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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

5EPOSITORY 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER 'IN'TERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



APRIL 10, 11, AND 12, 1956 



PART 13 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



V>JOTiaOM3U 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

NOV 6 - 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND. Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANQER, North Dalcota 

THOMAS C. HENNINQS, JR., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal 
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



I 



CONTENTS 



Witness : Page 

Behrstock, Arthur 745 

Blanchard, Robert 740 

Blanchard, Winifred 730 

Goldman, William 715 

Lubell, Cecil __. _____ _ 718 

O'Dell, Hunter Pitts 755 



i 



in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, APRIL 10, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

and Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee ox the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11:30 a. m., iii the cau- 
cus room. Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Present: Senator Eastland. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; and William A. Rusher, administrative counsel. 

Chairman Eastland. The committee will come to order. 

Call your witness. 

Mr. Morris. The first witness will be Mr. Goldman. 

Mr. Chairman, the subcommittee has received sworn testimony 
that the witness who has been called here to testify, Mr. Goldman, 
has been a member of the Communist Party, and Mr. Goldman is 
being called in order to ask him if he will tell the subcommittee of his 
experiences within the Communist Party, which experiences may be 
of assistance to the Internal Security Subcommittee in pursuing its 
legislative intentions. 

Chairman Eastland. Stand up, please, sir. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the 
Senate of the United States ^^'ill be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Goldman. I do. 

• TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM GOLDMAN, FLUSHING, NEW YORK CITY, 
N. Y. ; ACCOMPANIED BY STANLEY FAULKNER, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Goldman, would you give your name and 
address to the reporter, please? 

Mr. Goldman. Wilham Goldman. 

Mr. Morris. What is your residence? 

Mr. Goldman. 141-66 73d Terrace, Flushing, New York City. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation? 

Excuse me. 
- Mr. Faulkner. Senator, I just want to call attention, which was 
also referred to in the executive session, that the subpena issued does 
not bear either a typewritten signature nor does it bear your signature 
or any other member of the committee. 

715 



716 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

We are not raising it as a technicality, but I think that in fairness 
to witnesses, when a subpena is issued it should show some semblance 
of legality. 

Chairman Eastland. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel refers to the copy that was issued to him, and 
not the original; is that right? 

Mr. Faulkner. We have not seen the original, so w^e don't know 
w^hat is on that. 

Mr. Morris. Would you give 3^our occupation to the committee, 
Mr. Goldman? 

Mr. Goldman. I am a newspaperman. 

Mr. Morris. For what newspaper? 

Mr. Goldman. The New York Daily Mirror. 

Mr. Morris. For how long have you been with the New York 
Daily Mirror? 

Mr. Goldman. About 14 years. 

Mr. Morris. 14 years? 

Mr. Goldman. Thereabouts. 

Mr. Morris. What publication did you work for prior to your 
employment with the Mirror? 

Mr. Goldman. Several. Among them, the Journal-American, as a 
summer replacement or as a sub; the New York Post as a sub; the 
Long Island Star-Journal; the Newark Star-Ledger; and the Long 
Island Daily Press. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Goldman? 

Mr. Goldman. New York City. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat has been 3^our education? 

Mr. Goldman. Elementary school, and a lot of haphazard school- 
ing. 

May I, by the w^ay, sir, interpose tliis question here: Would you 
mind telling me what I am charged with? 

Mr. Morris. Well, there are no charges, Mr. Goldman. 

Chairman Eastland. This is an investigation, Mr. Goldman. 
Please answer the questions. 

Mr. Morris. We have, as I said, received sworn testimony that 
you have been a member of the Communist Party. We would like 
to know of your experiences in that party so we could know more of 
the workings of that particular organization. 

There are no charges about you; you are simply being asked about 
your experiences, as a witness. 

Now, have you been a member of the Communist Party, Mr, 
Goldman? 

Mr. Goldman. I must decline to answer that question, sir, because 
I feel that the question is an invasion of my rights as a newspaperman 
under the first amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I have a ruling? 

Chau-man Eastland. That is overruled. You are ordered and 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Goldman. Well, under those circumstances, I must exercise my 
constitutional rights under the fifth amendment and dechne to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
January 1, 1953, Mr. Goldman? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 717 

Mt. Goldman. No, sii-— I beg yoiir pardon. May I mthdraw that? 

Mr. Morris. You ma}'. 

Mr. Goldman. I must decline to answer that question under my 
constitutional rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you effect a resignation from the Communist 
Party sometime subsequent to January 1, 1953? 

Mr. Goldman. I must exercise my constitutional rights, again, 
under the fifth amendment, and decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Goldman, the subcommittee has received evi- 
dence that starting sometime in 1947 and 1948, the Communist Party 
began to reorganize and break down the workings of its organization 
of groups, branches, and units into another, different organization. 

The subcommittee would like to know whether you took part in that 
reorganization, or whether you were moved around by Communist 
superiors in that particular organization. 

Mr. Goldman. I must exercise my rights under the Constitution 
and decline to answer, under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Goldman, have you been connected with the 
rank-and-file group in the Newspaper Guild in New York? 

Mr. Goldman. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You have not? 

Mr. Goldman. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Which group have you affiliated yourself with in that 
connection, Mr. Goldman? You understand what I am talking 
about. 

Mr. Goldman. I don't understand that question, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You know generally there have been two gi'oups in 
the Newspaper Guild? 

Mr. Goldman. In recent years, I woidd say that is so, 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Mr. Goldman. However, my activities, any activities in the guild, 
ended some years back, long before there was any real cleavage, I 
would guess. 

Mr. Morris. It is your testimony that you are not now active in, 
very active 

Mr. Goldman. No, sir, I am not. I am a member of the News- 
paper Guild, but completely mactive. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a Communist now, Mr. Goldman? 

Mr. Goldman. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Chairman Eastland. All right, sir. I will release you from the 
subpena. You may stand aside. 

Mr. Goldman. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lubell? 

Chairman Eastland. Hold yom' hand up. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimon}'- you are about to give the 
Internal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of 
the Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Lubell. I do. 



718 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF CECIL LUBELL, CROTON-ON-HUDSON, N. Y. ; 
ACCOMPANIED BY NATHAN DAMBROFF, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Give yom- full name and address to the reporter, 
Mr. Lubell. 

Mr. Lubell. Cecil Lubell, Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your occupation, Mr. Lubell? 

Mr. Lubell. I am a men's wear consultant. 

Mr. Morris. For how long have you been a men's wear consultant? 

Mr. Lubell. Several years. 

Mr. Morris. Several years? 

Mr. Lubell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You have been associated with trade publications of 
that industry, have you not, Mr. Lubell? 

Mr. Lubell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. In fact, most of your life you have been so engaged, 
have you not? 

Mr. Lubell. A good part of it, yes. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us what publications you 
have been associated with. 

Mr. Lubell. Well, I would say most of the trade publications in 
that field, from time to time. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us some of them, please? 

Mr. Lubell. Fairchild Publications, of which there are several. 

Mr. Morris. Of which there were several? 

Mr. Lubell. Yes, in the men's and women's field: Apparel Arts 
magazine, Men's Reporter magazine. 

That is all I can think of offhand. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Mr. Lubell, when did you last see Joseph North? 

Mr. Lubell. I decline to answer that under the rights of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have had testimony that Joseph 
North, about whom I have just asked the witness, has been the inter- 
mediary with Communist newspapermen in the Soviet espionage net- 
work. Now, the committee has been informed that this witness does 
know Mr. North, and the committee has no evidence that this man 
has engaged in espionage or any such thing, but we do know that he 
knows Mr. North. 

And for that reason, I am asking you the question: What have been 
your associations with Mr. North? 

Mr. Lubell. I would answer as before; I decline to answer on the 
srounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. North lives near you, does he not? 

Mr. Lubell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. But you will not tell us when you last saw him? 

Mr. Lubell. The same answer as before, under the fifth. 

Mr. Morris. Now woidd you tell us what relationships have existed 
between you and Mr. North? 

Mr. Lubell. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know a man named Myron Ehrenberg? 

Mr, Lubell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. When did you last see Mr. Ehrenberg? 



to 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 719 



Mr. LuBELL. I would refuse to answer under the same grounds as 
previously, the provisions of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Sam Krafsur, 
K-r-a-f-s-u-r? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuBELL. Vaguely, as I mentioned before. 

Mr. Morris. When did you last see Mr. Krafsur? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuBELL. I don't recall, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know he is a brother-in-law of Myron Elu-en- 
berg? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. LuBELL. Yes. I do know that, yes. I am not quite sm-e of the 
name you mention, because it is very vague in my mind, but if it is 
the same one I am thinking about, I think he is. 

Air. Morris. Mr. Lubell, have you ever used the alias "E. George"; 
G-e-o-r-g-e, with the initial E.? 

Mr. LuBELL. I would refuse to answer that on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a Communist, Mr. George^ — ^Mr. Lubell, 
excuse me? 

Mr. LuBELL. I refuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Lubell? 

Mr. LuBELL. In England, sir. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. LuBELL. 1912, I think. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

What has been j^our education? 

Mr. LuBELL. I graduated from Harvard. 

Mr. Morris. In what vear? 

Mr. Lubell. In 1933. " 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of a Communist group at 
Croton-on-Hudson? That is in New York. 

Mr. Lubell. I decline to answer under the grounds of the fifth, sir. 

Chairman Eastland. You may stand aside, sir, and I will release 
you from your subpena. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for our records 
an exchange of correspondence between John Edgar Hoover, which 
he wrote to Malcolm Sharp, president of the National Lawyers Guild, 
in response to a letter that Mr. Sharp had written to President 
Eisenhower. 

The vSharp letter to the President is dated March 20, 1956, and 
Mr. Hoover's answer is dated April 9, 1956. I would hke to offer 
that for the record, but there are several important things in Mr. 
Hoover's answer, and I ask that Mr. Mandel read that answer for the 
record. 

Mr. Mandel (reading): 

April 9, 1956. 
Air. Malcolm P. Sharp, 

President, National Lawxjers Guild, 

New York, N V. 

Dear Sir: Receipt is acknowledged of your letter dated March 20, 1956, con- 
cerning my testimony before the subcommittee of the Committee on Appropria- 
tions of the House of Representatives on February 1, 1956, wliicli you indicate 
constituted an attack upon the independence of the bar 

72723— 56— pt. 13 2 



720 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I stated in my testimony that the Communist Party "* * * proposes during 
the coming year to tactically exploit the Geneva Four-Power Conference with a 
background effort to defeat the Internal Security Act of 1950, the Smith Act, 
and other anti-Communist legislation." I further stated, "Their campaign is 
intended to involve legal maneuvers, acquiring eminent counsel to defend the 
party and its leaders, and the use of various petitions, forums, mass meetings, 
radio broadcasts, and any media that can assist the party in its propaganda 
efforts. Their tactics will be concealed and will emerge through Communist-front 
organizations and through so-called lil)eral groups which they are able to infiltrate 
and interest in their Itchalf." 

My testimony was not an attack upon the independence of the bar. A fearless 
and inde])endent legal profession, alert to the Machiavellian devices of the Com- 
munists, is one of our best lines of defense against this conspiracy. My testimony 
was a factual report of the iiolicies and maneuvers of the Communist Party, USA, 
whose leaders have been convicted for crin\inal conspiracy to advocate the over- 
throw of the Government of the United States by force and violence. 

My comments were not opinions but factual data, {,recicated upon information 
from within the Communist Party itself. For example, a Communist functionary 
in a recent secret Communist meeting stated that the Communist Party had set 
aside a fund to be used for a mass sustained campaign for the defense of the 
Bill of Rights. This Communist Party official further stated that, during the 
campaign, the Party would seek to obtain eminent legal coimsel, utilize legal 
maneuvers, hold forums and mass meetings, circularize petitions and utilize 
radio broacasts and other media that could assist the party in its propaganda 
efforts. Justice Learned Hand recogn.ized this Communist tactic in his opinion 
upholding the first conviction of Communist leaders for violation of the Smith 
Act when he said, "* * * they claim the constitutional ])rivilege of going on 
indoctrinating their pupils, preparing increasing numbers to pledge themselves 
to the crusade * * *." The American Bar Association in its widely publicized 
brief on communism states that the Communists "accepted the benefits of 
our Bill of Rights in order to destroy our Constitution and form of Govern- 
ment * * *." 

Another Communist Party functionary stated recently in a secret Communist 
Party meeting, in referring to legal maneuvers on behalf of Communist members, 
that so far as possible the Communists would "* * * farm these things out to 
people who are not organically associated with the left, and allow them to demagog 
themselves with it ai\d push it forward as much as possible on their own * * * " 

With reference to the attitude of the bar on comnumism, the report of the special 
committee on C-ommimist tactics, strategy and objectives to the annual convention 
of the American Bar Association in August 1955 stated in part as follows: 

"Your (American Bar) conurjittee is convinced that world comnumism, in its 
efforts to weaken the institutions of our country by subversive infiltration, has 
not abandoned its determined attack upon our judicial processes and the adminis- 
tration of justice. The Communist Party has been and today is still seeking to 
delay and if possible to defeat every phase of judicial administration that offers 
any imminent or even remote threat to the progress of the Commimist movement 
in the United States." 

I shall always contend that every defendant is entitled to honest, skillful, and 
high principled counsel for his defense. The great majority of the legal profession 
has long ago established very sound adherence to American ideals of justice. 
The legal profession has also condemned the conduct of a small but vocal group 
of lawyers who have tried to twist the court procedures and protections and resort 
to methods of chicanery to turn our legal and judicial system into a mockery as 
part of their campaign to destroj^ our American way of life. 
Very truly yours, 

John Edgar Hoover. 

Chairman Eastland. I am going to let tile record stay open to 
investigate that portion of Mr. Hoover's letter which bears on the 
Internal Sccmuty Subcommittee. 

The Supreme Court, in the case of Slochower v. the Board of Higher 
Education, has slashed still further the rights of States and their sub- 
divisions. New York City has, the responsibility of hiring suitable 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 721 

teachers for the children of its citizens, who are entrusted to it for 
their education and training. The Supreme Court has recognized 
that, and I quote: 

The teacher works in a sensitive area in a schooh-oom. There he shapes the 
attitude of young minds toward the society in which they live. In this, the State 
has a vital concern. It must preserve the integrity of the schools. That the 
school authorities have the right and the duty to screen the officials, teachers, 
and employees as to their fitness to maintain the integrity of the schools as a 
part of ordered society, cannot be doubted. One's associates, past and present, 
as well as one's conduct, may properly be considered in determining fitness and 
loyalty. 

That is the end of the quote from the decision. 

It is, it seems to me, a misinterpretation of the intent of statutes 
such as 903 of the New York City Code to hold, as do the five judges 
who reversed the New York Court of Appeals in this case, that the 
spectacle of a college professor refusing to deny before a duly author- 
ized tribunal that he has been a Communist, cannot justify l>^ew 
York City in concluding that he is disqualified from holding a position 
of trust and confidence. 

These statutes do not impute guilt, as the com't seems to imply, 
but rather, bear on the fitness of a public servant who should be above 
suspicion. 

If this decision stands, it may be impossible for States and their 
political subdivisions to protect themselves from Communist infiltra- 
tion and influence. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I point out for the record that 
Dr. Harry Gideonse, who is the president of Brooklvn College, made 
a statement as reported in the New York press this morning. I 
have here the New York Herald Tribune, which indicates that Dr. 
Gideonse said that Dr. Slochower will be suspended on the broad 
professional grounds that untruthfulness and perjury are conduct 
unbecoming to a college professor. 

I might also point out, Mr. Chairman, that scheduled to testify 
within the next lew weeks has been Dr. Joseph Cavallaro, who has 
been the president of the Board of Higher Education of New York 
City, and the committee was planning to ask him some facts about the 
administration of their loyalty program in New York City. 

And I think. Mr. Chairman, it would be appropriate if we took 
up this particular subject with Dr. Cavallaro and with President 
Gideonse; in other words, the problems that now confront him in the 
administration of his loyalty program. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes; I agree, and we will certainly go into 
that. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have several other things for the 
record here. 

We have a revised — ^^vhat the Attorney General calls the Consoli- 
dated List, dated November 1, 1955, of organizations designated 
under Executive Order No. 10450. This is a list of subversive organi- 
zations. I would like them to go into the record at this time. 

Cliairman Eastland. It will be so ordered. 

(The hst referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 216" and is as 
follows:) 



722 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 216 

Organizations Designated Under Executive Order No. 10450 

Compiled from memorandums of the Attorney General dated April 29, July 15' 
September 28, 1953, January 22, 1954, April 4, September 21, and October 
20, 1955 

consolidated list NOVEMBER 1, 1955 

(This list is prepared solely for the information of Federal civilian officers and 
employees and for the convenience of persons completing applications for Federal 
employment. Membership in or affiliation with a designated organization is 
one factor to be considered by the departments and agencies of the Federal 
Government in connection with the employment or retention in employment of 
individuals in Federal service.) 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 

Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago, 111. 

Action Committee To Free Spain Now 

Alabama People's Educational Association (See Communist Political Association.) 

American Association for Reconstruction in Yugoslavia, Inc. 

American Branch of the Federation of Greek Maritime Unions 

American Christian Nationalist Party 

American Committee for European Workers' Relief (See Socialist Workers Party.) 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born 

American Committee for Spanish Freedom 

American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan, Inc. 

American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, Inc. 

American Committee to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe 

American Council for a Democratic Greece, formerly known as the Greek Ameri- 
can Council; Greek American Committee for National Unity 

American Council on Soviet Relations 

American Croatian Congress 

American Jewish Labor Council 

American League Against War and Fascism 

American League for Peace and Democracy 

American Lithuanian Workers Literary Association (Also known as Amerikos 
Lietuviu Darbininku Literatures Draugija.) 

American National Labor Party 

American National Socialist League 

American National Socialist Party 

American Nationalist Party 

American Patriots, Inc. 

American Peace Crusade 

American Peace Mobilization 

American Poles for Peace 

American Polish Labor Council 

American Polish League 

American Rescue Ship Mission (A project of the United American Spanish Aid 
Committee.) 

American-Russian Fraternal Society 

American Russian Institute, New York (Also known as the American Russian 
Institute for Cultural Relations with the Soviet Union.) 

American Russian Institute, Philadelphia 

American Russian Institute of San Francisco 

American Russian Institute of Southern California, Los Angeles 

American Slav Congress 

American Women for Peace 

American Youth Congress 

American Youth for Democracy 

Armenian Progressive League of America 

Associated Klans of America 

Association of Georgia Klans 

Association of German Nationals (Reichsdeutsche Vereinigung) 

Association of Lithuanian Workers (Also known as Lietuviu Darbininku Susi- 
vienijimas.) 

Ausland-Organization der NSDAP, Overseas Branch of Nazi Party 

Baltimore Forum 

Benjamin Davis Freedom Committee 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 723 

Black Dragon Society 

Boston School for Marxist Studies, Boston, Mass. 
Bridges-Robertson-Schmidt Defense Committee 

Bulgarian American People's League of the United States of America 
California Emergency Defense Committee 

California Labor School, Inc., 321 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, Calif. 
Carpatho-Russian People's Society 

Central Council of American Women of Croatian Descent (Also known as Central 
Council of American Croatian Women, National Council of Croatian Women) 
Central Japanese Association (Beikoku Chuo Nipponjin Kai) 
Central Japanese Association of Southern California 
Central Organization of the German-American National Alliance (Deutsche- 

Amerikanische Einheitsfront) 
Cervantes Fraternal Society 
China Welfare Appeal, Inc. 
Chopin Cultural Center 
Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges 

Citizens Committee of the Upper West Side (New York City) 
Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder 
Citizens Emergency Defense Conference 
Citizens Protective League 

Civil Liberties Sponsoring Committee of Pittsburgh 
Civil Rights Congress and its affiliated organizations, including: 

Civil Rights Congress for Texas 

Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights Congress of New York 
Civil Rights Congress for Texas (See Civil Rights Congress.) 
Columbians 

Comite Coordinador Pro Republica Espanola 

Comite Pro Derechos Civiles (See Puerto Rican Comite Pro Libertades Civiles.) 
Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 
Committee for Constitutional and Political Freedom 
Committee for Nationalist Action 

Committee for Peace and Brotherhood Festival in Philadelphia 
Committee for the Defense of the Pittsburgh Six 
Committee for the Negro in the Arts 
Committee for the Protection of the Bill of Rights 
Committee for World Youth Friendship and Cultural Exchange 
Committee To Abolish Discrimination in Maryland (See Congress Against 
Discrimination; Maryland Congress Against Discrimination; Provisional 
 Committee To Abolish Discrimination in the State of Maryland.) 
Committee To Aid the Fighting South 
Committee To Defend Marie Richardson 

Committee To Defend the Rights and Freedom of Pittsburgh's Political Prisoners 
Committee To Uphold the Bill of Rights 
Commonwealth College, Mena, Ark. 
Communist Party, United States of America, its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and 

affiliates 
Communist Political Association, its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates, 
including: 

Alabama People's Educational Association 

Florida Press and Educational League 

Oklahoma League for Political Education 

People's Educational and Press Association of Texas 

Virginia League for People's Education 
Congress Against Discrimination (See Committee To Abolish Discrimination in 

Maryland.) 
Congress of American Revolutionary Writers 
Congress of American Women 
Congress of the Unemployed 

Connecticut Committee "To Aid Victims of the Smith Act 
Connecticut State Youth Conference 
Council for Jobs, Relief, and Housing 
Council for Pan-American Democracy 
Council of Greek Americans 
Council on African Affairs 
Croatian Benevolent Fraternity 

Dai Nippon Butoku Kai (Military Virtue Society of Japan or Military Art 
Society of Japan) 



724 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Daily Worker Press Club 

Daniels Defense Committee 

Dante Alighieri Society (between 1935 and 1940) 

Dennis Defense Committee 

Detroit Youth Assembly 

East Bay Peace Committee 

Elsinore Progressive League 

Emergency Conference To Save Spanish Refugees (founding body of the North 
Ameiican Spanish Aid Committee) 

Everybody's Committee To Outlaw War 

Families of the Baltimore Smith Act Victims 

Families of the Smith Act Victims 

Federation of Italian War Veterans in the U. S. A., Inc. (Associazione Nazionale 
Combattenti Italiani, Federazione degli Stati Uniti d'Americu) 

Plnnish- American Mutual Aid Society 

Florida Press and Education League (See Communist Political Association ) 

Frederick Douglass Educational Center 

Freedom Stage, Inc. 

Friends of the New Germany (Freunde des Neuen Deutschlands) 

Friends of the Soviet Union 

Garibaldi American Fraternal Society 

George Washington Carver School, New York City 

German- American Bund (Ameiikadeutscher Volksbund) 

German- American Republican League 

German-American Vocational League (Deutsche-Ameiikanische Berufsgemein- 
schaft) 

Guardian Club 

Harlem Trade Union Council 

Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee 

Heimusha Kai, also known as Nokubei Heieki Gimusha Kai, Zaibel Nihonjin. 
Heiyaku Gimusha Kai, and Zaibei Heimusha Kai (Japanese Residing' in 
America Military Conscripts Association) 

Hellenic-American Brotherhood 

Hinode Kai (Imperial Japanese Reservists) 

Hinomaru Kai (Rising Sun Flag Society— a group of Japanese war veterans) 
Hokubei Zaigo Shoke Dan (North American Reserve Ofhcers Association) 
Hollywood Writers Mobilization for Defense 

Hungarian-American Council for Democracy 

Hungarian Brotherhood 

Idaho Pension Union 

Independent Party (Seattle, Wash.). (See Independent People's Party) 

Independent People's Party. (See Independent Partv.) 

Independent Sociahst League 

Industrial Workers of the World 

International Labor Defense 

International Workers Order, its subdivisions, subsidiaries and affiliates 

Japanese Association of America 

Japanese Overseas Central Society (Kaigai Dobo Chuo Kai) 

Japanese Overseas Convention, Tokyo, Japan, 1940 

Japanese Protective Association (recruiting organization) 

Jefferson School of Social Science, New York City 

Jewish Culture Society 

Jewish People's Committee 

Jewish People's Fraternal Order 

Jikyoku linkai (The Committee for the Crisis) 

Johnson-Forest Group. (See Johnsonitcs.) 

Johnsonites (See Johnson-Forest Group.) 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 

Joint Council of Progressive Itahan-Americans, Inc. 

Joseph Weydemeyer School of Social Science, St. Louis, Mo. 

Kibei Seinen Kai (Association of United States Citizens of Japanese Ancestry 

who have returned to America after studving in Japan) 
Knights of the White Camellia 
Ku Kiux Klan 
Kyffhaeuser, also known as Kyffhaeuser League (Kyffhaeuser Bund) Kyffhaeuser 

Fellowship (Kyffhaeuser Kameradschaft) 
Kyffhaeuser War Relief (Kyffhaeuser Kriegshilfswerk) 
Labor Council for Negro Rights 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 725 

Labor Research Association, Inc. 

Labor Youth League 

League for Common Sense 

League of American Writers 

Lictor Society (Itahan Black Shirts) 

Macedonian- American People's League 

Mario Morgantini Circle 

Maritime Labor Committee to Defend Al Lannon 

Maryland Congress Against Discrimination (See Committee to Abolish Dis- 
crimination in Maryland.) 

Massachusetts Committee for the Bill of Rights 

Massachusetts Minute Women for Peace (not connected with the Minute Women 
of the U. S. A., Inc.) 

Maurice Braverman Defense Committee. 

Michigan Civil Rights Federation 

Michigan Council for Peace 

Michigan School of Social Science 

Nanka Teikoku Gunyudan (Imperial Military Friends Group or Southern 
California War Veterans) 

National Association of Mexican Americans (Also known as Association Nacional 
Mexico- Americana.) 

National Blue Star Mothers of America (Not to be confused with the Blue Star 
Mothers of America organized in February 1942.) 

National Committee for Freedom of the Press 

National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners 

National Committee to Win Amnesty for Smith Act Victims 

National Committee to Win the Peace 

National Conference on American Policy in China and the Far East (a Conference 
called by the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy.) 

National Council of Americans of Croatian Descent 

National Council of American-Soviet Friendship 

National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 

National Labor Conference for Peace 

National Negro Congress 

National Negro Labor Council 

Nationalist Action League 

Nationalist Part}^ of Puerto Rico 

Nature Friends of America (since 1935) 

Negro Labor Victory Committee 

New Committee for Publications 

Nichibei Kogyo Kaisha (The Great Fujii Theatre) 

North American Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy 

North American Spanish Aid Committee 

North Philadelphia Forum 

Northwest Japanese Association 

Ohio School of Social Sciences 

Oklahoma Committee to Defend Polical Prisoners 

Oklahoma League for Political Education. (See Communist Political Association.) 

Original Southern Klans, Incorporated 

Pacific Northwest Labor School, Seattle, Washington 

Palo Alto Peace Club 

Partido del Pueblo of Panama (operating in the Canal Zone) 

Peace Information Center 

Peace Movement of Ethiopia 

People's Drama, Inc. 

People's Educational and Press Association of Texas. (See Communist Political 
Association.) 

People's Educational Association. (Incorporated under name Los Angeles Educa- 
tional Association, Inc., also known as People's Educational Center, People's 
University, People's School.) 

People's Institute of Applied Religion 

Peoples Programs (Seattle, Wash,) 

People's Radio Foundation, Inc. 

People's Rights Party 

Philadelphia Labor Committee for Negro Rights 

Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art 

Photo League (New York City) 



726 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Pittsburgh Arts Club 

Political Prisoners Welfare Committee 

Polonia Society of the I WO 

Progressive German-Americans (also known as Progressive German-Americans 

of Chicago) 
Proletarian Party of America 

Protestant War Veterans of the United States, Inc. 
Provisional Committee of Citizens for Peace, Southwest Area 
Provisional Committee on Latin American Affairs 
Provisional Committee to Abolish Discrimination in the State of Maryland. 

(See Committee to Abolish Discrimination in Maryland.) 
Puerto Rican Comite Pro Libertades Civiles (CLC) . (See Comite Pro Derechos 

Civilies.) 
Puertorriquenos Unidos (Puerto Ricans United) 
Quad City Committee for Peace 
Queensbridge Tenants League 
Revolutionary Workers League 
Romanian-American Fraternal Society 
Russian American Society, Inc. 
Sakura Kai (Patriotic Society, or Cherry Association — composed of veterans of 

Russo-Japanese War) 
Samuel Adams School, Boston, Mass. 
Santa Barbara Peace Forum 
Schappes Defense Committee 
Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee 
School of Jewish Studies, New York City 
Seattle Labor School, Seattle, Wash. 
Serbian-American Franternal Society 
Serbian Vidovdan Council 

Shinto Temples. (Limited to State Shinto abolished in 1945.) 
Silver Shirt Legion of America 
Slavic Council of Southern California 
Slovak Workers Society 
Slovenian-American National Council 
Socialist Workers Party, including American Committee for European Workers' 

Relief 
Socialist Youth League. (See Workers Party.) 
Sokoku Kai (Fatherland Society) 
Southern Negro Youth Congress 

Suiko Sha (Reserve Officers Association, Los Angeles) 
Svracuse Women for Peace 

Tom Paine School of Social Science, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tom Paine School of Westchester, N. Y. 

Trade Union Committee for Peace. (See Trade Unionists for Peace.) 
Trade Unionists for Peace. (See Trade Union Committee for Peace.) 
Tri-State Negro Trade Union Council 
Ukrainian-American Fraternal Union 
Union of American Croatians 
Union of New York Veterans 
United American Spanish Aid Committee 
United Committee of Jewish Societies and Landsmanschaft Federations (also 

known as Coordination Committee of Jewish Landsmanschaften and Fraternal 

Organizations) 
United Committee of South Slavic Americans 
United Defense Council of Southern California 1 

United Harlem Tenants and Consumers Organization 
United May Day Committee 
United Negro and Allied Veterans of America 
Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights Congress of New \ork. (See 

Civil Rights Congress.) 
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade 

Virginia League for People's Education. (See Communist Political Association.) 
Voice of Freedom Committee 

Walt Whitman School of Social Science, Newark, N. J. 
Washington Bookshop Association 
Washington Committee for Democratic Action 
Washington Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights 
Washington Commonwealth Federation 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 727 

Washington Pension Union 

Wisconsin Conference on Social Legislation 

Workers Alliance (since April 1936) 

Workers Party, including Socialist Youth League 

Yiddisher Kultur Farband 

Young Communist League 

Yugoslav-American Cooperative Home, Inc. 

Yugoslav Seamen's Club, Inc. 

Mr. Morris. And we^have here the certificate of the loss of the 
nationality of the United States, citizenship, of Lauchlin B. Ciu'rie 
and Solomon Adler, both of whom have figured in the hearings before 
the subcommittee in past years. I would like them to go into the 
record, too. 

Chairman Eastland. They will be so ordered. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits No. 217 and 
2 17- A" and are as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 217 
Certificate of the Loss^'OF^THEiNATioNALiTY^OF^.THE^'UNiTED States 

(This form has been prescribed by the Secretary of State pursuant to Section 501 
of the Act of October 14, 1940, 54 Stat. 1171) 



Certificate approved for the Secretary of State. 



Department of State, 

December 28, 1955. 

Frances G. Knight, 

Director, Passport Office. 
C. W. Borlen. 



Embassy of the United States of America at BogotX, Colombia, ss: 

I, Norah Alsterlund, hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge and 
belief, Lauchlin B. Currie was born at Nova Scotia, Canada, on October 8, 1902; 

That he resides at Carrera 5, 25A-38, Bogotd, Colombia; 

That he last resided in the United States at Gavlor Road, Scarsdale, New York; 

That he left the United States on August 27, 1950; 

That he acquired the nationality of the United States by virtue of naturaliza- 
tion on January 21, 1935, at United States District Court at Boston, Massachu- 
setts ; 

That he has expatriated himself under the provisions of Section 352 (a) (2) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 by residing continuously in Colombia 
since August 27, 1950. 

That the evidence of such action consists of the following: Mr. Currie's state- 
ment that he had made his home in Colombia since August 27, 1950, corroborated 
by evidence of landing stamps placed in his passport by Colombian immigration 
authorities. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed my 
office seal this 3rd day of October, 1955. 

[seal] Norah Alsterlund, 

Consul of the United States of America. 

The certificate should be executed in quadruplicate. Three copies thereof 
should be sent to the Department, one of which should be the original, and 
one should be retained in the files of the office in which it was executed. If 
the certificate is approved by the Department, approval will be shown by means 
of a stamp endorsement of each of the three copies signed by an appropriate 
officer of the Passport Division. The Department will then return one copy to 
the Foreign Service office at which the certificate was issued. Upon receipt of 
the approved copy of the certificate, the copy retained by the Foreign Service 
office will be delivered to the expatriate after the Foreign Service Officer has made 
a notation thereon that the certificate has been approved by the Department 
under the date of the stamp endorsement. 



72723—56 — pt. 13- 



728 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 217-A 

foreign service of the united states of america 

Certificate of the Loss of the Nationality of the United States 

Department of State, 

December 15, 195S. 

(This form has been prescribed by the Secretary of State pursuant to Section 501 
of the Act of October 14, 1940, 54 Stat. 1171, and Section 358 of the Act of 
June 27, 1952, 66 Stat. 272) 
Certificate approved for the Secretary of State. 

R. S. Shipley, 
Director, Passport Office. 

Embassy of the United States of America 

AT London, England, ss. 
John J. White. 

I, Walter M. Walsh, hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge and 
belief Solomon Adler was born at Leeds, Yorkshire England, on August 6, 1909; 

That he resides at 8 Queen Edith's Way, Cambridge, England; 

That he last resided in the United States at C/o 19 Ware Street, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts; 

That he left the United States in May 1950; 

That he acquired the nationality of the United States by virtue of his naturaliza- 
tion before the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia, 
being granted certificate of naturalization No. 4916468; 

That he has expatriated himself under the provisions of Section 352 (a) (1) 
Chapter 3 of Title III of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 by having a 
continuous residence for three years in England, the country of his birth and 
former nationality; 

That the evidence of such action consists of the following: Letter dated Novem- 
ber 3, 1953, to the American Embassy, London, from Solomon Adler, in which he 
stated that he has resided in England since May 13, 1950. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed my office 
seal this 4th day of December 1953. 

[seal] Walter M. Walsh, 

Consul of the United States of America at London, England. 

The certificate should be executed in quadruplicate. Three copies thereof 
should be sent to the Department, one of which should be the original, and one 
should be retained in the files of the office in which it was executed. If the certifi- 
cate is approved by the Department, approval will be shown by means of a stamp 
endorsement of each of the three copies signed by an appropriate officer of the 
Passport Division. The Department will then return one copy to the Foreign 
Service office at which the certificate was issued. Upon receipt of the approved 
copy of the certificate, the copy retained by the Foreign Service office will be 
delivered to the expatriate after the Foreign Service Officer has made a notation 
thereon that the certificate has been approved by the Department under the date 
of the stamp endorsement. 

submitted to the department of state 

Certificate of Naturalization No. 4916468 issued to Solomon Adler by the 
District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia on September 3, 
1940. 

Passport No. 267709 issued by the Department of State in Washington on May 
9, 1950, to Solomon Adler. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more evidence today, Senator. 
Chairman Eastland. We will now stand in recess. 
Mr, Morris. Until tomorrow at 10:30, sir. 
Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 55 a. m., the subcommittee adjoui-ned, to recon- 
vene at 10:30 a. m., Wednesday, April 11, 1956.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



^ 



WEDNESDAY, APRIL 11, 1956 

United States Senate, 
. Subcommittee To Investigate the 

Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pm-suant to recess, at 10:30 a. m., in the 
caucus room. Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner 
presiding. 

Present: Senators Jenner and Watkins. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; and William A. Rushei, administrative counsel. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will come to order. 

Call the first witness, please. 

Mr. Morris. The first witness will be Mrs. Blanchard. 

Mrs. Blanchard, will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Chairman, may I state at this time that these witnesses have 
been called this morning in connection with the series of hearings that 
the Internal Security Subcommittee is conducting, with a view toward 
making a determination of the operation of the Soviet organization 
in the United States. 

Senator Jenner. Mrs. Blanchard, wiU you be sworn to testify? 

Do you swear that the testimony you give in this hearing will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I do. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Boudiri, will you note your appearance on the 
record, please? 

Mr. BouDiN. The witness is represented — -May we have the 
pictures no longer taken while we talk, please? 

Senator Jenner. Gentlemen, counsel has asked that 3'ou take no 
more pictures while they are testifying. Take your pictures now and 
then get out of the way, please. 

Thank you, gentlemen. Thank you very much. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Will you note your appearance for the record, Mr. 
Boudin? 

Mr. BouDiN. Yes. My name is Leonard B. Boudin, 25 Broad 
Street, New York. I am one of counsel to Mrs. Blanchard. 

Mr. Morris. Your associate here toda}^, Mr. Boudin. 



Mr. Boudin. Yes. Mr. Wittenberg. 



729 



730 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify yourself for the record, Mr. Witten- 
berg', please? 

Mr. Wittenberg. Yes. My name is Philip Wittenberg. I am an 
attorne}" at law practicing in the State of New York, at 17 West 40th 
Street, New York. I am also admitted to the Supreme Court of the 
United States. 

TESTIMONY OF WINIFRED BLANCHARD; ACCOMPANIED BY 
LEONARD B. BOUDIN AND PHILIP WITTENBERG, HER AT- 
TORNEYS 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Blanchard, will 3'ou tell the committee where 
you were born? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I was born in New York City. 

Mr. Morris. Was your maiden name Winifred Brennan? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I would like to decline to answer on the grounds 
that this committee is without jurisdiction, is violating the separation- 
of-powers doctrine in invading the judicial power, on the ground of 
my rights under the first, fourth, ninth, and fifth amendments, which 
the Supreme Court has held to be a shield to protect the innocent, and 
that this proceeding is a bill of attainder. 

Senator Jenner. Let the record show that the Vv'itness' refusal to 
answer the questions on all the grounds stated is overruled with the 
exception of the fifth amendment. Tliis committee does recognize 
the witness' refusal to answer under the fifth amendment of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. And you do, do 3'ou not, Mrs. Blanchard, invoke, 
among other things, A^our privilege against self-incrimination? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I am sorry, sir? 

Mr. Morris. And j^ou do, among other invocations, include your 
privilege against self-incrimination, do you not? 

Mrs. Blanchard. Well, I rely on all the grounds I have stated. 

Mr. Morris. Yes; including that. 

Senator Jenner. Maybe I did not hear right. But I thought you 
said the fifth amendment as one of them. 

Mr. Boudin. That is correct. 

Mrs. Blanchard. And I referred to the Supreme Court's decision 
in the Slochower case, in which the privilege is a shield to protect the 
innocent. 

Senator Jenner. Yes ; and under the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Boudin. That is correct. 

Senator Jenner. All right. 

Mr. Morris. You are the wife of Robert Blanchard who uniil 
recently has been a commercial artist with television station WDSU 
in New Orleans? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer under all the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Have you lived in Slidell, La., until recent!}^? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer on all the grounds previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 731 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Blanchard, when did you first hear that the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee was seeking to serve a sub- 
pena on you and A'our husband? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decHne to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the subcommittee has made extensive 
efforts to serve a subpena on Mrs. Blanchard and her husband, Mr. 
Blanchard. In fact, we had marshals in New Orleans; we had mar- 
shals in the State of Florida and marshals in the State of New York, 
all endeavoring to effect service, and it was not until almost 2 weeks 
after we first made an effort that we succeeded in serving the process 
in New York State. 

Now, you were served in New York, were you not, Mrs. Blanchard? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer on the grounds stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, m order to show the appropriateness 
of my question about Mrs. Blanchard 's maiden name, I would like 
to offer for the record the certificate of birth of John Francis Brennan, 
who was a brother of Mrs. Blanchard. 

Now, was John Francis Brennan your brother? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer. 

Senator Jenner. For the reasons previously stated? 

Mrs. Blanchard. For the reasons previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. Wliich in chide the fifth amendment against self- 
incrimination. 

All right. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the department of health, bureau of 
records and statistics, city of New York, mdicates that John Francis 
Brennan was born in New York City on April 9, 1909, according to 
birth record No. 19453, filed in the Manhattan office of this bureau on 
April 21, 1909. 

Now, Mrs. Blanchard, did you ask the department of health, 
bureau of records and statistics, on November 11, on or about Novem- 
ber 11, 1950, for a copy of your late brother's birth certificate? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, I wonder if you would read for the 
record one of the obituary notices of John Francis Brennan. 

Mr. Mandel. I have here tlu-ee obituary notices, one from the 
New York Times of April 12, 1938, headed "Couple end lives in a 
suicide pact," referring to: 

John Brennan, 29 years old, a commercial artist, and his wife, Catherine, 28, 
were found dead last night in what appeared to be a suicide compact in their home 
at 37-41 78th Street, Jackson Heights, Queens. 

The other is the New York Herald Tribune o" April 12, 1938, page 
3, headed "Queens artist and bride die in suicide pact": 

Veteran of Lincoln Brigade gives poison to wife, 28, and turns on gas; were 
'disgusted with world." 



732 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Then the Daily Worker of April 13, 1938, has an article entitled, 
"Lincoln vets to honor Brennan at funeral," and it states: 

In December 1936, John Brennan went to Spain. He was one of the most 
heroic fighters with the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. At Jarama, at Madrid, 
wherever the going was hottest there was Brennan. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may those three notices go in the 
record, please? 

Senator Jenner. They may go in the record and become part of 
the record. 

(Copies of the three newspaper accounts above referred to were 
marked "Exhibits 218, 218-A, and 218-B" and read as foUows: 

Exhibit No. 218 

[The New York Times, Tuesday, April 12, 1938, p. 21] 

Couple End Lives in a Suicide Pact — Bodies of Commercial Artist and 
Bride Are Found in Jackson Heights Home — Gas Stove Burners Open — • 
Woman Apparently Had Taken Poison — House Near That of Donald 
Carroll, Jr. 

John Brennan, 29 years old, a commercial artist, and his wife, Catherine, 28, 
were found dead last night in what appeared to be a suicide compact in their home 
at 37-41 78th Street, Jackson Heights, Queens, where they had moved 3 weeks 
ago after their marriage in January. 

The home, a 2-story 1-family dwelling, is just 2 doors south of the home of 
Donald Carroll, Jr., 16, who killed his sweetheart on March 24 in a suicide pact 
which he failed to fulfill. 

The Brennan couple were discovered at about 9:30 o'clock after neighbors re- 
ported smelling gas from the house. Brennan was found dead in a chair in the 
kitchen where all burners on the gas stove had been turned on. He was fully 
clothed. His wife was found dead unclothed in bed on the second floor. 

After an investigation, the police said that Mrs. Brennan apparently had taken 
poison. Her lips were seared and a phial was found on a table near the bed where 
she was found. Dr. Richard Grimes, assistant medical examiner, ordered an im- 
mediate autopsy to determine the exact cause of her death. 

A note addressed to Brennan's mother, Mrs. Anna Brennan, was found on a 
stand in the kitchen, revealing the intention of the couple to end their lives. The 
police did not make the note public and would not say if it revealed a motive for 
the tragedy. 

Papers found in the house showed that Brennan had served in the Washington- 
Lincoln Brigade with the Spanish Loyalists in Spain last year. He had been dis- 
charged from a Spanish hospital on July 22, 1937, after receiving treatment for 
wounds he had received. 

The couple were married at the Municipal Building on January 4, 1938. Mrs. 
Brennan was the former Catherine Jadazewski and lived with her parents at 164 
India Street, Brooklyn. 

Brennan's mother and a sister, Winifred, had lived in the Jackson Heights 
home but turned the house over to the couple 3 weeks ago and went to live at 
88-06 Parsons Boulevard, Jamaica. A brother, Michael, said that the Brennans 
had planned to leave on a belated honeymoon yesterday. 



[New York Herald Tribune, Tuesday, April 12, 1938, p. 3] 

Exhibit No. 218-A 

Queens Artist and Bride Die in Suicide Pact — Veteran of Lincoln Brigade 
Gives Poison to Wife, 28, and Turns on Gas; Were "Disgusted With 
World" 

John Brennan, 29 years old, and his wife, Catherine, 28, were found dead last 
night at 37-41 78th Street, Jackson Heights, Queens, a house the young man's 
mother, Mrs. Anna Brennan, gave them when they were married on January 4. 
The police believe that they died by agreement; that Brennan gave poison to 
his wife and then went to the kitchen and turned on the gas. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 733 

The house is the second one from the home of Donald F. Carroll, Jr., 16 years 
old, at 37-37 78th Street, where, on March 24, he shot and killed Charlotte 
Matthiesen, 18, in a similar contract. 

It was apparent that Brennan had killed himself. He was found seated in a 
chair in the kitchen, his head resting on the range, in which all six jets, including 
the pilot light, were open. A note said to be in his writing was found on a tele- 
phone stand in the hall near the kitchen door. It was addressed to his mother. 

The police said it indicated suicide. All that they would divulge of its contents 
was that Brennan said that he and his wife were "disgusted with the world." 

He had served with the government forces in Spain as a member of the Abra- 
ham Lincoln Brigade. He was wounded and sent to a hospital, from which he 
was discharged last July. On his return to New York he resumed work as a 
commercial artist. On January 4 he married Catherine Jadazewski, of 164 
India Street, Brooklyn. 

His wife was found in a bedroom upstairs. She was imclad, but a blanket 
was drawn up around her shoulders. Her hands were folded on her breast. 
Dr. Richard A. Grimes, assistant medical examiner, said that she had not died 
of asphyxiation. He took away an empty vial which he found in the room, 
which is believed to have contained the poison she swallowed. 

Brennan apparently had been dead about 6 hours when the police broke into 
the house early in the evening. His wife, it was thought, had died somewhat 
earlier. There was an indentation in the bed as though some one had been sitting 
there after she died. It is thought that Brennan sat there before he went down- 
stairs to turn on the gas. The Carroll boy, however, failed to kill himself and 
is under indictment on a murder charge. 

Mrs. Adeline Filetz, who lives next door at 37-43 78th Street, smelled the gas 
and called the police. Sgt. Benjamin Bailey and Patrolman Cornelius Russell 
of the Newtown police station went to the back of the house and, looking through 
a kitchen window, saw Brennan seated in front of the stove. They forced the 
door. 



Exhibit No. 218-B 

[Daily Worker, New York, Wednesday, April 13, 1938, p. 2] 

Lincoln Vets To Honor Brennan at Funeral 

In December 1936, John Brennan went to Spain. He was one of the most 
heroic fighters with the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. At Jarama, at Madrid, 
wherever the going was hottest, there was Brennan. 

Discharged from a Spanish hospital on July 22, 1937, Brennan arrived in the 
States the following month. Three months ago he married. 

Today Brennan and his wife are dead by suicide. He turned on the gas. His 
wife, Catherine, drank poison. 

His former fellow fighters, the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, in 
deploring the step that Brennan took as the way out of his problems, point to the 
economic worries that have confronted him ever since his return from Spain. 

PRAISED BY VETERANS 

"Brennan was an excellent soldier," said Carl Bradley, secretary of the veterans. 
"His war record was typical of the courage and heroism of the American volunteers. 
But he could find no work. His leg wound bothered him. He worried con- 
stantly about Spain. If he could have returned to an America where opportunities 
for his career and talents were plentiful, Brennan would be alive today." 

The veterans have asked to be allowed to honor Brennan at his funeral where 
their tribute will record the best parts of his life and at which they wiU speak 
words condemning the injustice of his death to the bleak hopeless economic 
future of an America that laid its heavy hand on his hope and blasted it to suicide. 

Brennan, 29, was a commercial artist and lived with his mother at 37-41 78th 
Street, Jackson Heights, Queens. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Blanchard, have you ever lived at 71 
West Boulevard, East Rockaway, Long Island? 

A-Irs. Blanchard. I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 



734 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the department of health sent his 
certificate of birth on November 11, 1950, to 71 West Boulevard, 
East Rockaway , Long Island, care of Blanchard ; sent to John Francis 
Brennan, care of Blanchard. 

Now, were you living; there at that time? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer on the gi-ounds previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, when Robert Thompson, leader of 
the Communist Party, was arrested in California on August 27, 1953, 
he had in his possession and was using as an identification paper the 
certificate of birth of John Francis Brennan, and we have here the 
testimony of an FBI man who made the arrest at the time, who testi- 
fied to that effect. 

May Mr. Mandel read that into the record at this time in full, Mr. 
Chairman? 

Senator Jenner. He may. 

Proceed, Air. Mandel. 

Mr. Mandel (reading) : 

United States District Court, Southern District of New York 
United States of America v. Robert G. Thompson 

C. 142-239 
Before: Hon. Gregory F. Noonan, district judge. 

New York, December 8, 1953. 
December 9, 1953. 
December 16, 1953. 
stenographer's minutes 

Frank J. Smith, called as a witness on behalf of the Government, being duly 
sworn, testified as follows: 

Direct examination by Mr. Kilsheimer: 

Q. What is your occupation, Mr. Smith? — A. I am a special agent for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Q. For how long have you been so employed? — A. 12 years. 

That is page 67 of the testimony. 
Page 85: 

Smith — direct: 

* * * Thompson, I put my initials and the date on the document. 

(Government's exhibit 20 marked for identification.) 

Q. I show you Government's exhibit 20 for identification and ask you when 
you saw that for the first time [handing]? — A. I saw this document for the first 
time when I removed it from a coat that Thompson had had on him in the office 
of the San Francisco Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Q. What type of coat was this that your removed it from?- — -A. It was the 
summer-weight suit that 1 previously described. I took down that he identified 
it as his and reported back to the office at his request. 

Mr. Kilsheimer. 1 ofi'er Government's exhibit 20 for identification in evidence 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, at this point may I oft"er for the 
record this same exhibit No. 20, which is marked "Exhibit No. 20, 
United States District Court, Southern District of New York, Decem- 
ber 8, 1953"? 

Senator Jenner. It will go in the record. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 219 and 
219 A" and appear on following pages.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 735 



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72723— 56— pt. 13- 



736 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 737 

Air. Morris. That is a photostat of the certificate of birth of 
John Francis Brennan, which was taken from the person of Robert 
Thompson at the time of the arrest. 

Senator Jenner. It may go in the record. 

Air. AIoRRis. Now, did 3'^ou know Robert Thompson? 

Airs. Blanchard. I dechne to answer on the grounds previously- 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Air. Reporter. 

(A news story, from the New York Times of August 28, 1953, was 
later ordered into the record as Exhibit No. 220 and follows in full:) 

Exhibit No. 220 

[The New York Times, New York, August 28, 1953] 

2 Top Red Fugitives Captured by FBI in Sierra Hideout 

THOMPSON, one OF 11 CONVICTED HERE, AND STEINBERG, INDICTED UNDER SMITH 

ACT, ARRESTED 

Washington, August 27. — J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, announced today that FBI agents had arrested two long-missing 
Communist Party leaders in an S,000-foot high hideout in the Sierra Mountains 
near Sonora, Calif. 

]Mr. Hoover identified the two as Robert G. Thompson, 38 years old, who was 
one of the 11 leading Communists convicted in Xew York in 1949 of having 
conspired to advocate the violent overthrow of the Government, and Sidney 
Steinberg, 38, indicted on similar charges. 

Mr. Hoover said the FBI agents also had arrested two men and a woman on 
charges of harboring the two fugitive Red leaders in a sparsely settled community 
near Yosemite National Park in California. 

He identified the three as Carl Edwin Rasi, a Minnesota Communist Party 
leader; Samuel I. Coleman, a New York Communist Party functionary, and Mrs. 
Shirley Keith Kremen, who rented the cabin in the High Sierras. 

Thompson, a New York party functionary and a member of the national 
committee of the Communist Party, had been missing since July 2, 1951, when 
he was supposed to appear in Federal court in New York to begin his 3-year prison 
sentence for having violated the Smith Act. The FBI said he had been hiding in 
the Communist Party underground ever since. 

POSSE CLOSES IN ON CABIN 

The Bureau said that Steinberg had evaded arrest since June 1951, when he 
and 20 other second-string party leaders had been indicted in New York on Smith 
Act violation charges. 

Nearly a score of agents, unshaven and dressed as campers, surprised Thompson 
and Steinberg in the yard of a two-story cabin 2 miles north of the summer resort 
of Twain Harte in a heavy growth of small pine in California's Tuolumne County. 

The FBI said Thompson and Steinberg were in the yard outside the comfortably 
furnished cabin and the others were inside when the posse closed in from the woods 
on all sides. The agents said the pair, although obviously surprised, recovered 
quickly and refused to identify themselves. 

The' raiding party was led by William M. Whelan, who decHned to say how long 
the Government had been keeping the remote cabin under observation. 

The cabin, rouahly finished on the outside but well appointed inside, was located 
sHghtly outside the "regular resort area at the end of a remote stretch of dirt road 
known as Little Fuller Road. 

Thompson was taken to San Francisco and immediately transferred to Alcatraz 
prison. He was escorted to the Alcatraz landing by two agents. The FBI said 
he might be transferred to some other prison but that for the present he would 
stay on the Rock. 

The others also were taken to San Francisco for immediate arraignment 
before Joseph Karesh, United States Commissioner. 

The Bureau said that Thompson's identity was established by his fingerprints. 
The FBI said he was using the name of John Francis Brennan and had drivers' 
Ucenses in that name from Illinois and Pennsylvania. 



738 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE TJlSriTED STATES 

The Bureau asserted that Steinberg also was identified through his fingerprints. 
It said he was using the ahas of Joshua Newberg, had a Cahfornia fishing license, 
and a business card showing his occupation as a violin teacher. 

Mr. Hoover said both men had social-security cards and the 5 persons arrested 
had about $2,000 on their persons. 

TRIED TO ALTER APPEARANCE 

Mr. Hoover also said both men had tried to alter their physical appearance. 
He said Thompson had grown a mustache, which he had dyed a strawberry 
blond along with his hair while his eyebrows were dyed a reddish blond. He had 
gained about 30 pounds. 

The Bureau said Steinberg had lost considerable weight, grown a mustache, 
and had his hair closely cropped. 

The FBI said the cabin high in the Sierras had been rented last June for a 4- 
month period by the 21-year-old Mrs. Kremen, who was living in the cabin 
under the name of Mrs. Lee Kaplan. It said that Rasi, 40, one of those arrested 
with Mrs. Kremen, was a Minnesota party leader who went to New York in 
1950 and has been in the C'ommunist underground since 1951. 

It said that Coleman had been active in the undergrovuid since 1951. 

Thompson, slow-talking Grants Pass, Oreg., native, was a member of the Na- 
tional Board of the Communist Party in the United States. He, his wife, and 
two children lived in Long Island City, N. Y., at the time of his flight. 

He is a veteran of the Spanish Civil War, in which he fought in the Leftist 
International Brigade of the Spanish Republican Army. He also is said to be a 
decorated veteran of the Pacific campaign of World War II. 

Steinberg, a brown-haired one-time butcher and native of Lithuania, was a 
resident of Jackson Heights, Queens, N. Y. He used the name Sid Stein in 
connection with his Communist Party work. 

STUDIED IN MOSCOW 

Thompson joined the Communist Party in Oakland, Calif., in 1933. From 
1933 to 1935 he worked for the Continental Can Co. in Oakland, and the Santa 
Fe Railroad in Richmond, Calif. In August 1935, Thompson went to France 
and then to Moscow, as a visitor to the Young Communist International Congress. 

While in Russia, Thompson worked as a maintenance machinist at the Kagano- 
vich ball bearing plant in Moscow. He also attended courses in Marxism- 
Leninism. He left Russia in 1937 and went to Spain, where he joined the Inter- 
national Brigade. He was wounded in action and rose to the position of com- 
mander of the McKenzie Papineau Battalion. He returned to the United 
States in January 1938. 

Thompson went to New York to work for the Young Communist League in 
1941. He served in the United States Army between November 28, 1941, and 
August 23, 1943, and while a staff sergeant in the Buna, New Guinea, area, he 
said he had been awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. 

Steinberg, who entered the United States under the name of Ovsejus Sarfsteinas, 
lived in Worcester, Mass., until 1932. He joined the Communist Party in or 
before 1936 and became a partj- organizer in 1942 in New Jersey. 

He also was made executive secretary of the Camden County Coinmunist 
Party and in late 1945 became chairman of the New Jersey State Commiuiist 
Party. Steinberg also served as a member of the alternate national committee 
of the party. 

The arrest of Thompson and Steinberg left five Communist leaders convicted 
or indicted on Smith Act violations still eluding FBI arrest. 

Two were among the 11 first-string leaders convicted in New York along with 
Thompson in 1949. They are Gilbert Green, chairman of the Illinois branch of 
the party, and Henry Winston, national organizational secretary. Gus Hall, 
who fled at the same time Green and Winston did, was picked up in Mexico 
last year and returned to the United States and prison. 

Three party leaders indicted but not tried on Smith Act charges also are at 
large. They are Fred Fine of New York, secretary of the party's public affairs 
department; James Edward Jackson, southern regional director of the party; and 
William N. Marron, executive secretary of the New York State party. 

Mr. MoKKis. Did you give the certificate of birth of yoiu- late 
})rotlier to Robert Thompson? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 739 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Did you obtain a social-security card in the name of 
John Francis Brennan 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline 

Mr. Morris (continuing). For Robert Thompson? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I am sorry. I decline to answer for the reasons 
previoush^ stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Robert Thompson had the social- 
security card of John Francis Brennan at the time of his arrest. 

Now, did 3'ou move from 71 West Boulevard, East Rockaway, on 
December 23, 1952? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Did you then move to Albee Road, Nakomis, Fla.? 

Senator Jenner. Did 3-ou understand the question, Mrs. Blanchard? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I was not sure that he was asking a question. 

Senator Jenner. Will you read the question again, please? 

Mr. Morris. Did vou move, after you left East Rockaway on 
December 23, 1952, to Albee Road, in Nakomis, Fla.? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, maj^ I offer for the record the photo- 
static cop3^ of the testimony taken in the United States district court 
on December 8, 9, and 16, bearing on the arrest of Robert Thompson? 

Senator Jenner. What A^ear? 

Mr. Morris. That is in 1953, Senator. 

Senator Jenner. It may go in the' record and become a part of the 
official record. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 220-A" and 
will be found in the files of the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you marry Robert Blanchard at St. Joan's 
Catholic Chmxh in Jackson Heights, in 1939? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previousl}^ 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. Carry that 'record thi'ough. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us what employment you yourself 
have had? 

Mrs. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. You have been a schoolteacher, have you not? 

Mrs. Blanchard, I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chan-man, in view of the response of this witness, 
I have no more questions at this time. 

Senator Jenner. Any questions, Senator Watldns? 

Senator Watkins. I have no questions. 

Senator Jenner. You will be excused, Mrs. Blanchard. 

Mrs. Blanchard. Thank you. 

Senator Jenner. Call the next \vitness, please, 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Brennan, please. 

I am sorry. Mr. Blanchard. 



740 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE TUSTITED STATES 

Will you be sworn, Mr. Blancliard. please? 

Senator Jenner. Do you swear the testimony you give in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Blanchard. I do. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed, counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT BLANCHARD, NEW YORK, N. Y. ; ACCOM- 
PANIED BY LEONARD B. BOUDIN AND PHILIP WITTENBERG, 
HIS ATTORNEYS 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please, Mr. Blanchard? 

Mr. BouDiN. May we wait until the pictures are taken? 

Senator Jenner. Just a moment, gentlemen. Take yom- pictm'es 
and then we will proceed. 

All right. Thank 3^ou very much, gentlemen. Let us proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
Mr. Blanchard? 

Mr. Blanchard. Robert Blanchard. 

Mr. Morris. And your address, Mr. Blanchard? 

Mr. Blanchard. 50 West 77th Street, New York. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

And you are appearing here with the same two attorneys who rep- 
resented your wife; is that right? 

Mr. Blanchard. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That is Mr. Boudin and Mr. Wittenberg. 

Mr. Boudin. Mr. Wittenberg and Mr. Boudin. 

Senator Jenner. The record stands corrected. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you been a commercial artist for televi- 
sion station WDSU in New Orleans until the last week or so? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer on the grounds that this com- 
mittee is without jurisdiction, is violating the separation-of-power 
doctrine in invading the judicial power, on the grounds of my rights 
under the first, fourth, ninth, and fifth amendments, which the Su- 
preme Court has held to be a shield to protect the innocent, and that 
this proceeding is a bill of attainder. 

Senator Jenner. The witness' refusal to answer the question for 
the reasons stated will be overruled with the exception of the fifth 
amendment. This committee recognizes that the witness has a per- 
fect right to use the fifth amendment if his answer might tend to in- 
criminate him. That is acceptable to the committee. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Blanchard, when did you first hear that the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee was endeavoring to serve a 
subpena on you asking your testimony in New Orleans? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons 'previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, upon learning that the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee was endeavoring to serve a subpena requiring 
your appearance before that subcommittee, thereupon evade service? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 



741 



Mr. Morris. Now, have you been a commercial artist for television 
station WDSU? 

Mr. Blaxchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. That is in New Orleans. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for the record 

Senator Jenner. Just a moment. I do not think the witness had 
a chance to answer. 

He identified the station in New Orleans. "What is your answer? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for the record 
application for employment forms signed by Robert Blanchard for 
radio station WDSU m New Orleans. I would like to present this 
to the witness and ask him if this is not his signature that appears 
thereon. 

Will someone show those to the witness, please? 

(Documents were handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Morris. Is that your signature, Mr. Blanchard? 

]Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. May that go in the record? 

Senator Jenner. It may go in the record and become a part of the 
official record of this hearing. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 221" and 

reads as follows;) 

Exhibit No. 221 

RADIO STATION WDSU 

Application for Employment 

PERSONAL history 

Name: Robert Blanchard. Social Security No.: 061-14-7084. 

Address: 813}^ Dumaine Street, New Orleans, La. Telephone No.: MA 6349. 

Age: 39. Date of Birth: May 16, 1914. 

Weight: 165. Height: 5-11. Color of Hair: Brown. Do you wear glasses? No. 

Sex: M. Marital Status: Married. 

With whom do you hve? Dependents, if any: 2. 

Mention Physical Defects or Serious Illness during past three years: None. 



Name 



Mr. G. A. Mills 

Mr. Wm. Koofoed 

Mr. Maiston Hamlin. 



Address 



69 \t est Blvd., East Rockawav, N. Y 

Windsor Towers, Tudor City, N. Y 

251 Rocklyn Ave., Ivvst Rockaway, N. Y 



Occupation 



Writer. 
Editor. 
Professor. 



Educational record 



School 



High school. 
College 



Name and location 



Westboro High, Westboro, Mass. 
N. Y. S. University, 3 years 



Year 
grad- 
uated 



Courses 
pursued, 
diplomas 
or degrees 
received 



742 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Business experience 



Name, address, and business of 
employer 



Position held 



Dates 


Salary 


1941-45 




1946 




1947 




1948-52 




1953 





Reason for 

change 



Disnev Studios, Calif 

Fletcher Smith, N. Y. C 

Farrell Publishing, N. Y. C... 

L. I. A. T. I. (Farmingdale, 

N. Y.) Univ., State of N. Y. 

M. M. Robins Adv. Ag 



Background ill us., title design 

Story layout, background illus 

Editorial layout, spot illus 

Instructor, design, layout, lettering, etc 

Art director 



Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Blanchard? 

Mr. Blanchard. Quincy, Mass. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Blanchard. 1914. 

Senator Jenner. What has been your formal education? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. You mean you wUl not tell this subcommittee where 
you were educated? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have a college degree? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer. 

Senator Jenner. Tlie same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you worked for Walt Disney, did you not, the 
cartoonist, in California, during the 1940's? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Did you live in Los Angeles County in California, in 
the early 1940's? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you been a member of the Communist 
Party, Mr. Blanchard? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Have you used the Communist Party alias, Bill 
Broimt? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Have you used the alias, Robert Hamer? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Northwest section of 
the Los Angeles County Communist organization? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for reasons previously stated. 

Air. Morris. Were you at a time subsequent to 1943 the financial 
secretary of a branch of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter, throughout. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a Communist, Mr. Blanchard? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for reasons stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet John Francis Brennan? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 743 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know that John Francis Brennan is the late 
brother of your present wife? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Blanchard, I offer you a photostatic copy of the 
certificate of death of John Francis Brennan and ask you if you have 
ever seen this before. 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for reasons previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. The question was, have you ever seen that before? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer. 

Senator Jenner. I order and direct you to answer the question. 
I do not believe that the fact that you ever saw the death certificate 
would incriminate you in any way. 

Mr. Blanchard. I declme. 

Senator Jenner. All right. The same record. Air. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chau-man, may that be accepted in the record? 

Senator Jenner. It will go in the record and become a part of the 
official record of this committee. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exliibit No. 222" and is 
reproduced on a following page.) 

Mr. Morris. Did you laiow Robert Thompson? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Did you receive from the Department of Health of 
New York, statistical information, records of statistical information, 
about the late John Francis Brennan? 

Mr. Blanchard. I am sorry. Would you repeat that? 

Mr. Morris. Did you receive — I mean, this was sent to John 
Francis Brennan, care of Blanchard, 71 West Boulevard, East Rock- 
away, Long Island. Now, did you receive that? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chau*man, I do not know whether it is Mr. or 
Mrs. Blanchard who received it, but the bureau of vital statistics 
sent it to John Francis Brennan, 71 West Boulevard, East Rockaway, 
Long Island, care of Blanchard. 

Now, I do not know the first name of the Blanchard who did receive 
it. 

Have you ever had any dealings with Robert Thompson? 

Mr. Blanchard. I declme to answer for the reasons stated. 

Senator Jenner. The samiC record. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you marry Winifred Brennan at St. Joan's 
Catholic Church in Jackson Heights in 1939? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Mr. Blanchard, I wonder if you would not reconsider 
telling the committee what your formal education has been. 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for reasons previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chan-man, I ask that you dkect the witness to 
answer that question. 

72723— 56— pt. 13 5 



744 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit 222 

CITY Of N£V^ rOftK 

D£PARTM?NT Of HEALTH 

SUSIAU OP ftfCORDS AWD STATiSTiCS 



w.c,Kc; QUEENS 



New Yo^l. N. Y. 








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JIAI OP rng MPARTMtNT OF HEALTH IS ApmED TMFftSON. TH£ R€PRO. 
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a» »jo ;»»^«ify «» t« ttva <a<i*» iwwi i^n jpnjviAMi by tew. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 745 

Senator Jenner. I order and direct that the witness answer the 
question. 

Mr. Blanchard. I stand on all my objections I previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. All will be overruled except 
the witness' use of the fifth amendment, that his answer might tend 
to incriminate him, which will be accepted. 

Mr, Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you were employed as a commercial artist for television station 
WDSU? 

Mr. Blanchard. I decline to answer for the reasons previously 
stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr, Chairman, I have no more questions. 

For the record, I would like the record to show that Robert Thomp- 
son, after his arrest, was convicted of contempt, and received a 4-year 
sentence in addition to a 3-year sentence under the Smith Act. 

Senator Jenner. Any further questions? Senator Watkins? 

Senator Watkins. No questions. 

Senator Jenner. No further questions. 

You will be excused, Mr. Blanchard. 

Mr, Blanchard. Thank you. 

Mr, Morris, Mr. Behrstock. 

Mr, Behi-stock, will you stand and be sworn, please? 

Senator Jenner. Do you swear that the testimony given in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Behrstock. I so swear. 

Senator Jenner, Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

TESTIMONY OF ARTHUR BEHRSTOCK, BROOKLYN, N. Y. ; ACCOM- 
PANIED BY LEONARD B, BOUDIN AND PHILIP WITTENBERG, 
HIS ATTORNEYS 

Mr, Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
Mr, Behi'stock? 

Mr, BouDiN. May I again request that there be no pictm'es taken 
while the witness is testifying. Senator? 

Senator Jenner, All right, 

Mr. BouDiN. I see it is going on. 

And tm'ii the lights out, also, if you will, please. 

Senator Jenner. There will be no pictures taken, gentlemen. 

Proceed. 

Mr, Morris, Mr, Behrstock, will you give your name and address 
to the reporter? 

Mr, Behrstock, My name is Arthur Behrstock. The last name is 
spelled B-e-h-r-s-t-o-c-k, And I live at 60 Hicks Street, Brooklyn, 
N, Y, 

Mr, Morris, Now, how long have you lived at 60 Hicks Street in 
Brooklyn, N. Y.? 

Mr, Behrstock, Oh, I would say roughly 5 years, 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Behrstock? 

Mr. Behrstock. Chicago, III. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

]VIr. Behrstock. November 3, 1912. 



746 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. And you- 



Mr. BouDiN. Excuse me a second, Mr. Morris and Senator. Is it 
at all possible to have those lights turned out now that the pictures 
are taken? They hurt my eyes. 

Senator Jenner. Turn the light out. 

Is that all right, Mr. Boudin? 

Mr. BouDiN. Yes. 

Senator Jenner. All right. Now let us proceed, please. 

Mr. BouDiN. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Behrstock, did you graduate from Northwestern 
University? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

You were interested in literary activities at that time, were you not, 
while you were an undergraduate at Northwestern? 

Mr. Behrstock. I was in the department of journalism. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Did you edit the school paper? 

Mr. Behrstock. No, sir; I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Were you connected with the school paper at any 
time? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes, I was, a reporter, and stuff. 

Mr. Morris. And shortly after your graduation from Northwestern, 
you became a newspaperman in Chicago, did you not? 

Mr. Behrstock. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us what papers you worked for in 
Chicago? 

Mr. Behrstock. I think the first — it was a long time ago, but my 
recollection is that my first job was with the South Town Community 
Booster, which was a community newspaper in Chicago, and that 
paper was later absorbed by another community newspaper, the South 
Town Economist. And I worked as a reporter on both those news- 
papers. 

Mr. Morris. And what other newspapers have you worked for in 
Chicago? Was it the Chicago Herald-Examiner? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes, I did, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And any others? 

Mr. Behrstock. I don't recall at the moment, sir. I may have 
worked very briefly, but that is my main 

Mr. Morris. And that was all prior to 1936 or 1937? 

Mr. Behrstock. 1936-37, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Afl right. 

You also worked for the Moscow Daily News, did you not? 

Mr. Behrstock. Senator, I believe that that question goes into 
the question of my beliefs and associations, and I would respectfully 
decline to answer that question under the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chau-man, before your ruling on that, I would 
like to point out that I am not asking any question relating to this 
man's views. I would simply like to know whether he was actually 
employed by the Moscow Daily News in Moscow. 

Mr. Behrstock. I would like to decline to answer that. 

I am sony. Senator. 

Senator Jenner. I think the witness should answer the question. 
We are not asking about your political views. It is what you did — 
work. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 747 

Mr. Behrstock. I would like to decline under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Senator Jenner. Let the record show that your refusal to answer 
under the first amendment is not recognized by this committee, but 
your refusal to answer under the fifth amendment will be accepted. 

Do you really, honestly think that a true answer to that question 
might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Behrstock. Sir, using the fifth amendment — I am not a 
lawyer, but I read a key decision which we all read yesterday, that 
it also serves to protect the innocent and, as I remember the phrase, 
"from being ensnared by ambiguous circumstances." I think that 
was the words that Judge Tom Clark used. 

I prefer that phrasing of the Supreme Com-t, because it has less 
ominous connotations. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness' last answer, 
I would like to offerTfor the record a copy of Soviet Russia Today. 

Senator Jenner. Which issue? 

Mr. Morris. The issue is May 1936. It has an article entitled, 
"I Visit the Red Army," by Arthur Behrstock. On the second page 
of this publication, or page 4, rather under the caption, "Contribu- 
tors," there is a statement here: 

Arthur Behrstock is a young Chicago newspaperman who was a member of 
the staff of the Moscow Daily News last year. He has just returned from the 
Soviet Union. 

^ Senator Jenner. What is the date of that magazine? 
F Mr. Morris. Thatls May 1936, Senator. 

Senator Jenner. All right. It may go into the record and become 
a part of the official records of this committee. 

(The magazine referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 223" and 

reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 223 

[Soviet Russia Today, May 1936, pp. 21, 22] 

I Visit the Red Army 

By Arthur Behrstock 

It was a warm, pleasant sort of day, and when the truck shoved off from the 
curb in front of the Moscow Daily News office we all felt pretty good. There 
were about 20 of us, all seated on precarious chairs on the back of the truck. 
Packed close together and with the sun shining warm on our heads and bare 
arms, we began to sing and joke and laugh. We were going to pay a call on the 
Red army; live with them for a day in their camp Just outside of Moscow; eat 
with them, play with them, and talk with them; get to know how they lived and 
what they thought about; see what the Red army was doing with the men it had 
gathered under its wings for these few summer months. We weren't tourists 
paying a respectful, stiff, and supercilious visit to men who had been called to the 
colors. We were Soviet workers, and this was, in a sense, our camp, for we of the 
Moscow Daily News had volunteered to give a helping hand in the direction of its 
cultural life — an example of the "patronage" system, by means of which Soviet 
organizations give each other friendly help. It must be emphasized, however, 
that our help was no unilateral affair. The Red army men were also our patrons, 
supervising our course in marksmanship and, in general, our education in things 
military. 

We were out there to see how our charges were getting along; they wanted to 
know how things were with us, about America, about New York's strange, tall 
buildings that reached up into the stars, about Washington and the New Deal. 
So, after taking a preliminary stroll though the cool towering forest in which the 
camp lay, we got down to business. They showed us the latest model machine 
gun, took it apart, named every detail and explained the principle by which it 



748 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

worked with a fullness that comes only with a genuine enthusiasm for the subject 
explained and with that eagerness to receive and impart knowledge which is 
peculiar to the Soviet Union. 

But their love for this superefficient dealer of death did not have the ring of 
hatred of the professional soldier in it. It was the admiration of a person almost 
physically in love with modern technique, with this machine which, regardless 
of the object for which it was produced, did its job efficiently and well. For it is 
patent to anyone who has encountered even one Red army man that the Red 
army is an army of peace, of defense, and, what is most important to one inter- 
ested in the human rather than the political, that love of peace is now as germane 
to the individual Red Army man, as native to his way of thinking, as love of the 
soil to a farmer. The Red army man is taught peace and internationalism in the 
schools, in the Red army itself. He looks upon aggression and offensive war in 
much the same way that the average Soviet citizen looks upon unemployment: 
it is not so much cruel as simply beyond his idea of civilized human conduct. 

Talk to these men as I have. Yes, they will fight to the last ditch against a 
war of aggression, but wage one, never. For they are studying in their political 
classes — in that very Red army camp, too — the causes of wars. So, if and when 
they must go over the top, they will know why the bayonets are in their hands 
and the exact reason for the direction in which they are pointed. 

That is why, to speak plainly, Herr Hitler is not so much ambitious as simply 
cockeyed when he thinks that he could actually hold Soviet territory — territory 
whose people no longer think along capitalist lines, but in the straight Socialist 
way — even if he did manage somehow to stage a successful war with the aid of a 
capitalist coalition. 

The real extent of his delusion became apparent only later in the afternoon 
when we and the Red army men, their stocky brown bodies stripped bare to the 
waist, played volleyball together. When the men offered us the court — with that 
profusion of honest hospitality so characteristic of the Russian people — when they 
conversed with us, following the game, on politics, art, and literature, we felt that 
we had seen the flesh and blood appearance of a type which has for so many years 
been living only in the shadowy form of a Hollywood hero: the combination of 
soldier, gentleman, and scholar. 

When 3'ou feel in j^our bones, as I did, the warmth and hosijitality with which 
the men gave up game time that must have been precious to them, the charity 
with which they condoned our well-intentioned boners on the court, their honest 
regret at our departure for other parts of the camp; when you talk with them 
and learn that their only desire is to live a busy, constructive, and peaceful life — 
then you know the type of men of whom this Red army is composed. You know 
that this is not an army of hardened and boisterous mercenaries, of military 
robots, or of men fed on the glorification of war, but of men who summarize in 
themselves all those human qualities which we most value and which we think 
of as characterizing builders, philosophers, and poets rather than soldiers. 

We had our noon meal with the Red army men. Sitting on long, rough boards 
that lined a long, boarding-house table, we made noisy excursions into the bowls 
of thick, Russian borsch, the hamburgers, the macaroni. Tea and a cranberry 
dessert, on the tastiness of which Russians and Americans violently disagree, 
topped oflf the meal. It was a filling meal, obviously not designed for sedentary 
people like us; there was plenty of it, however, and it was, on the whole, tasty. 

After we had taken a turn at the shooting range, our escorts showed us into 
one of the Red Corners, a tent-like structure strewn with newspapers and maga- 
zines and decorated by the best available home talent. The simplicity of the 
building, as contrasted with its rich significance, made many of us feel, I think, 
that we were at last standing before the Aladdin's lamp that held within it the 
secret of the Red army; for, if there is one key to the mystery, romance and 
legend that has sprung up about the Red Army, it is this: education. 

I recently read a statement made by a Turkmenian Red army man which illus- 
trates this with almost fairytale simplicity. After explaining why he will fight 
for the Soviet Union, he tells something of himself: 

"AH their lives my great-grandfather, my grandfather, and my father herded 
the landlord's sheep in the Kyzyl-Kum Desert for a handful of rice and a crust 
of bread. I, too, was a shepherd, a helper of the landlord's dog which watched 
the herd. None of us ever knew what it meant to read and write. Life was like 
a black night * * * 

"Now I am studying in the Lenin Military School, and will soon become a 
lieutenant * * *" 

He was studying, and so were all these Red army men in this camp just outside 
of Moscow — studying, not only learning how to stick a bayonet into a straw 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 749 

dummy. Collective farmers who, if the Czar had remained, would still be mere 
lumps of clay tilling small plots of unfertile soil, whose intellectual life would have 
been limited to the discussion of fodder for a thin and bedraggled horse — these 
men penetrate into the mysteries of economics and history, into philosophical 
concepts, while they take their turn at the shooting range. They study foreign 
languages, read foreign literature — these big, clumsy peasants with the close- 
shaven heads and the broad laughing faces. They enter the Red army from the 
village, unschooled in the ways of modern, efficient agriculture — they return, their 
heads bursting with formulas for fertilizer, with schemes for crop rotation, and 
with the painfully memorized parts of the caterpillar tractor. 

Their keen interest in politics, their sharp and realistic grasp of the outside 
world, their intense Reeling for art and literature were, however, revealed only 
at the end of the day, when we gathered in a circle for an informal open forum 
that took place in a clearing in the forest. Our information wasn't really broad 
and deep enough to meet the depth and breadth of their questions about the 
outside world. The questions came slowly at first, after embarrassed intervals 
of silence and in the hushed voice of men who are afraid that their requests might 
be foolish, obvious, or irrelevant. But the enthusiasm of our answers — for we 
were now paying in kind for the information given us — soon bolstered their cour- 
age. Then the questions flew at us from all sides. What about Roosevelt? 
Did he really think — did people really believe — that he was buUding socialism? 
Was Romain RoUand popular in the outside world? Had the workers in America 
begun to develop their own movement in art and hterature? Was it true, all 
that they had read about the Negro? They wanted to know in particular about 
Admiral Stirling, whose call for a holy crusade of capitalist powers against the 
U. S. S. R. had just been published in the Soviet press. 

The shadows of late afternoon began to fall over the clearing in which we were 
assembled. But the stream of questions flowed on and on. These men were 
thirsty for knowledge, for everything that we could give them. But it was time 
to go. We had one last request. We who had heard the thundering voices of the 
Red army men marching occasionally through the streets of Moscow demanded 
that the last advantage of the afternoon be ours: they must sing for us. Their 
singing was not the accidental combination of good natural voices, but showed 
the strength and depth that comes from careful choral training. The Red 
army, it seems, is a school of music. 

As we raced along the highway on our way back to the city, we all felt pretty 
good, but it wasn't particularly because the Red army men had been "very nice," 
or the camp "very beautiful" or our escorts "very obliging." It was something 
much more stimulating than a simple good time — the sharp clear pleasure of 
meeting something read and dreamt about but never encountered. We had met, 
to put it in if s broadest terms, soldiers being educated to peace and for a useful 
life, and an army organized only for defense. And these one does not encounter 
every day. 

Mr. Morris. I ask Mr, Mandel if he will not read several passages 
from that particular magazine. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed, Mr. Mandel. 

Mr. Mandel. This is an article from Soviet Russia Today, May 
1936, beginning on page 21, entitled "I Visit the Red Army," by 
Arthur Behi'stock. I read excerpts from that: 

We were going to pay a call on the Red army; live with them for a day in their 
camp just outside of Moscow; eat with them, play with them, and talk with them; 
get to know how they lived and what they thought about; see what the Red 
army was doing with the men it had gathered under its wings for these few summer 
months. We weren't tourists paying a respectful, stiff, and supercilious visit to 
men who had been called to the colors. We were Soviet workers, and this was, 
in a sense, our camp, for we of the Moscow Daily News, had volunteered to give 
a helping hand in the direction of its cultural life. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Behrstock, did you write that? 

Mr. Behrstock. I would like to respectfully decline to answer that 
under the grounds specifically stated, while also calling to the com- 
mittee's attention that that was written about 20 years ago when I 
was about 20 or 21 years old. 



750 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. Were you a member of the Communist Pfirty at 
that time? 

Mr. Behrstock. I respectfully decHne under the grounc^^ previ- 
ously stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Behrstock, perhaps it may refresh youi^ecollec- 
tion if you saw the article, which is now being offered to yoM 

Mr. Behrstock. I would like to give the same answer, again 
reiterating that I was 20 or 21 years old. f. 

Senator Jenner. The same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. May that go in the record? '*' 

Senator Jenner. Yes, it may go in the record and be made a part 
of the record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Behrstock, what was some of your later employ- 
ment after you returned from Moscow? 

Mr. Behrstock. Among the places I worked were a number of 
jobs. I worked for the Hearst paper in Chicago, as I previously 
stated. I was a publicity man for the Walgreen Co., 

Mr. Morris. The Walgreen Co.? 

Mr. Behrstock. The Walgreen Drug Co. And I have done free- 
lance work for a nmnber of leading corporations of the country in the 
way of sales training material and publicity material, such companies 
as Calvert, White Rock, International Silver Co., Tliom McAn shoe 
chain, and I guess what you would call blue-chip companies. I mean, 
I did these free-lance jobs for them. 

Mr. Morris. You were in the armed services; were you not? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes, sir; I was. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what your service was in the Armed 
Forces? 

Mr. Behrstock. First I would like to point out that before I was 
drafted for the Army, I attempted to enlist in the Marines. I think 
the recruiting office will show that record, that I was turned down 
because of my eyesight. I wanted to be a combat correspondent, and 
my eyesight tm*ned me down. 

However, I was finally drafted, and I entered the Army as a private 
in the Medical Corps, in Camp Grant, 111., and then I was transferred 
to a camp in Washington. I forget the name now. And I worked 
as a typist, a very mechanical job, and I was then recommended for 
officer candidate school. 

I don't want to gUd my own lily. Senator, or Mr. Morris, but I 
still say that it was strongly suggested that in view of the fact that 
that I was a newspaperman, I sliould apply for admmistrative school, 
and I voluntarily chose the Infantry. I am not trying to make any 
heroics for myself. I am just trying to tell you that for whatever it 
may be worth. 

I graduated from the Infantry Officers' School and was sent to an 
Infantry replacement depot, and then I was assigned to the 66th 
Infantry Division as a rifle platoon leader, and I served there, and 
again, I might say — this a record that my rating as an officer was 
always "superior." 

Senator Jenner. That is as high as you can get; is it not? 

Mr. Behrstock. I think so, sir. 

I was then sent overseas to New Guinea to a replacement depot, 
where I was supposed to have gone into the invasion of Leyte as a 
rifle platoon leader replacing an Infantry officer. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 751 

At that time, as I understand it, the Psychological Warfare Branch 
was then just being formed, and I was in a replacement depot near 
Buna, and they put a hold order, or stop order, on anybody who had 
had any writing experience whatever, and I may also say, since I 
have a very deep feeling about my period in the Infantry, that I 
was very torn about accepting an assignment, and almost tried to 
persuade the personnel officer not to accept it. 

At any rate, I then went to the Psychological Warfare Branch, and 
there I worked as a writer of leaflets, suiTender leaflets, and things 
of that kind, the usual propaganda stuff. 

I might also say, Senator, there that my work was supervised, very 
closely supervised, by two officers, Col. J. Woodall Green and Gen. 
Bonner Fellers, who commended me very highly and actually recom- 
mended me for various awards. 

Mr. Morris. Now, after your military career, you served in a 
civilian capacity, did you not, with the Defense Department? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes. I guess you would 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what your title was? 

Mr. Behrstock. What is that? 

Senator Jenner. Tell us your title. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us your title. 

Mr. Behrstock. I was head of the Planning Section of the Civil 
Information and Education Section in Tokyo. 

Senator Jenner. I see. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was the nature of that job? What were 
your duties in connection with that particular assignment? 

Mr. Behrstock. I am trying to recall as best I can, Mr. Morris. 
Things were pretty hectic and not completely organized in the occupa- 
tion. In the main, my job was to scan the Japanese press and to 
inform my superiors. Colonel Green and General Fellers, what the 
Japanese press was sajang. I myself don't read Japanese, but it was 
done by translators, and I simply edited it. 

Then we were kind of an omnibus section for any complaints that 
the millions of people had. They were all kind of routed into my 
particular section. If they weren't getting enough food, or somebody 
beat them up or something, we would make a report on it and then 
route it to the appropriate section for action. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Behrstock, were you a Communist at that time 
when you held that position? 

Mr. Behrstock. Senator and Mr. Morris, I would like to answer 
that question but I must respectfully decline to answer under the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. You became a member of the board of directors of 
the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy in 1947; did you 
not? 

Mr. Behrstock. The same answer, with the same grounds, Mr. 
Morris. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, is there a citation by the Attorney 
General of that particular organization? 

Mr. Mandel. The Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern 
Policy is cited on the Attorney General's list of subversive organiza- 
tions recently issued, a consolidated list recently issued. 



752 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Have you been employed by the Daily Worker, Mr. 
Behrstock? 

Mr. Behrstock. Excuse me just a moment. I will get a glass of 
water. 

Mr. Morris. Surely. 

Mr. Behrstock. I respectfully decline to answer imder the same 
grounds that I had previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what other emplojmient you had 
after you left the Planning and Operations Division of the Army? 

Mr! Behrstock. Well, "for that following period, as I said, I was 
free lance, doing free-lance publicity and free-lance writmg, and I did 
work for the companies that I had previously stated. 

Senator Jenner. Whom do you work for now, Mr. Behrstock? 

Mr. BouDiN. Could we — I think this matter came up in executive 
session, Mr. Morris. I know Senator Jenner was not there until the 
end. 

Senator Jenner. I was not at the executive session, at the begin- 



nmg. 



I withdraw the question. 

Mr. Behrstock. Thank you very much, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Behrstock, are you now a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Behrstock. I decline to answer that under the same grounds, 
sir. 

Senator Jenner. The same record, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. Morris. Is your first wife now in Moscow, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Behrstock. Senator, I have no knowledge. I haven't heard 
from or about my wife for, at the very least, 15 years. 

Mr. Morris. But when you last saw her, she was in Moscow; is 
that not right? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes. But that I want to say was 15 or 18 
years ago. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, you have remarried; have you not? 

Mr. Behrstock. I have, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And who is your present wife? Her first name is 
Miriam ; is it not? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes; her name is Miriam. 

Mr. Morris. And what was her maiden name? 

Mr. Behrstock. Miller. 

I should say. Senator, I would be very glad to give you her maiden 
name and her first name, but I do feel that the relationship between 
a husband and wife is the relationship between a husband and 

Senator Jenner. I am not asking you anything in regard to the 
relationship. I am just asking you what her name is. 

Mr. Morris. And I had a reason, Mr. Behrstock. Bear with us, 
please. It is a fact that we require for our record. 

Now, do you know a man named Bernard Rubin? 

Mr. Behrstock. I decline under the same grounds. 

Senator Jenner. The same record. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Sylvia Powell, the wife of John Powell? 

Mr. Behrstock. No, sir, I do not. 



• SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 753 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a Japanese Communist called Susumo 
Okano ? 

Mr. Behrstock. That name isn't famUiar to me, Mr. Morris, at 
the moment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions of this 
witness at this time. However, there are more questions we will have 
to ask in executive session at some other time — — 

Mr. BouDiN. All right, sir. 

Mr. Morris. In view of the nature of the trend that the hearing 
took today. And I think if you will stay under subpena 

Air. BouDiN. Surely. 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes. 

Mr. BouDiN. Thank you. 

Senator Jenner. Just a moment. 

Senator Watkins, do you have any questions? 

Senator Watkins. No. 

Senator Jenner. At this time, then, you will be excused. You 
will remain under subpena, and our counsel will be in touch with your 
counsel when we need jou again. 

Mr. Behrstock. Thank you very much. 

Mr. BouDiN. That will be agreeable. 

Senator Jenner. If there are no further witnesses, the committee 
will stand in recess. 

Mr. Morris. Tomorrow, Senator, we have two witnesses scheduled. 
One is Hunter Pitts O'Dell. 

Our evidence indicates to us that he has been the district organizer 
of the Communist Party in New Orleans. 

And in a separate hearing which we have scheduled, we will have a 
repeat appearance of Mr. Yuri Rastvorov, and the continuation of 
his testimony. Senator, at 10:30 tomorrow morning. 

Senator Jenner. Until 10:30 tomorrow, we will stand in recess. 

(^Vhereupon, at 11:20 a. m., the subcommittee recessed, to recon- 
vene at 10:30 a. m., Thursday, April 12, 1956.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, APRIL 12, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pm-siiant to recess, at 10:30 a. m., in the 
caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland 
(chairman) presiding. 
Present: Senators Eastland and Welker. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; and William A. Rusher, administrative counsel. 
Chairman Eastland. The committee wiU come to order. 
Mr. Morris. Hunter Pitts O'Dell. 
Remain standing, please. 

Chahman Eastland. Hold your hand up, please. 
Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give to the 
Internal Secin^ity Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
of the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help vou God? 
Mr. O'Dell. I do. 
Chairman Eastland. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF HUNTER PITTS O'DELL; ACCOMPANIED BY 
MILTON FRIEDMAN, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Give jour name and address to the reporter, please. 

Mr. O'Dell. My name is Hunter O'Dell. 

Mr. Morris. Are you sometimes known as Hunter Pitts O'Dell? 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes; that is right. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, you photographers are in between the 
witness and the committee. Take your pictures now. 

That will be all, gentlemen. You will have to stand to the side. 
You cannot get between the witness and the committee. 

Now proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your address to the reporter? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to give my address. 

Mr. Morris. You decline to give you address on what grounds? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline on the grounds that the previous residence 
that I have lived at, and haven't lived at for quite some time — I see 
that the residence is pictured here in the paper in New Orleans as if it 
is an invitation for some one to destroy the house or something. Here 
is on the front page of the paper an arrow pointing to the side that I 

755 



756 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

live in, and I know for a fact that this is part of the committee — the 
committee is in collusion with this. The press has been saying 
that 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute, please. 

As you know, about 3 weeks ago the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee, upon receiving evidence that yoa were the district organizer 
and the person who was giving directions to the professional group of 
the Communist Party in New Orleans — the subcommittee endeavored 
to subpena you, and we had information, persistent information, which 
came from the United States Marshal's office that you had been 
continuously evading service of the process. 

In fact, when Mr. Arens, William Arens, who was trying to serve 
process on you, appeared in the business place where you were working, 
he had subsequently been informed that you were present while he 
was trying to serve the subpena. 

Now, consequently, after the subcommittee turned over the problem 
of trying to locate you to the United States Marshal, the New Orleans 
police, working in conjunction with the United States marshal, went 
to a residence which apparently was a former residence which you 
seemed to have abandoned, and there, there were quite a few pam- 
phlets, Communist Party directives, and considerable Communist 
Party literature. Your own personal handbooks were found by the 
New Orleans police and turned over to the subcommittee. 

Now, if you are prepared to answer questions about it, I am prepared 
to ask the questions of you now. 

Mr. O'Dell. I would lil^e to have counsel — I would like to confer 
with counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Will you consult with counsel? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you try to evade process? 

Mr. O'Dell. I most certainly did not. 

Mr. Morris. You did not. Were you in the 

Mr. O'Dell. And I would like, since this has all been brought 
out — I would like to make a statement here that is important, if you 
don't mind. 

Mr. Morris. Now, just a minute 

Mr. O'Dell. A prepared statement of one page 

Mr. Morris. I wish you would just answer a few questions here, 
and if you wish to make a statement, the chairman will rule on that. 

When did you first learn that the subcommittee was trying to serve 
a subpena on you? 

Mr, O'Dell. I would like to make a statement first that would 
clear that up. 

Chairman Eastland. No, Answer his questions, and if you desire 
to make a statement, then we will consider it. 

I order you to answer the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. I can't say exactly when I first learned it. I think it 
was about Friday night. 

Mr. Morris. What Friday night? 

Mr. O'Dell. This past weekend. 

Mr. Morris. You certainly knew that before. It was in all the 
newspapers at least a week prior to that, was it not? 

Mr. O'Dell. People save newspapers for me, and I see here the 
picture of the former residence that I had, that I lived in and haven't 
lived in for quite some time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 757 

Air. Morris. When did you leave that- 



Mr. O'Dell. This was old when I got this. 

Mr. Morris. When did you leave that residence? 

Mr. O'Dell. Oh, I have been away from that residence for weeks. 

Mr. Morris. And you left all these Communist Party directives 
and all these written handbooks on the premises when you left that? 

Mr. O'Dell. Well, I decline to answer that question. No; I decline 
to answer that question about the literature. 

But I have a statement to make. 

Chairman Eastland. On what grounds do you decline to answer 
the question? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline on the grounds that the question tends to 
incriminate me or seeks to incriminate me, and under the provisions 
of the hfth amendment, I am not supposed to testify. 

Mr. Morris. Could you tell us where you have been in the last 
2 weeks? 

Mr. O'Dell. Wliere I have been 

Mr. Morris. In the last 2 weeks, while we have been trying to 
serve a subpena on you. 

Mr. O'Dell. Why are you interested in where I have been? 

Mr. Morris. We are trying to determine whether or not you have 
been evading process service. 

Mr. O'Dell. But I have stated that I did not evade service. 

Mr. Morris. We are trying to determine — you have given a con- 
clusion. Now, we do not want to just abide by j^our conclusion. We 
would like to know what you have been doing and we would like to 
make a determination of whether or not you have in fact been evading 
process. 

Mr. O'Dell. It seems to me that that is an invasion of my rights as 
just a person. If you want to know every move I have made for the 
last 2 weeks, I don't see what that has got to do with the internal 
security of the country. I said I was not evading a subpena, and I 
was not, and I have a statement here to that effect, and I would like 
to read it. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this. When did you first work in the Holsum 
Cafeteria? 

Mr. O'Dell. I can't say definitely; so I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give us your best estimate of when you last 
worked there? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. On what grounds? 

Mr. O'Dell. On the grounds that the question tends or is directed 
toward incriminating me. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you in that restaurant when Mr. William 
Arens, of this committee, appeared there in order to serve a subpena 
on you? 

Mr. O'Dell. In what restaurant? 

Mr. Morris. The Holsum Restaurant, or Holsum Cafeteria. 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question on the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, our information is that at the very 
time when Mr. Arens was in the Holsum Cafeteria trying to effect 
service on this witness 



758 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. O'Dell. I will have to consult with my attorney 

Mr. Morris. That he was there. 

Chairman Eastland. Go ahead, Mr. Counsel. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you present when a representative of this 
committee was trying to effect service on you? 

Mr. O'Dell. I have alread}^ answered that question. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you refuse to answer the question? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer it under the provisions of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, under what name did you work at the Holsum 
Cafeteria? 

Mr. O'Dell. Before we proceed with the question, I would like to 
read this statement. 

Chairman Eastland. Now, wait just a minute. You are to answer 
the questions. This is an investigation. 

Mr. O'Dell. Well, I understand that it is an investigation, and 
that is precisely why I have prepared a statement for this investigation. 
Will I be allowed to read it? 

Chairman Eastland. Now, answer the questions, and I will just 
consider the statement when Judge Morris concludes his questions. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, om* information is — and we 
received this on the scene — that this witness. Hunter Pitts O'Dell, was 
workmg in the Holsum Cafeteria as Ben Jones, and because he was 
operating there under the name of Ben Jones, he was able to deceive 
the process server, and we were not able to effect service. 

Now, were you working at the Holsum Cafeteria under the name 
of Ben Jones? 

Mr. O'Dell. If I understand correctly, you have already placed 
that question to me, and I declined to answer it under the provisions 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you also move about under the name of 
John Vesey? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question under tiie fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. AIoRRis. Mr. Chairman, one of the reasons that we have had 
difl&culty serving this witness has been that we have now learned that 
he has been operating under three separate identities. We have 
found a social-security card that was presumably his, made out to 
John Vesey, and another one made out to Ben Jones, and as we know 
now, his name is Hunter Pitts O'Dell. 

Mr. O'Dell. I would like to know 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute, please. 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to oft'er you two social-secmity cards — 
each one bears a separate number— and ask you if in fact these are 
your social-securitj^ cards. 

(Two social-securit3' cards were handed to the witness.) 

Mr. O'Dell. First of all, I want to ask, where did tliis come from? 

Mr. Morris. Well, is it your social security 

Mr. O'Dell. I would like to know where it came from. 
Chairman Eastland. Answer his question. 

Mr, Morris. They were found on the premises that you abandoned, 
at which you have testified that you no longer live. They were found 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UTSTITED STATES 759 

there by the New Orleans police and they were turned over to the 
subcommittee. 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer this. I mean, you say they were 
found? I am not sure they were found. Maybe they were placed 
there, because it seems to me that you are trying to 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question. 

Mr. O'Dell (continuing) . To build up a case here. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question. 

Mr. O'Dell. And I am answering the question, Senator Eastland. 

Chairman Eastland. If they were placed there, say whether or 
not they were yours. 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that under the fifth amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. On the fifth amendment. I will order those 
cards turned over to the Department of Justice. 

Air. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I also have here withholding tax 
statements from Holsum Cafeteria, 718 Gravier Street, New Oreleans, 
which have been made out in the name of Ben Jones, 3370 Louisa 
Street. Now, we have been informed by the Holsum Cafeteria that 
this witness worked there under the name of Ben Jones. 

I show you these withholding tax statements and ask you if in fact 
they are your withholding tax statements. 

(Documents were handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Morris. What is your answer? 

Mr. O'Dell. What is the question? 

Mr. Morris. Are they your withholding tax statements? 

Mr. O'Dell. You say you got it from a cafeteria? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. O'Dell. Well, you got it from a cafeteria. 

Mr. Morris. I did not get those from the cafeteria. I received the 
information from the cafeteria that they were yours. 

Mr. O'Dell. Oh, I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. These were found in the room that you abandoned. 
Now, are they in fact yours? 

Mr. O'Dell. You say these were taken from the room — I didn't 
abandon the room. Let's get that straight. I moved because I wanted 
to move. It had nothing to do with any subpena. I have not aban- 
doned any room. 

Now, the second thing is, you say these things were taken from the 
room? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Benjamin Mandel, research di- 
rector of the subcommittee, has been sworn, as were the two officials 
of the New Orleans police. I think that if we ask Mr. Mandel — I 
would like Mr. Mandel to testify on that particular point. 

Chairman Eastland. I want him first to answer the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. Well, it is stated here that these slips were taken from 
a room where I used to five. 

First of all, I would like to know who authorized this committee or 
the police or anybody 

Chairman Eastland. Now, answer 

Mr. O'Dell (continuing). To take anything out of the room in 
which I recently lived. That is the question. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question. 

Mr. O'Dell. But what I want to know is, isn't there a foiuth 
amendment in this country? Doesn't it apply to this committee? 



760 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE TUSTITED STATES 

Chairman, Eastland. Answer his question. 

Mr. O'Dell. I thought the foiu'th amendment said something to 
the effect that illegal search and seizure was illegal under the Consti- 
tution. Now you are coming in with aU this, talking about, that is 
my social-security card found in my room. Why did you take it out 
of my room? Or why did you have the police take it out of the room? 
It seems to me that you shoidd answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Now, please, will you answer the questions? Now, 
what is yom- answer? 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Counsel 

Mr. O'Dell. I am going to consult with my counsel. 

Chairman Eastland. He can consult with the counsel only when 
he requests it. 

Mr. O'Dell. I wish to consult with my counsel. 

Chahman Eastland. All right. You may do that. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. O'Dell. Under the fourth amendment of the Constitution, 
which you seemingly have violated here if you claim that you took 
something out of my room which you were not authorized to take, and 
under the fifth amendment, which protects a person from self-incrimin- 
ation, I am refusing to answer this question. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in view of the reluctance and the 
inability of the witness, for the reasons he stated, to answer questions 
on this particular aspect of the inquiry this morning, I ask that I be 
able to go into the substance of the interrogation at the time. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. O'Dell. Mr. Chairman, before the counsel 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Mr. O'Dell (continuing). Goes into the substance 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Mr. O'Dell. I want to make a statement. 

Chairman Eastland. I know you do, but you are to answer 
questions. 

Mr. O'Dell. Before the counsel goes into the substance of the 
statement, as he says, I would like to read the statement that I have. 

Chairman Eastland. I have told you that at the proper time we 
would take that under consideration. 

Mr. O'Dell. Wliat do you consider a proper time? 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute, now. 

Mr. O'Dell. You should be taking it into consideration now. 

Chairman Eastland. Yes; I am the judge of that. 

Do you want to go ahead, Mr. Morris? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Mr. Mandel, will you identify these exhibits 
that we will now put into the record? 

Mr. Mandel. The social-secmity cards presented and the with- 
holding statements made out to the name of Ben Jones and John 
Vesey were turned over to me by Sgt. Hubert Badeaux, of the New 
Orleans police. He in turn received them from the patrolman on 
duty, from the premises at 2319 Louisiana Avenue, New Orleans. 
I was there also. 

We interviewed the landlady, and she told us that she was about to 
throw all this literature out, because it was abandoned. 

So it was taken over by the New Orleans police and turned over to 
us, to the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, for study and 
these cards, or these blanks, were part of those papers. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 761 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Chairman Eastland. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. You attended Xavier University; did you not? 

Mr. O'Dell. Mr. Chairman — just a minute. I have a comment to 
make on tliis recent testimony. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait a minute now. You can answer 
questions. 

Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Well, if you want to make some comment about what 
Mr. Mandel has testified to 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes. He claims that the police took this out of a 
room that I left, moved from, and it was turned over to the com- 
mittee. But it is not the committee's property. And so I think that 
it is fitting at this time that the committee turn it over to me, since 
you say 

Mr. Morris. Is it yours? 

Mr. O'Dell. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Is it yours? 

Mr. O'Dell. Whatever you say w^as left in the room that I aban- 
doned, I want to see if it is mine, because I did leave some books there. 
I left a library there. 

Mr. Morris. If you left them there, as your counsel knows, we will 
return these things to you if you can identify them as yours. 

Now, have you attended Xavier University? 

Mr. O'Dell. Let me consult with my counsel. 

(The witness consults with his attornev.) 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How many j^'ears have you attended Xavier Uni- 
versity^? 

Mr. O'Dell. About 2 years. 

Mr. Morris. What courses have you taken there? 

Mr. O'Dell. I took pharmacy, chemistry, biology. 

Mr. Morris. Are vou em-olled there now? 

Mr. O'Dell. No. ^ 

Mr. Morris. When were you last em-oUed at Xavier University? 

Mr. O'Dell. Oh, about 1944. 

Mr. Morris. You did not obtain a degree, however? 

Mr. O'Dell. No, I did not. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Now, have you been the Communist district organizer 
in New Orleans? 

Mr. O'Dell. State that question again. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been the Communist district organizer in 
New Orleans? 

Mr. O'Dell. I would like to read a statement here before we proceed 
\nth fm'ther questions. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. It is a simple question. 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes, it is a simple question, and this is a simple 
statement. I want to read it. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. I would like to ask why I can't read this statement, 
then. Maybe it will clear up, and maybe there will be a lot of ques- 
tions that won't have to be asked if I read this statement. 

Chairman Eastland. I have told you time and time again that you 
will answer Judge Morris' questions, and I will take the statement 
under advisement. 



762 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

"^Mr.'O'DELL. Under advisement? I am not asking yoirto take a 
statement imderfadvisement. 

Cliaii-man Eastland. Yes. I know you are not. 

Mr. O'Dell. I am asking you for the right to read a statement. 
If you can put out all this material in the papers that you are hunting 
for me and all this stuff, why can't I read a simple statement, if it is 
important enough? 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Read the question, Mr. Reporter. 

Mr. O'Dell. I am today appearing before the Eastland- —  — 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. 

Read him the question, Mr. Reporter. 

(Question read by the reporter.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Now may I read the statement, Mr. Chairman? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I point out the difficulty about 
this particular statement? It was not submitted to the committee in 
conformance with the 24-hour rule, in the first place. In the second 
place, I asked him a question about the first sentence in the thing, 
and he has refused to answer under his privilege under self- 
incrimination. So the witness is in an inconsistent position if he 
wants to read a statement into the record while under oath and refuses 
to answer any questions about the specific details thereof. 

For instance, you say here: 

Upon returning to New Orleans last weekend after visiting with friends in the 
country. 

Now, where were you last week, prior to the weekend? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't think that is any of the business of this 
committee. 

Mr. Morris. Well, it certainly is the business of this committee. 

Mr. O'Dell. On what ground? 

Mr. Morris. We are trying to determine whether or not you 
evaded the process of this subcommittee. 

Mr. O'Dell. I said I did not evade it. That is sufficient. 

Mr. Morris. We will have to have the facts so that we will be 
able to make a judicial determination of this fact. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, in view of the fact that he refuses to answer 
specific questions about the opening sentence in the statement, and 
together with the fact that he has not complied with the 24-hour rule, 
which is a well-known rule, I suggest that the witness not put that 
unsworn statement into the record. 

Chairman Eastland. We will take that under advisement. 

Mr. O'Dell. I wish to consult with my counsel. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Morris. What is the answer? 

Mr. O'Dell. What is the question? 

Mr. Morris. Read the question to the witness, please. 

Mr. Friedman. I do not think there is a pending question. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now the district Communist Party organizer 
in New Orleans? 

Mr. O'Dell. That question was asked previously and answered 
previously. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 763 

Mr. Morris. I ask you that question again. 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Have 3'^ou been the Communist Marine organizer on 
the Gulf coast? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, on September 24, 1954, did you attend the 
Southern Regional Convention of the Communist Party in New York 
City? 

Mr. O'Dell. State that question again. 

Mr. Morris. On September 24, 1954, did you attend the Southern 
Regional Convention of the Communist Party in New York City? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in the year 1950, did you attend the New York 
Communist Party leadership school, which was under the direction 
of a gentleman named Al Lannon? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Al Lannon? 

Mr. O'Dell. Why are you interested in who I know? Now, what 
is this? An inquisition? Do you want me to sit down and list every- 
body that I know? 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Al Lannon? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't think that that is pertinent to anything. 
What are you trjnng to do? Ask me, do I know personal friends or 
something? 

Mr. Morris. Air. Chairman 

Chau-man Eastland. I order and direct you to answer the question. 
It is very pertinent. 

Mr. O'Dell. I think I should read this statement here 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question, please. 

Mr. O'Dell (continuing). Before further questions 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question, please. 

Mr. O'Dell. I mean, I have no intention of stating who I know and 
who I don't know. I don't see that that is pertinent to this hearing at 
all. That is a violation of the 

Mr. Morris. What is your answer? 

Mr. O'Dell. I beg 3 our pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is 3^our answer? 

Mr. O'Dell. My answer is that I decline under the fifth amend- 
ment to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, in the year 1955 did you attend the Communist Party leader- 
ship school in Baton Rouge, incognito? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Let me take the "incognito" off. Did you attend the 
Communist Part,v leadership school? 

Mr. O'Dell. The question is the same. , I dechne to answer it. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, have you ever attended any leadership school incognito? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer it under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in 1952 did you order all Communist Party 
members subject to your discipline not to register in compliance with 
the State law requirements? 



764 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't know what you are talking about. 

Mr. Morris. Did you give orders to subordinates of yours in the 
Communist Party not to register and comply with State laws that 
compel registration? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question. And I want a 
word with my counsel. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you work in Fort Lauderdale 

Mr. O'Dell. I am still consulting with my counsel, if you don't 
mind. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Mr. O'Dell. I am still consulting with my counsel. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. O'Dell. With respect to one statement you made a little bit 
before these questions, you stated that my statement here is unsworn. 
But I am ready to swear to this statement. So that is not valid that 
it would not be read into the record. 

Mr. Morris. The only trouble with that is that 

Chairman Eastland. Ask him the question. Let us not argue 
with the witness. 

Mr. Morris. Will you answer the last question, please? 

The Chakman has directed that you answer the last question. 

Mr. O'Dell. What is the last question? 

Mr, Morris. Is there a question pending, Mr. Friedman? 

Mr. Friedman. I do not think so. 

Mr. Morris. No; I started the question. 

The question is, did you work in Fort Lauderdale in the summer of 
1953 at the Hideaway Bar & Grill? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Paul Kobeson? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't know what you mean by, "Do I know Paul 
Robeson." 

Mr. Morris. Did you have your picture taken with Paul Robeson 
in Florida? 

Mr. O'Dell. I declme to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you been active in the Longshoremen 
and Warehousemen Union? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't see where this is pertinent to the question. 
In the first place, my associations, union and otherwise, is my right, 
and recognizing 

Mr. Morris. Also recognizing the duty of this subcommittee to 
determine what they are. 

Mr. O'Dell. Just a minute 

Mr. Morris. Now, please answer the question, will you? 

Mr. O'Dell. I am answering the question. And since the chair- 
man of this committee is part of the movement known as the Citizens 
Council, which has declared war literally against the labor movement, 
I don't feel as thoug-h — — 



•^£5^ 



Chairman Eastland. Answer the question. 

Mr. O'Dell (continuing). This line of questioning has but one 
objective, and that is to try to link everything up, you know, and 
regard this labor movement as being subversive. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question, please. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY IN THE UNITED STATES 765 

Mr. O'Dell. So I decline to answer the question, 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, in the summer of 1954 

Chairman Eastland. He declined on what grounds? 

Mr. Morris. On what grounds? 

Mr. O'Dell. On the ground of the fifth amendment, and also on 
the ground that the chairman of this subcommittee is an antilabor 
representative, who, as I said before, is part of a movement that has 
declared the whole labor movement subversive, and obviously the 
line of questioning here is to tie everything together. 

Mr. Morris. That is a completely irresponsible statement, and I 
wish you would try to answer the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. Ko; it is not an irresponsible statement. Last 
summer in Memphis, Tenii. 

Mr. Morris. Now, wait a minute. Will you stop talking? 

Air. O'Dell. What do you mean, stop talking? I have as much 
right to talk here as you. What are you? Some kind of dictator 
or something? I am maldng a statement here, and I intend to 
finish it. 

Mr. Morris. The question I am putting to you 

Mr. O'Dell. I heard the question 3^ou put to me, and I am answer- 
ing the question. 

Mr. Morris. You are not answering the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. I am answering the question. You want to know 
on what grounds I dechned to answer the previous question, and I 
said, in addition the the fifth amendment, on the ground that the 
chairman of this committee is an antilabor representative who has 
declared war literally on the labor movement and is tr3dng to term 
the thing subversive. 

Chairman Eastlakd. Wait just a second. You have said that 
thing several times, and the record shows it. 

Now proceed, Judge Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Did you in the summer of 1954 work in the Spillway- 
Harding Airfield in Baton Rouge? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer the question. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask this mtness 
questions about Communist Party directives which were found in the 
room in which he said he had formerly lived. 

Mr. Alandel, wiU you produce exhibit 10 of our record, which is 
described as a directive to all districts, dated November 4, 1954, 
signed, "Comradely j^ours. National Organizing Commission of the 
Communist Party"? 

I show you this directive so described and ask you if you have ever 
seen that before. 

Mr. O'Dell. Where did that come from? 

Mr. Morris. Have j^ou ever seen it before? 

Mr. O'Dell. TVliere did that come from? 

I don't know whether I have seen something like that before or not. 

Mr. Morris. Air. Chairman 

Chairman Eastland. You are ordered —  —  

Mr. Morris. Air. Alandel has identified this as among the papers 
which were turned over to the subcommittee b}' the New Orleans 
Police Department, and it has been marked in our record as "Exhibit 
10." 



766 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. O'Dell. Arc 3^011 under oath now? 
Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, who testified- 



Mr. O'Dell. I thought you said ''O'DelL" 

Mr. Morris. Answer the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. So the question is what? 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever seen tliat before? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't know whether I have seen it or not. So I will 
h.ave to decline to answer under the fifth amendment. I don't know 
whether I have seen this before. 

Mr. Morris. Have you received directives from the National Or- 
ganizing Commission of the Communist Party 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris (continuing). In your capacity as the district or- 
ganizer in New Orleans. 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to anwer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Air. Morris. Is this one of the directives that you did receive from 
the National Organizing Commission of the Communist Party? 

Mr. O'Dell. On one hand you ask me, did I; on the other hand 
you are saying that I did. 

Air. AIoRRis. There is a question put to you. Please answer the 
question. 

Air. O'Dell. I decline to answer the question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. AloRRis. Now, Mr. Alandel, may I ask you to produce exhibit 
15 in our record, which has been identified. Air. Chairman, as Pro- 
posals of Southern Party Organization, 1955-56? And this is pro- 
posals for Communist Party organization, southern party organiza- 
tion, registration, party building, cadres, mass education, press, 
literature, finances, club plans, and the outline for industrial concen- 
tration clubs. 

It is a ver}^ full directive, Mr. Chairman. It speaks for itself. It 
was found on the premises we have been talking about, and I want to 
know whether this has been handled by the witness here today. 

(A document was shown to the witness.) 

Air. O'Dell. This committee still hasn't cleared up for me on 
what grounds it has violated the fourth amendment of the Constitu- 
tion and invaded people's homes and taken things out of their house, 
library, and so forth. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question, please. 

Mr. O'Dell. And if you say that this was found on it, I would 
like to know how you got mto possession of it. 

Chau-nian Eastland. You can answer the question now. 

Mr. Morris. I might add, Mr. Chamnan 

Air. O'Dell. What about my question bemg answered? 

Mr. AloRRis. Please. I might add, Mr. Chan-man, that Mr. 
Alandel and the police officers have fully testified, and the testimony 
is all in our record as to how these statements came into the record. 

Chairman Eastland. That is in our record. 

Air. AloRRis. I suggest to you that you look at the record and you 
will have the full story. 

Now, have you received proposals of Communist Party superiors 
on southern party organization, that has just been described by the 
subcommittee? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 767 

Mr. O'Dell. The same answer that I gave to the previous question. 
I decUne on the grounds of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. AIoRRis. All right. Mr. Mandel, I ask you to produce exhibit 
18, which is described as notes on 1956, dated December 1, 1955, 
which is a detailed plan of organization on the part of the Communist 
Part}^ to take care of the Southern organization for that organization. 

Would you show it to the witness, please? 

(A docum.ent was shown to the witness.) 

^Ir. O'Dell. I decline to answer that on the same grounds, in 
addition to the fact that any question with respect to how people, 
what right the committee has to go into people's homes and take 
their private library, has not been answered. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, I ask you if you will produce exhibit 
73, which is entitled, "Common Program Made Public by the Southern 
Regional Committee of the Communist Party of the United States." 

Now, have you ever seen that before? 

Mr. O'Dell. Have I ever seen a copy of the Worker? 

Mr. Morris. Of that particular copy of the Worker. 

Mr. O'Dell. What is this? An inquisition, on what people are 
allowed to read? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman 

Mr. O'Dell. You want to Imow if I saw a copy of a newspaper, 
huh? 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question, please. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, 375 copies of this particular Worker, 
which is an undated copy were found in a room which had been 
occupied by this witness. It is the Common Program Made Public 
by the Southern Regional Committee of the Communist Party, 
and we are presuming. Senator, that this man was in the work of 
promulgating this particular program. 

Now, if our presumption is wrong, I wish you would tell us. Have 
you been promulgating and disseminating the program that is pub- 
licized in that undated Worker that is now before you? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the conference that is described 
therein? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, I call your attention to exhibit 99, 
which is a publication of the International Bureau of the Communist 
and Workers Parties, containing directives of the 20th Congress of 
the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. It is dated January 20, 
1956. 

I present that to you and ask you if you have seen that before. 

(The ^Wtness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. O'Dell. Would you mind repeating the question again? 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever seen that before? 

Mr. O'Dell. Seen what? 

Mr. Morris. I described it and I presented it to you. It is, for 
your information, the directives of the 20th Congress of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. O'Dell. This article on the plan for the development of the 
national economy? Is that what you are speaking of? Because that 
was quoted in the Times-Pica}n.me, and the New York Times and a 
number of newspapers throughout the country. 



768 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Don't you find in there the directives of the 20th 
Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union? 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes. The directives of the 20th Congress of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union for the sixth 5-year plan for 
the development of the national economv of the U. S. S. R. from 1956 
to 1960. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you ever seen that before? 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes; I have seen this before, certainly. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, have 3'ou ever endeavored to trans- 
late those du'ectives into your own Communist Party organization 
in New Orleans? 

Mr. O'Dell. I mil consult with my counsel. 

(The \vitness consults with his attorney.) 

\Ir. O'Dell. With respect to your question regarding my connec- 
tions with the Communist Party, I have already stated that I refuse 
to answer that under the fifth amendment. 

But now, the whole idea of translating that is ridiculous. That is 
a statement that is printed in English. It is a newspaper. If I can 
read English, it doesn't require translating. 

Mr. Morris. I do not mean translate it. I mean, verbally translate 
it. 

Mr. O'Dell. All right. That is literally— 

Mr. Morris. All right. Have you tried to apph' them to your 
own organization? 

Mr. O'Dell. To what organization? 

Mr. Morris. To whatever organization you belong to. 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't know what you mean by "apply." That is 
a newspaper. You read an article on the draft directives — — 

Air. Morris. These are directives of the Communist Party of the 
Soviet Union. Did you read those directives? 

Mr. O'Dell. Why don't you read the whole thing, on the develop- 
ment of the national economy? 

What has that got to do? You can read that in the New York 
Times, the Times-Picayune, newspapers all over the country. What 
do you mean? 

Mr. Morris. Did you apply those directives to j^our work? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't have any work that would require applying 
any directives. I don't know what you are talking about. 

Mr. Morris. Is your answer, "No," that 3^ou did not apply 
those directives to your own work? 

Mr. O'Dell. I have no work that would apply any directives. I 
have no such work. 

Mr. Morris. In your work of organizing Communist cadres in the 
South? 

Mr. O'Dell. I have never said that. You are saying that. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been organizing Communist cadres in the 
South? 

Mr, O'Dell. You asked me that question before, and I have already 
answered it. Now, why are you continuing to ask it? 

Mr, Morris. Have you been applying those directives of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union to your work of organizing Com- 
munist cadres in the South? That is the question. 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 769 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you get exhibit 21, which is ad- 
dressed to all districts, entitled, "Dear Comrades," dated February 3, 
1955, signed, "Comradely yours, Martha Stone?" 

Will you show that to the witness, please? 

Mr. Chairman, it is ver}^ obvious that these are all directives of the 
Communist Party organization which were directed to this man in his 
capacity as district organizer of the Communist Party in New Orleans, 

(A document was shown to the witness.) 

^lr. Morris. What is your answer? 

Ml'. O'Dell. If this was taken from my librar}', the first thing is 
tl-at it is another example of the fact that you have violated the 
fourth amendment of tlie Constitution in going in and invading my 
library and stealing it, and the second thing is that as far as that 
applying to me, I am not answering under the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Alandel, will you identify for the record Martha 
Stone? 

Mr. Maxdel. Martha Stone was convicted under the Smith Act 
recently. She is a leader of the Communist Party of the United States. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Martlia Stone? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel 

Mr. O'Dell. And again, I want to say tliat who I know and wlio 
I don't know is not a matter of subversion whatsoever. 

Chairman Eastland. Well, it is 

Mr. O'Dell. In other vrords, my personal friends are my personal 
friends. I am not interested in who Eastland knows, although I 
know he knew Bilbo very well. He was his junior partner. 

Chairman Eastland. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you get exhibit 118, please? 

Mr. Mandel, will you describe tins exhibit 118? 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 118 is a handwritten page of a notebook. 

Mr. Morris. All right. I offer that to you, Mr. O'Dell, and ask 
you if that is a page from your notebook. 

(A document was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I w^ant to consult with my counsel. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

^Ir. O'Dell. Under the fourth amendment, protecting a person 
from unlawful search and seizure, and under the fifth amendment, 
which protects me from self-incrimination, I am refusing to answer 
that question that you placed. 

Mr. Morris. May I have a ruling, Mr. Chahman? 

Chahman Eastland. Yes. I order and direct him to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Morris. You uphold his claim of privilege under the fifth and 
denied under the fourth? 

Chahman Eastland. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Is this your handwriting here? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that under the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chahman^ I would like to read from this hand- 
A\a'iting: 

The object of security today is to conceal from the enemy the function of the 
party apparatus. Previously we concealed individual whereabouts as well as the 
function of the apparatus. 



770 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Now, have I correctly stated what appeared infyour^haiidwritmg 
or what appears to be your handwTiting, in a notebook taken from 
your premises? 

Mr. O'Dell. (No response.) 

Mr. Morris. The reason I say that is that one point is the function 
of "P" apparatus. Now, wo are presuming that "P apparatus" is 
"party apparatus." If it is not, wouhi j^ou correct us? 

Mr. O'Dell. I dechne to answer that under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien you refer to the enemy there, whom do you 
refer to? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't know what you mean, by who do I refer to. 

Mr. Morris. It is yom- handwTiting; is it not? 

Mr. O'Dell. I have dechned to answer the previous statement, the 
previous question that you raised, with respect to, is it my handwriting. 

Mr. Morris. I am asking you if you wrote that. And you refuse 
to answer; is that right? I am asking you, in connection with that, 
is the enemy that you refer to therein, or that the paper refers to there- 
in, considered to be the FBI? 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer that under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Exhibit 122, Mr. Mandel. 

Mr. Cb-airman, I have here some notebooks that purportedly belong 
to the witness here today. I would like to offer them to bim and ask 
him if they are in fact his, and if they are in his bandwTiting. 

(Some documents were shown to the witness.) 

Mr. O'Dell. I decline to answer the question you placed, under 
the fifth amendment. 

However, on the previous question, the one before that, would you 
repeat it? 

Mr. Morris. "V^l^at was it generall}'^ about? 

Mr. O'Dell. That is all right. Never mind. 

Mr. Morris. Now, one of these is entitled "Newspapers," and you 
have the expression "Irv-La. Weekly." 

Will you tell us who "Irv" was on the La. Weekly paper? 

Mr. O'Dell. So again you are asking me who I know, and so fortJi. 

Mr. Morris. Remember, our evidence is that you are the district 
organizer. We have here what appears to be contacts of 3^ours under 
code names, or some kind of cryptic names, and this subcommittee is 
trying to determine the relationship of these people with you, who are 
the district organizer of the party. 

Mr. O'Dell. Under the first, fourth and fifth amendments of the 
Constitution, I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Wlio is "Walt" on the Chi. Defender? 

Mr. O'Dell. The same thing. 

Mr. Morris. Who is "Elaine" on the "Pitts. Courier"? 

Mr. O'Dell. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Morris. Who is "Monica" on the "Cath. Action" of the "S" 
at 523 Natchez Street? 

Mr. O'Dell. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Morris, Who is "Arabella-Courier"? 

Mr. O'Dell. Aly answer is the same. 

Mr. Morris. And who is "JU-Advocate and Ethyl News"? 

Mr. O'Dell. My answer is the same. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I think all the exhibits that are of 
interest to the committee are in the record. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 771 

I think asking this "witness to supplement the information or the 
evidence we have, in view of his answers today, would consume valu- 
able time of the subcommittee. 

We have another witness, and I suggest that mth the introduction 
by Mr. Mandel of a few more documents into the record, as well as an 
introduction of his hand^\Titten signatui-e which he applied to a 
voucher of the subcommittee this morning 

Chairman Eastland. Mr. Counsel, he must request to confer with 

Mr. Friedman. There is no question now, Senator. That is the 
only reason I am consulting with him. 

Chahman Eastland. All right. 

Mr. Morris. I have one other question of you. Have 3'ou written 
any speeches for Louisiana candidates for public office? 

Mr. O'Dell. I understand that Senator Eastland is interested in 
that question. That is one of the things that he raised in the hearings 
back in New Orleans. 

Perhaps he is afraid, you know, that I might 

Mr. Morris. Answer the question, please. 

Chairman Eastland. Answer his question. 

Mr. O'Dell (continuing). White Citizens Council; the fact that he 
is an enemy of the Negro people, and an avowed one, raises 

Chairman Eastland. I never heard of such a thing that he asked. 
Now, if he has information 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I might say that the committee has 
received evidence and information to the effect that this man has been 
wi-iting speeches for certain people who have been running for public 
office in Louisiana. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, we are keeping the names of those people 
from the public record, but I do want to ask this man, by way of 
verifying our information, whether or not you have in fact been doing 
such a thing. 

Mr. O'Dell. What is the matter? Is Eastland afraid that the 
people might get to know him, and know what he is, if I wi'Ote some 
speeches? 

Mr. Morris. What is j^our answer? 

Chairman Eastland. Will you answer the question? 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't know that I think that that is pertinent. 
If I \vi'ite a speech, I don't know what that has got to do with the 
national secm-ity, for a speech that is written has got to be delivered 
somewhere, and if it is delivered, it has to be delivered publicly if a 
man is running for candidate for office. 

So what has that to do with internal seciu^it}^? It seems as if Mr. 
Eastland is trj^ng to cloak himself in some way. 

Is that the reason he asks that? 

Chairman Eastland. Answer the question, please. 

Air. O'Dell. I decline to answer that. You know that. 

Chairman Eastland. On what grounds? 

Mr. O'Dell. On the grounds, first of all, with respect to my associa- 
tions, protected by the first amendment, and on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Chairman Eastland. Fifth amendment. 

An3^ further questions? 



772 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Mandel has some exhibits 
I would hke to offer for the record at this time. 

Mr. Mandel, will you describe the exhibits? 

Mr. Mandel. First of all, I would like to put into the record the 
signature of Mr. Hunter Pitts O'Dell for purposes of comparison with 
other samples of his handwriting. 

Chairman Eastland. That will be admitted. 

(The document was marked "Exhibit No. 224" and will be found 
in the files of the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Mandel. Secondly, the biographical data from the War Ship- 
ping Administration and the Coast Guard. 

Mr. Morris. May that be admitted, Mr. Chairman? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, 

(The documents [referred to were marked "Exhibits 225, 225-A, 
225-B, and 225-C" and read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 225 

April 4, 1956. 

Received of the Certificating Unit, Marine Inspection Office, United States 
Coast Guard, 310 Customhouse Building, New Orleans, La., the seaman per- 
sonnel file on Hunter Pitts O'Dell, bearing file number 22696. 

JoHX E. Laxxe, 
Agent, Police Bureau of Investigation, 

New Orleans Police Department. 

(Telephone No.: GA 4161, Ex. 209 and 207.) 



Exhibit No. 225-A 

War Shipping Administration, 
Recruitment and Manning Organization, 

New Orleans, La., July 9, 194S. 
United States Coast Guard, 

Merchant Marine Inspection Office, 

Room 309, Customhouse Building, New Orleans, La. 

Gentlemen: Will you please issue seaman's papers to Hunter O'Dell, for the 
rating of messman, providing he passes the required examination. 

This applicant will be placed aboard ship as soon as the proper certificates are 
issued. 

Thank you for your cooperation. 
Yours very truly, 

C. W. Sanders, 
Gulf Coast Regional Representative, 
Recruitment and Manning Organization. 
By J. N. Pertess. 

Mr. Mandel. Now, an examination of the documents taken from 
Mr. O'Dell's apartment at 2319 Louisiana Avenue disclosed publica- 
tions from nine different foreign countries, including Communist China, 
London, Brussels, India, the Soviet Union, and there were a number 
of publications of the Foreign Languages Publishing House at Moscow. 

There were also publications of the World Federation of Trade 
Unions. That is just a summary of those that were found. 

Mr. Morris. They are already in the record, are they not, Mr. 
Mandel? 

Mr. Mandel. The references are already in the record; yes. 

Then there were publications of a number of Communist front 
organizations. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UKTITED STATES 773 



Exhibit No. 225-B 

■' ~ " UNr?TD STATES COAST GUARD 

' EKC'OEI) <5F FHVSK ;a1- E\<%Ali NATION OF AN APPLICANT FOR EATINCi A* ¥<nm 
«AhT>LEir ON MEHCEA^NiT VESSELS or THE UNITED 8TATES- . .. 

<I>fHee of Merchant M«rirB;- 5>i>i!''i <!>, 

Port «i' , ««W '»»^K?*'^®- '' "^ .„ , . 

.  mte ^alj 'le.* ISia. ' ; r.) :*' 

To ;;;•:- Meditsi Ofiieer -K Charge, L00!*5f "' "'^ 

i;. S. Public H«x!th Sersicc (or Ttc^^iatered Physician of tho SUits? of '°''.*-b..'«3, ,! 

Fle««« examine toSftssp f^litt* -©lJ5Wi 

nativity ifiUs&igm: ; m^- !§■ ; fseiirfst ,...%.:. .:. . f«et f, im-h^;; 

distingtiishiag mai-ks — Ifei® ©a^4«l't l*^-,^ - 

to slatermiae -wbether he is frei; from coairmuiscabk diiSease. •  

Wl3.«a th« acajrthwtion has been completed thu fjadinga are t» be rcciir<:it^d on this form .in;l ibx- i«i;ri 

 r8teya«(3 to th* applicant, if he is physii»il.v competeei. If the ssmmaa is phyc-sicaUy mcotnpc^i-nU "iaii 

tliis form t-9 iM)S Merchant Mariue issspectors, , 

Cobb 



(SjgJ^ature of applicant) ^". K.Ac<. - 



To the Usiited States Ccsast Guard, 
Merchaei Marine f niiped.«rs. 



F!«es _.„ 



Purt of Mi^.,0?fi,«:.M«®, i,A. . , I 

Tlii-s (xrisfies that ! hdv^? thl? <\ny !>x;i;r:ineii the physical eondji.fcn nf Hmitgr, lltta i2I3<fti!l 

 ic«;npetesit . ^ 
R*sf>ectfu]i,v. 

f  ■' /I«.>'y«-A. •, '1-'' I - .  

'■■■■■■'■■ < / <.r /?<.;, '.,. 



t^ 



774 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit No. 225-C 



4 






(NajKS .:-f Seaman ! ' i.; only) 



! ..Q',£fiLL Mxis „. .Jiuntar 



i^UM...; (WlAiter.,.,-:.., :!>-<..,„»>« r>;ite 4iiLy lC.f-J^ir%~., i':f-- 



 ' /*?^ 



(iiE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

UNITED STATES COA-TT «<)A«n < » 

___________ '*'■■■- 

SEAMAN'S CERTIRCATES 

(A!:^iitwtioi> to b« mosfe cirt !« dopli«a««) 

NiunSxT and au \;;'. ';iJ34 Sec tie . St... 
,.-,^1 City or toWK 4^trciv, 



To THK Ctt«MANr>A«t, XjNXTEB StATKS CoAKT OUAJID. 

♦'^J^: ( Contmuous Discharge Book G 

I hereby apply for a Seaman's Certiftcate of I<Smyfiftaticm ^ 

j Certificate of EsRcjency (ts. Lifewaitr.aii G 

I Certificste of S-ervtce as .JBbmeim), 3 

Ajfo ii.... Bow. ,.M „__„AftGUit.._.li©_. at: Oetrftit, l|ch|£&n 

(tis».t 'Mmtht (Y<-.«oc) (<»y; i«-.i- , ;i,; 

Height 5, ft ^7 in. VVoigrht .140 ih. Color of hair -illttfik...... Color ■.;> :,.> .'*;,-^,,i-> 

C-.mpl«xjoa _iial4iE«j!l Sex '.Mjfcie Color „£aIor«d 

N«ni8, ifiiMloRship, aadaddressof rifl'-stof khi .. .ifatisarj fi«or|{i&-0.*-B«i.ll , 

. _. .„Jiai3.„E«...feaat...^a A.-.-.ia.,. . uLas^, Fla. 

Proof of dtisenship sabmitted .Blgta,.CagtJ..ficaie.)>. £>e.ty>iit ..«8pt. . of ..ile&lth., i f si nm nrMir.:><' cli (•/,<;■!), 

Stat© of ikXchigm, Ul'/ision of Vital Statistics 
st^ate p!ac« and ('iat« n&turaUzMion pajjon; •>>,i>r<' i.sswed, together with !;'.!.> n;;m!>(:r , 

If not t«!t«r«!iz(*i3, and declaration, t;!' iotonfio!; hai< boeti filed, st.r,t«5.f)!&«;, asitf-, aiid Tiie i,i!«il«^r of ititoisiion 

papers,- -■- -■ 

if anaiien, sti>J.<!!>la!>»ai)<i<:i.'!.t.<Mif p<'iv!i;ent of hca^i t«x ... 

>>:j).m)!?i'ri ProtiKti'.-n Ct-ri^nniic ;-;«!i)bw, dak>, shk! piacf of iasae , 

.^!I;•>1)- M.iit i:ij'-v in j.o,:;m. ,^>.i.f: ,.f th" (';>!!■■ >-,vinfr c6'rtifK'at<>s (Hemiic; sil licenses, sr-Dwina' sjrftio, an-! ft.-rt!fK-rti<'s. 
;.i :, \i.^.S:nn;tu. U:r<;>u;,.::;a^ 1^-.. i?lvi;i)f<la!<', place, and nurnber of sftsxievif i;iii;i'"i 



PENALTY FOR VIOLATION 

' rtm to i!ri!»-A-fii;iv i;*o, OT uses M exhiHiift « ocrt-!U-afo to .viurh hi-: is mx ia-^- 
. s, 'jr stea!? such s certificate, or ^atita-futiy hrss (ri his !..-.K<»?-r<io!i ar.> h:a«& 
,. ,• cf the ab«Yf, shsU he liable t-3 » «(w ;>f f.ot >r.<,.ie thaa 3.rs<x«f -o- iir.i.r-.ft.tif.-.tsit 



^ft~-i*v?<i-i 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



775 






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H-s 




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£.-' 








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776 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, these are already in the record; are they 
not? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, should we go into these further? As 
Mr. Mandel points out, there were considerable Communist Party 
literature and directives from foreign countries. I will ask the 
question if you think it is necessary. 

Chairman Eastland. I do not think so. 

Mr. Morris. I have no further questions. 

Mr. O'Dell. Senator Eastland, I would like to read my statement 
now. I am sure you have had time to consider it. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute. Your statement is a 
personal attack on the chairman, for which I care nothing. 

Mr. O'Dell. No; my statement is a statement of fact under oath. 
It is not a personal attack. 

Chairman Eastland. I understand. 

Mr. O'Dell. I don't attack you personally, Senator Eastland. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a minute please. It is an attempt 
to drag this investigation afield. 

Now, I am not going to admit the statement. 

Mr. O'Dell. As far as I am concerned, this investigation may be 
an attack on me, by the very fact that you want to know who my 
associates are, and so forth. 

Chairman Eastland. I am certain you think so. 

Mr. O'Dell. Yes; I certainly do. 

Chairman Eastland. I am not going to have a controversy about 
it. 

Mr. O'Dell. No; I don't want a controversy. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait just a second. 

Mr. O'Dell. All I want is to read this statement. I don't want a 
controversy. I would like to read a statement. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait a minute, please. 

Mr. O'Dell. I am not asking for a controversy. 

Chairman Eastland. Wait a minute, please. 

We have one more witness. For security reasons, that witness can- 
not be heard in this room. We are going to take a 5-minute recess, 
and the witness will be called in room 424 in this building. 

You may stand aside. 

Mr, O'Dell. Before we recess, may I read my statement? 

Mr. Morris. You are excused. 

Chairman Eastland. I have answered that. 

Mr, Morris. You are excused from further testimony. 

That is an open hearing in room 424, and the witness is Mr. 
Rastvorov. 

(Whereupon, at 11:25 a. m., the subcommittee recessed, to recon- 
vene at 11:30 a. m., in room 424, Senate Office Building, the same day.) 



^ 



INDEX 



Note. — The. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 732 

Adler, Solomon 727, 728 

Appropriations Committee, House of Representatives 719 

"Arabella-Courier" - 770 

Arens, William 756, 757 

Attorney General 721, 751 

B 

Badeaux, Hubert (sergeant of New Orleans police) 760 

Behrstock, Arthur (testimon}' of) 745-753 

60 Hicks Street, Brooklyn, N. Y 745 

Born Chicago, 111., November 3, 1912 745 

Leonard B. Boudin and Philip Wittenberg, attorneys 745 

Graduated from Northwestern University . 746 

Newspaperman in Chicago 746 

With South Town Community Booster, Chicago, which was absorbed 

by South Town Economist 746 

Witli Chicago Herald-Examiner 746 

With Hearst paper in Chicago 750 

Publicity man for Walgreen Drug Co 750 

Freelance with Calvert, White Rock, International Silver Co., Thom 

McAn 750 

Private in Medical Corps, Camp Grant 750 

Graduated from Infantry Officers' School 750 

Assigned to 66th Infantry Division 750 

Sent overseas to New Guinea 750 

Writer with Psychological Warfare Branch 751 

Civilian with Defense Department as head of Planning Section of the 

Civilian Information and Education Section in Tokyo 751 

Fifth amendment, if with Moscow Daily News 746 

Fifth amendment, if member of Communist Party 750, 752 

Fifth amendment, if member of board of directors of Committee for a 

Democratic Far Eastern Policy in 1947 1951 

Fifth amendment, if employed by Daily Worker 752 

Fifth amendment, if first wife's name Miriam Miller 752 

Blanchard, Robert (testimonv of) 740-745 

50 West 77th Street, New York 740 

Born Quincy, Mass., in 1914 742 

Leonard B. Boudin and Philip Wittenberg, attorneys 740 

Fifth amendment if commercial artist with television station WDSU 

in New Orleans 740 

Fifth amendment if husband of Mrs. Winifred Blanchard 743 

Fifth amendment if worked for Walt Disney in 1940 742 

Fifth amendment if lived in Los Angeles County 742 

Fifth amendment if alias Bill Brount 742 

Fifth amendment if alias Robert Hamer 742 

Fifth amendment if financial secretary of branch of Communist Party. 742 

Fifth amendment if Communist 742 

Fifth amendment if knew John Francis Brennan (brother of wife) _ 742, 743 



n INDEX 

Page 

Blanchard, Mrs. Winifred (testimony of) 730-739 

Born New York City 730 

Ijeonard B. Boudiii and Philip Wittenberg, attorneys 730 

Fifth amendment if maiden name Winifred Brennan 730 

Fifth amenchnent if wife of Rol^ert Blanchard 730 

Fifth amendment if sister of John Francis Brennan 731 

Fifth amendment if lived in Slidell, La 730 

Fifth amendment if lived at 71 West Boulevard, East Rockaway, Long 

Island 1 733 

Fifth amendment if lived at Albee Road, Nakomis, Fla 739 

Boiidin, Leonard B 729, 730, 740, 745 

25 Broad Street, New York 729 

Attornev for Mrs. Winifred Blanchard, Robert Blanchard, and Arthur 

Behrstock 729, 740, 745 

Brennan, Catherine (wife of John Brennan) 731 

Brennan, John Francis 734, 737, 739, 742, 743 

Brother of Mrs. Blanchard 731 

37-41 78th Street, Jackson Heights, Queens 731 

Born, New York City, April 9, 1909 (birth certificate) 731 

Veteran of Lincoln Brigade 731 

Went to Spain in December 1936 to Jarama and Madrid 732 

Brooklyn College 721 

Brount, Bill (alias of Robert Blanchard) 742 

Brussels 772 

C 

Cavallaro, Dr. Joseph, president of the Board of Higher Education of 

New York City 721 

Chicago Herald-Examiner 746 

Citizens Council 764, 771 

Civil Information and Education Section in Tokyo 751 

Clark, Judge Tom 747 

Coast Guard 772 

Coleman, Samuel I., a New York Communist Party functionary harbored 

Thompson and Steinberg 737 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 751 

Common Program Made Public l^y the Southern Regional Committee of 

the Communist Party of the United States 767 

Communist 719, 721, 742, 751 

Communist China 772 

Communist Party 715, 716, 717, 734. 742, 

745, 750, 752, 753, 756, 762, 763, 764, 766, 767, 768, 769, 776 

Communist Party documents, literature 756, 757, 765 

Communist Party leadership school in Baton Rouge, La 763 

Communist Party leadership school in New York 763 

Communist Party of New Orleans 753, 756, 762, 768, 769 

Communist superiors 717 

Consolidated list of organizations designated under Executive Order No. 

10450, dated November 1, 1955 (marked as "Exhibit No. 216") 721 

Constitution 717, 760, 766, 770 

Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 719 

Currie, Lauchlin B 727 

D 

Daily Worker 752. 767 

April 13, 1938, "Lincoln vets to honor Brennan at funeral" 732 

Dambroff , Nathan (attorney for Cecil Lubell) 718 

Defense Department 751 

Department of health. New York 743 

Directives of Communist Party of Soviet Union addressed to all (southern) 
districts, entitled, "Dear Comrades," dated February 3, 1955, signed, 

"Comradely yours, Martha Stone" 769 

Disney, Walt 742 



INDEX ra 

E Page 

Eastland, Senator 715, 755 

Ehrenberg, Myron 718 

Eisenhower, President 719 

"Elaine"— Pitts. Courier 770 

Executive Order No. 10450 721 

Exhibit No. 216 — Organizations designated under Executive Order No. 

10450 722-727 

Exhibit No. 217 — Certificate of the loss of the nationality of the United 

States — Lauchlin B. Currie, December 28, 1955 - 727 

Exhibit No. 2 17- A — Certificate of the loss of the nationality of the United 

States— Solomon Adler. December 15, 1953 728 

Exhibit 218 — New York Times, April 12, 1938 (suicide pact of John and 

Catherine Brennan) 732 

Exhibit No. 218- A— New York Herald-Tribune, April 12, 1938 732 

Exhibit No. 218-B— Dailv Worker, April 13, 1938 733 

Exhibit No. 219 — Certificate of birth of John Brennan 734-735 

Exhibit No. 219- A — Back of birth certificate of John Brennan 736 

Exhibit No. 220— New York Times, August 28, 1953, "Two Top Red Fugi- 
tives Captured by FBI in Sierra Hideout," Thompson and Steinberg. _ 737-738 
Exhibit No. 220-A — Photostat bearing on arrest of Robert Thompson 

(subcommittee files) 739 

Exhibit No. 221 — Application for emplovment of Robert Blanchard — 

Radio Station WDSU 1 741 

Exhibit No. 222 — Certificate of death of John Francis Brennan, dated 

September 4, 1953 744 

Exhibit No. 223— Soviet Russia Todav, May 1936, "I Visit the Red 

Army," bv Behrstock 747-749 

Exhibit No. 224 — Signature of Hunter Pitts O'Dell for comparison 772 

Exhibit No. 225 — Letter of April 4, 1956, of Coast Guard acknowledging 

receipt of personnel file on Hunter Pitts O'Dell 772 

Exhibit No. 225- A — Letter of July 9, 1943, from War Shipping Admin- 
istration re issuing seaman's papers to O'Dell 772 

Exhibit Bo. 225- B — Record of July 10, 1943, of physical examination of 

O'Dell as food handler on merchant vessels of the United States 773 

Exhibit No. 225-C — Apphcation dated July 10, 1943, of O'Dell as messman, 

seaman's certificate 774-775 



Fairchild Publications (Apparel Arts and Men's Reporter magazines) 718 

Faulkner, Stanlev (attornev for William Goldman) 715 

FBI _' J 734, 770 

Fifth amendment 716, 717, 718, 719, 730, 731, 740, 742, 746, 751, 

752, 757, 758, 759, 760, 762, 763, 764, 765, 766, 769, 770, 771 
Fine, Fred, of New York, secretary' of Communist Party's public affairs 

department, indicted but not tried on Smith Act charges 738 

First amendment 730, 740, 746, 747, 751, 770, 771 

Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow 772 

Fort Lauderdale 764 

Fourth amendment 730, 740, 759, 760, 766, 769, 770 

Friedman, Milton (attorney for H. P. O'Dell) 755, 764 

G 

"George E." (alias of Lubell) 719 

Gideonse, Dr. Harry, president of Brooklyn College 721 

Goldman, William (testimonv of) 715-717 

141-66 73d Terrace, Flushing, New York City 715 

Born, New York City 716 

Stanley Faulkner, counsel 715 

With New York IDaily Mirror, 14 years 716 

With Journal-American, New York Post, Long Island Star-Journal, 

Newark Star-Ledger and Long Island Daily Press 716 

Fifth amendment, whether member of Communist Party 716 

Member of Newspaper Guild 717 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 9999 05445 4341 



INDEX 



H 



Hamer, Robert (alias of Robert Blanchard) 742 

Hamlin, Marston, 251 Rocklyn Avenue, East Rockaway, N. Y., professor, 

reference on Robert Blanchard's application 741 

Hideaway Bar & Grill, Fort Lauderdale 764 

Holsum Cafeteria, 718 Gravier Street, New Orleans, La 757, 758. 759 

Hoover. John Edgar 719 

I 

India 772 

Internal Security Subcommittee 715, 717, 720, 729, 731, 740, 756, 760 

International Bureau of the Communist and Workers Parties 767 

"Irv-La. Weekly" 770 

J 

Jackson, James Edward, southeru regional director of Communist Party, 

indicted but not tried on Smith Act charges 738 

Jenner, Senator 729 

Jones, Ben 758, 759, 760 

Alias of H. P. O'Dell, 3370 Louisa Street, ^Jew Orleans, La 758, 759 

Journal- American 716 

"JU- Advocate and Ethyl Xews" 770 

Justice Department 759 

K 

Knight, Frances G., Director, Passport Office 727 

Koeloed, William, Windsor Towers, Rudor City, X. Y., editor (reference 

on Robert Blanchard's application) 741 

Krafsur, Sam, brother-in-law of Myron Ehrenberg 719 

Kremen, Mrs. Shirley Keith, rented cabin in High Sierras which was used 

to harbor Thompson and Steinberg 737 

L 

Lannon, Al 763 

Letter from Sharp to President, dated March 20, 1956, and Mr. Hoover's 

answer, dated April 9, 195G 719-720 

Letter to "Dear Comrades" from Martha Stone, dated February 3, 1955- _ 769 

London 772 

Long Island Daily Press 716 

Long Island Star-Journal 716 

Longshoremen and Warehousemen Lnion 764 

Los Angeles County, Calif 742 

Louisiana candidates 771 

LubeU, Cecil (testimony of) 718-719 

Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 718 

Nathan Dambroff, counsel 718 

Men's wear consultant 718 

Associated with Fairchild Publications 718 

"E. George" (alias) 719 

Born in England, 1912 719 

Graduated, Harvard, 1933 719 

Fifth amendment, if Communist 719 

Fifth amendment, if member of Communist group at Croton-on- 
Hudson, N. Y : 719 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 715, 729, 755, 759 

Marron, William N., executive secretary of the New York State Com- 
munist Party, indicted but not tried on Smith Act charges 738 

Marshals in New Orleans 731 

In State of Florida 731 

In State of New York 756 

Miller, Miriam, first wife of Behrstock 752 

Mills, G. A., 69 West Boulevard, East* Rockawa\% N. Y., writer (reference 

on Robert Blanchard's application) 741 



INDEX V 

Page 

"Monica"— Cath. Action of the "S"— 523 Natchez Street 770 

Morris, Robert, chief counsel 715, 729, 755 

Moscow 752 

Moscow Daily IS ews 746 

N 

National Lawyers Guild 719 

National Organizing Commission of the Communist Party 765 

Negro people 771 

New Orleans. 730, 7-10, 741, 753, 755, 756, 759, 760, 761, 762, 766, 768, 769, 771 

New Orleans pohce 756, 759, 760, 765 

New Orleans Times-Picavune 767 

New York City 720, 721 

New York City Code 721 

New York Court of Appeals 721 

New York Dailv Mirror 716 

New York Herald Tribune 721, 731 

New York Post 716 

New York Times 731, 737, 767 

Newark Star-Ledger 716 

Newspaper Guild in New York 717 

"Newspapers"— "Irv-La. Weel#'" 770 

Ninth amendment . 730, 740 

!North, Joseph, intermediary with Communist newspapermen in Soviet 

espionage network 718 

Northwest section of the Los Angeles Countv Communist organization 742 

Notebooks, handwritten pages, of O' Dell's... 769, 770 

O 

O'Dell, Hunter Pitts (testimony of) 755-776 

Milton Friedman, attorney 755 

Previously lived in New Orleans, 2319 Louisiana Avenue 760 

Attended Xavier University 761 

Fifth amendment, if left literature at home in New Orleans ^- 757 

Fifth amendment, if worked or was at Holsum Cafeteria at time Bill 

Arens there to serve subpena 757 

Fifth amendment, if alias Ben Jones and John Vesey 758 

Fifth amendment, if Communist district organizer in New Orleans — 761 

Fifth amendment, if Communist marine organizer on gulf coast 763 

Fifth amendment, if attended southern regional convention of the 

Communist Party in New York City 763 

Fifth amendment, if attended the New York Communist Party leader- 
ship school under direction of Al Lannon 763 

Fifth amendment, if attended Communist Party leadership school in 

Baton Rouge 763 

Fifth amendment, if active in Longshoremen and Warehousemen 

Union 764 

Fifth amendment, if worked in Spillway-Harding Airfield in Baton 

Rouge . 765 

Fifth amendment, if handled proposals of Southern Party Organiza- 
tion, 1955-56 766 

Fifth amendment, if wrote speeches for Louisiana candidates 771 

Okano, Susumo 753 

P 

"P" apparatus 770 

Planning and Operations Division of the Army 752 

Powell, Sylvia (wife of John Powell) 752 

Proposals of Southern Party Organization, 1955-56 766 

Psychological Warfare Branch 751 

R 

Rasi, Carl Edwin, Minnesota Communist Party leader harbored Thompson 

and Steinberg 737 

Robeson, Paul 764 



VI INDEX 

Page 

Rubin, Bernard 752 

Rusher, William A 715, 729, 755 

S 
Sharp, Malcolm 719 

Shipley, 11. S., Director, Passport Office 728 

Slidell, La 730 

Slochower, Dr 721 

Slochower v. thelBoard of Higher Education 720, 730 

Smith Act 769 

Social-security cards (O'DelD 758, 760 

Southern Regional Convention of the Communist Party in New York City. 763 

Soviet espionage network 718 

Soviet organization in United States 729 

Soviet Russia Today, May 1936, "I Visit the Red Army," by Behrstock__ 747 

Soviet Union 747, 772 

Spillway-Harding Airfield in Baton Rouge 765 

St. Joan's Catholic Church, Jackson Heights 739, 743 

State Department 727 

Steinberg, Sidney, indicted under Smith Act 737 

Stone, Martha 769 

Supreme Court • 720, 721, 730, 740, 747 



Thompson, Robert, leader of Communist Party; arrested in California on 

August 27, 1953 734, 737, 738, 739, 743, 745 

Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 767, 768 

Twenty-four-hour rule 762 

U 
U. S. S. R 768 

V 
Vesey, John 758, 760 

W 

Walsh, Walter M., Consul of the United States of America at London, 

England 728 

"Walt"— Chi. Defender 770 

War Shipping Administration 772 

Watkins, Senator 729 

WDSU— television station in New Orleans 730, 740, 741, 745 

Welker, Senator 755 

Withholding tax statements 759, 760 

Wittenberg, Philip, 17 West 40th Street, New York, attorney for Mrs. 

Winifred Blanchard, Robert Blanchard, and Arthur Behrstock 729 

730, 740, 745 
World Federation of Trade Unions 772 



OSITORY "^^ y?^ 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTKATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGEESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



APRIL 12, 1956 



PART 14 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, APBIL 12, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10:30 a. m., in the 
caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland 
(chairman) presiding. 

Present: Senators Eastland and Welker. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research du-ector; and William A. Rusher, administrative counsel. 

Chairman Eastland. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Hunter Pitts O'Dell. 

(The O'Dell testimony appears in full in part 13, pp. 755 ff.) 

Chairman Eastland. We have one more witness. For security 
reasons, that witness cannot be heard in this room. We are going to 
take a 5-minute recess, and the witness will be called in room 424 
in this building. 

(Whereupon, at 11:25 a. m., the subcommittee recessed, to recon- 
vene at 11:30 a. m., in room 424, Senate Office Building, the same 
day.) 

Chairman Eastland. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Will you bring the witness in and close the door, 
please? 

The rule is that there will be no photographers allowed. 

Chairman Eastland. The hearings of the Internal Security Sub- 
committee to date have revealed extensive Soviet activity in the 
United States under the cover of the Amtorg Trading Corp., Tass 
News Agency, and VOKS. The extent and the nature of this Soviet 
activity has been shown from the testimony of Soviet defectors and 
from the hearings at which American citizens employed by those 
agencies have appeared. 

With the tendency that is becoming more pronounced toward more 
frequent exchanges of cultural, economic and religious groups be- 
tween the Soviet governments and the nations of the free world, it 
becomes increasmgl}^ more important to analyze the underlying 
natm'c of the Soviet delegations involved. 

The witness today who will testify on this activity is Mr. Yuri 
Rastvorov, who is appearing for the second time before the sub- 
committee. 

Please caU your witness. 

777 



778 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to point out that when 
this witness first agreed to testify, he asked the subcommittee that we 
protect his identity, and for security purposes, not allow any photo- 
graphs of himself to be taken. And we assured the witness that that 
precaution would be taken by the subcommittee, and for that reason, 
photographers have been asked not to be present during the testimou}^ 
of Mr. Rastvorov, nor to take his picture coming to or going out of 
the committee hearing room. 

Air. Chairman, before getting on to the testimony of this witness, 
I would like to offer, in connection with yesterday's hearings, a New 
York Times report on two top Red fugitives, captured by the FBI in 
a Sierra hideout. 

May that be made part of the Blanchard testimony? 

Chairman Eastland. Yes, sir. 

(The material referred to above appears in a previous volume 
at p. 737.) 

Has he been sworn? 

Mr. Morris. Will you be sworn again for the pm^poses of this 
hearing, Mr. Rastvorov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Chairman Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you 
are about to give the Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the 
whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I swear. 

FURTHER TESTIMONY OF YURI RASTVOROV 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, at the last testimony, you were trying 
to recall the name of the NKVD man, or the MVD man, who was 
among the Russian representatives to the United Nations, the Soviet 
representatives to the United Nations. Have you recalled his name? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. His name is Alexander Titov. 

Mr. Morris. And will you tell us, when did you know him? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, Titov is employee of the Intelligence Service 
of the Soviet Union. He worked dming the war in China many 
years, and came to the United States under the cover of employee of 
the Soviet Section of the United Nations Organization. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat name did he use under that cover? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He used all the time his true name, Titov. 

Mr. Morris. Titov, T-i-t-o-v? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And when was he last m the Soviet delegation to the 
United Nations, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, approximately a year ago he arrived in the 
United States. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what has been your experience with him? 
Have you known him personally? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, I know him personally. I worked with him 
in the same outfit in Moscow, headquarters. 

Mr. Morris. The same outfit being the Soviet Secret Police 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Wliich we have referred to as the MVD or the 
NKVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; MVD, we call it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 779 

Can I smoke, Mr. Chairman? 

Chairman Eastland. Of course. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the last time, when we were listing 
the chief resident agents of the Soviet Security Police in the United 
States, in making the listing we overlooked one name that Mr. 
Rastvorov gave us in executive session, and that is Mr. Gromov. 

Was Mr. Gromov one of the chief resident agents of the Soviet 
Secret Police in the United States? 

Air. Rastvorov. Yes; approximately the first j'-ear after the war, 
I think. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to put into the record at 
this point in the hearings some testimony taken in the past which indi- 
cated that Mr. Gromov did work with Americans who have been re- 
vealed by the record to have been active in Soviet espionage in the 
United States. I would like Mr. Mandel to read it into the record 
so that the context will be taken in connection with the testimony of 
Mr. Rastvorov today. 

Mr. Mandel. I read from the testimony of Elizabeth Terrill 
Bentley before the House Committee on Un-American Activities on 
July 31, 1948. 

She says: 

Then they proposed to set me up in another little organization, either in a 
travel business or what-not, in some large town 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, "they" refers to her Soviet superiors? 
Mr. Mandel. That will be made clear as I go along. [Continuing :] 

and they would give me other government contacts to take over. 

Mr. MuNDT. Who do you mean by "they"? 

Miss Bentley. The Russians. 

Mr. MuNDT. Can you name those Russians? 

Miss Bentley. The only Russian whose real name I know was the first secre- 
tary of the Russian Embassy, and I did not know that until much later on, after I 
had ceased seeing him. 

Mr. MuNDT. He talked with you personally in trying to induce you to continue 
this espionage? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, because they had tried to bribe me and had tried all 
sorts of tricks on me. They finally brought in their highest man to see what he 
could do. 

Mr. MuNDT. What was this man's name? 

Miss Bentley. Anatole Gromov, G-r-o-m-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Rastvorov, is that the same Mr. Gromov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I would like to add that Gromov is not his true 
name, and I have forgotten his true name, but I probably will tell it 
to you later when I remember his true name. 

After returning from the United States, he was the chief of American 
Section in MVD headquarters. 

Mr. Morris. Chief of the American Section in NKVD headquarters 
in Moscow? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Was that the same Anatole Gromov who was the 
first secretary in the middle 1940's? 

Mr. Rastvorov. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. You say that is correct? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else there, Mr. Mandel, that should 
be in the record? 



780 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mandel. She describes liow she met him, and fm-ther details. 

There is further testimony before the House committee by Lauchhn 
Currie on the same individual, which I will read, from page 857 of 
these hearings: 

Mr. Stripling. Did you ever meet Anatole Gromov of the Russian Embassy? 

Mr. Currie. I met him at a social occasion and was entertained at his house 
on one occasion. 

Mr. Stripling. You met him at a social occasion? Where was that? 

Mr. Currie. As I recall, it was in the latter part of 1944 when I was introduced 
to him at a luncheon in the Hay- Adams in Washington. 

Mr. Currie continues: 

Mr. Stripling. Who gave the luncheon? 

Mr. Currie. Mr. Luther Gulick. 

Mr. Stripling. Could you identify him, please? 

Mr. Currie. He was an official of the War Production Board, and what his 
official position was at that time, I cannot recall. 

Mr. Stripling. Do you recall the year or the date? 

Mr. Currie. I think it was shortly after this luncheon, he invited my wife and 
me to dinner, and we accepted. He was introduced- to me as the First Secretary 
of the Russian Embassy in charge of cultural relations. There was nothing in the 
conversation as I recall that would oe inconsistent with that description. 

He made no efforts to draw me out. There were no leading questions, as I 
recall. The conversation generally was on cultural matters on which he was a 
very well-informed person. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Gromov was a colonel of MVD at that time. 

Mr. Morris. When you knew him, or at that time? 

Mr. R.ASTVOROV. Yes. I knew him as a colonel. 

Mr. Morris. And you say when you last heard of him, he was the 
head of the American section of NKVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. He was head from 1948 to my departure 
from Moscow in 1950. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, could you tell us who Maj Gen. 
G. G. Karpov is? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Major General Karpov, he was the head of the 
so-called religion section in MVD Headquarters. Simultaneously, he 
occupied the post of chairman of religion committee of Council of 
Ministers of U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Morris. Would you repeat that? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Chairman of the religion committee. 

Mr. Morris. Religion committee? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Of Council of Ministers of U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Morris. Council of Ministers of the U. S. S. R.? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was his rank? In what service was he 
working? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was appointed as chairman of the religion 
committee in, I think, 1943. 

Mr. Morris. 1943. 

Mr. Rastvorov. During the war. 

Mr. Morris. Was he working for the military police, or Soviet 
Security Police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. Not military; just MVD. 

Mr. Morris. MVD. That is the security police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; so-called counterintelligence directorate, 
MVD. 

Mr. Morris. Countermtelligence? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 781 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was he given this post as chairman of the re- 
ligious committee in connection with his service in the NKVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, would you describe the function of that particular role that 
he was performing? 

Mr. Rastvorov. As you know, the church in the Soviet Union is 
not independent, as, at the present time, the Soviet Union Govern- 
ment is trying to prove. It is completely dependent on the state, and 
the state conducts all activities of the church m the Soviet Union. 

Moreover, they not only conduct activities of the Orthodox Church 
in the Soviet Union, penetrated by MVD agents — — • 

Mr. Morris. You say it is penetrated by MVD agents? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. It is, I think, worthwhile to stress that 
at the end of the second war, when 

Mr. Morris. World War II? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, the second war. [Continuing]. When the 
Government permitted the Orthodox Church to operate more freely, 
the church organized seminaries, I think 1 or 2, and a couple of 
people — not a couple, but many people — from MVD headquarters 
were sent to the seminaries as students. 

Mr. Morris. Were they sent as students or sent to superintend 
the students? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No. They sent ofRcers, counterintelligence of- 
ficers, to these seminaries, and later they became bishops in many 
churches in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. AIoRRis. In other words, they were sent as seminarians? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And actually, they were members of the Soviet 
Security Police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. They were members; they were officers of MVD, 
pure counterintelligence officers in MVD. 

Mr. Morris. And you say later on they became bishops? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, before getting into that, I would like to ask 
you particular questions about that. Could you describe Major 
General Karpov's role? You said he was chairman of the religious 
committee? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Could you tell us what the function of that particular 
committee was, particularly the role of the chairman? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, they handle the chm-ch affairs in the Soviet 
Union, in other words. As I explained before —  — • 

Mr. Morris. Is he in charge of clim-ch affau's? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; in the chm-ch, the so-called liaison, you know, 
the office between chm'ch and government, but practically they keep 
the chm'ch under complete control, and he is the chairman of this 
religious committee, simultaneously, because, practically spealdng, the 
MVD conducts all activities, you know, against chm'ch. 

Mr. Morris. And in that position, is he able to exert an opinion 
on the Russian Church? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Pardon me? 

72723—56 — pt. 14 2 



782 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Morris. In that position, is he able to exert an influence over 
the Russian Chmxh? 

Air. Rastvorov. Oh, yes; of coiu-se. 

Mr. Morris. Would you explain that, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I don't know how to explain to you, but 
the church depended on the Government of the Soviet Union. And 
I just don't know what to add to this. 

(The following material was later received for the record as Exhibit 
No. 226 and ordered into the record at this point.) 

Exhibit No. 226 
(Excerpt from Empire of Fear by Vladimir and Evdokia Petrov,' pp. 97, 98) 

The overriding need for national unity in those desperate and critical days 
induced Stalin to bid for the positive support of even the religious leaders. With 
curious and characteristic cynicism he arranged a conference in the Kremlin, 
to which he invited the robed and bearded patriarchs and all the important 
dignitaries of the Russian Orthodox Church. At the conference there was also a 
certain Karpov. Now Karpov was a permanent career officer of the NKVD, 
who, over a long period, had made an assiduous and exhaustive study of Russian 
Orthodox ceremonies, ordinances, and theological teaching, and was able to 
converse earnestly and learnedly with the church dignitaries on their own ground. 
At this conference Stalin suggested that the character and erudition of Karpov 
made him an ideal man to represent the church on the Soviet Council of Ministers. 
His suggestion was applauded, and Karpov was appointed. 

I have seen Karpov. In 1951 he was Minister for Cults and Religious Affairs 
and may still hold that office. His NKVD training would be a valuable prepara- 
tion for the post. After all, Stalin studied in a theological seminary. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you personally, in your own experience as 
an NKVD ofiicer, have any — were you ever assigned to do any work 
in infiltrating the Russian church? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; when I was in Japan the first time in 1946. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us about it, and at this point, confine 
your testimony to your own personal experience in that particular 
episode? 

Mr. Rastvorov. In 1946, the Soviet Government, through the 
MVD channels, tried to subordinate the group of Orthodox worship- 
ers in Tokyo, which consists of White Russians and emigres. And 
for this purpose, the chief of the intelligence group 

Mr. Morris. Would you repeat that, please? You say in Tokyo, 
in 1946, the leaders of the Russian Orthodox Church in Japan were 
Russian emigres? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Mr. Rastvorov. And after the death of Bishop Sergei, Nikolai 
Ono 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Nikolai Ono. 

Mr. Morris. 0-n-a? 

Mr. Rastvorov. 0-n-o. 

Mr. Morris. 0-n-o? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; was appointed chief of Orthodox Church in 
Japan. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who appointed him? 

' Vladimir Petrov was resident agent of MVD in Sydney, Australia, under cover of third secretary of 
the Soviet Embassy, and his wife was a cipher clerk when they defected, April 3, 1954, and asked politica 
asylum from the Australian Government. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 783 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, it was the wishes of the orthodox worshipers 
of the church. 

Mr. Morris. In Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. They appointed him to be head of the 
Orthodox Church in Japan, that is, Ono? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

And at that time, the Government of the Soviet Union, using church 
for propaganda purposes and for mtelligence purposes, did their 
best to send to Japan, from Moscow patriarchy, two Soviet priests as 
the head of this Orthodox Church in Japan. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you say, Soviet leaders in Moscow 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And this you know from your own knowledge? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute. Alay I just make a resume there? 

You say that the Russian leaders endeavored to send two Russian 
priests to be in charge of the Orthodox Church in Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know their names? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I don't know their names, but because 
Karpov, who is, as I mentioned before, chairman of religion committee 
and chief of religion section of MVD, was in charge of this operation. 

Mr. Morris. He was in charge of this particular operation? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Of this particular operation. 

Mr. Morris. And you know that from your own experience in this 
particular operation? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. And Colonel Vashkin 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. V-a-s-h-k-i-n. 

Mr. Morris. Colonel Vashkin? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. He directly participated. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was he? Was he an NKVD officer? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was the chief of the intelligence group in 
Tokyo at that time. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Vashkin. What was his first name? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Ivan. 

Mr. Morris. Ivan. He was chief of the intelligence group in Japan 
at that time? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you say he participated directly in this effort to 
take control of the church? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about it? 

Mr. Rastvorov. And part of these worshipers in the Orthodox 
Church in Tokyo were pro-Soviet, and he negotiated with one of the 
men who belonged to this group of people by name of BUayev. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. B-i-1-a-y-e-v. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was he? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was one of the members of the Orthodox 
Church, and was very active in religion afFau's there. He was musician 
teacher there at that time. 

Mr. Morris. He was a music teacher? 



784 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; a music teacher. 

Mr. Morris. But active in church affairs? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, does he work for the security police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. Vashkin tried to persuade the people to 
accept these two priests through this man, through Mr. Bilayev, and 
particularly, myself, I took a couple of times l\lr. [Blank] to the 
meeting with this man by name of Bilayev, at that time. 

Mr. Morris. You met with him personally? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Were these open meetings, or were they secret 
meetmgs? 

Mr. Rastvorov. They were secret meetings. 

Mr. jMorris. Woidd you tell us what happened at these meetmgs? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well — — 

Mr. Morris. Senator Welker. 

Mr. Rastvorov. I can't say e.x:actly the details of these meetings, 
but it was meetmgs concerning the affairs with sending to Japan two 
orthodox priests, Soviet priests. 

Mr. Morris. Who were present? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Mr. Vashkm persuaded Bilayev to nifluence on 
people, worshipers of Orthodox Church, to mvite his men by, so-called, 
their own wish. But fortunately 

Mr. Morris. The plan was to have at meetmgs Vashkui and 
Bilayev and yourself — — 

Air. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You planned to have General Karpov send over two 
Russian priests who would be able to control the Russian Orthodox 
Church in Japan? 

Air. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you took part in these plans? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us what happened to these plans? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Fortunately, the worshippers of the Orthodox 
Church, the majority of the people, were against this, and their plan 
failed, not only because the people were against this idea, but also 
because the occupation forces in Japan at that time didn't permit to 
enter these Iwo priests in Japan. 

Mr. Morris. You think the American occupation forces prevented 
the two priests from coming into the country? 

Air. Rastvorov. Occupation forces. 

Mr. AloRRis. The American occupation forces? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Not only the American, but the so-called Allied 
forces. 

Air. Morris. Yes. They prevented the Russian priests from com- 
ing into the country? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And did the plan fail? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How did it terminate? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, this plan failed 

Mr. Morris. Did it end in a lawsuit or anything? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, Mr. Vashkin, after returning home, wrote 
a big report about this past operation 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 785 

Mr. Morris. He wrote a report back to General Karpov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And then what happened? 

Mr. Rastvorov. But I don't know the result. Practically, no 
action was taken against Mr. Vashkin and against Mr. Karpov at that 
time, because the Government at that particular time was more 
interested in affans with the Western democratic countries. 

Air. Morris. Now, did you tell us in executive session that it ended 
up in a lawsuit? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Pardon me? 

Mr. Morris. Did you tell us in executive session that it ended up 
m a lawsuit? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, I don't think so. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for the record an 
article that was written by Georgi Gregorivich Karpov, who was 
described as chairman of the council for the affans of the Russian 
Orthodox Church, which appeared in the Daily Worker in New 
York, April 3, 1949, under the title, "The Truth About Religion in 
the Soviet Union." 

I think that would be appropriate at this point in the record. 

Chaii-man Eastlaxd. It will be admitted. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 227" and reads 

as jfollows:) 

Exhibit No. 227 

[Daily Worker Magazine, p. 7, April 3, 1949] 
The Truth About Relicion in the Soviet Union 

By G. Karpov, chairman of the council for the affairs of the Russian Orthodox 

Church 

Since its establishment, the Soviet Union has been the victim of 
calumny and slander. Most vicious of all are the lies about the 
persecution of the church and the prohibition of religious worship. 
Here are the facts of the matter. 

Moscow. — Along with the other civil liberties guaranteed by the Constitution 
of the U. S. S. R., the full freedom of religious worship is enjoyed by the people 
of the U. S. S. R. 

The attitude of the socialist state toward religion and the church is clearly ex- 
pressed in article 124 of the constitution: "In order to insure to citizens freedom 
of conscience, the church in the U. S. S. R. is separated from the state, and the 
school from the church. Freedom of religious worship and freedom of anti- 
religious propaganda is recognized for all citizens. 

In defining its attitude toward the church, the main concern of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment has been to insure full freedom of conscience. 

That freedom of conscience does exist in the U. S. S. R. is best demonstrated 
by the fact that the church is separated from the state, by the fact that this sep- 
aration is complete — not as in some capitalist countries which boast of laws pro- 
viding for freedom of conscience and religious worship, but in which religion actu- 
ally serve as a weapon of class and national oppression, countries in which re- 
ligious organizations are emploj-ed to further the policy of "the great ones of the 
earth." 

NO FREEDOM UNDER CZARISM 

In czarist Russia — prior to the October Socialist revolution of 1917 — there 
existed no freedom of conscience and no freedom of religious worship, despite the 
Government manifesto of April 17, 1905, on strengthening the principles of re- 
ligious tolerance. The orthodox creed enjoyed a position of predominance. The 
Orthodox Church, as represented by the holy governing synod and its head, the 
procurator of the synod, was part and parcel of the government machinery. All 
other creeds were merely tolerated. They were kejit under surveillance by the 



786 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Department for Ecclesiastical Affairs of Foreign Creeds, which was under the 
direction of the Ministry of the Interior. Conversion from one religion to 
another — except conversion to the orthodox religion — ^was made extremely 
difficult. 

The tsarist autocracy had powerful support in the pulpit, in the church school, 
and in the church censorship, all of which preached humiliation and obedience to 
the powers that be. 

Atheists were subjected to special persecutions. 

The progressive section of the population regarded the situation as highly 
deplorable and strove for the establishment of freedom of conscience and the 
separation of church from state. 

As a matter of fact, the position the Orthodox Church held in the state was 
prejudicial to the church itself as a religious organization. The most farsighted 
and progressive among its leaders were of the opinion that it would be better for 
the church itself to be free from dependence on the state, free from the latter's 
control. 

With the establishment of the Soviet system in Russia, the existence of a state 
church came to an end, and real freedom of conscience and genuine religious 
tolerance were introduced. 

On January 23, 1918, the decree on the separation of the church from the 
state and the school from the church was promulgated. It was signed by V. I. 
Lenin. 

Under that decree, church property, such as real estate, and enterprises which 
were operated for profit, were nationalized. Church buildings and objects 
especially intended for religious service, however, were turned over to the religious 
congregations or associations, for permanent use free of charge. The registration 
of births, marriages, and deaths ceased to be a church function. Citizens were 
accorded the right to profess any religion or none at all. 

The separation of the church from the state was accepted by church members 
as a positive development, because it relieved the church of secular state functions 
which are out of keeping with its character. 

In his preface to the book. The Truth About Religion in Russia, published by 
the Moscow patriarchate in 1942, Metropolitan Sergius wrote: 

"The Soviet Government's decree on freedom of conscience and freedom of 
religious creeds has removed a burden which the church bore for many years, 
has relieved it from outside tutelage. This has been of immense usefulness in 
the internal life of the church. The decree accords freedom, and guarantees 
the inviolability of this freedom, to all religious associations. It is a great boon 
for our Orthodox Church that it is no longer dominating, and in this respect no 
longer restricts the religious conscience of other creeds as it did when it served 
as a lever of the autocratic power." 

Irrespective of religious views, every citizen in the Soviet Union is guaranteed |j 
the enjoyment of all civil rights. '' 

State-owned printing shops print both church books for religious associations, 
and books of an antireligious character. Likewise, paper is provided from the 
state warehouses both for the former and for the latter. Under the Constitution 
of the U. S. S. R. (art. 135) the clergy enjoys electoral rights on the same footing 
as all other citizens of the Soviet Union. 

The laws of the Soviet Union and the established rules of the Socialist com- 
munity preclude any infringement of rights or any persecution on account of 
religious beliefs. The laws of the Soviet Union likewise preclude anything that 
might offend the religious feelings of believers. The concrete manifestation of 
freedom of religion in the U. S. S. R. is to be found in the fact that there is no 
interference whatsoever with the practice of religious rites and customs. 

Freedom of conscience, and hence, freedom of religion, as guaranteed by the 
Constitution of the U. S. S. R., has done away not only with national but also 
with religious strife among the numerous peoples of the Soviet Union. It has 
strengthened their friendship, their moral and political unity. 

While guaranteeing the freedom of religious worship, the Constitution of the 
U. S. S. R. also recognizes the freedom of antireligious propaganda. 

In 1927, during the interview Stalin gave the first American labor delegation 
to visit the U. S. S. R., he declared: 

"Under the laws of our country every citizen has the right to profess any religion. 
This is a matter for the conscience of each individual. That is precisely why we 
carried out the separation of the church from the state. But, in separating the 
church from the state and proclaiming religious liberty, there was also guaranteed 
the right of every citizen to combat by argument, by propaganda and agitation, 
any and all religion." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 787 

Malicious enemies of the Soviet Union abroad have spread mischievous rumors 
about alleged persecution of the church, the clergy, and church members in the 
Soviet Union. 

The Soviet Government has never persecuted anyone for professing one creed 
or another, or for belonging to a religious organization of one kind or another. 

Soon after the great October revolution some leaders of the Orthodox Church, 
confirmed adherents of the tsarist autocracy — because under the latter they 
enjoyed special rights, privileges and material benefits, which they lost after the 
revolution — joined the fight for the restoration of the monarchy and the old 
regime. They fiercely opposed the implementation of the decree on the separation 
of the church from the state and the school from the church, which the Soviet 
Government promulgated in 1918. 

Church organizations and religious beliefs were used by reactionary members 
of the clergy to further their designs against the Soviet system and against the 
Soviet people. The Soviet Government was therefore compelled to take measures, 
in conformity with justice and necessity, in order to isolate the most actively 
hostile members of the clergy. 

ABOUT TRIALS OF CHURCH PEOPLE 

Hostile elements abroad interpreted those measures as persecutions against 
religion and against the church. 

However, church representatives themselves now admit that the measures 
taken were not persecutions against religion or the church. 

A new trend made itself manifest in the life of the Russian Orthodox Church. 
It was expressed in support for the domestic and foreign policies of the Soviet 
state. 

On July 23, 1927, Metropolitan Sergius, along with other members of the 
synod, came out with an open declaration, which stated, in part: 

"The leaders of the church are not with the enemies of our Soviet state, and 
not with the insane tools of their intrigues, but with our people and our govern- 
ment." 

The declaration further stated: 

"We want to be Orthodox Christians and at the same time to be conscious of 
the Soviet Union as our temporal country — whose joys and successes are our joys 
and successes, and whose reverses are our reverses. 

"While remaining Orthodox Christians, we remember our duty to be citizens 
of the Soviet Union, not out of fear, but because that is what our conscience 
dictates." 

This declaration met with the approval and support of the mass of members of 
the Orthodox Church. The clergy more and more abandoned the false road of 
struggle against the Soviet Government; more and more the clergy supported the 
measures of the Soviet Government, and this in turn gradually led to a change in 
the attitude of the Soviet Government toward the church and its leaders. 

Mr. Morris. That is the same Mr. Karpov about whom you have 
been testifying, is it not? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know an MVD officer named Serov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. He is chairman of the Security Committee 
of the Council of Ministers of the U. S. S. R. They call it now KGB. 
In other words, it is the same as people called MVD. They organized 
at the death of Stalin, KGB. 

Mr. Morris. What is his first name? 

Mr. Rastvorov. His first name I think is Ivan. 

Mr. Morris. Ivan Serov. Is he the same gentleman who had 
difficulty in England recently? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, the same man. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know him personally? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I know him personally. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us something about his activities, par- 
ticularly his rank and his development into a Soviet Secret Police 
officer? 



788 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, he became famous during the begmning of 
the second war, and participated in many operations, for instance, 
the deportation of people from the Baltic States, people from the 
Caucasus area. He was head of special group in East Germany 
which arrested many, many Germans who belonged to Hitler party 
at that time. 

Mr. Morris. What party? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Hitler party. 

Mr. Morris. Hitler party, yes. 

(Senator Welker now presiding.) 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, he was at one time — I have forgotten 
exactly — I think after the war, after the second war, the chief of 
MVD in Ukrainian area, and worked with Mr. Khrushchev. And at 
that time, their friendship started, I think, and he is a very influential 
man and has great support from Mr. Khrushchev, and other people 
who now head the Government of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. You said he is tlie chairman of the security com- 
mittee? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; KGB, they call it. 

Mr. Morris. As such, would he be the head of the security police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; the head of tlie security police. 

Mr. Morris. Who was his immediate superior in the Soviet 
structure of government? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Pardon me? I don't follow you. 

Mr. Morris. Who was his superior in the Soviet structure of 
government. You say he is the head of MVD. 

Mr. Rastvorov. No; he is not head of MVD; he is head of KGB. 
In other words, they divided MVD into two parts: one part now 
consists of intelligence and counterintelligence 



Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would mind making a little diagram 
for the committee. Air. Rastvorov. 

Mr. Rastvorov. At the death of Stalin, it was MVD; they organ- 
ized MVD, which united MGB and MVD. Approximately 2 3'ears 
ago, or 2}^, they divided MVD again into 2 parts. One part is KGB, 
now, they call it, which consists of intelligence and counterintelligence 
organ we are talking about now. And the other they call MVD, 
which has no connection with intelligence and counterintelligence 
operations. 

Serov, General Serov, is in charge of KGB. 

Mr. Morris. Serov is in charge of KGB. 

Now, who is in charge of the other subdivision, do you know, 
Mr. Rastvorov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Tlie l)oss, the chief of MVD was Mr. Kruglov, 
General Kruglov. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr Rastvorov. K-r- — well, I will write it down. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. And put Serov's name under "KGB," too, if 
you would, please. 

Now, Mr. Chairman, we have had an investigation into the work- 
ings of Tass News Agency, and I note, Mr. Chairman, that we have 
a representative of the Tass News Agency covering the hearuig today. 

I was wondering if you Iviiew any individuals in the MVD who 
work for Tass News Agency. 

Mr. Rastvorov. You mean, here in the United ^States or — —  



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 789 

Mr. Morris. Anywhere. 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think I mentioned before, for instance, in 
Tokyo there were a couple of people who represent the Tass Agency, 
one of them by name of Sonin. 

Mr. Morris. Spell that, please. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; S-o-n-i-n, his true name. And the second 
one, Captain Egorov, who worked as intelligence officer under cover 
of Tass Agency. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Mr. Chugunov? 

Mr, Rastvorov. Mr. Chugunov? 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell "Chugunov"? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. I know him personally. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell the name for us, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. C-h-u-g-u-n-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know his first name? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No. I don't know his first name. 

Mr. Morris. Chugunov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say you know him personally? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. One time during the war he was chief of 
American section in MVD headquarters, or I call it, MGB head- 
quarters. 

Mr. Morris. He was chief of the American section. That was 
prior to Gromov? Is that the position that Gromov had? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No, at that time Gromov was in the United 
States. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, but did Gromov subsequently come there and 
succeed him? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; succeeded him. 

Mr. Morris. So Chugunov succeeded Gromov as head of the 
Americaji section? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No ; Gromov succeeded Chugunov. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did Chugunov work under cover of the Tass 
News Agency? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; he worked here in the United States as 
intelligence officer of MGJB under the cover of Tass man. 

Mr. AloRRis. Could you tell us when he did that? 

Mr. Rastvorov. In what year? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I don't know exactly the year, because I 
wasn't familiar particularly wdth the American operation. But 
anyway, I loiow him personally. 

Mr. Morris. And where did you Imow him? 

Mr. Rastvorov. In Moscow headquarters. 

Mr. Morris. You were not in the United States at the time and 
did not know him in the United States at the time? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No; I knew him then. He was in Moscow 
during the war, in, I think, in 1944 or 1945, probably. I don't know 
exactly what year. But I saw him many times, and I saw him when 
he came back from the United States. He married an American girl, 
the daughter of one of the leaders of the Communist Party of the 
United States. I don't know — — 



72723— 56— pt. 14- 



790 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. The daughter of one of the American Communists 
married Chugunov? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You do not know her name; do you? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I don't know her name. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr, Rastvorov, in connection with delegations 
and exchanges of delegations on economic affairs, while you were in 
Japan, serving as an NKVD officer, did you meet any fellow MVD 
officers working in these economic delegations? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; for instance, in 1953, there was meeting of 
Ecofair. 

Mr. Morris. That is E-c-o-f-a-i-r? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That stands for "Economic Affairs"? 

Mr, Rastvorov. Yes; exactly, 

Mr, Morris, Was that a delegation that came from the Soviet 
Union? 

Mr. Rastvorov, Yes. They came as a representative of the Soviet 
Union, and they were members of this organization, and the organ- 
ization held meeting in Japan in 1953, 1 think, it was in April or March. 

Mr. Morris. April or March of 1953? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

And there is one other man by cover of official of ForeigTi Office, 
who was Colonel Otroshenko. 

Mr, Morris, He was there under the cover of an official of the 
Foreign Office? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, 

Mr, Morris, All right; now, what was his name? 

Mr. Rastvorov. His name was Otroshenko. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that and write it on the board for the 
committee, please? 

(The witness writes the name "Otroshenko" on the blackboard.) 

Mr. Morris, Now, actually, what was his role in the MVD, or 
security police? 

Mr, Rastvorov. At that time — first of all, he just checked the 
activities of MVD, inteUigence group, in Tokyo, And his second 
task, he participated in negotiations with Prince Kuni. 

Mr, Morris, He participated with Prince Kuni? 

Mr, Rastvorov. Kuni, and his group, with establishment of diplo- 
matic relationship with the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. I see. In other words, he was trying to effect diplo- 
matic relations between a Japanese Government and the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; and the other man was former Ambassador 
in Australia, Generalov, 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

(The witness writes the name "Generalov" on the blackboard,) 

Mr, Morris, That is spelled G-e-n-e-r-a-1-o-v? 

Mr, Rastvorov, Yes, 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was Otroshenko's role as an intelligence 
officer? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was boss of Far East intelligence directorate. 

Mr: Morris. Boss of the Far Eastern intelligence directorate? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Directorate; yes. 

Mr. Morris. And he was there under the cover that you have 
described. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 791 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did any skating teams come to Japan at the 
time? 

Mr. Eastvorov. Yes. As you probably already know, they always 
used all kinds of cultural organizations, for instance, regardless of who 
they are, musicians or skaters or skiers or anything else. They send 
with these delegations intelligence personnel to discuss intelligence 
activities abroad. 

Mr. Morris. You say that is the general policy? 

Mr. Rastvorov. That is the general policy. 

Mr. Morris. With all groups? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, and also they have them to keep under con- 
trol the members of these cultural organizations. 

Senator Welker (presiding). Can the man skate? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; he is looking at them all the time, you know. 

Mr. Morris. That is the general regulation? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us specifically about any particular 
Soviet skating team that went to Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, for instance, these skaters were accompanied 
by Col. Andrei Smirnov. 

Mr. Morris. Smirnov, S-m-i-r-n-o-v? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And he went with the skating team? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you knew bim to be 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. He was in the United States, in the period 
of the second war as an intelligence officer under cover of — probably 
diplomatic cover. I don't know exactly. And in later years, I think 
he was head of the American Intelligence Section, Headquarters, in 
Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. And what was his cover with the skating team? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was official. 

Mr. Morris. An official? He was not one of the skaters, was he? 

Mr. Rastvorov. No; he can't skate well. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how about the Soviet Red Cross? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I think it is worth while to tell that all 
ministers who had connections abroad, such as the Minister of Trade, 
the organization v/hich is known as VOKS —  — 

Mr. Morris. V-O-K-S? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. (Continuing.) Tass; Red Cross — they 
have special intelligence groups who are responsible for sending with this 
delegation, }■ ou know, who is going abroad, to send with this delegation 
intelligence persoimel. For instance, the head of the intelligence group 
in Red Cross in Moscow, headed by intelligence officer, Colonel 
Balayan^ — 
Mr. Morris. Would you spell that, please? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Colonel Balayan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, who was many, many times abroad. I 
don't know exactly in what country, but he is very famous as a Soviet 
official abroad, especially during the war and before the war, before 
the second war. 

Mr. Morris. Did you say he operates under the cover of an official 
of the Red Cross? 



792 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; he is an Armenian. 

Mr. Morris. And is he in fact an officer of the Soviet Secret Police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is his rank colonel? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you say he has been in the United States? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. No, no, I don't know about the United 
States, but he was abroad in the western world many times as an 
intelligence officer. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Mitskevitch? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Mitskevitch is the head of the intelligence group 
in VOKS. He is deputy or assistant chairman of VOKS. 

Mr. Morris. Is he also an official of the security police? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He also holds rank of colonel, and at one time 
during the war, had connections with the intelligence operations in the 
United States. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with any change of delegations and 
representations between the United States and the Soviet Union, did 
you participate at all in any particular individual role in connection 
witlt the visit of any American dignitaries to Moscow, the Soviet 
Union? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, for instance, during the war the Soviet 
Government tried to make friends, especially with tJ-e leaders, in 
other words, political leaders in the United States. And as you know, 
during the war, in 1943, I think — yes, 1943 — Mr. Willkie who, I 
think, wanted to run as the Vice President here 

Mr. Morris. As President. 



Senator Welker. No; he ran for President — "one world" 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. They tried to make a friend of him, and 
tried desperately to show that in spite of war, the economical condi- 
tions in the Soviet Union for civilians is not so bad. For this reason, 
at the present time, they show him several show places. 

For instance, one of these show places was a farm in the Quibishev 
area, Quibishev city area, which was in bad shape because all people, 
all men, were in the Army, in order to impress Mr. Willkie that we 
have huge army, and in spite of this fact that we have also plenty of 
men in the rural areas, they mobilized all people who were cadets 
of Military Language Institute, who at that time was not far from 
that place, as farmers. They changed their uniform to civilian clothes 
to show Mr. Willkie that they are poor farmers, and I was one of them. 

Mr. Morris. In other words — — 

Mr. Rastvorov. Before this, they cleaned this farm about 3 
months, painted it and cleaned it to show Mr. Willkie that everything 
was all right in the Soviet Union on the farms, and sent plenty of 
delicious stuff from Moscow, like caviar, champagne, and everything. 

Mr. Morris. Let me see, Mr. Rastvorov. You were actually in 
the military service at the time? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; I "was one of cadets. 

Mr. Morris. One of the cadets? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you were directed to doff yom- mihtary uni- 
form— — 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And to appear as a farmer? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 793 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. This was a good example of how they were 
tr.ying to deceive people from the West, who naively believed that 
really everything was wonderfid. 

Senator Welker. That leads me to this question, Judge Morris. 

What do you think about this idea, this increased tendenc}', to 
exchange delegations with the Soviet Union, this visiting back and 
forth? Are we likely to be misled , as when jou posed as a farmer, when 
in fact you were an intelligence agent? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think so. 

Senator Welker. Can you give us any information on that? For 
instance, w\\\ they show our delegations what they should see. or do 
they just show us exactly what they want us to see? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Exactly. They show what they want to show, 
because, as you understand, from many articles in press and the 
impressions of people who visit the country, that the Government of 
the Soviet Union purposel}^ shows the places where they want to show, 
and that is why it misleads the people who visit that country, and that 
is wh}'^ sometimes the}' express themselves about their visit and just 
draw the very rosy picture about ever3'thing in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. And we can expect that in the Soviet delegations there 
will be intelligence agents; is that right, sir? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Definitely. 

Senator Welker. Judge Morris, I would like to inquire on another 
matter that is no doubt on the mind of the witness and on the minds of 
most people here. 

Wl\at do you think of this recent publicity that has been coming 
out of the Soviet Union with respect to the purge of Stalin? 

Mr. Rastvorov. WeU, I am not very experienced expert in this 
respect, but I still want to give my opinion, that 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, at this point may the record show that, 
contrary to many of the things that the witness has testified today, 
most of the things in fact, which were based on his own knowledge, 
that this is now his own opinion? 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Rather than evidence. 

Senator Welker. Very well. I am asking for your opinion, sir, 
based upon your experience with the intelligence agency of the Soviet 
Union. 

Mr. Rastvorov. First of all, this purge of Stalin at the present 
time indicates that, probably contrary to the opinion of many experts 
on the Soviet aftairs here — it is an indication of not weakness of the 
Soviet Government at the present time, but it is an indication of 
their strength. 

First of all, doing this, they are trying to strengthen their position 
inside country. 

Mr. Morris. Inside the country? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, sir, and especially among White Russians, 
Byelorussians, and Ukrainians, to show themselves that they are a 
supporter of the rights of the people. 

Senator Welker. And not only would they be strengthening them- 
selves inside theii' own country, but they would be selling a bill of 
goods 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. I am going to come to that. And the 
second aim of their tactics is to force people in the West to believe 
that they are much different from their predecessor, and really sup- 



794 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE XJNITED STATES 

porters of so-called peaceful coexistence, because, as they understand 
in the Western World now, they are very reluctant to believe in their 
sincere plans and desires, and I think this step is a good example of 
their desperate attempts for the Western World to believe about their 
peaceful intentions, about their policy of peaceful coexistence. 

Those are the two main points in their recent tactics. 

Senator Welker. I have just returned from my home State out 
West, and we have received publicity that you no doubt have read, 
these people who are alleging that Stalin was a vicious terror and a 
disgrace to the Soviet Union. 

I will ask you if it is not a fact that that publicity comes from 
those who worked at one time very closely with Stalin? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Bulganin? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Khrushchev? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Mikoyan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Mikoyan; yes. 

Senator Welker. Your opinion is that you are not about to believe 
that as of now? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Of course not. If anybody reads attentively or 
carefully all speeches in the 20th Congress of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union, they can come to only one conclusion, that their 
policy of world domination remains the same. They change their 
tactics from force to so-called peaceful tactics, because they now 
understand they are not strong enough to achieve their aims for peace 
by strength, and it takes time to consolidate their strength. 

And as soon as they consolidate their strength, they return to the 
same previous policy of force. 

Senator Welker. Do you believe that such a thing as a revolution 
is now going on behind the Iron Curtain today in Russia? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think it is wishful thinking. 

Senator Welker. It is wishful thinldng? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And it is given out by Bulganin and the other 
leaders I have named to lull those of us freedom-loving countries 

Mr. Rastvorov. To sleep; yes. 

Senator Welker. Lull us into peaceful sleep 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Which might result in a rude awakening? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It is a very dangerous policy, the policy of smile, 
and then your enemies show what they really represent. 

Senator Welker. Now, since I have been on this committee, 
which has been a number of years, we have been led to believe that 
Stalin was worshipped in his country as a sort of god. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Based upon your opinion of the worldngs of the 
Soviet Union, do you feel that has fundamentally changed, or is that 
attack a change of tactics, of lying, subterfuge, and fraud, which the 
Communists never hesitate to use? 

Mr. Rastvrov. No; the policy tactics and the external policy 
remain basically the same. They change only temporary tactics, you 
know, contemporary tactics, for reasons that I have already mentioned. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UlSTITED STATES 795 

Senator Welker. And could they also change to the benefit of the 
sateUities that they have? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I don't think so; no. I doubt it, because Mr. 
Khi"ushchev stresses very definitely that they are not going to change 
their policy toward satellite countries, and the problems remain the 
same, in spite of the desu-e of the western world to help these countries 
and to free them from the Communist domination. 

Senator Welker. And it is your opinion, is it, that this propa- 
ganda that we have been reading, coming from the leaders of the 
Soviet Union, is nothing but propaganda in an attempt to lull the 
freedom-loving peoples into a sleep? 

Mr. Rastvorov. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. I think that is all I have. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chan-man, I have one more fact here, and that 
is that the September 1954 listing of the delegation to the United 
Nations Nmth Session of the Assembly has the name of A. E. Titov 
listed as First Secretary of the Russian Delegation. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is that the Mr. Titov about whom you have testified? 

Mr. Rastvorov. What is his first name? Alexander? 

Mr. Morris. A. E.; the initials, "A. E." 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; Alexander Titov. 

He is probably chief of the intelligence operations in the New York 
area. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to mention for the record that the Ninth 
Listing, the September 1954, listing, carried him in that fashion. 

Senator Welker. It is so entered as part of the record. 

(The listing above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 228" and 
nia}^ be found in the subcommittee files.) 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, the staff has not yet completed 
the necessary amount of work in connection with this witness, and 
there are other things that are still to be covered in connection with 
this and the previous examination. I wonder if you would ask the 
witness if he would be available for testimony at some time again in 
the future. 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Colonel Rastvorov, naturally our staff has much more work to 
complete before they finish their interrogation of you. Will you be 
available for fm*ther testimony after the staff gives you a reasonable 
time? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; I will do my best any time you ask me to. 

Senator Welker. And I want to thank you very much, Colonel, for 
your testimon}". 

Mr. Rastvorov. You are welcome, sir. 

Senator Welker. Thank you very much. 

Mr, Morris. Thank you. 

CWhereupon, at 12:35 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 

(The following additional testimony by Rastvorov was ordered into 
the record at a hearing on May 31, Chairman Eastland presiding:) 

TESTIMONY OF YURI RASTVOROV— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, do you know a Soviet official named 
Sergei Tichvinski? 



796 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rastvorov. I know him personally. He belonged to the 
Soviet Intelligence Service, particularly MVD Intelligence. He 
started his career as an intelligence officer approximately from 1938, 
1939. 

During the second war he was assigned to the Soviet Embassy in 
China and worked at the Embassy; his final post was counselor. 

Mr. Morris. Where was that? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, I don't know the beginning of his work in 
China. Peking, I think, and elsewhere in China. 

Mr, Morris. Now, could you approximate what year that was? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think it is from 1940, 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he hold a military rank at that time in the 
MVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov, Yes; he already was an officer, an intelligence 
officer at that time. 

Mr. Morris. Of what rank? 

Mr. Rastvorov, Probably lieutenant or senior Heutenant of 
NKGB. 

Mr. Morris. And you say he was assigned, then, to the Soviet 
Embassy in Peking? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. As an intelligence 

Mr, Rastvorov. As an intelligence officer under diplomatic cover, 

Mr. Morris. Do you remember specifically what diplomatic cover 
he had at that time? 

Mr. Rastvorov, Some diplomatic cover, but I don't know particu- 
larly what. I know at the end of his career in China he was counselor 
of the Soviet Embassy. 

Mr. Morris. How long was he in China? 

Mr, Rastvorov. Approximately, with brief trips back to the Soviet 
Union, approximately 10 vears, from 1940 to 1950. 

Mr. Morris, 1940 to 1950? 

Mr, Rastvorov, To 1950, approximately. He also was on intel- 
ligence and official assignments in Hong Kong, I think, and some 
South East Asia countries, and New York, and Ottawa, 

Mr. Morris, Nov/, during those 10 years, to yoiu- knowledge, did 
he act as an MGB officer? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris, For the whole duration? 

Mr, Rastvorov, I think in 1946 or 1947 he came temporarily to 
the Moscow headquarters and was about a couple of months there. 
He gave several lectures to the Intelligence Directorate on the situa- 
tion in China. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet him at that time? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; I met him a couple of tunes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you speak with him at those times? 

Mr, Rastvorov. No. I didn't know him personally but at that 
time he was assigned to the Third Section, Fourth Division of the 
First Directorate of the MGB. 

Mr. Morris, What was the function of that dhectorate? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It was the Directorate of the Intelligence of 
MGB. 

Mr. Morris, What was the MGB? 

Mr. Rastvorov. The Ministry of State Security, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 797 

Mr. Morris. Now, at that time did you know that he was acting 
under diplomatic cover as an intelHgence officer in China? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, in China. 

Mr. Morris. How long did he stay in Moscow at that time? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was there about a couple of months, and then 
returned back to China and later he also occasionally visited Moscow 
on temporary leave. During his work in China he was actively 
engaged in espionage activity against the Chiang Kai-shek Govern- 
ment and had personal contacts with several very important agents 
in China. At that time the Soviet Ambassador in China was 
Panyushkin, who was also the chief of MGB Intelligence in China. 
Tichvinski was one of his chief lieutenants. 

Mr. Morris. You say Tichvinski had contacts with Soviet agents 
in China? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Soviet agents who penetrated Chiang Kai-shek's 
Government. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know any of those? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I don't know particularly the name of those 
agents. I wasn't connected with intelligence work in China. I 
worked in the Japanese section. 

Mr. Morris. That was not your assignment, but you did know, 
and you learned from your experience as an intelligence officer, that 
he had made contact with important agents who had penetrated the 
Chiang Kai-shek Government? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Was that prior to the time you saw hmi in 1946 and 
1947 in Moscow? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, before and after; until the Chiang Kai-shek 
Government collapsed. Also, he was engaged in the recruitment of 
Japanese prisoners of war in China who later, repatriated to Japan, 
agreed to work in the Soviet Intelligence as agents. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us what you mean when you say 
he was engaged in recruitment work? 

Mr. Rastvorov. It means that he participated in recruiting the 
Japanese prisoners of war and internees for intelligence operations in 
Japan. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were these people whom he recruited then sent 
back to the homeland of Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes, exactly. 

Mr. Morris. To carry on intelligence work for the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know whether his recruitment work was 
extensive? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, as I mentioned before, I didn't know the 
details of his work, but I know he participated in this particular 
operation. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything else you know about Mr. 
Tichvinski? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Well, in approximately 1952, he was appointed 
as deputy of the Far East Intelligence Operations Directorate, in 
MGB headquarters in Moscow, and we knew about his appointment 
from the cables which we got from Moscow headquarters which were 
signed by him and also by Colonel Otroschenko, 

72723— 56— pt. 14 i 



798 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Who was Colonel Otroschenko? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was until 1951 the chief of the Far and Near 
East Intelligence Directorate in the Committee of Information. 
The Committee of Information had been established at tlie end of 
1947, on Molotov's initiative, as an independent intelligence agency 
consisting of the Intelligence Directorate of MGB and Military 
Intelligence. The committee was dissolved in 1952 and the Intelli- 
gence Directorate was restored to its previous separate status, for 
greater efficiency. 

Tichvinski was appointed as deputy chief of Far East and Near 
East Intelligence Directorate of the main Intelligence Directorate of 
MGB. At that time he held the rank of full colonel. He speaks 
fluently Chmese and 

Mr. Morris. Who is this now? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Tichvinski — and Japanese, and English. He is 
considered by high level echelons of government and leaders of 
Intelligence Service as a very capable and intelligent officer, capable 
and experienced intelligence officer. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you next hear about Mr. Ticlivinski? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I heard about Mr. Tichvmski, about his work in 
England. In England he was Chief of Intelligence, MVD Intelli- 
gence. 

Mr. Morris. When was that? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I think approximately it was in — ^he was on 
temporary duty there, was a long time there. I have forgotten 
exactly but it is probably 1953. 

Mr. Morris. 1953. In other words, subsequent to his assignment 
to England. 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; after his assignment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know what title he had whUe he was in 
England? 

Mr. Rastvorov. He was under diplomatic cover. I don't know 
exactly what kind of cover he had. Being under diplomatic cover, 
he worked as the leader of the MVD intelligence group in England. 

That is all about England. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know now that he is the head of the 
trade mission to Japan? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes; I read recently in the press various references 
to the name of Sergei Tichvmski, who was appointed as chief of the 
Soviet mission in Tokyo. Paying great attention to Japanese prob- 
lems and anxious to reestablish diplomatic relationship with Japan, 
the Soviet Government probably decided that Tichvinski, being very 
experienced diplomatically and at the same time a very capable, 
experienced intelligence officer, was qualified for this job. 

It was also worthwhile to mention that, as a result of my defection, 
which caused the breakup of the Soviet agent net in Japan, the leaders 
of the Kremlin are very anxious at the present time to buUd again a 
new agent net in Japan, in order to bring about their aims toward that 
country, keeping in mind its strategic and political importance to 
their maneuvers. 

Mr. Morris. That you base on your knowledge of Mr. Tichvinski 
and the MVD? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. It is absolutely obvious that the Soviet 
mission in Japan at the present time is having a hard time reestablish- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 799 

ing contact with the Japanese Communist Party because of lack of 
experienced intelligence officers. All of them, after my defection^ 
were sent to the Soviet Union. 

Previously the Soviet intelligence group in Tokyo maintained con- 
tact with the Japanese Communist Party through a liaison member 
of the Communist Party of Japan whose code name was Ron. 

There is no question that Mr. Tichvinski has been given the task of 
reestablishing contact with the Japanese Communist Party. He re- 
placed Mr. Greschnov who temporarily was the head of the MVD 
intelligence group in Tokyo after the Soviet Intelligence Service was 
forced to recall all their intelligence personnel as a result of my defec- 
tion. The Soviet Intelligence Service needed very much to replace 
Mr. Greschnov with a more capable and experienced intelligence officer 
who could renew intelligence operations in Japan, and that is one of 
the reasons Mr. Tichvinski has been sent to Japan — not only for the 
purpose of attempting the establishment of diplomatic relations with 
Japan but for intelligence purposes directly. 

Mr. Morris. And again, Mr. Rastvorov, you know that from your 
understanding of the operations of MVD and your knowledge of Mr. 
Tichvinski, rather than any direct knowledge that you have? 

Mr. Rastvorov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how did you know that Ron was the liaison 
man? 

Mr. Rastvorov. I personally participated in the arrangement of 
meetings with Ron from 1950 until 1954. I also participated directly 
in getting the money in American currency which the Soviet Govern- 
ment sent clandestinely to Japan for the activities and work of the 
Japanese Communist Party. 

After the second war, the MVD Intelligence Service participated in 
the recruitment of Japanese prisoners of war in concentration camps, 
which existed aU over the Soviet Union, particularly in the Far East 
area. 

In 1948 I participated myself in recruitment of PW's in the Far 
East area, especially Khabarovsk. The MVD Intelligence Service 
recruited approximately 400 Japanese prisoners of war to use as agents 
after their return to Japan. Some of these agents were used after 
their return to Japan. Some of them were put on ice temporarily, 
and we can assume that Mr. Tichvinski will be engaged in reestablish- 
ing contact with some of these people, who up until now have not 
been active as Soviet agents, but who are now important to Soviet 
intelligence because of their possible sensitive positions. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rastvorov, could you estimate for us the number 
of Japanese prisoners and internees who were recruited for intelligence 
purposes? 

Mr. Rastvorov. As I mentioned before, the Soviet Intelligence 
Service alone recruited approximately 400 people. Besides these 
people, local concentration camp authorities, for internal purposes, 
also recruited a great number of Japanese prisoners of war. 

I think it is better to explain what I mean by this. In other words, 
so-called internal agents which they used as informers in PW camps, 
not directly for intelligence purposes but to spy on their own men at 
the camps. 

They were not recruited by Intelligence Service but by local au- 
thorities who were in charge of these PW camps, and if you include 



800 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

this number, it would be approximately 7,000, 8,000 people, who also 

are potential agents and sooner or later could be used as active Soviet 

agents in Japan. 

(Whereupon, at 4:50 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 

(The following statement of Yuri Rastvorov was ordered into the 

record at a meeting of the subcommittee on July 18, 1956:) 

My career as an officer of the Soviet Intelligence Service, MVD, began in 1940 
with"^my entry into the Japanese department of the Moscow Institute of Eastern 
Studies'. The institute was originally named after Narimanov, but as it fre- 
quently happens in the Soviet Union, Narimanov was eventually accused of 
treason against the Soviet Union on behalf of all foreign intelligence services, 
collectively, and was specifically charged with being an agent of the Japanese 
Intelligence Service. This latter charge against Narimanov was evolved as the 
result of the Soviet estimation of the capabilities attributed to the Japanese 
Intelligence Service. It was always described as the most powerful and the most 
active of all the foreign intelligence organizations supposedly functioning on the 
Soviet territory, and especially in the Soviet Far East. Fantastic "cloak and 
dagger" stories involving operations of the Japanese Intelligence Service in the 
Soviet Union were in circulation throughout the Soviet population. Many of 
these stories (tales) could successfully compete with the horror stories of the 
unexcelled Hollywood master of mystery Alfred Hitchcock. 

Thousands of prominent and responsible Communist Party and Government 
officials, together with the leaders and the high command of the Red army were 
accused, tried, and finally slaughtered on the grounds that they were actively 
engaged in espionage forthe Japanese Intelligence Service. These accusations 
frequently took a ridiculous form, since the evidence presented at the trials 
tended to indicate that some of the accused leaders of the Soviet society were on 
the payroll of the Japanese Intelligence supposedly from the time when they 
normally would have been wearing diapers. 

"\Miile I was a member of the Japanese department of the Moscow Institute of 
Eastern Studies, I became a direct witness to the numerous arrests of the teaching 
personnel of the institute. Among those arrested were prominent Japanese Com- 
munists, active participants of the Comintern, who came to the "proletarian 
paradise" to acquire practical experience for making revolution. They hoped to 
apply the lessons learned in Moscow to their own country when the opportunity 
presented itself, but in the meantime, some of them were utilized in the capacity 
of teachers of Japanese in the Institute of Eastern Studies in Moscow. Among 
the few Japanese people who survived Soviet panic and the resultant bloody 
purges which reflected Soviet fear of the Japanese, was the daughter of Sen 
Katayama, one of the original founders of the Japanese Communist Party. By 
virtue of being the lone survivor of the purges at the institute, she became the 
only native Japanese teacher of language available there, soon establishing herself 
as the sole authority on the subject. 

Since I was an inexperienced young man, thoroughly permeated with Com- 
munist ideology, taught to hate everything foreign, I had to accept the official 
Communist line, emphasizing the supposed inherent qualities of treachery and 
basic animosity which the Soviets attribute to Japanese people. The complete 
fallacy of this "indoctrination I came to realize later when I was given an oppor- 
tunity to visit Japan, the land which I had studied for so long, and so intensively. 
At the time, however, I could not suspect that Japanese language and Japanese 
area studies were to play such a decisive role in my life a decade later when, 
because of it, I was able to break away from the Commimist regime in Russia and 
to establish for myself a new home in a free country. 

I began my study of Japanese language with mixed emotions. There were 
doubts in my mind as to my ultimate ability to master Japanese, the most difficult 
language for Europeans to learn. There was also present in me an element of 
fear of Japan, the sworn enemy of the Soviet people, according to the around-the- 
clock pronouncements of the Soviet propaganda machine. Paradoxically, my 
doubts and fears were overshadowed by the trust placed upon me by my country. 
I was fired up with enthusiasm directed at fulfilling the assigned responsible 
mission of defending the "workers-peasants" motherland from the aspirations of 
the imperialist Japan, said to be desirous to conquer the Soviet Union. 

Even though there were certain doubts in me concerning the infallibility of the 
Communist regime established in Russia, I was nevertheless inclined to believe 
the extravagant statements of the Kremlin clique, painting the bright picture of 
the happv future for the suffering Russian people. The deprivations of the Rus- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTR^ITY EST THE UNITED STATES 801 

sian masses were always explained by the Communists in terms of foreign capital- 
ist exploitation, encirclement, and the aggressive designs directed against the 
Soviet Union. 

My study of the Japanese language was interrupted with the outbreak of the war 
between Germanj^ and the Soviet Union, in June 1941. AH students of the Jap- 
anese department of the Institute of Eastern Studies in Moscow were ordered im- 
mediately to proceed to the Soviet Far East, to be employed as interpreters of 
Japanese language, and to serve as officers of the psychological warfare service 
in the Special Far Eastern Red army. 

The Communist leadership of Russia anticipated with fear the possible entry 
of Japan into the war against the Soviet Union. Such action bj^ Japan would 
have dfcidrd the fate of the Communist id( ology and probably would have 
changed entirely the recent history of mankind. The widely spread fear of the 
Soviet leaders was soon to bo dispelled. 

My presence in the Soviet Far East lasted only a short while. Several weeks 
prior to the outbreak of war between the United States and Japan, a transfer 
took place of a considerable number of the Soviet Far Eastern Army combat 
units to the western front. This development was observed with amazemmt by 
the staff officers of the Soviet Far Eastern Command. The transfer of troops 
was nccf'ssitated by the critical situation developing on the approaches to Moscow 
by the German advance. What then appeared to be an excefdingly risky step 
to be taken by the Soviet high command, since it expos'cd the Soviet far eastern 
area.s to a possible invasion by the Japanese Kwantung armjf, in reality, was a 
calculated risk undertaken by the Kremlin leadership on the knowledge of the 
Japanese General Staff plan of attack on Pearl Harbor. This knowledge in 
turn, was derived from the extensive espionage network operations carried out 
by the Soviets in Japan. 

Soon aft/^^r the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, assuring the safety of the 
Sovi<t position in the Far East, I was transferred from Mongolia to Fergana, the 
location to which the Institute of Eastern Studies was evacuated from Moscow. 

In 1943, in connection with the growing need for Japanese linguists I was recalled 
from the institute and, in accordance with the decision of the central committee 
of the Soviet Communist Party, I was assigned to the Japanese Department of the 
Intelligence Directorate of the Soviet Ministry of State Security. 

All those mental pictures of the Soviet intelligence activities, which mj^ youthful 
imagination helped to create, proved to be exceedingly' naive and overly romantic. 
Having seen much, and having experienced more as the time w^mt on, a n'^w world 
open* d up to me — an unpleasant, repulsive underworld, filled with intrigues, 
murders, kidnapings, blackmail; with all sorts of unethical political manipulations, 
diversionary acts — all directed against the countries of the non-Soviet world. All 
these actions were justified by the Soviet leaders on the grounds that the target, the 
free world, represented a threat to communism and therefore had to be destroyed. 

The absence in my work of any serious eomf)lications requiring assistance and 
direction from an expert possessing a brilliant analytical mind, was always a source 
of amazement to me. Everything was basic in nature, simple and orderly. It 
was difficult to realize that within the framework of the huge Soviet espionage 
net covering the world, operated Rosenburgs, Fuchs, Hiss, MacLean, Burgess, 
Sorge, and thousands of others. What specially impressed me at the beginning, 
and became later a source of repulsion for me, was the complete lack of humane- 
ness and consideration by the Soviet system toward the agents of its own intelli- 
gence service. Agents employed by the Soviets were always in a position of 
niilk-cows, once they ceased producing milk, they were sent to a slaughterhouse. 

In January 1946, after an appropriate intelligence operational training and 
preparation, I was sent to Tokyo under the guise of a representative of the Soviet 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The capitulation of Japan opened up numerous 
opportunities for the Soviet intensification of the intelligence effort, and the Tokyo 
representatives of the Soviet Intelligence Service (MVDj experienced an urgent 
need for additional intelligence officers. 

The Soviet Government proved to be verj' realistic in its early appraisal of the 
situation in the Far East. It came to a conclusion that it would be impossible to 
establish in Japan a puppet regime of the Soviet Government, like those created 
in Eastern Europe with the aid of Soviet troops. Occupation of Japan by the 
United States troops and the categorical refusal bj^ General Mac Arthur to comply 
with the persistent and strong Soviet demands to permit Soviet military occupa- 
tion of northern Japan — island of Hokkaido, prevented the Soviet Government 
from establishing "in accordance with the will of the Japanese people" the "in- 
dependent democratic Japanese Government friendly to the Soviet cause and to 
its ideology." Because of this, the Communist leadership of the Soviet Union 



802 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

attributed special importance to the formation in Japan of a comprehensive, 
widelj' established and effective Soviet espionage net. 

The main objective of the Soviet espionage effort was the infiltration of its 
agents into the Imperial Court circle, into the Government and business, and 
into the political parties of Japan. This reflected the long-range aspects of the 
Soviet political planning in regard to Japan. Soviet leadership considered the 
necessity for Soviet penetration into the Japanese political life at the time when 
the sovereigntj' of Japan would be restored. Soviet planning centered upon the 
use of Japanese Socialist parties, the most effective instrument for the submission 
of Japan to the Soviet influence. [The current Soviet campaign, led by Khru- 
shchev and his subordinates, "sweetly" praising the Communist Party of Japan 
and the Sociahst Party elements in that country, actually represents a move to 
strengthen the fifth column of the Kremlin in Japan. Through it, the Soviets 
intend to convert Japan eventually into a puppet of the international Communist 
movement, with the consequent result of weakening the unified anti-Communist 
front in the Far East.] 

As a concurrent mission, the Soviet intelligence organs in Japan were instructed 
to undertake the espionage operations against the Allied occupation forces, with 
the first priority of this effort given to the United States and to the British 
personnel and installations. 

Immediately after the capitulation of Japan, the intelligence group of the 
MVD in Tokyo instigated the search for, and the reestablishment of contact 
with, former Soviet espionage agents. Some of these agents were discarded and 
lost during the war; some of them, however, were directed to go underground and 
to remain inactive because of the strict Japanese internal security control main- 
tained during the war. 

[The firm and effective Japanese control and the constant surveillance main- 
tained over the Soviet Embassy personnel and over the personnel of other Soviet 
agencies, resulted in a considerable curtailment of Soviet intelligence operations 
in Japan during World War II.] 

With the termination of the war, the intensified Soviet drive to reestablish 
contact with the former Japanese agents of the Soviet intelligence services was 
greatly facilitated by the fact that many of the Japanese former Soviet agents 
appeared at the Soviet missions in Tokyo, on their ovv^n initiative, prompted not 
only by devotion, but also by the pangs of hunger. In the majority of these cases, 
they were attempting to regain contact with the representatives of the Soviet 
Military IntelHgence (GRU), an organization which successfully competes with 
the MVD espionage system. 

In the summer of 1946, one of the oldest, most reliable and faithful agents of the 
MVD, Takemore Shigezu, made his appearance at the Soviet mission in Tokyo. 
Takemore spent considerable time in the Soviet Union as an official representative 
of the Japanese Government, representing Japanese commercial firms having 
concessions in the northern part of the Sakhalin Island. He was recruited by the 
MVD intelligence service through the exploitation of a known weakness on his 
part. Having learned that his weakness was Russian women, the MVD arranged 
for Takemore to meet an attractive Moscow prostitute who was an MVD agent. 
This MVD sponsored romance soon blossomed out into a secret marriage, that 
eventually resulted in the recruitment of Takemore as a full-fledged agent of the 
MVD intelligence service. Recognizing his dedicated love toward his wife, the 
MVD exploited this factor to the hilt. As payment for his espionage activities, 
Takemore was given infrequent opportunities to meet his wife in north Sakhalin, 
where she was brought from Moscow under escort of two MVD colonels. These 
meetings between Takemore and his wife were usually held in a house assigned for 
this purpose by the MVD. Surveillance included keeping an eye on them by the 
escorting MVD colonels from Moscow. The colonels were assigned to this duty 
because of the importance attributed Takemore by the MVD. Takemore honestly 
and faithfully worked for the Soviet Intelligence Service (MVD), transmitting to 
it great amounts of valuable classified information and numerous secret documents 
from the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. To the best of my knowledge, 
Takemore continued his postwar emplovment with the Soviet Intelligence Service 
(MVD) through 1954. 

Before my departure from Moscow for Tokyo, I was instructed to report for 
briefing to the Director of the Intelligence Service (MVD), Lieutenant General 
Fitin. In the course of my visit to Fitin, he underscored and emphasized the 
need for recruitment of Americans and British. Referring to his instructions 
from the Kremlin, he stated that "with the collapse of Hitlerite Germany, our 
principal enemies remain the United States and Great Britain. This is the direc- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTI\'ITT EST THE UNITED STATES 803 

tion of the main Soviet effort, and within it the principal phice is assigned to the 
Soviet Intelligence Service operations." The open cynicism displayed by Fitin 
was to me reminiscent of the Soviet failure to advise the United States of Japan's 
willingness to capitulate in 1945. Filled with disappointment, and greatly disil- 
lusioned and depressed, I left the private office of this high Soviet bureaucrat, in 
whose hands was concentrated the worldwide network of Soviet espionage. This 
again demonstrated to me the inherent duplicity of the Soviet leadership towards 
the Allies, who were instrumental in assuring the survival of the Communist 
regime, without realizing that the Communists, as soon as they were in a position, 
would bite the hand that was feeding them, and would ultimately stab their 
saviors in the back. 

After a long 10-day journey across the vast wasteland and forests of Siberia, I 
arrived in Vladivostok. There I joined a large group of select, specially trained 
Soviet officers, the inajoritj' of whom were intelligence officers assigned to Japan. 
I later learned that most of us received similar briefings, stressing the sam.e objec- 
tives I had heard in Fitin's office. From Vladivostok to Yokohama, the 3-day 
trip was made in American built ships, which had been furnished by the United 
States to the Soviets during the war, under the terms of the lend-lease. 

Upon my arrival in Japan I was especially impressed with the magnitude of 
Japanese industrial installations in the Tokyo-Yokohama area. Smokeless fac- 
tory chimneys, dominating the horizon, however, stood as silent witness of this 
devastated land. 

After a short period of local intelligence briefings dedicated primarily to the 
study of locations and places suitable for clandestine meetings with agents, I was 
ready to embark on my first operational assignment on Japanese soil. My im- 
mediate task was to establish a direct contact with two Japanese agents of the 
Soviet Intelligence Service (MVD), who had just returned to Japan from Moscow. 
One of these men, by name Higurashi, occupied a position of secretary of the 
Japanese Embassy in Moscow, while the other, named Kiyokawa, had served as 
MoscovvT correspondent for one of the leading Japanese newspapers. 

Approximately a year before the end of war in the Pacific in 1944, when it be- 
came obvious that the war was not going to end favorably for Japan, a number of 
Japanese diplomats in Moscow formed a political group, calling it the Party for 
the Establishment of the New Democratic Order in Japan. The formation of 
this group was prompted by the deep depression and pessimism which prevailed 
throughout the ranks of the Japanese representatives of the Foreign Office sta- 
tioned abroad 

Soviet Intelligence Service (MVD) authorities learned about the formation of 
this group through its counterintelligence organization which was responsible for 
the surveillance of and reporting on members of foreign diplomatic missions in 
Moscow. Having obtained information concerning this organization and its 
objectives, the Chief of the MVD counterintelligence office who was responsible 
for this area. Colonel Tahchianov, made contact with the group. To hide his 
connection with Soviet Intelligence, he claimed to be a representative of Soviet 
social, political, and cultural circles. To make the necessary contacts, he used as 
his intermediaries Russian agents, employees of the Japanese Embassy. Through 
them, Colonel Tahchianov established contact with the aforementioned group, 
offering it his services and facilities for the moral and material support necessary to 
implement the plans developed by the Japanese Embassy conspirators. 

Having thus created a close working contact with the Japanese group, 
Tahchianov then concentrated on the development of individual members of the 
group along Communist lines. This development stage was stimulated by 
promises of serious and extensive Soviet support to the Japanese "party" for the 
establishment of the "democratic" regime in Japan. Cultivation and develop- 
ment of the Japanese diplomatic representatives in Moscow was not limited to 
the political objectives, but was, as a rule, lavishly accompanied by dinner parties 
and various other forms of entertainment. As a result of the intensive Soviet 
drive, all members of this Japanese Embassy group were recruited individually as 
agents of the MVD, prior to their departure from Moscow. Each of the individ- 
uals, signed an agreement, committing himself in writing to work for Soviet 
Intelligence, and also obligating himself to keep this agreement secret from other 
members of the Japanese Embassy group. The form of this written agreement 
had a pompous character, elaborating on the Communist future of Japan and 
emphasizing the necessitv for ph^-sical extermination of the Imperial family and 
for the complete elimination of the Imperial system in Japan, which were the main 
causes for the misfortunes of the Japanese people. 

I established contact with Higurashi in July 1946, on a Sunday, by the monu- 
ment of General Grant in Ueno Park. While still in Moscow, Higurashi and 



804 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

other members of the Japanese Embassy group mentioned above, were in- 
structed in detail as to the types of information they were to obtain for the 
Soviet Union. Special emphasis was placed on the information pertaining to the 
United States policies toward Japan. 

The end of the war found Higurashi in an important and responsible position 
in the Japanese Foreign Office. Following the conclusion of peace negotiations 
in San Francisco, the Soviet Government was thoroughly informed by Higurashi 
concerning the internal and external policies of Yoshida's government, including 
details of the secret negotiations between United States and the Japanese Gov- 
ernments held through the medium of the American Ambassadors, in Japan, 
Murphy and Allison. Detailed facts of the negotiations were transmitted by 
Higurashi directly to the Soviet representatives in Tokyo and were then imme- 
diately telegraphed by them to Moscow. The information submitted by 
Higurashi was so detailed that frequently it was thought to be an exact steno- 
graphic transcript of the discussions held by the American and Japanese repre- 
sentatives. The compliance of Higurashi with Soviet demands for information, 
was made possible through his wide circle of acquaintances and friends holding 
key positions within the Japanese Government. Among these was the brother- 
in-law of Yoshida. Higurashi also had access to timely information concerning 
the Japanese Government's position in regard to the Illegal presence of the Soviet 
mission on Japanese territory. The legality of its presence in Japan was ques- 
tioned by the Japanese, since the Soviet Union refused to conclude the peace 
treaty with Japan, which would have meant recognition of Japan's sovereignty. 
Studying the detailed information reports submitted by Higurashi on the subject 
of conferences held by top leaders in the Japanese Foreign Office, with the 
frequent participation of Premier Yoshida, we in Pvloscow were always amazed 
at the attitude of uncertainty and the indecision held by the Japanese Govern- 
ment in regard to the continued existence of the Soviet mission in Tokyo. It 
is unfortunate that the Japanese were not aware, at that time, of the Soviet 
preparedness to withdraw its mission from Japan at the iirst strong request by 
the Japanese Government. 

Higurashi also rendered a valuable service to the Kremlin and to the Chinese 
Communist leaders during the Korean war. He obtained a considerable amount 
of information of military character, describing the efforts of the United States 
and other United Nations participating in the drive to expel the Korean Com- 
munists from South Korea. In the course of his priceless service for the Soviet 
intelligence over a period of some 8 years, Higuraslii "earned" over 7.000 American 
dollars, in addition to the extravagant promises of further compensation in the 
future, when the objectives of the Soviet Union in Japan were attained. 

In the course of his initial contacts in Japan with the Soviet Intelligence Service 
representatives, Higurashi was still under the influence of his Moscow "experi- 
ence," naively believing that his entire mission for the Soviets would consist only 
of organizing a new Japanese political party, and not fully realizing, at the time, 
that he had already become a paid Soviet agent and a traitor to Japan. 

A few weeks after assuming the responsibility of working with Higurashi, I 
established operational contact with another Japanese agent, also a former member 
of the Moscow "group." Kiyokawa Yukichi was a former Moscow correspondent 
for a leading Japanese newspaper. I met Kiyokawa in the Meiji Park, in the 
evening. He appeared extremely jittery and expressed unmistakable fear of 
detection. It required considerable time and effort on my part to obtain from 
Kiyokawa intelHgent answers to my operational questions and to transmit to him 
instructions for his next espionage assignment. 

In contrast with Higurashi, Kiyokawa, on the basis of my initial contact with 
him, demonstrated complete apathy and unwillingness to fulfill the espionage 
obligations which he had assumed while in Moscow. Kiyokawa had returned to 
his former position on the leading Japanese newspaper, which he had represented 
in Moscow. He was in constant panic, fearful of detection and arrest by the 
Japanese police or American occupation authorities. I do not exaggerate when 
I say that during my meetings with Kiyokawa, which were usually held in the 
dark out-of-the-way streets of Tokyo, I could always recognize Kiyokawa by 
the rattle of his teeth, a direct result of his nervousness. He constantly insisted 
that he should be left alone, refused to accept money payments from me. The 
extent of his espionage effort was consistently limited to the transcription and 
rehash of political commentaries from various Tokyo newspapers. This he 
submitted to me for transmission to Moscow as secret information. Kiyokawa 
systematically tried to avoid the operational meetings with me. There were 
periods, several months in duration, when he failed completely to appear at 
scheduled meeting places. Although there was constant Soviet pressure exerted 



SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 805 

on Kiyokawa to fulfill his obligations, toward the middle of 1950 he broke contact 
with Soviet intelligence altogether. 

In the summer of 1946, contact was reestablished with two other members of the 
former Japanese Embassy group in Moscow. I worked with one of them, Shioji, 
during my second assignment in Japan in July 1950. Although Shioji was not a 
high ranking officer of the Japanese Foreign Office, he soon became an important 
figure in the espionage net maintained by MVD in Japan. His primary value to 
the Soviet intelligence was his "natural ability" to steal top secret documents 
from the safes of the Japanese Foreign Office. This earned Shioji the MVD nick- 
name "Document Master." Concurrently, with his firm belief in the righteous- 
ness of communism, Shioji was also deeply dedicated to the idea of monetary com- 
pensation for his efforts. He constantly demanded of me additional sums of 
money which he claimed \^re due him for extra services rendered the Soviet 
intelligence. He invented various reasons and excuses for demanding supple- 
mentary payments for his services, such as purchases of presents for his superiors 
in the Foreign Office, for dances and parties, and various other purposes, supposedly 
required from the developmental intelligence point of view. In reality, Shioji 
financed his numerous love affairs with Soviet funds given him for intelligence 
purposes. This the MVD knew from Shioji's "colleague" Higurashi, and from 
other agents. 

In the latter half of 1953, Shioji informed me, at one of our operational meetings, 
that he was nominated by his superiors in the Foreign Office for a diplomatic as- 
signment to the Japanese Embassj- in New Delhi, India. Moscow, immediately 
upon receipt of my message, instructed Shioji to do his utmost to obtain this as- 
signment. Moscow felt that through Shioji Soviet intelligence would develop 
additional onerational possibilities in India, which also represented a vital in- 
telligence target for Soviet intelligence operations. 

I assume, however, that with my sensational departure from the Soviet mission 
in Tokyo in January 1954, Shioji's opportunities to enjoy the Indian scene were 
unceremoniou'^iy terminated. 

Concurrently with handling my agents, Kiyokawa and Higurashi, I was in- 
structed by Moscow to establish contact with another Japanese agent of the 
MVD, Sakata, Jiro. He was returned to Japan after an internment in the Soviet 
Union, as the result of the Soviet declaration of war in August 1945. The unusual 
rapidity with which the Soviets repatriated interned Japanese diplomats after 
the war was prompted by the extraordinary need to place these men in areas of 
projected So'v let intelligence operations. This was told to me by my Moscow 
superiors. Moscow felt that these agents, because of their positions and con- 
nections, could play an important role in the procurement of information vital 
for the formulation of Soviet policy toward Japan. Sakata's recruitment as an 
MVD agent \Aas reininiscent of the incentive used in recruiting Takemore. Both 
were extremely susceptible to the charms of the opposite sex. Sakata was 
assigned to Moscow during World War II. Being lonely, he established an 
acquaintance and later a close relationship with a Russian girl, who was in reality 
an MVD agent. This friendship between Sakata and the Russian girl, Galina, 
soon ripened into a more tangible relationship than g, purelj- platonic friendship. 
After several months of this romance, the MVD designed a rather simjile operation 
intended to involve Sakata to the point where his recruitment as a Soviet intelli- 
gence a'ent could be accomplished without any difficulty. Following the MVD 
scheme, while Sakata was not aware of the fact, every step he was forced to take 
was preplanned for him by Soviet intelligence. Galina was instructed to an- 
nounce to Sakata that she was "preinant" and request his assistance in performing 
"abortion," supposedly to relievo him of both financial and legal responsibility 
for the "expected" child. Abortions were at that time criminal offenses as 
stipulated by the Soviet criminal law. Realizing the consequences to him if a 
child would be born to Galina, Sakata agreed to finance the abortion, especially 
since she insisted that she was resorting to an abortion to protect his official 
reputation. 

The "abortion" W"as performed by a Soviet "doctor" in his Moscow flat with 
Sakata waiting in an adjoining room during the operation; Sakata was amply 
supplied with all the sound effects necessary to convince him of the "suffering" his 
wife was undergoing, including hysterical screams and groans. At the most 
opportune moment, two MVD officers, dressed in police uniforms, broke into the 
flat and "arrested" all of the participants of the "crime," including Sakata. 
During the interrogation of those involved, in the Moscow police station, the 
consequences of revealing details of this event were presented to Sakata, together 
with an offer of suppression of the story if he agreed to become an agent for the 



806 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Intelligence Service in Japan. Sakata, lacking courage and concerned 
primarily with the consequences of this event upon his career, after a token resist- 
ance, accepted the MVD proposal. This masterful play, involving only MVD 
personnel playing the assigned roles in a simple scenario, netted the MVD one of 
the m.ain agent figures in postwar Soviet espionage operations in Japan. 

Occupying an important and a responsible post as a news correspondent, 
Sakata was in a position to supply jMoscow with great quantities of valuable 
information which he was able to obtain b.y virtue of his numerous connections 
among the political leaders in Japan. 

To the very end of his espionage career on behalf of the Soviet Intelligence 
Service, Sakata remained a true and dedicated "husband" of his Moscow "wife." 
Through his MVD superiors in Tokyo he kept forwarding to his "wife" in Moscow 
valuable presents, money, and sincerely romantic lia^ters. In his innocence of 
MVD operating procedures and methods, Sakata could not know that imme- 
diately upon his departure from Moscow his "wife" was directed by the MVD 
to participate in other operations of a similar type, which involved other mem- 
bers of the foreign diplomatic missions and press agencies in Moscow. Eventu- 
ally, long after the Sakata operation, Galina, his "wife," was assigned to cultivate 
a similar relationship with a member of the Turkish Embassv in Moscow. In 
this instance, however, she really fell in love with her intelligence target and 
categorically refused to follow the MVD instructions in regard to her current 
victim. This exhibition of a lack of discipline on her part resulted in a prompt 
MVD action against her. She was tried by the MVD and was sentenced to 
10 years at hard labor in a Soviet concentration camp. Sakata, of course, was 
never informed of the fate of his wife and remained blissfully ignorant of the 
tragic developments. He continued his work for the MVD with the same sincere 
conviction that bj^ following this course of action he was protecting her as well 
as himself. 

In its widely spread areas of interest and activities, the MVD was always con- 
cerned with the subject of the "White Russian" emigres in Japan. A very inten- 
sive drive was conducted by the MVD to recruit those "White Russians" who were 
sympathetic to the Soviet cause and could be of use to the Soviet intelligence effort 
in Japan. In the immediate postwar period, while the relationship between the 
United States and the Soviet Union was relatively normal, numerous "White 
Russian" emigres were employed by the American forces of occupation throughout 
Japan. These "White Russians" represented the prime target for exploitation 
by the Soviet intelligence, since they maintained extensive contact and friendships 
with the members of the occupying forces in Japan. The Soviet intelligence 
planned to use the "White Russians" recruited by the IMVD in at least two capaci- 
ties. One was to furnish to the MVD intelligence information, and the other, to 
spot likely American, British, Australian, and Japanese individuals for eventual 
recruitment as Soviet intelligence agents. 

In the case of the projected selection of Japanese for MVD recruitment, the 
criteria established by the Soviets included one basic characteristic — the element 
of bitterness and hatred directed by the Japanese candidate toward the Americans 
and the British. As an illustration of this approach, I can cite an actual case of 
recruitment of a prominent Japanese engineer employed by an American construc- 
tion company, having numerous contracts for the construction of secret military 
installations on Okinawa. The candidac.y of this Japanese engineer was proposed 
to the Soviet intelligence representatives in Tokyo by an ex- White Russian, a 
Soviet agent, Afanas'yev. He suggested this Japanese engineer's candidacy for 
the Soviet espionage recruitment on the basis of a long-term friendship with him 
and because of the pronounced anti- American tendencies exhibited by the Japanese 
engineer. Since the Japanese engineer in his display of anti- American sentiment 
frequently reflected to Afanas'yev the desire to retaliate for the defeat of Japan, 
Afanas'yev reported this to the Soviet intelligence officer Vasiliy Savel'yev, who 
was working in the Soviet mission in Tokj'o under the cover of a Soviet consular 
official, and directed Afanas'yev's activities as an agent for Soviet intelligence. 
iVcting on the instructions of Savel'yev, Afanas'yev arranged a personal meeting 
at his house between the Japanese engineer and Savel'yev, for the purpose of 
initial assessn)ent of the Japanese as a prospective Soviet agent. After receiving 
adequate proof as to the sincerity and the strength of the Japanese engineer's 
hatred toward the United States, Savel'yev offered him a practical way for retal- 
iation against the United States, in the form of cooperation with the Soviet intel- 
ligence, MVD. The Japanese accepted Savel'yev's proposal without any hesitation 
and, from the initial period of his employment as a Soviet intelligence agent, 
demonstrated an unusual ambition and capacitj' for espionage work. All the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 807 

secret plans and documents of the American construction company engaged in the 
construction of secret installations on Okinawa to which the Japanese engineer had 
access, were made available by him to Savel'yev. These documents and plans 
were photostated at the Soviet mission in Tokyo, and while the originals were 
returned to the safes of the company responsible, so as not to arouse suspicion, 
the undeveloped film was forwarded to Moscow with members of the Soviet 
mission in Tokyo. 

This was considered to be the safest way to forward sensitive materials which 
were the product of Soviet espionage in Japan, since no regular diplomatic pouch 
transmission was in effect after Japan regained its sovereignty, as a result of 
peace treaties with the Allied Powers. 

A similar example of utilization of an ex- White Russian in Japan by the Soviet 
intelligence was represented by the case of Aksenov, who was recruited by the 
MVI) in 1947. Aksenov, upon graduation from the medical school of Tokyo 
University, established for himself a reputation of a miraculous healer within 
the foreign colony in Tokyo, and especially among the members of the diplomatic 
corps, since they had little faith in medical assistance available to them locally. 
Aksenov, because of his personality, was able to impress his patients most favor- 
ably with his medical knowledge and with the ability to treat them. Since he was 
on excellent terms with the military members of the American occupation forces 
and with the foreign diplomats, especially the British, he was able, as a rule, to 
procure important information required by the MVD. His performance as a 
Soviet agent was especially valuable in the field of his reporting to the MVD 
the instances of his treatment of venereal diseases within the foreign colony in 
Tokyo, particularly involving married men who were members of the diplomatic 
establishments or military missions. This information was in great demand by 
the MVD, since the Soviet intelligence felt that through blackmail of Aksenov's 
patients the Soviets could recruit them for the Soviet espionage net. 

As a reward for faithful service to the MVD, Aksenov was granted Soviet 
citizenship, although originally he was a "White Russian." His acceptance of 
the Soviet passport, however, was kept a strict secret, so as not to jeopardize his 
established foreign connections in Tokyo. In order to safeguard him from expo- 
sure, he was categorically forbidden to have any contact with the known Soviet 
citizens in the area, and particularly overt contact with the members of the Soviet 
mission in Tokyo. He was specifically instructed not to render to them any 
medical assistance, and not to display any sympathies toward the Soviet Union. 

The efforts of the MVD directed against the refugees from the Soviet Union and 
the satellite countries, to induce their voluntary return to the Soviet control, were 
based not onh' upon the propaganda value of the results expected, but also in the 
undermining of the solidarity and the anti-Communist stand of the numerous 
emigre organizations, imcom promisingly conducting active and effective resist- 
ance work against the Soviet Union. Carrying on work in this direction is the 
responsibility of the MVD, which frequently employs as its instrument the 
ex-Russian emigres recruited by Soviet intelligence as its agents. In Tokyo, 
Afanas'yev and Aksenov, among others, were also involved in this work on behalf 
of the Soviet Union. A far more prominent figure hov.'ever, in this field of Soviet 
endeavor in Japan, was another ex-Russian emigre, Michurin. He had, for a 
while, occupied the position of a chairman of the Societj' of Soviet Citizens in 
Japan, a pro-Soviet group composed almost exclusively of the ex-White Russians 
who by various means, frequently including espionage activities, had "regained" 
Soviet citizenship. Michurin represented a type of individual completely lacking 
moral principles, possessing an extremely narrow political horizon of a typical 
idealistic representative of intelligentsia. He escaped from Russia during the 
revolution and after spending many years in exile in Japan, lost whatever sense of 
realism he still possessed and decided to gain the favor of the Kremlin masters 
through espionage and other activities on their behalf. There Vv'ere many other 
ex-Russian emigres, like Myasishchev and Voyevodin, active in Tokyo and 
throughout Japan, ready to go to any extreme in satisfying the demands of the 
representatives of the Soviet mission in Tokyo, in a desperate hope of redeeming 
their past and gaining Soviet forgiveness. 

Toward the end of 1946, I was unexpectedly recalled from Tokyo and was sent 
to Moscow to appear before a Communist Party board to present testimony and 
an explanation concerning my failure to indicate a certain fact in one of the numer- 
ous questionnaires, which I was required to fill before going abroad. The inquiry- 
was based on my "failure" to indicate that my father was expelled from the 
Communist Party in 1936. Although soon after my father's expulsion from the 
party he was reinstated, the fact according to Soviet standards was sufficiently 



808 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

incriminating to eompromise my position and to undermine the Soviet trust in 
my integrity, "j^hree long years passed by before the central committee of the 
Communist Party again authorized my second assignment abroad, again to Japan. 
In the meantime, my espionage activities directed at Japan took a new form and 
opened fresh areas for exploitation, even though physically I remained in the 
Soviet Union. 

In 1947, the Politburo of the Communist Party authorized the formation of a 
special group composed of intelligence officers of the MVD and of the Intelligence 
Directorate of the Soviet Army General Staff. These groups were intended for 
conducting recruitment operations among the Japanese, the German, Spanish, and 
Italian prisoners of war held on the territory of the Soviet Union. The objective 
of these operations was to utilize the recruited agents for Soviet intelligence and 
Communist underground activities in their respective countries, upon their 
repatriation. 

As far as Japan was concerned, we were instructed to recruit, as first priority, 
those Japanese prisoners of war in Soviet hands, who were: (1) related to the 
Imperial family, (2) former leading political personalities, (3) former business- 
men, (4) member of the Japanese press, (5) scientists, (6) technical specialists, 
(7) medical doctors, etc. The Soviet Government considered that the men in 
the above categories would eventually establish themselves in sufficiently re- 
sponsible positions within the social structure of Japan to be of distinct value to 
the Soviet intelligence organs. 

We were also instructed to recruit young educated men, related to or having 
ties and affiliations with the old prominent Japanese families. The individuals 1 
were to be utilized as clandestine communications links, as the keepers of clan- 
destine houses for agent meetings, and also as radio operators for the operations 
of secret radio transmitters and receivers. 

Particular attention was paid by the MVD to the possibility of infiltration of 
the Japanese prisoners of war into the newly formed Japanese armed forces, 
police and into other or2;ans of Japanese internal security. With this in mind, 
the MVD recruited a considerable number of former hiT;h-ranking officers of the 
Japanese Army and also former high-ranking officials of the Japanese intelligence 
and counterintplligence services. It was assumed by the MVD that a certain 
percentage of the recruited Japanese personnel in the above category had excellent 
prospects of obtaining responsible positions in the new Japanese security agencies, 
since there is usually a constant shortage of skilled and experienced intelligence 
officers. 

In the conduct of this operation, since it involved an approach on a wide front, 
the participants in it were divided into groups and sent to prisoner of war camps. 
The recruitment activities were concentrated in the camps located at Tashkent, 
Karaganda, Yelabuga, in the region of Krasnoyarsk, Ulan Ude, Chita, in Kha- 
barovsk, Korrsomolsk, Raichikhinsk, Birobidzhan, Vladivostok, and in other areas 
throughout the Soviet Union. 

I was directed to proceed to Khabarovsk, since in this region were concentrated 
numerous camps of Japanese prisoners of war. In order to conceal the fact that I 
was a member of the Soviet intelligence service, I was provided with documents 
and the uniform of captain from the directorate of prisoner of war camps. 

The initial step in my approach toward this task which was entrusted to me was 
to analyze personnel files pertaining to the Japanese prisoners of war who fell 
imder my jurisdiction. I was located in the office of headquarters MVD in 
Khabarovsk, and literallj' thousands of personnel files were delivered to me there 
for my study and conclusions in each individual case. 

The technique used in the recruitment was not at all involved. It consisted of 
the selection of likely Japanese candidates for the "internal informant" tasks. 
These men reported on other inmates of the prisoner of war camps and were 
required to submit the reports to Soviet authorities in writtei; form. The internal 
informant frequently received a monetary reward for his performance and was 
required to sign a receipt to that effect. As a rule, in order to exert strong psych- 
logical pressure upon the individuals already employed as internal informants, they 
were called into the Soviet administrative office of the camp to receive an expres- 
sion of official appreciation for the informant work they performed. Frequently 
they were told that as a result of the information they provided, certain prisoners 
of war, and names were given, were subjected to severe punishment — which, as a 
rule corresponded with actual facts. 

This inhumane approach by the MVD was most eflfective for the purposes for 
which it was intended, since it greatly facilitated the local procurement of candi- 
dates who were coerced into work for Soviet intelligence in Japan. The majority 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 809 

of Japanese prisoners of war raised no objections to being recruited and collaborat- 
ing with the MVD. This lack of resistance to Soviet approaches, even to the 
amazement of the MVD officers engaged in this operation, could be explained 
simply on the grounds of the intolerable living conditions maintained within the 
camps. The principle followed by the Soviet authorities responsible for the 
administration of the prisoner of war camps, as I frequently heard it stated, was : 
"The more of them who perish, the less trouble there will be in the future." There 
is no doubt in my mind, on the evidence available to me and on the basis of my 
personal observations, that the Kremlin leadership had designed this policy and 
stood behind its implementation. 

The lack of reluctance to cooperate with the MVD, on the part of the Japanese 
prisoners of war can be explained by the readiness of most of them to conclude any 
type of an agreement with anyone, including the devil himself, if necessary — 
anything, to get out of the Soviet Union alive. 

The death rate was exceedingly and unnecessarily high among the prisoners of 
war. The lack of proper sanitary conditions, especially during the severe Siber- 
ian winters, on half-starvation rations containing only lowest quality black bread, 
decayed potatoes and some salted cabbage, were in part responsible for the epi- 
demics prevailing throughout those camps. The medical care provided by the 
Soviets was either nonexistent, or limited to such primitive treatment as castor 
oil, as the universal remedy against all ailments. Major Pokrovskiy of the 
MVD, one of the leading officials within the directorate for administration of 
prisoner of war camps, in Khabarovsk region, very cynically and unemotionally 
painted the picture of actual conditions with just the words: "Japanese are dying 
like ffies." 

As an illustration of the pitiful conditions prevailing throughout the prisoner 
of war camps I would like to cite my conversation with the Soviet commander 
of camp No. 16 located at Khabarovsk. He was an accomplished and confirmed 
alcoholic whose habit it was to hide empty vodka bottles around his office. 
With him drinking became a necessity and a prop with which he managed to 
maintain his combatant administrative spirit and prestige. He obviously felt 
that the moral support provided to him by the portrait of Stalin hanging behind 
his desk was totally inadequate to support his morale, and strong measures like 
vodka were required to supplement the photographic likeness of the "father of 
all people," Stalin. 

This commander of camp No. 16, "the pillar of the Soviet order," while in a 
state of drunken stupor, told me about the fire which took place one night early 
in 1948, burning down the barracks which were occupied by Japanese prisoners 
of war. The Japanese, awakened by the roar of the fire and aware of the danger 
to their lives, nevertheless decided to run for the kitchens within the barracks 
in order to fill their shrunken stomachs with the thin soup prepared and stored 
there for the following morning. Constant semistarvation conditions overruled 
their natural self-preservation instinct, and their hunger drove them to overlook 
the danger involved in their behavior. As a result, over 100 Japanese perished 
in the fire. Those who survived were immediately placed into isolation and 
stricken oflf the repatriation lists, in order to prevent the news from spreading 
and becoming widely known throughout the prisoner of war camps and in Japan. 

No accurate record was maintained by the Soviet authorities of the Japanese 
dead who perished as a result of starvation and epidemics. Khrushchev and his 
"collective corulers" with all the flirting currently directed to Japan, must be 
having a severe case of indigestion, attempting to find an "innocent" explanation, 
satisfactory to the demands of the Japanese people. Khrushchev and company 
are well aware of the deep interest, concern, and the sympathy of many of the 
Japanese families and the Japanese Government for the tens of thousands of 
Japanese prisoners in Soviet hands, who have disappeared without a trace. 

I do not exclude the possibility that the Soviets today, led by Khrushchev and 
playing the role of "innocent lambs," would soon find a way to evolve some elabo- 
rate explanation for the disappearance of the Japanese in Soviet camps, attaching 
the blame to Stalin and disclaiming all the responsibility for the atrocities from 
the Soviet clique presently in power. This is a typical and integral part of the 
Communist pattern of behavior, regardless of the personality heading the regime 
at the time — Stalin, Lenin, Malenkov, or Khrushchev. 

While deprived of food, the Japanese prisoners of war were given a substitute 
for it in the form of a heavy diet of political reorientation and Communist in- 
doctrination. Soviet leadership took into consideration the support which the 
returning Japanese prisoners of war could off"er to the Soviet cause, if these 
Japanese were to be converted to the Communist wa\' of thinking. 



810 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

This support was to express itself in a form of reinforcement of the ranks in 
the Japanese Communist Party, and infiltration into the Socialist Party, especially 
to strengthen its extreme left elements. The initial results of the Soviet planning 
became obvious in May 1951 during the Communist-sponsored demonstrations 
ordered by the Kremlin throughout Japan. 

To carry out the program for the Communist indoctrination of the Japanese 
throughout the camps, the Soviets formed a special political department staffed 
by experienced political instructors. The prisoners of war were segregated into 
two categories. The first category incorporated the Japanese prisoners of war 
who were labeled as "progressive." The second contained individuals who were 
referred to as the "reactionaries," or the Japanese who resisted Communist in- 
doctrination. 

It is a fact that the majority of Japanese who joined the ranks of "progressives" 
did so not on the basis of pro-Communist sympathies, but primarily to expedite 
their return to Japan, to obtain from the Soviets some privileges, like better food, 
clothing, and lighter work. "Reactionaries," however, were heavily penalized 
for their reluctance to submit to the Communists. They were intentionally 
loaded with excessive work schedules, and life generally was made hard for them. 
This in turn led to an increased death rate among them, the result well anticipated 
by the Soviets. 

With the initiation of repatriation to Japan, the "progressives" were given a 
preferential treatment. Those who were suspected of anti-Soviet feelings, or 
those who had previously held high-ranking positions in the Japanese Army, in 
the intelligence or counterintelligence organizations, police, and in the Govern- 
ment all were denied repatriation, or it was indefinitely postponed. 

In 1948: Soviet intelligence agents who had been recruited while they were 
prisoners were beginning to infiltrate Japan with the first parties of repatriants. 
The agents recruited from among the "progressives" were, prior to repatriation, 
transferred on an individual basis to the camps of the "reactionaries." They 
were thoroughly instructed not to reveal their Soviet sympathies and connections 
with the Soviet authorities. They were careful not to arouse any suspicions 
among the unsuspecting prisoners of the new camp, and were able to get back to 
Japan without being identified as the "progressives." 

The work of the intelligence groups, engaged in the recruitment of Japanese 
prisoners of war, continued up to my second departure for Tokyo from the Soviet 
Union, in 1950. My colleagues, later arrivals in Tokyo, informed me of the 
Soviet policy decision to continue the recruitment of the agents from among the 
Japanese in the Soviet Union. One major change now was to expand the program 
and concentrate on the recruitment of the so-called war criminals, members of the 
Japanese Army and Government who were captured by the Soviets and con- 
demned to varying terms of prison confinement. 

All Japanese recruited by the Soviets as intelligence agents were required to 
follow an established procedure of commitment. They confirmed their agreement 
to work for the Soviets by a written statement. The statement contained a 
number of political declarations to "fight for the establishment of a Communist 
regime in Japan," "to fight for the destruction of the Emperior since he is respon- 
sible for the crimes against the Japanese people," etc. The Soviet intent behind 
the inclusion of such statements was to obtain compromising material against the 
agent, revelation of which would later prove to be damaging to his reputation, 
should he refuse to continue his espionage activities for the Soviets. The under- 
lying idea of the Soviet Government in the recruitment of the Japanese prisoners 
of war as Soviet intelligence agents was based on long-range exploitation of them, 
over a period from 5 to 20 years after the initial Soviet recruitment. This was 
considered to be the safe approach for the utilization of agent personnel of this 
type, since, in time, the Japanese counterintelligence effort directed against 
prisoners of war returning to Japan would diminish in intensity and would gradu- 
ally cease. These agents, then, would become available for infiltration into posi- 
tions of responsibility and into sensitive jobs, without being questioned as possible 
internal security risks. 

With this in mind, with a few exceptions, most of the agents were instructed 
by the MVD to maintain themselves away from any "disloyal" activity in 
Japan; to build up a respectable reputation for themselves; to establish before 
the Japanese authorities a record of pretended animosity against the Soviet 
Union; and to express hatred toward Communist ideology. These agents were 
also categorically forbidden to associate with the leftist political organizations 
and especially with the Japanese Communist Party. Strict instructions were 
issued to the agents not to attempt to establish contact with Soviet intelligence 
representatives. The exceptions to these rules were individuals who soon after 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 811 

repatriation obtained important positions in Japan vital from the Soviet intelli- 
gence point of view. These agents, if circumstances were sufficiently important 
and favorable for exploitation, were utilized within their capabilities by the 
MVD. 

Each Soviet agent was instructed in the use of passwords for identification 
purposes, to be used by the Soviet intelligence officer in contacting the Japanese 
agent. Soviet intelligence maintained complete files of particulars pertaining to 
names, addresses, special characteristics, peculiarities, etc., of the friends, rela- 
tives, and acquaintances of an agent. This information is maintained to assure 
success for the Soviet intelligence representatives, seeking to establish contact 
with an agent in Japan. 

The results of Soviet recruitment operations among the Japanese prisoners of 
war brought the total number of Soviet intelligence agents by 1950 to approxi- 
mately 500 Japanese. This number did not include the "internal informants" 
recruited by MVD counterintelligence organs since they are considered to be 
strictly a "potential agent pool" by Soviet intelligence. The size of the "potential 
agent pool" reached an impressive figure of over 8,000 men. Similar estimates 
can be obtained in measuring the effectiveness of the MVD recruitment drive 
against the German, Italian, and Spanish prisoners of war in Soviet hands. Since 
I was deeply involved in the operations covering the Japanese, the figures I cite 
here are based on accurate Soviet MVD statistics. 

The recruitment by the INIVD of Soviet agents from among the Japanese pris- 
oners of war extended beyond the confines of the Soviet Union and took place in 
Manchuria during the immediate postwar period. Later, with the establishment 
throughout China of the Communist regime, the recruitment became the direct 
function of the Chinese Communist intelligence organs with the direct participa- 
tion of the Soviet MVD advisory group. This group was headed by Lieutenant 
General Langfang, who prior to this period was in charge of the overall recruitment 
effort within the Soviet Union. 

During the Korean war, Soviet intelligence combined its efforts with those of 
its Chinese Communist counterpart in the exploitation and recruitment of the 
captured members of the U. N. forces in Korea. The main effort was again 
concentrated on American and British nationals. 

My second assignment to Japan coincided with the Kremlin-engineered attack 
by the North Korean Communists upon the South Korean Republic. This was 
a period of maximum Soviet military effort which followed the adventurist 
blitzkrieg patterns of Hitlerite Germany, which formerly the Soviet leadership 
so vocally and so bitterly attacked. Now, since it served Communist purposes, 
it was found to be completely acceptable and justified. The consequence of the 
Soviet instigation of the hostilities in Korea was the expansion and acceleration 
of Soviet intelligence effort by the MVD and the Soviet military intelligence 
organizations throughout Japan. These were directed toward the collection of 
information concerning military operations, plans, and personnel of the U. N. 
forces in the Far East. Every effort was made to penetrate General MacArthur's 
staff in Tokyo, including the use of Japanese agents. In the spring of 1951, 
MVD and Soviet military intelligence representatives in Tokyo received urgent 
instructions from Moscow, emphasizing the necessity for contacting the Soviet 
agents who had been recruited from the Japanese prisoners of war and who were 
currently residing in Japan. Moscow stated that these agents, once activated, 
could procure information vital to the Soviet operations in the Korean theater. 

The difficulties encountered by the Tokyo representatives of Soviet intelligence, 
in the implementation of the instructions received from Moscow, were fully 
reflected in the methods of contacting its Japanese agents. The appearance of a 
foreigner, and especially of a Soviet from the mission, would have immediately 
discredited the agent and made him a suspect of the Japanese security forces. 
Taking advantage of the Japanese elections to the Parliament, occurring through- 
out Japan, the Soviet mission embarked on an ingenious scheme of sending its 
"observers" supposedly to supervise the accuracy and the conduct of the "demo- 
cratic procedures." Among these Soviet observers were scattered Soviet intelli- 
gence officers who used the scheme as a vehicle to contact Japanese agents through- 
out the country under the guise of politically interviewing a general cross section 
of the Japanese voters. This method almost completely assured the security of 
the contact and the protection of Soviet agent connections. I was engaged in a 
similar type of operation in Tokyo and was successful in establishing contact with 
Tamura, a former Japanese prisoner of war, recruited as a Soviet agent while in 
the Tashkent camp. I called on him at his home, as an "observer" for the Soviet 
Government. I found him at home as I expected, because to assure the contact 
we scheduled our "visits" sufficiently early in the morning to assure success in our 



812 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

undertaking. Tamura was employed as an adviser to the Japanese Ministry of 
Finance and, because of his friendship with Ikeda, one of the leaders of the 
Conservative Party, and later the Minister of Finance. Tamura was considered 
by Soviet intelligence to be one of its most valuable assets. 

During election^day we in the Soviet mission established contact with over 
30 Japanese agents who had been recruited in the Soviet Union. 

In September of 1951 I established contact with a former Japanese staff officer, 
Major Shii. He was at this time employed in an advisory capacity by G-2, of 
GHQ, under General MacArthur. Shii was one of the most important suppliers 
of military information involving the operational plans of the U. N. Command 
in Korea. 

The connection between the MVD and the Japanese Communist Party was 
established on a firm foundation in the summer of 1951. Instrumental in accom- 
plishing this was one of the oldest officers of the MVD intelligence. Colonel Shibayev. 
He arrived in Japan in the spring of 1951, under the cover of an adviser of the 
Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs. While his mission to Japan consisted of two 
major parts, the one dealing with the control and supervision of the activities of 
the Japanese Communist Party in Japan was the more involved. The other part 
of the mission I have discussed in detail in my series of articles in the American 
magazine. Life. It dealt with the exploitation of the Soviet contact with Ameri- 
can CIC and G-2 organizations of the GHQ of General MacArthur 

Shibayev came to Japan to act in accordance with the instructions which he 
received directly from the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, to 
establish an underground contact between the Soviet mission in Tokyo and the 
Japanese Communist Party in Japan. Prior to his arrival, this contact was main- 
tained by a representative of Soviet military intelligence (GRU), Colonel Sonin, 
who at the time did not use his real name since he claimed to represent the Soviet 
news agency TASS. This responsibility for liaison with the Japanese Communist 
Party was later taken over by the Soviet military intelligence officer. Captain 
Yegorov. 

In November 1951, upon the departure of Shibayev from Japan, his mission 
was taken over by Colonel Kotel'nikov, who claimed to occupy the position of the 
chief of the consular section of the Soviet mission in Tokyo. His operations are 
well known to me, because I acted as his aide and his chauffeur, since the regular 
MVD driver assigned this function was not permitted to participate in this type 
of operation due to its extremely high security classification by Soviet intelligence. 

The first operational meeting with a member of the Japanese party, in which 
I participated, was held with a respectable looking "gentleman" about 50 years 
old. He reminded me of a successful Japanese businessman, soft-spoken, with 
excellent manners, and obviously not used to physical tasks involving any amount 
of exertion, hardly a representative of a "proletarian mass" which he obviously 
represented. The meeting was held in the Mita region of Tokyo. Judging by 
his general behavior, he must have had extensive experience in clandestine work. 

During the second meeting, which took place soon after the first one, this 
Japanese Communist received 300,000 American dollars from Kotel'nikov. The 
money was delivered from Moscow to Tokyo by Soviet diplomatic couriers, 
especially earmarked for delivery to "RON," the pseudonym assigned to this 
Japanese Communist by the MVD. The second meeting was held in the Meguro 
region. It was apparent that RON expected to receive funds during this meeting 
since he was accompanied by four Japanese Communists, all of them armed with 
weapons. This precaution was probably taken by RON to assure his safety, 
since the meeting was held on a dark, deserted street. 

The second transmission of funds for the Japanese Commupist Party operations 
took place in spring of 1953. Because of the growing difficulties for the Soviet 
delivery of funds from the Soviet Union to Tokyo, due to lack of diplomatic recog- 
nition of Japan by the Soviet Union, the Central Committee in Moscow instructed 
us to make the payment in Japanese currency. The money was obtained from 
various firms which handlid the rental of Soviet movie films in Japan. The total 
sum amounted to several millions of Japanese yen. In addition, we obtained 
15,000 American dollars which had been buried at different sites around Tokyo, 
and transmitted these to RON. This sum was initially intended by the Soviets 
for payments to the Japanese intelligence agents operating in Japan on behalf of 
the Soviet Union. With the conclusion of the peace treaty between the Allies 
and Japan, the Soviets expected the expulsion of the Soviet mission from Tokyo; 
the extraordinary decision was therefore reached to transfer the funds by turning 
them over to RON, to finance Communist operations in Japan which required 
heavier subsidization with their expansion. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 813 

My analysis of RON's reports indicated to me how deeply the agents of the 
Japanese Communist Party managed to infiltrate into the governmental organs of 
Japan. It included even the offices of the various ministers from the Cabinet of 
Yoshida, and the security organs of Japan. Several times, quite accidentally, I 
managed to see the translations of the various special reports submitted by 
"RON" to the MVD for immediate transmission to Moscow. Among these were 
complete reports of secret conferences of the Cabinet, a detailed record of Yoshida's 
discussions with MacArthur and with Dulles, not to mention the record of 
Yoshida's discussions of various subjects with the American Ambassador to 
Japan. The value of the intelligence work performed by the Japanese Com- 
munist Party proved especially effective and valuable during the Korean war. 
Soviet intelligence was also able to obtain through the medium of the Japanese 
Communist Party information concerning the exchange of views between the 
American and the British Governments concerning the proposal of General Mac- 
Arthur for aerial attacks against industrial and military targets located in 
Manchuria. 

The Communist Party of Japan was also used by the IVIVD, in a support role, 
to check on spotted candidates for recruitment, for locating agents formerly 
recruited whose whereabouts were unknown, and for other similar tasks. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The present leadership of the Kremlin, following the direction established by 
Lenin, firmly believes that the Communist path toward the conquest of the 
world lies in the direction of the countries of the Far East. 

The current Soviet policy of "peacefal competition with the capitalist nations" 
permits a more rapid rate of Commimist advance toward its established objective 
than it was able to achieve previously, by other radical means. The intermediate 
objectives of the Soviet Government, actually referred to as "the first stage of 
advance," are: (1) The neutralization of the free countries of the East, and 
their insulation from the influence of the democratic bloc of the non-Communist 
world; and (2) the submission of these countries to Soviet influence through the 
medium of economic infiltration, diplomatic machinations, and political sub- 
version — through the mass application of Communist propaganda, among other 
means. 

The Communist parties within the free areas of the world still remain the 
most effective instruments available to the Kremlin in its aggressive designs 
toward world conquest. 

The loud denials of the Communist leadership, directed to mislead and to 
confuse the world, are still unable to conceal the "master and the slave" relation- 
ships existing between Moscow and the Communists outside of the Moscow orbit. 

The downgrading of Stalin as the guiding light of the modern Communist 
conspiracy, and the concurrent free criticism of the Soviet Union Communist 
Party policies in this matter, by the affiliated Communist organizations through- 
out the world, represents just another demonstration of the Kremlin's ability to 
manipulate its Communist puppets to suit its purposes. All this forms a part of 
the current Soviet scheme to confuse the Socialist parties of the free world and, 
in accordance with the decisions and the resolutions of the 20th Congress of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to form with the Socialists a united front, 
thus advancing Communist objectives by a "parliamentary method" — at least 
for the time being. 

Realistically aware of the importance of Japan to the stability of the free 
world, the leaders in the Kremlin are now attempting to gain direct physical 
access to Japan. They intend to achieve this without satisfying even the mini- 
mum of Japan's terms. The Soviets certainly will not return to Japan any of the 
valuable territories acquired by them at Japanese expense. Instead, the Kremlin 
is attempting to establish diplomatic relations with Japan through such minor 
concessions, although vitally important to Japan's livelihood, as the fishing rights 
for the Japanese in the Soviet Pacific waters. 

While this alone is clearly inadequate to overcome Japanese resistance and 
reluctance to accept the Soviet proposals, the Kremlin reinforced its hand by 
sending to Japan Sergei Tikhvinskiy, supposedly to conduct the negotiations. 
In reality, however, Tikhvinskiy is entrusted ' y the Soviet Government not 
only with the conduct of diplomatic negotiations in Japan I ut mainly with the 
development of a more adequate Soviet liaison and control over the activities of 
the Japanese Communist Party, The Kremlin has every reason to expect 
Tikhvinskiy to succeed in his assigned missions in Japan. He is a master of 



814 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

espionage, subversion, and the manipulation of Communists in the Far East. 
He was my colleague and a close associate in the Soviet IntelHgence Service. 
He well combines the talents of a diplomat with the highly developed qualities 
of a espionage agent. His experience in espionage is not limited to England, or 
to the United Nations Organization in New York, but is concentrated primarily 
in the Far East. He spent a considerable amount of time on various intelligence 
assignments throughout China, before and during World War II. He speaks 
fluent Japanese and Chinese, as well as fluent English. The results of his sub- 
versive work for the Soviet cause in China were considered to be spectacular. 
The reputation he has acquired among his superiors in the MVD indicates that 
Japan today is a major Soviet objective. The Soviet Government, while shield- 
ing Tikhvinskiy with a diplomatic assig- ment, expects him to exhibit his intelli- 
gence talents to the fullest extent in Japan — to gain the immediate Soviet objec- 
tives, and to establish a firm foundation for the attainment of the ultimate 
Soviet goal, the conversion of Japan into a puppet. 

The Soviet espionage machine is again functioning in Japan as the first line 
of attack, and unless its capabilities are recognized and its effectiveness blunted, 
the expectations of its Kremlin masters will be fulfilled. I know — -I spent my 
entire life in its service. 

Yuri Rastvorov. 

New York, Jiihj 1956. 

(The following letters from Chairman Eastland to Hon. Robert Hill, 
Assistant Secretary of State, and to Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, chief 
of the United States delegation to the United Nations, regarding 
testimony of the witness, Ymi Rastvorov about Sergei Tishvinsld, a 
Soviet official in Japan, were ordered into the record at a meeting of 
the subcommittee on June 21, 1956:) 

May 31, 1956. 
Hon. Robert Hill, 

Assistant Secretary of Congressional Relations, 
Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Hill: I herewith transmit portions of executive session testimony 
of Yuri Rastvorov which was put into the public record today. 

The testimony relates to the activities with the Soviet Secret Police of Sergei 
Tichvinski who is now head of a trade mission in Japan. I ask that you transmit 
this to the Japanese Ambassador here in Washington. 
Sincerely yours, 

James 0. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 



May 31, 1956. 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge. Jr., 

The Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, 
2 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Lodge: According to information received from the Biographical 
Division of the State Department, Mr. Sergei Tichvinski has been in the United 
States on three different occasions: September 19 to December 16, 1950; October 
13 to December 9, 1952; and February 23 to March 27, 1953. On these occasions, 
we are informed he was here as an expert with the Soviet delegation to the 
United Nations. 

Today the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee placed into the record the 
testimony of Yuri Rastvorov, formerly attached to 'the Soviet Embassy in Tokyo, 
who described the long career of Sergei Tichvinski as a Soviet intelligence agent. 
We enclose a copy of this testimony. In view of the disclosures contained therein, 
we consider that it would be in the interest of our national security to know exactly 
what activities Mr. Tichvinski engaged in while in this country. 

Would you kindly inquire through the channels of the United Nations and let 
us know what information is available. 
Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) James O. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 

(The following newspaper articles were ordered into the record at 
a hearing on June 5, Senator Jenner, presiding:) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 815 
[New York Times, May 30, 1956] 

Japan Recognizes Soviet Delegate 

TOKYO grants OFFICIAL STATUS BUT CONTINUES TO BAR TIES WITHOUT 

PEACE TREATY 

Tokyo, May 29. — Japan's Premier stiffened his attitude on Tokyo's differences 
with Moscow today, but the Soviet Union apparently scored a minor victory. It 
obtained official status for its representation here. 

Premier Ichiro Hatoyama, answering opposition Socialist questions in the 
lower house of the Diet (Parliament), indicated Japan would continue to resist 
the Soviet effort to reestablish diplomatic relations without first signing a peace 
treaty. 

He also said Japan had not given up her claim for return of inherent Japanese 
territory occupied by the Soviet Union since World War II. 

Japan had asked for the immediate return of the two southern islands of the 
Kurile chain and the tiny Habomai and Shikotan Islands near Hokkaido, with 
the status of the other Kuriles and Southern Sakhalin to be adjudicated later. 

Moscow had agreed to return the Habomai and Shikotan Islands, but declined 
to consider disposition of the others. Peace-treaty negotiations in London were 
broken off on this issue last March. Japan has agreed to resume the talks bv 
July 31. 

ADJUSTMENT TO BE SOUGHT 

Mr. Hatoyama said that, in view of the Kremlin's adamant position, the Tokyo 
government would seek an "adjustment of thinking of the two countries" on the 
problem. He did not elaborate, but Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu told 
the Diet later that the Japanese policy on the territorial question "has undergone 
no change." 

Mr. Shigemitsu said, however, that the Japanese Government would recognize 
Sergei Tikhvinsky, new head of the Soviet mission that has remained here unoffi- 
cially since the occupation, as a Soviet official "for disposing of fishing problems." 

Ichiro Kono, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, told the lower house he had 
balked Soviet pressure to link a temporary fishing agreement for 1956 to a peace 
treaty or restoration of diplomatic relations. 

He said that after the Russians had consented to the agreement, they suddenly 
refused to sanction a Japanese salmon catch of 65,000 tons in Soviet-controlled 
waters this year — much less than the normal catch — unless relations of the 2 
countries were "normalized." 

This was too much for Mr. Kono, he said, but the agreement was finally 
reached after intervention by Soviet Premier Nikolai A. Bulganin. 



[Washington Dally News, May 28, 1956] 
Triumph for Tichvinsky— "Down With Kono Who Sold Japan" 

Tokyo, May 28 — Japan's eager but unrealistic politicians have been duped into 
recognizing a Soviet espionage agency in exchange for a handful of dead fish. 

That's the first result of Agriculture Minister Ichire Kono's pied piper dance 
through Russia and the United States. Later results may be worse. 

Kono's "victory" ir getting permission for Japanese fleets to take 65,000 tons 
of fish out of the self-styled Russian seas has amounted to de facto recognition of 
tne Soviets' unofficial trade mission here. 

That means diplomatic recognition, official or otherwise, for Sergei Tichvinsky, 
a Soviet hot shot rushed to Tokyo when Japan's foreign policy began wavering 
under the vagaries of aging and ailing Premier Hatoyama. 

who? 

Who is Tichvinsky? The Japanese Foreign Office isn't sure even of his age. 
He is balding, bespectacled and fortyish, and the new head of a "trade" mission 
that is a proved espionage agency. 

One top free-world intelligence agency claims he is the man who engineered the 
Burgess-MacLean scandal in which two British diplomats of questionable character 
flopped to the Communist side. 

Almost surely he is an MVD colonel, one of the most trusted in the younger 
set of the Kremlin hierarchy. He proved himself in China in the days when the 
Communists were outmaneuvering the foresaken regime of Chiang Kai-shek. 



816 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

SCHOLAR 

TicHvinsky also is a scholar — he carries a plausible and perhaps prophetic degree 
of doctor of history. One certainty is that he speaks excellent English, French, 
and Chinese. Soon he will speak Japanese. 

Kono, ambitious but naive, agreed that further fishing negotiations would be 
through Tichvinsky's agency. Tichvinsky immediately announced he would like 
to intervene in the case of a kidnaped Japanese ship, but could not because official 
recognition was denied. Even the most realistic conservatives agree he no longer 
can be ignored. 

The next day Tichvinsky gave a speech to a sympathetic group of Parliament 
niembers stressing coexistence and the beautiful brotherliness of recent Soviet 
disarmament proposals. That is not bad for a man who arrived here only 
May 13. 

The whole thing is another spike in the political coffin of Mamoru Shigemitsu, 
Japan's realistic Foreign Minister, wno is trying to keep a measure of national 
pride and integrity in dealings with the Russians. 

Shigemitsu will be crowded out before long for political reasons. His epitaph, 
perhaps, was the crowd of 10,000 (partly engineered by fishing interests) who 
greeted Kono on his return to Tokyo Airport. 

A straggly and overwhelmed group of 30 carried banners saying, "Down with 
Kono who sold Japan." 

(The following news release by the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee, dated June 30, was ordered into the record during a 
committee hearing on July 16, 1956:) 

What has happened to Stalin's MVD-controlled church? Many charges of 
wrongdoing have been hurled at the dead Soviet leader, but so far no mention has 
been made of Stalin's cynical scheme to take over the Russian Orthodox Church. 

Further evidence that Soviet secret police actually dominated the church under 
Stalin's direction was made known today by the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee. The information comes from a prepublication copy of Empire of 
Fear, a new book by Vladimir Petrov, Soviet diplomat who defected in Australia. 

In the book, Petrov says that Maj. Gen. G. G. Karpov, a permanent career 
officer of the NKVD, made "an assiduous and exhaustive study of Russian 
Orthodox ceremonies, ordinances, and theological teaching, and was able to 
converse earnestly and learnedly with the church dignitaries on their own ground." 

Stalin suggested that the "character and erudition of Karpov made him an 
ideal man" to represent the church on the Soviet Council of Ministers, the book 
says. 

"I have seen Karpov. In 1951 he was minister for cults and religious affairs 
and may still hold that office. His NKVD training would be a valuable prepara- 
tion for the post. After all, Stalin studied in a theological seminary," Petrov 
declares. 

Petrov's work corroborates more extensive testimony on Karpov given April 
12 before the subcommittee by Lt. Col. Yuri Rastvorov, who defected from 
Soviet secret police in Tokyo in 1954. 

Rastvorov said the church has been penetrated by MVD agents who actually 
attended seminaries and became priests. Since then two of those agents have 
become bishops. 

"They were officers of MVD, pure counterintelligence officers in MVD," 
Rastvorov said. 

Karpov, as chairman of the religious committee of the Council of Ministers 
of the U. S. S. R., ostensibly maintains liaison between church and Government, 
"but practically (he) keeps the church vmder complete control," Rastvorov said. 

While he was in Japan, Rastvorov said he participated in an attempt by Soviet 
agents to take over the Russian Orthodox Church in Tokyo. Under Karpov's 
directions, the agents tried to persuade church members to accept two priests from 
the Soviet Union. 

But the congregation refused to accept the priests. In addition, the Allied 
occupation forces did not admit them into the country. So the plan failed. 

In 1949, Karpov himself was the author of an article in the New York Daily 
Worker in which he righteously proclaimed that "the Soviet Government has 
never persecuted anyone for professing one creed or another, or for belonging to a 
religious organization of one kind or another." 

Karpov said that, following the October Revolution, some members of the 
clergy used the church in an attempt to restore the "Czarist autocracy." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 817 

"The Soviet Government was therefore compelled to take measures, in con- 
formity with justice and necessity, in order to isolate the most actively hostile 
members of the clergy," Karpov wrote. 

Eventually church representatives came around, Karpov noted, and "now admit 
that the measures taken were not persecutions against religion or the church." 

The article continued: 

"The clergy more and more abandoned the false road of struggle against the 
Soviet Government; more and more the clergy supported the measures of the 
Soviet Government, and this in turn gradually led to a change in the attitude of 
the Soviet Government toward the church and its leaders." 

That was in 1949 when Joseph Stalin w^as at a height of power. 

Now Stalin's body rests in Red Square, but present party leaders have given his 
memory no rest, and manj^ of Stalin's pet projects have been abandoned. 

It will be interesting to see if General Karpov will be deposed from tiis lofty 
position l)y Khrushchev. 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization in 
this index. 

A 

Page 

Afanas'yev 806, 807 

Aksenov 807 

Allison 804 

American 779 

American citizens 777 

American Communists 790 

American occupation forces 784 

Amtorg Trading Corp 777 

Armenian 792 

B 

Baltic States 788 

Balavan, Colonel (head of intelligence group in Red Cross in Moscow) 791 

Bentley, Elizabeth Terrill 779 

Bilayev 783, 784 

Blanchard testimony 778 

Bulganin 1 794 

Bulganin, Soviet Premier Nikolai A 815 

Burgess 801 

Burgess-MacLean scandal 815 

Byelorussians 793 

C 

Caucasus area 788 

Chiang Kai-shek government 797 

China 797 

Chugunov, Mr 789, 790 

Chief, American section, M VD headquarters 789 

Worked in United States as intelligence officer of MOB under cover 

of Tass 789 

Married an American girl 789 

Committee of Information 798 

Communist/s 794, 795 

Communist Partv of the United States 789 

Council of Ministers of U. S. S. R 780 

Currie, Lauchlin 780 

D 

Daily Worker 785 

Defectors 777 

"Document Master" 805 

Dulles 813 

E 
East Germany 788 

Eastland, Senator 777, 814 

Ecofair ("Economic Affairs") 790 

Egorov, Captain, intelligence officer under cover of Tass 789 

Empire of Fear 782, 816 

England 787, 798 

Espionage (Soviet) 779 

I 



n INDEX 

Exhibit No. 226 — Excerpt from Empire of Fear, by Vladimir and Evdokia Page 
Petrov 7S2 

Exhibit No.'227— Da'ily Worker," ApVif s' 1949": 'T'he'Truth"About"Reii'gion 

in the Soviet Union by G. Karpo v 785-787 

Exhibit No. 228 — Ninth Listing, September 1954 (subcommittee files) . . _ 795 

F 

Far East 799 

Far East Intelligence Directorate 790, 797, 798 

FBI 778 

Fitin, Lieutenant General 802, 803 

Foreign Office 790 

Fuchs 801 

G 

Galina 805, 806 

Generalov, former Ambassador in Australia 790 

Germans 788 

Government of the Soviet Union 782, 783, 788 

Greschnov, Mr 799 

Gromov, Mr 779, 780 

Chief resident agent of Soviet Secret Police in United States 779 

Colonel, MVD 780 

Gromov, Anatole 779, 780, 789 

1948-50, chief, American section NKVD headquarters, Moscow 779 

First secretary, Russian Embassy, middle 1940's 779, 780 

Gulick, Luther, official, War Production Board 780 

H 

Hatoyama, Premier Ichiro 815 

Hay- Adams 780 

Higurashi 803-805 

Hill, Hon. Robert (Assistant Secretary of State) 814 

Hitler Party 788 

Hiss 801 

Hong Kong 796 

House Un-American Activities Committee 779, 780 

I 

Ikeda 812 

Intelligence Directorate 796 

Intelligence Directorate of MGB 798 

InteUigence Service of Soviet Union 778 

Internal Security Subcommittee 777, 778 

Iron Curtain 794 

J 

Japan 782-784, 790, 791, 798-800 

Japanese 798 

Japanese Ambassador 814 

Japanese Communist Party 799 

Japan Recognizes Soviet Delegate 815 

Jenner, Senator 814 

K 

Kai-shek, Chiang 815 

Karpov, Major General 780-787 

Head so-called religion section, MVD headquarters. _- 780 

Chairman, Religion Committee, Council of Ministers of U. S. S. R__ 780 

Karpov, Maj. Gen. G. G 816, 817 

Karpov, Georgi Gregorivich 785 

Katay ama. Sen 800 

KGB (organized at death of Stalin) 787, 788 

Khabarovsk 799,809 

Khrushchev, Mr 788, 794, 795, 809 

Kiyokawa 803-805 



INDEX in 

Page 

Kono, Ichiro 815 

Kotel'nikov, Colonel 812 

Kremlin 798 

Kruglov, General, Chief of MVD 788 

Kuni, Prince 790 

L 

Langfang, Lieutenant General 811 

Lenin 809,813 

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot 814 

M 

MacArthur, General 801, 811-813 

MacLean 80 1 

Malenkov 809 

Mandel, Benjamin 777 

MGB 796-798 

Michurin 807 

Mikoj'an 794 

Military Language Institute 792 

Ministry of State Security (MGB) 796 

Mitskevitch, Colonel 792 

Head of intelligence group in VOKS 792 

Molotov 798 

Morris, Robert 777 

Moscow 778, 783, 789, 791, 792, 796, 797 

Moscow Institute of Eastern Studies 800 

Mundt, Mr 779 

Murphy 804 

MVD 778, 780-783, 787, 788, 790, 796, 798-800 

MVD Intelligence 798, 799 

Myasishchev 807 

N 

Narimanov 800 

News release by subcommittee, June 30, on excerpt from Empire of Fear, 

by Vladimir 'Petrov 816 

New York 796 

New York Times 778, 815 

NKVD 778-683, 790 

O 
O'Dell, Hunter Pitts 777 

Ono, Nikolai, chief of Orthodox Church, Japan 782, 783 

Orthodox Church 781 

Ostroshenko, Colonel 790, 797, 798 

Checked activities of MVD in Tokyo 790 

Participated in negotiations with Prince Kuni 790 

Boss, Far East Intelligence Directorate 790, 798 

Ottawa 796 



Panvushkin (Soviet Ambassador in China) 797 

Chief of MGB Intelligence 797 

Peking 796 

Petrov, E vdokia (cipher clerk) 782 

Petrov, Vladimir 782, 816 

Resident agent of MVD in Sydney, Australia 782 

Pokrovskiy, Major 809 

PW's 799 

Q 

Quibishev 792 



bUblUlM KUBLIL/ LIBMAMT 




3 9999 05445 4440 



INDEX 



R Page 

Rastvorov, Yuri (testimony of) 777-817 

Statement of 800-8 14 

Ron_ -V_VY99, 812, 813 

Rosenburgs gQj 

Rusher, William A ^_~ 777 

Russia "" 794 

Russian Church ' 78 1 732 

Russian Embassy 779' 7gQ 

Russian Orthodox Church " 782-784* 816 

Russian representatives ' 773 

S 

Sakata, Jiro 805, 806 

Savel'yev, Vasihy 806, 807 

Security Committee of Council of Ministers ofU. S. S. R 787 

Sergei, Bishop 732 

Serov, Ivan 787^ 788 

Chairman, Security Committee of Council of Ministers, U. S. S. R-_ ' 787 

Charge of KGB 788 

Shibayev, Colonel 812 

Shigemitsu, Foreign Minister Mamoru 815 816 

Shigezu, Takemore ' 802 

Shii, Major 1/__" 812 

Shioji 805 

Sierra hideout 773 

Smirnov, Col. Andrei 79I 

In United States during World War II as intelligence officer 791 

Head, American Intelligence Section, headquarters in Moscow 791 

Sonin, Colonel 739^ 812 

Sorge 801 

Southeast Asia countries 796 

Soviet 778 

Soviet Embassy, China 796 

Soviet Government 793 799 

Soviet Intelligence Service 796, 799' 800 

Soviet Red Cross '__ ' 791 

Soviet Secret Police (MVD or NKVD) 778, 779, 787, 792 

Soviet Union 781, 782, 79o', 792-797] 799 

Stalin 788, 793, 794, 809, 813 

Stalin, Joseph 8I7 

Stripling, Mr 73O 

Sydney, Australia 732 

T 

Tahchianov, Colonel 303 

Tamura 1""811, 812 

Tass News Agency 777, 788, 789, 791 

Tichvinski, Sergei 795, 797, 798, 813, 814, 815 

Belonged to Soviet Intelligence Service 796 

Second war, assigned to Soviet Embassy in China 796 

Deputy Chief of Far East Intelligence Directorate 798 

Speaks Chinese, Japanese, and English fiuentlj^ __ __ 798 

1953, Chief of Intelligence, MVD, in England 798 

Chief, Soviet mission in Tokyo 798 

Titov, Alexander (A. E.) '778, 795 

Employee of Intelligence Service of Soviet Union ' 778 

Worked in China during war 773 

Arrived in United States 1 year ago under cover of employee of Soviet 

section of U. N 773 

First secretary of the Russian delegation 795 

Chief of intelligence operations^ in New York area 795 

Tokyo 782 789 790 799 

Triumph for Tichvinsky — Down' With Kono Who Sold Japan '. L '815 

Truth About Religion in the Soviet Union, The 785 

Turkish Embassy, Moscow 806 

20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 794, 813 



INDEX V 

U Page 

Ukrainians 793 

United Nations Ninth Session of the Assembly 795 

United Nations Organization 778, 814 

United States 777-779, 788, 789, 792 

U. S. S. R 780 

V 

Vashkin, Col. Ivan 783-785 

Chief, intelligence group in Tokyo 783 

VOKS 777, 791 

Voyevodin 807 

W 

War Production Board 780 

Washington Daily News, May 28, 1956: Triumph for Tichvinsky — Down 

With Kono Who Sold Japan 815 

Welker, Senator 777 

Western World 794 

White Russian/s 782, 793, 806 

Willkie, Mr __ 792 

World War II 781 

Y 

Yoshida, Premier 804, 813 

Yukichi, Kij^okawa (former Moscow correspondent) 804 

o 



*^t  ^rx  



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL 1 SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



I 



APRIL 17, 1956 



PART 15 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston ,'r'u'blic Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

NOV 6 - 1956 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINQS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal, 
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, ChaiTman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINQS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Te.xas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



t 



Witness: Page 

Folsom, Franklin 852 

Hall, Euphenia 820 

Krafsur, Samuel 838 

Mardo, Bill 831 

Shields, Esther Lowell 823 

Todd, Laurence 844 

in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, APRIL 17, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OF THE Internal Security Act and other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10:40 a. m., in the 
caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker presid- 
ing. 

Present: Senators Welker and Johnston. 

Also present: Robert Alorris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; and WUliam A, Rusher, administrative counsel. 

Senator Welker. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, while we are waiting for the witnesses 
to appear this morning, I would like to offer for the record some items 
that are pertinent to the inquiry which is the subject of this hearing 
this morning. 

This morning we are examining the role and the nature of the 
individual American citizens who are now working and who have 
worked in the past for the Tass News Agency, this in the general 
framework of the series of hearings being conducted by the Internal 
Security Subcommittee to determine the nature and the scope of 
Soviet activity in the United States. 

Senator Welker. Counsel, do these exhibits have anything what- 
soever to do with the witnesses who are hereafter to be called? 

Mr. Morris. It has to do with the general nature of Tass News 
Agency and how it operates in the United States. 

Senator Welker. The question is, does it have anything to do with 
the witnesses hereafter to be called? 

Mr. jSIorris. I cannot say directly. Senator. 

Senator Welker. Then we had better wait until they are here, 
because I do not want any testimony taken nor exhibits put in until 
the witnesses are on the stand. 

Mr. Morris. Very well, Senator. 

Counsel, wUl you come forward? I think Mrs. Hall will be the first 
witness. We will call the ladies first. Senator. 

Mr. Forer. May we ask that no photographs be taken, Mr. Chair- 
man? 

Senator Welker. The only authority that I have is while the wit- 
ness is testifying. I have no control over the photographers, until 
that time. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. HaU, will you stand, please, and be sworn? 

819 



820 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker, Mrs. Hall, do you solemnly swear the testimony 
you give before the committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Hall. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EUPHEMIA HALL, ACCOMPANIED BY JOSEPH 

FORER, HER ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name and yoiu- residence, 
please? 

Mrs. Hall, My name is Euphemia Hall. My residence is 628 
West 151st Street. 

Senator Welker. I think you told me in executive, private session, 
that you were a housewife and the mother of three fine children. 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Counsel, will you identify yourself for the public record? 

Mr. FoRER. Joseph Forer, 711 14th Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Hall, where were you born? 

Mrs. Hall. I was born in Cleveland, Ohio. 

Mr. Morris. And you were born Euphemia Virden; is that right? 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And you graduated from Sarah Lawrence College in 
1946, December 1946? 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And that was an accelerated class? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. After you graduated from Sarah Lawrence, did you 
work for the General Instrument Co. in Elizabeth, N. J.? 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of your employment there, 
Mrs. Hall? 

Mrs. Hall. I was employed as a calibrator of radio condensers. 

Mr. Morris. And then subsequently you worked for the Health 
Insurance Plan? 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. In New York City? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And then later for the Consumers Union? 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did you work for Consumers Union? 

Mrs. Hall. I believe it was just for 2 months m the fall of 1947. 

Mr. Morris. What year, Mrs. Hall? 

Mrs. Hall. 1947. 

Mrs. Morris. Now, when did you marry Robert HaU? 

Mrs. Hall. I married Robert HaU in December of 1950. 

Mr. Morris. December of 1950? 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you told us in executive session, did you not, 
Mrs. Hall, that you worked for Tass News Agency from February 1, 
1948, until November 1, 1951? 

Mrs. Hall. That is correct, yes. 

Mr. Morris. So durmg the period from February 1, 1948, until 
December 1950, you were known as Euphemia Virden and subse- 
quently you were known as Euphemia Hall; is that right? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 821 

Mrs. Hall. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what employment have you had subsequent to 
your separation from Tass New Agency? 

Mrs. Hall. Most of the time I haven't been employed, because I 
am the mother of three children, but I have 

Mr. Morris. But you have done some odd jobs? 

Mrs. Hall. I have had some part-time jobs, yes. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, while you were at Sarah Lawrence, were you recruited into 
the Communist Party by Genevieve Taggard, who was a member of 
the faculty of Sarah Lawrence? 

Mrs. Hall. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of my 
privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now 

Senator Welker. Counsel, I think we had better go a httle further, 
upon the grounds that 

Mr. Hall. That I will not be — 

Senator Welker. That the answer might tend to force the witness 
to bear witness against herself. And then we do not need to bother 
with it any longer. 

Mr. Forer. All right. 

Senator Welker. Is that your objection? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, out of the context of the last question, Mrs. 
Hall, Genevieve Taggard was a member of the faculty at Sarah 
Lawrence at that time, was she not? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes, she was. 

Mr. Morris. And was she the wife of Kenneth Durant? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes, she was. 

Mr. Morris. And Kenneth Durant was the head of Tass News 
Agency for a long period of time, was he not? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. In fact, did you not tell us in executive session that it 
was through Kenneth Durant that you obtained your employment 
with Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Hall. Well, not directly. 

Mr. Morris. Suppose you do tell us exactly how it happened, 
Mrs. Hall. 

Mrs. Hall. When I knew Kenneth Dm-ant as the husband of 
Genevieve Taggard, he was no longer the director, the American 
director, of Tass. He was retired. So I didn't get the employment 
directly through him. 

Mr. Morris. How did you get the employment? 

Mrs. Hall. Through him, I met other people in Tass. 

Mr. Morris. And who were they? 

Mrs. Hall. Well, I met Mr. Freeman. 

Mr. Morris. That is Harry Freeman? 

Mrs. Hall. That is Harry Freeman. 

Air. Morris. And does that account for it, Mrs. Hall? 

Mrs. Hall. Well, I think probably that is the only person I knew 
before. 

Mr. Morris. And it was through Harry Freeman that you obtained 
employment? 



822 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Hall. Well, I knew him, and I thought there might be a job 
there. So I asked him. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a Communist now? 

Mrs. Hall. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party from 
February 1, 1948, to November 1, 1951, those being the terminal dates 
of yom- employment with Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Hall. No ; I was not. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist the day before you went to 
work with Tass? 

Mrs. Hall. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist the day after you worked for 
Tass? 

Mrs. Hall. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did the Tass News Agency have a regulation 
which called on its members to technically withdraw from the Com- 
munist Party while they held employment with Tass? 

Mrs. Hall. The Tass Bureau had a general regulation that no 
employee could engage in auj^^ kind of political activity. That is the 
only regulation that I know of. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

And therefore you effected a resignation from the Communist Party 
for that period of time? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Mrs. Hall. I refuse to answer that question. 

Senator Welker. Did they have a regulation that you could not 
be a Democrat or a Republican or a Progressive? 

Mrs. Hall. The regulation, as I remember — I can't remember the 
wording of it — but no employee of Tass could engage in any political 
activity of any kind while they were there. 

Senator Welker. Now, you stated a moment ago, in response to 
counsel's question, that you knew there v^^ould be an opening in Tass 
News Agency. How did you know that there would be an opening 
in Tass News Agenc}'? 

Mrs. Hall. No, Senator, I didn't say I knew there would be one. 
I thought there might be an opening, and I might be able to get it. 

Senator Welker. What caused 3"0U to think there would be an 
opening in Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Hall. Well, I happened to be unemployed, and I wanted to 
get a job, and I thought that I might be able to — — 

Senator Welker. That does not answer the question. How did 
you assume that there might be an opening in Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Hall. I really don't know how to answer the question. I 
thought there might be an opening a number of places, and that was 
one of the places that I considered getting a job. 

Senator Welker. Was it the first attempt to get employment? 

Mrs. Hall. I really don't remember that. 

Senator Welker. Can you tell us where else you sought employ- 
ment? 

Mrs. Hall. No. At the time, I can't remember. 

Senator Welker. You cannot remember that. But you can re- 
member seeking employment with Tass? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 823 

Mrs. Hall. Yes; I can. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

ISIr. Morris. Mrs. Hall, where does youi- husband work? In 
Washington or New York? 

iVlrs. Hall. M}^ husband works in New York. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you could tell us — and you may consult 
counsel — whether or not he is Robert Hall, who is employed by the 
Daily Worker. 

Mrs. Hall. Yes. Well, he is the editor of the Sunday Worker. 

Mr. Morris. Editor of the Sunday Worker? 

Mrs. Hall. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness, Senator. 

Senator Welker. I have no more. 

Thank you very much, Mrs. Hall. 

Thank you, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, you have another woman witness, do you 
not? 

Mr. FoRER. Two more. 

Mr. Morris. Two more women? 

Mr. FoRER. No; two more witnesses. 

Mr. Morris. Ladies first, counsel. 

Will you stand and be sworn, Mrs. Shields, please? 

Senator Welker. Will you rise and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the commit- 
tee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mrs. Shields. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ESTHER LOWELL SHIELDS, ACCOMPANIED BY 
JOSEPH FORER, HER ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name, please? 

Mrs. Shields. Esther Lowell Shields. 

Senator Welker. And your residence? 

Mrs. Shields. 127 West 96th Street, New York. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Shields, you are the assistant to Harry Freeman 
of Tass News Agency, are you not? 

Mrs. Shields. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And what is the nature of your employment with 
Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Shields. I do editorial work, wi'iting. 

Senator Welker. Madam, would you bring the microphone a little 
closer to you so that we might hear? 

Mr. Morris. It is difficult to hear, Mrs. Shields. 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Will you bring the microphone just a little closer 
to you? 

Mrs. Shields. Is that better? Can you hear now? 

Senator Welker. I would appreciate it a little bit closer, but we 
will try. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Shields, will you give us a description of your 
work with the Tass News Agency? 

72723 — 56— pt. 15 2 



824 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Shields. It mainly consists of reading through newspapers and 
various magazines that we receive and selecting material which 
seems to me would be of interest to our clients. 

Mr. Morris. You are not a reporter, though, are you? 

Mrs. Shields. Occasionally I go out on reporting. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Do you have New York City police credentials? 

Mrs. Shields. I do. 

Mr. Morris. You do. 

Did you ever work in Washington for the Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Shields. No, I did not. 

Mr. Morris. You have always worked in New York; is that right? 

Mrs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. AloRRis. I wonder if you would give us a description of some 
of your reportorial work with the Tass News Agency. 

Mrs. Shields. I have covered certain sessions of the United 
Nations. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about those? 

Mrs. Shields. Well, the most recent one was last fall. I covered 
one session of the Security Council, I believe. 

Senator Welker. The what? 

Mrs. Shields. The Secm-ity Council of the United Nations. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you have an office — Tass has an office at the 
United Nations, does it not? 

Mrs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And I think Mr. Freeman told us that very often 
that office is staffed by the employees of the regular office in New 
York City. 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where is your regular office in New York City, your 
main office? 

Mrs. Shields. In Rockefeller Center. 

Mr. Morris. And where is your office at the United Nations? 

Mrs. Shields. It is on the third floor, I believe, in the Secretariat 
Building. It is with the other regular news agency offices. 

Mr. Morris. And when something interesting goes on, some one 
of you from the main office goes over and handles, as it were, the 
branch office at the United Nations? 

Mrs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything more about your reporting 
that you should tell us about now, Mrs. Shields? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. What other reporting have you done for Tass News 
Agency? 

Mrs. Shields. Well, I have covered the A. F. of L. conventions 
on occasions. 

Mr. Morris. Where were those A. F. of L. conventions? 

Mrs. Shields. Atlantic City. 

Mr. Morris. When was the last time you covered an A. F. of L. 
convention? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't remember now. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long have you worked for Tass? 

Mrs. Shields. About 20 years. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 825 

Mr. Morris. Twenty years. 

Now, during those 20 years, have you been a member of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States? 

Mrs. Shields. No, I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Are you aware of a regulation of Tass News Agency 
that asks its employees to technically withdraw from formal Com- 
munist Party activity? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Mrs. Shields. No, we do not have such a regulation that we 
should technically withdraw. 

Mr. Morris. What is the regulation, Mrs. Shields? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't know. The regulation is that we should not 
engage in any political activity. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Shields, I wonder if you would tell me, who is 
your husband now? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Senator Welker. As in the private executive session, I am going 
to order and direct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Shields. I abide by my refusal. 

Senator Welker. You abide by the fifth amendment again? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You married Thomas Arthur Shields on May 29, 
1923, did you not? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Art Shields is a writer for the Daily Worker, 
is he not? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have an automobile, Mrs. Shields? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. Are you asking your counsel 
for legal advice or are you asking how to answer these questions? 

Mrs. Shields. I am asking him for legal advice, if you please. 

Senator Welker. Very well. That is what I want you to do, and 
I appreciate your doing it. 

Mr. Morris. What is the answer? 

Mrs. Shields. What is it? 

Mr. Morris. Do you have a car? 

Mrs. Shields. I do have a car, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you ever driven in your car to the Higley 
Hill Children's Camp? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer for the reason given before. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever been to the Higley Hill Children's 
Camp? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Max Granich, who, according to the 
information that we have before us, runs the Higley Hill Children's 
Camp? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answerffor the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Julius Reiss, who does research and 
speech-writing for the Polish delegation? 

Mrs. Shields. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Morris. (Spelling) J-u-1-i-u-s R-e-i-s-s. 

Mrs. Shields. The name means nothing to me. 



826 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UlSriTED STATES 

Mr. Morris. He works for the Polish delegation to the United 
Nations. 

Do you know a gentleman named Karl Lesser? 

Mrs. Shields. I never heard the name. 

Mr. Morris. You never heard it? 

Mrs. Shields. Not as far as I know. 

A'fr. Morris. Now, were you a member of the Communist Party 
before you worked for the Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Specifically, were you a member of the Communist 
Party the day before you worked for the Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer that for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. But you were not a member of the Communist 
Party the day after you began your employment with the Tass News 
Agency? 

Mrs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That is correct? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Would you care to tell the committee where you 
ever drove your automobile? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't understand. What is it you wish to know? 

Senator Welker. I wish to know if you ever drove it. 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Senator Welker. You gave a couple of answers here that you 
refused to answer whether you drove it to certain places. Now, I 
would like to know if you ever drove it any place. 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. I have driven it 53,000 miles. 

Senator Welker. Where? 

Mrs. Shields. I have driven it 53,000 miles or so around the 
country. 

Senator Welker. Why don't you tell us where you did drive your 
automobile, in response to counsel's question? 

Mrs. Shields. In response to the specific question which he asked 
me before, I relied on my privilege under the fifth amendment not to 
answer. 

Senator Welker. You mean to tell the committee that if you 
truthfully answered the question propounded to you by counsel as 
to whether you drove your car to these different places that he in- 
quired about 

Mr. Morris. That was the Higlej^ Hill Children's Camp. 

Senator Welker. The Higley Hill Children's Camp. [Continuing:] 
That a truthful answer to that might tend to incriminate you or force 
you to bear witness against yourself? 

Mrs. Shields. It might tend to. 

Senator Welker. It might tend to? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Senator Welker. That is the basis for your fifth amendment 
objection? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Very weU. 

Mr. Morris. V Mrs. Shields, do you know Nikolai Nikitin? 

Mrs. Shields. There was a man by that name employed at Tass 
at one time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 827 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you and he attend the Conference for Peace- 
ful Alternatives in Chicago on May 29, 1950, at the St. James Metho- 
dist Church, 6411 South Ellis Avenue in Chicago? 

I will read that again. That is the Conference for Peaceful Alterna- 
tives in Chicago, May 29, 1950. Did you and he together go to this 
meeting? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't remember whether he was with me. I re- 
member that I did cover it for Tass at that time. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

You went there in your capacity as a Tass News reporter? 

Mrs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you reported on this conference to whom? Do 
you recall? 

Mrs. Shields. Presumably I sent the story to the New York office. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know a James M. Shields, 9142 South 
Baltimore Avenue, in Chicago? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer that on the basis of my con- 
stitutional privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Did you report on what was transacted at that par- 
ticular meeting to James M. Shields? 

Mrs. Shields. Report to him? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, as to what happened at the meeting. 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know where James M. Shields is now? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Was he at that time, or had he been earlier, the 
regional du-ector of the NLRB? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a woman named Jessica Smith? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Mrs. Shields. I have met her; yes. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

When did you last see Jessica Smith? 

Mrs. Shields. I have no recollection. 

Mr. Morris. Is she not a friend of yours? 

Mrs. Shields. Not a close friend of mine, no. She is an acquain- 
tance. I have met her through the work that I do. 

Mr. AloRRis. I see. 

She is the editor of the New World Review, is she not? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes, I think so. I couldn't say for certain. I be- 
lieve she is. 

Senator Welker. Will you identify the New World Review? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel. 

Mr. Mandel. The New World Review is the successor publication 
to Soviet Russia Today, which has been cited as subversive by the 
House Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Proceed, Comisel. 

Mr. Morris. You went abroad in 1937, did you not? 

Airs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you stay abroad and what coun- 
tries did you visit? 

Mrs. Shields. We were gone about 3 months. I visited in France, 
in London and France, and in the Soviet Union. We stopped at 
Prague and Vienna, I believe, also. 



828 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Were you then working for Tass News Agency? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party at that 
time? 

Mrs. Shields. I have already said I was not a member during the 
20 years I have been there. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

So it is your testimony that you were not a member of the Com- 
munist Party when you made that particular trip to Europe? 

Mrs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Had you been to Europe earlier? 

Mrs. Shields. No. 

Mr. Morris. Had you been abroad at any time? 

Mrs. Shields. No. 

Senator Welker. While you were in Europe, did you meet with 
any Communists in France or in Russia or any other place that you 
might recall? 

Mrs. Shields. Not that I know of. 

Senator Welker. Do you know whom you did meet with? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't remember the names of the people now, no. 

Senator Welker. Was the Communist Party doctrine discussed in 
the meetings, any that you had, with any people there? 

Mrs. Shields. No. I didn't go to any such meetings. 

Senator Welker. What? 

Mrs. Shields. I did not go to any such meetings. 

Senator Welker. You know, I am confused a little bit as to why 
you take the fifth amendment as to whether or not you were a Com- 
munist immediately prior to joining Tass News Agency. 

Mrs. Shields. Would you repeat the question, please? 

Senator Welker. Pardon me? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't understand what you are asking me. 

Senator Welker. I said, I was a bit confused when you take the 
fifth amendment as to whether or not you were a Communist imme- 
diately prior to your joining the Tass News Agency. Can you en- 
lighten the committee on that, please? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Shields, where were you born? 

Mrs. Shields. San Francisco. 

Mr. Morris. In San Francisco? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You were born Esther Lowell, were you not? 

Mrs. Shields. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you contributed to the International Press 
Correspondence, which was the organ of the Communist International, 
published in Moscow? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Mrs. Shields. I never contributed to it, no. 

Mr. Morris. You did not? 

Mrs. Shields. No. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, does your name appear as a 
contributor of the International Press Correspondence in the year 
1934? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE "UNITED STATES 829 

Mrs. Shields. I have no idea.^ 

Mr. Morris. Have you contributed to the Labor Defender? 

Mr. Shields. I decline to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Morris. Was a reservation made for you at a dinner given in 
honor of the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade in the Hotel 
Commodore on April 11, 1945? 

Mrs. Shields. I couldn't say. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't remember. I do not know. 

Mr. Morris. You do not recall? 

Senator Welker. What was that question? 

Air. Morris. Will the reporter read it? 

(The question was read by the reporter.) 

Senator Welker. And the answer was, she did not remember? 

Mr. Morris. Did you go to that dinner? 

Mrs. Shields. I have no idea. I don't remember. 

Senator Welker. Did you ever go to any dinner given by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution 

Mrs. Shields. No. 

Senator Welker. Or the American Legion or the Veterans of 
Foreign Wars? 

Mrs. Shields. I may have. I don't recall right now. 

Senator Welker. You would recaD, would you not, if you had 
attended any such dinners? 

Mrs. Shields. My memory isn't as good as I would like it to be. 

Senator Welker. Pardon me? 

Mrs. Shields. I say, my memory is not so good as I would like it to 
be. 

Senator Welker. Well, it is not so good as I would like it to be, 
either. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Shields, did you ever attend a dinner for the 
Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade? 

Mrs. Shields. I don't remember. 

Senator Welker. Do you know what the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade was? 

Mrs. Shields. I have read about it. 

Senator Welker. You have read about it? 

Mrs. Shields. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And you knew about it, did you not? 

Mrs. Shields. Well, I know what I read, yes. 

Senator Welker. Do you know any persons who ever went over 
in the American group, in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, to fight in 
Spain? 

' At a hearing of the subcommittee on May 9, 1956, at which Senator Arthur V. Watkins presided, the 
following record was made: 

"Mr. Morris. When Esther Lowell Shields, of the Tass News Agency, appeared before the committee, 
we asked her if she had in fact written for Imprecor, which is a publication of the Comintern. Miss Lowell — 
Mrs. Shields — denied that she had ever written for Imprecor. We have here a notation made by Mr. 
Mandel, the research director, which indicates that an article under the name of Esther Lowell, the name 
she used, did in fact appear. 

"Mr. Mandel. The article under the name of Esther Lowell was a book review of Agnes Smedley's 
book Chinese Destinies and was published in International Press Correspondence, official organ of Com- 
munist International, volume 14, No. 19, dated March 31, 1934, page 508, under the title "A Vivid Picture 
of Changing China." 

"Mr. MoERis. That would not necessarily contradict Mrs. Shield's testimony because she would not 
necessarily consider a book review an article. At the same time, the name may have been used by the 
Imprecor people without her knowledge." 



830 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer on the basis of my constitutional 
privilege. 

Senator Welker. Do you know Steve Nelson? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Senator Welker. You apparently know a great deal more about it 
than you have told me. 

Very well. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a contributing editor of the Labor 
Defender? 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer that question for the same 
reason given. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Shields, while you have been an assistant 
editor of the Tass News Agency and all during your employment with 
Tass News Agencv, have vou contributed money to the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Shields. No. 

Mr. Morris. You have not? 

Mrs. Shields. No. 

Mr. Morris. You have made no contributions whatever to Com- 
munist causes? 

Mrs. Shields. No. [| 

Mr. Morris. Communist causes? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Mr. FoRER. You had better define "Communist causes," 

Senator Welker. How is that. Counsel? 

Mr. FoRER. I say, I asked him to define what he meant by "Com- 
munist causes," Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I think it would be very difficult for me to 
reframe the question, because counsel and I probably would disagree 
as to what is a Communist cause, and 

Mr. FoRER. I do not doubt it. 

Mr. Morris. And we might be engaged in semantics, Counsel. 

Mr. FoRER. Yes. 

Senator Welker. I would not have any trouble disagreeing with 
him, I am quite sure. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Shields, did you contribute to the Rosenberg 
fund, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Mrs. Shields. I decline to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. That, Counsel, would be an example of what I would 
consider a Communist cause. 

Mr. FoRER, I gathered that that is why you asked the question. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. Senator. 

Senator Welker. Thank you very much, Mrs. Shields. You are 
excused. 

Mr. Morris. You have one more witness? 

Mr. Forer. Yes; Mr. Mardo. 

Senator Welker. Air. Mardo, will you rise and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the com- 
mittee will be truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God? 

Mr. Mardo. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 831 

TESTIMONY OF BILL MARDO ACCOMPANIED BY JOSEPH FORER, 

HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
Mr. Mardo? 

Mr. Mardo. My name is Bill Mardo. I live at 543 Ocean Avenue, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And what is your present occupation, Mr. 
Mardo? 

Mr. Mardo. I decline to answer under the basis of my privileges 
under the fifth amendment not to bear witness against myself. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mardo, where were you born? 

Mr. Mardo. Pardon? 

Mr, Morris. Where were you born? 

Mr. Mardo. I was born in Manhattan. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Mardo. 1923. 

Mr. Morris. Your name was not Bill Mardo at birth, was it? 

Mr. Mardo. No, it was not. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat was it? Tell us for the record. 

Mr. Mardo. WilUam Bloom. 

Mr. Morris. That is B-1-o-o-m? 

Mr. Mardo. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. You worked for Tass News Agency, did you not? 

Mr. Mardo. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And you began your employment in July 1951? 

Mr. Mardo. No. I began my employment with the Washington 
Bureau of Tass in July of 1951. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you continue worldng for Tass on 
that particular tour of employment? 

Mr. Mardo. From July of 1951 to approximately April of 1952. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, where did you work for Tass? 

Mr. Mardo. I worked in the Washington Bureau of the Tass News 
Agency. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe your duties to the committee? 

Mr. Mardo. I worked primarily in a technical capacity on teletype 
and also engaged m occasional reportorial assignments and inside 
writing. 

Mr. Morris. I did not quite understand that, Mr. Mardo. 

Mr. Mardo. I worked primarily in a technical capacity on teletype 
and also engaged in occasional outside reportorial assignments and 
inside writing assignments. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now will you tell us some of these outside 
reportorial assignments? 

Mr. Mardo. Well, I will tell you those which I can recall. I can 
recall covering a meeting of the International Wheat Agreement, 
various press conferences called by the Secretary of Labor, such 
commonplace reportorial assignments as that. That is about all I 
can recall. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, you left Tass News Agency, did you 
not, and took up other employment? 

Mr. Mardo. I left the Tass News Agency in April of 1952 and took 
a job at the Soviet Information Bulletin. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, what is the Soviet Information Bulletin? 

72723— 56— pt. 15 3 



832 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mardo. That was a publicaton of the Embassy of the Soviet 
Union here in Washington. 

Senator Welker. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
that time? 

Mr. Mardo. I dechne to answer that question on the basis of my 
privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a Communist while a'^ou worked for 
Tass News Agenc}^? 

Mr. Mardo. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. After you left the Soviet Information Bulletin, you 
went back to Tass News Agency, did you not? 

Mr. Mardo. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you work for Tass News Agency 
on that particular tour of employment? 

Mr. Mardo. Approximately 1 year. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the nature of your work then? 

Mr. Mardo. Similar to what it was on my prior job there. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, technical work, occasional outside 
reporting, and occasional writing? 

Mr. Mardo. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us some of the reportorial work that you 
did for Tass News Agency at that time? 

Mr. Mardo. I can't recall any specific assignments, but there 
were^ — 

Mr. Morris. You cannot recall them? 

Mr. Mardo. I can't recall any specific reportorial assignments. 
There were reportorial assignments. 

Senator Welker. I think it is common knowledge that they cover 
the waterfront. They are probably here reporting now, reporting 
every place. As a matter of fact, yesterday in the Judiciary, one was 
there. 

Mr. Morris. It seems, Mr. Chairman, if I may indulge in an 
observation, unusual that the witness cannot recall any reportorial 
assignment that he had with Tass News Agency. 

Mr. Mardo. That is not the way 3^ou asked it, sir. I named those 
reportorial assignments which I can recall. That was several years 
ago. I cannot possibly recall every assignment that I was on. 

Mr. Morris. Can you recall one of them on this second tour of 
duty or second tour of service? 

Mr. Mardo. Well, I am not sure whether I covered the Inter- 
national Wheat Agreement on my first job with Tass or on my second 
job with Tass. It is one of the reportorial assignments which comes 
to mind. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever have a reportorial assignment on 
Capitol Hill? 

Mr. Mardo. I can't recall, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You cannot recall whether you had a reportorial 
assignment on Capitol Hill? 

Mr. Mardo. That is right. I can recall some other assignments, 
now that I am forcing myself to recall some. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Please do. It may be hard, Mr. Mardo, but 
I wish you would, because we are analyzing the nature of the work of 
reporters ajid employees of Tass News Agency. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 833 

Mr. Mardo. I recall helping cover a press conference, a weekly 
briefing, by the Secretary of State. I recall assisting in the coverage 
of some of the Truman press conferences. 

Senator Welker. Did you attend the Alger Hiss hearings? 

Mr. Mardo. No, I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, at these press conferences with the Secretary 
of State and the President of the United States, were you present for 
any off-the-record remarks at any time? 

Mr. Mardo. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Morris. Not that you can recall. Can you not recall being 
present at an interview at some time when the party giving the inter- 
view said, "Now, this is off the record." 

Mr. Mardo. I cannot recall, sir. . 

Mr. JMoRRis. You cannot recall such an experience? 

Mr. Mardo. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what is your employment now, Mr. Mardo? 

Mr. Mardo. I declme to answer on the basis of my privEeges under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. What was your 

/, Senator Welker. Just a moment. 

You have opened up the subject matter. You have told us your 
employment prior to this time. I am going to order and direct you 
to answer the question as to your present employment. 

Mr. Mardo. I. abide by my refusal, sir. 

Senator Welker. You what? 

Mr. Mardo. I abide by my refusal. 

Senator Welker. You abide bv your objection heretofore given; is 
that right? 

Mr. Mardo. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. Very well, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what employment did you have before you 
worked for Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us any employment that you have ever 
had in your life, Mr. Mardo? 

Mr. Mardo. I already have. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us something about it, Mr. Mardo? 
Wliat employment have you engaged in that you can tell us about? 

Mr. Mardo. I have already discussed my employment with the 
Tass News Agency and the U. S. S. R. Information Bulletin. I 
have a,lready declined to discuss any other previous or past employ- 
ment on the basis of my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. I want to make this definitely clear. While 
you were employed by the Tass News Agency, were you a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that for reasons already stated. 

Senator Welker. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons. 

Senator Welker. Have you ever been a member of the Coro- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this witness refuses to tell us about 
any employment that he has had except employment with Tass News 
Agency, and with the Soviet Information Bureau. In view of that. 
Senator, I would lil^e to ask this. 



834 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Have you contributed an article which was pubhshed in the Daily 
Worker on November 26, 1954, entitled, ''A Blood Bath in Guate- 
mala," page 6 of the Daily Worker for November 26, 1954? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been an officer of the provisional committee 
for the 69th anniversary of May Day, which was a fact recorded in 
the Daily Worker of May 13, 1954, page 5? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Have you written an article about voting in the 24th 
Congressional District in Bronx, N. Y., an article published in the 
Daily Worker of October 29, 1954, at page 6? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that question for the same reasons, 
sir. 

Senator Welker. Counsel, were they under his byline? 

Mr. Morris. According to the mformation I have. Senator. 

May we ask our research director to put those articles that I have 
just referred to in the record at this point, Senator? 

Senator Welker. Very well. That will be so ordered. 

Mr. Morris. That will be done at the next session, Mr. Mandel. 

(The articles referred to were marked "Exhibit Nos. 229, 230, and 
231" and appear below:) 

Exhibit No. 229 

(Daily Worker, New York, November 26, 1954, p. 6] 

Protests Mount Against Bloodbath in Guatemala 

(By Bill Mardo) 

Only precious days remain to save 20 Guatemalan patriots from the firing 
squad of dictator President Carlos Castillo Armas. 

On November 10 the civilized world with shock and horror read Castillo's 
announcement to United Press that the first 20 of 100 imprisoned Guatemalan 
^'Communists" will be brutally murdered before the end of this month. Naked 
indication of Castillo's courtroom justice was UP's paraphrasing of the dictator's 
prediction that the other 80 undoubtedly "will be convicted and shot" — this 
observation freely volunteered by the butcher even before his military "trials" 
are concluded. 

The November 20 New York Times reported from Guatemala City that to date 
72,000 persons have been listed as "Communists," and it "was expected eventuallv 
to list 200,000 as the investigation proceeded." 

It is ominously apparent that if democratic world opinion fails to halt the 
execution of the first 20 Guatemalan patriots before November lets out, Castillo's 
gang of murderers may yet wind up by massacring 200,000 Guatemalan citizens. 

But an aroused public opinion alreadv is demanding that the executioner's 

bullets never be fired. On November 16 the World Federation of Trade Unions, 

in the name of 80 million organized workers throughout the world, demanded 

'cancellalion of these odious sentences and the ending of the persecution of the 

best workers, peasants and intellectuals of Guatemala." 

Both here and abroad, people from every station of life are quickly moving to 
save the first 20 before it is too late. In New York, thousands of postcaids are 
bemg signed and sped to Guatemalan Ambassador .Jose Luis Cruz Salazar in 
Washington, urging that in the spirit of "simple humanitarian principles" his 
government grant clemency. The New York Council of the Arts, Sciences and 
Professions this week issued a petition in which artists, musicians, and others are 
urging clemency for the 20 Guatemalans "whose only crime was to fight for their 
country and for their legally elected government." 

In announcing the scheduled bloodbaths, Castillo declared that 100 Guate- 
malans will be executed for "tortures and murders" supposedly committed by 
the overthrown democratic government of Jacobo Arbenz Guzman. 

But in Castillo's lies, thinking Americans hear the echo of Hitler's Katyn Forest 
massacre of thousands of Poles which the Nazis and later their friends in the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 835 

United States Congress fraudulently tried to attribute to the Soviet Union. As 
a letter to the editor published in the November 13 San Francisco Chronicle 
pointed out: 

"Why was it that, although correspondents had free access to Guatemala be- 
fore the Castillo coup d'etat, these 'murders and atrocities' were not discovered 
until after the overthrow of Arbenz? In an atmosphere in which every oppo- 
nent of the Castillo dictatorship is called a 'Communist,' have these men had a 
fair trial? Could they possibly obtain justice under a government which has 
usurped all power, judicial as well as legislative?" 

Former President Arbenz on November 7, in his first public press conference 
since becoming a political refugee in Mexico City, himself nailed the "infamous 
calumnies" about murders and atrocities allegedly committed by his regime. 

Arbenz stated that after the United Fruit Co. and State Department-inspired 
overthrow of his popular front government, the hatchetman Castillo conveniently 
discovered in shallow graves hundreds of so-called executed opponents of the Ar- 
benz government. In giving the lie to this palpably phony frameup, Arbenz 
clearly revealed that the bodies found were "victims of internecine fighting in 
Colonel Castillo's army, and that photographs had been faked." (New York 
Times, November 8.) 

Millions of words have been WTitten and spoken by honest people both in the 
United States and throughout Latin America about the fresh new winds which 
swept through Guatemala during the pioneer democracy days of Arbenz' regime — 
the loosening of United Fruit's stranglehold around the necks of the Guatemalan 
peasants, the birth of constitutional liberties and trade union freedom, the in- 
spiring steps to remove the blight of illiteracy and poverty from a land and people 
whose ancient Indian culture provided so much to human history. 

But for the nonce, it might be well simply to recall the observation published 
in the far from pro-Arbenz columns of the New York Herald Tribune. After an 
extended tour of Latin America, Tribune correspondent A. T. Steele wrote on 
May 27, a few weeks before the invasion of democratic Guatemala: "In fairness 
to Guatemala, it must be made clear that despite the growth of Communist in- 
fluence, the people of that country enjoy more freedom than most of their Latin 
American neighbors." 

And it was precisely such freedom and democratic reforms which the United 
States State Departrnent feared other colonial peoples in Latin America might 
wish to emulate, and which moved our Government and United Fruit to inspire 
the invasion and crushing of Guatemala's newborn liberty. 

So contrast even this admittedly conservative estimate of the former Arbenz 
Government, with life in Guatemala today where terror stalks the country; where 
nearly 8,000 trade unionists, peasants, and democrats are in concentration camps; 
where the free labor and peasant organizations have been outlawed along with all 
other people's organizations; where civil liberties have been burned out and Gua- 
temala's democratic constitution wiped off the books. Read and judge for your- 
self on which foot the shoe of "murders and atrocities" fits! 

From Castillo's Guatemala, the November 6, New York Times reported: 
"This country's organized labor and peasant movement is still out of action 4 
months after the overthrow of the Jacobo Arbenz Guzman regime. The move- 
ment had grown almost unfettered for the last 10 years." 

Even the LTnited States Embassy in Guatemala was obliged to report in the 
November 22 Foreign Commerce Weekly that, out of a total of 530 unions whose 
leadership Castillo dissolved under the guise of ousting Communists, only 9 
had thus far reorganized. 

In the August 10 CIO News, Daniel Benedict, associate director of the CIO 
international affairs department wrote after visiting Castillo with a group of 
AFL and Cuban trade unionists: 

<• * * * non-Communist workers known for, or suspected of, strong trade 
union feelings have been, and are being fired by the score. * * * The long lines 
of obviously poor Indian peasant women seen by this writer waiting outside the 
jails with little baskets of food to send in to their arrested menfolk were certainly 
no indication that the thousands in jail are foreign Communist agitators or local 
party big shots. * * * In shops with 5 or 6 Communists, bosses have de- 
cided to fire dozens of workers whose 'crime' was merely union activity _ or 
protesting against wage cuts. Many of these workers have been thrown in jail." 

O. A. Knight, chairman of the CIO Latin American Affairs Committee, pro- 
testing to the State Department over the dismissal and jailings of trade unionists 
and the suspension of constitutional labor rights, wrote: "CIO is concerned be- 
cause continuance of this trend will weaken all democratic forces in the Amer- 



836 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 

icas. * * * We urge our Government to impress upon all its officials and upon 
United States owned business firms the danger of this course." *a( *i 

This, then, is life today in Guatemala under the fascist puppet Castillo who 
has the gangster's gall to accuse the former democratic government of having 
committed "atrocities!" 

Under Hitler's hoary old cry of saving a nation from "communism," the State 
Department and United Fruit have placed in power a Fascist triggerman who 
is putting the death smell of Auschwitz and Lidice on a gallant country which 
just a few short months ago was becoming a bright new morning star shining 
down on Latin Am.erica. 

Quickly on the order of business for all liberty-loving Americans is a swell of 
protest against the earmarked execution of democrats and the already accom- 
plished execution of democracy in Guatemala! 



Exhibit No. 230 
[DaUy Worker, New York, May 13, 1954, p. 5] 

Provisional Committee for May Day Dissolves 

The Provisional Committee for the C9th Anniversary of May Day, sponsors of 
labor's May Day 1954 demonstration at Union Square, at a meeting of committee 
ofF.cers and rank and file AFL, CIO, and independent trade unionists, officially 
dissolved the Provisional Committee. 

The meeting commended committee officers Bill Mardo, Rudolph Christian, 
and Miriam Baumel for their work. 

In a final statement, the Provisional Committee declared: 

''Special mention must be made of the rank and file furriers, garment workers, 
clothing workers, Negro, nationality and j'outh groups for their great efforts in 
guaranteeing the turnout of 15,000 New Yorkers in what proved to be a history- 
making demonstration in our country for peace in Indochina, world peace, out- 
lawing of the H-bomb, a program to deal with the mass unemployment, and the 
defeat of McCarthyism and all police-state laws. 

"The mighty turnout at Union Square was a tribute to the fighting spirit of 
labor, its deep-rooted yearnings for peace, jobs and civil liberties." 

Among the vmionists who addressed the May Day rally were: 

Rudolph Christian, a member of the United Radio and Electrical Workers 
Union; Leon Straus, of the Fur Workers Union; Victoria Garvin, of the Negro 
Labor Council; Fanny Golos, a member of the International Ladies Garment 
Workers Union; \^ illiam Kaufman, a member of the Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers; Miriam Baumel, a member of the Millinery Workers local, and A. 
Pauzner, a member of the Shoe Workers Union. 



Exhibit No. 231 

[Daily Worker, New York, October 29, 1954, p. 6] 

An Unusfal Opportunity for Bronx Voters 

(By Bill Mardo) 

New York newspapers have buried the big news in the 24th Congressional 
District in the Bronx. Let any objective reader judge for himself what is news- 
worthy in that tiny corner of the north Bronx. The Democratic incumbent 
Buckley doesn't even bother to conduct a token campaign for reelection to his 
eleventh term in Congress. The McCarthyite Republican, Charles Scanlon, 
is his unseen and unheard opponent. 

And then there is this. Also campaigning is a Communist, Elizabeth Gurley 
Flynn, a proud and prominent Coip.munist, a Smith Act defendant who on the 
very eve of 3 years imprisonment is running an independent race for Congress 
despite the kangaroo vote in Washington declaring the Com.munist Party of the 
United States outlaw and robbed of its political birthright. And would it be im- 
proper to observe that when 4,000 Bronxites defied the demons and stubbornlj^ 
signed their names to petitions supporting the right of a well-known Communist 
to run for public office and their right to listen to her, that time indeed had begun 
running out on the McCarthyite madness? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 837 

Where, then, does the real news lie in the Twenty-fourth Congressional District 
of the Bronx? 

And this is the very essence of the Elizabeth Gurley Flynn story. That ahn.ost 
every night in the week New Yorkers can finger the dial on their radio and hear 
the real voice of America. It was Elizabeth Gurley Flynn who raised the cry: 
"Coexistence or no existence." And she has been saying it so loud and so often 
during her campaign that lo and behold one day last week Adlai Stevenson said 
the very same thing in a Montana speech. 

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn was the first New York candidate to warn against the 
administration's plan to rearm Western Germany. This Eisenhower-Dulles 
policy of putting guns and tanks and jets into the hands of Nazi generals, warned 
Elizabeth on the air, will lead straight to catastrophe unless checked by the 
American people. For it means "sooner or later putting atom and hydrogen 
bombs into the hands of the same murdering hoodlmr.s who devastated Europe." 

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn was the first candidate to demand that Charlie Wilson 
be booted out of the Cabinet for his incredible insult to America's 5-mUlion un- 
employed. 

And Gurley Flynn, whose pulse has beat as one with American workers in 
legendary labor struggles over the past 50 j^ears, again touched a nerve when she 
proposed a real antidepression program. Let us build new schools, homes, and 
highways, she said. Let us raise the minimum wage to $1.25 per hour. Let us 
increase unemployment and social security benefits. Let us open the door to 
free trade between the East and West, and bring millions of new jobs to our elec- 
trical, metal, and maritime workers. 

To the American people daily growing more disgusted with McCarthyism, 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn said: Let us repeal all the Hitler-like legislation now- 
disgracing our statute books: the thought-control Smith Act; the new Butler- 
Brownell "Communist Control Act" with its deadly portent for American labor; 
the McCarran law and the McCarran- Walter Act which harasses and persecutes 
our foreign-born who have spent a lifetime helping create America's wealth. 
Let us win back our beloved Bill of Rights, says Elizabeth. Let us win amnesty 
for America's political prisoners, urges Gurley Flynn, she who inspired millions 
with her fights to save Sacco and Vanzetti, to free Mooney and Debs. 

Veteran battler for Negro rights, Gurley Flynn hammers home time and again 
the need for a Federal FEPC and once and forever an end to jimcrow wherever 
its ugly head crops up, be it housing, education, or industry. Let Attorney 
General Brownell stop persecuting innocent and patriotic Americans and start 
prosecuting the white supremacist thugs who defy the highest court of the land 
on school desegregation. 

But one thing above all others does Elizabeth Gurley Flynn bring to her 
constituents in the 24th Congressional District: Peace— "the issue of issues.'* 
Peaceful coexistence, she says, means to live and let live. If 800 million people 
have chosen socialism as their way of life, that's their business. Let us respect 
that choice as we would want them to respect ours. 

Peaceful coexistence, she says, means an immediate Big Four conference to 
guarantee a peaceful and democratic Germany, not a new Nazi bloodbath. 
Peaceful coexistence means that 400 million Chinese people must have their 
proper voice in the U. N. Peaceful coexistence means the outlawing of all 
nuclear weapons. 

This is the way to life and a better America, says Elizabeth Gurley Flynn. 
And proudly she links her hand with the Amicrican Labor Party candidates also 
campaigning for peace, jobs, and the Bill of Rights. 

That such a voice and such a program can be brought before the people in 
this, America's comeback year of 1954, is perhaps the most meaningful news 
story of the day. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a contributor to the People's World 
in San Francisco? 

]Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason, 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chaii-man, I have no information as to how this 
man is presently employed, sir. 

Senator Welker. Neither do I. 

Mr. Morris. And you will not tell us, Mr. Mardo? 

Mr. Mardo. I refuse to answer that 

Mr. Forer. No, no. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Senator. 



838 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. FoRER. He would like to correct his answer to the last question. 
The answer to the last question was, "yes," he will not tell you. 

Mr. Mardo. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. How is that, Mr. Forer? 

Mr. Forer. He mistook the last question. His answer to the last 
question is "yes." 

Senator Welker. I certainly do not want to be unfair to the 
witness. 

Mr. Morris. T think I understand what he means. Senator. 
I said, "You will not tell us that, will you," and he said, "No," and 
Mr. Forer says that he should have said "yes." 

Mr. Forer. He refused to answer when he said "yes." 

Mr. Morris. Very well. 

Senator Welker. You are excused, Mr. Witness. Thank you 
for appearing. 

Next witness, in a hurry. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Krafsur. 

Senator Welker. Stand up and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the committe 
will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Krafsur. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL KRAFSUR, ACCOMPANIED BY HARRYj I. 

RAND, HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. State your name and your residence, please. 

Mr. Krafsur. My name is Samuel Krafsur. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside, Mr. Krafsur? 

Mr. Krafsur. 6423 Dahlonega Road, Washington 16, D. C. 

Mr. Morris. What was that road? 

Mr. Krafsur. Dahlonega Road. 

Mr, Morris. What is your present occupation? 

Mr. Krafsur. I have been working in a toy shop. 

Mr. Morris. What toy shop? 

Mr. Krafsur. A toy shop in Rockville. I resigned Saturday. 
The name of the shop is the Rockville Toy Craft. 

Senator Welker. You did what Saturday? 

Mr. Krafsur. I resigned, sir. 

Senator Welker. You resigned from selling toys last Saturday? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a reporter for Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 

^Ir. Morris. Will you tell us the terminal dates of that employ- 
ment? 

Mr. Krafsur. Some time in October 1949. 

Mr. Morris. Until 

Mr. Krafsur. Terminal date, you said, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Well, both; the beginning and the end. 

Mr. Krafsur. I started in the spring of 1941. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you work for Tass? 

Mr. Krafsur. Where? I worked in New York and in Washington. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now will you tell us how long you worked 
in New York? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 839 

Mr. Krafsur. The summer of 1941. I was sent down here in the 
month of October and returned to New York and was sent down here 
for good on Pearl Harbor day. 

Air. Morris. What was the nature of your assignment in New 
York? 

Mr. Krafsur. I started in the traffic department. 

Mr. Morris. What is the traflTic department? 

Mr. Krafsur. It has to do with communications through RCA, 
Press Wireless, and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. I think Mr. Freeman has told us that there is a great 
volume of words that go out from Tass, New York, to Tass, Moscow. 
Could you tell us approximately how many there are? 

Mr. Krafsur. Oh, I don't recall, sir. There were 3 or 4 operators, 
and my job was not to keep track of the count. The bookkeeper 
did that. 

Mr. Morris. But 3^ou were engaged in transmitting stories and 
mformation that had been gathered by the reporters, and you were 
transmitting them to Moscow; is that right? 

Mr. Krafsur. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And what else did you do m New York? 

Mr. Krafsur. Those were my duties for, oh, I imagine 3 or 4 
months, and then I was put on the desk as an editor. 

Mr. AlORRis. As an editor? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you have New York City police credentials? 

]\j.r. Krafsur. I don't believe so, no. 

Mr. Morris. And then you came to Washington. And what was 
your work in Washmgton? 

yir. Krafsur. I was an assistant to the head of the bureau here, 
Mr. Todd. 

Mr. Morris. Laurence Todd? 

Mr. Krafsur. That is right. 

Mr. AiORRis. And you were a general reporter, were you not? 

Mr. Krafsur. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you did reportmg for Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you cover Capitol Hill? 

Mr. Krafsur. At times, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you cover the State Department? 

Air. Krafsur. Once in a while. 

Air. AIoRRis. Did you cover the White House? 

Air, Krafsur. Yes, most of all. 

Air. AIoRRis. Alost of all. 

Now, would you tell us generally the nature of your assignment, 
how 5^ou carried it out, and what were some of the problems you 
encountered, and what were some of the things you did for Tass 
News Agency. 

Mr. Krafsur. Well, I would be assigned to cover press conferences, 
briefings. White House briefings, generally phone in the stories to 
the desk here, which were transmitted to New York. 

Air. AIoRRis. And let us take the White House conferences. You 
would get an announcement, as would all reporters, that there was 
going to be something newsworthy happening at the White House? 

Air. Krafsur. WeU, it doesn't quite work that way. 

72723— 5G—pt. 15 4 



840 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Mr. Morris. Tell us how it does. 

Mr. Krafsur. Well, there was a briefing every morning at 10:30 by 
the President's press secretary. 

Mr. Morris. What President was that? 

Mr. Krafsur. President Roosevelt. 

Mr. Morris. And you attended the briefings? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was anything off the record about these 
briefings? 

Mr. Krafsur. No; they were open to the press. 

Mr. Morris. Yes; but were there not times when some of these 
briefings or some portions of the briefings were off the record? 

Mr. Krafsur. Well, Mr. Early, who was then press secretary, might 
say, "This is off the record." 

Mr. Morris. And then you, like all other reporters, would not re- 
port on it? 

Mr. Krafsur. Precisely. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in connection with the last question 
I asked a while ago, we have here from the Western Union Telegraph 
Co., the number of words that have been filed during the year 1955, and 
I think it would be appropriate to put it into the record at this time. 

Senator Welker. It is so ordered. 

(The matter referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 232" and is as 
follows :) 

Exhibit No. 232 

The Western Union Telegraph Co., 

Washington 4, D. C, February 28, 1956. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandel, 

Research Director, Internal Security Subcommittee, 
United States Senate, Washington 25, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Mandel: This is in response to your letter of February 16 addressed 
to our New York office, requesting certain information on the number of words 
sent by Tass over Western Union channels to and from the Soviet Union for the 
year 1955. 

The Tass Agency does not file overseas correspondence with us. They do have 
a telemeter channel operating between New York and Washington, D. C, on a 
24-hour basis. The channel is terminated at the New York end in the telegraph 
bureau of the Tass Agency, 50 Rockefeller Plaza and at Washington, D. C., in 
the office of Lawrence Todd, National Press Building, with an extension on local 
lease to the Russian Embassy permitting copy to be received at both places. 

The word count on the channel by months during 1955, determined on the 
basis of six characters per word, is listed below: 



January 350, 390 

February 316, 924 

March 507, 952 

April 319,358 

May 433,075 

June 441, 164 



July 360, 410 

August 376, 032 

September 391, 934 

October 388, 588 

November 348, 663 

December 378, 027 



Billing, including the local lease, is at the maximum rate of $440 per month. 
If we can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to let us know. 
Very truly yours, 

K. W. Heberton, Vice President. 

Mr. Morris. Also, Senator, we have the same kind of information 
from Press Wireless, Inc., 660 First Avenue. May that also go into 
the record? 

Senator Welker. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Morris. I will not go into these. I think it indicated that the 
total was 64,000 words during 1955. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 841 

Is that right, Air. Mandel? 

Mr. AIandel. Yes. 

(The matter referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 233" and is as 

follows:) 

Exhibit No. 233 

Press Wireless, Inc., 
New York 16, N. Y., February 23, 1956. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandel, 

Research Director, Internal Security Sahcommittee, 
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: Reference is made to your letter of February 16, 1956, concerning 
the Tass traffic handled by us on our radio circuit to and h-oin the Soviet Union 
during the year 1955. 

During the year 1955, no traffic was filed with us in the United States by Tass 
for transmission to Moscow. A total of only 403 words was received by us from 
Moscow for delivery to Tass. We do not know the collection charges made in 
Moscow for this traffic. Our charge to the Soviet Government as our share of the 
tolls involved for receiving and delivering the copy was $11.08, computed at the 
rate of $0.0275 per word. 

In addition to the above, however, Press Wireless transmitted to Moscow from 
Kew York during 1955 a total of 64,264 words of traffic filed by Tass in Buenos 
Aires, Argentina, for delivery in Moscow. This traffic was filed with the Argentine 
Government Radio Administration (Correos y Telecommunicaciones) which 
transmitted it to us at Xew York. Upon receipt at New York it was immediately 
retransmitted to Moscow. We do not know the total collections made by the 
Argentine Government from Tass for this traffic. Our charge to the Argentine 
Government as our and the Soviet Union's share of the tolls involved amounted 
to $5,141.83 and generally was based upon a per word charge of 8 cents. 

We trust that the above satisfactorily answers your inquiry, but shall be happy 
to supply any additional information on this subject you may require. 
Very truly yours, 

Thomas J. Reilly, Controller. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what were you doing immediately before you 
worked for Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Krafsur. I was unemployed. 

Mr. Morris, '\(^^lat was your earlier employment before 3'our em- 
ployment with Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Krafsur. The job I had before that was secretary to a ^vlite^. 

Mr. Morris. And who was that writer? 

Mr. Kr.\fsur. Elliott Paull. 

Mr. Morris. He is a novelist, is he not? 

Mr. Krafsur. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. He is your brother-in-law, is he not? 

Mr. Krafsur. That is right. He was my brother-in-law, 

Mr. Morris. Myron Ehrenberg is also j^our brother-in-law? 

Mr. Krafsur. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Elliott Paull, MjTon Ehrenberg, and \'ourself married 
the three Scovill sisters, did you not? 

Mr. Krafsur. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Wliere did vou first meet your wife? 

Mr. Krafsur. I met her in Massachusetts. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, where were you born, Mr. Krafsur? 

Mr. Krafsur. I was born in Boston. 

Mr. Morris. What has been your education? 

Mr. Krafsur. English high school and a 3-ear at Northeastern 
University. 

Mr. Morris. And did you have employment in Boston? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 



842 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. What was your employment in Boston? 

Mr. Krafsur. Oh, I had various jobs. I worked for a stationery 
company. I worked for a boys' club. I worked for the President's 
Birthday Ball Committee, either 1 or 2 years. 

Mr. Morris. What was the President's Birthday Ball Committee? 

Mr. Krafsur. That was the first year they started to raise mone}^ 
for the poho fund. I forget the exact year. It was in, I think, 1935 
or 1936, but I am not sure. 

Senator Welker. Were you ever a member of the Communist 
Party during any of those periods? 

Mr. Krafsur. I decline to testify, sir, based on my privileges under 
the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker (continuing). During any of those periods of 
employment? 

Mr. Krafsur. I decline to testify, sir, based on my privileges under 
the fifth and the first amendments. 

Senator Welker. Very well. And were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party while you were employed by Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Krafsur. No; I was not. 

Senator Welker. Were you a member of the Communist Party 
five minutes before you became a member of the Tass News Agency? 

Mr. Krafsur. No; I was not. 

Senator Welker. Were you a member of the Communist Party 
6 months before you became a member of Tass? 

Mr. Krafsur. Prior to December 1940, I decline to testify, relyin<i- 
on my constitutional privileges under the first and the fifth amend- 
ments. 

Senator Welker. Prior to December 1940? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Now, one more ciuestion the acting chairman 
would like to ask: You appeared before me in executive session, 1 
think, 2 weeks ago? 

Mr. Krafsur. I think it was longer than that, sir. 

Senator Welker. February 24, 1956. You say 3^ou resigned from 
your work as a toy salesman last Saturday? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. Was that resignation voluntary or were you asked 
to resign? 

Mr. Krafsur. It was voluntary, sir. 

Senator Welker. Was anj^ discussion had about your appearance 
before this committee? 

Mr. Krafsur. Well, I informed my employer that I was going to 
be called. 

Senator Welker. And did he have anything to say about that? 

Mr. Krafsur. Well, he was surprised, I presume. 

Senator Welker. Surprised? Did he think that would enhance 
the sale of to\'s? 

Mr. Krafsur. Well, I don't know. I didn't ask him, sir. 

Senator Welker. Why did you resign, if I might ask that? It 
may be personal. If you do not care to answer, tell me. 

Mr. Krafsur. Well, sir, I think it is fairly obvious. 

Senator Welker. I did not hear that. 

Mr. Krafsur. I say, sir, it is fairly obvious. 

Senator Welker. It is fairly obvious for what reason? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 843 

Mr. Krafsur. I didn't believe I would be useful to him any more. 

Senator Welker. And you are not employed now? 

Mr. Krafsur. No, sir. 

Senator Welker. Are you seeking employment? 
• Mr. Krafsur. I intend to, sir. 

Senator Welker. Do you intend to seek employment back with 
Tass? 

Mr. Krafsur. I don't know, sir. I haven't explored any of the 
avenues that may be open. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Cecil Lubell? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes; I know a Cecil Lubell. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

When did you last see Mr. Lubell? 

Mr. Krafsur. Oh, golly, about 15 or 20 years ago, I imagine. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a Communist, Mr. Krafsur? 

Mr. Krafsur. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris, Have you been in the Veterans of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade? 

Mr. Krafsur. I decline to testify to that, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. Did you go to Spain with the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade? 

Mr. Krafsur. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. You have worked for the WPA, have you not? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Krafsur. Oh, I think it was 1935-36. 

Mr. Morris. And you worked for the Boston Tercentenary Com- 
mittee, did you not? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes, sir. It was in the middle thirties. I am not 
sure of the exact year. 

Mr. Morris. I think you testified in executive session that you 
obtained your employment with Tass News Agency after an interview 
with Kenneth Durant? 

Mr. Krafsur. Not immediately after that. Yes; I was interviewed 
by Mr. Durant, and I was later hired. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what trips have you made abroad, Mr. Krafsur? 

Mr. Krafsur. I decline to answer that, sir, on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Senator Welker. WTiat? 

Mr. Krafsur. I said, I decline to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever used a name other than your own 
name? 

Mr. Krafsur. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Senator. 

Senator Welker. You used your correct name when you were 
selHng toys? 

Mr. Krafsur. Yes. 

Senator Welker. That is all. You are excused. 

Call the next witness. 

Mr. Morris. Laurence Todd. 

Mr. Rand. Do you want me to identify myself for the record? 



844 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "DlSriTED STATES 

Senator Welker. I am sorry, counsel. I thought the reporter 
would know you. 

Mr. Rand. Harry I. Rand, Wyatt Building, Washington 5, D. C. 

Senator Welker, Will you rise and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the committee 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Todd. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LAURENCE TODD, ACCOMPANIED BY DAVID 

REIN, HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. State your name and your residence, please. 

Mr. Todd. Laurence Todd, 4805 Langdrum Lane, Chevy Chase^ 
Md. 

Mr. Morris. What is your present occupation, Mr. Todd? 

Mr. Todd. I am retired. 

Mr. Morris. Do you do individual research work at the Library of 
Congress? 

Mr. Todd. No. 

Mr. Morris. You have not done any recentl}'? 

Mr. Todd. I was doing some research in the winter of 1952 and 1953, 
and up to January 1954, I believe. 

Mr. Morris. Now, whom did you do that research for? 

Mr. Todd. For myself. I was writing memoirs. 

Mr. Morris. Did you not do some work for some of the Soviet 
consulates and embassies here? ' 

Mr. Todd. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Did you do some work for some of the Soviet consuls 
and Embassies during that time? 

Mr. Todd. No, I did not. 

Mr. Morris. The Hungarian Government? The Polish Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. Todd. No, I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you have been associated with Tass News 
Agency for many years, have you not, Mr. Todd? 4 

Mr. Todd. I was associated with the Tass News Agencv m Wash- 
ington part time from 1923 to 1933 and full time from 1933 to 1952. 

Mr. Morris. And then you retired in 1952? 

Mr. Todd. I retired in June of 1952. 

Mr. Morris. Now, where were you born, Mr. Todd? 

Mr. Todd. In Michigan, Nottawa, St. Joseph County in Michigan. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

What has been your educational background? 

Mr. Todd. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Morris. What has been your educational background? 

Mr. Todd. I went through countiy schools. I earned my way 
through a high school in Ann Arbor, and I attended the university 
2K years. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would describe for the subcommittee, 
Mr. Todd, the nature of your employment with Tass News Agency. 

Mr. Todd. I was in charge of a Washnigton report for the Tass 
Agency, which is located in New York. I was a correspondent here, 
and I gathered news and sent it. I was in charge of the local accounts 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNTITED STATES 845 

of the bureau, the expense accounts, and things like that. I never 
employed anyone. I neither had authority to employ nor to dismiss 
anyone. 

Senator Welker. Were you a member of the Commimist Party 
at any time in your life? 

Mr. Todd. Never. 

Senator Welker. Never? 

Mr. Todd. Never. 

Senator Welker. Prior to your employment with Tass? 

Mr. Todd. I answered that; never. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you in your work with Tass News Agency 
ever have any associations with or relations with officials of the 
United States Gov''ernment? 

Mr. Todd. A newspaperman m Washington attends press con- 
ferences, of course. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Witness and counsel, will you please pardon 
me now? I am going to have the distinguished Senator from South 
Carolina take over as chairman. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Senator. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. 

Senator Johnston (presiding). Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Did you knov/ Oliver Edmund Clubb? 

Mr. Todd. I met him once, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Just once? 

Mr. Todd. I think just once. I met him many years ago. He was 
a consul, and I met him. 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me, Mi*. Todd. 

Mr. Todd. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. You were answering a question. I am sorry. 

Mr. Todd. Yes. I met him twice that I remember. I met him 
twice. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the occasion of your meetings with Mr. 
Clubb? 

Mr. Todd. Mr. Clubb was stationed in China, and I had a brother, 
an engineer, in China, and it is my recollection^ — -I am not sure — my 
recollection that my brother sent me a note that he had given Mr. 
Clubb my name, and when he came to Washington, he might say 
hello to me. Mr. Clubb did see me. That I remember. 

Mr. Morris. Proceed. Was that all? 

Mr. Todd. He came to see me. It was many years ago. 

Mr, Morris. You have not seen him recently? 

Mr. Todd. I saw him — I met Mr. Clubb in New Hampshire in the 
summer some years ago. He was living in Mr. Grew's house, I think. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know a woman named Louise Bransten? 

Mr. Todd. I tMnk 1 met her. 

Mr. Morris. You met her in San Francisco, did 3^ou not? 

Mr. Todd. I may have. I may have. 

Mr. Morris. Do you recall the circumstances of your meeting 
Louise Bransten in San Francisco? 

Mr. Todd. I don't recall exactly, but I think Louise Bransten had 
written a novel, and I bad met ber, I think, in Washington before that. 

Mr. Morris. You say j^ou had met her earlier? 

Mr. Todd. I think I bad met ber in Washington before that. I 
I can't recall the name under which she wrote. 



846 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Have you not read anything about Louise Bransten at 
any time? 

Mr. Todd. Have I read anything 

Mr. Morris. Have you read anything about her, her appearances 
before congressional committees or information about her before con- 
gressional committees? 

Mr. Todd. No. I never knew that she appeared before any con- 
gressional committees. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a gentleman named G. G. Dolbin? 

Mr. Todd. That is a name that I do not recall ever hearing before. 

Mr. Morris. Did 3'Ou dine with Dolbin on August 9, 1946? 

Mr, Todd. I am sure I did not. I would have known. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Feodor Garanin? 

Mr. Todd. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Is 3^our testimony, then, that you did not dine with 
Dolbin at that time? 

Mr. Todd. I am sure I did not. I never heard the name before. 

Mr. Morris. G. G. Dolbin? 

Mr. Todd. As far as I know, I never heard the name. 

Mr. Morris. Mikhail Federov was your successor in Tass, was he 
not? 

Mr. Todd. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was he? 

Mr. Todd. He was a Soviet citizen who came here as a correspond- 
ent of Tass. 

Mr. Morris. And he took your place? 

Mr. Todd. He took my place in 19.49. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did j^ou know the last witness here, Samuel 
Krafsur? 

Mr. Todd. Yes; he worked in Tass. He worked up at the Capitol 
for some time. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know a woman named Mary Jane 
Keeney? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Morris. Her husband's name is Philip Keeney. 

Mr. Todd. Yes; I knew Mrs. Keeney. 

Mr. Morris. She has stayed at your home, has she not; she and 
Mr. Keeney have stayed at your home? 

Mr. Todd. She has not made her home there. 

Mr. Morris. No. But she has stayed overnight at your home, 
she and her husband? 

Mr. Todd. No; her husband, never. 

Mr. Morris. But she has? 

Mr. Todd. I think she was there at one time. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know David Wahl? 

Mr. Todd. I don't remember that name. 

Mr. Morris. David Wahl? 

Mr. Todd. I don't remember that name. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know that Mary Jane Keeney was repri- 
manded by David Wahl for having visited you? 

Mr. Todd. I never heard of any such things. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you do not know David 
Wahl? 

Mr. Todd. I don't recall that name. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 847 

Mr. Morris. Do you know John Marsalka, who resided at 3317 
R Street NW.? 

Mr. Todd. He may be someone that I have met. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a stag party at his home on August 
22, 1946? 

Mr. Todd. Marsalka? That may be the man. I attended a party. 
It may have been Marsalka's. I think I met Marsalka at 1 or 2 parties 
over the past 10 years. That was 10 years ago, was it? 

Mr. Morris. 1946 is the particular one that I am asking about. 

Mr. Todd. Yes, 10 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. Did you on December 9, 1947, go to David Wahl's 
home at 3 Lexington Street, in Kensington, Md.? 

Mr. Todd. I decline to answer — I am not sure. I will decline to 
answer that under the protection of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Johnson asked me the street here. That was 
3 Lexington Street, Kensington, Md. 

Now, you know Jean Montgomery, do you not? 

Mr. Todd. Yes, she worked for Tass. 

Mr. Morris. She worked for Tass. When did you last see Jean 
Montgomery, Mr. Todd. 

Mr. Todd. When did I last see her? I should say about a year ago. 

Mr. Morris. I see. What were the chcumstances of that meeting? 

Mr. Todd. It was just before she left the employment of Tass, I 
should say. 

Mr. Morris. Now, can you recaU being on the presidium at the 
Communist Party convention in Portland, Oreg., in 1939? 

Mr. Todd. I beg yom- pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Can you recall being on the presidium at the Com- 
munist Party convention in Portland, Oreg., in 1939? 

Mr. Todd. I never attended any Communist meeting in my life, 
to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. That was not exactly the question, Mr. Todd. 
Maybe that 

Mr. Todd. The ansv/er is "No." 

Mr. Morris. You did not attend? 

Mr. Todd. No. 

Mr. Morris. You have a nephew, Victor Hugo Todd? 

Mr. Todd. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Can you recall speaking at a farewell party for 
Robert Hall at Inspii-ation House on November 21, 1952? 

Mr. Todd. I cannot recall making any speech anywhere. 

Mr. Morris. For Robert Hall? 

Mr. Todd. For Robert HaU or anyone else. 

Mr. Morris. I asked if you spoke there. Maybe you spoke there 
without making a speech. 

Can you remember a farewell party for Robert Hall? 

Mr. Todd. I think I shall decline to answer on the grounds of my 
protection under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you remember speaking at a northwest club of 
the Progressive Party on March 28, 1953? 

Mr. Todd. I do not remember. 

Mr. Morris. You do not remember that. By way of refreshing 
your recollection, I will mention it was held at the home of Barbara 
Bruce, 521 Massachusetts Avenue NW. 



848 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Todd. 521 Massachusetts Avenue NW.? I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Barbara Bruce? 

Mr. Todd. Never. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Panj^ushkin? He used to be the 
Ambassador. 

Mr. Todd. Mr, Panyushkin was the Ambassador here for 4 or 
5 years. I met him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what were your relationships with Ambassador 
Panyushkin? 

Mr. Todd. My relations were that, at receptions, I shook hands 
with him, and to the best of my knowledge I never had any private 
talk with him or private interview. 

Mr. Morris. You say to the best of your knowledge you had none? 

Mr. Todd. To the best of my knowledge, I had no private inter- 
views with Ambassador Panyushkin. 

Mr. Morris. And did your work as a Tass reporter bring you in 
contact, other than the formal way you have described, with Ambas- 
sador Panyushkin? 

Mr. Todd. I have already testified in executive session that I 
occasionally called individually at tiie Soviet Embass}^, but I did not 
on those occasions see the Ambassador. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a woman named Rose Yardumian? 
She used to be a secretary for the Institute of Pacific Relations here 
in Washington. 

Mr. Todd. I don't think I ever met such a person. I can't recall. 

Mr. Morris. The name means nothing to you? 

Mr. Todd. It means nothing to me, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Nathan Gregory Silvermaster? Did you ever meet 
Nathan Gregory Silvermaster? 

Mr. Todd. I may have. 

Mr. Morris. Will you try to refresh your recollection on that 
score, Mr. Todd? 

Mr. Todd. I decline to answer on the grounds of my protection 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. William Ludwig Ullman? 

Mr. Todd. The same response. 

Mr. Morris. You know Robert F. Hall; do you not? 

Mr. Todd. I know Robert F. Hall. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Robert F. Hall? 

Mr. Todd. He is connected \vith the Daily Worker or the Sunday 
Worker in New York. Is that the Robert Hall? 

Mr. Morris. That is the Robert Hall. And his wife testified here 
today. Now, I wonder if you would tell us what relationship existed 
between Tass News Agency and the Daily W^orker dm-ing the period 
of your employment by that agency. 

Mr. Todd. None whatever; none whatever. 

Mr. Morris. How did .you know Robert F. Hall? 

Mr. Todd. Because he was a correspondent of the Daily Worker in 
Washington. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And yet you did come to know him? 

Mr. Todd. Yes. I have known hundreds of correspondents in 
Washington, and it would be quite natural that I would know him. 

Mr. Morris. But Robert Hall is a person who was well known to 
you, was he not? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 849 

Mr. Todd. He was well known to 



Mr. Morris. He has visited j^our home, has he not? 

Mr. Todd. I do not think he ever visited my home. He may have, 
but I don't recall it. I don't think so. 

Mr. Morris. Have you visited his home? 

Mr. Todd. Have I visited his home? I suppose I have visited 
once or twice. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Lee Pressman? 

Mr. Todd. Who? 

Mr. "Morris. Lee Pressman. 

Mr. Todd. I met him. He was in Federal service when I met him. 
I have never met him since he was in Federal service. He was a 
lawyer. 

Mr. A'loRRis. Owen Lattimore? 

Mr. Todd. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Owen Lattimore? 

Mr. Todd. No, I have never met him. 

Mr. Morris. You have never met liim? 
.;; Mr. Todd. No. 

Mr. Morris. John Carter Vincent? 

Mr, Todd. I know the name. I have seen him at the State Depart- 
ment. I don't know him. 

Mr. Morris. You have seen him and conversed with him? 

Mr. Todd. I don't recall conversing with him. He came home 
from his post and I believe he was brought out to talk to press cor- 
respondents. That is my impression now, but it is a long tune ago. 
I remember he was under attack for a long time. 

Mr, Morris. How about Lauchlin Currie? 

Mr. Todd. Currie was in the State Department during the war, 
and I have seen him there. 

Mr. Morris. Did you converse with him at any time? 

Mr. Todd. I suppose I did. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us the nature of your conversations 
with him? 

Mr. Todd. No; I cannot. For many years I was stationed — I had 
a desk in the press room at the State Department, and I saw a good 
many of these people around then. I think that Mr. Currie came in 
and talked to a group of pressmen several times. He had something 
to do \\^th China. I think the President sent him over to China. 

Mr. Morris. Now, to get back to Oliver Edmund Clubb, you took 
Mr. Clubb to see Boris Skvirsky, did you not? 

Mr. Todd. I am not sui-e about it. Mr. Skvirsky had come here 
from the Far East, and had come here through the State Department 
at the time of the Washington conference. I cannot recall the cir- 
cumstances. I take it Mr. Clubb has testified. 

Mr. Morris. Well, he has made mention of that fact in a diary 
that appeared in the record of a congressional committee: 

"So we dined at the Press Club. The morning of the 6th, Todd took 
me to see vSkvirsky, head of the Soviet Information Bulletin in Wash- 
ington. Questions on Soviet China were quick, direct, and to the 
point." 

Can you recall that occasion? 

Mr. Todd. I can't recall it. It may be that I accompanied him to 
meet Mr. Skvirsky. It may be. 



850 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you do not recall meet- 
ing G. G. Dolbin, of the Soviet Foreign Office? 

Mr. Todd. No, never. I cannot recall that name at all, ever 
meeting him. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet a woman named Alice Bai-rows? 

Mr. Todd. Yes, I met Alice Barrows. She was in the Office of 
Education for 20 years or so. 

Mr. Morris. What was the occasion of your meeting Alice Barrows? 

Mr, Todd. Twenty-five years ago, or more — 30 years ago — some 
social occasion, I didn't 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, did you have occasion to meet Eaii 
Browder? 

Mr. Todd. I don't think I ever met Earl Browder, I don't think 
so, I don't recall, 

Mr. Morris, Mr. Todd, did you have occasion to read any of the 
reports on the hearings of the Institute of Pacific Relations held by 
this subcommittee? 

Mr. Todd, No, I did not. 

Mr. Morris, You did not. Your name did come up from time to 
time throughout that. 

Mr. Todd. Yes. I haven't read those. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Edward C. Carter? 

Mr. Todd. (No response.) 

Mr. Morris. Edward C. Carter? 

Mr. Todd. Carter? 

Mr. Morris, Yes. 

Mr. Todd, I met him once. He was the Carter in the State De- 
partment, How long ago that is, I don't know. When Mr. Hull 
was Secretary. He would come to see Mr, Hull, and several of us 
newspapermen surrounded him. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Vladimir Rogoff ? 

Mr. Todd. I testified in executive session that Mr. Rogoff came 
through Washington and I met him at that time. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that, Mr. Todd? 

Mr. Todd. Rogoff came to the Tass office, it was during the war, 
and he said — ^he was with a man from the New York office of Tass, a 
Soviet citizen. 

Mr. Morris. Wlio was he? 

Mr, Todd. Alexandrov, who was the acting manager. 

Mr, Morris. And he brought him to see you in Washington? 

Mr, Todd, That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, whom else? Did you visit anyone else? 

Mr, Todd. Did he visit anyone else? 

Mr, Morris. Did you and he together visit anyone else? 

Mr. Todd. No; not that I know of. 

Mr. Morris. You did not bring him down to the State Department? 

Mr. Todd. No, I did not. To the best of my knowledge, Mr. 
Alexandrov and Mr. Rogoff went around to various places, and I 
think he was here just 1 day. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in order to put some of these questions 
in context, to indicate what evidence I am questioning the witness 
about, in connection with our IPR hearings, we had a letter from 
Rose Yardumian, to Edward C. Carter, dated January 20, 1944, in 
which she said : 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 851 

Dear Mr. Carter: I received your letter of January 17 with copies of the 
telegrams you sent Mr. Hiss and Mr. Currie. I called Alger Hiss yesterday 
morning and he told me that he had received your wire but was sure that I would 
understand that he could not make the first advance in arranging a private talk 
with Rogoflf. He mentioned Rogoflf's articles on War and the Working Class, 
and that Rogoflf's material had caused considerable controversy in circles here. 
He said that if Larry Todd wanted to bring Rogoflf to Hornbeck's office, they 
would not refuse to see him. I am not sure that I understand the machinations 
of our State Department. Bill Johnson saw no point in my trying to get in 
touch with Hornbeck directly since presumably Hiss had consulted with 
Hornbeck. 

Now, can you recall anything about that episode described by Mr. 
Hiss there? 

Mr. Todd. I can't recall that. I knew Mr. Hornbeck, of coiu-se. 
He was in charge of Far Eastern Affairs in the State Department, and 
I used to see him occasionally. I haven't the faintest recollection as 
to whether 

Mr. Morris. You just recall meeting Rogoff about that time 
though? 

Mr. Todd. In connection with Hornbeck? 

Mr. Morris. No;not with Hornbeck; no, no. You do recall meet- 
ing Vladimir Rogoff ? 

Mr. Todd. Oh, Rogoff was here. He came here one day and went 
away the next. He was on his way from Shanghai to Russia, and I 
met him, and I doubt very much whether he got up to see Hornbeck. 
It ma}^ be, but I doubt it. 

Mr. Morris. I am not asking you that. I am asking you, Mr. 
Todd, whether you recall anything about this statement of Mr. Hiss', 
attributed to Mr. Hiss in this letter, that the thing for Rogoff to do 
was to have jou bring Rogoff down to the State Department? 

Mr. Todd. No. I never heard of that. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Mr. Hiss? 

Mr. Todd. Which 

Mr. Morris. Alger Hiss? 

Mr. Todd. No. I never 



Mr. Morris. You never had occasion to meet him? 

Mr. Todd. Never. 

Mr. Morris. He speaks in the letter as if he knew you — 

* * * if Larry Todd wanted to bring Rogoflf to Hornbeck's office, they would not 
refuse to see him. 

Mr. Todd. All I can say is that I never knew Mr. Hiss. I knew 
him by sight, of course. He had been around here for years. I knew 
Hiss by sight. I didn't know that he knew me by sight. But I was 
fairly well known. After all, I served 40 years in the Press GaUery. 

Air. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions of this 
particular witness at this time. 

Mr. Todd, it may be that this examination is not complete. May 
we ask you if you will agree to return at some time, by phoning your 
attorney? 

Mr. Todd. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. It may not be necessary. But in the event it is, I 
will call Mr. Rein. 

Mr. Rein. Will we get sufficient notice? 

Mr. Morris. You will get sufficient notice. 

Senator Johnston. So you hold yom-self in readiness if we should 
want to call you back at a future time. 



852 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Todd. Surely. 

Mr. Morris. Now, we have Mr. Folsom here, FrankHn Folsom. 

Will you stand and bo sworn, Mr. Folsom? 

Senator Johnston. Hold up youi- right hand. Do you swear that 
the testimony you give before this subcommittee will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Folsom. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANKLIN FOLSOM, ACCOMPANIED BY STANLEY 

FAULKNER, HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Johnston. Have a seat. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and addi'ess to the reporter? 

Mr. Folsom. Franklin Folsom, 16 Farm Lane, Roosevelt, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Folsom, have you been an employee of Tass 
News Agency? 

Mr. Folsom. Before answering the question, I should like to know 
what I am charged with. 

Mr. Morris. There are no charges, Mr. Folsom. The Internal 
Security Subcommittee is trying to determine for the record, for 
Congress, the nature of the activities of American citizens who have 
been employed by Tass News Agency. 

Now, om- information is that you have been employed by Tass 
News Agency, and we are subpenaing you in the hope that you might 
be able to give us information on the workings of this particular 
organization. And that is why you have been called here this 
morning. 

Senator Johnston. We want the witness to understand that he is 
not accused of anything, but we are seeking information whereby we 
can protect America, and for that reason the questions that will be 
asked here will be trying to get information whereby we can better 
serve our country by passing the necessary laws in the Congress of the 
United States. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Folsom, you have worked for Tass News Agency, 
have you not? 

Mr. Folsom. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first amendment, which guarantees freedom of the press, and on the 
basis of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Johnston, Are you an American citizen? 

Mr. Folsom. I am. 

Senator Johnston. Do you have your Government at heart? 

Mr. Folsom. I consider myself a patriotic Aonerican citizen. 

Senator Johnston. I want you to think of that as you answer 
these questions, then. 

Mr. Morris. What are you doing now, Mr. Folsom? 

Mr. Folsom. I dechne to answer that question for the reasons 
aheady stated. 

Mr. Morris. You cannot tell us how you are now employed? 

Mr. Folsom. I have given you my answer. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Folsom? 

Mr. Folsom. Boulder, Colo. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, what has been your education? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 853 

Mr. FoLSOM. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. You mean you refuse to tell us where you went to 
school? 

Mr. FoLSOM. You have my answer. 

Mr. Morris. Because you might possibly be giving testimony 
against yourself? 

Mr. FoLSOM. Yes. 

Senator Johnston. Did you finish any college? 

Mr. FoLSOM. I have given you my answer as to my education. 

Senator Johnston. You refuse to answer that question, too? 

Mr. FoLSOM. (Nods head affirmatively.) 

Mr. Morris. On September 30, 1948, were you living at 142 East 
27th Street, New York City? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. FoLSOM. Will you repeat that date and address again? 

Mr. Morris. Did 3^ou reside at 142 East 27th Street, New York 
City, on September 30, 1948? 

Mr. FoLSOM. At approximately that date, I did reside at that 
address. I don't recall exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Now, according to a statement filed with the Foreign 
Agents Registration Section of the Department of Justice, you were 
listed as an employee of Tass news agency. Were you employed 
by Tass News Agency, as that registration indicated at that time? 

Mr. FoLsoM. I have answered you on the question before. 

(The report of Tass, as above referred to appears in part A at pages 
451 to 460.) 

Mr. Morris. Have you been the executive secretary of the League 
of American Writers? 

Mr. FoLSOM. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments, and the privilege which they afford me. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us what the League of American Writers 
is or was? 

Mr. FoLSOM. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, would you give us the citation on the 
League of American Writers? 

Mr. Mandel. The League of American Writers was cited as sub- 
versive by Attorney General Clark on June 1, 1948, and September 
21, 1948. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been on the executive board of the 
American Committee To Save Refugees? 

Mr. FoLsoM. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a contributor to Masses in Main- 
stream, in 1949? 

Mr. FoLSOM. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in view of the attitude of this witness, 
I have no more questions to ask him at this time. 

Senator Johnston. The witness will be excused at this time, but 
with the understanding that we will in all probability call you back 
before this committee at a future time, at which we will propound to 
you certain questions and see if we can receive an answer. If we do 



854 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

not, then we may have to take whatever course that we see fit in 
order to find out information that we desire. 

Mr. Morris. I would like, Mr. Chairman, to ask the witness if he 
is now a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. FoLSOM. I decline to answer that question for the reasons 
stated. 

Mr. AIoRRis. I have no more questions, Senator. 

Senator Johnston. The witness is excused until further call by the 
committee. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. 

Are there any more witnesses now in the hearing room? 

Counsel, have we heard all your witnesses? 

Mr. Faulkner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel Forer and Rein, have we heard all their 
witnesses? 

Are there any other witnesses to be heard here this morning? 

(No response.) 

Mr. Morris. The next meeting of the subcommittee, Senator, will 
be tomorrow morning at 10:30. 

Senator Johnston. All right. 

The witnesses wUl be notified to be there. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Senator. 

Senator Johnston. They are excused at this time. 

(Whereupon, at 12:05 p. m., the subcommittee recessed, to recon- 
vene at 10:30 a. m., Wednesday, April 18, 1956.) 



At a hearing July 18, 1956, the following account of the current 
activities of Cedric Belfrage, former editor of the National Guardian, 
as transmitted by the Associated Press on July 13, 1956, was ordered 
into the record at this point as exhibit No. 231-A. 

Exhibit No. 231-A 

London (AP) .^Cedric Belfrage, British-born wTiter deported from the United 
States because of Communist connections, is now broadcasting for Moscow radio. 

Belfrage, who was shipped back to his native England last August, came on the 
air from Moscow today. The broadcast was the first indication he had gone to 
Russia. 

In his broadcast he indicated that Russia has quit jamming United States and 
British broadcasts. He said the Voice of America is popular in Russia "as long 
as it plays music, which it does for 2 hours a day." 

"Everyone wants to hear American popular music," he reported, "And I'd 
say they just can't get enough of it." 

(The following statement, made by Chairman Eastland on March 
15, commenting on testimony received by the subcommittee on Febru- 
ary 21, was ordered into the record at a meeting of the subcommittee 
on June 26, Senator Eastland presiding:) 

Communists seem to feel, Senator James O. Eastland said today, that they 
can shed their Communist Party label and continue to be active in the Soviet 
cause. 

Commenting on testimony of three employees of Tass, the official Soviet news 
agency, before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, of which he is chair- 
man. Senator Eastland said: 

"The chief American officer of this agency, Harry Freeman, assistant manager, 
insisted that he has not been a member of the Communist Party since 1941. He 
quoted purported standing instructions from the head of the bureau in that year 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 855 

that no employee shall engage in political activities. He denied that he is now a 
party member but invoked the fifth amendment as to whether he ever had been. 

"However, when he was asked if he had, since he became a Tass employee, 
written for the Daily Worker, Freeman repHed that he had not done so since 1941 
but would invoke the fifth amendment regarding any such activity prior to that 
vear. 

"He also retracted his denial of associating with persons he had known to be 
active in Soviet espionage." 

On this matter the record shows the following colloquy: 

"Mr. Morris. Now, have you, since you have been a Tass newsman, associated 
with people whom you have known to be active in Soviet espionage? 

"Mr. Freeman. No; not to my knowledge. 

"Mr. Morris. Not to your knowledge. Did you know a party named Hede 
Massing, who has testified before this committee? 

"Mr. Freeman. On that, Judge, I will invoke my privileges under the fifth 
amendment and decline to answer. 

"The Chairman. Have you been guilty of espionage? 

"Mr. Freeman. No. 

"The Chairman. At any time? 

"Mr. Freeman. No_, Senator, never. 

"Mr. Morris. In view of your declination to answer the question, Mr. Free- 
man, about Hede Massing, would you want to change your answer to the first 
question? 

"Mr. Freeman. Will you repeat the first question? 

"Mr. Morris. The first question, in the interests of saving time, as I recall it, 
was this: Have you, since you have been a Tass correspondent, associated with 
anyone whom you knew to be active in the Soviet espionage apparatus? 

"Mr. Freeman. I will decline to answer that. 

"Mr. Morris. In other words, you will revise your answer? 

"(The witness consults with his counsel.) 

"Mr. Freeman. I decline to answer that, and I invoke the fifth amendment." 

Freeman also invoked the fifth amendment when asked if he had any associa- 
tions with Gerhardt Eisler, at one time the official representative in this country 
of the Communist International; whether he knew Whittaker Chambers had been 
a Communist operative, whether he knew Louise Bransten or a Comintern official 
who went by the name of Ewart. 

"I am impressed with the similarity of this pretended renunciation of Com- 
munist Party membership under the 1941 order with the procedure adopted by 
Maurice Travis, an official of the International Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers 
Union," Senator Eastland said. "Travis delcared in a signed article printed in 
the organization's official publication, the Union, that he had resigned from the 
Communist Party for the express purpose of signing a Taft-Hartley affidavit in 
1949 that he was not a party member. Yet, in testimony before this subcommittee 
in 1952, he invoked the fifth amendment when he was asked if he was a party 
member on the day he testified before us." 

"The subcommittee is presently engaged in an effort to show how the Soviet 
operates in the United States through other agencies than the Communist Party. 
In previous hearings, it has heard testimony that between 80 and 85 percent of 
Tass employees are espionage agents." 

The printed record of testimony by Freeman, Hays Jones, and Sasha Lurie was 
made available for public distribution today. 

Jones, who described himself as a market editor, said he worked as a seaman in 
his early days, invoked the fifth amendment on a question as to whether he ever 
acted as a courier for the Communist Party. He also refused to acknowledge 
authorship of a pamphlet bearing his name and entitled "In a Soviet America; 
Seamen and Longshoremen Under the Red Flag." This pamphlet ended with the 
assertion that "the Communist Party will continue to lead the working class 
* * * to a Soviet America." 

Mrs. Lurie said she was an editor. She testified she had previously been editor 
of Labor Defender, official publication of the legal arm of the Communist Party, 
and of Equal Justice, which succeeded Labor Defender. She invoked the fifth 
amendment when asked whether she wrote a pamphlet entitled "Women in 
Action," and bearing her name. This pamphlet concluded: "Women of America, 
join the Communist Party and march shoulder to shoulder with the toiling masses 
toward a Soviet America." 

Freeman testified that, since the retirement of Kenneth Durant in 1944, all 
managers of Tass have been Soviet citizens. He said the agency now has 23 
employees, at least 11 of whom are American citizens. The Washington bureau, 



856 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

he said, is manned by two Soviet citizens. The agency also has an office in United 
Nations which is used by the New York staff. 

Its writers attend press conferences, including tose at the White House and 
State Department, have access to the Press Galleries of Congress and the United 
Nations and to committee hearings on an equality with staff members of the 
American press associations and representatives of American publications. 

(The following statement, made by Chairman Eastland on March 
19, commenting on testimony before the subcommittee on February 
23, was ordered into the record at a meeting of the subcommittee 
June 26, Senator Eastland presiding:) 

The official Soviet news agency, Tass, poses a major security problem to the 
United States, Senator James O. Eastland, (Democrat, Mississippi) said today. 

The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, of which he is chairman, has 
recently been hearing a considerable volume of testimony about the agency, how 
it works, how it obtains its personnel, the type of news it handles, and the way it 
selects its news. 

"We have heard testimony, under oath," Senator Eastland said, "that 80 to 85 
percent of Tass employees are agents of one or another of the several Soviet 
intelligence groups. 

"For instance, Col. Ismail Ege, who was chief of the fourth section of Soviet 
Military Intelligence, charged with procuring technical military detail, told us 
that, when he was assigned to Berlin, in 1941, he was given credentials as a Tass 
employee under an assumed name and false personal history. At that time, he 
said, every member of the Tass staff was a Soviet intelligence operative. The 
same thing, he said, was true in Ankara, when he was assigned there later as press 
attach6. 

"Tass, he said, is an excellent 'cover' for a secret agent because 'we had social 
standing * * * (were) invited to social parties, to conferences, to press confer- 
ences. We had access to press members of other agencies.' " 

Ege said that, from his 12 years as a Soviet intelligence agent, from his contacts 
with the director of Soviet intelligence and other high-ranking intelligence officers, 
he knew that Tass is used in the United States, just as it is in other countries. 
He said Tass should be even more effective in the United States because of "free- 
dom of movement * * * freedom of speech and (because) people could not believe 
that Tass was used for military espionage." 

The Communist Party has its own network, Ege said, with contacts with the 
military groups and secret police. But he said Tass members are not allowed 
special" orders to come in contact with foreign Communists, because of the pos- 
sibility that either or both might be exposed. 

Any contact, he said, between the Communist Party and the military intelli- 
gence or secret police networks is made secretly. 

It is forbidden, Ege said, to use Tass transmission facilities for intelligence 
matters. Intelligence reports, he explained, are sent to Moscow by diplomatic 
pouch, or in cipher by radio. 

Since the Soviet is a big power, he said, it needs cover for many espionage 
agents, and for that purpose it uses "all Soviet institutions operating abroad, 
like Soviet Embassies, consulates, trade missions, and so on," as well as Tass. 
He said that, while the first, second, and third secretaries of a Soviet Embassy 
are used as cover for intelligence operators. Embassy employees are suspect and 
subject to surveillance. Other witnesses have testified that while Panyushkin 
was Ambassador to this country from 1947 to 1953, he was chief of the Soviet 
intelligence service in Washington and that, after his departure from the United 
States, became a high official in the Soviet intelligence service in Moscow. One 
of these witnesses, himself, operated as a Soviet intelligence agent from the cover 
of second secretary of a Soviet foreign mission. 

Colonel Ege declared that, even in its news report, Tass presents a distorted 
picture of world events. 

"We were ordered," he said, "to select news in order that it be used in the 
interests of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union." He asserted: "I don't 
know a fact or a day when Tass was just engaged in an objective way of gathering 
news for news." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 857 

"Thus," said Senator Eastland, "we seem to have two indictments against this 
Soviet news agency: first, that it is used as a cover for Soviet spies; second, that it 
serves the interest of Soviet propagandists who take the selected news items and 
turn them back, in a distorted way to the whole world. 

"I would not disturb the freedom of operation of any legitimate news agency or 
newspaper reporters in this country, nor do I wish to lessen any freedoms which 
are enjoyed by our newsmen abroad, but it seems to me there should be some way 
to give fuller protection to the security and good name of the United States when it 
is subjected to such activities as have been attributed to Tass." 

The testimony of Colonel Ege before the subcommittee on February 23, was 
made available today for public distribution. 



I 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 829 

A. F. of L. conventions 824 

Alexandrov «. 850 

American citizens 819, 852 

American Committee to Save Refugees 853 

American Legion 829 

Ann Arbor 844 

Armas, President Carlos Castillo 834, 835 

Associated Press 854 

Atlantic City 824 

Attorney General Clark 853 

B 

Baumel, Miriam (Millinery Workers Local) 836 

Barrows, Alice (Office of Education) 850 

Belfrage, Cedric 854 

Former editor National Guardian 854 

Current activities as transmitted by AP 854 

Deported from United States 854 

Now broadcasting for Moscow radio 854 

Benedict, Daniel 835 

Blood Bath in Guatemala, A 834 

Bloom, William (birth name of Bill Mardo) 831 

Boston 841-843 

Boston Tercentenary Committee 843 

Boulder, Colo 852 

Bransten, Louise 845, 846, 855 

Brooklyn, N. Y 831 

Bronx, N. Y 834 

Browder, Earl 850 

Bruce, Barbara, 521 Massachusetts Avenue NW 847, 848 

Buenos Aires, Argentina 841 

C 

Capitol 846 

Capitol Hill 832, 839 

Carter, Edward C 850, 851 

Chambers, Whittaker 855 

Chicago 827 

China 845, 849 

Chinese Destinies 829 

Christian, Rudolph ". 836 

Cleveland, Ohio 820 

Clubb, Oliver Edmund 845. 849 

Comintern 855 

Communist 822, 828, 830, 832, 845, 854 

Communist International 828 

Communist Party 821, 822, 

825, 826, 828. 830, 832, 833, 842, 845, 847, 854, 856 

Communist Party Convention, Portland, Oreg 847 

Conference for Peaceful Alternatives in Chicago 827 

I 



n INDEX 

Page 

Congress of the United States 852 

Constitution 822 

Consumers Union |20 

Currie, Lauchlin 849, 851 

D 

Daily Worker 823, 825, 834-837, 848, 855 

Daughters of the American Revolution 829 

Democrat -,^ 822 

Dolbin G G 846,850 

Durant, Kenneth 821, 843, 855 

Head of Tass News Agency 821 

Husband of Genevieve Taggard 821 

E 

Early, Mr 840 

Eastland, Chairman (statements) ., 854 

Ege, Col. Ismail 856 

Ehrenberg, Mvron 841 

Eisler, Gerhardt 855 

Elizabeth, N. J 820 

Embassy of Soviet Union 8d2 

England 8M 

Europe °J2 

Ewart ^x"--: ^^^ 

Exhibit No. 229— Daily Worker, November 26, 1954: Protests Mount 

Against Bloodbath in Guatemala, by Bill Mardo 834-836 

Exhibit No. 230— Daily Worker, May 13, 1954: Provisional Committee for 

Mav Day Dissolves 836 

Exhibit No. 231— Daily Worker, October 29, 1954: An Unusual Oppor- 
tunity for Bronx Voters, by Bill Mardo 836-837 

Exhibit No. 231-A— Current activities of Cedric Belfrage, former editor of 

National Guardian, as transmitted by AP on July 13, 1956 854 

Exhibit No. 232 — Letter to Benjamin Mandel, February 28, 1956, from 
Western Union re number of words sent by Tass over Western Union to 

and from Soviet Union for 1955 840 

Exhibit No. 233 — Letter to Benjamin Mandel, February 23, 1956, from 

Press Wireless, Inc., re Tass traffic to and from Soviet Union, 1955 841 

F 

Far East 849 

Far Eastern Affairs °^}. 

Faulkner, Stanley 85J 

Attornev for Franklin Folsom °5z 

Federov, Mikhail (Soviet citizen) ^7^-^.^ §f . 

Fifth amendment 821, 822, 825-834, 842, 843, 847, 852-854 

Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley ^_ 83b 

Folsom, Franklin ^^ oto 

16 Farm Lane, Roosevelt, N.J °^^ 

Fifth amendment re Tass News Agency 85/ 

Fifth, present employment _ 852 

Fifth, executive secretary of League of American Writers »5^ 

Fifth, contributor to Masses in Mainstream 853 

Fifth, executive board, American Committee to Save Refugees S5d 

Fifth, Communist Party 854 

Born in Boulder, Colo 85^ 

Foreign Agents Registration Section, Department of Justice. . . ------- -- 85d 

Forer, Joseph 819, 820, 823, 831, 854 

711 4th Street NW., Washington, D. C 8^U 

Attorney for Euphemia Hall 82U 

Attorney for Esther Lowell Shields 8^^ 

Attorney for Bill Mardo 831 

France -- 827, ozo 

FreemaVHaVry:::::::::::::::::::: 821, 823, 839, 854, 855 



INDEX in 

G Pas* 

Garanin , Feodor 846 

Garvin, Victoria (Negjro Labor Council) 836 

General Instrument Co., Elizabeth, N. J 820 

Golos, Fanny (International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union) 836 

Government 852 

Granich, Max 825 

Grew, Mr 845 

Guatemala 834 

Guzman, Jacobo Arbenz 834, 835 

H 

Hall, Mrs. Euphemia (testimony of) 819-823 

628 West 151st Street 820 

Housewife and mother of three children 820 

j. Born in Cleveland, Ohio 820 

P Joseph Forer , attorney 820 

Euphemia Virden, maiden name 820 

1946, graduated Sarah Lawrence College 820 

With General Instrument Co 820 

With Health Insurance Plan, New York City 820 

With Consumers Union, 1947 820 

Married Robert Hall, December 1950 820 

With Tass News Agency February 1, 1948-November 1, 1951 820 

Fifth amendment re Communist Party 821, 822 

Hall, Robert 820, 823, 847. 848 

Married Euphemia Virden, December 1950 : 820 

Editor Sunday Worker 823 

Farewell party for at Inspiration House, November 21, 1952 847 

Health Insurance Plan, New York City 820 

Heberton, K. W., vice president, Western Union 840 

Higley Hill Children's Camp 825, 826 

Hiss, Alger 833, 851 

Hornbeck, Mr., charge. Far Eastern Affairs, State 851 

Hotel Commodore 829 

House Committee on Un-American Activities 827 

Hull, Mr., Secretary of State 850 

Hungarian Government 844 

I 

Imprecor 829 

Inspiration House 847 

Institute of Pacific Relations 848, 850 

Internal Security Subcommittee 819 

International Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Union 855 

International Press correspondence 828 

International Wheat Agreement 831, 832 

Johnson, Bill 851 

Johnston, Senator 819 

Jones, Hays 855 

Justice, Department of 853 

K 

Kaufman, William (Amalgamated Clothing Workers) 836 

Keeney, Mary Jane 846 

Keeney, Philip 846 

Kensington, Md 847 

Knight, O. A 835 

Krafsur, Samuel 838-843, 846 

(Testimonv of) 838-843 

6423 Dahlonega Road, Washington, D. C 838 

Harry I. Rand, attorney 838 

With Rockville Toy Craft 838 

With Tass News Agency, 1941-49 838 

New York City police credentials 839 

Assistant to head, Washington Tass Bureau 839 



IV INDEX 

Krafsur, Samuel — Continued I*aBe 

Secretary to Elliott Paull 841 

Born in Boston 841 

Northeastern University 841 

With President's Birthday Ball Committee 842 

Fifth re Communist Party 842 

Fif til re trips abroad 843 

L 

Labor Defender 829, 830 

Labor, Secretary of 831 

Lattimore, Owen 849 

League of American Writers 853 

Cited as subversive 853 

Lesser, Karl 826 

Librur}' of Congress 844 

London 827 

Lubell, Cecil 843 

Lurie, Sasha 855 

M 

Mandel, Benj amin 819 

Manhattan 831 

Mardo, Bill 830-838 

(Testimony of) 831-838 

Joseph Forer, attorney 831 

543 Ocean Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y 831 

Fifth re present employment 831 

1923, born in Manhattan 831 

William Bloom name at birth 831 

July 1951, began employment with Washington Bureau of Tass 831 

1952, left Tass; took job with Soviet Information Bulletin 831 

Fifth re Communist Party 832, 833 

Fifth re article Dailj^ Worker 834 

Marsalka, John 847 

Massachusetts 84 1 

Masses in Mainstream 853 

Massing, Hede 855 

Montgomery, Jean 847 

Morris, Robert 819 

Moscow 828, 839, 841, 854 

N 

National Guardian 854 

Nelson, Steve 830 

New Hampshire 845 

New World Review 827 

Successor publication to Soviet Russia Today, cited by HUAC 827 

New York City 820, 823, 824, 827, 838-841, 844, 848, 850, 853 

Nikitiii, Nikolai 826 

NLRB 827 

Northeastern University 84 1 

Nottawa, Mich 844 

O 

Office of Education 850 

P 

Panyushkin, Ambassador 848 

Paull, Elliott 841 

Pauzner, A. (Shoe Workers Union) 836 

Pearl Harbor Day 839 

People's World 837 

Pohsh delegation, U. N 825, 826 

Polish Government 844 

Portland, Orcg 847 

Prague 827 



INDEX V 

Page 

President 840,849 

President's Birthday Ball Committee 842 

President of the United States 833 

Pressman, Lee 849 

Press Club 849 

Press Gallery 851 

Press Wireless 839, 840 

Progressive 822 

Progressive Party 847 



R 

Rand, Harry I 838 

Attorney for Samuel Krafsur 838 

RCA 839 

Reilly, Thomas J., controller, Press Wireless 841 

Rein, Counsel 854 

Reiss, Julius 825 

Republican 822 

Rockefeller Center 824 

Rockville Toy Craft 838 

RogoflF, Vladimir 850, 851 

Roosevelt, President 840 

Rosenberg fund 830 

Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel 830 

Rusher, William A 819 

Russia 828, 851, 854 

S 

St. James Methodist Church, Chicago 827 

St. Joseph County, Mich 844 

Salazar, Guatemalan Ambassador .Jose Luis 834 

San Francisco 828, 837, 845 

Sarah Lawrence College 820, 821 

Scanlon, Charles 836 

Secretariat Building 824 

Shanghai 851 

Shields, Esther Lowell 823-830 

(Testimonv of^ 823-830 

127 West 96th Street, New York 823 

Joseph Forer, attorney 823 

Assistant to Harry Freeman, Tass News Agency 823 

New York City police credentials 824 

Covered certain session of United Nations 824 

With Tass for 20 years 824 

Fifth re husband 825 

Fifth re Communist Party 826 

1937, went abroad 827 

Born Esther Lowell in San Francisco 828 

Fifth re contributor to Labor Defender 829 

Fifth re contributor to Rosenberg fund 830 

Shields, James M 827 

9142 South Baltimore Avenue, Chicago 827 

Shields, Thomas Arthur 825 

Writer for Daily Worker 825 

Silvermaster, Nathan Gregory 848 

Sixty-ninth anniversary of May Day 834, 836 

Skvirsky, Boris 849 

Smedley , Agnes 829 

Smith, Jessica 827 

Editor New World Review 827 

Soviet 819 

Soviet China 849 

Soviet citizen 846, 850 

Soviet consulates and embassies 844, 848 

Soviet espionage 855 

Soviet Foreign OflBce 850 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 




3 9999 05445 4051 



INDEX 



Page 

Soviet Information Bulletin 831, 832, 849 

Soviet Information Bureau 833 

Soviet Russia Today 827 

Soviet Union 827, 832, 840, 841 

Spain 829, 843 

State, Secretary of 833, 839, 849-851 

Statement by Chairman Eastland on March 15 854 

Statement by Chairman Eastland on March 19 856 

Steele, A. T 835 

Straus, Leon (Fur Workers Union) 836 

Sunday Worker 823, 848 

T 
Taft-Hartley 855 

Taggard, Genevieve 821 

Facultv at Sarah Lawrence 821 

Tass News Agency 819-833, 838-848, 850, 852, 853-856 

Todd, Larry 851 

Todd, Laurence 839, 840, 844-852 

(Testimony of) 844-852 

4805 Langdrum Lane, Chevy Chase, Md 844 

Retired 844 

David Rein, attorney 844 

With Tass News Agency, 1923-52 844 

Born in Nottawa, Mich 844 

Ann Arbor, university 2}i years 844 

Fifth re December 9, 1947, going to David Wahl's home 847 

Fifth re farewell party for Robert Hall 847 

Fifth re Nathan Gregory Silvermaster 848 

Todd, Victor Hugo 847 

Travis, Maurice 855 

Truman press conferences 833 

Twenty-fourth Congressional District, Bronx, N. Y 834, 836, 837 

U 

UUman, William Ludwig 848 

United Fruit Co 835, 836 

United Nations 824, 826 

United Nations Security Council 824 

United States 819, 833, 854 

U. S. S. R. Information Bulletin 833 

V 

Veterans of Abraham Lincoln Brigade 829, 843 

Veterans of Foreign Wars 829 

Vienna 827 

Vincent, John Carter 849 

Vivid Picture of Changing China, A 829 

Voice of America 854 

W 

Wahl, David 846, 847 

War and the Working Class 851 

Washington Bureau of Tass 831 

Washington, D. C 820, 823, 824, 831, 832, 838-840, 844, 845, 847-849 

Watkins, Senator Arthur V 829 

Welker, Senator Herman 819 

Western Union Telegraph Co 840 

White House 839 

WPA 843 

Y 
Yardumian, Rose 848^ 850 

Secretary, Institute of Pacific Relations, Washington 848 

o 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTKATION OF THE INTEMAL SECUEITY 

ACT AND OTHEE INTEENAL' SECUEITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE 0]Pf THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



APRIL 19 AND 20, 1956 



PART 16 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Y$»oT\eu' 



Boston Public Library 
Superintondeat of Documents 

NOV 6 -1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENXER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arl^ansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JK., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

ROBERT Morris, Chiej Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

XL 



CONTENTS 



Witness : Page 

Rigney, Father Harold William 859 

Soloyev, Viktor 885 

"Van Hoogstraten, Jan S. F 875 

m 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, APRIL 19, 1956 

United States Senate Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the Internal 

Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Waskington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess and subsequent post- 
ponement, at 10 : 45 a. m., in room P-38, United States Capitol Build- 
ing, Senator Arthur V. Watkins presiding. 

Present: Senator Watkins (presiding). 

Also present : Robert Morris, chief counsel ; and Robert McManus, 
investigator. 

Senator Watkins. The committee will be in session. 

Mr. Morris. Father Rigney, will you stand and be sworn, please? 

Senator Watkins. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are 
about to give in the matter now pending before the committee will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Father Rigney. I do. 

Senator Watkins. Mr. Morris, you may examine your witness. 

TESTIMONY OP FATHER HAROLD WILLIAM RIGNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter? 

Father Rigney. My name is Harold William Rigney, member of 
the Society of the Divine Word. My address is St. Mary's Mission 
House, Techny, 111. 

Mr. Morris. Father Rigney, where were you born? 

Father Rigney. I was born in Chicago on December 18, 1900. 

Mr. Morris. And where did you receive your training, your religious 
training ? 

Father Rigney. Most of it I received at St. Mary's Mission House, 
Techny, 111.; not all of it. I attended the preparatory seminary at 
that institution and also the major seminary. I was ordained April 19, 
1930. I was ordained a priest. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Father Rigney, when did you go to China ? 

Father Rigney. I left for China on May 27, 1946, and arrived in 
China, at Shanghai, June 1, 1946. I traveled by air. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was your assignment in China at that time? 

Father Rigney. I was assigned by my superiors to the staff of the 
Fu Jen University. That is the Chinese name. The name in English 
is the Catholic University of Peking, not Peiping, because the uni- 
versity was established when the city was called Peking, and it has 
changed its name 4 or 5 times since then back and forth from Peking 

859 



860 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

to Peiping. And now the Communists call it Peking. So in order 
to avoid confusion, I have combined the two names and simply called 
it the Catholic University, the Fu Jen Catholic University. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what were you at the Catholic University of 
Peking? AVere you the rector? 

Father Rigney. I was appointed rector and entered office as rector 
on August 4, 1946. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, will you describe for the record the scope of that particular 
school, I mean, how many students you had and what you specialized 
in? 

Father Rigney. The Fu Jen Catholic University was a private mii- 
versity of the Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith, and it was 
administered by the Society of the Divine Word. 

Mr. Morris. How many students did you have? 

Father Rigney. The student enrollment reached the number of 
2,500, and at this time, around about 10 percent were Catholics. Most 
were non-Catholics. And the same held good for the staff members. 
Most were not Catholics. The university had been founded and 
financed by the Catholic Church. In that way, it was Catholic. 

Mr. Morris. During the war, between the Chinese Government 
forces and the Chinese Communist armies, was the university able to 
operate unmolested, and if so, until what time? 

Father Rigney. The university was able to operate until after the 
Communists captured Peking, but prior 

Mr. Morris. When was that? 

Father Rigney. The capture took place on February 1, 1949, after 
a siege that lasted about 40 days, when the armies of Lin Piao entered 
and occupied the city on February 1, 1949. Now, prior to the opening 
up of the siege of Peking, during which time the cit;^ was surrounded 
and besieged by the Chinese Communists, and which siege started 
around December 12, 1948 — prior to this, the Communists had a very 
active underground in all the universities, including the Fu Jen 
Catholic University at Peking. 

Mr. Morris. You say they had an active underground there? 

Father Rigney. Yes. You asked me about my experiences with the 
Communists before? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. The committee is interested in such matters. 

Father Rigney. Yes. They had a very active underground and 
this underground fomented strikes, student strikes, in different classes, 
different colleges, and even succeeded in bringing about a general strike 
of the university in the latter part of December 1946. In fact, the 
strike started December 18, 1946, and lasted about 2 weeks. 

Mr. Morris. And it directly affected you, because at the time you 
were the rector? 

Father Rigney. Yes. But after that, I was able to fight the Com- 
munist underground. I organized my own group to combat the Com- 
munist underground. So there were no more general strikes after that, 
and no more strikes in any colleges, and I do not think there were any 
strikes — perhaps 1 or 2 strikes in the classes — but no more demonstra- 
tions. The university was the quietest of the univei-sities in the Peking 
area. 

Mr. Morris. But you say a similar condition existed on the other 
campuses ; is that right ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 861 

Father Rigney. Oh, yes; very much so. The Communists were 
active in all the universities. 

Mr. Morris. What form did this activity take ? 

Father Rigney. Well, fomenting strikes and then putting on 
stage performances under plea of raising funds for some social and 
charitable undertaking, and during the play demonstration, songs 
would be sung, a Communist melody, but they would use other words. 
They could not use the Communist words because they would be 
arrested by the Nationalist police, but they would use the Communist 
melody, and all the students knew exactly that this melody was a 
Communist melody, and therefore the actors on the stage were pro- 
moting the idea of communism. 

I stopped these. I limited the number of these plays and gave 
donations to the different organizations that were trying to raise 
money, because I knew the whole thing was so much hypocrisy. The 
Communists are very good at putting up fronts. They are very expert 
at deception, and they like to combine their subversive activities with 
a respectable front, which fools many people. 

Mr. Morris. Father Rigney, what happened when the Chinese Com- 
munists occupied the city of Peking? 

Father Rigney. As far as the university was concerned, they first 
said that they would protect the university and that no one at the 
university should leave ; staff members should not abandon their posts ; 
students should not leave the university. But after a few days, they 
started their program to take over the university. 

I tried to enter into a conference with the representatives of the 
staff and student body who were controlled by the Communists and 
work out a modus vivendi and come to some terms. I had been in- 
structed by the Apostolic Nuncio to China in October 1948, to make 
an attempt to work out a modus vivendi in the event of the occupation 
of Peking by the Communists. And so I tried to work out this modus 
vivendi. I made concessions to them and had fathers and sisters give 
up certain key posts and asked them to come and sit down and talk 
over matters so that we could come to some working agreement. But 
they did not. They would not come to any terms. 

They come to the peace table and talk only when they have to, when 
they have lost everything and cannot make any gains outside that. 

Here we were on the defensive. There was no question of that. We 
had no trump cards. So they did not have to come and sit down at 
the table. They used different tactics. They set up a committee, a 
reformation committee to reform the university, and the church was 
not represented on this reformation committee. 

I asked for representation. I tried for a long time, perhaps 2 weeks, 
to get representation, and I could not get it. This committee went 
into operations and removed members of the faculty, changed some 
of the courses, and even changed the university's song. They changed 
the colors of the university and introduced political courses for the 
whole university which were communistic, materialistic, atheistic 
courses. 

Now, you asked us before about the size of the university. I forgot 
to mention it 

Mr. Morris. About the what ? 

Father Rigney. The size. The university had 2,500 students at one 
time. 



862 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Well, Father Rigney, what happened to you personally ? 

Father Rigney. After the Communists had been in Peking for 
about 21/^ years, during which time I had resisted their efforts to 
take over the university, or to destroy its character as a free center 
of culture, the university was taken over by the Communist govern- 
ment on October 12, 1950. I was then 

Mr. Morris. The Chinese Communist armies occupied Peking on 
February 1,1949? 

Father Rigney. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. In the meantime, you tried to work out a modus 
vivencli ? 

Father Rigney. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. But by October 12, 1950, they openly took over the 
university? 

Father Rigney. Yes. We had ceased our subsidy to the university. 
The church has ceased subsidizing the university, because the uni- 
versity had become a center of active communism and atheism, and 
the members of the university, both staff and student body, were 
obliged to attend these lectures given by members appointed by the 
Communist government to give talks that were atheistic. They were 
very objectionable. 

Senator Watkins. Did they allow you any control whatever of the 
school ? 

Father Rigney. Absolutely not ; nothing. 

So it finally came down to all this. I presented the whole matter 
to my superiors in Rome. I said : 

You must make up your mind what you are going to do. You have two 
policies which you can follow : either policy A, which would be to continue to 
subsidize this university, which has become a center of atheism and communism, 
subsidize it in the hope" that in the not too distant future the government would 
either be removed, changed, or would change its policy ; or follow policy B, which 
would be cutting off subsidies, because this is no longer a university that has any 
character of Christianity about it. 

Mr. Morris. And your superiors selected court B ? 

Father Rigney. this was eventually taken to His Holiness, Pope 
Pius XII, and he decided he would stand on Catholic principles and 
that he would not give any more subsidies to the university ; we would 
lose the university first. As a result, the university was taken over. 

My superiors then cabled me to return to the United States. During 
August, the previous August 

Mr. Morris. That is, August 1950 ? 

Father Rigney. Yes ; August 1950. 

My residential permit had expired. I had one that lasted for 6 
months. That had expired. I applied for an extension of this permit, 
and this was never granted to me. 

Around October 19, after the university had been taken over and 
after I had been ordered by my superiors to return to the United States, 
I applied for my exit permit, and this was not granted to me. So for 
10 months, from the time of this until my arrest, I was neither allowed 
to live in China nor allowed to leave China. This can happen only m 
a Communist country. I suppose it is a question of applied dialectic 
materialism, in which opposites are equal. To leave and to stay is the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 863 

same, according to Communist thinking. Wlio can figure them out, I 
don't knoAV. 

Senator Watkins. Did they actually incarcerate you in a prison? 

Father Rigney. On July 25, 1951, I was arrested as an American 
spy, and I repudiated these charges. I am not a spy and I never was 
a spy. I was arrested as a spy, and specific charges were never brought 
up against me. Neither was any evidence that the government 
claimed they had against me presented to me so I could answer it. 
Neither were any witnesses presented before me, nor was I ever allowed 
an adviser, a lawyer, or a counsel. I was never allowed to talk to any- 
body in wliom I could have any confidence. 

I was told by the judge, if you want to call him a judge, in the char- 
acter of the whole procedure in Communist China — I was told by the 
judge that I had only two privileges — "privileges," they call them — 
to accuse myself and to accuse others. 

I was not allowed to defend myself. I was not allowed to explain 
anything which I thought they had as evidence. I was not allowed to 
argue. I could only stand before the court and accuse myself, confess 
my crimes, they said, and accuse other people. 

]Mr. Morris. Now, how long did you remain in prison, Father Rig- 
ney ? 

Father Rigney. I was released by court action from prison on Sep- 
tember 11, 1955. I was forbidden, or prevented from seeing anybody 
in China, freely to see anybody, after this, because I was immediately 
phiced under police guard and taken to a hotel in the southern city of 
Peking where I was confined in my room. I was told very politely that 
I didn't have to go down to the dining hall to get my meals; they 
would bring my meals up to me. 

And then I said, "Thank you very much. That is very kind of you 
to bring up my meals." 

I sat in my room. And I got very good meals, I must admit that, 
because they were trying to give me a good impression. 

Mr. Morris. This was after September 1955 ? 

Father Rigney. After I was released by court order. And then I 
was taken down by police guard on the train from Peking to Hankow 
and on down to Canton and on down to the borders of Hongkong, where 
the police set me free to walk over the Lo ^Yn Bridge, over the Lo Wu 
River into the free territory of Her Majesty's crown colony of Hong- 
kong. The Lo Wu River is the boundary between continental China, 
Communist China, and the British territory of Hongkong. 

Mr. Morris. And you were more than 4 years in prison? 

Father Rigney. I was 4 years and 2 months in prison. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you arrive in Hongkong ? 

Father Rigney. I arrived in Hongkong on September 16, 1955. 

Mr. Morris. So the intermediate period, then, from your release 
until the time you got to Plongkong was 5 days ? 

Father Rigney. Yes. I was still under police guard all the way 
down. 

Mr. Morris. Now, would you describe the conditions under which 
you lived in prison in Communist China ? 

Father Rigney. The conditions were rather severe. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about those, Father Rigney ? 

72723— 56— pt. 16 2 



864 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Father Rignf.y. The room, or the cell, which I lived in at first was 
about 10 feet by 11, and in the cell there was a platform about a foot 
and a half high, which was about 6 feet by 11 feet. In other words, 
it occupied most of the cell. There was no furniture aside from this. 
And in my early cells there was no floor, only the ground, the bare 
ground. 

There were two holes in this ground through which rats used to 
come in and go out, the long rats that you find in China, the carriers 
of the lice that are in turn the carriers of the dreaded typhus, Mon- 
golian typhus. These rats used to run over our bodies at night- 
time. I remember waking up one night and feeling something nib- 
bling at the back of my head. I looked around and put my hand 
there, and there was a big rat that ran away. 

The food was very poor. We ate wa tao and bai tsai. The wa tao 
was a very low grade of maize, or corn. I don't think we grow this 
corn in the United States. It is something like a popcorn, ground 
up. It was mixed with water, without any salt or leaven, and then 
steamed, and although I come from the Corn Belt and like corn very 
much, one bite and my appetite was gone. It took me about 4 or 5 
months to get used to this. 

Then aside from the wa tao, we got a little bowl of hot water with a 
leaf, a little bit of Chinese cabbage, bai tsai, white cabbage. We got 
this meal twice a day. And we were told that we could eat all we 
wanted to, but this was not carried out in my case, because about the 
whole first year of my imprisonment, I was not allowed to take as 
much wa tao as I wanted to. I had to ask for wa tao from the cell 
leader, and for the whole first year he never gave me as much as I 
wanted. I was always hungry. I used to go to sleep dreaming about 
meals, dreaming about peanuts. I thought if I was ever out of this 
prison, the first thing I was going to do was buy peanuts on my way 
home. I thought : I will buy a whole pound of peanuts and eat them 
before I get back. 

Then I was also subjected to physical and mental tortures. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Father, you said at one point there, "we" ; "We 
did this" ; "We did that." How many people were incarcerated under 
these same circumstances ? 

Father Rigney. In the cell that I have described, there were ordi- 
narily 7 or 8 prisoners. 

Mr. Morris. In a cell 11 feet by 11 ? 

Father Rigney. Yes ; and sometimes, especially in the wintertime, 
when you had to wrap up in a blanket, we were so close — I remember 
one time we had nine in a cell — we were so close that you couldn't lie 
on your back ; you had to lie on your side. There would be a head 
here and a pair of feet here, then a head and a pair of feet. There 
wasn't enough room to lie down head by head by head by head. 

Mr. Morris. Now, of these 7, 8, or 9 people who occupied the same 
cell, how many of those were Americans ? 

Father Rigney. I never lived with an American. 

Mr. Morris. Most of them were Chinese ? 

Father Rigney. Most of them were Chinese. 

Mr. Morris. Were there any other nationalities? 

Father Rigney. Occasionally a foreigner. I know of 2 Japanese 
with whom I lived at different times, 1 Italian, and 1 a citizen of 
Yugoslavia. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 865 

Mr. Morris. Now, were charges brought against you? 

Father Rignet (continuing). And then 1 Belgian and 1 German, 
at different times. 

Mr. Morris. Were charges against your celhnates pretty much the 
same as those against you ? 

Father Rigney. Everybody was charged with being a spy at this 
prison. There were 400 or 500 prisoners in this prison at T'sao Lan 
Tzu, Hu Tung No. 13. 

Mr. Morris. That is the cell number. No. 13 ? 

Father Rigney. No. That was the number of the prison street. A 
Hu Tung was a little street, and this street was the entrance to the 
prison. The entrance was No. 13. 

Mr. Morris. Father Rigney, were you subjected during this period 
to any brainwashing? 

Father Rigney. I was subjected to brainwashing; yes. I was never 
brainwashed, though. 

Mr. Morris. Would you describe that for the committee, just what 
your captors endeavored to do at that time ? 

Father Rigney. Do you want me to describe what I saw going on in 
my cell with other prisoners or with myself ? 

Mr. Morris. I think, Senator Watkins, we would like both ; don't 
you think? 

Senator Watkins. I think so ; yes. 

Father Rigney. You see, I don't know Chinese very well. I knew 
enough Chinese to tell them that I didn't know Chinese. So when the 
brainwashing classes started they would ask me, "What are you think- 
ing about?" And I said in Chinese, "I don't understand Chinese." 

So afterward, they degraded me. They expelled me from the class. 
They put me over to one side where I was isolated, as they said, and 
then later on they gave me literature in English, and some in French, 
as part of my brainwashing program. 

Now, in the general brainwashing classes, of the rest of the cell, 
let us say those who spoke Chinese, they proceeded along these lines. 
I will be very brief. I could talk a half hour or an hour on this, but 
our time is not unlimited. 

The prisoners were arranged in a cell in a circle and they were 
given certain articles in a paper or common journals to read, items 
about practical problems of everyday life, about the Communist 
Party, about socialization of the land, socialization of industry, about 
the progress of communism in Russia and Rumania, and so on, and 
so on, you see, and these articles would be pointed out by the warden. 
Certain ones would be checked off to be studied. Then, say, 1 particu- 
lar article would be read by members in the ring, members of the class, 
maybe read 2 or 3 times. Other members would have to repeat these 
articles, and all the while one of the prisoners, the so-called cell leader, 
was in charge of the study program, and he had to report, of course, 
every week about the conduct and the behavior of each prisoner and 
how he reacted in the study period, the brainwashing period, how 
zealous he was, and also what attitudes he manifested and what 
thoughts he manifested. 

And then after this article had been read and reviewed, then each 
prisoner would be obliged to manifest what reactionary thought he 
had when the article was being read, and during 1951-52, every 
prisoner had to have a reactionary thought. If he did not have one. 



866 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UlSriTED STATES 

he would get pimislied. So every prisoner invented one if lie did not 
have one. If one was not spontaneous, he invented one. 

Mr. Morris. These are reactionary thoughts that are to be dis- 
pelled ; is that it ? 

Father Rigney. Yes. And these are supposed to be manifested for 
criticism, for destruction. 

So a prisoner comes out with this reactionary thought, and all the 
other prisoners would criticize this thought and generally abuse him 
for having the thought. And he has to eventually come to the light 
and see that he was wrong. If he does not, then he gets punished. He 
is a reactionary. He is hanging onto his bad thoughts. 

The next stage is that each prisoner is asked to manifest what good 
thoughts he had when that article was read. Each prisoner must have 
his own wonderful trend of good thoughts. 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me at this time. Father Eigney. 

Father Rigney. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Watkins, we have been taking testimony 
through the course of 6 or 7 hearings about the activities of American 
citizens in Red China during the period that we are talking about 
today. 

I would like to offer for the record — and this is a continuation — 
I think this is the last, is it not, Mr. McManus ? 

Mr. McManus. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Of the exhibits which we took from the footlocker of 
William Hinton, which he brought back from Red China to the 
United States. 

I have here, and would like to submit for the record, Senator, 
marked consecutively, Nos. 32 to 91, with Nos. 87 and 88 by reference 
only, because they are quite numerous, those documents to go in the 
record as they are described on that master sheet, Senator. 

Senator Watkins. This is a list prepared of the documents that 
were taken from that footlocker. 

Mr. Morris. I think Mr. McManus, who was sworn for this purpose, 
Senator, may testify about that. 

Senator Watkins. You have already been sworn ? 

Mr. McManus. Yes, I have. 

That list was prepared under my supervision. It is an itemized list 
with descriptive material to identify the documents, identifying mate- 
rial that was taken from the footlocker of William H. Hinton, of 
which I was the custodian. 

Senator Watkins. The list will be accepted for the record. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. Senator. 

(The list referred to, together with the documents therein identified, 
appears in appendix I of the series "Scope of Soviet Activity in the 
United States.") 

]Mr. INIoRRis. Did you ever see the China Weekly Review during this 
period, Father Rigney ? 

Father Rigney. That is a publication issued in Shanghai? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. The editor was Powell. 

Father Rigney. Yes. I saw copies of it. 
Mr. Morris. Now, was that presented to you by your captors ? 
Father Rigney. Yes. One issue was presented to me— I forget now 
exactly the date — and I was to read it. I read some articles. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 867 

Mr. Morris. Were there articles in there by Joan Hinton and by 
William Hinton? 

Father Rignet. I don't remember articles there by Hinton. I did 
read an article written by Mr. Hinton — I forget his first name. 

Mr. Morris. That is William Hinton. 

Father Rigney. William Hinton. I think it was the People's China, 
and it dealt with the preparation of big scale farm machinery to be 
used on a state farm where he was employed. 

I also read an article by Joan Hinton, which dealt with her expe- 
riences in cattle breeding on the farm where she worked. I don't 
tliink it was the same farm. It may be, but I don't think it was the 
same farm that her brother worked on. 

Mr. Morris. Were those articles given to you, the China Weekly 
Review and the two articles you described, given to you by your 
captors ? 

Father Rignet. They were. And they were part of my material 
which was presented to me for my brainwashing. 

Senator Watkins. Were they in English ? 

Father Rignet. These were all in English. 

Mr, Morris. Now, what eilect did this article have on you and 
others who received it? 

Father Rignet. Well, I just thought these people were Commu- 
nists and that they were carrying on propaganda. It did not have 
much effect on me because I could see through the whole thing, but I 
do think such articles would tend to give the impression to most of the 
Chinese, who were not able to evaluate or judge about the United 
States — it would give them the impression that the people of the 
United States were pro-Communist and were held from expressing 
their pro-communism, held down by the imperialistic government of 
Washington, as they said. 

This was the general attitude in all of these approaches or state- 
ments, quoted statements, by such American Communists. 

Mr. Morris. In the executive session. Senator Watkins, we men- 
tioned a radio broadcast given by still another American, a Louis 
Wheaton. 

Father Rignet. I heard it. 

Mr. Morris. Did you hear the radio broadcast ? 

Father Rignet. I heard one radio broadcast by Louis Wheaton, 
which he gave at the closing session, or one of the closing sessions, of 
the so-called peace conference at Peking. 

Mr. Morris. Is that the Asian and Pacific Peace Conference? 

Father Rignet. Yes, the Asian and Pacific Peace Conference. 

Mr. Morris. In October of 1952 ? 

Father Rignet. Yes, that is right. And he spoke in very good 
English. So I understood what he said. As far as I remember, he 
expressed his — ^lie was glad to be present, and he was glad to do his 
share to promote peace. Of course, the funny thing is, the Commu- 
nists never tell you what they mean by "peace." They don't mean 
the same thing as we do. I am quite sure of that. 

I remember he also spoke about how he had greeted and had em- 
braced a Korean, one of the people of Korea — that would be a Korean 
Communist — and how this Korean had no ill feeling toward him 
because he, "Wheaton, was one of the American people. So the im- 



868 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

pression this would give, and it gave to members in my cell, because 
they were told the contents of this, and perhaps the Chinese version 
was brought to them later — the impression that was given to them was 
that the American people wanted peace and, of course, the peace 
that the Chinese Communists are talking about, which is not the same 
as we mean when we talk about peace, and that the American people 
were striving to realize this peace and were prevented from realizing 
it only by the oppressive measures of the imperialistic government 
of the Pentagon, or of Washington, or of Wall Street, wherever you 
want to put it. 

They brought them all in in their general description of the Amer- 
ican Government. 

Senator Watkins. Was this broadcast in English ? 

Father Rigney. This was in English ; yes, sir. 

Senator Watkins. Wliat advantage would they have in broad- 
casting that in English? 

Father Rigney. "Wlieaton didn't know Chinese, as far as I know. 
It had a certain amount of value. If all these different members of 
different nationalities would get up there in Peking and talk in their 
own language, one man in English, one man in Arabic, one man in 
Japanese, another man in Korean, and so on, it gave a very interna- 
tional character. Translations could eventually otherwise later be 
made of these speeches into Chinese. I am sure they were made. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Watkins, at this point in the record I would 
like to offer a speech made by a delegate to this peace conference, an 
American citizen, Anita Willcox, who has appeared as a witness 
before this committee. And I might say that she refused to answer 
questions, claiming her privilege against self-incrimination. And I 
would like to offer that in the record as an example of precisely what 
this testimony is about here today. 

Senator Watkins. Where did you get this speech? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McManus, will you identify that speech, please? 

Mr. McManus. I think it is marked on there. Senator. That 
speech was taken from an issue of the Shanghai News. 

Senator Watkins. I want it for the record to be identified where 
it was obtained. 

Mr. MclVLvNus. It is from this 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify it from the source and page ? 

Senator Watkins. This says, "Shanghai News, Sunday, October 

12, 1952." 

Mr. McManus. This is the original of it here. This is the Shang- 
hai News. 

Senator Watkins. That is published m English, is it ? 

Mr. McManus. Yes. It is right here on page three. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you took this from the original here 
which appears in the Shanghai News, Sunday, October 12, 1952? 

Mr. McManus. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. May that go in the record ? 

Senator Watkins. It may go in the record. 

Mr. McManus. As I say. Senator, Mrs. Willcox did appear before 
this conference. This is a speech such as was referred to by Father 
Rigney, a broadcast of which was made by this other gentleman, Mr. 
Wheaton. 

Father Rigney. Is that the same speech ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 869 

Mr. Morris. No. It is the same Peace Conference. 
Father Rigney. I did not hear it. I do not know anything about it. 
(The article from the Shanghai News above referred to was marked 
"Exhibit No. 234" and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No, 234 

[The Shanghai News, Shanghai, October 12, 1952, p. 3] 

United States Dexegate A. Willcox's Speech at Peace Conference, Octobeb 8 

Session 

Peiping, October 9 (Hsinhua). — United States delegate, Mrs. Anita Willcox, 
artist, made a statement at the Asian and Pacific Peace Conference on October 8. 
Excerpts from her statement follow : 

We come as representatives of 70 percent of the people of the United States 
who, when given a chance in a Gallup poll to express their true opinions anony- 
mously, have voted for an immediate end to the war in Korea. We know full 
well that we, as citizens of a democracy, insofar as we do not act for peace to 
the full limit of our power, are responsible for the killing of millions of men, 
women, and children in the Korean war. We come to this conference seeking 
effective means to stop this murder, conscious that our planes are dropping 
napalm as we speak. We ask our brothers and sisters of the Asian and Pacific 
regions to help us stop the rearming of Japan and Germany and the colonial 
oppression of the peoples of southeast Asia, before new Koreas are set ablaze. 

ISC kepokt be publicized 

We, of the majority of our people, have come here to demand an end to the 
killing of prisoners of war at Koje and Cheju. On October 1, while we peace 
delegates watched the color and glory of a free people celebrating their national 
day in ancient Peiping, 45 more men were killed at Cheju for the crime of daring 
to mark with joy the same occasion. Uplifted by the joyous singing of 10,000 
children, and strengthened in our anger by their strength, we denounce the 
criminal attempt to exterminate a people, their industry, and their culture. 
Our Armed Forces destroy things the people live by — granaries and crops. They 
call homes, sampans, schools, and horses military targets. Our Air Force blows 
up oxcarts. Our Navy sinks fishing boats. For this heroism the parents of 
our soldiers have refused medals awarded by our Government to their dead sons. 

To most of our people the horrible facts of our use of napalm are only now 
becoming known. Of the facts of the germ warfare they are still unaware. 
The findings of the International Scientific Commission and the testimony of 
Lts. F. B. O'Neal and P. R. Kuiss have not yet been widely circulated in the 
United States. The administration knows that the whole idea of the spreading 
of disease is so i-epugnant to our people that the highest civilian and military 
authorities and our representatives to the United Nations have flatly denied 
any such action. They have persisted in these denials even after the confessions 
of Lts. K. L. Enoch and J. Quinn were reported in the press. Peace organizations 
will give to our people the opportunity to study the evidence and make up their 
own minds. We believe that the response will be a demand, in a voice so thun- 
derous it cannot be ignored, that the newspapers publish the report of the Inter- 
national Scientific Commission, and that our Government answer the charges 
of the commission, ratify the Geneva protocol of 1925 and renounce forever the 
use of biological warfare. 

Most parents refuse to believe that our sons could commit such acts. But the 
fact is that daily denial of basic rights to our colored brothers at home by lynch 
terror, police brutality, and social discrimination, conditions our youth for the 
perpetration of the heinous crimes that are being committed in Korea. 

UNITED STATES PREPAEATIONS FOE A WORLD WAR 

Today Japan is a military base for the wars in Korea and southeast Asia. Our 
Government, which has just released Alfred Krupp and awarded him $80 million, 
is backing the very Japanese war criminals who attacked Pearl Harbor. If 
Japan is consolidated as a military power, we are in danger not only of a new 
Korea, but of being driven into a third world war. Our occupation of Taiwan 
with the remnant armies of the cruel Chiang Kai-shek, is a part of our prepara- 



870 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

tion for a third world war. And the search for raw materials and soldiers for 
that projected conflict has intensified our intervention in the countries of Latin 
America, where increased political pressure for bilateral military pacts has been 
added to our economic exploitation. One of the major tasks of the peace move- 
ment is to make these facts known and felt by everybody at home. 

Beyond doubt lies, distortions, and omissions of our press, I'adio, films, and 
television account for most of the confusion in the minds of our people. But 
there is another very important factor which must be taken into consideration : 
Widespread belief that reduction of our gigantic arms program would cause 
mass unemployment and depression. The peace movement in our country today 
is stressing everywhere that peace need not be followed by depression. We 
rejoiced that from this conference with its Immense breadth and practicality, 
we can take home to our people the message that there are peaceful markets 
for American productive capacity. 

TEADE HELPS PEACE 

Development of trade with Asia as well as needed public works at home could 
take full measure of our production for the foreseeable future. Those peoples 
of Asia now making their own way, and millions of others moving in the same 
direction, have created a rapidly expanding market which can give employment 
to millions of workers in the United States of America. 

We have recently become a deficit economy, importing more materials than 
we export, and with increasing exhaustion of our own resources, we become 
ever more dependent upon other lands. In India and Latin America there is 
need for all the food now being hoarded or destroyed, a great and growing 
market for the product of our farms. Such food is officially termed "surplus." 
When millions of children at home and abroad are hungry, there is no such thing 
as surplus food. Its destruction is a sin against mankind and life itself. 

Return to peaceful commercial exchange would bring the revival of cultural 
relations. People should get to know one another. 

We all need help from one another in our work of building a new and better 
world. The Chinese people's controlling of the Huai River might inspire us 
to harness our own Missouri. 

PEIACE MOVEMENT MOUNTING IN UNITED STATES OP AMERICA 

In spite of press and radio blackout on peace, in spite of indictment and jailing 
of peace leaders, our peace organizations now number over 3,000. In them 
are people from all different segments of our society, rich and poor, Catholic 
and Protestant and Jew, Mexican and Negro and Anglo and Japanese and 
Puerto Rican Americans. Attempt to pass a law for universal military training 
in time of peace was defeated by mass protests of our churches, our mothers, 
our women's organizations, trade unions, and professional workers. This major 
victory for peace was won this year because parents do not want their young 
sons trained systematically to be "killers— worst killers possible." Young people 
in the United States, feeling the pressures of war, unable to get jobs, to complete 
their education or to plan any future, are taking a determined stand for peace. 
As techniques of fascism are increasingly employed by a government with no 
other solution to our problems, so resistance of the people is growing in cit.y, 
town, and village. In New York on August 20, 18,000 people met to condemn 
war and call for immediate peace. This month a referendum is being circulated 
in all of the States on the following points : 

1. A cease-fire in Korea now, with all remaining questions to be settled at 
an immediate peace conference. 

2. Immediate negotiations among major powers leading to settlement of all 
outstanding differences. 

3. Elimination of weapons of mass destruction and an agreed and controlled 
disarmament. 

The reception accorded to peace workers circulating this ballot has been 
overwhelmingly friendly. We hate this war, we know that it is wrong, and we 
want peace — peace now. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what effect did the presence of Americans at 
the Asian and Pacific Peace Conference have on the morale of the 
Americans and the Europeans who were in the same prison? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 871 

Father Rigney. It had this effect, that it gave the impression that 
a hirge part, at least a Uirge part, of the American people were in 
favor of peace as the Communists spoke about peace, and that they 
could not realize this because of the oppression of the Government of 
the American people, what they called the Wall Street government, 
the imperialistic Washington government. 

And the second effect which it tended to have was that it tended to 
destroy the hope or minimize the hope in the hearts of many, many 
Chinese, the hope for liberation, the hope for freedom. 

After all, in the Communist police state of China it is impossible 
for the ordinary Chinese to rise up effectively and revolt. The only 
possibility they have of freedom would be that God would work a 
miracle of freedom or that there would be an invasion by Western 
Powers that would liberate, really liberate China. 

Many are living in this hope praying for that day. When they 
hear of such things as representatives of America coming to the 
so-called peace conference and talking about the people of America — 
they do not define what they mean by "people of America" — being 
all in favor of peace these poor people back in China are more and 
more oppressed they lose more and more hope. 

Mr. Morris. And their appearance aids the Chinese Communists 
to consolidate their conquest of China ; is that right ? 

Father Eig^stey. Yes. 

Senator Watkins. Did you ever have personal contact with any 
of these Americans that were mentioned ? 

Father Rigney. No. I had contact with an American doctor, a 
Dr. Hattem. He studied in one of the Carolinas. He went to the 
University of South Carolina — I am not sure Mdiich; I think it was 
one of the Carolinas — to study medicine. 

Mr. Morris. You say you met him in prison ? 

Father Rigney. No. I met him in 1946. It was the summer of 
194G when the executive headquarters was then in operation and I 
went to him in order to request the Communist government the Com- 
munist committee there, the executive headquarters, to do whit thev 
could to liberate to free some German Catholic missionaries who had 
been arrested by the Communists in Shanghai and I was introduced 
to this Dr. Hattem and I made my case before him because he spoke 
good English and later on I saw him at 1 or 2 cocktail parties when 
the executive headquarters were closing up. 

Mr. Morris. Now was he on the side of the Chinese Communists? 

Father Rigney. Definitely he was. He was married to a Chinese 
wife. I think she was a Communist. I am not sure about that. 

Mr. Morris. Now did you hear while you were in prison of the 
negotiations that were going on during the Korean war ? 

Father Rigney. Yes. I read many reports about these negotiations. 

Mr. Morris. "WTiere did you read about these ? 

Father Rigney. In various publications of the Chinese Communist 
Government, especially from this. There could have been other issues 
from Moscow. 

Mr. Morris In other words, you were allowed to read during your 
incarceration ? 

72723— 56— pt. 16 3 



872 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Father Rigney. Yes. This was part of our brainwashing, to read 
these different reports. 

Mr. Morris. Did they come to you in English ? 

Father Rigney. In English, yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you would read about the negotiations that took 
place in Korea ? 

Father Rigney. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how were these negotiations represented to you ? 

Father Rigney. They were represented — and I read dozens of these 
different reports and news releases and editorials — the general theme 
was that the American Government did not want peace, and that they 
were forced to attend cease-fire and peace conferences, whatever you 
wish to call them, under pressure of the people of the world, the peo- 
ples, the different peoples of the world, the people of different coun- 
tries, and after they came there, and very unwillingly, they did all 
they could to sabotage the peace talks and to delay the conclusion of a 
cease-fire agreement. Afterward there were talks about, at one time, 
exchanging of prisoners, and again the Americans came to these talks 
only under pressure of these people, and they exchanged prisoners only 
under the pressure of the people, and later on, when these negotiations 
were carried on for the questioning — I don't know what you would 
call them — prisoners were brought into diffei-ent tents and asked if 
they wanted to go to their own country or stay on the side of the prison, 
the prisoners who were held by the Americans, you know, whether 
these prisoners wanted to go back to Communist China or Communist 
Korea or remain in the other countries, this exchange, this questioning, 
was reported by many articles in such a way as to make it appear that 
the Americans were trying to sabotage all tliis ; they were preventing 
the prisoners from freely saying whether they wanted to go back to 
their home country or not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you mentioned in executive session the fact that 
there was much publicity given to the Chou En Lai visit to Nehru. 

Father Rigney. Yes ; verj' much publicity given to his visit to India, 
to Nehru, and also to his visit to Burma, and much propaganda was 
built up on this visit, to the effect that the peoples of India and the 
peoples of Burma were very pro-C/onununist, and even the govern- 
ment 

Mr. Morris. And representations were made that the Government 
of India and the Govermnent of Burnia ^^ ere i^ro-Connnunist because 
of these visits? 

Father Rigney. Yes. That the peoples were very pro-Communist, 
and even the government was gradually becoming friendly to the 
Communist government of China. 

And also through the influence of the western imperialistic powers, 
as they said, especially the United States, they Avere not free to express 
themselves as openly as they would like to, because of their govern- 
ments. 

And these governments, of course, kept their people down. They 
capitalized very strongly on these visits of Chou En Lai. 

The same way when Nehru came to Peking, there was a tremendous 
amount of propaganda made about this, to indicate that the Govern- 
ment of India was very friendly to the Government of China, Com- 
munist China. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 873 

Mr. Morris, Father Rigiiey, I have just one more series of questions. 
Our Americans who do not cooperate, who are not submissive to the 
Chinese Communist Government — are they allowed to have freedom 
of movemicnt throughout occupied China ? 

Father Rigney. Well, all I can say is what happened to me before 
my arrest. All foreigners, including Americans, who were not arrest- 
ed were under police restrictions. 

Right after the occupation of Peking by the Communists, we for- 
eigners, especial!}" Americans, were not allowed to leave the Walled 
City of Peking without a special permit of the i)olice, which had to 
be applied for a day or so in advance. 

Later on we were allowed to go out about 5 miles from the city 
v\-ithout a permit. But if I wanted to go. sa}', from Peking to Tientsin, 
which was onlj^ 80 miles away, I had to go through rather a long 
procedure. 

I had to go to the police, the foreign office of the local police, and 
then apply for passage, permission to go to Tientsin, and I vras given 
a questionnaire to fill out. 

There were about 20 or 22 questions to answer, and these ques- 
tions covered such things as this: My name, where I was born and 
when I was born, m}^ citizenship and my passport, the number of my 
passport, where it was issued and when it was nssued, and how long it 
was valid, my residential permit, the number of the permit, when it 
was issued and where it was issued, and where I wanted to go, why I 
wanted to go to this place, like Tientsin, what business I had there, 
whom I would see when I got into the city of Tientsin, where I would 
stay, and when I would come back and how I would travel. 

Of course, tliat Avas a ridiculous question. There was only one way 
to travel, and that was by train. You could not vralk. You would get 
arrested if you walked. 

Then I would have to go back home and wait 2 or 3 days and go 
back to the police office and ask if my permit had been granted, and 
if it were granted, then I would take this permit and go down to the 
station, and before I boarded the train, I had to register with a 
policeman, give my name, address and show my permit with the num- 
ber of the permit. 

And on my permit was also my picture, my photograph. Imagine, 
a permit to travel 80 miles away called for 2 or 3 photographs, one for 
the paper I had and one or two for the record. 

And after I passed through this policeman at the railroad station, 
I would board the train and ride to Tientsin, and as soon as I got 
off at Tientsin, I had to go to the police in the police station and 
register that I had gotten off this train and where I was going to live 
and show him my permit. 

Then I would go over to my friend's house, generally a priest who 
was our representative in Tientsin, and within 24 hours after arriving 
at his house, I would be obliged to go to the local police and there 
again register, giving my name, my place of residence in Peking, 
where I was living in Tientsin, and show them my permit. 

TV^ien I wanted to return, T would have to go back to the local police 
and tell them I was leaving Tientsi]i and give the detail-; of luy de- 
parture. 



874 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

But I went to the police station. I would have to register at the 
police station and get on the train, and then when I got off the train in 
Peking, I would have to report to the policeman there and give him m}- 
permit and tell him, "I am so-and-so; I am back." 

Mr. Morris. So someone such as Mr. Hinton 

Father Kigney. All foreigners, you see, were subject to these pro- 
cedures. 

Mr. Morris. So someone such as Mr. Hinton, who had freedom of 
movement throughout occupied China, and at the same time taught in 
one of their schools, would be someone who would pretty much be on 
the side of the Communists, would you not say ? 

Father Rigney. Oh, yes, if he taught in a school. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you return to the United States? 

Father Rigney. I landed at the United States at New York on 
March 15, 1956. I returned to the United States by way of Europe. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you hope to go back some day to China? 

Father Rigney. I would be very glad to go back to a free, liberated 
China, because I love the Chinese very much, and I love them now more 
than ever. They are a very noble and hard-working and industrious 
people. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Watkins. Father Rigney, we greatly appreciate your ap- 
pearance here. It was a very enlightening statement you have made to 
us. We thank you for appearing. 

Father Rigney. I am very ^lad to be here. Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Watkms, we have witnesses subpenaed for to- 
morrow morning bearing on Soviet activity in connection with the five 
seamen who have been repatriated, or redefected back to the Soviet 
Union, 

So the next scheduled meeting is tomorrow morning at 10 : 30, Sen- 
ator. 

Senator Watkins. The committee will be in recess. 
(Whereupon, at 11:30 a. m., the subcommittee recessed to recon- 
vene at 10 : 30 a. m., Friday, April 20, 1956.) 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, APRIL 20, 1956 

United States Senate Subcommittee 
to in^^stigx^te the administration of the internal 
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess at 11 a. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker, presiding. 

Present : Senators Welker and Jenner. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, Chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director ; and William A. Rusher, administrative counsel. 

Senator Welker. The committee will come to order. 

Will you rise and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before the com- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I so swear. 

TESTIMONY OF JAN S. F. VAN HOOGSTEATEN, ASSISTANT DIEECTOR 
POE IMMIGEATION SEEVICES, CHUECH WOELD SEEVICE 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Jan Van Hoogstraten. 

Senator Welker. And where do you reside ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I reside in the township of Bronxville. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation ? ^ 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I am assistant director of the immigration 
services of the National Council of Churches, the Church World 
Service. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this hearing this morning is being held 
in connection with the series of hearings now being conducted by the 
subcommittee into the nature and scope of Soviet activity within the 
United States. There are certain facts that came to the attention of 
the subcommittee which indicated there are activities of an unusual 
nature being undertaken by the Soviet officials here in the United 
States, and they are being examined for that purpose. 

Senator Welker. Very well, counsel. The chairman is very mind- 
ful of the reason for this hearing, so you will proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Van Hoogstraten, will you give us a brief sketch 
of the circumstances surrounding the arrival of certain Soviet seamen 
into the United States ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I will be very glad to do that. Judge 
Morris. We heard about the existence of a certain number of sailors 

875 



876 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY m THE UNITED STATES 

who had stayed behind after the Soviet Kussiaii oil boat, the Tuapse, 
was confiscated by Mr. Chiang Kai-shek's forces. 

The United States escapee program, now under the Department of 
State, heard also about this, and through the efforts of the United 
States escapee program, these fellows, nine of the fellows on Formosa, 
were brought here. A representative of the World Council of 
Churches, Church World Service, brought these fellows in a plane, 
if I am not mistaken, on the 21st of October 1955, to this country. 

Our organization was asked to look after the general welfare, in 
the broadest sense of the word, of these nine boys. 

The boys were paroled into this country and they had to register 
with the Government a certain amount of times each month, in the 
beginning. 

Well, then, through cooperation with the United States escapee 
program in this country, funds were made available by which we 
could really look after the welfare of these nine boys, and within the 
limitations of these funds, I think the Church World Service can only 
sav that we did have enough funds available to see to it that these 
fellows were happy and did not lack any daily needs of life. 

We looked for jobs for them. We were not always successful 
to get the exact employment they perhaps desired, but then that is 
not an unusual scene if one deals with refugees. 

Of course, as far as we are concerned, these nine fellows were 
receiving the same treatment from our organization as we usually give 
to the others, with one exception, and that is that we fully realized 
that w^e were here dealing with a group of fellows who were some- 
what more unusual than the rank and file displaced person or refugee 
arriving in this country. 

Mr. MoRKis. Why were they more unusual, Mr. Van Hoogstraten? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. They were more unusual in that we realized 
that these fellows had not seen the West very long. You know that 
usually refugees come to this country after they have spent a con- 
siderable period of time in a camp, or as free livers in one of the 
western nations. 

These fellows came from a ship and they had spent about a year, 
I think, in Formosa, but one cannot exactly call that a western 
countr3^ 

Judge Morris, is that sufficient background ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, that is sufficient, Mr. Van Hoogstraten. 

Now, I wonder if you would tell us how many of these boys were 
directly in your care. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. All nine, sir. 

Mr. Morris. All nine. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. And as time went by, some of the boys went 
over to the care of the Government agency. 

Mr. Morris. Since October 21, 1955? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes, sir. Then all nine were in our care. 
As time went on, some of them went over into the care of a Govern- 
ment agency and, of course, our arrangement was that the moment 
they go over into the care of a Government agency, Ave have nothing 
to do with them any more. 

Mr. Morris. How many of them so went over ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Excuse me? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 877 

Mr. Morris. How many of them so went over to a Government 

agency ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstr.\.ten. Three went over and six were left. Out of 
those 6, 5 went back. 

Mr. AlORRis. Five went back to the Soviet Union ? 

Mr, Van Hoogstraten. Yes. And the one who did not go back 

Mr. Morris. Is here today ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstilvten. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, will you tell us what were some of 
the recent developments that led up to the departure of these live sea- 
men to the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I have tried to give you what I know 
about it. 

Mr. Morris. jNIaj^ I have that magazine, please? 

]\Ir. Van Hoogstraten. This one ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

I thought you had the one with the listing of the other j^eople 
in it. 

Go right ahead. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. May I start on Monday, April the 2d, which 
was the Monday preceding the Saturday they left. On Monday after- 
noon 

Senator Welker. Let us get the dates, please. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes, sir. It is Monday, April 2d. This is 
the moment I would like to start. 

On that day, sir, at about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, 3 of the boys 
who went back, Mr. Shirin, Mr. Shishin, and Mr. Loukashkov 

Mr. Morris. That is Shirin, S-h-i-r-i-n ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Shishin, S-h-i-s-h-i-n? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Loukashkov, L-u-k-a-s-h-k-o-v ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. L-o-u-k-a-s-h-k-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Proceed. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. The reason why these three fellows came to 
our office was that we might hand them over a certain amount of 
money which they needed for their general upkeep in the next few 
weeks, because they were going to leave that week the coui-se which 
they followed at Columbia University, a hmguage course, and they 
had obtained jobs in the meantime, and we realized that these jobs 
would not give, immediately, pay ; so we wanted to be sure that they 
had enough in their pockets. 

They also came to discuss future employment with us. We had a 
short conversation about the weather and at that point one of the 
boys, I do not remember who it was, asked me what I thought about 
the Stalin change in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. One of the seamen asked you ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. "VVliich one was that, do you recall ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I cannot recall that, sir. 

At that point I said to this same man, "Don't you think it would 
be nice that you answer me the question, rather than I?" 



878 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I think it was Mr. Shirin, but I do not recall it for sure. He 
answered me that, "Faces may change but Siberia remains Siberia." 
That was his feeling that Monday afternoon. That was the last time 
I saw those three fellows, until I saw them again on the airfield on 
Saturday. 

Senator Welker. Saturday, what date, sir? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. That was April the 6th, Senator. 

Senator Welker. Proceed. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Excuse me. That was April 7. 

Senator Welker. April 7. 

]\f r. Van Hoogstraten. I then come to the Friday afternoon, that 
was April the 6th, when, at 3 o'clock, Mr. Solovyev came to my office. 
Mr. Solovyev's name is spelled S-o-l-o-v-y-e-v. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Solovyev, S-o-l-o-v-y-e-v. 

Mr, Van Hoogstraten. Thank you. 

He was somewhat distressed about something which I did not 
know. I told my assistant that he should talk to him for a moment 
while I would arrange his financial details about which, also, he 
had come to the office. Also, he was going to have an appointment 
with his nose doctor, as he had just had an operation. 

As my assistant was talking to Mr. Solovyev, the telephone rang 
and there was a call for me from one of the Government agencies 
telling me that they had heard that something was, as it was stated 
to me, quote, "cooking," unquote, with regard to these fellows. I 
combmed with the rather unusual behavior of Mr. Solovyev, and I 
requested this Government man to come to our office and to Mr. 
Solovyev. 

I stress, at this point, that it was my understanding as I took care 
of those fellows, that anything unusual outside the normal scope of 
general A^elfare should not be dealt with by us. We are not equipped; 
Ave are not an organization which should do that. We should report 
on this to this particular gentleman who was the representative of 
some Government agency. And I did that. And I cannot but here 
say that the relationships with that particular gentleman were always 
very cordial, and I think rather efficient. 

He then proceeded to come to our office while we told Mr. Solovyev 
that this man would come, that Mr. Solovyev knew him, and that he 
should wait a moment, and then we could talk again. 

However, in the meantime, Mr. Solovyev had already divulged 
to m}^ assistant that one of the reasons why he did not feel so happy 
that day was that he knew, had knowledge, that an undisclosed num- 
ber of sailors out of the nine were planning to go back, and that he 
himself was under some coercion, some pressure, that he should do 
the same. 

Well, sir, at that point, I felt that what we had done by notifying 
the Government representative that he was in our office and that he 
should take him over was the correct one, and I did not at that time 
feel that we should talk about details with Mr. Solovyev, and there- 
fore, no questions were asked at that point of Mr. Solovyev. I asked 
him if he knew who were going back, and I think he answered me that 
he knew of 2 boys for sure. That is my impression. I don't remember 
exactly. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know which two ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 879 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I think that Mr. Solovyev at that point 
told me that Mr. Shishin and Mr. Shirin were going back. 

When I asked him when, I think he answered me — if I am correct 
in that — "tomorrow.'" 

Mr. Morris. That was April 6 ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. That was Friday afternoon, about 3 '. 30. 

Mr. Morris. On April 6? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes, sir. I asked the Government repre- 
sentative Avho called me to call me back if he knew any further details 
as to their actual leaving. About 5 o'clock in the afternoon I stayed 
in my office, and I got a telephone call from the same gentleman who 
said that he had ascertained that the boys were going to leave on 
flight 902, Scandinavian Airlines, 4 p. m., from Idle wild, on Saturday, 
April 7, which was the next day. 

At that point, I told him that, although I could not 100 percent talk 
for my organization, since nobody was there any more at 5 o'clock in 
the afternoon, I wanted to go on record to him that I, or anybody 
else from my organization, wanted to be given the opportunity to 
talk to these fellows on the airport, since he told me that very 
probably the fellows who were going back were not any more available 
to be talked to, that they were already in the hands of the Soviets, 
and probably at Park Avenue, New York, which is the seat of the 
United Nations Mission, the IT. S. S. R. Mission to the United Nations. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Van Hoogstraten, under the circumstances, 
these men would require exit visas, would they not? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. It is my understanding. Judge Morris, 
that they do not require exit permits. There is no such thing in this 
country, to my understanding, that we could call an exit permit. How- 
ever, there is a sailing permit for aliens, which is completely a tax 
department affair, and has nothing to do with the Immigration 
Service. 

This is my understanding, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I understand. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I then got an answer on tlie telephone con- 
versation with this Government representative that it was perfectly 
all right for me to be there ; he expected me to be there, and he asked 
me to be there at 3 o'clock in the afternoon of April 7. 

Senator Welker. That is 1 hour before departure time? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes. He told me then that he was going 
to be there at 2 o'clock. But it was not very likely that the fellows 
would arrive there much earlier than 3 o'clock, so he felt that 3 o'clock 
would be sufficient time. 

Mr. Morris. Just one point. Did Mr. Solovyev indicate where they 
were, in the hands of the Soviet authorities; where these seamen were 
who were going back ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. He did not indicate that to me at that time, 
nor did I ask him. My position at that point was that the thing was 
much more important than for us to deal with, that that was for the 
Government representative who was going to meet Mr. Solovyev 
to ask. 

In my home Saturday morning, April 7, at about 10 : 15, I got a 
telephone call from the same Government representative I had talked 



880 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

with before. He told me this : "Mr. Van Hoogstraten, it is not Reees- 
sary for you to be at the airport this afternoon." 

My answer to that was, "Have they left already ?" i j 

He replied, "No, they have not left. They are leaving on that plane, !! 
but it is not necessary for you to be there." 

"Are you going to be there?" I asked him. 

He said, "No, I am not going to be there, either." 

My answer to that was — my next question was : "Have bigger people 
than we taken this thing into hand, in their hands?" 

And his answer was something like : "I guess so." 

I said, "Well, that gives me, then, a free afternoon, and I don't have 
to go to the airport." 

And I put the telephone down and I said at the same moment to my 
wife, "Let's get the car out and see if the thing works, and I am 
going to the airport this afternoon." 

I also, sir, want to stress here that on Friday afternoon, in the 
previous telephone conversation with this gentlemen, I was specifi- 
cally told that this information about the leaving of the plane, the 
hour the plane would leave with this unspecified number of people, 
was not to be divulged by anybody. 

I violated this promise in one respect, and that is that I did notify 
the representative of the United States escapee program here in Wash- 
ington, Mr, Glazier, who was told by me that I was not supposed to 
tell this, but, since I was working on those cases in very close touch 
with the escapee program, I felt that they should know this. 

The other person who knew about this was my assistant. After 
the telephone coversation on Saturday morning, in which 1 was told 
that it was not necessary for me to come to the airport, I did call him 
up and he accompanied me to the airport and we arrived there at 
about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, about 10 minutes past 3. At 20 
minutes past 3, if I am correct, the boys came in, surrounded 'by a 
large number of what seemed to me obviously Soviet representatives. 

Mr. Morris. How many of them were there, of these Soviet repre- 
sentatives ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstrateist. I did attempt to count them. I came to 
about 19, but, of course, there might very well have been a few more. 

Mr. Morris. You say there were at least 19? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I think there would be at least 19. I also — 
we stood around there for a while. We looked at them. There was 
no sign of recognition, much. We didn't attempt to talk to them, 
because I think it would have been rather unfeasible at that moment. 
They were kept talked to constantly by the Soviet representatives, 
whoever they may have been. 

Somewhat later, one of the Soviet representatives came over to me 
and said to me, "Fancy to see you here, Mr. Van Hoogstraten." I 
don't know where he got my name. And he also talked briefly to my 
assistant and then said — that was the first time I had heard that the 
boys had been taken away into the customs area, or rather into the 
immigration area — you can't get there but going through customs — 
and this representative, this Soviet man, said to me, "Are you not 
invited to the little party?" 

And I said, I didn't know there was a social party going on. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 881 

And he said, "Well, the immigration is talking to these gentlemen, 
and maybe" — ^no. He said this to me, "Are you not going to talk to 
them?" 

And I said that I didn't know anything about it. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was this man ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I don't know this man. Of course, I could 
identify him from pictures. 

Mr. Morris. Where had you seen him before ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Well, I had seen him before in an immigra- 
tion course which is given at New York University, and I attend this 
course since, I think, some time in October, and he had been there 
several times in mj class. 

Mr. Morris. He was a fellow student of yours ; is that right ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Well, you might call him that ; yes, sir. 

I did not 

Mr. Morris. Did you know him by any name at all at New York 
University ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. He was just a fellow student, and that is all you know 
about him ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes. And I was under the impression that 
he belonged to one of tlie voluntary agencies in town dealing with — 
I knew he was a foreigner because he had an accent, but I did not know 
who he was and I had not the slightest idea of his connections. But 
it was quite clear to me that afternoon ; and my assistant, who also is 
in the same class, was as greatly surprised as I was at the sight of this 
man there. 

He knew who we were ; we did not know who he was. 

I think that, at this point, not very much more exciting happened. 
The time came of departure. I noticed that the door to gate No. 10, 
where the people have to go through to the plane, was being closed, 
and since I "^-as afraid that perhaps they could reach the plane from 
the immigration area via another door, I went up to the platform, 
still hoping that nothing would happen to them. I did ask the photog- 
rapher, who sometimes takes pictures for us when refugees arrive, to 
make pictures for us if something would happen. 

The jjhotographer asked if he should also take pictures of the people 
of the Soviet group waiting in the corridor, and I said "No," and the 
reason I said "no" was that I felt that, at that moment, the Govern- 
ment had this thing in hand and I didn't want to do anything which 
possibly could embarrass the activities of the Government at that 
moment. 

Besides that, I don't think that I was authorized to spend agency 
f imds just to take pictures at random. 

Also, sir, it was my impression that other Government representa- 
times of the United States Government were present in the halls there, 
and that they were looking around and that they knew what was going 
on. That was my firm impression. I don't know if this is correct, 
but I think that tliere were other people present in the halls, who 
knew what was happening, who did not belong to the Soviet delega- 
tion to the United Nations. 



882 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE XJNITED STATES 

So the photographers I had were asked to take pictures in case they 
would board the plane. That is what they did, and they took pictures, 
and I have given them to counsel. I think that they are here on the 
table. Then the fellows came out; two pictures were taken, and quite 
in a lush they came up to the door of the plane. They were not pushed 
or shoved into the plane. I want to make that clear. There was a 
big rushj though. It was raining and very windy, and I stood on the 
observation platform with my assistant, on each side flanked by a man 
who later turned out to belong to this same Soviet group. 

They entered the plane, and 

Mr. Morris. Now, were the same 19 or more Soviet people present 
all this time? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes. I was 

Mr. MoRRTS. Right out by the plane? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes. I was told by the Scandinavian Air- 
lines System that I could not go beyond that door, and I didn't. _ I 
didn't attempt to go beyond that door. I went to the observation 
platform. 

Every single one, I would say, except for the two of us standing 
with me on the obs^ervation platform, if you see this picture here — 
I think that you will find there a large number of individuals standing 
near that plane, and they came through that gate, and they were ap- 
parently allowed to come close to this plane, which we were not. And 
the door of the plane closed. The main organizer on the field, the 
fellow who was there with me in the class 

Mr. Morris. You say he was the organizer of this group? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraiten. I would say that the man whom I knew 
from my class was the man who Avas in charge of the 20 or 25 — I don't 
know how many; I can't call them "gentlemen," but I think I will 
call them "thugs" — were present on that field. 

When the door closed, the man turned around and looked at me 
standing up there and made some kind of sign as if, "things are 
now safe." 

Mr. Morris. Safe from his point ? 

Mr. Van Hoogsti^aten. From his point of view. 

Senator Welker. Mr. "Witness, I think 3'ou testified that you do not 
know the identity of this man who was in charge of the plane reser- 
vations of these boys leaving, but you could identify him from pictures ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Sir, I don't know if he was in charge of the 
plane reservations, but I do know that he was in charge — it looked 
as if he was in charge of the 20 to 25 men on the field. I have not 
been able to identify him because I was not given those pictures to 
look at. 

Senator Welker. At this time, the acting chairman, along with 
Senator Jenner, will order and direct you to use every effort you can 
to ascertain the true identitj' of the man you testified about, and we 
will ask all governmental agencies to assist you in that task. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Thank you, sir. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Then what happened, Mr. Van Hoogstraten ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Well, sir 

Mr. Morris. The plane took off ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I didn't see the plane take off, but I heard 
it took off. I went home, and on Sunday morning — jou can imagine 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 883 

I thought about tliis quite a bit during that night— I felt that I was 
no longer under any obligation to not talk about this. It came some- 
what late, but I did then call up the assistant to General Donovan^ 
who, as you know, has just made a report on the whole redefection 
program for the International Rescue Committee, and I called Mr. 
Saltzmann and I told him this, after I had obtained his telephone 
number from another person who is interested in this problem, iSIr. 
Epstein, who knew the number of Saltzmann. I then talked it over 
with Mr. Saltzmann, and if I may say so, the ball started rolling. _ 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Van Hoogstraten, do you think that anything 
vv\as left undone that should have been done to prevent something that 
may have damaged the prestige of the United States, from your ex- 
perience on this program ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstratex. Sir, I was convinced up to the moment 
that the boys were in the immigration area at the airport, that this 
thing was in the hands of the Government, and safely so. I simply 
could not believe that the same Government who deliberated 8 months 
or 7 months to admit these people could decide in 5 times 5 minutes 
to let them go. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you have no other facts, have you, Mr. Van Hoog- 
straten, that you think the committee should have at this time ? 

Senator, in order to determine whether or not there was any duress 
or coercion, as has been contended by the report referred to by Mr. 
\''an Hoogstraten, we have asked one of these seamen who did not 
return to testify here this morning. 

In tliat connection, Mr. Van Hoogstraten has presented to me on 
behalf of his organization, signed by Roland Elliott, Director of 
Immigration Services, a letter. 

I wonder if you would read that letter for the record, please, Mr. 
Van Ploogstraten. 

You want that put in the record, do you not ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I would like to, yes. 

This letter is dated April 19, 1956, and directed to Senator James 
O. Eastland, chairman of the Internal Security Subcommittee, United 
States Senate, Washington, D. C. : 

Deae Senator Eastland : We are glad to authorize Mr. Jan S. F. Van Hoog- 
straten, assistant director for migration services of Church World Services, a 
central department of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the 
United States, to testify before your committee on any questions of fact which 
have come under his observation in connection with his official duties on behalf of 
this office in relation to the nine Soviet seamen admitted by special order to the 
United States in October 1955. We commend Mr. Van Hoogstraten to you as a 
trusted, experienced, and competent staff member. 

Mr. Morris. You will have to read it all, Mr. Van Hoogstraten. 
Mr. Van Hoogstraten (continuing) : 

Church World Service did not sponsor the entry of these Soviet seamen to 
the United States, but was requested by the United States escapee program to 
render such nonpolitical resettlement services to these young men as are normal 
and appropriate for our agency to render on behalf of Protestant and Eastern 
Orthodox Churches in the United States. These services began on the arrival of 
these men at Idlewild Airport on October 21, 1955, and continued until 5 of the 
men left for the Soviet Union on April 7, 1956 ; they continue now for the 4 seamen 
who remain in the United States. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten has been authorized to answer any question of fact 
yoiu' committee may ask, on which he has data or judgment ; he is not authorized 
to represent this agency on any questions of Government policy or procedure. 



884 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten is further authorized to bring one of the remaining sea- 
men to Washin,a;ton for testimony to your committee, and to accompany him on 
his return to his home. 

It is our understanding and strong judgment that his appearance before, your 
committee will be in the executive session so as to receive his testimony under 
the most encourac-'ing circumstances and so we will not feel exposed to the 
hazards attendant upon publicity. 
Sincerely yours, 

Roland Elliott, 
Director, Immigration Servioes. 

Seiiiitor Welker. JMr. Van Hoogstraten, in executive session we 
took up the matter of the letter just presented, and it was tlie decision 
of the acting chairman that this matter be made in full public dis- 
closure to those that we represent; namely, the American people. 
Since this matter has been publicized wideh^ all over the Nation by a 
leading news magazine, the committee felt we would be derelict in our 
duty not to bring this out in the wide-open daylight and once and for 
all show to the American people what the Soviets and the Soviet con- 
spirators can do right here at home. 

So it has been the order of the acting chairman, based upon the views 
of other members of the subcommittee, that this matter be brought out 
in public testimony here today. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Thank you. 

Senator Welker. Now I will ask merely one question. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten, from your view of these boys who, in my 
opinion, were being sent away, did they appear to you to be very happy 
that they were leaving, or did you get an observation that close? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I find it extremely difficult to answer this 
question, because if one looks at the pictures, you see two boys in the 
pictures and they are both smiling. Yet, sir, knowing these boys 
since October 1055, in, if not daily, then certainly weekly contacts, 
they did not look happy to me at all. They never gave me any sign 
of recognition. They made the impression as if they wanted to protect 
us from any embarrassment, and therefore, looked the other way, I am 
inclined to think. 

Senator Welker. That is all I have. 

Senator Jenner. May I ask a question ? 

Senator Welker. Senator Jenner. 

Senator Jenner. Did you know the United Nations representative 
that was there? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I had seen pictures of the United Nations 
representative of the Soviet Union. 

You refer to Mr. Sobolev ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I had not recognized in the group who was 
there, nor do I have any firsthand knowledge that he was there. 

Mr Morris. Do you know that there were any U. N. representatives 
there ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. No, sir. But since the party drove diplo- 
matic-licensed cars, it was my understanding 

Mr. Morris. You do know they drove cars with diplomatic license 
tags? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. That I did not Imow that day, but I dis- 
x?overed that last Sunday when I was on the airport again," for personal 
reasons, and the first one I saw, when I entered into the hall there, was 
the same Soviet gentleman whom I had seen there 8 days previously. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 885 

Mr. Morris. Was this your fellow student? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes, sir. We see each other, apparently, 
twice a week. 

This same gentleman then said, "hello" to me, in a jovial way, and 
I looked at the car he stepped into 4 minutes later, and that was a 
diplomatic-licensed Buick. 

Mr. Morris. You do not know what he was doing at the airport the 
following Sunday ; do you ? 

Mr. Vax Hocgstraten. I didn't ask him, sir; no. And it is my 
understanding that the United Nations mission of the Soviet Union 
is driving diplomatic cars, whereas the consulate uses different license 
plates. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

Senator Welker. Senator Jenner? 

Senator Jenner. I have nothing further. 

Senator Welker. Thank you very much for your testimony. 

Mr. Morris. Will you stand by while the next witness testifies, Mr. 
Yan Hoogstraten? 

Senator Welker. You mean, to interpret ? 

Mr. Morris. Will you stand by while he testifies in the event you 
may have to testify? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Certainly. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Solovyev, will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Chairman, Mr. Solovyev is accompanied here by a young lady 
who will do the translating. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Will the interpreter rise and be 
sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that you will truthfully take down, by 
mental note thereof, the questions propounded to you in Englisli and 
impart that question to the witness in the Russian language, and then 
give to the committee back the truthful English inerpretation of the 
Russian answers, so help you God ? 

Miss VoN Meter. I do. 

Senator Welker. Now, if the witness will please raise your right 
hand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before the 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth and notliing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

The Interpreter. He swears. 

TESTIMONY OF VIKTOR SOLOVYEV, AS INTERPRETED BY 

NATALIE VON MEYER 

Mr. Morris. Miss Von Meyer, I wonder if you will give your name 
and address to the reporter. 

The Interpreter. My name is Natalie Von Meyer. And I live at 
3000 Thirty-ninth Street NW., Washington. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. Will you ask the witness to 
give his name to the reporter ? 

Mr. Solovyev. Viktor Solovyev. 

The Interpreter. Viktor Solovyev. 

Mr, Morris. Will you spell "Solovyev"? 

Mr. Solovyev. S-o-l-o-v-v-e-v, 



886 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. All right. Will you tell the committee where you were 
born ? 

Tlie Interpreter. It is a long story, he says. 

Mr. Morris. Just where he was born. 

The Interpreter. Kalinin. 

Mr. Morris. How old are you? 

The Interpreter. Twenty. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you defect from the Soviet Gov- 
ernment ? 

The Interpreter. He has to remember. 

Mr. Morris. Approximately. 

Senator Welker. Just a moment, counsel. May I ask you. Madam 
Interpreter, that you keep your voice high so that the reporters can 
hear ? 

The Interpreter. I will try. 

Senator Welker. I do not think it would do very much good to ask 
the witness to keep his voice high, but as long as you hear him and 
speak out loud into the microphone, please 

Mr. Morris. In a loud, clear voice. 

The Interpreter. I will. 

It was approximately in November 1954. 

Mr. Morris. November 1954. 

The Interpreter. Approximately. 

Mr. Morris. And where did this defection take place? 

The Interpreter. In China. 

Mr. Morris. In China. Is that on the mainland of China? 

The Interpreter. It was on the mainland. 

It was on Formosa, of course. 

Senator Welker. Keep your voice up. 

The Interpreter. It was on Formosa. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, had you been a seaman ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris, ^^'liat was the name of your ship ? 

The Interpreter. Tuapse. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Mr. SoLOVYEV. T-u-z 

The Interpreter. T-u-a — he is not sure. He will write it. Can 
he have a pen ? 

Mr. SoLOVYEV. (Spelling) T-u-a-p-c-e. 

Mr. Morris. T-u-a-p 

The Interpreter. T-u-a-p-c-e. 

He doesn't know how to spell it in English. (Tuapse.) 

Senator Welker. Very well. May I ask you this question? What 
were you doing near China ? 

Mr. Morris. What was the ship doing? 

The Interpreter. They were going to China bringing a load to 
Red China. 

Mr. Morris. What were they bringing to Red China ? 

The Interpreter. Gasoline, which, after working over it, could be 
used for jet planes. 

Yes, he is sure of it. 

Senator Welker. And where was he intercepted, the boat and crew ? 
Where were they intercepted? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 887 

The Interpreter. At 4 a. m., they were passing near Formosa when 
two National Chinese patrol boats intercepted them, and they were 
taken to the port of Knsn ( ? ) , as he pronounces it. 

Mr. Morris. Will you speak up just a little bit? 

The Interpreter. He doesn't know how it is spelled, but it is 
Kusung( ?). 

Senator Welker. Xow, if you will keep your voice up, please. 
Madam Interpreter, high, so that we can all hear, then we can follow 

you. 

After going to the Formosan territory, what happened then? 

The Interpreter. They spent one week in the port and then they 
were taken ashore. 

Mr. Morris. They spent one week in port and then they were taken 
ashore by the Chinese Government authorities ? 

The Interpreter. The Chinese Government. 

They first lived in groups. They were divided into three groups, 
and 

Mr. Morris. How many were there ? 

The Interpreter. There were 49 initially. 

Mr. Morris. Forty -nine? 

The Interpreter. Forty-nine. They were divided into three 
groups. Then they were divided again and lived in hotels. Then 
they were asked whether they wanted to go back or go to the United 
States. Twenty -nine decided to return, and the others asked to stay. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say, whether to go to the United States 
or 

The Interpreter. Or return to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Or to return to the Soviet Union. Twenty -nine elected 
to go back to the Soviet Union ? 

The Interpreter. Twenty-nine. 

Mr. Morris. Twenty elected to stay on Formosa and ultimately to 
go to the United States ? 

The Interpreter. Nobody wanted to stay on Formosa. The 20 who 
decided to stay wanted to go to the United States from China. 

Mr. Morris. All right. And you were among the 20 who elected to 
go to the United States ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, he was one of them. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, did that division remain the same, 29 
returning to the Soviet Union ; 20 staying on the island of Formosa ? 

Mr. SoLOVTEv. Yes. 

The Interpreter. Twenty-nine chose to return ; 20 stayed. Nine of 
them came to the United States and 4 want to come now. 

Mr. Morris. Four want to come now. That would account for 13. 
"Wliat about the other 7 ? 

The Interpreter. He doesn't know what they are doing. 

Mr. Morris. I see. But to the best of his laiowledge, all the other 
11 are now on the island of Formosa where the Chinese Government 
is? 

The Interpreter. He thinks they are. 

Mr. Morris, illl right. And when did you come to the United 
States? Was it October 1955? 

Mr. SoLOVYEv. Twenty-two. 



888 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. No; 21. 

Mr. SoLOVYEV. Twenty-one. 

Mr. Morris. October 21, 1955? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when you first came to the United States, did 
anyone help you here ? 

The Interpreter. The Church World Service helps him. 

Mr. Morris. Did they help you get a job ? 

Mr. SoLovYEV. Yes. 

The Interpreter, Yes ; they did. 

Mr. Morris. Did they try to bring you into the well-being, into the 
feeling of the country ? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; they did. 

Mr. Morris. I see. They did everything possible to make him a 
person who ultimately would become a United States citizen ? 

Mr. SoLovTEv. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you come to like the United States ? 

The Inti-:rpreter. He personally liked it. 

Mr. Morris. Did he become well adjusted to the United States ? 

The Interpreter. Not quite, yet. 

Mr. Morris. Not quite. AYliat were some of the difficulties he 
experienced ? 

The Interpreter. He cannot get accustomed to all American cus- 
toms, yet. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, did he earn enough money to live here ? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; he earned enough. 

Mr. Morris. And he has a job now ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, he does. 

Mr. Morris. Now, to your knowledge did the other 9 seamen, or the 
other 8 seamen, begin their adjustment to living in the United States? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; they began. 

He didn't talk to them in detail about this, but he judges by his 
own experience, and he thinks that if he started to get adjusted, that 
they might start it as well. 

Mr. Morris. Did he see these other men regularly ? 

The Interprei'er. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And to his knowledge, was there any disaffection ? 

The Interpreter. He cannot say anything. He doesn't know. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you first hear that Communists, as you 
described it in executive session, or representatives of the Soviet Union, 
first came into your life in the United States ? , i 

Mr, Van Hoogstraten. December. 

The Interpreter. He says it was on Thursday, but I am trying to 
find out what Thursday it is. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. May I say something ? 

Senator Welker. Will you ask the witness ? , . 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I understand your question to be when he II 
was at the first time approached by anyone. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Morris. That is correct ; when did anyone 

(The interpreter spoke to the witness in Russian.) 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. I think he does not understand the question. 

Mr. SoLOvYEv. No. I understand the question. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. You remember that last year, which was, I 
think, December, was it not ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 889 

It does not have to be the exact date. 

The Interpreter. I am trying to make him understand. 

He says it was through Shishin, the day when Shishin first went to 
the Soviet Embassy, as the witness says, which was the Park Avenue 
building. 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute now 

Senator Welker. That was in December of 1955 ? 

Just a minute. May I break in here? Mr. Van Hoogstraten said 
that something took place in December. What was it that took place 
in December ? 

Mr. SoLovYEv. Last winter. They had been at the ball. 

Mr. Morris. Last winter they had been at a ball ? 

The Interpreter. At a ball, at a dance. It was a ball of the people 
of Russia, and there they were handed letters by Soviet agents. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that ? 

The Interpreter. He did not receive any letters, so he doesn't know 
anything about the letters. But it was Shishin and Ryabenko who 
received letters at that time. 

Senator Welker. Now, Shishin had left a wife over in Russia ; is 
that correct? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; he had left a wife in Russia. 

Senator Welker. Do you have any information that will help the 
committee as to whether or not the Communists used the blackmail of 
threatening Shishin's wife if he did not defect and go back to Russia ? 

The Interpreter. No ; he doesn't know. 

Senator Welker. Now, I w\ant to ask you, Mr. Witness, this : How 
often did you see your comrades here that you came with ? 

The Interpreter. Once a week, perhaps. Three of them who were 
settling in New York ; Shishin, Shirin, and Loukashkov were the three. 
The others he hasn't seen for 3 months, approximately. 

Senator Welker. Now, those that you saw, did you have any indi- 
cation whatsoever that they were dissatisfied here or that they might 
be shipped out back to Russia ? 

The Interpreter. He wouldn't say so. 

Senator Welker. He would say "No"? 

The Interpreter. He would say "No." 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. You say at this ball, Ryabenko and Shishin received 
letters ? 

Mr. SoLovTEv. Yes. 

The Interpreter. Yes, they did, and they also received photographs. 
The photographs were those of the captain of their ship at his arrival 
in Russia. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, were these letters given to Shishin and 
Ryabenko ? 

The Interpreter. The letters were not given to them personally 
but to a friend of theirs, another Russian young man, who gave it to 
them. 

Mr. Morris. And what did the letters say ? 

The Interpreter. He doesn't know. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, when did he first experience any contacts 
with Soviet representatives ? 

The Interpreter. The first time he was contacted by Soviet agents 
was on Wednesday, 2 weeks ago. 



890 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Was that April 5 ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Today is the 20th. 

(Mr. Van Hoogstraten handed the witness a diary.) 

The Interpreter. Yes. And this was the day the witness first went 
to the Embassy. 

Mr. Morris. The Embassy or the residence of the delegation ? 

The Interpreter. This was the building on Park Avenue, the resi- 
dence. 

Mr. Morris. That was the residence of the chief of the Russian 
delegation to the United Nations? 

The Interpreter. Yes. This is where Sobolev lives. 

Mr. Morris. Sobolev. And Sobolev is what, the chief delegate? 

The Interpreter. He is not sure of his exact title. 

On this day, when Shishin first went to that building, the witness 
was contacted by Soviet agents who had apparently gotten his address 
from Shishin. 

Senator Welker. The first day that Shishin attended the residence 
of the U. N. delegate, Sobolev, for some reason the address of the wit- 
ness was given to this Soviet agent ; is that correct ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. Morris. In what State were you living then ? 

Mr. SoLovYEV. Hotel George Washington, New York. 

The Interpreter. He lived at the Hotel Washington in New York 
City. 

Mr. Morris. And then what happened? Did someone call him or 
visit him there ? 

The Interpreter. He was sleeping. He was lying on his bed, and 
then somebody knocked at his door. He called — he asked the person 
to come in and then lav back on his bed. 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute. Mr. Van Hoogstraten. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. If you will allow me to say something, 
I think it is not quite clear why, if he was working, he was suddenly in 
a liotel in New York. I think it has not been made clear that he had 
just had an operation and he was recovering from his operation, and 
since he had to go to the doctor repeatedly, he was taken care of in a 
liotel which was close to our office. That is the reason he was in a 
hotel. 

Senator Welker. Thank you very much, Mr. Van Hoogstraten. 

The Interpreter. Two persons came in and asked the witness 
whether he knew who they were. He said that he presumed they 
were from the FBI. They said, "no," they were Communists, and 
showed him a little booklet in which they had identification, Soviet 
identification. 

Mr. Morris. They had Soviet identifications? 

Tlie Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. This was the George Washington Hotel in New York 
City? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What did they say to you and what did you say to 
them ? 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. What time of the night was 
this? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 891 

The Interpreter. It was around 1 : 30 p. m. 

Mr. Morris. That is in the afternoon? 

The Interpreter, In the afternoon. 

Mr. SoLovTEV. Yes. 

Senator Welker. In the afternoon ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Now, go right ahead. After you were asked 
whetlier you knew who they were, you responded that you assumed 
they were members of the FBI. They identified themselves as being 
Communists by documents in their possession. 

Now, tell what next happened. 

The Interpreter. They first gave him two letters and a photograph. 

He took the letters and put them away on the bed and they asked 
the witness why he didn't read the letters immediately. 

He said he could read the letters later, and if they came to talk to 
him, he could talk to them now and read them later. 

Mr. Morris. Did you call them by name? Did you address them 
by name ? 

Mr. Solovtev. Oh, no. 

Mr. Morris. You do not know what their names were ? 

Mr. SoLOVYEv. No. 

Mr. Morris. And you do not know precisely what their identifica- 
tion cards were other than the fact that they were Soviets; is that 
right? 

The Interpreter. He just saw that there was a picture and some- 
thing was written, but he didn't read what it was on the identifica- 
tion. 

He believed them. 

Senator Welker. Then what next was said by them and what 
did you say to them? 

The Interpreter. They asked the witness whether he knew that 
Shishin had already gone to the building on Park Avenue. He said 
that he knew. 

They asked him about his opinion of this, and he said that there 
was nothing interesting in it. 

They said that, if he didn't believe them, he could go with them 
to the Park Avenue Building and talk to Sobolev, who was there at 
the same time, and if he didn't like it there he could return. 

Senator Welker. And what did you reply to that? 

The Interpreter. He said that they must know who he is, a political 
criminal, a so-called enemy of the people. He said that he was 
young; he was just 20 years old. If I were 40 years old, he said, I 
would return to Russia and sit another 20 years in prison, but I am 
young and I like it here and I would like to stay. 

He said that he did not betray his mother; he liked his mother, 
but if he returned, it wouldn't do him any good, because he wouldn't 
see her, anyway. He said that he was not a betrayer of his people 
because he loved his people maybe even more than the American 
people, but that he didn't want to return. 

Senator Welker. Now, what were the pictures handed to the wit- 
ness by these two agents of the Communists ? 



892 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Interpreter. They gave him two pictures of his mother and 
then pictures of some girls he had known in Russia and a picture 
of his aunt. 

Senator Welker. And a picture of his aunt ? 

The Interpreter. Of his aunt, yes. 

Senator Welker. And to summarize this portion of the testimony, 
this young man was in his room, and these 2 agents of the Communists 
came in, handed him 2 letters, and pictures of his own mother, 2 
pictures of his mother, 1 of some girl friends or several girl friends 
and 1 of an aunt, who were in Russia at this time ? 

The Interpreter. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. And you understood, did you not, why they 
handed you the pictures? 

The Interpreter. It was clear to him from the beginning what the 
aims were. He read the letter written by his mother. He said that 
his mother only studied 1 year in school, and the letters he had 
previously received from her were written just as a mother would 
write to her son in simple language. This letter he received in New 
York had political expressions in it. There was something said about 
repression in the family, words that he doesn't think his mother 
would use. 

Mr. Morris. Repressions? 

The Interpreter. Repressions, which is actually 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Reprisal. 

The Interpreter. "Reprisal" would be the exact word. 

Mr. Morris. Check with him again on the precise word. 

The Interpreter. In Russian it is "repressia'' which is "reprisal." 

Senator Welker. I understand that. Very well. And he noted 
from that 

The Interpreter. The address on the letter which said, "Tuapse," 
and "viktor," was not written by his mother, but the letter inside was in 
her handwriting, was written by her. 

Mr. Morris. You say the letter itself was in her handwriting, but 
the envelope with the address was not ? 

The Interpreter. The handwriting was hers. 

But the context of the letter was such that he doesn't believe his 
mother wrote it. 

Mr. Morris. Does he still have the letter ? 

The Interpreter. He burned the letter, but the photographs he has. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Can he make those available to the committee ? 

The Interpreter. Under the condition that the photograph would 
be returned to him. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. And we will look at them in executive session. 

The Interpreter. Good. 

(The following was inserted by the interpreter at the end of the 
session:) 

The witness said that his mother didn't know where he was, and addressed his 
letters simply "Tuapse" and then his name. 

Senator Welker. After this first visit by the two agents, what then 
next happened ? 

The Interpreter. He says he didn't want to do anything with them, 
and then left the house and went to eat and from there went to the 
International Student House where the other sailors lived. He 
found — now — excuse me. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY DST THE UNITED STATES 893 

Senator Wei.ker. Go right ahead. 

The Interpreter. He found Loiikashkov there. 

Senator Welker. He found Lonkashkov ? 

The Interpreter. And Lonkashkov told the witness that he had had 
the same experience as the witness had. 

Mr. Morris. You mean that somebody had called on Loukashkov? 

Mr. SoLOVYEv. (Nods head affirmatively.) 

Mr. Morris. What did Loukashkov say to you and what did you say 
to him at that time ? 

The Interpreter. The witness told Loukashkov that he didn't want 
to go home, and Loukashkov said he was no small child and he knew 
what it would mean to return, and Loukashkov said he wanted to stay 
in the United States. 

Senator Welker. Loukashkov said, "I am not a small child and 

1 know what it would do to me if I went back" ? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; that is what he said. 
Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did Loukashkov say that Soviet representatives 
had visited him at the International House? 
Mr. SoLOVTEv. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what he said about that? 
The Interpreter. He also got two letters. He also got 1 letter or 

2 letters and photographs from home. 

Shirin, another one of the sailors 

Mr. Morris. Shirin ? 

The Interpreter. Shirin was away at work. And Loukashkov and 
the witness went out to eat and to a movie, and then when they re- 
turned, Shirin also returned and told them that he had been con- 
tacted by two people at his work. 

They also tried to convince him to go back to Russia, and 

Mr. Morris. Convince Shirin? 

The Interpreter. Shirin. 

Mr. Morris. Now, before we get on to Shirin, may I, Senator, get 
back to Loukashkov ? 

Did Loukashkov tell you that ho had been visited by Soviet agents? 

Mr. Solovyev. Yes, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did he tell you what they had said to him ? 

The Interpreter. They asked him to follow the example of Shishin 
and return home. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did they show him photographs ? 

Mr. Solovyev. Yes. 

The Interpreter. He doesn't know whose photographs, but they 
showed photographs to him. 

The witness remembers that one of the pictures shown to Loukashkov 
was of his mother and a small boy, his brother. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, does he have any reason to beli eve- 
can he give us an estimate as to what hour of the day the Soviet officials 
visited Loukashkov ? 

The Interpreter. Around 1 o'clock. 

Mr. Morris. Was it the same time that they were visiting him ? 

The Interpreter. At the same time. 

Mr. Morris. You did not make a phone conversation to him at the 
time that the Soviet representatives were visiting you, did you ? 



894 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Interpreter. At the time when the Soviet agent visited the 
witness, he did call Loiikashkov and told him a sentence which is a 
slang expression in the Navy, which in translation means, "We are 
in good spirit but we are going down." 

Mr. Morris. In other words, let me see if I understand this now. 
Wliile these two representatives were visiting this gentleman here 
in his room at the George Washington Hotel, you phoned Loukashkov ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And then you used some kind of code expression to im- 
part a message ? 

Senator Jenner. A slang expression. 

The Interpreter. He said he just invented the expression. 

Senator Welker. An expression known commonly to Russian sail- 
ors and other sailors ? 

The Interpreter. Now the witness says "No" to those questions. 
It is just something he thought out to tell Loukashkov. 

Senator Welker. I see. And you used the expression, "We are in 
good spirits but we are going down" ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

The Interpreter. And Loukashkov answered him, "I can under- 
stand you. The same thing is happening to me." 

Senator Welker. Loukashkov then answered the witness? He 
said, "I can understand you because the same thing is happening to 
me"? 

The Interpreter. The witness said that he understood from what 
Loukashkov said that the same agents were visiting with Loukashkov 
at the same time. 

Mr. Morris. Not the same agents, but agents of the same organiza- 
tion? 

The Interpreter. Agents of the same organization. 

Mr. Morris. And did you confirm this afterwards when you had a 
conversation with Loukashkov? 

The Interpreter. Yes, he did confirm it. 

Mr. Morris. Now, meanwhile, did Mr. Shirin receive a visit from 
Soviet representatives ? 

Mr. SoLovYEV. Yes. 

The Interpreter. The agent visited Shirin later at night at his 
work around 10 o'clock in the evening. They gave him also photo- 
graphs and 2 notes from the other 2 sailors who later returned, Rya- 
benko and Vaganov. 

In these notes, Ryabenko and Vaganov 

Mr. Solovtev. No, no ; Shishin. 

The Interpreter. The notes were from Shishin and Ryabenko, and 
they asked the remaining to follow their example and told them that 
they were living at the Park Avenue Building and were in good spirits 
and good health and wanted to return. 

Mr. Morris. And then what happened ? 

The Interpreter. Three of them, Loukashkov, Shishin, and the 
witness spent hours, spent the night, at the International Student 
House talking, and they dispersed at 5 o'clock in the morning, and the 
witness went home to sleep. Before they left, they decided not to 
return. 

Mi\ Morris. The three of them decided not to return ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 895 

The Interpreter. All three of them. 

In the morning, the witness was awakened by a telephone call. 
Wlien he lifted the receiver, he heard somebody speaking English to 
him. He said then whoever was speaking to him switched to Russian, 
and the witness found out that these were the two agents who had 
visited him before. 

Mr. Morris. They phoned him, now, on the morning of the 7th ; is 
that right ? A day later, Saturday, the 7th ? 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. No ; the 6th. 

Mr. Morris. The 6th. I am sorry. The 6th. 

The Interpreter. Yes. And the agents asked him on the phone 
what he thought about returning, and he said, "No go." 

The witness called then his two friends, Shishin and Loukaslikov, 
at the International House and was told to wait by them 

Mr. Morris. Was told to wait by whom ? 

The Interpreter. The switchboard operator told him to wait. And 
after he waited for some time, he was told that they were no longer 
in the International House. 

The witness thinks that at that time he told somebody where 
were Loukaslikov and Shishin, because when the witness was told 
that they were no longer there, it made him suspect that somebody was 
with them at the time. 

The witness says he made a slight mistake and is sorry. He is go- 
ing to correct something. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

The Interpreter. When the Soviet agents telephoned him in the 
morning, he told them, okay, he would go and see them at the Park 
Avenue Building at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Excuse me. That was Friday. That was 
Friday, the 6th. 

Senator Welker. I think we are right on the date. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Yes. 

Senator Welker. We have got that right. Friday the 6th. 

The Interpreter. They offered to come by car and fetch him, but 
the witness said that he would rather come alone because he knew the 
address and would come by himself. 

Mr. Morris. Now, up to this time, had Mr. Sobolev's name been 
mentioned by anyone ? 

The Interpreter. No. 

After calling his friends at International House, the witness w^ent 
to [one word stricken] where he lived, and then he talked to a family 
he knew there, and told them all about the situation. His friends told 
him that he should do what he thinks he should, but that he must know 
that nothing good would come out of his returning to Russia. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. Mr. Chairman, may I request on behalf of 
my organization that that last statement he made be taken out of the 
public record, if that is possible, because he stated where he is at the 
moment living, and I do not think that that is helpful to anybody. 

Mr. Morris. He did not give us the address, and even if it is taken 
out of the public record, there are reporters here, Mr. Van Hoogstraten, 
and I think that 



896 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. Just tell him that you do not want any addresses 
or names given. 

Mr. MoRi;is. All we can do is ask the people who are present, if they 
deem it to the interest of this man, not to use the name, also. 

Senator Jenner. And also instruct the interpreter that we do not 
want any names or addresses given of his friends. 

The Interpreter. He will not mention his address. 

Senator Welker. For the purpose of the record, I think I will order 
the address stricken from the public record as given by the witness. I 
want it stricken. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. He had not finished that. 

The Interpreter. No. After spending 1 hour at home, the witness 
went to New York to the Church World Service and arrived there 
around 3 o'clock. 

In the office of the Church World Service, the witness talked to Mr. 
Rankin and told him that he could no longer live in [one word stricken] 
or in the hotel because he felt unsafe and asked Mr. Rankin to do some- 
thing about it. After that, the witness 

Mr. Morris. I mean, that relates to his own personal security. And 
I do not think we need that in the record at this time. 

Mr. Solovyev. Good. 

Mr. Morris. And in connection with security, is it not a fact that 
Mr. Shishin, to your knowledge 

Mr. Solovyev. Shishin. 

Mr. Morris. The day that Shishin went to the Soviet residence on 
Park Avenue, from that day on, the Soviet officials knew everything 
about where you lived and where you stayed ? 

The Interpreter. The agents who visited the witness told him that 
Shishin had given them the address of the hotel, but the witness does 
not know whether the Soviet agents learned his address in the city 
where he lives. 

Nobody visited him in the city where he lives. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, then, what happened? 

The Interpreter. He said nothing happened further. He stayed 
here, and that is all. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did he hear that Mr. Loukashkov and Mr. 
Shirin had gone back to the Soviet Union ? 

The Interpreter. He learned it from Mr. Rankin. 

He does not remember who told him. He thought it was Mr. 
Rankin, but he is not quite sure about it. 

Mr. Morris. Were you surprised ? 

The Interpreter. He was very much surprised in respect to Lou- 
kashkov and Shirin. He didnt' know too well about the others, but 
these two he had talked to, and they had said that they wouldn't want 
to return and then when they returned, it was a great surprise to the 
witness. 

Senator Welker. And then it is your opinion that Loukashkov and 
Shirin were taken from this country not on a voluntary basis? In 
other words, tliey were forced to leave this country where they came 
seeking freedom ? 

The Interpreter. He does not know. Maybe the Soviets convinced 
them to go or forced them to go, but he wouldn't say that. In talking 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 897 

to those two, Shirin and Loukashkov, he heard that they didn't want 
to go back. 

Mr. ^loHRis. And you spoke to them as late as 5 a. m. on the morn- 
ing of April the Gth '( 

The Interpreter. This was the last time he talked to them. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have there been any other contacts, any efforts 
to contact you on the part of Soviet representatives in the United 
States othei- tlian those you have described here today? 

The iNiTiRPRETER. No ; there were no others. 

The witness thinks that this can be explained by the fact that in the 
city where he lived, he lived among other Russian emigres who hated 
the C'onnnunists, and if the Soviet agents tried to contact him there, 
they would be thrown out of the house. 

Mr. iSIoRRis. To his knowledge, were any of the other sailors 
visited by Soviet representatives other than the visits that he de- 
scribed here today ( 

The Interpreter. The witness does not remember the date whenit 
happened, but Ryabenko and Shishin had been contacted by Soviet 
agents in the subway twice, and the agents tried to convince them to 
go home. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say you learned that from conversations with 
them ? 

The Interpreter. Shishin and Ryabenko told him. 

Mr. Morris. Are you experiencing any fear now? 

The Interpreter. Yes and no, said the witness, but he thinks that 
Soviet agents wouldn't dare to come to him now. 

Mr. Morris. You mean now that the thing is a matter of public 
record ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, he thinks that now nobody would contact 
him. 

Mr. Morris. Does he feel that he is getting enough protection, or 
can the subcommittee assist him in getting additional protection ? 

The Interpreter. He thinks it is enough, that he feels secure 
enough. 

But the only thing he lacks, he would like to have a gun. 

Mr. Van Hoogstraten. He won't get it from us. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us this : Do you have any intention whatever of 
going back to the Soviet Union now ? 

The Interpreter. At the time when the other sailors were at Park 
Avenue and were contacted by Soviet agents, the witness hesitated 
and was not sure whether he should or should not. But now, after 
he sees that nothing could happen to him again, he is determined to 
stay. 

Senator Welker. That is a very gracious statement. The acting 
chairman wants to thank you and commend you for that. 

Do you have any idea what would happen to you if you would go 
to Russia now ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, he does. 

He says that staying here he can ride in a car on four wheels, but 
if he goes back, he would have to go about with a wheelbarrow. 

Senator Welker. Probably in Siberia ? 

The Interpreter. Well, not in Russia, but somewhere. 



898 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. He would use a wheelbarrow from the manual 
end of it? 

The iNTEitPRETER. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And it might be conceivable that even more severe 
punishment might be meted out to you ; isn't that correct ? 

The Interpreter. They would at first play around with him, using 
him for propaganda purposes, but after that, they could make him 
disappear. 

Senator Welker. Tliey could make him disappear? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Senator Jenner ? 

Senator Jenner. I have no questions. 

Senator Welker. Judge Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. No more questions. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Witness, on behalf of the Internal Security 
Subcommittee of the United States Senate, we all want to thank you 
very profoundly for coming here. We realize that it is a hard, dif- 
ficult task for you testify on a matter TMhich is so intimate and close, 
as one who sought freedom, througli tiie bravery that you brought 
forth by coming here to a free land, and we realize that it is difficult 
for us to call on you for some explanation as to what happened with 
respect to your comrades. 

We expect to go into this matter as fully and deeply as we can, and 
I want to assure you on behalf of the Internal Security Subcommittee 
of the United States Senate that if through any effort of ours we can 
be of help or protection to you, you simply have to call us or have 
our friend, Mr. Van Hoogstraten, call us, and we will give you any- 
thing we have in the way of protection and help, and we hope and 
pray, and we know by this great act of courage on your part, other 
loyal, freedom-loving peoples who are behind the Iron Curtain will 
have no need to fear the bastion of freedom here in the United States 
of America. 

The Interpreter. The witness thanks you very much. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Any further questions ? 

Mr. Morris. No further questions. 

Senator Welker. The committee is adjourned. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. Miss Von Meyer. 

(Whereupon, at 12:40 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 

Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

American citizens in Red China 866, 870, 873 

American Government 868, 871, 872, 883 

American people 867, 868, 871, 884 

Apostolic Nuncio to China 861 

Arabic language 868 

Asian and Pacific Peace Conference, Peking, October 1952 867, 869, 870 

B 
Belgian 865 

Burmese Government 872 

O 

Canton, China 863 

Catholic Church 860 

Catholic University of Peking 859 

Catholics 860 

China, Communist 862, 863, 864, 866, 871, 872, 873, 874, 886 

China Weekly Review 866, 867 

Chinese Communist armies 860, 862 

Chinese Government forces 860 

Chinese language 865, 868 

Chinese people 864, 867, 871 

Chou En-lai 872 

Church World Service, the National Council of Churches 875, 

876, 883, 888, 896 

Columbia University 877 

Communists 867, 871, 888, 890, 891, 897 

Communists, American 867 

Communists, Chinese 861, 868, 873, 874 

Communists, Korean 867 

Communist Party 865 

Communist underground 860 

Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith 860 

E 

Elliott, Roland, Director of Immigration Services 883 

English language 865, 867, 868, 871, 872, 885 

Enoch, Lt. K. L 869 

Escapee program. United States 876, 880 

Exhibit No. 234-A. Willcox's speech at Peace Conference, from The 

Shanghai News, October 12, 1952 869-870 

F 

FBI 890 

Formosa 876 

French language 865 

Fu Jen University (Catholic University of Peking) 859 

Taken over by Communist government October 12, 1950 862 

G 

George Washington Hotel, New York 890, 894 

German 865 

Glazier, Mr., representative of escapee program 880 



3 9999 05445 4150 



INDEX 



Page 

Hankow, China 863 

Hattem, Dr 871 

Hinton, Joan 867 

Hinton, William 866, 867, 874 

Hong Kong, China 863 

I 

Idlewild Airport 879, 883 

Indian Government 872 

Internal Security Subcommittee 883, 898 

International Rescue Committee 883 

International Student House, New York 892, 893, 894, 895 

Italian 864 

J 

Japanese language 868 

Jenner, Senator 875 

K 

Kai-shek, Chiang 869, 876 

Kniss, Lt. P. R 869 

Korea, Communist 872 

Korean language 868 

Korean negotiations 872 

Korean war 871 

Krupp, Alfred 869 



Letter to Senator Eastland from Roland Elliott, dated April 19, 1956 883-884 

Letters given Shirin by Soviet agent 894 

Letters given Shishin and Ryabenko by Soviet agents, December 1955 889 

Letters given Solovyev by Soviet agents, April 5, 1956 891, 892 

Lin Piao 860 

List of documents taken from William Hinton's footlocker marked "Nos. 

32 to 91" 866 

Lo Wu Bridge 863 

Loukashkov 877, 893, 894, 895, 896, 897 

Settled in New York 889 

M 

McManus, Robert 859 

Mandel, Benjamin 875 

Missionaries, German Catholic 871 

Mongolian typhus 864 

Morris, Robert 859, 875 

Moscow 871 

N 

Nationalist police 861 

Nehru 872 

New York University 881 

Non-Catholics 860 

O 
O'Neal, Lt. F. B 869 



Park Avenue Building, New York — U. S. S. R. Mission to the United 

Nations 879, 885, 889, 890, 891, 894, 896, 897 

Patrol boats, National Chinese 887 

Peiping, China 859, 860 

Peking, China 861, 862, 863, 867, 868, 872, 873, 874 

Captured by Communists on February 1, 1949 860 

People's China, article by William Hinton 867 

Pope Pius XII, His Holiness 862 

Powell, editor of China Weekly Review 866 

Pro-Communist , 872 



INDEX m 

Q 



Quinn, Lt. J. 



869 



Rankin, Mr 896 

Representatives, Soviet (seamen) 880, 

881, 882, 888, 889, 890, 892, 893, 894, 895, 896, 897 

Representatives, United States (seamen) 881 

Rigney, Fatlier Harold William (testimony of) 859-874 

St. Mary's Mission House, Techny, 111 859 

Member of Society of the Divine Word 859 

Born in Chicago, December 18, 1900 859 

Trained at St. Mary's INIission House 859 

Ordained April 19, 1930 859 

Arrived in Shanghai, China, June 1, 1946 859 

On Staff of the Fu Jen University (Catholic University of Peking)— 859 

Appointed rector of Fu Jen University August 4, 1946 860 

Arrested as American spy on July 25, 1951 863 

Released from prison on September 11, 1955 863 

Returned to United States March 15, 1956 874 

Rumania 865 

Rusher, Wm. A 875 

Russia _ 865, 889, 891, 893, 895, 897 

Ryabenko 889, 894, 897 

S 
Saltzman, Mr - 883 

Scandinavian Airlines 879, 882 

Seamen, Soviet 875 

Nine brought to United States from Formosa by World Council of 

Churches, Church World Service on October 21, 1955 876, 883 

Three went over to care of a Government agency 877 

Five went back to Soviet Union from United States, April 7, 1956 877, 

878, 879, 883 

One remaining in United States 877 

Twenty-nine returned to Soviet Union from Formosa 887 

Forty-nine initially 887 

Shanghai, China 866 

Shirin 877, 878, 879, 893, 894, 896, 897 

Settled in New York 889 

Shishin 877, 879, 889, 890, 891, 893, 894, 895, 896, 897 

Settled in New York 889 

Siberia 878, 897 

Sobolev, Mr., Soviet U. N. representative 884, 890, 891, 895 

Society of the Divine Word 859, 860 

Solovyev, Viktor (testimony of) 885-898 

Born in Kalinin 886 

Defected from Soviet Union approximately November 1954 on For- 
mosa 886 

Twenty years old 886 

Came to United States, October 21, 1955 888 

Contacted by Soviet agents, April 5, 1956 890 

Lived at Hotel Washington, New York 890 

Contacted on phone by Soviet agents, April 6, 1956 895 

Soviet Union 877, 883 

St. Mary's Mission House 859 

Stalin 877 

State Department 876 

T 
Tientsin, China 873 

T'sao Lan Tzu, Hu Tung No. 13 (prison) 865 

Tuapse, Soviet Russian oil boat 876, 886, 892 



IV INDEX 

U 

United Nations, Soviet delegation 881, 884 

United States 862, 864, 866, 867, 872, 875, 883, 887, 888, 893 



Van Hoogstraten, Jan S. F. (testimony of) 875-885 

Assistant Director for Immigration Services, Church World Service 875 

Resides in township of Bronxville 875 

Vaganov 894 

Von Meyer, Natalie, Washington, D. C, interpreter for Viktor Solovyev 855 

W 

Washington government 867, 868 

Watkins, Senator 859 

Welker, Senator 875 

Western Powers 871 

Wheaton, Louis 867, 868 

Willcox, Anita 868, 869 

Y 

Yugoslavian 864 



o