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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

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HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MARCH 19, 21, 28, 1956 



PART 11 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 'V 0;^ 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE ^ C/ 



72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Txxhlic Li'^rary 
Cupertntendent of Documents 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES 0. EASTLAND, MisSi^ippi, Chairman 



ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee 
CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina 
THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri 
JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas 
PRICE DANIEL, Texas 
JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming 
MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia 



ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 
WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 
WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 
ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

EVERETT Mckinley dirksen, imnoi 

HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of — Page 

Kaplan, Mrs. Jessie Rubin ^. 574 

Liveright, Herman 497 

Mills, Saul 550 

Schuman, Julian 515 



m 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



MONDAY, MARCH 19, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee To In- 
vestigate THE ADxMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL 

Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pm*suant to recess, at 3:30 p. m., in room 
457, Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland (chairman) 
presiding. 

Present: Senator Eastland. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel, and Benjamin Mandel, 
research director. 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up, please, sir. 
Do 3^ou solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give to the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Liveright. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF HERMAN LIVERIGHT, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, before commencing the interrogation 
of this particular witness this afternoon, I would like to restate again 
for the record the purpose of the particular series of hearings being 
held by the Internal Security Subcommittee. I read now from the 
opening statement of the chairman: 

We shall try to determine to what extent Soviet power operates through the 
Communist Party here and to what extent other organizations have been devised 
to effectuate its purposes. We shall study the structural revisions that the 
Communists have made in their network in order to avoid detection, and en- 
deavor to trace the movement of individual agents through these changing 
structures. 

Under consideration during these hearings will be the activities of Soviet 
agents and agencies registered with the Department of Justice and such other 
agents or agencies not now registered whose activities may warrant legislative 
action. 

We shall endeavor to determine to what extent this Soviet activity here is 
calculated to contribute to Soviet expansion abroad and to what extent it is 
working to undermine the structure and the composition of our own Government 
here, as the facts bearing on these issues are gathered in the public record of 
this subcommittee, which will enable it to make recommendations or determina- 
tions as to whether the Internal Security Act of 1950 and other existing law 
should be repealed, amended or revised, or new laws enacted. 

This witness is being called here this afternoon, Senator, in the 
course of that particular set or series of hearings. 

Will you give your full name and addi-ess to the reporter, Mr. 
Liveright? 

497 



498 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

- Mr. LivERiGHT. Yes. My name is Herman Liveright, and I reside 
at 2239 General Taylor Street, in New Orleans. 

Chaii'man Eastland. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Liveright. I am represented by counsel. 

Chairman Eastland. Will counsel please identify himself for the 
record? 

Mr. Wittenberg. Philip Wittenberg, 70 West 40th Street, New 
York City. 

M.r. Morris. Now, what is your present occupation, Mr. Liveright? 

Mr. Liveright. I am television program director of WDSU 
television station in New Orleans. 

Mr. Morris. And how long have you held that position? 

Mr. Liveright. For approximately 3 years. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now will you give us a short sketch of the assignment that you now 
have? 

Mr. Liveright. Yes. 

May I consult with counsel? 

Mr. Wittenberg. No. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Liveright. Under the immediate supervision of the AM and 
TV program manager of the station, who in turn reports to the general 
manager and the president of the station, I am in charge of the pro- 
duction details for such live studio programs as are put on our program 
schedule. I — pardon me, gentlemen. 

Mr. Wittenberg. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Liveright. I also on occasion sit in on meetings with, for 
the want of technical language, may I say, my peers and superiors 
at the station, to discuss various programing problems that may come 
up from time to time. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, what position did you hold, or what job did you hold before 
your present employment, sir? 

Mr. Liveright. Before I held this job, I was a television director. 

Mr. Morris. Where? 

Mr. Liveright. At WDSU-TV. 

Mr. Morris. That is the same position? 

Mr. Liveright. That is the same position. 

Mr. Morris. And what employment did you have before that? 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, may I ask my counsel something about cor- 
recting a very technical and small detail? 

Mr. Morris. You may at any time consult your counsel, 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. May I make a correction, please, just so that tech- 
nical facts are correct? The job I have just described a moment 
ago I have followed for, I should say, a year and a half, and I am 
frankly not positive of the exact duration. Before that, I held the 
job which I just defined for you, that of television director at the same 
station. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, the other question I asked was, what job did you have before 
the second job? 

Mr. Liveright. Before that, I was a television director in New 
York City with the American Broadcasting Co. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of that assignment? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 499 

Mr. LivERiGHT. The nature of that assignment was that of a tele- 
vision director who supervised the production details of certain 
programs which were put on the air. 

Mr, Morris. When did you have that particular assignment? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Sir, may I ask if it makes any difference if I am 
just a little bit inaccurate in remembering? 

Mr. Morris. No. Approximately when did you have that assign- 
ment? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. I believe I was a television director. I believe the 
time of duration of that job was from about 19 — sometime in 1950 
to approximately the end of 1952. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, what job did you have before that? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Before that I was what is called in the television 
industry an associate director at the same station. 

Mr. Morris. What station was that? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Well, it was the American Broadcasting Co. in 
New York, and the local station at that time was WJ2^TV, which 
subsequently became WABC-TV. 

Mr. Morris. All right. What job did you have before that job? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Before the associate director's job? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. I believe that for a very short period when I first 
came to the American Broadcasting Co., I was given a period of 
orientation when I was what was called the program assistant. 

Mr. Morris. When was that? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT, That would have been — I have to be deliberate 
here, because I don't remember the dates. 

Mr. Morris. That is all right, sir. Take your time. 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. I believe that was — the job I have just referred to 
was — some time in 1948, up and to the time I became director; in 
other words, between the period I am now referring to, I was for a 
short time a program assistant, or viewed as such, and then I presently 
became an associate director. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do prior to 1948, or immediately 
prior? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Immediately prior to 19 — I won't say prior to 1948, 
if you don't mind, sir, because I don't know precisely 

Mr, Morris. Approximately, yes. 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. May I consult counsel for just a minute? 

Mr. Morris. By all means. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Immediately prior to that — and frankly, sir, I 
may be putting in facts which are not pertinent to your — but I am 
trying to get everything — I was unemployed for a very brief period, 
and prior to this unemployed period of maybe a few weeks at the 
most, I was employed as — I was employed by Joseph Gaer Associates, 
a publishing firm in New York. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Had you known Joseph Gaer for a long time? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Before I was employed by him? 

Mr. Morris, Yes. 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. May I conjecture, sir? 

Mr. Morris, You may. 



500 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. I don't think I had ever met him before the dis- 
cussions leading to my employment. I won't say the first day I got 
there. But I cannot be positive of that. It is conceivable, since he 
was in the publishing business and I knew a number of people in it 

Mr, Morris. What were the circumstances leading up to your em- 
ployment by Joseph Gaer? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. May I consult, sir? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Sir, will you repeat your question, please? 

Mr. Morris. I think the reporter can read it. 

(Question read.) 

Mr. LivERiGHT. The circumstances leading up to my employment 
were a brief period of unemployment, during which I was looking for 
a job. 

Mr. Morris. And how did you get the job? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. To the best of my remembrance, sir — and may I 
interject here that, in this brief period, I visited a number of people 
and firms in the search of the type of employment I felt I could do, 
including, may I add, a number of publishing firms, because that is 
pertinent to this — I approached him, asked him for a' job. 

Mr. Morris. You had no preliminary introduction to him? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any preliminary introduction to Mr. 
Gaer? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. I am not sure, sir. It is beyond my recollection. 
But my honest remembrance is, no. Someone may have said, "Why 
don't you go to see Joe Gaer," who was so-and-so. 

Mr. Morris. There were no prearrangements made? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. None that I can remember; no. 

May I ask counsel one question which may be pertinent here? I 
don't want to put it on if it isn't. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. One reason I felt somewhat justified in approach- 
ing Mr. Gaer was that, years previously to this episode in my life, Mr. 
Gaer's partner, at the time I visited Mr. Gaer, was one of two brothers 
named Boni, and I will confess rather abjectly the reason I asked 
counsel whether I should say this or not is that for some strange reason 
at this moment, stupid as it may sound, I don't remember whether it 
was Charles or Albert Boni, which on the record makes me look rather 
foolish, but I don't for this moment remember. One of the Boni 
brothers was at that time the partner of Mr. Gaer when I approached 
him. 

Almost immediately after I was em.ployed by Mr. Gaer, the Mr. 
Boni who was then working with him departed from the firm, and I 
don't think I saw him more than once or twice. But the fact I am 
leading up to, for what it is worth, if anything, is that at least two and 
a half decades before the episode which I am discussing now, one of 
these two Boni brothers was a partner of my father, who was in the 
publishing business, and this was not the determining feature in my 
approaching Mr. Gaer, but certainly I thought maybe it w^ould help. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Where did you work before then? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. Before that — pardon me a minute. May I consult 
counsel? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 501 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Sir, this was a political job, and therefore I would 
respectfully like to enter my objection to this question, 

Mr. Morris. What is your objection to the question? 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. It is my objection as presented to the cliairman of 
the committee in executive session. 

Chairman Eastland. State your objection for the record. 

Mr, Wittenberg. Sir, may we furnish a copy to the reporter so 
that he may follow it? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. LivERiGHT. May I have your leave to read this, sir? 

Chairman Eastland. I will permit you to file it. Now, state your 
objection in answer to the question. 

(The document referred to appears as appendix I at p. 510.) 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. I, Herman Liveright 

Chairman Eastland. Just state your objection. 

Mr. Liveright. The reason I am hesitating, sir, is that I am trying 
to think of a way of condensing this, to get the pith of the objection. 

I respectfully object to the power and jurisdiction of this subcom- 
mittee to inquire into my political beliefs, into any other personal 
and private affairs, and into my associational activities, 

I am a private citizen engaged in work in the field of communication. 

The grounds of my objection are as follows: 

Any investigation|into my political beliefs, any other personal and 
private affairs, and my associational activities, is an inquiry into 
personal and private affairs which is beyond the powers of this sub- 
committee. I rely not upon my own opinion but upon statements 
contained in the opinions of the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Among others, in United States against Rumely, 345 United 
States 

Chairman Eastland. That has all been put in the record. I am 
just asking you to state the specific objection. Counsel understands 
that, when I permitted him to put that in the record. 

Mr. Liveright. I see. 

May I consult counsel, sir? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, you may. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, with your respectful — I mean, may I respect- 
fully ask for permission to say this in prelude to attempting to answer 
your question. Senator, that 

Chairman Eastland. I have not asked you a question. 

Mr. Liveright. No. I beg your pardon, sir. You have directed 
me to 

Mr. Morris. Senator Eastland simply asked you to state your 
objection. 

Mr. Liveright. To state my objection; is that right? 

Mr, Morris, It seems to me he has stated it. Has he not, counsel? 

Mr. Wittenberg. He has in the form 

Mr. Morris, Mr, Liveright, I thought your assignment prior to 
that time was with the White Plains Reporter-Dispatch. Was that 
so? 

Mr. Liveright. May I 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 



502 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Wittenberg. Will you put that in the form of a question? 

Mr. Morris. I will put it that way. 

Wasn't your employment prior to your last employment that you 
testified about, your employment with the White Plains Reporter- 
Dispatch? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. No, sir, it was not; no, sir. 

Mr. AIoRRis. This other objection tliat you have raised was in con- 
nection with an intervening job? 

Mr. Wittenberg. You are making an assumption, sir. I am sorry. 
He has answered that he was not employed, and now you are making 
the assumption that he was employed but that there was an inter- 
vening job. 

Mr. Morris. If there was no intervening job, he can say that. 

Mr. Wittenberg. He has said that he was not employed by that 
paper. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Let me get back, then. 

Prior to that, you were employed by Paramount Pictures; is that 
right? Was that your employment prior to the White Plains Re- 
porter-Dispatch ? 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry to have to interrupt so much and ask 
counsel. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Wittenberg. He was never employed by the White Plains 
paper. That is what he is trying to say to you. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. Go ahead. 

Were you ever employed by the White Plains paper? 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir; I was not, 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever work for them in any capacity? 

Mr. Liveright. May I answer this question in my own words, sir? 

Mr. Morris. I do not like to prolong this, Mr. Liveright. But 
the committee has been informed that you worked with the White 
Plains Reporter-Dispatch from April 18, 1948. Now 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir, may I state categorically that I did not? 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Did you have any assignment with that paper? 

Mr. Liveright. No, no assignment with that paper. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Prior to that, you worked for Paramount Pictures? 

Mr. Liveright. May I consult? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. Yes, that is correct, 

Mr. Morris. How long did you work for Paramount Pictures? 

Mr. Liveright. Again with the reservation that I may be con- 
siderably off now, because it is a long span of years, I should say 11 
or 12 years. 

Mr. Morris. That is roughly from 1934 to 1944? 

Mr. Liveright. No, no, sir. Frankly, I am a little lost on dates 
now, too, but I think we are in a period of about 1940 — working 
back from about 1947, are we not? 

Mr, Morris. That is right, 1947. 

Mr, Liveright, So I guess it would be about— and I want to 
make it clear that I am not— — 

Mr. Morris, It is just an approximation. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 503 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Yes. I should say about 11 years from 1936 or 
1937. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

What did you do before 1936? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I did a number of odd things, including — I should 
say the main job I had prior to this period that you are mentioning 
was that of casting director for the Columbia Opera Company at a 
salary of $10 a week. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Liveright? 

Mr. Liveright. In New York City. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Liveright. 1912, January 11th. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have a coUege degree? 

Mr. Liveright. No, I do not. 

Mr. Morris. What is the 

Mr. Liveright. I would like to also make, if I may, a technical 
amendment to that answer, please. 

Mr. Morris. Please do. 

Mr. Liveright. I attended, I believe, in 1929, 1930, and 1931— 
my dates may be wrong, sii — the Experimental CoUege of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, which at that time was a 2-year course, and I 
obtained, not a degree for a 2-year course, but a diploma saying that 
I had satisfactorily completed that. 

Mr. Morris. And your fii'st employment after you left Wisconsin 
was what? 

Mr. Liveright. I was not, except for summers, when I may have 
had odd jobs, when I did have odd jobs— and I don't know how 
relevant this is, sir — I had no steady job for a period of another, 
weU, at least a couple of years. 

May I consult counsel, please? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. I can fill in this brief gap if it is of any value, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you thirds: it is necessary at this time. Senator? 

Chairman Eastland. No. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chau^man, this committee has been informed that 
Mr. Liveright and his wife were active in the Communist Party of 
New York City, and that at the time and date they moved to the 
South, they were formally asked by their Communist Party superiors 
to keep away from formal associations with the Communist Party at 
that time in their activities. 

Chairman Eastland. That was in New Orleans? 

Mr. Morris. In New Orleans. 

The purpose of subpenaing this witness and asking him the following 
questions is to determine to what extent Mr. Liveright's activities 
have been carried out in New Orleans in the framework of the Com- 
munist Party and to what extent they have been carried out in some 
other framework. 

The first question I will ask you, Mr. Liveright, is, Are you now a 
Communist? 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, may I stand on the objection that I have 
already submitted, on the grounds that, as it states in the objection, 
this is an inquiry into my political beliefs? 

Chairman Eastland. Now, you do not object on the grounds of 
the fifth amendment that your testimony may tend to incriminate 
you? 



504 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. LiVERiGHT. No, sir; I do not. 

Chaii-man Eastland. You do not. 

I order and direct you, sir, to answer the question. It is a question 
that is pertinent to tliis inquuy. 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Sir, I must still stand on the objection as sub- 
mitted. 

Chairman Eastland. Very well, Mr. Liveright. 

Mr. Morris. Go ahead, Senator. 

Chaij-man Eastland. Have you ever been a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Liveright. I must object on the aforementioned grounds, sir. 

Chahman Eastland. I order and direct you, Mr, Liveright, to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry, sir. I must stand on the objection as 
submitted. 

Chairman Eastland. The question, Mr. Liveright, is very perti- 
nent. We are attempting to see what amendments are needed to the 
Internal Secm-ity Act. In addition, and as a part of that, we are 
tracing the activities of the Communist Party in this United States. 

Our information is, su% that you were sent South and placed there 
with your wife on a mission for the Communist Party, and were told 
by your superiors not to become involved with a Communist cell that 
was a professional group in the city of New Orleans, but the word was 
used by your superiors to stay clean. 

Now, is that true? Were you sent on a mission for the Communist 
Party into the South? 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, may I consult counsel on this? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, I would like to stand on the objection that I 
have already submitted, but add, if I may, sir, that the information 
which you have, the pm'port of the information which you have asked 
me about, is completely erroneous. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, explain what you mean. 

Mr. Liveright. May I consult, please? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. I will have to stand on the objection as stated, sir 

Chairman Eastland. Now, you have not based that on the fifth 
amendment? 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry, sir, but I wiU still have to stand on 
my objection. 

Chairman Eastland. You refuse to state whether you were sent 
into the South on a secret mission by the leaders of the Communist 
Party in New York? 

Mr. Liveright. I will stand on my objection, sir, as stated, but 
repeat what I have said before, that 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. Now, did you ever 

Mr. Liveright (continuing). That this does not conform with the 
facts in any way. 

Chairman Eastland. WeU, if it does not conform with the facts, 
why don't you come out and state what the facts ai'e, sir? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 505 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Sir, because I think my answer to the question 
which you have just asked me, sir — and I say this very respectfully — is 
stated in this very objection. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Now, have you affiliated with a Communist cell in the city of New 
Orleans, composed of professional people? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Sir, I still have to stand on this objection. 

Chairman Eastland. You decline to answer the question? 

Mr. Liveright. On the basis of the aforementioned objection; yes, 
sir. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question, 
sir. 

Mr. Liveright. I must stand on the objection as submitted. 

Chairman Eastland. Did you ever live at 333 Ware Street, New 
Orleans? 

Mr. Liveright. May I consult counsel, please? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. Yes, I did, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You did live there? 

Mr. Liveright. Yes, su\ 

Chauman Eastland. Now, were there Communist meetings in 
your home at 333 Ware Street, in New Orleans? 

Mr. Liveright. May I consult counsel, please? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

(The witness consults with his attorne}^.) 

Mr. Liveright. I will have to stand on the objections as read. 
Your Honor. 

Chau-man Eastland. I order and du-ect you to answer the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry, sir. I will have to stand on the 
objections. 

Chairman Eastland. And it does not include the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Liveright — your first name is Herman; 
is that right? 

Mr. Liveright. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. State whether or not you were at one time 
membership du-ector of the Thomson-Hill branch of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Liveright. I will have to stand on the objection as submitted, 
sir, in not answering that question. 

Chairman Eastland. And you do not stand on the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You raise no objection on that ground? 

Mr. Liveright. I stand on this objection as submitted, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer my question. You raise no objec- 
tion on the grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I must still stand on the basis of the objection as 
I have submitted it, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Liveright, the Communist movement, 
with which we have information that you are affiliated, sir, is a con- 
spiracy against your country. It is a conspiracy which seeks to 



506 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

overthrow your country. We have information, sir, and we desire 
to know how this conspiracy is financed, that you have given money 
to the Communist Party on various occasions. State whether that 
is true or untrue. 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Sir, I must decHne to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

Chairman Eastland. Not on the grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Liveright, I order and direct you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry, su', that I can't, but I must stand on 
this objection. 

Chairman Eastland. It seems that if you had not participated in 
this conspiracy and if you had not helped finance it, that you would 
be very glad to answer that question. Mr. Liveright. 

Mr. Liveright. Again may I say this, sir? And this again I may 
not state in very technical language, but I say very respectfully, my 
rejoinder to this statement you have addressed to me, I think, is 
contained pretty much in the objection that I have submitted. 

Chairman Eastland. You have the opportunity now to help your 
country by just frankly answering the questions and telling us the 
truth, to enable us to- 



Mr. Liveright. May I consult— — - 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Mr. Liveright. Pardon me. I beg your pardon, sir. 

Chairman Eastland (continuing). To enable us to draft legislation 
to protect the welfare and the safety of our country. And it appears 
that you would be most anxious, Mr. Liveright, to do that. Most 
Americans would. 

Now, I will ask you this question. In 1952, did you and your wife 
rent a post-office box in White Plains, N. Y.? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, your injunction to me to consider the welfare 
of the country, I certainly accept as a potent and meaningful statement 
to me. I do not feel, and I say this most respectfully, that answering 
questions which probe my personal life as being of any help to society 
or my country or anybody else, and I say that with 

Chairman Eastland. The technical reason is that you do noi: want 
to give facts that would enable a properly constituted branch of the 
Government to take steps to protect the Government. 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, I respectfully disagree with that. I mean, 
I cannot in good conscience 

Chairman Eastland. Now, will you decline to answer the question 
that you, Mr. and Mrs. Herman Liveright, attempted to rent a post- 
office box in White Plains, N. Y., in 1952? What is vmir answer, sir? 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, I would like to merely repeat what I have just 
said, that I must stand on the substance of this objection and the 
statement I just made, in not answering it. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, you do not refuse to answer that ques- 
tion on the grounds of the fifth amendment, that your testimony might 
tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Liveright. Oh, no, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Liveright, I still must stand— 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 507 

Chairman Eastland. I want to explain that if you do not answer 
these questions, I am going to request that you be cited for contempt 
of the United States Senate. 

Mr. LivERiGHT.^ Well, sir, may I say that only the deepest search 
of my conscience in trying to determine a position on these questions 
would make me say to you, as I have said in answer to many of these 
questions, that I stand on the objection. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, did you attempt to rent a post office 
box in White Plains, N. Y., under the name of the Westchester County 
Committee for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I stand on the same objection, sir, on the objection 
that I have previously submitted , 

Chairman Eastland. That is the objection in your written — the 
written objection that your attorney prepared as filed with the 
committee? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. LivERiGHT. Sorry, sir, but I will have to stand on the objection. 

Chairman Eastland. And you do not object to answering on the 
grounds that your testimony might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. May I 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I do not, sir. 

May I consult counsel? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I wanted to add something to my objection, sir, 
but my counsel finds it irrelevant. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, I ask you this question. How many 
children have you, Mr. Liveright? 

Mr. Liveright. I have two children, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. What are their ages? 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry. I didn't hear you. 

Chairman Eastland. What are their ages? 

Mr. Liveright. Thirteen and eleven. 

Chairman Eastland. Thirteen and eleven? 

Mr. Liveright. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, is it not a fact that you sent those 
children away from home, from your home, in order to have a meeting 
in your home of a Communist cell, and you did not want your chil- 
dren to see the people in the city of New Orleans who belonged to 
this cell? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, I stand on the objection as previously sub- 
mitted. 

Chairman Eastland. That is not on the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. I order, instruct, and direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry, sir, but I will have to stand on the 
objection as submitted. 

Chairman Eastland. When did you join the Communist Party, 
Mr. Liveright? 

Mr. Liveright. Pardon me, sir? 



508 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Chairman Eastland. When did you join the Communist Party? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I refuse to answer this question on the basis of my 
objection and on the basis that it assumes a truth. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and instruct and direct you to answer 
the question, sir. 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I refuse to answer on the basis of my objection, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, did word come to you from the Com- 
munist leadership in New York after you affiliated, to stay clean in 
New Orleans? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I object to that question on the same grounds, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. What is the objection? 

Mr. LivERiGHT. I have to stand on the objection, sir, in not an- 
swering that question. 

Chairman Eastland. What objection, Mr. Liveright? The objec- 
tion that is in the written memorandum? 

Mr. Liveright. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Not the fifth amendment, now? 

Mr. Liveright. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and instruct and direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry, sir, but I will have to stand on this 
written submitted objection. 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Liveright, is your wife a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Liveright. Sir, I object to that question on the basis of the 
submitted objection. I cannot answer that question. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and instruct and direct you to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Liveright. I am sorry, sir, but I will have to stand on that 
objection. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Chairman Eastland. Is there anything else? 

Mr. Morris. Not of this witness. Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. That will be all. 

Mr. Liveright. Thank you, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Wittenberg, in the event that we inay 
have to have Mr. Liveright testify again, may we do so by calling 
you instead of subpenaing him? 

Mr. Wittenberg. Yes, if you will give me enough time and re- 
member that he is down in New Orleans. 

Mr. Morris. Oh, we understand that. You will supply him 
rather than have us subpena him again? 

Mr. Wittenberg. Oh, surely. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, there is another thing that I would 
like to put in the record today — and that is because it bears on the 
present hearing that we have — and that is an editorial that appeared 
in the Daily Worker of March 13, 1956, by Alan Max, entitled, 
"U. S. Marxists and Soviet Self-Criticism." 

Mr. Chairman, it bears on the hearings that we have here because 
it may possibly portend a variation or a change in the Communist 
Party line that has directed the activities of many of the people who 
have appeared before this committee in this series of hearings. May 
it go into the record? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 509 

Chairman Eastland. So ordered. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 181" and is as 
follows:) 

Exhibit No. 181 

U. S. Marxists and Soviet Self-Criticism 

By Alan Max 

(From Dally Worker, New York, Tuesday, March 13, 1956) 

I find absorbing some dispatches in the New York Times which tell how calmly 
the average Soviet citizen is taking criticism of the past 20 years and of short- 
comings in the leadership of Stalin. 

The people of the Soviet Union seem to take these developments much more 
calmly than do many American Marvists, including myself. (Any Marxist who 
says he has not been Jolted is either not being honest with himself, in my opinion, 
or minimizes the extent of the developments now in progress in the Soviet Union.) 

The people of the Soviet Union are calm for several reasons, at least so it seems 
to me. In the first place, the process of criticism and examination has been going 
on in their daily lives over the past 3 years. In the second place they experi- 
enced at firsthand the shortcomings and mistakes of the past 20 years of which 
American Marxists either were ignorant or which we glossed over. Finally, the 
Soviet people have also experienced the tremendous progress — admitted even in 
capitalist circles — of the past 3 years and which accompanied the process of self- 
examination. 

Many things bother a person like mj^self : where were the present leaders during 
the period when they say that collective leadership was lacking? — what about 
their own mistakes in that period of capitalist encirclement? — are they giving 
proper weight to the achievements of Stalin? etc. For the answers to such ques- 
tions one must either speculate or await further developments. 

But we American Marxists also need to give thought to our own role in accept- 
ing many things about the Soviet Union which Marxists in the Soviet Union are 
now criticizing. After all, whatever positions American Marxists took they took 
of their own free will. Nobody told them to do so any more than anyone else- 
where determines their position on any question. 

I do not pretend that I have given this matter sufficient thought or, for that 
matter, that any one individual could come up with all the answers by himself. 

Some things do appear obvious to me, however. When we Marxists were 
defending certain aspects of life in the Soviet Union which, to our embarassment, 
the Soviet Union now says were wrong, we did it in a certain situation. This 
was in an atmosphere of rabid Soviet baiting which extended without interrup- 
tion — except for the Second World War — over the past 38 years. This Soviet 
baiting was based on the most vicious type of falsification, slanders and, on many 
occasions, actual forgeries. It was designed to alibi military intervention by 
our and other governments in the first country of socialism in the 1920's. It was 
aimed at excusing the rise of Hitler the regime of Mussolini, and the insurrection 
of Franco. It was used as a convenient tool with which it tried to beat down the 
labor and progressive and New Deal movements in our own country. Since the 
war, this Soviet baiting has been used as an excuse for the cold war, for a war 
program and for participation in military adventures like the Korean war. 

In this situation, American Marxists courageously and almost singlehandedly 
fought against the cold-war propaganda which was endangering our country. 
Neither prison, nor deportations or other forms of persecution could stop a prin- 
cipled position of which American Marxists can always be proud. 

But at the same time, we went overboard in defending things like the idea of 
Stalin as infallible, in opposing any suggestion that civil liberties were not being 
fully respected in the Soviet Union, in discouraging serious discussion and criti- 
cism of Soviet movies, books, etc. As a matter of fact, while the defense of the 
Soviet policy as a policy of peace was proper and necessary for the welfare of the 
American people, going overboard on these other matters was wrong and, hence, 
self-defeating. It made it unnecessarily more difficult to win the ear of our 
fellow Americans on the more basic questions. It made it easier for the reac- 
tionaries to persecute and isolate us. 

All this — or much of it — could have been avoided, it seems to me, if we Marxists 
had stood more firmly on our own feet on these matters, as we have on the funda- 

72723— 56— pt 11 2 



510 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE TJNITED STATES 

mentals of a Marxist program for America upon which the Communist Party has 
always developed its own answers and outlook. 

I should add that non-Marxists as well as Marxists have a responsibility here 
too. The sooner all of us unite to end the cold war the sooner will freedom be 
restored here in our own country, the easier it will be for the Soviet Union to get 
rid of all excesses, the easier it will be for Marxists here to take a more fully ob- 
jective view of developments in all countries of socialism. 

What I am writing here are my own first reactions to one side of the proceed- 
ings at the 20th Party Congress. What do our readers think about the matter? 
We could all profit from hearing from you. j _ j , 

Mr. Morris. That is all. 

Chairman Eastland. We will recess. 

(Whereupon, at 4:15 p. m,, the subcommittee recessed.) 

Appendix I 
Statement by Herman Liveright 

1. I, Herman Liveright, having been subpenaed before the Internal Security 
Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, by subpena dated the 13th day 
of March 1956, returnable on the 19th day of March 1956 hereby respectfully 
object to the power and jurisdiction of this subcommittee to inquire into: 

(a) My political beliefs. 

(6) Any other personal and private affairs. 

(c) My associational activities. 

2. I am a private citizen engaged in work in the field of communication. 

3. The grounds of my objection are as follows: 

A. Any investigation into my political beliefs, any other personal and private 
affairs, and my associational activities, is an inquiry into personal and private 
affairs which is beyond the powers of this subcommittee. I rely not upon my own 
opinion but upon statements contained in the opinions of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. Among others, in United States v. Rumely (345 U. S. 41, 58), 
the Supreme Court of the United States said in a concurring opinion by Mr, 
Justice Douglas: 

"The power of investigation is also limited. Inquiry into personal and private 
affairs is precluded." 

In McGrain v. Daugherty (273 U. S. 135), the Court said: "Neither house is 
invested with 'general' power to inquire into private affairs and to compel 
disclosures." 

And in Kilbourn v. Thompson (103 U. S. 168), the Court said: 

"Neither the Senate nor the House of Representatives 'possesses the general 
power of making inquiry into the private affairs of the citizens'." 

In West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (319 U. S. 624), the 
Court, in an opinion by Mr. Justice Jackson said: 

"If there is any fixed star in our constitutional constellation it is that no official, 
high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, 
religion or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act 
their faith therein." 

It follows therefore that this subcommittee is without power to examine into 
my political, associational, and private affairs. 

B. The right to refuse to answer to any official, or indeed to anyone, with 
regard to one's personal affairs is a valuable right in a democracy which ought not 
lightly be ceded, or indeed ought ever be impinged upon by any public official. 
The Congress of the United States is composed of elected officials who have no 
power to intrude into the private affairs of American citizens. They cannot by 
resolution increase their constitutional authority. As was said by the Supreme 
Court of the United States in Jones v. Securities and Exchange Commission (298 
U.S.I): 

"The citizen when interrogated about his private affairs has a right before 
answering to know why the inquiry is made; and if the purpose disclosed is not a 
legitimate one, he may not be compelled to answer." 

And again in McGrain v. Daugherty (273 U. S. 135): 

"That a witness rightfully may refuse to answer where the bounds of the power 
are exceeded." 

It was said by Mr. Justice Frankfurter in United States v. United Mine Workers 
of America (330 U. S. 258, 307): 

"The historic phrase 'government of laws and not of men' epitomizes the 
distinguishing character of our political society." * * * 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 511 

" 'A government of laws and not of men' was the rejection in positive terms of 
rule by fiat, whether by the fiat of governmental or private power. Every act of 
government may be challenged by an appeal to law, as finally pronounced by 
this Court." 

And again in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579): 

"The accretion of dangerous power does not come in a day. It does come, 
however slowly, from the generative force of unchecked disregard of the restric- 
tions that fence in even the most disinterested assertions of authority." 

Within the meaning of these decisions I regard it as one of the duties of a citizen 
of the United States to be vigilant against the accretion of dangerous power. 
I call to the attention of this subcommittee the opinion of Mr. Justice Douglas in 
Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579), that even the cold war 
and the emergencies said to have been created thereby "did not create power." 

C. Under the first amendment to the Constitution the power of investigation 
by Congress in matters involving freedom of speech and freedom of the press is 
limited. There can be no investigation except for the purpose of legislation. 
As was said by Mr. Justice Van Devanter in McGrain v. Dougherty (273 U. S. 
135, 178): 

"The only legitimate object the Senate could have in ordering the investigation 
was to aid it in legislating." 

The Congress of the United States has no constitutional right to legislate with 
regard to prior restraint on utterance; no ex post facto law can be passed deter- 
mining innocence or criminality, and therefore any investigations into my speech 
or communications is beyond the power of this committee. As was said by Mr. 
Justice Douglas in United States v. Rumeley (345 U. S. 41, 58): 

"Through the harassment of hearings, investigations, reports, and subpenas, 
Government wiU hold a club over speech and over the press. Congress could not 
do this by law. The power of investigation is also limited. Inquiry into personal 
and private aflfairs is precluded." 

D. Under our Constitution our Government is a Government of limited powers, 
tripartite in form, consisting in the legislative, the judicial, and?the executive. 
This separation is fundamental to the preservation of the rights of the people in 
order that no one department may, through its power, rise to become a despotic 
arbiter. This subcommittee through this investigation into my political, associa- 
tional, and private affairs trespassed upon the judicial department and has caused 
a lack of balance of power which constitutes a threat to my liberty as an American 
citizen and is an unconstitutional usurpation. This usurpation has reached the 
point where the Supreme Court of the United States in United States v. Rumeley, 
(345 U. S. 41, 44), said: 

" 'And so, we would have to be that "blind" court, against which Mr. Chief 
Justice Taft admonished in a famous passage, that does not see what all others 
can see and understand' not to know that there is wide concern, both in and out 
of Congress, over some aspects of the exercise of the congressional power of 
investigation." 

No place is that usurpation better seen than in the trespassing by the legislature 
upon the judiciary. As was said in Lichter v. United States (334 U. S. 742, 779): 

"In peace or in war it is essential that the Constitution be scrupulously obeyed, 
and particularly that the respective branches of the Government keep within the 
powers assigned to each by the Constitution." 

And again, in Myers v. United States (272 U. S. 52, 116), by Mr. Justice Taft: 

"If there is a principle in our Constitution, indeed in any free constitution 
more sacred than another, it is that which separates the legislative, executive, 
and judicial powers." 

In Ouinn v. United States (349 U. S. 155-161), the Supreme Court by Mr. Chief 
Justice Warren said: "But the power to investigate, broad as it may be, is also 
subject to recognized limitations. It cannot be used to inquire into private 
affairs unrelated to a valid legislative purpose. Nor does it extend to an area 
in which Congress is forbidden to legislate. Similarly, the power to investigate 
must not be confused with any of the powers of law enforcement; those powers 
are assigned under our Constitution to the executive and the judiciary." 

And again by Mr. Justice Brandeis in Myers v. United States (272 U. S. 52, 293, 
71 L. Ed. 160): 

"The doctrine of the separation of powers was adopted by the convention of 
1787 not to promote efficiency but to preclude the exercise of arbitrary power. 
The purpose was not to fight friction but, by means of the inevitable friction 
incident to the distribution of the governmental powers among three departments, 
to save the people from autocracy." 



512 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

And again in Kilhourn v, Thompson (103 U. S. 168): 

"It is believed to be one of the chief merits of the American system of written 
constitutional lav/ that all the powers entrusted to governments, whether State 
or national, are divided into the three grand departments; the executive, the 
legislative, and the judicial. * * *^It is also essential to the successful working 
of this system that the persons entrusted with power in any one of these branches 
shall not be permitted to encroach upon the powers confided to the others but that 
each shall by the law of its creation be limited to the exercise of the power appro- 
priate to its own department and no other." 

Not only did the founders of our Republic separate the departments of govern- 
ment, but they also limited the powers of each of those departments. It is a simple 
statement known to every American schoolchild that our Government consists 
of separate departments, that the powers of each of those departments is limited, 
and that all rights not granted to the Government are reserved to the people. 

To be specific, Congress^has the specific power to legislate granted to it by the 
Constitution. It has an implied power to investigate which, however, can be no 
broader than the power the legislate. In the absence of proposed legislation there 
can be no investigation for all powers not expressly granted or necessarily implied 
are reserved to the people. Neither of the tripartite departments of our Govern- 
ment can claim any residual power as a basis for acting. In order that there might 
be no doubt about the limitations of power and the wish not to grant residual 
power, the citizens of the several States insisted on the insertion in the Bill of 
Rights of amendment 9: 

"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people." 

They reinforced amendment 9 by amendment 10: 

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor pro- 
hibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the 
people." 

This Congress and the committees appointed by it can enjoy only the powers 
expressly granted in the Constitution or necessarily implied therefrom. Senators 
or committeemen thereof as officials of the Government do not have, and cannot 
arrogate to themselves, a power to intrude into the private affairs of the people 
of the United States, a power which the people reserve to themselves. The 
arrogation of power may be curtailed either by an appeal to the courts, or what is 
to be more hoped for, by the self-discipline of those entrusted with authority. 
The possibility of petty tyranny is ever present in a democracy unless the body 
of officialdom is wise and knows that self-limitation is essential to the success 
of our scheme of government. As Mr. Justice Frankfurter said in Youngstown 
Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579) : 

"A constitutional democracy like ours is perhaps the most difficult of man's 
social arrangements to manage successfully. Our scheme of society is more 
dependent than any other form of government on knowledge and wisdom and 
self-discipline for the achievement of its aims." 

But when such self-discipline is not apparent in the actions of any governing 
body, then it becomes the duty of the citizen to challenge that act by an appeal 
to law. It is that duty which I here feel obliged to maintain. See United States 
V. United Mine Workerf of America, (330 U. S. 258). 

This subcommittee by compelling me to leave my ordinary pursuits and to 
attend before it for the purpose of testifying with regard to my political beliefs, 
other personal and private affairs, and my associational activities, is acting as a 
judicial indicting and accusatory power. It is intruding into the judicial sphere 
and is following a practice which closely parallels the practices which resulted in 
bills of attainder being prohibited by our Constitution, article I, section 10. 

The present practices of this committee fall within the condemnation and 
prohibition of that section. 

The Supreme Court said in United States v. Lovett (328 U. S. 303, 317): 

"Those who wrote our Constitution well knew the danger inherent in special 
legislative acts which take away the life, liberty, or property of particular named 
persons, because the legislature thinks them guilty of conduct which deserves 
punishment. They intended to safeguard the people of this country from 
punishment without trial by duly constituted courts. * * * 

"And even the courts to which this important function was entrusted were 
commanded to stay their hands until and unless certain tested safeguards were 
observed. An accused in court must be tried by an impartial jury, has a right 
to be represented by counsel, he must be clearly informed of the charge against 
him; the law which he is charged with violating must have been passed before he 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 513 

committed the act charged, he must be confronted by the witnesses against him, 
he must not be compelled to incriminate himself. * * * 

"Our ancestors had ample reason to know that legislative trials and punishments 
were too dangerous to liberty to exist in the nation of freemen they envisioned. 
And so they proscribed bills of attainder." 

But a bill of attainder need not be the specific bill of attainder referred to in 
the Constitution. It may be any legislative act taken in connection with known 
punishments which together constitute a deprivation of civil rights. So to ask 
me whether I am or have been a member of the Communist Party may have dire 
consequences. I might wish to defend myself by taking recourse to the pro- 
tection of the provisions contained in the Bill of Rights or challenge the per- 
tinency of the question to the investigation. Should I invoke the protection 
of the Bill of Rights and the Constitution I thereby place my livelihood and my 
position in society in a position of jeopardy. IXIany of our States, municipalities, 
educational institutions, the Federal Government itself, and even private em- 
ployers, have adopted rules of exclusion from employment for persons taking 
recourse in the Bill of Rights or the Constitution. 

The Supreme Court of the United States took cognizance of this condition in 
1950, a time when it had not yet reached the full flavor of today. For in 1950, 
Mr. Justice Black concurring in, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com. v. Mdxrath 
(341 U. S. 123, 144, 145), said: 

"In this day when prejudice, hate, and fear are constantly invoked to justify 
irresponsible smears and persecution of persons even faintly suspected of enter- 
taining unpopular views, it may b6 futile to suggest that the cause of internal 
security would be fostered, not hurt, by faithful adherence to our constitutional 
guaranties of individual hberty. Nevertheless, since prejudice manifests itself 
in much the same way in every age and country and since what has happened 
before can happen again, it surely should not be amiss to call attention to what 
has occurred when dominant governmental groups have been left free to give 
uncontrolled rein to their prejudices against unorthodox minorities. * * * Mem- 
ories of such events were fresh in the minds of the founders when they forbade 
the use of the bill of attainder." 

And he said further: 

"Moreover, officially prepared and proclaimed governmental blacklists possess 
almost every quality of bills of attainder, the use of which was from the beginning 
forbidden to both National and State governments. United States Constitution, 
article I, sections 9, 10." 

As was said in United States v. Lovelt (328 U. S. 303, 324), cited by Mr. Justice 
Black in the preceding opinion: 

"Figuratively speaking, all discomforting actions may be deemed punishment 
because it deprives of what otherwise would be enjoyed. * * * 

"The deprivation of any rights, civil or political, previously enjoyed, may be 
punishment, the circumstances attending and the causes of the deprivation 
determining this fact." 

Upon all the grounds aforesaid I object not only to the jurisdiction of this 
committee, but also to the questions propounded by it. This objection is made 
upon the advice of counsel. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 21, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the Administra- 
tion OF THE Internal Security Act and Other In- 
ternal Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 11:05 a. m., in the 
caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker pre- 
siding. 

Present; Senator Welker. 

Also present: Robert JMorris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research director; and 
Robert McManus, investigations analyst. 

Senator Welker. The committee will come to order. Our first 
witness is Mr. Schuman. WiU you raise your right hand and be 
sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give before the 
subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Schuman. I do. Senator. 

TESTIMONY OF JULIAN SCHUMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY STANLEY 

FAULKNER. HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name and address, please? 

Mr. Schuman. Julian Schuman, 408 Second Avenue, New York 
City. 

Senator Welker. Go ahead, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. How do you spell "Schuman"? 

Mr. Schuman. S-c-h-u-m-a-n. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the address? 

Mr. Schuman. 408 Second Avenue. 

Mr. Morris. New York City? 

Mr. Schuman. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Schuman, where were you born and when? 

Mr. Schuman. I would like to ask one question. I would like to 
know what the charges are in bringing me 

Senator Welker. Just a moment, Mr. Witness. You know good 
and well there are no charges against you. 

We are sitting here as the Internal Security Subcommittee of the 
Committee on the Judiciary, which has certain duties to perform; to 
obtain information relative to assist us to suggest and introduce legis- 
lation which, in the minds of the Congress, would be helpful to our 
country. 

Now, there are no criminal charges. This is not a criminal offense 
proceeding in any way whatsoever. 

515 



516 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

We are here merely, as I say, trying to find information which will 
be helpful to the committee in recommending to the Congress of the 
United States certain legislation. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. In that case. Senator, you might ask me some ques- 
tions about the South. 

Senator Welker. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I say, I hope that you ask me some questions about 
conditions in the South. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Witness, from your attitude, you apparently 
have come here for an argument from the chairman or the acting 
chairman. Now, you are not going to get an argument from me. 
Mr. ScHUMAN. I am not going to argue. 

Senator Welker. And I would not hesitate to argue with you on 
any matter; but you are not here to argue. You are here to answer 
questions and you are going to answer questions. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Senator, again 

Senator Welker. And from now on if you try any argument, then 
the Chair will bring down his gavel. Proceed, Counsel. 
Mr. Morris. Where and when were you born? 
Mr. ScHUMAN. Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Morris. In what year? 
Mr. ScHUMAN. 1920. 

Senator Welker. Excuse'me. Will you pardon me, Mr. Schuman 
and counsel? I am called for a long-distance phone call. We will 
suspend for just a moment. 

(Short pause in the proceedings.) 

Senator Welker. Thank you very much, gentlemen. The meeting 
will resume. 

Mr. Morris. What is your present occupation, Mr. Schuman? 
Mr. Faulkner (addressing photographers). Just a minute, just a 
minute. Let us have the pictures taken now and not during the 
hearing, please. 

Senator Welker. Very well. You don't object to being photo- 
graphed now? 

Mr. Schuman. No. 

Senator Welker. Go ahead and take your pictures. You don't 
need to answer until the photographers have finished their work. 
Senator Welker. All right, now, counsel, proceed. 
Mr. Morris. Mr. Schuman, what is your present occupation? 
Mr. Schuman. I am a wi'iter and free-lance editorial worker. 
Mr. Morris. And what are you doing at the present time? 
Mr. Schuman. Su-, I don't believe that this committee has the 
right to ask me questions on my writing, under the first amendment. 

the freedom of the press and freedom to writi^. 

Senator Welker. I have heard your objection and your objection 
is not tenable. You are ordered and directed to answer the question 
propounded to you by counsel. 

Mr. Schuman. I will answer. Senator. Nevertheless I would like 
to explain my gi-ounds so that the record will be clear. 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. You will answer the question: 
Wliat do you do now? 

He did not ask you to make a speech or read any document. If 
you are laying bricks, why don't you say so ; or if you are doing any- 
thing now — work like writing or as an editorial writer, that is a very 
simple answer. So, I am directing you to get on with your answer. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 517 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I said I am a writer and a free-lance editorial 
worker. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schuman, would you give us a brief sketch of 
your educational backgi'ound? 

Mr. Schuman. Yes, sir. Starting where? At the grade level? 

Mr. Morris. The high school level. 

Mr. Schuman. I went to high school. I went to college, and then 
I went to —  

Mr. Morris. Wliat college? 

Mr. Schuman. The first college is the College of the City of New 
York. 

Mr. Morris. What years? 

Mr. Schuman. I believe it Avas 1939—1939 to 1940, 1941. 

Mr. Morris. Did you obtain a degree? 

Mr. Schuman. No, sir. Then I went into the Army during World 
War II. 

Mr. Morris. Did you go into tlie Army December 18, 1942? 

Mr. Schuman. I can't remember the exact date. I do remember 
December. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Chairman, I have here a letter which 
Mr. McManus will identify for the record. 

Mr. McManus. This is a letter to the Honorable William E. 
Jenner, chairman. Internal Security Subcommittee, dated August 30, 
1954, attention of Mr. Robert C. McManus, and it says, "Dear Mr. 
Chairman" 

Mr. Morris. No; just identify it. 

Senator Welker. I think you have already identified it. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Mr. Chairman, this gives in full detail the 
Army career of the particular witness before us; and may it go into the 
record at this time? 

Senator Welker. Yes. I suggest that you shov/ it to the witness. 

Mr. Schuman. I would like to see it. 

(Document was handed to Mr. Schuman.) 

(The document referred to is as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 182 

Department of the Aemy, 
Office of Department Counselor, 

August SO, 1954. 
Hon. William E. Jenner, 

Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee, 

Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate. 

(Attention: Mr. Robert C. McManus.) 

Dear Mr. Chairman: Pursuant to a request by Mr. Robert C. McManus, of 
your committee staff, there follows a summary of the service record of former 
T4c. Julian Schuman, Army serial No. 32687665. 

Schuman was inducted into the Army on December 18, 1942, and entered on 
active service from New York City on December 28, 1942. From January 1, 
1943, until February 28, 1943, he was assigned to Fort Hamilton, N. Y., for basic 
training. From February 28, 1943, until November 20, 1943, he continu d to be 
stationed at Fort Hamilton where he served as a file clerk, a studf^nt cPrk-typist, 
and warehouseman, and whera he entered a period of classification for th" Army 
specialized training program. Aft^r a brief stay at Camp Upton, N. Y., Schuman 
was assigned on December 6, 1943, to an Army specialized training unit, the 
1144th Signal Corps Service Unit at Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. His 
period of training at this station ended on September 12, 1944, when he was 



518 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

assigned to the 2d Signal Service Battalion, Vint Hill Farms Station, Warrenton, 
Va., for training as a crj^ptanalysis technician (Japanese) (military occupation 
specialty 808- J). On January 6, 1945, he was assigned to the 3794th Signal 
Service Detachment, Camp Wood, N. J., and attached to the 848th Signal 
Training Battalion, Fort Monmouth, N, J., until March 9, 1945, serving as a 
cryptanalysis technician (Japanese). 

Schuman departed for the Pacific theater of operations on March 20, 1945, 
On November 2, 1945, he was transferred to the 199th Signal Service Company, 
APO 958. On December 8, 1945, Schuman was assigned to the 4025th Signal 
Service Group, APO 74. Still serving as a cryptanalyst, on December 17, 1945, 
Schuman was assigned to Headquarters, Army Security Agency, Pacific, APO 500. 
While still assigned to this organization, on January 3, 1946, he was attached to 
the advance echelon. Headquarters and Service Group, General Headquarters, 
Armed Forces Pacific, APO 500. On February 2, 1946, he was attached to the 
4th Replacement Depot, APO 703, and departed Japan for the continental United 
States February 23, 1946; he arrived in the United States on March 10, 1946. 
His separation from the service in the grade of technician fourth class took place 
at Fort Dix, N. J., on March 21, 1946. 

Schuman's file contains a notation dated October 19, 1944, that he had been 
cleared for "duties in connection with secret and confidential cryptographic 
material." 

Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) Lewis E. Berry, Jr., 

Deputy Department Counselor. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, there is nothing inaccurate about 
that, is there, Mr. Schuman? 

Mr. Faulkner. There is something very inaccurate, obviously 
inaccurate. 

Mr. Morris. What is that? 

Mr. Faulkner. It is addressed to the Hon. William E. Jenner, 
chairman. Internal Security Subcommittee. 

Mr. Morris. Yes; but look at the date. 

Mr. Faulkner. August 30, 1954. 

Senator Welker. And that was when Senator Jenner was chair- 
man; but I mean, about the facts, is there anything inaccurate? 

Mr. Faulkner. Well, I think the record should disclose it is a 
letter dated August 30 

Mr. Morris. It does show. 

Mr. Faulkner. Well, if you read it into the record^that portion 
should indicate that you have asked what is inaccurate with it and 
we have shown that it is addressed to Senator Jenner at the time that 
he was 

Senator Welker. Counsel, you are getting a^vful technical with us 
this morning. 

Mr. Faulkner. Well, as a former prosecutor, you and I share the 
same 

Senator Welker. Excuse me, in other cases, not like this — this is 
not a criminal case. 

I will say this for the record. We have the most pleasant relation- 
ship, you have been before this committee when I have been chairman 
many times, and you have been a gentleman in every respect, you have 
always advised your client as to what you thought was best, and I 
would always want to commend you, sir. 

Mr. Faulkner. Thank you. 

Senator Welker. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schuman. You were a cryptanalyst in the 
service, were you? 

Mr. Schuman. At one period I was. That was after I studied 
Chinese in the Army. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 519 

Mr. Morris. When did you study that? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Harvard University. 

Mr. Morris. What year? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Nineteen^ — well, I don't know. I believe I started 
the course in the fall of 1944 — 1944. 

No, I am sorry, I started in December, 1943, and the course ended 
about September of 1944. 

Mr. Morris. What was the training that you received at Vint Hill 
Farms, Warrenton, Va.? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, sir, I am afraid I cannot disclose it to you. I 
would like to explain it — because in this particular branch of the 
service when the war ended, I was in Hawaii, and the whole group 
took an oath not to discuss or divulge any of this material, so I can't — 
that is why. 

Mr. Morris. Is that the reference to the last paragraph, that: 

Schuman's file contains a notation dated October 19, 1944, that he had been 
cleared for "duties in connection with secret and confidential cryptographic 
material." 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I doubt it. I would think that that particular 
quote would refer to my being accepted into the course originally. 

Mr. Morris. But it is your testimony now, your position now, 
you would rather not discuss it because of the classified nature of 
the work at Vint Hill Farms? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, because I was instructed by my commanding 
officer, along with every other man in my unit. 

Senator Welker. I think that is a very valid objection and I 
don't think we should pursue it any further. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, what did you do when you left the service, Mr. Schuman? 

Mr. Schuman. I went to Yale University, for, I believe, approxi- 
mately a year. 

Mr. Morris. What did you study there? 

Mr. Schuman. I studied some more Chinese language courses. 

Mr. Morris. I see. What year was this? 

Mr. Schuman. This was from, I believe, the summer of 1946, 
summer session, and fall and spring, until the summer of 1947. 

Mr. Morris. And then what did you do after that? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, by that time I was ready to go out to China 
and I left for China at the end of 1947. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Where did you go in China at the time? 
Did you go to that part of China that was occupied by the Chinese 
Communist troops or free China? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I went to Kwantung, China, and that was 
ruled by Chiang Kai-shek at that time. 

Mr. Morris. What occupation did you have when you went to 
China? 

Mr. Schuman. I went out with the intention of trying to do 
newspaper work. 

I did not have a job when I went out. I went out on my own and 
when I got to China I got a job on an English-language newspaper 
in China, Chinese-owned. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that? 

Mr. Schuman. I said, it was Chinese-owned. 

Mr. Morris. Owned. 



520 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Owned, and the name of it was the China Press, 
owned by H. A. Kung, who was one of Chiang Kai-shek's closest and 
richest associates. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Schuman, were vou a Communist at that 
time? 

Mr. Schuman. I — I don't believe that — again, that this committee 
has the right to ask me about my political affiliations or my ideas in 
general. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Schuman, if you desire advantage of the 
fifth amendment, which we discussed in executive session awhile 
ago, we will happily listen to that protective objection; but he is 
not asking you what you believe in, the question is not that; so I 
am ordering and directing you to answer that question. 

Mr. Schuman. I will have to stand on the privileges granted me 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. What other publication did you work for in China? 

Mr. Schuman. I worked for the American Broadcasting Co., the 
Chicago Sun-Times, the Denver Post, the China Weekly Review, and 
the China Alonthly Review. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Will j^ou tell us what the China Monthly 
Review is — was? 

Mr. Schuman. It was a magazine which originally was founded by 
an American in China, in Shanghai, and specifically in 1917 and had 
continued in operation until the Japanese occupied Shanghai and 
they closed it and threw the editor in jail. 

It was reopened again after V-J Day and continued as a weekly, 
I believe, up until 1950, when it became a monthly. It was an 
American-owned magazine. 

Mr. Morris. Wlio was editor? 

Mr. Schuman. At what period? 

Mr. Morris. After 1950. 

Mr. Schuman. I believe John W. PoweU. 

]VIr. Morris. And what was the time, the months and years you 
worked for the China Monthly Review? 

Mr. Schuman. I think — I am not clear as to the exact month when 
I began. 

It was the spring of 1950, until the — until, I believe May or June 
of 1953. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have here, prepared by the staff, a 
summary of the contributions of Julian Schuman to the China Monthly 
Review and I ask that the list go into the record at this time. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. There are articles numbering 16, from December 1950; 
the latest one seems to be June 1953. May they go into the record, 
Air. Chaiinian? 

vSenator Welker. Let us have Mr. Schuman take a look at it. 
Maybe you have something there that he did not write. 

CDocument was handed to Mr. Schuman.) 

Mr. Faulkner. Mr. Chairman, are we going to have an opportunity 
to see these articles? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; you will have an opportunity, Mr. Faulkner. 
After the session today, we will sit down and look through them all, 
if you want to. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTZVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 521 

I would just like to have that list in the record, Mr. Chairman, and 
we will give counsel and the witness an opportunity to see that the 
list was prepared correctly. 

Senator Welker. So ordered. 

Mr. Faulkner. We are not in a position to say whether this list 
was prepared correctly, because we have nothing to compare. 

Senator Welker. You will have an opportunity. 

Mr. Morris. You will have an opportunity. 

Mr. Faulkner. Well, we are not identifying the list. 

Senator Welker. Very well. We are not asldng you to. We were 
courteous enough to let you take a look at it, and if you want to look 
it over, if there are any errors in it, let me know and it will be corrected 
right away. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit 183" and is as 

follows :) 

Exhibit No. 183 

Julian Schuman 

China Monthly Review, December 1950, p. 138, 139, New Trends in Films. 
Translation, China Monthly Review, August 1952, p. 175, a short story by Chih 

Bu — Home. 
China Monthly Review, November to December 1952, p. 464, Peking Revisited. 
China Monthly Review, January 1953, p. 46, 47, Long Live Peace, re Peace 

Conference. 
China Monthly Review, May 27, 1950, p. 22, a new Shanghai play — The Voice of 

America. 
China Monthly Review, January 1951, p. 33, 34, 35, 36, translation, Who Is the 

Eneny? 
China Monthly Review, October 1951, p. 178, 179, translation of story. Marriage. 
China Monthly Review, September 1950, p. 29, Letter from Shanghai signed J. S. 
China Monthly Review, October 1950, p. 61, Letter from Shanghai signed J. S. 
China Monthly Review, November 1950, p. 102, Letter from Shanghai signed J. S. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in addition, I have a letter from the 
United States Department of Justice signed by William F. Tompkins, 
dated March 16, 1956, which says regarding Schuman: 

Additionally, his name appears in the table of contents for several of the 1953 
issues as author of various articles. 

and so on. May that go into the record? 
Senator Welker. Very well, so ordered. 
(The letter referred to was marked ''Exhibit No. 184" and is as 

follows-) 

Exhibit No, 184 

Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. C, March 16, 1966. 
Mr. Robert C. McMantjs, 
Research Analyst, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. McManus: Reference is made to your telephone conversation of 
March 15, 1956, with Mrs. Dorothy Fillius Green of this section, wherein you re- 
quested certain information concerning one Julian Schuman. 

A study of the issues of the China Monthly Review for the period January 
1951 through July 1953, reveals that Julian Schuman's name appears on the mast- 
head of each issue during this period under the title of "Associate Editor." 

Additionally, his name appears in the table of contents for several of the 1953 
issues as author of various articles, to wit: 

(1) Februarv: People and Places in New China 

(2) March: Two Who Came Back 

(3) April: A Factory in New China 



522 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

(4) May: New World for Workers 

(5) June: Peking Primary School 

Your assistance and cooperation in enabling this Department to continue in 
possession of the Library of Congress' copies of the China Monthly Review is 
greatly appreciated. 
Sincerely, 

William F. Tompkins, 
Assistant Attorney General, Internal Security Division. 
By Thomas K. Hall, 
Chief, Subversive Activities Section. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schiiman, while you worked for the China 
Monthly Review did you recognize that was an organ of an ti- American 
propaganda? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. May I consult my counsel? 

Mr. Morris. You may. 

Senator Welker. Certainly. 

Mr. ScHUMAN (after consulting with his attorney). Is this question 
asking me for my opinion as to that particular publication? 

Mr. Morris. Well, I would like to show you some cartoons 

Senator Welker. No; let him answer the question. Repeat the 
question to him, please. 

Mr. Morris. Will you repeat the question? 

(The question was read.) 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I take that question to be one asking my opinion, 
and I am sorry, sir, but I don't believe the committee has the right 
to investigate my opinions. 

I will have to claim my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Well, of course, I will not recognize your right 
not to give your opinion. I know you are a smart and intelligent man 
and when you are asked your opinion, we expect one. You are now 
taking the fifth amendment? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. That is right. 

Senator Welker. All right. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to put into the record and show Mr. 
Schiiman at the same time, 16 cartoons taken from the China Monthly 
Review which are very obviously, and it cannot disputed, extremely 
anti-American propaganda cartoons. I will show those to you, Mr. 
Schuman. 

(The material referred to was handed to Mr. Schuman.) 

Mr. Morris. Are there any comments you want to make on those 
cartoons, Mr. Schuman? 

Mr. Schuman. No comment. 

(The cartoons referred to are marked "Exhibits 185, 185-A, and 
185 B" and are reproduced on the following pages:) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

[ IExhibitINo." 185 i"^'^ 



523 



Chinese Cartconijtj 

UqoU at 

^MacArthar 

and 
l^erea 




M.cArthur', cry to (itend th, „,^  ^. 
to 0»ina'» NoTt»»i»st ni«i>t, »,th xhe ,„,^ *"» 
th« Kortaiu and t»»e CKinejc. "*•><» «J 




M«Arthur'f rfpljcfmrnt. R.d(!»i». ••H 
mert with ih» »am» hlo%.^ of th» Ati.n jxoplt 
u MacArtbur wu df«lL 



Amcnca'j new tnilitaiy commandtn in Kont 
FU« and Bidgway, hea^ for the s«itic burwf gro^ndi 
their pr«dec««ors met <ii$d«ter in. 




Th« united ttrrngth of all p<r-onn»l of ih» 0<ir 
Christian churchet «nd •choli lupport tKt dri»« to 
"r»«i»t American impenalnm. lid Kore* «i»d ptolett 
the bom*." 



Utility ignored Pontait o( a "»irilt" 
gtnctal by MacArthur 



China Monthly Review 
May 1951 



524 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY DST THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit No. 185-A 



Oct. 1950 p. 62 China 



9;^,srmmm 



CARTOONS 

OF THE MONTH 




M J. Arthur'- frifnj, ihf Japjncsc milMarisl, rclaic* hi* past experience 
in Alia 4fid ihc ne<.L«^il\ of holding Korea and Taiwan. 




"Vil'ashingt.in'j UanJiis", Achcson, Truman, and U all Sireei, grab ihe 
American people's weallh for a war of af;gression. 




!■?!**(?» 



fT, f ^ M 



./■ ^f 






^v-< 



-iiSiSit'i^^^^JSi.^^^ 



China's ncu marria)^ law breaks »he chains 

(if a feudal syciem which subiugaied and 

oppresiied the nation's wnmen. 




AchcKon aiul 



M.ii\nhur 



Clillct! 
<r ihrif 



hi(H and ptccc\ frnnt tlic Ka^i and 
Ktirraii jdvcnturv 



Four icenes penamin^ 10 agrarian reform. l)Fctidal 
rxploiidtKin bv ihe |andl'>rd u^\k him all and itic land 
IcH^ pi-jsant nofhinif. 2)Pca*anf demand* hi« nhure 
and an end 10 feudalism 3)FciHJalimn hat Keen nhat- 
rcrcd and rhe ex-landlord, worn, ing aS^iui h'%% fulurr, 
i-* off.-rcd the opponi>nii\ of Miirkint; his p«init>n of ihc 
Und. 4)The compUtion of land reform nican^ thai 
S^ifh the fi»rmer landU-«x peasant and ihr r%-lantll»(d 
Kj^c- thrlr own land lo till 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 525 

Exhibit No. 185-B 



Dec. 1950 p. 146 China 



CARTOONS 



OF THE MONTH 




Oi>f nf CJiinjS innsi fjniuus cjni>uniit«. Mi Kii, 
*."\^ "G^id urfn(« ihc AineTican invadcn in Kurc^ 
III spend Tliank>^i\ inf; and Chrisimas ihcrr " 



PLA irijopft bv enicrinj; Tibet are breaking up 
Briii%h and American scheme* for ihui part nf Chinese 
teffiKir*. 




AmiTtci it fnarchinf( do«ii the >Jfnc road 10 war ihc 
Japuncte took aa it gucc b\ the pom reading "Asian Coniincni." 



Commenting on Britain's behavior toward tfte worla 
Peace Congress, this cartoon says that Bevin, Attlee, 
Churchill, and their American backing can't stop the 
world peace drive. 




Aitterica triea to aprcad the flamca of war irom inc 
Bmrnli houte, Kore*, to the big houac, China. By 
nming otii the fire China it **rc«itiinK American impetm- 
lUm, helping Korea and ta/eguarding her own country." 



Vt bile the "Voice ot America" cries "no designs on China," 
Truman and MacAnhur deny that the Yalu River is the di-t 
viding line between China and Korea. 



72723 — 56— pt 11- 



526 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the Asian-Pacific Peace Conference 
in October 1952, Mr. Schuman, while you were in Red China? 

Mr. Schuman. Yes, sir; I did — as a newspaperman. 

Mr. Morris. I offer you a photograph here, Mr. Schuman, which 
was taken at the Peiping railroad station in October 1952, during the 
Asian-Pacific Peace Conference, and I ask you if you recall the scene 
depicted therein. 

(The photograph was handed to Mr. Schuman.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, will you identify this picture? 

Mr. Chairman. Mr. McManus has been sworn for the purpose of 
identifying documents taken from the footlocker of William Hinton. 

Mr. McManus. This is a reproduction of an original which I took 
from the footlocker of William Hinton. The reproduction was made 
at my direction. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Will you identify the individuals whose pictures 
appear in this photograph, Mr. Schuman, that picture I show you 
at the Peiping station during the Asian-Pacific Peace Conference? 

Mr. Schuman. Peking station, the translation from Chinese is 
"Peking." 

You mean everyone in the picture, or — — - 

Senator Welker. As many as you can. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I will identify the people I know. 

Senator Welker. Please do. 

Mr. Schuman. I would also like to make one comment, sir, related 
to this pictm^e, because I am sm^e that this committee feels that there 
may be some, perhaps, dire significance in the fact that I have a bou- 
quet of flowers in my hand. 

At this time it was the custom for delegates to that conference to be 
given flowers when they arrived. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a delegate? 

Mr. Schuman. I was not, sir, but foreigners were few and far 
between and I came up on this train from Shanghai which arrived with 
these two people, Mr. and Mrs. Powell, who, I believe, were delegates; 
and I was immediatel}^ thought of as a delegate. This is as it actually 
happened — all I know — I would identify Mr. and Mrs. Powell. 

Mr. Morris. They are the only people? 

Senator Welker. Were they there? 

Mr. Schuman. At the time I came up there, they were. I don't 
recognize any of the Chinese in that. 

Senator Welker. You were in the pictm-e, weren't you? 

Mr. Schuman. Oh, yes. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

(The photograph referred to was marked "Exhibit 186" and is 
reproduced on the following page:) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 527 



CO 



o 

Eh 

M 

n 

M 

w 




528 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. You did cover the Asian-Pacific Peace Conference, 
did you not, ^Ir. Schuman? 

Air. Schuman. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. For what pubUcation? 

Mr. Schuman. For the China Monthly Review. 

Mr. Morris. Now, that was the peace conference at which charges 
were made that the United States was engaging in bacteriological 
warfare, germ warfare, wasn't it? 

Mr. Schuman (after consulting with his attorney). Well- — I don't 
remember specifically it was made then, but I will say that at that 
time the Chinese were making the charge— that mnj have been 
before that. 

Air. Morris. I would like to show the witness a photograph already 
in our record,^ and this purports to be a group of Americans, including 
the present witness, who are listenmg to a so-called recording of 
confessions, which we have in the record now, forced confessions, 
Americans confessing that they engaged in bacteriological warfare in 
Korea. This is already in the record, Mr. Chairman, and purports 
to be a picture of the Asian-Pacific Peace Conference, taken from the 
footlocker of "William Hmton. I show that to you, Mr. Schuman. 

Do you recall the scene depicted therein, Mr. Schuman? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, frankl}^ I don't recall the actual incident. 

Now, that picture could or could not have been- — I believe, if 
you will look at it — I frankly cannot answer and say that is me, 
right now. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Will you identify the people in the picture from left 
to right? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, again, there are the Powells. 

Mr. Morris. That is, from left to right? 

Air. Schuman. Oh, I am sorry. 

I cannot identify that woman. 

Senator Welker. Will you identify those in the picture that you 
can? 

Air. Schuman. The only ones I clearly recognize are Mr. and Airs. 
Powell, who are right up in front. Now, I don't know, I am — I am 
really — I could not be positive, I would not want to say. 

Air. AIoRRis. Do you know a woman named Isabel Cerney? 

Mr. Schuman. I believe she was at the conference. 

Mr. AIoRRis. I see — but you don't see her picture there? 

Air. Schuman. WeU, I would say, agam, that I — well, I met these 
people, I met these people perhaps once or twice and as far as Airs. 
Cemey, I don't even know if I would recognize Airs. Cerney in this 
room 

Senator Welker. Well, you cannot recognize from the photograph? 

Mr. Schuman. No, sir, I cannot. 

Senator Welker. And j^ou cannot recognize whether Bill's picture 
is there? 

Mr. Schuman. Really, it may or may not be. I am not trying to 
evade answering; directly, that is a truthful statement. 
^ Senator Welker. And that goes to the credibility. Very well. 
' Mr. Faulkner. Mr. Chairman, I would assume, sir — of course, 
Judge Morris said that this was a listening to a phonographic record 
of confessions. 

> At p. 191, pt. 6. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE TUSTITED STATES 529 

Now, there is nothing to indicate that that is what it is, and there is 
no recorder 

Senator Welker. Tape recording, I beheve they used — a tape re- 
cording machine is there in front of him. 

Mr. Faulkner. But it docs not say what they are Hstening to. I 
think that is a volunteered statement by Judge Morris. 

Mr. Morris. \Miat is? 

Air. Faulkner. That thej- were hstening to these confessions. 

Mr. Morris. Well, that is what the evidence so far from the pre- 
vious hearing indicates. As best as we are able to find out, that is 
what it was. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Judge, I would like to ask the reporter to read back 
the statement you made to the effect that there was some sort of a 
forced confession, I believe. 

Mr. Morris. Well, suppose I explain to you. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. We have had testimony here that this particular 
picture purports to indicate that on a wire recorder, tape recorder at 
that time, there were forced confessions of Americans, American fhers 
being read. 

Now, we have obtained affidavits from the fliers involved, and they 
have submitted affidavits — weren't they, Mr. McManus, or state- 
ments? 

Mr. McManus. There were statements put into the record of the 
United Nations. 

Mr. Morris. To the effect that those confessions were forced on 
them and they were not true. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Sir, on that entire subject, I certainly don't know 
whether they were forced or not, and these particular people said that 
they were; however, I would 

Mr. Morris. Did you hear them? Did you hear the so-called con- 
fessions of American fliers on germ warfare? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, at what time? 

Mr. Morris. At any time. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I h)elieve I saw the documentary movie which was 
showTi in the regular theaters. 

However, I mean, the whole question of forced confessions and 
so-called brainwashing, I would suggest that the committee put into 
the record an article in the U. S. News & World Report of February 
24 of this year, called, "Why did many GI captives cave in?" 

It is a very pertinent article by a major, I beheve Maj. William 
Maj'er, an Army psychiatrist, who interviewed 1,000 prisoners. I 
do not want to waste the time of the committee, but I think- 

Senator Welker. Mr. "Witness, I am sure that if we need addi- 
tional help — as yet, you have not been hired on the staff. I appre- 
ciate your remarks, but we will go ahead with what we have here. 

Now, I want to ask you this question. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Could I offer this in evidence? 

Mr. Faulkner. Mr. Chairman, may we offer this for the benefit 
of the committee and to be put into the record? 

Senator Welker. You cannot. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the staff is acquainted ^vdth that, and 
I have read that, probably, more than you have, Mr. Faulkner. 



530 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE XJNITED STATES 

Mr. Faulkner. I am sure, we are just doing our best to — we 
want to help the committee on this question. 

Senator Welker. I understand that and I appreciate that very 
much. 

Mr. Schuman, were you ever photographed in China, Red China, 
with what I take to be a set of aerial bombs in the background; 
and where you were photographed along with William Powell and his 
wife, Sylvia Powell, and others? 

Mr. Schuman. Did you say photogi-aphed? 

Senator Welker. Yes. Were you photographed with aerial bombs 
being in the background and in the picture Powell and his wife, 
Sylvia, appear and Joan Hinton and a person that, at least in my 
limited amount of vision, appears to be you, Mr. Witness; were you 
photographed at a time in Red China or any other place with that 
background of aerial bombs? 

Mr. Schuman. Are you referring to the picture you just showed 
me? 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. Schuman. I have seen that picture. Now, whether they were 
aerial bombs in the photographs, photographs of aerial bombs or 
actual bombs, I don't know. 

Senator Welker. All right, they were photographs of what purport 
to be aerial bombs. This is an exhibit and I am interrogating on it. 

Mr, Schuman. Yes. 

Senator Welker. You want to say you were never photographed 
with such a background or with such a group of people? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I just don't remember that. 

Senator Welker. You don't remember; and the only time you 
have ever heard anything about germ warfare, I think you stated, 
was what you heard or saw on a motion-picture screen? 

Mr. Schuman. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Where in —  

Mr. Schuman. Well, I was reading a great deal about it in the press. 

Senator Welker. Yes, and if this happened to be you, Mr. Schuman, 
in the photograph that I am holdmg in my hand, do you have any 
idea of what the electronic device is which appears on this table in 
the foregi'ound of the picture? 

Mr. Schuman. I would have to look at it again. 

Senator Welker. All right, we will send it down again. 

Mr. Schuman. When you showed it to me first, you asked about 
the individuals. 

[After examming photograph.] If that is me in the picture, I would 
say that these machines are tape recorders; and, again, if that is me, 
these are bombs in the background — and I just don't remember. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Now, I think I made the statement 
and I think it went mto the record that it was William Powell. It 
was Jolui W. Powell. 

Mr. Schuman. Did I say William? 

Senator Welker. I said it, not you. 

Mr. Schuman. Oh, I see. 

Senator Welker. John W. Powell. That is my mistake. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know Isabel and Edwin Cerney as 
delegates to that particular peace conference? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I was there covering that conference, and I 
met many delegates. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 531 

I believe I did meet Mrs. Cerney and I probably met Mr. Cerney, 
but I met them along with dozens or perhaps a hundred other people. 

Mr. Morris. Other Americans? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. No, sir —  —  

Mr. Morris. Were Mr. and Mrs. Louis WTieaton there? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. No — they were there — they were. 

Mr. Morris. Was there a man by the name of Louis Suzuki and 
his wife there? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Yes; I believe they were. 

Mr. Morris. May Bonzo Suzuki, that is the wife of Louis Suzuki? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I am afraid that I don't recall that, I don't remember 
him having a wife. 

Mr. Morris. How about a man named Kerner, publisher of a 
British-Indian newspaper, did you meet him there? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. At the Peace Conference? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. ScHUMAisr. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Chairman, I would like to put into the 
record an article purporting to be written by Julian Schuman, entitled — 
it is dated May 29, 1949, by Julian Schuman, special to the Sun-Times, 
Shanghai, and reading in part: 

After weeks of rumor, Shanghai is learning about its Communist conquerors 
and it likes what it sees. 

There is no doubt of the favorable impression of the Communist troops on both 
Chinese and foreigners as a result of their orderly manner and politeness, as con- 
trasted with the behavior of the Nationalists the last few weeks. 

I offer that article, and I ask you if you wrote that, Mr. Schuman. 
[Handing document to Mr. Schuman.] 

Mr. Schuman (after consulting with his attorney). I would say I 
wrote that article. 

Senator Welker. Very well; the article will be placed in the record. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 187" and is as 
follows :) 

Exhibit Xo. 187 

[Chicago Sun-Times, May 29, 1949] 

Reds Look Good to Weary Shanghai 
communist gl's make good impression 
By Julian Schuman 
Special to the Sun-Times 

Shanghai — After weeks of rumor Shanghai is learning about its Communist 
conquerors and it likes what it sees. 

There is no doubt of the favorable impression of the Communist troops on both 
Chinese and foreigners as a result of their orderly manner and politeness, as 
contrasted with the behavior of the Nationalists the last few weeks. 

One anti-Communist merchant' told of seeing a coolie offer a glass of boiling 
water to a Communist soldier eating a bowl of dry rice. The soldier not only 
declined the water but delivered a lecture to the coolie and the surrounding crowd 
on how the People's Liberation (Communist) Army never takes anything from 
the public. 

VERY POLITE 

Another soldier, who said he hadn't eaten for 3 days, refused an offer of bread, 
explaining that a soldier isn't worth much if he can't go 3 days without eating. 
When his would-be benefactor almost forced the bread on hi'm he took it, but 
insisted on paying for it. Some of the Communist troops refused offers of beds 
and slept on the sidewalk because they didn't want to impose on the public. 



532 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Their attitude toward foreigners is impersonal but very correct. The foreigners 
walk and drive about freely while the Communist troops look on completely aloof. 
Among the cartoons and posters plastering the walls of buildings are a number 
in English such as "The foreigners in China should immediately correct the wrong 
conception of despising the Chinese people" and "The Liberation Army completely 
protects the lives and property of all foreigners." 

REFUGEES RETURN 

It was noticeable that there were no anti-American posters, although one op- 
posed foreign imperialism. 

Along the road leading to the airport which once was used by Gen. Claire 
Chennault's airplane company and which was destroyed by the retreating Na- 
tionalists, the peasants who fled the city weeks ago are returning to their homes 
in the countryside. 

I asked several who were rummaging for bricks in a demolished pillbox how they 
felt. They told me that the best feeling was that there was no longer any danger 
of being "la fu" (conscripted) by the Nationalists. 

They also said that unlike the Nationalist troops these new soldiers did not 
bother them and paid for anything they needed. Farmers were seen on the road 
going into the city to supply much of the food supplies which had been cut oflf 
while the fighting was going on. 

BRITON IMPRESSED 

One Briton, whose house in the country was in the line of fire the night before 
the Communists entered Shanghai reported that thousands of Nationalist prisoners 
had passed by in the last 2 days on their way to the Communist rear. He was 
particularly impressed by the preciseness of the Communists in attacking National- 
ist positions less than 100 yards from his house as well as by their conduct after 
entering the area. 

Thus far the Communists, unlike the Nationalists, are holding Shanghai with 
relatively few troops. As in the other cities they have liberated, their policy 
is to work with most of the former personnel. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I would also like to say that I was not the only 
American correspondent there, and reporter on that feature of the 
changeover, who was there at this time. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a Joseph Starobin in Red China? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I don't believe — I knew he was there at the Peace 
Conference, but I don't believe I met him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you return from Ked China, Mr. 
Schuman? 

Mr. Schuman. I returned at the very end of 1953. 

Mr. Morris. At what port did you arrive in the United States? 

Mr. Schuman. San Francisco. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, would you put into the record the 
articles written by Mr. Schuman, at this time, while he was in Red 
China, to be incorporated in the record? 

Mr. Mandel. I have here an article from the New World Review, 
dated March 1953. This magazme was formerly Imown as Soviet 
Russia Today, and the article is entitled, "A Private Businessman in 
New China," by Julian Schuman. 

There is another article from the same magazine, dated January 1953, 
entitled "Old and New Merge in Chma," by Julian Schuman, "Land 
reform transforms lives of millions, makes traditional griefs only a 
memory." 

Then I have here a pamphlet by Julian Schuman, entitled "Is There 
a United States China Market?", published by Julian Schuman, and 
it says in the introduction to this pamphlet that, since returning to the 
United States, Mr. Schuman has spoken on China before a number of 
groups, including the American Friends Service Committee, and, last 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 533 

September, The'Nation published his article on China, and it says 
that, at present, Mr. Schuman is writing a book. 

And I have an article here from The Nation b}^ Julian Schuman on 
"The China Trade," dated September 11, 1954. 

(The articles referred to were marked "Exhibit 188 to 188-C." 
Exhibit 188-C was placed in the subcommittee files. The three other 
articles read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 188 

[New World Review, January 1953] 

Old and New Merge in China 

land reform transforms lives of millions, makes traditional griefs only 

A MEMORY 

(By Julian Schuman) 

The author of this closeup of life in the new China of today is 
an American journalist who speaks Chinese and has lived in China 
since 1947. During a recent 2-month period he traveled nearly 
5,000 miles in that country from the industrial northeast down to 
Canton, observing the growth and development of a number of 
China's largest cities, life in the villages and the Huai River flood 
control project. Mr. Schuman has written for the Denver Post and 
the Chicago Sun-Times, and for a year prior to the victory of the 
Chinese People's Republic, also served the American Broadcasting 
Co. He is at present associate editor of China Monthly Review, an 
American-owned magazine published in Shanghai. 

Seeing is believing, but to this must be added "hearing is believing" if one 
wants to understand new China. The physical aspects of the new life of China's 
millions are here for the eye to see, yet, at the same time, in the spoken word of 
past grief and present change for the better are to be found the true feelings of 
the people. China is an ancient nation grown young and new, and to talk with 
her men and women is to learn and feel what liberation has meant. 

Land reform has reached to the farthermost points in China. From the 
northeast to the deep south the land is now in the hands of those who work it. 
And whether it is a cooperative farm outside of Mukden, where land reform 
came early, or a tiny village near Canton some 2,000 miles to the south, where 
mutual-aid teams are beginning to better the lives of those who have just gotten 
land, the story — in the sharp Mandarin dialect of the northeast peasant and in 
the song-like tones of his brother in the south— is a simple yet vivid picture of the 
new life which has been won — against the background of downtrodden and 
bitter days under the Kuomintang. 

In northeast China, where large scale land reform was first carried out, the 
pattern of land reform, then the mutual-aid team followed by the cooperative 
farm, is well developed. The collective farm comes later. 

The village of Kao Gan is a typical cooperative farm which has grown out of 
the mutual-aid stage. A few miles from industrial Mukden, it is made up of 167 
families comprising 720 people. Before liberation 61 percent of the population 
were poor peasants or tenant farmers, 30 percent were middle peasants, and 9 
percent were landlords and rich peasants. The landlords and rich peasants 
owned 90.7 percent of the land. 

To understand new China is to know about old China and in Kao Gan, just as 
all over the country, the totally disproportionate ownership of land and the high 
rents (usually more than half a peasant's crop) made for the chief cause of peasant 
grief. For example, here in Kao Gan, before liberation Han Yuming, a tenant 
farmer leased 20 mou (a mou is one-sixth of an acre) of land and averaged 27 piculs 
(a picul is about 133 pounds) of grain a year. He paid 13 piculs to the landlord 
for rent, 6 went for land tax and Han used up the equivalent of 1 picul a year to 
give his landlord gifts come festival time. The result was that he and his family 
of 4 were forced to borrow at high interest rates, and were left with about 5 piculs 
of grain after a year's toil. 

This fertile area, where kaoliang, corn, soyabeans, millet, wheat, and rice are 
all raised, was liberated in autumn 1948 and land reform in Kao Gan gave each 



534 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

peasant land amounting to 2.75 mou per family member, landlords included. 
The poorest peasants received farm implements which had been confiscated from 
the landlords. Today, out of 2,500 cultivatable mou, 2,200 is worked by the 
cooperative. 

A walk through this prosperous village led first to the land being plowed for 
wheat. A modern thresher arrived from Czechoslovakia and used by 5 different 
villages turns out 45,000 pounds a day in Kao Gan. 

Jao Kuo-shun, a hired hand without any land before liberation, is now the 
director of the cooperative farm. His wife is the leader of the production depart- 
ment of the cooperative. Their 6-year-old girl is in the village kindergarten and 
when she reaches 7 she will attend the new village primary school. Both Jao and 
his wife for the first time in their lives are learning to read and write by going to 
night school. On the plot of land in front of their newly-built cottage they have 
more than 30 chickens which supply the family with far more eggs than they can 
eat. Recently, they bought three oxen, some pigs and ducks. 

Looking about Kao Gan one is immediately struck by the cooperative store. 
From the stock on hand, the purchasing power of the peasant is clearly seen, and 
it is immeasurably higher than any ordinary peasant's dream in the days of 
Chiang Kai-shek. There is a wide range of goods from shoes to shirts, notebooks 
to beer, and cooking oil to gaily colored cotton cloth. Eggs sell for less than 3 
cents each, and as we passed the stacks of large round beancakes which are now 
sold for fertilizer Jao smiled wryly and remarked that before liberation people ate 
them when they had the price. 

The spurt in buying power is apparent at the cloth counter where a steady rise 
in demand for multicolored cloth has been replacing orders for single colors such 
as blue. The clerk said that if 4 people were able to afford colored cloth right 
after liberation then 50 can today. Purchases of cloth with designs during 1952 
quadrupled those of 1951, he told me. 

The cooperative farm at Kao Gan is a growing concern. Going from house to 
house, many of them newly built, all had glass windows and some were double 
glazed. This was unheard of before when paper was used to keep out the bitter 
cold of a northeast winter. Jao had to go off on some business and I went into 
different peasants' homes at random and all showed a newly-found prosperity; 
light and heavy clothing for all seasons had replaced the traditional tattered rags 
of the past and neatly-piled new bedding revealed the end of former poverty. 
Evidence of the nationwide health campaign was everywhere, not just on the main 
street but inside and around the houses as well. Public lavatories, unheard of in 
a preliberation village, have been built and are kept clean. Signs throughout 
Kao Gan stressed the need for proper sanitation. 

Things which the Chinese peasants must have dreamed of for so long are here: 
a tractor and a threshing machine at work in the fields. For their children there 
is the new primary school which was built by all the people of the village in their 
spare time after the government advanced funds and material. Now there are 
115 children in the school and the new nursery for children whose mothers are at 
work in the fields is in a newly painted and renovated building which a landlord 
once used to store grain collected from the peasants. 

Before liberation most youngsters worked for the landlords to help the family 
and there was little chance for schooling. Of the 105 who were of primary school 
age in those days only 35 went to school in another village. Today, of the 22 
Kao Gan children in a nearby school 19 come from former poor peasant or tenant 
farmer families. 

Jao rejoined me and we sat in the afternoon sun outside his tiled-roof cottage 
munching peanuts, steamed sweet potatoes and hard boiled eggs. He was 
wearing his everyday work clothes, black jacket and trousers but I noticed there 
were no patches, the traditional sign of any peasant in the old days. 

In swift flowing language he told me many things: Production in Kao Gan has 
gone up and peasants are buying more carts and horses and life has improved all 
around; food is plentiful and rice and flour are no longer a rarity on the table. 
Then shaking his head significantly he said that of the 101 families who had 
been poor peasants or tenant farmers before liberation over 50 now were equivalent 
to the former middle peasants while 6 of the former middle peasants were richer 
than before. 

Jao turned toward the fields in front of us and talked of how, out of land reform, 
mutual-aid teams and now the cooperative have come new ways of doing things. 
Experiments have been made with different kinds of fertilizers; 36 new wells 
with mechanical pumps have been dug and the cooperative added 29 cultivatable 
mou of land to the village. In 1952, 42 percent of the land was cultivated with 
new tools and during the past summer large quantities of insecticides were bought. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 535 

All of this, Jao noted, was impossible for a single farmer and was unheard of 
before. As he talked, the trend toward more and more group work in the future 
became evident. The production cooperative farm is the logical development 
out of the mutual-aid team, and full collectivization will be the logical outcome 
of the cooperative. Men like Jao had shared bitterness in the past and now they 
and their families are sharing rich harvest out of the labor they themselves put 
into their own land. 

Canton and its surrounding countryside is about 2,000 miles from the northeast. 
While the first icy blasts of winter sweep the fields outside of Mukden the peasants 
here are watching their rich crops being nurtured by a warm sun. The lush green 
fields, with gro\\ing rice and the long slender stalks of sugarcane, have been 
returned, like the golden wheatfields of the northeast, to those who plow them. 

Yu An is a small village southwest of Canton, about an hour's trip by motor 
launch. The village is part of Si Lung hamlet, which contains 9 villages with a 
total population of 2,600. Yu An itself has 45 families and, like everywhere over 
the vast China countryside, most of them were poor peasants or hired hands 
without land before liberation. Of the total area of 3,000 mou of land in the 
hamlet, 18 landlords held 1,600 mou. 

Li Ming, chairman of the peasants' association, is tall, thin with close-cropped 
hair on top of a year-round sunburned face. His white undershirt against his 
brown skin contrasts with his black trousers and unbuttoned peasant jacket as 
he tells of how the landlords not only exploited the peasants by high rents and 
usurious loans but also physically mistreated many. There was never enough to 
eat and wild vegetables were a steady diet. The rich fields were often flooded 
and nothing was done. 

Since liberation repairs on dikes and irrigation systems have helped raise pro- 
duction. For example, Li pointed out, although this area is fertile rice land, 
before liberation the average yield was a little more than two piculs a mou. 
Now, peasants are harvesting as much as 7 and 8 piculs a mou. Land reform 
here has meant 1.2 mou of land per person, including the former landlords who 
did not run away to nearby Hong Kong. 

No matter where one went among China's peasants, the old days meant ignor- 
ance and illiteracy; it was part and parcel of the old order. Before liberation, in 
all of Si Lung hamlet only 100 children were able to go to school. Now nearly 
1,000 are attending, including adults who never had a chance before. 

In Yu An I walked up the main dirt road running through the village. As far 
as the eye could see were rice paddies and here and there were patches of sugar 
ready to be harvested. From the northeast to the south of China I had walked 
through many fields and seen many difi'erent crops, and I also had talked to many 
peasants. Now I went into one of the small but compact brick homes here in 
Yu An to talk to someone who had lived here and had seen the old replaced by 
the new. 

Ke Yung is a 51-year-old peasant woman who never married. Her life was 
the bitter struggle of a woman who for many years worked as a farm laborer with 
her young niece on whatever landlord's land she could find work. It was a hard 
life and it is written in her wrinkled face and calloused hands. 
_ She tells something of life before when she went without enough to eat so many 
times though she toiled long and hard hours every year. Even when there was 
food it was insufficient and to eat rice on rare occasions was a thing to be remem- 
bered, this despite the fact that the whole area was heavy with a rich rice crop. 
Sweetpotatoes were the staple food. 

During the Japanese occupation Ke Yung ate whatever she could: melons, 
wild grass, "anything I could get my hands on," she said recalling days of actual 
starvation. 

It is a simple matter to ask a peasant how he or she lives today. And in quiet 
words Ke Yung replies: "Ten times better than before," and goes on to say that 
now she and her 19-year-old niece have their own 3 mou of land and are raising 
28 piculs of rice a year, they have many chickens and the new 5 family mutual-aid 
team they belong to is constantly helping produce more and increase everyone's 
worldly goods. 

And now Ke Yung and her niece, both of whom never saw the inside of a school 
before, are studying in the new village night school, learning to read and write. 
And, Ke Yung adds wryly, times are different now and her niece will not go 
through life unmarried as she was. 

Watching the chickens in front of her newly repaired house, Ke Yung spoke of 
how she had tried to raise chickens before but gave up because the landlord would 
take as many as he wanted if he felt so inclined. And in retrospect, looking out 
into the rice paddies and sugarcane fields, she turned and said: "Today we all eat 
rice at every meal." 



536 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTR^ITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 188-A 

[New World Review, March 1953] 

A Private Businessman in the New China 

SATS government HELPS PRIVATE ENTERPRISE WITH LOANS AND RAW MATERIALS, 
EXPLAINS PROFITS, AND TELLS WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS 

(By Julian Schuman ' ) 

Private enterprise is an integral part of the economy in China's new democratic 
system. Mao Tse-tiing has described it as "an indispensable part of the whole 
national economy at the present time," and has pointed out that "a development 
is required of it in all those branches that are beneficial to our national economy." 

Much has been made in the Western press of the drive to "wipe out private 
business" in new China. Watching developments here in China one is amazed 
at the difference between such reports and reality. The fact is that in three and 
a half years of liberation China's economy has progre.ssed rapidly, after decades 
of foreign invasion and a dozen years of aggression and civil war. And as a part 
of the nation's economy, private industry and commerce has also progressed. 

Before liberation, private enterprise was generally in the hands of foreign firms 
and bureaucratic capitalists — Kuomintang officials and their cohorts. This 
twin domination prevented industrial de-<-elopment and stifled attempts by 
private Chinese entrepreneurs, removed from the dominating factions, from 
growing. The Chinese economy was that of a semicolonial and agrarian country 
for decades There was no real heavy industry and light industrv was relegated 
to a few large coastal ports such as Shanghai. The fact that China's economy 
remained backward for so long is evidence that private capitalism never really 
developed here. 

At the time of the liberation of Shanghai, for instance, business in the nation's 
largest industrial city was bad except for the speculators, hoarders, and black- 
marketeers. A good many businesses had been forced to the wall, while price 
fluctuations, raw material shortages, and a sharp decline in markets due to 
shrinking purchasing power all made for endless difficulties. Chiang Kai-shek's 
rampant inflation, which saw prices change several times in one day, and the 
dumping of American goods played no small part in bringing the economy and 
business to a state of chaos. 

Figures on private enterprise before liberation reveal that in Shanghai in 
1947, only 582 of the 5,418 big- and medium-sized factories were operating. 
In other large cities the situation was similar: In Tientsin, in North China, 70 
percent of the factories were idle; in Tsingtao, 50 percent, and in Canton, 30 
percent. 

A stabilized currency and steady commodity prices since liberation have done 
much to put private industry back on its feet and set it on the road to development 
The very existence of private enterprise under a government in w hich the Com- 
munist Party plays a leading role may be startling to people in the West. New 
China, however, is not yet a socialist society and in its period of new democracy, 
which its leaders say will last for several decades, the government is relying on 
private enterprise to play its part along with state enterprises to industrialize 
China as quickly as possible. 

Since liberation most privately owned factories have not only been rehabilitated 
and reequipped, but in many cases they have been expanded so meet the rising 
demand for both industrial and consumer goods. Land reform and the growing 
purchasing power of 400 million peasants in the countryside, around 80 percent 
of the population, offer a tremendous market. 

To meet new China's needs there has been a great deal of investment of private 
capital. The total value of the output of private industrial enterprises has risen 
70 percent since 1949. While 80 percent of heavy industry is nationalized, having 
been taken over from the Kuomintang bureaucratic capitalists, the remaining 
20 percent, and about 70 percent of light industry, is in private hands. 

The laws of the land testify to the fact that private industry and commerce in 
China today are being encouraged. For example, the Common Program, which 
plays the role of the nation's constitution until one is promulgated, in article 30 
states: "The People's Government shall encourage the active operation of all 

1 Julian Schuman is an American jo'irnalist who speaks Chinese and has lived in China since 1947. 
He has written for the Denver Post and Chicago Sun-Times and fcra year prior to the victory of the Chinese 
People's Republic, also served the American Broadcasting Co. h e is at present associate editor of China 
Monthly Review, an American-owned magazine published in Shanghai. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 537 

private enterprises beneficial to the national welfare and to the people's livelihood 
and shall assist in their development." In order to clarify further its basic policy, 
the government has issued a set of tentative Regulations Governing the Control of 
Private Enterprise in China. These regulations encourage private investments, 
guarantee them legitimate return, and fix standards for distribution of profits. 

Anyone reading the Chinese press since liberation, has been able to see that 
private business and commerce is being encouraged and helped by the government. 
Loans have been granted and large orders placed with private firms — at the time 
of liberation when so many businesses were on the rocks this was essential. A 
government bent on wiping out private business does not guarantee development 
of private enterprise in its very laws. 

In present-day China, there is much room for private enterprise. The only 
kind which cannot flourish is that serving to exploit the Chinese people by im- 
perialism, bureaucratic capitalism, and the landlords. Many establishments of 
this kind were parasitic, dealing in luxuries, speculation, or extorting excessive 
middlemen's profits. For the national capitalist, the private businessman who 
never had a chance to develop before liberation, there is much opportunity. 

Pan Yung-gang is a private businessman in new China. His story is not basic- 
ally different from his counterparts all over the country: 

The round-faced man sitting next to me in the hotel lobby in Canton fingered 
his striped necktie which was knotted between the points of a stiff white collar. 
As I asked him what I considered the $64 question, a growing smile around his 
lips began to broaden and by the time I finished he could contain himself no 
longer. He let out a hearty laugh, his portly frame shaking in his tan gabardine 
suit. 

"If what you say were true I wouldn't be here talking to you. Moreover, 
business has improved as a result, and all of us have learned that business today 
can be carried on profitably without resorting to sharp practices." 

This Canton factory owner had given a direct answer to a direct question: 
"What about the reports in Hongkong and American newspapers that the Chinese 
Government is bent on eliminating private business, and the Wu Fan movement 
last spring was the culmination of this drive?" (The Wu Fan movement through- 
out China was the five antis— antibribery of officials, antitax evasion, antitheft 
of government property, anticheating on government contracts, and antisearching 
out of economic information for speculation.) 

Pan Yung-gang. 42 years old, is the manager of the Ching Hwa battery factory, 
one of the largest in China. He owns it with his brother. It was started 25 years 
ago with about 30 workers. Today, the factory, which turns out products for 
flashlights, radios, and telephones, has more than 300 workers, more than it had 
just before the liberation of Canton in October 1949. 

From V-J Day until the Kuomintang was driven out of Canton, Pan's factory 
was just able to keep its head above water. With an influx of foreign imports 
from nearby Hongkong, a restricted market and a soaring inflation, things kept 
getting worse. Prices jumped daily. 

"To run a business at that time was not easy," Pan said. "Of course there were 
all kinds of wild rumors about what would happen if the Communists came, but 
things were so hopeless that most businessmen were ready for any change. A.s 
to tne rumors, well, many people I knew had good-sized investments at stake and 
we tried to sit down and examine them rationally. They were really absurd — 'all 
factories and shops would be confiscated,' 'people would have to renounce their 
families,' 'young girls would be given to old men and old women would be given 
to young men.' " 

Most businessmen were so fed up with the Kuomintang by the time the city 
was about to be liberated. Pan said, that in many cases management cooperated 
with the workers who formed their own armed guards to forestall the possible 
Kuomintang looting of factories which had taken place in other cities. 

I asked him to tell me something of what happened immediately after liberation. 
His factory, he said, at first kept going as usual but by 1950, as a result of a grad- 
ually expanding market, capital was needed to increase production. So the 
Ching Hwa factory got 2 government loans, 1 short-term and 1 long-term. 

The chief reason for increased production. Pan related, was the restoration of 
communications with all parts of the country and the increased purchasing power 
of the peasants in northeast and north China where land reform had been or 
was being carried out. Also, by this time, the currency and the economy as 
a whole had been stabilized for the first time in many years. 

Pan listed some production figures: Taking the highest preliberation mark 
of the factory as 100, production reached 130 in the first half of 1951, went up to 
155 in the second half, and by the autumn of last year it was up to 180. 



538 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UlSriTED STATES 

But wasn't he afraid of government competition? The answer was simple: 
There are two government factories operating in other parts of China but there 
was no conflict because the demand both in the countryside, where peasant 
demands are insatiable, and in the cities is far beyond the supply. Production 
and more production is what the Ching Hwa factory is striving for. Pan said. 

"Do you think the Government discriminates against private business?" 
This time it was Pan who had put the question. Before I could reply, he went 
on: "Let me put it this way. Before, the Kuomintang and its camp followers 
had a virtual monopoly on anything foreign firms didn't touch. Except for 
these people, and hundreds of speculators, there was no real development and 
legitimate private business was hard put to get along. On top of all this, there 
was the chaotic currency inflation." Pan paused a moment as if to give me a 
chance to let this sink in. 

"China has a tremendous market inside the country itself," he continued, 
"and the building up of our country will be on a vast scale. The Government 
has said very plainly that we national capitalists have an important part to play. 
We not only get loans, but as in our factory, the Government has helped us get 
raw materials. I'm not just talking when I say that things are better than ever. 

"Recently, the government helped us choose a site to erect a new building. 
We have worked out our own factory '5-year plan' and we aim to increase pro- 
duction by four times in this period. There will be living quarters and a clinic 
for the workers, and at the end of the 5 years our building space will be 20 times 
its present size. Actually, in the entire 25 years we've been operating we were 
never able to expand in such a way. However, in the last 3 years we've earned 
enough to be able to set out on such a scheme." 

"What about your profits?" 

"After taxes, net profits are divided as follows," Pan said: "Ten percent is 
set aside for reinvestment. Dividends, not exceeding 8 percent annual interest 
on their investment, are paid to shareholders. xAny remaining balance is dis- 
tributed in the following way: 60 percent in bonuses for shareholders, remunera- 
tion for directors, bonuses for supervisors, superintendents, and managers; not 
less than 15 percent for safety and hygiene; and 15 percent or more for welfare 
funds and special bonuses for workers and staff members. 

"Actually, the level of profits in factories handling government processing 
orders runs from 10 to 30 percent, and gives a clue to the profits of private enter- 
prise generally. The rate of profit in China today is high in comparison with 
any capitalist country," Pan said settling back in his chair. 

As an afterthought, he said: "You know, there was a conference of private 
businessmen from all over China held in Peking last summer. The chief purpose 
was to organize to protect the interests of private business and to help develop 
its scope." 

I had a new question. What about relations with the workers, surely their 
interests conflict with management in many cases? 

"Administration is mainly in the hands of management, but at the same time 
there are labor-capital consultative meetings where the workers' ideas and de- 
mands are brought up. Sometimes there may be great differences of opinion but 
compromise is always possible. The workers know that their position has 
changed greatly froin before liberation, when management had all the say," 
Pan's gold-banded wristwatch glittered as he stroked his chin with his left hand. 

"At the same time, the workers also know that they have a direct interest in 
raising production and increasing their efficiency. In fact, the new attitude of 
both the workers and management here has been shown by our increased produc- 
tion. I must confess that before, we in management probably wouldn't have even 
listened to a worker who came up with a new working method unless its benefits 
were so evident and on such a wide scale that we couldn't help ourselves. Now, 
there have been all kinds of new working methods and dozens of improvements 
on machines brought forth by our workers." 

I still had another "$64 question" : How does it feel to be a capitalist in a society 
which admittedly is going toward socialism? 

Pan's round face broke into a wide smile. "You may be surprised but I 
personally have no qualms. Before, in the old society, what did we strive for? 
To make as much money as fast as we could, both for our children and for position. 
Some of us more for the former, others for the latter. Under socialism there will 
be no need for either, for the very nature of society will be an orderly one and 
there will be no need for private enterprise, though I'll still own my personal 

property." , • , t> 

Pan Yung-gang rubbed his smooth tan chin and went on: "Lest you thmk I m 
being irrational in saying I'm looking forward to a society which will put me out 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 539 

of business, let me say that although the name will be different my job will still 
be here. People like myself will be fully qualified to serve as managers and 
administrators in government factories." 

"But how about your profits?" I insisted. 

"I won't need them. My children will have no need for inheriting anything 
from me. They'll all have their own jobs, remember I said that we will be living 
in an orderly society. And certainly, whatever job I have will be a responsible 
one." 

Pan looked at his watch and I realized I had kept him some time. He said he 
was glad to be able to talk with me and by way of a final question I asked him 
about his family. 

He has a wife and 3 boys and 2 girls. The eldest boy is studying radio in a 
technical school in Hankow and the eldest girl is a civilian employee in the air 
force in Peking. She came to Canton last September to participate in the 1952 
national swimming meet and the whole family was very proud of her. The 
British-made Singer which Pan bought here in 1951 has replaced the jeep he had 
been using since V-J Day. The auto was waiting outside to take him home, the 
same house he and his family have lived in for nearly 20 years. It is a western- 
style house and has 10 rooms, 3 bathrooms and a large garden. 

We shook hands as Pan Yung-gang rose to leave. I walked to the hotel door 
and watched him get into his shiny black car. He waved a final good-bye through 
the open window as his chauffeur drove off. 



Exhibit No. 188-B 

[The Nation, September 11, 1954, p. 213] 

The China Trade 

millions or mirage? 

By Julian Schuman ^ 

As the British Labor delegation currently touring China has ample reason to 
know, the Chinese Communists, despite their close political and commercial links 
with the Russians, make no bones about wanting to trade with the West, including 
the United States. This is true of the government and of individual Chinese 
businessmen, for both recognize that if the 5-year plan for industrialization, now 
in its second year, and the long-range goal of trebling the volume of industry over 
the next 15 to 20 years are to be achieved or even approached, large quantities of 
capital goods and raw materials must be imported. Proud as the Chinese are, 
they are also extremely hard-headed in business dealings, and their slogan has 
become, "In business we're not mad at anybody." 

It has been evident in the last 2 years that the Peking government's ambitious 
plans for industrialization were making real progress. A great number of new 
machine-tool factories have sprung up in Shanghai, which was formerly a center 
of light industry. In Nanking, Hangchow, and Canton, which had very httle 
industry 5 years ago, small and even fairly large plants are turning out electrical 
appliances, telephone and telecommunications equipment, lathes, burlap bags, 
and numerous other articles China never used to produce. The most highly 
industrialized area is still Manchuria, where Japanese- founded industries have 
been greatly expanded. On a trip to Mukden late in 1952 I saw a factory the 
Japanese had built to produce tanks turning out lathes, planes, and other machine 
tools on a mass basis. Thirty percent of the equipment was American and 
British left over from Nationalist days, 45 percent had been imported from 
Russia and Czechoslovakia, and 25 percent had been made in China under the 
new regime. Simultaneously, the development of industries in the vast, thinly 
populated northwest is getting under way. While China experts far removed 
from the scene will tend to doubt it, the Chinese foresee that this area will even- 
tually become an industrial base even larger than the northeast is at present. 

The British, who have kept their diplomats and businessmen in China, have 
taken a long hard look at the situation. They admit that foreign ownership of 
railroads, public utilities, coal mines, and factories in China is a thing of the past, 
but they believe that the opportunities for trade are greater than ever. I knew 
a British businessman in Shanghai who was planning to return to England to join 

' Julian Schuman spent 6 years in China as a journalist, 3 of them as associate editor of the China Monthly 
Review of Shanghai. He left China last winter. 



540 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

a business house ensaTed in trade with China. He had spent nearly 25 of his 
38 years working; in China in a number of Briti'^h firms and confidently predicted 
a further upsurge in British trade as soon as the Korean question was settled. 
At the same time, like other of his countrymen, he was aware of the growing 
West German competition. "Some American oflScials," he said, "have been 
waxiuT eloquent about British 'blood trade,' hut there has been no mention of the 
fact that West German export^ to Red China jumped to more than 20 million 
American dollars in the 1953 January-November period. Imports from China 
went up from around 15 to more than JjO million." 

A Chinese import-export man in Shanghai whose firm has been dealing chiefly 
with southeast Asia since the United Natiors embargo went into effect in 1951 
summed up the prevailing opinion of the China market: "It's true only a small 
part of American foreign trade in the last 20 years has been with China, but this 
must be viewed in the context of a China in the grip of civil war, militarily a war 
zone, politically divided, economically graft-ridden, and dominated to a large 
extent bj' the Japanese. Whether Americans like it or not, changes are going on. 
The 12-year runaway inflation, when speculation largely replaced investment and 
commercial activity, is at an end. New factories are going up, attempts are being 
made to modernize farming methods, mines and oil wells are being opened, power- 
plants are being built. All this calls for materials, for both building and 
operating." 

Before Chiang Kai-shek's defeat in 1949, oil products, cotton and rayon tex- 
tiles, food and tobacco were China's chief imports. In 1946 such items accounted 
for nearly 57 percent of the total value of imports. Industrial equipment and 
machine tools accounted for less than 3 percent. China's annual trade deficit 
aveiaged United States $153 million between 1926 and 1946 and in 1946 rose to 
nearly $500 million. These figures are based on government reports. 

Since the beginning of 1950 the situation has changed drastically. In that 
year, according to Peking statistics, China achieved a favorable balance in foreign 
trade for the first time in 70 years. In addition its imports had become very 
different, though exports remained largely the same. In 1950 iron and steel 
goods formed 11.3 percent of imports, machinery 8.3 percent, rubber 11.5 percent, 
rolling stock and ships 3.3 percent, automobile tires 1.1 percent. This meant 
that even before the nationwide industrialization plan got under way nearly half of 
China's imports were directly connected with industrial needs. Since 1950 
China's trade with both the Russian bloc and the West has shown a continuation 
of this trend. 

It is claimed by Chi Chao-ting, general secretary of the official China Com- 
mittee for the Promotion of International Trade and a member of the board of 
directors of the Bank of China, that "the United States-inspired embargo and 
blockade measures failed to create difficulties for China economically." On the 
contrary, says Chi, who did graduate work in the United States and held a high 
post in the Nationahst Bank of China, "China's foreign trade has continued to 
grow. The expansion is the result of the shift in the direction of China's trade — 
toward the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. In 1950 trade with these countries 
constituted only 26 percent of China's total foreign commerce. In 1951 it rose 
to 61 percent, and by last year it was over 70 percent." 

The Chinese realize, however, that their plans for rapid industrialization make 
it impossible for these countries to satisfy their needs. And they know that the 
United States could help supply the almost insatiable market they hope will be 
created by their present capital construction — tlie market for farm machinery, 
food-processing equipment, trucks, drilling machinery, sawmills, dredges, chemi- 
cals, powerplant equipment, locomotives and rails, and so on. Their failure to 
develop trade with America has forced them to look to West Europe and Japan 
for needs not met by Russia and its satellites. In the second half of last year 
China signed commercial agreements with French, British, Japanese, and Indo- 
nesian trade groups in Peking. More recently officials in the Bonn Government 
have come out strongly for more trade with China. 

China can export tungsten, coal, antimony, tin, mica, manganese, and some 
other minerals, eggs and egg products, hides, tung oil, soy beans, pig bristles, and 
handicraft articles. Official Chinese trade circles have pointed out that minerals 
exports can be greatly increased by the development of the virtually untapped 
northwest and southwest. Judging by already explored deposits, China ranks 
fourth in coal resources. In 1937 it produced 70 percent of the world's antimony, 
37 percent of its tungsten, and ranked fifth in the output of tin. 

While not an important item in the trade with the West, smuggling through 
Hongkong provides China with some of the goods it wants from the United 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 541 

States. I knew a Chinese in Shanghai who bought a number of 1953 De Sotos 
in Hong Kong and brought them across the border. British businessmen in Hong 
Kong told me that American firms also engaged in such clandestine trade, chiefly 
throu ^h their subsidiaries in Japan. Another charge going the rounds is that 
even Formosan firms trade with the mainland. It is a fact that the majority 
of late-model automobiles in China today are American. The Chinese calmly 
admit that despite the extra cost they are cheaper than Russian cars. Most 
new trucks, however, are of Russian or Czechoslovak manufacture. 

Because of the embargo a good portion of the goods involved in recent deals 
with Britain, West Germany, France, Japan, Belgium, Italy, and Switzerland 
has not been forthcoming, though the British and Japanese have succeeded in 
getting some items removed from the banned list. Meanwhile, West European 
businessmen who have come to China have made it clear they are biding their 
time until a Korean settlement is arrived at and the embargo ended. 

Americans with whom I have discussed the possibility of trade with China 
are concerned about its political implications. "How can we be expected to help 
Red China industrialize?" they ask; on the other hand, "perhaps large-scale trade 
with Peking would help win the Chinese away from the Russians." They also 
want to know how the Chinese would pay. The Chinese say they prefer barter, 
but they do have gold and foreign currency and have been known to use it for 
goods they thought essential. If trade should develop, the question of credits to 
the Chinese would naturally arise. A typical Chinese reply to the question of pay- 
ment is, "Well, the British, Germans, and French are not in business for their 
health and they seem to have found a way to get paid." This, of course, is not a 
complete answer to Americans, who can reply that the goods China can sell to 
Europe are not really needed by us. 

How large Western trade with China will become in the immediate future is 
difficult to estimate. But it may occur even to a very skeptical American busi- 
nessman that should China develop into the huge market its spokesmen foresee 
he may some day find himself out in the cold as a result of having let others get 
in ahead of him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Schuman, were you a Communist when 
you wrote all those articles? 

Mr. Schuman. I do not — I am going to decline to answer that 
question on the privileges granted me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. You say you came into the port of San Francisco in 
1953? 

Mr. Schuman. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you recall the month? 

Mr. Schuman. It was December. 

Mr. Morris. December. 

Do you remember, shortly thereafter, meeting a family named the 
Kerners in San Francisco? 

(The witness consulted with his attorney.) 

Mr. Morris. The name is William Kerner. 

Mr. Schuman. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Who were the Kerners? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I was a casual acquaintance. I am more 
sure now than I was when we discussed this, that he had either been 
at Yale University in 1946 or early 1947, at the time I was studying 
Chinese, and that is before I went to China, and he was not in my 
particular class. 

There were different classes. I believe I met him there, and I 
knew that he was in San Francisco and when I got there I called him 
up, as I called up any number of people in San Francisco that I had 
known. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Schuman, what has caused your memory to 
brighten in the last hour? Anything that you recall? 

Mr. Schuman. I would say that I gave it some more thought. 

72723— 56— pt. 11 4 



542 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. You gave it some more thought. An hour ago 
you told me in executive session that you did not know whether you 
knew Mr. Kerner or not. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I think — he could have been one of the chaps who 
was up at Yale the time I studied Chinese. There were any number 
of people. 

Senator Welker. But now you recollect you knew him so well that 
you called him as soon as you disembarked. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I wouldn't say I knew him so well. I think I called 
people even if I did not know them so well. 

Senator Welker. Well, did you just call up Mr. Kerner 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Not the day I got there. 

Senator Welker. All right. I want to find out, please. Don't 
get angry at me. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I am sorry. 

Senator Welker. Did you call him up some time after you arrived? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And what did you visit about? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Nothing in particular. 

Senator Welker. Well, can you recall anything he said to you or 
anything you said to him? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. (No response.) 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Schuman, you stayed overnight 

Senator Welker. Just a minute, Mr. Morris. I had a question. 

Mr. Schuman. This is almost 2 years ago, and, what did he say to 
me — well, I cannot recall. 

Senator Welker. Didn't you say you stayed all night with him^ 

Mr. Schuman. Judge Morris said. 

Senator Welker. Well, would you say you did not stay ail night 
at his home or his apartment? 

Mr. Schuman. I did. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Schuman. But this man is dead now. I don't quite see why 
all this 

Senator Welker. Very well; but you are not, though — are you? 

Mr. Schuman. I hope not. 

Senator Welker. You knew him so well, then, that you went out 
to his home and stayed all night with him? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I wouldn't say you have to know a person 
so well. It so happened that I was in a strange city and I was staying 
a few days, and then I was going on to New York and I needed a place 
to stay and I was short of funds, as a matter of fact, and he offered 
me a couch in the living room. I don't see anything sinister about 
that. 

Senator Welker. I do not say that word ; you are saying "sinister"; 
I have not said "sinister", but 1 want to interrogate a little bit about 
that, now. 

You called him. Did you tell him you were out of money or short 
of funds when you talked to him on the phone? 

Mr. Schuman. I can't recall. 

Senator Welker. You don't recall any conversation that took 
place while you were out in the Kerners' home, while you enjoyed 
their hospitality that you so richty needed? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 543 

(Witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, one thing. 

He had some records, music. I don't now remember, but there 
was a Danny Kaye record which his kids liked a lot, and he was quite 
anxious to play it for me. 

And we talked — then he asked me about China. I think anyone 
who met me when I first got back asked me about China^ — and, at 
least, we talked about his children, or rather, he talked about his 
children. I met them. And, aside from that, I frankly cannot 
remember anything specifically. 

Senator Welker. Well, you have done pretty well, sir. An hour 
ago you did not remember him to the point of identifying him, and 
now you recall you played Danny Kaye's record. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. He played it. 

Senator Welker. He played it, and he enjoyed it, and so did the 
children. 

Now, were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
visited his home that night? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I will have to plead under the privileges granted 
under the fifth amendment. I believe this question has been asked 
a number of times. 

Senator Welker. W^ell, I will ask it again — and I cannot recognize 
the first amendment; you are taking the fifth? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Did you have any discussion with Mr. Kerner with respect to 
Communists in China when you visited that evening? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. No; I would say that the only conversation we 
had was regarding what I had seen, what I saw in China, and what I 
thought about China. 

Senator Welker. All right; thank you. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Well, as a matter of fact, Mrs. Kerner was the litera- 
ture director of the San Francisco Communist Party, was she not? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. This I don't know. 

Senator Welker. Very well, you have answered. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet Richard Gladstem at that time? His 
residence was 2114 Baker Street, San Francisco; was it not? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I am not sure I remember Baker Street. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Did you meet Mr. Gladstem? He was 
one of the defense counsel in the trial of the 11 Communist leaders. 

Mr. ScHUMAN (after consultmg his attorney). Did you say he was 
a lawyer? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Mr. Gladstem. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I can't recall meeting him. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you meet Theodore Weltfort? Did 3"ou 
meet him at Menlo Park, Calif., there? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. How would you spell that name, please? 

Mr. Morris. W^-e-1-t-f-o-r-t. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. W-e-1-t-f-o-r-t? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I don't remember, I don't. The name doesn't 
mean anything to me, Theodore Weltfort? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 



544 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. Did you meet anyone other than the Kemers 
there this evening we were talking about? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Oh, that particular evening? 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I met Mrs. Kemer. 

Senator Welker. Anybody else? 

Mr. ScHUMAN (after consulting his attorney). There were probably 
a couple of people that dropped in — a couple of people did drop in 
but I honestly don't even remember their names. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Then you came to New York from San Francisco, did 
you not? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I went to Los Angeles and then went to New York. 
I also stopped off at Denver and Chicago. 

Mr. Morris. Did you go, on February 19, 1954, did you go to the 
home of Maud Russell? 

Maud Russell, Mr. Chairman, was the witness before this Commit- 
tee last week, as you know. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I decline to answer, mider the privileges granted me 
by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you been doing any lecturing at all, Mr. 
Schuman? 

Mr. Schuman (after consulting his attorney). I will have to decline 
on the first 

Mr. Morris. You decline to tell the committee? 

Mr. Schuman. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. On what grounds do you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Schuman. I decline on the ground of free speech under the 
first amendment and since the committee does not recognize this 
amendment, I must decline under the privileges granted me by the 
fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Now, they are all the amendments you want to 
take? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, some Senators could stand reading the four- 
teenth amendment. 

Senator Welker. And you want to take the fifth amendment, do 
you not, Mr. Schuman? 

Mr. Schuman. That is right. Now, you asked about some 
others 

Senator Welker. Well, I just wanted to be sure that I could rule 
properly. 

Mr. Schuman. I think the fifth amendment is a very fine one. 

Senator Welker. I have no doubt of that, that you do think so. 

Now, Mr. Schuman, you stated to counsel a moment ago that after 
you left San Francisco you went down to Los Angeles. How did you 
get down to Los Angeles? 

Mr, Schuman. Took the train. 

Senator Welker. Southern Pacific? 

Mr. Schuman. I don't know 

Senator Welker. I mean 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I don't know, I mean this was- 



Senator Welker. I don't want to argue with you or confuse you, 
but 

Mr. Schuman, I would say probably it was the Southern Pacific. 
Is there any other line? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 545 

Senator Welker. There are a couple of airlines. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. No. I know it was the line which is noted for 
making a big loop like this [indicating]. 

Senator Welker. How long did you stay in Los Angeles? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. About a week. 

Senator Welker. About a week? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Where did you stay in Los Angeles a week? 

Mr. ScHUMAN (after consulting his attorney). I would decline to 
answer that on the gi'ounds of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Do you decline to answer where you stayed in 
the beautiful city of Los Angeles for a week, upon the ground that a 
truthful answer might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I don't believe a truthful answer would incriminate 
me. 

Senator Welker. Very well now. You are taldng the fifth amend- 
ment, though, aren't you? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. That is right. 

Senator Welker. All right. After you stayed in Los Angeles a 
week you went to Denver, is that correct? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. How long did you stay in Denver? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I believe I stayed one night. I stayed long enough 
so I could go up to the Denver Post, a paper I had previously written 
articles for. 

Senator Welker. And how did you get from Los Angeles to 
Denver? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. By train. 

Senator Welker. Well, I will not ask you what railroad train. 
I know that you don't know these. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I do not. 

Senator Welker. So, after leaving Denver, where did you go? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Chicago, to look up a paper I worked for. 

Senator Welker. And how long did you stay there? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I believe one or two nights. 

Senator Welker. One or two nights there? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. It could have been three, but 

Senator Welker. Well, I don't think it makes much difference. 
You went on the train from Denver? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. That is right; I went all the way back to New York 
by train. 

Senator Welker. Notwithstanding the fact that you were so 
short of funds that you had to and did accept the hospitality of Mr. 
Kerner, to sleep on his couch in his front room — where did you get 
the money to go to Los Angeles and from Los Angeles to Denver and 
from Denver to New York? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I don't think that that is in the province of this 
committee, to ask that. 

Senator Welker, And you don't want to answer. Well, you are 
going to answer, and I am ordering and directing you to answer. 

(Mr. Schuman consults with his attorney.) 

Senator Welker. You are the one that opened up this subject 
matter, and I am going to interrogate you about it. 

Mr. Schuman (after consulting his attorney). It was my own 
money. 



546 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. Yes. Well, did you get any additional money 
after you left San Francisco? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. No, sir. 

Senator Welker. Well now, do you want this committee to believe 
that you visited this man that you scarcely knew — an hour ago, you 
could not recall definitely whether you knew him or not — and yet you 
have testified before this committee that you accepted the couch to 
sleep on because of your shortage of funds ; and then you went on the 
railroad train from San Francisco to Los Angeles where you stayed 
for a week; you took the fifth amendment as to where you visited or 
what 3^ou did there; and then you went from there to Denver, Colo., 
and from Colorado to New York City — -now, is that your testimony? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. That is my testimony, and despite the insinuations 
you make about this money, the fact is that I had funds to get home 
on. I was being very frugal about it. 

Senator Welker. Well, as a matter of fact, you had funds with 
which you could have bought a bed in San Francisco, too, didn't you? 

(No response.) 

Senator Welker. You had ample funds to buy or rent a room in 
San Francisco, but you had a particular reason you wanted to stay 
with Mr. Kerner, didn't you? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Oh, I wouldn't say I had a particular reason. The 
only reason is he offered me hospitality, I did not go —  — 

Senator Welker. Go ahead. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, for example, I stayed at the YMCA. 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Which is the cheapest place I could find. 

Senator Welker. I have stayed there many times — a wonderful 
place. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. If I had known anyone in Chicago I might have 
stayed at their homes, too. I don't think that this is worth while. 

Senator Welker. Well, maybe you don't. You are the man who 
opened it up, and I have gone into it, and maybe I will go into it a 
little further. 

Now, after yom- staying all night with Mr. Kerner in San Francisco, 
did you see anyone else in San Francisco? 

Mr. ScHUMAN (after consulting with his attorney). I will have to 
decline to answer the question. Senator. 

Senator Welker. Did you see John W. Powell or Sylvia Powell 
there? 

Mr. ScHUMAN (after consulting his attorney). Yes, I saw them. 

Senator Welker. Now that you have told me that you saw them, 
you have opened up the subject matter as to who you saw in San 
Francisco. Now, will you tell me who else you saw and everyone 
you saw there? 

Mr. Faulkner. Mr. Chairman • 

Senator Welker. Now, Mr. Counsel, you just remember your 
place here, and we are going to get along, and when your client 
wants to talk to you, he has a perfect right to. 

Mr. Faulkner. Except that interpretation, I think, is not correct. 

Senator Welker. Well, I will do the cross-examining, if you please. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Could you repeat the question? 

Senator Welker. Read it back. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 547 

(Question read.) 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I will have to decline to answer that on the fifth 
amendment. 

Senator Welker. You decline to answer that on the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Yes; the privileges granted me under the fifth 
amendment. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Just one more question. 

You did know the daughter and the wife of Harry Dexter White, 
Mr. Schuman? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Schuman. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Well, they were Socialist friends of yours? 

Mr. Schuman. You asked — you said "daughter"? 

Mr. Morris. Daughter and widow. 

Mr. Schuman. May I give you the whole story? 

Mr. Morris. I am asking if she was a Socialist. 

Mr. Schuman. Yes; was a Socialist. 

Mr. Morris. All right; I will accept that. 

Mr. Schuman, are you a Communist today? 

Mr. Schuman. Again, I believe I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Were you a Communist when you acted as correspondent in Red 
China? 

(The witness confers with his attorney.) 

Mr. Schuman. I will have to decline. 

Senator Welker. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Schuman. Again, I will decline to answer under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schuman, were you a Communist when you were 
a cryptanalyst at Vint Hills Farm, Va., in the United States Army? 

Mr. Schuman. Well, I believe. Senator Welker just asked me if I 
ever was, and I declined to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Well, were you at that time? This is an entu-ely 
different question, Mr. Schuman. 

Senator Welker. No. I asked if he had ever been a Communist, 
so I think the witness is correct, and that I took in the whole water- 
front. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Senator, I would like to know. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. At that particular time. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. If he was a Communist when he was at Vint Hills 
Farm, at that time. Senator, and the reason I think it is important 
is that at that time the United States Ai'my was conducting a highly 
classified operation there, and I would like, for the purpose of this 
series of hearings, I would like to know whether he was a Communist 
while he was undertaking that training with the United States Army. 

Senator WElker. Very well; you may ask the question. I think he 
did answer it to me, but I will let you ask the question again. 

(The witness confers with his attorney.) 



548 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, I would like to sa}^, in order to get that job 
in the Army as a cryptanalyst, I, to the best of my knowledge, and I 
believe this statement [indicating document] bears it out, I was 
thoroughly investigated and it seems to me that if the proper agency 
doing the investigating at that time had found that out, they wouldn't 
have given me it. 

Senator Welker. That is not a responsive answer. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, to me. 

Senator Welker. It is not responsive to the question "Were you a 
Communist when you were down at Warren ton, Va.?" in the words 
put to you by the counsel. Now, you tell me. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I will have to dechne to answer that under my 
privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Does that satisfy you. Counsel? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Were you a Communist when you were an undergraduate at City 
College? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I decline to answer, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. One more question. 

Did you know a Chinese Communist named Chi Chao-Ting? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. If you have the characters, it would be easier. 

Mr. Morris. I don't know the Chinese characters too well. It is 
spelled C-h-i C-h-a-o 

Mr. ScHUMAN. C-h-i C-h-a-o; what is the next name? 

Mr. Morris. And it is C-h-a-o-T-i-n-g. 

You have written about him in your articles. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. C-h-a-i? I have never written about a C-h-a-i. 

Mr. Morris. Show that to him [indicating document]. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Well, I would like to see it. C-h-a-i? 

Mr. Morris. C-h-a-o. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. No; the first name. 
 Mr. Morris. C-h-i. Dr. G, they called him. Dr. G., I beheve. 

Mr. Chairman, for the purpose of the record, Dr. G was a person 
who is now shown to have been a Chinese Communist, who was very 
active in the United States for a long period, was a close, intimate 
friend of many people who have been the subjects of our hearings, 
and is now a Chinese official in Soviet China, and the witness today 
has written about that man, and I am trying to determine whether 
or not this witness did have any actual dealings with Dr. G. 

Mr. ScHUMAN. No, I did not have any dealings with him. 

Senator Welker. Did you know him? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I did not know him. 

Senator Welker. Did you know a man by the name of WiUiam 
Hinton prior to the war in China? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I dechne to answer. 

Senator Welker. You what? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. Had you seen him since he came back to the 
United States? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I will have to decline. 

Senator Welker. You have to decline 

Mr. ScHUMAN. On the privileges granted me under the fifth amend- 
ment. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 549 

Senator Welker. Have you heard any of his lectures in any part 
of the United States? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I will have to decline that on the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Do you know what Mr. Hinton is doing in the 
United States? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Do you mean what work is he doing, or 

Senator Welker. Yes; how he makes a living, whether he is teach- 
ing or driving tractors, or what. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. ScHUMAN. I will decline to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Were you ever publicity agent to General Li Tsung- 
yen? 

Mr. ScHUMAN. Not really, but I know about this story, and I 
would like to say that I was one of a number of American correspond- 
ents who his particular political adviser tried to make an impression 
on, in order to get a good press in this country. 

I was not the only correspondent that wrote about him, and that is 
the extent of my dealings with him. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

However, I would like to put in the record Mr. Schuman's articles 
that appeared in the Denver Post. 

Senator Welker. That is the letter from the Denver Post? 

Mr. Morris. That is right; indicating the articles written by Mr. 
Schuman. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 189" and is 

as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 189 

The Denver Post, 
Denver 1, Colo., October 26, 1954. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandel, 

Washington., D. C. 

Dear Mr. Mandel: Check of the Denver Post library shows the following 
clippings on file for articles contributed by Julian Schuman to this newspaper: 
November 14, 194S, November 28, 1948, December 5, 1948, December 13, 1948. 
January 29, 1949, January 30, 1949, March 13, 1949, May 8, 1949. 

My own unsigned interview with Schuman was January 23, 1954. 

The articles above-mentioned can probably no longer be had in original, but 
photostats could be made at moderate cost. This is a rather routine procedure 
with the library, I believe. 

In haste, but with regards, 

Randall Gould. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Schuman, and you, Mr. Faulkner, I want 
to thank you very much for appearing before this committee, and 
you are excused from your subpena. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Morris. Saul Mills. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Mills, will you rise and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before this 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Mills, I do, sir. 



550 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF SAUL MILLS, GLEN OAKS, NEW YORK, N. Y. ; 
ACCOMPANIED BY HAROLD CAMMER, ESQ., HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name and address? 

Mr. Mills. My name is Saul Mills. My address is 370-05 76tli 
Avenue, Glen Oaks, New York City. 

Senator Welker. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record? 

Mr. Cammer. Harold Cammer, 9 East 40tli Street, New York 16, 
N. Y. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mills, where were you born? 

Mr. Mills. I was born in New York City. 

Mr. Morris, In what year? 

Mr. Mills. In 1910. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a journalist in the early days of your 
life? 

Mr. Mills. Yes, sir; I was, in the early days of my life, 8 or 10 
years. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us roughly what your journalistic career 
was? 

Mr. Mills. I started as a copy boy on the AP, and later on the UP, 
and then worked on the Long Branch, (N. J.), Record for a short 
period ; and then the Long Island Press ; and thereafter the Brooklyn 
Eagle, and the Standard Union, and the City News Association. 

Mr. Morris. And then, after that, you worked for the Transport 
Workers Union? 

Mr. Mills. After, I worked for several unions. I worked for the 
American Federation of Musicians and the Transport Workers Union, 
and a couple of other unions; I worked — for a short period I was pub- 
licity man, and I was on my own, representing 3 or 4 different unions 
at a time. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you work for the Greater New York 
Industrial Union Council? 

Mr. Mills. I became secretary of the Greater New York Industrial 
Union Council in 1940. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you first work with trade unions? 

Mr. Mills. Oh, I would say it was about 1936. 

Mr. Morris. So, from 1936 to 1940, you worked for various trade 
unions? 

Mr. Mills. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Including the Transport Workers Union? That was 
one? 

Mr. Mills. That was one; yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What others? 

Mr. Mills. Well, the State, County and Municipal Workers, and 
the Office Workers — and I guess that is about it — I worked for a while 
for the Paper & Sulphite, A. F. of L., I think, just a short period. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what the Greater New York Industrial 
Union Council of the CIO was? 

Mr. Mills. The council is the central body of the CIO unions in 
the Greater New York area. The local unions were affiliated with the 
council, and elected delegates. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 551 

Mr. Morris. How many members composed that particular 
council? 

Mr. Mills. You mean the number of delegates, sir? 

Mr. Morris. No; how many union members? 

Mr. Mills. Oh, the unions affiliated with the council represented, 
oh, about 500,000 members in the area, at the time. 

Mr. Morris. And you had the job of secretary or secretary- 
treasiu-er? 

Mr. Mills. I was executive secretary-treasm-er. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you hold that position, Mr. Mills? 

Mr. Mills. From 1940 until November 1948. 

Mr. Morris. And in 1948 the Greater New York Industrial Union 
Council lost its charter, did it not, Mr. Mills? 

Mr. Mills. That is correct, by action of the National CIO executive 
board. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, do we have anything in the record to 
show the action on the part of the CIO at that time, with respect to 
this council? 

Mr. Mandel. I have before me the New York Times, November 
21, 1948, an article entitled "New York Council Expelled by CIO 
as Slavish to Reds." The first paragraph reads: 

By a vote of 38 to 5, the national executive board of the Congress of Industrial 
Organizations today found the Greater New York CIO Council guilty of slavish 
adherence to the line and dictates of the Communist Party and revoked its charter 
as of this date. 

The article goes on to state that the investigating committee found 

as follows: 

The committee deems it to be most significant that, in the above situation, 
the Greater New York CIO Council was closely following the line of the Com- 
munist Party. This was more than coincidental. President Quill of the Trans- 
port Workers Union directly testified that leading officials of the Communist 
Partv, including Eugene Dennis, John Williamson, and Robert Thompson, in a 
meeting attended by the secretary-treasurer of the Greater New York Council, 
dictated the interference by the council with the bargaining program of the 
Transport Workers Union. 

Mr. Cammer. Mr. Chanman, I object to the photographs being 
taken now; I want that to be postponed, I object to taking pictures 
during testimony. 

Senator Welker. I didn't hear your objection. What was the 
objection? 

Mr. Cammer. I was objecting to the photographing; I object as 
interrupting the testimony. 

Senator Welker. Very well, I don't want to interrupt the witness. 
Now, will you pose for your photograph, and let them go back to work. 

Mr. Cammer. Very well. 

(Photographers were accommodated.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to have that whole article 
go into the record at this time. 

Senator Welker. So ordered. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 190" and reads 
as follows:) 



552 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

[The New York Times, November 21, 1948] 
Exhibit No. 190 
New York Council Expelled by CIO as Slavish to Reds 

NATIONAL EXECUTIVE BOARD, BY VOTE OF 38 TO 5, UPHOLDS ALL FINDINGS OF 

3-MAN INQUIRY TO TAKE OVER PROPERTY HOLLANDER IS ADMINISTRATOR TO 

CLOSE AFFAIRS DURKIN SAYS VERDICT IS ACCEPTED 

By Lawrence E. Davies 
Special to The New York Times 

Portland, Oreg., November 20 — By a vote of 38 to 5, the national executive 
board of the Congress of Industrial Organizations today found the Greater New 
York CIO Council guilty of "slavish adherence" to "the line and dictates of the 
Communist Party" and revoked its charter as of this date. 

The board instructed Louis Hollander, president of the New York State CIO 
Council, which brought the original charges, to take over books, funds and prop- 
erty of the convict'^d council in the role of administrator for the national CIO. 

The executive officers of the CIO are to determine when a charter shall be 
granted to a new council covering the same geographical jurisdiction and are to 
prescribe the time and the rules for the election of its officers. All local unions 
of CIO affiliates in the Greater New York area were urged by the board to apply 
for affiliation with the new council. 

This stunning defeat for the left-wing faction of the CIO was accepted as final 
and no appeal will be taken to the floor of the CIO convention here next week, 
according to James Durkin, president of the Greater New York Council. 

He said that he and his associates denied all the charges, including that of bow- 
ing to Communist Part}' dictation, but that the decision would be accepted in the 
interest of unity. 

The five votes against the verdict of guilty and the charter revocation were cast 
by Joseph Selly, president of the American Communications Association; Ben 
Gold, president of the Fur Workers; Morris Pizer, president of the Furniture 
Workers; Robert Weinstein of the Public Workers, and Mr. Durkin. 

Several abstained from voting, including Donald Henderson, president of the 
Food, Tobacco and Agricultural Workers, and William Lawrence of the Inter- 
national Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, here to represent Harry 
Bridges, president of the dock workers. 

By a process of elimination, it was deduced that the other abstainers were 
Albert J. Fitzgerald, president, and Julius Emspak, secretary-treasurer, of the 
United Electrical Workers, one of the unions blacklisted by the Atomic Energy 
Commission. Neither Mr. Fitzgerald nor Mr. Emspak spoke during the discus- 
sion, which at this time was heated. 

Michael Quill of New York, president of the Transport Workers Union and until 
early this year president of the Greater New York Council, and Samuel J. Hogan, 
president of the Marine Engineers Beneficial Association, were absent, having 
been delayed on a train by a snowstorm. 

The other absentee in the 51-member board was Hugh Bryson of San Francicso, 
president of the left-wing Marine Cooks and Stewards Union, who is engaged in 
negotiations with west coast shipowners. 

Mr. Quill and Joseph Curran, president of the National Maritime Union, both 
of whom formerly were associated with the left-wing factions in their unions, were 
leaders in preferring the original charges against the leaders of the Greater New 
York Council in a communication to Philip Murray, president of the CIO, late in 
September. 

The executive board in its 4J^-hour session accepted and approved all of the 
findings and recommendations of a 3-man investigating committee headed by 
L. S. Buckmaster of Akron, president of the Gas, Coke and Chemical Workers, 
and Joseph Froesch, president of the Federation of Glass, Ceramic and Silica Sand 
Workers, which heard testimony at a 2-day meeting in Washington last month. 

"Upon the basis of the hearing before said executive board committee and upon 
the basis of the hearing before the executive board of the CIO," a resolution 
adopted by the board stated, "the executive board finds and concludes: 

"That the Greater New York CIO Council directly and contrary to instructions 
from the national CIO and from the international unions concerned, interfered in 
the affairs of these international unions. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 553 

"That the Greater New York CIO Council does not represent and is not capable 
of serving the CIO membership in the Greater New York area. 

"That the Greater New York CIO Council has brought discredit upon the 
national CIO by the slavish adherence of the council to the line and dictates of 
the Communist party. 

"And that the Greater New York CIO Council has flagrantly disregarded and 
acted contrary to CIO policy, to the CIO constitution and to the CIO rules for 
industrial union councils." 

The resolution went on to provide: 

"That Louis Hollander is hereby appointed and designated by the president 
of the CIO and by this board as the CIO representative to take custody of all 
property and funds and to wind up all the affairs and business of the Greater New 
York CIO Council, and that the said Louis Hollander, the CIO representative 
hereby appointed, shall apply and use the funds and property and wind up the 
affairs and business of the Greater New York CIO Council, subject to the super- 
vision and approval of the president of the CIO." 

While right-wingers on the board were hailing the decision as a precedent for 
a fight down the line on the Red issue, Mr. Durkin told reporters: 

"We denj' all the charges. We did not interfere with the international unions. 
There was absolutely no Communist Party dictation to the council. On the 
question of CIO policy, if opposing increases in fares and utility rates is opposing 
CIO poHcy that's news to us and we plead guilty. 

"W^e believe it is unfortunate that that case came up and that this decision 
was made. It doesn't help in raising wages and in repealing the Taft-Hartley 
law. • 

"However, we shall accept the decision, turn over the funds and property, and 
we won't make an appeal to the convention. We are abstaining from an appeal 
in order to get the CIO at t^e convention on the course of fighting on real issues 
such as the protection of workers and try to eliminate these internal struggles 
that don't help the workers." 

Asked whether all of the unions represented in the Greater New York area would 
affiliate with the projected new council, Mr. Durkin said they "would decide 
whether to join." 

Saul Mills, executive secretary of the council, is arranging to meet promptly 
with Mr. Hollander, who is a vice president of the Amalgamated Clothing: Workers, 
to carry out the board's decision and turn over the council's books, funds and 
property. 

Mr. Nlurray, in announcing the decision, described the session as "orderly," 
although some of the members said the debate had been sharp at times. 

Referring to the spirited denunciation of Communists which Mr. Murray 
indulged in at a closed session earlier in the week, a reporter asked: 

"Did you deliver any more blasts against the leftwingers?" 

"I never deliver blasts," Mr. Murray replied. 

Members of the investigating committee, aided by Mr. Curran, "carried the 
ball" in the executive board meeting for adoption of the committee report in full. 

The greater part of the minority opposition came from Messrs. Durkin, Mills, 
Selly. and Weinstein. who pursued the unity theme in their discussion. 

The charges of interference of the Greater New York Council in affairs of 
international unions were specific as to the United Retail. Wholesale, and Depart- 
ment Store Employees of America, the Transport Workers Union of America, 
and the Utility Workers Union of America. 

The investigating committee, in its findings of interference with the first- 
named union, stated: 

"In fact, the officers of the Greater New York CIO Council have made the 
council an instrument of attack upon this international union. Specifically, on 
July 15, 1048, the Greater New York CIO Council sponsored a 2-hour mass 
picketing of Gimbels Department Store in New York City, ignoring the express 
request made by the president of this international union and the vice president 
and director of organization of the national CIO to desist from any such demon- 
stration. * 

"Again, on July 29, the Greater New York CIO Council, throu'ih its officers 
and employees, participated in a mass picketing demonstration held in front of 
the Oppenheim-Collins Department Store in New York City despite the express 
and prior request and instructions from the United Retail, Wholesale, and De- 
partment Store Employees of America and the national CIO to refrain from 
planning or participating or assisting in such demonstraticn. 



554 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

"Here, too, the international union and its affiliated local was under contract 
with this employer and in this situation the international union and its affiliated 
local was then negotiating a new contract to take effect upon the expiration of 
the existing one." 

The committee deemed it of great significance that the council "which in the 
two cases above acted with such alacrity in sponsoring unauthorized demonstra- 
tions and picket lines" had "failed to manifest any concern whatsoever or to 
exercise any effort to prevent or to assist in preventing members of the same 
international union from seceding from the CIO." 

AS TO TRANSPORT UNION 

With respect to the Transport Workers Union, the committee stated that the 
Greater New York Council interfered with the international's effort to achieve 
"an essential wage increase for its members." The council, according to the 
findings, "arrogated to itself the power to dictate to the Transport Workers 
Union the position which this union should take in respect to its bargaining 
program." 

The committee stated that "similarly," the Greater New York Council had 
"injected itself in a proceeding before the Public Service Commission of New York 
against the position being taken by the Utility Workers Union of America." 
This involved "an application by the Edison Co. to obtain a relatively minor 
adjustment." 

"The committee deems it to be most significant that in the above situation," 
its findings continued, "tUe Greater New York CIO Council was closely following 
the line of the Communist Party. 

"This was more than coincidential. President Quill of the Transport Workers 
Union directly testified that leading officials of the Communist Party, including 
Eugene Dennis, John Williamson and Robert Thompson, in a meeting attended 
by the secretary-treasurer of the Greater New York CIO Council, dictated the 
interference by the council with the bargaining program of the Transport Workers 
Union. The officers of the council attempted to deny President Quill's statement. 

"The sequence of events, however, and the very actions taken by the council 
lead the committee to give credit to President Quill's testimony and to discredit 
the denials of the council's officers. 

"It seems apparent that the opposition by the council to the 10-cent fare in 
New York City and to the bargaining program of the Transport Workers Union 
was part and parcel of an overall plan dictated by the Communist Party to em- 
barrass Mayor O'Dwyer and his administration hi New York City and to enhance 
the program of the Communist Party." 

The council's "slavish adherence" to the Communist Party line, the committee 
asserted was "evident" from its "failure" to assist "in the fight against the seces- 
sionist movement" affecting the United Retail, Wholesale and Department Store 
Employees of America, a union headed by Samuel Wolchok. 

"It is plain from the evidence at the hearing that the Communist Party is 
actively involved in support of this secessionist movement," the report added. 
"The record is replete with additional evidence showing that the Communist 
Party directly influences the action of the Greater New York CIO Council as 
presently constituted. The officials of the council were unable at the hearing to 
refer to a single instance where the city CIO policy has recently differed from that 
of the Communist Party. Even in their statements before the committee, the 
council's officers faithfully parrot positions taken by the Communist Party. 

"We are forced, in this connection to conclude that the Greater New York 
CIO Council, as presently constituted, is acting not as an agency of the CIO, not 
as a vehicle to help organize the unorganized, not as a genuine trade-union body, 
but rather for all intents and purposes as an instrumentality through which the 
Communist Party is interfering in the affairs of the CIO and its unions in New 
York City." 

The summary alone of findings and recommendations of the investigating 
committee, exclusive of a thick volume of testimony, took up 13 mimeographed 
pages, mostly double-spaced. The resolution adopted by the board filled more 
than three pages. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you remember, Mr. Mills, that in 1945 — • — 
Mr. Mills. Mr. Chairman, might I have the opportunity to make 
some comments on that article? 
Senator Welker. You may. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 555 

Mr. Mills. It is not correct. The article does not represent the 
true facts. 

Such a charge was made. The findings of the national CIO board 
did not relate to that particular charge or allegation. The findings 
of the national executive board related to another charge, the fact, 
or the charge, rather, was that the council had interfered in the 
jurisdiction and the prerogatives of the international unions, the 
relationship between the local unions in New York City and the 
councU, and the testimony of Mr. Quill was refuted categorically at 
the hearings, and it is unfortunate that the New York Times does not 
see fit to put in the refutation. The article is wholly incorrect. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mills, do you recall a delegation of Chinese trade 
unionists coming to the United States in 1945? 

Mr. Mills. Yes, sir. 

As I recall it. Judge, they came to the U. N. organizational meeting 
in San Francisco. 

Mr. Morris. These were Chinese Communists that came to the 
U. N. organizational meeting in San Francisco? 

Mr. Mills. Well, wait a minute. Let me explain. 

As I recall, su-, some of them later came on to New York City and 
the mayor of the city of New York received them in the city hall, and 
invited a number of prominent people in the city, including labor 
representatives, of which I was one — and I do recall meeting some of 
them at city hall, in the city of New York. 

Mr. Morris. That is the only place you ever met them? 

Mr. Mills. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you appear officially before the Trade Union 
Commission of the Communist Party at that time, in connection 
with this visit? 

Mr. Mills. No, sir; I don't recall any such animal. 

Mr. Morris. Or the Trade Union Commission of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Mills. I don't recall appearing anywhere in respect to this 
visit except meeting the Chinese delegates, and there were several of 
them, in city hall, in the mayor's office. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, do you know the building at 50 East 
13th Street and 35 East 12th Street? 

Mr. Mills. It is in New York 

Mr. Morris. It is in New York; Communist Party headquarters. 

Mr. Mills. Oh, I do; 35 East 12th, that was the address of the 
Daily Worker, and we sent releases there. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever been there? 

Mr. Mills. Have I ever been there? I do recall one visit to the 
offices of the Daily Worker in respect to some newspaper release, 
the same as I visit other newspaper offices for publicity, for various 
unions. 

Mr. Morris. Then your testimony is that you were there only 
once? 

Mr. Mills. My testimony is that I recollect being there only once, 
in the Daily Worker office. 

Mr, Morris. When was that? 

Mr. Mills. Oh, I don't know. Judge. It may have been in the 
late thirties or early forties, but I do recall visiting that office once. 



556 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Well, would you deny then categorically that you 
attended the Daily Worker conferences on the editorial poUcy of the 
Daily Worker toward the CIO? 

Mr. Mills. I most certainly deny that categorically. I never 
attended any editorial conferences of the Daily Worker or any other 
newspaper. 

Mr. Morris. That is a categorical denial? 

Mr. Mills. That is a categorical denial. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was Mary Kaufman your secretary during the 
time that you were the general secretary of the CIO Industrial 
Union Council? 

Mr. Mills. I don't recall anybody — being my secretary? 

Mr. Morris. Mary Kaufman. 

Mr. Mills. My secretary? 

Mr. Morris. Well, do you know of a Mary Kaufman? 

Mr. Mills. The name is vaguely familiar. She may have been 
employed, we emploj^ed there several people, we had bookkeepers, 
we had secretaries and stenographers and switch operators. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man by the name of Hal Simon? 

Senator Welker. Wait a minute, let us get the record straight on 
this Mary Kaufman. Do you recall her? 

Mr. Mills. The name is familiar, she may have been employed 
there, but I don't recall her being my particular secretary. 

Senator Welker. You don't recall her as a bookkeeper or any- 
where else, but the name is familiar? 

Mr. Mills. The name is vaguely familiar. 

Senator Welker. Well, I wanted to find out what the answer to 
the question was. I didn't want to leave it with the question pro- 
pounded up in the air. 

Mr. Mills. No. Well, if she was my secretary I think I would 
remember. 

Senator Welker. Very well, proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Hal Simon? 

Mr. Mills. Hal Simon at one time was a delegate to the council 
from the United Electrical Workers. 

Mr. Morris. Was Hal Simon your Communist Party contact in 
1945? 

Mr. Mills. I don't know what kind of question that is. I had 
no Communist Party contact in 1945 or any other year, nobody 
ever came to me as a Communist Party contact, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Mills, did you attend a meeting of the 
Communist Party leaders including Earl Browder on November 20, 
1942? 

Mr. Mills. November 20, 1942 — that day has no particular signifi- 
cance to me and, as I told you in executive session, I attended many 
meetings and many people and there could have been Earl Browder — 
but I don't remember what I was doing in November — what was that 
date? 

Mr. Morris. November 20. 

Mr. Mills. November 20, 1942 — and I don't know whether you 
could tell me what you were doing on November 20, 1942. 

Senator Welker. Now, will you just quit arguing, Mr. Witness, 
and we will get along fine. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UTSTITED STATES 557 

Mr. Mills. I am trying to be respectful, but I resent that kind of 
a question. 

Senator Welker. I know; you have been a very fine witness, and 
I am going to do everything I can to keep you a fine witness. 

Mr. Mills. Well, I have a great deal at stake here, and I don't 
want to be smeared. 

Senator Welker. Well now, I hope that you will give the Com- 
mittee the benefit of the fact that we are not here trying to smear you. 
I think that your able counsel knows much better than that, if you 
don't, that that is not the province of this committee and that is 
the last thmg that we will do, but we are seeking facts and if you 
were quieter and more level, I am sure that we will get along finer 
and faster and better. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. On how many occasions did jou meet with Earl 
Browder? 

Mr. ]MiLLS. Judge, I didn't meet with Earl Browder. As I told 
you in executive session, in my capacitj^ as secretary of the CIO and 
the nature of the work that I was doing then, I attended many 
meetings of different groups of different kinds of dift'erent organizations 
and it is conceivable, very well so, that Mr. Browder was present 
at 1 or 2 or 3. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. But you cannot tell us, Mr. ]\lills, approximately 
how many occasions you met with Earl Browder? 

Mr. Mills. I did not say I met v/ith Earl Browder. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you ever meet him, Mr. Mills? 

Mr. Mills. Personally, no. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you ever attend a meetuig with him? 
That is what I mean. 

Mr. Mills. I met him at meetings. I was introduced to him, but 
I have never had a personal meeting with him, if that is what ^^ou 
are trymg to say. 

Mr. Morris. I don't mean that you and he sat down together, but 
did you attend meetmgs at which Earl Browder was present? 

Mr. Mills. Durmg the war, it is quite conceivable and quite 
probable that there were such meetings with Mr. Browder present. 
We were working with all groups. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a meeting on July 23, 1940, of the 
Political Bureau of the Communist Partv? 

Mr. Mills. 1940? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; July 23, 1940, of the Political Bureau of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Mills. I don't recall attending a meeting of the Political 
Bm'eau of the Communist Party in any year. 

And I don't recall what I was doing in July 1940. 

I do recall that was about the time, I think that the council was 
established, that is all that I recall with respect to the middle of 1940, 
sir. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you have any discussion with people you 
knew to be Communist leaders about the formation of the Greater 
New York Industrial Union Council? 

Mr. Mills. Well, let me say this, sir, with respect to the formation 
of the Greater New York Industrial Union Council, that was a desire 
expressed by many CIO unions since the establishment of the original 

72T23— 56— pt. 11 5 



558 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

committee of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, before it was 
constitutionalized. 

That question went on for 7 years, and I had conferences with many 
CIO officials, many union officials, conferences with John L. Lewis 
and with Alan Haywood at that time, and we were all discussing the 
establishment of the CIO Council. 

Some were eager for it, some were not so eager — depending on what 
their own interest was — and the council was finally established in, 
1940 and I became secretary, at the request of Mr. John L. Lewis and 
Mr. Alan Haywood. 

Mr. Morris. The point is, the question was: Did you discuss the 
formation of the Greater New York Industrial Union Council with 
persons that you knew to be leaders of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mills. I discussed it with many union officials, sir. 

Mr, Morris. Well, persons you knew to be Communist leaders, 
were they among them? 

Mr. Mills (after consulting his attorney). There may have been, 
among the local unions, sir. The CIO at that time did not have a 
policy of excluding Communists, they were not required, nor did we 
desire to ask anybody what their political faith was. 

Mr. Morris. Did 3^011 speak at a meeting of the waterfront section 
of the Communist Party on October 25, 1941? 

Mr. Mills. 1 don't recall ever speaking before such a body as you 
describe here. In 1941 I spoke in many meetings. The NMU was 
part of our organization, the president of the NMU was the president 
of the CIO Council, and I attended many meetings, many meetings 
with respect to maritime problems. I have never recalled any of them 
having been called as "waterfront," such as you describe it. 

Mr. Morris. Were you the liaison between tlie Transport Workers 
Union and the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Mills. You asked me that in executive session, sir, and that 
is really a ridiculous way to put it, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Well, will you tell me what is the fact? 

Mr. Mills. I sincerely mean that, sir. 

I was a publicity man for many unions, and I was publicity man for 
the Transport Workers Union, and if you, in that respect, want to 
call me a liaison between the transport workers and the Daily Worker, 
you can say the same thing in regard to the New York Times and with 
regard to the Journal American, in regard to every newspaper and 
every wire service in the city of New York, because 'I was liaison 
with all of them, I sent releases to them, I visited them, I talked to 
their representatives on the telephone every day and if that is liaison, 
then I am guilty of being liaison with every newspaper in the city of 
New York. 

Senator Welker. I think you made the point, Mr. Witness. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever picket on behalf of Ferdinand Smith 
on March 5, 1945? 

Mr. }iIiLLS. On behalf of Ferdinand Smith — was that in connection 
with 

Senator Welker. What I want to find out, who is Ferdinand Smith? 

Mr. Mills. Oh, Ferdinand Smith; Mr. Smith was the secretary- 
treasurer of the National Maritime Union. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 559 

yir. Mills. It was one of the unions affiliated with our council. 

Mr. Morris. He was deported, was he not? 

Mr. Mills. I don't know what happened to him, but I do recall 
that there was a deportation action against him and several other 
people, including a number of our CIO officials — I think Mr. Potash 
may have been involved and one or two others — and if that is the 
incident you are referring to, it is quite possible and probable that the 
CIO Council properly protested the action taken against the CIO 
officials. 

If we picketed at that time in connection with it, then it is quite 
possible that I was there. 

I don't recall the incident, but I do recall the council's position in 
protest against the action taken against the CIO people. 

Mr. Morris. You also protested the deportation at the same time 
of Gerhart Eisler? 

Mr. Mills. I don't recall protesting the action against Mr. Eisler 
specifically, if he was in this group I am trying to recall — -there was 
another group of 5 or 6 which were taken over to Ellis Island, and I 
think that they were on a hunger strike, or something, and it was at 
that time that the CIO council took action on it, protesting the treat- 
ment against these people. 

Now, if \h\ Eisler was one of them, I don't recall, I don't recall any 
action specifically in regard to Mr. Eisler. 

Mr, Morris. Mr. Mandel, do you have the Daily Worker account 
of that demonstration? 

Senator Welker. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Mandel. I have here the Daily Worker for March 5, 1948, 
pages 2 and 10, and the headline reads, "10,000 in demonstration 
demand freedom for 4." 

I will read excerpts from the article and offer it for the record : 

10,000 workers yesterday protested the inhuman and illegal detention of the 
4 hunger strikers a"t Ellis Island. At 5:30 p. m., more than 5,000 swarmed round 
the Department of Justice Building at 70 Columbus Avenue, demanding the 
immediate release of John Williamson, Gerhart Eisler, Charles Doyle, and Ferdi- 
nand Smith. 

It also reads : 

The vast gathering was addressed at the square by Robert Thompson, State 
chairman of the Communist Party * * * Among the demonstrators were John 
Santo * * * and Saul Mills, secretary of CIO. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 191" and reads 
as follows :) 

fDaily Worker. New York, March 5, 1948] 

Exhibit No. 191 
10,000 IN Demonstration Demand Freedom for Four 

By Louise Mitchell 

Ten thousand New Yorkers yesterday protested the inhuman and illegal deten- 
tion of the four hunger strikers at Ellis Island. At 5:30 p. m., more than 5,000 
swarmed around the Department of Justice Building at 70 Columbus Avenue, 
demanding the immediate release of John Williamson, Gerhart Eisler, Charles 
Dovle, and Ferdinand Smith. 

The vast throng, refusing to break up at the end of the picket-line demonstration, 
staged a spontaneous march, eight abreast, down Broadway, where they were 



560 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

joined by additional thousands. The marchers filled the heait of the city with 
their echoing slogans: 

Open that Door, Release those Four; 

Out on Bail, Not in Jail; 

We Protest the Illegal Arrest; 

Labor Fights for Civil Rights, 
reached Duffy Square at 46th Street, the crowd soared to 10,000 according to 
the police. It filled the side streets, bogging down traffic for more than 20 minutes. 
American flags, trade union banners and placards were everywhere. 

The vast gathering was addressed at the Square by Robert Thompson, State 
chairman of the Communist Party; Leon Straus, executive secretary of the Fur 
Joint Board, and Joseph Cadden, leader of the Civil Rights Congress. 

All the speakers hailed the brave eff"orts of John Williamson, Gerhart Eisler, 
Charles Doyle, and Ferdinand Smith who are fighting for the civil rights of all 
Americans. 

Among the demonstrators were John Santo and Austin Hogan of Saul Mills, 
of Transit, secretary of the city CIO; Irving Potash of Fur; Harry Reich of Food; 
James Lustig of electrical; Bill Michelson of Department Store. 

Williamson's son in line 

Kin of the imprisoned men included Mrs. Gerhart Eisler and Robert Williamson, 
10-year-old son of John Williamson. 

The young child, shivering in the penetrating cold and slight drizzle carried a 
placard which read: "I want my dad." 

The demonstration was organized by the defense committee for Claudia Jones, 
Ferdinand Smith, Alex Bittelman, John Santo, Charles Doyle and the Civil Rights 
Congress and American Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born. 

A joint open letter by the committees to Attorney General Tom Clark demanded 
that the four men be released on bail and that representatives of interested or- 
ganizations be permitted to visit them. 

A wire to the Ellis Island hunger strikers from the demonstrators read: 

"Our demonstration supports your fight for American liberties and pledges 
support to secure your freedom. Your heroic hunger strike is an inspiration to 
the entire labor movement." 

The open letter to Clark condemned his "unlawful and outrageous misuse of the 
deportation laws to attack and weaken the unions of the United States. 

"You have attempted to destroy and intimidate those unions by arresting 
their leaders," said the letter, "and you have — in violation of all precedents and 
constitutional guarantees — ordered that four leaders of the labor movement be 
held without bail. These men are charged with no crime. They are charged 
with holding political opinions which differ * * * 

Mr. Mills. On that, if I may, sir, Mr. Doyle — I don't recall his 
name — but Mr. Do3^1e was also a CIO official, and I doubt whether 
the council officially demonstrated, but if the newspaper says I was 
there, it is quite possible I was there, because I know it was an issue 
in which the CIO was vitally interested, since there were CIO people 
involved. 

Senator Welker. The Daily Worker says you were there. 

Mr. Mills. It is quite possible I was there, and I will not deny I 
was there because I do recall the issue, I do recall the position taken 
by the CIO. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. After you finished with the Greater New York 
Industrial Union Council, you went to Red China, did you not? 

Mr. Mills. Yes, sir; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that? 

Mr. Mills. I went on business; I went there on business in connec- 
tion with the export-import trade. I represented — do you want me 
to go on? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; please tell us. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 561 

Mr. Mills. I represented an import-export corporation, and I 
went there particularly in regard to a number of items, such as bristles 
and wool and fur. 

Senator Welker. Pig bristles? 

Mr. Mills. Hog bristles. Apparently the nylon, which was being 
used in the United States at that time for toothbrushes, and so forth, 
had not proved to be so good, and there was a shortage of bristles and 
the company was interested in that. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, Mr. Mills, would you tell us very briefly 
about your work in Red China at that time? 

Mr. Mills. M^^ work was very simple, sir. I went from the United 
States to Shanghai, and from there to Hong Kong, and from there to 
Tientsin, and then, for a brief while, Peiping, and then I tliink I 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me, Mr. Mills. 

When you were in Tientsin, did you live in a house occupied by 
George Zoobitsky and Henry Kabritz? 

Mr. Mills. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Who were they? 

Mr. Mills. George Zoobitsky was the representative of the Sea- 
coast Export Corp. in Tientsin. 

Mr. Morris. He is a Soviet citizen; is he not? 

Mr. Mills. I don't — my impression, sir, is that he was — I think 
he was an emigre, originally from Russia, but I think that his family — 
he came when he was a httle boy, as I recall his telling me, during the 
time of the pogroms, and settled there, and he was the representative 
there of the company which I was working for. 

Mr Morris. How about Henry Kabritz? 

Mr. Mills. The other man worked for another company. I knew 
very little about him specifically, except these two men shared this 
house in Tientsin, and that is where I stayed. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you registered at the Cathay Hotel? 

Mr. Mills. The Cathay Hotel in Tientsin? 

Mr. Morris. No; at Shanghai. 

Mr. Mills. At Shanghai — it is quite possible. There were several 
hotels, and I may have been in the Cathay. I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who paid your check there at that Cathay 
Hotel? 

Mr. Mills. I paid it. 

Mr. Morris. You paid it personally? 

Mr. Mills. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And 3^our testimony is it was not paid by local Com- 
munist officials? 

Mr. Mills. No. 

Mr. Morris. Did you bring mail from Peiping for Anna Wong 

Mr. Mills. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris (continuing). Secretary of Madam Sun Yat Sen? 

Mr. Mills. I never met Madam 

Mr. Morris. Well, the question was, did you bring mail from 
Peiping for her secretary — ^the secretary for Madam Sun Yat Sen? 

Mr. Mills. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when you returned home, did you establish a 
business with the zVmerican Export Corp. — Chinese-American Export 
Corp.? 

Mr. Mills. The American-Chinese Export Corp., after I returned. 



562 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you the owner of the company? 

Mr. Mills. No; Fred Field was the owner of it. 

Mr. Morris. Had you Ivnown Frederick V. Field before? 

Mr. Mills. I had known him casually, sir, through the years before 
I went to America-China. 

Mr. Morris. Was that company at 51 Pine Street? 

Mr. Mills. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Formerly, 152 West 42d Street? 

Mr. Mills. I don't know where, formerly, but the office was at 
Pine Street at the time I came there. 

Mr. Morris. Was Field the president of that? 

Mr. Mills. I believe president. 

Mr. Morris. Was Charles Honig the vice president? 

Mr. Mills. I don't laiow Charles Honig. My dealings were with 
Mr. Field. 

Mr. Morris. And David Drucker was vice president? 

Mr. Mills. I don't recall Mr. Drucker being in the company at that 
time. 

Mr. Morris. Was Martin Popper secretary? 

Mr. Mills. Mr. Popper, I believe, is an attorney in New York, and 
may have been involved in the company. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

What was Lee Pressman's connection with that firm? 

Mr. Mills. Lee Pressman has no connection with the firm. 

Mr. Morris. You did have business relations with Lee Pressman 
about that time, did you not? 

Mr. Mills. Well, Lee, as you knovv^, was formerly counsel for the 
CIO, and I have known Lee through the CIO, and I had met with Lee 
before I left for China , and when I came back I saw him again. He is 
not a member of the company, if that is what you asked. 

Mr. Morris. You had no business dealings with him at that time? 

Mr. Mills. Business dealings? No; we just had discussions. 

Mr. Morris. Fred Field gave you two checks during the year 1950, 
did he not, 1 in the amount'of $4,000, and 1 in the amount of $2,000? 

Mr. Mills. It must have been more than that, more than a total 
of $6,000. It was a total of $10,000. 

Senator Welker. Maybe I can hurry this matter along. 

He gave you 2 checks, or maybe 3 or 4, for a total sum of $10,000? 

Mr. Mills. That is right. 

Senator Welker. And you were suing him for breach of contract; 
is that correct? 

Mr. Mills. We were in the business; he had employed me, and we 
disagreed with respect to a number of money matters, and the way 
the company was operating, and he put me out, I thought, unfairly, 
and I sued him and we settled it for $10,000, and that is what the 
facts were. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

That covers your question, counsel? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, sir. 

One or two more questions. 

Now, have you ever been a member of the Communist Party, Mr. 
Mills? 

Mr. Mills. No, sir; I have never been a member of the Communist 
Party. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 563 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended closed meetings of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Mills. As I explained to you, sir, I attended many meetings, 
sometimes as many as 10 meetings a day, or 7 or 8, sometimes 3 
meetings a night; there were all kinds of meetings, and undoubtedly 
in that period during the war there were Communists present. 

Did I attend a meeting, knowing it was an official meeting of the 
Communist Party, sir? The answer is "No." 

Mr. Morris. But it was unofficially a collection of Communists; 
would your testimon}'^ be you knew that? 

Mr. Mills. Pardon me? 

Air. Morris. If it was an unofficial meeting of the Communists. 

\lr. Mills. How would I know that? 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Bella V. Dodd? 

Mr. Mills. Yes, sir; a member of the Teachers Union. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know she was a Communist? 

Mr. Mills. Only in subsequent years when she made her public 
statement. I knew her as head of the Teachers Union, and worked 
with her as such. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness at this time. 

Senator Welker. All right. 

Thank you very much, Mr. Mills, and I thank you, Mr. Cammer, 
both you and your fine attorney. 

And I will say this sincerely, that it has been a pleasure to have you 
here; we are not here for the purposes of embarrassment, we are here 
for the purpose of having you give us information that we must have 
to adequately suggest proper legislation, and you have been, both of 
you, very fine, and I certainly give you your just praise for that. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to put some documents 
into the record at this time. 

Senator Welker. With respect to this witness? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Counsel will have the opportunity to see those exhibits? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mills, if you and your counsel stay, Mr. Mandel 
will show 3^011 just what they are after the hearing, if you have no 
objection. 

Mr. Cammer. We have worked these out before; we will have no 
problem. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

(The documents were numbered exhibits 192 to 198 and read as 

follows :) 

Exhibit No. 192 

House Committee on Un-American Activities Report on the CIO Political Action 

Committee, March 29, 1944) 

SAUL MILLS 

Saul Mills is secretary-treasurer of the Communist-dominated Greater New 
York Industrial Union Council. His position in the CIO Political Action Com- 
mittee is, therefore, a strategic one. According to the Worker, Communist organ, 
this 34-year-old former newspaperman, is the moving spirit of the largest central 
body in the CIO "that today gives leadership to an important section of New 
York's labor movement and' through New York to the rest of the country" 
(Feb. 7, 1943, p. 5, magazine section). The council claims to represent 500,000 
workers and 250 local unions. Together with him on the council have been 



564 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

such well-known Communist wheel horses as Joseph Curran, Ferdinand Smith, 
Marcel Scherer, Abram Flaxer, and John Santo. 

Mills was a charter member of the New York local of the American Newspaper 
Guild, a Communist-controlled local. 

In the early days of the Transport Workers Union, which has been unanimously 
found as Commiinist-led by the Special Committee on I'n-American Activities, 
Mills was selected by Michael Quill, union president and Communist-supported 
councilman of New York City, for the job of handling public relations. The 
union was at that time conductins; a sit-down strike in the powerhouse of the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co. Mills worked in this capacity until the Greater 
New York Industrial Union Council was established. 

The Worker of February 7, 1943, described in detail how Mills won the confi- 
dence of Joseph Curran cluring the Communist-led east coast seamen's strike 
in 1930 and was later chosen as secretary of the Greater New York Industrial 
Union Council where he is serving today. 

In 1942, Saul Mills issued the following statement endorsing the National 
Free Browder Congress arranged for March 28-29, 1942: 

"You cannot divorce the Browder case from the political party which he heads. 
There is no question that Browder and those who are associated with him are a 
part of the united fighting front of freedom-loving peoples against the Axis. * * * 
The National Free Browder Congress should be fully supported. The principles 
upon which our Government was founded * * * are at stake" (Daily Worker, 
Mar. 9, 1942, p. 3). 

Mills thus chose to ignore the record of treasonable activity carried on by the 
Communist Partv and its creature, the American Peace MobiUzation, during the 
period of the Stalin-Hitler Pact. In fact. Mills was a delegate to the meeting of 
the seditious American Peace Mobilization held in Chicago in September 1940, as 
a representative of the Greater New York Industrial Union Council. 

Following a report submitted by Mills, the Greater New York Industrial Union 
voted to condemn a pending bill to fine persons found guilty of sabotage on defense 
work, $10,000 plus 3 years' imprisonment. The body opposed legislation for 
recruiting home guard units to defend local war plants and public utilities against 
saboteurs. It condemned a pending measure to bar Communist radio operators 
and members of foreign-controlled organizations from American ships and gave 
"full backing to workers of the Ford Instrument Co., Queens manufacturers of 
bombsights for the Navy who voted to strike" (Daily Worker, Sept. 28, 1940, p. 3). 

In the March 17, 1942, issue of the New Masses, Communist weekly, the 
publication was highly praised by Saul Mills for its work. 

He signed an appeal in behalf of Morris U. Schappes, a Communist teacher 
ousted from the Citv College of New York and now serving a term for perjury in 
Sing Sing Prison (Daily Worker, Feb. 4, 1942, p. 5). In 1940, he signed a letter 
to the President in behalf of leading Communist prisoners, members of the 
International Fur and Leather Workers Union (Daily Worker, Nov. 11, 1940, 
pp. 1 and 5). 

Other Communist fronts supported by Saul Mills included the following: 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, United American Spanish Aid 
Committee, American Committee to Save Refugees, and the New York State 
Conference on National Unity. 

So-called right-wing leaders of the American Labor Party in New York have 
pointed out that Saul Mills is one of the Communists with whom Sidney Hillman 
is' attempting to carry out his CIO Political Action Committee conspiracy. 



Exhibit No. 193 

[The Worker, New York, February 7, 1943; p. 5] 

Here's Looking at Saul Mills 

It was during the hectic days of the 1936 east coast seamen's strike. Unionists 
had to meet and defeat provocations of a thousand varieties and to meet their 
confidence a man had to prove he could be trusted. 

Five strikers surrounded a visiting newspaperman at waterfront headquarters. 
They gave him a head-to-foot searching lookover and then yelled: "Hey, Joe, 
what aljout this guy?" 

Joseph Curran, president of today's National Maritime Union, came over and 
took a look at the short, round-faced visitor. "It's O. K., boys," he said. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 565 

That was the first time that Saul Mills, now 33 and secretary of the Greater 
New York Industrial Union Council, biggest CIO city body in the country, met 
up with Curran, the council's president. 

It was the beginning of a working relationship that today gives leadership to 
an important section of New York's labor movement, and, through New York, to 
the rest of the covmtry. 

Mills was a reporter first, a fellow who used to cover the news that other people 
made, before he got into the labor movement and began making it himself. He 
had covered virtually every beat that the metropolitan press thought worthy of 
assigning a reporter to before he put himself on the other side of the fence where 
reporters began interviewing him. 

He elbowed his way into journalism via a job as copy boy, first at the Associated 
Press, then at the United Press. He held the jobs while he went to high school 
but, as newspaper opportunities opened, he let the school drop just a few months 
before graduation. 

The UP let him do his first writing. They made him acting production man- 
ager for United Feature Syndicate and, though his job didn't call for it, he knocked 
oixt a piece about Charlie Curtis, who later was too become Vice JPresident to 
Herbert Hoover's presidency. 

Papers all over the country that were going along with the Curtis boom, back 
in 1928, played the story and Mills got his first byline, a byline that got him a 
job later as a full-fledged newspaperman. 

It was at the Long Island Press, out in Jamaica, N. Y., that a managing editor 
subsequently nodded his head and said, yes, he remembered the Curtis piece and 
put Mills to work on the paper's small staff. 

Once he covered a bus strike and a publicity man for a company took him out 
into the sticks and showed him an old broken-down, discarded bus. "This is 
going to make news," the transit company man told him mysteriously. "Wait, 
till tomorrow." 

The next day, the police reporter brought in a hot story. Strikers had burned 
a bus, it said. It was Mills' first personal experience with an antilabor hoax. 
He knew the burned bus was the same one the publicity man showed him the 
night before but he didn't get the full significance of the episode until years later 
when he himself was up to his neck in the labor movement. 

He got into trade unionism via the American Newspaper Guild, the newspaper- 
men's union. He'd been on a half dozen papers and been pushed around plenty 
by 1933, when Hey wood Broun wrote the famous column that started the ball 
rolling on unionism among the fourth estate. 

Mills was on the Brooklyn Eagle then. He was a charter member of the 
Guild, became editor of the Eagle shop paper and an executive committee member 
in the shop. And, by the same token, he was an early guild martyr. The Eagle 
fired him in 1935 for guild activity but the shop wasn't ripe for a show-down fight 
for reinstatement. 

From then on, Mills was launched in the trade union movement. He went 
back to newspaper work — held down a regular assignment at City News, which 
serviced most New York newspapers for a time — but cooperation with unions, 
especially those having trouble, had become his main interest. 

When the Transport Worker Union, then just a baby, had its BMT powerhouse 
sitdown. Mills wasfcalled in to handle public relations. Later, from 1937, until 
the CIO Council was established in 1940, he worked chiefly with Transport and 
is one of the few close coworkers of President Michael QuUl who came through 
without picking up an Irish brogue. 

He was one of the first to see the importance of establishing a centralizing body 
for CIO unions in the New York area and the Council, which he today guides as 
secretary, came into existence partly because of his painstaking and persistent 
efforts. 



Exhibit No. 194 

[Daily Worker, New York, November 10, 1947, p. 3] 

12,000 Bid Farewell to Peter V. Cacchione 

By Bernard Burton 

Twelve thousand persons — -Peter V. Cacchione's little people — -filed past the 
casket at the Livingston in Brooklyn yesterday to say a last farewell to their 
"Pete". From 9 a. m. until 1 p. m. people of all races, creeds and political beliefs 

72723— 56— pt. 11 6 



II 



566 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

were lined a block away along Schermerhorn Street, waiting in the chill November 
wind to pay their respects to New York City's first Communist councilman. 

When the services began at noon, thousands were disappointed at not being 
able to get into the hushed, flower-bedecked hall. Police estimated 6,000 waited 
outside listening to the services relayed over loudspeakers. They waited quietly 
with bared heads until the rose-covered coffin was carried out by 12 pallbearers. 

In the softly lit auditorium men paused at the coffin and choked back their 
tears; many wept openly. The coffin and the stage were banked with floral 
wreaths sent by shops unions, political leaders — all the thousands who had known 
the fighting Councilman as "Pete," as their close friend. 

Cacchione's family was seated at the left of the stage, near the stage. They 
were the widow, Dorothy and her son, 7-year-old Bernard. His elderly mother 
Anna Marie was there with 3 daughters, MoUie, Mary and Isabelle, and 2 sons, 
Michael and Fred. 

QUIET SOBBINO 

There was quiet sobbing in the family's corner. Occasionally, sandy-haired, 
dry-eyed Bernard would walk out and gaze wonderingly at his father, pausing 
to look at the honor guard of four, and then turn back to the corner. 

At noon, Councilman Benjamin J. Davis opened the services for "my closest 
coworker, my friend, the person who inspired me." He introduced the speakers: 
Acting Mayor Vincent Impellitterri; Council majority leader Joseph T. Sharkey 
(Democrat); Council minority leader Genevieve B. Earle (Republican); Repre- 
sentative Vito Marcantonio (American Labor Party) ; Councilman Michael J. 
Quill (American Labor Party) ; Eugene P. Connolly (American Labor Party) ; 
Stanley Isaacs (Republican) ; Edward A. Cuningham (Democrat) ; State Senate 
Kenneth Sherbell (American Labor Party); Mrs. Ada B. Jackson; City CIO 
secretary Saul Mills; UE-CIO district secretary Ruth Young; Furriers Joint 
Council manager Irving Potash; Gilbert Green for the Communist Party National 
Board; Communist state chairman Robert Thompson; Brooklyn Communist 
chairman Carl Vedro; Rev. Thomas S. Harten of the Holy Trinity Baptist 
Church; Rev. John Moses of the Allen Memorial AME Church, and Mario 
D'Inzillo of the Garibaldi Society. 

OTHER COUNCILMEN THERE 

Other councilmen present were Charles E. Keegan, Brooklyn Democrat, 
S. Samuel DiFalco, Manhattan Democrat and William M. McCarthy, Brooklyn 
Democrat, making a total delegation of 10 from the city council. 

Impellitteri, speaking on behalf of Mayor O'Dwyer and the city council, 
declared "the council has suff'ered a loss and his wise counsel will be missed." 
He paid tribute to Cacchione as an "able, conscientious, diligent and courteous 
mmeber of that bodj^" 

Marcantonio, paying to tribute to Cacchione as a "people's leader" and a 
"champion of progress," said that "so, so many small people will mourn for him." 
Cacchione, he said, was "an integral part of their living flesh and blood * * * his 
heart beat with them." 

STRONG ASSET 

Council majority leader Sharkey said that Cacchione's support in the council 
was always a strong asset. He said that support was always forthcoming on any 
measure that "was good for the city." 

Mrs. Earle, declaring that she had come with "grief in her heart" at the loss 
of a good "friend and coworker." When Cacchione agreed with her in the council, 
"I was happy," she said, "When he disagreed, I knew he had his own sincere 
reasons." 

The council minority leader said she would always "remember him with tender- 
ness and understanding." She recalled how Cacchione would always wait for her 
with his car during bad weather to bring her to and from council meetings. 

Councilman Cunningham paid tribute to Cacchione as "a real American, a 
real representative of his fellow men." The Bronx Democrat paid respect to 
Cacchione "on behalf of the citizens of our county." 

Councilman Quill, who is also president of the CIO Transport Workers Union, 
said he came as a "representative of working people as well as from the New 
York City Council." Declaring he was proud to count Cacchione as "among my 
dearest friends in the council," he said, "Pete did not arise from the people; he 
arose with them." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 567 

"He died in the battle of the common man," Quill asserted. Upon the an- 
nouncement of Cacchione's sudden death, Quill said the people looked as they 
did the "day after the announcement of Franklin D. Roosevelt's death" — as they 
looked after the announcement of the deaths of Sidney Hillman and Fiorello 
LaGuardia. 

Gilbert Green, Illinois Communist chairman, representing the national board, 
said Cacchione fell in the struggle as "a soldier in the cause of human freedom." 
He vowed on behalf of Cacchione's comrades in the Communist Party to take 
"the banner from his hands" to realize Cacchione's dream of a world free from 
exploitation, a world of happy children, a world of security and peace." 

PART OF THE PEOPLE 

Robert Thompson said Cacchione was "so much a part of his people, the work- 
ing people, that nothing could touch them without touching him." He was "a 
fighter of a particular kind, a Communist, Marxist fighter." 

"Long after Pete's young son is grown to manhood," Thompson went on, "Pete 
will be known not just as a people's soldier, but as a soldier of the future, a soldier 
of socialism." 

Mills said that labor will "miss Peter Cacchione as we have missed and shall 
miss Franklin D. Roosevelt, Hillman, and LaGuardia." Ruth Young recalled 
the help Cacchione had given in the beginning of her union as well as of other 
unions. 

While mourners continued to move past the casket, and between the brief 
addresses. Miss Lucy Brown played quietly on a piano offstage. Norman 
Atkins sang the working class song favorites of Pete: Joe Hill, Peat Bog Soldier 
and others. Many in the audience nodded to the words of the last song, Beloved 
Comrade — "beloved comrade, rest * * * the fight will go on * * * our work 
will just begin * * * our fight will go on until we win." 

BORNE TO HEARSE 

When the speakers concluded the coffin was borne out to the waiting hearse. 
Included among the honorary pallbearers were Eugene Dennis, William Z. 
Foster, Henry Winston — all leaders of Pete's party. 

The procession to Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, N. Y., stretched out for a 
mile, including more than 100 cars. Winston delivered the parting words at the 
windy knoll where the coffin was lowered to its last resting place. 

"We are confident, as you were, dear Pete, in ultimate victory. * * * Sleep 
well, dear Peter. * * * We will carry out your heritage." 

The hundreds at the grave tossed flowers as the coffin was slowly let down. 
Tearful men and women moved off reluctantly. The gray autumn twilight 
descended and a cold breeze shook a few lingering brown leaves from nearly bare 
trees. 



[Daily Worker, New York, September 28, 1940] 

Exhibit No. 195 
CIO Council Supports Stand of Rochester Pro-Lewis Delegates 

COUNCIL ALSO ACTS TO SAFEGUARD INTERESTS OF UNION DRAFTEES AND FAMILIES; 
TO ASK LEWIS PROBE STATE CIO SETUP 

The Greater New York Industrial Union Council meeting at the Hotel Diplo- 
mat, Thursday night, approved unanimously the stand of the pro-Lewis delegates 
at the Rochester "convention" of the State CIO, after hearing a report of the 
steamroller methods employed there by the followers of Sidney Hillman. 

The report was given by Saul Mills, the council's secretary-treasurer and 
delegate. 

The unanimity at the Greater New York Council stood out in bold contrast 
to the situation the Hillmanites caused at Rochester. The credentials committee 
reported that the council's affiliates now number 132 locals and joint boards. 
Those locals range in memberships of from several hundred to over 50,000 in 
the transport local. 

At the same meeting the New York Council took action on several other fronts 
stressing its determination to safeguard the interests of the workers in the present 
war drive. It voted as follows: 



568 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TO AID DRAFTEES 

(1) To instruct the executive board to formulate a program designed to assist 
the unions to safeguard the interests of their drafted members and the families 
they leave behind, against job loss, discrimination, eviction, dispossess, and other 
such possibilities. 

(2) Full support to the stand of John L. Lewis, who criticized a provision in a 
defense bill, carrying a fine of $10,000 and 3 years' imprisonment for sabotage on 
defense work, because it fails to exempt strikes. 

(3) Opposed legislation now bemg pressed for recruiting of so-called home 
guard units which it deemed as a potential weapon against labor. 

(4) Condemned as a bill aimed against labor a measure pending in Congress 
prohibiting employment of marine radio operators who are Communists or mem- 
bers of "foreign controlled organizations." 

(5) Declared full backing to workers of the Ford Instrument Co., Queens, 
manufactures of bomb sights for the Navy who voted to strike next Wednesday 
midnight if the firm persists in its refusal to grant concessions. 

CRITICIZES LAGUARDIA 

(6) Sharply criticized Mayor LaGuardia for his sweeping liquidation of the 
capital outlay budget by his appropriation of only $1 for city construction work 
next year. 

(7) Instructed its executive board to reach the city's community and civic 
organizations ^^ith a message informing each how the abandonment of all planned 
city construction will afi'ect the interests of their respective neighborhoods. 

The meeting also heard a report of James Lustig, chairman of the council's 
organization committee, in which he outlined a policy of giving chief attention 
to organizing workers of the utilities, shipbuilding plants and Western Union. 

There wasn't a voice among the more than 200 delegates present that even re- 
motely expressed support for the acts of the Hillmanites at Rochester. 

Delegates listened with rapt attention as Mills told of the events at Rochester 
in chronological order, to his figures on representation from the respective unions, 
to the undisputed evidence that the pro-Lewis group had nearly 100 delegates 
above those Hillman's high command rallied. 

CITES THE ISSUE 

John Santo, secretary-treasurer of the Transport Workers' Union, said in the 
discussion on Mills' report that the issue at Rochester was "if the CIO would be 
wrung into methods that have long been condemned in the labor movement — 
whether a president of an organization can do as he pleases or will the^rank and 
file have a say." 

Santo further told the council that Michael Quill, general president of the 
TWU, and other presidents of international unions are drawing up a petition to 
Lewis requesting that the CIO national executive board take up the New York 
State council situation. 

Mayor LaGuardia came in for sharp criticism during the discussion on the capi- 
tal outlay budget. Mary Ludile McGorky of the hospital workers gave an 
account of the appalling conditions in New York's cancer hospital and how hope, 
now shattered, was put upon a planned new cancer hospital. 



Exhibit No. 196 

[Daily Worker, New York, March 9, 1942, p. 3] 

City CIO Secretary Says Browder Should Be Free 

Saul Mills, executive secretary of the Greater New York Industrial Union 
Council, CIO, said yesterday there are many reasons why Earl Browder should 
be out of jail and one of these is that "in this period every anti-Fascist is needed 
in the fight against the Axis." 

Mr. Mills, one of the hundreds of prominent trade unionists who have sponsored 
the National Free Browder Congress, to be held in New York City March 28-29, 
told the Daily Worker: 

"The trade unions have long recognized that the imprisonment of Earl Browder 
was not a matter of 'technical crime' but an instance of political suppression." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 569 

The Greater New York CIO Council, representing a membership of 500,000 
workers and 250 local unions, recently unanimously petitioned President Roosevelt 
to extend executive clemency to Browder. 

"You cannot divorce the Browder case from the political party which he 
heads," Mr. Mills pointed out. "There is no question that Browder and those 
who are associated with him are a part of the united fighting front of freedom- 
loving peoples against the Axis. Browder's release would have an excellent 
effect generally. It would reassure many people as to the sincerity of the cause 
for which we are fighting and it would cement national unity. 

"Labor has and will continue to express itself on the Browder case, urging that 
the President release him from prison. The National Free Browder Congress 
should be widely supported. The principles upon which our Government was 
founded and which have fostered our tremendous growth are at stake." 



Exhibit No. 197 

[Dally Worker, New York, February i, 1942, p. 51 
CIO Leaders Push Drive To Aid Schappes Defense 

Joseph Curran, president of the National Maritime Union, Joseph P. Selly, 
president of the American Communications Association, and Ben Gold, president 
of the International Fur & Leather Workers of America, headed a list of CIO 
leaders who this week appealed for nationwide support to the defense of jNIorris 
U. Schappes. 

Schappes, under prison sentence as a result of the infamous Rapp-Coudert 
persecutions, is appealing his case to the appellate division of the first depart- 
ment. He was convicted of perjury but was granted a certificate of reasonable 
doubt and is out on $5,000 bail. 

Other CIO leaders who have urged support for the Schappes defense committee 
whose headquarters are at 13 Astor Place include Daniel Allen, secretary-treasurer 
of the New York district. State, County, and Municipal Workers of America; 
Anne Berenholz, organizer of local 16, America; Ted Cox, editor, Cleveland Union 
Leader; George Curran, field representative, Federation of Architects, Engineers, 
Chemists & Technicians; Ewart Guinier, president, New York district, SCMWA; 
Rockwell Kent, president. United American Artists. 

Jack Lawrenson, vice president. National Maritime Union; Clifford T. McAvoy, 
legislative representative, Greater New York Industrial Union Council; Howard 
McKenzie, vice president. National Maritime Union; William IVIichelson, man- 
ager, local 2, United Department Store Employees Union ; Saul INIills, 'secretary- 
treasurer, Greater New York Industrial Union Council. 

Frederick N. Myers, vice president, NMU; Samuel Nesin, president, local 104, 
United Retail and Wholesale Employees; Arthur Osman, vice president, United 
Retail, Wholesale, and Department Store Employees of America; Max Perlow, 
vice president, United Furniture Workers of America; Abraham Schenck, secre- 
tary-treasurer, local 15, Beauty Culturists Union; Ferdinand C. Smith, national 
secretary, NMU. 

John J. Stanley, secretary-treasurer, United Office and Professional Workers of 
America; M. Hedley Stone, national treasurer, NMU; Leon Straus, manager. Fur 
Floor & Shipping Clerks Union; Josephine Timms, secretary-treasurer, American 
Communications Association; and Ruth Young, membership activities director, 
district 4, United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America. 



Exhibit No. 198 

Saul Mills 

(A list of various activities of Saul Mills, compiled by the subcommittee staff 

from published documents) 

Signed telegram to President Roosevelt urging him to intercede in behalf of 
four imprisoned officials of the International Fur and Leather Workers Union 
(CIO). The four imprisoned men were Irving Potash, Joseph Winogradsky, 
John Vafiades, and Louis Hatchios (Daily Worker, Monday, Sept. 11, 1940, 
pp. 1 and 5) . 



570 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Listed as one of the CIO leaders who appealed for nationwide support to the 
defense of Morris U. Schappes (Schappes defense committee) (Daily Worker, 
Wednesday, Feb. 4, 1942, p. 5). 

Writer of statement in behalf of Earl Browder (Daily Worker, Mar. 9, 1942, 
p. 3). 

One of the demonstrators demanding the release of John Williamson, Gerhart 
Eisler, Charles Doyle, and Ferdinand Smith (the four hunger strikers) (Daily 
Worker, Friday, Mar. 5, 1948, p. 3). 

Listed as one of the CIO leaders who hailed the Daily Worker on its 20th 
anniversary in January 1944 (p. 61, Special Committee on Un-American Activities, 
78th Cong., 2d sess., report on the CIO Political Action Committee). 

Member Schappes defense committee ^ (p. 71, Special Committee on Un- 
American Activities, report, 78th Cong., 2d sess., CIO Political Action Com- 
mittee) . 

Assistant campaign director of the Hillman-Communist Committee for a United 
Labor Party. He "campaigned actively last November for the election of official 
Communist Party candidates for city council" 2 (p. 79, Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities, report, 78th Cong., 2d sess., ClO Political Action 
Committee) . 

Member Joint Committee for Trade Union Rights ^ (Daily Worker, Nov. 11, 
1940, pp. 1-5) (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report, 78t]i Cong., 
2d sess., p. 154, CIO Political Action Committee). 

National committee member Conference on Puerto Rico's Right to Freedom 
(testimony of Walter S. Steele, p. 134, July 21, 1947, before Committee on 
Un-American Activities). 

Sponsor, Civil Rights Congress; signer of statement in behalf of Communists 
Earl Browder, Morris U. Schappes, and Communists in the Armed Forces; 
opposes President Truman's loyalty program; supporter of the following Com- 
munist fronts: American Peace Mobilization, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee,^ Washington Committee for Democratic Action,^ Stage for Action." 
(p. 15, Report on Civil Rights Congress as a Communist Front Organization, 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 80th Cong. 1st sess., Sept. 2, 1947.) 

Member of initiating committee, Civil Rights Congress,^ April 13, 1946. His 
name is listed on a call "To Safeguard Civil, Labor, and Minority Riglits in New 
York" (call to be held April 13, 1946) (program, Civil Rights Congress, April 13, 
1946, p. 20, Report on ^ivil Rights Congress as a Communist-Front Organization, 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 80th Cong., 1st., Sept. 2, 1947). 

Sponsor of a call Urgent Summons to a Congress on Civil Rights (call to be held 
"in Detroit, April 27 and 28, 1946, to organize an offensive against the rising 
Fascist aggression in the United States"; p. 23, H. Rept, No. 1115, Civil Rights 
Congress as a Communist-Front Organization, Committee on Un-American 
Activities, 80th Cong., 1st sess., Sept. 2, 1947). 

Signed petition addressed to President Truman protesting the indictment of 12 
Communists (undated newspaper article) (Cvetic exhibit 31, opp. p. 2452, testi- 
mony of Mathew Cvetic, hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties, 81st Cong., 2d sess., Mar. 24, and 25, 1950). 

Sponsor of testimonial dinner in honor of Senator Claude Pepper tendered by the 
American Slav Congress » (program dated Sunday October 12, 1947, 6:30 p. m., 
Pennsylvania Hotel, New York, N. Y.; p. 106, Report on the American Slav 
Congress and Associated Organizations, Committee on Un-American Activites, 
June 26, 194 9). 

1 Cited as Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, released April 
27, 1949). 

2 The rightwing leaders of the American Labor Party, namely the State chairman and the State secretary 
(both of New York) included in their charges against Hillman the above (p. 79, Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities, report, 78th Cong., 2d sess., CIO Political Action Committee). 

3 Cited as a Communist front which, jointly with the International Labor Defense, supported and de- 
fended Communist Party leaders of the International Fur and Leather Workers Union when they were 
serving prison terms (Special Committee on Un-American Activities, report. Mar. 29, 1944, pp. 125 and 166) . 

* Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948). ^ -. ,^ t^ , t, ^ 

« Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948). 

« Cited as a Communist front (California Committee on Un-American activities, report, 1948, p. 392). 

' Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released December 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948). „,.,.. . t ,^ t, • -n a 

8 Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board, 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948). 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 571 

Sponsor, Schappes Defense Committee ^ (undated circular) (McMichael 
exhibit No. 37; p. 2793, hearings regarding Jack R. McMichael, Committee on 
Un-American Activities, 83d Cong., 1st sess., July 30-31, 1953). 

Sponsor of People's Institute of Applied Religion i" (letter dated January 1, 
1948). (McMichael exhibit No. 39, pt. 2, p. 2812, Hearings Regarding Jack R. 
McMichael, Committee on Un-American Activities, 83d Cong., 1st sess., July 30 
and 31, 1953.) Signed the January 1943 Message to the House of Representa- 
tives, opposing renewal of the Dies Committee (undated circular). (Oxnam 
exhibit No. 18, pt. 7, p. 3665, Testimony of Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam, Com- 
mittee On Un-American Activities, 83d Cong., 1st sess., July 21, 1953.) 

Senator Welker. The meeting is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 12:50 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned, subject 
to the call of the Chair.) 

9 Cited as Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letter to Loyalty Review Board, released April 27 
1949). 

i" Cited as subversive and Communist (Attorney General Tom Clark, letters to Loyalty Review Board 
released June 1, 1948, and September 21, 1948.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 28, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration 
OF THE Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2:35 p. m., in the 
caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator Arthur V. Watkins 
presiding. 

Present: Senator Watkins. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel. 

Senator Watkins. The committee ^\^ll come to order. 

The testimony wall bear on the subcommittee's study of the scope 
and nature of Soviet activities in the United States. 

The subcommittee is seeking to determine to what extent organiza- 
tions other than the Communist Party have been used in the United 
States by the Soviet Government. One of the witnesses will be 
Jessie Rubin Kaplan of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris, you may proceed with the testimony and call the 
witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the firstmtness will be Mrs. Jessie 
Rubin Kaplan. 

Before we begin the testimoii}- of this particular witness, I would 
like to introduce for the record, a certificate from Dr. Wolfgang 
Seligmann, who has advised the committee that the husband of the 
present witness, Harry Herman Kaplan, who appeared in executive 
session, testified he has been advised to lead a quiet life, free from 
worry and stress and anxiety. ^ 

And for that reason we have excused Mr. Kaplan from appearing 
in the open testimony here today. I might point out. Senator, that 
the purpose of asldng Mr. Harry Kaplan to testify was to ask him 
about the committee's information that when George Mink was 
arrested — George Mink is an important Soviet agent — -was arrested 
some years ago, he had in his possession the passport of Harry Kaplan, 
the first scheduled witness for today. 

We also wanted to ask Mr. Kaplan about the fact that Leon 
Josephson, at one time, was in possession of his passport. Now, when 

' The certificate above referred to reads as follows: 

New York, N. Y., March U, 1956. 
To BTiom It May Concern: 

Mr. Harry Kaplan, Brooklyn, N. Y., has been under my care since April 1955 for arteriosclerotic heart 
disease and angina pectoris. His first attacli of angina pectoris was in January 1955. 
EGG taken in April 1955 showed negative T-waves in leads 1, V-5, V-6, and AVL. (No digitalis.) 
To safeguard Mr. Kaplan's health it is imperative that he lead a quiet life, free from worry, stress, and 
anxiety. 

WOLFOANO SELinMANN, M. D. 

573 



574 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Kaplan appeared in executive session today, and was asked about 
this particular committee information, he invoked his privilege under 
the fifth amendment rather than answer these questions. 

However, in view of the fact that the doctor did indicate that he 
would be better off not appearing in pubhc testimony, and since that 
was the nature and extent of the success we had with the witness, the 
acting chairman at that time excused him for further open testimony. 

Senator Watkins. You may proceed. 

Mr. Rand.^ Senator, may I ask that the photographers be directed 
not to take any photographs during the testimony of the witness? 

Senator Watkins. The request has been made by counsel for the 
witness that no photographs be taken. Gentlemen, I want you to 
comply with that request. That is the order of the committee. 

You said "while testifying?" 

Mr, Rand. I would like no pictures taken at all, but I know these 
gentlemen have a job to do. But if it is possible I would like that no 
photographs be taken of the witness. 

Senator Watkins. As I understand the rule — I haven't been here 
all the time — but as I understand the rule, it is during the time they 
are testifying that the order goes. That is the way I interpreted it, 
and there will be no pictures permitted during the time she is testifying. 

Mr. Rand. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. You are the wife of Harry Kaplan, are you not? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And Harry Kaplan is, today, a real-estate man in 
New York City? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And for some years he was a businessman in Trenton, 
N.J? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And, to yom' knowledge, he testified in executive ses- 
sion today, did he not? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, j^ou were his counsel today? 

Mr. Rand. I appeared as his attorney. 

Mr. Morris. You know he has been excused from testifjdng here 
today? 

Mr. Rand. I have been so informed. 

Mr. Morris. Have you sworn the witness? 

Senator Watkins. I have not sworn the witness for open testimony. 
Please stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony that you are going to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JESSIE RUBIN KAPLAN 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your address to the reporter? 

Mrs. Kaplan. 1345 East Fourth Street, Brooklyn. ^ 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation now, Mrs. Kaplan? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Housewife. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born? 



s Harry I. Rand, Wyatt Bldg. JVashlngton, D. O., Oouusel for Mrs. Kaplan. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 575 

Mrs. Kaplan. Poland. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mrs. Kaplan. 1906. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did you come to the United States? 

Mrs. Kaplan. In 1922. 

Mr. Morris. When did you become a citizen of the United States? 

Mrs. Kaplan. 1928. 

Mr. Morris. 1928? 

Mrs. Kaplan. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Will you speak up just a little. 

Mrs. Kaplan. 1928. 

Mr. Morris. Noav, you attended the Columbia School of Journal- 
ism in 1925, did you not? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Not regularly; just as an extension student. 

Mr. Morris. Extension coiu-ses? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. "Wliat was the extent of your education there at Co- 
lumbia School of Journalism? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Just English. 

Mr. Morris. For what period of time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I don't remember, 1 or 2 semesters. I can not recol- 
lect at this point. 

Mr. Morris. Weren't you there off and on from 1925 to 1930? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Perhaps, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Then you were there for more than one semester? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes, off and on. I never finished; never finished a 
term. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat other schools have you attended, Mrs. Kaplan? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I was educated in the old country, the girls' school. 

Mr. Morris. In what schools? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I was educated in the old country in a girls' school. 

Mr. Morris. In Poland? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any other education here in the United 
States? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Business school. 

Mr. Morris. What business school was that? 

Mrs. Kaplan. It was in the Bronx. 

Mr, Morris. What was the name of it? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I can't recall at this point. It was a secretarial 
school. 

Mr. Morris. You can't remember the name of the secretarial 
school? 

Mrs. Kaplan. It has been many years ago, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you go to the Soviet Union in 1931? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances surrounding your 
visit to the Soviet Union in 1931? 

Mrs. Kaplan. My job with the Amtorg terminated. 

Mr. Morris. You first worked for Amtorg Trading Corp.? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What was the Amtorg Trading Corp., Mrs. Kaplan? 

Mrs. Kaplan. It was a purchasing agency. 



576 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. It was the purchasing agency of the Soviet Govern- 
ment, was it not? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No, it was an American corporation, incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New York. 

Mr. Morris. But it was the official, or officially registered pur- 
chasing agent for the Soviet Government, was it not? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I don't know how it was registered. 

Mr. Morris. When did you first take up employment with Amtorg 
Trading Corp.? 

Mrs. Kaplan. In 1930. 

Mr. Morris. In 1930. What was the nature of your job with 
Amtorg Trading Corp.? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Secretary. 
y Mr. Morris. Will you describe your duties with that corporation? 
^' Mrs. Kaplan. Secretary and translator — translating orders which 
were to be placed with American concerns. 

Mr. Morris. How did you get the job with Amtorg? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Through the newspapers. 

Mr. Morris. Through the newspapers? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You just applied to the Amtorg Trading Corp. and 
received a job with Amtorg? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Not immediately. I applied and filled out a form 
and they told me they would let me know. They caUed me about — 
probably 6 months passed before they called me. 

Mr. Morris. At that time were you a Communist? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long did you work for Amtorg, con- 
tinuously? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Two years, before I went to Poland. 

Mr. Morris. Two years before you went abroad. When did you 
go abroad? 

Mrs. Kaplan. In 1931. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the purpose of your trip abroad? 

Mrs. Kaplan. My job was over, and they said if I wanted another 
one I could work in the Amtorg office in Moscow. That was when the 
Economic Review was being made up. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in other words, you went to Moscow in order to 
work for the Economic Review, which is an Amtorg Trading Corp. 
publication? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you went there in late 1931? 

Mrs. Kaplan. November or December. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe what your duties were with the 
Amtorg Trading Corp. in Moscow after you arrived there subsequent 
to November or December of 1931? 

Mrs. Kaplan. We compiled economic data, put it together and 
sent it to New York, where the magazine was published. 

Mr. Morris. At that time were you a Communist? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Beg pardon? 

Mr. Morris. At that time were you a Communist? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. Morris. You had access to many Soviet files, did you not, at 
that time? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 577 

Mrs. Kaplan. Newspapers only. 

Mr. Morris. Only newspapers? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Newspapers and magazines. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you stay working for the Economic 
Review? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Till about— through 1932; tlirough 1932. 

Mr. Morris. Who paid you for that work? 

Mrs. Kaplan. The Amtorg. 

Mr. Morris. You were paid regularly by check or cash? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No, in Russian currency. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, in cash? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And then did you work for the Moscow Daily News? 

Mrs. Kaplan. The Moscow Daily News, at that time was just 
organized, and I did not have a regular job there. 

Mr. Morris. Did you subsequently get a regular job with the 
Moscow Daily News? 

Mrs. Kaplan. In 1934. 

Mr. Morris. Had you been in Moscow continuously in 1934, or 
had you come back to the United States? 

IMrs. Kaplan. I came back to the United States. 

Mr. Morris. Who paid the travel expenses? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I had a return ticket when I left. 

Mr. Morris. Who paid for those expenses? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I did. 

Mr. Morris. You, personally, did? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes; I bought a round-trip ticket. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I bought a round-trip ticket when I went. 

Mr. Morris. Now, didn't the Amtorg Trading Corp. pay 3^our 
expenses? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No; they just told me I could have a job. 

Mr. Morris. What salary were you drawing at that time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. In New York I was getting $150 or $175— $150 a 
month. 

Mr. Morris. In 1931? 

Mrs. Kaplan. 1930 and 1931. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us if you worked with the Moscow 
Daily News? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I did, in 1934. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about your work with that paper? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes, I was a reporter. 

Mr. Morris. You were a reporter, and you worked in Moscow? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. jMorris. Tell us how 3'ou operated. 

Mrs. Kaplan. I used to get assigmnents from the cit}^ editor. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us who the city editor was. 

Mrs. Kaplan. It was a Russian Nationalist. 

Mr. AIorris. Do you remember his name? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I can't. It was 25 jeaTs ago. 

Mr. Morris. I am sure many of the newspapermen today could 
remember their city editors 25 years ago. 

Mrs. Kaplan. Then they are better qualified than I am. 

Mr. Morris. You cannot teU us who your city editor was? 



578 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Kaplan. It was a Russian Nationalist. I am trying to think 
of his name. KaUsh, or Karhsh, a name similar to that. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Kaplan, the Internal Security Subcommittee is 
trying to determine how some of these Soviet publications, some of 
these corporations and Soviet agencies operate with respect to the 
United States, and with respect to American citizens. 

Now, you were then an American citizen working in Moscow and we 
are trying to determine, or one of the things we are trying to do is 
determine how the Moscow Daily News, operated at that time. I 
wonder if you would describe briefly the general nature of your assign- 
ments and how 3^ou carried them out. 

Mrs. Kaplan. In the morning I would report to the city editor and 
he would give me an assignment. It was never the same from day to 
day. 

Mr. Morris. Where would you go on your assignments? Would 
you go out of the city of Moscow? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No, within the city of Moscow, only. 

Mr. Morris. Were you restricted in any way on your beat? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No, because I could not go anywhere I wasn't sent. 
I could only go to the spot where the story was taking place. For 
that I had to be identified by the newspaper. 

Mr. Morris. And would you have occasion to show yom' credentials 
in connection with your assignments? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Oh, yes. One could not get into a plant or office 
without showing a press card. 

Mr. Morris. And your press card, which was given by the Moscow 
Daily News, did enable you to get in these various plants concerning 
the stories which you were sent on? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us a little more about your assignments? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Well, they varied from day to day. Sometimes I 
would be sent to a plant, or women's activity, or somebody broke a 
production record, depending on what the story was. In my job, my 
contract called for thi-ee-quarters of a column a day. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you continue working for the 
Moscow Daily News? 

Mrs. Kaplan. From April 1934 to approxhnately November 1936. 

Mr. Morris. November, 1936. And during that period of time 
you were paid regularly by the Moscow Daily News? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Can you remember what your salary was? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Well, it was piecework. 

Mr. Morris. Piecework? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes, by the column. 

Mr. Morris. How much did you, on an average, draw from the 
paper, Moscow Daily News? 

Mrs. Kaplan. About 1,200 rubles a month. 

Mr. Morris. What is the dollar equivalent of that? 

Mrs. Kaplan. We never translated it into dollars because it was 
an internal currency which had no value outside. 

Mr. Morris. And, on 1,200 rubles a month you were able to live 
comfortably? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Foreigners had special food rations. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you live, what was your address? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 579 

Mrs. Kaplan. My address was 11 Theatre Square. 

Mr. Morris. What kind of residence did you have? Was it a 
private apartment or did you share it with other people? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I just had a httle room; not an apartment. 

Mr. Morris. Was this room part of a large apartment? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No, it was a little separate room with kitchen facili- 
ties; that was all. 

Mr. Morris. And you didn't share quarters at any time with any 
Soviet citizens? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I don't know who they were. 

Mr. Morris. And for the most part you associated with Soviet 
citizens at that time, did you not? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Were there any Americans that you were associated 
with at that time in Moscow in 1936? 

Mrs. Kaplan. The only ones were those on the newspapers, only 
the ones that worked on the Moscow News. 

Mr. Morris. What other Americans were working on the Moscow 
News then? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Anna Louise Strong. 

Mr. Morris. Was a woman named Julia Ossabaser working there 
at that time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. There might have been. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Julia Ossabaser? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I know the name. 

JMr. Morris. You didn't know her in Moscow? 

Mi-s. Kaplan. There were two newspapers, Mr. Morris, the daily 
and weekly. I was on the daily and they were two separate staffs. 

Mr. Morris. Who were some of the other Americans that worked 
with you at that time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Lucy Knox. 

Air. Morris. Lucy Knox? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Any others? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Stolar. 

Air. AioRRis. Is that the first name or last? 

Mrs. Kaplan. That is a last name. 

Mr. AloRRis. You don't know the first name? 

Airs. Kaplan. I don't remember; she was a girl. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Were there any other Americans that you can think 
of? 

Airs. Kaplan. I would have to think very hard. 

Air. Morris. Did you work for the Paris Soir? 

Airs. Kaplan. Not du^ectly for the Paris Soir. While I was on the 
Amtorg staff they had an office ther^ the same as New York Times and 
other papers. Their man there didn't know the Russian language 
and he used to come into the Amtorg office and borrow my newspaper 
chppings. 

Air. AIoRRis. Who was he? 

Mrs. Kaplan. A Frenchman. 

Mr, Morris. What was his name? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I don't know; that was in 1932. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do for the Paris Soir? I mean 
what work did you do? 



580 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Kaplan. My job was simply to give him the dippings from 
the Russian press. 

Mr. Morris. Then you returned to the United States in what 
year? 

Mrs. Kaplan. In 1936, Chi'istmas of 1936. 

Mr. Morris. And did you then return to working with the Amtorg 
Trading Corp.? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No, I tried to get a job and stay permanently, but I 
wasn't very successful. 

Mr. Morris. Then what did you do? 

Mrs. Kaplan. So I went back. 

Mr. Morris. Went back to Moscow? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you work when you returned? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Moscow News. 

Mr. Morris. Again for the Moscow Daily News? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I had a contract with them until the end of 1937. 
So, I made that provision that if I came back they would take me back. 

Mr. Morris. Then what did you do after that? 

Mrs. Kaplan. After that they closed the paper and told all the 
foreigners to go home. 

Mr. Morris. You returned to the United States? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. AloRRis. That was in 1937 and 1938? 

Mrs. Kaplan. 1937. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do then in the United States in 1937? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I Avas unemployed. 

Mr. Morris. For how long? 

Mrs. Kaplan. For a very long time; I didn't get a job until 
September or October of 1938. 

Mr. Morris. That was with the Amtorg Trading Corp. again? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes, I went back there because no one else would 
have me. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do at Amtorg Trading Corp.? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I was a translator. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat were you translating? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Russian specifications into English for placing orders 
with American manufacturers. Catalogs and such materials. 

Mr. Morris. You worked with them from 1938 to 1942? 

Mrs. Kaplan. They transferred me to the commission after that. 

Mr. Morris. In April of 1942, to January of 1943, you took up 
employment with the Soviet Pm-cbasing Commission with the com- 
mission in Washington? 

Mrs. Kaplan. April of 1942 to December 20, 1942. 

Mr. Morris. What was the natm-e of your work with the Soviet 
Purchasing Commission? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Same as in the Amtorg, translating technical terms, 
and general office work primarily. At that time, lend-lease. 

Mr. Morris. Lend-lease? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Well, that was the commission's function. 

Mr. Morris. Now, during this period of time were you a member 
of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 581 

Mr. Morris. Were you meeting with people whom you knew to be 
Communists? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I did not know of anyone who was a Communist, 
and the Amtorg made it very clear that they did not want anybody 
with any political ideas or affiliations in their organization. That was 
a policy rule. 

Air. Morris. In other words, it was the policy of the Soviet Pm-- 
chasing Commission, as it w^as with the Amtorg Trading Corp., they 
didn't want people joining organizations such as the Communist 
organization? 

Mrs. Kaplax. They don't want anybody who ever had any connec- 
tion. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you meet Herman Kaplan? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I met Mr. Kaplan New" Year's Eve, 1950. 

Mr. Morris. Oh, I see. That was on the eve of 1950? 

Mrs. Kaplan. It was a New Year's Eve party. 

Mr. Morris. Was it 1951 about to come in, or 1950? 

Mrs. Kaplan. 1950 was about to come in. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you worked for the American Red Cross, did 
you not, from March of 1943 to February of 1944? 

Mrs. Kaplan. That is correct. 

Mr. AIoRRis. And then what was your next employment after the 
Red Cross? 

Mrs. Kaplan. The FCC. 

Mr. Morris. The FCC? Tell us about that job? You say the 
FBIS, Foreign Broadcasting Intelligence Service comes under the 
Federal Communications Commission? 

Mrs. Kaplan. It was at that time. Editorial. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us what it was though, precisely what did you do 
and also tell us what the Foreign Broadcastmg Intelligence Service 
was? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I don't know too much about its functions. 

Mr. Rand. I don't know whether there is any security aspect to this 
work that Mrs. Kapalan did at that time, but I would like, if Mrs. 
Kaplan is to proceed, I would lilve her to proceed with the under- 
standing these proceedmgs, in response to inquiries by the Committee, 
and to that extent is permitted, perhaps, to violate some of the 
security regulations to which she may have been subject at the time. 

I don't know whether your inquiries may elicit some security 
information. 

Mr. Morris. I thmk, counsel, it should be apparent from the 
fact there is a question and answer colloquy going on here that the 
committee m asking the question assumes the responsibility, if any 
answers are elicited from her. 

Mr. Rand. All right; fine. I appreciate that. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us what the Foreign Broadcasting Intelligence 
Service was and what your particular role was in it? 

Mrs. Kaplan. My particular job was to edit copy and expand it 
into proper English. 

Mr. Morris. Where did the copies come from? 

Mrs. Kaplan. We used to get them from the chief of the section. 

Mr. Morris. Of the FBIS? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Chief of the specific section in which I worked. 

Mr. Morris. What was your section? 

72723—56 — pt. 11 7 



582 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Kaplan. My section was the eastern Eui'opean, and then it 
was German section. I was switched around; filled in wherever there 
was a gap. 

Mr. Morris. Now, your testimony here today is that you received 
the copy from the editor of the section to which you were assigned? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr, Morris. In one case, the Eastern European section? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Once, yes. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do with that copy after you received it? 

Mrs, Kaplan. I read it for content and then edited it; put a head 
on it; step by step description; passed it to the copy desk for stock and 
then to the editor in chief and my functions ended there. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you do that work? 

Mrs. Kaplan. About 2 years or so. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was the FBIS under the FCC all during that 
period? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I believe it was, until the end of the war. 

Mr. Morris. Until the end of the war? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Or D-Day. 

Mr. Morris, What happened after VE-Day? Or after the war? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Someone took it over; I don't know who. 

Mr. Morris. Was it the Central Intelligence Group, CIG? 

Mrs. Kaplan. That was at the end of my employment when they 
took it over. 

Mr. Morris. I see. CIG took over the FBIS? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. They took it over. I did not work too long. 
I was suspended in April. 

Mr. Morris. You were suspended by whom, the Central Intelli- 
gence Agency? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. The CIG is the predecessor of the CIA? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I believe so. 

Mr. Morris, You were suspended by the CIG? 

Mrs. Kaplan, I don't know who the principal suspender was, 

Mr, Morris, What have you done since that time? 

Mrs, Kaplan, Oh, I was out of a job for a long time. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I wonder if you would tell us, Mrs. Kaplan, if 
you knew a man named Mark Lulinsky, in approximately 1942? 

Mr. Rand. If I may interrupt again, I believe Mrs. Kaplan did 
not give a complete answer to the last question, what had she done 
since that time. Mrs. Kaplan testified she was out of a job, but she 
has held employment since then. 

Mrs. Kaplan. With the United Nations. In the year of 1948 I 
worked for the United Nations. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I was an information officer. 

Mr. Morris. Under what section did that come? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Under Children's Appeal. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you do that work? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Just the 1 year. 

Mr. Morris. What other employment have you held? 

Mrs. Kaplan. After that I had no employment. 

Mr. Morris. And you married Mr. Kaplan in 1950? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 583 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you kiiow Mr. Leon Josephson at any time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. Morris. You never met Mr. Josephson? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. Morris. You ever meet George Mink at any time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. George Mink? Never. 

Mr. Morris. Who was Mark Luhnsky? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I used Mr. LuHnsky's name as a reference on em- 
ployment apphcations. 

Mr. Morris. You knew him? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes, I knew him through Amtorg. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work at Amtorg the same time he did? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I beUeve he sold goods to the Amtorg. 

Mr. Morris, Did you have occasion to meet him from time to 
time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony you did not meet him from time 
to time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. While I was working for the Amtorg I saw hun 
around. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you, for instance, have lunch with him from 

time to time? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I might have; I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Might have, but you don't know? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I don't remember, Mr. Morris. It has been a long 
time. I haven't seen Mr. Lulinsky in many years. 

Mr. Morris. When did you last speak with him? 

Mrs. Kaplan. About 6 or 7 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony you cannot recall having 
lunch with Mr. Lulinsky? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I might have. 

Mr. Morris. You cannot recall what conversations and what the 
nature of the discussions were at the luncheons? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Probably about business, and everything else. 

Mr. Morris. Probably about business? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Because he sold goods to the Commission. 

Mr. Morris. Well now, did you ever work for Michael Borodin? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Not dhectly. Mr. Borodin was a head of the 
Moscow Daily News. 

Mr, Morris. And you worked under him as a reporter? 

Mrs, Kaplan, Well, so far as he had the news, 

Mr, Morris, Now, we have testimony about a man named Gaik 
Ovaldmian. 

Mrs, Kaplan, Yes, 

Mr. Morris. Our testimony, Mr, Chairman, was that Gaik 
Ovaldmian was chief resident agent of the Soviet Secret Police in the 
United States, 

Now, did you ever meet Gaik Ovaldmian? 

Mrs. Kaplan, I worked for him, 

Mr. Morris. What work did you do? 

Mrs. Kaplan, Translating, 

Mr. Morris. What was his job at that time? 



584 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Kaplan. His job in Amtorg was as representative of the 
chemical industries. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are you acquainted with the testimony — we 
liad testimony that Mr. Ovaldmian was cliief resident agent of the 
secret police in the United States. 

Mrs. Kaplan. That, 1 don't know. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of your association with Mr. 
Ovaldmian? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I was his translator. I would buy his magazines 
for him. I used to deliver his translated material back to him. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And how often would you see Air. Ovakimian? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Whenever he wanted something. 

Mr. Morris. In the regular course of your business? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. As a piece of work was finished, I would 
deliver it to him if he called and asked me to deliver it to him. 

Mr. Morris. You were then being paid by the Soviet Amtorg Corp.? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. He, as yom- superior in the Amtorg Corp., could give 
you various assignments to perform, and you, as an employee of the 
Amtorg Trading Corp., natiu-ally carried out his every assignment? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Correct. 

Mr. Morris. And did you have any reason to believe at that time 
he was the chief resident agent of the Soviet Secret Police in the 
United States? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I had no reason to believe or suspect any such thing. 

Mr. Morris. So, it is your testimony, if you did things for 
Ovakimian, you did it without knowledge that he was chief resident 
agent of the Soviet Secret Police in the United States? 

Mrs. Kaplan. I'm sorry. 

Mr. Morris. I didn't mean to go too fast. If you carried out 
assignments for Mr. Ovakimian, you carried out these assignments 
for Ovaldmian without the knowledge that he was the chief resident 
agent of the Soviet Secret Police in the United States, if that was 
a fact? 

Mrs. Kaplan. Yes; my assignments consisted of translating articles 
from magazmes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet a man named Mark Zborowsky? 

Mrs. Kaplan. The name doesn't mean anything to me. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony you never met Mr. Leon 
Josephson? 

Mrs. Kaplan. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chakman, I have no other questions. 

Mr. Rand, in the event we may have to take further testimony, 
will you stipulate on the record that a phone call to you will be all 
that will be necessary to have the witness appear again? 

Mr. Rand. Certainly, but I would like a few days notice because 
the witnesses do live in New York. 

Mr. Morris. Yes; it may not be necessarj^ 

Senator Watkins. With that understandmg, the committee will be 
in recess. And if you are needed j^ou will be called according to the 
arrangements made by comisel. 

Mr. Morris. May it say the relationship prevails with respect to 
your other client, Harry Kaplan? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 585 

Mr. Rand. Yes, except that I do trust, Mr. Senator, it will be un- 
necessary to call Mr. Kaplan back in view of his health condition. 

Mr. Morris. We realize that, but the content of the mterrogation 
at the hearing you attended was important as far as the committee 
was concerned. 

Mr. Rand. Yes, and the same stipulation will be made of record. 

Senator Watkins. Committee wiU be in recess, subject to the call 
of the chairman. 

(Whereupon, at 3:10 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

American/s 528, 529, 579 

American Broadcasting Co 498, 499, 520 

American-China 562 

American-Chinese Export Corp., The 561 

American citizen 578 

American correspondent 532, 549 

American Export Corp. — Chinese- American Export Corp 561 

American Federation of Musicians 550 

American fliers 529 

American Friends Service Committee 532 

American Red Cross 581 

Amtorg Trading Corp 575-577, 579-581, 583, 584 

AP 550 

Appendix I — Statement by Herman Liveright 510-513 

Army, United States 517, 518, 547, 548 

Asian-Pacific Peace Conference 52&-528, 531, 532 

B 

Berry, Lewis E., Jr 518 

Boni, Albert 500 

Boni Bros 500 

Boni, Charles 500 

Borodin, Michael 583 

Boston, Mass 516 

British-Indian newspaper 53 1 

Bronx 575 

Brooklyn Eagle 550 

Brooklyn, N. Y 573 

Browder Earl 556, 557 

Burton, Bernard 565 

c 

Cacchione, Peter V 565-567 

Cammer, Harold, 9 East 40th Street, New York, attorney for Saul Mills. _ 550 

Cartoons from China Weekly Review 523-525 

Cathay Hotel, Shanghai 561 

Central Intelligence Agency, CIA 582 

Central Intelligence Group, CIG 582 

Cerney, Edwin 530, 531 

Cerney, Isabel 528, 530, 531 

Chiang Kai-shek 519, 520 

Chi Chao-Ting 548 

Chicago 544-546 

Chicago Sun-Times 520 

Children's Appeal 582 

China 519, 533, 541, 543 

China Monthly Review 520-522, 528 

Founded by an American in China in Shanghai in 1917 520 

China Press _ _. .._ _ __ _ 520 

China Trade, The 539-541 

China Weekly Review 520 



n INDEX 

Page 

Chinese 518, 519, 526, 528, 531, 541, 542 

Chinese Communist 519, 548, 555 

Chinese trade unionists 555 

CIO (Congress of Industrial Organizations) 550, 551, 555-560, 562 

CIO Council Supports Stand of Rochester Pro-Lewis Delegates 567-568 

CIO Industrial Union Council 556 

CIO Leaders Push Drive To Aid Schappes Defense 569 

Citv CIO Secretary Says Browder Should Be Free 568-569 

City College 548 

City News Association 550 

College of City of New York 517 

Columbia Opera Company 503 

Columbia School of Journalism 575 

Communist GI's Make Good Impression 531-532 

Communist/s 497, 503, 505, 507, 520, 541, 543, 547, 548, 561, 562, 576, 581 

Communist Party 497, 503-508, 543, 547, 555, 556, 558, 562, 563, 573, 580 

Communist Party of New York City 503, 504 

Congress of the United States 516 

D 

Daily Worker, 35 East 12th Street, New York 508, 555, 556, 558-560 

D-day 582 

Denver 544-546 

Denver Post 520, 545, 549 

Dr. G 548 

Dodd, Bella V 563 

Doyle, Charles 559, 560 

Drucker, David 562 

E 

Eastern European section 582 

Eastland, Senator James O 497 

Economic Review 576, 577 

Eisler, Gerhardt 559 

Eleven Communist leaders 543 

Ellis Island 559 

Exhibit No. 181— U. S. Marxists and Soviet Self-Criticism., by Alan Max, 

from Daily Worker, New York, Tuesday March 13, 1956 509, 510 

Exhibit No. 182 — Letter, August 30, 1954, from Department of Army to 

Hon. William E. Jenner re record of Julian Schuman 517, 518 

Exhibit No. 183 — Summary of contributions of Julian Schuman to China 

Monthly Review, December 1950- June 1953 521 

Exhibit No. 184 — Letter March 16, 1956, from Justice Department to 

Robert C. McManus re Schuman, author of various articles of 1953 

issues, China Monthly Review 521-522 

Exhibit No. 185 — Chinese Cartoonists Look at Mac Arthur and Korea, 

from China Monthly Review, May 1951 523 

Exhibit No. 185- A — Cartoons of the Month, October 1950, page 62, China 

Weekly Review 524 

Exhibit No. 185-B — Cartoons of the Month, December 1950, page 146, 

China Weekly Review 525 

Exhibit No. 186 — Picture (Schuman) Peking station during Asian-Pacific 

Peace Conference 527 

Exhibit No. 187— (Chicago Sun-Times, May 29, 1949) Communist GI's 

Make Good Impression bv Julian Schuman 531, 532 

Exhibit No. 188 — (New World Review, January 1953), Old and New 

Merge in China by Julian Schvmian 533-535 

Exhibit No. 188- A— (New World Review, March 1953) A Private Business- 
man in the New China b v Julian Schuman 536-539 

Exhibit No. 188-B— (The Nation, September 11, 1954, p. 213) The China 

Trade by Julian Schuman 539-54 1 

Exhibit No. 189— Letter, October 26, 1954, from Randall Gould, Denver 

Post, to Benjamin Mandel re articles contributed bv Julian Schuman. _ 549 
Exhibit No. 190— (The New York Times, November 21, 1948) New York 

Council Expelled by CIO as Slavish to Reds by Lawrence E. Davies__ 552-554 



INDEX m 

Exhibit No. 191— (Daily Worker, New York, March 8, 1948) 10,000 in Page 

N^Demonstration Demand Freedom for Four by Louis Mitchell 559-560 

Exhibit No. 192 — House Committee on Un-American Activities Report 

on the CIO Political Action Committee, March 29, 1944, Saul Mills. _ 563-564 
Exhibit No. 193— (The Worker, New York, February 7, 1943, p. 5) Here's 

Looking at Saul Mills 564-565 

Exhibit No. 194— (Daily Worker, New York, November 10, 1947, p. 3) 

12,000 Bid Farewell to Peter V. Cacchione by Bernard Burton 565-567 

Exhibit No. 195— (Daily Worker, New York, 'September 28, 1940) CIO 

Council Supports Stand of Rochester Pro-Lewis Delegates 567-568 

Exhibit No. 196— (Daily Worker, New York, March 9, 1942, p. 3) City 

CIO Secretary Savs Browder Should Be Free 568-569 

Exhibit No. 197— (Daily Worker, New York, February 4, 1942, p. 5) CIO 

Leaders Push Drive To Aid Schappes Defense 569 

Exhibit No. 198 — Saul Mills (a list of various activities of Saul Mills 

compiled by subcommittee staff from published documents) 569-571 

Experimental College, University of Wisconsin 503 

F 

Faulkner, Stanley (attorney for Schuman) 515 

FCC (Federal Communications Commission) 581,582 

Field, Frederick V 562 

Fifth amendment 545, 548 

FBIS (Foreign Broadcasting Intelligence Service) 581, 582 

G 

Gaer, Joseph 499, 500 

Gaer, Joseph, Associates of New York 499 

Gen. Li Tsung-yen 549 

German section 582 

Germ warfare 529 

Gladstein, Mr 543 

Gould, RandaU 549 

Greater New York Industrial Union Council 550, 551, 557, 558, 560 

H 

Harvard University 519 

Hawaii 519 

Haywood, Alan 558 

Here's Looking at Saul Mills 564-565 

Hinton, Joan 530 

Hinton, William 526, 528, 548, 549 

Hong Kong 561 

Honig, Charles 562 

House Committee on Un-American Activities Report on CIO Political 

Action Committee, March 29, 1944— Saul Mills 563-564 

I 

Internal Security Act of 1950 _.- 497, 504 

Internal Security Subcommittee 515 

Is There a United States China Market? 532 

J 

Jenner, Senator William E 517 

Josephson, Leon 573, 583, 584 

Journal American 558 

Justice, Department of 497, 521 

K 
Kabritz, Henry 561 

Kaplan, Harry Herman, real-estate man in New York City, for some years 

businessman in Trenton, N. J 573, 581, 584, 585 

Testified in executive session 574 



IV INDEX 

Kaplan, Jessie Rubin: Page 

Testimony of 573-585 

1345 East Fourth Street, Brooklyn 574 

Wife of Harry Kaplan 574 

Harry I. Rand, her counsel 574 

Born in Poland in 1906 575 

1922 came to United States 575 

1928 became United States citizen 575 

1925 attended extension courses Columbia School of Journalism 575 

Educated in girls school in Poland 575 

Attended business school in Bronx 575 

Worked for Amtorg Trading Corp., 1930 575 

1931 went to Moscow to work for Economic Review, Amtorg Trading 

Corp. publication 576 

1934-36 worked for Moscow Daily News 577 

Lived at 11 Theatre Square, Moscow 579 

Christmas 1936 returned to United States 580 

Returned to Moscow and worked for Moscow News 580 

1937 returned to United States 580 

1938 went with Amtorg Trading Corp 580 

1942 employed by Soviet Purchasing Commission 580 

New Year's Eve 1950 met Herman Kaplan 581 

1943-44 worked for American Red Cross 581 

Employed with FCC next 581 

1948 worked with United Nations 582 

Married Mr. Kaplan in 1950 582 

Kalish (Karlish) . 578 

Kaufman, Mary 556 

Kaye, Danny 543 

Kerner 531 

Kerner, Mrs 543 

Kerner, William 541-546 

Knox, Lucy 579 

Korea 523, 528 

Kung, H. A. (one of Chiang Kai-shek's closest and richest associates) 520 

Kwantung, China 519 

L 

Lend-lease 580 

Lewis, John L 558 

Li Tsung-yen, Gen 549 

Liveright, Herman (testimony of) 497-508 

2239 General Taylor Street, New Orleans, La 498 

1952 to date TV program director of WDSU-TV, New Orleans 498 

Philip Wittenberg, his counsel 498 

1950-52 TV director with American Broadcasting Co., New York 

City 498-499 

Employed by Joseph Gaer Associates, New York 499 

Employed about 11 years (from 1936) for Paramount Pictures 502-503 

Casting director for Columbia Opera Co 503 

Refused to answer "Are you now a Communist" 503 

Born January 11, 1912, in New York City 503 

Two children 507 

Statement of Herman Liveright 510 

Long Branch (N. J.) Record 550 

Long Island Press 550 

Los Angeles 544-546 

Lulinsky, Mark 582, 583 

M 

Mac Arthur 523 

Madam Sun Yat-sen 561 

Mandel, Benjamin 497, 515 

Max, Alan 508 

Mayer, Maj . William (Army psychiatrist) 529 

McManus, Robert 515 

MenloPark, Calif 543 



INDEX V 

Page 

Mills, Saul (testimony of) 549-571 

Glen Oaks, New York, N. Y 550 

Harold Gammer, his attorney 550 

1910 born in New York Gity 550 

Copy boy AP, UP, worked on Long Branch (N. J.) Record, Long 
Island Press, Brooklyn Eagle, Standard Union, Gity News Asso- 
ciation, American Federation of Musicians, Transport Workers 

Union 550 

Went to Red Ghina 560, 561 

Mink, George (Soviet agent) 573, 583 

Mitchell, Louise 559 

Morris, Robert 497, 515 

Moscow 576-580 

Moscow Daily News 577-580, 583 

N 
Nation, The 533 

National Maritime Union (NMU) 558 

New Orleans, La 497, 498, 503-505, 507, 508 

New World Review 532 

New York 498, 499, 

503, 508, 517, 542, 544-546, 550, 555, 558, 562, 576, 577, 584 
New York, Gommunist Party Headquarters, 50 East 13th Street, New 

York 555 

New York council expelled by GIO as slavish to Reds 551-554 

New York Times 551, 555, 558, 579 

O 

Office Workers 550 

Old and New Merge in Ghina 532-535 

Ossabaser, Julia .- 579 

Ovakimian, Gaik 583, 584 

P 

Paper and Sulphite, A. F. of L 550 

Paramount Pictures 502 

Paris Soir 579 

Peiping 526, 561 

Peking 526 

Poland 575, 576 

Political Bureau of the Communist Party 557 

Popper, Martin 562 

Potash, Mr 559 

Powell, John W 520, 530, 546 

Powell 528 

Powell, Mr. and Mrs 526, 528 

Powell, Sylvia 530, 546 

Powell, William 530 

Pressman, Lee 562 

Private Businessman in New China, A 532, 536-539 

Q 

Quill, Mr 555 

R 

Rand, Harry I., Wyatt Building, Washington, D. G. (counsel for Mrs. 

Kaplan) 574 

Red Ghina 526, 530, 532, 547, 560, 561 

Rosenberg, Ethel and Julius (Committee for) 507 

Rusher, William A 515 

Russell, Maud 544 

Russia 561 

Russian Nationalist 577, 578 

Russian Press 580 



VI INDEX 

S Page 

San Francisco 532, 541, 544, 546, 555 

San Francisco Communist Party 543 

Schuman, Julian (testimony of) 515-549 

408 Second Avenue, New York City 515 

Stanley Faulkner, his attorney 515 

1920, Born in Boston, Mass 516 

Attended College of City of New York 517 

December 1942, went into Army 517 

Cryptanalyst in service 518 

Studied Chinese in Army 518 

December 1943-September 1944, Harvard University 519 

Vint Hill Farms, Warrenton, Va 519 

1946-47, attended Yale University 519 

China Press, owned by H. A. Kung 519, 520 

Worked for American Broadcasting Co.; Chicago Sun-Times, Denver 

Post, China Weekly Review, and China Monthly Review 520 

Attended Asian-Pacific Peace Conference 526 

December 1953, came into port of San Francisco 541 

Fifth amendment re Communist 548 

Seacoast Expoit Corp., Tientsin 561 

Seligmann, Dr. Wolfgang 573 

Shanghai 520, 526, 531, 561 

Simon, Hal 556 

Smith, Ferdinand 558, 559 

Socialist 547 

Southern Pacific 544 

Soviet China 548 

Soviet citizen 561, 579 

Soviet Government 573, 576 

Soviet Purchasing Commission, Washington 580, 581 

Soviet Russia Today 532 

Soviet Secret Police 583, 584 

Soviet Union 575 

Standard Union 550 

Starobin, Joseph 532 

State, County, and Municipal Workers 550 

Stolar 579 

Strong, Anna Louise 579 

Sun-Times 531 

Supreme Court of the United States 501 

Suzuki, Louis 531 

Suzuki, May Bonzo 531 

T 
Teachers Union 563 

10,000 in Demonstration Demand Freedom for 4 559 

Theater Square, 11 — Moscow 579 

Thomas-Hill Branch of Communist Party 505 

Tientsin 561 

Tompkins, William F 521, 522 

Trade Union Commission of the Communist Party 555 

Transport Workers Union 550, 558 

Trenton, N. J 574 

12,000 Bid Farewell to Peter V. Cacchione 565-567 

U 

United Electrical Workers 556 

U. N. (United Nations) 555, 582 

UP 550 

United States 504, 528, 532, 548, 549, 555, 561, 573, 575, 577, 580, 583, 584 

United States against Rumely 501 

United States Marxists and Soviet Self-Criticism 508 

U. S. News & World Report 529 

United States Senate 507 



INDEX vn 

V Pa^e 

V-EDay 582 

V-J Dav 520 

Vint Hill Farms, Warrenton, Va 519, 547 

W 

WABC-TV 499 

Warrenton, Va 548 

Watkins, Senator Arthur V 573 

WDSU-TV 498 

Welker, Senator Herman 515 

Weltfort, Theodore 543 

Westchester County Committee for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg 507 

Wheaton, Mr. and Mrs. Louis 531 

White, Harry Dexter 547 

White Plains, N. Y 506 

White Plains Reporter-Dispatch 501, 502 

Why Did Many GI Captives Cave In? 529 

Williamson, John 559 

Wisconsin 503 

Wittenberg, Philip, attorney for Herman Liveright 498 

WJZ-TV 499 

Wong, Anna 561 

World War II 517 

Y 

Yale University 519, 541, 542 

YMCA 546 

Z 

Zborowsky, Mark 584 

Zoobitsky, George 561 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 4143 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECUIIITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



APRIL 5, 6, 1956 



PART 12 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 



Boston Public Library 
Cl:perinte-.^>>V nf Documents 




SE.f^^ 1956 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINQS, JR., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN. Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, lUinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration ob^ the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Witness: Page 

Badeaux, Sgt. Hubert J 673 

Bourn, Eula 665 

Feise, Richard 588 

Feise, Mrs. Winifred 610 

Feuer, Mrs. Pauline 622 

Fortier, Gilbert J., Jr 655 

Jenkins, Grady 665 

Jenkins, Mrs. Junesh 659 

Kleinfeldt, Abraham I 710 

Liveright, Mrs. Betty 637 

Mandel, Benjamin 603 

Pfifer, Calhoun 702 

Porretto, Sgt. Peter Joseph 672 

Robertson, Mrs. Marie 666 

Smith, Benjamin E 711 

Wolsch, Mrs. Lois 612 

Yaun, Huey 668 

m 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, APRIL 5, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

and Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

New Orleans, La. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in Federal 
courtroom 245, United States post office building. New Orleans, La., 
Senator James O. Eastland (chairman) presiding. 

Present: Senators Eastland, Jenner, and Watkins. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; and Frank W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Chairman Eastland. The committee mil come to order. 

The United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, in 
performing its constitutional function of presenting for the public 
record facts that will enlighten Congress in its legislative endeavors 
relating to security, subversion, and espionage, has been drawn by 
its evidence to New Orleans, this great southern metropolis and sea- 
port, the gateway to Latin America. 

The present series of hearings has for its object the determination 
of the scope and nature of Soviet activity in the United States. We 
are examining the activity in order to determine to what extent it 
has been undermining the framework of our society here at home, and 
to what extent it has abetted Soviet expansion abroad. 

We are making this assessment to determine to what extent it may 
be necessary to amend, revise, or strengthen the Internal Security 
Act of 1950, and to what extent other legislation may be necessary. 

Fifteen witnesses have been subpenaed to testify. A vast quantity 
of documentary evidence will be adduced. Current party directives 
will be put into the record. The subcommittee must present this 
evidence for the Congress of the United States. 

Now, Mr. Counsel, who is your fu'st witness? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Richard Feise is the fu'st witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Feise, will you come forward, please? 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up, please, sir. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the 
Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Feise. I do. 

587 



588 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD FEISE, ACCOMPANIED BY PHILIP 

WITTENBERG, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, will you give your name and address to 
the reporter? 

Mr. Feise. My name is Richard Feise. Aly address is 246 Glen- 
wood Drive. 

Mr. Morris. Are you the secretary of the Port Travel Service here 
in New Orleans? 

Mr. Feise. No, sir; I am not. 

Mr. Morris. Have you had that position until recently? 

Mr. Feise. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what the Port Travel Service is, 
and what 3'ou did when you served in that particular company? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feise. The Port Travel Service was a general travel agency, 
which arranges trips for people — stenographers taking a 2-week 
vacation, or people taking a cruise around the world, people going on a 
business trip, either by plane or train, somewhere. 

There are about eight agents in New Orleans, and Port Travel 
Service was one of them. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, will 30U identify" — make 3^our appearance 
for the record? 

Mr. Wittenberg. Yes. My name is Philip Wittenberg, 70 West 
40th Street, New York, N. Y. I am a member of the bar of the 
Supreme Court of the United States, and of the courts of the State of 
New York, and of the Circuit Courts of Appeal of the Second and First 
Districts in the State of New York; that is, the circuit courts of the 
United States. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Counsel. 

Did you take over the business of the Port Travel Service from a 
gentleman named Arthur Wright, W-r-i-g-h-t? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feise. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. You did. In what 3'ear was tliat? 

Mr. Feise. A little more than 2 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. Now, had you been, prior to your employment with 
the Port Travel Service, the director of industrial relations for the 
Higgins Industries in New Orleans? 

Mr. Feise. Yes; I had. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you serve in that capacity? 

Mr. Feise. Since I have been in New Orleans; about 5 or years, 
I believe. 

Air. Morris. Will you tell us roughly what vears they embraced? 

Mr. Feise. 1944 to 1949 or 1950. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell the committee briefly, Mr. Feise, what 
your duties were as director of industrial relations for the Higgins 
Industries in New Orleans? 

Mr. Feise. Well, from the pouit of view of how I speut my time, 
I think more time was taken up, prol)a})ly, settling grievances be- 
tween the men and t]ic foremen in the plant, than anything else. 

Then my next principal occupation was safet}^ traming, training 
foremen and traming the mt^n in the plant to work safely, and not to 
get hurt on the job; and also, investigating accidents, seeing that they 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 589 

got proper medical care, and all that type of thing connected with 
the safety program. 

Then I had in my department, also, an employment office, although 
I didn't hire anybody myself. There was an employment manager 
with a staff of assistants who did the employing. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, how many employees did you superintend 
in tliat capacity? 

Mr. Feise. Well, in my own department, I only superintended 
about 25 or 30, maybe; I don't recall exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Feise, prior to that employment, jou 
worked for the War Labor Board of the United States Government, did 
you not? 

Mr. Feise. That is correct. 

]Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us what position you had, 
what position you had in connection with the War Labor Board. 

Mr. Feise. My position was that of associate or assistant economist . 
And the job consisted of taking cases that came before the Board and 
\n'iting up a sj^nopsis and an analysis of the wage issues, the wage and 
salary increase questions involved, for the Board to — for the Board's 
information. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you mth the War Labor Board? 

Mr. Feise. Sometime in 1944. I don't recall being there very long. 

Mr. Morris. Was it January 1943, Mr. Feise? 

Mr. Feise. I guess 1943; between 1943 and 1944. 

Mr. AIorris. And prior to that, were you national representative 
of the United Federal Workers of America in Washington, D. C? 

Mr. Feise. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And prior to that, were you active in the Textile 
W^orkers Organizing Committee in Boston? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feise. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And prior to that, did you work for the National 
Research Project of the WPA in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Feise. No, sir; I didn't work in Philadelphia. I think 

Mr. Morris. Where did you work, Mr. Feise? 

Mr. Feise. I worked in Toledo. My job was to laiock door-to-door 
and question railroad employees about any changes, any techno- 
logical changes, on the railroad, whether they had thrown any men 
out of work or affected employment. 

We had a regular questionnaire, and we would go and interview 
certain railroad workers, and then fill out the questionnaire. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, I notice in your application papers with 
Higgins Industries, you gave as a person for whom you worked there, 
the name of David Weintraub. 

David Weintraub, Mr. Chairman, as you know, has been a witness 
before this subcommittee in connection with our Government hearings. 

Why did you give the name of David Weintraub? Was he per- 
sonally known to 3"0u, or was he your overall superior? 

Mr. Feise. David Weintraub was the head of the agency (National 
Research Project — WPA). 

Mr. Morris. And, therefore, you gave his name to the Higgins 
Industries? 

Mr. Feise. Yes. 



590 SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Prior to that, did you work for the Resettlement 
Administration of the United States Government? We are now back 
to 1936. 

Mr. Feise. 1935-36; 1935 and 1936. 

Mr. Morris. You were a graduate of what university? 

Mr. Feise. Johns Hopkins University. 

Mr. Morris. What year did you graduate from Johns Hopkins? 

Mr. Feise. 1935. 

Mr. Morris. Before that, you attended Baltimore City College, is 
that it? 

Mr. Feise. High school, Baltimore City College. 

Mr. Morris. That is right. It is a high school, even though it 
bears the name of a college. 

Where were you born, Mr. Feise? 

Mr. Feise. That is right. It is called a college, but it is really 
a high school. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Feise? 

Mr. Feise. I was born in Madison, Wis. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the witness has been caUed this 
morning because we have received information and evidence that 
Mr. Feise is the head of the professional branch of the Communist 
Party here in New Orleans. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute, Mr. Counsel. Now, 
you cannot suggest to the witness. If he desires to confer with you, 
he can do that. 

Mr. Wittenberg. I thought he turned to me. 

Chairman Eastland. No, sir, he did not turn to you. Now, I 
watched that for several minutes now. I don't want it to happen 
again. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, have you been the head of the professional 
branch of the Communist Party here in New Orleans? 

Mr. Feise. Have I been what? 

Mr. Morris. The head of the professional branch of the Communist 
Party in New Orleans. 

Mr. Feise. Mr. Chairman, I object to that question, and I don't 
think I should answer it. And I don't think I should answer it on 
the following grounds: 

That it is an inquiry into my political beliefs. 

Chairman Eastland. That is your first ground, that it is inquiring 
into your political beliefs? 

Mr. Feise. Into my political beliefs. 

Chairman Eastland. It is overruled. 

Mr. Feise. It is an inquiry into my personal and private affairs. 

Chairman Eastland. That is overruled. 

Mr. Feise. And it is an inquiry into an individual's associational 
activities, with an implication about them. 

Chairman Eastland. That is overruled. 

Mr. Feise. I further object on the following grounds: 

Any investigation into my political beliefs, any other personal and 
private affairs, and my associational activities, is an inquiry into 
personal and private affairs which is, I feel, beyond the powers of this 
subcommittee. And in saying this, I rely not only upon my own 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 591 

opinion, but upon statements contained in the opinions of the Supremo 
Court of the United States. 

For example, among others, in United States v. Rumely, the Supreme 
Court of the United States said, in a concurring opinion by Mr. 
Justice Douglas 

Chairman Eastland. How long is that statement, sir? 

Mr. Feise. It is not very long — well 

Chairman Eastland. Answer my question. How long is the 
statement? 

Mr. Feise. It is 9 pages, Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. State your grounds, now, and I wiU let you 
put that in the record. 

Mr. Feise. Well, in addition to the grounds I have already stated, 
I also think I should refuse to answer this question on the grounds 
stated in the fifth amendment 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Feise. To the Constitution. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, by that you mean that your testimony 
might tend to incriminate you; is that correct? Do you think your 
testimony would tend to incriminate you? 

Air. Feise. Yes. That is why the fifth amendment is used. 

Chairman Eastland. You do think that. 

Now, Mr. Feise, you can help your country, sir. I think that any 
patriotic American would be glad to openly and publicly make a 
statement that he is not a member of a conspiracy to destroy his 
country, that he is not a member of a conspiracy which is advocating, 
which is alined with a foreign government for the destruction of his 
country. 

You can help your country. You can be of great help to the duly 
constituted authorities in the United States, and I appeal to you, sir, 
now to give us the information that you have, of your activities here 
in New Orleans, and the activities of the Communist organization 
in New Orleans. 

Mr. Feise. Mr. Chairman, perhaps if this were a different type of 
body, I might feel differently. However 

Chairman Eastland. I doubt that, sir. I doubt that, sir. 

Mr. Feise. Before any type of body, everyone has the right to 
use 

Chairman Eastland. Sure. 

Mr. Feise. Use constitutional protection. 

Chairman Eastland. Sure. 

Mr. Feise. Senator, might I say further that I resent the insinua- 
tion 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, but- 



Mr. Feise. In your httle lecture 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. The right kind of an American 

Mr. Feise. That my patriotism 

Chairman Eastland. That is right. 

Mr. Feise. Is perhaps not as good as yours. 

Chairman Eastland. It impugns your patriotism, sir, and the 
right kind of an American would be most anxious to testify where it 
would help his country, and I will ask you this question 

Mr. Feise. Senator 

Chairman Eastland. Have you ever lived in New York City? 



592 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I don't think that is material, and I refuse to — 
if you subject 

Chairman Eastland. Answer my question. It is material. 

Mr. Feise. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds 
I stated before. 

Chairman Eastland. On the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Feise. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

How long have you known yom' attorney there? 

Mr. Feise. The same objection, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You take the fifth amendment there? 

Mr. Feise. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You take the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Feise. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You think to state how long you have known 
your attorney would tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Feise. Before your committee, sir, one can never tell. 

Chairman Eastland. One could never tell? 

Mr. Feise. That is right. 

Chairman Eastland. All 3^ou have to do is tell the truth, sir, and 
when a man tells the truth, he has nothing to fear. 

Mr. Feise. That sounds good, but it is not true, I think, before 
this committee. 

Chairman Eastland. Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, to 3'our knowledge, have plans been made 
within the professional group of the Communist Party here in New 
Orleans to have you replaced with Mr. Liveright, Mr. Herman Live- 
right, as head of the — in other words, to have Mr. Liveright take your 
place as head of the professional group here in New Orleans? 

Mr. Feise. I couldn't possibly answer a question like that. 

Mr. Morris. Why not? 

Mr. Feise. For the same grounds fhat I just stated. 

Mr. Morris. Among those grounds, do you claim your privilege 
under the fifth amendment to the Constitution? 

Mr. Feise. Yes, sir; I do. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, has Junesh Jenkins been liaison 
between you, as head of the professional group of the Communist 
Part}' here in New Orleans, and tlic Communist Party organization? 

Mr. Feise. I refuse to answer tliat on the same grounds, includ- 
ing 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, do you recall 

Chairman Eastland. What are the grounds? Let him state his 
grounds. 

Mr. Feise. The grounds stated in 1113^ objection, which is part of 
the record. 

Chairman Eastland. Every ground except the fifth amendment is 
overruled. If you avail 3^ourself of the fiftli amendment, that is your 
right, sir. 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I am availing m^^self of the first amendment, 
as I said. 

Senator Jenner. That has been overruled, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Eastland. That has been overruled. 

Mr. Feise. But I reiterate it, nevertheless, because I think it is a 
fine amendment, and I think it ought to be kept alive. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 593 

And I also avail ni^self of the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. The first amendment is overruled. 

Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. MoKRis. Mr. Feis, do you recall tiiat on September 1, 1945, a 
resident of New Orleans, Joseph S. Feuer, reportedly committed 
suicide? Do you remember such an occasion, Mr. Feise? 

Mr. Feise. Much as I would like to, I don't think I should answer 
that question, either, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Were you on that occasion sent by the Communist 
Party of New Orleans to the liome of Mr. Feuer before the police 
arrived, in order to gather up all possible evidence that might be used 
against the Communist Party, and have it burned? 

Mr. Feise. Well, you don't know how funnj^ that is, because 

Chairman Eastland. Well, answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. You don't know where I was at that time. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. No, I woiddn't answer that question, because it is 
ridiculous. 

Mr. Morris. Did you go there at that time? Did 3-ou go to the 
home of Joseph Feuer? 

Mr. Feise. Well, you must know where I was. But I am not 
going to answer that question. I decline to answer that question. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer that 
question, under penalty of contempt, sir. 

Mr. Feise. I don't think that I should answer that question, 
Senator, on the same grounds that I have stated before, and the 
fifth amendment and the first amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. The first amendment? 

Mr. Feise. And the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. Of course, you realize 

Mr. Feise. That involves a matter of friends and associations, 
freedom of association, and I believe. Senator 

Chairman Eastland. Your attorney realizes that the first amend- 
ment as a legal defense here is silly. 

Mr. Feise. I don't think the first amendment is ever silly. 

Mr. Morris. The chairman didn't say that, Mr. Feise. 

Chairman Eastland. He knew I didn't say that. 

Mr. Feise. That is how it sounded to me. Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. It doesn't sound that way at all, sir. All 
you have got to do is tell the truth and give us the information that 
we request. 

Mr. Feise. I am sorry, Senator, that I am not a cooperative wit- 
ness, but I still stand on the grounds that I have stated to you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, do vou know a man named Calhoun 
Phifer? 

Mr. Feise. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did Mr. Calhoun Phifer loan you $2,500 in 1944? 

Mr. Feise. I am sorry that I can't answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Why can't you answer the question? 

Mr. Feise. On the same gromids, the grounds of the fifth amend- 
ment and the — — 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Do you still owe Mr. Phifer $2,500? 



594 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Feise. Same objection, sir, same statement, same refusal on 
the same gromids. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in the city of Memphis, Tenn., in 1940? 

Mr. Feise. No answer, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
Memphis in 1940? 

Mr. Feise. No answer, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, at this time I would like to offer for 
the record the police report in New Orleans, taken from the files 
yesterday, of the New Orleans police, which is a report on the suicide 
of Joseph Seymour Feuer. I would like to offer that for the record. 

Chairman Eastland. It will be admitted into the record as an exhi- 
bit of this witness' testimony. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 199" and 

reads as*^follows:) 

Exhibit No. 199 

Homicide Division, 

Detective Bukeau, 

September IS, 1964. 
Item No. 1-306-54. 

To: Capt. Wm. J. Dowie, Sr., commanding. 

From: Detective Wm. J. Stevens and patrolman John Delpuget. 
Subject: Death of one Joseph Seymour Feuer, white man, age 40, formerly residing 
2224 General Taylor Street, which occurred at 2700 LaSalle Street, on 
Wednesday, September 1, 1954, being pronounced [dead at 12:07 a. m., 
Thursday, September 2, 1954. 
With reference to the above death, a worksheet was received from the Orleans 
Parish Coroner's Office, this date, with the findings reading as follows: 
Through and through bullet wound of head. 

The final diagnosis was: Through and through bullet wound of head with 
laceration of brain and fracture of skull. 

Suicide. Shot self in head, September 2, 1954, at 2700 LaSalle Street. 
This case closed, and will be carried as a suicide in our files. 
Respectfully, 

John Delpuget. 
William J. Stevens. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, have you been an organizer and business 
agent of Local 206 of the AFGE, that is, the American Federal and 
Government Employees? It is a union, I believe, that is no longer 
in existence; at least, the local is no longer in existence. 

If you recall, I think you answered yesterday about that in executive 
session, Mr. Feise. 

Mr. Feise. You know the facts, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. But at this time I will decline to answer the question 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, when you apphed for the War Labor Board, 
you gave the name of Eleanor Nelson as a reference. Who was Eleanor 
Nelson? 

Mr. Feise. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you know her to be a Communist? 

Mr, Feise. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Were you an organizer for the Food, Tobacco, 
Agricultural and Allied Workers of America, in Memphis, in 1940? 

Mr. Feise. The what? 

Mr. Morris. The Food, Tobacco, Agricultural and AUied Workers 
of America. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 595 

Mr. Feise. In Memphis? 

Mr. Morris. In Memphis. 

Answer it. 

Mr. Feise. I can't answer that, sir, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, were you an organizer for that particular 
union, without the Memphis part of it? 

Mr. Feise. No, sir, I don't think I should answer that question. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. I refuse to answer the question. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, you are ordered and directed to answer 
the question now, under penalty of contempt. I will direct you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer the question on the 
grounds of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Chairman Eastland. That answer would tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Feise. That is correct, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr Feise, do you know a man named Paul Crouch? 

Mr. Feise. You laiow him pretty well. 

No, I refuse to answer that. 

Senator Watkins. I would like to hear the first part of his answer. 
What was that? 

Mr. Feise. I said, you know him pretty well. But I refuse to 
answer the question as to whether I know Paul Crouch. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I am not going to answer that question, and 
I am not going to answer it because I invoke the protection of the 
first and the fifth amendments. 

Chairman Eastland. You know Paul Crouch was the southern 
organizer for the Communist Party. At one time he was one of the 
leading Communists in this country, who later cooperated with his 
Government. 

Now, do you think that if you would go into your association with 
Crouch, that it would incriminate you? 

Senator Watkins. That is, if you told the truth. 

Chairman Eastland. Sure. 

Mr. Feise. You thought if I went into my association with 
Crouch 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, that it would incriminate you. 

Mr. Feise. The question incriminates me; answering the question 
incriminates me. 

Chairman Eastland. Answering the question would incriminate 
you. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Were you, yourself, active in the Southern Conference 
for Human Welfare? 

Mr. Feise. I would love to answer that question, Senator, but I 
am not going to, on the same grounds 

Chairman Eastland. The fifth amendment? 

Mr. Feise (continuing). Because it is a question that pertains to 
organizational membership, political ideas, affiliation with organiza- 
tions 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. You know very well that that organi- 
zation 



596 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Feise (continuing). Under the fifth amendment and the 
first amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Feise. I think every American has the right to belong to any 
organization he wants to. 

Chairman Eastland. Even the Communist Party? 

Mr. Feise. Even the southern conference j^ou were asking about. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer my question: Even the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Feise. You asked me about the southern conference. 

Chahman Eastland. Yes, and you know very well it was a front 
for communism, and Earl Browder said it was a transmission belt to 
bring communism into the South. 

Now answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. No, sir; I will not answer the question, on the grounds 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been active in an organization called the 
National Committee for Justice for the Rosenbergs? 

Mr. Feise. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Now can you recall — I think we asked you this 
question in executive session, Mr. Feise, and it was not your recollec- 
tion at the time — do you remember writing a letter to the United 
States attorney here in New Orleans in 1949, when the United States 
attorney had a special grand jury empaneled which was subpenaing 
Communist functionaries in this area? Can you recall writing such 
a letter? 

Mr. Feise. In this open session, I don't wish to answer that ques- 
tion, either. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I think you testified the other day that you 
could not recall writing such a letter, Mr. Feise*. 

Mr. Feise. In this open session-^- — 

Mr. Morris. Can you recall that? 

Mr. Feise. In this open session, sir, I don't wish to answer that 
question, on the same grounds. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, I order you to. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Wittenberg, I think that inasmuch as your 
witness has testified in executive session about this letter, I think he 
has waived his claim to immunity, at least with respect to this particu- 
lai- letter, and I ask you if you will not advise your client to reconsider 
his last answer. 

Mr. Wittenberg. On the contrary, I believe you now have all the 
information you need for legislative purposes, and you are merely 
doing this for the purpose of exposing this witness to his community, 
and trying to arouse hatred, and I shall instruct him this public meet- 
ing is completely unnecessary, because you have got all the information 
you need for the purposes of legislation. 

This is for publicity, and I shall so ad\'ise him. 

Senator Jenner. The witness, Mr. Chairman 

Chairnum Eastlaxd. Of com-se, we need a public record, and we 
have to have a public record for Congress to act on. 

Now, if we read him the question and read into the I'ecord his 
answer — now, if what you say is true, he has waived the fifth amend- 
ment there. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 597 

Mr. Morris. I have here page 410 of the executive session testi- 
mony taken in this coiu'troom 2 days ago, Senator. The question 
asked by counsel —  — 

Mr. Feise. Isn't that true, what Mr. Wittenberg just pointed out, 
that 3-ou have the information? 

Chairman Eastland. Just wait a minute. Answer questions. 

Mr. Feise. You have the information, Senator, and if yon are 
looking for information 

Chairman Eastland. Yes,. If you don't answer this question 
now, I am going to cite you for contempt. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Morris (reading) : 

Do you remember that in March of 1949 — 

Mr. Feise. Senator, isn't it true that you have the information? 
Mr. Morris (continuing) : 

When the United States attorney — 

Chairman Eastland, ^^ou will have a chance to say whether this 
is correct or not. 
Proceed. 
.Mr. ]\loRRis (reading) : 

Do you remember that in March of 1949, when the United States attorney in 
New Orleans empaneled a special grand jur.y that subpenaed Communist Party 
functionaries, did you write a letter of protest to the United States attorney? 

.Mr. Feise answering: 

I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. You don't recall? 

Senator Watkins. Answer the question audibly. The reporter cannot get 
your nod. It will not show in the record. 

Mr. Feise. Did I write a letter to whom? 

Mr. Morris. To George Blue, the United States attorney, protesting the fact 
he had empaneled a special grand jury to subpena Communist Party functionaries. 

At that time, Mr. Blue was not the United States attorney. 

Mr. Feise. Well — may I ask my attorney? 
Mr. Morris. By all means. 
Mr. Feise. I don't recall. 

Now I offer you a letter —  — - 

Mr. Feise. Mr. Morris, there was more to that conversation than 
you read. 

Chau-man Eastland. All right, then, in what particular, now — if 
there was more to it, will you tell us what he left out? 

Mr. Morris. I will offer the whole record. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute, Mr. Counsel. 

Now, you tell us what was left out. If you are being mistreated, sir, 
I certainly want to give you a chance to correct the record. What 
is it that was left out? 

Mr. Feise. Senator Watkins, you recall we had more discussion 
than that. 

Chairman Eastland. Just state what was left out. 

j\Ir. Feise. I am just interested to see what is in the record. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, state what was left out, sir. You 
said there was more to it than that. 

Mr. Feise. No, sir, Senator; I began by refusing to answer the 
question because I didn't see it had any bearing on anything and I 



598 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

thought it was incriminating, and I thought I didn't have to answer 
such a question, under the first amendment and the fifth amendment, 
as I stated. 

Now, you all are bringing this up 

Chairman Eastland. But you answered the question, sir. 

Mr. Feise. But I will say that the record does not sound complete 
to me. That is not my recollection. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. What is your recollection, then? 

Mr. Feise. In this public hearing, sir, you are trying to get me to 
answer the question. I have said that I am not going to answer the 
question. 

Chairman Eastland. You have said the record is not complete. 

Mr. Feise. But I am observing that the record is not complete. 

Chairman Eastland. You accuse the Chief Counsel of the sub- 
committee of leaving something out. Now, what was it he left out? 

Mr. Feise. I have already made my position clear, sir. You have 
a colleague who was there, I am sure he recalls the rest of the dis- 
cussion. 

Chairman Eastland. What was the answer, sir? I didn't hear. 

Mr. Feise. I say. Senator Watkins was there, and I addressed my 
my remarks to him 

Chairman Eastland. What were they? 

Mr. Feise (continuing) . At the time. 

Chairman Eastland. What were they? 

Mr. Feise. The stenographer is supposed to have taken them 
down. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Feise. I personally don't think it makes any difference what 
they were. 

Chairman Eastland. You say it is incomplete, sir. You say it is 
incomplete, sir. Now, in what respects is it incomplete? 

Mr. Feise. I merely state that it is incomplete. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I think the 

Senator Jenner. Just a moment. 

Has the witness, Mr. Chairman, ever seen the letter to identify 
whether or not it is in his handwriting 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schroeder, will you show him the letter, please? 

Senator Jenner (continuing). Judge Watkins, in the executive 
hearing? 

Senator Watkins. I don't remember any letter being shown. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I suggest the witness be shown the 
letter and asked whether or not he wrote the letter. 

Chairman Eastland. I think that is very proper. 

(Letter shown to the witness by Mr. Schroeder.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feise. Alay I consult my counsel. Senator? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I might point out 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, might I state that it might be 
misunderstood, the difference between an executive session and a 
public session. 

Chairman Eastland. Go ahead. Senator. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 599 

Senator Jenner. As the chairman knows, an executive session is 
held primarily for this committee to bring people in to screen the 
testimony and the evidence that we have heard about them. In many 
cases, the executive session 

Chairman Eastland. So that nobody is going to be mistreated. 

Senator Jenner. That is right, innocent people will not be abused. 

In many cases, in executive session, members of the Communist 
Party have come clean with this committee and have aided their 
Government, which was valuable to the security of this country. 

Now, as the chairman well knows, the Congress of the United States 
cannot act on an executive session record. We must have this informa- 
tion in open record before it is available to the Congress. That is 
a rule, also, of this committee. We do not divulge executive sessions. 

Therefore, I believe the witness should proceed along the lines the 
chairman is now inquiring, whether or not he wrote this letter, whether 
or not it is his letter, 

Mr. Feise. I have already made clear. Senator, that I am not 
answering that question, on the grounds stated, on the fifth amendment 
and the first amendment. 

Chairman Eastland, You think the answer to the question might 
incriminate you? 

Senator Jenner. Is that your handwriting on the document you 
just examined? 

Chairman Eastland, Let him answer, 

Mr, Feise. I have 

Senator Jenner. Pardon. 

Mr, Feise. I refuse to answer, sir, on the grounds of the fifth and 
the first amendments. 

Chairman Eastland. You think it would incriminate you if you 
would answer the question? Is that correct, sir? 

Mr, Feise. I refuse to answer the question. Senator. Isn't that 
sufficient? 

Chairman Eastland. Do you think that — well, I have a right now 
to inquire into the basis. Do you think that that testimonj^ would 
incriminate you? 

Mr. Feise. The basis of my refusal, sir, is set forth in this nine-page 
document, in writing. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir. Do you want that admitted into 
the record? 

Mr, Feise. Yes, please. 

Chairman Eastland. That will be admitted into the record as an 
exhibit, or placed in the record. 

(The document above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 200" 
and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 200 

(Statement of Richard Feise) 

1. I, Richard Feise, hereby respectfully object to the power and jurisdiction of 
the subcommittee to inquire into: 

(a) My political beliefs. 

(b) Any other personal and private affairs. 

(c) My associational activities. 

2. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated in the fifth amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States. 



72723— 56— pt. 12- 



600 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

3. I further object on the following grounds: 

(a) Any investigation into my political beliefs, any other personal and private 
affairs, and my associational activities, is an inquiry into personal and private 
affairs which is beyond the powers of this subcommittee. I rely not upon my own 
opinion but upon statements contained in the opinions of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. Among others, in United States v. Runiely (345 U. S. 41, 58), 
the Supreme Court of the United States said in a concurring opinion by Mr. Justice 
Douglas: 

"The power of investigation is also limited. Inquiry into personal and private 
affairs is precluded." 

In McGrain v. Duugherty (273 U. S. 135), the Court said: "Neither House is 
invested with 'general' power to inquire into private affairs and to compel 
disclosures." 

And in Kilbourn v. Thompson (103 U. S. 168), the Court said: "Neither the 
Senate nor the House of Representatives 'possesses the general power of making 
inquiry into the private affairs of the citizens'." 

In West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (319 U. S. 624), the Court, 
in an opinion by Mr. Justice Jackson said: "If there is any fixed star in our 
constitutional constellation it is that no official, high or petty, can prescribe what 
shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, religion, or other matters of opinion or 
force citizens to confess by word or act their faith therein." 

It follows therefore that this subcommittee is without power to examine into 
my political, associational, and private affairs. 

(b) The right to refuse to answer to any official, or indeed to anyone, with 
regard to one's personal affairs is a valuable right in a democracy which ought 
not lightly be ceded, or indeed ought ever be impinged upon by any public official. 
The Congress of the United States is composed of elected officials who have no 
power to intrude into the private affairs of American citizens. They cannot by 
resolution increase their constitutional authority. As was said by the Supreme 
Court of the United States in Jones v. Securities and Exchange Commission (298 
U. S. 1): "The citizen when interrogated about his private affairs has a right 
before answering to know why the inquiry is made: and if the purpose disclosed 
is not a legitimate one, he ma,y not be compelled to answer." 

And again in McGrain v. Daugherty (273 U. S. 135) : "That a witness rightfully 
may refuse to answer where the bounds of the power are exceeded." 

It was said by Mr. Justice Frankfurter in United States v. United Mine Workers 
of America (330 U. S. 258, 307): "The historic phrase 'government of laws and 
not of men' epitomizes the distinguishing character of our political society. * * * 
'A government of laws and not of men' was the rejection in positive terms of rule 
by fiat, whether by the fiat of governmental or private power. Every act of 
government mav be challenged bv an appeal to law, as finally pronounced by this 
Court." 

And again in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579) : 

"The accretion of dangerous power does not come in a day. It does come, 
however, slowly, from the generative force of unchecked disregard of the restric- 
tions that fence in even the most disinterested assertions of authority." 

Within the meaning of these decisions I regard it as one of the duties of a citi- 
zen of the United States to be vigilant against the accretion of dangerous power. 
I call to the attention of this subcommittee the opinion of Mr. Justice Douglas 
in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 IJ. S. 579), that even the cold 
war and the emergencies said to have been created thereby: "did not create 
power." 

(c) Under the first amendment to the Constitution the power of investigation 
by Congress in matters involving freedom of speech and freedom of the press is 
limited. There can be no invesitgation except for the purpose of legislation. As 
was said by !Mr. Justice Van Dervanter in McGrain v. Daugherty (273 U. S. 135, 
178): 

"The only legitimate object the Senate could have in ordering the investigation 
was to aid it in legislating." 

The Congress of the United States has no constitutional right to legislate with 
regard to prior restraint on utterance; no ex post facto law can be passed deter- 
mining innocence or criminality, and therefore anj^ investigations into my speech 
or communications is beyond the power of this committee. As was said by Mr. 
Justice Douglas in United States v. Rumely (345 U. S. 41, 58) : 

"Through the harassment of hearings, investigations, reports, and subpenas 
Government will hold a club over speech and over the press. Congress could not 
do this by law. The power of investigation is also limited. Inquiry into per- 
sonal and private affairs is precluded." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 601 

(d) Under our Constitution our Government is a government of limited powers, 
tripartite in form, consisting of the legislative, the judicial, and the executive. 
This separation is fundamental to the preservation of the rights of the people in 
order that no one department may, through its power, rise to become a despotic 
arbiter. 

This subcommittee through this investigation into my poUtical, associational, 
and private affairs trespassed upon the judicial department and has caused a lack 
of balance of power which constitutes a threat to my liberty as an American 
citizen and is an unconstitutional usurpation. This usurpation has reached the 
point where the Supreme Court of the United States in United States v. Rumelv 
(345 U. S. 41, 44) said: 

" 'And so, we would have to be that "bhnd" court, against which Mr. Chief 
Justice Taft admonished in a famous passage, that does not see what all others 
can see and understand' not to know that there is wide concern, both in and out 
of Congress, over some aspects of the exercise of the Congressional power of 
investigation." 

Xo place is that usurpation better seen that in the trespassing by the legislature 
upon the judiciary. As was said in Lighter v. United States (334 "U. S. 742, 779) : 

"In peace or in war it is essential that the Constitution be scrupulously obeyed, 
and particularly that the respective branches of the government keep within the 
powers assigned to each by the Constitution." 

And again, in ]\Jyers v. United States (272 U. S. 82, 116) by Mr. Justice Taft: 

"If there is a principle in our Constitution, indeed in any free constitution 
more sacred than another, it is that which separates the legislative, executive and 
judicial powers." 

In Quinn v. United States (349 U. S. 155-161) the Supreme Court by Mr. Chief 
Justice Warren said: 

"But the power to investigate, broad as it may be, is also subject to recognized 
limitations. It cannot be used to inquire into private affairs unrelated to a valid 
legislative purpose. Xor does it extend to an area in which Congress is forbidden 
to legislate. Similarly, the power to investigate must not be confused with any 
of the powers of law enforcement; those powers are assigned under our Constitu- 
tion to the executive and the judiciary." 

And again bv Mr. Justice Brandeis in Myers v. United States (272 U. S 52, 
293, 71 L. Ed. 160): 

_"The doctrine of the separation of powers was adopted by the Convention of 
1787 not to promote efficiency but to preclude the exercise of arbitrary power. 
The purpose was not to fight friction but, by means of the inevitable friction 
incident to the distribution of the governmental powers among three departments, 
to save the people from autocracy." 

And again in Kilbourn v. Thompson (103 U. S. 168): 

"It is believed to be one of the chief merits of the American system of written 
constitutional law that all the powers entrusted to governments, whether State 
or National, are divided into three grand departments; the executive, the 
legislative and the judicial.* * * 

"It is also essential to the successful working of this system that the persons 
entrusted with power in any one of these branches shall not be permitted to en- 
croach upon the powers confided to the others but that each shall by the law of its 
creation be limited to the exercise of the power appropriate to its own department 
and no other." 

Not only did the founders of our Republic separate the departments of Govern- 
ment, but they also limited the powers of each of those departments. It is a 
simple statement known to every American schoolchild that our Government 
consists of separate departments, that the powers of each of those departments is 
limited, and that all rights not granted to the Government are reserved to the 
people. 

To be specific Congress has the specific power to legislate granted to it by the 
Constitution. It lias an implied power to investigate which, however, can be no 
broader than the j^ower to legislate. 

In the absence of proposed legislation there can be no investigation for all 
powers not expressly granted or necessarily implied are reserved to the people. 
Neither of the tripartite departments of our Government can claim any residual 
power as a basis for acting. In order that tliere might be no doubt about the 
limitations of power and the wish not to grant residual power the citizens of the 
several States insisted on the insertion in the Bill of Rights of amendment 9: 

"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people." 



602 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

They reinforced amendment 9 by amendment 10: 

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the 
people." 

This Congress and the committees appointed by it can enjoy only the powers 
expressly granted in the Constitution or necessarily implied therefrom. Senators 
or committeemen thereof as officials of the Government do not have, and cannot 
arrogate to themselves, a power to intrude into the private affairs of the people 
of the United States, a power which the people reserve to themselves. The 
arrogation of power may be curtailed either by an appeal to the courts, or what 
is to be more hoped for, by the self-discipline of those entrusted with authority. 
The possibility of petty tyranny is ever present in a democracy unless the body 
of officialdom is wise and knows that self-limitation is essential to the success 
of our scheme of government. As Mr. Justice Frankfurter said in Youngstown 
Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579) : 

"A constitutional democracy like ours is perhaps the most difficult of man's 
social arrangements to manage successfully. Our scheme of society is more 
dependent than any other form of government on knowledge and wisdom and 
self-discipline for the achievement of its aims." 

But when such self-discipline is not apparent in the actions of any governing 
body then it becomes the duty of the citizen to challenge that act by an appeal to 
law. It is that duty which I here feel obliged to maintain. (See United States v. 
United Mine Workers of America, 330 U. S. 258.) 

This subcommittee by compelling me to leave my ordinary pursuits and to 
attend before it for the purpose of testifying with regard to my political beliefs, 
other personal and private affairs, and my associational activities, is acting as a 
judicial indicting and accusatory power. It is intruding into the judicial sphere 
and is following a practice which closely parallels the practices which resulted in 
Bills of Attainder, being prohibited by our Constitution, article 1, section 10. 

The present practices of this committee fall within the condemnation and pro- 
hibition of that section. 

The Supreme Court said in United States v. Lovett (328 U. S. 303, 317): 

"Those who WTote our Constitution well know the danger inherent in special 
legislative acts which take away the life, liberty, or property of particular named 
persons, because the legislature thinks them guilty of conduct which deserves 
punishment. They intended to safeguard the people of this country from punish- 
ment without trial by duly constituted courts. * * *" 

"And even the courts to which this important function was entrusted were 
commanded to stay their hands until and unless certain tested safeguards were 
observed. An accused in court must be tried by an impartial jury, has a right to 
be represented by counsel, he must be clearly informed of the charge against him, 
the law which he is charged with violating must have been passed before be com- 
mitted the act charged, he must be confronted by the witnesses against him, he 
must not be compelled to incriminate himself. * * *" 

Our ancestors had ample reason to know that legislative trials and punishments 
were too dangerous to liberty to exist in the Nation of freemen they envisioned. 
And so they proscribed bills of attainder. 

But a bill of attainder need not be the specific bill of attainder referred to in the 
Constitution. It may be any legislative act taken in connection with known 
punishments which together constitute a deprivation of civil rights. So to ask 
us whether I am or have been a member of the Communist Party may have dire 
consequences. I might wish to defend myself by taking recourse to the protection 
of the provisions contained inthe Bill of Rights or challenge the pertinency of the 
question to the investigation. Should I invoke the protection of the Bill of Rights 
and the Constitution I thereby place my livelihood and my position in society in 
a position of jeopardy. Many of our States, municipalities, educational institu- 
tions, the Federal Government itself, and even private employers, have adopted 
rules of exclusion from employment for persons taking recourse in the Bill of 
Rights or the Constitution. 

The Supreme Court of the United States took cognizance of this condition in 
1950, a time when it had not yet reached the full flavor of today. For in 1950, 
Mr. Justice Black concurring, in Joiiet Anti-Fascist Refugee Com. v. McGrath 
(341, U. S. 123, 144, 145), said: 

"In this day when prejudice, hate, and fear are constantly invoked to justify 
irresponsible smears and persecutions of persons even faintly suspected of enter- 
taining unpopular views, it may be futile to suggest that the cause of internal 
security would be fostered, not hurt, by faithful adherence to our constitutional 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE TJN"ITED STATES 603 

guaranties of individual liberty. Nevertheless, since prejudice manifests itself in 
much the same way in every age and country and since what has happened before 
can happen again, it surely should not be amiss to call attention to what has oc- 
curred when dominant governmental groups have been left free to give uncontrolled 
rein to their prejudices against unorthodox minorities. * * * 

"Memories of such events were fresh in the minds of the founders when they 
forbade the use of the bill of attainder." 

And he said further: 

"Moreover, officially prepared and proclaimed governmental blacklists possess 
almost every quality of bills of attainder, the use of which was from the beginning 
forbidden to both National and State Governments (United States Constitution, 
art. 1 sees. 9 10.)" 

As was said in United States v. Lovett (328, U. S., 303, 324), cited by Mr. Justice 
Black in the preceding opinion: 

"Figuratively speaking, all discomforting actions may be deemed punishment 
because it deprives of what otherwise would be enjoyed * * *. The deprivation 
of any rights, civil or political, previously enjoyed, may be punishment, the 
circumstances attending and the cause of the deprivation determining this fact." 

Upon all the grounds aforesaid I object not only to the jurisdiction of this 
committee, but also to the questions propounded by it. This objection is made 
upon the advice of counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Cliau-man, I wonder if the witness would read 
the letter. Apart from the question of whether or not it is your 
letter or it is in your handwinting, will you read the contents of that 
paper which appears before you now? 

Mr, Feise. That would be the same as answering the question. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I suggest 

Mr. Feise. And I have aheady stated I did not wish to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Morris. Even to reading the contents of that paper? 

Mr. Feise. Well, you know, it is the same thing. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, since the witness refuses to read 
the letter, and since he has taken the fifth amendment in regard to 
whether or not he wrote the letter, I suggest that the letter be read 
into our record. 

Chairman Eastland. That will be all right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, Mr. Chairman, as you know, is the 
research director of the Internal Security Subcommittee, and during 
the com-se of these hearings, we will have to read into the record 
documents and evidence in the possession of the committee, and I 
suggest Mr. Mandel be sworn at this time for the pm-poses of testifying 
at the whole hearing. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Mandel. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN MANDEL, RESEARCH DIRECTOR, 
INTERNAL SECURITY SUBCOMMITTEE 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you be seated there; make yourself 
comfortable. 

Mr. Mandel. As exhibit 1, I hold in my hand 

Mr. Morris. This is the second exhibit. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 2, I hold in my hand a photostat of an enve- 
lope addressed to Hon. J. Skelly Wright, United States district attor- 
ney, Federal Building, New Orleans, La. 



604 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

New Orleans, La., April 19, 1949. 
Hon. J. Skelly Wright, 

United States District Attorney, 

New Orleans, La. 

Dear Sir: I was shocked to hear tonight at a meeting to which a friend invited 
me that a grand jury has been convened in the city of New Orleans for the purpose 
of inquiring into the poHtical and social beliefs of American citizens. I under- 
stand that ostensibly the grand jury is searching for Communists — l)ut actually 
the inquiry is directed at political beliefs. 

Your duty, it seems to me, and that of your superior, the Attorney General of 
the United States, is being carried too far afield. I cannot see that crimes have 
been committed in this instance — 

some of the writing is obscure — 

our Constitution and our democratic form of government — 

the word is not clear — 

is free to believe and to advocate whatever theories and doctrines he chooses, 
religious or civil. The service of subpenas and the questioning of individuals as 
to their beliefs by a grand jury — indeed the indictment of individuals for beliefs 
which they hold or doctrines they advocate strikes me as an alarming violation 
of the fundamental civil rights guaranteed to all of us by the Constitution. This 
begins to smack of the kind of thing we just fought asainst in the last war and in 
the First World War which preceded it. 

For the reasons stated I protest your activities and those of the grand jury. It 
is possible, of course, since the grand jury's sessions are secret, that my information 
as to its objectives may be erroneous. If so, I should appreciate receiving cor- 
rective information. 

Feise — 

and the first name is not clear on this copy. 

(The letter which was read by Mr. Mandel, was marked ''Exhibit 
No, 201" and was filed with the subcommittee.) 

Mr, Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have available a handwriting ex- 
pert. May I suggest, on the basis of another file that I have here, 
that when he is called, the handwriting expert testify as to whether 
that handwriting is the same as the handwriting of Richard Feise, a 
sample of which we have on his application for employment in the 
Higgins Aircraft, Inc. 

May I oft'er this. Mr. Mandel, will you identify this employment 
file from the Higgins Industries? 

Mr. Mandel. This is an employment file which was loaned to us 
by the Higgins Industries, an employment record. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD FEISE -Resumed 

Mr. Morris. I would like to ask you, Mr. Feise, if that signature 
that is contained on that application is your signature? [Showing 
document to the witness.] 

Mr. Feise. Sir, that is just another question about the letter, and 
I take the same position. I do not wish to answer any questions 
about the letter, on the same grounds I have stated before. 

Chairman Eastland. On the basis of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Feise. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. What we are tr^nng to determine is whether or not 
the handwriting on that letter is the same as the handwriting on the 
form of the Higgins Industries ; and you will not assist the committee 
in that respect? 

Mr. Feise. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, did you take a trip abroad in late 1951? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 605 

Mr. Feise. I object to that question, and I refuse to answer it on 
the grounds of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Well, you and your wife did go abroad that year; did 
you not? 

Mr. Feise. The same answer, sir, on the same objections. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, did you cause or induce Herman Liverighl 
to come to New Orleans a few years ago? 

Mr. Feise. Did I do what? 

Mr. Morris. Did you induce him to come to New Orleans, Herman 
Liveright? 

Mr. Feise. Induce him to come to New Orleans? 

Mr. Morris. Give him encouragement or ask him to come. 

Mr. Feise. Mr. Chairman, I am sorry; I can't answer that question, 
either, on the same gi'ounds. 

Chairman Eastland. That is one time that I am pretty confident 
that a truthful answer would be incriminating. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in view of the responses of this par- 
ticular witness, I have no more questions to ask him at this time. 

Chairman Eastland. Senator Watkins? 

Senator Watkins. I have no questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Senator Jenner? 

Senator Jenner. I would like to ask one question, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Feise, do you take the position that this committee has no 
right to inquire into ^'^our membership in the Communist Party be- 
cause the Communist Party is a political part}^, and therefore we have 
no right to inquire into your political views? 

Mr. Feise. My position, sir — my position. Senator, is set forth in 
writing in the document which you have admitted to the record. Do 
3^ou wish me to read the document? 

Senator Jenner. No, because it is in the record, and I can read it. 
But I thought it would clarify matters. 

You have taken the position all through yom- testimony that this 
committee has no right to inquire into 3^our political views. 

Mr. Feise. Into my political views or anyone's political views. 

Senator Jenner. All right. Now, do you consider the Communist 
Party a political party? 

Mr. Feise. Sir, you know I cannot answer that question. 

Senator Jenner. Why can't you? 

Mr. Feise. On the same grounds. 

Senator Jenner. That is all we are trying to find out. 

Mr. Feise. On the same gromids I stood on before. 

Senator Jenner. Don't you laiow, Mr. Feise, the Communist 
Party is not a political party such as the Democrat or the Republican 
Party? Don't you laiow your Government has determmed that the 
Communist Party is a conspu-acy, out to overthrow and destroy this 
country; and do you sit here as a witness m America and say that this 
committee has no right to mquire mto your political beliefs if j^ou are 
a member of a party that is out to overthrow and destroy this country? 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I would like very much to enter into a discus- 
sion with you. 

Chairman Eastland. Just answer his questions. 

Senator Jenner. Just answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. I would, really. 



606 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party, 
Mr. Feise? 

Mr. Feise. But, I am sorry, before this committee and these pro- 
ceedings, I don't beUeve that any citizen has to answer questions 
about his thoughts, prying into his mind, what he believes, what he 
doesn't beheve 

Senator Jenner. We are not going into your thought . We are 
asking you whether you are a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Feise (continuing). What his ideas are, or what his political 
ideas are not. 

Chairman Eastland. You take your fifth amendment on his 
question as to whether or not you are now a member of the Com- 
munist Party; is that right, sir? 

Mr. Feise. Yes, Senator. You might say it is sort of a position of 
interposition 

Chairman Eastland. Answer my question. 

Mr. Feise (continuing). On my part, in relation to the committee. 

Chairman Eastland. That is ridiculous. 

Let's have order. 

Mr. Feise. Now, you understand that, because you have taken the 
same position on certain matters. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Feise. Well, I take a position of interposition in this matter. 

Chairman Eastland. I understand that, sir, and I know any decent 
American would be glad to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Feise, Well, sir, I don't know about decency, and I don't like 
that slur. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman. 

I order you 

Mr. Feise. I personally believe in the American citizen. I think 
I am as good an American as anybody else, and I have the highest 
respect for the Supreme Court of our land and its decisions, and I 
don't incite anybody to oppose the Supreme Court. I am a good 
American, Senator. 

Senator Jenner. You are a good American? Can you be a good 
American and be a member of the Communist Party at the same 
time? 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I have already told your colleague that I 
would love to get into a discussion with you. 

Senator Jenner. You can answer that question. Answer the 
question. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question, Mr. Feise. This is not 
a discussion society. 

Mr. Feise. I will not answer the question; on the same grounds 
I have stated before. 

Chairman Eastland. On the fifth amendment. 

Senator Jenner. Fifth amendment. 

Mr. Feise. This is a matter of principle with me, gentlemen, I 
believe in this. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Feise, were you a member of the Comniunist 
Party when you were director of industrial relations with the Higgins 
Industries? 

Mr. Feise.' Sir, I have already stated that I am not answering any 
questions like that, for the grounds that I have stated. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UlSnTED STATES 607 

Senator Jenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party 
when you were employed by the Government of the United States, for 
example, in the National War Labor Board, Washington, D. C? 

Mr. Feise. Su', you could ask me whether I was a member of the 
Communist Party when I was born, and I still feel the same way 
about answering the questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Senator Jenner. Regardless of how you feel, will you answer the 
question? 

Mr. Feise. I stand on my rights, as I have explained. 

Senator Jenner. You fear to answer, under the fifth amendment, 
because answering truthfully would incriminate you? 

Mr. Feise. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. That is all the questions I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Watkins. I would like to ask the witness: 

I think we have a right to inquire about the basis of your refusal 
to answer, even under your claim of the fifth amendment. Is it your 
belief, if you answered the questions truthfully, it might incriminate 
you; if you furnished that evidence, it might be used against you? 

]Mr. Feise. Well, sir, the principal basis for my answer — — 

Senator Watkins. You can answer that "yes" or "no." 

Mr. Feise. This is a legal matter. May I consult with my attorney, 
please? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. I did not see you move your 
lips. You have to ask the attorney for information. He cannot 
volunteer it. You have to ask him for advice on the question that 
is bothering you. 

Mr. Feise. All right. 

Senator Watkins. That is the only reason he is permitted here. 
You are not on trial. It is purely an investigation. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Feise. Now, what was your question, again, sir? 

Senator Watkins. Will you read the question again, Mr. Reporter? 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Feise. Senator, as I understand the fifth amendment, it is a 
protection, it is a shield, it goes way back into history —  — 

Senator Watkins. I imderstand that. 

Mr. Feise (continumg). For the innocent and the guilty. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question, sir. 

Senator Watkins. I want to know if that is the basis. 

Mr. Feise. That is how I understand the fifth amendment, and 
that is why I am using it, sir. 

Senator Watkins. I want to find out if you actually understand 
the fifth amendment. The fifth amendment does not grant immunity 
for anybody, but there must be a reasonable basis. If, in your mind, 
you are convinced if you answered the questions truthfully it might 
incriminate you, I think the objection would be well taken, and we 
should not insist upon your further answering; but I really want 
to understand what you are talking about, the basis of your claim. I 
want to know what that is. Why do you hesitate to say? 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I have said it so many times, I don't know 
what the problem is. 

Senator Watkins. I know. But I am endeavoring now to find 
out what is the basis of your understanding of the fifth amendment. 



608 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Feise. The basis of my understanding of the fifth amendment 
is that no one has to — well, let me say this: I really stand very 
strongly on the fu-st amendment. 

Senator Watkins. Well, that has been overruled. 

Mr. Feise. That is right. And because that is overruled, I go to 
the fifth amendment. I think the first amendment ought to have 
more weight than it does. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. He asked you a ques- 
tion about the fifth amendment. Answer the question. 

Senator Watkins. We will get along lots better. 

Mr. Feise. You don't have to get mad. I am explaining how I 
feel in this thing. 

Chairman Eastland. I know, but your answers have got to be 
responsive to the questions. Now, answer the question. 

^Ir. Feise. All right. I have already stated, Senator, that the 
fifth amendment is a shield of the innocent as well as the guilty. The 
fifth amendment means that no one has to testify against himself if he 
thinks the testimony that is asked for may be turned against him. 
Not that it is against him, but that it may be turned against him. 

Senator Watkins. I ask you, if you answered truthfully, it is your 
belief that it might be used against you and could be used against you? 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I am not an attorney. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Senator Watkins. You have had advice from your lawyer. Now 
tell us what your answer is going to be. 

Mr. Feise. My lawyer points out this is a complicated question, 
and I agree with him. And I would like to point out to you, Senator, 
that you are a lawyer, and I am not. 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. 

Mr. Feise. And I think 3^ou have me at a little bit of a disadvantage 
here. 

Senator Watkins. I have no one at a disadvantage. You know in 
your own mind whether you fear that telling the truth might implicate 
you and might furnish evidence against you, and you are the one that 
knows it, not me. And that is not complicated. 

Mr. Feise. Well, sir, I have no fear. 

Senator Watkins. You do not fear that it might incriminate you 
if you gave a truthful answer? 

Mr. Feise. I have no fears whatsoever. I just think that it is my 
right not to answer, and that I shouldn't answer. Now, would you 
like me to explain — — 

Senator W^atkixs. Even though — -let's get it clear — even though 
you know in your own mind it might not incriminate you? 

Mr. Feise. Even though. Before this committee I would not 
answer. 

Senator Watkins. It is just because it happens to be this com- 
mittee, and you are ushig that as a shield? 

Mr. Feise. Well, that is what we are dealing with. 

Senator Watkins. I understand. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. Feise. We are dealmg with this committee; yes. 

Senator Watkins. We want to know— you are basing it on some 
constitutional right, and we want to know how far that constitutional 
right goes. We are getting some pretty queer interpretations, judging 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 609 

by what you have said and by the objections you have placed in here, 
and we want to investigate even that question, now, as to just how 
far a person should be permitted to go under the fifth amendment. 

The courts have rather — they have construed that particular ob- 
jection, and the claim that may be made under it. But as I under- 
stand it, it has to be an honest belief that if you gave a truthful answer 
to the question, it might incriminate you. 

Now, counsel doesn't need to shake his head. It won't do any good. 

Mr. Wittenberg. Su*, the witness does not have a chance to 
answer. 

Senator Watkins. Just a minute. This is not a trial. You are 
not in a position of a trial. We are calling witnesses here to fm'nish 
information to this committee and to the United States Congress; and 
a man, before he is ever tried, would liave an opportunity to appear 
before the jmy, if he demanded a jury, he would have an opportunity 
to have his counsel there. 

We are merely trying to get information as to the operation of this 
Security Act; and since I have been hearing these witnesses, I think 
we also ought to go fm-ther into the question of the fifth amendment, 
and the claims that are being made under it, as they meet and are 
governed now by modern conditions, conditions that the people who 
drafted even the Bill of Rights never dreamed would ever happen in 
America. We never dreamed we would have a party that would be 
here as, apparently, a political party, and at the same time be the 
instrument of a foreign government. 

And we have a right now to go into the investigation of the opera- 
tions of that party and its sponsor, the foreign government, on 
American security, and that is tlie purpose of this investigation. 

\h\ Feise. Sir, you have a very novel interpretation of American 
history, I must say. 

Senator Watkins. Now, that is not the question I have asked you. 
I am trying to get at the point you keep tm'iiing away from, whethei- 
3"0u have an honest belief that if you answered this question truthfully, 
it might incriminate j'-ou. And, of com'se, you are sworn to tell the 
truth, and that would be implied in the question. 

Will you answer that question? 

Mr. Feise. It sounds like a question about questions about ques- 
tions. 

Senator Watkins. Will you answer the question? 

Chairman Eastland. Read him the question. 

Senator Watkins. You can tell me that, "Yes" or "No," or whether 
you won't answer. 

Chamnan Eastland. Read the question. 

Mr. Feise. May I ask my lawyer what this all about? 

Senator Watkins. Yes. Ask him. He is doing the talking. You 
did not ask him anything. 

Mr. Feise. He heard me tell 3'ou, what this is all about. What is 
this all about? 

Chairman Eastland. All right, we will waive the technicalitj-. 

Senator Watkins. The reason I am cautious on this matter, the 
lawyer is not testifying. You are the witness. And ordinarily, 
witnesses are not permitted to have lawyers advising you on how to 
testify. 



610 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Feise. He is not advising me on how to testify, Senator. He 
is just advising me on the legal questions involved. 

Senator Watkins. I assume that he is. 

Now, go ahead and answer the question. What is going to be your 
answer, since you got his advice? 

Mr. Feise. Senator, I have said that I do not — that I cannot and 
will not answer your questions, on the grounds stated in my state- 
ment, including the fifth amendment. 

Senator Watkins. I won't pursue it any further. The lawyers 
can take a look at it, look it over, and see whether or not there is a 
violation of the rules of the committee that are not in conflict with 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. Senator. 

Senator Jenner. I have no further questions. 

Chairman Eastland. I am going to excuse you now, sir, but you 
are retained under the subpena, and you are subject to call again. 

Mr. Wittenberg. At what time. Senator? 

Chairman Eastland. W^e will let you know. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, will you take the stand, please? 

Chairman Eastland. Would you hold your hand up? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the 
Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Feise. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. WINIFRED FEISE; ACCOMPANIED BY 
BENJAMIN E. SMITH, HER COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, will you make your appearance for the 
record, please? 

Mr. Smith. Counsel representing Mrs. Feise, Benjamin E. Smith, 
attorney 

Senator Watkins. I cannot hear you. 

Mr. Smith. Benjamin E. Smith, attorney qualified to practice in 
all the courts of the State of Louisiana and the Federal courts. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, will you give yom^ name and address to the 
reporter, please? 

Mrs. Feise. Winifred Feise. 

Mr. Morris. Speak up. 

Mrs. Feise. I thought it was for the reporter. 

Mr. Morris. We would like to know it, too. 

Mrs. Feise. Winifred Feise, F-e-i-s-e, 246 Glenwood Drive. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, was your occupation that of assistant 
librarian of the Isidore Newman School at New Orleans? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Airs. Feise. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I see. For how long have you occupied that position? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

j\lrs. Feise, Three years. 

Senator Watkins. What was that? 

Mr. Morris. How long? 

Mrs. Feise. Three years. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 611 

Mr. Morris. Have you done part-time work for the Port Travel 
Service that was run by j^our husband? 

(The witness conferred with her counseL) 

Mrs. Feise. I was a part-time voluntary; I was not a paid member 
personnel. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been an officer of the Parent-Teachers 
Association of Jefferson Parish? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feise. I object to the jurisdiction, power and jurisdiction, of 
the subcommittee to inquire into : (a)— — 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute, now. 

Mrs. Feise. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. List yom* reasons, and I will let you place 
the statement in the record, in full. 

(The statement of objections referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 
202" and was filed in the subcommittee records.) 

Mr, Morris. And this 

Chairman Eastland. If you object to answering, list your reasons. 

Mr. Morris. I would Hke to point out, the question is: Has the 
^vitness been an officer of the Parent-Teachers Association of Jefferson 
Parish? 

Mrs. Feise. This is a question which I cannot answer because, to 
start with, among other things 

Chairman Eastland. Wait a minute. You say you cannot 
answer the question? 

Mrs. Feise. Correct 



Chairman Eastland. All right, now 

Mrs. Feise. Because it is a question into my associational activities. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute, please, ma'am. 

Mrs. Feise. Yes, su-, Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. I am going to take the full document into 
the record. 

Now, anything except — any objection except the fifth amendment 
will be overruled. 

Mrs. Feise. I understand that, Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you avail yourself of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Feise. Senator 

Chairman Eastland. Wait; just answer the question. 

Mrs. Feise. Senator, you caUed these hearings, and I would like 
to answer that question so that it can be well understood. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer — wait just a minute, now. Answer 
my question: Do you avail yourself of the fiftii amendment? 

Mrs. Feise. I certainly do avail myself of the fifth, first, fourth, 
eighth, nintli, the Bill of Rights, which gives an innocent citizen 
protection, in the Constitution of the United States. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, ma'am. If you are innocent, you will 
be very glad to answer the question. 

Mrs. Feise. Do you remember the witches of Salem, the innocent 
women who had to run in hiding because they were innocent, not 
because they were guilty? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. You would be glad to answer the 
question, now. 

Mrs. Feise. I feel very much like a witch from Salem right now. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just now. 



612 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Attorntw, do you want that in the record? 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Senator, I am here to advise this witness as to her 
rights. Now, as to what she puts in the record, I have no control 
over, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Of course, I have control over what goes 
into the record, and the only thing that would be admitted is the 
fifth amendment. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I might observe, we have here in the 
courtroom a witness that we plan to ask to testify later on, but in 
view of the response of the witness to the last question, I suggest we 
interrupt the testimony now to ask Mrs. Lois Wolsch to take the stand. 

Will you stand aside, please? 

Chairman Eastland. Temporarily. 

Will you hold your hand up? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Secm-ity Subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the 
Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. WoLSCH. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. LOIS WOLSCH, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
Mrs. Wolsch? 

Mrs. Wolsch. I am Mrs. Lois Wolsch, 505 Glendale Boulevard. 

Mr. Morris. How do you spell your name? 

Mrs. Wolsch. W-o-l-s-c-h. 

Mr. Morris. Are you active in the Parent-Teachers' Association? 

Mrs. Wolsch. Yes, I am president. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us of your activities? 

Mrs. Wolsch. I am the present president of the Metairie Junior 
High School Parent-Teachers' Association. 

Mr. Morris. Do you recognize the witness, Mrs. Richard Feise, 
Mrs. Winifred Feise, who has just testified before this subcommittee? 

Mrs. Wolsch. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Morris. Who is she? 

Mrs. Wolsch. She is at present — ^well, I tell you, she had asked me 
to relieve her of her duties because of a coming baby about September. 
She was my legislative chairman for the unit. 

Prior to that, she was vice president 

Mr. Morris. She was legislative chairman of the unit? 

Mrs. Wolsch. Yes, for our schools. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have anything in your files that would indi- 
cate her activity in that organization? 

Mrs. Wolsch. Here I have — These records that I have here are when 
she was vice president, for the years of 1953-54, and 1954-55. 

Mr. Morris. And these records, together with your Ivnowledge and 
your experience with this woman, indicate very clearly that she has 
been active in the Parent-Teachers' Association of Jefferson County? 

Mrs. Wolsch. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. There is no doubt about it at all, is there? 

Mrs. Wolsch. No. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 613 

Senator Watkins. May I ask, is there anything in the activities of 
this Parent-Teachers' Association that might incriminate anybody, 
that you know of? 

Mrs. WoLSCH. Not that I know of. 

Senator Watkins. I think you are right. I never heard of one 
that did anything but good. They always do good. It is one of the 
finest organizations we have in the whole country. 

Mrs. WoLscH. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may we receive for the record — Mr. 
Chairman, may I ask the witness to offer those records? 

Mrs. WoLSCH. This is also another thing that I have here, which 
is a membership blank filled out this present year, stating that she 
wanted — they, Richard and Winifred Feise, 246 Glenwood Drive, 
and the phone number, and her child in our school, and her signature 
is here, and then she paid her dollar for her dues. It is per famUy unit. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir. They will be admitted in the record 
as exhibits to the testimony of this witness. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit No. 203," and 
were filed with the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Morris. And we will photostat them, so you will have your 
original files back. 

Mrs. WoLscH. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much, Mrs. Wolsch. 

Mrs. Feise, will you please resume the stand? 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. WINIFRED FEISE— Resumed 

Mr, Morris. Mrs. Feise, have you been active in the professional 
branch of the Communist Party m New Orleans? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feise. 1 refer to the objections which you already have written 
into the record, and I stand on the first and fifth amendments, of my 
refusal to answer that question. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Mrs. Feise, can you remember a meeting in New 
Orleans on April 1, 1951, a meeting of the Communist Party, at which 
the subject of discussion was whether a women's committee should be 
formed for the Communist Party? Do you remember such a meeting 
in New Orleans? 

The date is April 1, 1951. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. And the place is 1505 St. Bernard Avenue in New 
Orleans. 

Mrs. Feise. I object on the same grounds that I have already sub- 
mitted in my objections to the convening of this committee. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute, now. They are over- 
ruled. Let's save time. If it is the fifth amendment, say that. 

Mrs. Feise. You have overruled them, but to me they are still 
important. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, I have overruled them. Is it the fifth 
amendment? 

Mrs. Feise. I must use the fifth amendment, of course. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Did you make the recommendation at that meeting — 
and that was a meetinsr of the State committee of the Communist 



614 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Party — that a women's committee should be formed, and did you 
urgently make that recommendation to the meeting at that time? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse on the same grounds, Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Do you recall that there was a discussion at that 
meeting as to whether the Communist Party framework should be 
changed so that each group would contain 3 members instead of 5 
members — rather, 5 members instead of 3 members? 

Mrs. Feise. I object on the same grounds. Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. That is the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Feise. Correct, Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Did you take the position that you wanted that 
change effected because yom* group, in fact, contained 5 members? 

Mrs. Feise. I object to answering this question on the grounds 
already stated b3^ me and submitted in my entire brief. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us, Mrs. Feise, the names of the five 
people who were in your unit on April 1, 1951? 

Mrs. Feise. Is that a serious question? 

Mr. Morris. It is, Mrs. Feise. 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Chairman Eastland. That is the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Feise. Correct. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, say it. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend school at the University of Chicago 
between the years 1935 and 1938? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Were you active in an organization called the Nato 
Schilling Communist group on the campus of the University of Chicago 
at that time? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer the question, sir. 

Senator Jenner. On what grounds, Mr. Chairman? 

Mrs. Feise. On the grounds of the fifth amendment and the rest of 
my objections, including the first amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, my spelling of that organization is 
N-a-t-o S-c-h-i-1-l-i-n-g. 

Now, Mrs. Feise, have you been liaison between the professional 
group of the Communist Party and the Communist Party organiza- 
tion here in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer that question on the same gi-oimds. 

Mr. Morris. Did you in fact collect money from the professional 
group and tm'n it over to the district organizer of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer on the grounds that I have objected 
to, that this is an inquiry into my political beliefs, personal and pri- 
vate affairs, and associational activities, which are protected under the 
Bill of Rights of the United States of America 

Chairman Eastland. The previous objection was overruled. 

Mrs. Feise (continuing). And which includes the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. I thought you would. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, have you worked in chm-ch groups? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer on the same basis. Judge Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Have you received instructions from yom' Communist 
Party superiors to work in chm*ch gi'oups? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 615 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer on the same gi'ounds. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a gentleman named Irving Goff, a 
Communist Party organizer in New Orleans? Have you known 
him? 

Mrs. Feise.^ I refuse^to'answer^on^the same grounds. 

Aren't you getting bored? 

Mr. Morris. Did you and Mr. Feise make a trip to Rome, Paris, 
and other European cities, in late 1951? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feise. I object. This is an activity, an associational activity 
of mine; it is my private life. 

Chau-nian Eastland, We have information that it was not an 
associational activity, lady. So answer the question. 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer. Your information may be invalid. 
We know this is an era of paid informers. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer it. 

Mrs. Feise. And you may have a paid informer, and I could not 
possibly answer such a question. 

Chairman Eastland. If my information is invalid, we will be glad 
to correct it. 

Mrs. Feise. Good. 

Fifth amendment, right down the line. 

Chairman Eastland. That is what I thought. It was not an 
associational trip. 

Mrs. Feise. It certainly was. But I have to use a protection that 
our forefathers guaranteed us when they drew up and then when the 
amendments were passed. 

Chairman Eastland. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have here some records from the 
Isidore Newman School, and I offer them for the record. 

I would like to present them to the witness, to ask her if there is 
anything inaccurate about these particular records. 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Show those to t"he witness, Mr. Mandel. 

(Documents shown to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feise. You know. Senator, I don't think this committee is 
really going after the purposes of legislation. I think you are using 
sort of undue infamy, and I just cannot cooperate 

Chairman Eastland. What you think is beside the point. 

Mrs. Feise. Well, it is important, because you like this hearing for 
what you think, so people know what you think. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mrs. Feise. And I have a feeling that people must know why people 
Like me refuse to cooperate with you, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. And what the American Congress thinks, I 
think 

Mrs. Feise. What about what the Supreme Court thinks. Senator? 

Chan-man Eastland. Wait just a minute. I think what the Con- 
gress thinks is very vahd in the field in which the Constitution gives 
Congress the power. 

Now, answer the question. 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer the question. 

Chairman Eastland. Is that the fifth amendment? 

72723— 56— pt. 12 3 



616 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Feise. It certainly is. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may Mr. Mandel identify those docu- 
ments, and they may become an exhibit of this pubhc record this 
morning. 

Mr. Mandel. I have here photostat of a check No. 1010, dated 
December 20, 1955, from the Newman School at 1831 Jefferson Ave- 
nue, New Orleans, made out to W. Feise, for the amount of $168 

Mrs. Feise. Do you think that is necessary, to put the amount of a 
person's salary in a hearing of this sort? I think you might protect 
the institution involved, even if you want to "infame" me, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Proceed, sir. 

Mr. Mandel. Made out in the amount of $168.60, on the Whitney 
National Bank, endorsed on the back, "For deposit by W. Feise." 

Mr. Morris. Just give a general description, will be enough for 
our purposes. 

Mr. Mandel. There is a teacher's application, Isidore Newman; 
the name of Winifred Feise, dated March 12, 1953. A letter to Mrs. 
Winifred Feise from the director of the Isidore Newman School, 
E. S. Kalin, dated March 14, 1955, and another letter from the 
Isidore Newman School, E. S. Kalin, director, to Mrs. Richard Feise, 
dated June 25, 1953. 

Mr. Morris. May they be marked as the next exhibit. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

(The check referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 204 and 204-A," 
and appears on a foUowing page.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 



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618 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE TUSTITED STATES 



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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 619 

(The application referred to above was marked "Exhibit No. 204-B" 
and appears below:) 

Exhibit 204-B 



rSACHER'S ^'''^'r'Kl¥D¥ 

ISID-DHE NEWlv.;u. .....HOOL 

KaR!©_.-W'"»<;f.B«-j5 .. ,,F«^,iJ:,<%., ,: Dat^ H^t«d^{S,jif^S 

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,Exp<srieS506: ; school, qradi-, svibjijcts, iocatiotJ, dc.tea. o; service, etc.) 



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Exhibit No. 204-C 

Isidore Neavman School, 
New Orleans, La., March 14, 1955. 
Mrs. Winifred Feise, 
Newman School, 

New Orleans, La. 

Dear Mrs. Feise: The school committee has approved our recommendation 
that you be appointed to a full-time position next session, and has voted to in- 



620 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

crease your salary to $2,000. Full-time position entitles you also to free tuition 
for your children in attendance at our school. 

Will you please sign the acceptance form below and return this to me, keeping 
the duplicate for your records. 

With appreciation of your fine work, and with warm personal regards, I am 
Cordially yours, 

E. S. Kalin, Director. 

I hereby accept appointment of session 1955-56 as specified above. 
Date April 21 

(Signed) Winifred Feise. 



Exhibit No. 204-D 

Isidore Newiman School, 
New Orleans 15, La., June 25, 195S. 
Mrs. Richard Feise, 

New Orleans, La. 

Dear Mrs. Feise: Checking my records, I find I did not write you confirming 
your appointment as assistant librarian in charge of lowerschool library. Please 
accept my apologies for the oversight. 

This is to ask you to continue the position next session at the budgeted salary 
of $1,200. Will you please sign the acceptance below and return this for my files, 
retaining the duplicate for your records. 
With best personal regards, I am 
Sincerely, 

E. S. Kalin, Director. 

I hereby accept appointment as assistant librarian for session 1953-54 at an 
annual salary of $1,200. 

(Signed) Winifred Feise. 
Date July 8, 1953. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, I offer you a picture which the committee 
has been informed was taken at the Civil Rights Congress in Jackson, 
Miss., on July 26 or 27 of 1950, and ask you if, to your knowledge, 
that is a picture of you, and if the description that has been given to 
the committee of that particular meeting is accurate or not. 

(Docmnent exliibited to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer the question. Senator, 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Wliat are your grounds? 

Mrs. Feise. The usual grounds, Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. The fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Feise. Correct. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, ma}^ that be admitted as an exhibit? 

(The photograph referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 205", and 
appears on a following page.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness if she in fact 
spoke in Jackson, Miss., at a Civil Rights Congress on the 26th or 
27th of July in 1950? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. Will you answer the question, Mrs. Feise? 

Mrs. Feise. I need time, sir, to think just how I want to answer 
this question. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mrs. Feise. Senator, I refuse to answer that question on the 
grounds of the fifth amendment, but I think we are getting into the 
"knitty-gritty" of this hearing, now that you mention the question 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 621 



Exhibit 205 




Chairman Eastland. Yes. You do not want to give j^our country 
any information. 

Mrs. Feise. Information, sir? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

All right, you availed yourself of the fifth amendment. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, were you asked by tlie United States 
State Department to surrender your passport after the completion of 
your trip to Europe which commenced in 1951? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer, on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Was your passport No. 2439, issued on October 15, 
1951? 

Mrs. Feise. I refuse to answer. 

Chahman Eastland. Now, isn't it a fact, or is it a fact, that you 
and vour husband went to Europe on a mission for the Communist 
Party? 

xllrs. Feise. I refuse to answer that. Senator. You know the 
truth as well as I do, and if it weren't for the era of paid informers — we 
might have a private debate sometime. 

Chairman Eastland. "What is your ground for refusing to answer 
the question? 

Mrs. Feise. Afraid it might incriminate me. 

Chau-man Eastland. Afraid it might incriminate you. I am sure 
of that. 

Proceed. 



622 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. In view of the present responses of this particular 
witness, Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions at this particular 
time. 

Senator Jexner. I have no questions. 

Senator Watkins. I have none at this time. I think the witness 
ought not be released from this subpena until we finish the hearings. 

Chairman Eastland. That is right. 

Mr. Smith. Will you inform us of the time you want her to return? 

Chau-man Eastland. Yes, but I want you to stay here until any 
time we might need you. 

Mr. Smith, come here. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Chairman Eastland. I understand that this lady is feeding a 
baby, and for that reason I am going to let her go, but she will come 
back in the morning. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Pauline Feuer, please, come forward. 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up, please, ma'am. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary is 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Feuer. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. PAULINE FEUER, NEW ORLEANS, LA., 
ACCOMPANIED BY PHILIP WITTENBERG, HER COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this particular witness is being called 
in connection with the hearings the Internal Secm*ity Subcommittee is 
holding in connection with the extent and nature of Soviet activity in 
the United States. 

The committee is holding this series of hearings in order to determine 
whether or not additional legislative action may be necessary or 
should be recommended by the subcommittee. 

Mrs. Feuer, will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please? 

Mrs. Feuer. Yes. My name is Mrs. Pauline Feuer. I live at 
2224 General Taylor, New Orleans. 

Mr. Morris. Are you the widow of Joseph S. Feuer? 

Mrs. Feuer. I am the widow of Joseph S. Feuer. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what is your present occupation, Mrs. Feuer? 

Mrs. Feuer. I am a .student at the School of Social Work of 
Tulane University. 

Mr. Morris. Are you employed at the Hutchinson Memorial as a 
psychiatric social worker? 

Mrs. Feuer. I am not employed there. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been so employed? 

Mrs. Feuer. I have never been employed so. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat employment — will you tell us of your other 
employment in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Feuer. I would be delighted to. I am rather proud of the 
record. 

I have had one job. I have worked for the juvenile court as a pro- 
bation officer between school terms during this past summer. 

Mr. Morris. Did you receive your bachelor's degree at Tulane 
University in 1955? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 623 

Mrs. Feuer. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat other employment have you had in New 
Orleans in the last few years? 

Mrs. Feuer. I have not been employed elsewdiere in New Orleans. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mrs. Feuer? 

Mrs. Feuer. I was born in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Morris. What was your formal education in Philadephia? 

Mrs. Feuer. I am a graduate of the Philadelphia Normal School. 

Mr. Morris. What year did you gi-aduate from the Philadelphia 
Normal School? 

Mrs. Feuer. I am not sure. I think it was 1928. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may the record show that Mr. 
[Philip] Wittenberg is appearing as counsel for this witness. 

Weie you a teacher in the Philadelphia School of Social Sciences in 
Philadelphia? 

Mrs. Feuer. I was. I taught current events there. 

Mr. Morris. In what year was that? 

Mrs. Feuer. I am sorry; I don't recall exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Could you estimate it for us, Mrs. Feuer? 

Mrs. Feuer. I can't. It was in the thirties, and probably around 
1935, but I am not sure of the date. It was quite a while ago. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feuer, w^ere j^ou a member of the Communist 
Party while you taught at that school? 

Mrs. Feuer. Gentlemen, I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Morris. I didn't ask you that. 

Mrs. Feuer. And I wish to say this 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute, please, ma'am. Now, 
we will get along better if the answer is responsive to the question. 

Counsel asked j^ou if j'ou were a member of the Communist 
Party 

Mrs. Feuer. I heard — I am sorry. Senator Eastland. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a moment. When you taught in 
Philadelphia, which was around, you said, 1935. Now, answer that 
question, please, ma'am. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. I am not a member of the Communist Party. I 
object 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Mrs. Feuer. I object — I hereby respectfully object to the power 
and jurisdiction of the subcommittee 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Mrs. Feuer. I would like to read my objections. 

Chairman Eastland. I am going to admit it into the record. Do 
you avail yourself of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Feuer. I do not avail myself of the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. Now 

Mrs. Feuer. Now, Senator Eastland- 



Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. I know your kind of 
people, 

Mrs. Feuer. I wUl not be impugned by being called my kind of 
people. 

Chairman Eastland. I understand. 

I am going to let you state your objections in full. 



624 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Feuer. Senator Eastland, you have impugned me on two oc- 
casions in this committee. I sat in this audience and heard you tell 
that my husband's death, a personal traged}' that affected my children 
and me, was tied up with some kind of miasma that you gentlemen 
have thought up. I think my children, myself, and my private life 
shoidd be kept out of this. 

How indecent can you get? 

Chairman Eastland. State your objections. 

Mrs. Feuer. I have stated m}^ objections as a human being, and 
to hear here further 

Chairman Eastland. State them. 

Mrs. Feuer. I want to finish this, if you please. 

I hereby object to any inquiry into m}^ political beliefs, my personal 
and private affairs, and my associational activities, and whatever 
personal tragedies have occurred in my life that have made life difficult 
for my two small children; I object to tliis inquisition, and I object on 
the following grounds, grounds handed down by the Supreme Court of 
the United States, behind which I stand firmly. 

I have never yet, once in my life, attempted any kind of organized 
resistance against a Supreme Com-t decision. I shall not do it now. 

And any investigation iito my political beliefs, my personal and 
private affairs, and my associational activities, is an inquiry into 
personal and private affairs, wliich is beyond the powers of this 
subcommittee. 

I rely not upon my own opinion. I am not a lawyer; I am a social 
worker interested in the welfare of human beings. But I rely upon 
the statements contained in the opinions of the Supreme Court of the 
United States. They are good enough for me, gentlemen. 

Among others, the Rumely case: 

The power of investigation is also limited. Inquiry into personal and private 
affairs — 

and, may I say, personal tragedy — 

is precluded. 

I rely on the McGrain and Daughertj^ case: 

Neither House is invested with general power to inquire into private affairs 
and to compel disclosures. 

I don't want to read the rest of this, gentlemen, but I do want to 
say that if I am guilty of a crime, I wish to be tried before a court of 
the United States. 

(The statement of objections was marked "Exhibit No. 206" and 

reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 206 

1. I am not a Communist, lihereby respectfully object to the power and juris- 
diction of the subcommittee to inquire into — 

(a) My political beliefs. 

(b) Any other personal and private affairs. 

(c) My associational activities. 

2. I object on the following grounds: 

(a) Any investigation into my political beliefs, any other personal and private 
affairs, and my associational activities, is an inquiry into personal and private 
affairs which is beyond the powers of this subcommittee. I rely not upon my own 
opinion but upon statements contained in the opinions of the Supreme Court of 
the United States. Among others, in United States v, Rumely (345 U. S. 41, 58), 
the Supreme Court of the United States said in a concurring opinion by Mr. 
Justice Douglas: 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 625 

"The power of investigation is also limited. Inquiry into personal and private 
affairs is precluded." 

In McGrain v. Davgherty (273 U. S. 135), the Court said: 

"Neither House is invested with 'general' power to inquire into private affairs 
and to compel disclosures." 

And in Kilhourn v. Thompson (103 U. S. 168), the Court said: 

"Neither the Senate nor the House of Representatives 'possesses the general 
power of making inquiry into the private affairs of the citizens'." 

In West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (319 U. S. 624), the Court, 
in an opinion by Mr. Justice Jackson said: 

"If there is any fixed star in our constitutional constellation it is that no official, 
high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, 
religion, or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act 
their faith therein." 

It follows therefore that this subcommittee is without power to examine into 
my political, associational, and private affairs. 

(b) The right to refuse to answer to any official, or indeed to anyone, with 
regard to one's personal affairs is a valuable right in a democracy which ought 
not lightly be ceded, or indeed ought ever be impinged upon by any public official. 
The Congress of the United States is composed of elected officials who have no 
power to intrude into the private affairs of American citizens. They cannot by 
resolution increase their constitutional authority. As was said by the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in Jones v. Securities and Exchange Commission 
(298 U. S. 1): 

"The citizen when interrogated about his private affairs has a right before 
answering to know why the inquiry is made, and if the purpose disclosed is not 
a legitimate one, he may not be compelled to answer." 

And again, in McGrain v. Daugherty (273 U. S. 135): 

"That a witness rightfully may refuse to answer where the bounds of the power 
are exceeded." 

It was said by Mr. Justice Frankfurter, in United States v. United Mine Workers 
of America (330 U. S. 258, 307): 

"The historic phrase 'government of laws and not of men' epitomizes the dis- 
tinguishing character of our political society. * * * 'A government of laws and 
not of men' was the rejection in positive terms of rule by fiat, whether by the fiat 
of governmental or private power. Every act of Government may be challenged 
by an appeal to law, as finally pronounced by this Court." 

And again, in Yonngstown Sheet tfc Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579): 

"The accretion of dangerous power does not come in a day. It does come, 
however slowly, from the generative force of unchecked disregard of the restric- 
tions that fence in even the most disinterested assertions of authority." 

Within the meaning of these decisions I regard it as one of the duties of a 
citizen of the United States to be vigilant against the accretion of dangerous 
power. I call to the attention of this subcommittee the opinion of Mr. Justice 
Douglas, in Yonngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579), that even 
the cold war and the emergencies said to have been created thereby, "did not 
create power." 

(c) Under the first amendment to the Constitution the power of investigation 
by Congress in matters involving freedom of speech and freedom of the press is 
limited. There can be no investigation except for the purpose of legislation. 
As was said by Mr. Justice Van Dorvanter, in McGrain v. Daugherty (273 U. S. 
135, 178): 

"The only legitimate object the Senate could have in ordering the investigation 
was to aid it in legislating." 

The Congress of the United States has no constitutional right to legislate with 
regard to prior restraint on utterance; no ex post facto law can be passed deter- 
mining innocence or criminality, and therefore any investigations into my speech 
or communications is beyond the power of this committee. As was said by 
Mr. Justice Douglas, in United States v. Riimely (345 U. S. 41, 58): 

"Through the harassment of hearings, investigations, reports, and subpenas 
Government will hold a club over speech and over the press. Congress could 
not do this by law. The power of investigation is also limited. Inquiry into 
personal and private affairs is precluded." 

(d) Under our Constitution our Government is a government of limited powers, 
tripartite in form, consisting of the legislative, the judicial, and the executive. 
This separation is fundamental to the preservation of the rights of the people in 
order that no one department may, through its power, rise to become a despotic 
arbiter. 



626 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

In the absence of proposed legislation there can be no investigation, for all 
powers not expressly granted or necessarily implied are reserved to the people. 
Neither of the tripartite departments of our Government can claim any residual 
power as a basis for acting. In order that there might be no doubt about the 
limitations of power and the wish not to grant residual power the citizens of the 
several States insisted on the insertion in the Bill of Rights of amendment 9: 

"The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people." 

They reinforced amendment 9 by amendment 10: 

"The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor 
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the 
people." 

This Congress and the committees appointed by it can emioy only the powers 
expressly granted in the Constitution or necessarily implied therefrom. Senators 
or committeemen thereof as officials of the Government do not have, and cannot 
arrogate to themselves, a power to intrude into the private affairs of the people 
of the United States, a power which the people reserve to themselves. The 
arrogation of power may be curtailed either by an appeal to the courts, or what is 
to be more hoped for, by the self-discipline of those entrusted with authority. 
The possibility of petty tyranny is ever present in a democracy unless the body 
of officialdom is wise and knows that self-limitation is essential to the success of 
our scheme of government. As Mr. Justice Frankfurter said, in Youngstown 
Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (343 U. S. 579) : 

"A constitutional democracy like ours is perhaps the most difficult of man's 
social arrangements to manage successfully. Our scheme of society is more 
dependent than any other form of government on knowledge and wisdom and self- 
discipline for the achievement of its aims." 

This subcommittee through this investigation into my political, associational, 
and private affairs trespassed upon the judicial department and has caused a lack 
of balance of power which constitutes a threat to my liberty as an American citizen 
and is an unconstitutional usurpation. This usurpation has reached the point 
where the Supreme Court of the United States in United States v. Rumely (345 
U. S. 41, 44), said: 

" 'And so, we would have to be that "blind" court, against which Mr.Chief 
Justice Taft admonished in a famous passage, that does not see what all others 
can see and understand' not to know that there is wide concern, both in and out 
of Congress, over some aspects of the exercise of the congressional power of 
investigation." 

No place is that usurpation better seen than in the trespassing by the Legislature 
upon the judiciary. As was said in Lighter v. United States (334 U. S. 742, 779) : 

"In peace or in war it is essential that the Constitution be scrupulously obeyed, 
and particularly that the respective branches of the Government keep within the 
powers assigned to each by the Constitution." 

And again, in Myers v. United States (272 U. S. 82, 116), by Mr. Justice Taft: 

"if there is a principle in our Constitution, indeed in any free constitution more 
sacred than another, it is that which separates the legislative, executive and 
judicial powers." 

In Ouinn v. United States (349 U. S. 155-161), the Supreme Court, by Mr. 
Chief Justice Warren, said: 

"But the power to investigate, broad as it may be, is also subject to recognized 
limitations. It cannot be used to inquire into private affairs unrelated to a valid 
legislative purpose. Nor does it extend to an area in which Congress is forbidden 
to legislate. Similarly, the power to investigate must not be confused with any 
of the powers of law enforcement; those powers are assigned under our Constitu- 
tion to the executive and the judiciary." 

And again, by Mr. Justice Brandeis, in Myers v. United States (272 U. S. 52, 
293, 71 L. at 160) : 

"The doctrine of the separation of powers was adopted by the Convention of 
1787 not to promote efficiency but to preclude the exercise of arbitrary power. 
The purpose was not to fight friction but, by means of the inevitable friction inci- 
dent to the distribution of the governmental powers among three departments, to 
save the people from autocracy." 

And again, in Kilhourn v. Thompson (103 U. S. 168): 

"It is believed to be one of the chief merits of the American system of written 
constitutional law that all the powers entrusted to governments, whether State or 
National, are divided into the three grand departments; the executive, the legis- 
lative, and the judicial. * *_* 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 627 

"It is also essential to the successful working of this system that the persons 
entrusted with power in any one of these branches shall not be permitted to 
encroach upon the powers confided to the others but that each shall by the law of 
its creation be limited to the exercise of the power appropriate to its own depart- 
ment and no other." 

Not only did the founders of our Republic separate the departments of Govern- 
ment, but they also limited the powers of each of those departments. It is a 
simple statement known to every American schoolchild that our Government 
consists of separate departments, that the powers of each of those departments 
is limited, and that all rights not granted to the Government are reserved to the 
people. 

To be specific, Congress has the specific power to legislate granted to it by the 
Constitution. It has an implied power to investigate which, however, can be 
no broader than the power to legislate. 

But when such self-discipline is not apparent in the actions of any governing 
body then it becomes the duty of the citizen to challenge that act by an appeal 
to law. It is that duty which I here feel obliged to maintain (see United States 
V. United Mine Workers of America (330 U. S. 258). 

This subcommittee by compelling me to leave my ordinary pursuits and to 
attend before it for the purpose of testifying with regard to my political beliefs, 
other personal and private affairs, and my associational activities, is acting as a 
judicial indicting and accusatory power. It is intruding into the judicial sphere 
and is following a practice which closely parallels the practices which resulted in 
bills of attainder, being prohibited by our Constitution (art. 1, sec. 10). 

The present practices of this committee fall within the condemnation and 
prohibition of that section. 

The Supreme Court said, in United States v. Lovett (328 U. S. 303, 317) : 

"Those who wrote our constitution well know the danger inherent in special 
legislative acts which take away the life, liberty or property of particular-named 
persons, because the Legislature thinks them guilty of conduct which deserves 
punishment. They intended to safeguard the people of this country from punish- 
ment without trial by duly constituted courts.* * * 

"And even the courts to which this important function was entrusted were com- 
manded to stay their hands until and unless certain tested safeguards were ob- 
served. An accused in court must be tried by an impartial jury; has a right to be 
represented by counsel; he must be clearly informed of the charge against him; 
the law which he is charged with violating must have been passed before he com- 
mitted the act charged; he must be confronted by the witnesses against him; he 
must not be compelled to incriminate himself.* * * 

"Our ancestors had ample reason to know that legislative trials and punishments 
were too dangerous to liberty to exist in the Nation of freemen they envisioned. 
And so they proscribed bills of attainder." 

But a bill of attainder need not be the specific bill of attainder referred to in the 
Constitution. It may be any legislative act taken in connection with known 
punishments which together constitute a deprivation of civil rights. So to ask 
us whether I am or have been a member of the Communist Party may have dire 
consequences. I might wish to defend myself by taking recourse to the protection 
of the provisions contained in the Bill of Rights or challenge the pertinency of 
the question to the investigation. Should I invoke the protection of the Bill of 
Rights and the Constitution I thereby place my livelihood and my position in 
society in a position of jeopardy. Many of our States, municipalities, educational 
institutions, the Federal Government itself, and even private employers, have 
adopted rules of exclusion from employment for persons taking recourse in the 
Bill of Rights or the Constitution. 

The Supreme Court of the United States took cognizance of this condition in 
1950, a time when it had not yet reached the full flavor of today. For in 1950, 
Mr. Justice Black, concurring in Jolet Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee v. McGrath 
(341, U. S. 123, 144, 145, said): 

"In this day when prejudice, hate, and fear are constantly invoked to justify 
irresponsible sneers and persecutions of persons even faintly suspected of enter- 
taining unpopular views, it may be futile to suggest that the cause of internal 
security would be fostered, not hurt, by faithful adherence to our constitutional 
guaranties of individual liberty. Nevertheless, since prejudice manifests itself in 
much the same way in every age and country and since what has happened before 
can happen again, it surely should not be amiss to call attention to what has occur- 
red when dominant governmental groups have been left free to give uncontrolled 
rein to their prejudices against unorthodox minorities. * * * Memories of such 



628 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

events were fresh in the minds of the founders when thej' forbade the use of the 
bill of attainder." 

And he said further: 

"Moreover, officially prepared and proclaimed governmental blacklists possess 
almost every quality of bills of attainder, the use of which was from the beginning 
forbidden to both National and State Governments." (United States Constitu- 
tion, art. 1, sees. 9, 10.) 

As was said in United States v. Lovett (328, U. S., 303, 324), cited by Mr. Justice 
Black in the preceding opinion: 

"Figuratively speaking, all discomforting actions may be deemed punishment 
because it deprives of what otherwise would be enjoyed. * * * The depriva- 
tion of any rights, civil or political, previously enjoyed, may be punishment, the 
circumstances attending and the cause of the deprivation deteremining this fact." 

Upon all the grounds aforesaid I object not only to the jurisdiction of this 
committee, but also to the questions propounded by it. This objection is made 
upon the advice of counsel. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, you are ordered — your objections are 
overruled. 

Mr. Reporter, read the question. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. Feuer. I have stated my objections. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer that ques- 
tion. It is very pertinent to this inquiry. 

(The witness conferred \\dth her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. I object upon the grounds stated here, and I wish the 
objection entered into the record, upon advice of counsel. 

Chairman Eastland. It is admitted, what you read. 

Mrs. Feuer. I wish this whole thing submitted. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Now, as I understand, that does not include the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Feuer. It does not include the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. I order and direct you, under 
penalty of contempt, to answer the question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I well know the penalty, and at the price of a contempt 
from this group, I will stand by my Bill of Rights, gentlemen. 

Chau'man Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I object. Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, that is overruled. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I object. Senator, on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Morris. Do you refuse to answer the question? 

Mrs. Feuer. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Do you refuse to answer the question? 

Mrs. Feuer. I object on the gi'ounds stated in that docmnent 
I have handed you. 

Mr. Morris. But apart from that, do you refuse to answer? 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been employed by the Moscow Department 
of Education of the Soviet Union? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. I object on the same grounds, gentlemen. 

Chairman Eastland. The objection is overruled, and you are 
directed 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Chairman Eastland. And you are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Feuer, Senator, I refuse, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read into the record 
at this time the questions and the answers of this witness in this same 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 629 

courtroom before Senator Watkins, as acting chairman, 2 days ago. 
The question asked of the witness by counsel was: 

Mr. Morris. In 1931-32, you were employed as a technician by the Moscow 
Department of Education, were you not? 

IVIrs. Feuer. I taught English. I was not a technician. I taught English there 
at a school called the Technicum. That was when I was on a trip abroad. I had 
gotten out of normal school, I went to France, I believe, and Germany, and the 
Soviet Union, and taught English there. It was for a period of approximately 
2 or 3 months. But my job was teaching English, 

Chairman Eastland. The objection is overruled, and slie is ordered 
to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Senator Jenner. Let the record show she refused to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Morris. Do you refuse to answer that question? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. You have this in the record, and I wish to say one more 
thing. It might interest you gentlemen that I taught English there, 
and I used as part of my text the Constitution of the United States. 
I was doing much the same work that the Voice of America was doing, 
and I was being paid for teaching English. 

Chairman Eastland. Wlio paid you? 

Mrs. Feuer. I was paid by the head of the school. 

Mr. Morris. Who was the head of the school? 

Airs. Feuer. I don't remember, gentlemen. It was in 1930. It 
was a Russian school; part of the public system of education, as far 
as I know. 

Mr. Morris. Were j^ou a member of the Communist Party at 
that time? 

Mrs. Feuer. I have stated my objections to answering that ques- 
tion, and my refusal is based on the same grounds. 

Chairman Eastland. The objection is overruled, and you are 
ordered and directed to answer that question. 

Mrs. Feuer. Gentlemen — excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. You have it in m}^ statement, I am not a Communist, 
and I refuse to answer the question. 

Chairman Eastland. The question was: Were you a Communist 
at that time? I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I am not a Communist, and I refuse to answer on 
the grounds stated in my statement. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I do not think the answer is 
responsive to the question. It is not a question of whether or not 
you are a Communist now. It is a question of whether or not she 
was a Communist when she taught in this Russian school and taught 
English and was paid by the Russian school. 

I think the committee is entitled to that information, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Eastland. She is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mrs. Feuer. Gentlemen, for the fourth time, I refuse. I am not a 
Communist. This is getting to be inquisitorial. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question? 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Senator Jenner. I think maybe we can clear this matter up. 



630 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Are you now or have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. I am not a Communist. I refuse to answer on the 
same grounds in there. You are asking me when I stopped beating my 
children. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I request that you order and direct 
the witness to answer the question: Are j'^ou now or have you ever 
been a member of the Communist Party? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. She is ordered and directed to answer 
the question. 

Mrs. Feuer. How many times am I going to be asked the same 
one, when I have given you my refusal on this? I am not a Com- 
munist, and I refuse to answer on the basis of this thing here. 

Chairman Eastland. As I understand it, you refuse to answer — 
you state you are not a Communist at the present time, but you refuse 
to answer as to whether you have previously been a member of the 
Communist Party. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Senator Jenner. Let the record show, Mr. Chairman, that the 
witness, before responding to this simple question, confers with her 
attorney. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mrs. Feuer. Pardon me, I didn't hear you. 

Senator Jenner. It is just a matter for the record. 

Mrs. Feuer. I will simply state, I stand on my refusal as stated in 
my brief. 

Mr. Morris. Your refusal does not include your privilege against 
self-m crimination ? 

Mrs. Feuer. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Your refusal is not based upon your privilege against 
self-incrimmation ? 

Mrs. Feuer. It is not based on that, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I therefore suggest you direct the 
witness to answer the question. 

Chairman Eastland. She is agam directed and ordered to answer 
the question, under penalty of contempt of the United States Senate. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feuer, did you attend meetings 

Senator Jenner. Wait a minute. 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me. Senator. 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds that 
I have stated there. I think this is the fifth refusal. Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feuer, have you attended meetings at the home 
of Herman Liveright in New Orleans? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. As a matter of principle— I have nothing to hide, and 
as a matter of principle, I refuse to answer that question. 

Chairman Eastland. You are ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Morris. These grounds do not include your privilege under 
the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Feuer. They do not include the fifth amendment. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 631 

Chairman Eastland. They are pertinent to this inquiry, ma'am, 
and you are directed, under penalty of contempt, to answer the ques- 
tion. 

Mrs. Feuer. I am very cognizant of that, and I refuse on the basis 
stated in the document you have in front of you. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Feuer, were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party when you attended meetings at the home of Herman 
Liveright here in New Orleans? Were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time when you attended meetings at the home of 
Herman Liveright in New Orleans? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. I did not attend meetings, and I refuse to answer. 
You ask it as if it were a fait accompli. Is this fair? 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend 

Mrs. Feuer. I said I refuse to answer on a matter of principle. 
But I will not have my good name and my character and my pro- 
fessional position in this community impugned in this way. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs, Feuer, we are trying to determine exactly what 
is your position with respect to the Communist Party. That is the 
purpose of this inquiry. 

Mrs. Feuer. Mr. Morris, I am a widow with two small children, 
whose livelihood I am responsible for. If you so blacken my name 
that I can get no employment — because this has happened before to 
innocent people — then your conscience is something that you must 
live with. Mine is clear. 

Chairman Eastland. You have nothing to fear by being frank 
and open. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend meetings at the home of the 
Liverights? 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer on the basis that I have stated. 

Mr. Morris. Do you remember writing a letter to the New Orleans 
Item on October 13, 1953, or at least ^vriting a letter that appeared 
in the New Orleans Item on October 13, 1953, signed "Mrs. Joseph 
Feuer, chairman of the National 

Chairman Eastland. She is conferring with counsel. 

Mr. Morris (continuing). Chairman, national legislation, Louisi- 
ana Parent-Teacher Association"? 

Mrs. Feuer. Everyone knows what the PTA stands for. I am 
not impugning it, but as a matter of principle, I refuse to answer. I 
am proud of the PTA in America. 

Mr. Morris. On what basis do you refuse to answer that question? 

Mrs. Feuer. On the basis this is an inquiry into my associational 
activity. These are stated in my brief. 

Mr. Morris. This does not include your privilege against self- 
incrimination? 

Mrs. Feuer. It most certainly does not. 

Chairman Eastland. The letter says that you were chahman of 
national legislation, Louisiana Parent-Teacher Association, which 
would appear that you were attempting to influence national legisla- 
tion on behalf of the parent-teacher association at a time when our 
infoi'mation is that you were a member of the Communist Party. 

Now, I overrule your objection to the question, and I order and 
direct you to answer the question. 

72723 — 5&— pt. 12 i 



632 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IK THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Feuer. This is the hardest thing in the world for me to do, to 
keep quiet. 

Chairman Eastland. It is not hard for you to tell the truth, be 
open and frank. 

Mrs. Feuer. No. I have something to say here. I have an 
investment in this Constitution, and on that principle, even with a 
record I am so proud of in behalf of my work for the children of this 
State, I refuse to answer, on principle, and my objections are stated 
in the document you have in front of you. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, may I state to this witness, we 
all have an investment in the Constitution. And there is a conspiracy, 
known as the Communist conspiracy, out to overthrow and destroy 
this Constitution, and I think the witness should be apprised of that. 

I am informed in executive session the record reads like this: 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feuer, are you chairman of the national legislative com- 
mittee of the Louisiana Parent-Teachers Association? 

Mrs. Feuer. No. I was; I am not at present. 

Mr. Morris. What year was that? 

Mrs. Feuer. I believe it ended in 1955. It might have been 1954, Mr. Morris; 
I am not quite sure. 

Mr. Morris. And you have written a letter to the editor of the New Orleans 
Times in the year, I think it was, 1953, with that title? 

Mrs. Feuer. Yes, I did. I didn't recall — it was on the appointive school head; 
I do remember that. Yes, that is my article. 

Now, Mr. Chau-man, in view of that record m executive session, 
we need this testimony for open session, and I suggest that the witness 
be ordered and directed to ansAver the simple question counsel has 
asked her. 

Senator Watkixs. I also suggest she has waived any protection 
under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Jenner. She is not using the fifth amendment; therefore, 
she has no protection. 

Senator Watkins. She is waiving any of the other objections. 

Senator Jenner. She has opened up the subject, and we are entitled 
to go into it. The parent-teachers association is a good organization, 
but if it is being infiltrated by members who are members of the 
Communist conspiracy, they will destroy the parent-teachers asso- 
ciation, too. 

Chairman Eastland. Or use it as a tool for the Communist Party. 

Senator Jenner. Absolutely. 

Chah'man Eastland. I order and dii'ect you to answer the question, 
and I do that under penalty of contempt if you do not. 

(The witness conferred with Jier counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. I am no orator, gentlemen; and — may I finish? 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer tliis question, much as I am de- 
lighted in everything I believe in witli children. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. I ask you this question, ma'am: 
Were the questions and answers that Senator Jenner read j^ou true? 

Mrs. Feuer. On a matter of principle, because my principles are 
pretty stanch, gentlemen, I refuse to answer. You have the record 
before you. Do with it what you will. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the witness a question? 

Do you have one set of principles in an open session, and another 
set of principles in an executive session? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 633 

Mrs. Feuer. ^lny I ask the same question of you, Senator. 

Senator Jexner. I wasn't at the executive session. 

Mrs. Feuer. Then let me ask it of the people who were. 

Senator Jenner. I am reading from the record. Is the record true 
or is the record untrue? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I stand on my objections and ni}" refusal to answer. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I suggest the witness be ordered 
and directed to answer the question. 

Chairman Eastland. She is ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

]Mrs. Feuer. I stand on it for the reasons stated in the document. 

Mr. Morris. And they do not include the privilege against self- 
incrimination? 

Mrs. Feuer. You have repeated that many times, Mr. Morris. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer it. 

Mr. Morris. It does not? 

Mrs. Feuer. It does not. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Were you a member of the Communist Part}^ on October 13, 1953, 
when this particular letter appeared in the New Orleans Item? 

Mrs. Feuer. I am not a Communist. I wiU not be impugned, and 
I am not answering that question. 

Mr. Morris. That was not the question. 

Chau-man Eastland. Yes, but you are dodging. Now, answer 
his question. He asked you if you were a Communist at the time 
that letter appeared in the New Orleans Item in 1953. 

Mrs. Feuer. I want no tags of dodging put on me. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I am going to answer the question. Put a tag of 
"principles" on my stand, if you please. I refuse to answer that 
question. 

Chau-man Eastland. You are ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer on the first amendment, not the 
fifth, the ninth amendment, and the Bill of Rights that protects the 
citizens of the United States. 

Chauman Eastland. They are overruled. 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. She has included the BiU of 
Rights at this time, and that includes the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Feuer. I am excluding the fifth amendment. Senator Watkins. 

Senator Watkins. We have to make a record here, and it is a little 
difficult to make a record 

Mrs, Feuer. Yes, Senator. 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. Let me talk, and we will let 
you talk. 

We have to make a record. We ask these questions, and you think 
they are repetitious, but for the pm-pose of this record we have to do it. 

This matter has not been decided by the Supreme Court, as I recall, 
definitely and specifically on the first amendment. It has been on the 
fifth amendment. 

With respect to objections to testify — I am advised that I am mis- 
taken on that; that it has been decided on the first amendment. 



634 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

There is a man now in jail. He claimed the protection of the first 
amendment, and he could not get by with it. 

You see, we have been asking you a series of questions, and you are 
very willing to say that you are not now a Communist 

Mrs. Feuer. I didn't say I am not now a Communist. I said I 
am not a Communist. You made the differentiation; I didn't make it. 

Senator Watkins. I just can't see it. 

Mrs. Feuer. Explain to me, as a lawyer, why you have to repeat 
these things. Let me explain to you as a psychiatric social worker 
what this does to a human being in terms of wrecks of feelings and abili- 
ity to function, and what it does to a family. 

You gentlemen who have respect for the families of America, con- 
sider mine. 

Senator Watkins. I think we have some respect for the families 
of America. We are men who have families. 

Mrs. Feuer. I know you have. 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. You will have your oppor- 
tunity. 

You made some of these charges about this committee. This com- 
mittee is sworn to uphold the Constitution of the United States, and 
we follow what the Court has ruled. 

With respect to the first amendment, which j^ou claim, and with 
respect to the others except the fifth amendment, I am advised by 
the chairman the Supreme Court has ruled on those matters, and 
you cannot refuse to answer those matters simply on the ground of 
those other amendments. 

And I am advising you, under those circumstances, the law being 
as I understand it is, and I am now so advised that it is, that it is 
our duty to insist upon these answers and to make a record on this 
matter, because you are not the only one we have to interrogate. 
We have to hold hearings over this country, because we have found 
that this conspiracy which seeks to overthrow this Government is 
directed, in fact, by a foreign government. 

We are trying to protect the lives and the necks of all of us so we 
will not be obliterated some night by bombs, the secrets of which were 
stolen from this country by spies, and people who have very respect- 
able positions in this country were informers for the other side. 

Now, it is the life of this country that is at stake. We are being 
taxed billions of dollars to provide defenses on the field of battle, and 
at the same time we must also protect the internal security. 

Many times the enemies from within are far more dangerous than 
those on the outside. We could protect against those outside, but 
unless we know who they are on the inside, we cannot build up our 
protection; that is for you and your children, that is for all of us. 

We try to protect motherhood; we try to protect the American 
home, all of us. We have a duty we are trying to discharge here, 
and I cannot sit here silent and hear you make these charges against 
the Congress of the United States. 

We are seeking to protect and defend this country. If you wanted 
to cooperate, it would be just as easy for you to answer the other 
question. You have a right not to answer it if you don't want to, 
I mean under the fifth amendment, but you have not claimed that. 

But when you are here, it is your duty to answer these questions 
and to submit to the rules and regulations that have been upheld by 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 635 

the courts of this country and by the Constitution of this country, 
and by the Court interpreting that Constitution. 

Now, we are not here to try j'ou. We are not here to sentence you to 
anything. We are here to get the information. And the mformation 
we have in our possession indicates that in this very community there 
is an active Communist movement, and we are trying to find out, 
because if there is, we have got to get laws, maybe we will have to 
change our laws, so they will root out any of those conspiracies any- 
where in the United States. 

This is a great port and a great city, and a vulnerable city from the 
point of attack, and we certainly intend to do our duty here. 

Now, it is all right to wave the flag of motherhood. We all have 
respect 

Mrs. Feuer. No, Senator; do not say that to me. 

Senator Watkins. I understand, but you have been waving it. 

Mrs. Feuer. It has not been a wavmg. Senator. 

Senator Watkins. You come to one question only, and you refuse; 
you don't claim the protection of the fifth amendment; 3^ou don't say 
it would incriminate you, and yet you say you won't answer that 
question. 

You are the witness, and you are the one that determines that. 
But in view of that position, we have to make a record here because 
we have got to determine whether or not, imder those circumstances, 
people can go on refusing to give information that the Congress needs. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Chairman Eastland. The witness claimed protection of her family. 
The chairman thinks that the families of thousands of young men 
that sleep in Korea, who were killed fighting communism, desire that 
this country be protected from within. We think they have some 
rights, also. 

Mrs. Feuer. Senators, I think you gentlemen have a great deal of 
insight, and know the difference between the integrity of a citizen, 
a mother, a principal social worker, and that of a politician, and my 
objections and refusals to answer have been based upon my firm 
convictions and principles that I would not be helping the security 
of my country by destroying its Constitution. 

This is my basis; not politics, not some miasmic plot. 

Senator Jenner. Mrs. Feuer, were you ever a member of the 
Communist Party when you were a member of the parent-teachers 
association? 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer that question, Senator Jenner, on 
the same basis. 

Senator Jenner. Mrs. Feuer, don't you see what position you put 
this committee in? You had another fine lady in this community, 
a Mrs. Wolsch. She took the witness stand under oath, and when 
we asked her about the parent-teachers association, she freely told 
the committee about it. 

Yet, you refuse; why? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feuer. Senator Jenner, I will pit my public record of service 
to a community that I love, which is New Orleans, against yours, 
against anyone else's in this community, and I will present it fairly 
and squarely in a court of law. 



636 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. Then won't you help this committee by telling 
us whether or not you were ever a member of the Communist Party 
when you were associated with the parent-teachers association? 

Mrs. Feuer. On the basis of principle, no; in a court of law, yes. 

Senator Jenner. I think I understand. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feuer, were you a member of the Communist 
Party when you were served with a subpena last week by this 
committee? 

Mrs, Feuer. I have said I am not a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Senator Jenner. That is not responsive. 

Chairman Eastland, I understand it is not responsive. I will 
order her to answer it. 

Mrs. Feuer. I object to that. This is an invasion into my political 
beliefs, iny personal and private affairs, my associational activities. 
And I am very tired, gentlemen; it is in the record. 

Chahman Eastland. That is overruled. 

Senator Jenner. Mrs. Feuer, do you believe the Communist Party 
is a political party? 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

I overrule the objection, and I order you and direct you to answer 
that question. It is a very pertinent question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer on the basis that I have stated here. 

Senator Jenner. Mrs. Feuer, do you think the Communist Party 
is a political party? 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer. I am not a politician. Ask me 
a question about social work, Mr. Jenner, and I will answer to the 
best of my ability. 

Senator Jenner. All right. 

Do 3-0U think that a party which is dedicated to the overthrow and 
the destruction of yom- country is a political part}^ in the true sense 
of the ^^'ord? 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer, Mr. Jenner. Give me several 
years for research. 

Chairman Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Feuer. I refuse to answer. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions — oh, yes. 
Mr. Mandel, will you identify this exhibit? 

Mr. Mandel. The next exhibit is "Letters from Item readers," 
published in the New Orleans Item, October 13, 1953, being a letter 
to the editor, signed as being from Mrs. Joseph Feuer, chairman, 
national legislation, Louisiana Parent-Teacher Association. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may that go into the record and be 
marked the number of the next consecutive exhibit? 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 207," and 
reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 207 

[Letters from Item readers] 

Says "Appoint School Head" 
To the Editor: 

Congratulations on your excellent editorial supporting legislation for an ap- 
pointed State superintendent of education. 

We in New Orleans Parish, in the past few years, have seen the tremendous 
strides our schools have taken under an appointed superintendent, responsible 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 637 

to a nonpolitical school board. Under the same conditions our State system 
would show comparable improvement. 

There is an unanimity of opinion among educators and informed lay people 
as to the superiority of appointment over election for this professional job. 

Not only the National Education Association, the American Association of 
School Administrators, and the National Council of Chief State Officers, but also 
the State superintendents themselves, whether elected or appointed, are over- 
whelmingly in favor of this method. 

The Shreveport Times Survey, published May 11, 1952, states the following: 

Superintendents in favor of appointment, 32; superintendents in favor of 
election, 9; superintendents in favor of either method, 1; superintendents having 
no opinion, 3; superintendents not replying, 3. 

This survey further reports that 14 of the superintendents who are now elected 
favor appointment rather than their own system of election. On the other 
hand, of the 17 superintendents who are now appointed, not one of them was in 
favor of election. 

The citizens of Louisiana are vitally concerned with our State educational 
system, both as parents and taxpayers. Once they know the facts they will act 
to obtain the optimum school system for their tax dollar. 

The item has performed a much needed public service by informing its readers 
of this situation. 

Mrs. Joseph Feuer, 
Chairman, National Legislation, Louisiana Parent- Teacher Association. 

Mr. Morris. Air. Chairman, I have no more questions of this 
particular mtness. 

Senator Jenner. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman, 

Senator Watkins. I have no more questions. 

Chairman Eastland. I am going to hold you under subpena. You 
are temporarily excused. 

Mrs. Feuer. May I be excused for the day? 

Chairman Eastland. No, ma'am; you may not be excused for the 
day. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judiciary 
Committee is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mrs. Liveright. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. BETTY LIVERIGHT, ACCOMPANIED BY 
PHILIP WITTENBERG, HER COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please? 

Mrs. Liveright. Mrs. Betty Liveright, 2239 General Taylor Street, 
New Orleans, La. 

Mr. Morris. Let the record show Mr. Wittenberg is appearing as 
counsel for Mrs. Liveright. 

Mrs. Liveright, will you teU us your present occupation? 

Mrs. Liveright. I hereby respectfully object to the power and 
jurisdiction of the subcommittee to inquire into my political beliefs 
or any other personal and private affaii's, my associational activi- 
ties 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, I asked you what your employment is. 

Mrs. Liveright. I stand on my objections. 

Mr. Morris. What is that objection? 

Mrs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney, please? 



638 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. You may. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated in the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 

Chan-man Eastland. Was that the fifth amendment, ma'am? 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated in the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution of tlie United States. 

Cliairman Eastland. That is all I want to hear. We needn't go 
any further. 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. I fm-ther object on the following grounds: Any 
investigation 

Chau-man Eastland. Wait just a minute, ma'am. You can place 
that in the record. How many pages is it. Air. Counsel? 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. Just a minute, I will count them. Eight and 
a half. 

Senator Jenner. May I ask, Mr. Chan-man, before you order 
that it go into the record as an exhibit, may I ask the witness whether 
or not she prepared the document she is submitting for the record, or 
was it prepared by your attorney? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds I have stated. 

Senator Jenner. On the grounds of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Liveright. On the grounds I have stated. 

Senator Jenner. I believe the record shows she refused to answer 
on the fifth amendment, and then submitted a long document of 
several pages. 

Mr. Chairman, I was trying to ascertain whether or not the docu- 
ment is the witness' own document, or whether or not it was pre- 
pared by her attorney, or 

Chairman Eastland. She took the fifth amendment on that. I 
will admit it into the record as an exhibit if the witness requests it. 

Senator Jenner. All right. 

Senator Watkins. I understand she has requested it. 

You do request that the document be made a part of the record; 
do you not? 

Mrs. Liveright. I do request so. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

(The statement of objections referred to was numbered "Exhibit 
No. 208" and being identical with the statement of Richard Feise 
which appears on p. 599 was placed in the subcommittee files.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would hke to call to the attention 
of the subcommittee that when this witness was asked this question 
in executive session, she did reply, and gave rather extensive testi- 
mony about, not only her present employment in New Orleans, but 
also about her past employment. 

Now, are you going to tell the subcommittee, Mrs. Liveright, about 
what positions, what jobs, you had in the past in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Liveright. I would like to consult with my attorney. 

Mr. Morris. Would you, please? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liveright. I stand on the fifth — I object to the question, 
and stand on the fifth. I think there are certain things that could 
be mentioned in private but not in pubhc. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chau-man, I think, in view of that, I think it is 
probably necessary for — 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 639 

Chairman Eastland. I would like for that to be read. I want to 
see whether she waived her privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. In this same courtroom, before Senator Watkins as 
acting chairman of the subcommittee, 2 days ago, the following 
questions were asked of Mrs. Liveright: 

Mr. Morris. You have worked for the television station WDSU, have you 
not? 

Mrs. Liveright. I had one job or two. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, that was a joint project with the university and 
WDSU; was it not? 

Mrs. Liveright. I was thinking about something else. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us what it was. You know better than we do, Mrs. 
Liveright. 

Mrs. Liveright. As I say, there are special jobs that come up where I have 
done some work on a show that they did, that is all. It was a very brief time, and 
and I forgot about it. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Was there a joint project with the university and the television station that 
you worked on? 

Mrs. Liveright. Was it a joint project? 

Mr. Morris. Was there a joint project? 

Mrs. Liveright. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us what that was. 

Mrs. Liveright. It was a program called Tulane Close-Up, which is a program, 
as they mentioned at the end of each program, a presentation of WDSU as a 
public service, in cooperation with Tulane University. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do in connection with that program? 

Mrs. Liveright. I was what they called a coordinator. 

Mr. Morris. You coordinated the program, and you worked in conjunction — 
did Mr. Liveright work on that with j'ou? 

Mrs. Liveright. Mr. Liveright worked on that program. I worked with a 
lot of people. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you come to New Orleans? 1944; was it not? 

Mrs. Liveright. 1944? 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry, that is wrong, excuse me. 

Mrs. Liveright. Let me see. This is 1956; 1955, 1954, I guess that is right. 
Three vears is 1953; it was Mardi Gras time. 

Mr. Morris. In 1953? 

Mrs. Liveright. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What employment have you had in New Orleans since that time? 

Mrs. Liveright. I have done a commercial type of, what do you call it, it is 
doing a commercial for a sponsor. I mean, you know, I worked with — I have done 
a little acting, and I was very briefly employed as doing a commercial, if you know 
what that means. It is not acting. 

Mr. Morris. Whom did you work for in that capacity? 

Mrs. Liveright. That was the Bauerlein Agency, B-a-u-e-r-1-e-i-n. 

Do you want to know all these things? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Senator Watkins. We want an answer to all of these questions we ask. 

Mrs. Liveright. I have not thought about all these things. 

I did one show for the Sam Rosenberg Agency. I did a couple of movies for 
NPA in NOPD series. 

Senator Watkins. When you say you did that, did you personally appear, 
or did you prepare the script? 

Mrs. Liveright. No, I was acting in it. I was one of the actors. 

Senator Watkins. I see. 

Mrs. Liveright. As I say, I had one little job doing some work on a show, 
not acting, for WDSU, and it was in connection with the Arthur Godfrey telecast 
here in New Orleans. I coordinated that, I suppose, if you want that term, 
which is a term they used. 

Oh, yes; I know. I did some commercial things with Mr. Bingle for the 
Fitzgerald Agency. 

That is all I can remember. I don't know — that is all I can remember. 



Now, was any portion of that inaccm^ate — 
Chairman Eastland. Just a moment, now 



640 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I think that is clearly a waiver of her rights under the fifth amend- 
ment. Mr. Reporter, read her tlie question that she objected to 
answering, 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Airs. LivERiGHT. May I consult my attorney? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. Now that you have read this into the public 
record, I agree that this was a correct transcript. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, have you been active in the profes- 
sional branch of the Communist Party in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney? 

Air. Morris. You may, Mrs. Liveright. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Airs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated in my 
objection. 

Mr. AIoRRis. And does that include your objection — -your privilege 
under the fifth amendment against self-incrimination? 

Airs. Liveright. Alay I consult mth my attorney? 

Mr. AIoRRis. You may, Airs. Liveright. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liveright. Yes, it does. 

Air. AloRRis. Airs. Liveright, when you came — did you live in 
New Orleans immediately — did you live in New York immediately 
before you moved to New Orleans? 

Airs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the objection 
I have submitted. 

Mr. AIoRRis. As to whether or not you lived in New York? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Well, Airs. Liveright, you recall that, in executive 
session testimony, you testified that j^ou lived at 43 Chadwick Road, 
"White Plains, N. Y., and that you lived there for about 10 years 
immediately prior to the time that you came to New Orleans. Do 
you recall that? 

Mrs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. AloRRis. You may, Mrs. Liveright. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liveright. That is what I said. 

Mr. Morris. Now, at the time 

Senator Watkins. I would lilve to ask a question. 

That is true, is it not, Mrs. Liveright? I say, that statement that 
you made in executive session was true, those statements were true? 

Mrs. Liveright. May I consult my attorney. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liveright. I was testifying under oath, Senator. I was telling 
the truth. 

Senator Watkins. That is what I wanted to know. 

Mr. Morris. N.ow, were you a member of the Communist Party 
when you left New York to come to New Orleans, and that was 
approximately in 1953, as you have testified? 

Mrs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Morris. You may. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated in my 
objection. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 641 

Mr. MoKRis. And that includes jour privilege against self-incrimi- 
nation ; is that right? 

Mrs. LiVERiGHT. Right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you warned by your Communist Party 
superiors that when you moved to New Orleans, you should stay 
away from any formal connection with the Communist Party in that 
city? 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Morris. And that includes jouv privilege under the fifth 
amendment? 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. Yes, indeed. 

Mr. Morris. Nothmthstanding, did you become affliated with 
the Communist Party professional branch in New Orleans? 

Mrs. LiVERiGHT. I refuse to answer on the gi'ounds already stated. 

Mr. Morris. And you have been active in the professional branch 
of the Communist Party in New Orleans, have you not? 

Mrs. LiVERiGHT. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, while you have been in New Orleans, 
you have been active with the Parent-Teachers Association, have you 
not? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chauman, I would like to point out that when 
asked the same question in executive session, Mrs. Liveright's answer 
was: 

Active? I have attended meetings; not very active. 

Chauman Eastland. I want you to read the testimony now. I 
want to see whether she waived the privilege under the fifth. 

Mr. Morris. The question put to Mrs. Liveright in executive 
session testimony before Senator Watkms in this same courtroom, 2 
days ago, was: 

Mr. Morris. Have you been active with the PTA in Xew Orleans, Parent- 
Teachers Association? 

Mrs. Liveright. Active? I have attended meetings; not very active. 

Mrs. Liveright. I would like to consult with my attorney. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes; you have waived your rights under the 
fifth amendment. 

Is it true? 

Mrs. Liveright. That is a correct transcription. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Mrs. Liveright, was it truthful, was the testimony you gave at that 
time truthful? 

Mrs. Liveright. I said I had stood on my oath to tell the truth. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, it was truthful. 

Mrs. Liveright, did you ever live at 117 East 89th Street, New York 
City? 

Mrs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Morris. You may. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Liveright. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, did you five at 43-10 48th Avenue, 
Woodside, N. Y.? Have you ever lived there? 

Mrs. Liveright. Yes. 



642 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Have you also lived at 41-22 42d Street, Sunnyside, 
Queens? 

Mrs. LivERiGHT. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, have you spoken at a meeting at 
Yorkville, which is a section in New York City, under the auspices of 
the Yorkville Peace Council, on approximately May 10, 1941? 

Airs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Morris. You may, Mrs. Liveright. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Airs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds I have already 
stated in my objection. 

Mr. Morris. In the event that it may refresh your recollection, 
Mrs. Liveright, I offer you a picture that appeared in the Daily Worker 
of May 10, 1941, and ask you if you can identify the speaker at that 
particular rally as yom'self ? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you identify that photograph? 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. 

Did you take a look at that photograph before you answered? 

Mrs. Liveright. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify the photograph, Mr. Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel. This is a photograph taken from the Daily Worker 
of May 10, 1941, which says: 

Photo (right) shows Miss Betty Liveright of the Yorkville Peace Council address- 
ing meeting Thursday night. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify the Daily Worker for the record? 

Mr. Mandel. The Daily Worker has been, since its foundation, 
the official organ of the Communist Party of the United States. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Mr. Chairman, may that go into the record and be 
marked the next consecutive exhibit? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

(The photograph referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 209," and 
appears on a following page.) 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, have you been an organizer for the 
Communist Party in Queens County, New York City? 

Mrs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Morris. You may. 

(The witness conferred with her coimsel.) 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Mrs. Liveright, did you make an effort in 1952 to 
rent a post office box in \^^iite Plains, N. Y., under the name of 
Westchester Committee for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have Communist Party meetings been held at your 
home in the last year, Ad^rs. Liveright, here in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you contributed money to the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds already stated. 

Chairman Eastland. That is the fifth amendment. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE IHSTITED STATES 643 

Exhibit 209 




Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, I am going to present 3^011 with 
Communist Party nominating petitions, a sequence of them. These 
Communist Party nominating petitions bear the signature of Betty 
Liveright, signature of the witness; they were notarized on different 
dates. 

I ask you if you will identify these documents for the subcommittee. 

(Handing documents to the witness.) 

]\lrs. Liveright. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mt. Morris. You may. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify those photostats? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the gi'ounds of the objection 
already submitted. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you identify for the record, indi- 
vidually — -have you noticed the signature on those, Mrs. Liveright? 
Have you noticed the signature on the photostats of those nominating 
petitions? 

Mrs. Liveright. I looked at the things you showed me. 

Mr. Morris. Is that your signature? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the gi'ounds I have already 
stated. 

Chairman Eastland. What was the nominating petition? I did 
not catch it. 

Mr. Morris. ]Mr. Mandel is about to identify them for the record, 
Mr. Chairman. 



644 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mandel. This is a nominating petition for councilman, headed: 

I, the undersigned, do hereby state that I am a duly qualified voter of the 
borough for which a nomination for councilman is hereby made, and have regis- 
tered as a voter within the said borough within the past 18 months; that my 
place of residence is truly stated opposite my signature hereto and that I intend 
to support at the ensuing election, and I do hereby nominate the following-named 
person as a candidate of the Communist Party for nomination for councilman to 
be voted for at the election to be held on the 7th day of November, 1939. 

And below that is dated October 2, 1939, the signatm-e of Betty 
Liveright, residence 41-42 42d Street, County of Queens, 13th 
Election District, County of Queens. 

Senator Jenner. Right there, I might say the witness did state 
she lived at that address in New York. 

When you lived there, were you living alone, or were other people 
living at that address? 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer that on the grounds I have 
ah'eady stated. Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to say that Mrs. Liveright 
does not appear as somebody who signed the other petition, but as 
somebody who circulated it. 

Mr. Mandel. The next is a Communist Party nominating petition 
for councilman, Communist Party, Borough of Queens, State of New 
York, city of New York, and the heading of this is: 

I, the undersigned, do hereby state that I am a duly qualified elector of the 
borough of Queens, city and State of New York, the political unit for which a 
nomination for public office is hereby made; that my place of residence is truly 
stated opposite mj'^ signature hereto; that I have registered as a voter of such 
borough of Queens, city of New York, within 18 months previous to the time this 
petition is filed; that I intend to support at the ensuing election, and I do hereby 
nominate the following-named person as a candidate for nomination for the public 
office of councilman from the borough of Queens, New York City, to be voted for 
at the general election to be held in said borough on the 2d day of November 1943, 
and I select the name "Communist Party" as the name of the independent body 
making the nomination, subject to certification by the authorized officers of such 
independent body, in accordance with subdivision 2 of section 1005 of the New 
York City Charter. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Mandel, those petitions indicate not only 
did she sign the petitions, but she actively circulated these petitions; 
is that right? 

Mr. Mandel. Her signature is here as a witness. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, she has attested the signatm'es of all 
the aforesaid signers of the petition; is that correct? 

Mr. Mandel. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you tell us, for the record, how many 
of those there are in the possession of the committee? 

Mr. Mandel. May I give the address that is given here? 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Mr. Mandel. 43-10 48th Avenue, Woodside; that is Mrs, Live- 
right's address. 

Mr. Morris. Rather than prolong the hearing, would you just 
identify, Mr. Mandel, the number of such nominating petitions that 
the committee has in its possession? 

Mr. Mandel. Nine. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 645 

Mr, Morris. Mr. Chairman, may they go into the record at this 
time? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes; they will be admitted. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits No. 210 to 
210-H." Reproductions of exhibits 210, 210-A, and 210-B appear 
on following pages. The others were placed in the subcommittee 
record.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have available here today Gilbert 
J. Fortier, Jr., a handwriting expert. I wonder if this witness may be 
excused temporarily. 

Chairman Eastland. Temporarily excused. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Liveright, just before you go, one more point of 
business here. 

Mr. Chairman, we have here some checks drawn on the Hibernia 
National Bank of New Orelans, which piu-portedly contain the 
signatm'c of Betty Liveright. 

I wonder, Mrs. Liveright, if you will identify these checks, the 
signature on these checks, as yom- signature. 

(Documents shown to the witness.) 

Mrs. Liveright. I refuse to answer on the grounds alread}^ stated: 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you identify those documents? 

Mr. Mandel. I have here a check made out from the administrators 
of the Tulane Educational Fund, Februaiy 9, 1956, for the amount of 
$34, to Betty Liveright, and endorsed on the back by Betty Liveright. 

From the same organization, December 22, 1955, the sum of $25.50, 
made out to Betty Liveright, and endorsed by Bett}^ Liveright. 

The same organization, December 30, 1955, the sum of $20, made 
out to Betty Liveright, and endorsed on the back by Betty Liveright. 

(The documents referred to were marked "exhibits Nos. 211 and 
211-A" and are reproduced on following pages.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may this witness be excused, and 
we have the handwriting expert take the stand? 

Chairman Eastland. This witness is excused just temporarily. 
Don't leave the room. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, before the next witness takes the 
stand, I would like Mr. Mandel to put in the nominatmg petitions. 
Communist Party nominating petitions, bearing the signature of 
Herman Liveright, because we are going to ask the handwriting 
expert about those signatures, too. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, wUl you put those into the record at 
this time? 

Mr. Mandel. I have here Communist Party nominating petitions 
of the Communist Party, signed by Herman Liveright, and I wUl just 
count them, for the record, Mr. Chairman. Is that all right? 

Mr. Morris. Please do. 

Mr. Mandel. Ten. 

Mr. Morris. Do they bear the signature of Herman Liveright? 

Mr. Mandel. They do. 

Chairman Eastland. They will be admitted as a properly numbered 
exhibit. 



646 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit 210 

NOMINATIiae PETITION FOR OOUNOILSliAN 



I, the undersigned, do hereby state that I am a duly qualified voter of the borough {or which a nomination for coun- 
cilman is hereby made, and have registered as a voter within the said borough within the past eighteen months; that 
my place of residence is truly stated opposite my signature hereto and that I intend to support at the ensuing elec- 
tion, and I do hereby nominate the following named person as a candidate of the Communist Party for nomination 
for councilman to be voted for at the election to be held on the 7th day of November, 1939- 



Name of Candidate 

PAUL CROSBIE 



Public Office 

Councilman 

Member of Council 
Borough of Queens 



Place of Residence 



39-22— 4'?tS Street 

Long Island City, New Yorit 



Place of Busineu 

1 35 Willlem Street 
New York, New York 



And I do hereby appoint: 

AUGUST S. FRAHM, residing at 40-10— 25th Avenue, Long Island City, New York. 

SOLOMON MODELL, residing at 89-19 Sutphin Boulevard, Jamaica, New York 

GEORGE GRAVES, residing at 32-i7-i04th Street, Corona, New York 
as a committee to fill vacancies in accordance with the provisions of the election law. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF I have hereunto set my hand the day and year placed opposite my signature. 




>n 



ovirv*'^ 



9S9 

9S9 

9S9 

0^939 



STATE OF NEW YORK 
COUNTY OF 






Nftiot of 81SB*r 






.^ 




County of Queens 
County of Queens 

2,<lh9-'f2>bh 

County of Queens 
County of Queens 



/3 



'3, 

5" 



AMembly 
DUtrlet 

...<?Sr^ A.D. 

Coujity of Queens 

...^ .A.D. 

County of Queens 

. .o<J A.D. 

Counu of Queens 

~ij A.D. 

Cour^ of Queens 

^ A-D. 
County of Queens 



Cw-^ i-'V^OrV<*^ being duly 

of Ne« York and now reside at d.Y'pf.. "^ 



orn, says: 



State of New York and now reside 
in the county of Queens . 




am a duly qualified voter of the 



in the City of New York. I was last registered 

for the general election in the year /^^from *f*'9S^. TQ ^^ m the coi.niy ol Ht.CX.^^--*'*-^ ;„ 
the City of New York, in such state. I know each of the voters whose names are subscribed to the above sheet 
of the foregoing petition containing ^ signatures and each of them subscribed the same in my presence and 
upon so subscribing declared to me that the foregoing sutement, made and subscribed by him or her, was true. 



Sworn to before me this 




. '989 

Notary Public. Commiuioner of Deeds 

NOTARY PUBLIC 
MY C..Clk'. No ^'l-Rt No IB 380 



M4^ 



CZaU^ 



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fP 



/^vT 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 



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72723— 56— pt. 12- 



648 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 




SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UlSriTED STATES 



649 



Exhibit 210-B 

INDEPENDENT NOMINATING PETITION 

To the Board of Elecdons in the Citj of New Yorkt 

I, the undersisrned, do hereby state that I am a duly qualified voter of the political unit for which i 
nomination for public office is hereby made, that my place of residence is truly stated opposite my sigTiature 
hereto and that I intend to support at the ensuing election, and I do hereby nominate the following named 
person as a candidate for nomination for public office to be voted for at the election to be held on the 
6th day of February, 1940. and that I select the name COMMUNIST PABTY ajs the name of the indepen- 
dent body Diaking the nomination, and the Letter* CP in a B«Ht 

as the emblem of such body. 




NAME or CANDIDATB 


PDBUCOPnCX 


PL^d or BB3IDCNCB 


PLAC« or BOBDOSB 


EARL BROWDER 


ReprcaentatiTe in Caofreet 

l«tta Congress District 

New York County, New York 


7 Bigfalsnd PUee 
Yonkers. N. Y. 


8S East IStb Strset 
New Yofk. N. Y. 



I do hereby appoint : 

ISRAEL AMTER, residing at 111 East 7th Street, New York, N. Y. 
MORRIS SALKIND, residing at 470 East 10th Street, New York, N. Y. 
CARL BRODSKY, residing at 246 East 11th Street, New York, N. Y. 
ADA BRODSKY, residing at 245 East 11th Street, New York, N. Y. 
GERTRUDE ACKERMAN, residing at 166 Second Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

(all of whom are voters within such political unit) as a committee to fill vacancies in accordance with the 
provisions of the election law. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand the day and year placed opposite my signature. 



DATE 



FULL NAME OF SIGNER 



RESIDENCE 



Elaeaoo 
DkDlet 



AaoDMr 
District 



^ 



// 



1940 



6? C^U-c-OC /^i't-c-'C^'v^xC 



/S'S^ Z^£.^- /0'°^<^. 



BoroQxi of Manhattta. New York 



/o 



Mtnhtfttn, Aim YaX~ 



0>ftAi/fc 



1940 



InM ^ y t 



»Jk.i 



1940 



^kiL 



1940 







ILH ^ 



Boroofii of Uut>k^tm,mrm Y< 



,2£L 



If 



^-5^ 



JO. 



Boroo^ of KuihaRan. Kev York 



7.?u;- U^ ^^. 



ZiL 



I0_ 



Boroo^ of UiAhmttan. Nev York 



6/P^ 



/6, 



1940 






J2. 



iP. 



Borcugt et Ifaataaa. New TeA 



IL 



lO 



Statk or New Yowc, 
CoDNTY or New Ycaisc, 
Crrr or New York. 



■I 



/ Ai^/Zr' ^/ -^ y >XA.^-^ Z^y , being duly sworn, says: I am a duly qualified voter of the 

7 (Nun* of Winuia ) ^ -, ^ 

State of New York tnd now reside in the Boronrfi (AC)^^^^^' Q*y of New York, in the County of U/UJULA^ 
in such state q* f/~^ >- '-r^ c^ ' » t^-^^-^-^'yv^ -tiiAty i^ i L. J therein. The said residence is in 

. /} ObMl. Bom* I^Bte ii>< nifi^aw), / 



the. 
in 



Election District of thi 
the yea r /f ,1f from ^/-^2 _Ai 



said residence is in the- 



ly District I was last registered for the general election 

^ *^^. .vC/yyvM/uv 0-6,3:^- _^. /  /"  in the Borough 

^ t^- LU /\A.o , in such sute. The 



, City of New York, in the County of_ 

/ ^ Fliftinti District of the m=— Assembly District. I know each of the voters 

whose names are subscribed to the above sheet of the foregoing petition containing ,^£-y /-^ - signatures 

and each of them subscribed the same in my presence and upon so subscribing declared to me that the foregoing 
statement, made and subscribed by him or her, was true. 





,-,«r,.N0.S»>--«'^ 



ature of witness. 



Sheet No_^ 



^ 



650 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit 211 



I'l'iUi:. tOUChliOUH.. 



i^- -i^i^imm a t iftmmmMm 



1 






FLiND 



WMiMSMSMmisimSiMi 









SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE TJISriTED STATES 651 



Exhibit 211-A 



Mm 



■>. 4 ^f' 




652 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



(The documents referred to relative to Mr. Liveright were marked 

"Exhibits Nos. 211-B and 211-C" which are reproduced on following 

pages and "211-D to 211-M" which were placed in the subcommittee 

files.) 

Exhibit 211-B 

INDEPENDENT NOMINATING PETITION 



I 



I 



To the Bocrd of EleeSionc in the GSj of New Yorkt 

I, the UDdersigrned, do herebj state that I am a duly qualified voter of the political unit for which • 
nomination for public office is hereby made, that my place of residence is truly stated opposite my si^atun 
hereto and that I intend to support at the ensuing election, and I do hereby nominate the following named 
person as a candidate for nomination for pnblic office to be voted for at the election to be held on the 
6th day of February, 1940, and that I select the name COMMUNIST PART Y as the name of the indepen- 
dent body making the nominationj and the Lettei* CP in a Box ^ 

as the emblem of such body. 




NAMS cr CAJMDIDATB 


pvBUComcs 


PLACE or BBSIDEMCB 


PLAO or BUSINBB 


EARL BROWUER 


BapreeenUtive in Coograw 

l4tii CoDCTe— District 

Now York Coonty, New York 


7 Higbland F1u« 
Yookera, N. Y. 


86 Eut 12th Street 
New York, N. Y. 



I do hereby appoint : 

ISRAEL AMTER, residing at 111 East 7th Street, New York, N. Y. ;* 

MORRIS SALKIND, raiding at 470 East 10th Street, New York, N. Y. \ 

CARL BRODSKY, residing at 245 East 11th Street, New York, N. Y. | 

ADA BRODSKY. residing at 245 East 11th Street, New York, N. Y. | 
GERTRUDE ACKERMAN, residing at 166 Second Avenue, New York. N. Y. 

(all of whom are voters within such political unit) as a committee to fill vacancies in accordance with tha 
provisions of the election law. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand the day and year placed opposite my signature. 



DATE 



1 iu-. //.is^o 



FULL NAME OF SIGNER 



RESIDENCE 



Boroath of Maobattao. Nev^Vork ^^^ ' 



Election 
District 



Assembly 
Di»tT>ct 






.r'^XyjaJiM ')^^<i.f^^4i 



M 



fT-^t-yO 



BoToagb ol M»^littMU Hew Yoft 



/(« 



/<• 



1940 



BortKifh of Msnhmnaa, New Yoi^ 



1940 



Bonra^ of Mantattan. New Yort 



State or New Yqmc, 
Cotnrry or New Yo«k, 
Cmr or New Yobx. 

/, 



■1 



^ 



1^ 



^ft-r 



I 



, being duly sworn, says : I am a duly qualified voter of the 

State of New York and now reside in the Borough o{ ^-- *' -' J , Gty of New York, in the County of ^■•■•'j , 
in such state a * '^^- ^ ^ *^^ ■J^VtA/M therein. The said residence is in 



V the__/.^_Election District of the. 



in the year /^ 3 9 from. 

of ^^--^^^^ 

said residence is in the- 



_Assembly DistricL I was last registered for the general election 

^^-^ '>- 9" ^ ^^^^ t in the Borough 

, in such state. The 



f-^^' 



.. City of New York, in the County of_ 

f J Fl>srtinn District of the J^^I — Assembly District I know each of the votert 



whose names are subscribed to the above sheet of the foregoing petition containing. 



QUj^ C3) 



-Signature! 

(riD toNvmbw) 

and each of them subscribed the same in my presence and upon so subscribing declared to me that the foregoinf 
Statement, mads and subscribed b^him or her, was true. 

Swem to befff^ me thi* — L-L y ^ ' - 

ta> y ^ 1940. "^^^^ ^ '['"^^^TST'^ 



day 




0«6dal Title of OBScer /^fy^g^ ^-^^WiT 



Signature of witness. 



Sheet No. 



M 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



653 






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654 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 




SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 655 

Chairman Eastland. Call your witness. 

Mr. Morris. Will you take the stand, Mr. Fortier? 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
of the Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Fortier, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GILBERT J. FORTIER, JR., NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Mr. Morris. Will you take the stand, Mr. Fortier. 

Where do you reside? 

Mr. Fortier. 81 Thrasher Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mr. Morris. What is your profession? 

Mr. Fortier. I am an examiner of questioned documents, or 
handwriting expert. 

Mr. Morris. Have j^ou given special study to the subject of 
questioned documents? 

Mr. Fortier. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us of your qualifications in tbis par- 
ticular field? 

Mr. Fortier. Well, I have studied the subject of examination of 
questioned documents and disputed handwriting for the past 15 years. 

Mr. Morris. Are you independently employed? 

Mr. Fortier. Yes; 1 am. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been independently employed for the past 
15 years? 

Mr. Fortier. For the last 10 years. 

Mr. Morris. For the last 10 years. Have you studied or do you 
own the texts and other books necessary for the study of questioned 
documents? 

Mr. Fortier. Yes; I have studied the works and texts for the past 
15 years, and have an extensive library on the subject, 

Mr. Morris. Do you own and use the necessary recognized tools 
and appliances and equipment for your work? 

Mr. Fortier. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe some of this equipment? 

Mr. Fortier. I have specially built magnifying glasses and micro- 
scopes, specially built camera equipment, glass-measuring tools and 
other measuring tools, chemicals, ultraviolet light, and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. Do you maintain a laboratory for this work? 

Mr. Fortier. Yes, sir; I do. 

Mr. Morris. Have 3'ou been engaged as an examiner of questioned 
documents in general? By whom have you been engaged? 

Mr. Fortier. By district attorneys, county attorneys, courts, 
grand juries, sheriffs, police departments, major corporations, indus- 
tries, private individuals, investigators, and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. Have you qualified and have you testified on this 
subject prior to today? 

Mr. Fortier. Yes, many times in criminal courts, civil courts, and 
Federal courts. 

Mr. Morris. What area have your cases in this profession covered? 

Mr. Fortier. Eight States. 



656 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Mr. Morris. And do you belong to any professional societies? 

Mr. FoRTiER. Yes, the International Association for Identification. 

Air. Morris. Mr. Chairman, if you feel this witness is qualified — — 

Chairman Eastland. You have qualified him. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you put into the record, and may 
it be marked as the next consecutive exhibit, the application for 
employment for radio station WDSU, of Herman Liveright. 

May that go into the record as a standard of comparison? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, it may be admitted into the record. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 212 and 212- 
A," and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit 212 
RADIO STATION WDSU 

APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMINT 



p 
Office:— ^^ 



r^ 



Department: f- 



V. <^ 



Position Desired:. 



r-t/-- ^ 



Dote: 



^^ 



:^'--^ v>. 



> 



^fj'i 



Nome: 



JL. 



L 



Peraenal History 



Address 



Y3 CA^,^uc^>/ 



:Ar 



_ Social Security No.;_ 

T) — r^ 



Aoe 



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658 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Fortier, I offer you two sets of documents: One, 
the nominating petitions purportedly signed by Betty Liveright and 
Herman Liveright, on the one hand; and, on the other hand, the two 
documents that were identified by Mr. Mandel here today, one of them 
being the employment application at WDSU, and the other being the 
checks from Tulane University. 

And I ask you if the person signing, in the case of Betty Liveright, 
the nominating petitions, was the same as that appearing on the 
checks that are now in evidence? 

Mr. Fortier. I examined these signatures as endorser on the three 
checks mentioned, and the signature of Betty Liveright which appears 
on a document to the public relations department of Tulane Uni- 
versity. I also examined all of the signatures which appear on these 
documents, appear at the bottom of the documents, and in two cases 
in the middle of the document. All signatures were compared over 
a period of time, and by using the proper tools, appliances, and 
scientific aids under the proper conditions, and I discovered highly 
individualized characteristics and writing habits, which enables me to 
reach the definite and positive opinion that all signatures were written 
by the same person. 

Mr. Morris. That is, the same party? 

Mr. Fortier. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. The two Betty Liverights are one and the same? 

Mr. Fortier. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And you make that determination on the basis of 
the analysis you have made on the two sets of handwriting? 

Mr. Fortier. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Will you do the same thing with respect to the sig- 
natures of Herman Liveright? 

Mr. Fortier. I examined the signatures of Herman Liveright 
which appear on the application for employment at radio station 
WDSU, and the signature which appears on the employee's with- 
holding exemption certificate, which are represented as standards of 
Liveright's natural handwriting. 

I also examined the signatures of Herman Liveright which appear 
on these other documents from New York City; and after comparing 
the two, I have reached the definite opinion that the same person 
who signed these standards also signed the questioned signatures on 
the forms. 

Mr. Morris. I think that is all of the information we want of this 
witness, Mr. Chairman. May he be excused? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

I want to thank you for your services. 

Mr. Fortier. Very well, sir. 

Mr. Morris. The next witness will be Mrs. Grady Jenkins. 

Chairman Eastland. Is this your last witness? 

Mr. Morris. There will be a supplemental witness or witnesses 
with respect to this particular witness, but this is the last main witness 
of the day. 

Chairman Eastland. Would you hold your hand up? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
wUl be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 659 

TESTIMONY OF JUNESH JENKINS, NEW ORLEANS, LA., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY ABRAHAM I. KLEINFELDT, HER COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record, 
please? 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. Yes, sir. My name is Abraham I. Kleinfeldt, 
with offices at 107 Camp Street, suite 509, New Orleans. I am an 
attorney at law licensed to practice in the State of Louisiana. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, did you give your address to the 
reporter? 

Mrs. Jenkins. No, I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Junesh Jenkins, 217)2 Bourbon Street. 

Senator Watkins. I cannot hear you. 

Mrs. Jenkins. Is this the mike? 

Senator Watkins. There is not a loudspeaker in the room, so you 
will have to speak up. 

Mrs. Jenkins. Junesh Jenlvins, 217^2 Bom-bon Street, New Orleans. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mrs. Jenkins? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I was born in New Orleans. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell the committee your maiden name? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Modianos. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon, will you spell it for the record? 

Mrs. Jenkins. M-o-d-i-a-n-o-s. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, are you the wife of Grady Jenkins? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been active in the Parent-Teachers Associa- 
tion in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object. 

Mr. Morris. On what gi'ound? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I would like to read my objections to the committee. 

Mr. Morris. Please do. 

Mrs. Jenkins. I, Mrs. Jmiesh Jenkins, having been subpenaed be- 
fore the Internal Security Subcommittee, dated the 27th day of ]March 
1956, returnable on April 3, 1956, hereby respectfully object to the 
power and jurisdiction of this committee to inquhe into: 

First, my political beliefs; 

And second, into my personal and private affairs; 

And third, my associations or activities. 

I am a private citizen. I hold no office of public honor or trust. 
I am not employed by onj governmental department or agency. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, might I point out —  — 

Mrs. Jenkins. The grounds of my objections are as follows: 

Mr. Morris. Are we going to have the witness read the whole 
statement? 

Mrs. Jenkins. You granted me that right in the closed hearings. 

Senator Jenner. How long is it? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Any investigation  

Chairman Eastland. How long is the statement? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Three short pages. O. K.? 

The gromids of my objections are as follows: 

Any investigation into my political beliefs, my associational activi- 
ties, or into my personal and private affahs is beyond the power of 
this committee. (See U. S. v. Rumely, 345 U. S. 41; McGmin v. 



660 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Davgherty, 273 U. S. 135; Kilbourne v. Thompson, 103 U. S. 178; 
Jones V. Securities and Exchange Commission, 298 U. S. 1.) The Con- 
gress cannot b}^ resolution increase their constitutional authority. 

I claim the rights and privileges of the Constitution, particularly, 
but not limited to, the fost amendment, the fifth amendment, and 
the articles relative to the separation of powers of the Government. 

Chau-man Eastland. Wait just a minute, now, please, ma'am. 

If you invoke the fifth amendment, I don't care to go into the others. 

I will overrule any objection except for the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Jenkins. Will you let me continue with my objection? 

Chairman Eastland. No. I will take it into the record, but since 
you invoke tiie fifth, there is no purpose in going any further. 

Mrs. Jenkins. But not only the fifth 

Chairman Eastland. I understand. 

That will be attached to the record as a properly numbered exhibit. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 213," and was 
filed with the subcommittee.) 

Mrs. Jenkins. Shall I continue? 

Mr. Morris. Have you been ordered by your Communist Party 
superiors to infiltrate the parent-teachers associations in this neighbor- 
hood? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. You 
didn't let me finish my objection. 

Chau'man Eastland. I know, but there are points^ — — 

Mrs. Jenkins. I would like to have read it. I am on television. 
All of these people- — you can say, and I want to say- — — 

Chairman Eastland. I understand that, but when you invoke the 
fifth amendment, that is the only one we recognize. Now, I will 
overrule all the others, and I will admit that into the record. 

Mr. Morris. May I ask a question, Senator? 

Chairman Eastland. Certainly. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, were you instructed by your Communist 
Party superiors in Baton Rouge to become associated with the Istoma 
Baptist Church in Baton Rouge? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. 

Chairman Eastland. Did you live in Baton Rouge? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I did. 

Chairman Eastland. W^hen? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Two years ago, for approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Morris. Did you live in Baton Rouge under the name of 
Marie Pratt? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. 

Chairman Eastland. That is the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Jenkins. No, I want to claim more than just the fifth. 

Chairman Eastland. All right, but 3'"ou do claim the fifth? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I claim the fifth, the fii-st, the tenth, and the ninth, 
and any others 

Chairman Eastland. Oh, sure. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, did you live 

Chau-man Eastland. Why did you use an alias at Baton Rouge? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. If you 
saw that television show last night, you know — a man changes his 
name five times 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 661 

Chairman Eastland. Lady, I am not interested in television shows. 
I am just interested in facts. And you can help your country. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, did you — and your husband, Grady 
Jenkins — live at 1017 N Street, Baton Rouge, under the aliases Louis 
and Marie Pratt, specifically up to 1954? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been the organizing secretary and member 
of the Louisiana State Committee of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Have you used the alias Judy Green? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previouslj^ stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you used the alias Mrs. J. W. Green? 

Airs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been known in Communist Party circles 
as "Gypsy"? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Ai"e you crazy? 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Mrs. Jenkins. "Gypsy"? Oh, I object on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. If it is inaccurate, if our information is inaccurate, 
I wish you would say so. 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object 

Senator Watkins. tVlien you object, you mean you refuse 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated; the 
objection that is in the record, you know. 

Senator Watkins. I understand, but do you refuse to answer on 
those grounds? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object to answering, on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Chairman Eastland. I order you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object to answering the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chauman, that is not a proper answer. 

Chairman Eastland. Of course it is not. 

Senator Jenner. She has an attorney there, and she may confer 
with the attorney to get it straightened out. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Chairman Eastland. Now, answer the question. 

Mrs. Jenkins. I think if you would have allowed me to read the 
whole objection, then it would be clear. 

Chairman Eastland. Lady, you can object to answermg, but — the 
fifth amendment 

Mrs. Jenkins. But I have the reasons right here. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait. Let me explain. 

As your counsel knows, that is not a refusal to answer. Now, I 
order and direct you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Jenkins. What question was that? 

Chairman Eastland. Read her the question. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. And do you refuse to testify? 

Mrs. Jenkins. How do you mean, refuse to testify? 

Mr. Morris. Do you refuse to answer the question, claiming your 
privilege under the fifth amendment? 



662 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Jenkins. The fifth and first 



Mr. Morris. You realize the chairman has overruled you on all 
your objections except the fifth amendment. 

Mrs. Jenkins. I still can object. 

Mr, Morris. Let the record, Mr. Chairman, indicate that when 
the witness has so objected, she has refused to answer the question 
on the basis she has just set forth, including the basis under the fifth 
amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. If that is true. 

Mr. Morris. Is that right, Mrs. Jenkins? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Excuse me. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Jenkins. I object to the question, and demand the right to 
give the reasons for my objections. If the committee denies me the 
right to object and give the grounds, all the grounds, for my objection, 
let the record show that. 

Chairman Eastland. Lady, I say that is an untrue statement. 
We have not denied you the right to object. We are letting you 
object. But an objection and a refusal to answer are different things. 

If your attorney there has studied law, he knows that very well. 
Now, you object. I order you to answer the question. 

Mrs. Jenkins. And I refuse to answer the question on the basis of 
my objections. 

Chairman Eastland. That is what I want you to say. On the 
basis of the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Jenkins. No; not only the fifth amendment, but it includes 
other things. 

Chau-man Eastland. It includes other things? 

Mrs. Jenkins. It includes other things, let's add that. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Senator Watkins. All the objections you made as these questions 
were asked are intended to be refusals, as well; is that true? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I refuse to answer the question until you have given 
me the right to read my objections, which I think is clear. 

Senator Watkins. In other words, you want to get on the televi- 
sion and make an act 

Mrs. Jenkins. No, I don't want to get on television, I don't want 
to make a debut on television, for heaven's sake. 

Senator Watkins. Well, the others have submitted it, and the 
chairman has said your full objection is in the record. 

Mrs. Jenkins. Let's start again. 

Senator Watkins. I want to ask you now if, when you say 

Mrs. Jenkins. I refuse to answer the questions on the grounds 
previously given. Can I say that? 

Senator Watkins. I want to make sure the record will show all 
your- 



Mrs. Jenkins. I am not a lawyer; you are getting me lost. 

Chairman Eastland. You have an attorney there. 

Mrs. Jenkins. Yes. 

Senator Watkins. Then if it is necessary, we will have to read them 
all back to you, and find out whether you refuse to answer all of these, 
we want to know whether you refuse to answer. 

Mrs. Jenkins. Can I say I decline to answer the questions on the 
grounds previously stated? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE TJlSriTED STATES 663 

Chairman Eastland. Certainly. 

Senator Watkins. And "decline" means the same as "refuse." 

Mrs. Jenkins. Yes. It is a little nicer word. 

Senator Watkins. All right, it is a nice word, but you still will not 
answer. That is what we want to know. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, did you, in December 1955, move to 
Mandeville, La.? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. For the reasons stated? 

Mrs. Jenkins. For the reasons already stated. 

Mr. Morris. Did you use an alias when you lived in Mandeville, 
La.? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, I offer you a photograph, and I ask 
you if you can identify the circled picture in this photograph as a 
picture of yom'self. 

(Photograph handed to the witness.) 

Mrs. Jenkins. May I speak to my counsel? 

Chairman Eastland. Certainly. 

Mr. Morris. You may, 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. I mention to you now, Mrs. Jenkins, I offer you now 
the New Orleans Item for April 4, 1956, page 1, which bears a caption 
to the same picture reading, "Almost 10 years ago, on October 30, 
1946, the Item ran this picture of a Communist Party meeting at 417 
Godchaux Bldg. At this particular meeting was (circled) a woman 
identified as Junesh Modianos." 

That is your maiden name, is it not? 

The nod means "yes"? 

Mrs. Jenkins. Yes, that is my maiden name. You asked me that 
question. 

Mr. Morris (reading) : "One of the witnesses subpenaed for to- 
morrow's Senate probe of possible Communist activity here is Mrs. 
Junesh Modianos Jenkins. At the time this picture was taken, the 
Communist party was operating openly, and sometimes non-Commun- 
ists as well as Communists attended." 

I ask you, Mrs. Jenkins, was that a correct description by the Item 
of the picture therein? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to answer the question on the grou.ids 
previously stated. 

Mr, Morris. Were you a Communist Party member at the date 
of that particular picture? 

Mrs. Jenkins .1 decline to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this particular witness. 

Air. Chairman, may that photogi-aph and the New Orleans Item 
both be introduced into the record at this time? 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit No. 214" and 
appear on a following page.) 



72723— 56— pt. 12 



664 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit 214 




Almost 10 years ago, on October 30, 1946, the Item ran this picture of a Communist 
Party meeting at 417 Godchaux Building. At this particular meeting was 
(circled) a woman identified as Junesh Modianos. One of the witnesses 
subpenaed for tomorrow's Senate probe of possible Communist activity here 
is Mrs. Junesh Modianos Jenkins. At the time this picture was taken, the 
Communist Party was operating openly, and sometimes non-Communists as 
well as Communists attended. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, will you identify the pictures of the 
other members who appear in that picture? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to do that. 

Mr. Morris. For the reasons given? 

Mrs. Jenkins. For the reasons given. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness. 

Mr. Huey Yaun, Miss Eula Bourn, and Marie Robertson, will you 
come forward, please? 

Mrs. Jenkins, do you recognize these three people who are now 
walking toward you? 

Chairman Eastland. Wait a minute. Just stand there. 

(The witness conferred Avith her counsel.) 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Chairman Eastland. That is the fifth amendment. 

Now, where is Mr. Jenkins? 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. He is here, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Jenkins, wall you come forward, Grady Jenkins? 

Mr. Chairman, Mr. Jenkins will testify fully tomorrow, but for the 
purposes of identification, may he be sworn in? 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Jenkins. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 665 

TESTIMONY OF GRADY JENKINS, NEW ORLEANS, LA., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY ABRAHAM I. KLEINFELDT, HIS COUNSEL 

Chairman Eastland. I ask you if you will identify these witnesses. 

Mr. Jenkins. Senator Eastland, I would like to consult with my 
attorne}^. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir; you may consult with your attorney. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jenkins. Senator, I refuse to answer on the grounds of the 
1st, 5th, 9th, and 10th amendments. 

Chairman Eastland. All right; O. K. 

Now, stand aside, please. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, let the record show 

Chairman Eastland. Let the record show that all are overruled 
except the fifth. 

Mr. Morris. Will you take the stand, please? Will you raise your 
right hand? 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give the Internal Secm'ity Subcommittee is the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Bourn. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EULA BOURN, BATON ROUGE, LA. 

Mr. Morris. Please state your name, residence, and occupation. 

Miss Bourn. Eula Bourn; E-u-l-a, B-o-u-r-n. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside. Miss Bourn? 

Miss Bourn. 2861 McGrath, M-c-G-r-a-t-h, Baton Rouge, La. 

Chairman Eastland. In Baton Rouge? 

Miss Bourn. Baton Rouge. 

Mr. Morris. Are you ]Miss or Mrs. 

Miss Bourn. Miss. 

Mr. Morris. Do you recognize the previous two mtnesses who have 
testified here today? They testified under the name of Grady 
Jenkins and Junesh Jenkins. 

Miss Bourn. Only one. 

Mr. Morris. You recognize one of them. Which is that? 

Miss Bourn. Mrs. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know her as Mrs. Jenkins? 

Miss Bourn. I did not. 

Mr. Morris, When did you know Mrs. Jenkins? 

Miss Bourn. I am not sure. I would say approximately 2 or 3 
years ago. 

Mr. Morris. Did she live in Baton Rouge at the time? 

Miss Bourn. Yes; she did. 

Mr. Morris. At what address did she live at Baton Rouge? 

Miss Bourn. I am sorrj-; I can't give it to you. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know the street she lived on? 

Miss Bourn. No; I do not. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know her by a name other than Mrs. 
Jenldns? 

Miss Bourn. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. What name did you know her by? 

Miss Bourn. Marie Pratt. 



666 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Did she tell you at that time or give you any reason 
to believe th^ t was not her real name? 

Miss Bourn. I had no reason not to believe that. 

Mr. Morris. What was she doing in Baton Rouge at that time? 

Miss Bourn. She was employed at the same store I was. 

Mr. Morris. What store was that? 

Miss Bourn. Dalton's. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Chairman Eastland. Senator Watkms? 

Senator Watkins. The lady who testified is the one that you knew 
as Mrs. Pratt; is that right? 

Miss Bourn. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this witness was called for the purpose 
of establishing the fact that Mrs. Grady Jenkins did work in Baton 
Rouge m Louisiana, and that she worked there under an alias. I 
have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Watkins. I would lilve to ask her, how long did you work 
there with her? 

Miss Bourn. I cannot tell you. I was employed there when she 
came, and, of course, I am still there. It was, I would say, maybe 
2 years. 

Senator Watkins. Well, you became rather intimately acquainted 
with her during that period of time? 

Miss Bourn. I wouldn't say intimately. I was very friendly 
toward her. 

Senator Watkins. There can't be any doubt in your mind that the 
lady who appeared here was the same person you knew as Marie 
Pratt? 

Miss Bourn. It is the same person. 

Senator Watkins. It is the same. That is all. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. 

Senator Jenner. I have no questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Thank you. I appreciate your cooperation. 

Miss Bourn. Thank you. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give the Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Robertson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARIE ROBERTSON, BATON ROUGE, LA. 

Mr. Morris. Will you be seated. 

Will you give your name and address to the reporter, please? 

Mrs. Robertson. Mrs. Marie Robertson, 839 North 33d, Baton 
Rouge. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Marie Robertson. 

Mrs. Robertson, can you identify either of the two witnesses who 
have testified here this morning as Grady Jenkins, or his wife, Junesh 
Jenkins? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes; I can. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know both those people? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know them both under the name of Jenkins? 

Mrs. Robertson. No, sir; I didn't. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 667 

Mr. Morris. When did you know these people? 

Mrs. Robertson. Well, when she came to Baton Rouge, about 
2 years ago. She was employed at the same store that I am. 

Mr. Morris. What store is that? 

Mrs. Robertson. Dalton's. 

Mr. Morris. And under what name did you know Mrs. Jenkins? 

Mrs. Robertson. Marie Pratt. 

Mr. Morris. Marie Pratt. That is P-r-a-t-t? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And she was a fellow worker of yours at Dalton's 
Department Store? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Mr. Grady Jenkins? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Under what name did you know him? 

Mrs. Robertson. Art Pratt. 

Mr. Morris. Art Pratt? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Art, A-r-t, Pratt. 

Did you know that the name "Art Pratt" and "Marie Pratt" was 
a name other than their real name? 

Mrs. Robertson. No, sir; I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. You had no reason to believe that that was the case? 

Mrs. Robertson. No, sir; I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

Senator Watkins. For how long a period of time did you know 
them? 

Mrs. Robertson. About 2 or 3 years; at the time she was employed 
in the store until the time she left Baton Rouge. 

Senator Watkins. Did you have an intimate acquaintence with 
these people? 

Mrs. Robertson. We were very friendly, but that was all. 

Senator Watkins. Is there any doubt in your mind that the people 
who testified here and give the name of Jenkins were the same people 
you knew as Pratt m Baton Rouge? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir; they are the same people. 

Senator Watkins. But there is not any doubt in your mind about 
it, is there? 

Mrs. Robertson. No, sir. 

Senator Watkins. That is what I wanted to know. 

Senator Jenner. Did you ever visit at their home? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. Did they ever visit at your home? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. No further questions. 

Chairman Eastland. We thank you for your cooperation. 

Senator Watkins. By the way, you were one of those who stood 
in front of those witnesses when they were asked to state whether or 
not they met or could identify you? 

Mrs. Robertson. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You have been very helpful. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Morris. The next witness, please. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 



668 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

are about to give the Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Yaun. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HUEY YAUN, BATON ROUGE, LA. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please? 

Mr. Yaun. My name is H-u-e-y Yaun. 

Mr. Morris. Spell it, please. 

Mr. Yaun. Y-a-u-n. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside, Mr. Yaun? 

Mr. Yaun. 4068 Convention Street, Baton Rouge, La. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation, Mr. Yaun? 

Mr. Yaun. Assistant manager of the Yaun Manufacturing Co. 

Mr. Morris. I see. For how long have you resided in Baton 
Rouge? 

Mr. Yaun, All my life. 

Mr, Morris. Were you able to recognize the two witnesses who 
have testified here this morning as Grady Jenldns and his wife, Mrs. 
Grady Jenkins? 

Mr. Yaun. I recognized only one. 

Mr. Morris. Which is that? 

Mr Yaun. The one that is Grady Jenkins. 

Mr. Morris. You only recognize Grady Jenldns? 

Mr. Yaun. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know him as Grady Jenkins? 

Mr. Yaun. No, sir. 

Mr. NoRRis. Where did you know this man? 

Mr, Yaun. He was employed for us, 

Mr, Morris. He was employed for you at one time in Baton Rouge? 

Mr, Yaun. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Was he employed under the name of Grady Jenkins? 

Mr. Yaun. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Under what name was he employed? 

Mr. Yaun. Louis Pratt. 

Mr. Morris. Louis Pratt? 

Mr. Yaun. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any reason to believe the name Louis 
Pratt was a name other than his real name? j i 

Mr. Yaun. No, sir. _ ' c 

Mr. Morris. Did he ever indicate to you, in any way he had a 
reason for using an alias? 

Mr. Yaun. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And you did not know his name was Grady Jenkins? 

Mr. Yaun. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I have no other questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Senator Watkins? i 

Senator Watkins. No questions. i 

Senator Jenner. No questions. 

Chairman Eastland. We will recess now until 10 tomorrow 
morning. 

We thank you for your cooperation. 

(Whereupon, at 12:55 p. m., the subcommittee recessed, to 
reconvene at 10 a, m., Friday, April 6, 1956.) 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, APRIL 6, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security 

Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

New Orleans, La, 
The subcommittee met, pm-suant to recess, at 10:05 a. m., in Federal 
courtroom 245, United States Post Office Building, New Orleans, La., 
Senator James O. Eastland, chairman, presiding. 
Present: Senators Eastland, Jenner, and Watkins. 
Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, re- 
search director; and Frank W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 
Chairman Eastland. The committee will come to order. 
Who is your first mtness? 

Mr. Morris. I have about two questions for Mrs. Feise and Mrs. 
Jenkins, and I think if we took those at the very outset, those women 
could be excused for the day. Senator. 

The record will show that Mrs. Feise has been sworn and appears 
here under oath. 

TESTIMONY OF WINIFRED FEISE— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, have you been working in chm-ch groups 
here in New Orleans? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Feise. I stand on my previous objections, and refuse to answer 
that question. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Feise, have you not been asked by your superiors, 
in fact directed by 3^our superiors, in the Communist Party to infiltrate 
church groups? 

Mrs. Feise. I stand on the same objections. 

Mr. Morris. That is, under your privilege against self-incrimination? 

Mrs. Feise. And all the other objections that I submitted originally. 

Mr. Morris. You understand the others have been overruled; how- 
ever, your claim of privilege of the 

Mrs. Feise. However, I would hke the others to stand in the record, 
because they are important to me. 

Mr. Morris. Have 3^ou collected money from the members of the 
professional group of the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Feise. I object on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been closely associated with Pauline Feuer, 
who testified here j^esterday? 

Mrs. Feise. I object on the same grounds. 

669 



670 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Morris. Do you know Pauline Feuer? 

Mrs. Feise. I object to answering any of these questions. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Pitts O'Dell, the district organizer 
of the Communist Party here in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Feise. I object on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a man named Harold Kahn, who was 
active with Arthur Wright in the Port Travel Service prior to the 
time that Mr. Feise took over that organization? 

Mrs. Feise. I object on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this particular witness, 
Senator. 

Senator Watkins. I would like to ask the witness if, when she 
says she objects, she means she refuses to answer. 

Mrs. Feise. Yes, Senator. 

Senator Watkins. It was not clear. 

Mrs. Feise. Yes, I object to the question and I refuse to answer. 

Chairman Eastland. On the fifth amendment? 

Mrs. Feise. Including my other objections. 

Chairman Eastland. I understand. 

Mrs. Feise. You only accept the fifth amendment, but I refer to 
the other amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, as far as I am concerned, Mrs. Feise can 
be excused. 

Senator Jenner. I have no questions. 

Chairman Eastland. You may be excused. 

Mrs. Feise. Does it mean I am excused from subpena? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Who is your next witness? 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, please. 

TESTIMONY OF JUNESH JENKINS— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. This witness has been sworn previously, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. Mr. Chairman, as a personal and professional 
privilege, and a personal favor, I would like to be given the oppor- 
tunity at this time to make a short statement of fact under oath, 
please, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, now, that is a matter that we will 
decide. He desires to ask the witness some questions. Sit down, sir. 
You can't interrupt a hearmg. 

Proceed, Mr. Comisel. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkirs, have you been liaison between the 
Communist Party organization and Richard Feise, head of the pro- 
fessional group of the Communist Party here m New Orleans? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the same grounds given 
yesterday. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, in 1955, did you make the statement 
that you considered a $5 pledge to the Communist Party as an insult 
to that organization? 

Mrs. Jenkins. I declme to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Jenkins, do you know Hunter Pitts O'Dell, 
the district organizer of the Communist Party? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 671 

Mrs. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Senator, of this witness. 

Senator Jenner. No questions. 

Senator Watkins. No questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, Mr. Counsel, you have stated you 
desire to testif}^ It is our policy to have executive hearings first. 
If you desire to testify, then I will hear you in executive session, and 
then the committee will decide on whether or not 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. Sir, I desire to make a statement of fact regarding 
myself, personally, not in executive hearing but in public. 

Chairman Eastland. I say, though, we are not going to change the 
rules just to accommodate one person. It is our custom to always 
have executive sessions first, and the reasons for it have been explained, 
and I judge you weU know those reasons. 

Now, if you desire to make a statement to us, we will take it in 
executive session, and then we will decide whether to use it in open 
session or not. The same rules that apply to everyone else will apply 
to you, sir. 

All right, sir, I wiU appoint Senator Jenner to take it in executive 
session back here. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. No, sir; I will not make any statement in execu- 
tive session. My offer is to make a statement 

Chairman Eastland. Sit down, sir. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt (continuing). Of my own position, sir, publicly. 

Chairman Eastland. You want favored treatment, and we are 
not going to give you favored treatment. 

Give me a subpena. 

Mrs. Jenkins. Am I excused? 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the com- 
mittee, Mr. Counsel? 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. Abraham I. Kleinfeldt, 107 Camp Street. 

Mr. Morris. One second. Abraham I. Kleinfeldt. Will j^ou 
spell that? 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. K-1-e-i-n-f-e-l-d-t. 

Mr. Morris. That is f-e-1-d-t. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt, the chairman has instructed me to give you a forth- 
with subpena to testify before Senator Jenner in the adjoining court- 
room. Would you take this subpena, Mr. Kleinfeldt? 

Let the record show that this is a session requested by Mr. Klein- 
feldt. 

Senator Jenner. Just a moment, Mr. Chairman. In order that 
the witness cannot contend she is being deprived of counsel 

Chairman Eastland. We will take a recess for a few minutes. 

(Short recess.) 

Chairman Eastland. Now, you are going to be given an oppor- 
tunity to make the statement. I want you to remain in the court- 
room and stand aside for just a few minutes until we get rid of some 
testimony, and then we will take you, sir. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for the record at 
this time a telegram that I received last night from the law firm of 
Rabinowitz & Boudin, which was supplemented by a phone conversa- 



672 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

tion that I had with Leonard Boudin of that firm. The telegram 
reads: 

Unsuccessfully attempted to reach you by telephone today on behalf of Mr. 
and Mrs. Robert Blanchard. Perhaps this telegram was not clear enough. He 
is afraid of airplanes and has never been on one. Even if he could be persuaded 
to get a plane he would be in no condition, nor would his wife, to testify. They 
would have no time to retain counsel or be refJresented by counsel, and be unable 
to make arrangements for their child. 

We respectfully suggest the matter be set down for sometime next week upon 
suflBcient notice for these purposes and for travel by train. 

(Signed) Rabinowitz & Boudin. 

Chairman Eastland. All right, sir. That will be set down for a 
hearing in Washington next Wednesday morning at 10:30. 

Mr. Morris. That is for Mr. and Mrs. Blanchard, both. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. We will see that a telegram goes to Mr. Boudin at 
once, directing him to be in Washington next Wednesday. 

Mr. Chairman, we have not as yet been able to serve Mr. Hunter 
Pitts O'Dell. Our information is, we have been informed, he is the 
district organizer of the Communist Party in New Orleans. 

We have a report now that he may now be boarding a plane, and 
we may have a later report this morning on that, Mr. Chairinan. 

The next witness will be Sgt. Peter Porretto. 

Mr. Porretto, take the stand, please. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give the Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Porretto. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF PETER JOSEPH PORRETTO, SERGEANT, NEW 
ORLEANS POLICE DEPARTMENT 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Porretto, will you give your full name and address 
to the reporter? 

Mr. Porretto. Peter Joseph Porretto, P-o-r-r-e-t-t-o. 

Mr. Morris. What is your residence? 

Mr. Porretto. I live at 610 Second Street, New Orleans, La. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation? 

Mr. Porretto. I am a sergeant in the New Orleans Police Depart- 
ment. 

Chairman Eastland. Sergeant, let me ask you this question: Are 
you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Porretto. No, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You are not afraid to answer that question. 

Mr. Porretto. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you work under the direction of W. Guy Banister? 

Mr. Porretto. I do, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And were you trying to assist the subcommittee in 
trying to serve a subpena on Hunter Pitts O'Dell? 

Mr. Porretto. I was trying to arrest Hunter Pitts O'Dell. I had 
no subpena. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Did you, in the course of that assigmnent, 
visit the residence of Mr. O'Dell? 

Mr. Porretto. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that episode? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 673 

Mr. PoRRETTO. I was directed by Sergeant Badeaux to go to 2317 
Louisiana Avenue and to seize any materials that I found there. 

When I arrived there, the landlady took us next door to where he 
lived, in the front room at 2319 ; and upon making a search of his room, 
I found the materials, evidence, that I see here. 

I notified Sergeant Badeaux as to what I had found, and he came 
down and together we took the materials back to Mr. Banister's 
office at police headquarters. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are they the papers that you found in Mr. 

Mr. PoRRETTO. Yes, su\ What you see there is all the stuff that 
we seized. 

Mr. Morris, And will you describe those to the committee, 
generally? 

Mr. PoRRETTO. They are various pamphlets and newspapers. 

Mr. Morris. Are there handwritten notes there? 

Mr. PoRRETTO. There were some. There were some handwritten 
notes; j^es, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And you turned those over to Sergeant Badeaux; is 
that correct? 

Mr. PoRRETTO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness, Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. Any questions of this witness? 

Senator Jenner. No questions. 

Senator Watkins. No questions. 

Mr. Morris. Sergeant Badeaux. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give the Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Badeaux. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HUBERT J. BADEAUX, SERGEANT, NEW ORLEANS 

POLICE DEPARTMENT 

Mr. Morris. Sergeant Badeaux, would you give your full name and 
address to the reporter? 

Mr. Badeaux. Hubert J. Badeaux, 241 Hickory Street. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell your last name, please? 

Mr. Badeaux. B-a-d-e-a-u-x. 

Mr. Morris. What is yom- occupation? 

Mr. Badeaux. Sergeant, New Orleans Police Department, pres- 
ently assigned to police bureau of investigation as agent in charge of 
intelligence affairs. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And you work under the direction of W. Guy 
Banister? 

Mr. Badeaux. Chief Guy Banister; yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did j^ou hear the testimony- of the last witness? 

Mr. Badeaux. Yes, sir; I heard it, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do with the papers of Hunter Pitts 
O'Dell, papers and personal effects described by Sergeant Porretto, 
after he received them? 

Mr. Badeaux. We immediately proceeded to sort these papers into 
some semblance of classification, and to analyze as much as we could 
before the time of this hearing, Judge. 

Mr. Morris, I see. 



674 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Then did you turn them over to the Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee? Did you make them available? 

Mr. Badeaux. Yes, sir. The research director, Mr. Benjamin 
Mandel, was notified anything in that material that could be helpful 
to this committee, would be available. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness. 

Chairman Eastland. Any questions? 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify the box for the subcommittee, 
Sergeant? 

Mr. Badeaux. The box itself? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Badeaux. Sergeant Porretto would have to do that, Mr. 
Morris. I didn't take that box from the room. Sergeant Porretto 
did. 

Senator Watkins. Aren't those the boxes it was brought in? 

Mr. Badeaux. This large box; the other boxes were obtained by 
the police department to aid in classification of the material, Senator. 

Senator Watkins. The materia.ls were all placed in those boxes to 
the right of you now, as you sit at the witness stand? 

Mr. Badeaux. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question of this 
witness? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Senator Jenner. Sergeant, are you now or have you ever been a 
member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Badeaux. No, I have not, I am not now, and never intend to 
be. Senator. 

Senator Jenner. Thank you very much. It is a very refreshing 
answer. 

Mr. AIoRRis. I have no more questions, Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. We certainly thank you for your cooperation. 

Mr. Badeaux. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel will now take the stand. 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN MANDEL— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, before testifying about the O'Dell 
papers, will you describe the handwritten documents, the handwiiting 
expert's documents you have in your hand? 

I would like to put these in the record and have them appear in the 
record after the testimony of Mr. Fortier yesterday. Senator. 

Mr. Mandel. This is a chart of Gilbert J. Fortier, Jr., examiner of 
questioned documents, and is entitled "A Composite of Standard and 
Questioned Signatures of Betty Liveright and Herman Liveright, 
Signatures Placed Side by Side and Enlarged for Pm'poses of Com- 
parison and Demonstration." 

I present these for the record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, before Mr. Mandel testifies — Mr. 
Mandel was sworn yesterday — I would like to point out that he has 
been for 35 years a student of the Communist movement; from 1947 
to 1951, was the research director of the House Un-American Activi- 
ties Committee; and since 1951 has been the research director for the 
United States Senate Internal Secmity Subcommittee. 

Mr. Mandel. Mr. Cliairman, in evaluating these documents, we 
first of all came across a number of lists of names, hundreds of names, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 675 

and in order not to involve innocent persons, these names are not 
being used for the record. I hope they wUl be the subject of further 
stud}^ 

Now, the papers were* divided into categories 

Chairman Eastland. Of course, we are not going to publicize 
those names, but I want the lists, a copy of them, attached to your 
testimony as an exhibit. 

Air. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. It is not a part of the printed record. 

Senator Watkins. That will not be open, of course, to inspection. 

Senator Jenner. Alay I ask a question. Are these names you 
referred to — and I do not want you to name any of the names of the 
individuals — were they in longhand or were they typewritten names? 

Mr. Mandel. There were typewritten names, and names in 
longhand, and many of these sheets had no designation to indicate 
what they signified, so I thought it only proper not to introduce those 
names. 

Senator Jenner. Were the longhand names all in the same hand- 
writing, or were they different? 

Mr. Mandel. I am not a handwriting expert, and we tried to get 
the handwTiting judged by Mr. Fortier, but there was not sufficient 
time and facilities to make the thorough study that we had hoped for. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, you have made up a summary, have you 
not, of these documents? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And the various classifications? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You have a summary here of papers found in the room 
of H. P. O'Dell? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. By just describing the general classification, teU us 
what were in those papers. 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Now, exhibit 1 is just a sample of O'Dell's handwriting, but that is 
just printed, so that didn't furnish us enough for our purposes. 

Exhibit 2 is a group of memo pads, and I will just give you the 
outstanding points in some of these. 

In this group of slips there is one showing the name of the most 
outstanding freshman at Mississippi Southern CoUege 

Chairman Eastland. Now, wait just a minute. I don't think that 
names of individuals should be published anjrwhere unless we have had 
an investigation. 

Senator Jenner. He is not naming the names. It is a classification, 
is it not? You are not referring to a person's name. 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, a person is given, but I don't name the person. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel points out this is not in the context of 
somebody who was a Communist Party member or any such thing; 
it just shows the Communists are interested in knowing who the 
outstanding freshman might be in a particular college. 

Chau-man Eastland. I don't think names should be given until it 
is an executive session. 

Senator Watkins. I think we should stand on it without naming 
names. That is what I understood he was to do, without giving names, 
but classifications. 



676 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mandel. Correct. 

Then in the same group of slips is the mother of a wounded Korean 
soldier, and the parents of servicemen; names and addresses are given. 

Now, to indicate the scope of the targets set b*y the individuals whose 
records I am discussing, there were in this file a list of weeldy news- 
papers and broadcasting stations in Louisiana; the principals in the 
St. Landry (La.) Parish schools; a list of the Methodist ministers; a list 
of I.iOuisiana libraries; a list of Louisiana daily new-spapers; a list of 
labor unions; and also, a list of women's organizations in Baton 
Rouge, La. — and I say that in no derogatory respect to the organiza- 
tions mentioned. Those were the lists in this file. 

Now then, further, there were 2 social security cards, 1 made out to 
John Vesey, No. 434-52-1139, and 1 made out to Ben Jones, No. 
422-48-9391. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have those cards with you? 

Mr. Mandel. I have those right here. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, at this point I would like to mention 
that the committee was going to ask Mr. Hunter Pitts O'Dell whether 
or not he had passed under thi-ee separate aliases, John Vesey, Ben 
Jones, and Hunter Pitts O'Dell. 

Chairman Eastland. I am going to order those cards turned over 
to the Department of Justice, if that is true. 

Mr. Morris. I might add, Senator, when we were trying to serve 
O'Dell, we were told — the process server was in the restaurant where 
we had reason to believe he was working; we were asking for Hunter 
Pitts O'Dell — -we received an anonymous phone call that even while 
we were attempting to serve him there, he was in the restaurant under 
the name of Ben Jones. Of course, the committee did not know that. 

Mr. Mandel. Next as an exhibit, I have here a partial list of spon- 
sors of the Southern Conference Educational Fund. 

Mr. Morris. Item 11, Mr. Mandel, was proposals on farm work for 
party organization in the South. You didn't pass over that one, 
did you? 

Mr. Mandel. There are two items of that kind. One is proposals 
on farm work for party organization in the South; and then a program 
for southern farmers. 

Then I have here. Hunter Pitts O'Dell was identified before us as 
the district organizer of the Communist Party. 

Senator Watkins. What exiiibit number is that? 

Mr. Mandel. This is exhibit No. 17, dated February 3, 1956, 
addressed to ''All districts," and it is signed, "Comradely, Martha 
Stone," who is one of the Smith Act cases. I believe she was convicted. 
And this gives instructions on the circulation of the Daily Worker in 
this district. 

Now, there are handwritten notes regarding the Montgomery bus 
strike, and listed in that sheet is the following quotation: 

Because they have pledged to support our program, we want to elect the follow- 
ing candidates — 

and this list— — • 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, before you mention the candidates, I 
think they would be under the same injunction placed by the com- 
mittee on names. 

Chanman Eastland. That is the Communist Party which supports 
certain candidates? Answer my question, please. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 677 

Mr. Mandel. Sir? 

Chairman Eastland. I say, that is a statement that the Com- 
munist Party will support certain candidates? 

Mr. Mandel. That is a statement of the writer to the effect that 
he proposes to support certain candidates, certain candidates in the 
State of Louisiana. Then* names are given, but I will not mention 
them; no. 

Mr. Morris. There are three names given, but we won't put those 
in the record. 

Mr. Mandel. Then there is a receipt from New Century Pub- 
lishers for $8.83, New Century Publishers being the Communist 
Party publishing house. This is dated September 7, 1955. 

Senator Watkins. Where is that publishing house located? 

Mr. Mandel. In New York City. I have the receipt right here. 
It is 832 Broadway, New York 3, N. Y., and it is made out to A. B.; 
initials are used throughout these documents rather than names. 
This is receipt No. 5717. 

Now, I have a very interesting document here, which is entitled 
"How to detect propaganda." 

Mr. Morris. Are you prepared to read excerpts from that, Mr. 
Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel. I will read excerpts. 

Now, as a student 

Senator Watkins. What exhibit number is that? 

Mr. Mandel. This is exhibit No. 23. 

Senator W^atkins. I think as you bring it out, it ought to be 
numbered, and as we go back to study the record we wiU know which 
exhibit ^''ou referred to definitely. 

Mr. Mandel. As a student, this is very interesting material. I 
will read excerpts from it, "How to detect propaganda." 

Propaganda is an expression or opinion used by people to influence us to believe 
what we hear witliout knowing the real truth. Name calling is a device to in- 
fluence us to draw our own conclusion about what we hear about other people 
without knowing the real truth. Many of the pioneers of modern science were 
called heretics and other bad names, such as Fascists, Communists, etc. Al 
Smith called Roosevelt a Communist. When Al Smith was campaigning for the 
Presidenc)', he was accused of being a something of the Pope because he was a 
Catholic. 

Then he has a heading entitled, "Glittering Generalities," and he 
discusses propaganda under that heading. I won't read the whole 
document. I just present it, unless you want it further. 

Then 

Senator Watkins. Mr. Mandel, did I notice that is in handwriting? 

Mr. Mandel. Handwriting. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, that whole paper may go into the 
record, may it not? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir; they all will go into the record. 

Mr. Mandel. Then we have handwritten notes which read as 
follows, and some of this is abbreviated, but the abbreviations are 
obvious: 

Object of security today is to conceal from enemy function of party apparatus. 
Previously we concealed individual whereabouts as well as function of apparatus. 

That is 



Senator Watkins. Which exhibit number is that? 
Mr. Mandel. Exhibit No. 25 ha this Hst. 



678 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

We have also, from his hand\\'Titten notebook, exhibit No. 27, a 
reference to "Facts for Farmers," at 39 Cortlandt Street, New York. 

Now, "Facts for Farmers" is a publication of Farmers Research, 
which is a Communist-front organization. 

Then the notes further state — 

night school classes in rural areas are forums — very important. 
Then there is a loose slip which says: 

Targets Democratic State Central Committee, statewide organization com- 
mittee for national representation to Democratic National Convention. 

These are abbreviations, but the abbreviations are obvious. 
Then there is a statement that — 

99 percent of the Negro regular voters are Democrats, so we can unite that bloc. 
A Negro vote is recognized as a bloc vote. 

Then exhibit No. 29, again handwritten notes, speaks of a 3-months 
subsidy, and the quest of the Louisiana Communist Party for financial 
assistance for this period. 

Then exhibit No. 30, there are references to first names or abbre- 
viations to first names. 

Mr. Chairman, shall I give the abbreviated first names, or keep 
those from the record? 

Senator Jenner. They are code names? 

Mr. Morris. They are code names, arent' they, Mr. Mandel; none 
of them are the persons' names? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. The references are to Irv. E. Wright, Arab, 
Gladys, Walt, Lee, Evans, Dan B., Chester, Jud}^, Abe, Brother 
Grady, Pop, Katie and Mon, Tootie and wife, Old man and wife, 
Seig and Mamie. 

Then there are references here to tactics to be used among Catholics, 

Then he has here a union card of workmg rules in the General 
Laborers Union, Local 689, with a signature of Hmiter O'Dell at 
2319 Louisiana Avenue. 

Senator Watkins. Is that a separate exhibit? 

Mr. Mandel. It is a separate exhibit, No. 32. 

Then imder 33, again handwritten notes, there is this comment in 
handwriting: 

Why do we emphasize the importance of our Negro comrades being among the 
masses and in their organizations? Precisely because we are dealing with an 
oppressed nation (here in the South) and the Negro national movement must have 
Marxist leaders as a guaranty of success. This fact of life is being daily proven 
by the colonial liberation movements. 

Then there is a list of newspapers; and again, we have code refer- 
ences, which might mean his contacts with those papers. We have 
"Irv. — Louisiana Weekly; Walt^ — ^Chicago Defender; Elaine— Pitts. 
Courier," probably Pittsburgh Courier. "Monica — Cathohc Action 
of the South, 523 Natchez Street; Arabella — Courier; and Ju — 
Advocate and Ethyl News." 

Chairman Eastland. You say those were contacts with those par- 
ticular papers? 

Mr. Mandel. That is what they appear to be. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Mandel. Now, again from his handwritten notebook, we 
have the following statement: 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 679 

Put the Negro church back firmly upon its historically revolutionary path. 
Witness the dozen Negro ministers representing the 7 million members of the 
Federal Council of Churches who placed a militant program before Eisenhower 
recentl}'; the seven bishops of AME church who told the Government "Hands 
off Patterson," — 

Patterson being a Communist case before the courts — 

and the convention of the AMEZ that voted unanimously to back Paul Robeson 
passport fight. 

Mr. Morris. That is under exhibit 33, all of that, Mr. Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes. 

Then under 36, there is a list of what looks like the type of party 
organizations locally. First there is 2 farm; 1 N. O., which might 
mean New Orleans; 1 Prof, which might mean professional; 1 Ser, 
which might mean service; 1 Negro workers; and 1 Baton Rouge. 

Then a small notebook, exhibit 37, there is this statement: 

What are the pivotal mass organizations of the Negro people. 

And then they are listed: the NAACP, the churches, civic and 
voters' leagues, and then there are initials, "PDL" and "PVL," 
which must mean some local organizations that I am not acquainted 
with. 

Mr. Morris. :Mr. jSIandel, did you overlook 35? Exhibit 35 I 
have here on the list. Air. Mandel, showing the distribution of litera- 
ture to Baton Rouge and Farm Political Affairs. 

Mr. AIandel. I have here a handwritten statement dated December 
22, 1955, to Baton Rouge and Farm, and it lists "PA," which is an 
abbreviation in Communist circles for ''Political Affairs," with dates, 
and the money paid for the literature, and certain other literature. 

Chahman Eastland. That is for Baton Rouge? 

Mr. Mandel. Baton Rouge and Farm, is the heading. 

Mr. Morris. That is exhibit 35. 

Mr. Mandel. Then there is a handwritten notice addressed to 
"My darling Blanche." I will not read the full note, but just read 
one excerpt: 

We should see each other, same place, December 15. * * * Keep this date 
silent! Please send me the NAA mailing list you have. 

Now, finally, among the personal papers is a withholding statement 
and social-secmity statement made out to Ben Jones, which I have in 
my hand, address 3370 Louisiana Street, New Orleans, La. The 
number is 720-21-4460. And then there is another withholding state- 
ment to Ben Jones, and at the top it says "The Holsum Cafeteria, 
Inc., 718 Gravier Street, New Orleans, La." Both of them are — have 
that cafeteria addi^ess. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chahman, that obviously, again, supports the 
committee evidence that Hunter Pitts O'Dell was operating under 
aliases. 

Chahman Eastland. That will all be turned over to the Justice 
Department. 

Mr. Mandel. In the collection of documents was this undated 
issue of the Worker, 375 copies, which might indicate this was not 
received for his personal use but possibly for distribution. 

I will just read the heading: 

The Southern People's Common Program for Democracy, Progress, Peace. 
The Worker editors are proud to bring to our readers this common program made 

72723— 56— pt. 12 7 



680 SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

public by the southern regional committee of the Communist Party of the United 
States as a document of first-rate news value and public interest. 

Senator Watkins. What is the date of that document? 

Mr. Mandel. It is not dated, but I beheve it was held in the 
latter part of 1954. 

Senator "Watkins. You mean the date of the conference? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes. ii 

Senator Watkins. And this is a report of the conference? 

Mr. Mandel. This is undated. 

That is correct. 

Then there is the draft program of the Communist Party, "The 
American way to jobs, peace, democracy." That is dated May 1954, 
and this is a copy which I hold in my hand, marked "Exhibit 31." 

Now, again, I have a document here addressed "To all districts," 
dated November 4, 1955, and I would like to call the committee's 
attention to the recency of these documents. This again is a series 
of instructions on the circulation of the Daily Worker, and it is signed, 
"Comradely j^ours, National Org. Commission," standing for the 
National Organizational Commission of the Communist Party, and 
it is addressed "To all districts — Dear comrades." 

Senator Watkins. What about the date? 

Mr. Mandel, November 4, 1955. 

Then there is again, addressed as follows: "Proposals on southern 
party organization for 1955 and 1956," covering such matters as 
registration, dues payment, mass education, plan for industrial con- 
centration club, and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. Party building and cadres are included in there; are 
they not, Mr. Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Now, in this document is this statement: "Join organizations that 
these workers are in, wherever possible — churches. Democratic Party, 
NAACP, etc. Readings for cadre self-study: History of CPSU" — 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union — "Stalin — Economic Problems, 
Malenkov's report to the 19th party congress, and Foster's History 
of Negro People." 

Senator Jenner. What is the date of that, Mr. Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel. This is undated, but it says "Proposals on Southern 
Party Organization — 1955-56." It does not have any further date. 

Senator Jenner. Apparently that reference to Stalin is a little out 
of date. 

Senator Watkins. It may be an oversight, but I don't see any 
reference to the Republican Party, either. 

Chairman Eastland. They have already got the Republicans. 
[Laughter.l 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 18 is notes on 1956. It is dated December 
1, 1955, and it says: 

These notes are intended to serve: (1) as a basis for further discussion in the 
districts; (2) as an aid to mobilizing now for the steps required to influence the 
course of the coming elections * * * an ever sharper fight against the aggres- 
sively reactionary DuUes-Nixon-Brownell-Knowland forces who dominate the 
GOP and their Dixiecrat and other reactionary Democratic allies. 

Senator Watkins. It seems as though the Republican Party is 
getting attention now, [Laughter.] 

Mr. Mandel. This is entitled, exhibit 24 is entitled, "Additional 
Notes on Party Organization: Immediate Tasks, 1955," and this caUs 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 681 

for sale, distribution, and mailing of Communist literature "to Negro 
and white community leaders and trade-union leaders," to "share- 
croppers, tenant farmers, and farmworkers." 

Exhibit 125 is entitled "Memo on Negro History Week," It comes 
from the National Negro Commission, National Education Commis- 
sion, December 1952. I will just read an excerpt from that document. 

Stalin's thought illuminates problems of Negro freedom struggle — 

and then it mentions certain articles in the Marxist press, the Worker, 
Political Affairs, Masses, and Mainstream. 

* * * we have a particular responsibilit}' for dramatizing the important role of 
outstanding Communist leaders like Comrades Ben Davis, Claudia Jones, Henry- 
Winston, and James E. Jackson, Jr. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Mr. Mandell, were you impressed by the number of 
foreign publications that were in the possession and in the room of 
Mr. Hunter Pitts O'Dell? 

Mr. Mandel. Mr. Alorris, I was tremendously impressed with the 
reach and scope of the connections of this organizer in the city of New 
Orleans. I find that literature that was found in his apartment covers 
the following countries: Prague, Czechoslovakia, Great Britain, 
China, Belgium, India, the U. S. S. R., Hungary, Poland, and Ru- 
mania, nine countries in all, and we have the literature right here in 
these packages. 

There were 12 volumes we have here that were published by the 
Foreign Languages Publishing House in Moscovr; and if the chairman 
likes, I can read the titles, there are many titles, but I don't think it is 
necessary to read aU of them. They could go into the record, if jon 
desire. 

Mr. Morris. You have there, do you not, Mr. Mandel, the Com- 
munist Party directives dated January 20, 1956, pubhshed in Bucha- 
rest, containing four pages of Directives of the 20th Congress of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union? That is exhibit 99. 

Mr. Mandel. Just one second. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Morris, that is the directives for this year? 

Mr. Morris. That is dated January 20, Senator, 1956, and here 
apparently there were directives coming from the Soviet Union in 
Moscow down here in New Orleans. 

Mr. Mandel. Now, this is a paper entitled, "For a Lasting Peace, 
For a People's Democracy," Bucharest, Organ of the Information 
Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties, dated Friday, Jan- 
uary 20, 1956, and beginning on pages 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, it is headed 
"Directives of the 20th Congress of the CPSU," which stands for the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Mandel. All these pages are Communist Party directives, 

Mr. Morris. Of the Communist Party, Soviet Union? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. And it is dated 1956? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Those are the directives that would apply in 
the Southern States; is that right? 

Mr. Mandel. Well, they are directives of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union, which wiU cover the whole international organiza- 
tion as well as the party in the Soviet Union. 



682 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, you have there pubHcations On the 
Indian Trade Union Movement, pubHshed in Bombay? 

Mr. Mandel. Could I, Mr. Morris — ^would you mind if I follow 
this? It is easier to find. 

Mr. Morris. Go ahead, Mr. Mandel. 

Mr. Mandel. Ninety-one 

Mr. Morris. I might point out, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. Mandel 
has a very difficult assignment there, assembling all those papers and 
having them ready to present. 

Mr. Mandel. I have here exhibit No. 91, which is entitled "Teach- 
ers of the World," and in this issue the International Teachers 
Meeting in AIoscow — this is dated 13, October-December 1954, and, 
significantly enough, there is in this document, on page 5, the photo- 
graphs of two Americans: Rose Russell, whom the committee has 
had in testimony in connection with our educational hearings; and 
William E. DuBois. They appear here in this publication. 

We have here as exhibit No. 101, a pamphlet entitled, "Anarchism 
or Socialism," by J. Stalin, and this pamphlet contains some hand- 
written notes inserted, just a list of names. One of them is 
L-i-v-e-r-i-g. Now, you can interpret that as you see fit, L-i-v-e-r-i-g. 
And then is Sam and Prof, WWA, U&G, ASME, Leig, WUliams (or 
son), and Herman. 

I don't know what those stand for, but that is the way it reads. 

Senator Watkins. Is that a handwritten document? 

Mr. Mandel, I say, is that a document in the handwriting of some 
individual? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel testified it was a volume by J. Stalin, 
but it had handwritten notes on it, and the handwritten notes he 
was reading. 

Senator Watkins. I thought that was what he was reading, and I 
wanted to show it was notes. 

Mr. Mandel. Now, the next categor}^ that I have here are publi- 
cations from Communist som-ces within the United States. I won't 
read all the titles. Suffice to say that a number of the documents 
are written by well-known Communist leaders, some of whom have 
been convicted mider the Smith Act. 

For instance, William Z. Foster, Louis Weinstock 

Senator Watkins. Just before you read those names, do you have 
these exhibits marked with numbers, identified by numbers? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Senator Watkins. Why not in each case give the numbers, so 
when we read the record we will know what you are talking about 
definitely. 

Mr. Mandel. Well, they are all itemized on this sheet, and if I 
read the numbers, I would have to read the titles, and there are 
many titles. Do you want all the titles read? 

Senator Watkins. There ought to be some means of identifying 
the documents you are talking about so that the people looking at 
the record or studying the record can go to the documents that you 
will mention at the time. Otherwise, it will be difl&cult to follow, 
if we do not do that. 

Mr. Mandel. Well, I can read all the titles, with the number. 

Senator Watkins. Let's have the titles. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 683 

Mr. Mandel. No. 32, In Defense of the Communist Party and 
the Indicted Leaders, by WilUam Z. Foster, New Centmy Pubhshers, 
July 1949, full text of a statement presenting the general Ime of the 
defense of the Communist Party and the 11 leaders on trial. 

No. 33, How To Be a Good Communist, by Liu-Shao-Chi, vice 
chairman of the Central People's Government of the People's Repub- 
lic of Chma, and a member of the Central Committee of the Commu- 
nist Party of Chuia, New Century Publishers, November 1952. 

No. 34, Geneva, Poad to Peace, by Joseph Clark, New Century 
Publishers, October 1955. Author is foreign editor of the Daily 
Worker, and for 3 j^ears its Moscow correspondent. 

No. 35, The Smith Act, A Threat to Labor, b}^ Louis Wemstock, 
a Smith Act case. 

No. 36, Not Guilty. The case of Claude Lightfoot. 

The author, a national leader of the Communist Party, was indicted and con- 
victed in a Federal trial for the "crime" of being a member of the Communist 
Party under the Fascist-like provisions of the Smith Act. 

That is quoted from the pamphlet. 

Chairman Eastland. Air. Alandel, now, I don't want any names 
mentioned if the answer should be m the affirmative, because it 
would be a matter that would be subject to further mvestigation: Is 
there an}^ evidence m those files that O'DeU was a ghost speech-writer 
for a local mdividual or for local mdividuals? 

Air. AlANDEL. Mr. Chairman, I can only say that my impression 
of the material is that O'Dell was a well-educated man, very literate, 
and that is all that showed. I couldn't say about his writing speeches 
for anj'body. 

Shall I continue? 

The next, 37, Stalin's Thought Illuminates Problems of Negro 
Freedom Struggle, b}^ Charles P. Mann, for discussion in clubs and 
classes, issued by the National Education Department, Communist 
Party, United States of America, 268 Seventh Avenue, New York, 
January 1953. 

The next is 38, Improve the Alarxist-Leninist Content and Methods 
in Party Activity, "Excerpts from a Report to a Conference on Indus- 
trial Concentration of the Communist Party in Ohio, delivered on 
February 13, 1949." 

The foregoing — 
it says, and I quote — 

The foregoing is a sketchy outline of the tasks of every section of the party 
which flow from our central task and objective. 

The address is by Gus Hall, who is a Communist Party leader and 
a Smith Act case. 

No. 39, Reports to the XIX Congress of the Communist Party of 
the Soviet Union, where Soviet leaders speak for communism and 
peace, published by the New Century Publishers, December 1952. 

No. 40 is The Communist— — 

Mr. Morris. Senator Watkins, we have here a continuation of 
these, which will number about 30 or 40 more. I suggest that maybe 
they go in by numbers. Senator, and Mr. Mandel will read 3 or 4 of 
those to give a sampling of what they are. That is a suggestion in 
the interest of time, Senator. 



684 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTmTY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Watkins. I think that is a very good suggestion. I think 
they ought to be identified, and if he reads the numbers, then if you 
wish to give a few examples, that will do the job. 

Senator Jenner. Couldn't the master sheet go in our record? 

Senator Watkins. Yes; the sheet itself from which he is reading, I 
think could be made a part of the record. It will give all the details. 

Mr. Morris. Will you do that, Mr. Mandel, and give us a few 
indications of what they would be an inkling about. 

Mr. Mandel. No. 40, "The Communist Position on the Negro 
Question," New Century Publishers, 1947, and I quote from the 
document: 

This booklet contains excerpts from the major speeches in discussion of the 
Negro question at the plenary meeting of the national com.mittee of the Com- 
munist Party, held in New York, December 3-5, 1946. In addition, it includes the 
Resolution on Negro Rights and Self-Determination adopted by the plenum, the 
remarks of William Z. Foster and Eugene Dennis, and the summary remarks of 
Benjamin J. Davis, Jr., who presented the major report on this vital question. 

Senator Watkins. What is the date, if any, on that? 

Mr. Mandel. December 3-5, 1946, is the date of that meeting, 
plenary meeting of the national committee of the Communist Party. 

Now, again, I am just reading a sample. There is a leaflet, ex- 
hibit 

Mr. Morris. What number is this, Mr. Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit No. 49. 

Mr. Morris. Will Nos. 41 up to 49 be admitted according to the 
description on this master sheet? 

Senator Watkins. They will be admitted as suggested. 

Mr. Morris. As jou suggested. 

Mr. Mandel. No. 49 is a leaflet entitled, ''Land. Loans. World 
Peace-Trade." addressed to "Sharecroppers, Tenants, Farm Laborers, 
Small and Middle-Sized Farm Owners," and it is issued by the farmers 
committee, Louisiana district. Communist Party, United States. 

Mr. Morris. What is the next number? 

Mr. Mandel. No. 59. 

Senator Watkins. Was there any date on that last one 3^ou just 
mentioned? 

Mr. Mandel. There is no date on the leaflet. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may Nos. 50 to 58, inclusive, be 
admitted, with the description that appears on this master sheet? 

Senator Watkins. They will be put in the record. 

Mr. Mandel. No. 59 is entitled, "On Inner-Party Struggle," by 
Liu Shao-Chi, "Vice Chairman" — and this is taken from the pam- 
phlet — he is described as "Vice Chairman of the Central People's 
Government of the People's Republic of China, is a leading member 
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China." This 
is published by New Century Publishers, June 1952. 

Now, I am going to skip to No. 65. 

Mr. Morris. May 60 to 64 go into the record, with the description 
that appears on this master sheet, Mr. Chahman? 

Senator Watkins. That will be the order. 

Mr. Mandel. This is entitled, "Resistance Against Fascist En- 
slavement in South Africa," published by New Century Publishers in 
1953, and published by the Council on African Affairs, under union 
label 209, which is the Communist printshop in New York. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 685 

Senator Watkins. Wliat is the date on that? 

Mr. Mandel. The date on that is 1953. 

Now I go to 72. 

Mr. Morris. May 66 through 71 be admitted into evidence, with 
the description that appears on the master sheet? 

Senator Watkins. So ordered. 

Mr. AIandel. Now, 72 is a pamphlet entitled, "The Farm Crisis." 
And in the pamphlet it says, "this pamphlet was prepared by the 
National Farm Commission of the Communist Party," published by 
New Century Publishers, dated June 1955. 

I now proceed to No. 75. 

Mr. Morris. May 73 and 74 be admitted under that pattern? 

Senator Watkins. So ordered. 

Mr. Mandel. No. 75 is a book entitled, "The Negro Question in 
the United States," by James S. Allen. Now, James S. Allen appeared 
before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and invoked the 
fifth amendment regarding his Communist Party affiliations. This 
book is published by the International Publishers, dated 1936, and 
calls for, and I quote "the creation of the Negro Republic in the area 
approximating the present Black Belt." That is page 181. 

If I may be permitted a conmient, that is an invitation to civil war 
in the South. 

Next is 115, entitled "A Manual on Self Study." The foreword 
declares, and I quote, "Events underline the correctness of Comrade 
Gus Hall's statement to the 15th national convention of our party." 
Fm'ther, "All signs point to rougher weather ahead for our people and 
our class." And the appendix mentions the following points for study: 
"Karl Marx's Stud}^ Methods, How Lenin Studied Marx, and How 
William Z. Foster Studies." 

Item 11 is "Portlight," a mmaeographed publication issued by the 
Waterfront Section of the Communist Party, U. S. A. It is not dated, 
and is addressed from 268 Seventh Avenue, New York City. 

Senator Watkins. Does that address have any significance? 

Mr. Mandel. Well, it says Communist Party, U. S. A., 268 Seventh 
Avenue. It gives the organization. 

Now, next we have a number of publications from Communist front 
organizations. I suggest that I don't read them all, all the publica- 
tions, but I can tell you the organizations that have material in this 
group. 

Of them, five were cited by the Attorney General. For instance, 
the National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Labor Youth 
League, Jefferson School of Social Science, Civil Rights Congress. 
Soviet Russia Today was cited as subversive by the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities. They have literature represented here. 

And the National Negro Labor Council was also cited by the 
Attorney General. That has literatm-e here. 

Then we have tw^o organizations that w^ere investigated by the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, whose literature is repre- 
sented. They are National Guardian and China Trade Facts. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you tell us what you mean when you 
say "cited by the Attorney General"? 

Mr. Mandel. The Attorney General has issued a consolidated 
list of organizations which he has deemed subversive, and m the litera- 



686 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ture found in the O'Dell file there were five of these listed organiza- 
tions whose publications were found. 

Senator Watkins. And the act of the Attorney General is required 
by law, as I understand it 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Senator Watkins (continuing). To make those citations. 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Senator Watkins. He finds facts 

Mr. Mandel. I can read those, if you like. 

Senator Watkins (continuing). To justify them. 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. The committee has decided it will not be necessary, 
Mr. Mandel, to read them. Will you put them in according to the 
summaries that are made on the master sheet? Mr. Chairman, may 
they be so ordered? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Mandel. Now, further developing the scope of the activities 
of the owner of these documents, we have grouped certain publications 
dealing with unions and labor union activity. I will read a few 
specimens. 

There was, for example, in his possession, a working agreement 
between Mobile Stevedoring Companies and International Longshore- 
men's Association, Local 1410, October 1, 1950, to September 30, 1951 ; 
and also, a deep-sea agreement between general longshore workers and 
steamship companies of the port of New Orleans, 1950-51. 

This being an important seaport, I think that is importantly 
relevant. 

Then we have exhibit — that was exhibit 152. 

Exhibit 154 is a sample ballot from the United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, Local 1101. 

Exhibit 156 is an agreement between the United Packinghouse 
Workers, Local 1476, and Southdown Sugars, Inc., August 1, 1955. 

Then there is exhibit 159, proceedings of the Emergency National 
Council meeting of the National Maritime Union, August 23-24, 1954. 

Exhibit 161 is a leaflet on the Godchaux strike, issued by local 1124 
of the United Packinghouse Workers. 

Exhibit 165 is contract negotiations of Local 1095, United Packing- 
house Workers, dated January 10, 1956. Notice how recent that is. 

Item or exhibit 170 is an agreement between the International 
Longshoremen and Warehousemen's Union and Armour Fertilizer 
Works at Shrewsbury, La., dated January 14, 1953. 

Exhibit 173 is a paper called National Maritime Union Rank and 
File Pilot, dated November-December 1954, containing an item. 
Scuttle the New Coast Guard Tests, and October-November 1955, 
Screening Held Illegal — -referring, obviously, to screening on the 
waterfront. 

Now, that is a brief summary of the documents. 

Air. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may the other documents not read 
by Air. Mandel, but numbered here on the master sheet, be intro- 
duced into our record, with the description given on that sheet; and, 
Mr. Chairman, may I say that they are offered simply as papers that 
were found in the apartment, the abandoned apartment, of Hunter 
Pitts O'Dell, and whatever evidentiary value they have, they speak 
for themselves. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 687 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, the evidentiary facts speak for them- 
selves, and wiJ] be evahiated by the subcommittee. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Mr. Mandel. 

(The master sheet summary of papers found in the room of H. P. 
O'Dell was marked "Exhibit No. 215" and is as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 215 
Papers Found in Room of J. H. O'Dell 

1. Application for registration, Crescent City Independent Voters League, 
showing handwriting. 

2. Slips of memo pad showing the name of "most outstanding freshman" at 
Mississippi Southern College, Mother of wounded Korean soldier. Parents of 
servicemen. 

3. List of weekly newspapers and broadcasting stations in Louisiana. 

4. Principals in St. Landry Parish, La., schools. 

5. List of Methodist ministers listed under "Methodist appointments in 
Louisiana (white)." 

6. List of La. Libraries. 

7. List of La. Daily Newspapers. 

8. List of labor unions. 

9. Financial Rep. No. of dues payments; cash on hand; expenses; income, 
Aug. 10. 

10. Social security card. No. 434-52-1139, to John Vesey; No. 422-48-9391, 
to Ben Jones. 

11. Proposals on Farm Work for Party Organization in South. 

12. Undated report on party meeting showing business transacted. Estimated 
date prior to December 14, 1955. 

13. For club organizers class. 

14. Partial list of sponsors (Southern Conference Educational Fund). 

15. Proposed agenda (CP). 

16. Program for Southern Farmers. 

17. Feb. 3, 1956 TO All Districts, signed Martha Stone a Smith Act case, re 
circulation of worker. 

18. Unsigned and undated. Proposals regarding registration, cadres, club 
plans, press, education, mass education, literature, finances, leadership, club life. 
Join organizations. 

19. Specimen of probably O'Dell handwriting, appearing to be notes on study 
course. 

20. Handwritten notes re Montgomery bus strike. "Because they have pledged 
to supp our Prog. We want to elect the following candidates 

21. Receipt from New Century Publishers, 9/7/55 for $8.83, on back History 
of the Negro People, History of the Americas. Receipt made out to A. B. 

22. List of Women's Organizations in Baton Rouge, La. 

23. Handwritten. How to detect propaganda. 

24. Handwritten. Appears to be agenda of meeting. Item "Under V role of 
CPUSA today * * * Compare p. program with Dem. & Rep. in fight vs MC 
Fascism." 

25. Handwritten notes from notebook: "obj. of sec today is to conceal from 
enemy function of p apparat. Previously we conceal Individ, whereabouts as well 
as function of apparatus. Mass Education, mailing list 5-7,000, Doxey Pamphlet 
90 (Every member & contact); Natl Farm Prog — 200, Lightfoot 90; Scales 2,500. 

26. Dues $33.00; Sust. $20.00; Fund $20.00. 

27. Handwritten notebook. Items; Facts for Farmers, 39 Cortlandt St., N. Y. ; 
ag attaches shifted from Dulles to Benson overseas trade, p. 1; p. 3 night school 
classes in rural areas are forums — very important; loose slip: Targets Dem St Cent 
Comm. (Gov. Long) — Statewide Org Comm for N Rep to D/N Conv — Dovetails 
with fight & stimulates to increase registration July primaries. Coincides with 
general trend in Neg people movt to rep in Dem p policy making levels. 99 per- 
cent N reg V-Democ so we can unite that bloc. Negro vote is recognized as a 
bloc vote. 

28. Looks like pencilled dues record from $.15, $.50, $1.25, $2.00, $1.00 and 
$.35 by months. 

29. Handwritten notes — 3 months subsidy; quest of La. CP — Finan. assist, for 
this period. 



688 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

30. Code references to contacts: Irv. E, Wright, Arab, Gladys, Walt, Lee, 
Evans, Dan B., Chester, Judy, Abe, Brother Grady, Pop, Katie & Mon, Tootie & 
wife. Old man and wife, Seig and Mamie. See references to tactics among 
Catholics. See transcript. 

31. Labor Unity by George Morris, New Century Publishers, June 1955. 

32. Working Rules, General Laborers Union, Local 689, with signature of 
Hunter Odell, 2319 La. Ave. 

33. "Why do we emphasize the importance of our Negro comrades being among 
the masses and in their org? Precisely because we are dealing with an oppressed 
Nation (here in the S) & the Negro-national movement must have Marxist 
leaders as a guarantee of success. This fact of life is being daily proven by the 
colonial lib. movements & a subject nation of U. S. Imperialism." 

Newspapers: Irv. — La. Weekly; Walt — Chi Defender; Elaine — Pitts Courier; 
Monica — Cath. Action of the S, 523 Natchez St.; Arabella — Courier; Ju — Advo- 
cate & Ethyl News. 

"Put the Negro Church back (?) firmly upon its historically revolu(tionary) 
path. Witness the dozen Negro ministers repres the 7 mill members of the Fed 
Council of Churches who placed a militant prog before Eisenhower recently; the 
seven bishops of AME church who told the govt "Hand off Patterson," and the 
convention of AMEZ that voted unanimously to back P(aul) R(obeson) passport 
fight." 

34. Sample of Hunter Odell handwriting, Charity Hospital. 

35. Showing distribution of literatiu'e to Baton Rouge and Farm PA (Political 
Affairs) plus pamphlets. 

36. P(arty) Org. 2 Farm, 1 N. O., 1 Prof, 1 Ser, 1 Neg wor, 1 B(aton) R(ouge). 
Handwritten. 

37. Small notebook, handwritten. What are the pivotal mass org of Negro 
people. (1) NAACP, Churches, Civ & V Leagues, PDL, PVL. 

38. 2nd Annual Convention Delegate's Kit, National Negro Labor Council. 

39. "My darling Blanche * * * We should see each other, same place, Dec. 
15th * * * Keep this date silent! please send me the NAA mailing list you 
have * * *." Handwritten. 

40. Ben Jones, withholding statement, Holsum Cafeteria, earnings and reduc- 
tions. 

Papers Found in the Room of H. O'Dell, Also Known as Hunter Pitts 
O'Dell, at 2319 Louisiana Avenue, New Orleans, La., on March 29, 
1956 

COMMUNIST PARTY, USA, DIRECTIVES 

73. The Southern People's Common Program for Democracy, Progress, Peace 
reprinted from The Worker and made public by the Southern Regional Commit- 
tee of the Communist Party of the United States. 375 copies on hand. 

31. The American Way to Jobs, Peace, Democracy. Draft Program of the 
Communist Party, dated May 1954. 

10. Addressed: To All Districts, dated November 4, 1955, from "Comiadely 
yours. National Org. Commission." Beginning "Dear Comrades: The following 
is an abridged version of a report on the status of Marxist press circulation pre- 
sented to the National Organization Commission * * * part of the Party's re- 
sponsibility, to supply a solid press corps, going beyond press directors, which 
will aid the Worker and D. W. in building circulation systematically all year 
round." 

15. Proposals on Southern Party Organization — 1955 — 1956, including: Regis- 
tration, Dues must be paid monthly. Party Building, Cadres, Press, Mass Educa- 
tion, Education * * * regular club political discussions, send teachers from na- 
tional center, Literature, Finances, Club Plans, Plan for Industrial Concentration 
Club * * * Join organizations that these workers are in, wherever possible — 
churches. Democratic Party, NAACP, etc. Readings for Cadre Self-Study: 
History of CPSU, Stalin — Economic Problems, Malenkov — Report to 19th Party 
Congress (CPSU), Foster — History of Negro People, etc. 

18. Notes on 1956, dated Dec. 1, 1955. "These notes are intended to serve: 
(1) as a basis for further discussion in the districts; (2) as an aid to mobilizing now 
for the steps required to influence the course of the coming elections * * * an 
ever sharper fight against the aggressively reactionary Dulles-Nixon-Brownell- 
Knowland forces who dominate the GOP and their Dixiecrat and other reaction- 
ary Democratic allies." 

24. Additional notes on Party Organization: Immediate Tasks — 1955, calling 
for sale, distribution, and mailing of Communist literature "to Negro and white 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 689 

community leaders and TU leaders," to "sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and farm 
workers." 

125. "Memo on Negro History Week" from National Negro Commission, 
National Education Coinmission, December 1952. Calls attention to publica- 
tion "Stalin's Thought Illuminates Problems of Negro Freedom Struggle" and 
articles in "the Marxist press (The Worker, Political Affairs, Masses, and Main- 
stream) * * * we have a particular responsibility for dramatizing the important 
role of outstanding Communist leaders like Comrades Ben Davis, Claudia Jones, 
Henry Winston, and James E. Jackson, Jr. 

COMMUNIST PUBLICATIONS FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

79. Colonial Education, published by the International Union of Students, 
Prague, 1950, p, 33, speaks of "The great achievements of the students of the 
Soviet Union, the great advances made by the students of the People's Democ- 
racies and New China.* * *" 

80. "A Policy for Britain, General Election Programme of the Communist 
Party" published by the Communist Party, 16 King Street, London, February 
1955'. 

81. "People's China," September 1, 1950, published in Peking. 

82. "International Law and the Preparation for Atomic War," published by 
the International Association of Democratic Lawyers in Brussels. 

85. "On the Indian Trade Union Movement" by S. A. Dange, Bombay India, 
"A Communist Party Publication" 1952. 

88. "Peace Conference of the Asian and Pacific Regions Peking, October 
2-12, 1952." Documents and Resolutions. 

89. "Unity for a People's Culture," Dec. 1952, Jan. 1953, Dec. 1953, April 
1954, Jan. 1954, organ of the Indian People's Theatre Association. 

91. Teachers of the World, published for the World Federation of Teachers, 
London, In this issue (October-December 1954) The International Teachers 
Meeting in Moscow. Photo of Rose Russell and William E. DuBois, Ameri- 
cans, p. 5. 

92. For European Security, Soviet Government's Note to France, Britain 
and the USA, Speech bv V. M. Molotov published by Soviet News, London. 

92a. Circular, News^ 18b Gorky Street, Moscow, USSR. 

93. New Hungary, Supplement, June-July 1954, The Third Congress of the 
Hungarian Working People's Party, with speech of K. E. Voroshilov, leader 
of the Delegation of the CPSU. 

94. Soviet Literature, Nos. 10 and 11, 1953 and No. 9, 1954. 

95. Decisions of the Central Committee, CPSU(B) on Literature and Art 
(1946-48, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1951. 

96. New Times, published bv Trud, Moscow, September 29, 1955; August 11, 
1955; July 14, 1955; May 27, 1953. 

*99, For a Lasting Peace, For a People's Democracy, Organ of the Information 
Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties, January 20, 1956, published 
in Bucharest, containing four pages of "Directives of the Twentieth of the Con- 
gress of the CPSU." 

98. World Trade Union Movement, Fortnightly Review, August 16-31, 1952, 
World Federation of Trade Unions, London. 

100. Unity Everywhere, For Bread, Peace, Freedom, by Louis Saillant, General 
Secretary of the W. F. T. U. Report to Seventh Session of General Council of 
World Federation of Trade Unions, Warsaw, Dec. 1954. 

105. Stalin and the Chinese Revolution by Chen Po-ta, in Celebration of 
Stalin's Seventieth Birthdaj', published by Foreign Languages Press, Peking 1953. 

106. Catalogue of Soviet Books, published in the USSR in the English Lan- 
guage, "Sent to you from New York, order from Imported Publications & Prod- 
ucts, Room 1525-27, 22 East 17th Street, New York 3, New York." & Circular. 

113. Catalogue of Soviet Periodicals sold by same organization. 

107. VOKS Bulletin, 1955, No. 5, Moscow USSR, published by the USSR 
Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. 

108. Problems of Economics, 1952, No. 3, "Pravda" Publishing House, Moscow. 
Issued by the Academy of Sciences of LTSSR, Institute of Economics. 

109. International Affairs, A Monthly Journal of Political Analysis, Nos. 1, 2, 
5, 7, 1955, Znanye Publishing House, Moscow. 

112. For a Better Life, Democracy, Peace, The Charter of Trade Union Rights, 
by G. Di Vittorio, President of the WFTU, Report to the Seventh Session of the 
General Council of the World Federation of Trade Unions, Dec. 1954 in Warsaw, 
published by W. F. T. U. Publications Limited, London. 



690 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

114. Documents Concerning Right Deviation in Rumanian Workers Party, 
published by Rumanian Workers' Party Publishing House, 1952. "Workers of 
All Countries Unite!" 

123. New Age, August 1953, No. 8, Political Monthly, Editor, Ajoy Ghosh, 
leading article, "On the Expulsion of Beria, resolution of the Central Committee, 
Communist Party of India, July 23-31, 1953. Bombay, India. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING HOUSE, MOSCOW 

83. Karl Marx and Frederick Engels on Britain, 1953. 

84. The Agrarian Question and the "Critics of Marx," 1954. 

87. Against Vulgarizing the Slogan of Self-Criticism by J. Stalin. 

97. What the "Friends of the People" Are by V. I. Lenin, 1946. 

*101. Anarchism or Socialism by J. Stalin, including handwritten notes, 
1 Liverig, 1 Sam, 5 Prof, 3 WWA, 1, J&G, 2ASME, 1 Leig, IS, 1 Wms (or son) 
1 Herman. 

102. A Great Beginning, V. I. Lenin, 1951. 

103. To the Rural Poor, by V. I. Lenin, 1954. 

104. The Role of Socialist Consciousness in the Development of Soviet Society, 
1950. 

110. Soviet Science and Technique in the Service of Building Communism in 
the USSR, 1954, by M. I. Rubenstein. 

111. On Communist Education by M. I. Kalinin, 1949, 

116. F. Engels, The Peasant Question in France and German j% 1955. 

124. Bourgeois Nations and Socialist Nations, by B. Kozlov, 1954. 

PUBLICATIONS FROM COMMUNIST SOURCES IN THE USA 

32. In Defense of the Communist Party and the Indicted Leaders by William 
Z. Foster, New Century Publishers, July 1949, Full text of a statement present- 
ing the general line of the defense of the Communist Party and the 11 leaders 
now on trial. 

33. How To Be a Good Communist, by Liu-Shao-Chi, vice chairman of the 
Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China and a member 
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. New Century 
Publishers, November 1952. 

34. Geneva, Road to Peace by Joseph Clark, New Century Publishers, Octo- 
ber 1955. Author foreign editor of the Daily Worker and for three years its 
Moscow correspondent. 

35. The Smith Act, A Threat to Labor, by Louis Weinstock, issued by the 
Trade Union Committee to Defend Louis Weinstock, a Smith Act Case. 

36. "Not Guilty!" The Case of Claude Lightfoot, published by New Century 
Publishers, June 1955. "The author, a national leader of the Commimist Party 
* * * was indicted and convicted in a federal trial for the crime of being a 
member of the Communist Party under the fascist-like provisions of the Smith 
Act." 

*37. Stalin's Thought Illuminates Problems of Negro Freedom Struggle by 
Charles P. Mann, for discussion in Clubs and Classes issued by National Educa- 
tion Dept. Communist Party, U. S. A., 268 Seventh Ave., New York 1, N. Y., 
January 1953. 

*38. Improve the Marxist-Leninist Content and Methods in Party Activity, 
"Excerpts from a Report to a Conference on Industrial Concentration of the 
Communist Party in Ohio, delivered on February 13, 1949." "The foregoing is 
a sketchy outline of the tasks of every section of the Party which flow from our 
central task and objective." (p. 9) Author Gus Hall, a Communist Party leader 
and Smith Act case. 

39. Reports to the XIX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 
Soviet Leaders Speak for Communism and Peace, New Century Publishers, Dec. 
1952. 

40. The Commimist Position on the Negro Question, New Century Publishers, 
1947. "This booklet contains excerpts from the major speeches in discussion of 
the Negro question at the plenary meeting of the National Committee of the 
Communist Party, held in New York, December 3-5, 1946. In addition, it in- 
cludes the Resolution on Negro Rights and Self-Determination adopted by the 
Plenum, the remarks of William Z. Foster and Eugene Dennis, and the summary 
remarks of Benjamin J. Davis, Jr. who presented the major report on this vital 
question." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 691 

41. "We Stand for Peaceful Coexistence, interviews with N. S. Khrushchev, 
N. A. Bulganin, G. K. Zhukov, by William Randolph Hearst, Kingsbury Smith, 
Frank Conniff" published by New Century Publishers, 1955. 

42. Elizabeth Gurley Flynn Speaks To the Court, Opening statement to the 
court and jury in the case of the sixteen Smith Act victims in the trial at Foley 
Square, New York, New Century Publishers, July 1952. p. 31, Advertisement: 
"History of the Communist Party of the United States, by William Z. Foster." 

44. The 1952 Election Platform of the Communist Party, Issued by the Na- 
tional Election Campaign Committee of the Communist Part}', 268 Seventh 
Avenue, New York 1, N. Y., Union Label 209. 

45. New Century Publishers, Literature Bulletin, November-December 1955 
"Hundreds of thousands of workers will note the occasion of the 75th anniversary 
of William Z. Foster, national chairman of the Communist Party, * * * whose 
birthday falls in February, will be celebrated in meetings, parties, lectures, and 
forums from coast to coast. One of the central features of this coming celebration 
will be a focusing special attention on Foster's own works, with special concen- 
tration on his forthcoming book, History of the International Trade Union 
Movement." 

46. "The Big Lie of War 'Prosperity' " by Bernard Burton, New Century 
Publishers, 1952. 

47. Political Affairs, a Magazine Devoted to the Theory and Practice of Marx- 
ism Leninism, Feb., Sept. 1947; Aug., Sept., October, 1949; March, May, June, 
July, 1951; March, June, Aug. Nov. 1952; April, June, July, 1953; Sept., Oct., 
Nov., Dec, 1954; Jan., Feb., March, April, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Dec. 
1955. 

Note that September 1954 deals with National Election Conference of the 
Communist Party; April 1953 deals with The Death of Joseph Stalin; March 
1951 the 70th Birthday Issue of WiUiam Z. Foster; Sept. 1949, The 30th Anniver- 
sary of the Communist Party, USA. 

48. Mimeographed, two sheets, Quotations on Dialectical Materialism. 

49. Leaflet: "Land! Loans! World Peace-Trade! Sharecroppers, Tenants, 
Farm Laborers, Small and middle-sized Farmowaiers * * * Issued by: Farmers 
Committee, Louisiana Dist., Communist Party, U. S." 

50. "White Chauvinsim and the Struggle for Peace" by Pettis Perry, "the 
author of this pamphlet, is one of the foremost leaders of the Comminiist Party 
* * * He is presently under indictment and facing trial, together with 16 co- 
defendants, under the provisions of the infamous Smith Act." New Century 
Publishers, February 1952, Union label 209. 

51. "The Till Case and the Negro Liberation Movement" by Edward E. 
Strong, New Century Publishers, Reprinted from Political Affairs, Dec. 1955. 

52. "The Negro People in America" by Herbert Aptheker, introduction by 
Doxey A. Wilkerson, published by International Publishers, 1946. 

53. Negro Slave Revolts in the United States, 1526-1860 by Herbert Aptheker, 
published by International Publishers, 1939. 

54. "Historical MateriaHsm" by Maurice Cornforth, published by International 
Publishers. 

55. History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), pub- 
lished by International Publishers, 1939. 

56. On People's Democratic Rule by Mao Tse-tung, "This pamphlet contains 
the full text of an article written by Mao Tse-tung, chairman of the Central 
Committee of the Communist Party of China, on the occasion of the celebration, 
in July 1949, of the 28th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party." Pub- 
lished by the New Century Publishers. 

57. "I Take My Stand for Peace" by W. E. B. DuBois. "More recently he 
has served as a Vice Chairman of the Council on African Affairs, and as leader 
of the American Labor Party ran for United States Senator in New Y^ork in 
1950." Pamphlet published by Masses and Mainstream, June 1951. 

58. The Partv Voice, "A Bulletin issued by the N. Y. State Communist Party," 
Sept. 1953; No.' 8, 1955, No. 9, 1955. 

59. "On Inner-Party Struggle" by Liu Shao-Chi, "Vice Chairman of the 
Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, is a leading 
member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China." Pub- 
lished by New Century Publishers, June 1952. 

60. "America's Racist Laws, weapon of national oppression" by Herbert 
Aptheker, "instructor in history at the Jefferson School of Social Science in New 
Y'ork City." Published by Masses and Mainstream, January 1952, union label 
209. 



692 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY m THE UNITED STATES 

61. Masses and Mainstream, Sept. 1951, Dec. 1952, Feb. 1953, Oct. 1955, 
March 1955. 

62. The People versus Segregated Schools by Doxey A. Wilkerson. "In 1948 
he joined the staff of the Jefferson School of Social Science." Published by New 
Century Publishers, Feb. 1955, Union label 209. 

63. "The Communist Party, Vanguard Fighter for Peace, Democracy, Security, 
Socialism" by Pettis Perry, "a national leader of the Communist Party." New- 
Century Publisher, April 1953. 

64. "23 Questions About the Communist Party" by William Z. Foster, New- 
Century Publishers, January 1948. 

65. "Resistance Against Fascist Enslavement in South Africa," published by 
New Century Publishers, 1953, published by the Council on African Affairs, 
union label 209. 

66. Defense Digest, June 1955, Issued by the Lightfoot Defense Committee, 
dealing with the cases under the Smith Act of Claude Lightfoot and Junius Scales. 

67. On Historical Materialism by Frederick Engels, International Publishers, 
1940. 

68. "On Contradiction" by Mao Tse-tung, International Publishers, 1953. 

69. Little Lenin Library, Volume 20, "Left wing" Communism, An Infantile 
Disorder by V. I. Lenin, International Pulilishers, 1940. 

70. Little Lenin Library, Volume 4, What Is To Be Done, by V. I. Lenin, 
International Publishers, 1929. 

71. Little Lenin Library, Volume '1, The Teachings of Karl Marx, by V. I 
Lenin, International Publishers, 1930. 

72. The Farm Crisis, "This pamphlet was prepared by the National Farm 
Commission of the Communist Party." New Century Publishers, June 1955. 

73. "Historic Moment for the South. May 17, 1954, was a most important 
date in the history of the South. On that date the United States Supreme Court 
handed down a decision which is destined to bring major changes in the way of 
life that has existed in the South for many years." "For more information about 
the program of the Communist Party write to the Southern Regional Committee 
of the Communist Party." 

74. What is Leninism, International Publishers, 1936. 

75. The Negro Question in the United States, James S. Allen, International 
Publishers, 1936, calls for "the creation of the Negro Republic in the area approxi- 
mating the present Black Belt." (P. 181.) 

76. History of the Three Internationals bj' William Z. Foster, International 
Publishers, 1955. "The W^orld Socialist and Communist Movements from 1848 
to the Present." 

77. Marxism and the National Question by Joseph Stalin, Selected Writings 
and Speeches, International Publishers, 1942. Handwritten on flyleaf "Herbert 
Hernandez, Jefferson School of Science, December 15, 1949." 

78. Selected Works by V. I. Lenin, Volume II, International Publishers, 1943. 
86. Motion for Stay of Mandate and Petition for Rehearing, U. S. Court of 

Appeals, Junius Irving Scales, Appelant v. United States of America. 

114. New Data for V. I. Lenin's "Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capital- 
ism," Edited by E. Varga, L. Mendelsohn, New York, International Publishers. 

115. A Manual on Self Study, Foreword "Events underline the correctness of 
Comrade Gus Hall's statement to the 15th National Convention of our Party 
* * * 'AH signs point to rougher weather ahead for our people and our class.' " 
Appendix: "Karl Marx's Study Methods, How Lenin Studied Marx, How WiUiam 
Z. Foster Studies." 

11. Portlight, issued by Waterfront Section, CPUSA, 268, 7th Ave., New Yort 
City. 

FRONT ORGANIZATIONS 

129. Resolution on the Railroad Industry from the convention of the National 
Negro Labor Council. 

130. National Guardian, May 9, 1955. 

131. China Trade Facts, published by the Far East Reporter, Maud Russell, 
publishers. 

132. Ticket for Salute to Paul Robeson, Wednesday, May 26, 1954, Renaissance 
Casino, 138th St. and 7th Ave., NYC, Auspices: Committee to Restore Paul 
Robeson's Passport. 

133. American Soviet Facts, published by the National Council of American 
Soviet Friendship, Inc. 

134. Sears Roebuck resolution by convention of National Negro Labor Council. 
Also resolution submitted by New York City Teachers Union, local 555. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 693 

135. Letter from Paul Robeson, November 19, 1952, soliciting $5 subscriptions 
for advance sale of his records. 

136. Southern Conference Educational Fund, Inc., on Southwestern Regional 
Conference on Integration to be held in Houston, Tex., May 17, estimated 1956. 

137. For Those Things We Fight, text of address at Founding Convention of 
National Negro Labor Council, Cincinnati, Ohio, October 27, 1951 (pamphlet). 

138. Now Is The Tune by M. E. Travis (pamphlet) his address before conven- 
tion of National Negro Labor Council, Note his conviction for false affidavit. 

139. Freedom, May-June 1955, editorial board; Paul Robeson, chairman; 
Revels Cayton, Shirley Graham, Alphaeus Hunton, Modjeska M. Simkins. 
General manager, Thelma Dale; editor, Louis E. Burnham. 

140. Pamphlet, The American People Want Peace, A Survey of Public Opinion, 
by Jessica Smith, S. R. T. Publications, Inc. 1955 (standing for Soviet Russia 
Today) Union label 209. 

141. Statement of Principles,''Constitution, Officers, National Negro Labor 
Council, Nov. 21, 22, 23, 1952, containing ist of photographs and names. 

142. Russia With Our Own Eves, Report of the British Workers Delegation 
to the Soviet Union, 1950, published bv SRT Publications, Inc., 114 E. 32d St. 
New York 16, N. Y. (Soviet Russia Today) 1951. 

143. Resolution on Council Building and Membership presented at convention 
of the National Negro Labor Council. 

144. The League Club, Key to the Fight for Peace, Report by Roosevelt Ward, 
Administrative Secretary, before the First Empire State Convention of the Labor 
Youth League, May 18-20, 1951. Get New York Times clipping on draft dodging. 

145. Report of Coleman A. Young, Executive Secretary, National Negro 
Labor Council. 

146. Youth Notes, Nov. 1955, Education Department, Labor Youth League, 
dealing with 15th National Conference of Methodist Youth, 8th United States 
National Student Association Congress, 2d United States Assembly of Youth, 
National Jewish Youth Conference. 

147. Forces of Progress in the South by Jim Jackson, issued by the Jefferson 
School of Social Science, 1955. Read p. 9. 

148. New Challenge, June, October, November 1955, deahng with Fifth 
World Festival of Youth and Students for Peace, July 31- August 14 in Warsaw, 
Poland. Photos. 

149. The Southern Patriot, published by the Southern Conference Educational 
Fund, Inc., April 1955. 

150. The "Crimes" of Claude Lightfoot and Junius Scales, published by the 
Civil Rights Congress. Junius Scales, Voice of the New South. 

151. Resolution on Screening in the Maritime Industry presented before the 
convention of the National Negro Labor Council. Read paragraph, p. 2. 

UNIONS 

152. Working Agreement between Mobile Stevedoring Companies and Inter- 
national Longshoremen's Association, Local 1410, October 1, 1950, to September 
30, 1951. 1950-51, Deep Sea Agreement between general Longshore workers and 
steamship companies of the port of New Orleans. 

153. Armed Forces Talk, 209, on The United States Merchant Marine. 

154. Sample Ballot, United Packinghouse Workers of America, Local 1101. 

155. 1953 Review of the Louisiana State Federation of Labor. 

156. Agreement between UPWA, Local 1476, and Southdown Sugars, Inc., 
August 1, 1955. 

157. Resolutions and program of Louisiana State Federation of Labor Conven- 
tion at Shreveport, La., April 9, 1953. 

158. March of Labor, January 1955 and June 1955, cited by HUAC. 

159. Proceedings of Emergency National Council Meeting, National Maritime 
Union, August 23-24, 1954. 

160. Local 1101 News, December'lOj'igoS, and January 10, 1956. 

161. Leaflet on Godchaux Strike, Local 1124, UPWA. 

162. Leaflet issued by "A Group of ILA Members of Local No. 1419." 

163. Leaflet "Don't Buy Godchaux Pure Scab Sugar." (United Packinghouse 
Workers of America.) 

164. Leaflet "Convention Time!" on ILA convention signed: "A Group of 
ILA Members in the Gulf District." 

165. Local 1095, UPWA, contract negotiations, January 10, 1956. 

166. The Dispatcher, June 10, 1955, published by the International Long- 
shoremen's and Warehousemen's IJnion. Item, Telford Taylor in Bridges Defense. 



694 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

167. Pacific Coast Longshore Agreement, 1951-53, with ILWU, Bridges Union. 

168. Leaflet of A group of ILA members of local 1419. For Clean and Honest 
Unionism in the ILA. 

169. Trade Union Education Program, History of the American Labor Move- 
ment. Subjects covered: Active Committee for Repeal of Smith Act, contracts 
of Local 207, ILWU, Cotton Compress agreements, Rice mill agreements. 

170. Agreement, ILWU and Armour Fertilizer Works, at Shrewsbury, La., 
January 14, 1953. 

171. A Picture History of the National Maritime Union. 

172. Leaflet, Southern Sugar's Strike Story, re strike of UPWA locals 1124 
and 1167. Leaflet "Don't Buy Godchaux Scab-Made Sugar." Godchaux 
Strike Goes On. 

173. NMU Rank and File Pilot, November-December 1954. Item, "Scuttle 
the New Coast Guard 'Tests' " October-November 1955, "Screening Held 
lUegal. " 

_ 174. Packinghouse Worker, September, October 1955, Lyle Cooper, research 
director, phot. 

175. The Score, District 6, United Packinghouse Workers of America, October 
1955. 

Mr. Morris. Will Grady Jenkins take the stand? 

Will you stand and be sworn, Mr. Jenkins? 

He was sw'orn for a limited purpose, I thought, Senator. That was 
not for his general appearance here before the committee. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Jenkins. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF GRADY JENKINS— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. Air. Jenkins, will 3^ou give your name and address 
to the reporter, please? 

Mr. Jenkins. Grady Jenldns, 217)^ Bourbon Street. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Jenkins, are you employed by the Western Auto 
Store at 3801 South Carrollton Street in New Orleans? 

Mr. Jenkins. I am now unemployed. 

Mr. Morris. I see. At the time of your being served with a 
subpena by this subcommittee, were you so emplo3'^ed? 

Mr. Jenkins. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat job did you have there? 

Mr. Jenkins. Salesman. 

Mr. Morris. You were a salesman. 

Wliere were you born, Mr. Jenkins? 

Mr. Jenkins. Lee County, Miss. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what work have you done here in New Orleans, 
Mr. Jenkins? Wliat jobs have you held? 

Mr. Jenkins. Well, various jobs. I believe I worked in a super- 
market for a while. 

Mr. Morris. You worked in a supermarket. 

Mr. Jenkins. I think I worked in the offshore oil exploration for a 
while. 

Mr. Morris. I did not understand that. 

Mr. Jenkins. I worked for the Tidelands and Marine Service in 
the offshore islands. 

Mr. Morris. Tidelands and Marine Service. 

Mr. Jenkins. That is all I recall at the moment. 

Mr. Morris. Have j'^ou worked for the barge lines? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 695 

Mr. Jenkins. You mean here in New Orleans? Is that what you 
are speakmg of? 

Mr. Morris. I mean, have j^ou worked for the barge hnes any- 
where? 

Mr. Jenkins. Can I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Morris. You maj. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jenkins. Mr. Chairman, I would like to make an objection. 

Mr. Morris. You mean you will tell us about your other assign- 
ments, but you will not tell us whether or not you worked for the 
barge lines? 

Mr. Jenkins. I would like to make an objection at this point. 

Chairman Eastland. I will recognize the objection — how long is 
that statement? 

Mr. Jenkins. It is just two short pages. It will take about half a 
minute, three-quarters of a minute. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Jenkins. I, Grad}^ Jenldns, having been subpenaed before the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
bv subpena dated the 27th day of March 1956, returnable on April 3, 
1956, hereby respectfully object to the power and jurisdiction of this 
committee to inquire into^ 
My political beliefs. 
My personal and private afJairs. 
Aly associations or activities. 

I am a private citizen, I hold no office of public honor or trust. I 
am not employed by any governmental department or agency. 

The grounds of my objection are as follows: 

Any investigations into my political beliefs, my associational 
activities, or into my personal and private affairs is beyond the power 
of this committee. 

Chairman Eastland. That is overruled. 

Mr. Jenkins. See U. S. v. Rumely (345 U. S. 41); McOrain v. 
Daugherty (273 _U. S. 135); Kilbourn v. Thompson (103 U. S. 168); 
Jones V. Securities and Exchange Commission (298 U. S. 1). The Con- 
gress cannot by resolution increase their constitutional authority. 

I claim the rights and privileges of the Constitution, particularly, 
but not limited to, the 1st, the 5th, the 6th, the 8th, 9th, and 10th 
amendments, and the articles relative to the separation of powers of 
the Government. 

I claim that Congress has no power of investigation except for the 
purpose of legislation. I claim that no ex post facto laws can be 
passed regarding any prior utterance or act. 

I object that this committee, through this investigation into my 
political, associational, religious, and private affairs, trespasses upon 
the judicial department, and has caused an upset in the balance of 
power which constitutes a threat to my liberty as an American citizen, 
and is an unconstitutional usurpation. See Lichter v. U. S. (334 
U. S. 742); Kilbourn v. Thompson (103 U. S. 168); Myers v. U. S. 

This committee, hy compelling me to leave my ordinary pursuits and 
to attend before it for the purpose of testifying with regard to my 
political beliefs, my religious beliefs, other personal and private affairs, 
and my associational activities, is acting as a judicial indicting and 

72723— 56— pt. 12 8 



696 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

accusatory power. It is intruding into the judicial sphere and is 
following a practice which closely parallels the practices which resulted 
in bills of attainder being prohibited by our Constitution, article I. 
See U. S. V. Lovett (328 U. S. 303). The present practices of this 
committee fall within the condemnation and prohibitions of this 
article. 

So, I wish to claim the benefits of the provisions contained in the 
Constitution and in the Bill of Rights, and challenge the pertinency 
of the questions to the investigation. 

Upon all of the grounds aforesaid, I object not only to the jurisdic- 
tion of this committee, but also to the questions propounded by it. 

This objection is made upon the advice of my counsel as to my 
rights. 

Mr. Morris. Do you include among your objections the fact that 
you have an immunity under the fifth amendment against testifying? 

Mr. Jenkins. I include the 1st, the 5th, the 6th, the 8th, 9th, 
and tenth amendments. 

Chairman Eastland. That is the same old stuff. Now, everything 
but the fifth amendment is overruled. 

Mr. Jenkins. Well, Senator, you can set up there and overrule until 
your sharecroppers are freed in Mississippi^ — • — 

Chairman Eastland. I understand that, but you can serve 

Mr. Jenkins. But I stand on my constitutional ground. 

Chairman Eastland. But you can serve your country by sitting 
there and telling the truth, and I think a loyal American would be 
very glad of the opportunity. 

Mr. Jenkins. Well, you interpret it. I will read it back to you 
if you are not clear on it. 

Chairman Eastland. Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

I am very clear about you and what you are doing. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Jenkins, in 1952, were you ordered by your 
Communist Party superiors to go mto the Communist underground? 

Mr. Jenkins. I object on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Did you at that time —  — • 

Senator Jenner. Wait just a minute. He objects, but does he 
refuse to answer the question? 

Mr. Jenkins. Let's say I decline to answer the question. Does 
that suit you? 

Senator Jenner. Let's get the record straight. 

Mr. Morris. For the reasons stated? 

Mr. Jenkins. For reasons previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. Make a ruling on it. 

Chairman Eastland. Of course, everything but the fifth amend- 
ment, if he relies on the fifth amendment, is overruled. 

Mr. Jenkins. That is up to you, Senator. 

Chairman Eastland. What? 

Mr. Jenkins. That is up to you to overrule, but I still stand on 
my constitutional rights. 

Mr. Morris. Did you change your name at that time, in December 
1952? 

Mr. Jenkins. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman. 

You mean a truthful answer to that question might tend to incrim- 
inate you; is that why you refuse to answer? 



8C0PE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 697 

Mr. Jenkins. Senator, you are not asking a question. You are 
putting words into my mouth. 

Senator Jenner. It is not illegal to change your name, sir. You 
can go into any court of this land to have your name changed. Do 
you rely upon that answer that you have given because a truthful 
answer to that question might tend to incriminate you? 

Air. Jenkins. You are trying to put words in my mouth. 

Senator Jenner. I am not trying to put any words in your mouth. 
I want a simple answer to a simple question. 

Mr. Jenkins. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. Because your answer, a truthful answer, might 
tend to incriminate 3-0U mider the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Jenkins. Senator, I have answered your question. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Chairman, I suggest you order and direct the 
witness to answer the question. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, I order and direct him to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Jenkins. What is the question? 

Senator Jenner. Read it, Mr. Reporter. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Air. Jenkins. Can I consult with my attorney? 

Chairman Eastland. Of course you may. 

(The witness conferred ^vith his counsel.) 

Air. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Air. AIoRRis. Well, now, did you change your name to Louis Pratt 
in 1952? 

Air. Jenkins. Alay I consult with my attorney? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Senator Watkins. I would like to ask the witness, did you ask the 
attorney at that moment any question for him to tell you to give an 
answer to? 

Air. Jenkins. Well, I would like to ask the committee, is it 

Senator Watkins. Just a moment. I am asking a question of this 
witness 

Air. Jenkins. Do I have to reveal what I said to him, to you? 

Senator Watkins. You did not ask anything. I am not asking you 
to reveal it. 

Air. Jenkins. Yes, sir, I did. 

Senator Watkins. I couldn't see any motion of your lips or any 
indication that you were speaking to him. 

Air. Jenkins. I am sorry. 

Senator Watkins. But I saw him start speaking to you before you 
ever said a word. 

Air. Jenkins. In the future 

Senator Watkins. You understand the ch-cumstances under which 
counsel is permitted. He is not here for the pm-pose of giving you 
an answer before you ask for advice. 

Air. Jenkins. Yes, sir. Well, I asked for advice from the attorney. 

Senator Watkins. From here on, you will ask for advice. 

Air. Jenkins. Yes, sir. 

Senator Watkins. All right, su\ 

Mr. Jenkins. I did ask previously, too. 



698 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Watkins. I couldn't see any motion, and I was watching 
you closely. 

Mr. Morris. Mi-. Cliaii'man, in connection with this line of ques- 
tions, I would like to point out that yesterday, witnesses testified 
here before the subcommittee tliat this man did maintain an identity 
of Louis and Aithur Pratt in Baton Rouge, La. 

Now I would like to know, Mr. Jenkins, if you had a social security — 
what social security card did you work under in Baton Rouge? 

Mr. Jenkins. May I consult with my attorney? 

Chairman Eastland. Sure. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Chairman Eastland. Let's have order. 

Mr. Jenkins. I object to that question on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. You mean you refuse to answer on that basis? 

Mr. Jenkins. Well, let's say I decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, in December 1954, did you go to Mande- 
vUle, La.? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work in Mandeville, La., for the Equitable 
Co.? 

Mr. Jenkins. Can I consult with my attorney? 

Watch my lips. Senator Watkins. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, wait a minute. Did you live in Baton 
Rouge? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question on the gi'ounds 
previously stated. 

Chahman Eastland. Did O'Dell contact you in Baton Rouge? 

Mr. Jenkins. Who do you mean by "O'Dell"? 

Senator Jenner. Maybe "Ben Jones" might clear it up. 

Mr. Jenkins. Who do you mean by "Ben Jones"? 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Hunter Pitts O'Dell? 

Mr. Jenkins. What does he look like? 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Hunter Pitts O'Dell? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Ben Jones? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named John Vesey? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Senator Jenner. Just a moment. Do you know the gentleman 
sitting next to you? 

Mr. Jenkins. Do I know the gentleman sitting next to me? 

Senator Jenner. Yes, the man sitting next to you, do you know 
him? 

Mr. Jenkins. Well, I think I mentioned his name in my 

Senator Jenner. I am asking you a question: Do you laiow him? 

Mr. Jenkins. What's that got to do with this hearing? 

Senator Jenner. I am askmg you a question. 

Mr. Jenkins. Yes; I know him. 

Senator Jenner. All right. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTn'ITY IN THE UNITED STATES 699 

Mr. Al ORRIS. ]Mr. Chairman, the reason I asked about the 3 names 
at that time is, our evidence indicates that Hunter Pitts O'Dell used 
3 separate identities in operating in New Orleans and vicinity. 

Novv, what social security cards have you held smce 1952? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Chairman Eastland. Did 3'ou go around the Standard Oil Co.'s 
refinery in Baton Rouge? 

Air. Jenkins. What do 3'ou mean by that question, Senator? 

Chairman Eastland. Answer my question. 

Air. Jenkins. Well, you say "around." What is "around"? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Jenkins. I might be around it now, I don't know. 

Chairman Eastland. All right, answer the question. You know 
what it means. 

Mr. Jenkins. May I consult with my attorney? 

Chairman Eastland. Certainly. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer your questions on the grounds 
previously stated. • 

Mr. Morris. What social security cards have you held since 1952? 

Air. Jenkins. I thought 3^ou asked me that question already. 

Air. AIoRRis. And have you declined to answer that? 

Air. Jenkins. I don't remember. Would you read the record 
back, to see if I answered it or not? 

Chairman Eastland. He will ask you again. Now, answer it. 

Air. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Air. AIoRRis. The subcommittee has been advised. Senator East- 
land, that the witness here today has been the financial secretary and 
the person who collected dues from the professional group of the 
Communist Party in New Orleans. 

Air. Jenkins, have you been the financial secretary and the person 
collecting dues from the professional group of the Communist Party in 
New Orleans? 

Air. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the same grounds, the grounds 
previously stated. 

Air. AIoRRis. Will you. Air. Jenkins, tell us how the Communist 
underground functions in New Orleans? 

Air. Jenkins. You seem to know pretty well, yourself. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes; I think we do, but we want you to teU 
it. Now, come on and answer the question. 

Air. AIoRRis. I am sure you could tell us. Air. Jenkins, more than 
you have now. 

Air. Jenkins. That is a matter of opinion, but I refuse to answer 
your question on the grounds previously stated. 

Senator Watkins. How did you know he seemed to understand it 
pretty well? 

Mr. Jenkins. Well, I have been listening to the hearings 3 or 4 
days pretty well. 

Senator Watkins. Have you heard any one of these witnesses, one 
of these witnesses called here to describe it, except these committee 
witnesses? 

Mr. Jenkins. Describe what, sir? 



700 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Watkins. The operation, how the underground operates 
in New Orleans. 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Senator Watkins. I was wondering how you got the information. 
I did not think you heard it here in this hearing. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Jenkins 

Senator Watkins. You decline to answer that entire series I have 
asked you, you decline to answer them all? 

Mr. Jenkins. Senator Watkins, that sounds like a filibuster instead 
of a question. 

Senator Watkins. Is that the best answer you can give? 

Mr. Jenkins. If you would state the question clearly, specifically, 
then I will give you my answer. 

Senator Watkins. I think the questions reveal that they were 
clearly stated. Your answer is alread}^ a matter of record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Jenkins, were you born on April 14, 1925? 

Mr. Jenkins. April 14, 1925? 

]\Ir. Morris. Were you born then? 

Mr. Jenkins. Was I born then? No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give the date of your birth to our committee? 

Mr. Jenkins. April 14, 1924. 

Mr. Morris. 1924, sorry. 

Wliere were you born? 

Mr. Jenkins. I think I stated that before; I answered the question 
you asked me before; Lee County, Miss. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I didn't ask you that question this morning, 
did I? ' 

Mr. Jenkins. If my memory serves me correctly, you did. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, did you spend some time in Memphis, Tenn.? 

Mr. Jenkins. I refuse to answer that on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a secret member of the Communist Party 
while you were in Memphis, Tenn.? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in 1952, did you arrive in New Orleans? 

Mr. Jenkins. What was that date, again, sir? 

Mr. Morris. 1952. In the year 1952, did you arrive in New 
Orleans? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have a Communist Party assignment to 
organize tenant farmers in Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi? 

Mr. Jenkins. What time are you referring to? 

Mr. Morris. In 1952, did you have a Communist Party assign- 
ment to organize tenant farmers in Tennessee, Louisiana, and Missis- 
sippi? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been associated with the Southern Associ- 
ation of Sharecropper, Tenant and Farmer Laborers, at 2019 Loyola 
Avenue, New Orleans? 

Mr. Jenkins. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds, 
the grounds previously stated. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 701 

Mr. Morris. The same ruling, Mr. Chairman. 

Were you expelled from the National Maritime Union on June 26, 
1951? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you active in the Communist Party, 
Texas, in the city of Houston, in the year 1948? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds, the grounds previously stated in my objection. 

jSIr. Morris. On June 5, 1950, did you attend a conference of 
Communist Party leaders? 

Mr. Jenkins. Where? 

Mr. Morris. Any place. Where were you in June 1950? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in Texas in 1950? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Do 3"ou know a leading Communist Party organizer 
named Al Lannon? 

Air. Jenkins. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. You have at some time in the past been a seaman, 
have you not, Mr. Jenkins? 

Mr. Jenkins. May I consult with my attorney? 

Mr. Morris. You may. 

Chairman Eastland. Sm'e. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the gTounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you not taken at least 34 voyages as a seaman? 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline on the grounds previously stated in my 
original objections. 

Senator Jenner. Were you in the Armed Forces of this country, 
Mr. Jenkins? 

Mr. Jenkins. May I consult with my attorney? 

Senator Jenner. You may. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Jenkins. No, sir; I was not. 

Mr. Morris. Do you wish to refute the testimony of witnesses 
wiio appeared here yesterday, wiio testified that you worked in Baton 
Rouge under the name of Pratt? 

Mr. Jenkins. Ai'e you asking a question? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Jenkins. I decline to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions of this 
witness. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, I am going to direct the staff to look 
into his social security numbers and all his past employment. That 
will be so ordered. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Watkins. I have no questions. 

Senator Jenner. I have no questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Stand aside. 

Mr. Jenkins. Am I released from subpena? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir; we will release you. 

Mr, Morris. Calhoun Phifer. 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up. 



702 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UISriTED STATES 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the 
Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Phifer. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF CALHOUN PHIFER, NEW ORLEANS, LA., 
ACCOMPANIED BY PHILIP WITTENBERG, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
Mr. Phifer? 

Mr. Phifer. Calhoun Phifer, 7314 Hurst Street. 

I would like to know what I am guilty of. 

Chairman Eastland. Nobody has accused you of being guilty of 
anything. 

Mr. Phifer. You made a statement in the papers here that charges 
brought against anyone in the public session, even if he denies it, 
people believe he is guilty. 

Chairman Eastland. We know your type. 

Let the attorney identify himself  

Mr. Phifer. I don't care what you know. 

Chairman Eastland (continuing). Identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Wittenberg. My name is Philip Wittenberg, of 70 West 40th 
Street, New York Cit3^ I am a member of the bar of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, of the cu-cuit courts of the United States, 
and of the bar of the State of New York. 

Chan-man Eastland. Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. My. Phifer, have you ever been known by any other 
name than Calhoun Williamson Phifer? 

Mr. Phifer. I decline to answer on the statement previously read, 
including everything in that statement, including all of the amend- 
ments to the Constitution that might apply, and to article 39 of the 
Magna Carta, if it does apply, su-. 

Chau-man Eastland. Does that include the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Phifer. I don't suppose you know what it is. 

Chairman Eastland. I overrule your objection, and order and di- 
rect you to answer the question. 

Mr. Phifer. Sir, I have no respect for your opinion of the law, and 
you have no respect for the Supreme Court. 

Chairman Eastland. And I have none for .you. 

Mr. Phifer. That is for me to sa}^ 

Chairman Eastland. And none from you. 

Mr. Phifer. A person who has made the statement you made about 
the Supreme Court has no right to talk about it. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. We have seen Reds 
attempt to take over hearings. 

Mr. Phifer. You better watch what j^ou are saying. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Phifer. You better had; you can't be protected by that thing 
up there. 

Chairman Eastland. I am not going to let you take over this 
hearing. 

I overrule this objection, and order and direct you to answer the 
question. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 703 

Mr. Phifer. It doesn't mean anything, sir. Your contempt for 
the Constitution is pretty well known, especiall}^ the 14th amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. You are ordered and directed to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Phifer. I decline to answer, sir, on the same thing. If 3'ou 
want me to read the Magna Carta, I will, sir. Would you like for 
me to start there? That is 1215. I will start on down. 

Chairman Eastland. I order 3'ou to answer under 

Mr. Phifer. You deliberately are maligning me b}" bringing me 
before this committee, by your own words it is detrimental. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I at this point 

Chairman Eastland. Just a moment. 

Mr. Morris. May I point out this witness has been called here 
todaj^ because we have received evidence that in 1954 he was a non- 
dues-paying member of the professional group of the Communist 
Party in New Orleans. 

The committee subpenaed him, asked him if he would give us, give 
this committee, evidence of the activity of the professional group of 
the Communist Party in New Orleans. 

Now I would like to ask Mr. Phifer, in view of that, were you in 
1954 a non-dues-paying member of the professional group of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Phifer. Sir, you can bring up all the questions you asked in 
closed session. I am not afraid of them. You can read the whole 
record. 

Mr. Morris. What is your answer? 

Mr. Phifer. Everything I gave you the other day, sir. Read the 
entire record. If you are afraid of it, don't read it. Now, somebody 
has got to stand up to this thing. 

Mr. Morris. I ask that the -svitness be directed to answer the 
question at this time. 

ChaiiTnan Eastland. I order you to answer the question, under 
penalty of contempt of the United States Senate, sir. 

Mr. Phifer. Sir, I have stated all the grounds that can possibly 
be given. If you think 3'ou are going to frighten me by fifth amend- 
ment foolishness, I have rights under the fifth amendment, and I 
don't mind taking any rights I have, and you won't take them away 
from me. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. Have you availed ^^ourself of the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. Phifer. Sir, I have availed myself of every amendment. 

Chau'man Eastland. Including the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Phifer. You won't bother me. I would rather take the fifth 
amendment than be a fifth-rate politician. I mean that. 

Chahman Eastland. Including the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Phifer. You hound me about the fifth amendment. Just go 
ahead. I know who is American and who is not, and v\ho preaches 
sedition. Don't hound m.e about that. Just go on with it. 

Chahman Eastland. Do you avail yourself  

Mr. Phifer. I don't have to plead the fifth amentment or the first 
amendment. I will do what I want to, if I have rights within the 
law. I don't preach against the law. 

Chairman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Phifer. All right. 



704 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Chairman Eastland. So you do not avail yourself of the fifth 
amendment. I order and direct you to answer the question. 

Read him the question. 

(The question referred to was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Phifer. I take all the amendments that I have previously 
stated, and any others that I know of. 

Mr. Morris. Does that include the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Phifer. It includes any amendment. Don't you know the 
Constitution? 

Mr. Morris. Does it include the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Phifer. I don't care what it includes; you can't scare me by any 
foolishness. 

Senator Jenner. You mean, Mr. Witness, you decline to answer 
the question? 

Mr. Phifer. Sh, don't give me a lecture on patriotism, like I saw 
you did yesterday. I don't need a lectm'e from you. 

Senator Jenner. I am not giving you a lecture. 

Mr. Phifer. You sat up here and hounded somebody to death over 
Americanism. I am a better American than you ever will be as a 
person. 

Senator Jenner. Please, sir 



Mr. Phifer. Please, sir. Thank you. 

Senator Jenner. I am asking you if you decline to answer the 
question 

Mr. Phifer. I have made it very clear, sir. 

Senator Jenner. Because of your privilege under the immunity of 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Phifer. Under all amendments, not just the fifth; under all of 
them. 

If you had any respect for the Constitution, you would accept the 
first amendment; and if I had the money to fight you and had a 
Senatorial expense account, I would fight you just on the first. 

Since I can't, I will have to take them all. 

Senator Jenner. Will you answer the question? 

Mr. Phifer. I told you. I made it clear. If 3^ou want to, you can 
ask me how many times you want to. This can go on all morning. 
It is degi-ading you, not me. Go ahead. Keep it up as long as you 
want. 

Mr. Morris. Well, the committee would like to know, Mr. Phifer, 
if you have been a non-dues-paying member of the professional group 
of the Communist Party in New Orleans in the year 1954. 

Mr. Phifer. Sir, I don't want to get monotonous by saying the 
same thing. I am not going to reduce my rights simply to the fifth 
amendment. They are all amendments, including the fifth 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Mr. Phifer. If you are low enough to keep hounding somebody 
about the fifth. It was good enough for Jefferson, and good enough 
for me, and good enough for 3^011 if you are a good American. I 
doubt that you are. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I think the witness has answered the ques- 
tion. He is invoking all other amendments, including the fifth amend- 
ment, and I suggest we accept that answer. 

Mr. Phifer. Just watch what you say in the papers. You can 
say something up there 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 705 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended meetings of the Young Commu- 
nist League in 1952? 

Mr. Phifer. The same thing, sir. 

Mr. Morris. The same answer? 

Mr. Phifer. All of them. Don't give me that fifth amendment 
foolishness, either. I mean all of them, from 1215 on. It was good 
enough for King John, and it is good enough for you. 

Senator Jenner. Do you think the fifth amendment is foolish? 
Are you using that as a defense? 

Mr. Phifer. You had people pleading the fifth amendment, on the 
fifth amendment, yesterday. I am not going to carry on any foolish 
discussion like that. You were asking questions about fifth amend- 
ment, on the fifth amendment. I never heard such foohshness in my 
life. 

You have no right to hound them on the fifth amendment, ad 
infinitum. Ridiculous. 

Senator Jenner. You can be hysterical as long as you want. 

Mr. Phifer. You can hound me as long 

Senator Jenner. You have an attorney there to advise you, 

Mr. Wittenberg. I am not allowed to advise him unless you per- 
mit him, after a question, and he is in no condition to ask for advice. 

Mr. Phifer. I don't need to ask for advice. 

Senator Jenner. And you may sit there and be hysterical, but you 
are going to answer the question. 

Air. Phifer. I am not going to answer this question or any other 
question I have a right not to answer. 

Senator Jenner. May I ask a question? 

Air. Phifer. You can hound me all you want. I don't care. 

Senator Jenner. I am going to ask you if you are now 

Mr. Phifer. Or ever have been 

Senator Jenner. Or ever have been a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Phifer. It is the same. You can make it as vile as you want. 
Go ahead, sir, ask me anything. 

Senator Jenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Phifer. It is the same thing. 

Senator Jenner. What do you mean, "it is the same thing"? I 
want an answer. 

Mr. Phifer. Don't you know your rights, or do you? It starts 
with 1215, the English barons at Eunnymede. It came on down 
through a number of cases at common law, later on. 

Senator Jenner. Are you a professor of history, or what are you 
tr}dng to give me, a lectm'e? 

Air. Phifer. I want to know what you are. You seem to know 
nothing about your rights. I am just telling you. Don't give me 
this American rights. You are hauling  

Senator Jenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Phifer. That is — listen 

Senator Jenner. Can you hear me? 

Mr. Phifer. You wouldn't dare get away wdth it, if you didn't 
have the protection, of hounding somebody like that, and it's time you 
stopped it. 

Senator Jenner. I don't have any protection. 

Mr. Phifer. I don't know you don't, but 



706 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Phifer. Say it over again. It is the same thing. 

Senator Jenner. Are you? 

Mr. Phifer. All the rights I have. I think this is something, I 
tell you. 

Senator Jenner. I didn't get the answer. 

Mr. Phifer. You won't get it, either, sir. 

Senator Jenner. You mean you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Phifer. I refuse to answer on these grounds, Mr. Chakman. 
You can ask me the same thing. I am not going to sit up here and 
saying ''fifth amendment." You won't reduce me to an absurdity 
like that. Not that anybod}^ really did. 

Mr. Morris. "On these grounds." You mean the fifth amend- 
ment? 

Mr. Phifer. I mean all grounds, not just the fifth amendment. 
You just stop sa3dng that. I interpret what I mean; you interpret 
what you mean. 

Are you going to take all my free speech away from me, or just 
part of it? Now 

Senator Jenner. You seem to have plent3^ 

Mr. Phifer. I think you are doing a pretty good job of it. You 
hound people until they are scared to call their name their own, and 
yet you get up and preach all the sedition you want. You know you 
do. 

Chau'man Eastland. We know all these facts from fifth amend- 
ment Communists. We have had them all over the comitry. 

Mr. Phifer. I said I would rather be maligned by you than be a 
fifth-rate politician. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes; I know you have. 

Mr. Phifer. All right, I certainly would. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Phifer, did you get yom- A. B. degree from Tulane 
in 1954? 

Mr. Phifer. That is the same thing, all of them, not just the fifth 
amendment. If 3'ou like the fifth amendment, if you like incrimina- 
tion, if you like making incriminating charges, you may discuss the 
fifth amendment with yom-self , but I am not going to fool with it 

Mr. Morris. WeU, did you? 

Mr. Phifer. Any more than to say along with the others. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Phifer, did j^ou do recruiting on the campus at 
Tulane University for the Communist Party? 

Mr. Phifer. The same thing. 

Mr. Morris. The same ruling, Mr. Chan-man. 

Did you work at the Bethlehem wSteel plant in Sparrows Point 
between May of 1952 and July of 1953? 

Mr. Phifer. You asked me that question in closed session. I told 
you you could bring all those questions out if 3'ou want to. If you are 
afraid of them, don't ask me. 

Mrs. Morris. Do you refuse to answer? 

Mr. Phifer. Bring the whole record out and read it. I am not 
ashamed of it. You are the one that's got the shame, not me. 

Mr. Morris. Do you refuse to answer it? 

Mr. Phifer. I could sit up here for a couple of days and watch this 
thing. It's something. 

Mr. Morris. Do you own a farm in Greensburg, La.? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 707 

Mr. Phifee. You asked me all those questions. Read the record. 
Why should I— — 

Mr. Morris. You own a 44K-acre farm in Greensburg, La.? 

Mr. Phifer. That is right, I will refuse to answer. I answered 
before. 

Mr. Morris. You refuse to answer for the reasons stated? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes, sir, I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Morris. For the reasons stated? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes, sir, for all of them. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give me a ruling on that, Mr. Chairman? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. I order him to answer the question. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we could read his executive session 
testimony in the record. 

Chairman Eastland. I wish you would. 

Mr. Phifer. I wish you would. 

Mr. Morris. This is: 

Testimony of Clahoun Phifer, 7314 Hurst Street, New Orleans, La., accom- 
panied by: Philip Wittenberg, his counsel. 

Senator Watkins presiding. 

Senator Watkins. For the record, you now may state your name again. 

Mr. Phifer. Calhoun Phifer. 

Senator Watkins. What is your address ? 

Mr. Phifer. 7314 Hurst Street, New Orleans. 

Senator Watkins. And what is your occupation? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, I work for Repubhc Carloading & Distributing Co. 

Mr. Morris. That is 501 Claiborne, here in New Orleans? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How do you spell your name? 

Mr. Phifer. P-h-i-f-e-r. 

Senator Watkins. And further, will counsel, who has appeared for other wit- 
nesses in this matter, again state his name for the record? 

Mr. Wittenberg. Philip Wittenberg, 70 West 40th Street. _ 

Senator Watkins. And you are appearing as counsel for this witness? 

Mr. Wittenberg. For Mr. Phifer; and the qualifications as a member of the 
bar, the same as I previously stated. 

May I ask, Senator — this is executive session? 

Mr. Morris. How long have you lived in New Orleans, Mr. Phifer? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, off and on for around, over 10 years, nearly 12, 13 years. 

Mr. Morris. Did vou work at the Bethlehem Steel Co., Sparrows Point, May 
of 1952 to July of 1953? 

Mr. Phifer. To the best of my knowledge, I can't say. 

Mr. Morris. What jobs have you had here in New Orleans? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, only this one, unless there was some minor job I don't 
remember. You mean during the whole period? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. You have been here 10 years. 

Mr. Phifer. I don't suppose, I know of any other ones that I worked any length 
of time; maybe odd jobs. 

Mr. Morris. How have you supported yourself? 

Mr. Phifer. I was a seaman. 

Mr. Morris. You mean you did work as a seaman, then, in New Orleans? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, out of New Orleans. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, how did you get your job at the Republic Carloading 
Co.? 

Mr. Phifer. Just went down and asked for it. 

Mr. Morris. Did Richard Feise help you get your job? 

Mr. Phifer. He didn't help me at all, no. 

Mr. Morris. He did not? 

Mr. Phifer. I just went down and asked for it, and I means, I got it on my own. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, but did Richard Feise help you in any way in getting the job? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, there may be a matter of acquaintance there with a fellow 
who worked there, I can't 

Mr. Morris. Did Feise work there? 



708 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Phifer. No, no, he did not work there. I knew this fellow in business, 
and he told me about the job. He didn't help me get it. 

Mr. Morris. Who told you about the job? 

Mr. Phifer. Mr. Feise. I knew him. He had the Port Travel Agency. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, but he told you the job was open? 

Mr. Phifer. He told me there was a job, but did not help me. 

Senator Watkins. At least, that much was some sort of a help. 

Mr. Phifer. No. Why would it be? He didn't say anything at all. 

Senator Watkins. If you didn't know anything at all about the job, it would 
be good information to find out there was a job open down there; that would be 
some help, would it not? 

Mr. Phifer. Not any more than there was the job open. 

Senator Watkins. It would be one interpretation, it would appear to me, 
knowing there was a job so that you can work on it. 

Mr. Phifer. It might appear to you, but that is not so. Implications are 
sometimes unfair. 

Senator Watkins. It would appear to me you would not even want to argue 
that point. 

Mr. Chairman, suppose I just select the questions from this which 
I think would be appropriate for the record. 

Mr. Phifer. You might read the juciest ones, if you like. I don't 
mind it. Let's see what kind of questions you ask people. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I can offer the whole executive 
session for the record, but may I, just for the purpose of this examina- 
tion, read certain questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. Go ahead. 

Mr. Morris. This is page 472. (Reading:) 

Mr. Morris. You enrolled at Tulane University, did you not? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. What year? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, I will tell you to the best of my knowledge, is all I can do. 
Anything that does not concern my opinions, I will be glad to tell you, to the best 
of my knowledge. 

From 1942 until 1945, I believe. Wait a minute. 1941 to 1942. Then 
around 1946 probably to 1949. 

Mr. Morris. You went back again? 

Mr. Phifer. Then I went back the year before last. 

Mr. Morris. Did you get your degree? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. When did you get your degree; the year before last? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What degree was it? 

Mr. Phifer. That is the best I can do, do you see? 

Mr. Morris. What degree? 

Mr. Phifer. I got a degree in philosophy. 

Mr. Morris. I mean, was it A. B., B. A.? 

Mr. Phifer. Worth a B. A. 

Now, the question was: 

Mr. Morris. While you were at Tulane, did you engage in recruiting for the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Phifer. Sir, I would have to answer that on the same grounds, because it 
is of the same nature as the previous question. 

Senator Watkins. The previous question, you answered. 

Mr. Phifer. I mean the previous question that I refused to answer. 

Senator Watkins. Will you state your grounds? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, let's see. I refuse to answer because of the first amendment, 
that it is prying into my right of association and opinions, and freedom of speech; 
and also because it could have no other purpose than to tend to incriminate me, 
that I could see, sir. 

Senator Watkins. Do you believe that if you gave a truthful answer to that 
question, that it might incriminate you or tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, it might. That is the thing. 

Senator Watkins. All right. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 709 

We were asking Mr. Phifer about a farm he owns, and he says it is 
in a place called Greensburg. This is page 476, Senator. 

Mr. Phifer. That has a great bearing on internal security, I am 
sure. 

Mr. Morris. (Reading) : 

Mr. Phifer. I do own some property near Greensburg, but I never have lived 
there. 

Mr. Morris. You own it now? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How many acres do you own there? 

Mr. Phifer. Forty-four and a half. 

Now the question: 

Mr. Morris. Were 3"0u in 1954 a non-dues-pa5ang member of the professional 
group of the Communist Party in New Orleans? Answer that question. 

Mr. Phifer. I refuse to answer, because it is prying into my private opinions 
and associations, sir. 

Senator Watkins. Did he ask you anytliing about your opinions? 

Mr. Phifer. Well, that would certainly 

Senator Watkins. Is there anything involved in that which would involve 
your opinions? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes, sir. I would have to have certain opinions if I did that, 
I would think, in association, too. 

Senator Watkins. We didn't ask you to give opinions. 

Mr. Phifer. Whether you did or not, you are still prying into my personal 
affairs, protected by the first amendment. And also, by the very fact of subjecting 
me to this questioning. 

Senator Watkins. Do you sincerely believe if you answered that question, it 
might incriminate you or tend to incriminate you, you might be giving evidence 
against yourself? 

Answer the question, please. 

Mr. Phifer. The very fact of denying or affirming the question is bound to 
incriminate me under the present circumstances in this country. 

Senator Watkins. Do you claim the protection of the fifth amendment, is 
what I want to know? 

Mr. Phifer. Yes, sir, and I insist on explaining why, sir, because I have a 
right to say why. 

Senator Watkins. I think I would also like to say that I observed : 

All right. You have a right to say. 

He was not denied any opportunity to explain himself. 
Mr. Morris. Page 479, Senator: 

Mr. Morris. In 1953, did you picket the White House in behalf of the Rosen- 
bergs? 

It is the same answer, isn't it? 

Mr. Phifer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Now, Mr. Phifer, did you lend Mr. Richard Feise $2,500? 

Mr. Phifer. Oh, are you asking me now? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; I am asking you that now. 

Air. Phifer. Well, su', I refuse to answer on the same grounds, and 
I would like to explain here that I am^ — it is pretty obvious, from 
bringing it up time and time again, that you must be trying to in- 
criminate me in some wa}^ I don't see how, and I would like to ask 
that all these things, this fifth amendment, be read into the record, if 
I may. 

Chairman Eastland. We will take that under advisement. 

Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Phifer. I just think it would only be fair. I don't know 
what you are going to do. 



710 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Chairman Eastland. Just wait. We are only asking you ques- 
tions. 

Mr. Morris. Do you decline to answer the questions put to you  

Mr. Phifer. On all the grounds. 

Chairman Eastland. He said it might tend to incriminate him. 

Mr. Phifer. No, sir; that is not what I said. You stop cutting 
down the Constitution. 

Chairman Eastland. I am stating what you said, just stating your 
words. 

Mr. Phifer. I am giving you my word now, you want to cut every- 
thing back to the fifth amendment and go back to slavery times. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been refused port security clearance? 

Mr. Phifer. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Plave you been associated with Sam Hall, Jr., the 
former district Communist Party organizer of the Communist Party 
in New Orleans? 

Mr. Phifer. I refuse to answer on all grounds, not just the fifth 
amendment. 

I would point out that the fifth amendment is the one that does 
protect you against the one against eminent domain. I don't see why 
it would be so communistic. I think it is silly, sir, to be maligned 
like that. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been closely associated with Irving Goff, 
who was the successor of Sam Hall, Jr., who was the district organizer 
of the Communist Party in New Orleans, and the predecessor of the 
person whom we- have as the present organizer. Hunter Pitts O'Dell? 

Mr. Phifer. Am I — ^it is a very involved question. 

Mr. Morris. Are you associated with O'Dell? 

Mr. Phifer. I refuse to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in view of the responses of this witness, 
I have no more questions. 

Senator Jenner. I have no questions. 

Senator Watkins. I have no questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Counsel 

Mr. Morris. Counselor Kleinfeldt. 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Wittenberg, would you wait a few 
minutes? 

Mr. Wittenberg. Here, or just in the courtroom? 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up. 

Do your solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ABRAHAM I. KLEINFELDT, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Kleinfeldt, you requested the right to 
make a statement. We took that statement in executive session. 
You asked that you be permitted to make it in open session. 

Now I am giving you that privilege. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. Thank you for that privilege. Senator. 

Yesterday I represented one witness before this committee. At 
the close of the session, as I was leaving the courtroom, an elderly 
lady jabbed her elbow into my ribs just as hard as she could. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 711 

Incidentally, I see that lady in court now. 

And she gave me the dh'tiest look you ever saw, and made a dis- 
paraging remark that I don't wish to repeat. 

Mr. Chairman, I wish to say that I have been practicing law in this 
community for over a quarter of a century, that I have an excellent 
professional reputation among the members of the bar and the ju- 
diciary. And in order that it remam so, I desire to state and declare 
absolutely, categorically, and without mental reservation of any kind, 
that I am not now, nor have I ever in my life been, a Communist; 
that I am not now, nor have I ever been, a member of or belonged to 
the Communist Party or any communistic organization or any other 
subversive organization ; that I am a firm believer in the principles of 
the Constitution of the United States, and do not adhere to and do 
not believe in the doctrmes of the Communist Party. 

I stated, Mr. Chairman, that I was retained in the capacity of a 
lawyer to furnish my clients with legal advice, and that I intended to 
do so to the best of my ability. And in connection with that state- 
ment, I asked your permission to quote about 20 words 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir; that will be granted. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt (continuing). From the Canons of Ethics of the 
American Bar Association. I am now quoting from the third para- 
graph of canon No. 5 of the Canons of Ethics, of Professional Ethics, 
of the American Bar Association. I am quoting: 

The lawyer owes entire devotion to the interest of his client, warm zeal in the 
maintenance and defense of his rights, and the exertion of his utmost learning 
and ability, to the end that nothing be taken or be withheld from him, save by 
the rules of law, legally applied. No fear of judicial disfavor or public unpopu- 
larity should restrain him from the full discharge of his duty. 

I said, Mr. Chairman, that I had a job to do, that my duty was 
clear, and that I did not intend to shirk them. 

Thank you, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, Mr. Kleinfeldt, of course, everybody 
is entitled to an attorney and legal advice. We have no information 
that you have ever been a member of any subversive organization. 

I say this now: That if, after practicing law 25 years, yesterday 
was the first time that anyone ever called you a dirty name, you are 
very lucky. 

Mr. Kleinfeldt. Thank you, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, there were two more attorneys, Mr. 
Wittenberg and Mr. Smith. We don't want to be partial, but we 
will give these gentlemen, if they desire, the opportunity to make a 
statement, just along the same lines. It is up to them. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I will be glad to make one. 

Chairman Eastland. Hold your hand up, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Saiith. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN E. SMITH, NEW ORLEANS, LA. 

Mr. Smith. Mr. Chairman, I might say that I subscribe wholly 
to the views expressed by Mr. Kleinfeldt; that I felt that he expressed 
the highest principles that a member of the bar can have; that my 

72723— 56— pt. 12 9 



712 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

appearance before this committee, representing Mrs. Feise, was 
completely in a professional capacity; that she came to me to employ 
me as her lawyer, and that I was to give her the advice that would 
protect her if she felt that she needed protection, and that that was 
entirely and wholly the reason for my appearance before this 
committee. 

But I did want to appear simply to say that I endorse the statements 
of Mr. Kleinfeldt, and have felt that they were appropriate. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

You are not now, and you never have been, a member of the 
Communist Party, U. S. A.? 

Mr. Smith. That is absolutely correct, sir. I am not now a Com- 
munist, I have never been one, and I do not believe in communism. 

Chahman Eastland. Yes, sir. 

Anything else you would like to say? 

Mr. Smith. No, sir. That is all I have to say. 

Chairman Eastland. I offer Mr. Wittenberg the opportunity 

Mr. Wittenberg. I have no objection 

Chairman Eastland. I may say, it is just- 



Mr. Wittenberg. I think it is the most ridiculous procedure I ever 
heard of, a lawyer being called upon to explain his being a lawyer. 

Chairman Eastland. No, sir, you are not 

Mr. Wittenberg. I wish to, sir, I wish to 



Chairman Eastland. Now, listen. Counsel requested, Mr. Klein- 
feldt requested the right. It was simply a matter of what the other 
attorneys desired to do. It is a privilege, if you want to avail yourself 
of it. 

Mr. Wittenberg. Sir, I do not regard it as a privilege. I have 
nothing to explain and nothing to apologize for, in 40 years at the bar. 
I lecture at two reputable law schools. I don't wish to bring their 
names in. I am a trustee of numerous organizations, including 
educational organizations. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Mr. Wittenberg. I will not explain and I will not apologize to 
you gentlemen. If you want to ask me, was I ever a Communist, 
the answer is: I never was and never will be. I abhor autocracy more 
than you do. I wouldn't be a Communist. 

And I, sir — I must say that my respect for the Supreme Court is 
such, sir, that I advised my clients to rely on their opinions. 

I am sorry, sir, that I must disagree with your personal views, 
which you have a right to express. Perhaps, sir, j^ou may someday 
wish to apologize and explain for your remarks about the Supreme 
Com-t of the United States. I have nothing to explain and nothing 
to apologize for. 

Chairman Eastland. My views are my own, and I care nothing 
about you or what you said. 

Mr. Wittenberg. I realize that, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. We were attempting to be courteous to you. 
I see you are the kind of man that does not appreciate courtesy. 

Mr. Wittenberg. Sir, the bar of the State [applause] — the bar of 
the State of Now York would disagree with you. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Wittenberg. Perhaps in Mississippi they may appreciate 
you, but I wish you were kept there instead of being a national figure. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 713 

Chairman Eastland. But, if j^-our kind are American, God help the 
futm*e of this country. 

Mr. Wittenberg. Yes, sir, and, why, sir, may I say, sir 

Chairman Eastland. Sit down. 

Mr. Wittenberg (continuing). If j^ou had a decent bar association, 
they would disbar j'ou. 

Senator Jenner. Take him out. 

(Mr. Wittenberg was removed from the coiu-troom.) 

Chairman Eastland. What I am going to say is made on behalf of 
the subcommittee. It is my personal view, and it is the views of the 
other members : 

Our evidence here in New Orleans indicates very clearly that Com- 
munist leaders in Moscow, Peiping, and Bombay, and other foreign 
cities, through the instrumentality of their writings and part}^ direc- 
tives transmitted under Soviet discipline, are reaching down into this 
part of the United States for agents willing to do their mischievous 
work. 

We have come into possession of Communist Party literature which 
enjoin American Communists to pursue specific assignments that are 
calculated to spread Soviet power here and abroad. 

Our sessions indicate that hidden from the public 63^6, and known 
only, we presume, to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, there has 
been in New Orleans an active Communist underground movement, 
small but coordinated, that has sought to infiltrate labor unions, the 
churches, farmer organizations, parent-teachers associations, the chan- 
nels of public opinion, and other streams of influence in oiu" society. 

Our sessions here to date reveal the conspiratorial natm-e of the 
Communist organization, the resort to aliases, the use of code names, 
evasion of legal process, the fabrication of birth records, of social se- 
cmity records, and other practices, that are designed to conceal from 
legal authorities and from the American people the pm-poses of the 
Communists. 

The subcommittee wishes to thank JVIayor Morrison, the deputy 
police chief, W. Guy Banister, and his assistant. Sergeant Hubert 
Badeaux, Marshal Edward Petitbon and his assistants, in particular 
Mr. Todd and Mr. Grace, and the United States attorney, George 
Blue, for theu- assistance; and all the newspapers and television people 
who have brought these hearings to the people of New Orleans and in 
this area. 

I would say fmther that these gentlemen have been very helpful 
to the subcommittee. We sincerely thank them for the invaluable 
aid they have given. 

The police department here, the mayor, Mr. Banister, have been 
very helpfid in setting up the hearing and making preparations for 
this investigation. 

I think that theii- efforts have been very valuable, and have been 
exceptional, in making it possible to expedite the hearings. They 
have spared no effort in working with us to gather evidence, develop 
facts, and assist in the location of witnesses. 

These hearings have been informative. The Congress of the United 
States now has additional evidence of the workings of the Soviet con- 
spiracy in the United States. 

There will be no fmlher testimony. We will adjourn. 

Senator Watkins. May I make one statement? 



714 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES ' j| 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir; Senator Wat kins. 

Senator Watkins. I would like to add that I feel these hearings i 
were fully justified. I know of no reason why they shouldn't have 
been held, and I think they have thrown light upon a situation that 
all citizens of the United States should take into consideration. 

The evidence here, of coui'se, I have listened to for the last 2 days 
in public session and 1 day in executive session. I had not been 
briefed on the testimony in advance. And after hearing this evidence, i 
I am satisfied that oiu* internal security laws are necessary, and they ' 
may possibly need to be strengthened if the arguments and the 
objections which have been raised here by the witnesses and their 
lawyers are finally upheld by the com-ts. 

These laws and the activities of the Internal Security Subcommittee, 
which was set up and organized under the Internal Security Act ! 
passed by the Congress, are for the protection of the American people, 
and if these laws are not sufiicient to withstand the attacks that 
have been made on them here, Congress should take them all into 
consideration. 

We are all here to find out how these laws are actually working in 
the field, and I think a hearing of this kind is fully justified. 

Senator Jenner. I have no further statements, Mr. Chairman. 

Chairman Eastland. We will now adjourn. 

(Whereupon, at 12:25 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A Page 

A. B. degree 706 

Abe 678 

Activities, individual's associational 590 

Advocate and Ethyl News 678 

Allen, James S 685 

Americans 682, 713 

American Communists 713 

American Federal and Government Employees, local 206 594 

Armed Forces 701 

ASME 682 

Attorney General 685, 686 

Attorney, United States, in New Orleans in 1949 596 

B 

B, Dan 678 

Bachelor's degree 622 

Badeaux, Sgt. Hubert 672, 713 

Baltimore City College High School 590 

Banister, W. Guy 672, 713 

Baton Rouge __ 660, 666, 667, 679, 698, 701 

Baton Rouge and Farm 679 

Baton Rouge, women's organizations in 676 

Bauerlein Agency 639 

Belgium 681 

Bethlehem Steel Co., Sparrows Point 707 

Bingle, Mr 639 

Bill of rights 609, 611, 614, 633, 696 

Blue, George, United States attorney 597, 713 

Bombay 682, 713 

Borough of Queens, State of New York 644 

Bourbon Street, 217>^ 659 

Bourn, Miss Eula 664, 665 

Browder, Earl 596 



Canons of Ethics of the American Bar Association 711 

Catholics 678 

Catholic Action of the South, 523 Natchez Street 678 

Chester 678 

Chicago, University of 614 

China 681 

China Trade Facts 685 

Civil Rights Congress 685 

Civil Rights Congress in Jackson, Miss 620 

Committee on the Judiciary 658 

Communist 630, 632, 635, 681, 682, 711-713 

Communist-front organizations 678 

Communist leaders 713 

Communist organizations in New Orleans 591, 592 

Communist Party 595-597, 

599, 605-607, 614, 615, 621, 623, 629, 630-633, 635, 640, 641-645, 
661, 672, 674^677, 679, 681, 684, 696, 699-701, 705-710, 711. 



n INDEX 

Page 

Communist Party in New Orleans 590, 

592, 593, 613, 614, 670, 672, 703, 708, 710 

Communist Party of the United States 680, 685, 712 

Communist Party Publishing House 677 

Communist printshop in New York 684 

Communist underground 696, 699 

Congress 587, 599, 615, 634, 695, 713, 714 

Constitution- 591, 610, 611, 632, 634, 635, 638, 703, 704, 711 

Council on African Affairs 684 

Crouch, Paul 595 

D 

Daily Worker of May 10, 1941 642, 679-681 

Dalton's Department Store 667 

Democratic Party 605, 680 

District organizers of the Communist Party 676, 710 

Douglas, Justice 591 

DuBois, William E 682 

Eastland, James 587, 669 

Eighth amendment 611, 695, 696 

Elaine 678 

Equitable Co 698 

Evans 678 

Espionage 587 

Europe 62 1 

Exhibit No. 199 — Death report on Joseph Seymour Feuer 594 

Exhibit No. 200— Statement of Richard Feise 599 

Exhibit No. 201 — -Letter to United States district attorney from Feise 604 

Exhibit No. 202 — Statement of Mrs. Winifred Feise 611 

Exhibit No. 203 — Winifred Feise's PTA membership application 613 

Exhibit No. 204 — Check from the Newman School to Mrs. Feise 616 

Exhibit No. 204-A— Back of check 618 

Exhibit No. 204-B — Teacher's application from Mrs. Feise to the Isidore 

Newman School 619 

Exhibit No. 204-C — Letter to Mrs. Feise from E. S. Kalin, director of the 

Isidore Newman School 619 

Exhibit No. 204-D— Letter from Mrs. Richard Feise to E. S. Kalin 619 

Exhibit No. 205— Photograph of Mrs. Feise 621 

Exhibit No. 206 — Mrs Pauline Feuer's statement of objections 624 

Exhibit No. 207 — Letter to Item from Mrs. Feuer 636 

Exhibit No. 208— The statement of objections of Mrs. Betty Liveright__- 638 
Exhibit No. 209 — Photo of Mrs. Betty Liveright at the Yorkville Peace 

Council addressing a meeting 643 

Exhibits Nos. 210 to 210-H — Nine nominating petitions 210 

Exhibits Nos. 211 and 211-B— Checks to Betty Liveright from Tulane___ 650 

Exhibit No. 212 — Liveright's application for employment at WDSU 656 

Exhibit No. 212-A — Liveright's employee's withholding exemption cer- 
tificate 657 

Exhibit No. 213 — Statement of Mrs. Jenkins 660 

Exhibit No. 214 — Photo of Mrs. Jenkins at meeting 664 

Exhibit No. 215— Papers found in room of J. H. O'Dell 687 

F 
FBI 713 

Facts for Farmers 678 

Feise, Mr. Richard, 246 Glenwood Drive 587, 588, 615, 669, 670, 707, 709 

Feise, testimony of Mrs. Winifred 610, 613, 712 

Feuer, Joseph Seymour 593, 594 

Feuer, Mrs., born Philadelphia, testimony of 622, 623, 669, 670 

Fifth amendment 592-596, 

598, 604-609, 611, 613-615, 620, 621, 633, 634, 638-642, 660-662, 

664, 665, 685, 695-697, 702-706, 709, 710. 

Fifth amendment Communists 706 

First amendment 593, 595, 596, 598, 605, 611, 

613, 614, 634, 660, 662, 664, 665, 670, 695, 696, 703, 704, 707-709 
Fitzgerald Agency 639 



INDEX UL 

Pago 

Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied Workers of America 594 

Foreign Languages Publishing House 681 

Fortier, testimony of Gilbert J., 81 Thrasher Street, New Orleans, La 655, 

674, 675 

Foster, William Z 682 

Foster's History of Negro People 680 

Fourteenth amendment 703 

Fourth amendment 611 

G 

General Laborers Union 678 

Gladys, Arab 678 

Godfrey, Arthur 639 

Goff, Irving 615, 710 

Government of the United States 607 

Grace, Mr 713 

Grady, Brother 678 

Green, Mrs. J. W 661 

Greensburg, La 706-708 

"Gypsy" 661 



tt 



H 

Hall, Sam, Jr 710 

Herman 682 

Higgins Aircraft, Inc 604 

Higgins Industries 588, 589, 604, 606 

Holsum Cafeteria, Inc., The 679 

House Committee on Un-American Activities 674, 685 

Houston, Tex 701 

Hungary 681 

Hutchinson Memorial 622 

I 
India 681 

Indian Trade Union Movement 682 

Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties 681 

Internal Security Act of 1950 587, 609 

Internal Security Subcomm,ittee 587, 658, 

659, 664-666, 672, 674, 685, 687, 694, 695, 702, 710, 711, 714 

International Association for Identification 656 

International Longshoremen's Association, local 1410 686 

International Publishers 685 

International Teachers Meeting 682 

Istoma Baptist Church 660 

J 

Jefferson Parish PTA 611, 612 

Jefferson School of Social Science 685 

Jenkins, Mrs. Gradv 658, 665, 667, 669 

Jenkins, Grady 659, 664-668, 694 

Jenkins, Junesh 592, 659, 665, 666, 670 

Jenner, Senator 587, 669, 671 

John, King 705 

Johns Hopkins University 590 

Jones, Ben (alias for Hunter Pitts O'Dell) 676, 679, 698 

Jones V. Securities and Exchange Commission 660, 695 

Judiciary Committee 587 

Judy 678 

Justice, Department of 679 

K 

Kahn, Harold 670 

Kalin, E. S 616 

Katie 678 

Kilbourne V. Thompson 660, 695 

Kleinfeldt, Abraham I 659, 671, 710 



IV INDEX 

L Page 

Labor unions 676 

Labor Youth League 685 

Lannon, Al 701 

Latin America, gateway to 587 

Lee County, Miss 694, 700 

Legislative chairman of the school unit 612 

Leig 682 

Lichter V. U. S. (334 U. S. 742) 695 

Liverig 682 

Liveright, Mrs. Betty 637, 639, 643, 658, 674 

Liveright, Mr. Herman 592, 605, 645, 656, 658 

Local 689 678 

Louisiana 677, 700 

Louisiana Communist Party 678 

Louisiana daily newspapers 676 

Louisiana district Communist Party, United States 684 

Louisiana libraries 676 

Louisiana Parent-Teacher Association 631 

Louisiana State Committee 661 

Louisiana Weekly 678 

Lu 678 

M 

Magna Carta 703 

"Mainstream" 681 

Malenkov's report to the 19th party congress 680 

Mandel, Benjamin Mr 603, 674, 676, 681, 683 

Mandeville, La 698 

Mardi Gras 639 

Marxist press 681 

"Masses _ _ _ _ _ _ 681 

McGrain vVbau'gherty (273 U. sT "135)" "-"_"_"_'.'_'_". _'. ""I1"I1"I"1 '660, 695 

Membership blank 613 

Memphis, Tenn 594, 595, 700 

Metairie Junior High School Parent-Teachers' Association 612 

Methodist ministers 676 

Mississippi 694, 700, 712 

Mississippi Southern College 675 

Mobile stevedoring companies 686 

Modianos 659 

Mon 678 

Montgomery, Ala., bus strike 676 

Morris, Robert 587, 669, 673 

Morrison, Mayor 713 

Moscow 681, 682, 713 

Moscow Department of Education of the Soviet Union 628 

Moscow School 633 

Mijers v. U. S 695 

N 

NAACP 679, 680 

NOPD series 639 

NPA 639 

National Bank of New Orleans 645 

National Committee for Justice for the Rosenbergs 596 

National Council of American Soviet Friendship 685 

National Education Commission 681 

National Guardian 685 

National Maritime Union 701 

National Negro Commission 681 

National Organizational Commission of the Communist Party 680 

National Research Project of the WPA in Philadelphia 589 

National War Labor Board, Washington, D. C 607 

Nato Schilling Communist group 614 

Nelson, Eleanor 594 

New Century Publishers 677, 684 

Newman School, Isidore 615 



INDEX Y 

Page 

New Orleans, La 587, 588, 593, 594, 597, 605, 613, 

615, 623, 631, 635, 638-642, 669, 670, 681, 695, 700, 713 

New Orleans Item 631, 633 

New Orleans, port of 686 

New York 640, 644, 702, 712 

New York Citv 591, 641, 642, 658, 677 

New York Citv Charter 644 

Ninth amendment 611, 633, 660, 665, 695. 696 

O 

O'Dell, Hunter Pitts (alias Ben Jones, John Vesey) 670, 

672-675, 678, 679, 681, 686, 698, 699, 710 
Old Man and Wife 678 

P 

Parent-Teachers Association 612, 641, 659, 660 

Parent-Teachers Association of Jefferson Parish 611, 612 

Passport No. 2439 621 

Patterson ^ 679 

Peiping 713 

Peitibon, Marshal Edward . 713 

Phifer, Mr. Calhoun 593, 701, 702, 706 

Philadelphia Normal School 623 

Philadelphia School of Social Sciences in Philadelphia _ 623 

Photograph - 620 

Pitts Courier . ^ 678 

Poland 681 

"Political Affairs" 681 

Political beliefs 590 

Pop 678 

Porretto, Joseph 673, 673 

Port Travel Service 588, 611, 670, 707, 708 

Portlight 685 

Pratt 701 

Pratt, Art 667, 698 

Pratt, Louis 661, 668, 697, 698 

Pratt, Marie 660, 661, 665-667 

Q 

Queens County 642 

R 

Rabinowitz & Boudin 672 

Radio station WDSU 656 

Reds 702 

Republican Party 605, 680 

Republic Carloading & Distributing Co 707 

Resettlement Administration of the United States Government 590 

Robertson, Marie, testimony of, 839 North 33d, Baton Rouge, La 666 

Rosenbergs 709 

Rosenberg, Sam — agency 639 

Rumania 681 

Russell, Rose 682 

Russian School 629 

S 

St. Landry Louisiana Parish schools 676 

Sam and Piof 682 

Schroeder, Frank W 587, 669 

Secretary 588 

Secretary, financial 699 

Security 587 

September 1, 1945 593 

Sixth amendment 695, 696 

Smith Act 676 

Smith, Benjamin E 610, 711 

South 676 




3 9999 05445 4242 



INDEX 



Page 

Southern Association of Sharecropper, Tenant & Farmer Laborers 700 

Southern Conference Educational Fund 676 

Southern Conference for Human Welfare 595 

Southern People's Common Program for Democracy, Progress, Peace 579 

Soviet 587, 713 

Soviet Russia Today 685 

Soviet Union 681 

"Stalin— Economic Problems" 680, 682 

State, Department of 621 

Stone, Martha 676 

Supreme Court of the United States 606, 623, 633, 702, 712 

T 

Television station WDSU 639 

Tennessee 700 

Tenth amendment 660, 665, 695 

Textile Workers Organizing Committee 589 

Tidelands and Marine Service 694 

Toledo 589 

Tootie and wife 678 

Tulane Close-Up 539 

Tulane Educational Fund 645 

Tulane University 622, 639, 658, 706, 707, 708 

U 

U & G 682 

U. S. S. R 681 

United Federal Workers of America 589 

United Packinghouse Workers of America 686 

United States of America 614, 682, 713, 714 

U. S. v. Lovett 696 

U. S. V. Rumely 591, 659, 695 

United States Senate 703 

United States Supreme Court 591, 615 



Vesey, John (alias for Hunter Pitts O'Dell) 698 

Voice of America 629 

W 

WDSU 658 

WWA 682 

Walt-Chicago Defender 678 

War Labor Board 589, 594 

Watkins, Senator 587, 669, 683 

Weinstock, Louis 682 

Weintraub, David, head of National Research Project 589 

Westchester Committee for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg 642 

White House 709 

White Plains, N. Y 640, 642 

Whitney National Bank 616 

Williams 682 

Wittenberg, Philip 588, 596, 597, 609, 610, 622, 623, 638, 702, 707, 711, 712 

Wolsch, Mrs. Lois, testimony of 612, 635 

Woodside 641, 644 

Wright, Arthur 588, 670 

Wright, Irving E 678 

Wright, Hon. J. Skelly 603 

Y 

Yuan, Mr. Huey 664, 668 

Yuan Manufacturing Co 668 

Yorkville Peace Council 642 

Young Communist League 705