see, the first man was Mr. Snevliet, a rather 
well-known man in Holland. He was a leader of the leftist Com- 
munist trade union, and he used to be a Communist, and then he broke 
with the official Communist Party and was connected with Mr. 
Trotsky, but later on broke with Trotsky, too, and had a group 
of his own. 

So when Mr. Reiss wanted to break w4th the Soviet Government, 
and was looking for contacts, he went to Snevliet in Holland, because 
Snevliet was the only man whom he knew. 

Is it clear? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Now, who is the second man? 

Mrs. Dallin. The second man whom he was supposed to meet 
was Vi(;tor Serge. He is a rather known writer, who wrote many 
books about the Soviet Union, against the Soviet Government. He 
was arrested in Russia and stayed there until 1936, and then came 
out and went abroad. 

The tliii-d one was Mr. Reiss himself, who was supposed to come 
to the meeting. The fourth one was Leon Sedov, who passed away 
in 1938; and I and Zborowski knew from Sedov about the meeting, 
but we did not know Reiss' name, you see. 

Mr. Morris. You did not know what? 

Mrs. Dallin. The name of Mr. Reiss, we didn't know. 

Mr. Mo rris. You didn't know Reiss' name? 

' A nickname or abbreviation for Leon. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 141 

Airs. Dallin. No. Sedov told us that a very high-ranking official 
broke with NKVD, but never gave us the name. 

Mr. Morris. And you recall that Sedov told that to Zborowski? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. You see, Sedov went on vacation, and we were 
supposed to watch developments, and he was supposed on his vacation 
to come to Reims. And later on, the Swiss police and the French police 
found out that a group of killers were waiting in Reims to assassinate 
Reiss, or I don't know whom else, out in Lausanne, you see. So this 
is the only thing that he and I knew, and one of us had to tell the 
NKVD, because the NKVD could not know that Reiss would come 
to Reims, you see, and when Reiss was murdered, the3' found in his 
pocket a ticket to Reims, because he was supposed, after the meeting, 
to go to Reims, to take the train and go to Reims. 

But another groups of killers was waiting there, but he was already 
dead by that time. 

So Mr. Zborowski made a mess 

Mr. Morris. What? I did not understand it. 

Mrs. Dallin. He made a mess when he mixed up Mulhouse and 
Reims. That is two different things. One was in September 1937, 
and the other was in January 1937. And it is 2 different cities and 
2 different places and 2 dift'erent situations, completely different 
situations. 

Mr. Morris. Now, on this meeting of October 3, 1955, did Mr. 
Zborowski tell you how he came to be involved in the NKVD and the 
general nature of his work? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. He told us 

Mr. Morris. Now, at the outset, did he tell you at this time that 
he had been a Communist? 

Mrs. Dallin. You see, he told you yesterday it was a lie. And 
I don't know when it was a lie and when it was not a lie. He told me 
his story, that he was — — - 

Mr. Morris. Let me be sure I understand that. You do not know 
whether the fact of the matter was a lie, but you do know that what 
he told you was the truth? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes; that is it. But I don't know when he was 
lying. That I can't tell you, because nobody else told me the same 
thing; only he. 

Mr. Morris. What did he tell you? 

Mrs. Dallin. Again if j'^ou want, I can read you again an excerpt of 
his own statement. He said : 

Until the end of 1936, I was 100 percent Stalinist Communist and worked as 
an agent of the NKVD among the Trotskyites. I was inspired by the idea of 
helpitig the Soviet Union in exposing the Trotskyites as counterrevolutionists, 
conspirators, agents of the German Nazis, who had set for themselves the goal 
to overthrow the Soviet Government. 

My first-ranking NKVD superior was a Polish Communist whose name I don't 
know. He had gray hair and was an intellectual; he was very kind to me and 
showed much understanding. 

Am I reading too fast? 

Mr. Morris. No. That is all right. 

Mrs. Dallin (continuing): 

Sometimes his wife appeared with him; she was a pretty, blond Polish woman. 
It was this Polish Communist who gave me the first instructions, how to proceed, 
and told me what kind of help the NKVD expected from me. The Trotskyites, 
he said, are a dangerous group and it is absolutely necessary to have a man in 



142 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

their midst to roport about their plans. The way to reach the center of the 
Trotskyites, according to my chief, was first to join the comparatively large 
French group of Trotskyites. 

I followed his advice and for a time worked among the French Trotskyites. 
My cover name was Etienne. On every move I reported to my NKVD chief. 

In 1935 I was ordered to try to contact Lev Sedov, Trotsky's son, in Paris. 
This proved rather easy since Sedov's wife was an active member of the French 
Trotskyite group. Before that I had not known of Sedov's existence. Soon I 
was among Sedov's confidants. 

At the same time I used to meet my NKVD contacts once a week or once in 
10 days. Our meetings took place usually in cafes. The place and time were 
always set at the preceding meeting. When I had some important information 
for the NKVD I used to phone to the Soviet Embassy, ask for a certain name — • 
it sounded like an Armenian name, I don't remember it — and identified myself 
as Mark or Etienne, then the meeting took place the following day. 

At the end of each meeting I was asked whether I needed money. I used to 
say "No," but I was given 200 or 300 francs and, each time. I signed a receipt 
either by the name of Etienne or Mark. 

In 1936, after my Polish chief left, my superior was a new, less efficient NKVD 
man. One day a conference was arranged with a high NKVD officer from 
Moscow; I assume that this was the notorious Spieglglass, assistant chief of the 
foreign department of the NKVD. 

Another new person— my future chief for over 2 years — whose name I don't 
know, was present. He looked like a Georgian or Armenian— dark, slim, and 
spoke Russian with a slight Caucasian accent. As I found out later, this was a 
time when the preparation started for the first big Moscow trial. 

The guest from Moscow was very much displeased with the scope of my work, 
and demanded more activity and better results. The meetings became more 
frequent. The work under the new chief continued until Sedov's death. 

Now, this is what he told me at that time, on October 3, in the 
presence of Mr. Dalhn and another friend of ours. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was this the first explanation he gave you of 
this? 

Mrs. Dallin. The first explanation; the first and the last. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Dallin, when had you seen him, prior ta 
October 3, 1955? 

Mrs. Dallin. I think it was at the end of 1952, or maybe the first 
day of January 1953. We used to live first in the same house with 
him. Then I used to see him rather often, then not so often, but not 
less than 3 or 4 times a year he used to come to us and spend an 
evening with us. In January, or even in December 1952, or the 
beginning of January 1953, he came to our house to say goodby to 
me, because we were leaving for Europe. We left on the 10th of 
January 1953, for Europe, and we came back only on November 3, 
1953. 

When I came back, I was very busy the first few days, and I phoned 
him on November 8, 1953. He was really enraged— how could I be 
5 days in the United States and not phone him? 

I apologized. I said I was very busy, and I said, "Let's make out 
a day when you will come over and we will talk everything over." 

So he said, "You know, I am very busy." 

He told me all about himself and the family. Then he said, "I 
am very busy this week, but next week I will phone you and I will 
come immediately." And he never phoned me again and never came. 

I was so amazed. I didn't have any idea or any suspicion, but it 
was so strange to me that he forgot, and he didn't see me a whole 
year. So I decided, I won't call him if he won't call, and I never have 
spoken to him until October 3, 1955. 

I was so much interested. And you know, it bothered me the whole 
time, why didn't he call me? So I consulted different people who 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 143' 

knew him, let's say my late brother, a psychiatrist, who had ona 
explanation, and then a high XKVD official, from whom I knew 
the story that he is an agent, and he told me, "I have no other explana- 
tion than that he got an order to break off relations with all his old 
friends, because it doesn't make sense otherwise." 

Mr. Morris. That is only an explanation? 

Mrs. Dallin. I asked him when I saw him in 1955, "Wliy didn't 
you call me?" 

He said, "Oh, you know, I was busy." And it sounded so non- 
committal that I stopped insisting. It wasn't so interesting wdiat he 
was telling me. 

Mr. Morris. ■Mrs. Dallin, you did help bring Mr. Zborowski into 
the country, did you not? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do? Wliat steps did you take? 

Mrs. Dallix. First of all, I procured an affidavit for him, and since 
it was a family of three persons, I needed a very good affidavit. So 
I approached my uncle, who is a rather wealthy man, and he, not 
knowing Zborowski, and not knowing anything, gave him the affidavit, 
or gave me the affidavit for him, and I placed all the papers, and I 
obtained a visa here, and then he came over. And I sent him money 
when he was in France, and I was in contact with him in France, too, 
when he came over. 

When he came over, he was detained, not at Ellis Island, but at 
Philadelphia. I don't know how they call the place in Philadelphia. 
And I left, immediately. New York and went over to see him in the 
place he was detained for a couple of days, or a couple of weeks, I 
think, even, because he arrived the 15th, and he was free only on the 
30th or the 31st of December, when he came to New York. And,, 
naturally, I found him a place to live, and I saw him yerj often, and 
since that time I saw him, all of a sudden he moved into the same 
building that we lived in. From Seagate, he all of a sudden appeared 
and said, "You know, I found an apartment in your house." That 
was in 1943, you know. 

So he lived for about a year in the same building, and we saw each 
other very often, and you see, naturally, I didn't suspect him of being 
an agent. And the first time when I found out really that he was an 
agent was the beginning of 1954, when this same ex-high-ranking 
official of the NKVD had met Mr. Dallin and told him. 

Mr. Dallin asked about how well the Russian Socialists were covered 
by the NKVD, and he said, "I don't know anything about the Social- 
ists, but I knew that the Trotskyites were covered excellently, because 
the closest friend of Trotsky's son w^as an agent." 

When Mr. Dallin came home, I refused to believe. I said "It 
can't be. It must be a misunderstanding." And when I met the 
man for the first time, myself, and we sat down for hours and were 
talking, and he told me about the report that he was reading, and 
he has an excellent memory and knows the names — • 

Mr. Morris. Now, just for the interests of clarity for the record, 
this man, Senator, whom Mrs. Dallin is describing, is a man who was 
the ex-Soviet chief, an ex-Soviet intelligence man. 

He is a man whose testimony appears in our executive record, but 
he is a man whose identity we have not yet made known until such 
time as he testifies following j^ou [Mrs. Dallin]. 



144 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Dallix. Yes; that is tlie same man. 

Mr. MoKKis. All right. 

Mrs. Dallix. And he sat down, and he told me such small details, 
nobody could have known it; what Sedov wrote to his father in a 
letter, wliich nobody knew except me and Zborowski, because I 
was ty])iiig the letter and we were discussing the letter. 

Mr. Morris. And this former Soviet agent knew all of these 
intimate details? 

Mrs. Dallix. Ml these in detail. And he knew all these addresses, 
and names. Let's say, for instance, he told me a little story that 
only I knew, of Zborowski and Sedov, that when Sedov bought the 
paper in Paris in August 19.'^6, and found out that Zinoviev and 
Kamenev were executed — this was tiie first big public Moscow trial 
in August 193G — Sedov bought the paper and found out they were 
executed, and in the street, started to cry. They came both together 
to my house, and Sedov didn't say a word about it, but Zborowski 
immediately called me out of the room and told me, "Did you see? 
He cried like a child." 

And he reported that to the NKVD, because the NKVD man told 
me the same story. "Is it true," he said, "that Sedov cried like a 
child when he bought a paper and found out so-and-so?" 

There were so many details that I couldn't doubt any longer. 

Mr. Morris. You could not doubt it any longer? 

Mrs. Dallix. Oh, no. That was the end. 

Mr. Morris. Now, here was a man, a former Soviet intelligence 
man, telling you intimate, detailed stories? 

Mrs. Dallix. Many. You know, he told me wliere Krivitsky 
spent this nigiit and where he went to look for his things. You see, 
he can't know it unless — and he said that he read the reports from 
Zborowski. Therefore, he knew all the names and all the details. 

Mr. Morris. Did he tell you that he had read Zborowski's reports 
in Moscow? 

Mrs. Dallix. No; in Paris. 

Mr. Morris. In Paris, while he was NKVD chief? 

Mrs. Dallix. Wliih; lie was an NKVD chief there. And he read 
it, and he told me. 

You know, when Zborowski told us the story, I was rather confused. 
You know, 1 thought maybe he is telling us partly at least the truth, 
and I nu't tli('_ man agahi, and I checked with him, and I say that he 
was lying again like a trooper. 

Mr. Morris. For instance, would you tell us specifically? 

Mrs. Dallix. Let us say, for instance, he described us his chief. 
He described to us his chief, as a slini-l)uilt, little dark man, a Georgian 
or an Armenian who spoke with a slight accent. It was his chief 
for 2)^ years. But from this man I know that his chief for 2^ years 
was the same as Mr. Alexeev. It was the same as he pretends he 
doesn't know. May})e he doesn't know his name. But Mr. Zborow- 
ski knew the man. I doubted that he didn't know his name. He 
was a solid hallow, heavy built. 

Mi;. Morris. Li other words, tiie description did not fit at all the 
description that he gave you? 

Mrs. Dallix. The description dichi't fit what he told me or told 
you yest(>rday. Let us say he didn't know the name, Senator. 
I can believe that he would give him a fake name or something. 
But he knew how the man looked. And when I checked it again 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 145 

Mr. Morris. You say tlie description is directly contrary to a de- 
scription that this other gentleman gave you? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. And then forgets everything. He has a very 
good memory. He can't remember. The man was calling, yester- 
day he said, once or twice to the embass}^ an Armenian name. He 
told us he was calling only when he had something important to report. 
And he doesn't remember the name where he was calling. To me, 
it doesn't make sense. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Dallin, did he ever tell you tliat he had 
false papers? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. You know, \vhen the story of the archives 
story came out, the French police started to investigate the whole 
matter. So he rushed to me and asked me, ''Do what you can. 
Don't name me to the police, because my papers are false. And they 
will find it out, and I am lost." 

I said, "I can't do it. How can I do it? I will try to protect you, 
but I can't hide it, because you were one of the men that brought it 
over. If you start misleading them, it won't work out at all." 

Then when he got his papers here, he told me, "Imagine how happy 
I am. Finally, I have decent, real papers, and tJnited States papei*s." 
And when he came to us 

Mr. Morris. When did he say that, Mrs. Dallin? 

Mrs. Dallin. When he got the papers in 1947, when he became 
jiaturalized. 

Mr. Morris. He told you that? 

Mrs. Dallin. He told me that. And when he came to us 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute, now. Did he tell anyone else about 
it? 

Mrs. Dallin. I don't know. He told me. I don't know whether 
somebody was present. 

Mr. Morris. Was Mr. Dallin there? 

Mrs. Dallin. I don't remember. You see, Mr. Dallin was not al- 
ways present, because Mr. Dalhn was not on such good terms with 
him. We were sitting drinking tea, and he went to his room to w^ork. 
£Lnd we continued the conversation, but he wasn't ahvays present. 

Mr. Morris. But he said to you at that time 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes, 'T am so happy. I am so happy." And when 
I asked him, when he came on the 3d of October, it was very 
interesting to me what was the story. 

He said, "You are wrong. I never told you such a thing." 

I said, "Listen. I am sure you told me." 

So he said, "You know what? The papers weren't false. I only 
forgot to extend my papers. So they were a little bit — I had to pay 
A bit of money that they shall be in order." 

This I don't believe, because for a foreigner to have papers which 
are not in order in France was a hell of a job. You know, it w^as so 
Tinpleasant to be not — the foreigners in France are not like here. 
They can't become i'rench citizens, let us say. They are still foreign- 
ers, always, and the police are not always very nice to them. So you 
see, everybody was watching — that he forgot to extend his papers, 
and thev" didn't do anything, I don't think so. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Dahin, did he also tell you that he had been a 
Communist and had been arrested in Poland? 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes, that is his story. 

Mr. Morris. Now^, will you recall that conversation for us? 



146 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Dallix. Yes. He told me in 1936 or 1937, when we were 
talking about, "What have you been doing," he said, as I understood 
it, he was with the Communist movement. But I am not sure about 
it! He said, "I was a Communist in Poland, and I was very active, 
because I was an idealist and I wanted to fight for a good cause. 
My parents, who were reactionary," as he said, "were very much 
against my activities. And I was hiding from them the whole story." 

So once during the night, when he was pasting some leaflets on the 
walls in Lotz, Poland, he was arrested, and he was treated very 
badly. He was beaten up many times then, and he was hating things. 
His father was so mad that he never visited him at the jail, he said. 
But his mother had pity with him. And finally they let him out on 
bail. So he jumped bail and went to France. That was his story. 

Yesterday he confirmed that it was a lie. He wanted to cover up. 
I can't tell you whether it is true or not. I know only what he told 
me. And I never checked on it, because I believed him. I didn't 
have to check him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he write for any publications in Paris? 

Mrs. Dallin. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Did he A\'Tite for any publications? 

Mrs. Dallix. Yes, for the Russian bulletin, but not much. 

Mr. Morris. What name did he use? 

Mrs. Dallin. He used either Etienne^ 

Mr. Morris. That is E-t-i-e-n-n-e? 

Mrs. Dallix. Yes. In Russian it is spelled dift'erent. It is E-t-e-n. 
It isn't like in French it is spelled, but it is the same pronunciation 
of the name, Etienne, and then sometimes he ^^Tote under the initial 
of "T." 

Mr. Morris. Just the initial "T." 

Mrs. Dallin. "T." And once or twice he wrote "Tienov." It 
was also from the name Etienne, made out in Russian, Tienov. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what did he tell 3'ou he did, to earn a living?" 

Mrs. Dallin. He told me — I never saw him working, you see. And 
I was always amazed, how can a person live with a family without 
working. 

So he told me that he works for a man who built radios, and is a 
seasonal worker, and he works 4 or 6 months, and then the next 6 
months it is enough for him to cover his expenses. 

Finally, I never saw when the 6 months was. So I said, "^Yliat's 
the matter with you? Did you lose your job?" 

He said, "Yes, I lost my job." 

I said, "How do you live now?" 

He said, "You know, my mother died in Poland and she left some 
money, and I am getting every month money from my mother, and 
thus I can go to the Sorbonne and study at the university, and I have 
enough money to cover it, modestly." 

Tlioy lived very modestly, alwav's, as far as I know. 

"And I can study at the Sorbonne." 

I was very happy for liini, not thinking that the money came from 
the NKVD, natuially. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are there any other facts that you know of, 
Mrs. Dallin, that would help the committee in trying to analyze the 
nature of his activities? 

Mrs. Dallix. I am afraid that there are so manv facts that we can 
sit until tomorrow and we won't finish them. "Wliat he told you, let 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 147 

US say here, either lie makes it up or it doesn't correspond to the facts 
at all, you see, what he told 3^ou, how he found out for the first time 
from Mrs. Bernaut, that he was an agent. 

Mrs. Bernaut didn't know it herself. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that? 

Mrs. Dallin. You see, Mrs. Bernaut is our friend, a mutual friend, 
a ver}^ good friend of mine, and a friend of Zborowski's, but much 
closer to me than to him. So when I found out from the NKVD 
man that he is an agent, I wanted to tell her, but they insisted, Mr, 
Dallin and the rest, I shall not tell her. Nobody is supposed tO' 
loiow it. 

And since 3^ou know, her husband was killed, and the whole busi- 
ness, and she was very much involved, they said don't tell her. 

So she didn't laiow anything. One day the FBI came to her and 
asked her— you know they are making the usual checks^ — "What do' 
you know about Mr. Zborowski?" He was investigated for a job. 

So she said what she knows and then she called him up and said, 
^ 'Let's meet in a cafe." 

So he met her, and she told him, you loiow, "The FBI is asking 
questions about jou. Probably you have applied for a Government 
job. And how are you getting along?" 

He said, "I am fine, and everything is wonderful. Until today 
when you told me about the interrogation, I felt really happy." 

She "didn't know exactly why he should be unhappy. The FBI is 
interrogating everybody, whether working for hospital jobs or not, 
and she didn't know an3'thing. 

When I came back to Washington, she told me the story. No, the 
story was even worse. The FBI followed his car and saw that he 
brought her to his car. 

Mr. Morris. The FBI? 

Mrs. Dallin. Fohowed. You see, they met in a cafe, and then 
Zborowski brought Mrs. Bernaut home in his car, and the next day, 
the FBI, or a few days 

Mr. AIoRRis. The next day? I did not understand that. 

Mrs. Dallix. The next day, the FBI, or a few days later the FBI 
asked her, "Did 3'ou see Zborowski?" 

She said, "No." 

So they said, "But we saw you." 

She didn't know anything, that he was an agent, nothing. You 
see, maybe she forgot about it. So she called me here from Wash- 
ington and told me the story, and I told her, "You know, we suspect 
that he was an agent." 

So she called up the FBI and said, "My God, I didn't Imow. I 
had no idea." But she didn't say a word to Zborowski about it. He 
knew why they were investigating him, but she didn't know. 

That was the first time that he was warned that the FBI was- 
closing around him, and I am sure that at that time he stopped his 
work for the NKVD. 

But that is only a supposition, I don't know. 

So the story that he told you, that she saw him afterward, in 1955,. 
at a party at Miss Margaret Mead's house and asked him, in 1955 

Mr. Morris. Who is Margaret Mead? 

Mrs. Dallix. Margaret ]\Iead is an anthropologist. 

;Mr. Morris. She was head of the project? 



148 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

.\ris. Dallix. She was head of the project, but after the death of 
Ivulli Jieiiedict. So they meet in 1955 at a party in her house. When 
they met in 1955 at a party in her house, Mrs Bernaut told him, 
"Listen, Mark, there are verv bad rumors that you were mixed up 
in the NKVD thm^." 

And he denied it emphatically. He said, "It is a lie. How dare 
you talk to me this way?" 

And he was, you know, outraged, when she told him. 

Probably it was before, or after, he w^as called to the FBI. That 
I don't know. And the same thing was — there was the same employee 
from the Jewish committee. I saw him first. 

Mr. Morris. You saw the employee? 

Mrs. Dallix. He came to me, this man — Mr. — what's his name;: 
he gave you the name. Mr. — — 

Mr. AIoRRis. Sklare. 

Mrs. Dallin. Sklare; that is right. So he came to me in the 
summer of 1955 and said, "I heard such rumors that he is an NKVD 
man. I don't know anything about it, but I heard that the rumors 
are coming from you." 

So I said, "Yes, it is true." 

He said, "We are working together on a book." 

I said, "If I were you, I wouldn't publisli a book with a former 
NKVD agent. But it is up to you to decide." 

He was a good friend of Zborowski and was admiring him very 
much. So he decided to go to Zborowski 's summer place in Con- 
necticut and talk it over with him. Afterwards, I asked him, "It is 
none of my business, but if you want to be nice, tell me what 
happened." 

He phoned me and said that he denied it, and he said, "You see, 
I am still having my job, my grant, everything, and, if I were an 
agent, they would deprive me of those things. So it isn't true, but 
you can act as you wish." 

I don't know who was lying, who was not Ijnng. I cannot tell 
you. I can only tell you what I was told. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. 

Mrs. Dallin. And he was denying it the whole time. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Dallin, do you remember a party that we 
adverted to in the testimony today? The occasion was the lOtb 
anniversary of his arrival in the United States. 

Mrs. Dallin. Yes. 

Mr. iMoRRis. Will you tell us what you recall about that party? 

Mrs. Dallin. That was the only time that I was in his Bronx: 
apartment. He invited us to his apartment in the Bronx. I was never 
m his house since he moved away from 108th Street. So he invited 
Mr. Dallin and me to come to tlie partv. I pleaded with him that I 
hate parties, and I don't want to go. But he said, "It is impossible. 
You brought me over to the United States. You are the main person. 
You must come. This time make an exception." 

So I came to the party, and there was Margaret Mead and many 
anthropologists, and this one fellow talked Russian, who talked with 
"^'tvt ^"^ ^^" mentioned, whom vou asked him about today 

A/r^' ^^''^^^®- ^^^' ^^^^ American, naturalized. 

Mrs. Dallin. An American who said he was going to Russia, com- 
mg back from Russia, and making business in Russia, and telling us 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 149 

it was rather nice in Russia, not so bad as we thought. We were 
interested because we were always interested to get some news from 
Russia. 

Mr. Morris. And this was in December 1951? 

Mrs. Daliin. December 1951; that is it, yes. So he told us, and 
that was all, and Alargaret Mead was there. You know how it is at 
parties. 

Mr. Morris. Did it occur to you as unusual that a man in December 
1951 should be 

Mrs. Dallin. It was strange. Especially Mr. Daliin talked with 
me later on; he said, "How strange it is. What kind of fellow is this. 
He tells us stories how wonderful life is in Russia, when he knows, 
that life in 1951 wasn't wonderful at all." 

So I said, "You know, I liave always the strange feeling tliat he 
meets some people who don't belong to him." 

And I even asked him once, "Wliy do you meet such people like 
the merchants? You don't have anything in common with them." 

He said, "You know, my wife likes them. They are friends of hers. 
And I don't like to make an issue out of it. I am bored, but I meet 
them." 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else, Mrs. Dallin, of extraordinary 
content that you should mention here*^ 

Mrs. Dallin. You know what I will tell you? The NKVD couldn't 
have a better man in the world than Mr. Zborowski. Everything 
that came up, he knew. When the Norwegian Government was trans- 
ferring Trotsky 

Mr. Morris. Transferring what? 

Mrs. Dallin. They didn't want nobody to find out that they trans- 
ferred him from Norway. They transferred Trotsky to Mexico. 
Even Mr. Sedov didn't know it. The}^ interned Trotsky after the 
first Moscow trial, because Stalin's government demanded it from 
them. So Trotsky was interned and kept in internment about 3 
months. 

Finally, the Norwegian Government obtained a visa for him in 
Mexico and sent him on a tanker without anybody present except 
the guard and the crew. And they considered it very secret because 
they were afraid that something can happen to Trotsky, that he can 
be killed. So they didn't want to be responsible for it until they 
delivered him to Aiexico. 

So who knew about it? Mr. Zborowski and I. 

Mr. Morris. You knew about it? 

Mrs. Dallin. Sure. Mr. Sedov was informed a})out his father; he 
was being transferred to Mexico. So he told me, and we told him. 
So the NKVD knew it immediately. 

T\Tien Mr. Sedov felt ill, who ordered the ambulance? Mr. 
Zborowski. So who knew immediately that he was in the hospital? 
The NKVD. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us something about that hospital? 
Do you know anything about the hospital that Sedov was in? 

Mrs. Dallin. I forgot the name of the street, too. I don't know. 
I remember where it was. It was in Paris, in the 16th Arrondisse- 
ment, and it was in the part of Paris that was called Auteil. And 
when he was brought to the hospital, I phoned Zborowski and I asked 
him to come over. I had to rush to the bank to take money, and he 



150 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ordei-s the ambulance, and Sedov was taken to the hospital. I have 
no proof whatsoever that the NKVD did something to him. It could 
be a natural death. It could be that they helped out a little bit. 

But (lie only thing I am sure of is that they knew the first moment 
in what hospital he was. That I am sure of. There is no doubt in 
my mind that he told them about it. And when he told me, "I 
reported," he said, "But I always reported late." 

I said, "Why did you report late?" 

He said, 'T didn't want later on, when I became friendly with 
Sedov, to harm him." 

I said, "Listen, if I were your superior, I would fire you. You 
tell that everytliing was late. Sedov died. You told about Sedov 
-after his death." 

He told me that he reported on Sedov's illness after his death, 
meaning 10 days later; that he reported on Krivitsky after Krivitsky 
left the old apartment that he used to be in, that he did not report 
on Reiss, that he did not report on a single — everything he reported 
was too late. 

I said, "I would fire you if I were your NKVD superior." 

But he said, "They considered me an important agent." 

They considered him an important agent, and all his reports went 
to AIoscow straight, and all the details, even afterwards, were very 
important to them. 

Mr. Morris. I have nothing further. - 

Senator Jenner. Are there further questions. 

(No response.) 

Senator Jenner. Mrs. Dallin, this committee wants to thank you 
for coming forward and telling your story. We wish more Americans 
would cooperate with this committee in the fashion that you have 
this morning. 

Thank 3'ou very much. 

Mrs, Dallin. Thank you. 

Senator Jenner. We stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 12:35 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index 

A PaBe 

Abel, Theodora M 130 

Abramson, Dr. Arthur S 126, 127 

Afanasiev, Mr. (Soviet individual involved in Canadian espionage) 111, 112 

Martin cover name 111 

Afanasiev, Xicolai (Little Nick) 112 

Affidavit 143 

Affidavit of witnesses 122 

Alexeev, Mr 144 

Allen, Ernest M., Chief, Division of Research Grants, Department of 

Health, Education, and Welfare 135 

Ambulance - 149, 150 

American/s 115, 148, 150 

American Anthropological Association 124 

American Jewish Committee 113, 114, 118, 132, 133 

Application for emjiloyment 123 

American Museum of Natural History 135 

American, naturalized of Russian origin 115 

American security agency 109 

American Trotskyites 107 

Anderson, Susan Viton 130 

Anniversary of November Revolution, November 7, 1936 139 

Arai, Tomoe M 130 

Arcaro, Ann 130 

Arensberg, Conrad M 130 

Arkin, Freda 130 

Armenian 142, 144, 145 

Army Service Forces 119 

Associated Press Building, New York 112 

Atwood, Mark 130 

Auteil 149 

B 

Barmine, Mr 103 

Bavelas, Alex 130 

Becoming a Kwoma 130 

Belo, Jane 130 

Benedict, Ruth 130, 148 

Anthropologist, director, Yivo Scientific Institute 118 

Benet, Sula 130 

Bernaut, Mrs. Elsa (widow of Ignace Reiss) 112, 113, 130, 147, 148 

Bernaut, Roman 130 

Bethesda, Md 135 

Bienenstock, Theodore 130 

Big Nick. (See Zheivinov, Nicolai.) 

Biographical sketch for Mark Zborowski 123 

Borwicz, Michel M 130 

Bram, Joseph 130 

Bronx 148 

Brooklyn 105 

Brunner, Dr. Endre K 135 

Buhler, Julie 130 

Bunzel, Ruth 130- 

I 



II INDEX 

C Page 

Galas, Elena 130 

Galas, Nicolas 130 

Gaiiada HI 

Gaiiadiaii correspondents 112 

Ganadian espionage HI 

Gaucasian 142 

Gaucasus 115 

Ghait ma 1 1 , Naomi 130 

Ghen. William K. C 130 

Ghildren of tlie Covenant, The 123, 131 

Gohen. Lonisc Giventer 130 

Golumbia j^rant 119 

Gohunbia project 118 

Gomnuiiiist 140, 141, 145, Uf) 

Gominuin'st Party 115, 140 

Gominuiiist Partv, central committee of 140 

Coney Island../. -. 105, lOO 

Con iiecticut - 148 

Consulate 105 

Gottrell. Dt 126, 127 

Gounterrevolutionists 141 

"Cultural Components in Responses to Pain" 116 

Cybernetics 130 

D 

Dallin, Mr. David 107, 114, 136, 139, 142-145, 147-149 

Dallin, Mrs. David 104, 105, 107, 109, 112-114 

Dallin, Mrs. Lilia (testimony of) : 136-150 

310 West 106th St., New York 136 

Husband, David Dallin, author 136 

1935, met Zborowski in Paris 136 

Dinerstein, Herbert S 130 

E 

Eastland, Hon. James O 132 

Edel, May M 130 

Education 124 

Education for death 131 

Eglar, Zekive Suleyman _ 130 

Elkin, Mr. M 124 

Ellis Island 143 

Embassy 145 

Engel, Irving M., president, American Jewish Committee 133 

English 107 

English-Russian dictionary 119 

Erikson, Erik H 130 

Eten (name used by Zborowski) 146 

Eticnne (name used by Zborowski) 142, 146 

Europe 138, 142 

Exhibit No. 3. Excerpt from Saturday Evening Post, January 20, 1951, 

page 49, Stalin's American Snoops 1 112 

Exhibit No. 4. United States of America, petition for naturalization 121 

Exhibit Xo. 4-A. Affidavit of witnesses, oath of allegiance 122 

Exhibit Xo. 5. Biographical sketch for Mark Zborowski 123 

Exhibit No. 6. American Jewish Committee application for emplovment 123 
Exhibit No. 7. August 27, 1951, letter to Dr. Samuel H. Flow'erman, 

director, department of scientific research, American Jewish Committee 

from .Mark Zborowski 125 

Exhil)it Xo. 8. Medical Sciences Information Exchange, National Academy 

of Sciences — National Research Council 125 

Exhibit No. 9. January 12, 1954, letter to the Russell Sage Foundation 

from Dr. Earl C. Gluckman, Chief, Professional Services, Veterans' 

.\dmini-tration Hospital, Bronx 126 

Exhibit No. 10. February 1, 1954, letter to Dr. Donald R. Yo"ung,"Russell 

Sage Foundation, from Mark Zborowski 126 



INDEX m 

Exhibit No. 11. February 17, 1954, letter to Dr. Mark Zborowski from Pag« 

Donald Young 1 127 

Exhibit No. 12. A Rehabilitation Research Project (from Program Guide; 
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, publi.shed by office of the Chief 
Medical Director, Veterans' Administration, Department of Medicine 

and Surgery, May 20, 1955) 127 

Exhibit No. 13. The study of culture at a distance 130 

Exhibit No. 14. The Zborowski Case by Henry Kasson (from the New 

Leader, November 21, 1955) 131 

Exhibit No. 15. November 29, 1955, letter to Hon. James O. Eastland 

from Irving M. Engel, president, the American Jewish Committee 132 

Exhibit No. 16. January 24, 1956, memo to director, Russell Sage Founda- 
tion from director. Research Project Rehabilitation of the Disabled, re 

request for supplementary grant 133, 134 

Exhibit No. 17. February 15, 1956, letter to Dr. Mark Zborowski, Vet- 
erans' Administration Hospital, Bronx, from Donald Young, Office of 

Russell Sage Foundation 134 

Exhibit No. 18. February 24, 1946, letter to Benjamin Mandel, research 
director, Internal Security Subcommittee from Ernest M. Allen, Chief, 
Division of Research Grants, Department of Health, Education, and 

Welfare, re research grants to Zborowski 135 

Exhibit No. 19. February 27. 1956, letter to Benjamin Mandel, Senate 
Internal Security Committee from William S. Middleton, Chief, Medical 
Director, Veterans' Administration, Department of Medicine and 

Surgery, re employment of Zborowski 135 

Experience data 124 

F 

False papers 145 

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 106, 107, 109-111, 113, 114, 147, 148 

Federal Securitv Agency, Public Health Service 125 

Fisher, Ralph,! J 130 

Flood, Rose Shirley 130 

Flowerman, Dr. Samuel H., director, Department of Scientific Research, 

American Jewish Committee 125 

Eoreigners 145 

Foreign service 104 

Fourth International 140 

France 104, 105, 112, 119, 137, 140, 143, 145, 146 

Frank, Lawrence K., treasurer. Institute for Intercultural Studies 135 

French Army 104 

French citizens 145 

French police 141, 145 

French Trotskyites 142 

Freudmann, Denise M 130 

G 

Garrett, Helen T 130 

Garvin, Paul L 130 

Georgian 142, 144 

German Nazis 141 

Germans 108 

Gluckman, Dr. Earl C, Chief, Professional Services, Bronx Veterans' 

Administration Hospital 126 

Godwin, Ellen L ,----- 130 

Gordon, Joseph, broadcaster, 12 West Ninth Street, New Y'ork 122 

Gordon, Joseph 130 

Gorer, Geoffrey 130 

Gouzenko, Igor 111 

Government 147 

Government, United States 120 

Grand Central, New York 108 

Grant from Russell Sage Foundation 116, 117 

Grant from LTnited States Public Health Service 117 

Grant Columbia 118 

■Gray, Daniel H 130 

G uttman, Leonard 130 

Gvmanazium, Lodz, Poland 124 



IV INDEX 

H Page 

Haiinson, Leopold H 130 

J larris, Barbara 130 

Hoalv, Paul F 112 

Ilcllersberg. Elisabeth F 130 

Henry, Helen B 130 

Herzog, Elizabeth 123, 131 

Herzo^' Elizabeth G 130 

Hester, Hazel 130 

He ver, Virginia 130 

Holland.,. 108, 140 

Hood. Dr. John G 127 

Ho.spital 149, 150 

Hoyt, Xellv Schargo 130 

Hu, Hsien'Chin 130' 

Hubert, Cecil F 124 

Huger, Margaret 130' 

Human Use of Human Beings, The 130 

Hypotheses Concerning the East European Jewish Family 123 

I 

Immigrat ion visa 105 

Inlow, liubv S 130 

Institute for Interoultural Studies 12.5, 135 

International Institute for Social History 138, 139 

Iwanska, Alicja Marja 130* 

J 

Jenner, Senator William E 103 

JoflFe, Natalie F _- 130' 

K 

Kabinkoff, Boris, machine-tool business in Xew York 122' 

Kamenev 144 

Kaye, Carol 130 

Kasson, Henry 131 

Kingdom of the Yellow Robe, The 131 

Klement, German Communist Rudolf (''Frederick") 132' 

Kolmetz, Rose R 130 

Korean war 116 

Kravchenko, Victor 109, 132' 

May 1944 defected to United States _ 109 

Krivitsky, Mr 103, 144, 150 

L 

Landes, Ruth 123. 130 

Landmami, Ruth Hallo ' 130 

Lauer, lOdith 130 

Lausanne, Switzerland 140 141 

Leacock, P^leanor 130 

Lee, Elsie Choy 130 

Lee, Leila Rozelle 130 

Lee, Percy 130 

Leftist Communist trade union 140 

Leites, Nathan 130, 131 

Leshan. Paulette D ' ' i30' 

Lexington Avenue 106-108 

Life Is With People '_ ~_ "__ 123 

Life Is Witli People, The Jewish Little Town in Eastern' Europe 131 

Little Nick" (see Afanasiev, Nicolai). 

Lodz, Poland . ' 224 146 

Luther, Michael '_' _ __" 130 

MacgTcgor, Frances C _ _ 130 

Making of the Nazi, The I"--II-I"II"'. '' ' __ '_ 131 

Mandel, Benjamin ""_"_ "_ " " 135 



IXDEX V 

Page 

Manhattan 106 

''Mark" 137, 142 

Marseilles 105 

Mead, Dr. Margaret (, anthropologist) 124, 130, 147-149 

Medical Sciences Information Exchange 125 

Mensheviks 107 

Method in Cultural Anthropology 130 

Metraux, Alfred - 130 

Metraux, Rhoda 130 

Mexican War 116 

Mexico 137, 149 

Middleton, William S., Dr., Chief, Medical Director, Veterans' Adminis- 
tration 135 

Moscow 142, 150 

Moscow trial 144, 149 

Moseley, Philip 130 

Movies, A Psychological Study, The 131 

Muensterberger, Warner 130 

Mulhouse 141 

MVD 132 

Mysbergh, James 130 

National Academy of Sciences 125 

National Advisory Mental Health Council 135 

National Institute of Health 135 

National Research Council 125 

Naw, United States 118 

New Leader 132 

New York 112, 136, 143 

Nicklin, Joan 130 

Nicolaevsky, Boris 138, 139 

Nizzardini, Genoeffa 130 

NKVD 103-105, 108-115, 132, 136-144, 146-150 

Norton, Irene 130 

Norway 149 

Norwegian Government 149 

Notice of research project 135 



Oath of allegiance 122 

Organization of Action in Chinese Culture, The 130 

Orient 115 

Orton, John 130 

Ottawa, Canada 111, 112 



Paris 104, 105, 110, 118, 136-139, 142, 144, 146. 149 

Pearl Harbor ' 105 

Peranio, Roger 130 

Petition for naturalization (Zborowski) 121 

Petrullo, Vincenzo 130 

Philadelphia 143 

Photograph 108 

Place of Book Learning in Traditional Jewish Culture, The 131 

Poland 145, 146 

Polish Communist 141 

Polish Soldier, The 123 

Protective Reaction Patterns and Disease 131 

Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The 130 

Psychoanalysis and Culture 130 

Public Health Service. Ignited States, Grant to Zborowski for 3-year study. 117 

R 

Races of Mankind 119 

Record of employment 124 

Rehabilitation Research Project, A 127 

Reims 140, 141 



BOSTON PUBLIU Llbl-lMMi 

lllllllillililllliillllllllll I" I INDEX 



3 9999 05445 4424 



Pagfr 

Reiss. Ignace 113, 132, 140 

Assassination of, September 4, 1937 140 

Reiss, Mrs. Ignac > 113 

Reiss 150 

Richmond, Evelvu R 130 

Rodnick, David 130 

Rodnick, Elizabeth A 130 

Roipho, Marion Mareovitz 130 

Rosenthal, Celia Stopnicka 130 

Rozeney , Irene 130 

Rue Michelet, 7 (Paris) 138, 139 

Russell Sasje Foundation, The 116-118, 126-128, 133-135 

3-vear j^irant to Zborowski 116, 117 

Russia"- 140, 148, 149 

Russian/s 107, 111, 112, 115, 137, 139, 142, 148 

Russian bulletin 146 

Russian immigrants 107 

Russian Social Democrat 114 

Russian Socialists 143 

S 

Saturday Evening Post 112 

Schaff ner, Betram H 130 

Schwartz, Shepard IcO 

Schwarz, Vera ( Alexandrova) 130 

Seagate, Brooklyn 105, 106, 143 

Sedov ~ 103, 138, 141, 144, 149, 150 

death of 103, 104 

Sedov, Leon, son of Leon Trotsky 137 

Sedov, Lev 140, 142 

Serge, Vict or 140 

Shouby, Eli 130 

1 6th Arrondissement 149 

Sklare, Dr. ?tlarshall 114 

Sklaro, Mr 148 

Sne vliet , Mr 1 40 

Some Variants in Moral Training of Children 131 

Sorbonne 146 

Souckova, Milada 130 

Sourwine, Mr 111 

Soviet 111, 136, 144 

Soviet Embassy 111, 142 

Soviet espionage 136 

Soviet Government. 140, 141 

Soviet Union 115, uq" 141 

Special experience data ' __ 124 

Special interests 124 

Spioglglass, assistant chief of the foreign department of NKVD 142 

Spiro, Rosemary 13Q 

Stalin 13CJ. 

Stalinist government 141 

Stalin's American Snoops i]2- 

Stalin's government... 149 

Steed, Gitel Poznanski 130 

Study of Culture at a Distance, The \__V 130 

Sturm t hal, Adolf F I-_-]~]___I" 130 

Surgeon General _\__~__ 135 

Swaddled Soul of the Great Russians, The -ll.ll.l ~ ] ISO- 
Swiss police 141 

Switzerland ~ I__~~~ 14D 

T 
TASS-_ m 112 

I elherg, Ina .. 23q, 

101 h anniversary of (Zborowski's; arrival in the United States, becember 

1951 11- i(o 

Tienov ("T") -iiiiiiiii:--!::.:.:::::::::::::;. i4& 



ESTDEX VII 

Page 

Times-- 108 

Toina, Lucv Marv 130 

Toma, Stephan 130 

Trends in Infant Care 131 

Trotskyite/s 107, 110, 140-143 

French group 142 

Trotsky 149 

Trotsky archives 13S 

Trotsky, Leon 137, 140 

Trotsky Russian bulletin 1 137 

U 

United States- 104, 105, 115. 120, 137, 142, 148 

United States papers 145 

United States Public Health Service 117 

University of Chicago Press 130 

V 
Valentine, Ruth 130 

Veterans' Administration 117 

Veterans' Administration Hospital. 118 

Veterans' Administration Hospital, Bronx 126-128, 134. 135 

Veterans' hospital 113, 116 

Visa 143 

W 

Wade, R. G 130 

Wang, Miss Dorly 133, 134 

Wang, Y. C 130 

^^'arsaw 131 

War veterans 116 

Washington 147 

Weakland, Anna Wu 130 

Weakland, John Hast 130 

Weber, Max 130 

Weidenreich, Marion 130 

Weltfish, Gene 119 

Whiting, John W. M 130 

AViener, Norbert 130 

Wilbur, George B 130 

Winter, W 130 

Wolf, Eric R 130 

Wolfe, Bertram D 130 

Wolfenstein, Martha 130, 131 

Wolff, Harold G 131 

Wolfson, Rose 130 

World Chess Championship, The 130 

World War II 116 

Y 

Yivo Scientific Institute in Paris 118, 119, 138 

Young, Dr. Donald R 126, 127, 134 

Young, Ernest 131 

Yugov, Mr. (Russian Social Democrat and economist) 114, 115 

Z 

Zborowski, Mark (testimony of^ 103-136, 137-141, 148, 144, 147-149 

1939 in foreign service in French Army 104 

Dec. 15, 1941 came to United States 104, 105 

Immigration visa, sponsored by Mrs. David Dallin 105 

Lived at Seagate, Brooklyn 105 

Moved to 20 1 West 1 08th Street, Manhattan 106 

Received anonvmous threatening letter 108 

Did not report' to XKVD -■: 108, 109 

1954 FBI asked aboi'.t past a.ssociations 110 

Author, Cultural Components in Responses to Pain, pamphlet 116 



VIII INDEX 

Zborowski, Mark— Continued Page 

3-year grant Russell Sage Foundation 116, 117 

3-ycar grant United States Public Health Service 117 

Study director, American Jewish Committee 118 

Librarian, Vivo Scientific Institute 118 

Part-time jol), Columbia grant 118 

Language Division, Army Service Forces 119 

Screw nuichine operator in metal shop 120 

Chemist when first came to United States 120 

Petition for naturalization 121 

Mordka Marc Zborowski 121 

Born Januarv 21, 190S, in Uman, Russia 121 

Wife, Regina, married Apr. 13, 1937 in Paris 121 

Regina born at Zdunska, Poland Aug. 28, 1910 121 

Son, Georges, born in France 121 

Biographical sketch 123 

Education 124 

Employment record 124 

Experience data 124 

Special experience 124 

Special interests 124 

Zborowski, Regina (wife of Mark) 121 

Zheivinov. Nicolai (Big Nick) 112 

Ziemer, Gregor 131 

Zinoviev 144 

Zoglin, Rosalind A 130 

Zulawski, Mark 131 

o 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES ' 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECUEITY 

ACT AND OTHEK INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOUETH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MARCH 6, 1956 



PART 6 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Public Library 
Cuperintendetit of Documents 

JUN 1 2 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North DalvOta 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JE., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER. Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER. Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri HERMAN WELKER. Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 
Richard Aeens and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of — Page 

Halleck, Charles W 152 

Hinton, William H 164 

McManus, Robert C 153 



in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, MARCH G, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act, 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

W ashing ton^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10 : 30 a. m., 
in room 318, Senate Oftice Building-, Senator Herman Welker 
presiding. 

Present: Senators Welker, Eastland (subcommittee chairman), 
and Jenner. 

Also present: Eobert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, re- 
search director; Alva C. Carpenter, associate counsel, Robert C. 
McManus, investigations analyst, and William Arens, staff member. 
Senator Welker (presiding) .' The meeting of the Internal Security 
Subcommittee of the United States Senate will come to order. 

As an opening statement of the acting chairman, I would like to say 
this : 

The Soviet tide has been running swiftly against the forces of the 
free world in Asia. One contributing factor to this trend has been 
the enormous quantity of anti-American propaganda that has been 
disseminated here and abroad. 

The subcommittee has received concrete evidence that American 
citizens have been contributing to this poisoning of the political at- 
mosphere. The subject matter of today's hearing will be a footlocker 
full of pro]xaganda material and other papers and photographs be- 
longing to Wniiam H. Ilinton, who will be one of our witnesses this 
morning. Testimony will come from Mr. Hinton, other than that 
received f i^om the footlocker. 

These hearings are held within the framework of the current series 
which is seeking to determine to what extent Soviet activity here in 
the United States and by American citizens is calculated to contribute 
to Soviet expansion abroad. 

Now, call your first witness, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, before calling the witness for today, I 
would like, for the purposes of identifying the subject matter of to- 
day's hearing, to call INIr. Halleck, who was formerly of tlie subcom- 
mittee staff. 

Will INIr. Halleck come forward, please ? 

Senator Welker. Will you raise youi- right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before the sub- 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Halleck. I do, sir. 

151 



152 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES W. HALLECK. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Senator "Welkek. Will you state your name and your residence ? 

Mr. Halleck. My name is Charles W. Halleck, and I am currently 
living at 5108 Nahant Street, in Washington. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Halleck, were you formerly employed by the In- 
ternal Security Subcommittee? 

Mr. Haj.leck. I was, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us for what period of time, roughly? 

Mr. Halleck. Eoughly the preceding year to this period, within 
the exception of about the last 4 weeks. 

Mr. ]\loRRis. You mean during the years 1954 and 1955 ? 

Mr. Halleck. The year 1955. 

Mr. :Morris. 1955. 

Now, do you see a footlocker directly in front of the witness stand 
there ? 

Mr. Halleck. I do, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you recogiiize that footlocker? 

Mr. Halleck. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel Friedman, this witness is identifv'ing the foot- 
locker and telling us how it came into our possession. If you would 
like to come forward with Mr. Hinton, you are certainly welcome. 

Will you tell us the circumstances surrounding your having to do 
with that particular footlocker? 

Mr. Halleck. While I was employed by the Internal Security Sub- 
committee, approximately, in my recollection, 6 or 8 months ago — 
[ cannot fix the time exactly — Mr. Sourwine, the then counsel for 
the subcommittee, called me to his office and instructed me to go over 
to the Bureau of Customs and pick up a footlocker. 

Mr. Morris. Where was that ? 

Mr. Halleck. Where was what, sir? 

Mr. Morris. The Bureau of Customs. 

Mr. Halleck. Down on about Pennsylvania Avenue and 12th 
Street. 

Mr. Morris. But it is in Washington ; is that right? 

Mr. Halleck. In Washington, right here. 

I got my automobile— it was about 5 o'clock in the afternoon— and 
drove down there and went to tlie office where I was instructed to 
go, spoke to the pei-son in the office, identified myself, and was shown 
this footlocker, which, at the time I picked it up, had a wooden crate 
ol a sort around it. I picked up this footlocker with the crate around 
it, carried it down to my automobile, and brought it up to Mr. Sour- 
\nne s ollice, where I was then instructed to remove it to Mr. JNIcManus' 
office m the HOLC Building, which I did. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was Mr. McManus ? 

]\Ir. Halleck. Mr. McManus is an emplovee of the Internal Secur- 
ity Committee, the gentleman sitting just to" your left. 

Mr. Morris. And that is all you had to do with that particular foot- 
Jocker? 

Mr. Halleck. That is all I had to do with it. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much, Mr. Halleck. 

Mr. Halleck. Thank vou, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you'^step down? 

Mr. McManus, will you take the stand, please? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 153 

Senator Welker. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before the sub- 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. McManus. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBEET C. McMANUS. INVESTIGATIONS ANALYST, 
INTERNAL SECURITY SUBCOMMITTEE 

Senator Welker. State your name, your residence, and your occu- 
pation. 

Mr. McManus. Robert C. McManus, investigations analyst of the 
Subcommittee on Internal Security. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, did you receive from ]\Ir. Halleck, the 
previous witness, the footlocker that now reposes in front of the wit- 
ness stand? 

INIr. McManus. I did, on or about May 20, 1955. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you open that footlocker ? 

Mr. Mc3^L4Nus. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you testify that all of the documents that 
are presented there on the two bulletin boards behind the witness 
stand, and all these that will be used in the course of tlie testimony 
today, were taken by you from this particular footlocker? 

]\Ir. McManus. Yes, all of the documents on the bulletin board and 
all of the documents which have been assembled by the staff in prepar- 
ation for this hearing were taken by me out of that footlocker. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. McManus, in addition, is there in the pos- 
session of the subcommittee certain belongings of a Mr. Berges, that 
is, William Berges? 

Mr. Mc]\L\Nus. Yes. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. "\Yliat are those materials, Mr. McManus? 

Mr. McManus. Well, that is a collection of what aj^pears to be 
propaganda material in several oriental languages and also a number 
of phonograph records, most of which are in oriental languages. 

Mr. Morris. Now, they are now in the possession of the subcom- 
mittee? 

Mr. McManus. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have issued a subpena for Mr. 
William Berges to testify, but as yet we have not been able to effect 
service. He should be a witness later in this particular series of hear- 
ings, and the subject matter at the time of his testimony will be the 
papers in the possession of Mr. Berges. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to put into the record, if 
you will excuse us, su' 

Mr. McManus I have an inventory, if you want to put that into the 
record, of English-language and Chinese-language printed material. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Would you put that into the record, Mr. Mc- 
Manus. 

Senator Welker. The inventory so taken by you will be inserted 
in the record and will be made a part thereof. 

(The inventory referred to was marked exhibit No. 20 and is as 
follows:) 



154 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 20 
List of English-Language Printed Material in Hinton's Footlocker 

1. Yu Tsai School for Talented Refugee Children— September IS, 1945, Beipei, 

Chungking. 

2. Manila envelope containing 44 Chinese language newspapers. 

3. The True Story of Ah Q by Lu Hsun— Foreign Languages Press, Peking 1953. 

4. aianila envelope containing snapshots of Chinese people and Chinese scenes. 

5. Chinese Literature— No. 1, Autumn, 1951, The Cultural Press, Peking. 

(Stories and poems.) 

6. I. V. Michurin, Selected Works — Foreign Languages Publishing House — 

Moscow, 1950. (This book on Agriculture.) 

7. Chinese Literature— No. 2, Spring 1952, the Cultural Press. 

8. The Five Thousand Dictionary — Chinese-English Pocket Dictionary — Peking, 

1940. The Murry Printing Company, Cambridge, Mass. 

9. A Handbook of Modei-n Russian Conversation by N. C. Stepanoff, Dover 

Publications, New York City, 1945. 

10. V. Safonov, "Land in Bloom" Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 

1951. 

11. The Situation in Biological Science — Proceedings of Lenin Academy of Agri- 

culture Sciences of the U. S. S. R., July 31-August 7, 1948— verbatim re- 
port, ^Moscow, 1949. 

12. Two brown notebooks, handwritten notes. 

13. Peoples' China— Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1953, In memory of .7. V. Stalin. 

"Supplement to Peoples' China" — Political reports by Chou En-lai. Also 
volumes 2, 3. 4, 5, and 10, 1950. 

14. Red notebook with handwritten notes. 

15. White notebook with songs handwritten in Chinese. 

16. Two volumes of bound People's China — July 1950-December 16, 1950, Janu- 

uai-y 1952- June 1952 — Foreign Languages Press, Peking. 

17. China Reconstructs — No. 4. 1953, published by China Welfare Institute. 

18. United Nations — POW's in Korea — Published by Chinese People's Committee 

for World Peace— Peking, 1953. 

19. New China Forges Ahead — The Achievements of the Chinese People in 1950- 

51, Peking, Foreign Languages Press 19.52. 

20. Rhymes of Li Yu-Tsai and others — Chou Shu-li Cultural Press, 1950, Peking. 

21. Prague in Photographs, 1938, Orbis Praha — In English and other languages. 

22. New China's Economic Achievements, 1949-52, China Committee for the 

Promotion of International Trade, Peking 1952. 

23. The First Year of Victory, Foreign Languages Press, Peking. 

24. This Is China Today, poems by Rewi Alley, published by Rewi Alley aid 

groups, 1951. 

25. The Communist Party, in commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the 

Communist Part.y of China, Foreign Languages Press, Peking 1951. 

26. How the Tillers Win Back Their Land, Hsiao Chein, Foreign Languages 

Press, 1951. 

27. China's Revolutionary Wars, in commemoration of the 30th anniversary of 

the Communist Party in China, Foreign Languages Press, Peking, 1951. 

28. Thirty Years of the Communist Party of China, by Hu Chao-nu, Foreign 

Languages Press, Peking, 1951. 

29. The General Conditions of China's Labor Movement. Address at a recep- 

tion on May 1, 1952, by Lai Ju-yu. Published by the Workers Press, 
Peking, 1952. 

30. Women of China, March 1953, Foreign Languages Press, Peking. 

31. Tlie Communist program and other documents of the first plenary session of 

the Chinese Peoples' Political Consultative Conference, Foreign Languages 
Press, 1952. 

32. On the Party, Liu Shao-chi, Foreign Languages Press, 1950. 

33. The Agrarian Reform Law of the Peoples' Republic of China, Foreign Lan- 

guages Press, 1950. 

34. China Accuses, speeches of the special representative of the Central Peoples' 

Government of the Peoples' Republic of China at the United Nations. 
Foreign Languages Press, 1951. 

35. Pamphlets on China and Things Chinese. A symposium of the new life 

movement. March 194G. 

36. Complete and Consolidate the A^ictory, Foreign Languages Press, 1950. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 155 

37. Documents of the Women's Movement of China, published by All China 

Democratic Women's Federation. 

38. Mao Tse-tung, on peoples' democratic dictatorship, Foreign Languages Press, 

1951. «'^i»^«»4 

39. Mao Tse-tung, on the Chinese revolution. Peoples' Publishing House, 1952. 

40. Culture and Education in New China, Foreign Languages Press. 

41. Mao Tse-tung, on practice (on the relation between knowledge and practice — 

between knowing and doing), Foreign Languages Press, 1952. 

42. Mao Tse-tung, on contradiction. Foreign Languages Press. 

43. On Inner Party Struggle, Foreign Languages Press, 1941. 

44. The Case Against United States Germ Warfare Criminality, Daily News Re- 

lease, March 1952. 

45. Stalin and the Chinese Revolution, Foreign Languages Press, 1953. 

46. The Marriage Law of the Peoples' Republic of China, Foreign Languages 

Press, 1950. 

47. Culture, Education, Health in New China, Foreign Languages Press, 1952. 

48. Speech before the study group of research members of Academia Senica by 

Chen Po-ta, 1953, Foreign Languages Press. 

49. China Wins Economic Battles, Foreign Languages Press, 1950. 

50. Children's Tears, published by China Welfare Institute, Shanghai. 

51. Peoples' China, 1952, (2) July to December. 

52. Peoples' China, January to June 1951. 

53. Peoples' China, July to December 1951. 

LasT OF Chinese Printed Matekials in Hinton's Footlocker 

1. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, Select Writings of Mao Tse-tung. 

2. On the Threshhold of a New Life, 1947, August 1, pictures and brief biogra- 

phies of Chinese who went over to Communists. 

3. Seven issues of the Farm Machinery Bulletin, June 1, 1951 ; December, 1950 ; 

September, 1950; issue No. 4, 1951; issue No. 3, 1951; combined issues 
Nos. 1 and 2, 1951 ; May 1, 1951. 

4. Chinese Agricultural Bulletin, first and second half of 1952, first and second 

half of 1951, first and second half of 1950. 

5. Teaching Children How To Draw. 

6. Regulations of the Communist Party, 1947. 

7. Experiences of Cooperatives at Tai Hong District, 1946. 

8. How To Be a Good Farm Hand, 1948. 

9. Life of Chiang Kai-shek in pictorial, 1947, with a skull and bones and swastika 

on the cover. 

10. The Eight Regulations That a Member of the Communist Party Should 

Observe, 1952 (with the hammer and sickle enclosed by a wreath on the 
cover), compiled by Chinese Communist Party, northwestern section 
propaganda department. 

11. On China, by Stalin and Lenin, 1950, the Liberation Press, (probably Peking*). 

12. Land Laws, 1947, the land convention of the Chinese Communist Party, 

passed September 13, 1947. 

13. A book by Mao Tse-tung, We Struggle for the Betterment of our National 
Economy and Finance. Published by the Liberation Press, 1950. 

14. Phonetics for the Farmers in Learning Chinese Characters, 1952, Peoples' 

Publishing House in Hopei. 

15. Discussions on Land Reform and Mass Movement, 1&48, by the central office 

of Shansi, Hopei, Shantung, Honan of the Chinese Communists. 
All publications from No. 16 through No. 34 as listed below are in pictorial 
story form. 

16. Four volumes of Brave Men and Women published by Hsin Hua bookshop, 

(New China) 1952. 

17. Cannot Die, Hsin Hua bookshop. 

18. Wu Sung Subduing the Tiger, published in 1953 by I Chih Shu Tien. 

19. White Haired Girl, 1953. 

20. Series of textbooks, volumes 1, 2, 3, and 5, for learning the language, 1946. 

Tao Fen Shu Tien. 

21. Elsplanation of the Theory on Practice by Li Ta, published by Sheng, Hua; 

Tu Shu ; Shin Chih, a three union publishing company, 1952. 

22. Spring of Two Families, published by Hsin Hua, 1952. 

23. The Man Who Lives Forever, New Art Publishing Co. 

24. Peace in Peking, published by Peace Publishing Co. 

T272.3— 56 — pt. 6 2 



156 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

25. Pocket map of the different provinces of the Peoples' Chinese Republic, 1950, 

published by the Ta Lu Map Publishing Co. 

26. A Model Worker of the Huai River, New Art Publishing Co., 1952. 

27. Songs of the White-Haired Girl, from the motion picture of that name. 

28. The Story of Tai Yu-Chen's Marriage ; publisher, the Youth Publishing Co., 

1952. 

29. The Water Wheel, published by New Art Publishing Co., 1953. 

30. A Brave Couple of Cossacks, 1953, Peoples' Art. 

31. We Should Work on the Huai River, published by Hsin Hua, 1953. 

32. Chicken Fathers Writers, volume 2, published by Hsin Hua. 

33. Little Guerillas, volume 5, published by Hsin Hua. 

34. Pictures on the new marriage law, Hsin Hua, 1951. 

35. Chinese Agricultural Bulletin, issue No. 1, January 10, 1953; February 10, 

1953 ; issue No. 2, January 25, 1953 ; issue No. 4, February 25, 1953 ; issue 
No. 5, March 10, 1953 ; issue No. 6, March 25, 1953 ; issue No. 8, April 25, 
1953 ; issue No. 9, May 10, 1953 ; issue No. 10, May 25, 1953. 

36. Farm Machinery Bulletin, January, February, March, April, and May, 1953. 

37. Report on Irrigation of Agricultural Lands at Koa Li and Lu Tai, June 1950, 

Agricultural Department, People's Government. 

38. Farm Machinery Bulletin, issue No. 9, July 10, 1950 ; issue No. 45, January 

10, 1942 ; June 16, 1931 ; issue No. 40, November 1, 1950. 

39. Farm Tractor's Bulletin, July 1931, issue No. 7. 

40. Inauguration Ceremony of North China University, August 1948. 

41. The Articles Digest, issues 15 and 16, JanuarA' 22. 1947. 

42. Learning, magazine, issue number 5, 1933, published on May 2, by the Learn- 

ing magazine. 

43. Pictorial story. Changed Labor, 1946, Hsin Hua. 

44. Mechanized Agriculture, combined issue foi- 1951 to 1952. 

45. A Report on the Agriculture Movement in Honan by Mao Tse-tung, pub- 

lished by Hsin Huo. 

46. Roughest Material for Agricultural Pi'oduction Cooperative, two sets, series 

1 and 2, 1952. 

47. Handbook of Land Distribution, Hsin Hua, 1948. 

48. Farm Survey by Mao Tse-tung, Hsin Hua, 1947. 

49. Land Reform Handbook, Hsin Hua, 1948. 

50. Reference Material for Land Reform and Party Reform, Hsin Hua, 1948. 

51. Review on the White Paper, by the propaganda department of China's Com- 

munist Peking municipality, 1949. 

52. The People Sing, issue number 5, May 1951, published by the peoples' broad- 

cast station of Peking. 

53. Map of the border region of Shansi, Hopei, Shantung, Honan ; published by 

the Hsin Hua Shu Tien, 1947. 

54. Report of Comrade Kao Kang on March 13, 1950, Hsin Hua. 

55. Chinese Land Reform by Meng Nan, published by the New People's Publish- 

ing Co., 1949. 

56. Decision Regarding the Farm Classes by the Peoples' Government, August 4, 

1950. 

57. Report by Chairman Mao on April 1, 1948, Hsin Hua, 1955. 

58. Report of Hsi Chung-hsun, May 20, 19.50, Hsin Hua. 

59. Counter offense at the northwestern battlefield, map. 

60. Map of the battlefield at northwestern. 

61. Map of central China. 

62. Map of the border region of Shan, Hopei, Shantung, and Honan. 

63. Questions and Answers on Land Laws, 1948, published by Wen Hua. 

64. Songs in support of our troops at the front with music. 

65. A speech by Po I-po, February 1, 19.52, during the trial of members of the 

Government In Peiping. 

66. Report on the Policy of the Central Government With Regard to the South, 

September 28, 1948. 

67. Story on Marriage, series No. 2, 1953, Yough Publishing Co. 

68. Textbook on Language, vols. 6, 7, S, published by Yu Min, 1946. 

69. The People Sing, with music No. 1, no date. 

70. Liberation Song, 1948, Peoples' Publishers, Peiping. 

71. University Langaiage Textbook, vol. 4, 1947. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 157 

CH ABACTEKIZ ATION S 

There were approximately 400 photoiiraplis, classified loosely as follows : 

1. Pictures of the Asian and Pacific Peace Conference, including street scenes, 
scenes made in the auditorium where the Conference was held, celebrations in- 
cidental to the Conference itself. 

2. Pictures of agricultural scenes, in many of which Europeans or Americans 
appeared — sometimes in UNRKA uniforms. 

3. Pictures of Hinton himself and other Americans or Europeans dressed in 
Chinese garb. 

4. Pictures of Chinese. 

5. Pictures which were evidently made at the front under Communist auspices 
during the war in French Indochina. 

6. Pictures of Chinese Communist scenes, bearing captions in English and 
Chinese on the reverse side, which appear to have been issued by Chinese Com- 
munist propaganda agencies. 

There were upward of 2,000 pages of single-spaced typewritten manuscript, 
most of which are carbon copies of letters, reports on Chinese individuals and 
families in Chinese villages, Communist Party instructions, articles apparently 
written by Mr. Hinton for publication. Fifty-one charts. Posters. 

"Sir. Morris. Mr. Clutinnuii, I would like to put into the record, 
too, an exchange of correspondence betAveen the Bureau of Customs, 
in the Treasury Department, and Senator William E. Jenner, who 
was chairman of the Internal Security Subcommittee during the 
month of December 1954. The correspondence, which lasted until 
March 3, 1955, bears on the circumstances through which this foot- 
locker came into the possession of the subcommittee. 

Senator Welker. Very well. It will be incorporated and made a 
part of the record. 

(The correspondence referred to w^as marked "Exhibits 21 throuoh 
21-C" and is as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 21 
Hon. Rau'h Kelly, November 10, 1954. 

Commissioner of Customs, 

Washington, D. C. 

Deab Commissioner : The Subcommittee on Internal Security is now engaged 
in an investigation of Americans who recently returned to this country after 
having been employed by, or associated with, the Communist Government of 
China. Among these individuals are William H. Hinton and William Berges. 
The Bureau of Customs detained the baggage of both of these individuals on their 
return to the United States and still holds part of the baggage. 

A subcommittee staff member, Mr. Robert C. McManus, recently visited the 
customhouse in Boston to inquire into this matter. He talked with Agents 
Edwin Finnegan, who handled the Berges matter and Paul Lawrence, who had 
charge of the baggage of William Hinton. Messrs. Finnegan and Lawrence were 
extremely cooperative with the subcommittee, for which I wish to express thanks. 
Mr. Finnegan advised that Berges' baggage consisted of a large wooden pack- 
ing case full of periodicals and propaganda posters, phonograph records in 
Chinese and Indian languages, and 6 boxes of 16-millimeter films. This was 
held to be political propaganda under the meaning of title 22, United States 
Code, section 611J. 

Mr. Lawrence stated that the Hinton baggage, which was shipped in what 
appeared to be an army footlocker, consisted of about 71 pounds of diaries, 
letters, propaganda posters, books, and magazines. We are advised that the 
Berges material is still in Boston and that the Hinton material is now in Wash- 
ington at the United States Bureau of Standards. Our subcommittee is verv 
anxious to make a study of this material in order to determine whether or not 
it should be placed into the public record of our hearings. Will you be good 
enough to give us access to it with the above purpose in mind? Thank you for 
your cooperation. 

With every good wish. 
Sincerely yours, 

William E. Jexnek, 
Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 



158 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 21-A 

Treasury Department, 

Bureau of Customs, 
Washingto)i, December 3, 1954- 
Hon. William E. Jen nek, 

Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee, 
Senate Offlce Building, Washington, D. G. 

My Dear Mr. Chairman : The receipt is acknowledged of your letter of Novem- 
ber 10, 1954, in regard to an investigation being conducted by the Subcommittee 
on Internal Security of Americans who recently returned to this country after 
being employed by, or associated with, the Communist Govermnent of China. 
You refer to Messrs. William H. Hinton and William Berges as being among the 
individuals Involved and to the fact that the Bureau of Customs detained the 
baggage of these individuals on their return to the United States and still holds 
part of their baggage. As your subcommittee is very anxious to make a study of 
the material contained therein in order to determine whether or not it should 
be placed into the public record of your hearings, you request that access to it be 
permitted with this purpose in view. 

It is understood that the baggage of Mv. Berges, which consisted of a large 
wooden packing case full of periodicals and propaganda posters, phonograph 
records in Chinese and Indian languages, and six boxes of 16-millimeter films, has 
been held to be political propaganda within the meaning of 22 United States Code 
611j, and is now in the custody of the Customs Agency Service in Boston, Mass. 
The baggage of Mr. Hinton, which was shipped to rhis Bureau in an Army foot- 
locker, consisting of about 71 pounds of diailes, letters, propaganda posters, 
books, and magazines, is now in the custody of the office of Mr. Shirley Stephens, 
Head, Penalties Section, in room 7316, Internal Revenue Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Authority is hereby granted for duly authorized representatives of your sub- 
committee to have access to these documents which will be made available to 
them for the purpose of obtaining data therefrom for the use of the subcommittee. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) Batph Kelly, 
Commissioner of Customs. 



Exhibit No. 21 -B 

Treasury Dei>artment, 

Bureau of Customs, 
Washington 25, March 31, 1955. 
Hon. Jame.s O. Eastland. 

Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 

Senate Office Btdlding, Washington 25, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Chairman : Reference is made to the letter from Senator William 
E. Jenner, dated November 10. 1954, and to this Bureau's reply dated December 3. 
1954, in regard to William H. Hinton and William Berges, who returned to 
this country from China with a quantity of political propaganda publications 
and other material. 

Senator Jenner had requested that permission be granted to representatives 
of his committee to review the documents brought back to this country 
by the above-mentioned individuals. In the Bureau's reply of December 3, 1954. 
authority was granted to your duly authorized representatives to review such 
documents for the purpose of obtaining data therefrom for use of the subcom- 
mittee. 

Mr. Robert C. McManus appeared in the Bureau and requested a copy of the 
inventory of the documents contained in Mr. Hinton's footlocker which is in 
this Bureau. Mr. McManus also requested a description of ]Mr. Berges' material 
which is in the custody of the Collector of Customs at Boston, Mass. 

In acordance with Mr. McManus' request, there is enclosed a copy of the 
inventory of the material found in Mr. Hinton's footlocker. A detailed inventorv 
of the material l)iought back by Mr. Berges has not been made, but there is also 
enclosed a descriptive list of such material. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 159 

Both Hinton and Berges have been endeavoring to obtain the release of their 
property. In event any of the property is to be released, you will be so advised. 
\ery truly yours, 

(Signed) Ralph Kelly, 
Commissioner of Customs. 

(The following is the inventory referred to in the above letter :) 

Exhibit No. 21-C 
Appendix A. English Language Books and Pamphlets 

1. Culture aud Education in New China, Foreign Language Press, Peiping. 

2. The True Story of AH Q, LU Hsun, April 1953, Foreign Language Press, 

Peiping. 

3. People's China, volume 1, No. 4, February 16, 1950 ; No. 5, March 1, 1950. 

4. United Nation's POW's in Korea, Chinese People's Committee for World 

Peace, Peiping, 1953. 

5. Chinese Literature, No. 1, Autumn 1951, Cultural Press, Peiping; ISb. 2, 

Spring 1952. 

6. Marriage Law, People's Republic of China, Foreign Language Press, Peiping, 

1950. 

7. The Situation in Biological Science, Proceedings of Lenin Academy of Agri- 

cultural Sciences of U. S. S. R., July 31-August 1948, verbatim report — 
translation. Foreign Language Publishing House, Moscow, 1949. 

8. The Selected Works of I. V. Michurin (Agriculture), Foreign Language Pub- 

lishing House, Moscow, 1950. 

9. The General Conditions of China's Labor Movement, address of May 1, 1952. 

LAI Ju-yu, General Secretary, All-China Federation of Labor, Worker's 
Press, Peiping, September 1952. 

10. Stalin and the Chinese Revolution, CHEN Po-ta, vice president, Academia 

Sinica, Foreign Language Press, Peiping, 1953. 

11. 30 Years of the Communist Party of China, HU Chiao-mu, Foreign Language 

Press, Peiping, 1951. 

12. The Case Against United States Germ Warfare Criminals, sjyecial supple- 

ment, Daily News Release, March 20. 1952. 

13. On Inner Party Struggle, LIU Shao-chi, lecture delivered July 2, 1941, at a 

party school for Central China, Foreign Language Press, Peiping. 

14. This is China Today. Poems by Rewi Alley, chosen and edited by H. Win- 

ston Rhodes, the Rewi Alley Aid Group, 1951 (autographed by Alley, June 
5, 1951), printed by Caxton Press, Christchurch. 

15. MAO Tse-tung on People's Democratic Dictatorship, Foreign I>anguage Press, 

Peiping, 1951 ; On Contradiction, 1952 ; On Practice, 1952. 

16. Complete and Consolidate the Victory, New China Library, Series No. 1, 

Foreign Language Press, Peiping, May 1950. 

IT. Women of China. 1st edition, March 1953, compiled by the International De- 
partment, All-China Democratic Women's Federation, Foreign Language 
Press, Peiping. 

IS. The Agrarian Reform Law, People's Republic of China, Foreign Language 
Language Press, Peiping, 1950-51, 2d edition. 

19. China Accuses! — speeches of the Special Representative, Central People's 

Government of the People's Republic of China at the United Nations, 
Foreign Language Press, Peiping, 1951. 

20. Pamphlets on China and Things Chinese, a symposium on the New Life 

Movement (KMT) compiled, translated, and published by the War Area 
Service Corps, National Military Council, Peiping, March 1946. 

21. New China's Economic Achievements, 1949-52, China Committee for the 

Promotion of International Trade. 

22. New China Forges Ahead, the Achievements of the Chinese People in 1950-51. 

Foreign Language Press, Peiping, 1952, important documents of the 3d 
Session of the 1st National Committee of the Chinese People's Political 
Consultative Conference. 

23. Rhymes of LI Yu-tsai and Other Stories, by CHAO Shu-li, with introductory 

article by CHOU Yang, Cultural Press, Peiping, 1950. 

24. Culture-Education-Health in New China, Foreign Language Press, Peiping, 

1952. 

25. The First Year of Victory, Foreign Language Press, Peiping. 



160 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

20. Speech Before a Sturlv Group of the Research Members of the Academica 
Sinioa, CHEN Po-ta, Jnly IS, 1052, 1st edition May 1953, People's Publish- 
iug House, Peiping. 

27. China Wins Economic Battles, Foreign Language Press. Peiping, 1950. 

28. Children's Tears, published by China Welfare Institute, Shanghai, 1951 and 

1952. 

29. The Common Program and Other Documents of the 1st Plenary Session of 

the China People's Political Consultative Conference, Foreign Language 
Press, Peiping, 1952. 

30. Land in Bloom, V. Safonov, Foreign Language Publishing House, New York. 

31. Handbook of ^Modern Russian Conversation, Dover Publishing House, New 

York. 

32. Documents of the Women's Movement in China, All-China Democratic Wo- 

man's Federation, 1st edition 1950, 2d 1952. 

33. AL\0 Tse-tung on the Chinese Revolution, CHEN Po-ta, Foreign Language 

Press, Peiping, 1953. 

34. How the Tillers Win Back Their Land, HSIAO Ch'ien, Foreign Language 

Press, Peiping, 1951. 

35. China's Revolutionary Wars, Foreign Language Press, Peiping, 1951. 

36. The Communist Party, Leader of the Chinese Revolution, Foreign Language 

Pi'ess, Peiping, 1951. 

37. On the Party, LIU Shao-chi, Foreign Langiiage Press, Peiping, 1950. 

38. Prague in Photographs, Karel Plicker, 1953. 

Appendix B. Chinese Books and Pamphlets 

1. Discourse on Practicability, explanation of, by LI Ta, San Shu Publications 

(subtitles — New Ideas, Livelihood Reading). 

2. New Elementary Books, approved by the Educational Section of the Shansi, 

Hopei, Shantung, Honan Administrative Area, including Common Sense 
Kno Yu (national dialect). 

3. Problem of Land Reform, NEMG Man, supplementary edition. 

4. Old Story of Marriage, 2d chapter, Northwest Youth Publication Company. 

5. Anti-Authoritarianism, Anti-Officialism, Chung-Hsun, 2d Secretary of the 

Chinese Communist Northwest Bureau, report at the Cadre Congi-ess, 
May 20, 1950, Hsin Hua Current Affairs Publishing Company, Hsin Hua 
Bookstore, distributor. 

6. Handbook for Studying Land Reform, material for study on the party on 

land reform. 

7. Decision Pertaining to the Rural Division, by tlie Government Administra- 

tion Council of the Central People's Government. 

8. Chairman iNIao's Speech at the Shansi-Sinyuan Cadre Meeting, April 1, 1948. 

9. Instructions on Land and Party Reform and the Democratic Movement by 

the Chinese Communist Shansi, Hopei, Shantung, Honan Central Bureau. 

10. New Heroic Children's Stories. 

11. Songs of the People, compiled by the Peking People's Broadcasts. 

12. Model CHIN Hsiu-lan of the Huai River Harnessing Bureau. 

13. Common Edition of the Marriage Laws and Explanation, pictures by the All- 

ChiTia Federation of Artistic Circles, East China People's Publication. 

14. Two Families Prosperity. 

15. The Marriage of Tai Yu-cheu, East China Youth publication. 
10. Guerilla Member, children's pictorial. 

17. Perpetual Human Existence. 

18. Peace Is in I'eking. 

19. New Maps for Provinces, pocket edition, Chinese People's Republic, published 

by Shanghai ^Mainland Atlas. 1950. 

20. Urgent Letter. 

21. Must Repair the Huai River. 

22. A Pair of Intrepid Cossacks. 

23. Water wagon. 

24. Unable To Dig. 

25. Wu Sung Fighting A Tiger. 

26. The White-Haired Woman. 

27. Story of San Kuo. 

28. How To Be A Life Long Worker for the Peoi)le, published by the Tai Hong 

Mass Bookstore. 

29. Life of CHIANG Ting-Shih. Po Hai Pictorial Publishing Company. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 161 

30. Eight Standardized Conditions for Ordinary Conversation for a Communist 

Party Member, compiled by the Central Northwest Bureau of the Chinese 
Communist Party, Northwest People's Publication. 

31. New Elementary School Books. 

32. Waste of Labor, JEN Hsin-chiao, Shantung Hsin Hua T'>ookstore, reissue, 

1946. 

33. Study Materials. 

34. Study Materials on the Land Reform Laws of China. 

35. Definite Proposals on the Vietminh Communist Question Reported to the 

Central Government. 

36. Talks During the Mass Trial of Big Culprits for Grafting, 1952. 

37. Children's Pictorial on Rural Education, drawn by TSOU Tsui. 

38. Party Regulations of the Communist Party. 

39. Experience from the Organization of Labor Cooperative in the Tai-Hsing 

District. 

40. Land Reform, Organic Laws of China. 

41. Strive and Struggle for Fundamental Improvement to the National Economy, 

MAO Tse-tung. 

42. Peasant's Rapid Learning of Characters by Phonetics, single character 

edition. 

43. The Mass, published May 2, 1958. 

44. Special Edition of Founder's Day Ceremonial, North China University. 

45. The Article's Digest. 

46. Lenin-Stalin Discuss China. 

47. MAO Tse-tung's Writing, 1st and 2d books. 

MISCIXLANEOUS MATERIAL 

Four books of music plus one personal notebook of songs. 
Two mail wrappings, evidently around printed material. 
UNRRA credentials, vaccination record. 

Document in Chinese stamped by the Ministrv of Foreign Affairs, Shanghai 
Office (KMT). 

Appendix C. Posteks, Maps, and Pictures 

POSTERS 

1. Children of New China (picture of children representing the Chinese Com- 

munist Army, Navy, Air Force, factories, and farms shoving CHIANG and 
the U. S. into the sea) . 

2. We Fervently Desire Peace (large picture of two children with doves). 

3. Peace Delegates, Welcome (small girl holding bouquets of flowers aloft. The 

caption is in English, Russian, and French in the lower right-hand corner, 
Chinese at top). 

4. Production Effort Victory Celebration (children playing — two carrying red 

stars on which the slogans are printed) . 

5. Celebration of the Establishment of the Chinese People's Republic (military 

parade in China's version of Red Square, tanks, trucks, and people march- 
ing with lots of people watching) . 

6. Reading Newspaper (family group listening to someone read the newspaper). 

7. Latest Photo of Chinese People's Leader MAO Tse-tung (Hsin Hua publi- 

cation of North China ) . 

8. Comrade Chu Te (man in uniform). 

9. Picture of Abundant Harvest (happy group eating in the fields. Drawn bv 

PUHsiao-huail950). 

10. Resist American-Aid Korea. Support the Patriotic Pledge. Obey the Pa- 

triotic Pledge (people lining up to sign at a table under trees and near a 
factory. A placard near the signing table reads as above. The caption : 
"Anti-American Imperialism, Sign the Patriotic Pledge"). 

11. Victory Celebration of the Asian-Pacific Area Peace Conference (doves flying. 

A second poster with the same caption and a dove flying with a ribbon in its 
mouth on which is written the word "peace" in many languages). 

12. Beat Out the War Flame. Save the Peace (a woman with a child on her back 

and a little girl by the hand is raising an arm in defiance at the sky. In the 
background are towns burning and in the sky a plane with U. S. on its 
wings diving) . 



162 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE IHSTITED STATES 

13. Unite Together, Protect the Peace (people marchiug with flags ranked behind 

them with peac^ in different languages on the flags. People are of all races 
and nationalities. Picasso dove in background carrying caption). 

14. Little Brothers of Workers, Peasants, and Soldiers (children playing with 

toys). 

15. People's Army (people working in grainfields, village huts at right, soldiers 

also working in grainfields, and one soldier with a lot of grain and a long 
scroll). 

16. Down AVith CHIANG Kai-shek. Establish a New China (a man holding a 

spear with sword aloft. Second poster, same man with rifle and bayonet). 

17. Energetic Farming Will Produce Abundant Crops (three people with grain). 

18. Women Planting Cotton (people picking cotton with strip below showing the 

planting, tending, and harvesting of cotton) . 
10. Picture of Cooperative Production (children loading grain on a cart). 

20. Voting for People's Representatives (people voting). 

21. Farming Production (family with plenty, sheep, grain, fruits, tools). 

22. Returning From the Front With Honor (adults and children crowding around 

a man in blue wearing a huge red design with the character for merit on it) . 

23. ( People drinking tea at home, no caption. ) 

24. Women's Aid Team (people carrying grains and fruits). 

25. Picture of Dividing the Fruits of Success (people dividing up the tax collec- 

tor's spoils ) . 

26. Transplanting Song and Dance (children dancing) . 

27. Working People's Cultural Palace (workers reading newspapers inside 

palace-like building. Others dancing in courtyard outdoors) . 

28. Happy Rejoicing on National Holiday (people joyously watching fireworks 

in front of a large Chinese-type building with MAO's picture on it). 

29. Repairing Railway (man laying railroad track alongside one built with a 

train on it. In the background a bridge being built) . 

30. President MAO and Labor Heroes (MAO talking to a younger man) . 

31. Our Hero Has Returned (man in a factory surrounded by others greeting 

him. He is wearing a big red commendation ) . 

32. Celebration of the Establishment of the Chinese People's Republic (parade 

of people in street with slogans and picture of MAO ) . 

33. Victorious New Year Military and Civilian Rejoicing (mounted soldiers with 

decorations). 

34. Emulation of Military Shoe Manufacture To Aid the Front (woman making 

shoes in a house. Baby in basket). 

35. Reading Newspapers (people in a cornfield eating and listening to a man 

read a newspaper) . 

36. Peaceful People and Cattle (man, woman, and child with a bullock. Decora- 

tion for a calendar) . 

37. Meeting of Production Team (another calendar with people in a circle, 

papers and an abacus in the center) . 

38. Labor Hero Is Respected by Everybody (people admiring two decorated 

workers ) . 

39. Thousands With One Thought — Save Peace (girls in uniforms holding ban- 

ners and flags and letting doves fly. People cheering. The flags are mainly 
Chinese and U. S. S. R.). 

40. (Children and adults being taught to read.) 

41. Inspecting State-Operated Farms (people liarvesting grain with reaper, 

sowing with a tractor in the foreground) . 

42. Farm Tractors (people talking to a tractor driver). 

43. General Liu Po-ch'eng on His Southern Expedition (people greeting soldiers). 

44. Thirteen assorted calendars and pre-1948 down with the Koumintang posters. 

45. One game. 

46. One set of 4 cartoon sheets of "The Wliite-Haired Woman." 

47. One large sheet with cartoons explaining the new marriage laws. 

MAPS 

Northwest counteroffensive battle map, parts I and II. 
Shansi, Hopei, Shantung, Honan border map. 
Map of North China. 

PICTURES 

There are several hundred photographs of a wide variety of subjects. Most 
of them are unlabeled. Included are pictures of dams, farming equipment and 
methods, scenery, picturesque Chinese-style buildings, and people. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 163 

Appendix D. Peksonal Notes ix English 

Three notebooks of diary-type entries which are dated but not as to year. 
Possibly they are tyi)ed up in other material. Handwriting impossible to deci- 
pher with any speed. 

The People's Education Movement (Haiyan, October 1938), a typewritten copy 
of notes siven to an Indian by Dr. IAN Hang-chih. 

A handwritten copy of what appears to be the autobiography of a Chinese. 

A biography of JIA Jeng-fang of the Han Shi Village, 9th Chiu, Wu An. Also 
an autobiography of JANG liac-ju, shepard of Shih Dong, 9th Chiu. Workmen 
in the 9th Chiu of Wuan move forward radiating out gradually and engage in 
the investigation of Shyhlidianu. Case of GUO Jen-jang which looks like a play 
but may be an on-the-ground account of a trial. Typed and all from the Jnii 
Miu Jin Fao of 1948. 

Various notes on medical services, recruiting in 1948. Hinton's impressions of 
Border Regions and Liberated Areas. 

Quantities of hand-copied music, UXRRA telegrams, reports on tractor proj- 
ects, etc. 

Report on Mechanized Rice Harvest, Lutai State Farm, 1952. 

Travel diary, mostly 1947. 

Reams of Chinese Communist propaganda, mostly translations of speeches, etc., 
and old, 1940-48. 

Jan Min Chung Kao, People's China, January IG, 19r)0, volumes 1, 2. 

Charts on the Degree of Annihiiation of Feudalism (conditions, redistribution 
of land, etc.). 

Senator Welker. The next witness. 

Mr. MoREis, Now, before calling the next witness, we have, as an 
integral part of this parti(?nlar series of hearings, the case of Joan 
Chase Hinton Engst, who is the sister of Mr. William H. Hinton. 
The subcommittee has sought to subpena Mrs. Engst here this morn- 
ing in connection with this series of hearings, but we have not been 
successful. 

Senator Welker. Where did you try to subpena her ? 

Mr. Morris. I have a report. Senator, from Marshal Clifton E. 
Yates notifying Joseph C. Duke, Sergeant at Arms of the Senate as 
follows : 

Returning subpena unserved on Joan Chase Hinton. Subject not at Putney. 
No Hintons in that town to contact. 

It is signed "Clifton E. Yates." It was dated March 3, 19r,G. 

Senator Welker. That will be inserted in the record. 

(The telegram referred to was marked "Exhibit Xo. 22" and is as 

follows :) 

Exhibit No. 22 

Beattleboro, Vt., March 3, 1956. 
Joseph C. Duke, 

Sergeant at Arms, United States Senate: 
Returning subpena unserved on Joan Chase Hinton. Subject not at Putney. 
No Hintons in that town to contact. 

Clifton E. Yates. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with Joan Chase Hinton Engst, 
our records indicate that she was working with the Manhattan Engi- 
neer District, and that their records show that she worked as a research 
assistant at Los Alamos from February 1944 to December 1945. 
[Reading :] 

Most of her work at Los Alamos was in the development of the water boiler, 
a low-power reactor which was declassified in 1951. She participated in critical 
assembly weapon work and attended weekly scientifie colloquia, which gave her 
access to other classified information. 

Records 

72723— 56— pt. 6 — —3 



1G4 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTl\ ITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. Pardon the interruption. That has to do with 
the fissionable material, the nuclear weapon ? 

Mr. Morris. That is right, Senator. 

Senator Welker. She had access, you say, to secret material with 
respect to the atomic Aveapon or atomic-energy project? 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Well, Senator, I will read this classification, or this 
job description, which was sent to us under the cover of March 5, 
1956, dated March 5, 1956, and was in answer to a letter which was 
sent by ^Ir. Benjamin ^[andel, our research director. I suggest that 
he read the whole eoi-respondence. Senator. There are just two short 
letters. 

Senator AVelker. All right. Proceed, Mr. Mandel. 

Mr. Mandel (reading) : 

Dear Mr,. Mandel : This is in rti)ly to your letter of March 1, 1950, concerning 
Joan Chase Hinton Engst. You will recall previous information was furnished 
your office in .July 19.54. 

There is attached a summary of Mrs. Engst's association with the atomic- 
energy program which includes her known access to classified information of 
the Manhattan Engineer District, the predecessor organization to the Atomic 
Energy Commission. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. A. Waters, 
Director, Division of Security, 
United States Atomic Energy Commission. 

And this is his enclosure : 

Joan Chase Hinton Engst 

Manhattan Engineer District records show tliat Hinton worked as a research 
assistant at Los Alamos from February 1944 to December 1945. Most of her work 
at Los Alamos was in the developujent of the water boiler, a low-power reactor 
which was declassified in 1951. She participated in critical assembly weapon 
work and attended weekly scientific colloquia, which gave her access to other 
classified information. 

Records show that Hinton enrolled as a student at the University of Chicago 
in March 1945 and terminated at the end of the 1948 winter quarter. From April 
1946 to July 1947 she was a part-time assistant to Dr. Samuel K. Allison, of the 
Institute of Nuclear Studies. 

Joan Hinton has never had AEC .security clearance and did not have access 
to classified information after she left Los Alamos at the end of 1945. She has 
never been employed by the AEC or its contractors. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Mr. Mandel. 

The next witness will be William Hinton. 

Senator Welker. Will you ])roceed to the witness stand, Mr. Hinton. 

Will you raise your riglit hand and be sworn? Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you give before the subcommittee will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Hinton. I do. 

Senator Welker. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record, 
please? 

Mr. Friedman. Milton H. Friedniiin, New York. 

Senator Welker. Your address in New York, counselor? 

Mr. Friedman. -312 Madison Avenue. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM H. HINTON 

Senator Welker. Your name is William H. Hinton ? 
Mr. Hinton. My name is Williaui H. Hinton. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 165 

Senator Welker. Where do you reside, Mr. Hinton ? 

Mr. HiNTOx. Mr. Chairman, just a minute. Before we start I would 
like to ask a question, if I may. 

Senator Welker. I will do the questioning here for just a few min- 
utes, if you will let me get 

Mr. HiNTON. I would just like to know who gave Mr. Sourwine the 
authority to go to the customs and seize my things illegally. 

Senator Welker. That is not a question before the subconmiittee at 
this time. 

Mr. HiXTON. And then, when am I going to get them back? That is 
what I would like to know'. 

Senator Wei^er. Very well. We will take care of that matter 
when that arises. You have your counsel at your side, and you have 
competent and able legal assistance, I am sure, knowing Mr. Fried- 
man as I do. 

Mr. Hinton. That matter arose about 3 years ago, and all this 
time I haven't been able to get the material back. 

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Hinton, we are going to conduct the 
hearing as we have it outlined, and, in any way we can cooperate 
with you in an honorable, fair, and judicious manner, we will do so. 

Mr. HiNTON. You have already illegally taken these things and 
misappropriated them. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I point out for the information 
of the witness that we have inserted into the record — perhaps I should 
have it read so that you would understand it more clearly — but in 
answer to your question, Mr. Hinton, we have a letter dated Decem- 
ber 3, 1954, and it has now been made a part of the record, signed by 
Ralph Kelly, Commissioner of Customs, in which authority w^as 
granted to Senator William E. Jenner, chairman of the Internal 
Security Subcommittee, to have access to the documents that are sub- 
ject to this hearing this morning. And there are several other bits of 
correspondence amplifying that particular conclusion, which, as I say, 
are now in the public record. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton, are you interested in this ? 

Mr. Hinton. I am not satisfied with that, because I don't think 
there was any warrant to seize these things. 

Senator Welker. Whether you are satisfied with it is purely be- 
yond the point. 

Mr. Hinton. I don't think it is. 

Senator Welker. Now, we are going to proceed with the sched- 
ule 

Mr. Hinton. I don't think there was any warrant to seize these 
things from me, and I would like to have the committee to explain 
how they got hold of these things without any w^arrant. 

Senator Welker. Very well. You perhaps will have an oppor- 
tunity to do a lot of explaining in the interrogation this morning, 
and if you will be free and frank, as I hope you will, I am certain we 
would love to have the information that you will give to us. 

Mr. Hinton. And I would also like the assurance of the committee 
that my papers 

Senator Welker. Just a moment, please. Will you not interrupt? 

Mr. Hinton (continuing). That my papers will be given back to 
me right away. 



16G SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Seiiiitor Welkek. Xow. that is a matter purely beyond tlie juris- 
diction of this coniinittee. You certainly ought to know that the 
United States Customs has a little hold on these matters. 

Now will you proceed ? 

Where do you live, Mr. Hinton t 

Mr. HixTON. Just a minute, though. They granted me a license to 
import these materials, as you know 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton 

Mr. PIiNTON. I applied for a license. I got a license, and soon after 
I got the license, these materials were seized illegally from the Cus- 
toms by this committee, as I understand it, someone on the stall' or, I 
believe, the man who testified here. 

Now, I think that has got to be explained satisfactorily. 

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Hinton, we are here to have a little 
hearing Avith you. If you desire to have a hearing, with your able 
counselor, on hov,' these materials tliat apparently are yours — ^you 
have admitted they are yours — how they ca)ne into our possession, 
then you and your able attorney will be able to do that at some other 
time. 

Mr. Hinton, where do you reside? 

Mr. HiNTON". My permanent residence is in Putney, Vt. 

Senator Welker. Putney, Vt. 

^Vliat is your age, Mr. Hinton? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Hinton. My birtliday is February 2, 1019. I am 37 years old. 

Senator Welker. Thirty-seven years of age. 

What is your occupation? 

Mr. Hinton. Most of my life I have worked in the field of agricul- 
ture. 

Senator Welker. What is your occupation, Mr. Hinton? 

Mr. IIiNTON. Right noAv I am unemployed. 

Senator Welker. And how loiig have you been unemployed? 

Mr. Hinton. For 3 or 4 weeks. 

Senator Welker. Three or four weeks. 

What did you do prior to your imemployment 3 or 4 weeks ago? 

(The w'itness consults with his attorney.) 

Senator Welker. Let the I'ecord show that the witness is consult- 
ing with his attorney. 

(The witness co)isults furtlier with Ids attorjiey.) 

IVIr. Hinton. Well, imtil recently, I was engaged in lecturing and 
also in writing a book on my experiences in China. 

Senator Welker. Lecturing. Where did you lecture, Mr. Hinton? 

]\[r. IIiNTON. Well, I lectured all over the country and traveled to 
the west coast and thi'ough the Middle West. 

Senator Welker. Where did you lecture on the Avest coast? 

Mr. HiNTOx. Look. At the last hearing we had here we went into 
this whole subject, and at that time I made it clear tliat T was not going 
to talk about \vhere and to whom I lectured. And I don't know any 
reason to cover all that ground again. We went through that once 
at that hearing before. 

Senator Welker. Now, just exactly why don't you care to answer 
any question propounded to you ? Do you have some legal objection 
to "it? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 167 

Mr. HixTOx. We went tliroiigh it all before once. I don't know 
any reason to-  

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Hinton, I am not asking yovi for an 
argumentative answer. Do you have an objection to answering that 
question ? 

Mr. HiNTOx. Do you direct me to answer it ? 

Senator Welker, I certainly do direct you to answer that question, 
and forthwith. And do not stall, please. 

Mr. HixTox. Well, I am refusing to answer that question on the 
grounds of the iirst amendment, which guarantees free speech to all 
American citizens, and also on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. And the grounds of the fifth amendment, of 
course, is recognized, if you properly state your objection. 

Mr. Friedman, will you help your witness on that? As you well 
know, this committee does not recognize the Iirst amendment as a 
basis for refusal to answer questions propounded to you. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiXTOx. I stand on my answer. 

Senator Welker. Now, I certainly do not want to mislead you, 
Mr. Hinton, and your able attorney, whom I have known for some 
time. To have a Valid objection, will you put it in the form of your 
legal objection to answering the question? Just saying, "I claim the 
tiftli amendment,'- is not an objection. 

Now, if you will state it. Counselor, then you and I can stipulate 
that he will not have to repeat the thing if he desires to choose the 
hf th amendment later. 

Mr. Friedmax. May I speak. Senator? 

Seiuitor Welker. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Friedmax. I believe what the witness means is that he declines 
to answer under the protection afforded him by the fifth amendment 
not to testify against himself. 

Senator Welker. Not to Ijear witness against himself? 

Mr. Friedmax, Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. Now, that is very fine of you, Mr. Friedman. 

Now, you incorporate that as your objection, Mr. Hinton? 

Mr. HixTOx. I incorporate that. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Now, you do not care to tell the committee where you lectured or 
what type of audience you lectured before, for the same reason here- 
tofore given by you, the objection of the fifth amendment? 

jNIr, HixTox. Yes. 

Senator Welker. How many lectures have you given since you 
have returned from China ? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

]\Ir. IIixTOx. Well, I think that also is covered by the first amend- 
ment. I certainly have the right of free speech. However, since it 
seems to be an issue here, I would estimate I lectured about P>00 times. 

Senator Welker. About 300 times. 

Were you paid for those lectures, Mr. Hinton ? 

Mr. HiXTOx. Well, we went into all that the time before, and 

Senator Welker. Very well. And we will go into it again, Mr. 
Hinton. Now, I have heard that several times already this morning. 
I want this as l3ackground, and no doubt we will go over the matters 
that we discussed before. 



168 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

Now, will you answer? 

Mr. Hi>;tox. I made it clear the time before that I was usually 
paid for these lectures. 

Senator Welker. And I believe you told me that some of the 
lectures you were not paid for ? In fairness to you, I believe you told 
me that. 

Mr. HiNTox. I was paid for almost every time I spoke. 

Senator "Welker. I see. 

How many lectures have you given since you appeared before this 
committee last time ? 

Mr. HixTOX. Well, I don't remember exactly. Again, I want to 
protest that I don't think this is is a proper question for you to ask. 

Senator Welker. I think you have uiade your position quite clear 
on that, what you think. And in what I think, we are at a difference 
of opinion on that. 

Now, will you tell me, Mr. Hinton, how many lectures you have 
given since j^ou a])peared before this committee the last time^ 

Mr. HiXTOX. I just wanted to make that protest clear. 

Senator Welker. I believe you have. 

Mr. HixTox. I want to say that- 



Senator Welker. Counsel apparently is a bit 

Mr. HixTOX. How about telling these pliotographers to stay over 
to the side and stop taking pictures? 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Xow, your counsel has been before this committee before. He 
knows our rules. And when he wants a pliotographer not to take 
pictures, all he has to do is ask us, and we Avill certainly try to abide 
by his request. 

Xow will you proceed with the subject matter before us and the 
question that I propounded to you? 

Mr. HixTox. Well, I would estimate that I talked 20 times. 

Senator Welker. Twenty times since the last hearing. That is an 
estimate? 

Mr. HixTOX. That is an estimate. 

Senator Welker. Realizing that you cannot perhaps be accurate 
on that. 

And you still desire not to tell the connnittee what groups yon 
talked before? 

Mr. HixTox. My answer is the same. 

Senator Welker. The fifth amendment ? 

Mr. HixTox. Yes. 

Senator Welker. You claim the privilege? 

Mr. HiXTox. I claim the privilege. 

Senator Welker. Did you ever talk to any Amei-ican legion 
meetings. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HixTox. Well, as I said in the last hearing, I would certainly 
have talked before the American Legion had T been invited to do so. 

Senator Welker. Did they invite you ( 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HixTox. No ; I was not invited. 

Senator Welker. Now who did invite you to speak and lecture 
before them ? 

Mr. HiNTOx. I stand on the same answer. I claim the privilege. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 169 

Senator Welker. You claim the privilege. Yet by one word you 
say that if the American Legion had invited you to speak before them, 
you would have accepted. Now, I merely want to call this to your 
attention. Counselor. You know this as well as I do. 

The claiming of the fifth amendment privilege is a personal right 
on the part of the witness. Once he opens up the subject matter, we 
certainly are entitled to interrogate him. Now he has stated that if 
the American Legion had invited him to speak, he would have gladly 
api3eared. 

Now, then, my question goes to the fact, Who did invite you to speak, 
since the American Legion did not ? 

Mr. Friedman. Senator, in my opinion lie still has the same rights 
he had before he gave that answer to 3'ou. 

Senator Weekee, I have no doubt. You are not surprising me by 
that. I do nor want to go into a lengthy discourse as to where I think 
he spoke. 

But may I ask you this question? Have you spoken before any 
Farmers Union meetings ? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

]Mr. HiNTOx. I decline to answer that on the same grounds as bef oi-e. 

Senator Welker. You decline to answer that question upon the 
ground that it might tend to incriminate you and force you to bear 
witness against yourself ? 

Mr. HiNTOx. The same answer as before. 

Senator Welker. You believe that an answer to that question might 
tend to incriminate you if you ansAvered it truthfully ? 

Mr. HixTox. The same answer. 

Senator Welker. And it ma}^ be stipulated in the record that when 
the witness states "The same answer as heretofore given," he means he 
is invoking the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Is that stipulated, counsel 'i 

Mr. Frled^l^x. Yes, it is. Senator. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. 

Now Avill you tell me a little bit about your past life ? What is 
your education, Mr. Hinton? 

Mr. HiXTOx, Well, again, we went all through this before, but 
you 

Senator Welker. Very Avell. And we are going to go all over it 
again today. So do not think that this is repetitious. I mean, we 
may have learned some things from the last interrogation, and per- 
haps you want some things clarified from the last interrogation, and 
I want to be fair with you, and by like token, be fair witli this 
committee. 

Now will you tell us about your past education ? 

Mr. HixTox. Well, I graduated from high school. Putney High 
School, Putne}^, Vt., and I went on a year later to Harvard College. 
I studied 2 years at Harvard College and transferred then to the New 
York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University. I gradu- 
ated from Cornell LTniversity in 1941. 

Senator Welker. Now, is this fair, ISIi'. Hiiiton'? You did finish 
your work at Putney College? You graduated from Putney? 

Mr. HiXTON. I graduated, with a high school diploma 

Senator Welker. High school. 

Mr. HixTox (continuing). From Putney School. 



170 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. And then you went from there to Harvard for 
2 years ? 

Mr. HiNTON. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Did you finish your work at Harvard ? 

Mr. HiNTOX. I didn't get a degree at Harvard University. I trans- 
ferred, with credit, to Cornell University. 

Senator Wj::lker. And did you graduate from Cornell University ? 

Mr. HiNTON^. I graduated "from Cornell University with a degree, 
a B. S. degree, in Agriculture. 

Senator Welker. And that was in ^vhat year, Mr. Hmton? 

Mr. HINT0^^ 1941, as I just stated. 

Senator Welker. 1941. 

Now is that all the degrees you have ? 

Mr. HiNTON. Yes. „ ^ , i 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton, I believe we talked about your armed 
services record before. Were you a member of the armed services? 
Did you join the Army in 1939 or in World War II ? 

Mr. HiNTON. No, I did not. 

Senator Welker. You were a conscientious objector, were you notf 

Mr. HiNTON. I was for about a year and a half or 2 years. I 
changed my mind and asked for a reclassification. I went before 
the medical examination and was rejected for the Army. 

Senator Welker. You were rejected because of 4-F ? Is that what 

they call it? 

Mr. HiNTON. It was a perforated oardnnii. 

Senator Wiclker. I see. 

Mr. IIiNTON. And I was rejected from the Army. 

Senator Welker. And then after you were rejected, following your 
conscientious objection to serving your country, then what govern- 
mental work, if any, did you do ? 

Mr. HiNTON. Well, sometime after that I got a job with the Oftice 
of War Information. 

Senator Welker. OWI ? 

Mr. HiNTON. It was known as the OWI. 

Senator Welker. How did you get that job ? 

Mr. HiNTON. Well, as I stated before, I made an application. It 
was accepted, and I was hired. 

Senator Welker. Had you done much writing prior to that ? 

Mr. Hinton. Well, I had a period of employment in Japan in the 
year 19oT, I believe, as a newspaper reporter for the Japan Adver- 
tiser. 

Senator Welker. I see. 

And that was the qualification that got you your job m OWI ? 

Mr. Hinton. Yes, yes. 

Senator Welker. Did you give any references in your application 
to OWI for employment ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I don't remember whether I did so or not. 

Senator Welker. I see. 

Now, tell me a little bit more about this Putney School. Your 
mother is very prominent at this institution, is she not? Isn't she 
a supervisor or something there, or my memory does not serve me 
correctly? And by this statement, Mr. Hinton, I do not want to 
infer that Putney" School is not a fine educational institution. I 



SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 171 

think some of our very best people have ^one there. I am not trjring 
to embarrass the institution. 

Mr. HiNTON. I would like to object to questioning me about my 
mother. 

Senator Welker. Do you think it would incriminate you if I asked 
you whether or not your mother helped establish and taught at that 
school ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I didn't say that. I just don't think it is in keeping 
with the American tradition to 

Senator Welker. I am not going to get into bad things about yoiu- 
mother, Mr. Hinton. You know better than that. 

Mr. HiNTON (continuing) . To talk about their family members. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Now, would it not be nice — would you not be proud of the fact — 
if you testified that your mother was connected in a high capacity 
with that institution? 

Mr. Hinton. Anywhere but under such conditions, I certainly 
would. 

Senator Welker. Now, I expect to go into a few matters involving 
your sister. And I merely want the record to show that your mother 
liad been connected with Putney School, and I am not about to infer 
anything bad of Putney School, but I do want to get a little back- 
ground about it. And I hope you will cooperate with me, Mr. 
Hinton. 

Mr. Hinton. Did you have a question, then? 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Does your mother still occupy quite a position at Putney School? 

Mr. Hinton. My mother is retired as of June last year. 

Senator Welker. She retired as of June last year. Hasn't she 
occupied a sort of executive position there, one of the head people 
at Putney School ? 

Mr. Hinton. We went all through this before in the other hear- 
ing, and 

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Hinton, please- 



Mr. Hinton. I don't really see the necessity for going through 
all this again. 

Senator Welker. I know. But you do not happen to be calling 
signals up there. 

Mr. Hinton. This committee should not haul in names of people 
and other people so as to make a big list in the press. But I don't 
really see 

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Hinton, there is not any desire on the 
part of the committee to make a big list of names for the press or 
anything else. You are the gentleman who is up here for interroga- 
tion andl expect to ask you honorable and fair questions. I am never 
trying to entrap you or take advantage of you. I think your counsel 
will tell you that I would not do that, and no member of the com- 
mittee would. 

But you are not going to call the turnoff periods in this interroga- 
tion. Counsel and I and the committee will do our best to conduct 
this hearing as we see fit. In any interrogation, of course, there are 
questions that might seem irrelevant to you. But to us, we feel 
we would like to know, and I hope you will cooperate, Mr. Hinton. 

72723—56 — pt. 6 4 



172 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. HiNTON. As I answered before this hearing, my mother was 
the founder and the director of the Putney SchooL 

Senator Welker. I am glad to hear you say that, sir. 

NoAv will you tell us about the board of directors? I believe you 
(old me that Owen Lattimore was on the board of trustees or directors 
of that institution. 

(Witness consults with his attorne.y.) 

Mr. HiNTON. No; I did not so testify. And as far as I know, 
he never was on the board of directors. 

Senator Welker. AVell, did he have any capacity with tlie Putney 
School that you know of ? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Hinton, I want to call this to your at- 
tention. We are so happy to have your able counsel here with 
you. He is here as a guest of the committee, and you are entitles! 
to ask him for ad^^ce. But let me admonish you that every ques- 
tion, you are not supposed to ask him how to answer. 

If you think that I am asking a question that invades your rights 
as a citizen, then, of course, you should ask your able attorney. But 
I do not want any inference going out that you, Mr. Hinton, did not 
testify, but that you had to ask your counsel. I am sure of that. We 
want to make that clear, because I know you do not intend to do that. 

Mr. HiNTOx. Well, you are drawing that inference, not I. 

Senator Welker. I noticed you are conferring with him on every 
question. So naturally, I have a right to infer what you are confer- 
ring about. I merely want to admonish you that you are the witness, 
and not your counsel. 

Mr. Hinton. I realize that I am the witness, and I have a right at 
any time to confer with counsel concerning the answer to questions. 

Senator Welker. That is right. Counsel, of course, cannot tell you 
how to answer the question. I am sui-e he would not offer to. 

Mr. Hinton. Well, you are inferring that. 

Senator AA'elker. All right. Now, what is your last question pro- 
pounded to the witness, Mr. Reporter ? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Hinton. He had none that I know of. 

Senator Welker. He had none that you know of. Very well. 

Now, I wonder if you would cooperate with me to this extent. You 
say that you have spoken all over the country from west to east. Did 
you ever speak out in the State of Washington or the State of Idaho? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiNTOX. I spoke in the— wait a minute. Yon said, the State 
of Washington ? 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. HiNTON. No ; I didn't speak in Washington. 

Senator Welker. Did you speak in the State of Idaho? 

Mr. HiNTON. No. I don't recall it, no. 

Senator Welker. Do you recall, Mr. Hinton, whether or not you 
ever had any scheduled speeches either in the State of Washington, 
eastern Washington, or northern Idaho? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Hinton. I don't recall 

Senator Welker. Very well. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 173 

Mr. HiNTON (continuing). Having had any scheduled. 

Senator Welker. Where did you speak out West, then ? 

Mr. HiNTON. Well, again, I would like to protest that I don't feel 
you have any right to ask a citizen where he spoke. 

Senator Welker. I know. I suppose it would be awful if I asked 
you whether or not you spoke to the Young Men's Athletic Society 
at Putney School. But I am going to ask the questions. And even 
though you do not agree with them, I hope that you would answer 
them as best you can, Mr. Hinton. And if I do not make myself clear 
or if I infringe upon your constitutional rights, I am sure you will call 
it to my attention. 

Mr. HiNTON. Well, I am calling it to your attention. And I know 
that you don't recognize refusal to answer on that basis, but at the 
same time I want to make it clear that I believe tliat is my constitu- 
tional right. 

Senator Welker. I believe you have made that clear. You have 
told me that at least 10 times, already, that you do not like my interro- 
gation about where you spoke. 

Mr. HixTox. Right. 

Senator Welker. Now, then, we have gone into this matter, and 
I think we can proceed, Mr. Hinton, if you will just come along. I 
am not going to carry you all over the waterfront, but I am quite 
interested in where you spoke out West. Now will you tell us? 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiNTOX. Well, I decline to answer that on the grounds pre- 
viously stated, of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Hinton, I do not want to argue law 
with you or your counsel. You have told us that you did not speak 
in Idaho; you did not speak in Washington. Now when I ask you 
where you did speak, you are going to claim the fifth amendment. 

Now, I do not believe that is the purport of the fifth amendment. 
We are not here to decide matters of Federal jurisdiction. 

I do not believe you are being exactly fair with tlie committee when 
you say that in certain areas you did not speak, and then you will 
not tell me where you did speak. 

Mr. Hix'TOX'. Have you a question ? 

Senator Welker. No. I am just making my position clear, as you 
have. 

Mr. HiNTOx. All right. 

Senator Welker. You still do not want to tell me where you spoke ? 

Mr. HixTox. I stand on the same answer. 

Senator Welker. You stand on the fifth amendment. 

Now, what does your family consist of? Are you a married man? 

(AVitness consults with his attorney.) 

Senator Welker. And naturally, I can say this to you, Counsel. 
I am not going into that. I just want to get the backgi'ound of Mr. 
Hinton. 

Mr. HixTOx. Not now. 

Senator Welker. Not now. 

Any children? 

Mr. HiXTOX. I have one daughter. 

Senator Welker. So do I. 

And do you have any sisters or brothers? 
(Witness consults with his attorney.) 



174 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. HiNTON. I would like to know llio legislative purpose of going 
into all this. 

Senator Welker. Well, the legislative pur])ose, IVIr. Hinton — and 
I will make it very clear to you — is that this committee is sitting for 
the purpose of receiving evidence and testimony which might help 
us to pass some legislation that will protect our country's internal 
security, and I am sure you quite well understand that. 

You will know the purpose of it a little later in case I have 

Mr. HiNTON. Well, I am interested in the internal security of this 
country, too. and I would suggest to the chairman that the investiga- 
tion start with the chairman of this committee, who has heen organiz- 
ing defiance of the Supreme Court throughout the South for the last 
several months, and is leading to a very dangerous situation for our 
country. 

Senator Welkek. That is very fine. I am sure that the American 
])eople will be the judges of this. 

From some of the exhibits that T expect to confront you with, we 
will find out whether or not the distinguished chairman of this com- 
mittee is a better American than you are. 

Mr. HiNTOX. I think that my point is very valid, and I think this 
committee is wasting its time looking into this matter when you have 
such an obvious violation and breach of the Constitution of this 
country 

Senator Welker. I am not going to argue with you, Mr. Hinton 

Mr. Hinton (continuing). And the basis of our 

Senator Weeker (continuing). And you are not going to get me 
on any sidetrack. You know exactly why you are here, and you are 
]\ot going to try Senator Eastland, Senator Welker, Senator Jenner, 
Senator McClellan, or Senator Watkins, or any other member of the 
Internal Security Subcommittee. 

We did not ask for this job. The people of the United States gave 
it to us, and we are doing our best to try to do that work. And it 
is not fun. If you think it is fun to work as we have to work in this 
committee, you are all wrong, Mr. Hinton. 

Mr. HiNTOx, I am just making a suggestion. 

Senator Weeker. Very well. now. 

Mr. Hinton. That is what I think is the valid study. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton, I have had a discussion with you 
before in which you desire to argue all the time. But I am going to 
insist and demand from this time hence that your answer be respon- 
sive, and your argumentative answers are going to be stricken, and I 
am going to order you not to argue with the committee any longer. 

Now, in that way, I am sure we will carry this matter along and get 
along a lot better. 

Now, do you want to tell me about your family, whether you have 
any sisters or brothers? 

Mr. PTiNTON. I would like to ask what or how this question hinges 
on internal securitv. whether T have any sisters or brothers. 

Senator Welker. I am ordering and directing you to answer that 
question. I am not up here to submit to questioning by you, sir. 

I want to be fair with vou. Now will vou tell me? And then I 
will develop it. Do not "think that I will not develop the matter. 
1 want to get 

Mr. PIiNTON. I have two sisters. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 175 

Senator Welkek. One is named Jean Ilinton, I believe, and the 
other Joan; is that correct? 

Mr. HiNTOX. I have a sister named Jean and a sister named Joan. 

Senator Welker. Do you know where Jean is today? 

Mr. HiNTON, No; I don't know where Jean is today. 

Senator Welker. When was the last time you heard from her ? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiXTOx. I am in touch with my sister Jean from time to time, 
as any brother would be. 

Senator Welker. Surely. I admire 3'ou for that, sir. 

When was the last time that you heard fi'om Jean i Where was she 
Jiving at that time, Mr. Hinton? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. lliNTON. The last time I heard from lier slie was living in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Senator Welker. Cambridge, Mass. 

Now, your sister Joan, where does she live? 

Mr. HiNTON, I think it is rather ridiculous that you have tried to 
serve and issue a subpena on my sister Joan when, as 1 testihed before 
in the hearing, she was in Sian, China. 

Senator Welker. And that is behind the Iron Curtain in Red 
China ? 

Mr. HiXTOx. That is in the 

Senator Welker. Sir? 

Mr. HixTON. That is in the People's Republic of China. 

Senator Welker. The People's Republic of China. That is a new- 
name that some people use for being — I mean, maybe mine is w^rong — 
behind the Iron Curtain. In other words, it is in what we call Com- 
munist China ; is that right ? 

Mr. HiNTON. As far as I know. Secretary Dulles refers to this coun- 
try as the People's Republic of China. 

Senator W^elker. All right. I do not care how Secretary Dulles 
refers to it. I am asking you, is it in Communist China or is it on 
Formosa with Chiang Kai-shek? 

Mr. HiNTOx. It is in the People's Republic of China. 

Senator Welker. Yes. And when was the last time you saw your 
sister, Joan Hinton? 

Mr. HiXTOx. As I testified before, I decline to answer questions 
about my sister on the gi^ounds of the fifth amendment, as previously 
stated. 

Senator Welker. You did see her after she went behind the Iron 
Curtain in Communist China ; did you not ? 

Mr. HixTox. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. You decline to answer that. Do you think a 
truthful answer to that might tend to incriminate you, Mr. Hinton ? 

Mr. HixTOX. My answer is the same. 

Senator Welker. Now would you mind telling me something about 
your sister Joan? She was, as put into the record a moment ago, 
quite a scientist ; is that correct ? 

( The witness consults with his attorney. ) 

Mr. HixTox. I decline to answer questions about my sister. 

Senator Welker. You decline to answer any questions about your 
sister ? 

Mr. HiXTOX. I decline to answer that question. 



176 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. Upon the gi'ound that it might t«nd to incrimin- 
ate you? 

Mr. HiNTOx. On the ground previously stated. 

Senator Welker. Very well. That covers it, pursuant to our stip- 
ulation. 

Will vou sav whether or not vour sister Joan ever worked on the 
Manhattan Project, in atomic energy work ? 

Mr. HiXTOX. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. Did you ever visit your sister after she started 
the study of nuclear physics and many ramifications about the atomic 
energy scientific research ? 

Mr. HiNTOx. I stand on the same answer. 

Senator Welker. You stand on the same ansM^er. 

Did you or your sister ever visit the ranch of J. Robert Oppen- 
heimer, the so-called discoverer of the atomic bomb, out in Xew Mex- 
ico? 

Mr. PIixTOx. The same answer. 

Senator Wei.ker. Upon the ground that if you gave me a truth- 
ful answer it would tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. HiXTOx. I decline to answer. 

Senator Welker. Well, maybe you will refresh your memory. 

When you were before the committee before. I think I interrogated 
you, and possibly Senator Johnston of South Carolina or Senator 
Jenner of Indiana did so. You told me that your sister Joan was 
working on a dairy ranch in China ; is that correct ? 

Mr. HixTox, That is correct. 

Senator Welker. Xow. you are testifying about your sister, but I 
am not going to take advantage of a technicality. 

What experience had she ever had with resi:)ect to dairying ? 

Mr. HiXTOX. I refuse to discuss nw sister, on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Senator Welker. You do want to tell me, though, that she is work- 
ing on a dairy ranch ? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. HiXTOX, What your question was, was about the questioning- 
last time? 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

INIr. HiXTOX. That she was working on a dairy ranch ? 

Senator Welker. Yes. I believe I interrogated you on that, did I 
not, Mr. Hinton? 

Mr. PIiXTOX. I don't remember. 

Well, my answer is the same as last time, that she was tmd is work- 
ing on a dairy farm 

Senator Welker. Xow, what is she doing on this dairy farm ? 

Mr. HiXTOX. AVell, Ave went into that last time, and as I recall, I 
told you that I didn't know her exact duties there, but that she is 
working on a dairy farm. 

Senator Welker. I asked you whether or not she was milking cows, 
feeding cows, or caring for cows ; did I not ^ 

Mr. HixTON. And the answer was that I did not know her exact 
duties. 1 think you then said, "General duties around a dairy farm," 
and I agreed with that answer. 

Senator Welker. Yes, You think she is doing general duties 
around a dairy farm. Do you think she has given up her scientific 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 177 

research with respect to atomic energy and things of that nature, or is 
she using that in helping to run the dairy farm? 

Mr. HiNTON. I think on these, as to my sister, what I have answered 
I answer again as to that. As to that question and other similar ques- 
tions, I decline to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Now, tell me this : How do you know that she is 
working on a dairy farm in the People's Republic of China, or, as I 
term it, the Communist Chinese area ? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Senator Welker. How do you know ? You stated she was there. 
Now, how do you know she was there ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds as 
previously stated. 

Senator Welker. After you tell me that she is working on a dairy 
farm, in what you call the People's Republic of China, now you are 
coming back and claiming the fifth amendment and saying you refuse 
to answer as to how you know she is behind the Iron Curtain, or in the 
People's Republic. Now, let us be consistent, Mr. Hinton, please. 

Mr. HiNTON. Did you have a question? Did you put that in the 
form of a question ? 

Senator Welker. Yes; I did. 

Mr. HiXTON. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Senator Welker. One minute you tell me that you know she works 
on a dairy farm in what you term the People's Republic of China. 
And then when I ask you how do you know she works there, you refuse 
to answer? 

Mr. HiNTON. That is right. 

Senator Welker. And you refuse to answer upon the ground that a 
truthful answer might tend to incriminate you ; is that correct ?• 

Mr. Hinton. We went through that before, and I think you stated 
that one time M'ould answer that, and make that clear on what grounds 
I was standing. 

Senator Welker. Yes. You are standing on the fifth amendment 
on all these matters, because I do not want to confuse you, and I am 
sure you do not want to confuse the committee. We want that very 
clear as to your reasons, and I will not bring the matter up again. 

Did you ever meet with your sister in the People's Republic of 
China? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Senator Welker. You never even had a social visit with her? 
You never had a visit where you said, "Hello," to her ; "How are you 
getting along?" and so forth? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Senator Welker. Do you know where she worked here in the United 
States before she went over to the People's Republic of China ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Senator Welker. You do know that she worked on the Manhattan 
roject and that she was with Oppenheimer out at Los Alamos; 
o you not ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Senator Wei.ker. You are quite proud of her proficiency as a 
physicist and a nuclear expert, a scientist ; are you not ( 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 



I 



178 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Wklker. And vou still want to decline to say whether or 
not yon and yonr sister Joan— yes, your entire family— were invited 
to use Robert Oppenheimer's ranch out in New Mexico as a sort of 
vacation spot : is that correct ? 

Mr. IIiNTON. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Senator Welker. Do you know anything about Mr. Oppenheimer's 
ranch out in New Mexico ? 

Mr. HiNTox. I decline to answer that. 

Senator Welker. You have been in China, haven't you ? 

Mr. IIiNTON. I think I made it very clear the last time I was before 
this committee about my experience in China. 

Senator AVelker. Very well. Once again, I am going to tell you 
that you are not going to rehash the defense that you were once before 
this committee. You may be before this committee eight more times, 
I have no way of knowing, but you are going to answer the questions 
proponnded to you, Mr. Hinton. 

You went over to China first, as I understand it, with the Office 
of War Information ; is that correct ? 

Mr. HiNTON. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. What did you do over there ? 

Mr. HiNTON. Well, my title was that of a propaganda analyst. 

Senator Welker. A propaganda analyst ? 

Mr. IIiNTOx. That is right. I w^as analyzing Japanese propaganda 
for the OWL 

Senator Welker. And did you analyze any Communist propaganda 
fortheOWI? 

Mr. HiNTON. My job was to analyze propaganda 

Senator Welkp:r. That isn't an answer— I am asking 

Mr. IIiNTON" (continuing). Of the Japanese. 

Senator Welker. Did j^ou analyze any Communist propaganda for 
thcOWI? 

(Witness consults w^ith his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. Not that I recall. I don't think I ever did. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

How long did you remain in China while you were with the OWI ? 

Mr. HiNTOx. Well, it was approximately 6 months. 

Senator Welker. And did you ever visit any prisoner-of-war 
camps of onr Koi-ean veterans who were captured by the Red Chinese? 

Mr. IIiNTON. As I stated before, I never did visit any prisoner-of- 
w ar camps. 

Senator Welker. Did you ever see any Americans over there? 

Mr. IIiNTOx. Any Americans where? 

Senator Welker. Over in Red China. 

(Witness consults with his connsel.) 

Mr. HiNTOX. I am not clear on this, whether you are referring to 
prisoners or Americans in general. 

Senator Welker. I did refer to prisoners and you told me you did 
not, I believe. I asked if you had visited a prisoner-of-war camp. 
I^t us make it this way : 

Did you visit any Americans wdio were prisoners in Red China, 
not necessarily being in a camp? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. No; I didn't visit anyone who was a prisoner or in 
a prisoner-of-war camp. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 179 

Senator Welker. Were you familiar with any publications that 
were printed over there at that time? Let me refer, say, to China 
Monthly Review ; did you ever see that ? 
(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question on the ground 
previously stated. 

Senator Welker. Well, did you see Life magazine over there or 
Time or Country Gentleman, anything like that? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. As to — you mentioned Life magazine, I think. 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. HiNTON. I saw it occasionally. 

Senator Welker, Well, did you see the China Monthly Review 
over there ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. Is there some difference between tlie two maga- 
zines? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question, on the same grounds. 

Senator Welker. Did you ever meet a man by the name of Powell 
who is the editor and publisher of the China JNIonthly Review ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that. 

(Articles written by Betty Graham, S. E. Shifrin, and Edward 
Rohrbough, from the February 22, 1947, issue of the China Weekly 
Review (later the China Monthly Review), found in Hinton's foot- 
locker, were later ordered printed in the record at this point as 
exhibit No. 23.) 

Exhibit No. 23 

Unexpuegated Vebsion of Chiang's Book Wins Publishers' Battle 

(By Edward Rohrbough) 

New York, February 1. — The battle of the books has been one of the most 
interesting reflections in the I'nited States of China's civil war. The battle of 
the books is the ruckus by which the large and affluent Macmillan Co. entered 
into a race with Roy Publishers, a little-known house, in an effort to bring out 
the authorized Kuomintang translation of Chiang Kai-shek's China's Destiny 
before Roy could get the complete and unexpurgated edition to the bookstalls. 

The scrap wound up in something close to a deadheat. Roy had originally 
announced its publication date as February 24 when it heard for the first time 
that Macmillan was bringing out the authorized edition February 18. Accusa- 
tions were made by Roy that Macmillan was trying, as an instrument of the Kuo- 
mintang, to smother the complete edition, so it advanced its date. 

IMacmillan disavoAved any part in the race, but advanced its own publishing 
date to February 4, and finally, when Roy said privately that it would bring 
its translation out 2 days before Macmillan. Macmillan managed to hit the 
market January 28, 4 days after Roy was out January 24. 

omissions plentiful 

Thus, the race and the reasons given and disavowed brought far more pub- 
licity to a pretty dull l)ook than it otherwise might have received. Reviewers 
began asking lots of hitherto obscured questions. Why had the Kuomintang 
so diligently suppressed the complete version in China, after first circulating 
it widely? Why had the American State Department kept its own translation 
"top secret" even from Rei^resentative Hugh DeLacy, when the Congressman 
wanted a look at it a couple of years back? 

Lew Gannett of the Herald Tribune confessed he couldn't guess the answer. 
The authorized version left out many comments about the western imperialist 
powers which were in the original, true, and it also omitted important quota- 

72723— 56— pt. 6 5 



180 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

tions from Sun Yat-seu's writings, about land reforms because, Gannett sur- 
mises, "some of Chiang's followers might talie them too seriously." But Gan- 
nett doesn't see the reason for all the secrecy, though he gives Philip Jaffe credit 
for a very thorough job of annotating the complete version. 

Orville Prescott of the New York Times is more discerning. Concluding, as 
does Gannett, that the ceneralissimo or somebodv has written a very bad book, 
full of vagaries and barren of plans or promise for a democratic future, Pres- 
cott finds some significant quotations in the .Jaffe edition that are not to be 
found in the "authorized" version — and Prescott uses quotation marks around 
the "authorized." 

KMT AND TOUTH CORPS 

One is the following : 

"Adult citizens must joint the Kuomintang and youthful citizens must join 
the Youth Corps — only then will the happiness of the entire nation be safe- 
guarded, the interest of the state be protected, and permanent security for the 
nation and the state be assured." 

And Prescott comments, "In all his talk of reform, Chiang Kai-shek never 
once mentions reforming the glaring abuses of his own regime. This is natural, 
perhaps, but discouraging * * * One can only conclude that the destiny he 
forsees for China will fit into China's ancient tradition of centralized authority, 
or that it will conform to modern totalitarianism. Whichever it will be, if 
he has his way, it doesn't look as if it would be democratic." 

Now the battle of the books has gone into the stores, and in Scribner's and 
Brentano's. 2 of the largest stores in New York, the 2 editions are on display 
side by side. According to salesmen, the Roy edition is outselling the Mac- 
millan book by something like 2-to-l, though it costs $3.50 as compared with 
$2.75 for the Macmillan book. 

BOOK VERY DULL 

The salesmen are inclined to give Roy credit for superior makeup and print- 
ing, and it is true that the exterior appearance of the Roy volume is relatively 
imposing. Which is all to the good, since it's more than an even money bet that 
the exterior of the book is about what most buyers will see of the book. It is, 
either in its complete form or in the "authorized" revision, a very dull book. 

The one material effect of the battle of the books has been a loss of stature 
of Chiang Kai-shek in America, Prescott's review is a good example of this 
effect, for the Times reviewer is one who has been more than passing kind 
to the Kuomintang government and such of its luminaries as have blossomed 
into print from time to time. Yet even he can no longer see the generalissimo 
as the Moses who will lead the Chinese people out of the wilderness of civil 
war. Other reviewers have expressed various degrees of Prescott's opinion. 
To date, none have differed. 

And incidentally, Lin Yu-tang has lost stature, too, by his preface to the 
"authorized" version. N'o reviewer has yet found that Dr. Lin did otherwise 
than write words which filled the first page or so without saying anything of 
importance. But there are many Americans who feel that Dr. Lin began slip- 
ping when he gave up writing about Chinese life and culture and began experting 
on Chinese politics — from the United States. 



Communist China's Land Reform 
(By Betty Graham) 

The year 1946 marked the end of the feudal era in Shantung province. By 
New Year's Day, the land reform program was virtually completed. One-third of 
the area's 30 million inhabitants had received new lands to till, and hardly a 
farmer remained who had not enough land to banish the threat of starvation 
from his family's hut. Big landlords, the ruling caste of China throughout the 
Nation's prolonged dark ages, have become an extinct species. ^Middle and small 
landlords were strictly supervised by an aroused peasantry so that their holdings 
could no longer be u.sed to exploit tenant farmers. 

All of his was accomplished in a i)eriod of 7 months. During this same period, 
Chiang Kai-shek issued numerous statements in Nanking on the subject of peace 
and democracy, while Kuomintang troops attacked Shantung almost without 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 181 

pause. The provincial authorities were forced to pigeonhole their newly adopted 
peacetime production program and moliilize the countryside once again for war. 
But none of these developments halted the steady, methodical execution of the 
land reform program, which the Kuomintang fears above all else, knowing it to 
be the Communists' only "secret" weapon — a weapon far more effective than any 
new type of armament for dealing the death blow to Chiang's presently consti- 
tuted regime. 

two-flanked attack 

The land reform program unloosed a two-flanked attack against the founda- 
tions of Chiang Kai-shek's power. By breaking up large land concentrations and 
wiping out big landlordism, it threatens to destroy the only group which has con- 
sistently supported Chiang's dictatorship since his 1927 coup d'etat. The reform 
also leaves in tatters all the anti-Commnnist propaganda with which Chiang has 
tried to frighten dissident elements into believing that Kuomintang rule was the 
lesser of two evils. According to Chiang's many mouthpieces, who are still giving 
voice to the most outdated redbaiting bromides, the Communists intend to strip 
each person of his hard-earned wealth— to collectivize land, to nationalize com- 
merce and industry and to abolish all private property. 

Although the Chinese Communists have long based their policies on the prin- 
ciple that China cannot leap from feudalism to communism in one jump, but must 
pass through a capitalist stage in which the Nation will become sufficiently in- 
dustrialized to sustain a socialist economy, the Kuomintang has continuously 
warned against accepting this platform at face value. If once the Communists 
were to gain complete control of an area, the Nanking regime has cautioned, such 
policies would be quickly superseded by others instigating the economic rape of 
the "haves" by the "have-nots." With the aid of a rigidly controlled press, such 
views have received fairly wide acceptance in Kuomintang areas. 

For more than a year now, the Communists have been in complete control of 
areas with a population equal to that of the United States. All of these areas 
have started land redistribution, the cornerstone of the Communists' reform 
program through which they intend to build a new economy for China out of 
the chaotic remains of centuries-old feudalism. 

SHANTUNG AN EXAMPLE 

Shantung province, since it has practically finished its land reform program, 
offers a concrete example of what Communist-led administrations will and will 
not do when they come into power. While each border region government is free 
to carry out its land reforms in the manner best adapted to local conditions, the 
Shantung land redistribution procedure can be considered representative of 
basic policies adopted in all other liberated areas. 

Land redistribution was introduced as a Government-sponsored policy in June 
last year. However, initial attempts to put the program into effect were de- 
cidedly hit-and-miss since no one had any prior experience in the matter. Many 
villages had to carry out their reforms a second time later in the year to remedy 
mistakes and halfmeasures left over from the first attempt. 

By October, as the program swung into its climax, the provincial government 
hadreceived enough reports from the countryside analyzing earlier successes and 
failures to draw up a formal procedure for implementing the program. This 
document, entitled "Resolutions on Land Reform in Shantimg Province," was 
issued on October 25, 1946, following adoption by the Permanent Committee and 
Administrative Committee of the Shantung People's Representative Assembly 
(an elected body comprising the highest authority in the Province) . 

NOT ANTICAPITaLISTIC 

The regulation specifically safeguards commercial and industrial enterprises, 
stressing this policy wherever various aspects of the land reform program touch 
upon such interests. For instance, the resolution declares that the reform 
program is "directed solely against forms of feudal exploitation" and not 
against capitalism. Article 29 states : "Landlords who have carried out the 
provisions of this resolution and who have shown a sympathetic attitude toward 
the land reform progi-am shall enjoy adequate rewards from the Government 
and shall be aided in transferring their activities to industrial and commercial 
enterprises." The following clause adds that "legal industrial and commercial 
enterprises of landlords and rich farmers shall not be attached for payment of 
debts to the peasantry." 



182 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The question of land ownership is set forth in three clauses which guarantee 
private property rights. The document states that "full right of ownership 
shall be transferred to the peasant receiving land under this program," adding 
for further emphasis, "the land shall be entirely at his disposal." The procedure 
of transferring land titles or issuing new deeds is outlined extensively, includ- 
ing the reassurance to new land holders that "previous deeds of ownership shall 
iie publicly annulled and burned." 

Only a 'few categories of land are eligible for outright confiscation by the 
Government. These consist of "all lands owned by Japanese or puppet govern- 
ment enterprises," "land owned by high-ranking traitors," "public lands which 
have been illegally seized by landlords," and "black lands" (property that has 
not been registered with the Government in an effort to evade taxation or to 
obstruct land reform). 

LAND FOR REDISTRIBUTION 

Therefore, most of the land made available for redistribution is obtained 
through three other procedures. These are, in order of importance, by seizure of 
land for repayment of old debts to the peasantry, by voluntary contribution of 
land, and by forced sale of excessive holdings. 

Seizure of land for repayment of debts to the peasantry is one of the most 
essential factors in the reform program. It is also an innovation providing a 
major departure from the Communist's prewar land redistribution policy, as 
carried out in the Shan-Kan-Ning (Yenan) border region. At that time, the 
Government itself conducted the program, confiscated all large holdings and 
handled the redistribution. Now, however, the Government has mainly an ad- 
visory role and the entire process is conducted by local villagers through their 
peasant organizations. For this reason, a village can only undertake the reform 
when local peasants demand such action, which accounts for the fact that re- 
forms are not yet completed in a few backward villages where traditional fear 
of landlords is still strong. 

The policy of taking over land for restitution to the peasantry developed log- 
ically from two wartime mass movements carried out in areas regained from the 
Japanese. In the early war years, Communist land reform was limited to a rent- 
reduction ordinance issued in 1941. This regulation, based on Kuomintang legis- 
lation passed in 1933 but never enforced, cut all land rents by one-quarter. Each 
village, as it became sufficiently organized and awakened to present rights, con- 
vened meetings at which tenants spoke up and publically accused their landlords 
of failure to comply with the order, also lodging complaints regarding other 
violations of lease agreements. On the basis of testimony presented before such 
rural tribunals, the landlords' illegal exactions since the order went into effect 
were tabulated and they were obliged to make restitution, either in kind or in 
land. 

ACCUSATION MEETINGS 

Once this conception that a landlord could be held accountable for specific 
deeds of exploitation had been widely accepted, it was natural that the peasantry 
demanded further restitution for other common forms of exploitation not neces- 
sarily connected with leases— such as exorbitant grain or labor conscription. 
This peasant demand swelled in volume until it shaped into a mass accusation 
movement, centered around "Chiang Li Hui" or accusation meetings. 

When the war ended, this new phase of the peasant movement spread from the 
old liberated areas to regions just recovered from Japanese or puppet rule, where 
the peasantry had a bottomless reservoir of grievances against puppet leaders 
and other Japanese collaborators. But as these impromptu war crimes trials 
got underway, it became evident that most of the accused had incurred debts 
in excess of their entire resources. It has long been a basic Communist policy 
that no person, however reactionary, except those convicted for major crimes, 
should be deprived of all means of livelihood. Therefore, it became necessary 
for the provincial authorities to step in to coordinate the accusation movement. 
At the same time, the pro^^ncial leaders directed the movement into land reform 
channels by specifying that restitution for all types of previous illegal exploita- 
tion could be made in terms of land. 

One of the longest and most complicated sections of the land resolutions 
deals with the question of how much property should be left to the landlord's 
family, regardless of the size of his debts. For this purpose, landlords are 
grouped into various categories in accordance with their past behavior and 
degree of power over the peasantry. Those having the worst records are left 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 183 

with less land than the average middle peasant in their locality. The resolu- 
tion explains parenthetically: "For instance, if the average middle farmer 
of a given village owns 3 mow (Note: 1 mow is one-sixteenth of an acre) of 
land for each member of his family, the landlord family of this type would 
retain IV2 to 2 mow per capita." Middle and small landlords are allowed to 
keep 50 percent more land than a middle peasant, similarly computed on a per 
capita basis. Progres.sive landlords — such as those who have actively sup- 
ported the anti-Japanese war, or those having a member of their immediate 
family in the army or government or in one of the people's mass organiza- 
tions — are allowed twice as much land as a middle peasant. 

COMPULSORY LAND SALES 

These standards are also the basis for carrying out the compulsory land sale 
aspect of the program. In some instances, tliough generally only in the old 
liberated areas where landlords' exploitation has already been curtailed for 
some years, a landlord may still own large concentrations of land after repay- 
ing all the debts against him. Under such circumstance, the difference between 
his remaining holdings and the allowed standards prescribed above will be taken 
over with compensation. The price paid for such land is determined by a con- 
ference among representatives of the Government, peasants, and landlords. In 
general, the price set is below market value, decreasing in inverse proportion to 
the size of the holdings involved but not dropping below one-half the market 
price. The sale price is fixed in terms of grain (a proposal advocated by the 
landlords) and will be paid in 10 annual installments, half by the government 
and half by the peasant who takes over the land. 

Practical experience has sliown, however, that little land is actually taken over 
with compensation. The majority of landlords have quickly volunteered to con- 
tribute land once their village starts on the reform program. They hope 
thereby to forestall accusations against themselves and also to preserve their 
best lands, some of which might otherwise be taken from them. In addition, 
since the land tax and conscription of grain and labor increase progressively 
with the size of property, and since wages for agricultural laborers have risen 
sharply, many landowners prefer to pare down their holdings to amounts which 
they can efficiently cultivate by family manpower. As a result of such reason- 
ing, tbe amount of land acquired through contribution has in many villages 
exceeded the amount taken over in payment of debts. 

The resolution contains provision safeguarding the interest of absentee land- 
lords, including those who fled to Kuomintang cities upon the Communists' 
arrival. Although the reform is still carried out in their absence, the property 
legally retained by such landlords will be held in trust by the Government until 
they return to claim their assets. The resolution further specifies in article 29 : 
"The land and other property of landlords, following completion of the land re- 
form program, shall have the full legal protection of the Government." 

SOLDIEKS, BEGGARS, LOAFERS 

Families of Kuomintang military personnel may share in the land allocations 
if classified as poor peasants, according to article 23. Another clause, which 
states that unemployed laborers and impoverished city families are entitled to 
land quotas, continues : "Beggars and loafers shall also receive an allotment so 
that they may reform themselves into productive farmers." 

The question of mission property is dealt with in article 14, as follows : "Dis- 
posal of lands sold by temples and missions, as well as clan property which 
finances ancestral worship, shall be determined by joint agreement among the 
villagers, clan elders, and members of the religious organizations involved. At 
the demand of the peasantry, such lands shall be distributed, exempting sufficient 
property to provide the missionaries, monks, nuns, etc., with an adequate live- 
lihood." 

By far the greatest proportion of land distributed went to landless peasants 
or those with insufficient land to provide a living. The economic status of the 
various eligible peasants, the size of their families, and their wartime records 
were all taken into consideration in allocating specific plots. For instance, 
families who have had a member killed in the war and dependents of army or 
Government personnel received first choice of the most fertile or conveniently 
located fields. Honorably discharged soldiers are also given preferential treat- 
ment, and each village set aside some lands to be held for soldiers who will 
return in the future. 



184 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

FEAB STILL PLAYS ROLE 

The major obstacle to starting the reform was fear among backward elements 
of the peasantry that the Kuomintang might retake the area and return land- 
lords to their former power. The problem had to be met by village leaders 
through an intensive educational campaign to convince the peasants that if they 
organized themselves into a strong enough force, they themselves could prevent 
the Kuomintang's return. 

The extent to which this viewpoint has been accepted by the peasants is indi- 
cated by the remarkable speed with which the provincewide land program has 
been put into effect. Further evidence was provided by the response to one ques- 
tion which this writer put to more than 50 farmers. Asked "Are you not afraid 
that if the Kuomintang recaptures this area, you will be punished for taking 
this new land," almost every peasant replied somewhat as follows : "I don't 
believe the Kuomintang can ever come back here again because we have our 
army to protect us. But even if they did come, I would not be afraid — all of us 
will fight as long as we can, and if we cannot fight we will run away as we did 
when the Japanese came." 

These are not empty words, as shown by the fact that almost 100,000 Shantung 
farmers have volunteered as recruits for the Communist army since August, 
when the mobilization campaign was launched. The Shantung peasants, who 
have already demonstrated their courage in demanding the right to cultivate 
land of their own, are now fully determined to defend their newly acquired prop- 
erty, and to resist any attempts to force them back to the feudal era. 



Tientsin Starts Off New Yeab With Violence; Train Held Up 

By S. E. Shifrin (Special Correspondent, The China Weekly Review) 

Tientsin, February 13. — Announcement of American withdrawal from execu- 
tive headquarters and departure of the 1st Marine Division from Peiping and 
Tientsin in the near future put North China back in the newspaper headlines of 
the world press. It was also the biggest sensation on the spot when the news was 
flashed back from the United States. Of great local interest were the direct 
and indirect economic repercussions of the move, including that of several thou- 
sand civilian employees facing the prospect of losing their jobs. 

The Peiping-Tientsin area started off the year with isolated cases of violence, 
and accidental hand-grenade explosions, both before and after the announcement 
of the Marines' withdrawal. The Investigation Section of Tientsin garrison 
headquarters was reported to be conducting a strict checkup of armed men from 
pacification units of areas outside Tientsin. Reason for the move was the fact 
that many robberies committed over the Chinese New Year involved men wear- 
ing uniforms of the Chinese Armed Forces and military insignia. 

5 die in explosions 

Both Peiping and Tientsin were scenes of accidents involving Chinese military 
personnel. Early in January a machinegunner of the CNA described by the 
press as drunken was killed in Peiping when a grenade which he was carrying 
exploded. In Tientsin 4 were killed and 4 injured in an accident during a per- 
formance in one of the cinemas in Chinese city. The soldier killed was appar- 
ently fingering the hand grenade he was carrying when it exploded. 

The commanding ofl3cer of the Transport Coi'ps unit to which he belonged 
later declared that soldiers under his command were not equipped with hand 
grenades of this type. He added that they were forbidden to carry weapons in 
the city. One of the four dead was the manager of a store in Tsanghsien who 
had come to town to celebrate the Lunar New Year. 

Periodic disruption of the Peiping-Tientsin Railway was being taken for 
granted when what may be the most audacious train holdup ever staged in 
North China occurred on February 4. Three unidentified Chinese involved were 
either on board when the train pulled out of Peiping in the afternoon or jumped 
on when the train slowed down to avoid a possible accident in case some rails 
had been removed. In best Jesse James tradition they staged a holdup, later 
disappearing with the loot. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 185 

NEWSPAPER TALES VARY 

Details of the robbery varied in different newspapers, one local paper describ- 
ing the men as Communists and asserting that there were about 100 accomplices 
waiting outside near the tracks. The Ta Kung Pao account spoke of three 
bandits who robbed the passengers. All newspaper accounts kept mum about 
the railway guards who are usually aboard trains. Passengers who suffered 
losses had the cold comfort of registering them with the stationmaster in Tientsin 
when the train finally arrived, and up to the present seems to be the last they 
have heard about it. 

Apart from a number of acts of hooliganism committed by Chinese teen-agers 
and others, toward foreigners here, and involving mainly Russians, the latest 
case of violence recorded as this is being written is the shooting of a German- 
Jewish DP employee of CNRRA Highway Transport while driving a truck along 
the Peiping-Tientsin highway. This is the first time that an employee of CNRRA 
has been killed while carrying out his duties in the area. 

COLD WAVE GRIPS NORTH 

Weather during the second part of January was also unusual for North China. 
It snowed for 4 days, with cold temperatures and high barometric pressure ac- 
companying the snowfall, as a cold wave hit North China. Press wires hummed 
with stories of ships stranded in the ice. It is disappointing to state that this 
was probably caused by snow making visibility very poor. 

Tangku Harbor, according to people responsible for keeping it open, was kept 
open by icebreakers and the only passenger ship on record which got marooned 
was the steamship Hwa Lee, caught by the ice in the Tangku New Harbor. The 
ship had to stay where it was for 10 days until January 31 when, due to a short- 
age of icebreakers, the ice was broken by hand labor. With ice 18 inches thick 
all round, the passengers could skate ashore or walk it. 

Large drifting icefields were spotted up to 30 miles outside, leading some 
captains to believe that the river mouth of the Haiho was solidly frozen, while 
actually both it and the bar at Taku were also kept open by icebreakers. Pilots 
were delayed, for at times neither of the two icebreakers was immediately availa- 
ble to take them out to the ships. At the time boats had to navigate' through 
broken up ice and on some ships captains new to the job and unused to ice were 
reluctant to try. There is still much ice at Taku Bar, making things diflacult for 
lighters and low-powered vessels. 

GOLD MARKET RAIDED 

Maybe quotations for gold and United States currency were only following 
increases in the barometric pressure when local authorities in a move parallel 
to last year's clamped the lid on gold and United States dollar transactions. The 
black market for gold was raided during the middle of last week and some of 
the operators taken in by the police. The move came after quotations topped 
those in Shanghai but were still below those in Taiyuan, Shansi, where an ounce 
of gold was said to be worth a cool CNC$1,000,000. 

For the last few days there have been no official market quotations for gold 
or greenbacks and no exchange shop will quote to a stranger. Transactions, 
however, are still carried on partly by street operators with the rate for green- 
backs yesterday afternoon in the neighborhood of $11,500-$12,000. Two days 
ago with the rate momentarily up in Shanghai, buyers for a few hours had to 
bid up to CN$16,000 to get anywhere and there was a $2,000 spread between the 
buying and the selling rates. 

INDEX UP 305 PERCENT IN 1946 

As per prediction the index for December marked an all-time high for 1946, 
and the January index topped that. During the past year workers' cost of 
living increased from 1,412 times that of 1937 to 5,712 times — an increase of 
about 305 percent. As a compensation on an all-China scale Tientsin, as late as 
last November, lost its leadership in this class which it had held in January 
1946 over Peiping, Nanking, and Shanghai. The latest comparative figures avail- 
able here show Nanking leading in November, with Tientsin taking third place 
with 568,497, followed by Shanghai. 

Index numbers for the month of January were 8,335 times wholesale prices 
in 1937, and 6,704 times the workers cost of living in 1937, an increase of 15.61 



186 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

percent as compared with December. VVholesale prices for foodstuffs were up 
'>2 percent during January, and fuel was the only item which registered a drop, 
after a rapid increase during November, of 5.39 percent in the workers' cost-of- 
living index, where clothing reached the peak of 14,762 times the prices in 1937. 
With the present state of the market even a cautious man would not be sticking 
his neck out if he were to predict that index numbers are far from having 
reached their peak. 

Senator Welkek. What were you doing in Uie full of 1946? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I was working as an organizer for the National Farm- 
ers Union. 

Senator Welker. And that was generally throughout the country, 

Mr. Hinton, as best you can remember? 

Mr. PIiNTON. I was organizer in the northeastern division. 

Senator Welker. That would be up near your home State of Ver- 
mont and Maine and places of that nature? 

Mr. Hinton. The northeastern division covers New York and New 

England. 

Senator Welker. New York and the whole New England area? 

Mr. HiNTON. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. Did you ever organize for the Farmers Union 
.in any areas other than the northeastern division? 

Mr. Hinton. No ; I did not. 

Senator Welker. Did you, while you were doing your organizing 
for the Farmers Union, did you ever report to the Communist Party 
as to your activities with respect to that organization ? 

Mr". HiNTON. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton, are you now or have you ever been 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. HiNTON. The same answer ; I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. As of this moment you still decline to answer this 
question : Whetlier or not you are now, as of this moment, a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. When did you receive your subpena to come be- 
fore this subcommittee as of this meeting? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Air. Hinton. I received the subpena on March 1, after I drove about 
500 miles in order to meet the marshal there. I was away on a trip 
at the time. 

Senator Welker. I am sorry, Mr. Hinton, I did not hear that, but 
the reporter will read it back for me. 

Will you read the answer? 
(The answer was read.) 

Senator Welker. Yes, what I asked you or I intended to ask and I 
believe I did, when did you get the subpena? Tell me about that. 

Mr. HiNTON. I got it on jNIarch 1, because your counsel got in touch 
with my attorney, and said that they had a subpena and in order to 
facilitate serving it I came to New York to be served. 

Senator Welker. Do you know a Mr. Archie Wright ? 
(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. While I was employed by the northeastern division 
of the Farmers Union, Mr. Wright was president of that organization. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 187 

Senator Welker. Did you have instructions from the Communist 
Party to seek employment as an organizer in tlie Farmers Union ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. I hate to hear you say that, Mr. Hinton, because 
there are thousands and thousands of very loyal Americans, members 
of the Farmers Union, and that I am convinced of. 

And I believe you are giving a little bad reference to the Farmers 
Union. I am asking you — couldn't you help me a little bit and tell 
me whether or not you had received any instructions from the Com- 
munist Party to go ahead and work in that and organize the Com- 
munists in the Farmers Union? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiXTON^. I decline to answer that question on the same gTOunds. 

Senator Welker. Now, I want to turn this matter back to counsel, 
or to Senator Jenner and then I want to take you on another little trip. 

Mr. Hinton. I would like to just protest that you are drawing 
inferences from my use of the fifth amendment which are not war- 
ranted to draw and you are trying to make a case against the Farmers 
Union because of my constitutional rights. 

Senator Welker. I am not trying to infer. 

Mr. HiNTON. I don't think it is the proper way to conduct a hearing. 

Senator Welker. The inferences that I might draw on this matter 
will be drawn by perhaps thousands of Americans throughout the 
land and you are the gentleman doing it- — I did not. 

Mr. Hinton. As you know, in any court of law, inferences may 
not be drawn. 

Senator Welker. Is that right? 

Mr. Hinton. These hearings 

Senator Welker. How long have you practiced law ? 

Mr. Hinton. These hearings are supposed to be, you have always 

Senator Welker. How long have you practiced ? 

Mr. Hinton. (continuing). Made a case that your hearings are 
conducted in a similar fashion. 

Senator Welker. Just a minute now, you are getting into a matter 
1 do not think you are quite as skilled on as OWI and running tractors 
in China. I am going to correct you and I tliink your able counsel 
will agree with me, that in many jurisdictions inferences amount to 
evidence, and even inference upon an inference. 

So we are not going to get into the legal proposition. I have had 
a couple of days' experience in the practice of law, so please do not 
argue about that. 

The inferences I might draw are from cross examination and the 
committee will have to draw the inferences. I am just one of the 
committee. 

I think at this time I would like to take a little rest and turn the 
matter over to counsel, with your consent. Senator Jenner. 

Senator Jenner (now presiding). Proceed. Will you proceed. 
Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Hinton, I wonder if you would look at the first 
picture immediately to the left of your head there. 

(Witness turned.) 

Mr. Morris. Directly behind your head, in line with the camera. 
Is that one of the pictures that has reposed in your foot locker, Mr. 
Hinton? 



188 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. As to this exhibit, I decline to answer questions on the 
grounds of the fourth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. On the fourth amendment? 

Mr. HiXTON. As 3'ou know, the fourth amendment provides, or 
insures against the illegal search and seizure without warrant of 
papers, specifically of citizens and says this right may not be violated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. HiNTOx. I protest this question on the grounds of the fourth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman 

Senator "Welker. I will overrule that objection. 

Mr. Morris. The committee has put into the record the basis of its 
legal possession of these papers. 

Senator "Welker. There is not any question about that, Counselor, 
1 direct you to answer the question. I have overruled his objection. 

At the same time would you tell me, Counselor, the exhibit you were 
])ointing to? 

Mr. Morris. That is the one Mr. Arens is now pointing to with the 
stick. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Morris. The committee has reason to believe that picture was 
taken at the Asian Pacific Peace Conference held in Peiping in Octo- 
ber 1953, and that the individuals there are American citizens who are 
listening to confessions — purported confessions of Americans — Amer- 
ican fliers, captured American flierSj who are allegedly confessing that 
they have engaged in bacteriological warfare against the Chinese 
people. 

Senator Welker. How do you bring Mr. Hinton into this exhibit? 

Mr. INloRRis. Senator, that was in his possession. That photograph 
was in the possession of Mr. Hinton. 

Senator Welker. I see. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. Proceed. 

ISIr. ]\Iorris. I haven't an answer to my question. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. He has invoked his privilege under the fourth amend- 
rnent. I asked him to identify the picture and you have overruled 
him. And I am repeating the question, Mr. Hinton, is that a picture 
that you brought into the United States from occupied China ? 

Mr. Hinton. On the grounds of the first and fourth and the fifth 
amendments, I decline to answer that question. 

_Mr. Morris. ]\Ir. Chairman, may I have a ruling with respect to 
this claim of privilege under the first'^amendment. 

Senator Jenner. Do you want me to rule? 

]\Ir. Morris. Yes. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will not recognize your refusal 
to answer that question under the first or fourth amendments, but will 
recognize your right to refuse to answer under the fifth amendment. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. All risfht. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 189 

Mr. Hinton, will you identify the American citizens who appear in 
that picture ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. May it be agreed, Mr. Reporter, that every time 
that they consult together you show it on the record, counsel and client. 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question on the same three 
grounds. 

Senator Jenner. The same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Senator, Mr. Chairman 

Mr. PIiNTON. The first, the fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Jenner. Same record. 

Mr. Morris. The first individual who appears in the right fore- 
ground is Mr. John Powell, is it not? 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first, fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Jenner. Has it been shown that the witness knows Mr. 
John Powell? 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Mr. John Powell ? 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker (now presiding) . Mr. Hinton, you have given your 
reasons for not answering that question. The Chair orders and di- 
rects you to answer that question since neither of the objections is rec- 
ognized by this committee. 

So I am ordering and directing you to answer the question pro- 
pounded to you by counsel. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to, on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. Hinton. With regard to the question on Mr. Powell. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Powell has appeared as a witness before the com- 
mittee. I personally was not present, but inasmuch as Mr. McManus 
has been sworn here today, was present when Mr. Powell testified, I 
wonder if we might ask him at this point to indentify the individual 
who appears in the right foreground of the picture as Mr. John Powell. 

Senator Welker. Very well. It is so ordered. 

Mr. McManus, if you can do that, proceed and identify him. 

Mr. McManus. That is a picture of Mr. John Powell, whom I have 
seen as a witness before this committee. 

Mr. Morris. The woman on his left, that is looking at it from this 
point of view, Mr. Hinton, is that his wife, Sylvia Powell ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

(Witness looked at photograph.) 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first, the fourth, and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. McManus was present when Sylvia 
Powell appeared before the subcommittee and I think is competent to 
testify to that here today. 

Senator Welker. Very well. First I am going to overrule the 
objections made by the witness and order and direct him to answer 
the question. 

Mr. McManus. That is a picture 



190 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. 

(Witness consults with his counseh) 

Mr. HiNTON. I stand on the same answer. 

Senator Welker. On the fifth amendment, not the first and the 
fourth ? 

Mr. HiNTON. And the fifth. 

Senator Welker. W^ell, I have told you what the committee recog- 
nizes. Now we are going to the fifth, so your objection will be recog- 
nized by the committee. 

Now. 

Mr. McManus. That is a picture of Mrs. John W. Powell, who testi- 
fied before the subcommittee in San Francisco. I have seen her on 
two occasions. 

Mr. Morris. Is the next gentleman, in other words, the person 
sitting on Sylvia Powell's right, is that Julian Shuman? Is that 
Julian Shuman? 

Mr. PIiNTON. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first, the 
fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Is the next individual that appears in the picture, in 
other words, at ]\lr. Shuman's right, your sister, Joan Chase Hinton 
Engst? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first, fourth, 
and the fifth amendments. 

(The photograph which was the subject of the above testimonv was 
later ordered into the record as exhibit No. 24 and appears on the 
opposite page.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 191 



6 



H 




192 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. JMoRRis. We have here an article by Joan Hinton which ap- 
pears in People's China, January 1, 1953, issue, in which it describes — 
in which she describes her listening to the alleged forced confessions — 
alleged confessions of American fliers, who were allegedly saying that 
they engaged in bacteriological warfare against the armies of the 
Chinese People's Republic and Korean People's Republic. 

May that go into the record at this time ? 

Senator Welker. Do you want to read it ? 

Mr. ]MoKRis. Will you read parts of it, Mr. McManus, that would 
indicate the general purport of the article ? 

Mr. McManus. This is an article by Joan Hinton from People's 
China, January 1, 1953, issue, entitled "What Is Your Decision?" 

At the top of tlie article there appears what purports to be a photo- 
graph of Joan Hinton. 

It was in Peking's "Forbidden City" that we heard them: Enoch, Quinn, 
O'Neal, Kniss — four voices, so different, yet so much alike. 

".My name is Kenneth L. Enoch, first lieutenant in the United States Air 
Force" * * *" came the first, a voice so certainly American. 

"* * * 1 had 30 ordinary missions and 2 germ-bombing missions * * *." 

Clearly, distinctly, the words filled the room. One by one, they sank echolessly 
into the huge beams above us, as though their bitter truth were being trapped 
forever in the depth of this ancient hall. They told of the bacteriological war- 
fare lectures, of the assignments, the secrecy, and then — 

»* * * In the Sariwon area, we let down to 500 feet and at 200 miles per hour 
airspeed, we dropped the 2 germ bombs * * *." 

Senator Welker. I think that is sufficient, Counselor. It will be 
incorporated fully in the record. 

(The article was marked "Exhibit No. 25" and is as follows:) 

ExHiBrr No. 25 

What Is Youb Decision .«• 

Joan Hinton ^ 

It was in Peking's "Forbidden City" that we heard them: Enoch, Quinn, 
O'Xeal, Kniss — four voices, so different, yet so much alike. 

"My name is Kenneth L. Enoch, first lieutenant in the United States Air 
Force * * *" came the first, a voice so certainly Ajnerican. 

"* * * I had 30 ordinary missions and 2 germ-bombing missions * * *." 

Clearly, distinctly, the words filled the room. One by one, they sank echolessly 
into the huge beams above us, as though their bitter truth were being trapped 
forever in the depth of this ancient hall. They told of the bacteriological war- 
fare lectures, of the assignments, the secrecy, and then — 

"* * * In the Sariwon area, we let down to .500 feet and at 200 miles per 
hour airspeed, we dropped the 2 germ bombs * * *." 

So simple. 

Nothing's barred in war, it's all the same — but is it? In spite of themselves, 
the boys began to think. 

With the steadied anger of one who at last realizes he's been deceived, Quinn's 
high, thin voice poured from the moving reel — 

"Because I am a soldier I must follow orders * * * i could not refuse to do 
this crime. r>ut on the other hand I was the person who did this inhuman 
crime against the people, by carrying germ bombs and dropping them where 
innocent women and children would be the most likely victims." 



1 Joan Hinton, a nuclear physicist formerly working at the Los Alamos atomic plant In 
New Mexico, was one of the United States delegates to the Peace Conference of the Asian 
and Pacific Regions. She wrote these reflections while listening to the testimonies of 
United States germ-war airmen. "The eyes of the world are focused on you." she tells 
tinited States physicists, and asks, "What is your decision?" (Editor's note, printed with 
article.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 193 

We sat there in silence, listening, wondering. Yes, we, too, were Americans, 
ordinary Americans like these boys; and deep in our hearts we all knew, if 
we had' been in their position, trained as they were, we, too, would have done 
the same. 

As I listened, memories of Los Alamos — the people, the mountains, the labora- 
tories tucked away in canyons — crowded before me. 

Whv had we been there? 

What had we felt? Guilty?— No. 

Like the boys when they dropped the bombs, though we were uneasy, we never 
thought to blame ourselves personally for our share in the destruction of human 
lives? To them "orders were orders," to us — we were "pure" scientists, seeking 
the truth, and "the truth has no morals." 

But why this "truth"? Why atomic bombs? 

Because Nazi Germany was working ou it too — defense. 

But if they could be made — were they to be used? This was never stated. 
And as O'Neal said of himself, so it was with most of us — "I tried as much as 
I could not to think about it" — we were pure in our "pure" science, working on 
an academic question — so we thought. The use of our discoveries — that was 
up to the Government. 

We sat in our laboratories, recording the ticks of Geiger counters, arguing 
over scattering cross sections, lost in a world of atomics. And on Sundays there 
were tlie mountains, the fresh rabbit tracks across shimmering fields of white, 
and the ringing echo of laughing voices in a pile of skis and snow. 

Casual talk of the hydrogen bomb. 

This was our life — reality to us. Suffering? People dying? — impossible —  
our calculations were so harmless and our world so beautiful. 

That is, until Harry died. 

As the voices of the pilots talked on — of typhus, cholera, smallpox, plague — of 
lectures on atom bombs— one began to wonder. They were briefed on germ 
warfare, then ordered to drop germ bombs, they were briefed on atomic war- 
fare—and then? 

Again I thought of Harry. 

The way he rubbed his swollen hand on the way up the car. 

The way he reached in his pocket to hand over his coins. 

And that strange intangible feeling, when those nickels were so "hot" that the 
Geiger counter jammed — when I suddenly realized "Harry's got it bad." 

It took him a month to die — his body slowly rotting away. Bit by bit his hair 
fell out, his teeth loosened, his body swelled into one big blister. Then — perito- 
nitis, insanity, death. And we sat there and watched, and there was nothing 
we could do. 

But Harry was only one. What about Japan? Our pure science, our pre- 
occupation with our own tiny world, had suddenly come to this — to Harry 
multiplied 150,000 times. 

And now, 7 years later, bacteriological warfare against the Koreans and 
Chinese, and again pilots are being briefed anew for atomic warfare. But the 
scientists still work on. Thinking politics beneath them, they have found them- 
selves gradually caught in an ever tightening noose, until now they are forced 
to sell their souls if they wish to continue in research. For those with a 
conscience, for those who speak out, it is beginning to mean their bread. 

Yet the majority, like the majority of Americans, are wrapped in a cloak of 
ignorance. They are told they are working for defense, and they tend to 
believe it. 

But what has defense to do with Korea? Who are the Koreans? What 
menace are they to Americans? Why should we be trying to exterminate them 
as a people — strafing them, bombing them, burning them with napalm? Secretly, 
in mad desperation, spread their land with virulent bacteria — a last bitter at- 
tempt to wipe them out with plague, cholera, encephalitis? 

We? Yes, we, the American people, have let this happen, through our in- 
difference, through our lack of political awareness, through our irresponsibility 
in allowing such men to gain control. 

And again the voice of O'Neal called out from the moving reel. "The United 
States Government knows these facts * * *. But the people don't know, be- 
cause the Government doesn't want them to know * * *. When I think of my 
future, when I think of some day * * * when my son asked me what I did in 
Korea, how can I tell him that I came over here and dropped germ bombs on 
people * * *? How can I go back and face my family in a civilized world? 



194 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

* * * But when the full realization of what I had done came to me, the suffering 
and misery that I've caused, it was enough to split my very soul asunder * * *." 

And later 

"Have you thought * * * that the very fact of having made this testimony 
about bacteriological warfare may, could lead to some reprisals against your 
family in the United States * * * I don't know * * * whether when you your- 
self return, the military or the authorities might take some action against you." 
came the voice of Dr. Olivo Oliviero, member of the International Scientific 
Commission, then questioning Kniss. 

"Yes, I did," he answered. "I gave that considerable thought * * *. If they 
in any form take reprisals on my wife * * * my parents, any member of our 
family, they will only be admitting their guilt to this method of warfare. I 
have enough faith in the American people * * * the average American, that 
they will not allow anything to happen to my wife. As for myself, they may 
ti-y some sort of reprisal. Again, the American people on policy will stand 
behind me 100 percent. If they don't, I mean, there are some things a man 
lias got to stand up and fight, I mean, it'll never be conquered laying down or 
merely accepting it very meekly." 

Tlie reel was finished. For a minute, we sat there in the great silent hall, 
thinking. Four men had stood up. Four men bad dared to tell the truth. 

There will be screams of "Fakes" — but no one who heard these voices will 
be fooled. Only Americans can speak "American." And that tinge of southern 
drawl in O'Neal's "ma-own fam'ly" is more genuine than a thousand documents 
could ever be. No — these boys are real. Germ warfare is real. And it's time 
we Americans understood what is being done in our name. 

Sitting there, I could not help biit think again of you physicists, wherever 
you may be, at Los Alamos, at Hanford, at Tennessee, at Chicago, you who are 
still working on atomic bombs— do you ever wonder what it is you are doing 
with your lives? How much longer can you stand to sell your dignity as human 
beings, to mutilate science under the cloak of defense? Who is it you are 
working to annihilate? In Pyongyang, Korea, there was an old man by the 
name of Han Sang Kuk — but he's dead now. He and his two small grand- 
children — dead of cholera. Their crime? — playing with strange flies found in 
their yard after the circling of United States planes. 

These are the people you are aiming to kill. These babies, these old people, 
what threat are they to you? 

Today, when the eyes of the world are focused on you, there is this you must 
understand : It's not through fear that tliey condemn you ; the people know 
their strength ; they have no doubt as to who would win if the United States 
were to start another world war. 

No, it is in the name of peace, of life, of the dignity of science and man that 
they condemn you, that they a.sk — What is your decision? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in fairness to the fact that these are 
purported to be the statements, the forced statements of the American 
fliers, I think we have obtained the subsequent repudiation on the part 
of the four Americans involved, and I think that they should go into 
the record at this time. 

Senator Welker. Where did you get these statements? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, will you identify these statements, 
please ? 

Mr. McManus. These statements were taken from a release of the 
United States delegation to the Geneva Assembly, dated October 26, 
1953. The first paragraph of the release says : 

Text of sworn statements by 10 United States fliers, concerning germ-warfare 
confessions. 

And the paragraph says : 

Following are texts of 10 sworn statements made since their return to freedom 
by 10 United States fliers. All of these ofiicers, during their captivity in Korea, 
were .subjected to duress by their captors with a view to extracting "confessions." 

And the word "confessions" is in quotes. 

Senator Welker. Very well. They will be admitted as part of the 
record at this point. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 195 

(The document is as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 25-A 

United States Delegation to the Geneeal Assembly 

Press release No. 1786 (pt. II of three parts), October 26, 1953 

Texts of Sworn Statements hy 10 United States Fliers Concerning 

"Germ Warfare Confessions" 

Following are the texts of 10 sworn statements, made since their return to 
freedom by 10 United States fliers. All these officers, during their captivity in 
Korea, were subjected to duress by their captors with a view to extracting "con- 
fessions" about alleged use of germ warfare. In 8 of these 10 cases the 
Communists succeeded in obtaining confessions ; in the other 2 cases the Com- 
munists failed. 



B. Statements 3 through 6, by Air Force 1st Lts. John S. Quinn, Paul R. 
Kniss, Floyd B. O'Neal, and Kenneth Enoch. All these officers signed confes- 
sions under duress. These confessions were exploited in a widely distributed 
Communist propaganda film, and were submitted officially to the United Nations 
by the delegate of the U. S. S. R. on October 1, 1952. 



Sworn Statement of Lt. John S. Quinn 

I am aware of my rights under article 31, United States Unified Code of Mili- 
tary Justice, and wish to make the following voluntary statement concerning my 
experiences as a prisoner of war of the North Korean and Chinese Communist 
governments in North Korea. 

I did not, in the true sense of the word, ever "confess" to anything related 
to germ warfare. How could I, when I don't know, or never did know, anything 
about how such a thing can be done? It would be true to say, and thank God 
I'm back again where I can speak truly, that I was coerced by diabolical mental 
torture, which it would take a poet like Poe to justly describe, into writing 
Communist propaganda. My wife was pregnant and I had real cause to fear 
for her life if she didn't hear I was alive. The threat of death was really the 
least fearful thing that >hung over me. I was physically weak from malnutrition 
and loss of sleep. Three interrogators were assigned to me, as they said them- 
selves, for the sole purixise of "getting my confession." The safety of my wife 
and children, one yet unborn, were threatened, and that, in my mental condition, 
assumed gigantic proportions. 

Much of what the Communists call my confession was dictated to me. Much 
I added myself, much which seemed to me fantastic beyond belief, in the hope 
that it would get out and make this "germ warfare" — "hate America" campaign 
of theirs obviously ridiculous to any thinking person. For instance dropping 
bombs from a loaded B-26 at 110 miles per hour — a loaded B-26 cannot fly at 
that speed. I could give many more such examples. I do not know how much 
of this confession was put out for public consumption. 

In my 20 months with the Chinese soldiers and political fanatics, I can remem- 
ber no period during which I was treated in accordance with the Geneva protocol 
for treatment of PO"W's. For an extended period, shortly after capture, I was 
thrown with a Lieutenant Maultsby Into an icy cave in inadequate clothing. 
After 2 days there, I was sure their idea was to kill us by degrees. Our feet 
began to freeze. I couldn't grab my own zipper tight enough, because of the 
cold, to work it. The water was so filthy we feared to drink it and did not during 
the entire period of almost 2 weeks. Our food was a little rice and seaweed twice 
a day, served in a filthy, rusty tin can. "We could not stand up in the cave as 
the ceiling was too low. We couldn't sleep for the cold and made up little forms 
of exercise which we could take continiiously to keep warm. I did not see then 
how a person could go through this treatment alone, and what Chuck Maultsby 
and I have shared together has made us lifelong friends. 

Later I was put alone and kept that way for over 8 months, living with an 
interrogator, the only man I have ever learned to hate, and I hate him with a 
passion that borders on insanity. He constantly harangued me with stock ques- 



196 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

tions on what I was thinking, what were my feelings, what was communism, 
and so forth, and so forth. I can't write sensibly about what they do to a person 
when he can't fight back, because my emotions are too wrapped up in it. I can't 
forget it. I don't wish to forget it. I want always to remember it, and remember 
it, and remember it. I hope others who might have been confused by the things 
I was forced to write, say, and do may get some vague feeling for what I — and 
others — have been through. 

All news of the outside world was kept from me for the entire 20 months. 
Never did I get to read, nor did I ever form an accurate picture of what the 
germ-warfare propaganda campaign consisted of, other than my part in it, nor 
of its effects. We were given only the periodicals from the Communist countries 
and sometimes the Daily Worker or People's World, several months old. 

It appears now that I have been a pretty big part of a scheme to put blinders 
on all men, to channel their thinking, and bring the best in human emotions and 
hopes in to support these channeled thoughts. The result is living dead men, 
controlled human robots, which willingly, as long as they are under the spell, 
do their master's bidding. Now, because I am able again to speak freely, because 
I feel I owe it to those whom my statements may have confused, and because 
I feel ray esi)eriences have made me particularly qualified, I would like to help 
take off these blinders, to shatter the walls of these channels, to let in some 
fresh air and sunshine, and help them relearn the exhaltation of personal free- 
doms once again. 

(Signed) John S. Quinn, 17993A, 

First Lieutenant, U8AF. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 23d day of September 1953 at Parks 
Air Force Base, Calif. 

(Signed) Clifford A. Sheldon, 

Colonel, U8AF, 
Staff Judge Advocate. 



Sworn Statement of Lt. Paul R. Kniss 

I am aware of my rights under article 31, United States Unified Code of Mili- 
tary Justice, and wish to make the following voluntary statement concerning 
my experience as a prisoner of war of the North Korean and Chinese Communist 
Governments in North Korea. 

As a result of threats, torture, starvation, brutality, and barbaric treatment 
given me by my Communist captors, I was coerced into taking part in the hate- 
America campaign. As part of this campaign, the Communists tried to bring 
discredit upon the United States fighting forces in Korea by alleging they were 
waging bacteriological warfare. Part of this so-called evidence used in this 
charge was a forced "confession" which I submitted after severe mental and 
physical torture, including repeated threats of death. I now deny the forced 
confession I made. At no time prior to my being captured was I lectured on 
bacteriological warfare or led to believe that the United States forces were 
using bacteriological warfare. I have never flown any bacteriological warfare 
missions, nor have I flown any missions that could conceivably be classed as 
bacteriological warfare missions. 

Everything I was forced to "confess" to in the Communist hands was an out- 
and-out lie. These statements would have never been signed by me if I had not 
been subjected to severe mental and physical torture. 

I made interviews, movies, and recordings of my "confession," doing so only 
under threat of death. The humane treatment I was supposed to receive was 
entirely absent. The treatment I received was of the Fascist order, with no 
attention paid to my request for treatment as specified under the Geneva Con- 
vention of 1929. 

My so-called confession was partially dictated to me by my captors, and the 
rest I fabricated by myself. The contents of this "confession" are ridiculous, 
and the dates of missions flown, of lectures received, are all fictitious. 

I was interrogated by the Communists for periods lasting up to 20 hours, 
during which time I was made to sit at attention flat on the floor, with no back- 
rest. I was denied medical attention for 48 hours at one time while I was suffer- 
ing from diarrhea, and only received it from them as they thought I was dying. 

I was threatened with death many times, and I was to be shot as an enemy 
agent, due to lack of identification, which the Communists had previously taken 
from me. The Communists violated every one of the Geneva regulations. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 197 

I have never heard from any source, other than the Communists, that the 
United States forces or the United Nations Command was waging bacteriological 
warfare in Korea. 

Everything I was forced to say was done in the effort to smear the reputation 
of the United Nations in the eyes of the world. The charges of the Communists 
contained in the so-called confessions are fantastic, and any thinking person 
would recognize this immediately. 

(Signed) Paul R. Kniss, AO1909070, 

1st Lieutenant, U8AF. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 23d day of September 1953 at Parks 
Air Force Base, Calif. 

(Signed) Clifford A. Shexdon, 
Colonel, USAF, Staff Judge Advocate. 



SwoEN Statement of Lt. Floyd B. O'Neal 

I am aware of my rights under article 31, United States Unified Code of Mili- 
tary Justice, and wish to make the following voluntary statement couceniing 
my experiences as a prisoner of war of the North Korean and Chinese Communist 
governments in North Korea. 

Due to coercion, taking the form of physical torture, very poor food, continuous 
threats of death, and other dastardly methods of breakLng my willpower, the 
Chinese Communists did force me to sign a "confession" to bacteriological germ 
warfare. This so-called confession was signed only after the Chinese Commu- 
nists had given me an ultimatum of 48 hours in which to "confess" to germ 
warfare or be tried and executed as a war criminal. This "confession" was 
utterly false and I wish now to deny the statements contained in the forced 
"confession." 

At no time prior to being sent to Korea to fight was I lectured on bacteriological 
warfare or was I led to believe from any training or briefing I received that the 
United States of America Forces were waging bacteriological warfare in North 
Korea, China, or any other area. I have never flown any bacteriological warfare 
missions nor have I flown any missions that could conceivably be classed as bacte- 
riological warfare missions. Everything I "confessed" to in prisoner-of-war camps 
was an out-and-out lie. I signed their statements only under extreme duress 
including both physical and mental pressure. I signed my "confession" after 
the above-mentioned ultimatum when I had had time to consider all factors. 
I was convinced that the Communists would eventually obtain a confession of 
sorts from me by either driving me out of my mind, by continuous mental pres- 
sure, or else by forcing me to physical exhaustion. 

The Chinese Communists accused me of being a war criminal in that they 
accused me of flying germ warfare missions over North Korea. They accused 
me of dropping bacteriological warfare bombs and spraying bacteria-infested 
insects. These charges were made against me with absolutely no basis of fact. 
These charges were continually hurled in my face with threats that if I did not 
"confess" to these charges or admit having participated in germ warfare I 
would suffer the penalty of death for my "war crimes." 

The Chinese Communists made motion pictures and radio broadcasts which 
have included the so-called confession signed by myself. These recordings and 
broadcasts were made under duress similar to that used to force me to sign the 
false "confession" on germ warfare. The statements made in these movies 
and recordings were false and have no basis of fact. The statements made in 
these movies and recordings were statements which the Communists themselves 
made up for me to repeat. 

The Chinese Communists also used the false "confession" obtained from me 
on germ warfare in an attempt to convince other U. N. Command prisoners of 
war of the big lie which they were trying to foist upon the world. The Chinese 
Communists used my "confession" as part of their "Hate America" campaign. 

The methods used by the Communist interrogators to secure my so-called con- 
fession were of two kinds : One, physical torture of sorts, such as long hours 
of standing at attention ; poor food, contaminated water to drink, then denial of 
medical attention after I became ill from polluted water; and two, mental 
pressure, long hours of interrogation and wrangling and haranguing, attempting 
to break down my willpower, attempting in some manner to dull my mental 
facilities in order that they might more easily extract from me their desired 
statements. Threats were used in attempting to obtain my so-called confession. 



198 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

These threats consisted of telling me that I would never return home if I did not 
sign the confession they wished me to sign. They continually stated that they 
woukl in tlie end get a confession from me in some manner. Then there was a 
constant and continuous threat of deatli as a result of war crime trials. I was 
kept in solitary confinement with absolutely no contacts. I was closely guarded 
and in all periods of time when I was being interrogated, I was under an armed 
guard which was very strict and allowed no deviation in the orders given by the 
Chinese interrogators. I was not treated humanely and in accordance with the 
provisions of the Geneva Convention (m treatment of prisoners of war. There 
were many direct violations of the Geneva Convention. When I at first brought 
up my rights under the Geneva Convention, the Chinese Communists threw these 
riglits back into my teeth and told me they had their own policy of dealing with 
prisoners of war. They explained that they had a different policy for each 
prisoner. They called this their lenient policy. I was denied healthful food, I 
was deprived of medical attention, the Communists used extreme forms of intimi- 
dations; my physical comfort and mental well-being were far from adequately 
cared for. The mental well-being especially seemed to be a point of attack for 
them in that they seemed to be trying to constantly create in my mind a doubt as 
to the reliability of the true statements which I had made. When I saw that 
somehow they would obtain a confession by driving me out of my mind or to 
physical collapse, I signed the statements the Chinese Communists wanted. 
Again, these statements were utterly and completely false and have no basis of 
fact whatsoever. 

I was forced to appear before the so-called International Scientific Commission 
and make statements to them on germ warfare. I was threatened beforehand 
witli physical violence and other threats used in attaining my so-called confession 
if I did not appear before this International Scientific Commission, give them the 
statements there that the Chinese Communists wanted me to give them. The 
statements which I made before this International Scientific Commission were 
liardboiled lies. I had attempted to insert as many ridiculous and false facts as 
possible in tlie statements which I signed for my confession. I repeated these 
ridiculous and false statements before the International Scientific Commission 
again because of duress. I have never participated in any tyi^e of bombing raids 
which could conceivably be classed as germ raids or bacteriological raids. 

I have never heard from any source other than my Communist interrogators 
that the U. N. Command had participated in bacteriological warfare raids over 
North Korea, China, or any other area for that matter. The broaching of the 
subject of bacteriological warfare to me by the Communists was a complete 
surprise. I denied any knowledge of germ warfare and denied any participation 
in germ warfare by the U. N. Command. However, under physical and mental 
duress I finally signed false confessions to germ warfare which were made up for 
me by the Chinese Communists. 

(Signed) Flotd B. O'Neal, A01S48575, 

1st Lieutenant, TJSAF. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 23d day of September 1953, at Parks 
Air Force Base, Calif. 

(Signed) Clifford A. Sheldon, 

Colonel, V8AF, 
Staff Jndye Advocate. 



Sworn Statement of Lt. Kenneth Enoch 

I am aware of my rights under article 81, United States Unified Code of Military 
Justice, and wish to make the following voluntary statement concerning my ex- 
periences as a prisoner of war of the North Korean and Chinese Communist 
Governments in North Korea. 

I wish to state firmly that these charges are wholly without grounds and the 
so-called confessions were obtained imder extreme duress. I did not personally 
engage in bacteriological warfare, nor do I know of anyone else who has engaged 
in bacteriological warfare. 

Before each movie, each wire recording, each interview with so-called investi- 
gators of this alleged crime, my so-cnlled testimony was used as a pressure in 
order to force me to comply with tbeir demands. 

Everything I stated relative to offensive bacteriological warfare while in 
prisoner-of-war camp was an out-and-out lie. I would certainly never have 
signed their statements liad I not been forced to do so under threat of prolonged 
torture, which so far as I knew meant only to death. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 199 

My statement was used in order to compel me to write acceptable articles — 
articles wliich they could use in their smear-America campaign. I wrote one 
little note to the Vienna Peoples' Conference for Peace in October 1952. Also, 
I was told to write articles for the prison-camp newspaper, and I wrote two of 
those. 

At the time I was captured I believed that I would be treated humanely under 
the stipulations of the Geneva Conference but I soon found out that the Chinese 
Communists had an utter disregard for human values and human rights. As 
I knew, many POVi^'s had died due to Communist maltreatment, and I realized 
that they would stop at nothing to achieve their goals. However, I resisted 
their attempts for some time but I was finally brought around to the realization 
that my only alternative was to submit to their pressure, but in as limited a 
manner as possible. 

We were treated good under some of the provisions of the Geneva Conference, 
but they had an out-and-out disregard of others, and of course many of these 
were flagrant violations. I was kept in solitary confinement for 13 months. I 
was kept in 2 camps where they had no POW sign to protect us from air 
attacks. The diet during the winter was of very low nutritional value and 
caused much sickness. I had almost constant diarrhea during my period of 
captivity. I had it about 20 times, for 5 or 6 days at a time. This made me 
very weak and nervous. 

I did not participate in any type of bombing raids which would even remotely 
be classed as germ raids or bacteriological warfare raids. 

I have not heard from any other source, other than the Chinese Communists, 
that the United Nations Command had employed weapons of bacteriological 
warfare. 

(Signed) Kenneth Enoch, AO2069988, 

First Lieutenant, V8AF. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 23d day of September 1953, at Parks 
Air Force Base, Calif. 

(Signed) Clifitord A. Sheldon, 

Colonel, USAF, 
Staff Judge Advocate. 

Mr. Morris. I think that for the purposes of the record one of them 
is a short one and should be read at this time to show the general 
nature of what these are. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. McManus. This is the sworn statement of Lt. John S. Quinn. 

Mr. Morris. Was he one of the people who was mentioned in the 
Joan Hinton article? 

Mr. McManus. Yes, she mentions Quinn, Kniss, O'Neal, and Ken- 
neth Enoch, all of whom have repudiated their confessions. 

(Whereupon Mr. McManus read in full the statement of Lieutenant 
Quinn as printed above. ) 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, was Lieutenant Quinn's alleged 
confession tape-recorded and played at the APPC Conference in 
Peiping in October 1952 ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. Counsel, will you tell, for the purpose of the 
record, where is Peiping? 

Mr. Morris. Peiping is the capital of Soviet China, is it not? 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Will you look at the top picture on the bulletin board 
on the right, Mr. Hinton. That is the top glossy one between the 
two large originals. 

Senator Welker. Have someone point it out to him. 

(Mr. Arens pointed it out.) 

Senator Welker. Mr. Witness, would you mind looking at the pic- 
ture there? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 



200 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Witness looks at picture.) 

Senator Welker. That is not going to hurt you to look at the 
picture, is it? 

Mr. Morris. Have you looked at the picture? 

Senator Welker. Have you seen them? 

Mr. HiNTON. I have seen them. 

Mr. Morris. That is a picture which was taken at the 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I indicated by that answer, that I have just looked 
at the picture. 

Senator Welker. Since you have been here in the room? 

Mr. HiNTON. Since I have been here in the room. I had a chance 
before the hearing began to look at them. 

Senator Welker. I see. 

Mr. Morris, Was that a picture that was taken at the Asian and 
Pacific Peace Conference in Peiping in October 1952? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. And are not the individuals who appear in this picture 
sitting at a desk in which the flag of the United States with a little 
emblem "U. S. A." appears in front of that? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first, 
the fourth, and the fifth amendments, as previously stated. 

(A reproduction of the photograph alluded to in the above testi- 
mony was later ordered into the record as exhibit No. ^6 and appears 
on the opposite page.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 201 



o 

E-i 

M 

n 




202 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. I will ask yon to look at the second glossy on the left- 
hand board, Mr. Hinton. Mr. Arens is pointing it out to you now. 
(Mr. Arens pointed to photogi'aph.) 
(Witness looked at photograph.) 

Mr. Morris. Is that a picture that you brought into the United 
States in your footlocker? 

("Witness consults with his counsel.) 
Senator Welker. Let the record show the consultation. 
Mr. HiNTOx. I doubt very much that I ever saw these pictures be- 
fore. They don't look familiar to me. 

Mr. Morris. The question is, did you bring them into the United 
States in your footlocker? 

(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. IIiNTON. That is what I mean to answer by that answer. 
Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, will you testify that the three pictures 
we have shown the witness at this time were, in fact, taken from 
his footlocker? 

Mr. ;McManus. They were taken from the footlocker under my 
personal supervision, and I saw them. I saw them when they were 
taken out of the locker. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Ilinton, will you look at the glossy on the right- 
hand bulletin board, the lower of the two glossy prints? 
(Witness looked at glossy print.) 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify that as a picture that you brought 
into the United States? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 
Mr. HiNTON. No, I don't. 

Mr. Morris. You what? I didn't hear your answer. 
Mr. HiNTON. My answer is "No." What was your question ? Repeat 
the question. 

Mr. Morris. Was that a picture that you brought into the United 
States in your footlocker ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I doubt it very strongly, whether that is anything 
that I brought in, in my footlocker. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Is that a picture that you took from the footlocker 
of Mr. Hinton, Mr. McManus? 

Mr. McManus. I can identify that as a picture that was in Mr. 
Hinton's footlocker, and other people have seen this picture taken 
from that footlocker, working under my supervision. 
(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. If he says so, I am not going to contradict him. I 
decline to answer about it. 

Senator Welker. Do you want to tell us where you got the pictures? 
(Witness consults wit:h his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first, 
the fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. Now, the record will again show we recognize 
the fifth amendment but not the first and the fourth. 

(The photograph alluded to in the testimony above was ordered 
into the record as exhibit No. 26-A and appears on the opposite page, 
and identified further on p. 232.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 203 

Exhibit No. 26-A 




Mr. Morris. Mr. Hinton, I would like to show you two more pictures. 

Mr, McManus, will you testify that these are pictures taken from 
the f ootlocker of the witness here today ? Look at them and identify 
them. 

Mr. McMaxus. Yes, one of these is a picture— yes, I identify both 
of these as having been taken from Mr. Hinton's footlocker. 

Mr. Morris. Will you show them to the witness ? 

(Photographs were given to Mr. Arens to show to tlie witness, and 
were shown to him.) 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. Did you bring those two photographs in 2 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 



204 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY" IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first, 
the fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. Same ruling bj the Chair. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Hinton — may I ask a question, Mr. Chair- 
man? 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Senator Jenner. Is that your footlocker there to the right of the 
table? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton, will you pay attention, please, to 
the question propounded to you by the Senator from Indiana. 

Mr. Hinton. Put the question again, please. 

Senator Jenner. Is that your footlocker there to the right of the 
table? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Jenner. You certainly know whether that is your foot- 
locker without conferring with your attorney. How would your 
attorney know whether it is your locker or not? 

Is that your footlocker ? Give me a simple answer. 

Mr. Friedman. The consultation is not to find out whether it is or 
not but whether he would waive his fifth amendment right by answer- 
ing, and I would like to consult with him. 

Senator Jenner. That is different, I see. 

Senator Welker. I do not want to get into this argument, but the 
first discourse we had was a demand by your client to have these, the 
footlocker and all its contents, released back to him upon the grounds 
and for the reason that he thought they were illegally seized by the 
customs. 

So now let us not hedge around on the matter. Now answer the 
Senator's question. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. It looks like it could be the footlocker which I had. 

Senator Jenner. Suppose you examine it; suppose you do. 

Mr. Hinton. I would like it back right now. 

Senator Jenner. Well, if you mean it looks like the one you had, 
why don't you examine it and tell us whether or not that is your 
footlocker ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Jenner. You want it back. Do you want somebody else's 
property ? You are not a thief, are you ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. PIiNTON. It would take me a good many days to examine the 
contents. 

Senator Jenner. I am not asking you about the contents — you are 
supposed to be an intelligent man — you worked for the OWI — you 
go around making 300 lectures. I am asking you a simple question, 
that an idiot could answer. Is that your footlocker? 

Mr. Hinton. I can hear you here 

Senator Jenner. I cannot hardly understand you, I will tell you 
that much. 

Mr. Hinton (continuing). Without shouting. 

Senator Jenner. Will you answer my question ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Jenner. Get up and examine it, feel of it, smell it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 205 

(Witness looked at the foot locker.) 

Mr. Morris. I might point out that the witness has been demand- 
ing that it be returned to him. 

Senator Jenner. He ought to know whether it is or not. I want 
him to examine it. 

(Witness looked at the footlocker again.) 

(Witness consults with his comisel. ) 

Mr. HiNTON. This is the first time I have had a chance to look 
at what has been purported to have been taken from me for at least 

3 years. 

Senator Jenner. I am not asking what is purported to have been 
taken from you. 

Mr. HiNTON. The record of this and similar committees, and pho- 
tographs and various things has been before us, in the last few 
years. I think I should have a chance to look this thing over. 

Senator Jenner. Just a moment. You get up and you look it 
over. I want to know whether or not that is your footlocker, Mr. 
Billy Hinton. 

(Witness looked at footlocker again.) 

Mr. Hinton. I can't tell whether it is or not. 

Senator Jenner. Wliy do you demand it back? You want some- 
body else's property. 

Mr. Hinton. I want 

Senator Jenner. How could you identify that in court or anywhere 
else? How could you demand that back if you do not even know 
whether it is your property or not ? 

]SIr. Hinton. I want a chance to 

Senator Jenner. You have got the chance — get up right now — 
stand aside and let the gentleman examine it and see whether or not 
that is his footlocker. Go ahead, Billy. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I'd like to object to the form of address you have 
been using. 

Senator Jenner. The form of what ? 

Mr. Hinton. Of address of me that you have been using. 

Senator Jenner. Don't you like "Mr. Hinton"? What do you 
want me to call you "Comrade" or something ? 

Mr. Hinton. I prefer to be called "Mr. Hinton," yes. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Hinton, will you please examine the foot- 
locker to the right of the table and tell this committee whether or not 
it is your footlocker. 

(Witness looks at the footlocker.) 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

(Witness stood up and looked at the footlocker and grasped it with 
both hands. ) 

^Witness consults with his counsel.) 

(Witness again examined the footlocker.) 

Mr. Morris. Senator Jenner, while the witness is examining the 
footlocker, I would like the record to show that yesterday afternoon 
we made this footlocker and all of the material therein available to 
this witness, for his own scrutiny and examination, so that if he 
were asked questions about it this morning, he would be completely 
conversant with it. 



206 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I think Mr. Friedman will bear me out. Even though we had a room 
available with the footlocker and the material available to Mr. Hinton, 
he did not avail himself of that opportunity. 

Senator Welker. Very well. There is a question before the com- 
mittee now. You have examined the footlocker. 

Mr. Hinton. I would like to dispute what Judge Morris said. The 
whole thing was not available to me to look at yesterday. A small 
envelope of things were brought out yesterday for me to look at. Ever 
since this, whatever property that was illegally taken from the cus- 
toms was taken, I have not had a chance to see it, because I refused 
to look at jDroperty that was illegally taken from me until it was given 
back to me. 

Senator Welker. Oh, now, that is a smart answer. You have had 
a chance to look at it now, and you still do not want to look at it, is 
that right? 

Senator Jenner. He has looked. 

Mr. HiNTON. I just looked at it. 

Senator Welker. All right, ansM^er the Senator's question as to 
whether or not that is your footlocker and please, Mr. Hinton, quit 
delaying matters. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. Why, I can't be sure on the locker because this locker 
here does not seem to be in quite as bad shape as the locker which I 
brought back. It certainly is a very similar locker. 

Senator Welker. You want still to have a similar locker returned 
to you, is that correct ? 

Mr. Hinton. No ; I want my own. 

Senator Welker. Well, would you say that is your own or wouldn't 
you? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. Of course, what we have been talking about all along is 
the contents of the locker, and the actual box is a small matter. 

Senator Welker. If I might offer an observation, perhaps, since 
you have been here you have seen the contents and, therefore, you 
are not quite so sure that you want the locker back. That probably 
is not fair to you, Mr. Hinton, and I withdraw that statement. 

Mr. Morris. Mr, Hinton, is it your reply to the last question with 
I'espect to the last two photographs that I showed you that you will 
not tell us, and invoke your privilege under the fifth amendment, 
whether or not those two photographs were brought into the country 
by you in your footlocker? 

Mr. HiNTON. Your statement is correct. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Mr. McManus, have you any way of iden- 
tifying those two photographs as photographs taken of the Asiatic 
Pacific or Asian Pacific Peace Conference in Peiping in October 1952? 

Mr. McManus. I have a publication entitled "Peace Conference of 
the Asian and Pacific Eegion in Pictures," which I purchased at the 
Workers Bookshop in New York City on December 7, 1955. The 
])ictures which I found in Mr. Hinton's footlocker, the last two pic- 
tures which have been handed to him, are reproduced in this docu- 
ment, along with other pictures, which I also found in the footlocker 
which he says was his property. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 207 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, do the two pictures that appeared in 
the footlocker of Mr. Hinton, do they appear in this other volume? 

Mr. MoManus. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Are they identified in that volume? 

]Mr. McManus. Yes; one of them is the cover picture. 

Mr. Morris. What does it say ? 

Mr. McManus. Well, it says in several languages, "Long live 
peace." 

Mr. Morris. Yes; is there anything to indicate that the cover pic- 
ture was a picture taken at the Asian Pacific Peace Conference? 

Mr. McManus. You mean on this document or on this one ? 

Mr. Morris. On the book, the Worker's Bookshop book. 

Mr. McManus. Yes; I just read the title of the book into the 
record. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. The Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Re- 
gions in Pictures ? 

Mr. McManus. Right. 

Senator Welker. Well now, Counsel, in fairness to Mr. Hinton, I 
believe the picture sholild go in for whatever value it might have, 
but as acting chairman of the committee, I don't think it is fair to 
ask Mr. Hinton or to put some publication in the record which is 
purely hearsay, in my opinion. 

Mr. Morris. It is not precisely hearsay. It is what it purports to 
be. 

Senator Welker. Of course, it purports to be what somebody else 
says about it. I am not going to allow the publication to go in, but I 
think the picture should go in. 

Mr. Morris. Do you want the pictures that appear in the publica- 
tion to go in the record — do you not ? 

Senator Welker. I think they should, but I do not want any 
writer's opinion as to what they are. 

Mr. Morris. And the description of the booklet itself, Peace Con- 
ferences of the Asian and Pacific Regions in Pictures. May our record 
contain the fact that this book, purchased where it was, does contain 
these particular pictures, were taken of that particular peace confer- 
ence and let it speak for itself to that extent? 

Senator Welker. All right. That is right. 

(The pictures alluded to in the above testimony Avere later ordered 
into the record as exhibit 27 and 27A and appear on the following 
pages.) 



208 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



liiXHIBIT No. 27 




SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 209 




210 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Wliere was this purchased ? 

Mr. McManus. At the Workers Bookshop in New York City. 

Senator Welker. Do you have any information as to what that is, 
(he Workers Bookshop ? 

Mr. McManus. I think probably Mr. Mandel would be able to 
answer that. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Mandel. will you describe to the committee 
what the Workers Booksliop is? "\^niat information do you have 
on it? 

Mr. Mandel. The Workers Bookshop has been for many years the 
official Communist bookshop. It is located at the Communist Party 
lieadquarters on 50 East 13th Street. 

Senator Jexner. T^'liere? 

Mr. Morris. New York City. 

Mr. Mandel. In New York City. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would look at the other pictures which 
appear on the two bulletin boards behind you. Look at the one on 
the upper left on board No. 1. Was that a picture that you brought 
into the United States in your footlocker? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

tlr. HiNTON. I want to complete my statement on this locker. The 
locker which I had, when you picked it up the bottom dropped out 
of it, and that is why they had it bound up with wooden slats. This 
box, when I picked it up seemed to hold quite well. So that is what 
creates a doubt in my mind about the identity of the box. 

Senator Jenner. The question was not concerning a box. The 
question was concerning a picture pointed out to you on the bulletin 
board. 

Mr. Hinton. In regard to the picture on the bulletin board I de- 
cline to answer that on the grounds of the first, the fourth, and the 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Will you rule on his objection? 

Senator Welker. I will rule on the objection. We disallow the 
first and fourth. The committee recognizes the fifth amendment, but 
I am going at this point to order and direct the witness to answer 
that question. 

f Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. My answer is the same. 

(The photograph referred to was marked Exhibit No. 28 and ap- 
])ears on the opposite page, and is further discussed on p. 227.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 211 



00 
O 

<— I 

a 




212 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Do you know the Chinese language, Mr. Hinton? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HixTON. Well, I have a fairly goocl speaking knowledge of the 
language and can read some of it. 

Mr. Morris. All right now, without conceding at all that you did 
bring this picture into the United States, will you look at the Chinese 
characters that appear in that picture designated by Mr. Arens, and 
make a translation for us? 

(Witness looked at the picture.) 

Mr. Morris. I would like to call your attention to the fact that 
there is a translation that appears over the picture, which has been 
prepared by the Library of Congi-ess. Perhaps that might aid, 
Mr. Hinton, but if it isn't a fair translation by the Library of Con- 
gress, will you, based on your knowledge, tell us whether it is properly 
translated ? 

(Witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 

Mr. Morris. You refuse to say whether that is a fair trans- 
lation ? 

Mr. Hinton. On the grounds of the first and fourth and fifth 
amendments. 

Senator Welker. The same order by the chairman. Why are you so 
worried about the translation, if you feel that perhaps you didn't 
bring these picture into this country in your f ootlocker ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that question on the fii*st, fourth, 
and fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder — will you read the Library of Congress 
translation that appeare over the picture there? Just read it. 

(The poster was marked "Exhibit 29" and appears on the opposite 
page. The lettering in English is a translation, by the Library of 
Congress, of the Oriental characters.) 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first, 
fourth, and fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. You mean to tell the committee you will refuse 
to read the translation given to this committee by the Library of 
Congress. How on heaven's green earth could that incriminate you, 
sir? 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris, Mr. Hinton, I am going to ask this now, not in the 
context of the preceding questions; in other words, if you will read 
this lettering, there is no connection between this particular question 
that is addressed to you and any of the preceding questions, and 
there are no implications whatever, no inferences to be draw^n on 
our part. 

Will you simply read the caption which is over that picture, and 
which represents a translation made by the Library of Congress, about 
that particular picture ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that on the same grounds, fii-st, 
fourth, and fifth amendments. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET AC"nVlTY IN THE UNITED STATES 213 



Exhibit No. 29 



THE PEOPIES OFASfA ANDMf^flCOaAN AfilAS 
SHOULP CONSa>PAJE,5rR£N0THgN;ANP gXR^ND 
THEIK PEACE PP.ESfKVATION MOVEMENT. 





mm^umm 



/w 



in us cxMaicwf in ow>f^ to safeguard pface . 



214 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. All right. The Chair will make the same ruling 
and I am ordering and directing you to do that, read tliat caption 
as it appears there over the picture. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Even though you know, Mr. Hinton, that you have 
been directed by the chairman of this committee to simply read a 
translation made by the Library of Congress, wiiich purports to be 
a translation of the caption on a picture that is posed there on that 
bulletin board, you are still going to invoke your privilege under the 
hfth amendment? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HixTON. 1 decline to answer on the same grounds, first, fourth, 
and fifth amendment grounds. 

Senator Jenner. I was not here at the beginning of this hearing, 
Mr. Hinton, but as 1 have been informed, you contend that this com- 
mittee and the Governmejit have deprived you of certain materials 
that you brought into this country and which are your lawful property, 
by illegal search and seizure ; is that correct? 

(Witness consults wnth his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. Yes ; that is correct. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Hinton, how do you propose to establish title 
to these documents and pictures and so forth that the Government and 
this committee holds, which you contend is your lawful and legal 
property ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. Well, I am hoping that the committee will abide by 
Counsel Morris' word that the things will be returned to me; and if 
not, I intend to have a lawsuit on it that will establish that. 

Senator Jenner. Well, of course, nothing has been pointed out by 
you hei'e this morning that belongs to you; so we have nothing to 
return that you have seen here this morning; is that correct? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. 1 decline to answer that. In any lawsuit w^e will 
prove what is mine. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Hinton, if you cannot tell us what is yours —  
maybe if you could tell us what w^as yours, you would not have to 
establish a lawsuit ; but you say you do not know anything about these 
pictures here this morning. Do you want something that does not 
belong to you ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. If what was taken from me is returned there won't 
be any problem. 

Senator Jenner. Do you see anything in this hearing room, any 
picture, any piece of property, any })amphlet, any booklet — do you 
see anything in this hearing room that belongs to William Hinton, 
that we have ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first, 
the fourth, and fifth amendments, as previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Hinton, of course, you know this committee 
does not recognize your right under the first and fourth ainendments 
to refuse to answer, but suppose I say to you, you can have w'hatever 
is yours here — what would you take ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 215 

Mr. HiNTON. There is a difference between this coniniittec and a 
courtroom, after all. 

Senator Jenner. Of course, there is. We are not a court. We are 
not here to judge you. 

Mr. HiNTON. Eight; right. 

Senator Jenner. We are only here to try to get information; but 
you have alleged that this committee has property of yours. I have 
asked you, do you see any property in this hearing room, in that foot- 
locker, or any place on this desk that is your property, that should be 
returned to you ? 

Mr. HiNTON. My answer is the same. 

Senator Jenner. What is your answer? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer on the grounds of the first, the 
fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Jenner. Well, of course, you know the committee does not 
recognize your refusal to answer under the first and fourth amend- 
ments. Do you mean that a truthful answer to that then would in- 
criminate you ? 

Mr. HiNTON. My answer is the same as previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. ]Mr. Hinton, do you want your cake and want 
to eat it, too ? You say we have property of yours, and yet you won't 
identify any property that we have got of yours. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Jenner. You are under oath, Mr. Hinton. I do not pre- 
sume a court of law would ever permit you to take anything in this 
room because you say there is nothing here that belongs to you. 

Mr. PIiNTON. You don't deny that you seized property from me or 
that you have property seized from me ? 

Senator Jenner. This committee did not seize anything from you. 
The customs officials of the United States Government probably did, 
hut we didn't. We have not that authority. 

Mr. Hinton. If you didn't seize it, how did you get hold of it? 

Senator Jenner. We didn't seize it. 

Senator Welker. As you told us at the outset, the customs seized it 
and we will go into that quite fully when we find out how you got 
back to the United States. 

Mr. Hinton. Senator Jenner admitted the last time that I was 
wronged by customs, as I remember it, in my testimony last time. You 
said if they had seized materials of mine and failed to return them, 
that this was a wrong. 

Senator Jenner. Illegally, it would be wrong. If they seized them 
illegally, but how in the world is customs, if they did seize them 
illegally — how is any court of law to determine what is yours when 
you say there is notliing in this room that belongs to you? 

Mr, Hinton, I didn't say that. I refused to answer those questions. 

Senator Jenner. Oh, you refused to answer. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Reference has been made to a stipulation that I have 
made in connection with this particular material, and I would like to 
say for the record that I have tried to carry out the stipulation which 
was made by Mr. Sourwine, and counsel for this witness. That stipu- 
lation was generally to this effect, that when Mr. Hinton appeared 
before the committee and testified about this material, that it would 
be returned to him. 



216 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

Xow, that was made cei'tainly in the context that it was his material. 
And unless this witness is prepared to say that it is his material, you 
can recognize tliat it is ahnost impossible for the committee to turn 
it back to you. Is that not right ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton, why do you continuously hesitate? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTOx. The material tliat was seized from me was seized 
almost 8 years ago. And knowing the record of these committees, and 
the wa}' they tamper with documents and the way they handle photo- 
graphs and other things, I certainly am reluctant to 

Senator AVelker. I am not going to sit idly by and let you smear 
this committee, the Internal Security Committee of the United States 
Senate. Name me one time that any exhibit has ever been tampered 
with or altered by the Internal Security Connnittee of the United 
States Senate? Xow you have asked for it. you answer it. 

Mr. HiNTOx. I remember the time in the McCarthy hearings 

Senator Welker. Senator McCarth}- was not a member of this 
committee. 

jVIr. HixTox. I think we all remember that. 

Senator Welker. Xow, do not try to use just your paint brush to 
go over the waterfront ? I am not about to admit that he did so. 

Now, you have inferred that this connnittee alters and tampers 
with exhibits. Nothing could be further from the truth. 

Mr. HixTOx. I know they illegally seized documents. 

Senator Wei.ker. Ch, yes. Well now, we will take that up. You 
know the customs officials do not usually do that. I have great respect 
for the customs people, and you do not, I know that. 

Mr. IIiXTox. Do you mean to maintain that any American citizen 
can walk up to the customs and ask for somebody else's property ? 

Senator Welker. Apparently, that is what you are trying to do, 
since you do not know" whether it is yours or not. 

Mr. HiXTOx. Apparently, that is what you folks did. 

Senator Welker. Now, may I 

Mr. HiXTox. My property at the time it was seized Avas marked and 
insured, or, at least, it was in bond with the American Express Co. 
I would have had no trouble identifying my property. 

Senator W^elker. We will go into that quite fully. I think we will 
have a little information for you, Mr. Hinton. You proba])lv need a 
little enlightenment since it was 3 years ago. 

Now, directing your attention to the exhibit on the right-hand corner 
with the lady and her child and someone else running away from a 
so-called bombing, have you ever seen that picture before^ 

(The poster was marked "Exhibit No. 30"' and appears on the fol- 
lowing page. The lettering in English is a translation by the Library 
of Congress of the Oriental characters.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 217 



Exhibit Xo. 80 




■feici-^s^fl^ JJMi^CP'' ■<t%' *flW 



£XTIN6U{5H THE FLAMES OF WAR 



i M i i i JMiM 



218 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Witness looked at poster.) 

Mv. Htntox. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first, 
the fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. Have you ever made any speeches about germ 
warfare in Red China ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.)' 

Mr. HiNTOx. I want to protest again that I don't think this com- 
mittee has any right to ask me what speeches I made or may not have 
made. 

Senator Welkek. I asked you the question and want no argument. 

Mr. HiNTON. I am going to answer that I never did make any such 
speeches. 

Senator Welker. All right. Would you say you did not bring 
that exhibit over here in your f ootlocker ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the first, 
the fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. Directing your attention to the upper right-hand 
corner of the exhibit, where tTiere is apparently a bomb blast or some- 
thing, would you mind telling us whether or not you do not see an 
alleged United States Army airplane flying with wing tanks? 
Would you mind turning around and looking at it? Certainly that 
cannot incriminate you. 

(Witness looked at the exhibit.) 

(Witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first, the fourth, and the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. You have publicly stated in a press release that 
you gave^ — you are very good at that 

Mr. Morris. The press release of this morning. Senator. 

Senator Welker. Yes, sir. You did not submit that to the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. INIoRRis. Not in the record. 

Senator Welker. Not in our record. But you say, "There are 
people in this country who are afraid of the truth about China." 

Now, may I ask, is that exhibit a truthful exhibit about China? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. Mr. Counselor, I do not want you reaching over 
there and touching him once more. 

Mr. Friedman. I will abide by the rules. Senator — I try to. 

Senator Welker. When he needs you, he will ask you. He has 
been doing very well so far. 

Mr. Friedman. I think so. 

Senator Welker. With that understanding, proceed. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I'd like to put the whole statement in the record and 
I'd like to read it. 

Senator Welker. According to the rules of the committee, as you 
well know, considering all of the time we had the same trouble on your 
last appearance here, you should submit it to the committee 24 hours 
before so we could study it and our staff study it. 

And I have no fear, I can tell you that, about whatever you might 
say to the press, because I am going to say this, Mr. Hinton, you blow 
hot and cold quite a bit. But as you know, the Chair is not going 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UiSriTED STATES 219 

to permit this into the record until our statl' has had a chance to study 
it. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiXTOX. What was the question ? 

Senator Welker. I asked you, sir, whether or not that exhibit is 
the truth because, in your press release given this morning, sir, you 
state among other things, "There are people in this country who are 
afraid of the truth about China." 

Mr. HiKToisr. What I brought back in my possession was a whole 
lot of material about China. 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. IIiNTox. Posters, pictures, newspapers, notes and so on. 

Senator Welker. Answer the question — all right. 

jNIr. IIiNToivT. And, what I brought back was real material from 
China, it was not faked material from China. And I had planned 
to study this material, and to write about it as stated here, what I 
felt was the true situation in China. 

Senator Welker. All right ; now will you answer the question ? Is 
that a truthful portrayal of the situation in China ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. PIiNTON^. In relation to this exhibit, I decline to answer on the 
grounds of the first, the fourth and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Then you realize how inconsistent it would be for you 
to put that statement into our public record when you cannot answer, 
specifically, questions about one sentence of it just perchance taken 
out of that particular release. 

(AVitness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. Any one given sentence taken out of material which 
is purported to be mine — any sentence taken out of material which I 
did bring home, or any one picture, how could that be the truth about 
China? 

What I intended to do and what I hoped to do, is to study this 
historical material and to make an analysis of it. 

Senator Welker. You have been making some speeches all over 
America about the truth about China, haven't you ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I have talked many times about my experiences in 
China and what I believe to be the situation there. 

Senator Welker. No question about that. Counsel may proceed. 

Mr. INIoRRis. There are three other posters there that w-e have not 
identified. I wonder if you will identify them for us, Mr. Hinton. 
The first one on the left, Mr. Arens. 

(Mr. Arens pointed to the poster.) 

(Witness looked at the poster.) 

Mr. Morris. It has the Library of Congress translation and reads, 
''The peoples of Asia and the Pacific Ocean areas should consolidate, 
strengthen, and expand their jieace preservation movement." 

And below, "Let us consolidate in order to safeguard peace." 

That poster purports to show a group of people of many different 
nationalities marching together arm in arm and forward. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTOivr. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first, the fourth and the fifth amendments, and I'd like to state 
that^— 

Senator Welker. You have answered. 



220 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Mr. HiNTON. Pictures similar to posters and pictures — I remember 
seeing sonise at the library of the Stanford University as being an ex- 
hibit, as being some pictures coming from China. 

Mr. MoitRis. Look at the one that bears the caption "Children of 
new China" which purports to be a gi'oup of Chinese-children driving 
two characters who have "U. S." on their army caps into the sea. 

(The poster was marked "Exhibit 31" and appears below.) 

Exhibit No. 31 

CHItPREN OF NEW CHINA 



6-3 1611 




Mr. Htntox. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
iirst, the fourth and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Look at the next picture, under the caption "Welcome 
our Soviet Friends." Will you identify that as a poster that you 
brought into the United States in your f ootlocker ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first, the fourth and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may all of these photographs go into 
the record at this time, all that we have discussed at this time^ 

Senator Welker. They will be so admitted and made a part of the 
record. 

(The additional posters Avere marked "Exhibits 32 and 33" and ap- 
pear on the following pages.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 221 



Exhibit No. 32 



OPPOSE AMWCAN IMPEMMISTIC A66PiS$fQN; 
Sf6N A PIEDGE OF PATRJOTISM . 



. OPPOS£ AMmcm JMPfWAUSM; • RESIST mmCA,- aw KOftfA, PROTECT mi HOME 

eairm AMEWCAN JMPfRfAlfSM,- ANO OCfENO THf NATION. 
OrSPISf AMfRSCAN {MPffUAUSM. 

. coMSOUD^Ti All ?im-imm noms. • s<sns on m rmAm wi lAsif > 



SUPPORT OyR PUOGf Of PATRIOT iSM; 
QBUMi OUR PUPGf Of fATfUOTiSM. 



"SJiSN WIRE"' 



iT^ ^^-f-i-ff-A. 




222 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit X(x 33 

WELCOME OUK SOVIET f WENDS. 



• • W f LC VV f SOVf £ r RUSSIA 

• PRESINTEO TO OUK SOVi 

• PRESENTED BY Uu CHIN-iSU! 



11 fHifNDS . 
Of Pa KQU VliiAGE 




Mr. Morris. You worked for UNIIKA, did you not, Mr. Hinton? 

Mr. Hinton. As we said at the last hearing. 

Mr. Morris. Well now, Mr. Hinton, without going into this ques- 
tion of whether we said anything ahout it the last time, you never 
testified before about these })articular pictures, have you'^ You have 
never been called to testify at any time about these, have you? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I thought the question had to do with whether I went 
out to China with UNKKA. 

Mr. Morris. I realize that; I am trying to put it in perspective for 
you to save time. 

Have you ever testified at any time about the pictures that we have 
been discussing here today ? 

(AVitness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. I am about to ask you a series of questions about some 
papers which Mr. McManus will testify have been taken from your 
footlocker. 

Senator Welker. Just a moment, prior to that. You have written 
to your sisters quite often, haven't you? 

(Witness consults Avith his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. In regard to my sister, Joan, I decline to answer that 
question. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 223 

Senator Welker. AH right. 

Mr. IIiNTOx. On the grounds previously stated. 

Senator Welker. Have you written to your wife^ I^ike most 
liusbands, I assume that you have. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

]NIr. HiNTOx. I have told you already that I am not married. 

Senator Welker. Well, incidentally, that brings up a question. I 
do not desire to prolong this. 

Where is your wife now ; is she still in Peking ? 

jNIr. ITiXTON. I have told you that I am not married. 

]Mr. Morris. You were married. 

Senator Welker. I asked you where youi- wife is. 

Mr. IIiNTOx. You mean my former wife? 

Senator Welker. Your former wife, yes. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiXTox. I answered that question the last hearing. She is in 
Peking, as far as I know. 

Senator Welker. Your baby, or child, is there with her ^ 

Mr. HiNTOx. My daughter is also there. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. MoRms. Mr. Hinton. I would like to ask you a series of ques- 
tions based on the material that Mr. McManus will identify as having 
been taken from your footlocker. These are the papers that were 
made available to you yesterday at a time when I said that you could 
have an opportunity to look them over, so that you would know the 
general subject matter of this inquiry today. 

Did you in connection Avith these particular documents, did you 
work for UNRRA, which is the United Nations Rehabilitation and 
Relief Association? 

Mr. Hinton. I am sorrv, I did not cet the question. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work for UNRRA? 

Mr. HiNTON. As stated in the other hearing 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Hinton 

]Mr. HiNTON. I will say it again. 

Mr. Morris. I am asking you now. Let us not refer to that — 1 am 
going to ask you these questions in context with papers you have 
never testified about before. 

Mr. HiNTON. I want to make clear that we went over this ground 
before and I did go out to China as a member of a croup whicli was 
part of UNRRA, yes. 

]\[r. Morris. All right. 

Did you have the job of supplying Connnunist Cliina in UNRRA? 

iSIr. HiNTON. ]\Iy job in UNRRA was to teach the Chinese how to 
use and operate and repair tractors and farm machinery. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, will you identify this first document? 
Will you show the original to the witness, please, exhibit 34. 

(The document Avas handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Hinton, I am just going to ask you — mind you, 
these were available to you yesterday for your scrutiny — I am going 
to ask you about the sentence that appears in here : 

There i.s a move on here — 

this is dated Peiping, May 26. 

There is a move on here to get me into a job of supplying Communist areas. 
If I can get it, I will talve it. 



224 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I wanted to ask you whether you had the job of supplying Commu- 
nist areas, if you did get it, and if you did take it. 
(Witness consulted with his counsel.) 
(Exhibit 34 is as follows :) 

Exhibit No. ^4 

Peiping, May 26. 

Dearest Berthee : I got what looked like a nice letter from you the other day 
only to find that It was a note from Dounie Watt. What a disappointment. 
Have you decided not to write at all, or whatV I wonder if you ever got my 
letter from Manchuria on China's destiny, Emperor McKonkey, etc. Would 
like to know what kind of jobs you are thinking about and what you are think- 
ing of doing this summer. 

I am still in Peiping waiting for the tractors which I am supposed to take 
back to Suiyuan. Things ai'e rather in a ferment here with the students 
staging mass demonstrations against the continuation of the war. I am try- 
ing to write a description of this which would be short enough for Una's paper 
hut it is difficult because so much goes on that wants describing. I suppose 
it will be too late for this year's paper anyway. Was reading over all the 
copies of letters to you and others I have kept with me here and have decided 
that I can write fairly well at times. I wish I would get into a job where 
writing was my business. I wish, I wish. But it doesn't look as if I will for 
a time yet. There is a move on here to get me into the job of supplying Com- 
munist areas. If I can get it, I will take it. The fellow that was doing it has 
just left for the States with his wife as she is going to have a baby soon. 
There is no one to take his place and so they are thinking of me. If it goes 
through, which is doubtful, I would be in charge of special group 8 with head- 
quarters in Tientsin, and would be responsible for all the convoys by barge, 
truck, etc. going into southern Hopei. Also I would be on salary and doing 
something that I have no qualms about. 

The situation here is reaching a climax, but climaxes when you are living 
through them have a way of stalling along. It will be clear in (5 months' time 
that this was the crucial point in China's history but as we pass through 
it events seem to move extremely slowly. One finds it difficult to wait from 
one morning to the next for the newspaper and the events one feels sure must 
happen, take weeks sometimes, to materialize. For instance, we know that 
a major peace move on the part of the government is in the air. yet so far it 
has only been talk. Various important people inside and out of the Kuomin- 
tang have been urging a real settlement, the students are vigorously demanding 
it, and even certain elements among the military, but the war goes on at a 
most violent tempo. Initiative seems to be with the Communists now. They are 
attacking on almost every front and making headway everywhere. The offen- 
sive they were predicting last fall (you remember Sid wrote us about it) is 
finally underway and it has the government jittery. They are faced with utter 
defeat and hence think of a compromise that will save something for them. 
Opinion is that it is perhaps too late for compromise. A coalition government 
might have been possible a year ago, but not now. This government may well 
be wiped out. The reactionaries with their usual greed wanted everything. 
Now they may end up with nothing. America is chiefly responsible. We are 
really the ones guilty of wanting the whole pie. Now we shall have none of it, 
I fear, and well we deserve that fate. Few nations have ever been rewarded 
for being stupid. 

Write when you have time. 
Love, 

Billy. 

(On the reverse side of the page, Avithout date or salutation, the 
following was typewiitteii :) 

Went cliinbiiig Sunday in the western bills. Went along with Mr. Lund and 
wife and another couple. None of these people seemed to feel like climbing, 
so after we had eaten our lunch at a temple tucked away in the trees near the 
base of the hills I took off by myself. Like the mountains around Chungking, 
these hills look bigger and farther away than they really are. If you really set 
out to travel you can go over 4 or 5 peaks in a few hours. It is such fun to be on 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 225 

the roof of the world, looking down on the hot plain from one peak after the 
other and feel the strong wind in your face. Then to plunge down through the 
rocks and thorns into a narrow ravine and up again onto another height, and 
look down this time to the west into the narrow valley of the Sangkan River. 
The hills all around are steep and barren, but everywhere they have been culti- 
vated. The remains of old terraces and old plots once spaded over scar the 
heights. Farther down are fields still under cultivation, fields so steep that one 
can stand erect on them and reach out an arm and touch the slope. They culti- 
vate them until they are washed out, it takes no more than 3 years for this, and 
then move on to another slope. In the bottom of the narrow valleys the terraces 
become more numerous and they are edged with fruit and nut trees now leaved 
and green. Here and there the green wheat is pushing brightly up. The wheat 
and the leaves are the only green thing, for the rest the mountains are the 
yellowed brown of dried grass and the red brown of the soil bared for crops uv 
already abandoned. Of the same red l)rown color are the houses of the farms 
that are clustered in the valleys wherever water is found. The hills are so 
steep that you look almost directly down on the.'^e little settlements and can see 
children playing, dogs lying in the sun and cattle wandering about. Here and 
there an isolated farmer has built his house on a higher ridge, or a hollow on 
the upper slopes. Some of these are still lived in, but many are abandoned 
now. Everything is so quiet up there. One could sit for hours and hxtk and 
dream. Now and then a bee comes humming and buzzing to look you over, 
sniff at your knees, i^eer into your ears, and [words cut out], but there are 
no other sounds except for the occasional wail of a locomotive from the 
distant plain. One could sit for hours but one does not because on to the north 
and west are higher peaks and steeper slopes and something to see beyond. 
These northern ridges are marred with blockhouses manned with soldiers, for 
there is the Communist line. Not more than a few air miles farther on the 
hills are held by the guerillas and these guards perched high on the ridges are 
ever on the alert for signs of movement from the north and west. Strangers 
from the city can wander between them at will and everything appears so quiet 
and peaceful, yet there they stand to remind you of the bloody war. You have 
to be reminded because the beauty up there makes you forget. It is hard to 
believe, looking out on the Central Hopei Plain over that vast expanse of brown 
and green lined here and there with trees and shimmering in the noon sun, that 
men are killing each other unseen. That armies are gathered there and Itattles, 
bitter and ruthless, are fought back and forth across the level expanse. It is no 
wonder wealthy people fail to undei'stand what is happening to their world. For 
years they have come picnicking here and looked out across the rich plain, seen the 
results of the labor of the peaceful peasants and found it good. The sun shines, 
the leaves unfold, the shoots spring forth from the ground and in the fields the 
picturesque men and women in wide brimmed straw hats plant the rice, hoe 
the beans and scratch their uneven furrows in the land. Everything is as it 
should be. If only these foreign agitators with their totalitarian ideas would 
leave the people alone life could continue on its lazy well-fed course. 

Dear Berthee, I wish you could come with me for a walk on these hills. How 
are you anyway? 
Love, 

Billy. 

Mr. HiNTOx. I think this kind of question invades the area of per- 
sonal relations between husband and wife, of letters written between 
husband and wife. And I think it is very unseemly to bring up letters 
of this kind. 

Senator "Welker. All right, I am ordering and directing you to 
answer. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. "Will you identify that as a letter that you wrote ? 

Mr. HiNTOx. I decline to identify the letter, or answer any ques- 
tions about it, on the grounds of the first, the fourth, and the fifth 
amendments, and also on the grounds it violates the confidence be- 
tween husband and wife. 

Senator Welker. I have already ordered him to answer. 



226 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, will you identify that document? Will 
vou return it, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. McManus. This is one of the documents which I found in Mr. 
Hinton's footlocker. 

Mr. Morris. What is the signature on it? 

Mr. McManus. This is a carbon. It says "Love, Billy." 

Mr. Morris. It is addressed to whom ? 

Mr. McManus. "Dearest Berthee." 

Mr. Morris. Is "Berthee" the name of your former wife? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. Her name is Bertha. 

Mr. Morris. Did you use "Berthee" as a form of salutation? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. Yes. 

Mr. jNIorris. You will notice that there is a section of that cut out. 
Mr. McManus, was that cut out when the footlocker was first opened? 

Mr. McManus. Yes. A number of these carbons were mutilated in 
this way. Sometimes the salutation was taken out, and sometimes 
there were words — well, I can't say whether they were words or not, 
but there were mutilations of this character on a number of the docu- 
ments when I opened the footlocker and examined all of it. 

Mr. Morris. In that connection, did you have the job for UNRRA 
of supplying Communist China ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON, I did not have any such job. 

Mr. Morris. Did you after your term of duty was up with UNRRA, 
did you move on from there to teach in Chinese Communist areas, the 
agrarian reform program ? 

Mr. HiNTON. I was sent to the southern Hopei border region to 
teach students how to repair tractors. 

Mr. Morris. You were sent by whom ? 

Mr. HiNTON. By UNRRA — ^by my superiors in UNRRA. 

Mr. Morris. The question I asked you was, after you had left 
UNRRA did you form a school, a training school, whereby you and 
(jthers conducted an agrarian I'eform school for the Red Chinese 
(government ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. No ; I conducted no such school. 

Mr. Morris. I show you a document, Mr. Hinton — will you read it, 
please. I suggest we adjourn until we get our exhibits in order. 

Senator Weaker. ^Ye will not adjourn. May I have exhibit 16 
(later received for the record as exhibit No. ^35) ? 

Certainly, that is here. 

Mr. Hinton, while in Red China, after leaving UNRRA, did you 
organize a school? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. Could the Chair repeat that question ? 

Senator Welker. I did not hear your answer. 

Mr. Hinton. I wanted you to repeat the question. 
Senator Welkek. Repeat it, please. 
(Tlie question was read.) 

Mr. Hinton. No; I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Did vou teach at a school ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 227 

Mr. HiNTON. As we went througli in the other hearing;, I did teach 
how to operate and use tractors after the end of IJNRRA. 

Senator "VVelker. Now, handing- you an original which was taken 
from your f ootlocker, can you identify any of your students there ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. An original photograph. 

Mr, HiNTON. I see here some words in Arabic, Nos. 1947, 10, wdiich 
would indicate that this picture was taken during a period when 
1 was still working on the UNRRA project. 

Senator Welker. Well now, I ask you, do you recognize any people 
ill this exhibit who attended your school? 

Mr, HiNTON, I have already answered that I did not have a school. 

Senator Welker. I see. Well, you taught there. 

Mr. HiNTON, My answer was that during my period of working 
with IINRRA, I did teach the operation and use of tractors at a 
school. 

Senator Welker. Well now, what sort of uniform do these stu- 
dents wear if you know ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I am not answering a question about this particular 
photograph. I will say that during my stay in China, in what they 
called there the liberated areas, that the ordinary clothing was padded 
jacket and ]:>ants, that was worn by almost everyone, and continues to 
be worn so to this day. 

Senator Welker, Especially worn by the Chinese Communist 
soldiers ? 

Mr, HiNTON, The clothing that I am referring to is the clothing 
worn by students, many peasants, many shopkeepers, many Govern- 
ment employees, and so on. 

Senator Welker. How about Chinese Communist soldiers? 

Mr. HiNTOX. The clothing worn by Chinese Communist soldiers is 
very much the same. They wear padded cotton jackets and padded 
cotton pants. On their hats they have the symbol of what they call 
the Peoples Liberation Army. There is always that symbol on 
their hats. 

Senator Welker. Is that symbol on these hats ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HixTox. Looking at this particular photograph I see no sym- 
bols at all on the hats. 

Senator Welker, Now, you are quite familiar with your own pic- 
ture ; aren't you ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel,) 

Senator Welker. Pointing to a gentleman that I think is the 
witness, Mr. William Hinton, I will ask you if it isn't a fact that you 
got your picture taken with these people in Red China ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON, I decline to answer this question on the grounds of 
the first, the fourth, and fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. Will you say the gentleman I am pointing to in 
the middle of the second row of the photograph, the exhibit I am about 
to introduce in evidence, is not that of W^illiam Hinton? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hinton. I think this is a picture of myself ; yes. 

Senator Welker. This will be in evidence marked an exhibit. 



228 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Is that offered in evidence ? 

Senator Welker. I have offered it. It will be admitted. 

(The photograph to which the above testimony alludes appears as 
exhibit No. 28 at p. 211.) 

Mr. Morris. At this school, Mr. Hinton, which the last photograph 
introduced into the record by Senator Welker purports to depict, did 
you engage in any political training at all? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTOx. I don't understand what you are asking in that ques- 
tion. IVliat do you mean by "political training"? 

Did you mean organization political training? 

Mr. Morris. Did you engage in any political teaching whatever? 

Mr. HiNTON. Political teaching? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. HiNTON. No, I did not. 

Mr. Morris You did not. 

Did you receive from the United States material that you considered 
part of the subject matter of your lectures in this particular class? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HixTON. For my teaching ]Hirposes I had with me and brought 
with me books on agriculture and on farm machinery. And that is 
what I used in my work. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Hinton, you have already told me that you 
wrote your sisters Joan and Jean like any brother would. I want to 
read just a few 

Mr. Hinton. Just a minute. I want to correct that. I said I wrote 
my sister Jean, as any brother would. 

Senator Welker. We will let the evidence stand for itself, when 
I read the exhibit, or portions of it because time is running out. You 
will be here with us again tomorrow, possibly the day following. 

Directing your attention to the original, that was taken out of your 
footlocker, will you examine it carefullv? Then I want to ask you a 
couple of questions about it. 

Mr. Hinton. I hope I will have time to read this letter, this writ- 
ing here. I was not given a chance to finish reading the other one. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Hinton, you were given an opportunity to read 
this particular document yesterday. 

Mr. Hinton. From the beginning I have stated, ever since this 
material was illegally taken from me, I have refused to cooperate with 
the committee m looking over illegally seized material. ^Ylien it is 
given back to me that is something else. 

(Witness reads a document marked "Exhibit 16" for identification.) 

Senator Welker. I think you have had time enough to read it. 

Mr. Hinton, pursuing counsel's interrogation of you, we will ask 
you the question whether or not you received any material from our 
country to assist you ? 

Now, directing your attention to the exhibit, at the bottom of the 
page, I want to read this to you and ask of you if you did or did 
not write this : 

We received a great wad of newspapers some days ago covering the i)eriod 
fnnn tlie middle of August. The old world is not doing so well. I would say. 
Crisis in Britain, war in Indonesia, massacres in India, harsh words witli 
Russia, Greek people dying of a strange disease called lead in the head, Jews 
being hauled across the woi-ld lilie cattle, Spanish Americans hunting each other 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 229 

through the Chaco, I'erou huddliug up to Washington and bringing home guns. 
prices rising, while that great beast iVmerica looks down upon the world and 
licks its lips, and tries to disregard a growing stomach ache in its vitals. 

Did you or did you not write that letter to your sisters Jean and 
Joan ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. Why don't you finish reading the rest of the para- 
graph ? 

Senator Welker. I will do the interrogating here. I am tired of 
you telling nie how to interrogate. I perhaps need it, but I am not 
going to take any suggestions from you. 

Now, did you or did you not write that 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question on the gTounds of the 
first, the fourth, and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Welker. Then directing your attention to the same exhibit, 
directed to your sisters "Dear Joan and Jean," signed "Love to all, 
Billy," the upper portion, the first paragraph, I am quoting: 

So far I have seen no evidence of the anti-American feeling that is supposed 
to be rampant here. This worries me a little since it indicates the people have 
not yet learned who their enemies are. The soldiers are a little more conscious 
of the facts of life and always look astounded when you tell them you are 
American. 

Did you or did you not write that letter to your sisters Jean and 
Joan ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. I decline to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first, the fourth, and the fifth amendments. As to the question of 
American policy toward China at that time 

Senator Welker. I think you have answered that question. Now 
you are not going to hide behind — just a moment 

Mr. HiNTON. The views which I had about I will be glad to dis- 
cuss that with you, the committee. 

Senator Welker. Any time you want to answer a question and 
then explain it, fine, but you are not going to hide behind the fifth 
amendment, take out part, and then make a speech on something 
that might be of benefit to you. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. This letter will be admitted in evidence and 
marked. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 35" and is as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 35 

Deak Joan and Jean : I got a letter the other day from each of you so I am 
writing one in return and sending it in two copies. Isn't that efficient? Right 
now I am in a little village near the Grand Canal in Hopei, south of Tientsin. 
I am recovering from an attack of amoebic dysentery and the treatment that one 
has to undergo on account of it. Tlie disease is not serious if you catcii it in 
time and the treatment is nothing but 1 injection a day for 10 days plus a few 
pills, so I have actually been having a long rest. Everything is very quiet here. 
That is always what amazes me most down here not so far from the front. 
There is absolutely no sign of warfare, soldiers are never seen and tliere is never 
any commotion. In the fields the farmers work at their little plots while their 
kids play in the dirt, climb trees, and pick fruit, and their womenfolk rake up 
dead grass and roots for cooking the evening meal. Of course not being able 
to talk very much cuts me ofE from the people and I am not aware of what is 
going on in their heads as they' plow the furrows or cut the ripe grain with 



230 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

their little knifelike sickles. I made friends with one family the other day and 
they taught me how to cut and tie up the shocks and stack them together. This 
caused them no end of amusement. For a while I was at a mission hospital in 
Tang Hsien. The hospital is right next to the canal and the water was danger- 
ously high. The liberated area's government had organized an energetic dyke- 
repair program and had just saved the whole area from a drastic flood. Three 
feet had been added to the top of the dyke in all danger areas and a constant 
watch was kept up and down the canal for miles. I went wandering along the 
lianks and talked here and there to farmers or workmen strengthening the 
weaker places. Everybody was in such a good humor (the water had dropped 
that day about 3 inches) and so friendly. Everywhere they stopped me and 
asked me to sit down and chat. So far I have seen no evidence the anti- 
American feeling that is supposed to be rampant here. This worries me a little 
since it indicates the people have not yet learned who their enemies are. The 
soldiers are a little more conscious of the facts of life and always look astounded 
when you tell them you are American. (There are a few soldiers around guard- 
ing bridges and an occasional group traveling on the main road by foot). But 
they still remain friendly to us as individuals and are very curious about 
everything we do. I spent many happy, completely lazy afternoons walking up 
and down this way and relaxed more than I have for a long time. Great white 
clouds pile up in the west and sail across the blue sun-fllled sky. A light breeze 
rattles the leaves of the willows along the water. The dyke workers shout to 
one another. A band of small brown children splash in the village pond while 
the white ducks poke for something edible under the floating green mat that 
covers the water. Then in the distance one suddenly hears the boom of guns. 
There is a small battle being fought not 20 miles away. What is that, I say. 
Those are the guns firing at Hsingchi, say the farmers. It sounds close, I say. 
They are not far, say the farmers. Then there is a rattle in the sky, faint at 
first and then louder and louder and out of the north six fighter planes come 
sweeping high over our heads. They skim on southward and are lost again to 
sight. It is several hours before the return and when they do there are only 
four. Have two been shot down or did they go on to land beyond the border 
region in southern Shantung? One gets used to the guns booming after a time. 
They sound so faint and far away, it is as if something were going on behind 
the scenes which has no relation to this time and place. And the planes too, 
they are in another dimension over our heads and off to some far place where 
bigger game is foiuid. They operate in a world of their own — until the day 
comes when they suddenly turn to swoop down on me. But that day has not yet 
come. They are looking for something in the far distance. It is very strange 
being here in the middle of the battle of the worlds. This is no ringside seat, 
this is the very center of the arena and yet like the center of the cyclone all is 
calm. 

The land reform has been completed here more than a year. Every family has 
land according to the number of mouths to feed. It averages out at about two 
mou apiece. Things were done in a hurry at the start, and now is the time 
for reexamination. The village committees are checking up again to see that 
everything is fairly held. Many landlords have run away, leaving great buildings 
behind them, buildings where court after court behind massive walls provided 
a quiet, laborless cultured life to those held who title to property. In the courts 
pomegranate trees were planted, and now the pomegranates are ripening to a 
beautiful red. 

Yesterday a new recruit went off to war. The whole village turned out to 
greet the man with drums and cymbals and songs. First, a big drum was sounded, 
then came men with cymbals to stand around the drum. Then came the children 
singing border region songs, and the people came from their houses and lined 
the muddy road. For more than an hour the beating and clashing and singing 
continued without pause. Then the volunteer arrived on a black horse. He wore 
a great red paper flower on his chest and smiled at all these people whom he 
had known so long. He was embarrassed but pleased with all the fuss. With 
him in the lead, the whole group started off. From our village they went to the 
next, where another welcome was being prepared, but before they could get there 
a heavy rain began to fall, and the drummers and the schoolchildren ran for 
cover. I guess the soldier continued on in the rain. I ended up under a roof 
with all the children, and we entertained each other with songs until the sky 
cleared again. 

So, life passes here with me very quietly. Soon I shall go back to the tractors 
and work hard again. But perhaps the work won't be so hard now. They have 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 231 

evidently gotten along fine while I liave been away, and so perhaps there won't 
be so much to do now. I'll have to concentrate on studying Chinese so that I can 
enter into life more instead of looking in on it from the outside. 

We received a great wad of newspapers some days ago covering the period 
from the middle of August. The old world is not doing so well, I would say. 
Crisis in Britain, war in Indonesia, massacres in India, harsh words with Russia, 
Greek people dying of a strange disease called lead in the head, Jews being hauled 
across the world like cattle, Spanish-Americans hunting each other through the 
Chaco, Peron huddling up to Washington and bringing home guns, prices rising, 
while that great beast, America, looks down upon the world and licks its lips and 
tries to disregard a growing stomach ache in its vitals. Was there ever so much 
naked ugliness abroad? We are getting back to the days of Munich and worse. 
One could weap for America were one not so angry. 

Haven't caught up with Sid yet, sorry to say, but intend finding him sooner or 
later. That will be the day. That will be the day. 
Love to everyone, 

Billy. 

]\Ir. HiNTON. Are you goin^ to have the whole letter in the record? 

Senator Welker. Certainly, I thought I made that clear. 

Apparently, if you cannot understand me — maybe I didn't make 
myself clear, but the whole letter will go in the record, Mr. Hinton. 
It would be terrible not to have it. You cannot put in one piece and 
keep out another. 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTox. I would like to say this, that ordinarily it is only 
fair practice wdien introducing letters or materials that the whole 
series of whatever was written should be put in, which would give 
an idea of what was meant, and so on. 

Senator Welker. Well 

Mr. HiNTOx. I remember at the McCarthy hearings wliere no 
one 

Senator Welker. Will you stop that business? 

Mr. HiXTOx. Telephone conversation was accepted because of the 
objection of not all of them being 

Senator Wei>ker. Here is the idea. I am trying to be fn.ii- with 
you. I told you I was goinc; to read you a conple of passages and 
the whole thing would be in the record. How could you be hurt there ? 

You are sitting there now trying to weasel out of some pretty rough 
cross-examination. And I think that as far as today is concerned, we 
have had enough. We will have you again tomorrow and possibly 
the day following. And the meeting is now adjourned. 

Mr. HixTON. I am not trying to weasel out of any 

Senator Welker. Well 

Mr. HixTOx. Any questions here. I am answering all proi)er ques- 
tions. 

Senator Welker. Yes, you are. 

Mr. HiXTOx. I am willing to discuss with you my views about 
American foreign policy during those years. 

Senator Welker. I do not know what you would do if you did not 
have that fifth amendment, sir. That is an observation that probably 
is not fair to you. 

Mr. HiNTON. And I think that, in any evidence, the whole series of 
correspondence is usually put in evidence. 

Senator Welker. I believe I know, not quite as much about the law 
as you do, but I hope to. I may know more about tractors than you 
do, but I grant you that we cannot separate it, but I wanted to get 



232 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UlSriTED STATES 

along and interrogate you with respect to certain statements you 
made. 

And I will do that again tomorrow, sir. But all of the evidence 
bearing on your testimony and obtained from your footlocker, will 
go into the record in full. 

Now we will adjourn until 10 : 30 tomorrow morning. And you are 
not released from the subpena. 

Mr. HiNTON. I would agree to produce the stuff but I want what 
was seized from me back. 

Senator Welker. You are not going to get it back now, so you 
just might as well forget that little dialog. We have this here for 
the purpose of finding out if something has not been wrong, with all 
of this mass of material, which in the opinion of the acting chairman, 
is designed to destroy the United States of America, and you are here 
rampaging all over this country, giving 300 speeches — we intend to 
go to the bottom of this, and when we find out something that we 
think is the basis of sound legislation, we will certainly use it. 

One concluding question : You have been out of work for 3 or 4 
weeks. Have you tried to get work lately ? 

(Witness consults w^ith his counsel.) 

Mr. HiNTON. What has that got to do with the part of tliis com- 
mittee ? 

Senator Welker. It has a lot to do. Will you answer the question ? 

(Witness consults with his counsel.) 

Senator Welker. You brought the matter up yourself. 

Mr. HiNTON. I know you have a history of trying to prevent any 
people that you don't like from getting work or holding work wliicli 
they already have and I can see that this is what you are aiming at 
here. 

Senator Welker. I know that is just the dialog I have heard so 
many times from people just like you. But I would be the happiest 
man in the world if you could come back to America in the way I 
think you should and come up here and work for us, rather than work- 
ing for the things that jon have been doing. 

yir. HiNTON. I would be glad to work for you if you would investi- 
gate what is going on in Mississippi today. 

Senator Welker. Oh, yes. There yon go again. 

Mr. Morris. Before adjourning, Mr. Chairman, may I give a trans- 
lation which Mr. McManus will identify for us of the second photo- 
graph that we discussed today, that is, the one that purports to show 
the two Powells looking at an exhibit there, (Exhibit No. 26-A, 
p. 203.) 

Mr. McManus, will you read that translation and tell us who 
made it? 

Mr. ^IcManus. The second photograph on the board toward which 
Mr. Arens is pointing, is a photograph of John and Sylvia Powell. 
That is, Mrs. John Powell. And we obtained a translation from the 
Library of Congress, which is as follows, the translation of what they 
are reading, what they both are looking at, "Written answers by a 
captured member of U. S. Air Force, whose name is rendered in 
Chinese as K'uei-en, to questions asked jointly by Korean and Chinese 
correspondents." 

Senator Welker. Are there any further questions? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 233 

Thank you, Mr. Hinton, and you, Mr. Friedman, for appearing 
and we will see you at 10 : 30 tomorrow morning in this room. 

Just a moment — just a moment. They have told me it is in room 
457. That will be the room. 

The meeting is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 1 : 15 p. m., the committee adjourned to reconvene 
at 10 : 30 a. m., Wednesday, March 7. 1956, in room 457.) 



INDEX 



TSoTE. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
ill this index. 

A 

Page 

Allison, Dr. Samuel K 164 

America/Americans 151, 171, 174, 178, 187, 188, 210, 232 

American citizens 167, 189 

American Express Co 216 

American fliers  194 

American foreign policy 231 

American Legion 168, 169 

American policy toward China 229 

Anti-American propaganda 151 

Army, United States 170, 218 

Asia ^^^ 

Asian Pacific Peace Conference in Peiping, October 1953 (APPC) 188, 

191, 199, 200, 201, 206, 207-209 
Atomic Energy Commission 164 

B 

Bacteriolngical warfare against Chinese people 188 

Berges, William 153 

BrattlPboro, Vt 163 

C 

Cambridge, Mass 1^'^ 

Characterizations in Hinton's footlocker 1<">^ 

Chiang Kai-shek 1"^^ 

Children of New China (poster) 220 

China 166, 167, 176, 178, 187, 188, 21S-220, 222, 223, 227 

China Monthly Review 1^^ 

China Weekly Review (later China Monthly Review) 1'9 

Chinese Communist areas 226 

Chinese Communist soldiers 227 

Chinese language -'12 

Chinese people 1°^ 

Chinese People's Republic 1^- 

Communist propaganda jJS 

Chinese printed materials in Hinton's footlockei- l-J^ 

"Comrade" 205 

( 'ommunist areas ""^ 

Communist China 175, 177, 223, 226 

Communist China's land reform .- l^O 

Communist Party 1°^' i^^ 

Communist Party headquarters, 50 East 13th Street, New York City 210 

Communists j:^ 

Constitution ~~irq i-n 

Cornell University 17q 

Country Gentleman ^ 1|^ 

Custom officials of United States Government -1-^ 

Customs: ^_^^ ^_„ .,_. 

Biireau of 1^2, 15<-lu9 

United States 16^ 



n INDEX 

D 

Page 

Dairy ranch in China 176 

Dulie, Joseph C, Sergeant at Arms, Senate 163 

Dulles, Secretary 175 

E 

Eastland, Senator 151, 153, 174 

English-language printed material in Hinton's footlocker 154 

Engst, Joan Chase Hintou (sister of William H. Hinton) 163, 

164, 175, 176, 178, 190-194, 199, 222, 228, 229 

Not at Putney 163 

Worked at Manhattan Engineer District 163, 164 

February 1944^December 1945, research assistant at Los Alamos 163, 164 

March 1945-1948, student, University of Chicago 164 

April 1946-July 1947, part-time assistant, Dr. Samuel K. Allison, In- 
stitute of Nucear Studies 164 

Lives in Sian, China 175 

Working on dairly ranch in China 176 

Invited to visit Robert Oppenheimer's ranch in New Mexico 178 

Enoch, Lt. Kenneth 195, 198, 199 

Exhibit No. 20 153-157 

List of Engish-language printed material in Hinton's footlocker 154 

List of Chinese printed materials in Hinton's footlocker 155 

Characterizations I57; 

Exhibit No. 21 : November 10, 1954. letter to Hon. Ralph Kelly, Commis- 
sioner of Customs, from William E. Jenner, chairman of subcommittee, 

re Hinton and Berges baggage 157 

Exhibit No. 21-A : December 3, 1954, letter to Hon. William E. Jenner, 
chairman. Internal Security Subcommittee, from Ralph Kelly, Commis- 
sioner of Customs 158 

Exhibit No. 21-B : March 31, 1955, letter to Hon. James O. Eastland, chair- 
man. Internal Security Subcommittee, from Ralph Kelly, Commissioner 

of Customs 158, 159 

Exhibit No. 21-C : 

Appendix A. English-language books and pamphlets 159 

Appendix B. Chinese books and pamphlets 160, 161 

Appendix C. Posters, maps, and pictures 161, 162 

Appendix D. Personal notes in English 163 

Exhibit No. 22 : Telegram. March 3, 1956, to Joseph C. Duke. Sergeant at 
Arms, United States Senate, from Marshal Clifton E. Yates re subpena 

service on Joan Chase Hinton 163 

Exhibit No. 23: Articles from February 22, 1947, issue China Weekly 
Review : 

Unexpurgated Version of Chiang's Book Wins Publishers' Battle (by 

Edward Rohrbough) 179 

Communist China's Land Reform (by Betty Graham) 180 

Tientsin Starts Off New Year With Violence; Train Held Up (by 

S. E. Shifrin) ^ 184 

Exhibit No. 24 : Photograph believed to be taken at Asian Pacific Peace 
Conference, Peiping, October 1953, with Mr. and Mrs. John Powell. 

Julian Shuman, and Joan Chase Hinton Engst 191 

Exhibit No. 25 : What Is Your Decision, by Joan Hinton, from People's 

China 192-194 

Exhibit No. 25-A : United States delegation to the General Assembly, 
press release No. 1786 (pt. 11 of 3 parts). October 26, 1953— Texts of 
sworn statements by 10 United States fliers concerning "garm warfare 

confessions" 195-199 

Sworn statement of Lt. John S. Quinn 195 

Sworn statement of Lt. Paul R. Kniss 196 

Sworn statement of Lt. Floyd B. O'Neal 197 

Sworn statement of Lt. Kenneth Enoch 198 

Exhibit No. 26: Photograph taken at Asian Pacific Peace Conference in 
Peiping in October in."2 with individuals sitting at a desk in which flag 

of United States with little "U. S. A." emiilom in front of 201 

Exhibit No. 26-A : Photograph of John and Sylvia Powell looking at an 
exhibit 203, 232 



INDEX in 

Page 
Exhibit No. 27 : Photograph "Long Live Peace" tal^en at Asian Pacific 

Peace Conference 208 

Exhibit No. 2T-A : Photograph talien at Asian Pacitic Peace Conference.- 209 

Exhibit No. 28 : Picture, William Hinton with people in Red China 211, 227 

Exhibit No. 29: Poster — "The People of Asia and the Pacific Ocean Areas 

Should Consolidate, Strengthen, and Expand Their Peace Preservation 

Movement. Let Us Consolidate in Order To Safeguard Peace" 213, 219 

Exhibit No. 30: Poster— "Extinguish the Flames of War and Work for 

Peace" (translation by Library of Congress) 217 

Exhibit No. 31: Poster— "Children of New China" 220 

Exhibit No. 32 : Poster — "Oppose American Imperialistic Aggression, Sign 

a Pledge of Patriotism" 221 

Exhibit No. 33: Poster — "Welcome Our Soviet J'rieuds" 222 

Exhibit No. 34: Letter dated May 26. Peiping, "to Dearest Berthee from 

Billy" 224, 225 

Exhibit No. 35: Letter "to Dear Joan Jean, signed Billy" 229-231 

F 

Farmers Union 169, 186, 187 

Fifth amendment 167-169, 

173, 17.J-177, lSG-190, 200. 202, 204, 2U0. 210, 212, 214. 215, 218-220. 
225, 227, 229, 231. 

First amendment 167, 

188-190. 200, 202, 204, 210, 212. 214. 215, 218-220, 225, 227, 229 

Footlocker CMr. Hinton's) 152, 

153, 187, 202-207, 210, 212, 215, 220, 222. 223, 226-228, 232 

Formosa 175 

Fourth amendment 188-190, 

200, 202. 204, 210, 212, 214, 215, 218-220, 225, 227, 229 

Friedman, Counsel 152 

Friedman, Milton H 164 

342 Madison Avenue, New York 164 

Attorney for William H. Hinton : 164 

G 

Geneva Assembly 194 

Germ warfare confessions 194 

Germ warfare in Red China 218 

Graham, Betty 179, 180 

Government 214 

H 

Halleck, Charles W. (testimony of) 152 

5108 Nahant Street, Washington, D. C 152 

Former employee. Internal Security Subcommittee, 19.55 152 

Identified footlocker 152 

Harvard College 169, 170 

Hinton, Bertha (former wife i>f William II. Hinton. "Berthee". form of 
salutation) 226 

Hinton, Jean (si.ster of AVilliani H.) 175, 228, 229 

Cambridge, Mass 175 

Hinton, Joan. {t<ee Engst. Joan Chase Hinton.) 

Hinton, Mrs. (mother of William H.) 171, 172 

Retired June 19.55 from Putney School 171 

Founder and director of Putney School 172 

Hinton, William H 151, 163 

Testimony of 164-233 

Inventory of footlocker 154-157 

Customs inventory 159-1(53 

Residence. Putney, Vt 166 

February 2, 1919, born 166 

Lecturer and writing a hook on China 166 

300 lectures since returning from China 167 

20 lectures since last hearing before subcommittee 168 



IV INDEX 

Page 
Hinton, William H. — Continued 

Graduate, Putney High School 169 

Harvard College 169 

1941 graduate New York State College of Agriculture, Cornell Uni- 
versity 169 

Conscientious objector 170 

IV-F (perforated eardrum), rejected from Army 170 

Job with Office of War Information 170 

Nevi'spaper reporter for Japan Advertiser 170 

Mother retired June 195o from Putney School 171 

Mother founder and director Putney School 172 

One daughter living in Peking 173, 223 

Two sisters, Joan and Jean 174, 175 

Went to China as propaganda analyst for OWI 178 

Fall 1946, organizer fur National Farmers Union 186 

Received subcommittee subi>ena March 1 186 

Went out to China with UNKRA 222 

Former wife in Peking 223 

1'aught students how to repair tractors in southern Hopei border 226 

HOLC Building 1,52 

Hopei border (southern) li26 



Idaho (State of) 172, 173 

Institute of Nuclear Studies 164 

Internal Security Subcomiuittee 151, 157, lii')', 174, 216 

Inventory. Hinton material 153-163 

Iron Curtain 175, 177 



Japan 170 

Japan Advertiser 170 

Japanese propaganda 178 

Jenner, Senator 151, 157, 158, 165, 174, 176, 187 

Jolmston, Senator, of South Carolina 176 



Kelly, Hon. Ralph (Commissioner of Customs) 157-159, 165 

Kniss, Lt. Paul R 195, 196, 199 

Korean People's Republic 192 

Korean veterans 178 

K'uei-en 232 



Lattimore, Owen 172 

Uegislative purpose 174 

Library of Congress 212, 214, 216, 217, 232 

Life magazine 179 

"Long Live Peace" 208 

Los Alamos 163, 164, 177 

M 

McCarthy hearings 216, 231 

McClellan, Senator 174 

McManus, Robert C 152, 153, 189, 192, 194 

Investigations analyst. Internal Security Subcommittee 200, 

206, 220, 223, 226, 232 

Testimony of 153 

May 20, 1955, received footlocker 153 

William Berges material 153 

Maine 186 

Mandel, Benjamin 164, 210 

Manhattan Engineer District 163, 164 

Manhattan project 176, 177 

Middle West 166 

Mississippi 232 



o 



INDEX V 

X 

Page 

National Farmers Union 186 

New Eniiland 186 

New Mexico 176, 178 

New York 16i, 186, 206, 210 

New York State College of Agriculture, Cornell University 169 

O 

O'Neal, Lt. Floyd B VX>, 197, 199 

Oppenheimer 177 

Oppenheimer, J. Robert, ranch in New Mexico 176, 178 

Oriental characters 212, 216 

OWI (Ofhco of War Information) 170, 178, 187, 204 

P 

Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Region in Pictures (publica- 
tion). 206,207 

Peiping 188, 223, 224 

Peiping, capital of Soviet China 199 

Pennsylvania Avenue and 12th Street 152 

People's China, January 1, 1953 192 

Peoples Liberation Army 227 

People's Republic of China 175, 177 

Phonograph records l-">3 

Pictures 18 < 

Political training ^-8 

Powell, editor and publisher of China Monthly Review 179 

Powell, :^Ir. John 189,203,232 

Powell, Sylvia (Mrs. John Powell) 189, 190, 203, 232 

Pr<>paganda material in oriental language 153 

Prisoner-of-war camps 178 

Putney College 1<>^ 

Putney High School, Putney. Vt 1<>9 

Putney School 170-173 

Putney, A^rniont 163, 166, 169 

Q 
Quinn, Lt. John S 19">, 199 

R 

Red China 175, 178, 218, 226, 227 

Red Chinese 1'8 

Red Chinese Government ~f' 

Rohrbough, Edward r— 17*^ 

S 

San Francisco 1^^ 

Senate, United States 216 

Senator from Indiana -0^ 

Senator from South Carolina 176 

Sheldon, Clifford A., colonel, USAF 196-199 

Shifrin. S. E 179, 184 

Special correspondent, the China Weekly Review 184 

Shuman. Julian 1*'*^ 

Sian, China 175 

Sourwine. Mr 1-^2, 16.> 

South ^'-^ 

Soviet 1^1 

Soviet aetivitv in the United States l-il 

Soviet China |^> 

Stanford University 220 

Stipulation made in connectiin with this particular material 21o 

Supreme Court 174 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 4036 



ESTDEX 
T 



Page 

Tientsin starts off new year with violence; train held up 184 

Time 179 

Treasury Department 157 

U 

Unexpurgated version of Chiang's book wins publishers' battle _ 179 

UNRRA (United Nations Rehabilitation and Relief Association) 222. 

223, 226, 227 

United States 174, 177, 188, 200, 202, 212, 215, 220, 228 

United States of America 200, 232 

United States delegation to Geneva Assembly, October 26, 1953, statement- IJM 

United States Senate 151 

University of Chicago 164 



Vermont, State of 186 

Violates confidence between husband and wife 225 

W 

Washington, D. C 151, 152 

Washington, State of 172,173 

Waters, J. A 164 

Director, Division of Security, Ignited States Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion 164 

Watkins, Senator 174 

Welcome Our Soviet Friends (posters) 220, 222 

Welker, Senator 151, 174 

West coast 166 

What is your decision? 192-194 

Workers Bookshop, New York City 206, 207, 210 

Official Communist bookshop 210 

World War II 170 

Wright, Mr. Archie 186 

President, Farmers Union 186 

"Written answers by a captured member of U. S. Air Force, whose 
name is rendered in Chinese as K'uei-en, to questions asked .iointl.v 
by Korean and Chinese correspondents" 232 



Yates, Marshal Clifton E 

Young Men's Athletic Society. 



163 
173 



O 



^^::>:i:^iii.<il>'MlU^