(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

rG^ 



^ 



cN< 



oguMj^i 



^ 




Given By 

. ')F DOCUMENTS 



3^ 



■-^^.^1 1 \yf\ I 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OP THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OB^ SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



APRIL 27 AND MAY 17, 1956 



PART 21 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




PUBLIC 



UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



33-> 



r-^ 






Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

WiLMAM A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Witness: Page 

Andrivve, E 1124 

Black; Thomas L 1113 

Greenglass, David 1089 

in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, APRIL 27, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 

Tlie subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10 :50 a. m., in room 
424, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker presiding. 

. Present : Senators Welker and Jenner. 

Also present: Eobert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, re- 
search director ; and William A. Rusher, administrative counsel. 

Senator Welker. The meeting will come to order, please. 

The witness will be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before the sub- 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I do, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF DAVID GREENGLASS, ACCOMPANIED BY 0. JOHN 

EOGGE, HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. Your name is David Greenglass ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Greenglass. In New York. 

Senator Welker. Where are you presently domiciled ? 

Mr. Greenglass. The Federal Penitentiary in Lewisburg, Pa. 

Senator Welker. How long have you been there ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I have been there at the penitentiary for the past 
5 years. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed, counsel. 
^ Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this witness has been called in connec- 
tion with the series of hearings being carried on by the Internal Se- 
curity Subcommittee into the scope and nature of Soviet activity in 
the United States. 

During the course of yesterday's testimony, we received evidence 
that three Soviet intelligence operators connected with Amtorg, 2 
assigned to the United States, to the Soviet consulate in New York, 
and 1 to the Soviet delegation at the United Nations, directed an intri- 
cate series of acts of espionage against the United States. 

This witness today was mentioned in the course of the testimony yes- 
terday, and he is being called here in the same context. 

1089 



1090 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Where were you born, Mr. Greenglass ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I was born in New York City. 

Mr. Morris. In what year ? 

Mr. Greenglass. 1922. 

Mr. Morris. Can yon tell us of your education ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I went to Haaren Aviation High School. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please ? 

Mr. Greenglass. H-a-a-r-e-n; Haaren. 

Mr. Morris. Aviation High School ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. 

Mr, Morris. Where is that ? 

Mr. Greenglass. At 59th and Tenth Avenue in Manhattan. 

Mr. Morris. And then after that ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I went to Brooklyn Polytechnic. 

Mr. Morris. Did you graduate from Brooklyn Polytechnical School ? 

Mr. Greenglass. No ; I dropped out to go to work. 

Mr. Morris. Did you return to college thereafter ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I returned to college afterward ; after my Army 
career was over. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Do you have a college degree ? 

Mr. Greenglass. No ; I haven't. 

Mr. Morris. You do not. Did you ever belong to the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Greenglass. No; I never was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever belong to the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us when you joined the Young Communist 
League ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I was 16 years of age when I joined the Young 
Communist League. 

Mr, Morris. And how long did you remain a member of the Young 
Communist League ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Oh, a very short period of time, until about a year 
or a year and a half later. 

Mr. Morris. Did you resign from the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Greenglass. No; I just dropped out. I stopped going to the 
meetings and just generally didn't do any of the things that were 
assigned for me to do. 

Mr. Morris. Now, why did you drop out of the Young Communist 
League ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, it bored me. It held no interest for my type 
of personality. I couldn't subject myself to the discipline that was 
needed. I would rather lie in bed on Sunday morning than be up 
at 6 o'clock shoving Daily Workers under people's doors. And so I 
tapered off and stopped going. 

Mr. Morris. So by the time you were 18 years of age, you were no 
longer formally a member of the Young Communist League ? 

Mr. Greenglass. That is true. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, at any subsequent time, join the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Greenglass. No, sir ; I never did. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was the date of your abandoning the Young 
Communist League activities ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1091 

Mr. Greenolass. Oh, about 1939 or 1940. It was 1940, 1 guess. 

Mr. Morris. 1939 or 1940. Now, what was your outlook, your 
ideok^gical outlook, with respect to things relating to the Communist 
Party and the Soviet Union at this particular time ? 

Now, Mr. Chaii-man, we try wot to ask in the coui'se of the testimony 
anyone's ideological outlook with respect to the Communist conspir- 
acy. This morning we have a witness who has a])peared in executive 
session and who has come forward and cooperated fully with the sub- 
committee, and I think the subcommittee should take testimony about 
the circumstances and the mental viewpoint leading up to his doing 
work foi" Soviet espionage. 

Senator Welker. Very well. It will be so ordered. Proceed, Mr. 
Witness. 

Mr. (treexglass. Well, what it was: Philosophically, I was a Com- 
munist. Everything they stood for, I identilied myself with. But my 
idea of what connnunism was, wasn't the actuality of communism. 
It was my idea of what the actuality of communism was. It was an 
idealized version of communism. 

Xow, being unwilling to subject myself to the discipline of the 
Young Communist League, I was not unwilling to believe in the prin- 
ciples behind it. 

Now, all through this period, if anybody asked me, was I a Com- 
numist Party member, I would say, no, but I definitely believed in 
what they believed in. 

Mr. Morris. If, for instance, you had been subpenaed to appear 
before a congressional connnittee and you had been asked the question, 
"Are you now a Communist,'" what would your answer have been ? 

Mr. Greengi.ass. I probably would have pleaded the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. You would have? 

Mr. (iREEXGLASs. Probably, at that time, for the simple reason that 
I wanted to show my solidarity with what the Communists would do 
at this particular time. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Proceed, Mr. Greenglass. 

Senator Jenner, Mr. Chairman, that is very enlightening for the 
benefit of this committee, in that we have witnesses here, that take the 
fifth amendment, who may not, in fact, actually be Communists or 
may not be guilty of any conspiracy or related to any acts that 
criminally indict them. 

Mr. Morris. It would indicate that. Senator. 

Proceed, Mr. Greenglass. 

Mr. (treenglass. Although in fact I would not have been a Com- 
munist at the time, as you see, it was a strange situation. 

Senator Jenner, But you would have used tlie fifth amendment? 

Mr. Greenglass. That is right. My mentor, Julius Rosenberg— — 

Senator Welker. Your what ? 

Mr. Greenglass. My mentor, Julius Rosenberg, never considered 
anybody a Communist unless he \vas a member of the Communist 
Party and subjected himself to the disci]:)line of the Communist 
Party. He didn't even consider a Young Communist League member 
as a Communist Party member, you see. He was very S]:>ecific about 
that. He was derisive of people who called themselves sympathizers. 



1092 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. How was Julius Rosenberg related to you? 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. 

Mr. Morris Excuse me. 

Senator Welker. Wliy do you use the words, "my mentor" ? 

Mr. Greenglass. At the time, that is exactly what he was. He was 
the one who taught me about what communism was. It was his own 
version. Probably he lied to me, or maybe he even believed what he 
told me. I don't know. But in that way, he was my mentor. 

Senator Welker. Was he a relative of yours ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes; he is my brother-in-law. He was my 
brother-in-law. 

Senator Welker. Very well ; proceed. 

Mr. Morris. All right ; now, will you tell us how long you remained 
in that state of mind that you have just described to the committee, 
Mr. Greenglass? 

Mr. Greenglass. I stayed in that state of mind until fairly long — I 
should say, it is really a short period of time — fairly — well, about 6 
to 9 months after I started to give information, which was in 1945. 
It is only with the advent of my becoming an espionage agent that a 
certain truth started to penetrate that did not penetrate before. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you remained in the conviction of 
mind that you have described for us until about 6 to 8 months after 
you began transmitting secrets to the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Greenglass. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, before we get to that point, Mr. Greenglass, may 
I ask you a few questions about your career? Meanwhile, you were 
inducted into the Army, were you not? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did that take place ? 

Mr. Greenglass. In 1943, in April. 

Mr. Morris. And what was your first assignment in the Army ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, of course, there was the basic training, 
which in my particular case was 4 weeks, because of my technical 
skills, and I was transferred to the Ordnance Department at the Aber- 
deen Proving Ground, where we did various types of research work 
and testing of German captured equipment. 

Mr. Morris. And then from there where were you assigned ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I was sent out to the west coast where I worked 
for a General Motors plant in South Gate, Calif., where they made 
tanks. I worked in the tool and machine shop. Then after that, I 
was at various Ordnance bases, and assigned to an overseas outfit. 
This outfit never — I mean, it was scheduled for overseas, and these 
other men did go, but I was taken out and sent to Oak Ridge, which 
was part of the Manhattan project. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know what Oak Ridge was when you 
first went there ? 

Mr. Greenglass. No; I hadn't the slightest idea of where I was 
going or for what purpose I was being sent there. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did you first learn what was going on at Oak 
Ridge? 

Mr. Greenglass. As a matter of fact, I never did learn what was 
going on at Oak Ridge. I was shipped from Oak Ridge to another 
part of the project, Los Alamos. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1093 

Mr. Morris. Los Alamos. 

Mr. Greenglass. At Oak Ridgo I was just given security checks 
and some tests. I don't remember whether I was ever asked whether 
I was a member of any subversive group, but if I were asl^ed, I could 
assure you, I probably would have said no. 

Mr. Morris. Can you place the time when you were transferred from 
Oak Ridge to Los Alamos? 

jSfr. Greenglass. It was Julv 1944, or August; or early August. 

Mr, Morris. At that time, did you know what was going on at Los 
Alamos ? 

Mr. (iREENGLAss. No ; I didn't know that, either. I 

Mr. Morris. ^Vlien did you first learn — excuse me, Senator. 

Senator Welker. Did you finish your answer ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I was about to go a little further. 

Mr. Morris. Go right ahead. 

Senator Welker. Go ahead ; finish your answer. 

Mr. Greenglass. I did loiow what I had to do in my immediate 
surroundings, which was an instrument shop doing experimental set- 
up work. That means we made the components of various experi- 
mental apparatus that was to be used in research leading to the develop- 
ment of the atom bomb. 

Wliat I was doing specifically I knew, but what it was in a larger 
sense, I did not laiow at the time, no. 

Seantor Welker. Very well ; proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us when you first learned of the existence 
of the atom bomb ? 

Mr. Greenglass. In November 1944, my wife came to see me on 
our second wedding anniversary. For a while it was just an ordinary 
second honeymoon. But the third day, she told me a strange story. 
It seems that Julius and Ethel Rosenberg had invited her to the apart- 
ment where they lived, and when she came in, Julius, after the usual 
social amenities, took her aside and asked her whether she knew what 
I was doing. 

Of course, it was a secret project, and I did have a cover. My cover 
was the fact that I was supposed to be a machine handler in a ware- 
house. Similarly, other men with various types of skills were given 
similar coverings. 

Mr. Morris. NoWj may I break in at this time ? At this time, you 
were still a Communist Party sympathizer ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I still was. 

Mr. Morris. And you had no more formal connection either with 
the Communist Party or the Soviet organization than that? 

Mr. Greenglass. None whatsoever. 

Mr. Morris. Proceed, Mr. Greenglass. 

Mr. Greenglass. In this particular meeting, when she said, "No, 
I don't know what he is doing, except that this is what he has told me," 
Julius said, "Well, he is working on an atom bomb." 

Well, of course, to my wife it doesn't mean very much. It didn't 
at the time, I should say. But he said to Ruth, he said, "Wliat we 
want him to do is to give us information on this bomb to be transmitted 
to the Russians." And she felt very badly about it immediately and 
said, "No," that she didn't feel that it was a proper thing to do, and 
that "You are not going to do it." 

Mr. Morris. She was not going to tell you about it ? 

72723—56 — pt. 21 2 



1094 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UlSriTED STATES 

Mr. Greenglass. She was not going to tell me about it. 

Senator Welker. Will you read that entire answer ? 

(The preceding answer of the witness was read by the reporter.) 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

Mr. Greenglass. "V\nien she said this, Julius and Ethel both dis- 
cussed it with her, bringing out that the Russians were allies, and that 
is no way to treat an ally ; and secondly, that I would want to do it, 
and it was her duty as my wife to transmit this information to me 
and let me make the decision. 

Well, it must have gone on for quite some time, but finally she 
agreed to go out and see me. And he said to her, "Listen. It is your 
anniversary, and since you want to go out there, I will put up the 
money for the trip." 

So since she did not have much money, of course, he knew he had 
to give her the money. The 

Senator Welker. Did he put up the money for the trip? 

Mr. Greenglass. I think my wife put up the money, and in dribbles 
and dabs he paid it back. It was mostly talk. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

Mr. Greenglass. Now, this is the story she told on the way, while 
we were walking down by the river, the Rio Grande, in Albuquerque 
at this time. At first wiien this happened, when she told me this, I 
felt as though the whole world had opened up and I was falling into 
a chasm because, while I instinctively said, "no," I was not going to 
give the information, in the back of my mind I knew I was going 
to give that information because — oh, yes, he did say one thing to 
her: "You just tell him that a man has to have the courage of his 
convictions." 

Now, it seems a strange reason to do a serious thing of this nature, 
because you w^ant to have the good will of some other man. But we 
do strange things, especially since it would be very difficult to explain 
our relationship without going into a lot of background of how I 
was the younger, he was the older, he was the graduate engineer, I 
was the young apprentice, the tyro. It was a strange relationship, and 
yet one where I genuinely liked this man. And I wanted to have his 
approbation. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I point out at this time in the 
testimony, we are coming pretty generally to the area where the 
witness here testified at the Rosenberg trial. Now, since all his testi- 
mony there is a part of the public record, I suggest that we just pass 
over that, with only suggestions by way of filling in the continuity, 
until we get back into the area where there will be new evidence 
coming before the committee. 

Senator Welker. It is so ordered. 

Senator Jenner ? 

Senator Jenner. What I am interested in is this. As you say, the 
testimony of the witness is a matter of public record. But I think 
what the committee is primarily interested in is, did you know from 
your own experience or from your mentor, Julius Rosenberg, about 
the existence of Soviet Intelligence in the Soviet delegation or the 
Soviet Embassy ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, later on, when we were in business together, 
when I had long since given up giving information, and was trying 



t 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1095 

in general to disentangle myself from the web, he Avonld use me as a 
sounding board, a door mat. 

Mr. Morris. You mean Rosenberg (f 

Mr. Greenglass. Rosenberg, yes. 

]Mr. ISIorris. Julius Rosenberg. 

Mr. Greenglass. Because I was close by, and in this type of business 
you don't confide what you want to say to people who are casual ac- 
quaintances, and even your best friends are not to be told. But because 
I had been in the a])paratus before, he would use me in that sense; he 
would talk about things that he should not have if he was strictly 
adhering to the way espionage agents should work. But he did say 
that not only are there agents in the Russian Embassies, in the satellite 
countries, the satellite country embassies, but also in the embassies of 
the western democracies. Russian agents. This is a direct quote. 

Senator Jenner. Did he make any reference about the colleges ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, in trying to get me back into the apparatus 
after I had quit Los Alamos, when I left the Army. I could have very 
well stayed on in a very nice job, but I wanted to come home for one 
reason : I wanted to disentangle myself. Julius constantly wanted me 
to go to schools where I had friends, scientists, people I knew, going 
to these schools. 

In the University of Chicago I knew two or three people, some in 
MIT. He wanted me to go to these schools, develop my contacts, get 
my degree, and then continue in the service of the Soviet Government. 

"V^Hien I said, "Well, how am I going to do all this?" well, he said, 
"Some of it j^ou will do on the GI bill of rights." But I realized that it 
was insufficient to raise a family on. I had a wife and a child at the 
time. "So the Russians will pay you to go to school." 

And I said, "This is very interesting." 

And he said, "Yes. I do it all the time. I have a number of people 
that I send to school and I pay." 

Mr. Morris. Did he say what schools, Mr. Greenglass? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well 

Mr. Morris. I do not mean by name, but he described the schools ? 

Mr. Greenglass. The type of school was of the Princeton, Univer- 
sity of Chicago, MIT, Harvard type of school. 

He wanted the better schools. He wanted them well known, and 
that had fine engineering and scientific departments. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you are not naming those schools by way of 
identifying the schools, but mentioning them by way of the types of 
school that he had in mind at the time that he had this conversation ? 

Mr. Greenglass. That is correct. 

Senator Jenner. Did he name to you any of the schools where the 
Russians were financing students ? 

(Mr. Greenglass shakes head neg:atively.) 

Senator Jenner. But he said he did it all the time ? 

Mr. Greenglass. He did it all the time. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Greenglass. He, as a matter of fact, if you will, he was a pay- 
master. He had wide contacts with a wide group of men. He was 
the type of man that was charming, hard, and a wonderful salesman. 
The proverbial statement about selling refrigerators to Eskimos, he 
could do that. He had many facets to his personality, and with it all, 
he was a fine technical man. 



1096 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

He also had a certain directness, a certain ruthlessness, that would 
let him leave everything by the wayside. One of the things he did 
say to me that turned me cold — this was late May 1950 — he was trying 
to get me to leave the country, and he had all kinds of schemes of 
ways of getting out, and 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Greenglass and Senators, may I get back to the 
continuity of the story ? I did not mean to break into it at that time. 

Senator Welker. Surely. 

Mr. Morris. But I did want to make the point that we should not 
go over the whole material covered in the trial. 

Now, roughly, during the period that you were at Los Alamos, you 
came east on your vacation, on your furlough, at one time, did you not ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes; twice, as a matter of fact, once in January 
and once in September. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I wonder if you would tell us of your first meet- 
ing with Julius Rosenberg when you discussed the atom bomb. I 
wonder if you would give us as many details of that as possible, 
because, Senator, I think this particular testimony does bear on the 
subject matter of our investigation. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

Mr. Greenglass. At the time, I was living at 266 Stanton Street. It 
was about 11 :30 in the evening. I don't remember the exact day of 
the week. A knock came on the door, and when I opened the door, I 
found Julius Rosenberg standing there. He came in, and he kept his 
finger to his lips. I didn't say a word. He leaned close to my ear 
and he said, "Go'next door and discover if there is a listening apparatus 
in the rooms next door." 

Well, I was very much taken aback. I didn't know what to say to 
him. But he gave me an order and, all right, I 

Mr. Morris. Wlio lived next door ? 

Mr. Greenglass. There was an old couple living next door who 
must have been in bed for hours. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat time was it, now ? 

Mr. Greenglass. It was probably about twenty to twelve. I went 
next door. I knocked on the door, and an old woman in a bathrobe 
came to the door and said, "Wliat can I do for you ?" 

And I had to invent a lie. 

Mr. Morris. Speak up just a bit, Mr. Greenglass. 

Mr. Greengi-Ass. I had to invent a lie. I said, "I locked myself out 
and I would like to get through your window on the fire escape to my 
own apartment." 

And she said, "Well, all right." 

Mr. Morris. She was surprised by it, was she ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, she was very surprised. She must have been 
even more surprised when I went through her bedroom to get to the 
fire escape. Of course, I just wanted to make sure that there was 
nobody there. 

Mr. Morris. How old was this woman? 

Mr. Greenglass. There was an old man lying in bed half asleep, 
her husband, and, of course, I went through the window and came 
into the apartment. And he said — Julius, that is, said — "Well?" 

I said, "No, there was nothing there." 

Then he felt it was all right to talk. The first thing he said to me 
is, "You know, Ruth told you, you are working on an atom bomb." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1097 

I said, "Yes. Now I know." 

"Well, do you know how it operates?" 

I said, "No, I haven't the slightest idea how it operates. Except 
for some theories, I wouldn't know how to begin to put one together." 

He says to me, "Well, then, I will tell you what to look for." 

Thereafter he described a type of bomb that was made in Los Alamos. 

]\Ir. Morris. In other words, without going into the details of it, 
Mr. Greenglass, he then did reveal to you and satisfied you that he 
had a knowledge of what was going on ? 

Mr, Greenglass. He definitely knew what it was about. 

Mr. Morris. Now, wdll you place this time for us generally ? We do 
not have to have the precise date. 

Mr. Greenglass. January 19-i5. 

Mr. Morris. 1945. 

Senator, that was about 8 months prior to the detonation at Hiro- 
shima. 

Mr. Greenglass. If that is all you are interested in, I mean 

Mr. Morris. No. While you were on that furlough, did you meet 
with any Kussians, Mr. Greenglass ? 

Mr. Greenglass, Oh, yes. Of course, in order to understand why 
I met with one of the Russians, I had best tell you about the rest 
of this conversation. 

He did say — of course, I can't quote him verbatim because I don't 
remember it that well — he said 

Mr. Morris. Senator, may I break in at this time '^ 

John Eogge, who has been counsel for David Greenglass, apparently 
was due here this morning when we began the hearing, and has just 
arrived. I would be very happy if he could sit up here next to the 
witness here today. 

Senator Welker. We are very glad to have you, Mr. Rogge. 

Mr. RoGGE. Senator Welker. 

Senator Jenner. Good morning, John. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. May I bring counsel up to date on this, Senator? 

Senator Welker. Go ahead. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rogge, we have been covering the area of Mr. 
Greenglass' early developments since joining the Young Communist 
League, his induction into the Army, his transfer from Oak Ridge to 
Los Alamos, his furlough back to New York, at which time Julius 
Rosenberg described to him that there was an atomic bomb, and we 
are just at that point. 

In the general framework of the hearing, Mr. Rogge, we are taking 
testimony on the general nature of the Soviet conspiracy, and we are 
trying not to duplicate to any great extent the testimony that was 
taken at the trial, because that is available to the committee. 

We are trying to get new and additional information. 

Mr. Rogge. As I have indicated to you. Judge Morris, my client 
does have information relating to the inquiry which this committee 
is conducting, and will be happy to give such information as he has 
in response to questions that may be put to him. As a matter of fact, 
he has cooperated with the Government almost from the beginning. 
Indeed, he was drawn into this thing by others. I do not think he 
liked it from the beginning. And after the net started closing, when 



1098 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

he was given money and persuaded to leave the country, he refused to 
do so. 

Shortly thereafter, when agents of the FBI came to him, it was 
not long after that until he made a brief statement to them. He took 
time out to consult with counsel, and thereafter decided to continue 
his course of cooperation, and has since then cooperated with the 
Government and will continue to cooperate and will cooperate with 
this committee. 

Senator Welker. Thank you very much, Mr. Rogge. 
Mr. EoGGE. May I say this? I thought the hearing this mornino- 
was to begin at 11. ^ 

Mr. Morris. Ten-thirty. 
Senator Welker. Very well. Thank you, Mr. Rogge. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Greenglass, did you, as a result of your conversa- 
tion with Julius Rosenberg, which I think you were just describing 

Mr. Greenglass. I was about to go on with that. 

Mr. Morris. Will you go on with that? 

Mr. Greenglass. He asked me to write up what I knew about what 
I was doing generally, nobody else but myself, because he realized that 
without any of this previous knowledge I would not have very much 
to tell. 

Well, one of the things I was particularly working on was a thing 
called the high explosive lens mould. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please, for the record ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, it is "lens" just as "lenses" in your glasses, 
and "high-explosive." 

Mr. MoRKis. You say, "lens mould?" 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, "lens mould." 

Mr. Morris (spelling). M-o-u-l-d? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. 

Wlien I put this down on paper, he took the information. There 
wasn't too much, but whatever it was, he took, and later on — I don't 
remember how he did it, but he got in touch with me and he said 
that the Russians are very much interested in this lens mould, and that 
he felt that he needed to get me in touch with somebody w4io would 
know more about this subject and then I could explain what a lens 
mould was, and this man would understand what I was talking about. 

Well, some time later, I borrowed a car and I was told to meet him. 
As a matter of fact, it was at the place where the IT. N. is now. On 
First Avenue in New York City there was a very large section of 
slaughterhouses, and generally at the late hours of night it was quite 
dull and quiet. There was a dingy bar and grill located in a kind of 
stepdown, cellar affair, and I was told to meet him in front of that, 
just about between 42d and 49th, some place in that neighborhood. 

I pulled up the car and somebody approached me from across the 
street, and it turned out to be Julius Rosenberg. He told me to pull 
up to a more dimly lit section than I was already, and he said. "Wait 
here," and he came back with another man whom he introduced to me 
by some first name which I am not certain of. 

When he got into the car, he said, "Drive." His hat was pulled 
down low 

Mr. Morris. When you say, "his hat," whose hat do you mean ( 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1099 

Mr. Gkeenglass. Tliis ^ontlonuin sitting' beside me. 

Mr. MoKias, Did Jidius Uosenber*:; accoiiipuny you on that trip? 

Mr. Gkeengi.ass. No. lie stayed behind. 

Mr. Mouuis. He just introchiced you ? 

Mr. (tkeengeass, lie just introduced us and stayed l)eliind. 

Oh, yes. Later, after this meetino-, Julius tokl me that this was a 
Eussia'n I was si)eakino- to. What Russian^ All I knew is that he 
was some kind of technical man, this particular Russian. 

Well, in the course of the trip, he kept askintv me questions about 
this lens mould, and in driving in a New York street, trying to watch 
the road and at the same time expounding on a scientific subject, it 
was very difficult to get anything across to him. But he milked it 
dry, I suppose. 

We rode for about 20 minutes. Each time I turned around to em- 
phasize a point, he would put his hand to my face and say, "Keep your 
eyes on the roacl.'' And we 

Mr. Morris. Did he do that so that you could not see his face, or 
did he do that because he was afraid for his personal safety in driving? 

Mr. Greenglass. No. It was obvious to me that he just didn't want 
me to get a good look at him. 

We drove up around York Avenue under the Queensborough 
Bridge, down around First Avenue, and continued to drive that way 
for about 20 minutes. Then I was told to park in the same place I 
had picked him up, and when I did so, he got out of the car, went up 
the block a bit, and Julius Rosenberg came back and said to me, ''It 
is all right."' 

I offered him a drive home, and he said, no, that he was going to 
have a drink with this gentleman, and he left. And that was the end 
of it. That was the first and last time I ever saw a Russian. 

Mr. Morris. Now, then, there were other occasions, were there not, 
in which you transmitted secrets, that you were acquiring at Los 
Alamos, to Julius Rosenberg ? 

a\Ir. Greenglass. Yes. Once- 



Mr. Morris. Without going into details, there were other occasions, 
were there not ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Morris. Can you roughly tell us how many ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, after this, you mean ? 

Mr. Morris. Two, three, four, five ? 

Mr. Greenglass. All together, there were four, I believe. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you present yesterday when Harry Gold 
testified to a meeting that he had with you in your apartment? 

Mr. Greenglass, In Albuquerque ? 

Mr. Morris. In Albuquerque. 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Morris. Did you hear his testimony at that time ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Was that testimony accurate in every respect ? 

Mr. Greenglass. As far as I can recollect, yes, it was. 

Mr. Morris. And you did give him at that time, as he testiiied, 
secrets about the atom bomb project ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, I did. As a matter of fact, there was some- 
thing he didn't mention. He mentioned that I wanted to speak about 



1100 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

recruits for the spy ring. Now, the reason that he said that he 
squelched me — and, of course, when he squelched me, it was quite 
puzzling, because I had been instructed to find such recruits. 

Mr. Morris. Who had instructed you ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Julius Rosenberg had instructed me to find people 
who were sympathetic to communism in this project, and after find- 
ing them, he said, "Don't mention them. Just write them down." 

Of course, it must have been my boyish enthusiasm that made me 
want to speak to him myself. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how many recruits had you written down ? How 
many names had you written down, to the best of your recollection ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Oh, I would say there were between 20 and 25. 

Mr. Morris. Those are people, now, scientists whom you had as- 
sessed, from your work 

Mr. Greenglass. I had assessed 

Mr. Morris. From your working with them at Los Alamos, as 
people who would be likely recruits for Eosenberg's operation? 

Mr. Greenglass. Let me modify that. 

Mr. Morris. Go ahead. 

Mr. Greenglass. I say, I had assessed, more or less. Some I was 
quite accurate with, I am sure. Others, I may not have been. But in 
any case, I had given the FBI — we have gone through it, and re- 
membered every name — we have discovered every name that was on 
that list and every picture of every one of those individuals has been 
identified, and 

Senator Welker. May I interrupt here ? 

Mr. Greenglass, how did you go about this business of finding people 
who were symjoathetic to the Communist cause and would give away 
secrets of the United States Government? Just tell me the back- 
ground. Would you approach the subject matter, or would they? 

Mr. Greenglass. I will get to that right now. 

You must understand that, in order to be a Communist, you must 
push aside nationality. You must push aside patriotism. The very 
essence of communism is not to have nationality or patriotism. It 
means that you believe in the whole people of the earth as an entity, or 
so goes the theory, you see. 

Now, when a man believes this and believes that he is so right in 
what he believes, and you are so wrong, he is so absolute about what he 
believes that it can't possibly be wrong to do anything for his cause. It 
is just child's play to say that he is doing something wrong. He is 
above the law. He is above human feelings, too. As a matter of fact, 
he feels that if some people get killed in the mess, why, you can't make 
a revolution — I mean, you can't make an omelette without breaking 
eggs. That is a standard phrase I have heard time and time again. 

Now, when I speak — when I spoke to these people at Los Alamos, 
there were certain catch phrases that we used. One that would be- 
come friendly with me would say, "Well, I believe in this, that, and 
the next thing," and we realized that we had many points of agree- 
ment, so many in fact that it left out any possibility that the man I 
was sj^eaking to was anything but a Communist or a Communist 
sympathizer. 

Now, that I feel is clear ; isn't it ? 

Then, the next step is, I speak to him. He speaks to me. He tells 
me of a friend of his that he knew from school, which was no longer 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1101 

at Los Alamos, and at school this man was a Communist. I see, well, 
that man is a Communist. Now, I know this other man, too. I speak 
to him. He doesn't say he was a Communist, but he says he is one 
of the boys, "the boys" being a word signifying Communists in this 
particular case. 

At certain times I said, "What do you mean by the boys?" 

"Well," he would say, "You know, a progressive guy." 

And sometimes I would press further, and the fellow would finally 
say, "A Communist," or "A member of the Marxist Society at UCLA." 

Well, that was far enough, because generally the Socialists don't 
talk about Marxist Societies. 

In this particular case, I 

Mr. JMoRRis. Now, these are concrete instances you are describing? 

Mr. Gkeenglass. That is right. I didn't mention names or any- 
thing of that character. 

Mr. Morris. No. We don't want you to. 

Mr. Greenglass. I didn't remember names too well, of who these 
interviews occurred with. But I didn't mention names for the simple 
reason that I felt that the particular incident may not have applied 
to this particular person. But it happened. That is the conversa- 
tions I had. 

Mr. Morris. IMr. Chairman, may the record show at this time that 
the witness has said that he has gone into specific names and identi- 
fications with the FBI ? 

Senator Welker. It will so show. 

Mr. Morris. And he has also told some of the identities to us in 
executive session, but Ave are not prepared, Senator, to have the names 
come into the record at this time. 

Senator Welker. The record will so show. Proceed. 

Mr. Greenglass. I could give specific instances 

Senator Welker. Very well. 1 think you have covered that. 

Mr. Greenglass. That is how I got the names to put on the list in 
this manner. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did this list of 20 to 25 — did that exhaust, do 
you think, the reservoir of potential scientists who would turn over, 
who would work for Kosenberg? 

Mr. Greenglass. Let me — 1 will answer that. I frankly say "No." 
These people, these 20 or 25, were in my ken. 

Senator Jenner. In his what ? 

Mr. Greenglass. My ken, my line of vision, my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. Ken, k-e-n. 

]Mr. Greenglass. While they were in my ken, there were others 
who were just as sympathetic who weren't in Los Alamos, that I heard 
of but I couldn't check of my own accord, and which I didn't put 
down, you see. 

Now, there were well-known names I have heard of, but it was some- 
thing I never checked of my own accord, and so I never put the names 
down, you see. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I think at this point I should mention 
here that Mr. Greenglass has gone into rather extensive details in some 
cases about the identify of these people, and also given us a description 
of the number of people involved there. I think for the purpose of 

72723— 56— pt. 21 3 



1102 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

our record, Senator, that we have enough of that picture, and we can 
pass over this particular part. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was your last act of espionage at any time? 

Mr. Greenglass. This happened in September 1945. 

Mr. Morris. And what episode was that ? 

IVIr. Greenglass. I gave a 12-page description of what I surmised 
from various conversations — you see, I got the information in varying 
ways. One of the most important things is that any scientist, ma- 
chinist, technician, anybody who does that kind of Avork, has a tendency 
to talk shop, and in talking shop, if you are listening, you hear what 
he has to say, and I was listening. As a matter of fact, I was taking 
a great many mental notes. And so I was able to formulate an idea, 
a picture in my mind of what went into this one of the types of bombs, 
and I made a drawing. The drawing, of course, was not in exact terms 
as an engineer would like it, but I did not have it in exact terms, and 
it would take entirely too much time to do it. I did not at any time 
take anything. I memorized what was before me and picked up con- 
versation around me. That is how I got my information. 

Tliis r2-page report was given in 191:5 to Julius Rosenberg. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who were the couriers between you and Rosen- 
berof, if any? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, the first one was my wife, enticed 

Mr. Morris. May I ask you at this point, what was the attitude of 
your wife toward this whole undertaking ? 

Mr. Greenglass. She was completely against it from the very be- 
ginning, but she would go along witli whatever I wanted because she 
was and still is in love with me and I am with her, and so it was some- 
thing she did in spite of her own beliefs. 

And she constantly tried to change my mind, and eventually 
succeeded. 

Mr. MoHRis. But she was the obedient wife; is that it? 

Mr. Greenglass. She was an obedient wife. 

Mr. Morris. And did you deliberate on these things? Did you en- 
gage her in conversation prior to the 

Mr. (treenglass. "We had many conversations about it. 

Mr. Morris. And did you always overrule her objections? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, there came a point where I could not over- 
rule what was staring me in the face. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. What was that ? 

Mr. Greenglass. The fact that this was devastation on a tremendous 
scale and that it was an onus that I had to bear and one which I would 
prefer not to have borne, and when I discovered this — and this was 
1945, 1946, in this particular time — I began to realize that every belief 
that I had needed reexamination, because every belief that I had was 
based upon some hidden qualm I had in my mind, one Avhich I said, 
"It does not exist." This structure of belief, this monolithic structure, 
started to have cracks in the facade, and finally it crumbled. I couldn't 
believe any further. And once this occurred, I realized that I had been 
wrong, and I tried every which way to get out from under this en- 
tan <iling web. 

In the period after I came back from the Army, I had been — I was 
in business with Julius Rosenberg. This business that I was in with 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1103 

Julius Rosenberg was something I had been promised at a much ear- 
lier date, and I was still 

^Ir. MouRis. In other words, after you got out 

Mr. Greenglass. And when I was still in the Army, this business 
was begun. 

Mv. Morris, Now, let me get that clear, Mr. Greenglass. In other 
words, after you left the service 

Mr. Greexglass. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And after you had committed your last act of espio- 
nage 

Mv. Greenglass. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You were about to go into your own business ? 

ilr. Greenglass. Thnt is right. No. They had put me into busi- 
ness before I even left the service. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Did you want to go into business with 
Julius Rosenberg? 

;Mr. Greenglass. No, I did not want to go into business. 

^Mr. ]\1orris. Tell us the circumstances of your going into business. 

Mr. Greenglass. In early 1942, my brother was in the United 
States Army, stationed in Kentucky at the time with the First Ar- 
mored Division. He was home on furlough — no. This must have been 
later in 19-1:2. He had come home on furlough for a few days, and we 
were in a moving-picture theater, my wife, he and his wife, and Julius 
and Ethel. And he mentioned that he thought of going into business 
after the war. 

Julius brought this up, and he said he had friends who would lend 
him the money. At the time I didn't know who these friends were. 
I had no idea, and neither does my brother. He never knew about it. 
But my brother felt it was a very good idea, and he said, "Yes, that 
is fine. "We should." 

And the conversation that took place for about an hour or 2 in a, 
movie lobby waiting for a seat is what got me in this business. "What 
happened was that my brother got home earlier from the war than I 
did for the simple reason that he had so many combat engagements, 
somewhere near 370, and 3 years overseas, and was wounded twice and 
had the Pur))le Heart and Clusters, and Avhen he came back, Julius 
must have thought — I can just picture his psychology : "This is a per- 
fect coverup, a patriotic war veteran in business with me." 

And he said, ""Well, what about this business?" 

And so my brother went into business and obligated me to the tune 
of $1,000. And, of course, later on, the obligation became larger. But 
the point is, I was now in business, and when I got out, there was a 
ready, going afl'air that I had to take care of. I couldn't very well 
back out of it and let my brother down. And my wife, of course, 
wanted me to back out of it and lose the money, if necessary. But I 
felt I could stave off Julius' intriguings to go back into espionage eas- 
ily enough. 

Senator Welker. "WHiat sort of business was this, Mr. Greenglass? 

Mr. Greenglass. Originally, it was a partnership, buying and sell- 
ing Government surplus. Then this was just for a short time. When 
I got out, we opened a machine-shop business, and I was the machine- 
shop foreman and the toolmaker and things of that nature. And later 
on, we expanded and became a corporation called the Pitt Machine 



1104 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Products, Inc. And that is when — at that point, I quit the business. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. INIoRRis. How did your relations with Kosenberg continue dur- 
ing this period? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, I tried to keep my opinions to myself, espe- 
cially opinions which would have brought on tirades from Julius 
Rosenberg. He was, as you know from 1 tell you, quite opinionated, 
and if I touched anything on communism, in front of people it would 
be perfectly all right, because he wouldn't say anything, but if I were 
in any way critical, later on he would give me a tongue lashing, as 
in the case of the Berlin blockade. 

My brother had brought the subject up 

Mr. Morris. That is the Berlin blockade ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. And there was some discussion about it. 
Later on, after he left, I said, "Now, this is one case where I must 
disagree completely with what you are doing and what is being done." 
I said, "These are innocent people. You can't tell me that because 
they are Germans, they must be killed. 1 can't believe that everybody 
is guilty. I can't believe that a child in arms that needs milk is going 
to be made the culprit in a case of this nature. I can't see where 
children that have been born during the war are guilty for what went 
on in Germany and throughout Nazi Europe." 

Mr. Morris. Now, that is in connection with the Soviet efforts to 
blockade Western Berlin? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. Well, after I got through, I feel that it 
took quite a ^reat amount of courage for me to stand up and talk that 
way to him, because I had, for years, not in any way disagreed with 
him, and all my disagreements I kept to myself, because I felt that he 
could be vicious in a tirade. That unleashed the well springs. 

He turned me every way but loose. He tongue-lashecl me so badly 
that I didn't know whether he made a mat to step on out of me. I 
felt : well, I had better keep my opinions to myself, because I felt that 
if I gave him the idea that I was completely unreliable, that there 
would be some type of repercussion that I would not particularly 
desire. 

But I, of course, kept my own opinion and my own counsels from 
then on. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was it earlier than that that Rosenberg told you 
of the Soviet intelligence agents' being in the embassies of the western 
democracies and also, about his being the paymaster for students at 
the larger United States colleges? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. In 1946 is the first time he started to press 
me to go to school. Of course, I went back to school, but not where 
he wanted me to go, and I didn't take any money for this purpose 
there. And this annoyed him considerably, especially since I did not 
quit the business and go full time but went at night. It annoyed him, 
too, that I did not go to the University of Chicago. I did not renew 
any of my contacts. 

One of the things he was particularly annoyed at which I had for- 
gotten to tell was that when the Federation of Atomic Scientists be- 
came — was born — I could have been a member of that, but maybe it 
was an innate sense of disliking to belong to anything which made me 
stay away from that. I did not belong. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1105 

Mr. :M(irkis. Was he prossinjr you to join tluit ? ^ 

Mr (iRKENGLASS. He tolcl iiic later. He didn t press me, because 
I was out of his reach. But when I came back, he said, "You should 
have joined that." 

Mr. INIoRuis. Now, was he a member ? 

Mr. Grkkxglass. No. He could not have been a member. 

Mr. Morris. Jtlr. Chairman, may I go back and ask a question I 
should have asked earlier? 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. In your earlier days, did you know of an organization 
called the Federation of xVrchitects, Engineers, Chemists, and Techni- 
cians? 

Mr. Greexglass. Yes, I did. 

Mv. JkloRRis. Will you tell us what you knew about that particular 
organization ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, it was a night in June, 19 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. That was a union, was it not? 

Mr. (Jreenglass. It was -a union, yes. Julius Rosenberg once 
brought me to the headquarters of this union. 

Mr. Morris. Where was that? 

Mr. Ggeenglass. At the time it was on I7th Street or 18th Street 
off Union Square in Manhattan Island and not far from a scliool, I 
believe it was the Stuyvesant High School. Anyway, I was sent— 
I vrent with him to this place, and I can't recollect exactly the reason 
I went with him there. I feel that it must have been to become a mem- 
ber myself. But that didn't come off. But in the process, while I 
was tliere and going there and coming back, he told me a little bit 
about the union. He said that most of the members were Communists 
or Communist sympathizers, and that in the course of a jurisdictional 
dispute with the UAW over the engineers who were working at the 
Brewster Aeronautical Corp. that was in existence at the time in New 
York City, that he felt that the UAW was not being very fair, and 
they should have been, because at the time the UAW leadership was 
com.munistic. That is his w^ords. 

jNIr. Morris. Now, when did you get out of the Army, Mr. Green- 
glass ? 

]Mr. Greenglass. In 1916. 

Mr. Morris. What month in 1946 ? 

Mr. Greenglass. I believe it was the last day of February. 

Mr. INIoRRis. Now, all during the subsequent postwar period you 
were in business with Julius Rosenberg and your brother? 

Mr. (iREENGLASS. YcS. 

Mr. iSIoRRis. Until what date ? 

Mr. Greenglass. In August 1949, I finally quit the business. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did Rosenberg tell you anything about a prox- 
imity fuse? 

JSIr. Greenglass. Yes. In one of our earlier talks. You must 
understand that he had nobody to confide in who had been involved 
in this. There were some, of course, but they were scattered all over 
the United States, and it was difficult to talk to them when he wanted 
to talk to them. I was near at hand and right under his feet every 
day. lie could see me whenever he wanted to. And one day he said 
that he had stolen the proximity fuse, the actual fuse itself; he had 
walked risfht out 



1106 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. From where? 

Mr. Greenglass. From Emerson Radio Corp., where he was an in- 
spector for the Signal Corps. He took the fuse, put it in liis brief- 
case, and walked through the guard. Of course, everybody knew 
him. He was the Government man in the place. 

Mr. Morris. And he told you that ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what did you do after you got out of business 
with Rosenberg? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, I went to work for Armour Engineering 
Corp. in their research and development department. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat year was this ? 

Mr. Greenglass. 1949. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you still seeing Julius Rosenberg? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, it was very much cut off. Our relationship 
was now at a low ebb, a minimum. But one day in October he came 
to see me, and he told me that I had to start thinkmg about leav- 
ing the country, and I said, "Why ?" 

And he told me, "At the present time they are talking to the man 
who spoke to the courier who spolce to you." 

Mr. Morris. Let me see, now, because the FBI 

Mr. Greenglass. No. 

Mr. Morris. He did not say that ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Scotland Yard. 

Mr. Morris. Scotland Yard ? 

Mr. Greenglass. England ; in England, he said. 

Mr. Morris. Scotland Yard was talking to the man who- 



Mr. Greenglass. Who had been — the man who had spoken to the 
man wlio had spoken to another man who was the man who had seen 
me in Albuquerque. 

Mr. Morris. And that immediately caused you to think about your 
session with whom ? 

Mr. Greenglass. As a matter of fact, I did not remember exactly 
who he was tallying about. And he said, "The fellow that saw you 
in Albuquerque." 

And I said, "Oh, yes, Dave." 

Now, this brings to mind, Avhen Harry Gold came to see me in 
Albuquerque, he, by some error on his part, used my own first name 
to represent himself. And so I remembered it. Otherwise, I prob- 
ably would have forgotten it. 

So I knew Harry Gold as Dave. 

In any case, he told me that they were speaking to him and that 
I had to think of leaving the country. 

Of course, I had no intention of leaving. He told me that he wanted 
me to take a boat trip, get aboard a boat and go to France. And I 
said, "I don't believe they will ever let me get aboard a boat." 

And he said to me, "Oh, yes, they will. More important fellows 
than you have left this country." 

And I said, "Now, who could that be?" 

And he said, "Joel Barr left the country." 

Mr. Morris. Was that J-o-e-1 ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes, Joel Barr, J-o-e-1. 

I said, "Was Joel Barr an espionage agent ?" 

He said, "He most certainly was. He was one of my boys." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1107 

So I said, "Well, that is very surprising." 

Maybe^ I ought to tell you a little about this Joel Barr. He had 
a master's degree in electrical engineering. He was a very esthetic 
man, slim, good loolving, tall, a composer, a musician, a scientist, an 
engineer. He had been a project engineer for Sperry at the time in 
1947 when he was shown a paper on which his signature was. The 
paper was a petition to bring back the nickel fare on the subway sys- 
tem in New York City — the only mistake he made was that the peti- 
tion was a Communist Party petition, Avhich he had never thought 
about when he signed the thing. He had been told never to sign any 
petitions. But he thought this was such an innocuous petition that 
it wouMn't make very much difference. And in looking at the peti- 
tion, le said, ''That can't be my name." But it was his name, and 
they lired him from his job in Sperry. 

Of course, that is all he knew. They thought that he was a Com- 
munist Party member. As a matter of fact, I don't believe he ever 
was. He might have been a Young Communist League member in 
college, but that is as far as it might have gone. 

]\Ir. Morris. And that fact of the matter is, as revealed to you by 
Rosenberg, he was one of his espionage agents? 

Mr. Greenglass. PJe was an espionage agent. Later on, he used 
our shop to build some apparatus which he took with him 

Mr. Morris. Who is this '? Barr, now ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Barr. He took it with him on his trip abroad. 

Before knowing he was an espionage agent, and, of course, know- 
ing he was Joel Barr — he was a very pleasant fellow, a nice chap to 
talk to — I asked about his progress, and Jiilius told me, yes, he went 
to Belgium to study music because he w-ants to break into the music 
busin.ess. He doesn't want to be an engineer or a scientist any more. 

I believed it — it didn't seem likely. To me it would not be gilding 
the lily, but coming down a step. 

Well, anyway, later on I found that, through the letters, he had 
gone to see Jan Sibelius in Finland, and was some sort of protege of 
his, and then later he did a concert with a concert singer in Stockholm. 
Then later when I was arrested, I learned from the FBI that he was 
no longer available in any of his Western European haunts. He just 
disappeared. 

That is the story of Joel Barr. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you are telling us about the efforts of Julius 
Rosenberg to get you to leave the country. Did he tell you about any 
other scientists who made forced departures from the country? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, he didn't tell me of any other scientists, but 
I did learn of them in this manner. There were, you see — the way I 
learned it was this. You see, one of the names of these 25 on this 
list is a well-known scientist who is a full professor at a New York 
State college, and 

Mr. Morris. You are not going to mention his name, now? 

Mr. Greenglass. I won't mention his name. And Joel Barr had a 
friend who was also an espionage agent. This friend approached the 
professor with a letter of introduction. Now, I know nothing about 
this except where I have learned this from the FBI later on. 

Using this name that I had given to the Russians, he was taken in 
as a long-lost prodigal son, and was given the job at this university 



1108 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

of project engineer on a cyclotron being built at tliis time. This 
friend, on the same day that I was arrested, this friend was ap- 
proached by the FBI, and he refused to go with them without a 
warrant, and when they came back with a warrant at 5 o'clock, he 
had gone, and subsequently they don't know where he is. 

That is as far as I know about that. 

Mr. Morris. Now, would you tell us of your detachment completely 
from this whole setup ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Well, as I told you earlier, this complete thing of 
belief, this whole belief, as everybody, when they formulate an ideal 
system, they hate to see the chinks appear in the system, one, because 
it is yours, j^ou identify yourself with this belief ; and every time some- 
thing comes up to in any way change the picture of this ideal system, 
you feel it is a personal affront. 

Now, I realize it is a far cry from the scientific method to allow 
this accumulation of fact and still disbelieve it. But when you have 
beliefs that amount to almost a religious belief, because it is in your 
nature, almost — Communism, I mean — you begin to take things on 
faith, and when you take tilings on faith, you cannot believe them 
very well. You are not objective. 

But my whole point of view has always been to take things, not 
on faitli, but on what is reasonable. And because of this, I finally 
saw that there was not enough evidence to support this whole struc- 
ture. And when this structure fell in my mind, although the sym- 
pathy and the feeling was still there, I reversed this sympathy and 
this feeling and came to the conclusion that it was a wrong belief and 
one that I had no business believing in. And with this final knowl- 
edge, when I was able to convince myself of this, I no longer could 
believe and no longer felt at home with the idea, and subsequently my 
emotions changed and I no longer felt emotionally tied to it. 

That is generally how it came about. 

This — I passed this stage in 1946 and 1947. But while I contem- 
plated going to the FBI, I could not bring myself to talk about what 
had to be spoken about, about my wife, about my sister, about my 
brother-in-law. These were people, and while I might hate a belief, 
1 could never bring myself to hate people. It just isn't in my nature. 
I am not a violent man, and when I think of things I did b}^ non- 
violence, I wonder at myself. 

Senator Jenner. I would like to get one point straight. Going 
back to the point that you brought up earlier, where you were in- 
formed by Rosenberg that the Russians had agents in embassies of the 
western democracies, did he include in that, Washington? 

Mr. Greenglass. The way he said it, I wouldn't think in terms of 
the United States. I was thinking he meant 

Senator Jenner. Or was it in the embassies of Russia in the west- 
ern democracies ? 

Mr. Greenglass. No ; he said 

Senator Jenner. They had agents in the western democracies? 

Mr. Greenglass. The embassies of the western democracies in this 
country ; in the consulates, he said. That is what he said. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us of your arrest, Mr. Greenglass? 

Mr. Greenglass. I was arrested — well, I think I would like to say 
one more thing about Julius Rosenberg. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1109 

In June 1950— this was after he had formulated a pLan of escape 
which I was supposed to memorize, which was notliin<i: on my part but 
a subterfuge, because I had no intention of leaving the country, as a 
matter of fact, what I had intended to do, and what I did do, was go 
into the Catskill Mountains and look over a bungalow which I was 
going to take for the summer for my wife and my children, and this, 
strange to say, was corroborated by the fact that the FBI agents fol- 
lowed me the whole way up there. I saw them. As a matter of fact, 
when I lost one of them, I practically stood up and shouted to make 
known where I was so he wouldn't have thought I was trying to slip 
out on him. 

While walking along the drive Avith Julius Eosenberg, he said, "Do 
you think we will bent the FBI ?" 

And I said, "I don't know." 

He said, "Well, you know, if I get word that it is too hot, we will just 
take off and leave the children and the women." 

I said, "Two women and four children ? We are going to leave them 
and go ? Will we ever be reunited with them ?" 

He said, "Well, I don't know. Maybe yes ; maybe no." 

I said, "How can you think that way ?" 

I mean, I felt cold all over. 

And he said, "Well, the Eussians will send in division after division 
against a position and they will all be killed, and they won't bat an eye- 
lash as long as something is being done to gain their end."^ 

I couldn't be that ruthless. That was one of the things I wanted 
to tell you about Julius Eosenberg. 

At the time of my arrest — it was in June 1950 — I was brought to 
FBI headquarters, and that evening I told them the story, the wliole 
story, with, of course, things that I had not remembered, I told later 
in other statements, because it was just that they wanted to know had 
I been in or had I not ? 

But I thought over this business of my sister, my wife, my brother- 
in-law, before bringing myself to testify in this particular case. I 
felt that I had to think about that quite a while before I could actually 
make a decision. I finally made my decision, and I testified. And at 
times, since we are only human, I have been sorry I testified, because 
these are my flesh and blood, and because I felt affection for them, 
and I still feel affection for them. But at any time — and this I knew 
from the beginning — that these people would have wanted not to be 
martyrs, they could have just easily put their hands up and said, "Stop. 
I will tell you the story." 

But they refused. And later, when my mother went to see my sister 
in Sing Sing and said, "Ethel, David is not lying. He is telling the 
truth. Why do you persist in your course? If you don't believe in 
capitalism or free enterprise or anything else, if you believe in the 
Russians and feel they are right, think of your children. Think of 
what you are going to do to them," my sister said, "You are not my 
mother. Leave. I don't want to have any more to do with you. You 
are as bad as Dave and your father." 

And so my mother went, and my mother came to see me and told me 
the story. And she says, "She is no daughter of mine, and I will not 
sit shiva upon her." 

That is a Jewish religious form which is gone through for a child 
that is dead, or a mother or a father or a wife. It is a form of mourn- 



1110 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ing. Aiicl when someone doesn't do that, it is as though she had never 
been born. 

Mr. Morris. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. Greenglass. S-h-i-v-a, as far as I know. 

Mr. Morris. S-h-i-v-a ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me. 

Mr. Greenglass. So this martyrdom — one thing more my mother 
said — she said, "If people want to commit suicide, I will not stand in 
their way, and neither will I have anything further to do with them." 

She said subsequently that she did not want her children to be 
housed with my mother. Her mother-in-law believed completely in 
lier son's and her daughter's innocence, and that is where they were, the 
children, I mean. 

It is a hard thing to be called a murderer by people, but it is a much 
harder thing — and I don't know whether it is a very intelligent thing — 
but to deliberately martyr yourself for a completely erroneous ideolog- 
ical cause is, in my point of view, the most hypocritical and ridiculous 
thing a person can do. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Greenglass, did Rosenberg ever rationalize his 
service to the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Eationalizeit? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; did he ever explain why he was doing it? 

Mr. Greenglass. Yes. lie said that he was a Communist and that 
he wanted to see communism triumph throughout the world, and he 
was going to do it in the best way he knew how, and the best way he 
was fitted to do it, because of his technical skill, and, of course, an- 
other thing he did not list: his complete — his willingness to use any- 
body to gain his ends. He would do anything in his power to bring 
about the hegemony of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I think I have no more questions at this 
time. 

Senator Welker. Senator Jenner? 

Senator Jenner. I would like to say at this point, Senator, that hav- 
ing interrogated so many witnesses liere, it is very obvious tliat this 
witness today and the witness yesterday are a refreshing contrast to 
most of the witnesses that have thus far appeared before the subcom- 
mittee. And because of their cooperation and because of the evidence 
that they have given us, we are able to function much more effectively. 

Now, if there were many more people like this who, having been 
involved in the Communist conspiracy, did come forward and tell all 
they knew about it as fully and completely as these witnesses did, it 
would not be long before the Soviet underground in this country would 
be smashed. 

Senator Welker. That is very true. 

Senator Jenner. I might add that it is refreshing to see witnesses 
like Mr. Gold and j^ourself appear here in public. You are paying 
society for the crimes that you have both committed. In your testi- 
mony here, you may be setting an example that will break this vicious 
conspiracy which is out to overthrow and destroy our country. 

You have given this committee, particularly, certain information 
that I think is very valuable, in view of the fact that you never were 
a Communist, and yet, you were doing Communist work. I think, by 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1111 

your story, many men and women will learn through your horrible 
experience what it might mean to the future. And as one individual, 
I think both of these men in their cooperation have shown great cour- 
age, and I want to thank them in behalf of the committee. 

Senator Welkek. Thank you, Senator Jenner. 

To you. David Greenglass, I met you for the first time when I visited 
on an inspection tour of Lewisburg Penitentiary last December, I 
think 

Mr. Greenglass. That is right. 

Senator Welker. A job I had to do on another subcommittee of 
Judiciary. 

You realize that if you have wilfully testified falsely here, this com- 
mittee will be very anxious to see you prosecuted to the full extent of 
the law, and the sentence that you are now serving in Lewisburg might 
very well be extended for a very lengthy period. Do you understand 
that? 

Mr. Greenglass. I do. 

Senator Welker. David, this devastating and tremendous scope of 
your activity and your ruthless disregard of loyalty to your country, 
to law, and to humanity, if you had it to do over again, would you 
ever become so involved ? 

Mr. Greenglass. Knowing what I know now, I don't believe I 
would. 

Senator "Welker. Was it worth it all ? 

Mr. Greenglass. It certainly was not. 

Senator Welker. Very well. The hearings are concluded, and I 
want to thank you, David Greenglass, and you, Harry, for the testi- 
mony given before the committee. It has been troublesome to you, I 
know. It has not been easy to hear. 

The spectators will please remain in their seats until the witnesses 
and the marshals leave the room. 

Mr. Morris. Just one minute. Senator. 

I would like to thank James Bennett. Director of Prisons, and the 
Deputy United States Marshals Joseph G. Oreto and William O. Col- 
lin and Frank Noe for the assistance that they have given the sub- 
committee during the testimony in arranging for the appearances of 
these witnesses before the committee, and all the other marshals, the 
United States marshal here in Washington and everyone else who was 
concerned with the project. Their cooperation has been splendid. 

Senator Welker. Very well. The spectators will remain seated. 

(Whereupon, at 11 :50 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, MAY 17, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10:35 a. m., in the 
caucus room. Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner 
presiding. 

Present: Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research director; and 
Robert McManus, research analyst. 

Senator Jenner. The hearing will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Black, will you come forward? Will you be 
seated there? 

Senator Jenner. Will you be sworn to testify? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony given in this hearing 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God? 

Mr. Black. I do. 

Senator Jenner. You will proceed, Mr. Morris, with the question- 
ing of the witness. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, this bearing is being held in connection with 
the series being conducted by the Internal Securit}' Subcommiittee in 
connection with the nature and scope of Soviet activity in the United 
States. 

The specific subject this morning will be Soviet espionage. 

Mr. Black, will 3'ou give your name and address to the reporter, 
pjiease? 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS L. BLACK, NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Black. Thomas L. Black, 708 High Street, Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Black? 

Mr. Black. Bloomsburg, Pa. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Black. July 5, 1907. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession? 

Mr, Black. I am a chemist. 

Mr. Morris. For how long have you been a chemist? 

Mr. Black. All ni}" working life, approximately 26 years. 

1113 



1114 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Black, have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Black. Yes, su-. 

Mr. Morris. When did you Join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Black. Approximately 1931. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what unit, branch, and section of the 
Communist Party you joined? 

Mr. Black. I joined the Communist Party in New York City, 
section 2, unit 2-B, located on the lower East Side. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you remain a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Black. Approximately 2 years. 

Mr. Morris. Will you sketch for us very briefly your career in the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Black. I don't believe I quite understand your question. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend meetings of the Communist Party 
with any regularity? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you pay any Communist Party dues? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you get to know any other Communists? 

Mr. Black. Quite a number of them. 

Mr. Morris. Was there any other unit or branch that you subse- 
quently joined, other than the one you describe here? 

Mr. Black. I was transferred to a unit in Jersey City and later to 
a unit in Newark. 

Mr. Morris. You left the Communist Party 2 years after you 
joined it? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us why you left the Communist Party? 

Mr. Black. I wanted to go to the Soviet Union to work, about 1933, 
and I discussed this \^ath the Communist organizer in Newark, Rebecca 
Grecht. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that for the committee, please? 

Mr. Black. That is G-r-e-c-h-t. 

Mr. Morris. "WTnat did she tell you, and what did you ask her? 

Mr. Black. I told her that I wanted to try to get a job in the Soviet 
Union, and that I wondered what arrangements could be made. 

S}ie told me tliat I could go to work any place in the world, but not 
in the Soviet Union ; that she would make any arrangements that might 
be necessary, but that, as a party member, I could not work in the 
Soviet Union ever. 

Mr. Morris. As a result of that decision made by your Communist 
superiors, you decided to leave the party? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did your interest in the Soviet Union continue? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what form it took? 

Mr. Black. After I had been out of the party some months, I 
went to Amtorg Trading Corp. in New York City and inquired about 
employment in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Now, whom did you meet at Amtorg Trading Corp.? 

Mr. Black. Gaik Ovakimian. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1115 

Mr. Morris. You know that he has been identified by Mr. 
Rastvoiov as a person wlio was a chief resident agent of the Soviet 
secret poHce in the United Stateg? 

Did Gaik Ovakimian introduce himself by that name? 

Mr. Black. Yes; he did. 

Mr. Morris. What was his job with Amtorg? 

Mr. Black. I was never quite certain as to the duties he had with 
Amtorg, but I beheve he was connected in some way with petroleum 
products. Oils, and so on. 

Mr. Morris. What did he tell you he wanted? 

Mr. Black. He told me that if he were to recommend me for 
employment in the Soviet Union, I would have to produce evidence 
of usefulness. Otherwise he could not personally make a recom- 
mendation. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Wliat did he ask you to do? 

Mr. Black. He asked me to give him some information of a tech- 
nical nature, which would tend to indicate my usefulness to the 
Soviet technology. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, conforming with his request, begin to supply 
him with information of a technical nature? 

Mr. Black. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us for the record what material you 
gave him? 

Mr. Black. I gave him information concerning the processes for 
producing textile auxiliaries and tannmg materials; other products of 
that nature, with which I was familiar. I wrote the processes up for 
producing these things, and included information on their uses and 
applications. 

Mr. AIorris. Now, on how many — w411 you speak up, Mr. Black? 

Now, on how many occasions did you meet Mr. Ovakimian and give 
him the information you have just described? 

Mr. Black. Possibly three occasions. 

Mr. Morris, \\1iere did you meet him on these occasions? 

Mr. Black. In New York City. We met in restaurants. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us with particularity in what restaurants 
you met him? 

Mr. Black. I don't recall what restaurants we met in, but they 
were rather good restaurants. In the Times Square area. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you get the information you imparted to 
him? 

Mr. Black. I had a great deal of it in my head, but what I didn't 
know I supplemented with information that was available to me on the 
job. 

Mr. Morris. Was Ovakimian's interest in the information itself, 
or was his interest in the fact that he was testing you to see whether 
or not you were going to supply that and other information, and render 
other services for the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Black. He told me, after lie had gone over this information, that 
it was of no particular interest to him, because they had other sources 
of such information, and that this was not particularly valuable. 

Have I answered your question? 

Mr. Morris. I missed the very last thing you said, Mr. Black. 

Mr. Black. He indicated that the information I had given him 
was of no particular value, because it was rather elementary. 



1116 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. However — you added something move; didn't you? 

Mr. Black. I don't believe that I quite understand. 

Mr. Morris. I didn't know whether I had his full answer, Senator. 

Mr. Black, did you break off your relationship vvdth Mr. Ovakimian? 

Mr. Black. No; I didn't break it. He introduced me to someone 
else. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he gave you a different assignment. 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat year was this? 

Mr. Black, you joined the Communist Party in 1931, stayed in 
until 1933. You met Gaik Ovakimian in 1933? 

Mr. Black. Either late 1933 or early 1934. I can't be sure of the 
exact date. 

Mr. AloRRis. At what point, now, did Ovaldmian transfer you to 
another Soviet agent? 

Mr. Black. I believe that it was about the middle of 1934, or 
perhaps early spring. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances whereby you were 
transferred by Ovakimian to another agent? 

Mr. Black. Ovakimian told me that he was very busy and that 
he wanted me to meet a friend of his who would meet with me occa- 
sionally. 

He said that he had too many other tasks to take care of, and that 
this fellow would see me and he assured me that the person I wa^ to 
be introduced to was a friend of his, and I could speak freely with him. 

Mr. Morris. Who was this friend of his? 

Mr. Black. He was introduced to me as Paul Peterson. 

Mr. Morris. Was that his true name? 

Mr. Black. I am sure that it was not, although I have no way of 
knowing. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you deal with the man known to you as 
Paul Peterson? 

Mr. Black. I would say up until about 1938. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was the nature of your relation with 
Peterson? Was he asking you to supply information, or was he train- 
ing you for still some other assignment? 

Mr. Black. He was training me for some other assignment. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Harry Gold? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you introduce Harry Gold to a Soviet agent at 
any time? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. The Harry Gold who testified before this committee, 
2 or 3 weeks ago, was the same Harry Gold you know? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us your relationship with 
Paul Peterson? Just tell us what happened. You said that you be- 
lieved he was training you for some assignment. Give us the specifics 
about that particular assignment. 

Mr. Black. The first several ro.ee tings with Peterson were purely 
social. We met in New York City and we had dinner, and the 
conversation revolved around small talk. Nothing particular was 
said about anything. In other words, in those early m.eetings he 
was getting acquainted with me, and seeing what kind of a person 
I was, sizing me up generally. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1117 

Mr. MoKRis. Did lie give you assignments? 

Mr. Black. No, sir; not then. 

Mr. Morris. "\Aliat did he do? 

Mr. Black. AVell, gradually the talk started to revolve around 
how I could be useful to the Soviet Union, and I think that it was 
at that time that I first realized that he was intending to train me 
for espionage, although that was certainly never mentioned at that 
time. 

Mr. Morris. Tqll us the nature of the training he gave you. 

Mr. Black. The training consisted of discussing various aspects 
related to espionage, and this was done during long walks which we 
used to take together on the sidewalks of New York, mostly. Never 
in restaurants or aii}^ place like that. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what aspects of training were covered by him 
in his relationship with you? 

Mr. Black. How to detect surveillance by FBI agents, and how to 
avoid it; what to do in case the surveillance was detected; how to 
collect information and write reports; how to microfilm them; how to 
condense information into the fewest possible words and yet make it 
complete enough to be useful. 

That general sort of thing. I don't know 

Mr. Morris. Did he go into the importance of appointments and 
rendezvous? 

Mr. Black. Yes, in general. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us something about that? 

Mr. Black. I am not quite sure that I understand what information 
3^011 want. 

Mr. Morris. Did he explain to you how appointments were made 
between Soviet agents? 

Mr. Black. Yes; he did. 

Mr. Morris. Will j^ou tell us briefly something about that? 

Mr. Black. The Soviet superior would always do the contacting, 
and the lesser agent never had any way of knowing how or when or 
where he could contact his superior. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else on that point vou can tell us, 
Mr. Black? 

Mr. Black. Well, some arrangements for the next meeting were 
always made, and then the actual time was generally set by a telephone 
call. The place and the time were prearranged, but the date was 
generally made by telephone a few days before. 

Mr. Morris. Thi'ough what period did you work with Peterson? 

Mr. Black. Until about 1938—1937 or ^1938. 

Mr. Morris. From 1934 to 1938. 

During that period, the time was consumed principally in training 
you for espionage work? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. No specific assignments were given to you at that 
time, were they? 

Mr. Black. Yes; but they were not in connection with espionage. 

Mr. Morris. I see. What was the nature of those assignments? 

Mr. Black. In 1936, at the time of the first Moscow trials, I lost 
sympathy with the Communist movement, and I told Peterson that 
if this terror was going to continue in Moscow, I would become a 
Trotskyite. 



1118 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. How did he react to that disclosure by you? 

Mr. Black. He became violently angi\y, and we parted on very 
bad terms. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he ever drop you as a contact? 

Mr. Black. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What happened? 

Mr. Black. A period of time elapsed — I don't recall just how long. 
Possibly a few months. Then I got a phone call from him, and in 
the telephone conversation he seemed rather friendly. He asked me 
to meet him. I kept that appointment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet him in New York? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did he give you another assignment? 

Mr. Black. Yes; he did. He told me that he had been thinking 
over what I had told him about becoming a Trotskyite, and he thought 
that was a very good idea. So he instructed me to join the Socialist 
Party, the Trotskyist faction. 

Mr. Morris. Is that the Socialist Party, Trotskyist faction? What 
was the name of that part}^? 

Mr. Black. Socialist Party of America. That was before the 
Socialist Workers' Party. 

Mr. Morris. So your relationship at that time was that you joined 
the Trotskyist party on the instruction of tlie Soviet agent? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, at the same time, keep your contact and 
keep reporting to him? 

Mr Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us, Mr. Black, precisely what happened? 

Mr. Black. I was instructed to be a good party member and to 
ingratiate myself with the leadership of the party. 

Mr. Morris. That is the Trotskyist party? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Meanwhile you had completely disassociated yourself 
for many years now, with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Were you reading things like the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Black. No, su-; only occasionally, because I had been instructed 
not to. 

Mr. Morris. Were you seeing your old Communist friends? 

Mr. Black. No, sir; I had been instructed to break all contacts 
with them also. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us the natm^e of your assignment 
with the Trotskyist party? 

Mr. Black. The only definite assignment I had was to become 
friendly with the leading Trotskyists. 

Mr. Morris. And to report back to Peterson? 

Mr. Black. Just to keep contact with him. Not to report anything 
specific to him. As a matter of fact, he was not interested in what was 
going on in the Trotskyist movement. 

Mr. Morris. Was Peterson the agent now for whom you were 
working at that time? 

Mr. Black. I believe so. I know that Peterson was the one that 
assigned me the task. 

Mr. Morris. Now, at what point did Peterson break off and 
another agent take his place? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1119 

Mr. Black. I believe that was probably tlie latter part of 1937, or 
the early part of 1938. 

Air. Morris. Who was the new agent who moved in? 

Mr. Black. I think — I can't be quite sure of this, but I think it was 
a fellow I knew as George, and who later I identified as Semenov. 

Mr. Morris. That is Semon Semenov? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. He w^as also of Amtorg Trading Corp.? 

Mr. Black. I don't know. I don't really know what his connec- 
tion was. 

Mr. Morris. Now, he succeeded Peterson as your contact in the 
year 1937? 

Mr. Black. I believe so. For a very short period. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when you worked under him, were you still in 
the Trotsky organization? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat you were doing, then, was developing friends 
among the Trotskyists? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Who succeeded Semenov as your senior agent? 

Mr. Black. I believe it was a person that 1 knew as Jack, although 
I can't be quite certain of that, either. 

On second thought, I think tlie person that succeeded this Semenov 
was a fellow t) at I knew as Dr. Schwartz. His correct name was 
Gregor Rabinowitz. 

Mr. Morris. Under what cover did Gregor Rabinowitz operate? 

Mr. Black. He was an emplovee of the Soviet Red Cross. 

Mr. Morris. And he was here under that cover? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. How were you assigned to him? Will you tell us the 
circumstances leading up to 3^our transfer to Rabinowitz? 

Mr. Black. The first time I recall seeing Rabinowitz was in the 
hospital. I had been confined in the hospital for som.e weeks, due to 
an accident. He came to visit me there, and he introduced himself 
as Dr. Schwartz. 

Mr. Morris. Was he a medical doctor? 

Mr. Black. He was. 

Mr. Morris. And actually you have since learned that his name is 
Dr. Gregor Rabinowitz? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And he operated under the cover of the Soviet Red 
Cross? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And did you tell him what your assignment had been 
imder previous agents? 

Mr. Black. No, sir; he knew more about that than I did, I guess. 

Mr. Morris. Did he give you an assignment? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir; when I was released from the hospital. He 
told me that he wanted me to quit m^- job and make arrangements to 
go to Coyoacar. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that for us, please? 

Mr. Black. I am sorry. I can't spell it. 

Mr. Makdel. That is C-o-y-o-a-c-a-n. 

Mr. Morris. He wanted you to go down there? 



1120 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did he state for what purpose? 

Mr. Black. Not specificall}^. He said that he wanted me to go 
down and join Trotsky's household. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he wanted you to join the household 
itself? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And keep contact with him. 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did you learn what Rabinowitz's plan was at that 
particular tune? 

Mr. Black. No; not at that time. I asked some questions, and 
he told me that the questions the nature of which I was asking did 
not need to concern me then. I would get instructions later. 

First I was to go to Coyoacan, and there would be other Soviet 
agents in Trotsky's household, and I asked him who they would be. 

He said I would find out that when the time came. 

I asked him what I was supposed to do, and he said I would be 
told when the time came. He refused to answer any questions about 
what the nature of the work was. 

Mr. Morris. Did you subsequently find out what the nature of 
that assignment was? 

Mr. Black. Yes, su\ 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of that assignment? 

Mr. Black. To arrange for the assassination of Trotsky. 

Mr. Morris. Did you take that assignment? 

Mr. Black. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Why did you not take that assignment? 

Mr. Black. Because, as I stated previously, in 1936 I had lost 
complete sympathy with the Communist movement, and the Soviet 
Union, and I was trying to break away from these Soviet agents. 
Incorrectly, but I was stiU trying to make a break. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us why it is that you appear here today 
and tell us that you were disassociated ideologically with the Com- 
munists, and yet you kept accepting these assignments? 

Mr. Black. I did it because of fear. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us briefly about that, Mr. Black? 

Mr. Black. Well, when Peterson and other agents, many times, 
made threats to me — never direct threats, but alwaj^s by implication 
or innuendo — implied threats. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have a fear for your life? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Fear for bodily harm? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what reason did you give Rabinowitz for not 
going to Coyoacan? 

Mr. Black. I told him that it would look very suspicious if I 
were to suddenly leave the country without appearing before the 
workmen's compensation court which was to settle my accident case. 
He accepted that. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, what was your next assignment after 
that? 

Mr. Black. After that, after the assassination of Trotsky, I 
didn't see any more of Rabinowitz. But I was contacted by another 
agent, the one I believed I knew as Jack. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1121 

Mr, Morris. Do you know what his name was? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. His last name was Katz. 

Mr. Morris. Is that K-a-t-z? 

Mr. Black. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What assignment did he give you? 

Mr. Black. Well, a period of some months had elapsed. Then he 
jBnally contacted me by a method which had been prearranged by 
other agents. 

Air. Morris. Would you tell us about that? 

Mr. Black. Well, I got a telephone call. I didn't know who was 
calling, but the nature of the conversation indicated to me that I was 
supposed to be at a certain place at a certain time, and supposed to be 
carrying some form of identification. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Black. I got a telephone call which indicated to me that I 
was supposed to be at a certain place at a certain time, carrying some 
form of identification, whatever it was that we had prearranged. I 
believe some current issue of a magazine. That is how I met Jack 
He identified himself to me after picking me out. 

Mr. Morris. What year is this? 

Mr. Black. I believe that this must have been about 1940. The 
reason I believe that, is that, in checking some dates this morning 
with Mr. Mandel, he pointed out that Trotsky had been assassinated 
in 1940. This was after the assassination of Trotsky, I am almost 
certain. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was the nature of the assignment received 
from Katz. 

Mr. Black. Well, in the first several meetings, I didn't receive any 
assignment. It was just keeping contact. Then he asked me to get 
him some technical information. 

Mr. Morris. From where did he ask you to get the technical in- 
formation, or did he leave that up to you to get it? 

Mr. Black. He left it up to me, because he had reason to believe 
that I had been trained enough by Peterson that I could be on my own. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Did you get the technical information for 
him? 

Mr. Black. I did get him some, and I wrote him some reports. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony that at this time you stiU had 
the disaffection that you have described toward the Communist 
movement? 

Mr. Black. That is correct., 

Mr. Morris. But j^ou still carried out the assignment from Katz 
because of the fear j^ou have described? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 
_ Mr. Morris. In your dealing with Katz, you mentioned in execu- 
tive session that you had a conversation with him about Carlo Tresca. 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what that conversation was about? 
Who was Carlo Tresca? 

Mr. Black. Carlo Tresca was an anti-Communist radical who had 
been active for a great many years. I don't know what his political 
philosophy was. I believe he was an anarchist, but I am not sure. 

Mr. Morris. What did Katz say about Carlo Tresca? 

Mr. Black. Carlo Tresca was murdered in New York as he was 
leaving an office building. 



1122 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Was that in January 1943? 

Mr. Black. I think so. The Trotskyists accused the Communists 
of the murder. In the press, of course. So I asked Katz what the 
story was there. I told him that it was my opinion that that sort of 
thing gave communism a very bad name, and I didn't approve of it. 

Mr. Morris. What did he tell you about Tresca? 

Mr. Black. He told me that Tresca was an enemy of the working- 
class, and that as such he had received a fair trial in Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. He had been tried in Moscow? 

Mr. Black. He had been tried in Moscow in absentia, and this 
was not a murder; it was an execution. 

Mr. Morris. He said that he had been tried and found to be an 
enemy of the working class; is that it? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Did the disappearance of Juliet Stuart-Poyntz ever 
come up? 

Mr. Black. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Morris. You knew, of course, that she disappeared in 1937? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. But you know nothing about that disappearance? 

Mr. Black. No sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did that make an impression on you? 

Mr. Black. Yes; it did. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long did you take assignments from Katz? 

Mr. Black. Well, there was a bnef period in the early 1940's, and 
then I didn't hear from him again until about 1945, or possibly 1946. 

He contacted me by telephone, and I kept an appointment with 
him. 

He said that since it had been a long time since he had seen me, he 
wanted to know if I would still cooperate with him. He said that 
times change and people change, and he wanted to know where I 
stood. 

Mr. Morris. Was this in 1946? 

Mr. Black. I believe so. It possibly was 1945. 

Mr. Morris. When he said he wanted you to cooperate, what did 
you say to him? 

Mr. Black. I gave him a noncommittal answer and told him that 
I hadn't changed. I was afraid to tell him anything different. So 
he said he would contact me again. 

Mr. Morris. Were you still fearful of the consequences of your 
encounters with these people? 

Mr. Black. More so than ever. 

Mr. Morris. Wliy was that? 

Mr. Black. Because of events that had taken place in the mean- 
time, such as the assassination of Trotsky and the murder of Tresca 
and the murder of Walter Krivitsky. 

Mr. Morris. However, did you receive another assignment after 
that time from Katz? 

Mr. Black. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any other contact with any other 
Soviet agent? 

Mr. Black. No, sb. 

Mr. Morris. Didn't you tell us about an assignment m 1950? 

Mr. Black. I was contacted by telephone in 1950, but I did not 
keep that. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1123 

Mr. Morris. Will you toll us about that? 

Mr. Black. I received a telephone call from a Miss Watkins. 
That was the code word that indicated that I was to meet a Soviet 
agent- 



Mr. Morris. W.lien was this worked out? 

Mr. Black. In 1946. 

Mr. Morris. In 1946 you worked it out with whom? 

Mr. Black. Witli Katz. 

Mr. Morris. Wit}) Katz you worked out a prearranged meeting 
wliereby a phone call would come in to you aiul a party would an- 
nounce herself as Miss Watkins. 

Mr. Black. Tbat is right. 

Mr. Morris. And vou didn't receive that phone call until 1950? 

Mr. Black. Tbat i*s right. 

Mr. Morris. Four years later, and the call came in? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat were the other prearrangements about that? 

Mr. Black. Wlien I got a pbone call from Miss Watkins, I was 
supposed to go on the Tuesday following the phone call to the Trans- 
Lux Theater and wait under tlie marquee for 3 minutes, from 7:15 
until 7:18, I believe, and identify myself by the color of necktie and 
the current issue of some magazine, I have forgotten which. 

Mr. Morris. This had all been worked out 4 3^ears earlier? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you remembered the directions? 

Mr. Black. Pretty well; 3^es. 

Mr. Morris. That had to be quite precise, to wait 3 minutes from 
7:15 to 7:18 under a theater marquee. 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you remembered that? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. When this call came through, did you comply with 
the call? 

Mr. Black. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. By failing to take the call, you broke off your relations 
with the Soviet agents? 

Mr. Black. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you received any contact from that time? 

Mr. Black. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien we asked you to testify publicly, did you express 
some fear of doing that? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Were you given assurances by this subcommittee 
that if you came forward and told your stor}^, the committee would 
commend you for that, and by doing so you would get perhaps more 
protection than you would have by remaining in an anonymous 
state? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And you have made full disclosure of all your activi- 
ties in Soviet espionage? 

Mr. Black. Yes, sir; insofar as I can remember. A period of some 
20 years has elapsed since my original contact. Of course, it is 
impossible to recall all details over that period of time. 



1124 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been cooperating with the FBI? 

Mr. Black. Since 1950. 

Mr. Morris. You have made, to the best of your knowledge, full 
disclosure to them? 

Mr. Black. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. In view of the witness' very responsive attitude to 
the questions that have been asked him, and because of his voluntarily 
testifying about other things he was not asked about, I would like 
the record to show that the committee should commend him for his 
testimony before the committee. 

Senator Jenner. The committee does commend you, Mr. Black, 
and furthermore, let me state that it is unusual for this committee 
to get a man who has had past affiliations with the Communist Party 
such as you have had to come out openly and help this committee in 
their effort to stop this Communist conspiracy. 

This particular phase of our study is to look into Communist tactics, 
how they operate in our country. We know they are operating today. 
We know the method of operation continues to change. 

It is our duty as a subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee, a 
Subcommittee on Internal Security, to try to keep abreast of their 
machinations. 

I want to commend you, and I want to thank you for your coopera- 
tion here, and I do believe that the fact that you have come forward 
will give you more protection from the fears you have expressed in 
the past. 

Furthermore, you may encourage others to do the same. 

Thank you very much. 

Mr. Black. Thank you. 

Senator Jenner. You may be excused. 

Do you have any other witnesses? 

Mr. Morris. Apropos of this testimony today, we took testimony 
yesterday from a witness who for security reasons contended that he 
cannot make a public appearance here this morning. 

I would like to read excerpts from this particular testimony, Mr. 
Chairman, into the record, because it bears on the particular testi- 
mony we heard today. 

Senator Jenner. You may proceed. 

Mr. Morris. I will read the questions, and Mr. Alandel will read 
the answers of Mr. Andriyve. 

(The excerpt from the testimony of E. Andriyve, May 16, 1956, was 
read into the record, the questions being read by Mr. Morris, the 
answers being read by Mr. Mandel, and was as follows:) 

Mr. Morris. Were you employed in the Soviet Union during the war? 

Mr. Andriyve. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What position did you have? Describe the position you held 
at that time. 

Mr. Andriyve. Well, that depends on time. Since late 1943 I was in the Red 
army, mobilized along with millions of other people, and during 1944, and pi'ob- 
ably January 1945, I do not remember exactly, I was employed with the Signal 
Corps Military Research Institute in Moscow, in the capacity of researcher. 
That is all so far. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what were the functions of that job? 

Mr. Andriyve. Well, my particular job consisted of editing and seeing that the 
technical magazine of the institute was properly published, so that is editorial and 
publishing functions within the institute. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1125 

In addition to it, I had the function of, I would say, examining a series of docu- 
ments, very many of them, all of them in foreign languages. I would say 90 per- 
cent of them, of American origin, and 10 percent of British and French origin. 

Mr. Morris. Where did these documents come from? 

Mr. Andriyve. I received them from the secret police section, which is with 
every Soviet agency, including our institute. 

Mr. Morris. These documents would be turned over to you by individuals 
who came fron\ the section of the secret police? 

Mr. AxDRiYVE. Yes; such documents are usually kept in the secret police sec- 
tion, attached to this or that Soviet institution, and every major Soviet institution 
has a secret poHce section which is called in Russian "Spetsotdel," which is a 
verv well-known word in Russian and also in the West. 

So, the batch of the documents would be given to me practically every day for 
perusal, examination, and determination of their nature, that is, technical nature, 
with the task to determine how should they be channeled among the Soviet 
institutions dealing with this particular type of science or engineering. 

That means a part of the documents had to do with high power, superhigh 
frequency and ultrahigh frequency tubes that are used for radar. I would classify 
them to be sent to the factories and institutions which dealt with tubes. 

The other part would deal with telephone communications and field conditions. 
I would classify them to be sent along to the Signal Corps Institute, who dealt 
■with telegraphy. 

Still other documents would deal with purely scientific matters which had, at 
least to our viewpoint at that time, no immediate technical application. I would 
classify them separately and to be sent to some pure science organization, and 
so on. 

That was the type of work I had been doing there for over a year. 

]\Ir. Morris. Now, was there anything to indicate the point of origin of these 
documents? You say 90 percent came from the United States? 

Air. Andriyve. Yes; 90 percent came from the United States. That was 
clear and open, because they bore some United States town mark or organization 
mark, or just the letterhead, or something like that. That was clear. 

Now, the shape of the documents were — pardon me. The documents were of, 
I would say, four general shapes. No. 1, printed matter; No. 2, typewritten 
books or pages; No. 3, it would be the photocopies or photostats that evidently 
came in originally from the United States; and, No. 4, the enlargements, blowups 
from microfilms. And of them, very many were printed on the Soviet photopaper. 
So we could safely assume that the microfilms got into Russia from America and 
were developed and enlarged at some local Soviet level. 

And that was the sort of documents I dealt with, and their appearance. 

Mr. Morris. Was there anything on any of the documents that indicated the 
particular place of origin of the documents? 

Mr. Andriyve. I would say that many documents, probably most of them, 
had the indication of the particular place where they originated. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what were some of the places where they originated? 

Mr. Andriyve. Honestly, it is already 12 years after the event, and I forgot 
a lot except for maybe 2, both of them because I saw them quite often on the 
documents. One was Fort Monmouth and the other was RCA. I could not 
tell you, exactly, which of the RCA institutions or laboratories because I just 
do not remember it. 

Mr. Morris. But you do remember that some documents did come from 
RCA? 

Mr. Andriyve. I do remember that many documents bore the trademark of 
RCA. 

Mr. Morris. Did many of them bear the trademark of Fort Monmouth? 

Mr. Andriyve. I would say many. 

Mr. Morris. Many? 

Mr. Andriyve. I would say so. 

Mr. Morris. You do not know whether it was the Signal Corps, whether they 
were Signal Corps documents or just generally Fort Monmouth? 

Mr. Andriyve. I remember in general very many documents dealing with 
radar at that time, so whether these were Signal Corps or any other branch, I 
really cannot tell. 

Mr. Morris. But there is nothing more that you can tell us about the Radio 
Corporation of America documents? 
Mr. Andriyve. I am afraid not. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything more you can tell us about the Fort Monmouth 
documents? Did they appear in quantity? 



1126 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Andriyve. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Did documents from both places appear in quantity? 

Mr. Andriyve. I would say, yes, in quantity. 

Mr. Morris. And what year was this, now? 

Mr. Andriyve. That was 1944. After 1944 I was transferred to the other 
business, doing other business within the radar part. But I saw a friend of 
mine who was doing the same type of work — I saw him repeatedly in 1945 — and 
we talked on the general state of affairs of his work and my work, so he said that 
the flow of documents continued. 

Mr. Morris. And were they contemporaneous documents; I mean, did the 
dates that appeared thereon indicate they were freshly acquired? 

Mr. Andriyve. Yes, sir; the documents I dealt with were fresh and sometimes 
very fresh. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were there any photographs involved? 

Mr. Andriyve. You mean the photographs — pictures of some humans? 

Mr. Morris. Of equipment. 

Mr. Andriyve. Equipment, oh, yes, very much. 

Mr. Morris. There was? 

Mr. Andriyve. Very much. 

Mr. Morris. There w^ere pictures of the equipment. And in addition to radar 
equipment, what else was described? 

Mr. Andriyve. Quite a lot of equipment. As I said, some description of 
Signal Corps, like telephone; telegraph; radio apparatus; some purely theoretical 
papers. 

I should recall a couple of them. It is just difficult offhand when you haven't 
dealt with the subject in a long time. I remember, for example, one theoretical 
paper which we were not particularly interested in, but which proved quite useful 
later here in the West and also in Russia, and that was the simultaneous use of 
two carrier waves of the same frequency shifted by phase. That is a highly tech- 
nical thing, and at that time it looked like a curiosity to us, but now it is quite 
com^monly used here and there. 

Mr. Morris. Did any of these documents bear a classification inark "secret," 
"top secret," "confidential"? 

Mr. Andriyve. Very many of them had classification marks. I would say the 
vast majoritv had some classification, either "secret" or "top secret" or "con- 
fidential." 

Mr. Morris, And how they came into your possession you do not know, e),cept 
for the fact they were given to you by the secret police? 

Mr. Andriyve. I had no way of knowing that. The only thing I coula tell 
you, was just in a facetious vein, we would tell to the secret police officer, "Where 
did you steal them," and he would say, "Shut up, it is none of your business. 
Your business is to try to find out how to use them, and it is our business how to 
get them." 

Mr. Morris. And you say that these documents appeared in great numbers? 

Mr. Andriyve. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. These classified documents? 

Mr. Andriyve. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. From the United States. 

Would you estimate how many such documents? I know it is a hard thing, 
but I wonder if you could estimate approximately how many were turned over 
to your section by the secret police? 

Mr. Andriyve. The grand total for 1944 

Mr. Morris. Of course, that is a big order. Could you give us an approxi- 
mation? 

Mr. Andriyve. Thousands. 

Mr. Morris. Thousands? 

Mr. Andriyve. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, were there other sections which w^ere trans- 
lating and analyzing American confidential and classified documents? 

Mr. Andriyve. Yes. I could say that undoubtedly there were, and many of 
them. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know any of them? 

Mr. Andriyve. I will tell you, indirectly, yes, and I will tell you how. First of 
all, the flow of documents which usually come to me was preclassified by somebody 
or prechanneled by somebody, because I never got any documents on matters 
irrelevant to the electronics and to the radar line. I never had any irrelevant 
documents. All documents were in that line of work, so somebody presorted that 
before sending it to the institute I worked in. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1127 

On the other liaiid, I done a few j)ieces of work for the chanil)er of commerce 
in Moscow. This was editorial work, editing certain translations made for the 
chamber of commerce. There was a lot of descrijjtions of American pieces of 
api)aratus in aviation, in aeronautics, in what they call this tiling — wait a 
moment — when they l)ring down the airplane to the earth 

Mr. Rusher. Ground control? 

Mr. Andriyve. Ground controlled approach — ground controlled approach, 
artillery devices, and many other things. So although I have never dealt with 
those things, I positively know that they existed. 

(Whereupon, at 2:55 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 

Senator Jenner. Are there fui'ther witnesses? 

Mr. Morris. No. 

The next testhnony will be at 10:30 a. m. tomorrow morning. Sena- 
tor, when we will again analj^ze facts about the Soviet redefection 
campaign. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will stand recessed until that 
time. 

(Whereupon, at 11:35 a. m., the committee recessed, to reconvene 
at 10:30 a. m., Friday, May 18, 1956.) 



The following press release of the subcommittee, dated May 21, 
1956, was ordered into the record at a meeting of the subcommittee 
on June 26 : 

Robert Morris, chief counsel of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
today made the following statement: 

"We have just been assured that Thomas L. Black, who testified before the 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee on May 17, will not be dismissed from 
his employment, as was reported last week. 

"Percy Helie, president of the Percy Helie Co., of Worcester, Mass., after con- 
ferring with a staff member of the subcommittee, stated: 'Black is on our payroll 
and is going to stay.' 

"Arthur Schroeder, president of the Atlas Refining Co., where Black works on 
the Percy Helie contract, has assured the subcommittee as follows: 

" 'The Atlas Refining Co. has no intention of penalizing Thomas L. Black for 
his cooperation with the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee. Our concern 
is with the security of our plant and of our country. We wish to cooperate fully 
and we have asked the subcommittee to assist us in obtaining whatever clearance 
may be necessary for Black from the Army, Navy, and Air Force, with which we 
have contracts. If this clearance is obtained, and if our study of the hearing 
transcript satisfies us, we will allow Black to enter the plant.' " 

Senator James O. Eastland (Democrat, of Mississippi), subcommittee chairman, 
who previously commended Helie's stand, expressed his appreciation to the 
Atlas Co. for its promised cooperation. The subcommittee has been assured that 
Black is still on the Helie payroll. 

Mr. Morris said, moreover, that the Internal Security Subcommittee would 
assist the Atlas Co. in obtaining whatever security clearance Black's job requires. 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Fag* 

Aberdeen Proving Ground (Ordnance Department) 1092 

Air Force 1127 

Albuquerque 1094, 1099, 1106 

American 1125, 1127 

Amt org Trading Corp 1089, 1114, 1115, 1119 

Andriyve, E. (excerpt from testimony) 1124-1127 

Armour Engineering Corp 1106 

Army 1090, 1092, 1095, 1097, 1102, 1103, 1105, 1127 

Atlas Refining Co 1127 

Atom bomb 1093, 1096, 1097, 1099 

B 

Barr, Joel 1106, 1107 

Belgium 1107 

Bennett, James (Director of Prisons) 1110 

Berlin blockade 1104 

Black, Thomas L. : 

Testimony of 1113-1124 

708 High Street, Newark, N. J 1113 

Born-Bloomsburg, Pa., July 5, 1907 1113 

Chemist for 26 years 1113 

Member Communist Party, 2 years 1114 

Employment 1127 

Clearance for 1127 

Press release, May 21, 1956 1127 

Bloomsburg, Pa 1113 

Brewster Aeronautical Corp 1105 

British 1125 

Brooklyn Polytechnic 1090 

C 

Catskill Mountains 1109 

Chicago, University of 1095, 1104 

Code word 1123 

Collin, William O., deputy United States marshal 1111 

Communism 1108 

Communist 1091, 1101, 1105, 1110, 1120, 1121, 1122 

Communist cause 1 100 

Communist movement 1117 

Communist Party 1090, 1091, 1093, 1107, 1114, 1116, 1118, 1124 

Communist Party, New York City, section 2, unit 2-B, lower East Side.. 1114 

Coyoacan 1119, 1120 

Cyclotron 1108 

D 

Daily Worker 1090, 1118 

"Dave" 1106 

E 

Emerson Radio Corp 1106 

England 1106 

Espionage 1103, 1117 

Espionage agent 1092, 1106, 1107 



BUS I UN KUBLIU LIBHAHY 



3 9999 05445 4168 



INDEX 
F 



Page 

FBI 1098, 1100, 1101, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1117, 1124 

Federal Penitentiary, Lewisburg, Pa 1089, 1110 

Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians — Man- 
hattan 1105 

Federation of Atomic Scientists 1104 

Fifth amendment 1091 

Finland 1107 

First Armored Division 1103 

First Avenue, New York City 1098 

Fort Monmouth 11 25 

France 1106 

French 1125 

G 

General Motors 1092 

"George" 1119 

German(s) 1092, 1104 

GI bill of rights 1095 

Gold, Harry 1099, 1106, 1110, 1116 

Government 1097, 1100, 1103, 1106 

Grecht, Rebecca, Communist organizer in Newark , 1114 

Greenglass, David: 

Testimony of 1089-1111 

Lewisburg Federal Penitentiarv 1 089 

Reside, New York J 1089 

Born, New York City, 1922 1090 

Haaren Aviation High School 1090 

Brooklyn Polvtechnic 1090 

Army, April i943-February 1946 1092 

Employed, Armour Engineering Corp., 1949 1106 

Attornev, O. John Rogge 1089 

Greenglass, Ruth 1093, 1096 

H 

Haaren Aviation High School, 59th and 10th Avenue, Manhattan 1090 

Harvard 1095 

Helie, Percy 1127 

Hiroshima 1097 

J 

"Jack" _ 1119 

Jenner,'Hon.' William Elllllllllllll 1III11I~I'IIIIII"I"I"II1 1089, 1113 

Jersev Citv, N. J 1114 

Jewish. __'_ 1109 

K 

Katz, Mr 1121, 1122, 1123 

Kentucky 1103 

Krivitsky, Walter 1122 

L 

Lewisburg, Pa 1089 

Los Alamos 1092, 1093, 1095, 1096, 1097, 1099, 1100, 1101 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 1089, 1113, 1124 

Manhattan 1090 

Man hattan Island 1105 

Manhattan Project 1 092 

Marxist Society 1101 

Mc Manus, Robert 1113 

MIT 1095 

Morris, Robert 1089, 1113 

Moscow 1117, 1122, 1124, 1127 

Moscow trials 1117 

1 



INDEX III 

N Page 

Navy 1127 

Nazi Europe 1104 

Newark, N. J 1113, 1114 

New York 1089, 

1000, 1097, 1098, 1099, 1105, 1107, 1114, 1115, 1116, 1117, 1118 

1121. 

New York State College 1107 

Noe, Frank 1111 

O 

Oak Ridge 1092, 1093, 1097 

Oreto, Joseph G., deputy United States marshal 1111 

Ovakimian, Gaik 1114, 1115, 1116 

P 

Percv Helie Co., Worcester, Mass 1127 

Peterson, Paul 1116-1121 

Pitt Machine Products, Inc 1103, 1104 

Pressrelease, May 21, 1956 (Thomas L. Black) 1127 

Princeton 1095 

Q 

Queensborough Bridge 1099 

R 

Rabinowitz, Gregor 1119, 1120 

Rastvorov, Yuri 1115 

RCA 1125 

Red army 1124 

Rio Grande 1094 

Rogge, O. John, attorney for David Greenglass 1089, 1097, 1098 

Rosenberg, Ethel 1093, 1094, 1103, 1109- 

Rosenberg, Julius 1091-1110 

Rosenberg trial 1094 

Rusher, William A 1089, 1113 

Russia 1108, 1125, 1126 

Russian (s) 1093, 1095, 1097, 1098, 1099, 1107, 1108, 1109 

Russian agents 1095, 1116, 1117, 1120, 1122 

Russian Embassies 1095 

S 

Schroeder, Arthur 1127 

"Schwartz, Dr." 1119 

Scotland Yard 1 106 

Secret police section ("Spetsotdel") 1125 

Sem.enov, Semon 1119 

Sibelius, Jan 1107 

Signal Corps 1106, 1125, 1126 

Signal Corps Institute 1125 

Signal Con:)s Military Research Institute, Moscow 1124 

Sing Sing Prison 1109 

Socialist: 1101 

Socialist Party of America 1118 

Socialist Workers' Part v 1118 

South Gate, Calif I 1092 

Soviet 1093, 1104, 1125 

Soviet agents. {See Russian agents.) 

Soviet conspiracy 1 097 

Soviet consulate in New York 1089 

Soviet delegation 1094 

Soviet delegation at the United Nations 1089 

Soviet Embassy 1094 

Soviet espionage 1091. 1123 

Soviet Government 1095 

Soviet intelligence 1094, 1 104 

Soviet intelligence operators 1089 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Soviet Red Cross 1119 

Soviet redefection campaign 1127 

Soviet secret police 1115 

Soviet Union 1091, 1092, 1110, 1114, 1117, 1120, 1124 

Sperry 1107 

"Spetsotdel" 1125 

Stockholm 1107 

Stuart-Poyntz, Juliet 1122 

Stuyvesant High School 1105 

T 

Times Square 1115 

Trans-Lux Theater (Washington, D. C.) 1123 

Tresca, Carlo 1121, 1122 

Trotsky 1120, 1121 

Assassination of 1120, 1122 

Organization 1119 

Trotskyists 1122 

Trotskyite 1117, 1118 

U 

UAW 1105 

UCLA 1101 

Union Square 1105 

United Nations 1089, 1098 

United States 1089, 1105, 1108, 1115, 1125, 1126 

United States colleges 1 104 

W 

Washington 1108, 1111 

Watkins, Miss (codeword) 1123 

Welker, Hon. Herman 1089 

Western Europe 1107 

Worcester, Mass ..__-.._- 1127 

Y 

York Avenue 1099 

Young Communist League 1090, 1091, 1097, 1107 

O 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THH 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAEY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



APRIL 24, MAY 2, 1956 



PART 22 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Public Liorar^- 
Superintendent of Documents 

DEC 1 7 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Secubiti 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

ROBEBT MoEEis, Chief Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director oj Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Witnesses: ^ase 

Fujii, Shuji 1144 

Koten, Bernard L 11 83 

Mills, George 1168 

North, Joseph 1153 

Smith, Jessica 1129 

in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, APRIL 24, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the Internal 

Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, 

of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 11 : 15 a. m., in room 
104-B, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker presiding. 

Present : Senator Welker. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, re- 
search director ; and William A. Rusher, administrative counsel. 

Senator Welker. Come to order. 

Call your first witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mr, Chairman, there were four witnesses scheduled for 
today. Three of them we have heard in executive session; one we 
were not able to reach because of the lateness of the hour. And there 
will be two witnesses in open session here this morning. The first 
witness will be Jessica Smith. 

Senator Welker. Will you take the stand here ? Raise your right 
hand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the subcom- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Miss Smith. I do. 

Senator Welker. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF JESSICA SMITH, NEW YORK, N. Y., ACCOMPANIED 
BY JOSEPH FORER, HER ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
Miss Smith ? 

Miss Smith. My name is Jessica Smith. My married name is Jes- 
sica Smith Abt. My address is 444 Central Park West, New York 
City. 

I would like at this point to vigorously protest this hearing as an 
invasion 

(Senator Welker gavels.) 

Miss Smith. Invasion of the freedom of the press, just as the New 
York Times had to so protest, and I seriously object to the whole idea 
of my work for American-Soviet understanding and friendship and 
peace being considered under the head of anything subversive, particu- 
larly in view of the fact that President Eisenhower recognized this 
same point of view when he went to Geneva last summer. 

1129 



1130 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. I think you have qualified your statement. Are 
you ready to proceed ? 

Miss Smith. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

And will you confine your answers, please, to his questions ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the subcommittee has been holding 
hearings since February of this year in an effort to determine, for 
legislative action, the nature and extent of Soviet activity in the 
United States. This committee has received evidence that the witness 
here today is a member of the Communist Party and that for many 
years she has been actively engaged in Soviet propaganda. And in 
order to live up to this obligation of trying to determine to what extent 
Soviet propaganda and Soviet activity operate in the United States, 
this witness has been called here today. 

Senator Welicer. Very well. 

Proceed with your questioning. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you are the wife of John Abt, are you not, Miss 
Smith? 

Miss Smith. lam. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you marry John Abt ? 

Miss Smith. In 1937. 

Mr. Morris. Had you previously been the wife of Harold Ware ? 

Miss Smith. I must claim my privilege not to answer these ques- 
tions, first of all, under the first amendment of the Constitution guar- 
anteeing freedom of the press and speech ; also, I claim my privileges 
imder the fifth amendment not to testify against myself. 

Senator Welker. At this point the chairman is going to order and 
direct you to answer the question as to whether you were the wife of a 
Mr. Ware. 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Senator Welker. I do not think it comes under the heading of the 
objections that you have been taking advantage of. 

Miss Smith. I beg your pardon. I didn't hear the last. 

Senator Welker. I say, I do not think your objection will cover 
tlie testimony on the question of whether you were the wife of Mr. 
Ware, Mr. Fuller, Mr. Jones, or anybody else. 

Miss Smith. I abide by my privilege. I see no connection between 
my 

Senator Welker. All right. You do not need to argue it. Now, 
just take your own advantage of the amendment. You refuse in the 
face of a direct order. That is all you have to do. You do not need 
to debate it. 

Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Harold Ware? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer for the same reasons I have given 
before. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Smith, where were you born ? 

Miss Smith. I was born in Madison, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your education ? 

Miss Smith. My education was, for my intermediate and high- 
school training, at Friends Seminary, New York City. Following 
that, I went to Swarthmore College, from which I graduated in 1915. 
And it was this Quaker background in my education, influencing me, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1131 

that gave me my interest to work for peace and international under- 
standing. 

Mr. Morris. And it is that that yon are pursuing now ; is that right? 

Miss Smith. That is what I am pursuing now. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any postgraduate degrees ? 

Miss Smith. No; no postgraduate degrees. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what is your present occupation ? 

Miss Smith. I am the editor of New World Review. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what is New World Review ? 

Miss Smith. New World Review is a magazine which, first of all, 
I would say, is concerned with peace and international understand- 
ing. We report on matters in the Soviet Union, the eastern European 
countries, China, and many other parts of the world. We do what- 
ever we can to get direct information on internal events and we do a 
great deal of work in the field of reporting and analyzing foreign 
relations with a particular view always of trying to bring about better 
international understanding, solving problems by negotiation, and 
world peace. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is the circulation of your publication? 

Miss Smith. As I told you before, we prefer not to make it public, 
but if it is necessary, our circulation today is quite small. It is 
probably a little below 8,000. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Miss Smith. It has been much larger in previous years. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is the maximum circulation that you have had ? 

Miss Smith. The maximum circulation was 120,000 during the 
years of the war when our countries, the Soviet Union and our country, 
the United States, when these two countries were allies in the war 
against fascism. At that time, it was our highest point. 

Mr. Morris. Was that a paid subscription of 120,000 ? 

Miss Smith. It was for the most part. Yes; I would say it was 
practically entirely. I mean, there may have been a certain amount 
of exchange, through agencies, and so on. 

Mr. Morris. Were there any large blocks at that time, of sub- 
scribers ? 

Miss Smith. "Wliat do you mean ? 

Mr. Morris. I mean, an organization taking many, many sub- 
scriptions. 

Miss Smith. I don't know about that ; no. 

Mr. Morris. So, for the most part, it was individual subscriptions? 

Miss Smith. It was, for the most part, individual. We had certain 
bundle orders, bookstore shipments, and sales, and so on, but no large 
blocks. 

Mr. Morris. Does your publication exist on the weight of the sub- 
scriptions, the money that you collect from subscriptions 

Miss Smith. No. 

Mr. Morris. And from advertising? 

Miss Smith. No. 

Mr. Morris. How do you make up whatever deficit there is? 

Miss Smith. We make that up by contributions, by constant appeals. 

Mr. Morris. Who are the contributors who make up the deficit? 

Miss Smith. Well, there are a great many of them, and I wouldn't 
care to give the names. In the first place, I couldn't possibly give 
their names, because there have been thousands over the years. 



1132 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris, Yes. But you say there are particular subscribers who 
do make up the deficit ? 

Miss Smith. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would, Miss Smith, gather together 
that information and let us know who they are. 

Miss Smith. Well, that is a very serious question, to gather to- 
gether that information. I don't even know whether we have it over 
any period of time. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this. Miss Smith. To your knowledge, are 
any of these people Communists ? 

Miss Smith. To my knowledge, are any of them Communists? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, the people who make up the difference. 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. There are a lot of people involved. It seems to me 
that I can certainly only claim my privilege and refuse to answer 
on the basis of the reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Avhat individual made the largest contribution 
to your publication during the past year ? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the basis of my previous reasons. 

Senator Welker. The Chair is going to order and direct you to 
answer that question. 

Miss Smith. I abide by my refusal. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us how long this present publication 
has been in existence ? What did you say the name of the publication 
is? 

Miss Smith. The name of the publication now is New World 
Review. 

Mr. Morris. New World Review. Now, how long has it been known 
as New World Review? 

Miss Smith. It has been known as New World Review since — I 
believe it was 1950. I can check the date, but I believe it was the 
winter of 1950. 

Mr. Morris. And prior to that it was known as Soviet Russia 
Today ; is that correct ? 

Miss Smith. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long did it exist as Soviet Russia Today ? 

Miss Smith. It existed since the year 1932. 

Mr. Morris. And the subscription varied to the extent that you 
have testified here today, a peak of 120,000 ? 

Miss Smith. I don't know about the earlier years before I was 
editor. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did you first become editor? 

Miss Smith. I became editor in the spring, I believe, of 1936. 

(A reproduction of the contents page of the May 1936 issue of 
Soviet Russia Today was later ordered into the record at this point, 
marked "Exhibit No. 250," and reads as follows :) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1133 

Exhibit No. 250 

[Soviet Russia Today, May 1936] 

CONTBINTS 

Editorial Notes 5 

Spring Sowing 7 

Jessica Smith 
Workers of Magnitogorsk 9 

Jack Scott 
May Day, Drawing 10 

Grischa Metlay 
In Defense of Peace 11 

Romain Rolland 
Soviet Vets 12 

Harold Hiekerson 
Heroism 13 

Mikhail Koltsov 
Social Security — Soviet Style 15 

Jill Martin 
I Love 16 

Alexander Avdeyenko 
May Day in IMoscow 18 

Walter Duranty 

Facts and Figures 20 

I Visit the Red Army 21 

Arthur Behrstock 

Letters 24 

FSU Tour 30 

Your Questions Answered 31 

Jessica Smith, editor ; John Gilmore, assistant editor ; Alexander Lev, business 

manager 

Editorial board : Theodore Bayer, Fred Briehl, Naomi Davis, Robert W. Dunn, 
Herbert Goldfrank, A. A. Heller, Hays Jones, Myra Page, Edwin Seaver 

CONTKIBUTORS 

Julien Bryan, one of whose photographs appears on the opposite page, is a 
lecturer and photographer. His fine newsreels of the Soviet Union are an 
important factor in creating a better understanding of life in the U. S. S. R. 

Jack Scott is the son of Scott Nearing. He has worked in Magnitogorsk for 
several years as an acetylene welder, and is now studying to be an engineer at 
the night Engineering Institute in Magnitogorsk. 

Grischa Metlay is a newcomer among our artist contributors. He designed 
the cover of our JNIarch issue. 

Romain Rolland is known everywhere as one of the world's great writers and 
a champion of human rights. 

Harold Hiekerson is a leader in the progressive veterans' movement in this 
country and coauthor with Maxwell Anderson of Gods of the Lightning. 

Jill Martin is a writer and authority on Soviet affairs. She has made a 
special study of the question of Social Insurance in the U. S. S. R. 

Alexander Avdeyenko is a young Soviet writer, who is also an engineer at 
Magnitogorsk. 

Mikhail Koltsov is the leading columnist of the Soviet Union, and has con- 
tributed a great deal to the new Soviet literature. 

Walter Duranty needs no introduction to our readers. In Soviet Russia since 
1921 as correspondent of the New York Times, he has written the most brilliant 
and enlightening dispatches of any foreign correspondent. His most recent 
book is I Write as I Please, a current best seller. 

Arthur Behrstock is a young Chicago newspaperman who was a member of 
the staff of the Moscow Daily News last year. He has just returned from the 
Soviet Union. 



72723—56 — pt. 22- 



1134 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

With this issue the price of Soviet Russia Today becomes 15 cents a copy. 

Mounting paper prices and printing costs together with our plans to make 
Soviet Russia Today a steadily improving magazine make necessary the small 
advance in price. The subscription price remains $1.00 per year. 

We feel confident our readers will welcome a policy which is directed towards 
giving you a better, a larger, and finer printed magazine and which, too, enables 
us to expand the circulation steadily into every nook and corner of America. 

Of course, we would like to have every reader a subscriber. If you are not a 
subscriber, become one now. One month from today, the June issue will appear 
on the newsstands. The cover of the June issue will be the most beautiful and 
effective we have ever carried. Other features include an interview with Alfred 
Lunt on the Soviet Theater ; an article by Joris Ivens, noted Dutch film director 
who worked with Pudovkin in the Soviet Union ; a description of Soviet col- 
lectives by Carl Hansen ; a review of Anna Loiiise Strong's new book, This 
Soviet World, by Edwin Seaver ; Vacations for All, by Myra Page. 

(Vol. 5, No. 5, May 1936. Entered as Second Class Matter, April 25, 1932, at 
the Post Oflice at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. Subscription 
$1.00 per year ; 60 cents for 6 months. Published monthly by F. S. U. Publica- 
tions, Inc., Suite 401, 824 Broadway, New York, N. Y.) 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do prior to that time ? 

Mr. FoREE. You mean immediately prior ? 

Miss Smith. What do you mean by "prior" ? 

Senator Welker. "Before." 

Mr. Morris. Before you became editor of Soviet Russia Today. 

Mr. Forer. Immediately. 

Miss Smith. You mean just immediately ? 

Mr. Morris. What was your previous employment prior to receiv- 
ing the editorship ? 

Mr. Forer. You mean immediately prior ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. Well, immediately prior, I had taken a short trip to 
the Soviet Union ; and, before that, I had been working at the Soviet 
Embassy, a job that grew out of editing the bulletin which was 
originally published by the Soviet Information Bureau. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that. Miss Smith? 

Miss Smith. AYhat shall I tell you about it? 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of the job? T\^iat was the na- 
ture of the editing that you did ; what was the nature of the bulletin? 

Miss Smith. At the time when there were no relations, no diplo- 
matic relations, between our two countries, there was an information 
bureau of the Soviet Union here in Washington which issued a 
monthly bulletin — I believe it was called the Soviet Union Review — 
which simply reported items from the Soviet press, documents, and 
so on. It was just a bulletin, not a magazine of opinion in any way, 
just a reportorial sort of bulletin. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do with that ? 

Miss Smith. I was the editor of it, in the sense of gathering mate- 
rial. 

Mr. Morris. What was the circulation of that particular publica- 
tion ? 

Miss Smith. I haven't the slightest idea. It wasn't a very big circu- 
lation, but I have no idea. 

Mr. Morris. Was Boris Skvirsky connected with that publication? 

Miss Smith. He was the head of the information bureau at that 
time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1135 

Mr. Morris. And you worked for him ? 

Miss Smith. I worked for him. 

Mr. Morris. And then your next employment after that was your 
work for the Soviet Union Today? 

Miss Smith. Then when recognition came — that was in the fall 
of 1933 — the information bulletin continued for just a few months, 
because at that time, as a part of the whole agreement, it was decided 
that neither country should carry on particular publications in the 
other country. So the publication was stopped and for a short time 
thereafter I remained at the Embassy doing stuff on informational 
work, getting material from the Soviet press, and answering ques- 
tions, and so on. 

Mr. Morris. Now, your output as a writer has been, you might 
say, prodigious, has it not, Miss Smith? 

Miss Smith. (No response.) 

Mr. Morris. 1 liave here before me, prepared by the Library of 
Congress, a list of articles that you have written from 1937 to 1954. 
Just the mere listing of them covers five pages. I wonder if you 
would just look at that list of publications and tell us whether or not 
that is correct. 

Miss Smith. I couldn't possibly, going through this list, remember 
the titles of every article. As the editor of the magazine, naturally I 
have written for it in every single issue. 

]\Ir. Morris. I mean, you do not see any articles there that are not 
your articles ? 

Miss Smith. In general, I can't possibly make a sweeping, absolutely 
categorical answer. I would have to stop and check every one, and 
it is very possible that there may be something here I didn't write. I 
have to say that. 

Mr. Morris. But to your knowledge 

Senator Welker. It is very possible that you wrote them all ? 

Miss Smith. It is possible, but I couldn't possibly give 

Senator Welker. I understand. 

Miss Smith. I don't remember the titles of all of the articles written 
over all the years, by any means, but I have written articles constantly 
for the magazine over these years. 

Mr. Morris. There are 98 articles from Soviet Russia Today and 
the New World Review. Ninety-eight they number. Now, have you 
written articles for other publications ? 

Miss Smith. I have written very few. 

Mr. Morris. For other publications ? 

Miss Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Principally, what have they been ? 

Miss Smith. I just don't know. 

Mr. Morris. You cannot recall any other articles that you have 
written other than the articles for Soviet Russia Today ? 

Miss Smith. No. 

Mr. Morris. Have you written articles under a name other than 
your own ? 

ISIiss Smith. I decline to answer on the grounds I have previously 
stated. 

Mr. Morris. What are those grounds ? 

Miss Smith. My privilege under the first amendment and under 
the fifth amendment not to testifv against mvself. 



1136 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. The Chair recognizes the objections made under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Smith, I offer you a list of 8 books compiled by 
the Library of Congress and ask you whether or not you have written, 
translated, or edited those 8 books. 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. Well, there is one down here, "By Miss Smith.'' It is 
a translation, Over the North Pole. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

A translation of someone else's book ? 

Miss Smith. That is right. 

Oh, I see it does say "translated." And on this U. S. S. R. And 
World Peace, by Vyshinskii, I remember I did some editorial work, 
but only in the sense of a condensation or something like that. There 
was no editing of the material as such. 

Mr. Morris. Otherwise, that list is correct ? 

Miss Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may that whole paper, prepared by the 
Library of Congress and established or Tnodified to the extent iit has 
been by the witness today, be received into the record? 

Senator Welker. It will be so ordered. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit No. 250-A" and 
read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 250-A 

A List of Books by Jessica Smith 

Smith, Jessica. The American people want peace ; a survey of public opinion. 

New York. S. E. T. Publication. 195.5. 47 pp. 

Jungle law or human reason. 1949. [From Who's Who, 1956.] 

Negotiations : the way to peace. 1954. [From Who's Who, 1956.] 

Over the North Pole, by George Baidukov. tr. by Jessica Smith. Nev7 

York, Harcourt Brace. 1938. 99 p. TL721.B27A32 

People come first. New York, International Publications. 1948. 254 p. 



DK32.S58 

The U. S. S. R. and world peace, by Andrei Vyshinskii. ed. by Jessica 



Smith. New York, International Publications, 1949. 128 p. DK273.V9 

War and peace in Finland, a documented survey, prepared * * * by Allen 



Brody, Theodore M. Bayer * * * [and] .Jessica Smith. New York, Soviet 
Russia Today, 1940. 128 p. DK459.5.W29 

Woman in soviet Russia. New York, Vanguard Press, 1928. 216 p. 



HQ1662.S5 

Articles in the New World RE\rtEW (Formerly Soviet Russia Today) Written 

BY Jessica Smith 

1937 

After twenty years. Statistics of socialist victory gathered from Soviet reports 
prepared for the twentieth anniversary. Dec. 1937, p. 11. 

America welcomes the flyers. Aug. 1937, p. 8. 

Changing man : the Soviet education system by Beatrice King. Reviewed by 
Jessica Smith, Jan. 1937, p. 28. 

The end of Socialism in Russia, by Max Eastman. Reviewed by Jessica Smith, 
April 1937, p. 27. 

1938 

A people's army. April 1938, p. 18. 

A reply to Malcolm Cowley. Aug.-Sept. 1938, p. 28. 

Brusskin. Aug.-Sept. 1938, p. 14. 

Democracy in action. July 1938, p. 13. 

The People's Congress meets. Feb. 1938, p. 9. 

The "Rodina" flies east. Dec. 1938, p. 16. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1137 

1039 

Economic advances in 1938. Feb. 1939, p. 24. 
The Soviet Union — its land and its resources. Sept. 1939, p. 14. 
We didn't aslc Utopia, by Harry and Rebecca Timbres. Reviewed by Jessica 
Smith. July-Aug. 1939, p. 32. 

1940 

Lieht on Moscow : Soviet policy analyzed, by D. N. Pritt, K. C, M. P. Reviewed 

by Jessica Smith. Jan. 1940, p. 28. 
Must the war spread? by D. N. Pritt, K. C, M. P. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. 

April 1940, p. 27. 
The new Soviet countryside. Nov. 1940, p. 16. 
Socialism comes to new regions. March 1940, p. 10. 

1941 

American-Soviet friendship. Nov. 1941, p. 9. 

Labor reserve schools open. Jan. 1941, p. 12. 

Soviet foreign trade. March 1941, p. 12. 

This is not time for tears. Oct. 1941, p. 20. 

We will not stand on the sidelines. Dec. 1941, p. 20. 

1942 

American Soviet Friendship Congress. Report. Dec. 1942, p. 7. 

On Lt. Pavllchenko. Oct. 1942, p. 8. 

"Second-front dinner" of American Council on Soviet Relations. Report. July 

1942, p. 8. 
To Soviet women. March 1942, p. 10. 
A text for any kind of sermon. Review of book by John Scott. Aug. 1942, p. 23. 

1943 

Behind the soviet victories. Sept. 1943, p. 16. 
The production front. Jan. 1943, p. 5. 
Soviet women in the war. April 1943, p. 14. 

1944 

The human story of Dnieprostroy. A review of Wild River by Anna Louise 

Strong. Jan. 1944, p. 26. 
Moscow, Cairo, and Teheran. Jan. 1944, p. 5. 
The ship didn't sink. A review of My Lives in Russia by Markoosha Fischer. 

June 1944, p. 28. 
White yacht with silver sails, a short story by Benjamin Kaverin. Translated 

by Jessica Smith, March 1944, p. 24. 
Editorials. Review and Comment. Feb.-Dec. 1944, p. 5. 

1946 

Baku — city of wind, oil and culture. March 1946, p. 11. 
Children of Rostov. Sept. 1946, p. 20. 
Human beings come first. Dec. 1946, p. 16. 
Life on a collective farm. Jan. 1946, p. 8. 
Mayor Popkov of Leningrad. April 1946, p. 20. 
North shore invasion. Sept. 1946, p. 29. 
On a Soviet freighter. May 1946, p. 16. 
Reconstruction in Rostov. Aug. 1946, p. 23. 
Reconversion for peace. July 1946, p. 14. 
Rostov schools rise from the ashes. Oct. 1946, p. 20, 
What do the Russians know of us. June 1946, p. 23. 
Editorials. Review and Comment. Jan.-Dec. 1946, p. 5. 
Stalingrad — forever a symbol. Feb. 1946, p. 7. 



1138 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

1948 

American-Soviet relations — the key to peace. Nov. 1948, p. 4. 

Keep the door wide open — to a century of peace. June 1948, p. 4. 

Made in Germany — the Nazi-Soviet documents. March 1948, p. 6. 

People come first. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. Dec. 1948, p. 22. 

The road to higher education. Aug. 1948, p. 10. 

The soviet position on atomic energy. Oct. 1948, p. 9. 

The soviet school system. July 1948, p. 15. 

Soviet teachers discuss their problems. Jan. 1948, p. 14. 

Soviet women, their worli, their families, their desires. March 1948, p. 15. 

War propaganda from Hollywood. Feb. 1948, p. 19. 

What the Marshall Plan really is. Feb. 1948, p. 6. 

The cold war, a study in U. S. foreign policy. Reviewed by Jessica Smith, Jan. 

1948, p. 24. 
Editorials. Review and Comment. Jan.-Sept. 1948, p. 4. Dec. 1948, p. 4. 

1949 

Comment on the case of Anna Louise Strong, May 1949, p. 3. 
For an atomic era of peace. Dec. 1949, p. 5. 
Soviet trade union democracy. Dec. 1948, p. 18. 

The tenth Soviet Trade Union Congress. Oct. 1949, p. 12 ; Dec. 1949, p. 18. 
32 years of progress and a struggle of peace. Nov. 1949, p. 4. 
Tito and the plot against the peace. Oct. 1949, p. 4. 
In anger and pity. Reviewed by Jessica Smith, July 1949, p. 23. 
The Philosophy of Peace. Reviewed by Jessica Smith, Aug. 1949, p. 23. 
Editorials. Review and Comment. Jan.-April 1949, p. 4. May 1949, p. 5. 
June-Sept. 1949, p. 4. 

1950 

Again the goose step. Reviewed by Jessica Smith, April 1950, p. 22. 
Berlin Command. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. April 1950, p. 22. 
Atomic energy and soceity. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. April 1950, p. 23. 
Background of the Korean conflict. Aug. 1950, p. 13. 
The battle of Berlin. July 19-50, p. 21. 
The big truth and the bii: lie. Oct. 1950, p. 14. 
H. W. L. Dana, Memorial Address. July 1950, p. 20. 
Decision in Germany. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. June 1950, p. 25. 
The Hungarian Trial and Yugoslavia. Jan. 1950, p. 14. 
The last optimist. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. May 1950, p. 24. 
Lenin ( film ) . Reviewed by Jessica Smith. May 1950, p. 26. 
Soviet Russia Today title changed to New World Review, Jan. 1951, p. 2. 
Soviet struggle for peace 1917-1950. Nov. 1950, p. 2. 
The U. N. General Assembly fourth session. March 1950, p. 8. 
Editorials. Review and Comment. Jan.-July 1950, p. 4; Sept.-Oct. 1950, p. 4; 
Dec. 1950-Jan. 1951, p. 4. 

1951 

You can win the peace. April 1951, p. 9. 

Editorial. Review and Comment. March 1951, p. 33. 

1953 

Postmarked Moscow by Lydia Kirk. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. Jan. 1953, 

p. 62. 
In battle for peace by W. E. B. Dubois. Reviewed by Jessica Smith. Jan, 1953, 

p. 5S. 

1954 

The Berlin Conference and after. March 1954, p. 3. 

Geneva and Peace. May 1954., p. 3. 

37th anniversary of the U. S. S. R. Nov. 1954, p. 3. 

People's China in world affairs. Aug. 1954, p. 3. 

United action for peace. April 1954, p. 3. 

How the McCarron Act threatens you. Jan. 1954, p. 3. 

Geneva — and after. Sept. 1953, p. 3. 

For a peaceful foreign policy. Oct. 1954, p. 4. 

The two roads before us. Feb. 1954, p. 3. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1139 

Mr. ^Morris. Miss Smith, wliat languages do you know — do you 
speak and write ? 

Miss SiNtiTii. I know well only my own language. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

You have done some translating. 

Miss Smith. I learned Russian to the extent that I can speak it very 
badly and can translate it. I feel I have a fairly good reading and 
translation knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. How much time have you spent in the Soviet Union? 

Miss Smith. Well, all together, on various trips, it would come to 
somewhere around 4V2 to 5 years. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. How many trips have you taken to the Soviet Union ? 

Miss S]MiTH. To the Soviet Union '? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Miss Smith. Four. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the duration of the longest one ? 

Miss Smith. The longest trip was my first trip, when I was with the 
American Friends Service Committee, as a relief worker in the work 
that was done under the Hoover American Eelief Administration 

Mr. Morris. That was back in 1922 and 1924 ? 

Miss Smith. 1922. 

Mr. Morris. And then what has been your latest trip ? 

Miss Smith. My latest trip was at the end of the war, 1945 — 3 
months. 

Mr. Morris. That was of 3 months' duration. 

Now, have you seen this listing in Who's Wlio, Miss Smith? They 
list your trips there. 

Mr. FoRER. What is the question ? 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen that ? 

Miss Smith. Yes, I have seen it. 

Mr. ^f ORRIS. Are the trips described therein accurate? Are they 
accurately described ? 

Mr. FoRER. I am not clear about "accurately described." 

Mr. Morris. Doesn't it mention when she has been in the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. Forer. Aren't there two? There was one from 1922 to 1924. 
Another one is 1926 to 1928. Then there are two others, then 1935 and 
1945. 

I mean, are those dates right ? Is that the question ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Forer. Go ahead. Answer that. Are the dates correct ? 

Miss Smith. Yes, I think the dates are correct. 

Mr. Morris. May that go in the record, Mr. Chairman ? 

Senator Weeker. That is admitted. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 251" and reads 
as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 251 
[Who's Who, p. 2559] 

Jessica Smith 

Smith, Jessica, author, editor ; h. Madison, N. .T., Nov. 20, 189.5 : d. Walter 
(Granville-Smith, N. A., artist) and Jessie INIay (Stout) Smith; A. B., Swarth- 
more Coll., 1915; m. Harold M. Ware, January 1925 (Died Aug. 1.3, 1935) ; 1 son, 
David Ware: ni. 2d, John Abt, Mar. 1987. Writer Phila. N. American, 1911-12; 
organizer and speaker woman's suffrage movement ; famine relief work and 



1140 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

publicity Am. Friends' Service Com. in Russia, 1922-24; mem. Russian Recon- 
struction Farms (Am.), U. S. S. R., N. Caucasus, 1926-28; editor Soviet Union 
Review, Washington, D. C, 1929-33; toured U. S. S. R, 1935 and 1945; editor 
Soviet Russia Today (Am. mag.) since 1936. Author: Woman in Soviet Russia, 
1928; War and Peace in Finland (with Bayer and Brody), 1940; People Come 
First, 1948. Translator: Over the Pole, by George Baidukov, 1938. Home: 
444 Central Park West, New York 25, N. Y. Address : 114 E. 32d St., New York 
16, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Did you answer the question, Miss Smith, about what 
was the duration of your longest trip there? 

Miss Smith. I did. 

Mr. Morris. How long was that? 

Miss Smith. It was nearly 3 years, when I was with the American 
Friends Service Committee. 

Mr. Morris. You were there for 3 years? 

Miss Smith. Yes ; practically 3 years. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you worked with a man named Robert W. 
Dunn? 

Robert W. Dunn, for your information. Miss Smith, was 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. I am not clear when you say "worked with," if you 
mean in association with him or 

jSIr. Morris. Did you have the same Communist assignment to- 
gether with him ? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds I gave 
before. 

Mr. Morris. Does that include your invocation of privilege under 
the fifth amendment? 

Miss Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you personally met Robert W. Dunn? 

Miss Smith. He was in the Soviet Union with the Quaker organ- 
ization at the time I was. 

Mr. Morris. Now, to your knowledge, was he doing undercover 
work for the Communist Party? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the grounds given previously. 

Mr. Morris. Did you assist him in any undercover work for the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. FoRER. What do you mean by "undercover" ? 

Mr. Morris. Illegal. 

Mr. FoRER. Illegal? 

Miss Smith. Certainly not. I was engaged 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever done any work for him in connection 
with an assignment from the Communist Party ? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Senator Welker. Counsel, may I admonish you, if the witness wants 
some help, she will ask you for it. 

Mr. FoRER. All right. 

Miss Smith. I am turning to him in perplexity. 

Senator Welker. I happened to be seated very close to you. I did 
not hear you ask him. Let us not argue about the matter. 

Miss Smith. Is that a request or not ? 

Senator Welker. It is not very funny. Let us go on with the 
proposition. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1141 

Miss Smith. No, I don't think it is very funny, eitlier. But with 
such extraordinaiy questions, I don't know how to answer them. 

Mr. MoKRis. Mr. Chairman, the reason for the questions is that we 
have received information that the witness today has been closely asso- 
ciated at some time in the past with Robert W. Dunn in connection 
with clandestine activities of the Communist Party, and we are trying 
to determine the nature of them. 

Now, ]Miss Smith, if you would tell us to what extent you have been 
associated with Mr. Dunn, maybe we can form some kind of conclusion 
about the nature of that information. 

Senator Welker. If you want advice from counsel, you ask him. 

Mr. FoRER. I would like to know the question, now. The question 
is 

Mr. Morris. I put all the questions, counsel, into that framework. 

Senator Welkeh. What is the pending question ? 

Mr. Morris. What is the pending question, Mr. Reporter? 

Senator Welker. Read the question, Mr. Reporter. 

(Question read by reporter.) 

Mr. FoRER. I haven't heard any question. 

Mr. Morris. What has been your association with Robert W. Dunn ? 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. I decline to answer on the grounds already given. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Smith, when you were the wife of Harold Ware, 
did you ever attend meetings of the Ware cell of the Communist Party 
in Washington? 

Miss Smith. I decline to answer on the grounds I have previously 
given. 

Mr. Morris. Did you first meet your present husband, John Abt, in 
connection with meetings of the Harold Ware cell of the Communist 
Party in Washington in the early 1930's ? 

( The witness consults with her attorney. ) 

Mr. FoRER. May we have the question again ? 

Will you read it? 

Mr. Morris. I asked her, did she first meet her present husband, 
John Abt, in connection with meetings of the Harold Ware cell of 
the Communist Party in Washington in the early 1930's. 

(The witness consults with her attorney.) 

Miss Smith. I first met John Abt at some social affair in Washing- 
ton. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Was that prior to 1932? 

Miss Smith. At the moment I don't recall the date. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever attend any meeting with John Abt at 
the Harold Ware cell of the Communist Party in Washington ? 

Miss Smith. I claim my jn-ivilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Do vou know Algei- Hiss ? Have you ever met Alger 
Hiss? 

Miss Smith. T claim my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever attend meetings of the Harold Ware cell 
at which was present Alger Hiss? 

Miss Smith. I claim my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever attend any meetings of the Harold AVare 
cell at which was present Donald Hiss? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the basis already given. 



72723— 5&—pt. 22- 



1142 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended meetings of the Harold Ware cell 
of the Communist Party at whicli was present Lee Pressman? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the grounds ah^eady given. 

Mr. Morris. The same question, with Charles Kramer ? 

Miss Smith, I refuse to answer on the grounds already given. 

Mr. Morris. Victor Perlo? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the grounds already given. 

Mr. Morris. Now, to your knowledge. Miss Smith, have agents of 
the Soviet military intelligence met in your apartment ? 

Miss Smith. Certainly not. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, do you remember having a meeting in your apartment at which 
was present Elizabeth Bentley ? 

Miss Smith. I have no knowledge of any of those meetings. 

Mr. Morris. You do not remember Elizab<p>H B^»\tley meeting in 
your home ? 

Miss Smith. I have no knowledge of any such meeting. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with the testimony of Elizabeth 
Bentley that she met for the purposes of carrying out espionage for 
Soviet military intelligence in the home of John Abt? Do you know 
that? 

Miss Smith. I have read a great many scurrilous statements by 
stoolpigeons in the press. 

Mr. Morris. That is hardly a proper attitude to take. Miss Smith. 
We are trying to ask you questions as a result of your own experience. 

Miss Smith. I told you that I knew nothing about any such meet- 
ino-. I answered it. 

Mr. Morris. Were you present at any such meeting ? 

Miss Smith. I was present at no such meeting. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you lived at 444 Central Park West ? 

Miss Smith. I don't know whether it is 11 or 12 years. I have 
forgotten. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you cannot recall Eliza- 
beth Bentley holding meetings or attending meetings in your apart- 
ment at 444 Central Park West? 

Miss Smith. It is. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet a person there under the name of 
Helen? 

Miss Smith. What is it ? 

Mr. Morris. Helen, without giving any last name. 

Miss Smith. I know nothing about any such person. 

Mr. Morris. Have you spoken at Cornell University, Miss Smith? 

Miss Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us under what auspices you spoke there ? 

Miss Smith. I have forgotten. Some combined group of youth 
organizations, as far as I remember. 

Mr. Morris. Was your appearance there arranged by a Communist 
Party organizer, to your knowledge? 

Miss Smith. No. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I think I have no more questions of 
this witness at this time. 

Senator Welker. I have no questions of the witness. She is excused. 

Thank you very much. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1143 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Cluiirman, may I recall the witness? I am sorry. 
There was something I forgot to ask. 

Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss S^iiTH. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Conmumist Party dur- 
ing the period that you have been editor of Soviet llussia Today and 
the New World Review ? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist when you worked for the Soviet 
Information Bureau? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist when you went to the Soviet 
Union under the auspices of the American Friends Service Committee 
from 1922 to 1924? 

Miss Smith. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously given. 

Mr. Morris. All right, Senator. I have no more questions. 

Miss Smith. I would like to register a final protest against the 
witch-hunting nature of this session. If you really wanted to find out 
any information, I would think that you would question me about 
our magazine, about the work through which we have reached the 
public and done our best, as I said at the beginning, to create a basis 
for decent understanding between nations, for the ending of atomic 
war, and for peace. And this has been the position of our own Govern- 
ment in recent months. Why have you not 

Senator Welker. Very well — — 

Miss Smith. If this is an honest investigation, tried to question me 
along such lines ? 

Senator Welker (gavels). I think you have made a statement. 
Now I should like to make one to you. 

If 3"ou want to give us some information, why don't you answer 
counsers questions as to whether or not you are now a member of the 
Communist Party or you have ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? I am assuring 3'ou tliat this is not a witch hunt, and it is 
nothing that anyone enjoys. We are here representing the American 
people in a job that is given to us, and I resent-, as do the members of 
this staff and the committee, this voluntary contribution on your part 
that we are here witch hunting. 

Now, if you want to be so fair and so high and mighty, just answer 
counsel's (luestions without the fifth amendment. I think then we 
would get to a fine, wholesome basis for this hearing. 

Do you desire to do that ( 

Miss Smith. I stand on the position that I made before. 

Senator Welker. The witness is excused. 

Miss Smith. I Avould like to say that I resent 

Senatr Welker. That is all. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Fujii. Will Mr. Fujii come forward? 

Senator Welker. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the subcom- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Fujii. I do. 



1144 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF SHUJI FUJII, NEW YORK, N. Y., ACCOMPANIED BY 
JOSEPH POEER, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please ? 

Mr. Fujii. Shuji Fujii, 319 East lOth Street, New York 9, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. What is your position, Mr. Fujii ? 

Mr. FuJii. I am a free lance translator, interpreter, and draftsman. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been until recently a reporter for the Hokubei 
Shimpo, New York City ? 

Mr. Fujn. No. 

Mr. Morris. That is spelled H-o-k-u-b-e-i S-h-i-m-p-o. 

Mr. Fujn. No. 

Mr. Morris. Have you worked for the Hokubei Shimpo ? 

Mr. Fujn. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Will you speak up, please? 

Mr. Fujii. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of your work for that publica- 
tion? 

Mr. Fujn. Typographical work. 

Mr. Morris. Oh, you did typographical work? 

Mr. Fujn. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. You did not do reporting work? 

Mr. Fujn. No. 

Mr. Morris. What is the nature of that newspaper, Mr. Fujii? 

Mr. Fujn. It is a Japanese- American community newspaper. 

Mr. Morris. Japanese- American committee newspaper? 

Mr. Fujn. Community newspaper. 

Mr. Morris. Community newspaper. In the Japanese language? 

Mr. Fujii. Japanese and English; one page in English. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who is the editor of that publication? 

Mr. Fujn. Mr. Kita. 

Mr. Morris. Isaku Kita? 

Mr. Fujn. Kita. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you have done some reporting work; have you 
not? 

Mr. FuJn. No. 

Mr. Morris. You have written articles for newspapers; have you 
not? 

Mr. Fujn. For that newspaper ? 

Mr. Morris. For that newspaper. 

Mr. Fujii. I believe I did. 

Mr. Morris. How much writing have you done for that newspaper? 

Mr. Fujn. Oh, maybe 1 or 2 articles. 

Mr. Morris. Did you write in English or in Japanese ? 

Mr. Fujii. I think, both in English and Japanese. 

Mr. Morris. Both English and Japanese. 

Now, you also do translating work, do you not, Mr. Fujii ? 

Mr. Fujn. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been doing translating work for Japanese 
industrialists who come to the United States? 

Mr. Fujii. Translating work, you mean? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Fujii. I did some interpreting work. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1145 

Mr. Morris. Interpreting work, I see. You act as an interpreter 
for Japanese industrialists coming to the United States? 

Mr. Fujii. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I see. You have also done some writing for the Na- 
tional Guardian; have you not? 

Mr. Fujii. Once, I think ; if I recall correctly, once. 

Mr. Morris. I offer you an article called, The Spies Did Conspire 
for Peace, in the National Guardian of February 28, 1949. That is 
about the Richard Sorge case. 

Mr. Fujn. It is my article. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Have you written any other articles in the Na- 
tional Guardian? 

Mr. Fujn. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Morris. The Meaning of the Vote in Japan, January 31, 1949. 
Do you remember doing that article? 

Mr. Fujii. It is mine, too, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may both of those articles go into the 
record. 

Senator Welker. It is so ordered. 

(The articles referred to were marked "Exhibits 252 and 252-A" 

and read as follows :) 

Exhibit No, 252 

[National Guardian, February 28, 1949] 
MacAethub's Hoax: The Spies Did Conspire — foe Peace 

(By Shuji Fujii) 

Richard Serge and Hozumi Ozaki, the two leading figures in General Mac- 
Arthur's report on Soviet spies in Japan, were executed by the Tojo govern- 
ment after prolonged torture on the morning of November 7, 1944. 

Their crime was helping our side to win the war against fascism. What they 
accomplished is probably unique in all the annals of espionage. 

On the first anniversary of their execution, the former judge who presided 
at their trial said that, while Sorge was "a Communist to the very end," Ozaki 
was "a true Japanese patriot." (Quoted in Tokyo Mainichi, November 25, 1945). 

Man of peace: The truth, according to Shinichi Matsumoto, Ozaki's closest 
friend and an active labor leader until his death in 1947, is that Ozaki as a 
Communist had worked for over 15 years against Japan's expansionist policy. 
Ozaki foresaw only disaster for his country and untold misery for his people if 
Japan's "holy war against communism" (actually a coalition of brass and big 
business to reap billions out of the Chinese opium trade etc. ) continued. 

He first met Sorge in Shanghai in the early thirties. By the summer of 1941 
Sorge had worked his way into the job of press attach^ under Nazi Ambassador 
Eugen Ott in Tokyo. 

Hitler informed Japan as early as June 6, 1941, of his plan to attack the Soviet 
Union. Immediately the "Northward" group in Japan clamored for similar 
military action. Sorge and Ozaki both being in vantage positions without doubt 
learned of this, and made every effort to prevent Japan's participation. It is 
known, for instance, that Ozaki fought vigorously against it at a meeting with 
Konoye and his advisers which took place at the Breakfast Club. 

Fanatics win : On June 25, 1941, 3 days after the Nazi assaults on the Eastern 
front, Ott discovered that Japan planned to move southward instead. In the 
meantime full-scale military preparations were pushed by Japan. 

Ozaki met his friend Matsumoto around this time, and took some comfort in 
the fact that war against the Soviet had been averted. But nonetheless he was 
deeply concerned about the imminent war with the United States, and made a 
pledge to devote all his efforts to prevent so fatal a catastrophe. 

It is known today that the final decision to wage war against the United States 
and the Allies was taken on September 6, 1941, by Emperor Hirohito, the then 



1146 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Prime Minister Prince Konoye, Tojo and other war criminals. Konoye weakened 
later and Tojo's army fanatics forced a showdown with him. 

Ozaki, Konoye's brain trust, was arrested on October 15, and next daj the 
Konoye cabinet resigned, paving the way for Tojo and his gang to move full 
steam to war. 

Who was the traitor? According to Matsumoto, Ozaki not only worked against 
war but also worked for the defeat of his fatherland. A small group of anti- 
imperialists around Sorge and Ozaki conspired courageously for peace against 
powerful adversaries. 

Tojo and his associates — tried and hanged only 4 years later for their "crimes 
against peace and humanity" — branded Sorge and Ozaki as traitors and hanged 
them. 

Yet Ozaki never lost coniidence that the people in Japan would learn the truth 
about his work within 10 years of his death. His last words were to express 
his keen regret that he could not live to witness personally the inevitable defeat 
of Tojo's Japan. 

Today the Japanese people know the trath, that he was a conspirator but a 
conspirator for peace. 

Exhibit No. 252-A 

[National Guardian, January 31, 1949] 

The Meaning of the Vote in Japan 

By Shuji Fujii^ 

Japan's 30 million voters gave the extreme rightists a clear majority in the 
third postwar election held on January 23. 

The victory of the ultraconservative Democratic-Liberals, headed by Premier 
Shigeru Yoshida, is an uneasy one. The Communists also made an unexpected 
advance in multiplying their Diet (Parliament) representation almost nine 
times. More than half of the middle-of-the-road Socialists, Democrats and 
People's Cooperative members, who had become synonymous with corruption, 
were unseated. 

Thus the election result is a triple rebuff to Gen. Douglas MacArthur's occupa- 
tion headquarters. Boasting of their accomplishment in democratizing Japan 
and the artificially propped-up centrist course, they have been hellbent against 
the Communists. 

Fertilizer : The Japanese Communists undoubtedly took full advantage of the 
current situation in China. However, it is mainly due to their carefully pre- 
pared and well organized campaign that political predictions were upset. 

Last summer Premier Ashida (Democrat), Vice Premier Nichio (Socialist), 
State Minister Kuruso (Democrat), and scores of other high government oflScials. 
Diet members and big businessmen became involved in the scandal of the 3 
billion yen loan to a fertilizer manufacturer. 

With dissolution on December 23 ; the Communists lost no time in putting 
up their strongest candidates, 116 in all. Among them were well-known labor 
leaders such as Kikunami (former chairman of the Japanese Congress of Indus- 
trial Unions) and Dobashi (chairman of the powerful Government Communica- 
tion Workers). Thirteen locally prominent Socialist leaders deserted their party 
and ran on the Communist ticket. 

What's needed : Sanzo Nozaka, one of the Communist Party's Big Three, 
stated as the party's immediate aim "nationalization of financial institutions 
and key industries and their control by the people." 

This, he said, is vital in order to carry out the nine-point economic recovery 
program ordered by the 11-power Far Eastern Commission, to abolish the special 
privileges and subsidies of the big Zaibatsu businesses which have run as high 
as 700 billion yet, and to balance the state budget. 

The Communists emphasize trade with China, and are opposed to one-sided 
importation of foreign capital from the United States alone, as advocated by 
other parties. 



1 Shuji Fujii, born in California and educated in Japan, edited the prewar west coast 
Japanese-American weelily Doho and served with the United States Army during the war 
in the CBI theater. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1147 



"Too idealistic" : The Yoshida government is paving the way for influx of 
United States capital investments. Caltex Oil, Northwestern Airlines, General 
Motors, Ford, Standard Oil, Reynolds Light Metal and Standard Electric are 
among United States Arms negotiating for contracts. On January li> IMaj. Gen. 
William F. IMarquat, cliief of the SCAP Economic and Scientific Section, told 
Japanese officials to draw up plans for revising corporate taxes, which are 
"to high from the viewpoint of inviting foreign capital." 

The Japanese Labor Ministry in the meantime is drafting a series of revisions 
to labor legislation. The Labor Standards Act is said to be "too idealistic" 
for enforcement "since it aims at raising Japanese working conditions to the 
worM level." 

■Dilemma of the United States is that the Yoshida government is a direct 
antithesis of the declared United States policy of democratization. Tlie more 
the United States relies on extreme rightists in Japan as a substitute for Chiang 
in China, the more unpopular it will become with tlie Japanese. 

The longer the occupation troops remain, the heavier the drain on Japan's 
crumbling economy. Tbis .veaV.s bndaot for occupation costs alone is 100 billion 
yen, or a quarter of the total state outlays. And this is one of the major deter- 
rents to Japan's ultimate economic recovery. 

HOW THEY VOTED 

Old and new party lineups in the Japanese House of Representatives, supreme 
governing body under the new constitution, are as follows : 





Before 


After 


Votes 
(millions) 




152 
4 

m 

90 
29 

50 

21 


264 
35 
49 
68 
14 
23 
13 


13.3 




2.9 




4.1 


T)pTnoprn.ts 


4.8 




1.0 




3.2 




2.3 







Mr. Morris. You have also written for the People's World? 
Mr. Fujii. I don't recall if I wrote an article or not. 
Mr. Morris. Now, where were you born, Mr. Fujii ? 
Mr. Fujii. Los Angeles, Calif. 

Morris. In what year ? 

Fujii. December 22, 1910. 

Morris. And what has been your education ? 



Mr 
Mr 
Mr 
Mr 



Fujii. Well, I was brought back to Japan when I was 



an 



infant and had my schooling up to 2 years of college in Japan. 

jNIr. Morris. And when did you return to the United States ? 

Mr. Fujii. 1931. 

Mr. Morris. And did you continue your education here in the 
United States? 

jSIr. Fujii. I had a couple of years' high school in California, and 
after that, attended evening sessions of the college. 

Senator Welker. What was this about the college? 

Mr. Morris. I asked him if he had continued his education. 

"\'^niat was the answer, Mr. Fujii? 

Mr. Fujii. I had a couple of years' high school in California, maj'be 
a year and a half, and then I attended a few sessions, evening sessions, 
of college. 

Senator Welker. Wliat college ? 

Mr. Fujn. I went to City College in New York ; I went to Columbia 
and NYU, the New York Community College. 



1148 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. Is that all the colleges in which you took special 
courses or which you attended ? 

Mr. FuJii. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. All right. 

Mr. FoRER. Aside from 2 years in Japan. 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. FuJii. Yes, 2 years of college in Japan. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you worked for the OWI, did you not, the Office 
of War Information ? 

Mr. FuJii. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us how you got your job with the Office of 
War Information? 

Mr. Fujii. Well, they sent me a letter 

Mr. Morris. Who sent you a letter ? 

Mr. Fujii. I have the letter with me. 

Mr, Morris. Would you show it to us ? 

Mr. Fujii. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long did you work for the Office of War 
Information ? 

Mr. Fujii. Two months. 

Mr. Morris, What was the nature of your work with the OWI ? 

Mr. Fujii, Editorial work. 

Mr, Morris. Editorial work? 

Mr, Fujii. Yes. 

Mr. Morris, Will you tell us exactly what you did, Mr, Fujii? 

Mr, Fujii. I did some writing in Japanese ; also editing Japanese 
articles written by others. I think I wrote a few propaganda leaflets, 
I think to be dropped behind the Japanese lines, if I remember cor- 
rectly. 

Mr. Morris. Were they the leaflets that were sent out to Honolulu? 

Mr. Fujii. I don't know what the destination was in the Pacific 
war fronts. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what else did you do for the Office of War In- 
formation? 

Mr. Fujn. I think they were editing some Japanese magazines, and 
I did the work on them. 

Mr. Morris. You edited Japanese magazines ? 

Mr. Fujii. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Now, after you left the Office of War Information, 
you went to the Office of Strategic Services, did you not ? 

Mr. Fujn. Yes. 

Mr, Morris, Will you tell us what you did for them ? 

Mr. FoRER, Wait. I am not sure that he is allowed to answer that. 
I am not talking about the fifth amendment or anything like that. 
Will you find out first ? 

Mr. Fujii. I did some secret work. I took an oath not to talk about 
it, but 

Mr. Morris. I do not know what the nature of the secret work 
would be that he did for the OSS that he cannot tell us about now, 
Senator. 

Mr. FoRER. May I explain this? As I understand it, Mr. Fujii was 
told by OSS that it was work that he was not supposed to reveal to any- 
body. I am just telling you that. If the committee insists, all right. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1149 

But tlien it is the committee's responsibility. I do not want him to 
get in trouble for violating any Government rules. 

Senator Welker. I doubt very seriously if he will get in serious 
trouble as a result of it. 

Mr, FoKER. I do not want him to get into any trouble. 

Senator Welker. I am ordering and directing you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Forer. All right. Go ahead and tell him. 

Senator Welker. If it gets you in trouble, I will be in trouble with 
you. 

Mr. FuJii. I belonged to a movement, a Morale Operations, under 
Lt. Col. Herbert S. Little. 

Mr. Morris. Lieutenant Colonel — what is his name ? 

Mr. Fojii. Herbert S. Little. 

Mr. Morris. Herbert S. Little ? 

Mr. Fujii. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And what was your work with that unit ? 

Mr. Fujii. It is hard to explain, but the nature of the work is what 
they call black propaganda. 

Mr. Morris. Roughly tell us what black propaganda is. 

Mr. Fujii. Well, white propaganda is apparently disseminated 
from the Allied sources, while the black propaganda is simulated to 
have originated from the Japanese enemy sources. 

Mr. Morris. And actually it is originated by the United States? 

Senator AVelker. I do not think we need to go into that. 

Mr. Frjii. It was actually written by our hand, but it was simu- 
lated so that it appeared as though it originated from the Japanese 
sources. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this. Were you a member of the Communist 
Party while you were doing that work ? 

Mr. Fujii. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party when 
you were working for the OWI ? 

Mr. Fujn. I refuse to answer for the same reasons. 

]Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Fuiii, what did you do after you left the 
OSS? \ 

Mr. Fujn. I started free-lancing as a translator and an inter- 
preter. 

]Mr. Morris. I see. Now, for whom did you work ? Did you live on 
the west coast a little while ? 

Mr. Fujii. You mean, before the war ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Fujii. Yes. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Will you tell us what you did there ? 

Mr. Fujii. What period, sir ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, you say, "before the war." 

Mr. Fujii. Since 1931? 

Mr. IMoRRis. Well, what were you doing in 1938, for instance? 
You lived in Los Angeles, did you not ? 

Mr. Fujii. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. At 986 South Catalina Avenue, Los Angeles? 

Mr. Fujn. 986 ? 

72723— 56— pt. 22 4 



1150 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. 986 South Catalina Avenue, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Fujii. I believe I did. 

Mr, Morris. Did you not register in 1939 as a Communist Party 
voter ? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Fujii. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Your affidavit of registration, No. B-381352 ? 

Mr. FoRER. Is that a question ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Was that your registration ? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Fujii. I refuse to answer for the same reason I gave you be- 
fore. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us what you have done since you 
left OSS, in addition to being associated with the Hokubei Shimpo? 

Mr. Fujii. Well, as I said, I was doing free-lancing as a translator, 
interpreter, and draftsman. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever used the name Jimmy Saito ? 

Mr. Fujii. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you been connected with a newspaper, the 
Doho-Sha? 

Mr. Fujii. The name of the newspaper is Doho. 

Mr. Morris. Doho. And what does the hyphenated expression 
"Sha"addtoit? 

Mr. Fujii. It is like the New York Times, Inc., or Co. 

Mr. Morris. You worked for the Doho. Where is the Doho ? 

Mr. Fujii. It is in Los Angeles. It is published in Los Angeles. 

Mr. Morris. When did you work for the Doho ? 

Mr. Fujii. From 1937 up to the time of the evacuation. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Were you a member of the Communist Party 
at that time? 

Mr. Fujn. I refuse to answer for the same reasons I gave before. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been connected with the Committee for a 
Democratic Far Eastern Policy ? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Fujii. Well, I was a so-called consultant. 

Mr. Morris. And were you active in the Japanese- American Com- 
mittee for Democracy? 

Mr. Fujii. I was a member of that committee. 

Mr. Morris. You were a member, AAHiat was that committee ? 

Mr. Fujii. Well, I don't know the whole background of the whole 
organization. But that was the organization of the Japanese aliens 
and American-born Japanese on the East coast to protect their in- 
terests and also to aid the allied victory during the war. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, was that organization controlled 
by Communists? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Fujii. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Fujii, is your father alive? 

Mr. Fujii. No. He is deceased. 

Mr. Morris. When did he die? 

Mr. Fujii. 1935, 1 think; maybe 1934. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Are you today a Communist? 

Mr. Fujii. I refuse to answer for the reason I previously stated. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1151 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Fiijii, you wrote quite a bit about the Richard 
Sorge case. What is the basis of your knowledge of that particular 



case 



Mr. Fujn. Well, from Japanese publications mostly. 
Mr. ;Morris. What Japanese publications? 
Mr. Fujii. Japanese newspapers, magazines and books on the sub- 
ject. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Have you ever had any dealings with Richard 

Sorge personally ? 

Mi\ Fujii. No. 

Mr. Morris. Directly or indirectly? 

Mr. Fujii. No. 

Mr. Morris. How about Mr. Ozaki? 

Mr. Fujii. No. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Miyagi? 

Mr. Fujii. No. 

Mr. INIoRRis. Do you know a man named Miyagi ? 

Mr. Fujii. I know his name by the magazine mention. 

Mv. Morris. But you have had no dealings directly or indirectly 
with Mr. Miyagi? 

Mr. Fujii. No. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a Communist, Mr. Fujii? 

Mr. Fujii. I refuse to answer for the reason I gave. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Welker. No more questions. The witness is excused and 
the hearing is over. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the next meeting of the committee will 
be tomorrow morning when witnesses have been subpenaed in con- 
nection with the disappearance of the Soviet seamen, or the return 
to the Soviet Union of the Soviet seamen, and that hearing will be 
in furtherance of the present series of hearings in which the commit- 
tee is trying to determine the scope and nature of the Soviet activity 
in the United States. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

("VYhereupon, at 12 noon, the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene 
at 10 a. m., Wednesday, April 25, 1956.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 2, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OF THE Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 12 : 20 p. m., in room 
155, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker presiding. 

Present : Senator Welker. 

Also present: Eobert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Welker. The meeting will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. The first witness is Mr. Joseph North. 

Senator Welker. Mr. North, will you stand and be sworn, please? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will give before this 
subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. North. I do. 

Senator Welker. Your name is Joseph North ? 

Mr. North. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Where do you reside, Mr. North ? 

Mr. North. Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH NOETH, CEOTON-ON-HUDSON, N. Y., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY MILTON FEIEDMAN, HIS ATTOENEY 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this hearing is being held this morn- 
ing in connection with a series of hearings being held by the Senate 
Internal Security Subcommittee, in which that subcommittee is try- 
ing to make a factual determination of the nature and scope of Soviet 
activity in the United States. 

The first witness is being called this morning because we have re- 
ceived testimony, sworn testimony in the record, that at least one 
American newspaperman was introduced to Soviet espionage through 
the witness here this morning, and he is being called to ask if that is 
a truthful situation. Then he will be a competent witness to testify 
about that particular phase of activity, so that we may make judicial 
and legislative findings that may be necessary. 

Senator Welker. Counsel, I want it definitely understood that 
these hearings are being held so that if the Congress of the United 
States feels necessary, legislation will be submitted to the Congress, 
if we so recommend. Is that correct ? 

1153 



1154 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. That is right, Senator. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

Mr. North. Pardon, Judge, or Senator. 

Senator Welker. Yes. 

Mr. North. I understand that if you present a statement to the 

committee 24 hours in advance 

Senator Welker. That is right. 

Mr. North. That it may be read. And I would like to ask if I may 
read it now, or would you prefer that I read it later ? 

Senator Welker. I have no knowledge of a statement. I did not 
see one in our executive hearing. 
Mr. Morris. It was submitted. Senator. 
Senator Welker. Will you explain that ? 

Mr. MoRMS. Senator, in connection with the particular statement, 
it is true that the witness has complied with the 24-hour rule of this 
subcommittee. However Senator, he has inserted in that statement 
things that are highly irrelevant to the present inquiry and therein 
he makes accusations against the chairman and members of the com- 
mittee. 

Now, Senator, in this connection we have noticed with increasing 
frequency that witnesses come before the subcommittee and they in- 
ject other issues into the hearing. 

Now, one purpose of the witnesses in doing that. Senator, may be 
that they are trying to divert the attention of anyone who may read 
a report of these hearings as to what the hearing is about. 

Senator, by injecting other issues in the statement, and possibly 
hoping that these other issues will be reported, this thing is turning 
up with greater frequency. 
Now, Mr. North, that is a 3- or 4-page statement, is it not ? 
Mr. North. No, it is not. It is a two-and-a-quarter-page state- 
ment, and 

Senator Welker. Just a moment. 
Mr. North. Pardon me. 

Senator Welker. You say it attacks the chairman and members of 
this committee ? 
Mr. ISIoRRis. Yes ; I did say that, Senator. 

Senator Welker. I do not believe your counsel would approve of 
that. I think Mr. Friedman knows that I have been just as fair on 
this committee as anybody could possibly be. 

Mr. Morris. Not you, Senator. It is Senator Eastland, as chair- 
man of the committee. 

Senator Welker. Very well. You did not attack me. 
Mr. Friedman. May I make this suggestion, with your permission, 
Senator ? 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

Mr. Friedman. Since there is reference to relevance, perhaps the 
application to read it might be renewed a little later, to see whether 
it is relevant, since Mr. North necessarily prepared this statement 
without knowing what would be relevant. 
Senator Welker. Very well. 

Of course, here is the idea, as I view it, Mr. Friedman, and I think 
we have gone over this before. AVlien a statement is submitted to 
the subcommittee, unless the witness wants to open it up for free 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1155 

and full cross-examination, that is being rather unfair to the com- 
mittee. 

Mr. North. TTnfair to 



Senator AVelker. I have no objection 

JNIr. North. Pardon me. 

Senator Welker. I have no objection if he wants to answer all ques- 
tions and file all the statements he wants to, but I just do not like to 
get hit in the ear and never reply. Do I make myself clear? 

Mr. Friedman. What it amounts to, Senator 

Senator Welker. What it amounts to is that you and I will sit 
down after the hearing and see if this is relevant. 

Mr. Friedman. I should like him to have the opportunity to make 
the application before the conclusion of the hearing. 

Senator Welker. He has made his application now, and I am going 
to withhold a ruling on it, Mr. Friedman. I have not seen it before, 
and you know if I had, I would have told you. I am going to try to 
read it when the testimony goes on. 

Mr. Friedman. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to read from the testimony 
of Winston Burdett before the Senate Internal Security Subcommit- 
tee on June 28, 1955. It is almost a year ago now. Senator. 

Senator Welker. With the understanding that, of course, this is 
merely preliminary, as the basis for your first question ? 

Mr. Morris. That is right, Senator. 

Mr. Burdett, testifying : 

In January of 1940 when I was still working at the Brooklyn Eagle, I was 
contacted by a member of the party unit with respect to this trip which then 
developed. It was in the latter half of January 1940, but I received a phone call 
from Nat Einhorn, the Eagle party unit member whom I have mentioned, and 
Einhorn asked me to get in touch with a man named Joe North. Joe North, the 
name, was well known to me. Joe North, the name, was well known to all 
Communist Party members as a correspondent for the Communist Daily Worker. 

Einhorn indicated to me in his phone call that this was a matter of some 
importance and I was to visit Joe North in his apartment, as I remember, on the 
following Sunday of that week in order to find out what the matter was. Ein- 
horn gave me his address and I went to his apartment, which I remember was in 
the Greenwich Village section of New York City, somewhere west of Seventh 
Avenue. 

I saw Joe North as Einhorn had instructed me, and North told me that, "We," 
as he said — and by "we," I understand that he was speaking of the Communist 
Party — there was no question in my mind — "We want you to go to Finland. We 
have an assignment for you there in which you can be useful to the party." And 
he told me that he would put me in touch with the man who would give me 
specitic instructions concerning this trip. 

Shall I relate those entire circumstances, sir? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Burdett. Joe North told me that he and this third man, as I shall now call 
him, would I'endezvous on a street corner in New York City 2 or 3 nights following 
my meeting with Joe North on that particular Sunday in his apartment. I was 
to rendezvous with Joe North and meet this third man on a street corner, which 
was .iust south of Union Square in New York City. I have forgotten whether it 
was on Broadway or on Fourth Avenue, but it was a specified 13th Street corner. 

This was done, and I met Joe North on the street and this third man was nearby 
and we rendezvoused together, and we all proceeded to a restaurant or cafeteria- 
style restaurant on the south side of 14th Street. I believe it was on Union 
Square itself, though I can't recall exactly. 

This man. this third man, told me simply this, that "They or we have a mission 
for you in Finland. We want you to go abroad. We want you to go abroad as a 
correspondent for the Brooklyn Eagle." 



1156 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Now, Mr, North, do you remember the episode described therein by 
Mr. Burdett? 

Mr. North. I must respectfully take the protection of the fifth 
amendment, but it strikes me as 

Senator Welker. Now, just a moment. That is not an objection yet. 
Mr. Friedman will help you, or I will help you : Upon the ground and 
for the reason that any answer that I might give might tend to force 
me to bear witness against myself. 

Is that correct, Mr. Friedman ? 

Mr. Friedman. That is correct, sir. 

Senator Welker. You see, I want you fully protected on the fifth. 
Just to say you take the fifth amendment is not a legal objection, you 
see. Now you are protected on the fifth amendment. You have taken 
it, and you have answered the question. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever meet Mr. Burdett? 

Mr. North. I reply as I did previously. 

Mr. Morris. The same ruling, Mr. Chairman ? 

Senator Welker. The same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. Did you live in the Greenwich Village section of New 
YorkCity in 1940? 

Mr. North. I reply as I did previously. 

Senator Welker. The same objection. 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify for us the third man referred to by 
Mr. North who said, "They or we have a mission for you in Finland" ? 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

Mr. Morris. Did you rendezvous on the specified 13th Street 
corner of New York City with the third man and Winston Burdett? 

Mr. North. The same objection, Judge. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like, without laboring this 
too greatly, to read from another portion of the testimony. This is 
now page 1331. Tliis is a small paragraph. This is still Burdett 
testifying : 

That is all that took place at my first meeting with Golos and North, and 
I should say that at all the meetings with Golos, North was present, and the 
meetings took place in the same way that I have described. That is to say, 
there was a rendezvous, in the early evening, on the street, between the three 
of us, I usually, as I recall, meeting North fii-st and then Golos appeared from 
around the corner, and all of us on each occasion proceeding to this cafeteria 
and sitting down there for a half hour or so, and that is where our business was 
transacted. 

Now, did you meet, Mr. North, with Jacob Golos and Winston 
Burdett on the three or four occasions described by Winston Burdett 
before the subcommittee? 

Mr. North. I make the same objection. Judge. 

Mr. Mcrris. I have here, Mr. Chairman, a photograph of Jacob 
Golos, who was also laiown as Jacob Raisin, and who has been identi- 
fied before this Senate Internal Security Subcommittee as an officer 
of the Soviet military intelligence organization in the United States. 

I ask you if you have ever seen this man before, Mr. North. 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. ChaiiTnan, that photograph appears in our record 
at page 1330. 

Mr. North, did you know a man named William Remington? 

Mr. North. The same objection. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1157 

Mr. Morris. Did you intvoduce William Remington to Jacob Golos? 

Mr. North. Same objection. 

Mr. Morris. Now, ]\Ir. Chairman, we have a reference in a book 
written by Elizabeth Bentley that she purchased a basket containing 
several bottles of rye from the Hicks Fruit Store as a gift from the 
NKVD to Joseph North. 

I would like to ask this witness today if he has ever received several 
bottles of rye from Hicks Fruit Store as a gift from the NKVD. 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

]Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, there is testimony before the House un- 
American Activities Committee, by ]\Ir. William Remington — Did 
you ever know the former mother-in-law of William Remington? 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Mr. Remington has testified before the House un- 
American Activities Committee, and I am quoting from the late Mr. 
Remington : 

I recall having lunch with Mr. North and a friend of his to whom he intro- 
duced me at a restaurant in niidtown Manhattan. That restaurant has been 
identified in previous hearings, as you know. 

Question. And what is the name of it? 

Mr. Remington. It is a restaurant, Child's or Schrafft's — it slips my mind at 
the moment — in the vicinity of Lexington Avenue and 32d Street, thereabouts 
within a block or two. 

Question. VVas the gentleman whom you met at that dinner .Jacob Golos? 

Mr. Remington. Yes. 

Now, was that truthful testimony that Mr. Remington was giving 
at that time ? 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

Senator Welkee. I did not hear the first portion of the question. 
Did you have Mr. North in that, too? 

Mr. INIoRRis. Yes. William Remington, therein, Senator, testified 
that Joseph North introduced him, the late Mr. Remington, to Jacob 
Golos, whom we have described. 

Senator Wei.kek. I see. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Jacob Golos? 

Senator Welker. He has already answered that. 

Mr. Morris. You have already answered that; have you not? 

Mr. North. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I would like to read ]Miss Bentley's testimony, 
Senator. Miss Bentley testified — I shall read the preceding question 
of Remington by Mr. Wood : 

Mr. Golos was introduced to you by Mr. North, who was known to you to be 
a Communist, and Mr. Golos in turn introduced you to Miss Bentley. All these 
facts didn't register in your mind as making Miss Bentley a bad risk to give 
confidential information to? 

Remington answered : 

They did not. 

In reply to a question whether she knew Mr. Joseph North, Miss 
Bentley testified : 

Not personally ; no. I knew of his activities through Mr. Golos. He was one 
of the editors of the New Classes and, in addition, was a lookout man for Russian 
intelligence. By "lookout" I mean he was always on the lookout for good Com- 
munists who could be used on Russian intelligence work. That is why lie was 
in touch with Mr. Golos who was a Russian intelligence agent. 

72723— 56— pt. 22—5 



1158 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. North, were you a lookout man for Russian intelligence? 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever look for likely recruits for Russian intel- 
ligence work? 

Mr. North. The same objection. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. North, where were you born? 

Mr. North. May I ask, Senator, again, if I may read my statement, 
because I think it does have pertinence to this inquir}^ 

Senator Welker. Now, you and I are going to tangle on that state- 
ment if you insist on it. I haven't had a chance to read it yet. 

Mr. North. I am sorry. I am sorry, sir. 

Senator Welker. That is why I have been missing these questions. 

Mr. Morris. The question was, Where were you born? 

Mr. North. In the Ukraine. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. North. A¥hen I was 9 months old. 

Mr. Morris. And you were educated in the United States ? 

Mr. North. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What has been your education ? 

Mr. North. I went to public schools. I went to high school. I 
won a scholarship at a high school which was revoked because I am a 
Jew. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat high school would do a thing like that, Mr. 
North? 

Mr. North. This was in the high school of Chester, Pa. 

Senator Welker. What was that answer? 

(The answer was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. North. Then I worked my way through college. 

Mr. INIoRRis. A"\^iat college did you go to, Mr. North ? 

Mr. North. I went to the University of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Morris. And you graduated in what year ? 

Mr. North. In 1925. And at the university I got my bachelor of 
arts' degree. 

Mr. Morris. And is that the extent of your formal education ? 

(Mr. North nods head affirmatively.) 

Mr. Morris. No postgraduate work ? 

Mr. North. None. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a newspaperman by profession ? 

Mr. North. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien did you first become a newspaperman? 

Mr. North. About 1925. 

Mr. Morris. And would you tell us what newspaper or publications 
you worked for at that time ? 

Mr. North. At that time I worked for the Chester Times in 
Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you hold that employment ? 

Mr. North. Oh, approximately 3 or 4 years. 

Mr. INIoRRis. I see. And then what was your next newspaper assign- 
ment ? 

Mr. North. Well, you see. Judge, I feel that this inquiry relates to 
the question of suppression of the press. 

Senator Welker. All right. Now, will you just go ahead and an- 
swer the question and do not argue the law or the merits of the ques- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 1159 

tion ? If you want to take the fifth amendment or whatever it might 
be, I am not going to sit here and listen to any speech, now. I am 
telling you that. 

Mr. North. I don't intend to make a speech, Senator. 

Senator Welker. You started out to. Now, answer the question 
or refuse to answer it, one of the two. 

Mr. North. I think it has relevance to the statement that I made, 
and I was tlierefore 

Senator Welker. You mean that to ask a man who has admitted 
he is a newspaperman, what newspapers he worked on is an invasion 
of the freedom of the press ? Now, Mr. North, I am sure you do not 
want to go that far. 

Mr. North. Well, I have noticed a pattern of this committee in 
regard to 

Senator Welker. Now, just a moment 

Mr. North. Newspapermen. 

Senator Welker. I noticed your statement, too. Now, if you want 
to submit yourself to full and complete cross examination instead of 
what you think is a blanket smear, in which you call me along with 
every other member of this committee a Fascist, and somebody out to 
destroy you or other people, I am not going to stand for that, because 
I try my best to protect every person that comes before this committee, 
regardless of what counsel might ask. I run the committee when I am 
chairman, and you are not going to sit there and say to me or any mem- 
ber of this committee that we are Fascists ; that we are out to destroy 
this or that person. 

I want that just eminently clear in your mind, Mr. North. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I might submit at this time, judging by 
the evidence before the committee with respect to Soviet espionage and 
Soviet contacts with American newspapermen, there is evidence before 
the committee that would indicate that this man today is a competent 
witness who could testify about events that the committee is interested 
in, and we appeal to you to do so, Mr. North. 

Now, you have elected to invoke your privilege under the fifth 
amendment, and the chairman has upheld you. Nevertheless, Mr. 
North, we would like answers to these questions, because, as the Senator 
has pointed out, we have to know the underlying facts about the Com- 
munist organization if we are going to intelligently legislate against it. 

We ask you again if you will answer some of these question for us. 

Mr. North. I know nothing of the kind of charges you have now 
made. 

Mr. Morris. I made no charges. I stated that there is testimony in 
the record, Mr. North, that indicates that you introduced Jacob Golos 
on several occasions, in several different circumstances, one case involv- 
ing William Remington and another case involving Winston Burdett. 

Mr. North. I would like to answer that. Judge. 

Mr. Morris. By all means. 

Mr. North. When you have a country today, as we have, where 
informers, prevaricators, have been used 

Senator Welker. Now, you answer the question. 

Mr. North. Pardon me, sir. I am trying to answer it. 

Senator Welker. Now, you are going to answer the question and not 
make a speech, Mr. North. 

Mr. North. It is not a speech. 



1160 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. We are going to get along fine, as all of Mr. 
Friedman's clients get along with me. We are not going to argue this 
matter at all. If you want to answer the question, well and good. If 
you want to claim your privilege, well and good, and I will be the last 
man in this room if anyone says you cannot claim your privilege. 

Mr. North. But, Senator, you, I am sure, have respect for the 
Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court ruling yesterday on the SACB 
raised the question of 

Senator Welker. I understand the Supreme Court 

Mr. North (continuing) : Of tainted and perjured testimony. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. North. For this reason, I am answering as I am answering. I 
think it is very relevant. 

Senator Welker. Very well, then. If all this evidence is perjury, 
why do you take the fifth amendment? Stand up and say they are 
bald-faced lies, and w^e will find out if they are, and if they are, some- 
body is going to the penitentiary, and it will not be you, Mr. North. 

Mr. North. I am not so sure about that. 

Senator Welker. I am sure you are not. 

Mr. North. There are a number of people who have gone to jail on 
perjured testimony 

Senator Welker. Not as a result of the acting chairman ; I am sure 
of that. 

Now, if you want to answer counsel's questions, we will be delighted. 

Mr, ]^IoRRIS. What was your next employment after your employ- 
ment with the Chester, Pa, newspaper ? 

Senator Welker. I will add this. I think a man has a perfect right 
to work for the Chester Times-Herald or the Daily Worker or any- 
thing he does, in furtherance of his profession. It is certainly not 
a crime, in my opinion, unless you are in a conspiracy. 

Mr. North. After my work on the Chester Times, I had become 
interested in labor, coming from a working class family in a work- 
ing class community. It was about this time that the depression 
broke ; the stock market crashed, and I went around the country and 
saw the misery of that day, and I wrote many articles about that, and 
in the course of that, I saw people living in the Hoovervilles ; I saw 
families starving to death. I wrote about the needs for unemployment 
insurance, for social security. I feel proud that I had some part in 
the winning of unemployment insurance in this country, and I wrote 
those articles, but they could not appear in newspapers which were 
controlled by people who did not see the tragedy that the country 
had been enveloped in. 

The only publications that would use those articles, which I thought 
was the truth, and knew was the truth, were labor newspapers. 

Senator Welker. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
that time, Mr. North, when you wrote these articles ? 

]\Ir. North. I must claim tlie privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

You say that the labor newspapers would be the only ones who 
would accept your articles ? 

Mr. North. Were the only ones who were publishing the truth as 
I saw it and as it was in the country. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1161 

Senator Welkick. Now, have you written on social security and un- 
employment compensation and all those things recently 

Mr. North. Yes, sir. 

Senator Wei.keu. Newspapers carry that quite fully, do they not? 
Mv. North. Well, times have chan<;ed since that day, and many 
newspapers will pul)lish facts today, for example, on the Negro 
question, Avhere they didn't in 1929-30, and when you have this com- 
mittee headed by Senator P]astland 

Senator Welker. Now, just a moment. 

Mr. North (continuing) : Who stands for racism 

Senator Welker. Now, just a moment. We are going to keep this 
germane to the subject matter, and you ai-e not going to sit there and 
embarrass me or the committee as long as 1 am acting chairman. I 
am trying to be as much of a gentleman to you as I know how. Now, 
I hope that you will bear with me. If not, counsel with my friend, 
Mr. Friedman. 

Mr. North. I appreciate your etl'ort, Senator, but I still feel that 
coming here and being smeared as I am, I must tell the truth. 

Senator Welker. Yes. And I see in your prepared statement 

Mr. North. For example 

Senator Welker (continuing). Where you say that we are out to 
destroy the press and the first amendment of the Constitution, that 
we are a bunch of Fascists, and that we are promoting false charges 
against you, a newspaperman of over 30 years, that we are trying to 
strive to paralyze freedom of tliought and expression of all newspapers 
and have them wi-ite as Eastland and company would have them write, 
or else. 

Now, if you want to prove that, you are going to open the gate to 
full and complete cross-examination, and I will do it personally. Now, 
if you want to be just as fair as I am going to be in this matter, to let 
your statement come in the record and then you submit to fair cross- 
examination to see whether or not your allegations are in fact the 
truth, we will get along fine. 

Mr. North. Well, Senator, I have read that Senator Eastland has 
called 

Senator Welker. Senator Eastland is not before this committee, 
and I am asking 3^ou. 

Mr. North. But he is the head of the committee. 

Senator Welkeb. I do not believe he is. I think I happen to be 
head of it today, 

Mr. North. I am sorry, sir. 

Senator Welker. And you are going to be treated with all the re- 
spect I know how, Mr. North. 

Now, I know what you are trying to do. You are trying to pro- 
voke 



Mr. North. I am not, sir 

Senator Welker (continuing). The acting chairman 

Mr. North. I am sorry. I am not. 

Senator Welker. And I am sorry. I am the most wonderful fel- 
low to get along with you ever knew, I think. My wife doesn't. 

Mr. North. Senator, you seem to be a very gracious man, and I have 
nothing against you personally. 

Senator Welker. Well, you 



1162 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. North. But I am talking about the work of this committee and 
the fact that I think the committee should investigate Senator East- 
land, who has called to overthrow the Supreme Court decision 

Senator Welker. Now, once again 



Mr. North. Instead of that, you bring me here 

Senator Welker. I am going to admonish you to be responsive to 
the questions propounded to you, and I have heard enough of this fly- 
ing over and taking on somebody else while you are being not, I think, 
fair to me, when you refuse to answer these things. 

Mr. North. I wish to be fair to you. Senator. 

Senator Welker. Of course, if they would tend to incriminate you, 
I would be the first to help Mr. Friedman protect yon. That I will 
do always, as long as I am on this committee. 

Now let us keep the thing germane. Let us keep it down to the 
inquiry as brought out by counsel here. If you cannot do that, you 
are not going to sit here and make a speech for me. I do not have time 
for that. I listen to plenty of them, you know. 

Mr. North. I am sure you do. Senator, and respectfully — I wish 
to continue with the question. 

Mr. Morris. The question was, What was the next employment after 
your employment with the Chester, Pa., newspaper? 

Mr. North. I worked for several organs about that time — I think 
for, first, the Labor Defender, which was an organ of the International 
Labor Defense. And it was in the course of that, in 1931, that I 
received word from Alabama that nine innocent Negro boys had been 
taken off a freight train 

Senator Welker. That was the Scottsboro case ? 

Mr. North. Yes. [Continuing:] And cliarged with rape. And 
that came late at night, and I sent out a release giving the facts on 
this and protesting this to the press as a whole, so that all during the 
course of the Scottsboro case I wrote a great deal about it. As a 
matter of fact, I went down into the South and I helped to uncover 
the facts which resulted in the freedom, finally, after many years of 
imprisonment, of these innocent Negro boys. 

Senator Welker. Now, after that employment, what did you do, 
Mr. North ? 

Mr. North. After that employment I began to write articles for the 
Daily Worker and Labor Unity, the organ of the Trade Union Unity 
League. 

Senator Welker. Was that all of your employment ? I think that 
is what counsel was after. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. AMiat is your present employment, Mr. North ? 

Senator Welker. Now, let me get it. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. Senator ; excuse me. 

Mr. North. In the main, that is, yes. 

Mr. Friedman. Until when ? 

Mr. North. Until 193-1 or 1935. And then I wrote articles for the 
weekly New Masses, and in the course of that I covered many of the 
great strikes in the country which led to the formation of the Congress 
of Industrial Organizations. 

Senator Welker. You were too young to cover Sacco-Vanzetti, ^^'ere 
you not ? 

Mr. North. Yes. I didn't write about that. And then I read the 
news about Spain and the fact that Franco, aided by Hitler and Mus- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1163 

solini, Imd risen up to overthrow the legally constituted Government 
of Spain, Loyalist Spain, which was a republic based upon our Re- 
public, and I felt then that I would like to cover that war. 

Senator Wklker. And you went there as a correspondent and did 
cover the war ? 

Mr, North. And I am very proud of the fact that I was there and 
saw the great effort made to prevent Franco and the Fascists from 
taking over Spain, and I saw the— 

Senator Welker. Now, that is a conclusion of yours. I will let it 
stand. But I do not see any objection for a newspaperman covering 
a war, whether it is a bunch of Indians fighting out in Idaho or a war 
over in Spain. I think that is part of your duty, is it not? 

Mr. North. Yes. 

And I think that that was a war that was of a special nature in that 
I felt that if the truth of it were told sufficiently in this country and 
throughout the world, the danger of World War II could have been 
averted. 

Senator Welker. Did you cover Hitler's and Stalin's war against 
each other ? 

Mr. North. I don't know what you are referring to. 

Senator Welker. I mean, when Hitler turned on his ally, Russia, 
after their peace pact. 

Mr. North. I am speaking of Spain. 

Senator Welker. Well, I am speaking of the other. Did you cover 
that war ? 

Mr. North. No. I am talking 

Mr. Friedman. The Senator asked you whether you covered World 
War II. 

Senator Welker. Yes ; in World War II, the days where Hitler 

Mr. North. If you are referring to World War II 

Senator Welker.) Yes; where Hitler turned on his one-time ally, 
Stalin, and Russia. 

Mr. North. I covered World War II and was in Germany on V-E 
Day. 

Senator Welker. You were in jail, I take it, at that time; were 
you not ? 

Mr. North. No. 

Senator Welker. You were in a concentration camp ? 

Mr. North. No. There were a group of correspondents and others 
who were invited to go to see what happened in the concentration 
camps of Germany, because many people just didn't believe these hor- 
rors, and at that time General Eisenhower, President Eisenhower, 
invited quite a few people to go there, some 50 or 60. I was in the 
concentration camp at Dachau and saw what happens to people where 
the labor movement is crushed, where racism was the order of the day, 
where on the basis of the racist ideology of Hitler, some 6 million Jews 
were cremated, millions more of trade unionists, liberals, people like 
yourself, too, Senator, and I wrote 

Senator Weli^er. Now, that covers a big waterfront, "people like 
yourself." I do not know what you mean by that, whether that is 
praise or an inside pitch. 

Mr. North. Well, it means that the toll of destruction of fascism 
was so great that it hit conservatives as well as it did Communists, 



1164 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN" THE UNITED STATES 

Social Democrats, liberals. It probably hit people like Judge Morris 
here. 

Well, I felt then, when I was in that concentration camp, that every- 
thing I could do to prevent that kind of a life or death froni being 
foisted upon our country, I would dedicate my life to, and that is what 
I have done. 

Senator Welker. Very well, I think that is responsive. 

Any further questions ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. North, when you were in Spain, did you have any 
contact with the Soviet intelligence people who were in Spain at the 
time ? 

Mr. North. Pardon me. Judge. None of your questions are on the 
substantial issue of the war there. 

Mr. Morris. No. We are interested in Soviet activity in the United 
States. That is the subject of the hearing, Mr. North. 

Mr. North. I will claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a man named Gen. Emilio Kleber? 

Mr. North. The same answer. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you read the excerpt from Mr. Dal- 
lin's book on Major General Kleber ? 

Mr. Mandel. Reading from Soviet Espionage, by David J. Dallin, 
pages 396-397 

Mr. Morris. ^Vhen was that book written, Mr. Mandel ? 

Mr. Mandel. It was published 

Mr. Morris. 1955? 

Mr. Mandel. 1955. It reads as follows : 

The leading resident of the early 1930's was Mark Zllbert, one of the few out- 
standing chiefs of Soviet military intelligence in the United States, who achieved 
worldwide fame during the Spanish Civil War when, assuming the name of one 
of Napoleon's generals, Jean-Baptiste Kleber, he commanded a Loyalist army at 
the Spanish front. In April 19.37, when the great purge was underway, Zllbert 
was recalled to Moscow, arrested, and executed along with a number of other Red 
Army commanders. 

Despite his ability and intelligence, Zllbert was not successful as a Soviet 
esponiage chief in the United States. 

Then it gives in a footnote Kleber's other names: alias Moische 
Stern, Mr. Herb, Kostasky, and Gen. Emilio Kleber. 

Senator Welker. "Wliat does that have to do with this witness? 

Mr. Morris. I asked him if he met him in Spain and I am going to 
ask him did he ever meet him in the United States. 

Mr. North. Judge Morris, I consider myself a pretty good news- 
paperman and I respect the profession of newspapermen. But I 
think you give me far too much credit of covering an awful lot of 
ground here. I have given you an indication of what I have done. 

Mr. Morris. We have tried to be specific. 

Senator Welker. The question was, did you meet this gentleman, as 
I understand it, ]\Ir. North ? 

Mr. Morris. In the United States ? 

Senator Welker. Either in the United States or in Spain, as I un- 
derstand the question. 

Mr. Morris. I asked on Spain, and he claimed privilege. 

Now the second question is : Did he meet him in the United States ? 

Mr, North. I claim the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. North, did you ever bring to the New Masses — and 
you know what the New Masses was — it was a weekly newspaper 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1165 

Senator Welker. Yes. Pie told us a moment ago that he wrote for 
it, I assumed he knew what it was. 

Mr. jNIokris. A dossier regarding General Krivitsky, which dossier 
provided a series of articles in the New Masses attacking General 
Krivitsky 's articles in the Saturday Evening Post ? 

Mr. NoRTPi. The same reply. 

Mr. Morris. That is, you claim privilege ? 

Mr. North. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you read just for the record the ex- 
cerpt from Miss Bentley's book that I referred to in a question earlier? 

Mr. Mandel. This is an excerpt from Out of Bondage, by Elizabeth 
Bentley, pages 209 and 210 : 

It was in the middle of November and I decided to do my Christmas shopping 
early so that I wouldn't find myself caught in the last-minute rush. This was a 
formidable job. Not only did I have my personal purchases, plus gifts for the 
employees of both World Tourist and United States Service & Shipping Corp., 
but I had to purchase presents for all our agents, Raisin's as well as mine. For 
some strange reason it was a tradition in the NKVD that at Christmas 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify the NKVD for the record, Mr, 
Mandel ? 

Mr. Mandel. That is the Soviet military intelligence. 

[Continuing :] 

that at Christmas everyone who worked for them, no matter in what capacity, 
received a gift. None of our agents, of course, were paid salaries, nor were they 
given any money except cash to cover travel expenses when they came up to New 
York to bring reports. As a matter of fact, it was they who were paying the 
party, because they were assessed their Communist dues, plus any special 
amount solicited to help the international movement. 

Therefore, as a token of appreciation, we made it a point to give each of them 
a nice present at Christmas. 

Then she mentions a number of people who received gifts, and 
among them she says : 

The Silvermasters invariably received vodka and caviar, plus expensive gifts 
for each of them. Kazekavich was given a steamer basket of fruit and jams 
from the Hicks store and Joe North a basket containing several bottles of rye. 

Mr. Friedman. May I make an observation, Senator? 

Mr. Byron Scott, a very prominent lawyer in Washington, repre- 
senting William Taylor, brought an action for libel against the Wash- 
ington Post a couple of years ago, and he examined Elizabeth Bentley 
by deposition in that case, and he tells me that she testified there that 
this book is fiction. 

Mr. Morris. Let us test it in this case, Mr. Friedman. 

Is it true that she did bring you a bottle of rye as discussed in that 
book? 

Mr. Friedsian. I don't know that that is a test. 

Mr. Morris. It is certainly a test in this case. 

Senator Welker. I do not know whether it is fact or fiction. Now, 
you brought it in, Mr. Friedman. 

Mr. North. Bourbon is my favorite drink. 

Senator Welker. Wliat? 

Mr. North. Bourbon is my favorite drink. 

Mr. Morris. The witness says he drinks bourbon. 

Senator Welker. Now, whether it is your favorite drink or not, did 
you get some rye at the time and place interrogated about ? 



1166 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Did Miss Bentley buy you a basket containing several 
bottles of rye ? 

Mr. North. When? 

Mr, Morris. That is in the early 1940's. 

Mr. North. Are you asking that question seriously, Judge ? 

Mr. Morris. Very seriously, Mr. North. 

Mr. North. You. would remember somebody who bought you a 
t)ottle of rye in 1939 ? 

Mr. Morris. This is in the 1940's, but I certainly would, yes. 

Mr. North. You are a better man than I am. 

I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Morris. When you went to Spain, did you travel on your own 
passport, Mr. North ? 

Mr. North. I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Did you 

Mr. North. Pardon me. Judge. You know that I did. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I mean 

Mr. North. I mean, it is in the record. 

Senator Welker. Now, just a moment here. You do not want to 
get yourself in trouble, do you ? 

Mr. North. No, I don't. 

Senator Welker. Then do not volunteer something that will force 
me to make you go ahead and answer questions that I am sure you 
do not want to. Now, you claim the privilege of the fifth amendment, 
and then you come back and volunteer that, "Judge, you know that I 
did go on my own passport." 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I do not know. I do not know whether he 
traveled on his own passport. 

Senator Welker. Well, whether you know it or not, he has opened 
it, and I do not want Mr. North to get involved in anything here. If 
you claim your privilege one time, you claim it all the time, or if not, 
3 am going to go all over the waterfront on the thing. That is as 
fair as I can be to you. 

Mr. North. Thank you. Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Did you travel at all times under your own passport 
while you were in Spain ? 

Mr. North. I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever lend your passport to anyone for any 
purpose ? 

Mr. North. I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. North, are you now a Communist ? 

Mr. North. Is this session dealing with ideas, the ideas of people ? 

Mr. Morris. No. I asked you. if you were a member of the Commu- 
nist organization. I am not interested in your ideas, Mr. North for 
my question. 

Mr. North. Judge, I have my doubts about that. 

Mr. Morris. I want to know whether you are a member of the Com- 
munist organization that operates here in the United States. 

Mr. North. I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Welker. I have no questions. 

Thank you, Mr. North, and thank you, Mr, Friedman. 

Mr. Friedman. Thank you, Senator. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1167 

Senator Welker. Do you Avant to make any application with I'e- 
spect to 3'our statement. 

Mr. North. iMay I respectfully, Senator, read the statement, be- 
cause I think it throws a great deal of light on my declarations here, 
and I think it is worthy of presenting after all these libels have been 
presented against me? Why don't I have the right to my say? 

Senator AVelkek. "Well, 1 suppose you have j'our right. You tell 
me that you are a newspaperman. I am rather surprised, Mr. North, 
that 3^ou would come here and abuse people, one member of the com- 
mittee, the whole committee, as you have in this case. 

jNIr. North. Would you take a look at this, Senator, about Eastland's 
call there for the white councils to overthrow the 

Senator Welker. I am not interested 

Mr. North. To overthrow the Supreme Court decision? 

Senator Welker. Now, will you please wait until I finish? 

Mr. North. I am sorry, sir. 

Senator Welker. The application to have this statement read into 
the record is hereby rejected upon the ground and for the reason, as 
3'ou well know, that you purposely tried to intimidate every person 
on this committee. 

Mr. North. I tried to intimidate? 

Senator Welker. Yes; you certainly did. 

]\Ir. North. I respectfully disagree with you. Senator. I tried no 
intimidation. 

Senator Welker. You did not in your oral testimony. But I am 
not going to take the responsibility of charging the taxpayers for this, 
and I will reject it. 

I will talk to your counselor later about this tiling. Mr. Friedman 
and I are very good friends. I believe you will admit that. 

]Mr. Friedman. Yes. 

Senator Welker. He might convince me it is germane and rele- 
vant. But now I am going to withhold that ruling on that until T 
have a chance to talk to Mr. Friedman. 

Mr. FRiED:\rAN. Very well, sir. 

You are ruling as to Avhether it will be added to the record ? 

Senator Welker. That is right. I will get a chance to talk to you 
in a minute. 

Mr. Friedman. Very well. And the witness is excused. Senator ? 

Senator Welker. The witness is excused. 

You are excused from your subpena, Mr. North. Thank you for 
coming down. 

Mr. North. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Morris. iMr. Chairman, I have a witness that I would like to 
ask a few questions only, in connection with the case of Robert and 
Winifred Blanchard. 

His name is George Mills. 

If I may, T would like him to testify now. 

Senator Welker. Mr. Mills, raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give before the subcom- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Mills. I do. Senator. 



1168 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE MILLS, ACCOMPANIED BY VICTOR 
RABINOWITZ, HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Welker. Where is your residence, Mr. Mills? 

Mr. Mills. May I have some of this water ? 

Senator Welker. Certainly; sure. As a matter of fact, you told 
me awhile aoo in executive hearing that you were not feeling well- 
Do you feel all right to go on with this? 

Mr. Mn.m. I think so. 

Senator Welker. Now, if you do not, be sure and tell us. 

Mr. Mills. I do ; I do, sir. 

Senator Welker. No one wants you to 

Mr. Mills. I do, sir. 

Sixty-nine West Boulevard, East Rockaway, N. Y. 

Senator Welker. Wliat is your occupation ? 

Mr. Mills. At present I am unemployed. I am a free-lance writer. 

Senator Welker. Very well, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mills, have you been a radio operator ? 

Mr. Mills. Sir ? 

Senator Welker. Have you ever been a radio operator ? 

Mr. Mills. No. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the witness is called here this morning- 
because of the following sequence of events : 

"V^^iile Robert and Winifred Blanchard were witnesses before the 
committee, the committee presented evidence and information to the 
effect that on November 11 

Senator Welker. They submitted evidence? The committee did? 

Mr. Morris. That is right, sir. The committee submitted for the 
record that on November 11, 1950, the Bureau of Vital Statistics had 
forwarded to John Francis Brennan, care of Blanchard, 71 West 
Boulevard, East Rockaway, a copy of John Francis Brennan's birth 
certificate. Now, John Francis Brennan had been dead since 1938. 
And subsequent to November 11, 1950, it was discovered that Robert 
Thompson, who was a leader of the Communist Party and has since 
been indicted and convicted, apparently passed, from some day in 1950 
until his arrest in 1953, as John Francis Brennan. 

Now, since that time, sir, we have obtained the following documents. 
These were all taken from the person of Robert Thompson at the time 
of his arrest by the FBI, and all of these facts have been testified to 
by FBI agents in public court. 

' Now, I have here. Senator, a fishing permit made out to J. F. Bren- 
nan, who has been identified in the public record; a labor book, John 
F. Brennan — these will be fully described by the documents them- 
selves, Senator; a driver's license in the name of John F. Brennan; 
an official receipt of the International Association of Bridge, Struc- 
tural & Ornamental Ironworkers made out to John F. Brennan ; an 
Associated Hospital Service card made out to John F. Brennan; a 
social- security card made out to John F. Brennan ; an operator's license 
made out to John F. Brennan. 

And this is some kind of receipt. Senator. I am afraid I cannot 
describe it at this time. It is made out to John F, Brennan, a receipt 
for$l. 

Perhaps you can identify it, Senator. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1169 



Senator AYelker. It says on the back, "Learners' permit, Illinois." 

Mr. Morris. JMaybe it is a learner's permit, Senator. 

Senator Welkkr, That is what it says, "learner's permit." 

Mr. Morris. Then 1 have one more withholding statement made out 

to John F. Brennan. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 253 to 

253-H" and are reproduced on subsequent pages :) 

Exhibit No. 253 
[Brennan fishing permit] 




STATE ^'^*'«^*- 

liii^ ?mt X'^'^"' 







^^^^fg^^^'SiiSkwcl ..^i^^^^^LM.4 J,: 













1170 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit No. 253-A 
[Brennan labor book] 



L A. B, S. & O. f. W. 






id^nUhc atlon Sheet 



19. 



I 



' . S» f3«: rf «<f isleoS «? s*f seas ^bew, ?>lex8« 



NAME 



lioss sdsirea* s? 



SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER 



i4^{h(^^ 




THSS m TO CriRTIFY ' 






*J L«eUll UtsU5«2 N<^ 



4 ^.,^ 



I « p N W O RUE Fl *f / $ / J J' 



SEP ^ - "^^" 






i9 



h- 









■■ff~" 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1171 



DATE 



JAN. 




APRIL 



IIL 



Bfoeihijr D«e» 



VOU MUST MAWE 
SJAMP HERE Bt- 

roH'C CND or 

MONTH fO 
RtCtfVf DCATH 



you MUST HAVt 

rORg INO Of 

MONTH TO 
RECesvt DEATH 



^ ««.. VOU MUST HAW 
21 AECm STAMP HCRE 8S- 

fore: tNoor 

MONTH TO 
It, f R£C€lV€ORAtH 

etNgrsTs 



YOU MUST H*VE 

STAMP HS«E 8£- 

fORf RNOOF 

MO«tM TO 

RtCiiVeOtATH 

BENKlTS 



A«MM»>f»t8 



MAT 



JCNK 



YOU M'JS? MAve 

STAMP H£8e 8E- 

fO«E £?*0 Of 

MOKTM 10 

HtCtWt OtATH 



you MUST HAVE 

STAMP H£Sg SC. 

fOR£ tUO Of 

MONTH TO 
ReCCSVf 0CATH 



O 



P 






^ 



Off 
"aj 'ST" 



a; 



rt' ^ 



Cm 









X 



DATE 



lULY 



At^G. 



«EPT, 



Moathlr 0a«« A8m«t8i«(its 



YOU MUST MAVe 

STAMP HE8€ B€ 

FO«e CMO Of 

MOHTH TO 

RECC*V£ DgATH 

B£N£fJTS 



YOU MUST HAVE 

STAMP HERg eg. 

rORg END Of 

MONTH TO 

RECCJVfi DEATH 

MNEffTS 



^Isl" 



S o 






IS. 




1172 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 










SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 1173 



• Asiwssm*nt« 




DATK Monthly t)»Cfi ! Ays4»«ii{»i<tit» 



n 




ittt'ti SMtttJI 

-5c 



>Wii« *rs«ti 



ii^ 



>« 



'*> ^'im i-) l )> a .^ft ff t u 



8£I»T, 



19 „_, 



OCT. 



IS. 



VOU MUST HAVE 

STAMP HKSe 6£- 

K3Rf ENDOF 



's^Ct], 



YOU MUST HAVE 

STAMP HE«e &E- 

ro«E SNO Of 

MONTH TO 

\ mcuvz mATH 

8£NEf-!TS 



NOV. 



DEC 



18., 



you MUST HAV€ 

STAMP HERE BE- 

Hmt tHO Of 

MONTH TO 

RECEIVE DEATH 

8€N£EiTS 



YOO MUST HAVE 

STAMP HESE 8£. 

fORE EHU OF 

MONTH TO 

Secgive DEATH 

BENEmS 



« « 
< o 
.,.?,. 3;,.. 



O «5 

IS 






if 



lis 

o 



ii 



1174 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 253-B 
• [Brennan operator's permit] 



1 






I- 








[ 










Exhibit No. 253-0 
[Brennan union receipt] 



OFFICIAL RECEIPT H 324443 

INTERNATIONAL ASSCXTIATION OF 

BRIIXiE. STRUCTURAL AND ORNAMENTAL 
;;;>^ IRON WORKERS 

Afcal Union No.<^/^2_ 

Received of Jf^ (' (^/Pjl^^^^i^ ,^ , ^ ^ 

iS^ ^Dollars 






For J n ^ A * Q .J \-MLAljuiL4Jl H^^^i^C- jSuJL^^. 
Received b>- ^n -q^ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1175 



Exhibit No. 253-D 
[Brennan hospital card] 




you A«€ PROTECrSO 
When You Need Hospitpf Care 



ASSOCIATED HOSHTAl SEftViCI 
fiew Yatks Bfm Cross Pian 

S8 lemtm ki'ssm, nm imi M>. ».. 1. * m im^i 



Exhibit No. 253-E 
[Brennau social-security card] 



K w"^ "wy^y ^w " i ^ ' WW- ' '"w yy^? "W w » /.w« i jw.w '> ti p * f 9 fm ii>s »i tt)itmifgi 



M t oMi i i iW B iW ag cc sa w a 8 



ft ?:*t*^l5C^? 



U i n c . MM % 



Jd» Francis Sremmii 



m %mm %mmii fmm% - mi m imwtkim 




1176 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit No. 253-F 
[Brennan driver's permit] 




L. ,. 



\ R»oar<S Co^wcSson* of Vtot)»t!<5»« tsf SertJofts 32. 
33, 48. 49, s«« Sa o* lr»«ic Co!i«8. 



^ 



Exhibit No. 253-G 
[Brennan learner's permit] 



^mmi 147 5 6^ 12-518-917 I im oi 



i-f $i%Jt 




Cih 



^'IJM?*****'*^! 



ty cf 








<^^ ^sy/^ 




vw!-i«.M-»i*--™*5iA> >l¥ ■J'^IWISX^;-^ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1177 





(3 




0) 




a 




a> 


w 


■4-> 






lO 


Ml 


w 


fl 




■<-H 


o 


2 


^ 


o 


H 


^ 


w 


A 


9 


■l-> 


H 


% 


S 


a 

as 




z 




o 




u 




pq 




1178 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now Senator, at the time we asked tlie Blancliards if 
they on November 11, 1950— that is, the date of this transmittal — 
resided at 71 West Boulevard in East Eockaway, Long Island, they 
refused to answer, claiming privilege. Since then, we have received 
from the post office authorities, and I have here, a letter from the 
United States Post Office, East Eockawa;y;, N. Y., dated April 18, 1956, 
from Paul E. Carrigan, postmasiter, in which he says : 

The following is reqiaested information regarding postal addresses of Robert 
Blanchard, formerly of 71 AVest Boulevard, East Rockaway, N. Y. 

July 27, 1950: Filed order to forward mail to 37-41 7Stb Street, Jackson 
•Heights, N. Y. 

June 22, 1951 : Rented post office box 221, East Rockaway, N. Y. 

September 10, 1951 : Canceled post office box 221, East Rockaway, N. Y., and 
the same date filed order to deliver mail to 71 AVest Boulevard. 

So, if the birth certificate forwarded to John Francis Brennan, 
care of Blanchard, was sent to Yl West Boulevard, East Eockaway, 
N. Y., on November 11, 1950, according to the statement of the post 
office, it would have been forwarded to him at 37-41 78th Street, 
Jackson Heights, N. Y. 

I also have. Senator, the report from the telephone company which 
indicated that a telephone was listed for Mr. Blanchard at 71 West 
Boulevard, East Eockaway, Long Island, at that time. 

May that also go into the record. Senator? May both of these go 
into the record ? 

Senator Welker. All right. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits Nos. 254 and 
255," and read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 254 

United States Post Office, 
East Rockaway, N. Y., April 18, 1956. 
Mr. Robert Morris, 

Counsel, Senate Internal Security Suhcommittee, 
Washington, D. C. 

The following is requested information regarding postal addresses of Robert 
Blanchard, formerly of 71 West Boulevard, East Rockaway, N. Y. 

July 27, 1950 : Filed order to forward mail to 37-41 7Sth Street, Jackson 
Heights, N. Y. 

June 22, 1951 : Rented post office box 221, East Rockaway, N. Y. 
September 10, 1951 : Canceled post office box 221, East Rockaway, N. Y., 
and the same date filed order to deliver mail to 71 West Boulevard. 
This is the only available information on hand and is true and correct in 
accordance with the records of this office. 

[SEAL] Paul E. Carrigan, Postmaster. 



Exhibit No. 255 

From Mr. Flemming in New York : 

Lynbrook 9-3S14M. 

Checked the Nassau County alphabetical directory, 1952 to 1953, corrected to 
June 14, 1951, which shows a listing for Robert Blanchard at 71 West Boulevard, 
East Rockaway, Long Island. 

19.50-51 directory also has it listed under Robert Blanchard, 71 West Boule- 
vard, East Rockaway, under same number. 

1953-54 alphabetical directory for Nassau County had a change of number to 
Lynbrook 9-4074. 

In between 1951 and 1952, this number was changed but don't have any con- 
nect time on it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1179 

1954-55, Robert Blaiuhard is out. 

Lyubrook 9-4074 had been listed to Robert Blanchard up until March 20, 1953, 
where there was a chantie of main listinj? from Robert Blanchard to a party 
by the name of George Kehs, and he is at the same address, 71 West Boulevard, 
East Rockaway, and still maintains service there. 

Senator Wfxker. For your continuity, what does that have to do 
with Mr. Mills ^ 

Mr. MoKRis, Now, you lived next door to Mr. Blanchard, did you 
not? 

Senator AVelker. Now, just a moment, counselor. This is the first 
time you have appeared before our committee. We are glad lo have 
you here, and this certainly is not said in a way to embarrass you, 
because I know you are a fine lawyer and a fine gentleman. 

Counsel appear before all congressional committees as their guests. 
They are not permitted to advise their clients as we used to do in jaw- 
suits, to volunteer. They can only help their client when the client 
seeks help from them. And if you will remember that, I would ap- 
preciate it. 

]Mr. Rabixowitz. As long as I may advise my client on any occasion 
when he is in doubt, he is authorized to consult me? 

Senator Welker. He is authorized to ask you, and I shall exercise 
great liberality on that. 

Mr. RABiNownz. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Norris. Did you reside next to the Blanchards, Mr. Mills? 

Mr. Mills. I plead the fifth amendment to that question, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You have given your address as 69 West Boulevard, 
and the address we are talking about is 71 West Boulevard, and I 
ask if you will not reconsider and testify whether or not you actu- 
ally lived next door to them. 

Mr. Mills. Sir, I must invoke the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. And counselor, with your help, so that the record 
is clear: The fifth amendment upon the ground and for the reason 
that any ansAver that I might give might tend to 

Mr. Mills. Might tend to 

Senator Welker. Might tend to force me to bear witness agaijist 
myself. And that is the best objection that I can write. I am sure 
counselor will accept it. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Thank you. Senator; I will accept that. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, in view of the witness's response, and 
since he is brought here for this particular purpose, I suggest that Ave 
confine, at least at this session of the committee, the session to just that 
one question, because this is what he was brought here for, for that 
particular purpose. 

He was brought here by way of establishing that the Blanchard.s 
lived at 71 West Boulevard, the house directly next to him, at the par- 
ticular time that this birth certificate of the dead John Francis Bren- 
nan was sent to the Blanchards at that address, Avhich birth certifi- 
cate turned up in the possession of Robert Thompson when he was 
arrested by the FBI 3 years later. 

That is clear, is it not. Senator? 

Senator Welker. Yes, it is clear. But for the life of me, I cannot 
understand why this witness was brought down here for that. You 
could find that out in New York by calling him on the 'phone. If 
he wanted to tell you then — I mean, I am trying to think of expense, 
and so forth. 



1180 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mills, maybe you will tell me this. And certainly do not do 
anything you do not want to do. Did you ever know the Blanchards ? 

Mr. Mills. Again, sir, I respectfully request the fifth amendme}it 
to protect me in that. 

Senator Welker. Are you afraid, Mr. Mills, that we are trying to 
get you in the j^enitentiary or trick you in someway ? 

Mr. Mills. No, sir. I 

Senator Welker. That is the last thing that the committee would 
want to do. I want to assure you of that. There is no idea of that. 
Counselor described fully why he wanted you here. Do you care to 
describe for me, Mr. Mills, just the locale in which you live, or is there 
some reason why you do not want to tell us that. 

Now, counselor, he wants your advice. 

Mr. Mills. May I 

Senator Welker. Yes, sir. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Mills. Senator, I live in a — I don't know how to describe the 
neighborhood — it is a small community. I don't know how else to 
describe it. 

Senator Welker. Are they row houses ? 

Mr. Mills. They are small bungalows, mostly that have been con- 
verted for year-round living. They were originally summer bunga- 
lows, I believe. 

Senator Welker. Are you a man of family, Mr. Mills ? 

Mr. Mills. Yes, sir ; I am. 

Senator Welker. Wliat does your family consist of ? 

Mr. Mills. I have a boy 8 years old. 

Senator Welker. A boy 8. 

Mr. Mills. And my wife, of course. 

Senator Welker. And is this in a highly urban area? Is it well 
built up around there, or is it more or less 

Mr. Mills. It is a suburban area. 

Senator Welker. Suburban ? 

Mr. Mills. Yes, sir. 

Senator Welker. Then I suppose you, like most human beings, 
know your neighbors over a period of time. I do not want to ask you 
that to lead you on. If you want to take the fifth on Blanchard, you 
would certainly be entitled to do that. 

Mr. Mills. I would like to do that, sir. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Senator, may I 

Senator Welker. Certainly, counselor. It is not permitted, but 
with you, it is. 

Mr. Rabinowitz. Thank you. 

May I suggest that you just a few moments ago suggested that I 
think is the fact here. If there are other people in the community 
who want to identify the Blanchards as having lived there, or not hav- 
ing lived there, I am sure the committee staff can find that out easily 
enough. It is perfectly obvious, from what has liappened, that this 
witness does not want to do it, and is going to rely on his privilege 
with respect to it for reasons 

Mr. Morris. It is not a question of he does not want to, counselor. 
It is that if he feels that he does, he may be incriminating himself. 

]\Tr. Eabinowitz. That is right. And as long as that is the case, and 
since the purpose is to ascertain the residence of the Blanchards, it 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1181 

just seems to me that it can more easily be done in some other way. 

Mr. ]\roRias. Mr. Chairman, we would like to know, for instance, 
wliether or not, as the evidence now indicates, or our information indi- 
cates, the Blancliards visited Mr. Mills here recently. 

Senator Welker. One of them is dead, is he not ? 

Mr. Morris. Not the Blancliards. 

Senator Welker. Didn't I miderstand that 

Mr. Morris. No. John Francis Brennan, the brother of Mrs. 
Blanchard. 

Senator Welker. Oh, yes ; that is rii^ht. 

Mr. Morris. Did the Blancliards visit you recently ? 

Mr. Mills. Again, sir, I invoke the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever attend any meeting with Robert and Wini- 
fred Blanchard ? 

Mr. Mills. The fifth amendment again, please. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, in view of that, I suggest that we not ask any 
more questions of this witness. 

Senator Welker. In view of the statement made by the witness and 
by counselor, I am prompted to say this. It causes me to stretch my 
imagination a great deal to find out how you could be incriminated 
by finding out who your next-door neighbor is. But that is something 
that is a personal privilege of yours, Mr. Mills, and no one else's. 
As your counselor stated, we will use every attempt to find out who 
your neighbors are. I will be glad to tell you who mine are, if you 
ask me. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I might point out that the testimony is neces- 
sary for the purpose of these hearings because, in demonstrating a 
case like the Robert Blanchard and the Winifred Blanchard cases, 
the committee would like to have the record show all pertinent facts 
possible. And if this is one of the cases where you are going to analyze 
to show Communist activity in the United States and its relation to 
the Soviet international organization, we have to know as many facts 
as possible. Senator. 

Now, w^e have here today 

Senator Welker. Counselor, the only place where we differ is on this 
proposition. I think as a matter of law you have established where 
they live. If not, you could bring the records of the Post Office De- 
partment up here very quickly. I do not know. I never met Mr. Mills 
before the executive hearing this morning. As far as I am concerned, 
I wish I could have talked to him about this a little earlier. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I might 

Senator Welker. I hope you are not prompted by any fear, Mr. 
Mills, or your counselor, any fear we are out just to hurt somebody. 
That is certainly not the attitude of this committee, nor will it ever be. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show that I 
made a particular appeal to Mr. Mills and asked him to be sure he 
knew the consequences of what he was doing in connection with this 
particular hearing this morning. I told him we would like to know 
as much as he knew about the Blancliards, and told him we were going 
to ask him about it, to my knowledge. 

Senator Welker. Did you ask him the question, counselor, had he 
ever met the Blancliards, and whether they visited back and forth? 

Mr. Morris. I did ask him. Senator, if he visited the Blancliards. 

Senator Welker. Did you ever meet the Blancliards ? 



1182 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mills. Again, sir, I must plead the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Have you ever met any of your neighbors in that 
neighborhood ? 

Mr. Mills (no response) . 

Senator Welker. Who lives at 67, No. 67, Mr. Mills ? 

Mr. Mills. Again, sir, I must plead the fifth amendment. 

Senator Welker. Do you know who operates the grocery store 
there? 

I am just trying to find out, if I can, the reason why you have 
adopted this manner. I have an idea that you really do not need the 
fifth amendment, that maybe you are frightened by something. Maybe 
I am wrong. I will withdraw my question. You know the neighbor- 
hood grocery man, counsel? 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this, Mr. Mills. Have you attended meet- 
ings — have meetings been held in your home at which Mr. Blanchard 
was present, at which, as some of the neighbors have told the com- 
mittee, all the shades in your home have been drawn ? 

Mr. Mills. May I consult counsel again ? 

Senator Welker. Surely. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Mills. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Mr. Chairman, now with respect to anything further, 
I think that I would like this part of the testimony related to the 
Blanchard association of this particular witness, I mean, particularly 
with respect to the last point I brought out, and may he stay under 
subpena and be called back at some other time ? 

Senator Welker. May I reserve a ruling. May T talk to you, 
counselor, just one second. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Senator Welker. Mr. Mills, are you now a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Mills. No, Senator, I am not. 

Senator Welker. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Mills. I must invoke, again, the fifth amendment to that ques- 
tion. 

Senator Welker. Would you desire to make a cutoff time as to 
when you would invoke the privilege? 

JNIr. Mills. May I consult counsel again? 

Senator Welker. Certainly. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Mills. At least 5 years. 

Senator Welker. At least 5 years ? 

Mr. Mills. That is right. 

Senator Welker. And prior to 5 years ago, you desire to invoke 
the privilege guaranteed you by the Constitution under the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. Mills. Yes. 

Senator Welker. Very well, Mr. Mills. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I refine that a little bit? Novem- 
ber 11, 1950, was the date that this transition was made. 

Were you a Communist on November 11, 1950 ? 

Senator Welker. I think he has answered it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1183 

You can answer it again for him. As I recall, you took the fifth 
amendment for everything prior to 5 years back. 

Mr. Mills. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Do^ou desire to talk to your counsel? 

INlr. Kabinowitz. No. I understood that that had been the answer. 
I haven't any objection myself. 

Mr. Mills. I think I must repeat, Senator, that the 5-year period 
is the most complete answer I can give you now. 

Senator Welker. If you will be around a little bit after the hear- 
ing is over, I would like to talk to both of you. 

I want to say to you again, Mr. Mills, that I appreciate your ap- 
pearance before the committee. You are now released from your sub- 
pena, and I hope that your health improves. 

Very well, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Bernard Koten. 

Senator Welker. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you will 
give before the subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. KoTEN. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP BEENAED L. KOTEN, ACCOMPANIED BY JOSEPH 

POEEE, HIS ATTOENEY 

Senator Welker. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. KoTEN. Bernard L. Koten. 

Senator Welker. AYliere do you reside? 

Mr. KoTEN. 548 West 164th Street, New York City. 

Senator Welker. What is your occupation? 

Mr. Kotex. I am a research worker. 

Senator Welker. What does that mean? Research for what? 

Mr. KoTEx. Research librarian. 

Senator Welker. A librarian, very well. 

Mr. KoTEN. A research librarian. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. For whom do you work, Mr. Koten ? 

Mr. Koten. The Library for Intercultural Studies. 

Mr. Morris. The Library for Intercultural Studias, is that the 
successor organization to the American-Russian Institute? 

Mr, Koten. No ; except that we got the collection of the American- 
Russian Institute. 

Mr. Morris. You got the collection of their books, their libraiy ; is 
that right ? 

Mr. KoTEN. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And that was formerly transferred 

Mr. KoTEN. Transferred by a court to the Library for Intercultural 
Studies. 

^ Mr. Morris. I see. Now, did the employees of the American-Rus- 
sian Institute remain the same as the Library for Intercultural 
Studies ? 

Mr. KoTEX. I am the only employee. 

Mr. Morris. Transferee? 

Mr. KoTEN. Well, not transferee; reemployee. I was reemployed 
by the library. 



1184 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, when were you the research director of 
the American-Russian Institute? 

Mr. KoTEN. I was research director from 1946 to 1950, when the 
institute was liquidated. 

Mr. Morris. And then you have been with the present committee 
since 

Mr. KoTEN. Since 1952. 

Mr. Morris. Since 1952? 

Mr. KoTEN. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. There was a hiatus in there of 2 years? 

Mr. KoTEN". That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, where were you born, Mr. Koten ? 

Mr. KoTEN. New York City. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat has been your education ? 

Mr. KoTEisr. Public school, high school, college. I have an M. A., 
and I am working on my doctorate now. 

Mr. Morris. And what year did you graduate from college? 

Mr. KoTEN. Well, there are a couple of colleges. 

Senator Welker. Go ahead. Tell us your college background. 

Mr. Koten. I was at Johns Hopkins until 1932, when we went 
to the Soviet Union. My father had been invited there to organize 
veterinary work, and I entered college tliere. I was graduated in 
1936. And when I came back, I entered Teachers College at Colum- 
bia, and I took a combined M. S.-M. A., which I got in, I think it was, 
1940, finally. And then I began on my doctorate in 1940, and I am 
still working on it. 

Senator Welker. You were a student at Moscow University ? 

Mr. KoTEN. No; the Moscow State Pedagogical Linguistics Insti- 
tute. 

Mr. Morris. And you stayed in Moscow from 1932 to 1936? 

Mr. KoTEN. No; well, from 1934 to 1936. In 1936, we took a trip 
home, and then went back and stayed until 1937. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, you were able to travel through all 16 
Soviet Republics, were you not ? 

Mr. KoTEN. I don't know. I didn't travel through them all. 

Senator Welker. You did not ? 

Mr. KoTEN. No. 

Senator Welker. How many of the Soviet Republics did you visit? 

Mr. Koten. I went through three of them; the Ukraine, Azerbai- 
jan, and the RSFSR, and I was in transit through Byelorussia. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do prior to 1946 ? What was your em- 
ployment, Mr. Koten ? 

Mr. Koten. I was in the Army from 1943 to 1946. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

What kind of service did you have in the Army ? 

Mr. Koten. Do you want the whole history ? 

Mr. Morris. No. Just roughly, tell us what it was. 

Mr. Koten. I was in the infantry, first as a foot soldier, then with 
the wire section, and then I was NCO in charge of the intelligence 
platoon for our company. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what did you do prior to 1943 when you went 
into the Army? 

Mr. Koten. I was with the American-Russian Institute from 1941 
to 1943 as a research worker, not as a research director. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1185 

Mr. Morris. I see. And when did that employment commence? 

Mr. KoTEN. 1941. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do prior to 1941 ? 

]\Ir. KoTEN. I was on an occupational adjustment survey study for 
Rockefeller in Ncav York and Connecticut. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of that ? You had a grant from 
the Rockefeller Foundation? 

Mr. KoTEN. I didn't have a grant. The adjustment study had a 
grant, and I worked for the study. 

Mr. Morris. What was your job in research there ? 

Mr. KoTEN. I had to interview high school leavees to determine 
whether or not they had had any help in occupational adjustment. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do prior to 1940 ? 

Mr. KoTEN. Before that I was assigned by the board of education 
as an adult education supervisor for the WPA. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work for the New York Board of Education? 

Mr. KoTEX. I was assigned bv the board of education, working for 
the WPA. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And how far back does that employment go ? 

Mr. KoTEX. I was responsible to the board of education but my pay 
came from the WPA. 

]Mr. Morris. How far did that employment go ? 

Mr. KoTEX. From 1938 to the end of 1939. 

Mr. IMoRRis. And what did you do from 1936 to 1938 ? 

Mr. KoTEx. Well, I was in the Soviet Union until 1937. 

Mr. Morris. 1937? 

Mr. KoTEx. I was teaching at the high school where I had studied, 
and I took some graduate work. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. "\\liat school was that ? 

Mr. KoTEX. The IMoscow State Pedagogical Linguistic Institute. 

Mr. Morris. From 1937 to 1938 ? 

Mr KoTEX. We were there until 1937. I came back in 1937, and 
went to school in 1938. I had some odd jobs, and I worked for a few 
weeks in the summer, before I began school, in a bank. 

Mr. Morris. Xow, were you a member of the Communist Party 
when you were in Moscow from the period of 1932 to 1936 ? 

Mr, KoTEX. I refuse to answer on the basis of my privilege under 
the fifth amendment not to be a witness against myself. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a member of the Communist Party 
when vou had that assignment from the board of education in New 
York City? 

Mr. KoTEx. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
did work under the grant from the Rockefeller Foundation ? 

Mr. KoTEX. I must refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
your employment with the American-Russian Institute prior to your 
service in the Army ? 

Mr. KoTEx. I must refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a Commimist Party member when you 
were in the Army ? 

Mr. KoTEx. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 



1186 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist Party member when you were 
the research director of the American- Russian Institute? 

Mr. KoTEN. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a Communist now ? 

Mr. KoTEN. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, this witness has been asked to tes- 
tify here in connection with the committee's interest in the American- 
Russian Institute. Now, in connection with a case that has been un- 
der consideration by the subcommittee — tliat is, the case of Judith 
Coplon — we noticed from the court record that one of the papers 
carried by Judith Coplon and transmitted to Gubischev, the Soviet 
official to whom she was transmitting documents at the time of her 
arrest, that one of these was an FBI report which bore this present 
notation : 

Bernard Koten, research director of American-Russian Institute, is friend 
and contact of William Hermann Eckart Johnson, and his wife, -Annette F. 
Johnson, who are employed at present on the secret Russian desk of the War 
Department, Washington, D. C, and who are suspected of giving out info to 
the NKVD. 

Now, I would like to point out, Senator, that this is a report that is 
in the public record. It was put into the record at the time of the 
Coplon trial. 

I wonder, Mr. Koten, if you will tell us if you ever knew William 
Hermann Eckart Johnson. 

Mr. Koten. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Who was Mr. William Hermann Eckart Johnson? 

Mr. Koten. When you say "who," I don't understand it. 

Mr. Morris. Wlio was he ? 

Mr. Koten. They are friends of mine. 

Mr. Morris. Friends of yours ? All right. 

Did you visit them on any occasions ? 

Mr. KoTEN. We visit back and forth quite often. We have done it 
for years. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Mr. Koten. I didn't during the time I was in the Army, obviously. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did they ever discuss with you any of the business 
that was going on at the secret Russian desk of the War Department. 

IMr. Koten. Never, to my recollection. 

Mr. Morris. Did Mr. Johnson ever discuss that with you ? 

Mr. Koten. Never to my recollection. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party when you 
were entering into discussions with them ? 

Mr. Koten. I must refuse to answer for the same reason I gave 
before. 

Mr, Morris. Do you know whether or not they had any knowledge 
of whether or not you were a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Koten. I have no way of Imowing what knowledge they had. 

Senator Welker. That is a pretty good answer. 

Mr. Koten. That is a truthful answer. 

Senator Welker. You cannot get around that one; I will tell you 
that. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions of this wit- 
ness at this time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1187 

Senator Welker. I have no more. 

Mr. FoRER. Excuse me a second. That thing you read- 



Mr. Morris. I would like to put that in the record, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. FoRER. Wait a minute. May I get that last sentence there? 
There was some insinuation there that Mr. Koten was getting or 
passing- 



Senator Welker. No. I think it was the Johnsons, was it not, coun- 
sel? 

Mr. Morris. It is fragmentary, Senator. The reason that I re- 
ferred to this and that we are putting it into the public record at tliis 
time is because it is a matter of public record. 

Mr. Forer. I just wanted the record 

Senator Welker. There is no inference 

Mr. KoTEN. But I 

Mr. Forer. But you did not even ask him. I want the record to be 
perfectly plain that you have not asked Mr. Koten whether he engaged 
in any such thing as that. 

Mr. Morris. It does not say anything. All it says is that Bernard 
Koten, research director of the American Russian Institute, is a 
friend and a contact of William Herman Eckart Jolinson and his 
wife. 

Mr. Koten. What does "contact" mean, sir? 

Mr. Forer. Why are you calling him down here? Why are you 
putting in the record Mr. Koten's testimony ? 

Now, we have no objection to its going into the record. But why 
don't you ask Mr. Koten whether he had anything to do with what 
that says the Johnsons had to do ? 

Mr. Morris. Were you a friend and contact of the Jolinsons ? 

Mr. Koten. I said, "friend," sir. 

Senator Welker. I think it is very material. You say it does not 
have any reason, counselor. I think it is very material. 

(The memo was marked "Exhibit No. 256" and, having been read 
in full by Mr. Morris, was placed in the committee files.) 

Mr. Forer. No. You do not understand. I have not made myself 
clear. 

Senator Welker. He wanted to find out whether he was a friend of 
people suspected of being espionage agents. It goes to the weight and 
not the credibility of the testimony. 

Mr. Forer. No. We want the record to show that Mr. Koten is not, 
and nobody can accuse him of being, an espionage agent, or having any 
share in espionage. 

Mr. Morris. No one has raised that point, Mr. Forer. 

Mr. Forer. I think it has been raised. 

Senator Welker. Only by you. 

Mr. iSIoRRis. Senator, I would like to point out that we have stuck 
strictly to the evidence and the information that the committee has, 
and we have not asked one other question. 

Mr. Forer. It is insinuated. 

Mr. Morris. We have received evidence in the past, Senator, that 
the American-Russian Institute was a recruiting agency for Soviet in- 
telligence, and we do know that this man was the research director of 
the American-Russian Institute. But I would like the record to show 
that, to my knowledge, I have no indication, and one of the things we 
are trying to find out, I suppose, is whether or not this individual who 



1188 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

is testifying here today, knew of the role of the American-Russian 
Institute. 

Mr. FoRER. If you are trying to find out whether Mr. Koten had any- 
thing to do with Russian intelligence, it seems to me you ought to ask 
him. 

Mr. Morris. This is the only evidence before the committee. 

Mr. FoRER. I think all it is is insinuations. 

Mr. KoTEN. The word "contact" hangs there and it sort of sticks in 
my craw. 

Senator Welker. You go right ahead. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I asked him if he had transmitted any evidence 
to him, and that is the context of this. 

Senator Welker. I want to say to you, counsel, and this witness and 
his counsel, if there is any question, and if they want a question asked 
of them, you go right ahead and ask the question. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, the point that I 

Senator Welker. As I recalled, you made no inference whatsoever. 

Mr. Morris. And I asked whether any evidence had been trans- 
mitted from the secret Russian desk of the War Department to the 
witness here today. 

Senator Welker. And he answerer "No," as I recall it. 

Mr. KoTEN. That is right. 

Mr. FoRER. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, I would like to make it a practice here 
with respect to the committee activity to ask questions only in con- 
formance with the information and the evidence that is before the 
committee. And I think. Senator, it is a very important thing that 
this committee do only that, to avoid 

Mr. FoRER. I was not being critical. I just wanted to make sure that 
the press did not get any unwarranted insinuations. 

Mr. Morris. No. 

Mr. FoRER. O. K. 

Have you finished ? 

Mr. Morris. I have finished. 

Senator Welker. That is all. You are released from the subpena. 
Thank you very much. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I would like the record to show that Mr. Fried- 
man, before he left, withdrew his request that the statement be put in 
the record. He agreed that there was immaterial matter in it, and 
felt that should not be in the record. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Thank you. 

The meeting is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 1 : 54 p. m., the subcommittee recessed to reconvene 
at 10 : 30 a. m., Thursday, May 3, 1956.) 

(The following news release, dated April 7, 1956, was ordered 
printed in the record at a meeting of the subcommittee on June 26, 
1956:) 

News Release, April 7, 19.56, Fkom the Senate Inteenal Security 

Subcommittee 

Senator James O. Eastland (Democrat, Mississippi) today ordered an open 
session of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, of which he is chairman, 
for Wednesday, April 11, to hear Robert Blanchard, a television artist, his wife, 
Winifred, and possibly another witness. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1189 

The Blanchards were excused from the subcommittee's recent hearings in 
New Orleans because they were unable to reach the city in time. 

At the conclusion of the New Orleans hearings yesterday, the participating 
Senators, Chairman Eastland, William E. Jenner (Republican, Indiana), and 
Arthur V. Watkius (Republican, Utah) joined in the following statement: 

"Our evidence in New Orleans indicates very clearly that Communist leaders in 
Moscow, Peiping, and Bombay, and other foreign cities, through the instrumental- 
ity of their writings and party directives, transmitted under Soviet discipline, 
are reaching down into the southern part of the United States for agents willing 
to do their mischievous work. We have come into possession of Communist 
Party orders that enjoin American Communists to pursue specific assignments 
that are calculated to spread Soviet power here and abroad. 

"Our sessions indicate that, hidden from the public eye, and known only, 
we presume, to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, there has been in New 
Orleans an active Communist underground movement, small but coordinated, 
that has sought to infiltrate labor unions, the churches, farmer organizations, 
parent-teacher associations, the channels of public opinion, and other streams 
of influence in our Government. 

"Our sessions reveal the conspiratorial nature of the Communist organiza- 
tion, the I'esort to aliases, the use of code names, evasion of legal processes, the 
fabrication of birth records, of social security records, and other practices that 
are designed to conceal from legal authorities and from the American peoples 
the purposes of the Communists." 

During the course of the subcommittee's hearings, after 14 witnesses had 
been heard, counsel for several of the witnesses, Abraham Kleinfeldt, of New 
Orleans, asked the chairman for an oportunity to deny, under oath, that he, 
himself, had ever been a Communist. The chairman gave him that privilege 
and affirmatively stated that the subcommittee had no evidence to the contrary. 

The chairman then asked the other lawyers, Ben Smith, of New Orleans, and 
Philip Wittenberg, of New York, if they wished the same courtesy extended to 
them. Smith availed himself of the opportunity and denied that he had ever 
been a Communist. Wittenberg, however, became contumacious ar^d was ordered 
from the courtroom. 



INDEX 



Note. — ^The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Abt, Jessica Smith. (/See Smith, Jessica.) P»se 

Abt, John 1130, 1141, 1142 

Affidavit of Registration (CP) 1150 

Alabama 1162 

American 1143 

American Friends Service Committee 1139, 1140, 1143 

American-Russian Institute 1183-1188 

American-Soviet 1129 

Army 1184-1186 

Associated Hospital Service 1168 

Azerbaijan 1184 

B 

Bentley, Elizabeth 1142, 1157, 1165 

Blanchard, Robert 1168, 1178-1182, 1188, 1189 

Blanchard, Winifred 1168, 1178-1181, 1188, 1189 

Bombay 1189 

Brenuan, John Francis 1168, 1179, 1181 

Brennan driver's permit 1176 

Brennan fishing permit 1169 

Brennan hospital card 1175 

Brennan labor book 1170-1173 

Brennan learner's permit 1176 

Brennan operator's permit 1174 

Brennan social-security card 1175 

Brennan union receipt 1174 

Brennan withholding statement 1177 

Brooklyn Eagle 1155 

Burdett, Winston 1155, 1156, 1159 

Bureau of Vital Statistics 1168 

Byelorussia 1184 

C 

California 1147 

Carrigan, Paul E 1178 

Catalina Avenue, 986 South (Los Angeles) 1149-1150 

Central Park West, 444 (New York City) 1129. 1142 

Chester, Pa 1158, 1160, 1162 

Chester Times, The (Chester, Pa.) 1158,1160 

Child's 1157 

China 1131 

City College (New York) 1147 

Columbia (New York) 1147 

Columbia, Teachers College 1184 

Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy 1150 

Communist(s) 1132, 1140, 1150, 1157, 1163, 1166, 1186 

Communist activity 1181 

Communist dues 1165 

Communist leaders 1189 



II INDEX 

Page 

Communist Party 1130, 

1140-1143, 1149, 1150, 1155, 1160, 1168, 1182, 1185, 1186, 1189 

Congress of Industrial Organizations 1162 

Congress of tlie United States 1153 

Connecticut 1184 

Constitution 1130, 1161, 1182 

Coplon, Judith 1186 

Coplon Trial, The 1186 

Cornell University .— — ^^_. — 1142 

D 

Dachau 1163 

Daily Worker 1155, 1160, 1162 

Dallin, David J 1164 

Doho-Sha 1150 

Dunn, Robert W . 1140. 1141 

E 

Eastern European countries -_. 1131 

Eastland, Hon. James O 1154, 1161, 1162, 1167, 1188 

East Rockaway, N. Y 1168, 1178 

Einhorn, Nat 1155 

Eisenhower, General . 1163 

Eisenhovrer, President 1129 

Exhibit No. 250. Soviet Russia Today, May 1936 (contents page) 1133, 1134 

Exhibit No. 250-A. List of Books by Jessica Smith 1136, 1137, 1138 

Exhibit No. 251. Who's Who, page 2559 1139, 1140 

Exhibit No. 252. National Guardian, February 28, 1949, "MacArthur's 

Hoax : The Spies Did Conspire— For Peace" 1145, 1146 

Exhibit No. 252-A. National Guardian, January 31, 1949, "The Meaning of 

the Vote in Japan" 1146, 114T 

Exhibit No. 253. Brennan fishing permit 1169 

Exhibit No. 253-A. Brennan labor book 1170-1173 

Exhibit No. 253-B. Brennan operator's permit 1174 

Exhibit No. 253-C. Brennan union receipt 1174 

Exhibit No. 253-D. Brennan hospital card 1175 

Exhibit No. 253-E. Brennan social security card 1175 

Exhibit No. 253-F. Brennan driver's permit 1176 

Exhibit No. 253-G. Brennan learner's permit 1176 

Exhibit No. 253-H. Brennan withholding statement 1177 

Exhibit No. 254. Letter from Postmaster, East Rockaway, N. Y 1178 

Exhibit No. 255. Report from telephone company 1178 

Exhibit No. 256. FBI report 1187 

F 

Fascism (st) 1131, 1159, 1161, 1163 

FBI 1168, 1179, 1186, 1189 

Fifth amendment 1130, 1135, 1136, 

1140-1143, 1149, 1150, 1156, 1159, 1160, 1164-1166, 1179-1183, 1185 
Finland 1155, 1156 

First amendment 1130, 1135, 1161 

Forer, Joseph : 

Attorney for Jessica Smith (Abt) 1129 

Attorney for Shuji Fu.iii 1144 

Attorney for Bernard L. Koten 1181 

Franco 1162, 1163 

Friedman, Milton, attorney for Joseph North 1153-1167 

Friends Seminary (New York City) 1130 

Fu.iii, Shuji, testimonv of 1144—1151 

319 East 10th Street (New York City) 1144 

Born, December 22, 1910 (Los Angeles, Calif.) 1147 

Attorney: Joseph Forer 1144 

Education : Japan, City College, New York, Columbia, New York Uni- 
versity, the New York Community College 1147 

Free-lance translator, interpreter, draftsman 1144 



INDEX m 

Fujil, Shuji, testimony of — Continued 

Tj'poKrapliical worli : Iloliubei Shimpo 1144 

Worked for OWI (editorial) 1148 

Worked for OSS 1148 

Worked for Doho-Slia (Los Angeles, Calif.) from 1937 1150 

Consultant: Committee for a Democx'atic Far Eastern Policy 1150 

Member Japanese-American Committee for Democracy 1150 

G 

Geneva (Switzerland) 1120 

Germany 1163 

Golos, Jacob, also known as Jacob Raisin 1156, 1157, 1159 

Greenwich Village 1155, 1156 

Gubiscbev 1186 

H 
Helen 1342 

Hicks Fruit Store 1157, 1165 

Hiss, Alger 1141 

Hiss, Donald 1141 

Hitler 1162,1163 

Hokubei Shimpo (New York City) 1144, 1150 

Honolulu 1148 

Hoover American Relief Administration 1139 

House Un-American Activities Committee 1157 

I 

Idaho 1163 

International Association of Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Iron- 
workers 1168 

International Labor Defense 1162 

J 

Jackson Heights, N. Y 1178 

Japan 1147,1148 

Japanese- American 1144 

Japanese-American Committee for Democracy 1150 

Japanese publications 1151 

Jenner, Hon. William E 1189 

Johns Hopkins University 1184 

Johnson, Annette F 1186 

Johnson, AVilliam Hermann Eckart 1186, 1187 

K 

Kazekavich 1165 

Kita, Mr. Isaku 1144 

Kleber, Gen. Emilio 1164 

Kleber, Jean-Baptiste 1164 

Kleinfeldt, Abraham 1189 

Kotasky, Herb 1164 

Koten, Bernard L., testimony of 1183-1188 

548 West 164th Street, New York City 1183 

Born: New York City 1184 

Attorney: Joseph Forer 1183 

Education : Public school, high school, Johns Hopkins, Teachers College 

at Columbia, Moscow State Pedagogical Linguistics Institute 1184 

Army : 1943-46 1184 

Research librarian 1183 

Library for Intercultural Studies (since 1952) 1183 

American-Russian Institute, research worker (1941—13) 1184 

American-Russian Institute, research director (1946-50) 1184 

Occupational adjustment survey study for Rockefeller 1185 

Adult education supervisor for the WPA (1938-39) 1185 

Kramer, Charles 1142 

Krivitsky, Geperal 1165 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 




INDEX 



3 9999 05445 4267 



Page 

Labor Defender, The 1162 

Labor Unity 1162 

Library for Intercultural Studies 1183 

Library of Congress 1135, 1136 

List of books by Jessica Smith 1136-1138 

Little, Lt. Col. Herbert S 1119 

Long Island 1178 

Los Angeles, Calif 1147, 1149, 1150 

Loyalist Army 1164 

Loyalist Spain 1163 

M 

Madison, N. J 1130 

Mandel, Benjamin 1129, 1153 

Manhattan 1157 

Meaning of the Vote in Japan 1145, 1146 

Mills, George, testimony of 1168-1183 

69 West Boulevard, East Rockaway, N. Y 1168 

Attorney : Victor Rabinowitz 1168 

Free-lance writer 1168. 

Miyagi, Mr 1151 

Morris, Robert 1129, 1153 

Moscow 1164, 1184, 1185, 1189 

Moscow State Pedagogical Linguistics Institute 1184, 1185 

Moscow University 1184 

Mussolini 1162, 1163 

N 

Napoleon 1164 

National Guardian 1145 

New Masses 1157, 1162, 1164, 1165 

New Orleans, La 1189 

News release, Apr. 7, 1956 11,88-1189 

New World Review 1131, 1132, 1135, 1143 

New York Board of Education 1184 

New York Community College 1147 

New York, N. Y 1129, 1130, 1144, 1155, 1156, 1165, 1183, 1184, 1185 

New York State 1184 

New York Times 1129, 1150 

New York University 1147 

NKVD 1157, 1165, 1186 

North, Joseph, testimony of 1153-1167 

Attorney: Milton Friedman 1153 

Born in Ukraine 1158 

Education : High school ; University of Pennsylvania, graduated in 

1925 1158 

Employed at Chester Times, Chester, Pa 1158 

Employed at Labor Defender 1162 

Wrote for Daily Worker, Labor Unity, New Masses 1162 

Covered World War II in Germany 1163 

O 

Office of Strategic Services 1148, 1150 

Morale operations 1149 

Office of War Information 1148 

One Hundred Sixty-Fourth Street, 548 West (New York City) 1183 

Out of Bondage, by Elizabeth Bentley 1105 

Over the North Pole, a transcript by Jessica Smith 1136 

Ozaki, Mr 1151 

P 

Pacific war fronts , 1148 

Peiping 1189 

Pennsylvania, University of 1158 

People's World 1147 



INDEX V 

Page 

Perlo, Victor "1142 

Post Office Departmeut 1181 

Pressman, Lee 1142 

Q 
Quaker 1130,1140 

R 

Rabinowitz, Victor, attorney for George Mills 1168-1183 

Raisin, Jacob (see also Jacob Golos) 1165 

Red Army 1164 

Remington, William 1156, 1157, 1159 

Richard Sorge Case, The 1145, 1151 

Rockefeller Foundation 1184, 1185 

RSFSR 1184 

Rusher, William A 1120, 1153 

Russia 1163 

Russian intelligence 1158 

Russian language 113& 

S 

SACB 1160 

Sacco-Vanzetti 1162 

Saito, Jimmy 1150 

Saturday Evening Post 1165 

Schrafft's 1157 

Scott, Byron 1165 

Scottsboro case 1162 

Seventy-eighth Street, 37-41, Jackson Heights, N. Y 1178 

Silvermasters, The 1165 

Skvirsky, Boris 1134 

Smith, Ben 1189 

Smith, Jessica, testimony of 1129-1143 

444 Central Park West, New York City 1129 

Born in Madison, N. J 1130 

Attorney: Joseph Forer 1129 

Married name : Jessica Smith Abt 1129 

Married John Abt in 1937 1130 

Education: Friends Seminary, New York City; Swarthmore College, 

graduated 1915 1130 

Became editor of New World Review in 1936 1131 

Worked at Soviet Embassy 1134 

Social Democrats 1164 

Sorge, Richard 1145, 1151 

Soviet Embassy 1134, 1135 

Soviet Espionage 1164 

Soviet espionage 1153, 1159 

Soviet Information Bureau 1134, 1143 

Soviet intelligence 1164, 1187 

Soviet international organization 1181 

Soviet military intelligence 1156, 1164, 1165 

Soviet military intelligence, agents of 1142 

Soviet press 1134, 1135 

Soviet propaganda 1130 

Soviet republics 1184 

Soviet Russia Today 1132, 1133, 1134, 1135, 1143 

Soviet Union 1131, 1134, 1139, 1140, 1143, 1184, 1185 

Soviet Union Review 1134 

Spain 1162, 1164, 1166 

Spain, Government of 1163 

Spanish Civil War 1164 

Spies Did Conspire — For Peace, The 1145, 1146 

Stalin 1163 

Stern, Moische 1164 



VI INDEX 

Page 

Supreme Court 1160 

Supreme Court decision 1162, 1167 

Swarthmore College 1130 

T 

Taylor, William 1165 

Tenth Street, 319 East (New York City) 1144 

Thirteenth Street corner (New York City) 1156 

Thompson, Robert 1168, 1179 

Trade Union Unity League  — : 1162 

U 

Ukraine 1158,1184 

Union Square (New York City) 1155 

United States 1130, 1131, 1144, 

1145, 1147, 1149, 1156, 1158, 1164, 1166, 1181, 1889 

United States Post Office 1178 

TJnited States Service & Shipping Corp 1165 

U. S. S. R. and World Peace (by Vyshinskii) 1136 

V 
y-Day 1163 

W 

War Department, Russian Desk of 1186, 1188 

Ware Cell of the Communist Party (Washington) 1141, 1142 

Ware, Harold 1130, 1141 

Washington 1134, 1141, 1165, 1186 

Washington Post, The 1165 

Watkins, Hon. Arthur V 1189 

Welker, Hon. Herman 1129, 1153 

West Boulevard, 69 (East Rockaway, N. Y.) 1168, 1179 

West Boulevard, 71 (East Rockaway, N. Y.) 1168,1178,1179 

Who's Who 1139 

Wittenberg, Philip 1189 

Wood, Mr 1157 

World Tourist 1165 

World War II 1163 

WPA 1184 

Z 
Zilbert, Mark 1164 

o 



i^crv^oiiv^KT 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OP THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUWCIMY 
UNITED STATES SEMTE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MAY 9 AND 10, 1956 



PART 23 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Bostor. Public Lforary 
Superintenrlent of Documents 

DEC 1 7 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JtJDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

BSTES KEFAUVBR, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert SIorris, Chief Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Bi;NjAMiN Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Witnesses : 

Foner, Philip S 1195 

Nicholas, Ashley J 1207 

in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 9, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 

OF THE Internal Security and Other Internal 
Security Laws oe the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 11 : 10 a. m., in room 
155, Senate Office Building, Senator Arthur V. Watkins presiding. 

Present : Senator Watkins. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Eusher, 
administrative counsel ; Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Watkins. The committee will be in session. 

Mr. Morris, will you call your witness ? 

Mr. Morris. ]Mr. Foner, will you come forward, please ? 

Mr. Foner is the witness. Please make yourself comfortable. 

Senator Watkins. Will you stand and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony given on this matter in 
this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Foner. I do. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, before beginning with the questions 
this morning, I would like to say there is only going to be one wit- 
ness appearing in the open session today. There had been four wit- 
nesses subpenaed for today's session. 

Three weeks ago, in connection with our hearings, we had subpenaed 
a witness who was a publisher and had an academic background. He 
came forward and answered questions rather extensively, and iden- 
tified for the record 30 or 40 persons who had been Communists. 
Wliat we have been trying to do is trace the present location of these 
30 or 40 people and what they are doing now. In the course of that, 
we had a witness in executive session who is an associate professor at 
a State university. "Wlien we presented him with the evidence, he 
invoked his privilege under the fifth amendment rather than answer the 
questions. At the same time, he said he is not now a Communist. 

Very often that is a problem that comes up before the committee. 
We have evidence of a person's participation in a Communist organi- 
zation, and as far as his present activity is concerned, he has only 
his own say-so, and he will not give the circumstances surrounding 
his departure from the party so the committee can form an independ- 
ent judgment. 

We would like the record to show he is an ex-Communist without 
giving further proof of that position. However, we have allowed 
him to return back to the university to discuss the thing with some 

1191 



1192 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

people who might be able to give him some advice. In other words, 
before making his testimony public, we have allowed him to return 
so that he will be able to think it over. 

Now, a second witness appeared in the executive session this morn- 
ing, as you know — I would like the record to show this witness was 
a person whose name appeared in public record of this committee 
as an American who had engaged in espionage. 

Senator Watkins. You ought to make that word "espionage" a 
little more specific. 

Mr. Morris. Industrial espionage for the Soviet Union. 

When we asked him about it, he disclosed he had been in contact 
with Soviet agents for a period from 1933 to 1950. One of the agents 
involved was Gaik Ovakimian, who has appeared in our record as 
one of the Communist security police in the United States. 

This witness testified extensively about his activities with Gaik 
Ovakimian. At the same time, he had an association of the same 
nature with a Soviet official who operated under the cover of the Soviet 
Eed Cross. He gave us extensive details about his own dealings with 
that man, and that involved, in addition to espionage, a certain amount 
of violence. 

The man has shown a great reluctance to testify, as you know, Sen- 
ator, and again we have deliberated and given the man an opportunity 
to think the thing over for another week before putting his name in 
the public record. 

Senator Watkins. As I understand, we advised him that the mat- 
ter was not finished, and that he would be called back later. 

Mr. Morris. Meanwhile, we have his executive session testimony of 
3 hours' duration. Senator. 

Senator Watkixs. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. I have some more things here. Senator, that I would 
like to have go into the record at this time. These are things that we 
now have that should have been in the record in the course of past 
hearings. 

T\Tiile Plarry Gold was testifying, reference was made to a man 
named Yakovlev. We have legislative reference that a man named 
A. A. Yakovlev was assistant vice counsul in New York prior to 
June 16, 1950. May that go into the record ? 

Senator Watkins. It may be made a part of the record. 

(The reference referred to appears as a footnote at p. 1028 of part 20 
of the series of hearings on Scope of Soviet Activity in the United 
States.) 

Mr. Morris. We have testimony from Mr. Yuri Kastvorov that G. 
Karpov, who is described as chairman of the council for the affairs of 
the Russian Orthodox Church, is in fact a general in Soviet military 
intelligence. We have here an article which appeared in the Worker 
of April 3, 1949, by G. Karpov, chairman of the council for the affairs 
of the Russian Orthodox Church. - 

I would like that to go into the record, sir. 

Senator Watkins. It may be made a part of the record. 

(The article referred to appears at p. 785 of part 14 of the series 
of hearings on Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States.) 

Mr. Morris. A witness before this committee, Franklin Folsom, 
in connection with the Tass hearings, refused to say, unlike all the 
other witnesses who appeared in the Tass hearings, whether in fact 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1193 

lie had worked for Tass News Agency. He refused to say on the 
grounds that his answers might incriminate him. 

I would like to oiler for the record the September 3, 1947, registra- 
tion tiled by Tass, pursuant to section 2 of the Foreign Agents Regis- 
tration Act of 1938, in which it is listed that Franklin Folsom, 142 
East 27th Street, New York City, was in fact an employee of Tass 
at that particular time. 

May that go into the record, Mr. Chairman ? 

Senator Watkins. This is a photostatic copy of the original docu- 
ment? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. That is a photostat of the original 
registration certificate, which shows in fact that Folsom was em- 
ployed by Tass at that time, at the time he refused to say that he 
was, pleading fifth-amendment privilege. 

Senator Watkins. It will be made a part of the record. 

Mr. Morris. I have here two photostats that may be of interest to 
the committee, because they contain additional facts, similar registra- 
tion for March 31 and September 30, 1948, also containing the name 
of Franklin Folsom. To some extent, they are duplicates, but since 
it is a different registration, there is a little more information on it, 
putting more information in the files. 

Senator Watkins. These are photostatic copies of the official record ? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

Senator Wx\tkins. They may be made a part of the record. 

(The photostats referred to appear at pages 451-460 of part 9 of the 
printed hearings on Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States.) 

Mr. Morris. "Wlien Esther Lowell Shields, of the Tass News Agency, 
appeared before the committee, we asked her if she had in fact written 
for Intercor, which is a publication of the Comintern. Miss Lowell — 
Mrs. Shields — denied that she had ever written for Intercor. We 
have here a notation made by Mr. Mandel, the Research Director, 
which indicates that an article under the name of Esther Lowell, the 
name, she used, did in fact appear. 

Mr. Mandel. The article under the name of Esther Lowell was a 
book review of Agnes Smedley's book Chinese Destinies, and was pub- 
lished in International Press Correspondents' official organ of Com- 
munist International, volume 14, No. 19, dated March 31, 1934, page 
508, under the title "A Vivid Picture of Changing China." 

Mr. Morris. That would not necessarily contradict Mrs. Shields' 
testimony because she would not necessarily consider a book review 
an article. At the same time, the name Estlier Lowell may have been 
used by the Intercor people without her knowledge. 

I have an article here by Paul Healey on Tass which I would like 
to have go into the record. Senator, because it has been referred to 
several times in the course of our Tass hearings. 

Senator Watkins. Is this a magazine which has been published? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, the Saturday Evening Post, Senator. 

Senator Watkins. It may be made a part of the record. 
(The article referred to appears at pages 4G3-4G7 of part of the 
printed hearings on Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States.) 

Mr. Mandel. The date on that article is January 20, 1951. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. Just a few more things here. We have a publication 
of the United States Information Agency. 
That is right, isn't it? 



1194 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mandel. United States Information Service. 

Mr. Morris. United States Information Service, which has a refer- 
ence — Mr. Mandel will identify it. 

Mr. Mandel. It is a magazine called Problems of Communism, No. 
2, volume 5, March, April, 1956, published by the United States Infor- 
mation Service. 

On page 7 is this reference to Tass : 

Only one of the Soviet newspaper organizations can compete with Pravda in 
scope, though not in rank. This is Tass, the monopoly news agency. In addi- 
tion to its news service, Tass operates a photo service, a mat and plastic cut 
service, Presklishe, a radio service, a feature syndicate press bureau, and a con- 
fidential news service distributed under seal to metropolitan editors and high 
oflicials of State and party. 

That is footnoted as being from Benton's Notes of An Interview 
With Palgunov. Also from Palgunov's Fundamentals of News in 
the newspapers, Moscow University Publishing House, Moscow Uni- 
versity, 1955. 

Mr. Morris. I ask that those exhibits be printed in the record with 
some portion of the Tass testimony, and the one relating to Harry 
Gold be printed in the testimony in connection with the Gold hearing. 

Senator Watkins. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Morris. I have two more news accounts which indicate that 
India expelled a Tass correspondent. The news story is in the Wash- 
ington Daily News of April 14, 1952, and the New York Times of 
April 15, 1954, and the Ottawa Citizen of the same day, which indi- 
cated that Canada expelled Mr. Ivan Tsvetkov from Canada. I also 
have an editorial from the New York World Telegram of July 12, 
1954, bearing on Tass, 

Senator Watkins. You want those in the record ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Senator Watkins. It will be done. 

(The above material will be found at pp. 468-470 of part 9 of the 
printed hearings on Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States.) 

Mr. Mandel. This one is from the records of Gen. Charles 
Willoughby, and is headed "GHQ, FEC, Military Intelligence Sec- 
tion, General Staff, appendixes to a partial documentation of the 
Sorge espionage case. Miscellaneous Records, Special Branch, 
Shanghai Municipal Police." 

Consecutive exhibit No. 32, part II, section B, page 115, headed 
"Tass." 

Tass established a branch in Shanghai in April 1932, when V. Rover opened 
an office at 19 Museum Road. The location of the agency was moved in 1933 
when J. Chernoff replaced Rover and again, in June 1934, when it was moved 
to the fifth floor, 20 Canton Road, its location as of July 29, 1936. The manager 
at that time was Andrew Ivanovitch Sotoff, who replaced Chernoff in February 
1935. The permanent foreign staff members were : R. L. Wikmen and his wife, 
and L. Lidov, Soviet citizens. Several foreigners were associated with the 
outside organization, and among those who had been seen visiting the offices 
were Agnes Smedley, Frank Glass, Granitch (Voice of China), Randal Gould, 
J. B. Powell, and V. Abolnik, Pekin Tass agent. Mrs. Sotoff was manager of 
the American Book & Supply Co., 841 Bubbling Well Road, and it was reported 
that Hayton Fleet, a British subject, would take over the outside Tass organi- 
zation in the near future. Tass was run on the same lines as other news 
agencies ; however, all messages transmitted to Moscow were censored by the 
U. S. S. R. consulate prior to dispatch. The only local press that frequently 
published Tass messages was the China Daily Herald. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1195 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like the record to show that 
no conclusion has been drawn from the article just read by Mr. 
Mandel, that the information was read into the record in connection 
with our Tass hearinc:s, and no inference is necessarily made. 

Senator Watkins. The record will so show. 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP S. FONER, MOUNTAIN TRAIL, 
CROTON-ON-HUDSON, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Foner, will you give your full name and address ? 

Mr. FoNER. Philip S. Foner, Mountain Trail, Croton-on-Hudson, 
N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. FoNER. I am a writer and publisher. 

Mr. Morris. What are your publishing firms ? 

Mr. FoNER. The Citadel Press and, in the book business, Remainder 
Book Co. 

Mr. Morris. What is the Citadel Press ? 

Mr. FoNER. A publishing firm. 

Mr. Morris. What does it publish ? 

Mr. FoNER. Books. 

Mr. Morris. How big a firm is it ? 

Mr. Foner. I don't know what that means. 

Mr. Morris. How many employees do you have ? 

Mr. FoNER. About 12. 

Mr. Morris. About how many books do you publish a year, on the 
average ? 

Mr. FoNER. It varies from year to year. 

Mr. Morris. Give us an approximation. 

Mr. FoNER. Fifteen or eighteen. 

Mr. Morris. It is located at 222 Fourth Avenue ? 

Mr. Foner. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Is it a corporation or a partnership ? 

Mr. Foner. It is a partnership. 

Mr. Morris. Who are the partners ? 

Mr. Foner. Myself and my associate. 

Mr. Morris. What is your associate's name ? 

Mr. Foner. Morris Sorkin. 

Mr. Morris. Are you equal partners ? 

Mr. Foner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Fifty-percent interest. 

Now, in connection with that particular firm, the Citadel Press, have 
you distributed books and pamphlets, Avhich some authorities have 
considered to be obscene and pornographic ? 

Mr. Foner. In connection with the Citadel Press, no. 

Mr. Morris. Have any authorities ever taken exception to the pub- 
lications of the Citadel Press ? 

Mr. Foner. I don't know what that question means. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Have there been any formal proceedings against 
Citadel Press? 

Mr. Foner. Not against Citadel Press. 

Senator Watkins. Are you holding anything in reserve as being 
in connection with anything else ? 

72723— 56— pt. 23 2 



1196 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Morris. You mean by that that one of your other enterprises 
did have proceedings ? 

Mr. FoNER. The Remainder Book Co. may have been the organi- 
zation referred to by the counsel. 

Senator Watkins. That is probably what he had in mind when he 
asked you that question. 

Mr. Morris. I wanted to go through Citadel Press first, because 
we have a list of their publications. 

Senator Watkins. Go ahead. 

Mr. Morris. I don't think there is any need of our reading these 
things into the record. I think I will show it to you and to the wit- 
ness, and we have certain things marked which generally indicate the 
nature of some of the publications herein. 

Have you looked at that list, Mr. Foner ? 

Mr. FoNER. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. It is an accurate list, is it not ? 

Mr. Foner. That is right. 

Mr. TkloRRis. Quite a few of the articles deal with sex and problems 
of sex deviation ? 

Mr. Foner. Quite a few of the publications are psychiatric discus- 
sions of sex. 

Mr. Morris. That is all right. We are not drawing any conclu- 
sions. Rather than our reading them into the record, I think if you 
will accept that description 

Mr. Foner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Are there also articles on that list published by people 
you know to be Communists ? 

Mr. Foner. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth-amendment privilege. 

Mr. Morris. May I see that list, please ? 

Mr. Chairman, I have here a title on the list, "Poetry and Prose of 
Heinrich Heine," edited by Frederic Ewen. He has been before this 
committee, and when asked about the book, he refused to answer under 
the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

There is another one here, edited by Morris U. Schappes, a person of 
the same qualification. I would like it to go into the record in that 
juxtaposition. 

Senator Watkins. It may be made a part of the record. 

(The book list referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 257" and is as 
follows:) 

Exhibit No. 257 

The Citadel Press, 222 Fourth Avenue, New York 3, N. Y. 

Aniericau Church of the Protestant Heritage. Edited by Ver.irilius Ferm $5. 00 

Autobiography of Maxim Gorky. Transkited by Isidor Schneider 3. 75 

Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Verlaine. Edited by Joseph M. Bernstein 3. 00 

Betting Horses to W^in. Les Conklin 3. 50 

Casanova's Homecoming. Arthur Schnitzler 1. 98 

The City Fights Back. Hal Burton 5. 00 

Collected Writings of Ambrose Bierce. Introduction by Clifton Fadiman_ 4. 00 

Diana. Diana Frederics 1. 98 

Documentary History of the Negro People in the U. S. Edited by Herbert 

Aptheker 7.50 

Documentary History of the Jews in the United States. Edited by Morris 

U. Schappes 6. 00 

(The) Drugstore Morris Perman 3.00 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1197 

EiK'yoloi)oclia of Aberrations. Edited by Edward I'odolsky, D.D $10.00 

Flyiiis; Saucers on the Attack. Harold T. Wilkins 3. 50 

(Tlie) Great Tradition in English Eiteratnre: P'rom Shakespeare to Shaw. 

Annette Kubinstein 7. 50 

A Guide to Home Decorating. Carl C. P.lohm 2. 95 

(The) Hidden Heritage. John Howard Lawson 3.50 

(The) Homosexuals: As Seen by Themselves and Thirty Authorities. A. 

M. Kirch 4. 00 

How To Achieve Sex Hapiiiness in Marriage. Henry and Freda Thornton_ 2. 00 

Hypnosis : Theory, Practice and Application. Raphael H. Rhodes 3. 00 

Interpretation of Shakespeare. Hardin Craig 5.00 

Jack Eondon : American Rebel. Edited by Philip S. Foner 3.50 

ISIagic for All. Bob Dmn 2. 00 

JIan and P>east in Africa. Francois Sommer 4.00 

Marital Infidelity. Frank S. Caprio, M.D 3.50 

(The) Maugham Enigma. Edited by Klaus Jonas 4.00 

Meet the Folks. Sam Levenson 2. 00 

]\Iodern Humor for the Effective Speaking. Edward F. Allen 2. 50 

Mother. Maxim Gorky 2.50 

My Complete Story of the Flute. Leonardo De Lorenzo 6. 00 

Negro Caravan. Edited by P>rown, Davis and Lee 3. 50 

Negro Family in the United States. E. Franklin Frazier 5. 00 

(The) Negro' Novelist, 1940-50. Carl Milton Hughes 4.00 

(The) Neurotic: His Inner and Outer Worlds. Joseph B. Furst, M.D 3.50 

New Approaches to Dream Interpretation. Nandor Fodor 5. 00 

Of Course You Can Draw. Herbert L. Kruckman 2. 50 

(The) Old Bunch. 3tleyer Levin 2.49 

(The) Origins and Nature of Marriage. Lewis Montaigne 3.00 

Payday at the Races. Les Conklin 3. 50 

Poetry and Prose of Heinrich Heine. Edited by Frederic Ewen 6. 00 

(The) Power of Sex. Frank S. Cajirio, M.D 3.00 

(The) Power To Love. Edwin W. Hirsch, M.D 5.00 

Raising the World's Standard of Living. Robert T. Mack, Jr 4. 00 

Romanian Cook Book. Anisoara Stan 3. 00 

Satanism and Witchcraft. Jules Michelet 2. 00 

Selected Writings of Lafcadio Hearn. Edited by Henry Goodman 4. 00 

(The) Sexually Adequate Female. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3. 00 

(The) Sexually Adequate Male. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3.00 

Shrimp Cookery. Helen Worth 2.50 

Sinful Cities of the Western World. Hendrik de Leeuw 1. 98 

Social Work and Social Living. Bertha C. Reynolds 2. 50 

Sterile Sun. Caroline Slade 1.08 

Therapy Through Hypnosis. Edited by Raphael H. Rhodes 3. 75 

Torture Garden. Octave Mirbeau 3. 00 

Treasury of Kahlil Gibran. Edited by Martin L. Wolf 3. 95 

What's Your Problem? Alfred Blazer, M.D 3.50 

(The)Wm. Steig Album. William Steig 3.95 

Your Mind and Appearance. Adolpb A. Apton, M.D 3. 00 

Mr. Morris. "\^^io finances the Citadel Press ? 

Mr. FoisTER. I'm not sure what you mean. 

Mr. Morris. Is it self-supporting? 

Mr. Foner. Yes, financed by the coowners. 

Mr. Morris. Do you yourself do any writing of books published by 
the Citadel Press? 

Mr. Foner. I have written books published by the Citadel Press. 

Mr. Morris. How manv books of your own have been published by 
the Citadel Press? 

Mr. Foner. There are three books on that list. 

Mr. Morris. All together, how many books have you written, Mr. 
Foner? 

Mr. FoN-ER. About 17. 

Mr. Morris. The first was written in what year? 



1198 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. FoNER. The first was written — published, you iiican? It was 
written over a longer period of time. 

Mr. Morris. When was the first book published ? 

Mr. FoNER. In the year 1940. 

Mr. Morris. So in the 16 years intervening, you have published 17 
books. 

Mr. Foner. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. AVliat is your other enterprise? 

Mr. FoNER. The Remainder Book Co. 

Mr. Morris. What is the Remainder Book Co.? 

Mr. FoNER. It buys overstock of other publishers and distributes 
books for other publishers who do not have a long sales list. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a partner with Mr. Sorkin in that enterprise, 
too? 

Mr. FoNER. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is the partnership the same, 50-50? 

Mr. Foner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us generally how many employees that 
firm has ? 

Mr. Foner. The same number. 

Mr. Morris. Not the same employees, are they ? 

Mr. Foner. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Morris. So the two companies are occupying the same prem- 
ises? 

Mr. Foner. That is right. 

Mr. Morris, Now, in connection with that particular enterprise, was 
there an indictment against a person known as Samuel Roth? 

Mr. Foner. I decline to answer that under the privileges of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, to your knowledge, was there filed in United 
States District Court in the Southern District of New York an indict- 
ment against Samuel Roth which contained the general charges, which 
appeared on page 2'6 : 

The grand jury further charges: 

1. That from in or about March 1951, and continuously thereafter up to and 
including the date of the filing of this indictment, in the southern district of 
New York and elsewhere, Samuel Roth, the defendant herein, unlawfully, will- 
fully, and knowingly did combine, conspire, confederate, and agree with Chief 
Miller G. I. Distributors, Inc., Morris Sorkin, Philip F. Foner, Remainder Book 
Co., Abraham Lieberman, Book Sales, Inc., and diverse other persons to the grand 
jury unknown, to commit offenses against the United States in violation of title 
18, United States Code, section 1461. 

2. It was part of said conspiracy that said defendant and coconspirators will 
publish, print, distribute, deposit, and cause to be deposited for mailing and 
delivery obscene, lewd, lascivious, and filthy books, pamphlets, pictures, papers, 
letters, writings, prints, packets, packages, articles, and other publications and 
things of an indecent character. 

Mr. Foner, did you distribute the books so described in the grand 
jury indictment ? 

Mr. Foner. Same answer as before. 

Mr. Morris. That is, you refuse to say ? 

Mr. Foner. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know as a matter of fact what was the outcome 
of this criminal action against Samuel Roth? 

Mr. Foner. Same answer. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1199 

Mr. Morris. Do you know from reading in tlie newspapers what 
happened to 'Mr. Roth? 

Mr. Fo>i"^. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Do you personally know Mr. Roth? 

Mr. FoxER. I decline to answer. 

Mr. MoREis. Was Morris Sorkin mentioned in that indictment? 

Senator Watkins. You are refusing to answer these questions, 
claiming the privilege of the fifth amendment? 

j\lr. FoNER. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is the Morris Sorkin mentioned here your partner? 

Mr. FoNER. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Is the Remainder Book Co. the grand jury indictment 
mentions the enterprise in which you are a partner with Mr. Sorkin? 

i\Ir. FoNER. I decline to answer. 

Senator Watkins. Is it the same one you admitted in testimony 
you and the other gentleman are the owners of ? 

Mr. FoNER. ]\ly answer is I decline to answer under the privileges of 
the fifth amendment. 

Senator Watkins. The record ought to show clearly, and I think 
it does, that you and the gentleman operated this partnership, and 
are coowners, and that that enterprise is under the same name as just 
read by Mr. Morris in the grand- jury indictment. 

Now, you refuse to answer the question under the grounds that it 
might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. FoNER. Yes. 

Senator Watkins. I want you to be sure you understand what you 
are doing. 

Mr. FoNER. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with a publication called the Good 
Times? 

Mr. FoNER. I decline to answer that question under the privileges 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. I am asking you if you, yourself, have had any connec- 
tion with that. 

Mr. FoNER. I gave you the answer. 

Mr. Morris. And you will not tell us to what extent the Remainder 
Book Co. is involved with the publication Good Times? 

Mr. FoNER. Same answer as before. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I put this into the record ? 

Senator Watkins. You want the contents of it printed in the record, 
or just as an exhibit ? 

Mr. Morris. May the staff use discretion in taking out those portions 
which are repetitious ? I think in the interest of economy, we could 
put in only the ones that have a bearing on this hearing. 

Senator Watkins. That will be the order. You may select those 
portions that have a bearing on the hearing. They may be printed in 
the record. The document itself will be filed also as an exhibit in this 
matter. 



1200 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 258" and ex- 
cerpts therefrom read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 258 

(Indictment No. C-148-9, United States District Court, Southern District of 
New York; United States of America, against Samuel Roth, defendant, pp. 26 
and 27) 

COUNT XXVI 

The Grand Jury further charges : 

1. That from in or about March 1951, and continuously thereafter up to and 
including the date of the filing of this indictment, in the Southern District of 
New Yorli and elsewhere, Samuel Roth, the defendant herein, unlawfully, wilfully, 
and knowingly did combine, conspire, confederate, and agree with Chief Miller, 
G. I. Distributors, Inc., Morris Sorkin, Philip S. Fouer, Remainder Bjok Com- 
pany, Abraham Lieberman, Book Sales, Inc., and divers other persons to the 
Grand Jury unknown, to commit offenses against the United States in violation 
of Title IS, United States Code, Section 1461. 

2. It was part of said conspiracy that said defendant and coconspirators would 
publish, print, distribute, deposit, and cause to be deposited for mailing and 
delivery obscene, lewd, lascivious and filthy books, pamphlets, pictures, papers, 
letters, writings, prints, packets, packages, articles, and other publications and 
things of an indecent character. 

OVERT ACTS 

In pursuance of said conspiracy and to effect the objects thereof, in the 
Southern District of New York : 

1. On or about the 3rd day of April 1953, defendant Samuel Roth and cocon- 
spirator Chief Miller affixed their signatures to a document commencing with 
the words "Agreement between Chief Miller, acting for G. I. Distributors, Inc., 
and Samuel Roth, acting for Seven Sirens Press, Inc., for the distribution of a 
monthly magazine entitled 'Good Times : A Review of the World of Pleasure.' " 

2. On or about the 10th day of June 1955, coconspirator Book Sales, Inc., 
deposited and caused to be deposited for mailing and delivery a package addressed 
to : Bell Block News Store, 606 Vine St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

3. On or about the 18th day of April 1955, coconspirator Remainder Book 
Company deposited and caused to be deposited for mailing and delivery a pack- 
age addressed to : Clinton Bookshop, 138 S. Clinton, Rochester, N. Y. 

4. On or about the 9th day of May 1955, coconspirator G. I. Distributors, Inc., 
deposited and caused to be deposited a package addressed to : King's News, 250 
E. Fifth St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

(Title 18, United States Code, section 371.) 

Mr, Morris, I have here, now, Mr, Chairman, two more publication 
lists of the Citadel Press. I wonder if they may go into the record 
at this time. 

Will you look at them to be sure they are what I said they are ? 

Mr, FoNER, Yes, that's rif>ht. 

Senator Watkins. What did you say ? 

Mr, FoKER, I identified them. 

Senator Watkins. Tliey are photostats, I assume, of book lists. 

Mr. FoNER, As listed in the Book Annual. 

Senator Watkins, That is the Citadel Press owned by you and your 
partner ? 

Mr, FoNER, Yes, 

Senator Watkins, They are admitted, 

(The lists referred to above were marked "Exhibits Nos, 259 and 
259-A" and appear below :) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1201 

Exhibit No. 259 

[Publishers Trade List Annual, 1955, p. 30] 

The; Citadel Press, 222 Fourth Avenue, New York 3, N. Y. 

Mother. Maxim Gorky $2. 50 

My Complete Story of the Flute. Leonardo De Lorenzo 6. 00 

Negro Caravan. Edited by Brown, Davis & Lee 3. 50 

Negro Family in the United States. E. Franklin Frazier 5.00 

(The) Negro Novelist, 1940-50. Carl Milton Hughes 4. 00 

(The) Neurotic : His Inner and Outer Worlds. Joseph B. Furst, M. D 3. 50 

New Approaches To Dream Interpretation. Nandor Fordor 5. 00 

Of Course You Can D:aw. Herbert L. Kruckman 2.50 

One For the Book of Sports. Sam Baiter and Cy Rice 2. 50 

(The) Old Bunch. Meyer Levin 2.49 

(The) Origins and Nature of Marriage. Lewis Montaigne 3.00 

Payday at the Races. Les Conklin 3. 50 

I'oetry and Prose of Heinrich Heine. Edited by Frederic Ewen G. 00 

(The) Power of Being a Positive Stinker. Anna Russell 1.50 

(The) Power of Sex. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3.00 

(The) Power to Love. Edwin W. Hirsch, M. D 5. 00 

Preludes to Life : Early Memories. Theodore Heuss 3. 50 

Queen of the Paris Night. Mistinguett 3. 50 

Raising the World's Standard of Living. Robert T. Mack, Jr 4. 00 

Romanian Cook Book. Anisoara Stan 3. 00 

(The) Satanic Mass. H.T.Rhodes 3.50 

Satani.sm and Witchcraft. Jules Michelet 2. 00 

(The) Searching Light. Martha Dodd 3.50 

Selected Writings of La facadio Hearn. Edited by Henry Goodman 4. 00 

(The) Sexually Adequate Female. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3.00 

(The) Sexually Adequate Male. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3.00 

Shrimp Cookery. Helen Worth 2. 50 

Social Work and Social Living. Bertha C. Reynolds 2.50 

Sterile Sun. Caroline Slade 1. 98 

(The) Tasting Spoon. Loris Troup 3.00 

Therapy Through Hypnosis. Raphael H. Rhodes 3. 75 

Torture Garden. Octave Mirbeau 3. 00 

Treasury of Kahlil Gibran. Edited by Martin L. Wolf 3. 95 

Tunisia Today : Crisis in North Africa. Leon Laitman 4. 00 

Underwater : A Skindiver's Manual. Bill Barada 2. 00 

Variations in Sexual Behavior. P'rank S. Caprio, M. D 5. 00 

Witchcraft Today. Gerald B. Gardner 4. 00 

What Do You Know About JewLsh Religion, History, Ethics and Culture? 

Habbi Sidney L. Markowitz 2.95 

What To Say and How To Say It — For All Occasions. David Belson 2. 95 

What's Your Problem? Alfred Blazer, M. D 3.50 

William Steig Album. William Steig 3.95 

AVorld's Fastest Cars. Fred Horsley 2. 00 

Your Investments — 1956 Edition. Leo Barnes 3. 00 

Your Mind and Appearance. Adolph A. Aijton, M. D 3. 00 



1202 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 259-A 

[Publishers Trade List Annual, 1954, p. 16] 

The Citadel Peess, 222 Fourth Avenue, New York 3, N. Y. 

An alphabetical listing ty title of current books 

America's 60 Families. Ferdinand Lundberg $2. 49 

American Church of the Protestant Heritage. Edited by Vergilins Ferm 5. 00 

Autobiography of Maxim Gorky. Translated by Isidor Schneider 3. 75 

Baudelaire, Rimbaud, Verlaine. E^lited by Joseph M. Bernstein 3. 00 

Casanova's Homecoming. Arthur Schnitzler 1. 98 

Complete Writings of Thomas Paine. Edited by Philip S. Foner 7. 50 

Collected Writings of Ambrose Bierce. Introduction by Clifton Fadiman_ 4. 00 

Diana. Diana Frederics 1.98 

Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States. Edited by 

Herbert Aptheker 7. 50 

Documentary History of the Jews in the United States. Edited by Morris 

U. Schappes 6. 00 

Encyclopedia of Aberrations. Edited by Edward Podolsky, M. D 10. 00 

Encyclopedia of Psychology. Edited by Philip L. Harriman 5. 00 

Guide to Home Decorating, Carl C. Blohm 2. 95 

(The) Great Tradition in English Literature: From Shakespeare to Shaw. 

Annette Rubinstein 7. 50 

(The) Hidden Heritage. John Howard Lawson 3.50 

How To Achieve Sex Happiness in Marriage. Henry and Freda Thornton- 2. 00 

Hypnosis: Theory, Practice, and Application. Raphael H. Rhodes 3.00 

Interpretation of Shakespeare. Hardin Craig 5. 00 

Jack London : American Rebel. Edited by Philip S. Foner 3. 50 

Life and Major Writings of Thomas Paine. Edited by Philip S. Foner 1.98 

Magic for All. Bob Dunn 2.00 

Marital Infidelity. Fi-ank S. Caprio, M. D 3. 50 

Meet the Folks. Sam Levenson 2. 00 

Modern Humor for Effective Speaking. Edward F. Allen 2. 50 

Mother. Maxim Gorky 2. 50 

My Complete Story of the Flute. Leonardo De Lorenzo 6. 00 

Negro Caravan. Edited by Brown, Davis, and Lee 3. 50 

Negro Family in the United States. E. Franklin Frazier 5. 00 

(The) Negro Novelist, 1940-50. Carl Milton Hughes 4.00 

New Approaches to Dream Interpretation. Nandor Fodor 5. 00 

Of Course You Can Diaw. Herliert L. Kruckman 2. 50 

(The) Old Bunch. Meyer Levin 2.49 

(The) Origins and Nature of Marriage. Lewis Montaigne 3.50 

Payday at the Races. Les Conklin 3. 50 

Poetry and Prose of Heinrich Heine. Edited by Frederic Ewen 6. 00 

(The) Power of Sex. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3.00 

(The) Power To Love. Edwin W. Hirsch, M. D 5.00 

Raising the World's Standard of Living. Robert T. Mack, Jr 4. 00 

Real F. D. R. Clark Kinnaird 2. 50 

Romanian Cook Book. Anisoara Stan 3. OOt 

Satanism and Witchcraft. Jules Michelet 2. 00 

Selected Writings of Lafcadio Hearn. Edited by Henry Goodman 4. 00 

(The) Sexually Adequate Female. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3.00 

(The) Sexually Adequate Male. Frank S. Caprio, M. D 3.00 

Shrimp Cookery. Helen Worth 2. 50 

Sinful Cities of the Western World. Hendrik de Leeuw 1. 98 

Social Work and Social Living. Bertha C. Reynolds 2. 50 

Sterile Sun. Caroline Slade 1. 98 

(The) Story of Jesus in the World's Literature. Edited by Edward 

Wagenknecht 1. 98 

Temptation. John Pen 1. 98 

Therapy Through Hypnosis. Edited by Raphael H. Rhodes 3. 75 

Three Musketeers. Tiffany Thayer 1. 98 

Torture Garden. Octave Mirbeau 3. 00 

Treasury of Kahlil Gibran. Edited by Martin L. Wolf 3. 95 

(The) Wm. Steig Album. William Steig 3.95 

What's Your Problem? Alfred Blazer, M. D 3.50 

Your Mind and Appearance. Adolph A. Apton, M. D 3. 00 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1203 

Mr. Morris. Will you indicate for the record, Mr. Mandel, what 
"was the result of the Roth trial ? 

Mr. Mandel. I understand that Samuel Roth was convicted and 
sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment as a result of the trial described. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know whether or not that is an accurate state- 
ment ? 

Mr. FoNER. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Do you Imow whether it is a fact? Did you read in 
the paper of that fact ? 

Mr. FoNER. I did not. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. You did not read that in the paper ? 

Mr. FoNER. No. 

Senator Watkins. Were you present at the trial of Mr. Roth? 

Mr. FoNER. I was not. 

Senator Watkins. Was he an employer of yours? 

Mr. FoNER. No, he was not. 

Senator Watkins. Of you and your Citadel partnership and the 
other one ? 

Mr, FoNER. Neither one. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did Mr. Sorkin appear at the trial ? " 

Mr. Foner. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Did he admit at that time that they distributed some of 
the articles that were involved in that particular trial ? 

Mr. Foner. Same answer, fifth amendment privileges. 

Mr. Morris. This witness has been identified before another com- 
mittee, a New York legislative committee, Senator Watkins, as a per- 
son who was at least in the past a member of the Communist Party. 

I would like to ask you, Mr. Foner, are you now a Communist? 

Mr. Foner. I decline to answer that question on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist at the time the Citadel Press 
issued the three book lists we have referred to in the record? 

Mr. Foner. Same answer, on the same grounds. 

Senator Watkins. Have you ever been a Communist? 

Mr. Foner. Same answer. 

Mr. Morris. You were born in New York, Mr. Foner ? 

Mr. Foner. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. You were a teacher at City College? 

Mr. Foner. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. You were dismissed from the City College after the 
Rapp-Coudert hearings? 

Mr. Foner. I decline to answer on the same basis. 

Senator Watkins. That is the same hearing? 

Mr. Morris. I have some clippings on that. 

Wliat work have you done since your separation from the City 
College? 

Mr. Foner. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Morris. What have been some of your activities since your 
departure from City College? 

Mr. Foner. You just indicated some of them. I am coowner of the 
Citadel Press. 

Mr. Morris. Have you done any teaching any place else ? 

72723— 56— pt. 23 3 



1204 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

]Mr. FoNER. Yes, I have been teaching. 

Mr. iMoRKis, You taught at tlie Jetl'erson School, did you? 

INIr. FoNER. Yes, I taught at tlie Jefferson School. 

Mr. Morris. Where else have you taught? 

Mr. FoNER. That is all. 

Mr. "Watkins. For the purpose of the record, what is the Jefferson 
Scliool ? 

]\Ir. Morris. Mr. Mandel, will you describe Jefferson School? 

Mr. Manuel. It has been cited as an adjunct of the Communist 
Party by Attorney General Tom Clark in a letter to the Review Board 
issued iu 1947. 

Mr. Morris. When did you teach at Jefferson School ? 

Mr, P'oNER. About 1944 to about 1950 or 1952. I forget which 
dates. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to put into the record the three news- 
paper clippings. One is from the New York Times of Saturday, No- 
vember 8, 1941; one dated November 18, 1941; and one August 20, 
1941. These clippings describe tlie circumstances surrounding Mr. 
I'oner's separation from the New Yoik school system. 
^ Senator Watkins. Isn't it possible to get from the school board or 
the oiganization, the legal organization responsible for making dis- 
missals 

ISIr. Morris. I think we can get that. 

Senator Watkins. I think it would be better to get that than to 
have newspaper stories. I don't say newspaper stories aren't always 
correct, but sometimes they don't get all the facts in the stories. 

Mr. Morris. Maybe we"ll ask Mr. Foner. 

Were you separated fi-om the New York school system. City Col- 
lege of New York, specifically, because of an adjudication that you 
were not telling the truth when you were interrogated by the au- 
thorities? 

Mr. F'oNER. I decline to answer that question, on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you teach at the Abraham Lincoln School in 
Chicago? 

Mr. Foner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you also teach at the California Labor School in 
San Francisco? 

Mr. Foner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Also at the School for Democracy in New York? 

Mr. Foner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Wiiat is the last date you taught at one of those insti- 
tutions? 

JSIr. Foner. 1955. 

Mr. Morris. Which one was that? 

Mr. Foner. California Labor School. 

Mr. Morris. You taught there in 1955. 

When did you last teach at Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago? 
It is no longer in existence, I think. 

Mr. Foner. Right. 

Mr. Morris. AVhen did you last teach there? 

Mr. Foner. I forget the date. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Alexander Trachtenberg ? 

Mr. Foner. I decline to answer that. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1205 

Mr. Morris. Have you worked in concert with him in any of your 
publications? 

Mr. FoNER. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Have you had any dealings whatever with Workers 
Library Publishers? 

Mr. FoNER. I decline to answer that on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mv. Morris. New Century Publishers? 

Mr. FoNER. Same answer. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, at this time. 

Mr. Mandel has nothing. 

Senator AVatkins. That is all you want from this witness? 

Mr. INIoRRis. I would like, Mr. Chairman, to put into the record 
pages 59 and 60 of a publication called Counterattack, volume 10, No. 
15, dated April 13, 1956. 

Senator Watkins. For what purpose? 

Mr. Morris. It is a description of — suppose I give it to you and 
you may see if you feel it may or may not supplement the testimony. 

Senator Watktns. It may be received, for whatever it is wortli. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 260'' and reads 
as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 260 
[Counterattack, vol. 10, No. 15, April 13, 1956] 

Pornography 

Communism thrives on corruption. Among the notable proofs of -this have 
been the weli-floctimented evidences of the way in which Red China has supplied 
the illicit woild tiade in opium and other narcotics (Counterattack, February 
24, li).~)G). Special elTorts to make addicts of American servicemen were just 
part of that story. Exploitation of homosexuality has al.so shown communism 
at the work of corruption. Theft, murder, terror, depinvity, lying — all have 
become familiar words in the Communist lexicon of corruption. 

Strangely enough, the distribution of pornography, a particularly loathsome 
traffic with special perils for young people, has so far not been seen in pi"o- 
Communist service. Its possibilities in that service, however, are obvious. 
But is there anything to link it to pro-Communist interests? Here, for the first 
time, is a siibstantial answer. 

In July V.)'i'i, a Federal grand jury in New York handed down an indictment 
against Samuel Roth, described as a 60-year-old publisher. The indictment, 
listing 25 counts, charged Roth with sending pornograpliic publications through 
the mail. Listed in the indictment but not actually indicted, were the oHicers 
of three distribution agencies with whom Roth was said to have conspired to 
send an obscene magazine through the mails. One of the firms listed was the 
Remainder Hook Co. of 222 Fourth Avenue, New York City. An owner of the 
firm, as listed in the indictment, was Philip S. Foner. 

Also in July, a district coui't grand jury handed down an indictment of the 
same sort, charging tlie mailing of obscene material, against two other New 
Yoi"k publishing houses. As in the Roth indictment, coconsi)irators were listed 
but not indicted. Of those listed in this indictment, only one firm that had 
been in the Roth charges turned up again. It was Remainder Book Co. and, 
again, Philip S. Foner was put down as an owner. 

In 10-10, a witness testifying before a New York State joint legislative com- 
mittee identified Philip S. I^'oner as a member of the Communist Party. Fonei 
was then teaching at New York's City College. The ident fication came from 
a fellow teacher who had broken with the party. This teacher had, he testified, 
been called to a meeting of party members teaching history at various colleges. 
One of the teachers present was Philip Foner. As a result of the disclosures 
before the committee, the Rapp-Coudert committee, Foner was dismissed from 
his teaching post. But he did not stop teaching. 

(Philip is one of a notable set of four brothers. Jack Foner also taught at 
City College and was identified as a party member and dismissed. Henry 



1206 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Foner was barred from teaching in New Yorlc City schools for falsely denying 
activity in the Young Communist League. Morris (Moe) Foner has been associ- 
ated with a number of pro-Communist unions.) 

In 1942, Phil Foner was listed as an instructor in a women's leadership course 
which was being sponsored by the women's committee of the Greater New York 
CIO Council and the Communist Party's School for Democracy — later merged 
into the party's continuingly active JelTerson School of Social Science in New 
York City. Foner is known as a founder of the Jefferson School and was a 
member of the board of trustees for a number of years. 

In 1945, his name began to appear on the list of the faculty of the Jefferson 
School. (In the school's 1955 catalog, however, the name has been dropped, 
perhaps in prudent deference to Foner's involvement in the charges of dis- 
tributing pornography.) 

When the Jefferson School held its third anniversary dinner in 1947, Philip 
Foner was on hand and sitting on the dais. The next year's anniversary dinner 
found Fouer a si)eaker along with such big names as Paul Robeson, and the 
Jelferson's School's director, Howard Selsam. 

When Foner journeyed away from the Jefferson School, it sometimes was as 
a lecturer for international programs which has been cited as a Communist front 
and wiiich listed various party members and fellow travelers in its "stable" of 
lecturers. 

Foner also has taught labor history on behalf of such luiions as the United 
Automobile Workers, United Rubber Workers, and Amalgamated Clothing Work- 
ers, and for the International Fur and Leather Workers, one of the unions 
expelled from the CIO on the grounds of having been Communist dominated. 

In the catalog of the Communist publishing house. International Publishers, 
Foner is listed as the author of a history of the American labor movement, and 
as a biographer of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, 
Frederick Douglass (whose speeches and writings he has edited for Inter- 
national ) , and F. I). Roosevelt. He is author of two pamphlets, Jews in American 
History and Morale Education in the American Army. 

When the New York State Communist Party held a conference on education 
and literature in 1947, Foner was on hand as a speaker and his labor movement 
history was one of the "recent Marxist books" discussed. 

Other of Foner's writing has been done for the Federated Press, cited as a 
Communist controlled organization by the Special Committee on Un-American 
Activities and by the California Committee on Un-American Activities as one of 
the means of establishing Communist influence. 

It is as an active editor, however, that the Foner story and the pornography 
indictments swing back together. In the indictments, Foner is listed as an 
owner of the Remainder Book Co., of 222 Fourth Avenue, New York City. Re- 
mainder Co., in turn, is listed as involved in the distribution of obscene matter. 
The address of the company is significant. It is the address also of Citadel Press, 
publisher of party-line works. The editor of Citadel is Philip S. Foner, He 
also is a director. The codirector is Morris Sorkin and Morris Sorkin — to keep 
things tidy — is co-owner with Foner of the Remainder Book Co. 

Mr. MoRRTs. I have no more questions, Senator. 

Senator Watktns. This witness may be excused ? 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

The other two witnesses, who should be appearing here this morn- 
ing, have had their public testimony deferred for the reason I gave. 

Senator Watkins. The witness, then, will be excused. 

Mr. Morris. Tomorrow the witness will be Mr. Ashley Nicholas, 
of the State Department, who will testify to devices and activities 
that the American Communists have engaged in in connection with 
American passports. Mr. Nicholas is an employee and has been for 
many years of the Passport Division of the State Department. 

Senator Watkins. The committee will be in recess subject to call of 
the chairman. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 50 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, MAY 10, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the 
Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security 

Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10 : 30 a. m., in room 
424, Senate Office Building, Senator Arthur V. Watkins presiding. 

Present : Senators Watkins and McClellan, 

Also present : Robert Morris, chief counsel ; William A. Rusher, ad- 
ministrative counsel ; and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Watkins. The committee will be in session. 

The Senate Internal Security Committee has been holding hearings 
on the scope and nature of Soviet activity in the United States. An 
important aspect of the Soviet conspiracy is travel, and passports are 
the licenses to move. 

Toda}' we are looking into practices of Communists with regard to 
passports. This has always been an interesting subject, and we have 
been advised that there is considerable fraud in the obtaining of pass- 
ports for the use of Communists and Communist-front people, and for 
that reason we felt this investigation is fully justified. 

Mr. Morris, do you have a witness today i 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Senator. The witness is Mr. Nicholas. 

Mr. Nicholas, will you stand, to be sworn, please? 

Senator Watkins. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you give in the matter 
now pending before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Nicholas. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ASHLEY J. NICHOLAS, ACTING CHIEF, PASSPORT 
LEGAL DIVISION, PASSPORT OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF STATE 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, will you give your name and address to 
the reporter, please? 

Mr. NicH )las. Ashley J. Nicholas, 1944 North Cleveland Street, 
Arlington, Va. 

Mr. M( RRis. Is that spelled N-i-c-h-o-l-a-s? 

Mr. Nicholas. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business or profession, Mr. Nicholas? 

Mr. Nicholas. I am Acting Chief of the Passport Legal Division of 
the Passport Office of the Department of State. 

Mr. Morris. And for how long have you held that job ? 

1207 



1208 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Nicholas. Since September 1955. 

Mr. MoEKis. I see. 

Now, how long have you been working for the Passport Division of 
the State Department? 

Mr. NicH(jLAs. Since July 11, 1927. 

Mr. MoRius. And you have been employed continuously since 1927 
in the Passport Division of the State Department? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, are you prepared to testify this morning 
to practices engaged in by the Communists with respect to taking ad- 
vantage of and committing frauds with respect to American pass- 
ports ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you will give us, as you did in the executive 
session testimony, a general breakdown at the outset of the various 
types of fraud practiced by Communists and Communist agents with 
respect to American passports. 

Mr. Nicholas. There are several general types. 

Senator Watkins. Speak up a little louder so that the reporter can 
hear you. 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, I think you pointed out in executive ses- 
sion that you had come to some general conclusions about Communists 
making use of passports. 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

By September 1939, on the basis of investigations and reports over 
many years, we came to the conclusion that there was a widespread con- 
spiracy to violate the passport laws of the United States and to thus 
promote the interests of the Soviet Union and to work against the 
foreign policy of the United States Government. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say you came to that conclusion that there 
was this widespread conspiracy. Now, when you say "we," did you 
mean the Passport Division of the State Department? 

INIr. Nicholas. The State Department 

Mr. Morris. The State Department itself ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. The Passport Office, which was then under 
Mrs. Shipley. 

:Mr. Morris. That is Mrs. Ruth Shipley ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Mrs. Ruth Shipley — prepared a chart showing the 
interrelationship between approximately 50 known passport frauds 
which had gone on for a period of years. It showed how one person 
had acted as a witness for another, how the same type of documents 
had been used in certain cases, and various other connections which 
indicated to us that there was a widespread conspiracy headed by the 
leaders of the Communist Party in the United States. That is, the 
American angle of it was. 

Mr. Morris. Now, may I ask a question on that, Mr. Nicholas ? You 
say that Mrs. Shipley, who w^as the head of the Passport Division, had 
prepared charts in which she cited 50 instances, 50 cases in which Com- 
munists, by using various devices, such as getting other Communist 
witnesses to support the passports of still other Communist appli- 
cants; that, on the basis of that, there was a conclusion on the part 
of the State Department that there w^as this widespread conspiracy 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1209 

on the part of the Communists to do the things that you have testified 
here today ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Those 50 cases were not the only Communist cases 
Tre knew of, but those 50 seemed to fit in the pattern. 

Mr. Morris. These 50 cases were used for tlie purposes of arriving at 
the conchision, to exemplify the conclusion, that you have stated here'il 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

This is the chart which was prepared at that time. 

Senator Watkins. Do you want to put that in the record or have 
it as an exhibit? 

Mr. Morris. It would be very helpful, Senator. 

Senator Watkins. Will you mark that as an exhibit, then, exhibit 1 
in this particular phase of the hearings ? 

Mr. ^loRRis. That Avill be marked as the first exhibit in this partic- 
ular hearing, Mr. Reporter. 

Senator Watkins. That will be received as an exhibit, to be 'filed 
with the committee, and not to be copied into the record because of the 
nature of the exhibit. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, suppose we reduce it in size and be able to fit 
it on to two pages in the hearings. I think it will be most illustrative 
of the testimony. 

Senator Watkins. If that as a practical matter can be done, then 
we will order that to be done in that way. 

(The chart referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 261" and appears 
on the following pages.) 



1210 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 261 




SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE' UNITED STATES 1211 
ExHiHiT No. 201 — Continued 



/ VSMtftt k \ 



\ 




\ / 






72723 — 56 — pt. 23 4 



1212 SCOPE OF SOVlfiT ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Nicholas. Mrs. Shipley took up the matter with Mr. Berle, 
who was then Assistant Secretary of State 

Mr. Morris. That is Adolf Berle? 

Mr. Nicholas. Adolf Berle, who realized the seriousness of the 
situation. Remember, this was a time when the Soviets were col- 
laborating with the Nazis, and we were favoring France and England. 
At least, we had a benevolent neutrality toward them. 

Senator Watkins. We were almost at war, were we not, at the time ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, we were aiding one side and the Soviets were 
working with the other side. And this appeared to be quite a threat 
to the internal security of the United States and a threat to the 
foreign policy of the United States as the Secretary of State was trying 
to administer it. 

So Mr. Berle reconnnended that we proceed with whatever could be 
done in the way of prosecutions, and Mrs. Shipley directed me to go 
to New York and lay the entire matter before John T. Cahill, who 
was then United States attorney for the southei-n district of New 
York. 

Mr. Cahill was very much interested and very cooperative. He 
personally took a part in the investigation and turned over two of his 
ablest assistants. 

He had me made a special assistant United States attorney vSo that 
I could participate in the grand jury proceedings, and we started out by 
subpenaing the records of the Communist Party regarding travel 
and the entire records of the World Tourists, Inc., a travel agency 
which we knew had been used in connection with the travel of people 
who had fraudulent passports. 

The Communist Party came back and answered that they had no 
such records, that all of their records had been destroyed following 
the threat of Congressman Dies to subpena them. 

The World Tourists fought in the court the production of their 
books and records. But the judge ordered them to produce their books 
and records relating to travel abroad. 

And in the records of the World Tourists, or in the books, rather, 
we identified the accounts of the Communist Party and its related 
organizations. 

Earliest of these was the so-called Trade Union Unity League 
account. Then there was an account of Primoff students. 

Senator Watkins. What was that? 

Mr. Nicholas. Primoff, P-r-i-m-o-f-f, students. Those were prin- 
cipally people who were sent over to the Lenin School to be trained 
in propaganda, revolutionary activities, and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, was the Jacob Golos who has figured 
in our hearings here — did he come within the scope of that particular 
activity upon your part? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. At the time we served the subpena, and for 
several years prior to that, he had been general manager of the World 
Tourists. 

Mr. Morris. Mr, Chairman, I would like the record to show at this 
point that Jacob Golos was shown to have been the head of two mili- 
tary intelligence, Soviet military intelligence, espionage rings that 
were operating out of Washington, here. That is the same Jacob 
Golos that Mr. Nicholas is now testifying about. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1213 

Mr. Nicholas. Tlie third account was in the name of George Pri- 
inott'. The fourth account was in tlie name of A. Blake. 

Tliose accounts were identified by Golos and otliei-s as havin<i; been 
the accounts of the Communist Party and affiliated organizations. 

]\rr. ]M()RKis. Now, see if we can for the record, Mr. Nicholas, ex- 
plain what you mean when you talk about these accounts. 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, these were ledger accounts in the books of 
World Tourists, in which certain transportation was charged against 
the Connnunist Party. 

Primoff, I might say, was formerly the financial manager of the 
Comnuniist Party, prior to the time of this grand jury 

Senator Watkins. You mean the Connnunist Party of tlie TTnited 
States ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes; George Primoff. 

And after he relinquished those duties, they were taken over for 
a while by Max Kitzes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that for the record, please? 

jNIr. Nicholas. K-i-t-z-e-s, who was also known as A. Benson. He 
was known at the Connnunist Party headquarters under both names. 
You could phone the headquarters and ask for either Mr. Benson or 
Mr. Kitzes, and you would get him on the switchboard. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Could anyone do that, or only if he was properly 
identified ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Anyone. I phoned him when I was calling him as 
a witness. 

At the time of the subpena, Kitzes was not the contact man with the 
World Tourists. The account had been switched over to the name of 
A. Blake, which was an alias for Welwel Warszower, who was com- 
monly known as William Wiener, the financial secretary of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Senator Watkins. You are still talking about the one in the United 
States? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes; the one in the United States. 

Kitzes, at the time, w\as the so-called internal auditor of the Com- 
munist Party and was located at the Communist Party headquarters. 

According to information we received regarding these items charged 
against the account of the Communist Party, the charge was usually 
authorized by one of those three people : Primoff, Kitzes, or Weiner. 

The last two accounts were carried on during the time that Golos 
was manager of it, and we tried to work out a conspiracy charge 
involving the time when Golos was managing the World Tourists 
and EarlBrowder was general secretaiy of the Communist Party. 

Mr, Morris. Now, the Passport Division now tried to build up a 
cons]:)iracy charge against Golos, Browder, and some of these other 
individuals that vou are now testifving about? 

jVIr. NiciioLuVs. Yes. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. And that was going to be taken before the grand jury 
in New York? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. There was considerable evidence submitted, 
and in these two accounts, the Primoff account and the Blake ac- 
count, there were a number of fraudulent passports used by people 
whose travel was charged against the Communist Party account. 

One of the earliest charges was the balance due on the prior account 
in the name of Brown and Kichards. This covered the travel to 



1214 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Moscow of Earl Browder, who was using the name of Albert Richards 
and Jack Stachel, who was using a passport in the name of Moses 
Brown. The balance of this was transferred to the Primoff account, 
the first item. 

Then also on the account, the Primoff account, was a charge of 
Isador Boorstein. 
Mr. Morris. Isador — what was that? 

Mr. Nicholas. Boorstein, B-o-o-r-s-t-e-i-n. And that passport was 
obtained by a man generally known as J. Peters, who has been quite 
prominently mentioned. 

Also, there was travel in the name of Henry George Jacobs and 
Pearl Roth Jacobs. These passports were obtained by Harry Gannes 
and his wife. At that time, or at the time of the investigation, 
Gannes was the foreign editor of the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you are now giving us details, Mr. 
Nicholas, of the activities of these leaders of the Communist Party 
and Communist Party functionaries who are participating deception 
with respect to the use of their passports, including the use of false 
names for the purposes of travel ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr, Morris. And these are the instances that you are now citing 
for that purpose ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Also on the account were people who had fraudulent passports in 
the name of Richard S. Choate, John W. Fox, Leon Marks, Rose 
Saffin, and Harold Schlusberg. 

On the Blake account, there was travel of Browder and Gannes, 
and a man who had a passport in the name of Francis Grachan, and 
in the name of Samuel Liptzen, which was used in the travel of Ger- 
hardt Eisler, whose activities have been investigated by either this 
or the House committee. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me, Mr. Nicholas, what was the upshot of this 
effort at obtaining a conviction? 

Mr. Nicholas. It was difficult ; many of these cases were beyond the 
statute of limitations. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you ran into the difficulty of the sta- 
tute of limitations? 

Mr. Nicholas. We had a 3-year statute of limitations then. Since 
that time, Congress has given us a 10-year one. If we had had a 10- 
year one then, we could have cleaned up. But even as it was, we had 
indictments against Browder and Weiner and convicted both of them. 
Harry Gannes was indicted 

Mr. Morris. That is G-a-n-n-e-s ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. [Continuing.] But he died before he could 
be brought to trial. 

There was a man named Litvackoff, who had a fraudulent passport 
in the name of Nathan Rosenberg, who was indicted and went to 
prison. 

There Avas also an indictment against Joseph Sultan 

Mr. Morris. Sultan ; would you spell that, please ? 

Mr. Nicholas. S-u-1-t-a-n. [Continuing:] Who was an editor of 
the Morning Freiheit, and he is still a fugitive from justice. 

Tliere wns a warrant issued for Jack Stachel as a material witness, 
but he couldn't be located at the time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1215 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you consider that it was a successful prosecu- 
tion with respect to this conspiracy charge ? 

Mr. NiCHOLiVS. Yes; I think so. As far as we know, this type of 
fraud by Communists has been largely eliminated. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the ingredients of this particular case are the 
following; are they not, Mr. Nicholas? May I enumerate them by 
way of legislative considerations here ? 

You were dealing here with people who were functionaries and lead- 
ers of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. So you had no difficulty establishing that they were 
Communists ? 

Mr. Nicholas. No. 

Mr. Morris. You had the actual proof of the fraud ; in other words, 
you could demonstrate in each case that travel was made under a differ- 
ent name, for instance, and you could identify the evidence for that? 

JNIr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You say you were hampered, however, by the fact that 
you had a short statute of limitations; you were operating against a 
3-year statute of limitations ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were there any other ingredients of that particular 
conspiracy charge that you think should be brought to our attention 
in connection with our legislative deliberations ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well 

Mr. Morris. You say that type of case does not occur now ? 

]Mr. Nicholas. So far as we loiow, it does not. 

Senator Watkixs. Speak up a little louder. 

Mr. Nicholas. I say, as far as we know, it doesn't. Since we sent 
the leaders of the party to prison — one I didn't mention was a man 
named Nicholas Dozenberg, who also got a prison sentence at that time. 
Since then, that type of fraud by the Communists, as far as we know, 
has not included the impersonation of one person by another. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in that connection, did you run across the pass- 
port case of a man named Harry Kaplan and a man named Leon 
Josephson ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. IMr. Chairman, I would like to point out that we had 
a witness here about 3 or 4 weeks ago whose name was Mrs. Kaplan, 
Mrs. Harry Kaplan, and she had worked for the Foreign Intelligence 
Broadcast Service and then later with the Central Intelligence group, 
and she is now married to a man named Harry Kaplan. Harry Kap- 
lan appeared in executive session testimony. Senator, and said that he 
was suffering a heart ailment and would like to be excused from testi- 
fying in public session. And the committee acceded to his request. 

Mr. Nicholas, Senator, is prepared to talk about those two particular 
cases today, Leon Josephson and Harry Kaplan. 

Mr. Nicholas. Back in the thirties, Josephson— — 

Mr. Morris. That is Leon Josephson? 

Mr. Nicholas. Leon Josephson ; a man named George Mink and two 
other persons who had fraudulent passports in the names of Adolph 
Rabinowitz and Nicholas Sherman, were arrested in Copenhagen, 
Denmark, charged with espionage. 



1216 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Let me see. That is Leon Josephson, George Mini?, 
Adolpli Rabinowitz. And who was the fourth man ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Nicliolas Sherman. 

Mr. Morris. Nicholas Sherman. 

Mr. Nicholas. Now, at the time of Mink's arrest, he had in his 
possession four American passports. He had one in his own 

Mr. Morris. Mink had four different passports ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I wonder if you could identify George Mink 
with respect to the Communist conspiracy itself. 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, George Mink's name figures quite actively in 
our files as connected with various passport frauds and activities 
abroad. He was in the Seamen's Union 

Senator Watkins. It is difficult for us to hear you, Mr. Nicholas. 
If you will just speak up 

Mr. Nicholas. I am sorry. [Continuing:] In the International 
Marine Workers, I think it was called. And he traveled quite ex- 
tensively. He has participated in several known passport frauds. 

Mr. Morris. He was an important Communist agent; was he not? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes ; he was. 

He had one passport in his own name with his own picture on it. 
He had another passport with his picture on it in the name of Al 
Gottlieb. 

Mr. Morris. Al Gottlieb. That is the second passport? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. And he had the passport of Harry Kaplan. 

Mr. Morris. Harry Kaplan. 

Mr. Nicholas. And he also had a passport for a man named 
Wexler. 

Mr. Morris. Wexler ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What was the first name? 

Mr. Nicholas. Abraham Wexler. 

Mr. Morris. Abraham Wexler. 

Senator Watkins. Now, is there evidence, Mr. Nicholas, that at 
some time or other he used all of those passports in his travels ? 

Mr. Nicholas. No. We don't know to what extent he used them. 
We don't know why he had the Kaplan and Wexler passports, which 
did not have his picture on them, but had the pictures of Kaplan and 
Wexler. There is a possibility, of course, that he intended to have 
them used by somebody who looked like Kaplan and Wexler. He 
couldn't use them himself in that condition because he didn't look 
like either Wexler or Kaplan. 

Senator Wativins. How did you come to find that he had these 
passports on him? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, when he was arrested by the Danish police, 
they found the passports in his possession. 

Mr. Morris. tMiat was the charge against him by the Danish police? 

Mr. Nicholas. Espionage. 

Mr. Morris. Espionage. Now, you say the other three were also 
arrested: Josephson, Rabinowitz, and Sherman? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Now, incidentally, the application for the passport in the name of 
Gottlieb, which had Mink's picture on it, appeared to be in the hand- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1217 

writing of Joseplison — the body of the application, not the signature. 
In that connection, I might also mention that the application for a 
passport in the name of Samuel Lii)tzen, which was used by Gerhardt 
Eisler, was also in Josephson\s handwriting. 

We put out circulars regarding two of the people mentioned whose 
names w^e never identified, if you Avant to see them. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who are these? 

Mr. Nicholas. Tliose were Rabinowitz and Sherman, who were 
arrested at the time. 

Mr. Morris. These are pictures of these gentlemen ? 

Ml'. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may they go into the record at this 
time? 

Senator "Watkixs. Do you want them copied in the record or merely 
tiled as exhibits ? 

Mr. Morris. I think. Senator, they could fit into the record. 

Senator Watkins. If they can be reproduced in the record, they 
will be admitted for that purpose. Otherwise, they will be filed as 
exhibits. That will be Nos. 2 and ?>. I think those are the next 
numbers after the one that we have had up to date. 

(Documents referred to were marked "Exhibit No. '262" and '"Ex- 
hibit No. 262-A'' and are reproduced on following pages.) 



1218 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 262 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 



An^unvaii C' iii>ii=;;]- '. s :;:oi-^ art' n kjin'Sfeil l,!i kr';'Si a 1i=<.!k'iu1, K;r a ;i;-rsi in wh- iin> ]K!>>;.'s:5i.)ri 'if 
tjashjHirl Ni '- o2B/>')IJ isj.iii'ii !iii juiH.: IS, )S);"i2, in iiH; n;irSKT of ,A.li=]ijh f<;i1-in;:iwil :^- AiA' ^nbiniKitii i;i 
) ivt;:irihiit: IJii hvIii.7\-j1j'j=iI^ uf iju- I..i'-;41\t ni ths- ii-if^siHtrt. Un- EViHir hy which fu' is kliiiwri anM Mic iiariirc 
nf 111;' iravL-1 .hH,:i!!iii ni ',\ii'L:l: la' 5?: i;siii;^ -houh! hr iraiirisiitt^'ii in the IX'^arLmriSi hy ealiH->^raT>i. 






Ri^ri! Hand 






:! . IjfiL ^^^. . 



m 



Mm 



::''^^::^r 



B'^:ii Karrn>. L;5liiia.TTitii 

July 3, !S33 
Hair Darit Bruw."!.. 
iivfrit Bl'Je, 



Passport Division, 

Departrtient of Stat<5, 

VVashingtojiij D. C^ 

Ausuit (, IMS, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1219 

Exhibit No. 2G2-A 



Department of #tate 

PASSPORT DlViSlON 

PORTANT NOTICE 



'^ 



' ).i.4Kr )", !''.vi. 



"-!)-• .iiiir-c-: M^riil^.in: i'.'^lluu.;;^). s;^r,ih;!;i! ( -..l. ';:--. n. W ill. 

W lii :-n:. iC^.t'! I !.■■.:-■, 'in l;r,- l..;,'. ;,,■'. ^.!' T'n.i^,- i :' 















ri3*^ 





«S^ ■^V^'-AX^ 



.' -CM f jaii^I 



1 J.,;,- - - - . 



i:- 



!-'i!ii;ir ]'rlv,t ( 1:is'~i;,c;ili 



.Wl'U 



Mr. Morris. Proceed, Mr. Xichohis, ^Yith your narrative. 

Mr. Xtcitolas. If you are interested in Josephson 

Mr, Morris. Yes, by all means. 



1220 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Nicholas. There was another episode in which he figured. 
There was a man 

Senator Watkins. Now, who figured? You say, "in which he 
figured." 

Mr. Nicholas. In which Josephson figured. 

There was a passport obtained fraudulently in the name of Henry 
George Lynd. This man went to India and was working with revolu- 
tionary groups in India, using an American passport, and the British 
put him on a ship destined for England, where they wanted to prose- 
cute him, but he was not under guard, and when the ship got to 
Marseilles, Leon Josephson, who had gotten word of his plight, went 
to Marseilles and was able to get the man off the ship. 

Now, we heard afterward 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he alerted him ? 

Mr. Nicholas. He made arrangements — apparently the man was 
not under arrest — he came into French waters, and there was no 
legal way of holding him on the ship. So Josephson managed to get 
him off. I don't know just how he did it. But this man was later 
reliably reported to have been named Serge Mikailov, who was a 
Soviet citizen, and who had been described by another foreign gov- 
ernment as Stalin's favorite agent. 

A year or so ago, some former Soviet agent saw this man's picture, 
and he said that this man was very active in the Soviet contingent in 
Spain during the war, and that he was taken back to Moscow after- 
wards and given the highest decoration, and afterwards shot. Now, 
whether that is true or not, I don't know. But that was the 

Mr. Morris. AVhy was he shot, do you know, INIr. Nicholas? 

Mr. Nicholas. That was during the time of the purges, and I don't 
know. I don't know whether it is true or not. 

Senator Watkins. You are talking about the purges, now, in 
Russia? 

Mr. Nicholas. The purges in Russia. 

Senator Watkins. Sometimes you are speaking of another country, 
and you break right off into somewhere else without giving us the 
transition, so that we don't know just where we are at the moment. 

Mr. Nicholas. I am sorry. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you mentioned the Spanish Civil War there. Was 
there any abuse of American passports during that period ? 

Mr. Nk^holas. Yes, to quite an extent. For instance, we were not 
giving passports to people to go to Spain to serve in the army. 

Mr. Morris. That was a matter of policy ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Policy, determined by the President and the Secre- 
tary of State. And we were stamping passports, for a long period : 
"This passport is not valid for travel to Spain.'' And between 2,000 
and 3,000 Americans obtained passports by saying they were going 
to some other country for some other purpose, and then went to Spain 
and entered the International Brigade. The}^, of course, made false 
statements regarding their destination and the purpose of their travel, 
and they also used their passports in violation of restrictions contained 
therein. 

When they got to Spain, they were required to turn over their 
passports to the headquarters of the International Brigade, which 
was in Albacete, Spain. 

Mr. Morris. In Avhat, in Spain ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1221 

Mr. Nicholas. Albacete, A-1-b-a-c-e-t-e. 

]Mr. Morris. That was the lirst thing required of them by Avay of 
discipline, that they turn over their American passports to head- 
quarters? 

jMr. Nicholas. Yes. Of course, that gave the authorities control 
over them. They couldn't leave whenever they wanted to. 

Mr. Morris. It was a means of exercising discipline over them? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Then we learned from General Krivitsky, whom Mrs. Shipley and I 
interviewed, that the bulk of these passports were taken to Moscow for 
alteration and possible use by Soviet agents. 

Mr. Morris. May I understand that? Gen. Walter Krivitsky, 
who had then defected from the Soviet organization, told you and 
Mrs. Shipley some of the things that really went on behind the 
scenes? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr, Morris. And among other things, he told you that those pass- 
ports had been taken and turned over to whom ? 

Mr. Nichoi^vs. To the Soviet authorities in Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. In Moscow. Now, what was the number of these pass- 
ports; do you know? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, we don't know exactly. They included, of 
course, all of the dead and several hundred of the people who were 
living and to whom we had to furnish other documentation to return 
to the United States. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, those Americans who had served, there, 
■who died, their passports were retained in Moscow, together with the 
passports of those whose passports w^ere simply taken away from them? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And that provided a reservoir with which to carry on 
their illegal activities from that time forward? 

Mr. Nicholas. That is right. And to prevent the abuse of these 
passports, we sent out circulars to our officers listing all of those 
"which we knew were lost in this manner, and we also put on a very 
expensive program of replacing all passports of that type, which had 
red covers on them, with green-covered passports. We replaced every 
outstanding passport in the world with a new passport at Government 
expense, primarily due to these passports which were taken from 
Spain to Moscow. 

There were a few 

Mr. Morris. Now, did these passports turn up from time to time? 

Mr. Nicholas. No. I think our measures were so effective that they 
didn't try to use them, because at the time we sent out the warning 
about replacement, we told all consuls to examine carefully all pass- 
ports that were submitted, before they gave replacements. As far 
as we know, they were not abused. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are there any other instances during that pe- 
riod — this is the prewar period, Mr. Nicholas — that highlight the 
efforts made by Communists to abuse the passport privilege? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, there were impersonation cases. There were 
probablv at least 100. 

Mr. Morris. Impersonation cases? 

Mr. Nicholas. When someone obtained a passport, using the birth 
certificate or naturalization certificate of another person, took an 



1222 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE XJNITED STATES 

entirely fictitious identity, like when Earl Browder got a passport 
in the name of George Morris, using his own date and place of birth, 
but a different name. 

Senator Watkins, Was that one of the charges filed against him 
when he was convicted? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. He was indicted on a charge of using a pass- 
port m his own name which he had obtained upon the basis of an 
application in which he falsely stated that he never had a previous 
passport. It was a rather technical charge, but it was sustained by 
the Supreme Court. 

Mr. AloRRis. Otherwise, probably it never would have brought about 
a conviction ? 

Mr. Nicholas. The statute of limitations had run on all the other 
violations. 

Mr. MoKRis. Thank you, Senator Watkins. 

Senator McClellan, the witness is Ashley Nicholas, of the Passport 
Division of the State Department, the Acting Chief of the Legal Divi- 
sion of Passport Office. He has been citing, in general and with 
concrete instances, practices engaged in by the Soviet international 
organization and the Communist Party of America, wherein the 
privilege of travel by American passports has been abused. He cited 
instances of how Communists have been abusing this passport privi- 
lege. 

Senator McClellan (presiding). All right. 

Mr. McRRis. Have you finished with the prewar period, Mr. 
Nicholas ? 

Mr. Nicholas. I thought you were interested in the types and 
methods of obtaining passports. 

Mr. McERTs. Yes, we are. 

Mr. Nicholas. And I have broken down into several categories the 
methods used in obtaining passports. 

Mr. Moi Ris. Please tell us about that. 

Mr. Nicholas. Now, first I had listed the use of naturalizition cer- 
tificates of Americans by aliens in getting passports. Now, these 
people would apply for a passport in the name of the American citizen 
and submit his naturalization certificate. Sometimes they were the 
naturalization certificates of dead peo])le and sometimes they were 
the naturalization certificates of some other Communists that had been 
borrowed for the purpose. 

I think I already mentioned that J. Peters had obtained a passport 
in the name of Isador Boorstein, and that Gerhardt Eisler obtained 
a passport in the name of Samuel Liptzen. The imposter arrested in 
Denmark with a passport by the name of Nicholas Sherman, also used 
a naturalization certificate, but with a slightly different angle, which 
figured in a few cases. The naturalization certificate was in one name, 
but they wanted the passport in the name of Nicholas Sherman. So 
they got through a fictitious court order of change of name, changing 
the name from Juratovich 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that for us ? 

Mr. Nicholas. J-u-r-a-t-o-v-i-c-h to Sherman. So, using the nat- 
uralization certificate in the name of Juratovich, and the court order 
for a change of name, he was able to get the passport in the name he 
desired, the name of Nicholas Sherman. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1223 

Then also there was a Mrs. Arthur Ewert, who obtained a passport 
in this manner. She had the naturalization certiiicate of a naturalized 
citizen, and she was the wife of Arthur Ewert, who was foi-merly a 
Communist member of the German Keichstag, and who was the Com- 
munist representative in Brazil. He was arrested down there in 
connection with revolutionary activities in Brazil and went to prison 

for a lonoj time. , 

Ewert himself had a fraudulent American passport m the name of 

Arthur Berber, which he obtained by using a birth certificate in the 

name of Berger. But Mrs. Ewert 

Mr. Morris. In other words, the birth certificate m that case also 

was false? i i i , 

Mr. Nicholas. It was a good birth certificate, but somebody else s. 

Mr. Morris. Somebody else's? 

Mr. Nicholas, Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, we had here recently an instance of such a 
case. We had a man who was a commercial television artist in New 
Orleans. It is a matter of record. Senator. I do not know whether 
you are quite acquainted with it. 

We subpenaed this man after we had heard he had been a Com- 
munist, and we discovered that the dead brother of his wife, John 
Francis Brennan — John Francis Brennan had served in Spain, had 
come back to the United States, and had committed suicide in 1938 — 
but in the year 1950, the birth certificate of the dead man was sent 
to the Blanchards at the address where they were living, and we es- 
tablished that they were living at the address at that time, Mrs. 
Blanchard being the sister of John Francis Brennan. 

The next evidence, or the next appearance of this birth certificate 
occurred when Robert Thompson, who was the head of the Com- 
munist Party, but who was a fugitive for 3 years, having been sought 
by the FBI and by authorities, was arrested in California. Now, 
when he w^as arrested in California, he was traveling on the papers 
of eJohn Francis Brennan, the man who had been dead since 1038. He 
had not only the birth certificate, but he had all the identification 
papers of this particular dead man. 

Senator McClellan. What steps are being taken now to verify the 
application for passport? I do not understand how they get by with 
it. 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, we operate wholesale in the issue of pass- 
ports. We get several thousand applications a day now. Persons 
are required to make application under oath before a clerk of the 
court or a passport agent and to bring with them identifying wit- 
nesses as well as documents. 

There is no time or facilities or money for an investigation of every- 
body. If we had to investigate everybody before we issued pass- 
ports, we would require an enormous staff. 

I think the principal deterrent to fraud is the criminal statute, 
making it a felony to make a false application for a passport, and 
the fact that Congress in recent years has given us a 10-year statute 
of limitations. Before that, we had the ordinary 3-year statute of 
limitations, and often the fraud was not discovered until after the 
statute had run. 

But I think that the Communists, since 1940, have been rather afraid 
to trv much along these lines. 



b 



1224 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator McClellan. '\'\nien you have reason for suspicion of at- 
tempt to fraud or deceit, do you have authority now to hold up the 
passport and make such investigation as is necessary to satisfy you? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes, we do. 

Senator McClpxlan. You have that now ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes, sir. If we have reason to believe that the case 
is not bona fide, we do hold it up. We investigate it. 

Senator McClellan. All right. 

Mr. Nicholas, Another one of these uses of someone else's natural- 
ization certificate was one in the name of Isidore Spilberg, used by 
Alexander Bittelman, a prominent writer for the Communist Party. 

Then we had the use of the naturalization certificate of one Ameri- 
can by another one. For instance, Albert Feierabend, who was a 
Soviet agent who operated all over the world and who had $28,000 in 
American currency in his possession when we arrested him in New 
York, had made applications for passports in the names of both Jacob 
Kreitz and Kzavier Szpokas. It might be of interest to the committee 
for me to read — I don't have the text here — but I will say that Feiera- 
bend was arrested by the customs officers in the early thirties, and he 
had attached, sewn in his clothes, a badge requesting all of the Com- 
munists to render him assistance in carrying out the mission to which 
he had been assigned. 

Mr. Morris. You mean it was sewm right into his clothes? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. It was on a silk badge, and it was signed by 
Max Bedacht on behalf of the Communist Party. 

This man traveled all over the world, and possibly was a paymaster, 
since he was carrying all this cash when he was arrested. 

Earl Browder, at one time, shoi-tly after AVorld War I, used the 
naturalization certificate of Nicholas Dozenberg. 

Mr. Morris. These, now are more instances of prewar fraud prac- 
ticed by the Communists? 

]Mr. Nicholas. Yes. Then I have here a category of use of Ameri- 
can birth certificates by alien Communists. A British Communist 
named Tom Bell used the birth certificate of Milton Hathaway. Mil- 
ton Hathaway, incidentally, was the brother of Clarence Hathaway, 
formerly connected with the Daily Worker. 

Harry Beiger's birth certificate, which has been mentioned before, 
was used by Arthur p]wert, who was a prominent representative of 
Ihe Communist International, and who worked not only in Brazil, 
but, bafore that, in China, using a fraudulent passport. 

The next category was the use of birth certificates of one American 
by another. 

Mr. Morris. The use of birth certificates? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes, the use by a real American Communist, not 
an alien, of the birth certificate of some other person, a good birth 
certificate. Often these were birth certificates of children who died 
in infancy. This eliminated the possibility that the real person may 
have applied for a passport, and that when an impostor applied for a 
passport in that name, we would catch it up. 

But it was a favorite trick to get the birth certificate of some child 
who had died in infancy and use that to obtain the passport. 

Senator McClellan. May I ask the question, in connection with 
a passport, do you require additional evidence or certification as to 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1225 

character or anything from responsible citizens to accompany the 
application? 

Mr. Nicholas. No, sir, we don't. 

Senator McClellan. Would a requirement like that by statute 
be of any benefit? 

Mr. Nicholas. I don't think so, because I think that the people 
like these Communists can get any kind of documents that we re- 
quire. I mean, they can make them up. 

Senator McClellan. You mean, they are so resourceful that they 
could counterfeit or manufacture any required item? 

Mr. Nicholas. Some foreign governments, before they will give 
a visa, will require a certificate from the chief of police from the 
person's neighborhood that he has no criminal record. Well, a per- 
son using a fictitious name can get such a certificate because tliere 
is no record in that name. Or if he is using the record of some child 
who died in infancy, he could get a certificate to that effect. 

Mr. Morris. Obviously the child would not have a criminal record. 

Mr. Nicholas. No. 

Senator McClellan. Now, they apply to the clerk of the court, do 
they not? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Senator McClellan. Couldn't we place a responsibility of the clerk 
of the court to satisfy himself by requiring some kind of cei'tificate 
or affidavit from responsible people who might be known to him, or 
something in that way, that would cause them more difficulty in 
securing a passport? 

Mr. Nicholas. We have sent out instructions of that nature to the 
clerks of court, checking on the identity of the people as much as 
possible, and Mrs. Shipley worked on that for a long while several 
years ago. But the difficulty — there is no difficulty in small places 
where the clerk of court usually knows the applicant can, say, bring 
in somebody who knows him. But in the large cities, New York, 
Philadelphia, and Chicago, where the clerks do not know the people, 
where we have passport agencies and where our people do not know 
people, that is the source of danger. In the small areas, people are 
generally known. 

Senator McClellan. Couldn't you require the certifying witnesses, 
those who support the application, to be local residents and taxpayers? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well 

Senator McClellan. It would seem to me that there is some way to 
tighten this thing up. 

Mr. Nicholas. They are supposed to be residents of the district — 
the man is supposed to be a resident of the district where he applies. 
But when you get into the larger cities, the clerks of court don't 
have the personal knowledge of the people who reside in that area 
that the ones in the smaller areas or communities do. 

Senator McClellan. That is true. You would not have the per- 
sonal knowledge of the individual. But you could require them to be 
taxpayers and produce tax receipts and tax certificates or something 
and then check that against the record. The clerk could do that. 

I am just trying to help you think of some way to tighten it up. 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, anything that can help tighten it up, I am in 
favor of. But our work is run in the spring on a mass-production 
basis, almost. We get passport applications in by the thousands. 



1226 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator McClellan. I understand it is. But tliat is for the bene- 
fit of the fellow who wants to travel. When it is mass production to 
the disadvantage and injury of the United States, we ought to cut 
down that mass production in some way. 

Mr. Nicholas. I agree with you, sir. 

Senator McClellan. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, suppose a person should come to you and 
apply for a passport. Do you have access to any information on this 
man's background from any security agencies ? 

Mr. Nicholas. We have accumulated over a period of many years 
a large amount of information which is indexed and cross-indexed into 
one central index file. We have an index, an alphabetical index, that 
goes back to 1906. Now, there is a lot of criticism of our having such 
a large index. Some of the efficiency experts think that we should get 
rid of it. 

Mr. Morris. Now, these are the files where you have accumulated a 
lot of information about people who are Communists and who are 
close to the Communists ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Communists engaged in questionable activities of all 
kinds. We have information from other Government agencies. We 
have it from foreign governments. We have it from American diplo- 
matic and consular officers abroad over a period of many years. We 
have all of that cross-indexed and in one central alphabetical index. 

Every application for a passport that comes in must be cleared 
against that index, and if there is any derogatory information on that 
person, we pull out the derogatory information and consider it and 
make whatever investigations are necessary. 

Senator McClellan. What about the FBI ? Do you check with thq 
FBI to see whether they have any record of him ? 

Mr. Nicholas. We can't check with them on every case ; no, sir. 

Senator McClellan. Why couldn't that be done ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, it is a physical problem, which I am sure we 
don't have the money and people to do, and I don't imagine the FBI 
has. And it also presents the element of delay. 

Every step you go through in handling a passport application takes 
so much time. If a person has an unusual name and his own record 
is clear, it is not too difficult to get a clearance of that unusual name 
through any Government files, but when you get into the common 
names and ask for a clearance on a common name, it means often that 
a Government agency will have to pull out hundreds of files which 
they have indexed under that name to see if those files relate to 
this particular individual. You get into the Smiths and the Joneses 
and the Browns and the Johnsons, and you are really getting into 
a problem. 

Senator McClellan. What about fingerprints ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Fingerprints are a possibility of catching known 
criminals. That used to be about the only possibility. 

Senator McClellan. Does it not afford an opportunity for proper 
identification? 

Mr. Nicholas. The fingerprint files of the Government now, I think, 
are very extensive, since everybody who served in the military forces 
is fingerprinted, people in civilian defense, and people working in de- 
fense plants. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1227 

Senator McCi.ellan. People who have been arrested for crime all 
over the country ; is that not correct ? 

Mr. Nicholas. It would be a deterrent, I am sure, but it would also 
be an enormous amount of work. And the passport appropriations 
have never been large enough to do anything of that nature. 

Senator ISIcClei.lan. Do we require fingerprinting of applicants 
for passports ? 

]\Ir. Nicholas. No. sir. 

Senator McClellan. That is not required ? 

Mr. Nicholas. No, sir. It never has been required. 

Senator McClellax. How much additional expense would it take ? 

jNIr. Nicholas. I don't know. 

Senator IMcClellan. It would be very little additional expense to 
require the applicant to submit to fingerprinting at the time he ap- 
plies. Just provide for it on the application. It would take no more 
paper. 

Mr. Nicholas. The question of getting the fingerprints would not 
require too much additional work. But if all the fingerprints were re- 
quired to be classified and searched against the existing fingerprint 
records of the Government, which would be the main purpose in ob- 
taining the fingerprints, it would be an awful lot of work. 

Senator McClellan. It would take 3 or 4 or 5 more employees over 
in the FBI. That would be about all ; would it not ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Oh, many more than that. 

Senator McClellan. A few more than that ? 

Mr. Nicholas. JMany more than that. 

Senator McClellan. All right. 

Mr. Nicholas. I don't know how many. 

Senator McClellan. We have a problem here. TVe are studying 
something. And as we go along, I would like to get your ideas of 
the remedy. 

ISIr. Nicholas. First, there are lots of things which would be reme- 
dies if we had the time and money and people to do them. But I 
think that j'ou have a certain calculated risk that you are taking in 
every case, and I think the principal deterrent to fraud is the criminal 
statute, plus the 10-year statute of limitations. 

Senator McClellan. What if a fellow wants to get away from here; 
he feels that he is a hot number and has got to escape ? After he gets 
away he probably will never return. What good is your 10-year 
statute of liinitations then ? 

]SIr. Nicholas. Well, I don't know. 

Senator McClellan. It would not serve to deter that fellow ? 

Mr. NiciioLx^s. No ; it would not. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, in connection with this hypotlietical case, 
that I mentioned before, of a man coming in and applying for a pass- 
port, and you check with the reservoir of information that you have, 
and there is a mass of derogatory information available, information 
which you assess and decide on the basis of all reasonable standards 
you can invoke that the man is either a Communist or is close to a 
Conmiunist, have you now^ the discretion to deny the man a passport? 

Mr. Nicholas. That is something that is up in the courts. 

Mr. Morris. "What is the problem on that issue, Mr. Nicholas ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Until a year ago, or a little more than a year ago, 
no one seriously questioned the authority of the Secretary of State to 



1228 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

refused a passport to anyone that he thought should be refused. There 
have been court decisions, opinions of the Attorney General, opinions 
of the solicitors in the State Department over a period of many years. 

Mr. Morris. All upholding the discretion of the Secretary of State 
to deny a passport in the interests of the security of the country. 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes, or for any other thing ; if he thought it would 
interfere with the foreign relations of the United States for persons 
to be operating in a certain country, or bring discredit 

Mr. Morris. What happened a year ago ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, about a year ago we had these court cases in 
which the courts have said that the Secretary did not have absolute 
discretion, that the courts have a right to review the decisions of the 
Secretary of State, and some of them have indicated that they thought 
that the Secretary of State could not refuse a passport upon the basis 
of information which he could not disclose to the applicant and allow 
him a chance to rebut. 

We have in our files much information from sources which we could 
not disclose. Some of it comes from foreign governments and some of 
it comes from other Government agencies who get it fi'om confidential 
informants that they do not want to put on. the spot at this time, people 
who ai'e actively furnishing information from day to day. 

Now, there is one theory which the Communists are advancing, that 
we cannot refuse a passport to anyone upon the basis of this confi- 
dential information unless we disclose the information and the in- 
formant and allow the informant to be cross-examined by the attorney 
for the suspected Communist. 

Mr. Morris. That is almost invoking criminal standards, is it not ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes ; it is. 

Mr. Morris. And you feel that that would hamper very much the 
State Department's efforts to keep Communists from traveling abroad 
at will ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Very much. 

Mr. Morris. And are there many such cases as that ? Do you have 
that problem seriously ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes; that problem is coming up all the time, and 
there are several cases pending in the court now, including the Paul 
Robeson case, and Leonard Boudin, the attorney who has been push- 
ing this view. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Is it possible, Mr. Nicholas, that if you were required 
to disclose the indentity of the people supplying the information, 
that your supply of information would be cut off ? 

Mr. Nicholas. It would, immediately, 

Mr. Morris. And you would not have that information ? 

Mr. Nicholas. That is right. We could not now, assuming we had 
information that a person was an active agent for the Soviet Union, 
and we have this from a confidential source and it cannot be disclosed — 
under this theory, if we could not disclose that information, we would 
have to give that Soviet agent a passport, even though we knew he 
was actively working as such. 

Mr. Morris. You mean, even though you could in your own way 
corroborate the authenticity and the accuracy of the report 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Still, if these criminal standards were invoked and 
the applicant would have to have the right to face the source of the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1229 

information against him, then under those circumstances you would 
have to give the Soviet agent the right to travel abroad on the Ameri- 
can passport ? 

jMr. Nicholas. That is right- 
Senator McClellan. Is the discretionary authority of the Secretary 
of State now reposed in him by statute ? Is it a statute that is being 
challenged in these cases ? 

Mr. Nicholas. It is a combination of statute and Executive order. 
The statute says that the Secretary of State may issue passports under 
such regulations as the President may prescribe. The President has 
prescribed regulations under which the Secretarj^ in his discretion 
can refuse a passport or cancel a passport of any person. That is in 
the Executive order. The one we are operating under now was issued 
by President Roosevelt in 1938. 

Mr. Morris. Is that the order that is being challenged ? 

]Mi-. Nicholas. That is the discretionary order. The regulatitons 
forbidding tlie issuance of passports to Communists were promulgated 
by the Secretary of State, Mr. Acheson, under authority of another 
section of the Executive order that says that the Secretary of State may 
prescribe any additional regulations which he may desire, not incon- 
sistent with the Executive order. And by virtue of that revision of 
the Executive order. Secretary Acheson promulgated his regulations 
under which we have been operating, forbidding the issue of passports 
to Communists and persons who follow the Communist Party line. 

Mr, Morris. Do you have any other questions on that subject, Sena- 
tor. 

Senator McClellan. I will just ask you, Do you think any further 
legislation is needed to make sure that that discretion is authorized in 
the Secretary of State ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, I do not know how these court decisions are 
going to terminate. If the present trend continues and it- is not re- 
versed, I would say that legislation is essential if we are to continue to 
refuse passports to Communists. 

Senator McClellan. I am just wondering, even after legislation, if 
we enacted the legislation specifically and unequivocally placing that 
discretion in the Secertary, with emphasis on the fact that if he had 
reason to believe or evidence that they were Communists or fellow 
travelers, if he was convinced that their departure from the United 
States would be detrimental to this country, that he could refuse to 
^rant a passport — I wonder, are you apprehensive, even with such leg- 
islation, that the court might hold that it violated a constitutional 
right of the citizen or of the applicant ? 

Mr. Nicholas. That could be, under the present trend of decisions. 

Senator McClellan. I agree with you under the present trend of 
decisions we might expect almost anything from the Supreme Court. 
I make that statement publicly. I am very apprehensive about it. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Nicholas, will you tell us of some of the post- 
war types of fraud being perpetrated by Communists and their asso- 
ciates ? 

Mr. Nicholas. The postwar ones I will break into three classes. 
They do not involve any question of one person impersonating another. 
But we have had a number of 

]\Ir. Morris. This is generally speaking; is that right? 



1230 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. We have had a large number of cases in which 
people who were going to Communist meetings abroad had misrepre- 
sented, in their passport applications, where they were going and why 
they were going. For instance, if they were going to attend a Com- 
munist youth festival in Prague, Czechoslovakia, they might say they 
were going as tourists to France. 

Mr. Morris. Now, that is a very difficult thing to detect, is it not,. 
Mr. Nicholas, because it may well be that a man traveling abroad, 
after he got somewhere, would in effect change his mind ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes ; that is. 

Mr. Morris, So to establish that he had a fraudulent intention at 
the point of origin is a very difficult thing to establish. 

Mr. Nicholas. It is practically impossible. 

Senator McClellan. Could you require that upon their return to 
the United States, they file a report under oath as to where they have 
been and make that a condition upon which the passport might be 
issued ; their failure to agree to do that would render them ineligible 
for a passport? 

Mr. Nicholas. That could be done. How effective it would be, I 
don't know. 

Mr. Morris. You mean, the people might not give an accurate state- 
ment? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Senator McClellan. Yes. But you could make that a part of the 
fraud and subject them to criminal prosecution. 

Mr. Nicholas. That is a possibility that I had not thought of. 

Senator McClellan. Well, I had not, either, until just now. But 
if one comes in good faith for a passport and complies with the law 
and agrees under oath, as a condition upon which the passport may be 
issued to him, that, upon his return to this country, he will give a 
factual report with respect to his travels abroad, an accurate report, 
now, if that could be made a condition, and the failure to do it would 
constitute fraud for which he might be prosecuted after he returned, 
it seems to me that would help tighten it up. Now, that is just a 
thought. It would need further study. 

Mr. Nicholas. I think that is something we should study. It has 
possibilities, but it might be difficult to enforce for the reason I was 
telling you in the next class of cases. 

Mr. Morris. Would you speak up just a bit, Mr. Nicholas? 

Mr. Nicholas. I would say 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, before you get into the next class, may 
I ask a question on the point that Senator McClellan just made? 

You mentioned in executive session, did you not, that you have 
perceived a practice on the part of some of these Communists and 
people who are close to the Communists that when they visit a country 
wliere they are prohibited from going, or at least where they are not 
allowed to go by the terms of their passport, that rather than have 
their visa stamped in their passport to the effect that they had visited 
the country, they are issued a visa that is issued separately ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr, Morris. I wonder if you would develop that, because I think 
that is appropriate in response to the Senator's question. 

Mr. Nicholas. That was the second class I was going to mention. 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me, Mr. Nicholas. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTR'ITY IX THE UNITED STATES 1231 

Mr. NiciiOL.\s. That is, a person — for a long time, we did not issue 
passports valid for the Soviet Union and satellite countries. If a 
person wanted to go there, he got a passport saying he wanted to go to 
England or France. His pass})ort would be stamped, "Not valid for 
the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia," etc. But when he would get to 
Europe, he would go to a Soviet consul or a Czech consul and apply 
for his visa. 

Now, a visa is ordinarily stamped on the passport itself, on one 
of the blank visa pages. But to circumvent the American Govern- 
ment regulations and policies, they would stamp this visa on a sepa- 
rate sheet of paper which the man would carry with his passport when 
he went to Poland or the Soviet Union, and when he got to the border, 
they would stamp the border-crossing stamps on this piece of paper; 
they would not put it on his passport. And when he came back, the 
same way. Then after he left this zone controlled by the Soviets, he 
would simply take this paper out of his passport, throw it away, or 
hide it some place, and wlien we looked at his passport, we have no 
evidence as to where he has been. 

Mr. Morris. And that you say is a current practice ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Well, it was more extensive at the time we had the 
restrictions on travel. Now, we have lifted the restrictions on travel 
except to the countries where we have no diplomatic representation. 

Mr. Morris. Occupied China, or Soviet China, would be such an in- 
stance ? 

JNIr. Nicholas. That is right. Of course, there was a violation of 
restrictions by a number of Americans who went to the so-called 
Peiping Peace Conference, who went there at the time on passports 
which were not valid for travel to China. 

Mr. Morris. They went there, nonetheless ? 

Mr. Nicholas. They went there and took x:)art in nnti-American 
propaganda and spread reports of germ warfare and things like that 
against our troops in Korea. 

Mr. JMoRRis. Senator, those particular witnesses that Mr. Nicholas 
is talking about have been, for the most part, witnesses before this 
subcommittee. 

And you say in these cases, the general practice has been to issue a 
passport that does not allow them to travel to occupied China ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. But they went nonetheless ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Mr. INIoRRis. Now, what penalties can be invoked against people 
for violating the terms of their passports in that way ? 

Mr. Nicholas. The criminal statutes cover making false statements 
in their applications, and they also cover the use of passports in 
violation of restrictions contained therein. 

Now, to prove that a person intended to go to China when they went 
some place else is almost impossible. And the use in the criminal 
statutes is tied up with the use of the passport, and not with the 
travel. For instance, if we could prove that these people went to 
China, that they were in China, that is not the violation of the pass- 
port laws. The violation of the passport laws would be the use of 
the passport. 

Senator INIcClellax. And they do not actually use the passport; 
they make other arrangements ? 



1232 SCOPE or soviet activity in the united states 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. They carry the passport along. And so even 
if you could get witnesses — and, of course, you are not going to get 
any cooperation from the governments concerned — even if you could 
get witnesses, you have no evidence on the passport, except once in a 
while somebody will accidentally, some border official will accidentally 
stamp a passport. 

Now, one of the people that went over to Peiping went through 
the various Communist countries on the way over, and one of the 
countries accidentally put a stamp, a border-crossing stamp, on one 
of the passports, and they tried to obliterate it, but in working in 
the laboratory, trying to bring that out, there is a bare possibility, 
and there is nothing more than a bare possibility, that we might be 
able to do something under the criminal statute for using the passport 
in tliat country. 

Mr. Morris. Because the magic of the thing is on the words "use 
of the passport" ? 

Mr. Nicholas. "Use of the passport." We are trying them for use 
of the passport. 

Mr. Morris. And you find, Mr. Nicholas, that more and more, the 
standards that you have to invoke in carrying out your work are 
criminal standards rather than the general standard of acting on 
the reasonable mass of the evidence before you ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. In fraud, it has always been criminal, but 
the refusal of passports has been discretionary. But now the stand- 
ards are being raised, as you say, comparable to those in criminal 
cases. 

Mr. Morris. You are going to tell us some more cases ; are you not, 
Mr. Nicholas ? 

Mr. Nicholas. I started to refer to the use of a birth certificate, and 
I have a few examples there. A man named Harry Kweit 

Mr. Morris. Harry White? 

Mr. Nicholas. Kweit, K-w-e-i-t (continuing) — attempted to ob- 
tain a passport in the name of Edward Riggs, using the birth cer- 
tificate of Riggs, and he was arrested when he went to the passport 
agent to pick up his passport, and went to prison for it. 

George Mink used the birth certificate of Al Gottlieb in obtaining 
a passport in that name. As I mentioned before, Jack Stachel had a 
passport in the name of Moses Brown, and he used the birth certificate 
in the name of Moses Brown in connection with his application. 

William Browder, brother of Earl Browder, made a passport ap- 
plication in the name of George Ross, using the birth certificate of the 
real George Ross, and got a passport in that name. 

Mr. Morris. Who was the real George Ross ; do you know ? 

Mr. Nicholas. We never identified the real George Ross, but it 
certainly Avas not William Browder. And Earl Bi-owder used the 
birth certificate in the name of Albert Henry Richards and obtained 
a passport in that name. 

Then we had a series of cases in which people obtained passports 
on the basis of delayed birth certificates at Scranton, Pa., and that 
was a group in which Mink figured. One of them was in the name 
of Henry George Lynd that I mentioned with relation to Joseplison. 
Another one was a passport in the name of Leon Marks, obtained by 
Martin Young. And Mink also had a Scranton birtli certificate in 
his own name which he used in obtaining a passport in his own name. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1233 

Then we had two flagrant cases in which real birth records were 
altered, and a birth certificate issued on the basis of the altered records, 
and passports issued on the basis of the birth certificate. One of these 
was William Wiener, the financial secretary of the Communist Party. 
That was done by writing in the record books at Atlantic City — they 
were bound volumes arranged chronologically — a false statement of 
the births. There was a vacant space at the bottom of one of the 
pages, and they wrote in "Robert William Wiener," and had a birth, 
certificate issued on that record. And that was submitted with the 
passport application in that name. The real name of the man was 
Welwel Warszower. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that for the record, please? 

Mr. Nicholas. W-e-l-w-e-1 W-a-r-s-z-o-w-e-r, who was an alien born 
abroad, and who had previously obtained a reentry permit in his own 
name. 

Another one was a man who traveled with Wiener, a man known in 
the Conmiunist Party as Joseph Sultan, S-u-1-t-a-n, who was one of 
the editors of the Morning Freiheit. He got a birth certificate in the 
name of Arthur J. Soltin, S-o-l-t-i-n, issued at Chicago. 

When we investigated the case at Chicago, the investigator reported 
that somebody else's certificate had been crudely altered to show the 
name "Arthur J. Soltin," and that an erasure had been made in the 
ledger book and "xlrthur J. Soltin" had been written in there, and 
that they were obvious alterations. That was the report the investi- 
gator turned in. It was during the time that we had the grand-jury 
investigation in New York. 

So we sent a grand- jury subpena from New York to Chicago to the 
custodian of the records to produce the report and the book. The 
custodian brought in the book, and the entire entry had been erased 
from the book. The paper was almost rubbed through where they 
had taken it off, and the report of the birth had entirely disappeared 
there. 

Then besides the certificates, we have the use of false affidavits. Of 
course, as you know, many people cannot get birth certificates, partic- 
ularly the older people, because their births were not recorded. So we 
do accept birth affidavits. 

Mr. Morris. In lieu of birth certificates ? 

Mr. Nicholas. In lieu of birth certificates. 

Now, among the Communist frauds of this kind we have Katherine 
Harrison, using an affidavit of birth signed Jack Harrison, which was 
supposed to be in the handwriting of John W. Johnstone, and an affi- 
davit of birth submitted by Alexander Bittelman in connection with 
an application he made in the name of Nathan William Kweit; an 
affidavit of birth signed William Montgomery, which was submitted 
with a passport application in the name of Jean Montgomery. The 
applicant in that case, Jean Montgomery, was Margaret Browder, the 
sister of Earl Browder, and the affidavit was written by William 
Browder, her brother, and signed "William Montgomery." 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you cite that as an instance that even on 
the afiidavits that are offered in lieu of birth certificates, the Com- 
munists have practiced fraud ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. And Eugene Dennis obtained a passport in 
the name of Paul Walsh in Avhich he submitted an affidavit by an al- 



1234 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

leged sister, Margaret Dunne, We have various other illustrations of 
it, but I think that will give you the idea. 

Then we have one trick that was tried once without success. I don't 
know whether it will ever work successfully or not. A man named 
Robert Long 

Mr. Morris. Long, L-o-n-g ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. He went into the passport agency in New 
York a number of j^ears ago and applied for a passport and submitted 
his birth certificate, but said he didn't have his pictures with him ; so 
he would bring them back later. So later on he came in and handed in 
some pictures, but they were the pictures of Robert Morris, the Com- 
munist leader. 

Mr. Morris. Robert who ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Morris. [Laughter.] 

I mean not Morris, but Robert Minor. 

Mr. Morris. Minor? 

Mr. Nicholas. Robert Minor, who was one of the leading Commu- 
nists in the country, and ISIinor's wife. I am sorry, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Tliat is all right. 

Mr. Nicholas. That did not work. 

Now, among the other tricks of the trade, I will say that the people 
who were working with the Soviet intelligence had mimeographed 
forms which they used to fill out and get all the information available 
regarding the person that they were supposed to be. When Albert 
Feierabend was arrested back in the early thirties, he had a supply of 
these forms in his possession, and when Rabinowitz and Sherman were 
arrested over in Denmark, they had forms filled out with the infor- 
mation regarding the people they were impersonating. And Mrs. 
Ewert, arrested in Brazil, had one of the forms that was filled out. 

In addition, they usually carried business letters, I mean, speaking 
of credentials and things. These people who were actively operating 
as Communist agents abroad, not just as tourists, they had to have 
some ostensible business; so they had letters issued by American firms 
saying they were going abroad for certain purposes. So they were 
well supplied with what appeared to be bona fide credentials. 

Now, the man, Dozenberg, when he was operating as a Soviet agent 
abroad in Rumania, had a film firm which was supposed to be making 
movies. And he was telling us about his experience in setting up that. 

Mr. Morris. He was telling you about it ? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. After we had him arrested, he told us a good 
many details about how he operated in the past. And this film firm — 
he contacted the American commercial attache at the legation, and 
they looked around and they bought an existing Rumanian firm and 
started off very respectable appearing, and he made contacts with all 
of the Rumanian officials and was very friendly with everybody, and 
he got word from the Russians that they had heard that Rumanians 
were fortifying the port of Constanza on the Black Sea, and they 
wanted a report on that. So he had made such good contacts that he 
was able to get a motor launch from the Rumanian authorities and 
go up and down the port of Constanza with his movie camera and 
take pictures of all the piers and installations. Of course, he gave 
the Rumanians a copy of the film and he also sent a copy of it to the 
Russians. And when he operated in China, he had an agency for the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1235 

Bell & Howell cameras. He used that. That was also his cover when 
he operated in Manila. He had excellent connections in Manila with 
our own people, in the Philippines, and when we got hold of his movie 
films, we found the pictures that had been taken when he went out 
with our Army on its maneuvers. 

So they do have ways of getting ostensible business connections 
which appear bona fide and, I think. Senator, that the applicants 
would probably produce them when they applied. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nicholas, in summation, would you say that you 
feel that the Passport Division needs additional legislation to tighten 
the regulations — needs to have the power and the discretion to allow 
them to make the necessary decisions to carry out the function of 
their office? 

Mr. Nicholas. Of course, I could not attempt to speak for the 
Department, because I think the official position of the Department 
is being given in connection with, proposed legislation which has been 
initiated in the House. But there is a danger, an apparent danger, 
that we wdll not be able to refuse passports to people that we consider 
dangerous, 

Mr. Morris. Do you think, Mr. Nicholas, that, for the purpose of 
this particular limited session here this morning, you have given the 
committee an account of the evidence that we have gone over in execu- 
tive session? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. I have given you 

Mr. Morris. I know your experience is long, Mr. Nicholas, and you 
could give us many other instances as you have this morning. But 
I was wondering if for the purposes of this session this morning, the 
limited purposes of this session this morning, you have covered every- 
thing that we intended to cover and staked out in the area of our 
executive session? 

Mr. Nicholas. Yes. 

Senator McClellan. Are there any further questions? 

Mr. Morris. No. 

Senator McClellan. Thank you very much, Mr. Nicholas. 

Are there any further witnesses at this time ? 

Mr. Morris. No. That is all. Senator. 

Senator McClellan. Do you have another hearing scheduled for 
tomorrow ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Senator. Tomorrow morning the Internal Sub- 
committee is holding hearings on 2 bills, 1 introduced by Senator 
Bridges and the other introduced by Senator McCarthy, amending 
the Smith Act to allow individual States 

Senator McClellan. They will be public hearings? 

Mr. Morris. They will be public hearings, at 10 : 30 tomorrow morn- 
ing, in room 424. 

Senator McClellan. The committee stands in recess until 10 : 30 
in the morning. 

(Wliereupon at 12 o'clock noon, the subcommittee recessed to re- 
convene at 10 : 30 a. m., Friday, May 11, 1956.) 



INDEX 



Is'oTE.- — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the names of an individual or an 
organization in tliis index. 

A 

Page 

Albacete, Spain 1221 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers 1206 

B 

Bedacht, Max 1224 

Bell, Tom (used birth certificate of Milton Hathaway) 1224 

Berger, Arthur (name used by Arthur Ewert) 1223 

Berger, Harry (birth certificate used by Arthur Ewert) 1224 

Berie, Adolf 1212 

Bittelman, Alexander (used naturalization certificate of Isidore Spil- 

berg) 1224, 1233 

Blake, A. (alias for Welwel Warczower) 1213 

Boorstein, Isador (naturalization certificate used by J. Peters) 1214, 1222 

Book Sales, Inc 1198, 1200 

Boudin, Leonard 1228 

Brennan, John Francis 1223 

Browder, Earl : 

Used birth certificate of Albert Richards 1213, 1214, 1232 

Alias Geo. Morris 1222 

Used naturalization certificate of Nicholas Dozenberg 1224 

Browder, Margaret (alias Jean Montgomery) 1233 

Browder, William : 

Used birth certificate of George Ross 1232 

Signed passport of sister as William Montgomery 1233 

Brown, Moses (birth certificate used by Jack Stachel) 1214, 1232 

C 

Cahill, John T 1212 

Cheruoff, J 1194 

China Daily Herald 1194 

Choate, Richard S. (alias of—) 1214 

CIO 1206 

Citadel Press, 222 Fourth Avenue, New York. N. Y 1195, 1196, 1197. 1200, 1206 

Clippings re Foner's separation from New York school system, New York 

Times, November 8, 1941, November 18, 1941, and August 20, 1941 1204 

Comintern 1193 

Communists 1191, 1196, 1207, 1208, 1209, 

1215, 1216, 1221, 1226, 1228, 1229, 1234 
Communist Party 1203, 1204, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1222, 1224 

D 

Daily Worker 1192, 1206, 1214, 1224 

Dennis, Eugene (passport in name of Paul Walsh) 1233 

Dozenberg. Nicholas 1215. 1224, 1234 

Dunne, Margaret (name used on affidavit of passport by Eugene Dennis)- 1234 

E 

Eisler, Gerhardt (used naturalization certificate of Samuel Liptzen) 1214, 

1217, 1222 
Ewen, Frederic 1196 



II INDEX 

Page 

Ewert, Arthur (passport in name of Arthur Berger) 1223, 1224 

Ewert, Mrs. Arthur 1223, 1224 

Exhibit No. 2.57. Book list of the Citadel Press 1196-1197 

Exhibit No. 258. Indictment against Samuel Roth 1200 

Exhibit No. 2.59. Book list of Citadel Press • 1201 

Exhibit No. 259-A. Book list of Citadel Press 1202 

Exhibit No. 260. Excerpt from Counterattack, April 13, 1956 1205 

Exhibit No. 261. Chart showing passport frauds 1210-1211 

Exhibit No. 262-A. Pictures of N. Sherman 1219 

Exhibit No. 262. Pictures of A. Rabinowitz 1218 

F 

FBI 1223, 1226. 

Feierabend, Albert (used naturalization certificate of Jacob Kreitz and 
Kzavier Szpokas) 1224, 1234 

Fifth amendment 1196, 1198, 1199, 1203, 1205 

Fleet, Hayton 1194 

Folsom, Franklin 1192, 1193 

Foner, Philip S. (testimony of) 1195-1206 

Mountain Trail, Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y 1195 

Writer and publisher 1195 

Partner in Citadel Press and Remainder Book Co '. 1195 

Morris Sorkin, a.ssociate 1195 

Fifth if now or have been Commiiuist 1203 

Born in New York 1203 

Teacher at City College 1203 

Teacher at Jefferson School 1204 

Teacher at Abraham Lincoln School in Chicago 1204 

Teacher at California Labor School in San Francisco 1204 

Teacher at School for Democracy in New York 1204 

Fox, John W. (alias of—) 1214 

G 

Gannes, Harry (alias Henry George Jacobs) 1214 

Gannes, Mrs. Harry (alias Pearl Roth Jacobs) 1214 

G. L Distributors, Inc 1198, 1200 

Glass, Frank 1194 

Gold, Harry 1192 

Golos, Jacob (manager of World Tourists) 1212,1213 

Good Times, publication of Remainder Book Co 1199, 120o 

Gottlieb, Al (birth certificate used by George Mink) 1216, 1232 

Gould, Randal 1194 

Grachan, Francis 1214 

Granitch (Voice of China) 1194 

H 

Harrison, Jack (name used on afiidavit of birth certificate of Katherine 

Harrison) 1233 

Harrison, Katherine 1233 

Hathaway, Milton (birth certificate used by Tom Bell) 1224 

Healey, Paul 1193 

Heine, Heinrich 1196 

I 

Intercor. publication of Comintern 1193 

International Fur and Leather Workers 1206 

J 

Jacobs, Henry George (alias of Harry Gannes) 1214 

Jacobs, Pearl Roth (alias of Mrs. Harry Gannes) 1214 

Jefferson School of Social Science in New York City 1204, 1206 

Josephson, Leon 1215, 1216, 1220 

Juratovich (on naturalization certificate used by Sherman) 1222 



INDEX III 

K 

Page 

Kaplan, Harry 1215, 1216 

Karpov, G 1102 

Kitzes, Max (alias A. Beiisou) 1213 

Kreitz, Jacob (naturalizatiou certificate used by A. Feierabend) 1224 

Krivitsky, General 1221 

Kweit, Harry (used birth certificate of Edward Risgs) 1232 

Kweit, Nathan William (named used by A. Bittelman on passport) 1233 

L 

Lenin School 1212 

Lidov, L 1194 

Lieberman, Abraham 1198, 1200 

Liptzen, Samuel (naturalization certificate used by Gerhardt Eisler) 1214, 

1217, 1222 

Litvackoff (alias Nathan Rosenberg) 1214 

Long, Robert (used pictures of Robert Minor on passport) 1234 

Lynd, Henry George (alias of Serge Mikailov) 1220 

M 

McClellan, Senator 1207 

Mandel, Benjamin 1191, 1207 

Marks, Leon (alias of— ) 1214, 1232 

Marseilles, France 1220 

Mikailov, Serge (alias Henry George Lynd) 1220 

Miller, Chief 1198, 1200 

Mink, George (used birth certificate of Al Gottlieb and passport of Abra- 
ham Wexler and H. Kaplan) 1215, 1216, 1232 

Minor, Robert (pictures used on passport of Robert Long) 1234 

Montgomery, Jean ( alias of Margaret Browder ; passport signed by William 

Browder as William Montgomery) 1233 

Montgomery, William (alias of AVilliam Browder) 1233 

Morris, George (alias of Earl Browder) 1222 

Morris, Robert 1191, 1207 

Moscow 1194, 1220, 1221 

N 

New Century Publishers 1205 

New York Times (April 15, 1954, Tass) 1194 

New York Wrold Telegram (July 12, 1954, Tass) 1194 

Nicholas, Ashley J. (testimony of) 1207-1235 

Acting Chief, Passport Legal Division, Passport Office, Department 

of State 1207 

1944 North Cleveland Street, Arlington, Va 1207 

O 

Ottawa Citizen (April 15, 1954, Tass) 1194 

Ovakimian, Gaik 1192 

P 

Palgunov 1194 

Passport Division of State Department 1208, 1213, 1222, 1235 

Peters, J. (used naturalization certificate of Isador Boorstein)__ 1214, 1222 

Powell, J. B 1194 

Prlmoff, George 1213 

Primoff students account of World Tourist, Inc 1212, 1214 

Problems of communism, magazine 1194 

R 

Rabinowitz, Adolph (alias of—) 1215, 1216, 1217, 1234 

Rastvorov, Yuri 1192 

Remainder Book Co 1195, 1190, 1198, 1199, 1200, 1205, 1206 

Richards, Albert (birth certificate used by Earl Browder) 1213, 1214, 1232 

Riggs, Edward (birth certificate used by Harry Kweit) 1232 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 4366 



INDEX 



Page 

Robeson, Paul 1206, 1228 

Rosenberg, Nathan (alias of Litvackoff) 1214 

Ross, George (birth certificate used by William Browder) 1232 

Roth, Samuel 1198, 1199, 1203, 1205 

Rover, V 1194 

Rusher, William A 1191, 1207 

S 

Saffin, Rose 1214 

Schappes, Morris U 119& 

Schlusberg, Harold (alias of — ) 1214 

Selsam, Howard 1206 

Senate Internal Security Committee 1207 

Seven Sirens Press, Inc 1200 

Shanghai, China 1194 

Sherman, Nicholas (alias of—) 1215,1216,1217,1222,1234 

Shields, Esther Lowell 1193 

Shipley, Mrs. Ruth, Passport Director, State Department— 1208, 1212, 1221. 1225 

Smedley, Agnes 1193, 1194 

Soltin, Arthur J. (birth certificate used by J. Sultan) 1233 

Sorkin, Morris, associate of Foner 1195,1198,1199,1200,1203,1206 

Sotoff, Andrew Ivanovitch 1194 

Soviet Union 1192, 1208. 1228, 1231 

Spain 1220, 1223 

Spilberg, Isidore (name used by A. Bittelman) 1224 

Stachel, Jack (used birth certificate of Moses Brown) 1214. 1232 

Sultan, Joseph (used birth certificate in name of Arthur J. Soltin) 1233 

Szpokas, Kzavier (alias of A. Feierabend) 1224 

T 

Tass News Agency 1192, 1193, 1194 

Thompson, Robert 1223 

Trachtenberg, Alexander 1204 

Trade Union Unity League account of World Tourists, Inc 1212 

Tzvetkov, Ivan 1 194 

U 

I'nited Automobile Workers 1206 

United Rubber Workers 1206 

United States 1192, 1198, 1200, 1208, 1212, 1218, 1221, 1226, 1228 

I'nited States Information Agency 1193,1194 

W 

Walsh, Paul (name on passport used by Eugene Dennis) 1233 

Warszower, Welwel (alias of A. Blake; also known as William Wiener) 1218, 

1233 

Washington Daily News (April 14, 1952. Tass) 1194 

Watkins, Senator 1191, 1207 

Wexler, Abraham (passport used by George Mink) 1216 

Wiener, William (alias of A. Blake) 1213,1233 

Wikmen. R. L 1194 

Willoughby. Geo. Charles 1J94 

Workers Library Publishers 1205 

World Tourists, Inc 1212,1213 

Y 

Yakovlev, A. A 1192 

Young, Martin (passport in name of Leon Marks) 12.32 



o 



I /j^' 7xv^ y/\^ 

F SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

ni.K BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION' OF THE INTEENAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



FEBRUARY 20, 1957 



APPENDIX I 
PART 23-A 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 



<- 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1957 



\ 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

OCT 9 - 1957 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Je., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND. Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY. West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. Sodrwinb, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel. Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Audit report, Communist Party, U. S. A., National office, September Page 

30, 1939 Al 

Audit report, Commurist Party, U. S. A., National office, December 31, 

1938 A3 

Brief, Department of State, Passport Division: 

Basis for conspiracy charge A5 

Primoff account cases A6 

Blake account cases A7 

Other related cases A8 

Persons using two or more documents A9 

A. Blake account (alphabetical listing) A9 

George Primoff account A22 

Primoff students— T. U. U. L. delegates A27 

U.S. Veterans of the International Brigade A33 

SUPPLEMENTAL LIST 

Passport applications — Facts regarding each A 80 

Persons — Facts regarding each A104 

Proof of conspriacy A133 

III 



\ 



/ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, EEBBTJARY 20, 1957 

United States Senate, 

Subcommittee To Investigate the Adminis- 
tration OF the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 10 : 30 a. m. in room 
457, Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner presiding. 

Present : Senators Jenner and Watkins. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel, and William A. 
Rusher, associate counsel. 

Senator Jenner. The meeting will come to order, 

Mr. Morris. The witness this morning is Mr. Rachlin. Will you 
come forward, Mr. Rachlin ? 

(Following the testimony of Mr. Rachlin, which appears in a sub- 
sequent volume of the printed hearings on Scope of Soviet Activity 
in the United States, the following proceedings were had :) 

Mr. Rusher. With your approval, we would like to place in the 
public record of the subcommittee certain documents submitted to us 
by Mr. (Ashley J.) Nicholas, who testified before the subcommittee 
on May 10, 1956; being a study, made under Mr. Nicholas' direction, 
of certain records of the Communist Party of the United States, and 
of a travel agency which arranged transportation for certain indi- 
viduals, the cost of which transportation was billed to the Communist 
Party. 

Senator Watkins (now presiding) . They will be placed in the pub- 
lic record. 

(The documents, with certain deletions for security purposes, read 
as follows:) 

REPORT, COMMUNIST PARTY. U. S. A., NATIONAL OFFICE. 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1939 

New York, N. Y, October 27, 1939. 
Certificate 

We have audited the books and records of the Communist Party, U. S. A., for 
the 9 months of January 1, 1939, to September 30, 1939. We certify, that the at- 
tached financial statements, in our opinion, correctly reflect the financial con- 
dition of the organization as at September 30, 1939, and its transactions for the 
period. 

Morris A. Greenbaum, 
Certified Public Accountant. 

Al 



a2 scope of soviet activity est the united states 

Exhibit A. — Communist Party, U. 8. A., national office balance sheet 

ASSETS 

Cash on hand $502. 50 

Cash in bank 1,081.75 

Loans receivable — Schedule 1 106, 689. 47 

Furniture and fixtures 9, 259. 95 

Total assets $118, 133. 67 

LIABILITIES 

Loans payable— Schedule 2 $17, 895. 60 

School fund 2, 305. 43 

International solidarity $44, 102. 75 

30, 579. 17 
J 523 58 

Accruals 3,' 625! 00 

Total liabilities 31, 349. 61 

SURPLUS 

Jan. 1, balance $72, 347. 78 

Excess of income over expenditures, exhibit B 14, 436. 28 

86, 784. 06 

Exhibit B. — Statement of income and expenditures for the 9 months of Jan. 1 

to Sept. SO, 1939 

INCOME 

Dues— Schedule 3 , $75, 835. 47 

Initiations 1, 846. 70 

Supplies 2, 085. 00 

Buttons 294. 37 

Browder records 51. 85 

Party builder 68. 91 

National committee statement 174. 09 

10th convention assessment 47. 82 

Donations : 

Organizations 14, 879. 00 

Individuals 72, 622. 65 

Total income $167, 905. 86 

EXPENSES 

Wages $36, 396. 00 

Telephone 2, 196. 87 

Telegraph 1, 848. 72 

Postage express 2, 874. 46 

Traveling 9, 309. 69 

Field organizers expenses 6, 268. 15 

Organization supplies 126. 05 

Stationery 1, 693. 53 

Buttons . 481. 85 

Browder records 137. 42 

Party Builder 1, 027. 09 

National committee statement 33. 16 

Literature 1, 092. 10 

Education department 1, 477. 79 

News service and publicity 3, 148. 25 

Legislative department 5, 486. 42 

National committee meetings 2, 257. 62 

Organization conference 90. 60 

20th anniversary 5, 934. 66 



\ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a3 

Exhibit B. — Statement of income and expenditures for the 9 months of Jan. 1 

to Sept. SO, 1939— Continued 

EXPENSES — continued 

Industrial department $5, 188. 15 

Rent 3, 600. 00 

Secretaries expenses 2, 260. 00 

IWO <;02. 65 

Miscellaneous expenses 744. 69 

Auditing 225. 00 

Social security taxes 745.79 

Unemployment insurance taxes 881. 66 

City rent tax 5. 00 

Subsidies: 

Districts schedule 4 30, 142. 75 

Organization schedule 5 22, 353. 68 

Individuals 3, 939. 78 

Total expenses $153, 469. 58 

Excess of income over expenditures 14,436.28 

REPORT, AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1938, COMMUNIST PARTY, U. S. A., 

NATIONAL OFFICE 

Januaey 16, 1939. 
Certificate 

I have audited the books and records of the Communist Party, U. S. A., National 
OflSce, for the calendar year of 1938. 

All receipts were properly accounted for, all disbursements were substantiated 
by vouchers, or invoices, signed by the recipients and approved by an authorized 
officer. 

I certify, that the attached financial statements. In my opinion, correctly reflect 
the financial condition of the Communist Party, U. S. A., National Office, as of 
December 31, 1938, and its financial transactions for the year. 

Morris A. Greenbattm, 
Certified PuUic Accountant. 

Exhibit A. — Communist Party, U. 8. A., balance sheet, as at December SI, 19S8 

ASSETS 

Cash on hand $199. 64 

Cash in bank 3, 644. 70 

Loans receivable 61,338.02 

Furniture and fixtures 8, 997. 15 

Total assets $74, 179. 51 

liabilities 
Loans payable 1, 831. 73 

surplus 

Jan. 1, 1938 $68, 397. 93 

Add gain for year : 

Income $191, 772. 27 

Disbursements 187, 670. 70 

4, 101. 57 
Less deferred charges written ofE 151. 72 

Net gain for year 3, 949. 85 

Total surplus 72, 347. 78 



a4 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Exhibit B. — Communist Party, U. S. A., statement of cash receipts and disburse- 
ments, income and expenses for the calendar year of 1938 



Dues 

Initiations .-. 

Supplies and buttons 

Mass meetings and affairs 

Collections and donations 

10th national convention 

International solidarity (schedule 1) 

Industrial work (schedule 2) 

Wages 

Rent 

Telephone -- 

Telegraph 

Postage and expressage 

Stationery and supplies 

Traveling 

National committee meetings 

Party building congress 

Educational department and literature- 
Party news bulletin 

Publicity and press service 

Repairs 

Auditing - 

Social-security taxes ... 

Unemployment insurance taxes 

Miscellaneous expenses 

Tom Mooney defense fund 

Subsidies, districts 

Other departments (schedule 3) 



Total Income and expense. 
Loans receivable (net decrease).. 

Loans payable (net decrease) 

Furniture and fixtures 



Total received.. 

Total paid 

Balance Jan. 1, 1938.. 
Balance Dec. 31, 1938. 



Total. 



Paid 



$36, 

15, 

31, 

4, 

3, 

2, 

2, 

2, 

10, 

5, 

2, 

3, 

1, 



1, 
39, 
21, 



506. 35 
418.06 
633. 88 
800. 00 
039. 48 
435. 41 
645. 69 
438. 74 
124. 05 
027. 37 
926. 10 
912. 21 
458. 66 
442. 82 
752. 51 
175. 00 
502. 59 
121.48 
557. 51 
000. 00 
108. 74 
644.05 



187, 670. 70 



8, 598. 15 
440. 82 



196, 709. 67 



3, 844. 34 



200, 554. 01 



Received 



$65, 763. 61 

3, 579. 97 

917. 56 

45, 575. 43 

32, 293. 59 

7, 305. 05 

36, 337. 06 



191,772.27 
7, 377. 88 



199, 150. 15 



1, 403. 86 



200, 554. 01 



Schedule 1. — International solidarity 



Austria 

Argentine- 
Brazil 



Chile 1, 

China 1, 

Cuba 6, 



Cuba— Youth. 

Columbia 

Canada 



Costa Rica 

French delegates. 

Germany 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Italy 

Ireland 

Japanese 



2, 

4, 



Mexico 

Philippines 

Puerto Rico 1, 

Panama 

Pan American Conference 

Spain 5, 

Salvador 

Venezuela 

Delegates to other parties 2, 



$10. 00 

16.00 

510. 00 

447. 29 

648. 36 

700. 27 

140. 00 

138. 50 

957. 56 

5.00 

560. 73 

425. 00 

110. 00 

341. 90 

375. 00 

199. 99 

5.00 

264.31 

032. 18 

368. 60 

34.00 

57.00 

493. 02 

.5.00 

240. 00 

431.64 



Total 36, 506. 35 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 5 

Schedule 2. — Trade union fund 

Automobile $3, 479. 45 

Marine 902.00 

Mining 1. 474. 00 

Oil G30. 00 

Railroad 2, 710. 00 

Kubber 352.50 

Steel 3, 332. 78 

Textile 1, 939. 83 

Miscellaneous 507.50 

Total 15, 418. 06 

Schedule 3. — Other departments 

Peace 3, 000. 00 

Agrarian 2, 400. 00 

Language 430. 00 

Education in South 2,205.00 

Southern party conference 1, 040. 90 

Unemployed 1, 980. 00 

Youth 7, 008. 99 

Negro work 3, 579. 16 

Total 21, 644. 05 



Notes prepared in 1939-40 by Mr. Ashley J. Nicholas, formerly Assistant Direc- 
tor of the Passport Office, from Information in the files of the Passport Division 
with regard to individuals connected with passport fraud cases. 

The attached 1938 and 1939 financial statements of the Communist Party were 
obtained in connection with the 1939-40 passport fraud investigation. The list 
of contributions of the Communist Party, U. S. A., to "international solidarity" 
indicates the international nature of the Communist movement. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, PASSPORT DIVISION 

CONSPIEACT 

This conspiracy charge is based primarily on the fact that during the period 
from 1931 to 1938 a number of persons in possession of fraudulent American 
passports obtained their transportation through World Tourists, Inc., and such 
transportation was charged against the accounts of the Communist Party. The 
first of these accounts was in the name George Primoflf, while the second was 
In the name "A. Blake." 

World Tourists, Inc., was under the management of Jacob Raisin, known as 
J. N. Golos. The general secretary of the Communist Party during this entire 
period was Earl Russell Browder. The contact man between World Tourists 
and the party headquarters was George Primoff. 

He was at one time a financial adviser of the Communist Party. Later his 
duties were taken over by Max Kitzes, at the present internal auditor for the 
Communist Party, who was known both at party headquarters and at World 
Tourists under the name A. Benson. The third and last contact man was Welwel 
Warszower, who was a vice president of the World Tourists under the name 
Robert William Wiener and financial secretary of the Communist Party under 
the name William Weiner. For the purposes of World Tourists' bookkeeping 
he was known as A. Blake. 
The fraudulent cases shown on the Primoflf account are in the names : 

Moses Brown 

Richard S. Choate 

John W. Fox 

Henry George Jacobs 

Pearl Roth Jacobs 

Leon Marks 

Albert Richards 

Rose Saffin 

Harold Schlusberg 



a6 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

The fraudulent cases shown on the Blake account are in the names : 

Earl R. Browder 

Harry Gannes 

Francis G. Grachan 

Samuel Liptzen 

Annie Morrison 

Nathan Rosenberg 

George Ross 
In addition to the foregoing, the following cases are so closely related to 
the others as to warrant the conclusion that they also were parts of the same 
conspiracy : 

William Browder 

Al Gottlieb 

Bruno H. A. Hanke 

Jean Montgomery 

Louis Paretti 

Arthur J. Soltin 

Robert W. Wiener 

PRIMOFF ACCOUNT CASES 

The first of these frauds were the cases of Albert H. Richards and Moses 
Brown. Earl R. Browder obtained a passport in the name Albert H. Richards, 
while Jack Stachel obtained the one in the name of Brown. They went abroad 
together, sharing the same cabin, in 1931 and their transportation was charged 
against an account in the name "Brown and Richards." Later the balance due 
on this account was charged against the Primoff account. The identifying 
witness on the Richards' application signed the name Beatrice Oberlander. 
The witness on the Moses Brown application signed the name Samuel N. Greene, 
while the application originally requested that the passport be sent in care 
of Sam N. Green. 

Under date of June 21, 1932, the Primoff account contains a record of a 
charge for transportation in the names of Rosa SaflQn and John W. Fox. Both 
of these persons sailed from New York on June 23, 1932, on the steamship 
Bremen. The true name of the person who obtained a passport in the name 
of John William Fox is not known (also known as Jack Childs). 

The identifying witness was Marcel Sherer of Monroe, N. Y. The person 
who obtained the passport in the name of Rosa SaflBn also obtained a passport 
in the name of Annie Morrison. The applicant's true name is not known. The 
identifying witness on the passport application was Sady Bloom, who is now 
married to Morris Weiss. The names of Sady Bloom and Morris Weiss are also 
shown on the Blake account, although their applications are not believed to be 
fraudulent. 

Under date of November 4, 1932, there is a charge on the Primoff account 
for transportation in the name of Harrold Shlossberg. However, this name ap- 
pears to be in error as the receipt shows the name Harold Shlusberg, while 
the corresponding passport application is in the name of Harold Schlusberg. 
This application was executed by Isaac Rijock, who is known in the Com- 
munist Party under the name John Steuben. The identifying witness was 
Sadie Rijock, who is believed to be the former wife of the applicant. 

Under date of December 27, 1932, there is an entry in the Primoff account for 
transportation furnished to Leon Marks. This application is believed to have 
been executed by one Leon Piatt (or Plotkin), who is now known as Martin 
Young. He also used an altered passport in the name Bruno H. A. Hanke. The 
identifying witness was Simon Feldman, whose transportation in his own name 
was also charged aginst the Blake account. The affidavit of birth was exe- 
cuted by one Frances Gordon, an employee of the Communist Party headquar- 
ters : it was executed before Max Kitzes, who has identified the photograph as 
that of Martin Young, who he has seen around Communist Party headquarters. 

On January 11, 1933, World Tourists charged against the Primoff account the 
transportation furnished in the name Richard S. Choate. The true name of the 
person who obtained a passport in this name is thought to be Bienko. He is 
believed to have been killed in Spain. The real Richard S. Choate died in in- 
fancy. The identifying witness on the application was Morris Possoff. Before 
obtaining the passport in the name Choate, Bienko had tried to obtain one in 
the name Louis Paretti. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a7 

The next cases were those of Henry George Jacobs and Pearl Roth Jacobs, 
which are charged against the Priuioff account. The correct names of the per- 
sons who obtained the aforementioned passports were Harry Cannes and his 
wife, I'earl Roth Cannes. The identifying witness on each application was 
originally David Daniels, but this name was crossed out for some unknown 
reason and one Henry Belli signed as identifying witness. Both passports were 
sent in care of Dr. Jewel Roth who is said to be a sister of Mrs. Cannes. Dr. 
Roth also executed an affidavit of birth on behalf of her sister which, however, 
does not mention the married name. There was submitted with the applica- 
tion in the name Henry C. Jacobs an affidavit executed by Morris L. Olken, who 
stated that he was an uncle of the applicant. While the passports were ob- 
tained in 19.32, the transportation was not charged against the Primofe account 
until April 1933. 

In November 1933, Earl Browder again went abroad, using the Richards pass- 
port, and his transportation was charged against the Primoff account under date 
of November 10, 1933. 

BLAKE ACCOUNT CASES 

The first use of a fraudulent passport indicated on the Blake account was the 
travel of Earl R. Browder which was charged against the account on November 
16, 1934. Browder had made an application for a passport in his own name on 
August 31, 1934, and had falsely stated therein that he had never had a passport 
previously. The identifying witness on this application was his brother, William 
E. Browder. 

On aiarch 4, 1935, there is a charge against the Blake account for the trans- 
portation of a woman who had a passport in the name of Annie Morrison. The 
passport application in this name was executed on December 18, 1934, by the 
woman who had previously obtained a passport in the name Rose Saffin. 

The identifying witness was Abraham Lerner of 1420 College Avenue, Bronx, 
N. Y. An affidavit of birth which was submitted with the application was exe- 
cuted in the name Morris Morrison, who stated that he was the applicant's father. 
This affidavit was purportedly executed before Morris M. Greenbaum, who was 
the accountant for World Tourists and for the Communist Party. 

On March 4, 1935, there was also a charge for the transportation of a person 
who had a passport in the name Francis G. Crachan. The true name of this 
applicant was Yanvrich and he was a Chicago Communist. The applicant sub- 
mitted an affidavit of birth executed by Josephine G. Grachan, who was the 
mother of the real Francis G. Grachan, also a Communist. The identifying wit- 
ness was Nicholas Busic, another Chicago Communist. 

The immigration authorities have been endeavoring to locate Yanvrich, who is 
said to be illegally in this country, since 1936. 

On July 2, 1935, there is a charge for the transportation of a man who had a 
passport in the name of Samuel Liptzen. The true name of this applicant is 
Gerhard Eisler. The passport application, which is dated August 30, 1934, is 
in the handwriting of Leon Josephson, who acted as identifying witness, signing 
the name Bernard A. Hirshtield. Leon Josephson also obtained transportation 
from World Tourists, which is charged against the Blake account. The World 
Tourists folder in this case contains memorandums apparently in the hand- 
writing of Jacob Raisin and a copy of a letter addressed to Intourists, Inc., 
in which Raisin refers to the bearer, Samuel Liptzen, as a good friend of his. 
The bearer of this passport also went abi'oad in April 1936 and the World Tourists 
folder covering this travel also contains memorandums in the handwriting of 
Raisin. The name Samuel Liptzen, with a Paris address, was found in a note- 
book of Welwel Warszower's. 

Under date of August 26, 1935, there is a charge for the transportation of a 
person who was traveling in the name George Ross. This application was 
executed July 29, 1935, by William E. Browder. The identifying witness signed 
the name Thomas Edwards. The World Tourists folder in this case also con- 
tains a memorandum in the handwriting of Raisin. 

On March 7, 1936, there is a charge for the transportation of Earl R. Browder. 

On April 22, 1936, there is a charge for the transportation of Samuel Liptzen. 

On May 2, 1937, there is another charge for transportation for Earl R. Browder. 

On August 24, 1937, there is a record of transportation furnished a person 
who had a passport in the name Nathan Rosenberg, issued upon an application 
executed on May 10, 1937. The true name of this applicant was Isiah Litvackoff. 
The identifying witness signed the name "Joseph Hiat" and gave his address 



a8 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

as 19 East 16th Street, New York City. The passport was mailed in care of 
a dentist named Elias Shapiro, who lived at 286 Fort Washington Avenue, New 
Yorli. Dr. Shapiro also obtained transportation through World Tourists, but 
his travel is not charged against a Communist Party account. Living in the same 
apartment house as Dr. Shapiro was Sonia Dobbs, an employee of World Tourists, 
who provided Litvakoff with his transportation both under the name Rosenberg 
and under his own name. 

On December 10, 1937, there is still another charge for transportation for Earl 
R. Browder. 

Under date of July 1, 1938, there is a charge for transportation furnished to 
Harry Cannes. It appears that Cannes used on this trip a passport which was 
issued to him in 1934 upon an application in which he made false statements 
concerning his previous passports. 

OTHEE RELATED CASES 

Leon Piatt (?), who obtained the passport in the name "Leon Marks," used, 
when returning to the United States in March 1934, an altered passport in the 
name "Bruno Herman August Hanke." Although the fraud was discovered at 
the time, the impostor was able to leave the ship without inspection and efforts 
to locate him were unavailing. The original photograph on this passport had 
been removed and the photograph of the impostor placed thereon. The original 
application upon which the passport was issued was also fraudulent. The appli- 
cation was executed by Constantin Shklar, an alien. Shklar is a Communist 
and obtained transportation through World Tourists in his own name in 1933. 
The World Tourists file for Shklar contains his photograph, which is a duplicate 
of the one appearing on the Hanke application. 

The impostor Bienko, who obtained a passport in the name "Richard S. 
Choate", previously attempted to obtain a passport in the name "Louis Paretti." 
The identifying witness on the application, which was executed on December 7, 
1932, was George Mink. Aflidavits executed in the names "Joseph Paretti," 
"Lodovico Dresco," and "William Cole" were submitted in connection with the 
Paretti application. 

George Mink made applications for passports in 1930 and 1934 in which he 
stated that he was born at Scranton, Pa. An investigation disclosed that the 
record of birth at Scranton was issued upon the basis of an affidavit executed 
by Mink himself. While the evidence regarding the place of Mink's birth is 
not conclusive, it appears probable that he was actually born at Philadelphia, 
as he gave that as his place of birth when he served in the Navy during the 
World War. The World Tourists files contain two folders relating to Mink. 
On one of these folders the words "See Golos" are written. Mink and Leon 
Josephson were arrested in Denmark together in February 1935, and charged 
with espionage. At the time of Mink's arrest in 1935 there was found in his 
apartment in Denmark an American passport bearing Mink's photograph which 
was issued in the name Al Gottlieb. The application for this passport is in the 
handwriting of Leon Josephson. 

In January 1937, William E. Browder obtained from World Tourists trans- 
portation in his own name. At this time he used a passport which he had 
obtained on an application dated January 23, 1937, in which he falsely stated 
that he had never had a previous passport. The identifying witness on this 
application was J. C. Lowry. It may be pointed out that at the time Browder 
made this application his passport in the name George Ross was still valid. 

On September 8, 1931, Margaret Browder, a sister of Earl and William 
Browder, executed an application for a passport in the name Jean Montgomery. 
At that time, according to Max Bedacht, Margaret Browder was working at the 
national ofiice of the Communist Party. The identifying witness on this applica- 
tion used the name Ethel Shipman. There was submitted with the application 
an afl5davit of birth in the name of William Montgomery, which was actually 
signed by William Browder. The 1931 passport was renewed at Berlin in 1933 
and the bearer thereof was registered on March 28, 1934. On September 17, 1935, 
Margaret Browder made another application in the name of Jean Montgomery, 
submitting her previous passport. The passport obtained on the 1935 application 
was renewed at the American consulate general at Paris on September 16, 1937. 
According to General Krevitsky, Margaret Browder, while using this passport, 
was employed by the Soviet Military Intelligence Service under his supervision. 

On July IS, 1936, Welwel Warszower executed an application for a passport in 
the name of Robert William Wiener. The identifying witness was J. C. Lowry. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a9 

who was also witness on the William Browder applioation. Using the Wiener 
passport, Warszower made two trips abroad in 1930 and 1937. Warszower had 
previously made a trip abroad in 1932 under his own name, using a reentry 
permit. The transportation on this case was obtained through World Tourists. 

When Warszower went abroad in 1937 he was accompanied by one Joseph 
Sultan, who was traveling on a passport which he had fraudulently obtained in 
the name Arthur J. Soltiu. Both passengers obtained their transportation from 
World Tourists and the Morning Freiheit. Sultan had previously gone abroad 
in 1932, using a reentry permit in his own name, and had obtained his transporta- 
tion through World Tourists. 

PERSONS USING TWO OR MORE DOCUMENTS 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the persons mentioned below 
either used, or attempted to use, documents in two or more names : 

Earl R. Browder— Albert H. Richards and own name 

William E. Browder^ — George Ross and own name 

Harry Gannes — Henry G. Jacobs and own name 

Jane Doe — Rosa Saffin and Annie Morrison 

Isiah Litvackoft" — Nathan Rosenberg and own name 

Welwel Warszower— Robert William Wiener and own name 

Joseph Sultan— Arthur J. Soltin and own name 

Leon Piatt — Leon Marks and Bruno H. A. Hanke 

A. Blake Account 
Ackcnnan, Bernard 

251.^ Olinville Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness (1931), passport 
application of Isaiah Litvackoft. 

Allis, John Joseph 

July 30, 193.3, J. Joseph Allis, $124.70. Passport No. 218881, June 22, 1935. 
Claims birth at Philadelphia, Pa., on November 30, 1910 ; address at 1515 South 
23(1 Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : 
height, 5 feet QVa inches; hair, dark brown; eyes, brown; distinguishing marks: 
tattoo (m both arms. 

Alspaugh, Elen 

.$133. Passport No. 236488, August 17, 1935. Claims birth at Oakcreek, Colo. 
on June 20, 1913 ; address at 701 Wabash Avenue, Kansas City. Mo. Destina- 
tion : Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 6 inches ; hair, red ; eyes, 
hazel. 

Anderson, Lawrence 

August 21, 1935, Lawrence Anderson, $132. Age : 27 : born in Canada and citi- 
zen of that counti-y- Arrived in the United States August 12, 1935. Occupa- 
tion : Builder. Married. Destination : Moscow. 

Baron, Theodore 

25 South Street, New York City. Identifying witness, (1932), passport appli- 
cation of Louis Pasternak. 

Bassen. Adolf 

August 21, 193.5, Adolph Bas.sen. $195. Passport: No. 231598, July 25, 1935. 
Claims birth in Russia on September 10. 1907 ; naturalized through father, Jo- 
seph Bassen, before Supreme Court of Bronx City. New York City, on January 6, 
1928: and address at 53 East Mo.sholm Parkway. New York City. Destination: 
Moscow. Personal de.scription : height, 5 feet 7i/> inches; hair, lirown ; eyes, 
brown. 

Bodard, Joseph 

August 21, 193.5. Jo.seph Bodard. $141. Aged 26 years: born Canada : citizen of 
Canada: arrived m the United States August 16. 19.35: Fren<'h, race; occupation, 
Sliipper ; suiglc. Destination: Moscow. 

Bernh a rdt, A Ihrrt 

Augu.st 21, 10;!5, Albert Bernliardt, $141. Aged 27 years; born in Canada: 
citizen of Canada: arrived in the United States August 16. 1935; race: Engli.sh ; 
occupati'in: Salesman; single. Destination: Moscow. 



aIO scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Bleckschmidt, Pauline Emma 

2 East Street, Jersey City, N. J. Identifymg witness, Samuel Adams Dardeck 
(1927). 

Blum, Anna 

194 West 10th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Sarah Deutsch. 

Bohus, Paul 

July 5, 1935, Paul Bohus, $132. New York series passport No. 3816, June 26, 
1935. Claims birth in Hungary on February 6, 1909 ; naturaliztion through 
father, George, before common pleas court of Belmont City at St. Clairsville, 
Ohio, on April 16, 1924. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 
5 feet, 9 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Bonn, Morris 

6434 Landview Street, Pitsburgh, Pa. Identifying witness, Elmer Kish. 

Brandos, Lillian Livien 

April 23, 1935, L. Livien, $182.15. Passport No. 163561, January 26, 1935. 
Claims birth at New York City on December 28, 1910 ; address at 1315 50th Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Destination: Moscow. Personal description: Height, 5 feet, 
2 inches ; hair, brunette ; eyes, brown. 

Brooks, Minnie 

$249.50. Passport No. 175092, April 3, 1935. Claims birth at New York City 
on July 2, 1900 ; address at 1750 Davidson Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Destination : 
Havre. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 1^2, inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, 
brown ; distinguishing marks : Mole on left cheek. 

Browder, Earl Russell 

December 13, 1937, E. R. Browder, $297.90-$129.54. Passport No. 145182, 
September 1, 1934. Born, Wichita, Kans., May 20, 1891 ; address, 2714 Wallace 
Avenue, New York City. Destination, Cherbourg. Personal description: Height, 
5 feet 7 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. Occupation, journalist. 

Browder, Wm. E. 

31 East 27th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Earl Russell 
Browder. 

Burke, Mary Catherine 

December 10, 1934, Mary O. Burke, $132.30. Passport No. 2807 (New York 
series), November 8, 1934. Claims birth at New York City on March 27, 1908; 
address: 31 Bank Street, New York City. Destination: Moscow. Personal 
description : Height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Burlak, Ann 

$134.70. Passport No. 234777, August 8, 1935. Claims birth at Slatington, 
Pa., on May 24, 1911; address at 226 East 22d Street, New York City. Desti- 
nation: Moscow. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 6 inches; hair, light 
brown ; eyes, gray. 

Busic, Nicholas M. 

1638 West Cullerton Street, Chicago, 111. Identifying witness, Francis G. 
Grachen. 

Careathers, Benjamin 

July 5, 1935, Ben Careathers, $124.70. Passport No. 146354, September 11, 1934. 
Claims birth at Chattanooga, Tenn., on October 20, 1894 ; address at 2217 Centre 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 
5 feet 10 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Car on, Berthe 

August 21, 1935, Berthe Caron, $141. Aged 23 years ; female ; born in Canada ; 
citizen of that country ; arrived in United States August 20, 1935 ; English race ; 
occupation : stenographer ; single. Destination : Moscow. 

Chesin, Alexander 

5430 Gainor Road, Philadelphia, Pa. Identifying witness, Sylvia Forman. 
Chupak, Anne 

780 Union Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, David Drausky. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES All 

Cohen, Joseph 

829 50th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y, Identifying witness, Robert George Thomp- 
son. 
Cooper, James Charles 

$134.00. Passport No. 235773, August 14, 1935. Claims birth at Brantley, Ala., 
on August 8, 1909, and address at 1002 Warrior Street, East Birmingham, Ala. 
Destination: Moscow. Personal description: Height, 6 feet; hair, blacli; eyes, 
brown. Colored. 

Cornelius, Georgiana 
3718 3d Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, Edwin Harold Malone. 

Dardeck, Samuel Adanm 

July 30, 1935, S. Adau)s Dardeck, $134.40. Passport No. 223409, July 2, 1935. 
Claims birth in Russia on November 6, 1903; naturalization through father, 
Isidor Dardeck, before the supreme court of Bronx City at New York City on 
July 15, 1921; address at 2 East Street, Jersey City, N. J. Also known as Sam 
Darcy, Donchin. Destination : Moscow. 

Dardeck, Pauline Emma 

September 17, 1935, P. Emma Dardeck, $176.70. Passport No. 239149, Sep- 
tember 6, 1935. Claims birth at North Bergen, N. J., on June 13, 1903; address 
at 2 East Street, Jersey City, N. J. Destination : Moscow. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 5 feet 6 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Besrosiers, Joseph Antonio 

.$219.20. Passport No. 4335 (New York series), August 30, 1935. Claims birth 
at Manchester, N. H., on September 27, 1911 ; address at 1280 Clay Avenue, New 
York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 6 inches ; 
hair, blonde ; eyes, brown. 

Deutch, Sarah 

April 23, 1935, Sarah Deutch, $185.20. Passport No. 162118, January 16, 1935. 
Claims birth at New York City on September 7, 190"') : address at 5SA Charles 
Street, care of Wolfson, New York City. Destination: Moscow. Personal de- 
scription : height, 5 feet 3 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Dinkin, Lillian 

$134.90. Passport No. 234910, August 9, 1935. Claims birth at Chicago, 111., 
on March 30, 1914 ; address at 1708 Fulton Street, San Francisco, Calif. Desti- 
nation : Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 2% inches ; hair, brown ; 
eyes, brown. 

Disbrow, Hamilton T. 

Chatham, N. J. Also 656-590 Greenwich Street, New York City. Identifying 
witness, Ella Reeve Bloor Omholt. 

Doughty, Grace R. 

354 West 12th Street, New York City. Identifying witness. Vera Taft. 

Dransky, David 

September 17, 1935, David Dransky, $4.40. Passport No. 23165, May 26, 1933. 
Claims birth at Albany, N. Y., on October 4, 1909; address at 725 Lexington 
Avenue, New York City. Alias David Doran. Reported to have been killed in 
Spain. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, dark ; eyes, brown. 

Drummond, David 

August 26, 1935, David Drummond, $124.75. Pas.sport No. 237012. August 21, 
193.5. Claims birth at Seattle, Wash., May 10, 1905 ; address at 223 West 24th 
Street, New York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 
5 feet 10 inches : hair, red ; eyes, brown : distinguishing marks : tattoo right arm, 
figure woman, left arm, U. S. A. emblem. 

Dubi, Evaristo 

September 17, 1935, A. Dubi, .$4.10. Aged 36 years ; citizen of Canada where 
he was born. Arrived in the United States July 1, 1935. Race is given as 
French ; occupation, foreman ; married. Destination : Moscow. 



A 12 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Edelman, Rebecca 

1121 Morrison Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Sadie Weiss ; identi- 
fying witness, Morris Weiss. 

Edwards, Thomas 
45 Fifth Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, George Ross. 

Eisenman, Ida 

1194 Nelson Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Arthur E. Tinipson. 

Elovich, James 

July 30, 1935. I. Elovich, $127.60. Passport No. 145879, James Elovith, Sep- 
tember 7, 1934. Claims birth at Yugoslavia on September 5, 1902 ; naturaliza- 
tion through father, Steve Elovich, before the conmion pleas court of Mercer 
City at Mercer, Pa., on May 3, 1921 ; address at 1820 Fisk Street, Chicago, 111. 
— • has identified photograph as that of Ralph Shaw. Destination : Mos- 
cow. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 7% inches; hair, black; eyes, brown. 

Emery, Samuel 

August 21, 1935, Andre Samuel, $141. Aged 25 ; citizen of Canada ; born in 
Canada ; arrived in the United States August 17, 1935 ; English race ; occupation, 
machinist; single. Destination: Moscow. (Believed that Samuel Emory and 
Andre Samuel may be identical. ) 

Evangelista, Crisanto 

September 22, 1937, Crisanto Evangelista, $245. October 20, 1937, Crisanto 
Evangelista, $211.48. Passport No. 1015 (Philippine Islands) October 26, 1937. 
Claims birth at Meycauayan, Bulacau, Philippine Islands on November 1, 18S8 ; 
address at 1106 Remedios Street, Manila. Destination : Manila to Marseille via 
the United States. Personal description : Height, 5 feet S% inches ; hair, black ; 
eyes, black. 

Fallon, Stanley 

626 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Identifying witness, John Joseph Allis. 

Fard, Anna R. 

2040 Fitzwater Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Identifying witness, Sterling T. 
Rochester. 

Flgueiredo, Joseph 

$134.70. Passport No. 225387, July 8, 1935. Claims birth at Boston, Mass., on 
September 7, 1910; address as 149 Pierrepooit Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. Destina- 
tion : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 4 inches ; hair, dark brown ; 
eyes, dark brown. 

Ford, James William 

July 30, 1935. James Ford, $137.40. Passport No. 45344, September 4, 1984. 
Claims birth at Pratt City, Ala., on December 22, 1893; address as 2121 Fifth 
Avenue, apartment 7, New York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 5 feet 8 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Formnn, Sylvia 

September 17, 1935, Sylvia Forman, $4.05 (visas). Passport No. 164624, Feb- 
ruary 5, 1935. Claims birth in Russia on January 28, 1911 ; naturalized through 
father, Jacob Forman, before the United States District Court for the Southern 
District of New York at New York City on September 28, 1920 ; address at 4251 
Leidy Avenue, care of Joseph Piusker, Philadelphia, Pa. Personal description : 
Height, 5 feet 3 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Fortin, Romeo 

August 21, 1935, Romeo Fortin, $141.00. Aged 23 years ; female ; born in 
Canada, citizen of that country ; arrived in the United States, August 19, 1935 ; 
French race ; occupation, clerk ; single. Destination : Moscow. 

Gannes, Harry 

July 1, 1938, Harry Gannes, $226.25. Passport No. 154166, November 14, 1934. 
Born in England on August 27, 1900 : naturalized throujrh father, Barnat. before 
circuit court of Cook County at Chicago, on December 6, 1917. Destination : 
France and Great Britain. Address in June 1940 — Westport, Conn. Personal 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 13 

description: Height, 5 feet 10Vi> inches; hair, dark brown; eyes, brown; occupa- 
tion, journalist. 

Ginincs, HdUnc 

Windermere Hotel, Chicago, 111. Identifying witness, Harry Cannes, 193G 
passport application. 

Gascoync, Douglas 

August 21, 1'Jo"), Douf;las Gascoyne, $141. Aged 34 years ; born in England ; citi- 
zen of that country ; arrived in the United States August 21, 1935 ; English race ; 
occupation, worker ; single. Destination : Moscow. 

Gilbert, Florence 

1280 Clay Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, Joseph A. Desrosiers. 

Glick, Ralph 

107 Essex Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Frances Marsh Irun- 
gary. 

Goldberg, Milton 

371 Monroe Street, Passaic, N. J. Identifying witness (1930), Moritz Marcus. 

Good, Manuel W. 

3328 West Adams Street, Chicago, 111. Identifying witness, Emil E. A. Luch- 
terhand. 

Gordon, Philip 

June 26, 1937, Mr. and Mrs. P. Gordon, $373. July 2, 1937, Mr. and Mrs. P. 
Gordon, $1.38. Passport No. 450931, June 25, 1937. Includes wife, Ruth 
Fleischer Gordon, born at New York City, February 30, 1909. Claims birth at 
Newark, N. J., December 14, 1894, and address at 24 Johnson Avenue, Newark, 
N. J. Destination : Moscow and Havre. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 8 
inches ; hair, black ; eyes, blue. 

Grachan, Francis G. 

March 4, 1935, Francis G. Grachan, $132.70. Passport No. 163466, January 
25, 1935. Claimed birth at Chicago, 111., on March 20, 1910. Believed to be an 
imposter, Steve Yandrich. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 
5 feet SVo inches ; hair, chestnut brown ; eyes, brown. 

Grachan, Joseph 

1124 North La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. Identifying witness, Wm. Koranda. 

Graham, John 

March 4, 1935, John Graham, $133.45. Passport No. 158299, December 13. 
1934. Claims birth at New York City on April 28, 1903; address as 208 West 
Hanover Street, Trenton, N. J. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : 
Height, 5 feet, 5 inches ; hair, light brown ; eyes, grey. 

Granich, George 

417 East 12th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, 1930 passport 
application of Isaac Granich. 

Granich, Isaac 

October 13, 1937, Isaac Granich, $179.80. Passport No. 3710 (New York 
series), J'une 12, 1935. Claims birth at New York City on April 12, 1893; 
address at 375 Bleecker Street, New York City. Destination: Cherbourg. 
(Paris). Personal description: Height, 5 feet, ly^ inches; hair, brown: eyes, 
black. 

Grant, Morris 

166 Beach 126th, Rockaway Park, New York City. Identifying witness, 
Minnie Brooks. 

Greenberg, Gilbert 

November 16, 1934, Gilbert Greenberg. $132.40. Passport No. 460589. Jan- 
uary 23, 1932. Destination: Moscow. July 30, 1935. G. Greenberg, $205.45. 
June 2. 1937, Gilbert Green $428.25. Passport No. 3.39138 August 15. 1936. 
Claims birth at Chicago, 111., September 24. 1906. Address at 2700 Bronx Park 
East, New York City. One of most important persons in international Coai- 

72723— 57— pt. 23a 2 



a14 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

munist movement. Passport, Gilbert Greenberg. Destination : U. S. S. R., Mos- 
cow. April 27, 1938, Gilbert Green, $230.73. Destination: Round trip to 
Paris. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown ; 
occupation, writer. Also identifying witness, Isidore Klinghoffer and Adolph 
Bassen (1931). Other addresses: 1855 Seventh Ave., Apartment 4A, New York 
City, and 118 Sheriff Street, New York City. 

Guida, Francesco Salvatore 

$134.90. Passport No. 235342, August 12, 1935. Claims birth at Tampa, Fla., 
on June 28, 1910; address as 346 East 21st Street, New York City. Destina- 
tion : Moscow. Personal description : Height 5 feet, 3% inches ; hair, dark 
brown ; eyes, brown ; distinguishing marks, mole on left cheek. 

Hall, Otto 

2800 Bronx Park East, New York City. Identifying witness, Marcus 
Alphons Murphy. 

Hampkins, Nicholas Peter 

September 17, 1935, N. P. Hampkins, $132.70. Passport No. 4314 (New York 
series), August 26, 1935. Claims birth at Port Washington, Wis. on February 
11, 1896; address at Kenosha, Wis. Destination: Moscow. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 5 feet, 4 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, blue. 

Harris, Lement Upham 

October 4, 1935, L. Harris, $127.60. Passport No. 205179, June 5, 1935. 
Claims birth at Chicago, on March 1, 1904 : address as P. O. Box 540, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height 6 feet y^ 
inch ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown ; distinguishing marks, scar, left cheek. 

Harrison, Margaret 

August 21, 1935, Margaret Harrison, $132.00. Aged 28 ; born Canada and citi- 
zen of that country. Arrived in the United States August 13, 1935. Occupa- 
tion: Housewife. Married. Destination: Moscow. 

Hiat, Joseph 

19 East 16th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Nathan Rosen- 
berg. 

Hirschfield, Bernard A. 

720 West End Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, Samuel Liptzen. 
Holub, Bobie 
330 East 12th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Lillian Dinkin. 

Horwitz, Dorothy 

3444 Grand Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minn. Identifying witness, Leah 
Schneider. 

Hudson, Roy Bannerman 

July 2, 1935, Roy B, Hudson, $142.10. Passport, New York series 3195, Octo- 
ber 16, 1931. Renewed at New York on September 4, 1934. Claims birth at Tono- 
pah, Nev., on April 9, 1904; address 318 East 11th Street, New York City (in 
1931) ; 237 East 12th Street, New York City (in 1934). Personal description: 
Height, 6 feet linch ; hair, brown ; eyes, hazel. 

Hunter, Peter 

August 21, 1935, Peter Hunter, $141. Aged 22 years ; born in Scotland ; Cana- 
dian citizen. Arrived in the United States August 19, 1935; English race; occu- 
pation, salesman ; single. Destination : Moscow. 

Irtingary, Frances Marsh 

$133. Passport No. 236445, August 17, 1935. Claims birth at Brooklyn, N. Y., 
on August 22, 1912 ; address at 507 West 138th Street, New York City. Destina- 
tion : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 2^4 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, 
hazel. 

Jackson, R. J. 

340 East 19th Street, New York City. Identifying winess, Roy Bannerman 
Hudson. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a15 

Jacohson, Louis 

23 Sauhican Drive, Trenton, N. J. Identifying witness, 1927 passport appli- 
cation of Leon Jacobson (JosephsonV). 

Johnson, OaJclcy Calvin 

September 22, 1037, Oakley Johnson. $111. September 28, 1937, Oakley John- 
son, $5.50. Passport No. 192492, May IG, 1037. Claims birth at Standish, Mich., 
on March 22, 1890 : address at 56 West 104th Street, New York City, and 52 West 
93d Street, New York City. Destination: Havre. Notation: "Did not use pre- 
paid ticket from Havre ordered September. Ask for refund." Personal descrip- 
tion : Height 5 feet 8 inches ; hair, grey ; eyes, blue. 

Josephson, Barney 

January 8, 1935, Barney Josephson, $178.55. Passport No. 158603, December 
15, 1934. Claims birth at Trenton, N. J., on February 1, 1902, and address at 
23 Sanhican Drive, Trenton, N. J. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : 
Height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, brown-grey ; eyes, blue ; distinguishing marks or 
features, mark under right jaw. 

Josephson, Leon 

January 7, 1935, Leon Josephson, $66. Passport No. 158380, December 13, 1934. 
Born Latvia, June 17, 1898, and naturalized in United States District Court at 
Newark, N. J., on April 25, 1921 ; address, 23 Sanhican Drive, Trenton, N. J. 
Personal description : Height, 5 feet, 11 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, grey ; occu- 
pation, lawyer. 

Joyce, Robert L. 
37 Hathaway Place, Glen Ridge, N. J. Identifying witness, Philip Gordon. 

Kardash, William 

August 26, 1935, Wm. A. Kardash, $123.70. Aged 23 years ; born in Canada ; 
British subject; arrived in the United States August 19, 1935; Ukrainian race; 
occupation, farmer ; single. Destination : Moscow. 

Kashton, William 

August 26, 1935. Wm. Kashton, $123.70. Aged 26 years; born in Canada; 
British subject; arrived in the United States August 22, 1935; Hebrew race; 
occupation, shipper ; single. Destination : Moscow. 

Kessler, Leo 

853 Broadway, New York City. Identifying witness, Nathan Lilienstein. 

Kilner, Charles 
126 Goerek Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Paul Bohus. 

Kirk, Paul 8. 

$133. Passport No. 233475, August 2, 1935. Claims birth at Maryland, Ala., 
on June 30, 1911 ; 6525 Cameron, Detroit, Mich. Destination : Moscow. Person- 
al description: Height, 5 feet 9 inches; hair, black; eyes, black; distinguishing 
marks, small scar on forehead. Colored. 

Kirk, Tony 

1029 Kirby Avenue East, Detroit, Mich. Identifying witness, Paul S. Kirk. 

Kish, Elmer 

$134.90. Passport No. 225316, July 6, 1935. Claims birth at Duquesne, Pa., 
October 11, 1910; address at 521 South Central Avenue, Canonsburg, Pa. Des- 
tination: Moscow. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 8 inches; hair, brown; 
eyes, brown-grey ; distinguishing marks, scar upper lip. Also identifying wit- 
ness, Gabor Kish. 

Kish, Oal)or 

$133. Passport No. 235739, August 14, 1935. Claims birth at Koehler, N. 
Mex., on July 13, 1915 ; address at 521 South Central Avenue, Canonsburg, Pa. 
Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 9 inches ; hair, 
sandy ; eyes, brown. 

Kitzes, Max 
2800 Bronx Park East, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Andera Omholt. 



A 16 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Klingh offer, Isidore 

February 6, 1935, Isidore Klinghoffer, $133.45. Passport No. 460587, January 
23, 1932. Claims birth at New York City on August 14, 1911, and address as 118 
Slierift' Street, New York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : 
Height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Also identifying witness, 
Gilbert Greenburg, 1932 application. No witness on 1936 application. 

Koranda, William 

June 13, 1935, Wm. Koranda, $132.70. Passport No. 181227, April 23, 1935. 
Claims birth at Chicago, 111., on February 6, 1895 ; ad Iress as 1S49 South Lnoniis 
Street, Chicago, 111. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 
feet 6 inches ; hair, brown-grey ; eyes, brown ; distinguishing marks, scar over 
left eyebrow, 

Koslow, May 

278 South 58th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Patrick Toohey. 

Krieger, Samson 

$134.70. Passport No. 228880, July 17, 1935. Claims birth in Poland on 
August 20, 1902 ; naturalized through father, Abraham, before the common pleas 
court of Middesex County at New Brunswick, N. J., on January 12, 1922 ; address, 
54 Midwood Avenue, Yonkers, N. Y. Personal description : Height 5 feet 5 
inches ; hair, browm ; eyes, blue. 

Kuleske, Oeorge 

149 Pierrepont Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Joseph Figueiredo. 

La Belle, Honore T. 

31 West 16th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Ellen Alspaugh. 

Lerner, Airaham. 

1420 College Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Annie Morrison. 
Lerner, Joseph 

358 West 23d Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Clarence I. Prince. 
Lilienstein, Nathan 

January 7, 1935. Nathan Lilienstein, $179.25. Passport No. 156794, Decem- 
ber 3, 1934. Claims birth in Poland; naturalized before the Superior Court of 
Massachusetts at Brockton on May 23, 1913 ; address as 2737 Barnes Avenue, 
Bronx, N. Y. Destination : U. S. S. R. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 
3 inches ; hair, dark ; eyes, brown. 

lAlienstein, Regina 

April 23, 1935, R. Lilienstein, $178.35. Passport No. 159670, December 27, 
1934. Claims birth at Warsaw, Poland, on January 15, 1883 ; naturalized before 
the Superior Court of Massachusetts at Brockton on May 23, 1913 ; and address 
at 2737 Barnes Avenue, New York City. Destination, Moscow. Personal de- 
scription : Height, 4 feet 11% inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, blue. 

Liptzen, Samuel 

July 2, 1935, Samuel Liptzen, $164.26. Passport Xo. 144959, August 31, 1934. 
Claims birth in Poland on March 13, 1893 ; naturalization before the Supreme 
Court of New York at New York City on March 13, 1917 ; and address as 208 
West 14th Street, New York City. Destination, Soviet Union. Personal de- 
scription : height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, brown, partly bald ; eyes brownish grey. 

Litvackojf, Isaiah 

July 2, 1935—1. Litvackoff— $187.20. Passport No. 211733— June 13, 1935. 
Claims birth at USSR, September 18, 1884 ; naturalized before the quarter ses- 
sions court of Philadelphia County, at Philadelphia, Pa., on January 28, 1915: 
address 6619 North 17th Street. Philadelphia. Pa. Destination, Moscow. Per- 
sonal description : height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, blonde ; eyes, blue. 

Luchterhand, Emil E. A. 

$134.90. Passport No. 230826, July 23, 1935. Claims birth at Colby, Wis., on 
December 21, 1908 ; address at 1951 North Richmond Street, Chicago, 111. Des- 
tination, Moscow. Personal description: height, .") feet lli^ inches: hair, 
blonde ; eyes, light blue. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 17 

Malone, Edwin Harold 

September 17, 1935, Edwin Malone, $132.70. Passport No. 237959, August 27, 
1935. Claims birth at Darlington, Pa., on November 11, 1913; address at 38 
Morton Place, New York City. Destination, Moscow. Personal description: 
height, 5 feet 4 inches ; hair, bliick ; eyes, dark brown ; colored. 

Manuel, Vicente 

1053 Sn. Marcelino, Manila, Philippine Islands. Identifying witness, Crisanto 
Evangelista. 

Marcus, Moritz 

^ August 26, 1935, Moritz Marcus, $130.50. Passport No. 61 (Moscow), July 23, 

1934. Claims birth at New York City on July 24, 1903 ; 8 Hope Ave., Passaic, 
N. J., addi-ess. Destination, Moscow. True name, Joseph Harrison, sentenced 
in connection with murder of chief of police of Gastonia, N. C. Personal de- 
scription : height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown ; distinguish- 
ing marks, portion of middle finger on right hand missing. Two scars on left 
hand. 

Marion, Mary C. 

1213 Ohio Avenue, Morrisville, Pa. Identifying witness, Barney Josephson. 

Marotich, Milo 

335 Connors Avenue, Detroit, Mich. Identifying witness, Peter Vukcevich, 

Marron, Mary 
40 Monroe Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Shoshano Meltzer, 

Matyas, Zoran 

March 29, 1935, Zoran Matyas, $132.70 Passport No. 162733, January 21, 

1935. Claims birth at Cincinnati, Ohio, on April 4, 1908 ; address at 2045 Grant, 
Detroit, Mich. Destination, Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 11 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

May, Doris 

August 21, 1935, Doris Edna May, $141.00. Aged 19 years ; female ; born in 
Canada ; Canadian citizen ; arrived in the United States on August 25, 1935 ; 
English race ; occupation, student ; single. Destination, Moscow. 

Mayfield, Obie 

1203 North 42d Place, Birmingham, Ala. Identifying witness, James Charles 
Cooper. 

McConnell, Dorothy F. 

116 Waverly Place, New York City. Identifying witness, Margaret Undjus. 
Meltzer, Clara 

52 West 40th Street, New Y'ork City. Identifying witness, Annie Nyland. 

Meltzer, Shoshano 

August 26, 1935, Shoshano Meltzer, $2.25 (visa only). New York series pass- 
port No. 4283, August 20, 1935. Claims birth at New York City on April 6, 1914 ; 
address at 1165 Simpson Street, New York City. Destination, Moscow. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet 1 inch ; hair, light brown ; eyes, blue. 

Menihew, Orlando David 

1738 Fillmore Street, San Francisco, Calif. Identifying witness, George 
Nagura. 

Minor, Lydia Gibson 

Mount Airy Road, Croton-on-Hudson, N. Y. Identifying witness, Robert Minor 
(1932 application) . No witness on 1936 application. 

Minor, Robert 

August 4, 193.5, Robert Minor, $295.30. Passport No. 6874 (New York series), 
December 15, 1936. Claims birth at San Antonio, Tex. on July 15, 1884 ; address 
at Mount Airy Road, Croton-on-Hudsou, N. Y. Destination : Le Havre. Alias 
Robert M. Long. Personal description : height, 6 feet ; hair, grey ; eyes, brown ; 
occupation, journalist. 



a18 scope of soviet activity est the united states 

Morrise, Arthur Walter 

August 21, 1935, Arthur Morris, $141. Aged 27 years; born in Canada; 
Canadian citizen ; arrived in the United States August 23, 1935 ; English race ; 
occupation, miner ; single. Destination, Moscow. 

Morrison, Annie 

March 4, 1935, Annie Morrison, $171.70. Passport No. 159088, December 20, 
1934. Claims birth at New York City on January 22, 1909; address as 214 
West 16th Street. New York City. Destination, Moscow. Personal description : 
height, 5 feet 2 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Mudge, Grover C. 
Foret Richy Building, Trenton, N- Y. Identifying witness, John Graham. 

Mullen, Lawrence 

September 17, 1935, Lawrence Mullen, $131.65. Aged 31 years; born in 
Canada ; Canadian citizen. English race ; occupation, trainman ; married. Desti- 
nation, Moscow. 

Murphy, Marcus Alphonse 

July 5, 1935, M. Murphy, $124.70. Passport No. 145710, September 6, 1934. 
Claims birth at McRae, Ga., on June 23, 1908, and address at 56 West 127th, 
New York City. Destination, Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 11 
inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 

Nagura, George 

July 2, 1935, George Nagura, $166.50. San Francisco series passport No. 16963, 
June 25, 1932. Claims birth at San Francisco, Calif., on August 4, 1906 ; address 
at 48 West Washington Street, Stockton, Calif. Destination, Moscow. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet 8 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 

Novotnak, George 

$133. Passport No. 235778, August 14, 1935. Claims birth at Bened, 111., 
on February 17, 1915 ; address at 6026 South Halstead, Chicago, 111. Destination, 
Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 9^ inches ; hair, blonde ; eyes, 
grey. 

Nyland, Annie 

July 5, 1935, Annie Nyland, $130.50. Passport No. 216250, June 19, 1935. 
Claims birth at New York City on February 9, 1909 ; address at 52 West 40th 
Street, New York City. Destination, Moscow. Personal description : height, 
5 feet 1 inch ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Offner, Rose 

3431 East 126th Street, Cleveland, Ohio. Identifying witness, Hyman S- 
Schneider. 

Olnistead, Philip 

52 West 93d Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Oakley Calvin John- 
son. 

OmhoU, Anders 

September 13, 1937, Mr. and Mrs. A. Omholt, $418.94. Passport No. 144788, 
August 30, 1934. Born in Norway, November 19, 1883 ; naturalized before the 
United States district court at Williston, N. Dak-, on March 7, 1911 ; residing at 
1524 "West 4th Street, Grand Island, Nebr. Address in June, 1937, R. D., Er- 
winna, Pa. Destination, Moscow. Personal description : height, 6 feet 1 inch ; 
hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Omholt, Ella Reeve Bloor 

September 13, 1937, Mr. and Mrs. A. Omholt, $418.94. Passport No. 2309 (New 
York series), July 27, 1934. Claims birth at Staten Island, New York, on .July 8, 
1862, and address as 103^^ East Front Street, Apt. 1, Grand Island, Nebraska, 
and R. D. Erwinna, Pa. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : height, 
5 feet ; hair, grey ; eyes, brown. 

O'Ncil, Rolert 

141 West 122nd Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Wilfred Cottle 
Taylor. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a19 

Pasternak, Louis 

December 10, 1934, Louis Pasternak, $181.80. Passport No. 559025, October 7, 
1932. Claims birth Poland, August 31, 1889 ; naturalized before Supreme Court 
of New York at New York City on July 21, 1915 ; address, 105 East 19th Street, 
New York City. Destination : Russia. Personal description : height, 5 feet 4 
inches : hair, black-grey ; eyes, brown. 

Peebles, Tlurley Golden 

$133.00. Passport No. 234865, August 9, 1935. Claims birth at New Bern, 
North Carolina, May 6, 1911. (Application cannot be located.) 

Peters, Naomi 

1G64 Weeks Avenue, Bronx, New York. Identifying witness, George Novotnak. 

Petras, Helen 

$134.90. Passport No. 219064, June 24, 1935. Claims birth at Chicago, Illinois, 
on August 15, 1914 ; address as 2608 Lawrence, Chicago, Illinois. Destination : 
Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, hazel. 

Petras, Tvissor ( ?) 

2608 Lawrence Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. Identifying witness, Helen Petras. 

Poole, Grace 
333 East 11th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Samson Kreiger. 

Prince, Clarence Isom 

$134.90. Passport No. 233916, August 5, 1935. Claims birth at Greencastle, 
Indiana, on August 10, 1910; address at 1043 South Pershing Avenue, Indianap- 
olis, Indiana. Destination: Moscow. Personal description: height, 5 feet 10 
inches ; hair, blonde ; eyes, blue. 

Rahinowitz, Aaron 

June 12, 1937, Aaron Rabinowitz, $25.00. July 19, 1937, Aaron Rabinowitz, 
172.55. July 28, 1937, Aaron Rabinowitz, 4.75. Passport No. 463044, July 19, 
1937. Claims birth at New York City on August 13, 1906 ; address at 35-20 73rd 
Street, Queens, New York. Destination: U. S. S. R. Personal description: 
height, 5 feet 9 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Rabinowitz, Miriam 

35-20 73rd Street, Queens, New York. Identifying witness, Aaron Rabinowitz. 

Rakiczy, Michael 
134 East 2nd Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Ann Burlak. 

Reamcy, James 8. 

Keller Hotel, 150 Barron Street, New York City. Identifying witness, David 
Drummond. 

Rochester, Sterling Taylor 

$133.00. Passport No. 234264, August 6, 1935. Claims birth near Barclay, Md., 
on October 15, 1901 ; address at 108 Olive Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Destination : 
Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 6 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 
Colored. 

Rosenberg, Nathan 

August 20, 1937, Nathan Rosenberg, $177.70. Passport No. 410840, May 12, 
1937. Born in Russia September 23, 1888 ; naturalized in United States District 
Court at New York City on February 26, 1925; address: 286 Ft. Washington 
Avenue, New York City. Personal description : height, 5 feet 4 inches ; hair, 
brown ; eyes, blue. Destination; Cherbourg (Paris). 

Ross, George 

August 26, 1935, George Ross, $225.70. Passport No. 4147 (New York series), 
July 30, 1935. Claims birth at New York City on September 14, 1900 ; address 
at 229 West 20th Street, New York City. Actually Wm. Browder, brother of 
Earl Browder. Personal description : height, 5 feet 9 inches ; hair, dark brown ; 
eyes, blue. 

Schneider, Helen 
31 Bank Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Mary C. Burke. 



a20 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Schneider, Hyman 8. 

$134.90. Passport No. 219859, June 25, 1935. Claims birth at New Yorlc City 
on March 20, 1904 ; address as 3431 East 126th Street, Cleveland, Ohio. Destina- 
tion : Moscow. Personal description: height, 5 feet dy^ inches; hair, blact ; 
eyes, brown. 

Schneider, Leah 

January 8, 1935, L. Schneider, $11.75. Passport No. 132774, July 9, 1934. 
Claims birth Russia, April 5, 1912 ; naturalization through father, Isaac Schnei- 
der, at United States District Court of Minnesota at Minneapolis on December 13, 
1919 ; address at 1317 Queen Avenue North, Minneapolis. Court order changing 
name from Sralchart. Destination : Russia. Personal description : height, 
5 feet 4 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown ; distinguishing marks, tiny mole 
on right side of nose. 

Seligson, Herman A. 

2737 Barnes Avenue, Bronx, New York. Identifying witness, Regina Lilien- 
stein. 

Smullins, Isaac 

February 6, 1935. I. Smullins, $286.25. Passport No. 85260, April 2, 1934. 
Claims birth in Russia on May 15, 1887, and naturalization before the United 
States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan at Detroit on June 6, 
1919; address 2712 Sturtevant Street, Detroit, Michigan. Personal description: 
height 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, grey ; distinguishing marks, mole on 
right wrist. 

Snipe, Hammie 

69 West 139th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Sidney E. Spencer. 

Spencer, Sidney Edward 

$134.90. Passport No. 235098, August 9, 1935. Claims birth at St. Matthews, 
South Caro., on March 21, 1912; address as 131 West 123rd Street, New York 
City. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 9 inches ; 
hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Steele, Alfred 
314 East 11th Street, iNew York City. Identifying witness, Francesco S. Guida. 

Sussman, Mina 

550 Ft. Washington Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, Lillian 
Livien Brandes. 

Swaim, O. 

28 South Street, New York City. Identifying witness, 1930 passport applica- 
tion of Patrick Toohey. 

Taft, Vera 

August 2, 1938, Vera Taft, $148.00. August 2, 1938, Vera Taft, $13.75. Pass- 
port No. 572:327, July 26, 1938. Claims birth at Norwich, Conn., on March 16, 
1913 ; address as 244 Waverly Place, New York City. Destination : Russia and 
Finland. Personal description : height, 5 feet 1 inch ; hair, brown ; eyes, green. 

Taylor, Dora 

1042 Union Street, Brooklyn, New York. Identifying witness, Wirt Thompson 
Taylor. 

Jaylor, E. Samuel 

512 Hammond Building, Detroit, Michigan. Itentifying witness, Isaac 
Smullins. 

Taylor, Wilfred Cottle 

$136.00. Passport No. .561149, October 21, 1932. Claims birth at B. W. I. 
February 3, 1910; naturalization through father, Frederick G., before the 
United States District Court at Philadelphia on September 10, 1919; address 
at 63 York Street, New Haven, Conn. Destination : Moscow. Personal descrip- 
tion : height, 6 feet 2% in. ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a21 

Taylor, Wirt Robinson 

$134.90. Passport No. 234320, August 7, 1935. Claims birth at Norton, Tenn., 
ou July 1, 1908 ; address as 1042 Union Street, Brooklyn, New York. Destination : 
Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 9 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Thompson, Robert George 

August 26, 1935, R. G. Thompson, $2.25 (Visa) Passport No. 236644, August 
19, 1935. Claims birth at Grant's Pass, Oregon, on June 21, 1915; address at 
348 East 19th Street, New York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal descrip- 
tion : height, 5 feet 10 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Timpson, Arthur Edward 

$133.00. Passport No. 223432, July 2, 1935. Claims birth in Esthonia on 
February 11, 1905 ; naturalization through father, Henry Timpson, before the 
Circuit Court of Lincoln County at Merrill, Wisconsin, on May 11, 1923 ; address 
at 1409 Prospect Avenue, New York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal de- 
scription : height, 5 feet 10 inches ; hair, light brown ; eyes, blue. 

Toohey, Patrick 

August 16, 1938, Patrick Toohey, $139.89 and $163.88. Passport No. 536363, 
May 20, 1938. Claims birth at Barnesboro, Pennsylvania, on September 22, 
1904 ; address at 4606 Walnut, Apt. A, Philadelphia, Pa. Destination : Russia. 
Personal description : height, 5 feet 10% in. ; hair, light brown ; eyes, grey. 

Undjus, Margaret 

July 30, 1935, Margaret Cowl, $137.40. Passport No. 223410, July 2, 1935. 
Born at Brooklyn, New York, January 25, 1897, and lost American citizenship by 
marriage on November 27, 1915, to alien, Joseph Undjus. Reaquired American 
citizenship on April 12, 1923, by naturalization. Supposed to be wife of Charles 
Krumbein. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 2 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Vukcevich, Peter 

March 29, 1935, Peter Vukcevich, $132.70. Passport No. 166864, February 21, 
1935. Claims birth in Yugoslavia on October 17, 1896; naturalization at the 
United States District Court at Detroit, Michigan, on October 17, 1927 ; and 
address at 9933 Tractor Street, Dearborn, Michigan. Destination : Moscow. 
Personal description ; height, 5 feet 8i/^ in. ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. Also 
identifying witness, Zoran Matyas. 

Waldman, Seymour 

September 10, 1937, S. Waldman, $298.55. Passport No. 471501, August 19, 
1937. Claims birth at New York City on February 20, 1905 ; address at 35 East 
12th Street, New York City. Destination : Havre (Paris). Personal description : 
height, 5 feet lOi/^ in. ; hair, black ; eyes, blue ; occupation, journalist. 

Webber, Fletcher W. 

50 Reed Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Identifying witness, Benjamin 
Careathers. 

Weiss, Morris 

August 26, 1935, Morris Weiss, $2.25 (Visa only). Passport No. 235656, 
August 13, 1935. Claims birth at Newark, New Jersey, on December 5, 1909 ; ad- 
dress at 240 West 16th Street, New York City. Personal description : height, 
5 feet 8 iJiches ; hair, brown ; eyes, gray ; distinguishing marks, scar on right 
cheek bone. 

Weiss, Sadie (formerly Sady Saffin Bloom, known as Sady SaflBn) 

$239.25. Passport No. 235668, August 13, 1935. Claims birth at New York 
City on July 3, 1902 ; address at 308 West 15th Street, New York City. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet 1 inch ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Wiederhorn, Maw 

1297 Hor Avenue, Bronx, New York. Identifying witness, Samuel Wieder- 
horn. 

Wicderho7'n, Samuel 

$133.00. Passport No. 236123, August 15, 1935. Claims birth at New York 
City on August 11, 1911 ; address at 1297 Hor Avenue, Bronx, New York. 



a22 scope of soviet activity in the tjnited states 

Destination: Moscow. Personal description: height, 5 feet 6 inches; hair, 
brown ; eyes, brown. 

Williams, Chester 

1351 Leland, Detroit, Mich. Identifying witness, Lonnie Williams. 

Williams, Lonnie 

$133.00. Passport No. 60325. September 11, 1933. Claims birth at Louisville, 
Kentucky, on March 6, 1908 ; address as 1351 Leland Street, Detroit, Mich. Desti- 
nation : Moscow. Personal description : height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, black ; 
eyes, brown ; distinguishing marks, scar on left cheek. Colored. 

Williamson, John 

July 5, 1935, John Williamson, $189.60. Passport No. 202068, May 31, 1935. 
Claims birth at San Francisco, California, on June 23, 1902 : address at 131 East 
7th Street, New, York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : height, 
5 feet, 4 inches ; hair, light brown ; eyes, blue. 

Yagoda, Charley 

1351 St. John's Place, Brooklyn, New York. Identifying witness, Nicholas 
Peter Hampkins. 

Youkelson, RuMn 

362 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York. Identifying witness, Ruth 
Youkelson. 

Youkelson, Ruth 

August 26, 1935, Ruth Youkelson, $133.00. Passport No. 428 (New York series) 
August 21, 1938. Claims birth at Chicago, Illinois, on August 31, 1916 ; address at 
362 Eastern Parkway, New York City. Destination: Moscow. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet, 7 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Zuskar, John 

4410 West Rice Street, Chicago, Illinois. Identifying witness, James Elovich. 

Peimoff Account 

Amis, Benjamin De Wayne 

March 7, 1933, Amis, $142.05. November 24, 1933, Benj. Amis, 164.90. Pass- 
port No. 50, March 6, 1933. Claims birth at Chicago, Illinois, on July 7, 1896, and 
address at 9122 Park Gate, Cleveland, Ohio. Destination: Moscow. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet, 11 in. ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Negro. 

Anstrom, Otto Edvold 

March 6, 1934, Alton Anstrom, $13.10. Passport No. 79983, February 27, 1934. 
Claims birth at Wilton, North Dakota, on December 26, 1897, and address at 
Wilton, North Dakota. Destination : U. S. S. R. Personal description : height, 6 
feet ; hair, light brown ; eyes, blue-grey. 

Ashford, James, Jr. 

November 9, 1932, James Ashford, $90.21. Passport No. 563616, November 8, 
1932. Claims birth at Pine Bluff, Arkansas, on March 1, 1910, and address as 
€30 East 14th Street, New York City. Personal description : height, 5 feet, 11 in. ; 
hair, dark ; eyes, brown. Negro. 

Barron, Victor A. 

June 17, 1932, Victor A. Barron, $97.00. He was born at Portland, Oregon, on 
September 16, 1909, and issued Passport No. 520586 on June 10, 1932. He is the 
son of Harry George, a prominent Communist. Barron went to Rio de Janiero 
where he died on March 6, 1936. Personal description : height, 6 feet Yz inch ; 
hair, brown ; eyes, hazel. 

Bassen, Adolph 

November 10, 1933, A. Bassen, visas $2.50. Passport No. 445173 October 8, 
1931, renewed November 2, 1933. Claims birth in Russia on September 16, 1907 ; 
naturalization through father, Joseph Basseu, before the Supreme Court of Bronx 
County at New York City on January 6, 1928 ; and address as 635 Jefferson Place, 
New York City. Personal description: height, 5 feet, 71/^ in. ; hair, dark blonde; 
eyes, brown. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES a23 

Bedacht, Maw 

March 28, 1932, Bedacht, $113.50. Passport No. 869, March 10, 1933. Born 
in Germany on October 13, 1883, and naturalized before Superior Court of Cali- 
fornia at San Francisco on April 9, 1915. Address: 2042 East 37th Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Same address shown in 1937. Personal description : Height, 
5 feet 7 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown ; occupation : notary public. 

Broiim, Moses 

Passport No. 450337 was issued on November 10, 1931, in the name of Moses 
Brown. The true name of this individual is Jack Stachel who went abroad in 
1931 with Earl Russell Browder who at that time was using a passport in the 
name of Albert H. Richards. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 6 inches; 
hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Burches, Charles Williams 

August 18, 1932, Ch. Burches, $102.20. He was issued passport No. 7558 (Chi- 
cago series) on June 8, 1932, upon an application showing that he was born at 
Chicago, 111., on February 12, 1911. Destination, Leningrad. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 6 feet ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue ; distinguishing marks, scar on 
right cheek. 

Choate, Richard Stephen 

January 11, 1933, Choates, $133.05. Passport No. 570997, January 5, 1933. 
True name thought to be Bienko (Branko). Also made application in name of 
Louis Paretti. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 9% inches ; hair, black ; 
eyes, brown ; distinguishing marks, scar on upper lip. 

Clark, George Luther 

December 4, 1933, G. Clark, $120. Passport No. 987, New York series, Novem- 
ber 10, 1933. Claims birth at Cincinnati, Ohio, on February 4, 1908, and address 
at 233 Stanton Street, New York City. Destination : U. S. S. R. Personal de- 
scription : Height, 6 feet 2% inches; hair, blonde; eyes, blue-grey. 

Dight, Lloyd Louis 

October 4, 1933, L. L. Dight, $131. Passport No. 62458, September 25, 1933. 
Claims birth at St. Paul, Minn., April 3, 1913, and address as 313 East 13th 
Street, New York City. Destination : Leningrad. Personal description : Height, 
5 feet SVj inches; hair, black; eyes, brown; distinguishing marks, scar on 2d 
joint, left thumb. Negro. 

Eggert, Kenneth Franklin 

November 4, 1932, Kenneth F. Eggert, $93.20. Passport No. 562978, November 
3, 1932. Claims birth at Toledo, Ohio, on November 28, 1906; address, 3126 
126th Street, Point Place, Toledo, Ohio. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 
1 inch ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Eichler, Anna 

October 20, 1933, Anna Eichler, $118. Passport No. 64472, October 11, 1933. 
Claims birth at New York City, April 5, 1910, and address at 20 West 84th 
Street, % Du Bois, New York City. Destination : U. S. S. R. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 5 feet 4^/2 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, dark brown. 

Ellison, Ralph David 

November 9, 1932. Ralph D. Ellison, $90.21. Passport No. 563508, November 
7, 19.32. Claims birth at Chicago, 111., on October 10, 1909, and address as 3116 
South Racine Avenue, Chicago, 111. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 8 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Ford, James William 

January 30, 1934, J. W. Ford, $75. Passport No. 267928, June 9, 1930. Born, 
Pratt City, Ala., December 22, 1893. Personal description : Height. 5 feet 8i/^ 
inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown ; Negro ; occupation, news correspondent. 

Fox, John William 

June 21, 1932, John Wm. Fox, $106.50. This person was known as Bart. He 
is alleged to be the husband of the woman who obtained passports in names of 
Rosa Saffin and Annie Morrison. He was issued passport No. 5214.59 on June 
11, 1932. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 9^ inches; hair, black; eyes, 
brown. 



a24 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Freedman, Bernard 

July 8, 1932, Bernard Freedman, $122.10. He was issued passport No. 480827 
on April 10, 1932, claiming birth in Russia on February 2, 1882. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 5 feet 3 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Occupation, electrical 
engineer. Destination : U. S. S. R. 

Gellert, Hugo 

November 4, 1932, Hugo Gellert, $93.20. Passport No. 562610, November 1, 
1932. Born, Budapest, Hungary, May 3, 1892. Naturalized through father, 
Adolf Greenbaum, Supreme Court of New York at New York City on December 
19, 1912. Previously issued passport No. 400744 on :\Iay 26, 1027. Address, 
Buckhout Road, White Plains, N. Y. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 9 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Ooetz, Wm. 

June 10, 1933, Wm. Goetz, $140. Passport No. 28588, June 6, 1933. Claims 
birth at Chicago, 111., on July 11, 1911, and address as 6938 Barrie Avenue, 
Dearborn, Mich. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 
lOVj inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Greenberg, Gilbert 

March 7, 1933, Greenberg, $142.05. Passport No. 460589, January 23, 1932. 
Claims birth at Chicago, 111., on September 24, 1906, and address as 118 Sheriff 
Street, % Klinghoffer, New York City. Said to be important person in inter- 
national Communist movement. Destination : U. S. S. R. Personal description : 
Height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 

Hall, Haywood 

June 1, 1932, Haywood Hall, $97.50. He was issued passport No. 502724 on 
May 19, 1932, upon an application showing that he was born at Omaha, Nebr., 
on February 6, 1898, and was a writer by occupation. Hall's description is as 
follows : Height, 5 feet 7^^ inches ; hair, black ; eyes, dark brown ; Negro. 

Halpert, Rubin 

November 11, 1932, Rubin Halpert, $100.44. Passport No. 563708, November 8, 
1932. Claims birth at New York City on October 12, 1910, and address as 1786 
Vyse Avenue, Bronx, New York City. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 6 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Harvey, John Adriavce 

November 4, 1932, John Harvey, $93.20. Passport No. .334259, December 31, 
1930. Bora Aurora, 111., on March 1, 1904. Address, 21 Washington Square, N., 
New York City. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 11 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Hatvkins, Isaiah 

November 9, 1932, Isaiah Hawkins, $90.31. Passport No. 563330, November 5, 
1932. Claimed biith at Brownfield, Pa., May 31, 1904 ; address, 513 Main Street, 
Belle Vernon, Pa. ; address on 11/30/42 was 11 Clariant Way, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Personal description : Height, 5 feet 9 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown ; distin- 
guishing marks, 1-inch scar right side of nose. Negro. 

Herlong, Carneller 

November 4, 1932, Carneller Herlong, $93.20. Passport No. 562630, November 
1, 1932. Born Ramer, Ala., October 10, 1898. Address, 1717 Talapoosa Street, 
Birmingham, Ala. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, black ; 
eyes, brown. Negro. 

Hoenig, Nathan 

May 11, 1934, Hoenig, $120.50. Passport No. 91889, April 24, 1934. Claims 
birth at New York City on May 20, 1906, and address at 321 East 18th Street, 
New York City. Destination : Leningrad. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 
11 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Jacobs, Henry George 

April 11, 1933, Jacobs, $140. (Above includes Henry George Jacobs, Pearl 
Roth Jacobs. ) Passport No. 476241, April 9, 1932. True name is Harry Cannes. 
His wife. Pearl Roth Cannes, obtained fraudulently passport in name of Pearl 
Roth Jacobs. Destination : U. S. S. R. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 10 Vj 
inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a25 

Jacobs, Pearl Roth 

April 11, 1933, Jacobs, $140 (above includes Henry Geo. Jacobs and Pearl 
Roth Jacobs). Passport No. 47(5242, April 9, 1932. True name is Pearl Roth 
Gannes, wife of Harry Gauues who obtained fraudulent passport in name of 
Henry George Jacobs. Destination : U. S. S. R. Personal description : Height, 
5 feet 2 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Jaeger, Erich 

July 26, 1932, Erich Jager, $135.40. He was issued passport No. 527948 
on June 21, 1932. Claims birth at Chicago, 111., on September 10, 1886, and 
address at Cold Spring Farm (Box 481), Monticello, N. Y. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 5 feet 4 inches ; hair, black-gray ; eyes, brown. 

Kesel, Joseph 

November 4, 1932, Joseph Kesel, $93.20. Passport No. 562823, November 2, 
1932, born, Buffalo, N. Y., January 15, 1910. Address, 780 Union Avenue, 
New York City. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 10 inches ; hair, black ; 
eyes, brown. 

Landberg, Nattie 

November 4, 1932, Nattie Landberg, $93.20. Passport No. 562779, November 2, 
1932. Born New York City, February 6, 1904. Address, 235 East 13th Street, 
New York City. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 1 inch ; hair, brown ; eyes, 
grey. 

Levin, Hyman 

July 17, 1932, Hyman Levine, $143.70. September 22, 1933, Hyman Levine, 
$129. Pas.sport No. 548238, August 13, 1932, in name Hyman Levin. Born at 
New York City on December 3, 1893. Address 351 Riverdale Avenue, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. Destination : Leningrad. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 5 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Lightcap, Jacob Harold 

November 4, 1932, H. Lightcap, $92.70. Passport No. 561697, October 25, 
1932. Born at Philadelphia, Pa., on March 26, 1896. Address, 2700 Bronx Park 
East, Bronx, N. Y. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 6 inches ; hair, chest- 
nut; eyes, blue; distinguishing marks, tattoo, figure eight knot, right arm. 

Manley, Sylvia 

June 15, 1933, Manley, $341. Passport No. 12704. May 3, 1933. Born, Chi- 
cago, 111., on April 24, 1897. Married on January 12, 1917, to Joseph Manley 
who was naturalized before Superior Court of Cook County at Chicago, 111., 
on January 23, 1920. Daughter of Wm. E. Foster. Destination : Leningrad. 
Personal description : Height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 

Marks, Leon 

December 27, 1932, Leon Marks, $144.35. Passport No. 569833, December 23, 
1932. Imposter of unknown identity who bears striking resemblance to person 
whose photograph appears on altered passport in name of Bruno H. A. Hanke. 
Also slight resemblance to person whose photograph appears on application in 
name of Louis Paretti. True name thought to be Leon Piatt.. Destination: 
U. S. S. R. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 6 inches ; hair, dark brown ; 
eyes, brown. 

May field, Obie 

November 4. 1932, Abie Mayfield, $93.20. Passport No. 562633, November 1, 
19.32. Claims birth at Coldwater, Fla., on June 11, 1907. and address as 3986 
14th Avenue North, Birmingham, Ala. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 
10 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Negro. 

Minor, Robert 

June 1, 1932. Robert Minor, $76.25. Born at San Antonio, Tex., on July 
15, 1884, and issued passport No. 500622 on May 14, 1932. At that time his 
address was Mount Airy Road, Village of Croton-on-Hudson. N. Y. Latest ad- 
dress shown : same as above. Minor in 1929 attempted to obtain a passport 
in the name of Robert Monday Long. Personal description : Height 6 feet ; 
hair, grey ; eyes, brown ; occupation, writer. 



a26 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Mosley, Archie 

November 4, 1932, Archie Mosley, $93.20. Passport No.. 562634, November 1, 
1932. Born, Sturges, Miss., January 18, 1898. Address, 1608 Tombigbee 
Street, Birmingliam, Ala. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 8 inches ; hair, 
black ; eyes, brown. Negro. 

Nabried, Thomas 

November 18, 1932, Thomas Nabried, $90.21. Passport No. 563038, Novem- 
ber 3, 1932. Claims birth at Columbia City, Ga., on November 1. 1901, and 
address as 2329 North 22d Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Destination: U. S. S. R. 
Personal description : Height, 5 feet 8 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown ; distin- 
guishing marks, scar by left eyebrow. Negro. 

Parilla, Jack Liher 

July 21, 1933, Perilla, $167.30. Passport No. 316901, September 30, 1930. Re- 
newed September 27, 1932. Claims birth at New York City on September 9, 
1902, and address as 1560 Grand Concourse, New York City. Was notary public 
before whom fraudulent affidavit was executed in case of Geo. Morris (Appli- 
cation executed by Earl R. Browder). Personal description: Height, 5 feet 
2 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown ; hunchback. 

Primoff, Florence 

October 19, 1932, Florence Primoff, $207.75. Passport No. 558746 on October 5, 
1932. Born, Krasilov, Russia, on April 7, 1903 ; married to George Primoff on 
May 22, 1922 ; and residing at 2700 Bronx Park East, New York City. Destina- 
tion : Soviet Union. Personal description : Height, 5 feet ; hair, black ; eyes, 
brown. 

Richards, Albert H. 

June 30, 1932, Brown and Richards, $39.45. Passport No. 451933 issued No- 
vember 19, 1931, in name of Albert Aeury Richards. This passport was fraudu- 
lently obtained by Earl Russell Browder. November 10, 1933, A. Richards, 
$210.75. 

Baffin, Rosa 

June 21, 1932, Rose Saffin, $106.50. Passport No. 520631 on June 10, 1932, in 
the name of Rosa Saffin. The imposter who obtained the above-mentioned pass- 
port is known as Mrs. Bart and is alleged to be the wife of Mr. Bart (?), who 
obtained a passport in the name of John W. Fox. Mrs. Bart also obtained a pass- 
port in the name of Annie Morrison. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 3 
inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, grey. 

Schiffman, Joe — Jonas Schiffman 
Not identified. 

Schlusherg, Harold 

November 4, 1932, Harold Schlossberg, $93.20. New York Series passport No. 
4313 — November 2, 1932. True name, Isaac Rijack, also uses the name John 
Steuben. He is an alien. Personal description: Height, 5 feet 1 inch; hair, 
brown ; eyes, blue. 

Schneiderman, William 

May 11, 1934, Wm. Schneiderman, $141.50. Born Russia, December 14, 1903, 
and naturalized before the United States District Court for the Southern Dis- 
trict of California at Los Angeles on June 10, 1927. Naturalization canceled on 
June 12, 1940. Destination : Moscow. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 10 
inches ; hair, auburn ; eyes, green ; distinguishing marks, wart on thumb of left 
hand. 

Shafran, Eva 

October 28, 1932, Eva Shafran, $118.00. Passport No. 560653 on October 18, 
1932. Born, Poland September 1908 and naturalized before the United States 
District Court for the Eastern District of New York at Brooklyn on August 25, 
1925. Personal description : Height, 5 feet 2 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Smith, Vem Ralph 

July 27, 1933, Vern R. Smith, $120.00. Passport No. 39754, June 23, 1933. 
Claims birth at Barlimart, Calif., May 8, 1891, and address as 240 Waverly Place, 
New York City. Destination : Moscow. Occupation : Writer. Personal descrip- 
tion : Height, 6 feet 1% inches ; hair, grey ; eyes, blue. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a27 

Smullin, Ida 

May 23, 1934, Isaac Smullin, $286.25. (Included in husband, Isaac.) Pass- 
port No. 514465, June 3, 1032. Claims birth in Russia, June 11, 1887 ; naturaliza- 
tion through husband, Isaac, at Detroit, Mich., on June 6, 1919. Application in- 
cludes son, Louis, born in Detroit on February 5, 1916. Personal description : 
Height, 4 feet 10 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 

Smullin, Isaac 

May 23, 1934, Isaac Smullin, $286.25. Passport No. 85260, April 2, 1934. 
Claims birth in Russia on May 15, 1887 ; naturalization before the United States 
District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan at Detroit on June 6, 1919. 
Destination : Russia. Personal description : height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, brown ; 
eyes, grey ; distinguishing marks, mole on right wrist ; occupation, attorney. 

Spivak, Albert P. 

November 11, 1932, Alfred Spivak, $100.44. Passport No. 563613, November 8, 
1932. Claims birth at Clairton, Pa., April 23, 1912, and address as 808 Mulberry 
Street, McKeesport, Pa. Personal description : height, 5 feet 8 inches ; hair, 
dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Turner, Robert 

November 9, 1932, Robert F. Turner, $90.21. Passport No. 563703, November 8, 
1932. Claims birth at Washington, Iowa, September 28, 1904, and address at 
546 St. Anthony Avenue, St. Paul, Minn. Personal description: height, 5 feet 
5 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Negro. 

Vukcevich, Peter 

August 30, 1932, Vukcevich, $104.70. Passport No. 166864, February 21, 1935. 
Born Yugoslavia on October 17, 1896, and naturalized before the United States 
District Court at Detroit, Mich., on October 17, 1927. Address, 9933 Tractor 
Street, Dearborn, Mich. Personal description : height, 5 feet S^/^ inches ; hair, 
dark brown ; eyes, brown. 

Wagenknccht, Helen 

March 1, 1934, H. Wagenknecht, visas, $15.09. Helen Wagenknecht, Passport 
No. 76193, January 25, 1934. Claims birth at Seattle, W^ash., on February 14, 
1908, and address at 226 East 13th Street, New York City. Daughter of Alfred 
Wagenknecht who obtained fraudulent passport. Personal description : height, 
5 feet 61/^ inches ; hair, light brown ; eyes, blue. 

Walsh, Charles Edward 

June 17, 1932, Ch. E. Walsh, $97.00. New York series passport No. 3751, 
June 14, 1932. Born, Alexandria, Ind., on October 6, 1909, and residing at 450 
West 182nd Street, New York City. Personal description : height, 5 feet 6^ 
Inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown ; occupation, auto mechanic. 

Weissma7i, Bessie 

February 1, 1934, B. Weissman, $12.80. Passport No. 547855, August 11, 1932. 
Claims birth in Russia, July 11, 1897 ; naturalization at Philadelphia, Pa., in 
1921 ; and address at 2800 Bronx Park East, New York City. Personal descrip- 
tion : height, 5 feet ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Wiita, John 

June 1, 1932, Wiita, $97.50. This was for Henry Puro who was the bearer of 
passport No. 151888 issued on December 28, 1929, in the name of John Wiita. 
Puro appears to have been destined for U. S. S. R. As set forth in Wiita's appli- 
cation, Puro's description is as follows : height, 6 feet 1 inch ; hair, light brown ; 
eyes, blue. 

Pbimofp Students — T. U. U. L. Delegates 

Anderson, John 

Passport No. 309961, September 2, 1930. Claims birth at Bear River, Minn., 
on March 14, 1906; address at 1667 Grand Avenue, New York City. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet, 11 inches ; hair, blonde ; eyes, blue. 

Arnio, Arne Ferdinand 

Passport No. 305698, August 14, 1930. Claims birth in Finland on June 8, 
1904; naturalization before the District Court of St. Louis County at Duluth, 



a28 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Minn., on November 4, 1927; address at 465 Mesaba Avenue, Duluth, Minn. 
Personal description : heiglit, 5 feet, 4 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Baker, George 

1326 Prospect Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, Harry Habel, 
T. U. U. L. Delegate. 

Bates, Walter 

830 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. Identifying witness, James B. Cain, 
T. U. U. L. 

Bauman, Ben 

204 East loth Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Rebecca Grecht 
(1922). 

Beral, Philip 

Passport No. 149013, December 12, 1921. Claims birth in Poland on June 28, 
1902 ; naturalization through father, Benjamin, before the United States Dis- 
trict Court for the Southern District of New York at New York City on Decem- 
ber 7, 1920 ; address, 671 Hague, Detroit, Mich. Personal description : height, 
5 feet, 8 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 

Brown, John William 

Passport No. 282924, June 25, 1930. Claims birth at Upland, Pa., on July 27, 
1906: address at 1023 Frederick, Detroit, Mich. Personal description: height, 
5 feet, 11 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Broivn, Roy Augustave 

Passport No. 1834 (New York series) July 29, 1930. Claims birth Hunting- 
ton, Ind., on March 2, 1887 ; address at 685 Syracuse Street, Portland, Oreg. 
Personal description : height, 5 feet, 11 inches ; hair, light brown ; eyes, blue. 

Burozyski, Walter 

Passport No. 133724, October 15, 1929. Claims birth at Austria-Hungary on 
August 19, 1902; naturalization before United States Court (of Wayne County) 
at Detroit, Mich., on February 28, 1924; address at 755 42nd Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Personal description: height, 5 feet, 10 inches; hair, brown; eyes, blue. 

Cadenhead, John 

Passport No. 318604, October 8, 1930. Claims birth at Lee County, Ala., De- 
cember 18, 1908: address as 2330 Avenue H, So., Birmingham, Ala. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet, 7 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown ; colored. 

Cain, James Burton 

Passport No. 3894 (Chicago series) July 25, 1930. Claims birth at Stevens 
Point, Wis., on December 19, 1906 ; address at 411 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Personal description : height, 5 feet, 8 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Carroll, Esther 

Passport No. 303390, August 8, 1930. Claims birth in Poland in May 1906; 
naturalization through father, Max, before United States District Court at 
Philadelphia, Pa., on May 1, 1923 ; address at 89 Jewell Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Personal description : height, 5 feet, 1 inch ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Crane, Jack 
1473 Sheridan Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, William Martin. 

Davis, Helen 

327 Edgecombe Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, John Caden- 
head. 

Dion, Joseph 

Passport No. 1795 (Boston series) July 25, 1930. Claims birth at St. Louise, 
Canada, on January 23, 1880 ; naturalization through father, Alfred, before 
Supreme Court of New Hampshire at Nashua, N. H., on October 25, 1890 ; 
address as 7 Baldwin Street, Haverhill, Mass. Personal description : height, 
5 feet, 8 inches ; hair, brown-grey ; eyes, hazel. 

Evans, Charles 

227 141st Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Harry Johnson. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a29 

Fee, Benjamin Junt 

Passport No. 313861, September 17, 1930. Claims birth at China on September 
31, 1909; father, Jay B. Fee, born in San Francisco; address as 868 Jackson 
Street, San Francisco, Calif. Personal description : height, 5 feet 5 inches ; hair, 
dark ; eyes, dark ; distiui^uishing marks : mole, one inch from right corner of 
mouth ; pin mole front of left ear. Chinese race. 

Feldman, Milton R. 

1470 West Euclid, Detroit, Mich. Identif iyng witness, Philip Beral. 

Fer(/uson, Harriet 

Passport No. 315186, September 23, 1930. Claims birth at Dayton, Ohio, on 
October 27, 1904 ; address as 5914 Calumet Avenue, Chicago. Personal descrip- 
tion : height, 5 feet 2 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Fisher, Sol 

810 Hunts Point Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Walter Burczyski. 

Gallagher, Anna K. 

4153 North Fairhill Street, Phialdelphia, Pa. Identifying witness, Frank 
Victor Mozer. 

Garcia, Jess 

Fort Lupton, Colo. Idetnifying witness, Louis Moreno. 

Goldgaell, Benjamin 

Passport No. 299389, July 26, 1930. Claims birth in Russia on January 1896 ; 
naturalized through father, Israel, before Supreme Court of Bronx County, at 
Bronx, N. Y., on December 30, 1914 ; address at 14.59 Wythe Place, % Algus, Bronx, 
X. Y. Personal description : height, 5 feet 4 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Goldgaell, Sadie Algus 
1459 Wythe Place, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Benjamin Goldgaell. 

Goodman, Milton 

8753 110th Street, Richmond Hill, Long Island, N. Y. Identifying witness, 
Jennie Herlink. 

Graham, Lillian A. 
1800 7th Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, John J. Mullen. 

Grecht, Rebecca 

Passport No. 306397, August 18, 1930. Claims birth at Poland on December 10, 
1901 ; naturalization through father, Adolph, before the Supreme Court of New 
York County at New York City on Sept. 1, 1914 ; address at 1800 Longfellow 
Avenue, New York City. Personal description: height, 5 feet lYz in.; hair, 
auburn ; eyes, green. 

Groves, Wm. Roy 

Passport No. 1860 (New York series), August 1, 1930. Claims birth at McCor- 
mick, 111., on January 8, 1888; address as 73 Melrose Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Personal description : height, 5 feet 6 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, grey. 

Habel, Harry 

Passport No. 298-536, July 24, 1930. Claims birth at New York City on Novem- 
ber 9, 1905 ; address as 825 East 161st Street, New York City. Personal descrip- 
tion : height, 5 feet 4 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. 

Heacox, Hiram L. 

223 East Milwaukee, Detroit, Mich. Identifying witness, John W. Brown. 
Helfand, Max 

1919 Daly Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, John Lundberg. 

Herlink, Jennie 

Passport No. 299646, July 28, 1930. Claims birth at New York City on March 7, 
1905; address at 122 Norfolk Street, New York City. Personal description: 
height, 5 feet 2'^ in. ; hair, brown ; eyes, grey-blue. 

72723— 37— pt. 2.3a 3 



a30 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Hill, Sadie 

Passport No. 311994, September 9, 1930. Claims birtb at Belden, N. Dak., on 
July 2, 1912 ; address as Belden, N. Dak. Personal description : height, 5 feet, 
41^ in ; hair, dark ; eyes, grey. 

Eonig, Michael 

50 Jones Street, Jersey City, N. J. Identifying witness, Joseph Palmer. 

Huff, Polke 

7512 Frank Street, Houston, Tex. Identifying witness. Mack Toussaint. 

Husa, W. J. 

Belden, N. Dak. Identifying witness, Sadie Hill. 

Eyman, Shirley 

Passport No. 298726, July 24, 1930. Claims birth at Philadelphia, Pa., on 
March 10, 1912 ; address as 2639 North 31st Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet, 3 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, grey. 

Irwin, Eeriert James 

Passport No. 292030, July 10, 1930. Claims birth at Omaha, Nebr., on December 
10, 1902; address at 1403 East Madison, Seattle, Wash. Personal description: 
height, 5 feet, 8 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Johnson, Harry 

Passport No. 273 (Moscow), November 6, 1936. Claims birth at Auburn City, 
Ala., on June 3, 1909; address as 2323 7th Avenue, New York City. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet, 10 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown ; colored. 

Kangas, Anna 

328 East 126th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, John Anderson. 

Kalkin, Alexander 

1373 Hor Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Esther Carroll. 

Kaplan, Benjamin 

Passport No. 300976, July 31, 1930. Claims birth at Russia-Poland on Sep- 
tember 25, 1888 ; naturalization before the United States District Court at New 
York City on August 21, 1924 ; address at 828 Jackson Avenue, New York City. 
Personal description : height, 5 feet, 5 inches ; hair, dark brown ; eyes, blue ; scar 
under chin. 

Kory, Abraham 

Passport No. 318818, October 9, 1930. Claims birth at N'ew York City on Octo- 
ber 5, 190S ; address at 1220 Grand Concourse, New York City. Personal descrip- 
tion : height, 5 feet, 10 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. Also identifying wit- 
ness, Hyman Malikin. 

Kotti, Eriste O. 
206 West 5th Street, South Boston, Mass. Identifying witness, Manuel Pereins. 

Lester, Roddie Carlton 

Passport No. 316113, September 27, 1930. Claims birth at Kirkland, Fla., on 
September 9, 1896 ; address at 540 East Woodruff Street, Toledo, Ohio. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet, 5 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, dark brown. Colored. 

Lewis, Samuel John, Jr. 

Passport No. 306127, August 18, 1930. Claims birth at Alexandria, La., on 
July 23, 1903 ; address at 1470 St. John's Place, Brooklyn, N. Y. Personal de- 
scription; height, 5 feet, 5 inches; hair, black, eyes, brown. Colored. 

L&miardy, Bennie 

1117 East 5th Street, Duluth, Minn. Identifying witness, Arne Ferdinand 
Arnio. 

London, Jessie Brooks 

338 East 19th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Herbert J. Irwin. 

Loshak, Israel 

179-02 97th Avenue, Jamaica, Long Island, N. Y. Identifying witness, Benja- 
min J. Fee. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 31 

Lundherg, John 

Passport No. 152432, December 31, 11)29. Claims birth at Lexington Mass., on 
January 4, 1907 ; address at 73 Melrose .Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. Personal de- 
scription : height, 6 feet ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Malikin, Hyrnun 

I'assport No. 318828, October 9, 1930. Claims birth at New York City on No- 
vember 28, 1909 ; address as 890 Fox Street, New York City. Personal descrip- 
tion : heifjht, 5 feet 10 in. ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Also identifying witness, 
Abraham Kory. 

Murinoff, George 

512 Front Street, East Toledo, Ohio. Identifying witness, Roddie Carlton 
Lester. 

Martin, William 

Passport No. 301003, July 31, 1930. Claims birth at Aquone, N. C, on June 25, 
1900; address as 1220 Grand Concourse, Bronx, N. Y. Personal description: 
height, 5 feet 10 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Moreno, Louis 

Passport No. 299879, July 28, 1930. Claims birth at Walsenburg, Colo., on 
March 21, 1901 ; address as Box 524, Fort Lupton, Colo. Personal description : 
height, 5 feet 11 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue ; distinguishing marks, small 
mole on left cheek, 

Mozer, Frank Victor 

I'assport No. 304787, August 13, 1930. Claims birth at Allentown, Pa., on April 
8, 1892; address at 4153 North Fairhiil Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Personal 
description : height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Mullen, John Joseph 

Passport No. 299077, July 25, 1930. Claims birth at Lewistown, Pa. ; address 
at 216 West 16th Street, New York City. Presonal description : height, 5 feet 6% 
inches ; hair, auburn ; eyes, brown. 

Muller, J. J. 

216 West 16th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Roy Agustave 
Brown. 

A'orth, Joseph 

216 West 16th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Wm. R. Groves. 

Fa liner, Joseph 

Passport No. 301042, July 31, 1930. Claims birth at Strawn, Tex., on October 
14, 1905 ; address as 2700 Bronx Park East, New York City. Personal descrip- 
tion : height, 5 feet 7 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, blue. 

Fear son, Ruth R. 

5706 .Stony Island Avenue, Chicago, 111. Identifying witness, Harriet Fergu- 
son. 

Fereins, Manuel {Manuel Ferry) 

Passport No. 1800, Boston series, July 26, 1900. Claims birth at Somerset, 
Mass., on September 17, 1908; address at 51 Independent, New Bedford, Mass, 
Personal description : height, 5 feet iy-2 in. ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown. 

Randolph, F. 

247 West 121st Street, New York City, Identifying witness, Harry Reed. 

Reed, Harry 

Passport No. 300830, July 31, 1930. Claims birth at Chester, Pa., on October 15, 
1904 ; address at 338 East 19th Street, New York City. Personal description : 
Height, 5 feet 10 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Rodriguez, Osear Fernandez 

153 8th Avenue, New York City. Identifying witness, Henry Scott. 
Sawitt, Boris 

985 Tiffany Street, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Koleman Schneider. 



a32 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Schneider, Eoleman 

Passport No. 318824, October 9, 1930. Claims birth at Payne, Ohio, on August 8, 
1911 ; address at 2394 West 41st Street, Cleveland, Ohio. Personal description : 
Height, 5 feet 9 inches ; hair, brown ; eyes, brown, 

Scott, Henry 

Passport No. 127 (Moscow) December 2, 1938. Claims birth at Trenton, N. J. 
on June 30, 1910; address as 103 Pacific Street, Stamford, Conn. Personal 
description : Height, 5 feet 10 inches ; hair, black ; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Shelley, John 
2640 North 31st Street, Philadelphia, Pa. Identifying witness, Shirley Hyman. 

Sir oka, Wm. 

3850 Doremus Street, Hamtramck, Mich. Identifying witness, Joseph Frank 
Yourkowski. 

Toussaint, Mack 

Passport No. 275679, June 17, 1930. Claims birth at Natchitoches, La., on 
October 17, 1903 ; address at 7512 Frank Street, Houston, Tex. Personal descrip- 
tion: Height 5 feet 7 inches; hair, black; eyes, brown. Colored. 

Walker, Herbert 

69 East 12th Street, New York City. Identifying witness, Samuel J. Lewis, 
Jr. 

Weissberg, Isidore 
2935 Holland Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. Identifying witness, Benjamin Kaplan. 

Yourkowski, Joseph Frank 

Passport No. 320367, October 17, 1930. Claims birth at Piney Fork, Ohio, on 
November 27, 1911; address as 3850 Doremus, Hamtramck, Mich. Personal 
description : Height, 6 feet 2 inches ; hair, light ; eyes, grey. 



i 

4 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a33 



M O 



to 

oq 
e 

o 

e 
e 

?^ 






CO 



a a 

.3 ^ 



D 
w 

.S3 



C8 

Q 






6 



3 
O 



05 



c 

c3 



<1 



B 



13 

a 



t^rs.t^r^ t^ t^ Is- t^ r^ 

connco cc M po CO CO 



ccco 



r^ r^ r^ r.. r^ rs- oo 

C*3 CO CO PO ffO CO CO 
05 05 05^05 05 



CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 

050505050505050505 



« 



00O5 coc^r-co 



c^r-coow 






c3 a 



b £ 60 U. rt rJ 



o r- -^ c^ cs .-HtD <o ^ r- 

l~t ,-H i-H .-« Ci C^ ^H 1-H 






o 

o 

PQ 



43 



00 r^ r^cD t^ 

t^03 Ol 00 f- 
Oi h- C^ o t^ 

^ ■^ "^ re re 



O Ci 05 CCOO 
O OOi-H 1-t CO 
IC 00 ^ »0 'Tt* 

lO-*^ O 00 o 
O CD CM »0 O 

CO rOTt^ "^ CO 




S5: 



o o 
So 

a a 

C3 C3 



o 

m o a 

g C8 C3 
•^ . .05C^ 

.r^05^«D 
O lO cp 05 o 



I rococo ■* 



a 

c3 



CO 
00 

o 



o 
b£ 

c3 
o 

;3 

CO^»-HC^05 10 *CO<M 

ior^o»-Hiocococ^cx> 

COfMiOCO^DCO-^Cnt^ 
O5-^CD00^CO0000eO 
■«"-*COTf<COCOf-l'*CO 



1^ 

~ m o3 

at 



5w 



0? 

r^ cr ^-^ -a; - 
a>r*5S * o ^■ 

"-^— o 



" -CO 






C3 



5 9 



c3 
U '^ 

9i '=« 
^ Q 

<1 o 
tn t; 
o S 

-*^ CJ C3 

3 Si r 
Q 3- - 



^ 



tnfe 
,>^^©- 

.kJ -S CO 

4:3<< en rj c3 

o 35 o 

60 Ol "^ "^ *^ CQ 



_ CO o .73 u 



CN rJH , 



CO ^nChoj 




i0^^i-H Ot^ 
XP ,-1 l.O lO .-H rH 

00 *0 T-l O *0 CO 



JJ 



1-IJ 



O 3 - 

a la 



SO 



■a ::: 



ial 



•^^ 



■^sbc-'S 



J- C3 'O I 






'^ O/ 



CO 



.51,5, 

Eo3~ w 



' /^ 33" e" 3'''3 



3 3 

a  



sfc-E 3x) - 

3 - ^2 c h 



-•00 



W 



3 rt o"^ 

3 3 o t- 

Sofe.a 

^ §3^ 

<i-H >,3 3 3 

.-^ ti o o o 

t^ » 3 CO t/i ^J 

-■^ O O iJ 



3 3 

?3 cQ C3 55 O 'r^ vi - 

sasaaaaa 



3 3 




:3 3 "2 a 

-H !-. (-> U W 



fiOf 






P4 PhPh f-l 



Q 






03 



.g 

d 
o 

c3 

N 

fl 
C8 



.g 



c 






n1 












CS 






.C 






a 






c 






CJ 






3 













i< 






or 






CO 






C35 






t-< 


T-t 










M 







, 


a> 





,5 


a 

n 




<1-3 









3 






4-1 







is 


^ 


-d 





10 


S 


tx 













Tl 


p. 










^' 


M 






<1 


a 


> 


t-T-l 




-H 




■^ 


<? 


D 








d 








>^ 


CO 

;3 




I? 


[S 


^j 






t-4 


^ 


>^ 








a.) 


> 


:z: 






T' 


z 


>H 


> 
c3 


■*-3 


^ 


P 


X3 


0) 


rt 


-u> 




3 


-^ 


9 


•s 


-t-i 







3 
4«1 




pq 







Ol 


s 


•— 1 


> 

< 


2 
•> 


{D-*-» 


^ 


9 


<T^ 


b( 


Ui 













3 


S 








bO 




1-9 


.g 

en 

CO 


<5 


a 




"* 


(3 -a 




fl03 



a34 scope of soviet activity in the united states 



05 

3 

a 

'♦J 

a 
o 

o 

I 
I 

05 

'^ 

s 

I.. 



05 

s 

2 



&D 



b 



B 

D 



o 






be 
< 



.5 

w 
S 
o 

03 



13 
C 






a 



T3 

be 






mmmn 

05 OS C5 OS 
.-H r-( T-1 i-H 


OS 


1937 
1937 
1937 






o 

8 

■^ 


00 

s 


CO 
05 






?3"»S 


O" 


oT 


gf 


T-4 


o 


June 
Juno 
Feb. 
July 


tin 


June 
Mar. 
Oct. 


§ 

3 




■D 




3 
03 


ca 



be 

3 



fo 



r^ t^ r^ r^ - 

Co a: 05 C5 " 

._. W ^ rH C8 

lit ro o T-^ -^J^ 

cs cocc i- 

n 

3 fto-g ii 



O 



C3 

03 



C^ -^ UO .r^C^ CO 

OCO 
C^l O 



' '<*' I^ O -^ O 
CO -CD iC 'O' O fO 
»-H CD CO O O >0 I^ 
•«^ CO CO CQ CO CI CO 



r^ CDiO CO 
CO O CI Oi 

o r- CO CO 
OS O CO O 
(N -^fOCO 



CQTt*COCOCSCSTt<T}<C 



s? 



5^ 

w O 



a if" 



11 "^ 03 

* §3 






- r .<; 






C3 

o 

J o o 



a iJ CO +J J;;^ ^J 

|3cO j^MOItB 
00 CO 00 

o> soo 



PL, aW 
* ° S 

^:2S 



CD t^ lO 

^ C>) Oi 



3io_ 

"3 4^ a 

3 w OS 
<< 03 I- 

OCOl- 
(M (M (M 



r-w -3 

«KI H c3 
>-+J o ■" 

5|5a 

ooS"^ 

OS OO »C 05 



O 
o 

s 

oofN r^ 

t}< t^ OS 
^ cc »^ 



3 
03 



a 



. 1-1 -* 



is 



?: 



a, 

3 

3 
a) 

id 
oJ 

-1^ 

•O 

a 

03 

■3 

. «^ 

„' 3 

—I eft 



g 
g 

o 
O 

n 



> 

•z 



>• 3 >? 3 



3 . 
3^ 

l£ 
. o ^ 

ffiS , 

-O 3 

^2.g 

1^3- 
ciooM 



iM 3 '-' 

3 , * C3 o '^ ,* 

> 30 s— ., 



J4 
o 



o 



W3J^ 



«oo22:^§wp^ 

- ■• — o 



o 



i3 

Pm 

;3'" 
be 
t-. 

3 






Pi 


3 


a 




1h 






■g 

3 


•3 
3 


>. 


ta 


M 



03 
3 

.g 

o 

3 

S 0| 

-.-■^ 
3.-' 



i 2 

OJ o 

O Jh 

to £ 

2 ^ 

O >^ 

03 



3 



a 

03 
XI 
03 

< 



"3 

cc o t^ O as 

t^ ci r^ lo «i5 

lO iti r^ c^ fc.1 

^ cc oi r^ ^ 

CO OS 00 o '^ 

^ CO '■*' ■* o) 

JS 



CO CO C^ O w 
CO<N •*CO ^ 



a 
o 



-a 



03 >, 




z^. 


•v « 


^^ 


as 


H>- 


^^ 



^'- SS!; 



feV-gZ 



.^u^ 



^ >.i4 






oa 



^ 3 









c3 p 03'^ eg ■2 

(^ t^ Tf oi :: 3 



P3 



■^^ 2^"^S 



-H ~ CO r/j lO 



C3i3 n 
3 «S53 
OQO I^ 

p M+J 



-lOoj 



,-1 h-l N cq 1-1 rt 



03 
•3 






•3-< 

03 '3 

>■ » ,. . , 



05 <1 



3' ' "" 

3 en O 
^ 03 03 

a PI 

+j +j 3 



X3 
O 

«-a 

|2 
> t> 



-3^ 






3£3 .'^ 
.2.3 >^a 

>s tj 03 c3 03 



aa 

C3.S.2 
03^ j> 



03 s.. 1 

* 3 S 

o3 rt ^ 

«pqn 



03 
Q,-~ tn c 

■2 So3 

gP5 03 03 IS-" 

i:aj;3 3-3 g 

3" S 2 .-^ ^ 

. . 3 03 o Q- 

K^ 03 C3 C3 O pH 
C5 flS C3 C3 (S rf 

mpqcqpqpqpq 



.a 



ft 



C3 
P5 



3 

C3 



O 

"3 

03 



S2 
p; 



is <» 

PQj3 
— ^o 

>;§ 

Oi" 

3 2 

ca 

..3 



O 



Ol 



<1<J 



.3 
ft 
s> 

o 

l-s 

a" 

03 
i-' 
03 , 



.*», r^ ri I'J VJ UJ WJ 

p,ptri B^ Q) a) o 
3 .r 03'T^T^T^'Z^ 



J3.3 o 
.OS o 

3 03 3 
p:impq 



S- m m tn ui 
Oj QJ Oi ^ 

1"? 03 o3 o3 03 

o ^ ^ ^ ^ 

p fc- tT C C" 

t-< ;-< ih lh ^-> 

Oj c3 c3 o3 c3 

P5P5P3PQW 



W 



ca CO 



I OJ 
I OJ .- 
1 CO 03 

C3 QJ tH j_^ , :_, 
3 M 3 £ t-A< 

Ei2k2P50 S 
^ a „■:>>>' ° 

t- t^ t. CO m s) 
f-4 ;.. ;^ ^ t^ CO 
03 c3 c3 C3 03 03 

fflpqpqpqmm 



'OS 



1° 

3 P*! 



*si3 

03 q> 

po, a 

o g 
3 « 

3m 



on 

a)«>-i 
n3 O 
3 a> 

03 OT 

a| 

3 QD 

00 

O"^ 
t- 

ga 
w g 



pii 






QS 



PhPh 



Oat-la, 



p-l 



(liftn 



PMPLi 






■« 03 

•3 a 
03 it; 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a35 



eo po CO cc CO CO CO co co ro co co co co co co co co S2?2?2?2 



CO CO CO fo CO eocococopo 



1^ h, h- r^ h» 

CO to CO CO JO 

Oi '^ Oi Oi Oi 



CO CO CO CO ro .o 
Oi as C7i oi Ci c: 



s 



CO-H •- 



Ci ^ 3i t^ 

« — < 



<fl « fe ea gi'ca a c-g 



^x:^ 



t>. ^. >. u 



->; f^ O h^ < S i^H 



Tf< O Tf« .-^ 



|i| fa <■. <, 



■? a c c 05 



■^OONCOCO 



a a '-■3 C rt 



>. _• t. -k^ >» >, • t- L.' i-' '- 



« '*' c» 00 w re to 
c^ .-O **< .^ a; PO 

CO "^ OS CO 00 03 i^ 
00 •-< M* "-O t ~ lO -^ 
Cvl ^H c: C>» to -.^ .— ' 
Tf -"T CO *o CC Tj* ■'^ 



w 

§^ 

fa>' 
d & 

to ^^^ 

05 »o o 

C^ TT rO 

t^ ^t ;o 

coco o 



' a 

Ic« . . . . 

id OS -OS id 00 OS 

•* r- >i^ OS r^ c>o X) 
o cs CO t— -^ 00 o 

t-^ 05 —H m 1— < c;C O 
.— I CO (M lO -r O 30 
rf CO CO -^ lO tT CO 



CO CO (N OS 

O Tl o o 

lO lO .— f -rjl 
'^ OS 00 OS 

OS -^ r- o 

'^ coco --J^ 



CO »0 .— « h- CO 
OS O 1— ' O 1-^ 
■rf IC "^ lO CO 
OO OS CO --• (M 

c: ic OS CO o 

CO CO ^ CO ^ 



OQOOOOS 
1-H GOCO (M '^ 

O OS CO r^ CO 

i-H O CO lO C<) 
t^ ^ Ol OS O 

CO ■^ ^ ^ "^ 



■OSOOOOSiO 0SOOC0M»0 

'^cooor^i^ .-H^i-rxsot^ 

CO 1— I CO O •-* 00 -^ CO ^ lO -^ 

-5* 00 O CO CO OOiOCOGO'**' 

o CO r^ r- o CO 00 r- OS OS t^ 

"^ CO CO '^ ^ r—i-^ CO CO CO CO 



SJ 



OSOSCOCO-^COiO C^t^^HtO COOl'fOJi-i OCO'.DC'n* T-l-^iOiCCO r-COOC^'O'J* 
<N«(NCONCOM Tj-TfiQlN (MCJCOIMCO CqC-»e^CO<M ■VNNC^C* ONO»C<«IM(N 




^ t-i 03 



.'-'oo 



^Sa" 


rrZZ 


.00 




■^M-^ 




ir o o 


Irooklyn, 
t., Klchm 
1 St., Los 
St., New 
St., New 





o 






2^ 



.G-H 



o« 



*.^ r^ C^ 1-H : 

CM o CO 'O : 
CO ^ ^ — < : 






o . o 

O -« 



5 Oh 



■s !=i-e 



PWfaW 



W 



S ■rf ■^ CO'' 
• CO O lO 



<^53 

o ra 
>.S . 

a2^ 
43-0 

M o > 



a 

c 

u 
03 



cam 

o »^ 

35 



o 



m. 












c^, "^ ;7; "J - 



CM "O CO PO 
O »0 CM O 

" « >o o 



o 

03 

2 
o 



C3 

a 

o 

s: 

e 

-4-3 

OT 

^ 

CD 
bnto 

ir< M o -^ - 

<; ca .^ ^ .2 
.j3 o g 3 

CO rfHpSh:) 

S j^M > . 

ja i- d '*^ -t^ 

00 t^ lO ^ 
C^ C^ -2^ 00 ,-1 K. 

QOO 3S t-;^ 



:5I>^ 



Si 



0^ d CO -* 
O C 03 ! 
Ph CO »o f 



>S=3.IS«.-Cc^ 

^" - -a -< 

dS 03 o a _f.i< 

m 3 3 >> u— — 
03 cs 03 03 o a; cj 



03 

O 
"3 

a 

O O) S 

«d? 

•go?: 

o -3 a> 

=:a d 
3^ li aj 



d 
o 

ea 

a 

o 

Eh 



.9 

W 

a 

o 



■2-g 
g.£foS 



, d 
u 2 



o 



" 3 _2 ^ o .2 ja 
•5 J /? .3 2 [2 '03 

• tn ^^ S - - - 

Sd^w^'g'SS 

a'-' vs ^^ C3 ""^ "^ -^ 
O tj) .0 O O O 

«□ i-> ;-< ui L^ t. ;-> 
© 05 o o> a> ^ o 



d 

03 



° a 
M »« 
^M — ' ^ 



03 

°s.d o a 



H 

C3 



.2 



053 o S 
.:«! o.^ d 

01 03 Ci O 

cqpDcpea 



B3< 



 O d 
• OT 03 



W f/3 5 d d 

d d V. ? 5 

fc- ;- c/v ..* 5t 

o o o;> o.^ 



p.d 
o o 

as 
7;j3 

111! 

r- vT*; ij o 

3 OJ d 7) W 

n u- t- v: M 



3 
03 

2s 

d o:3 
£.dffl 

f^5 >>«& 

UP* 2_2 aj 
. - . -o o 3 
.3 .3 .i^ d M 

03 oj oi rt ^ 



2aj 






03 

-'■55 

3 03^ 

•si I 

o o 3 



03 

O 

CO 

03 

d 
o 

d<« 



n 



pq 



03 0=3 

.300 



OQ 















Q J h3 hH ^ 

'-I Ph fL, ft, — 



a36 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



3 



03 

o 



r^ h- 1^ 

C*3 CO CO 
Oi CSi Oi 


cD ro CO ro 

O) Oi Oi Oi 

1-lrt rH 1-1 


r* t^ t-^ 

CO CO CO 
Oi Ol Oi 

1— 1 1-H 1— t 


T-H 


00 


t^ ^o t^ r^ 

CO CO CO CO 

o> o^ o^ o^ 


1-H •— I 


OS 


COCO 


^S2 




t-^ (M 00 
C^ CN (N 




lO 


lO ooco t^ 




oc 


i-t 


Mar. 
May 
Jan. 


Feb. 

May 
Mar. 


Feb. 
June 
Apr. 


>> 

03 


t-5 


Feb. 
Dec. 
June 
Dec. 






03 CI 



h- h* t^ t^ r>- t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO CO 
05 Oi OS 05 Ol Oi 



>i>»0 



-^ -^ -g 3 d ^' C3' c 









o 

a 



C5! 



lO CD CD 
O »0 .-H 
00 ^ C^ 
00>(N 
t~(MCD 

c? ■^ CO 



o o 
o o 

.., ,'S'S 
-« fl a 

b 03 C8 
o J t. fc.1 

o 

te " d C 

^ -'^ CO 

OS c^coct 
r^ CO ic o 
OS *o t~^ *o 
CO Tt< (N C^ 



CO !CZ3 
..00 .. 
lO C^ OS 
t-- 00 CO 
OOOIM 
»0 tT" t^ 
!N -^ (N 



»OOS <N CO 

i-H CO oco 
O00»O(N 
itti l^ c^ o 
CO ^o CO OS 
CO CO ^ ^ 



t-co 

b- OS 
COTt* 

coos 
coco 



^ 



O c^ 
COtJI 



o 

d 

03 



d 

03 



00 

to 

CO 



d 

C3 
02 

(NOOOOCO 

03 "* CO Tj* 
CO »0 CD O 

moiois-* 



o 
ccoo 

^ CO 



0) 

.s 

'-+3 

1=1 
o 

o 



CD 

e 

o 

•"S> 

e 
s 



60 



CB 



a 
o 

-^•^ 
C3 

e 

■2 

a 



d 

03 






o 

> 

XI o 

1° 

03 -C 

OS'S 

00 > 

"2 JO 

■?§ § 

;«^cDco 

CC (N CO 
<N OS O 
11^ 05 ^ 



O 



o 

2 



o o^ 

^ ..CO 

2 -a i- 

CO *J o 
<M CO -w 

^H o; en 

C3 ct ^ 

WK O 

CO ioQ 
CO 00 
O-* CD 

^H r-H CD 



03 M 

I.-  - C3 

ifi 03 o 
OQ cj 

--^>d 

■^ ^ X c5 

o3ca 



. CO 
1) C/2 

.j7 d 

^> 

o -^ 



03 



fs:> cii£-, 



■ro SCO 

"■SB 

•cSt^ c 
/ "'^ 

J t^ CO CO 
fiCl 1 CO 

r- o -^ 

<M CO '<*' 






,rZK 



x: o3k 

Tf d" 
o o 

c/: 



d" 

0>H 
«^ 

ra d T", 
C^cd"^ 

S bo ., ^, 

3" .,-Md 

d 2 



.STr 03 






,11 

.bo 

•S - 
2 o 

p o 

WSd 

-d.2 

a;g.d 






o 
o 



o 
o. 

CO 

CO 

03 

a 
o 



O 

03 



.MB"" 



;•?.■?: 



9 M b oi .- 
CO O O ;;3F< 



>.^ oZ; 

> C3 '<^ +J 

oj - o 

>x3xaj^ ,; 

Jlj 1— < OS ^^ 

'^ 'tt 1— ' CO /-. 

CO r-^'Tt^ o 
'* coco^ 



- « - o 



CO 

t»d 

a d 



iZ o 



^' CO fc- 

;d§^ 

d 'D |S 
SJ5 



W - 

^ d 03 

'Cm CO 
■Sd^. 

C 03 03 
03>pt 

Oo'^ 
-o "^ 

oi r r 

B oj o 

^ d'S 

T-w CD CD 
CO CD O 
rt CDIM 



O 

pa 



o 



o 



M 



o o 
a . ^ 

3|S 



03 

6 

CO 
03 '"^ I — I . - 

oS d.i«: 



 c5 . 
1- t*— 

03 

go 



O 

c3Q 
O to-d „ 

^ 'S == 

<D oj d 03 

'3 .sm - 
om d °> 

-*-s or:; — ut 

c-i ^: ^ to . 
-'^••^ 

CO ^ c«  r "^ . 

S^d- -oZ 
r- « o2 .„ - 



a 

03 



d 



d-g , 
§.23 

d t^ J.. >- 
O O O O 

KWPSW 



« " « ^ 

CO ^ J3 [o ^ 
^-'73 c9 a) ^ 

•sgidR 03 

3-<M o35 
J o - - - 

j-i t- +J 3 C> 

o o o o o 
mpQfqp5PQ 



di^ >> 
•d •>,a' 



w 

P3 

ms 

fi 

I" 

— . bo 

a; o 

P^ 03 -C 
o.-f^ - 

d .c 

T3 bci 
^ rf C3 03 
> tH « •-- 



.20 



C5 CD 

£ d 

f^ 3 

rH CU 



« 



d 

CO O 

•r* CO 
O 3 



H 



P5 



«-k:.2 
IqS 

S 03 N 

m « d 
— ''-s a) 

CD*^ 

dTJ 

a " 



W 



.S bt. c3 



o 



> 
o 

03 



td 



o 



d . 



o o o o „ „ _ 

pqpqfflfflmpqpq 



-03 

H d 

Lh ;.. ^ ^ 



?- S^ 



3 d c*^.? 

■^d"dS& 
.30000 



pqpq wmmFqm 







.fci 
W 


d 


fl 


d 











S 


B 


c3 


03 


a 








d 


d 


a 


<[) 





OJ 


m 


K 


m 








d 


C! 


3 


p^ 


is 


is 












3« 

3 iS.S 

dSfe 
„ . o c3.i: 
g o d:d o 



d d c 

^ ;S -S -S i* 

o o o o o 





n 


> 


S 











d'd 






rrl 








^ 





fi 


Pi 



Ph 



1-3 hJ 
Pk Ph 



(-^PhPh 



p p 

iJ iJlJ M iJ M j~i Q 



PM 



hH (Jm 

Ph Ph(1h 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a37 

ro fC cc « M « CO ?o ro ro ?3 cow coco cc ?o cococc co core co co :c cc co co co co co co co co co co focococo 









03 M a p— 






00 O 00 ^ 






oi u ^ 3 !^ 



t^ OO t* *^ 1^ 00 ■— -^ -^ ^ -^ 



tf 



-(J* lo r^ *iF-. ^ CO 

Tj* ■^ (M O 05 -^ CC 

3C X 00 tr? ■IT CT o 
"^ -t* ^ C*3 CC ?0 -^ 






(N 00 



CD ^ '~ 

CO'-H 



j3i^csoort»,-HOiai"^Tf<cioot2C^ 

.■::■ cc '.'■- cr (— ( CO O "~ - j^ 'ri O cri en »o 
— ^co-^^s^coi^cccoco^^^cocN 

CO 



O OOCNOO 
*0 C^^ to lO 

CO ■* COO 
O OCCO tri 

CO CS '^ '^ 



(N r-H Ol 
CO CO C^ 

Tt' TJ- ,-H 

coo^ 

CO CO CO 
COCO"*** 



d 

m 

o t^ O 

oi t-^ »o 

CO c^co 



a 
So 

^^ 

cnoo w - 

■^ lO »o 04 

CO OCOr-* 
(NO'- t^ 
■^ CO CO ■^ 



to 



lMCO<N'<fCM<NMCO 



^"'^-^ 

CO -^J -iJ.^ 
•Ji -/i z, 

o ^ <s — 
13 r^ c^ lO 

•tpCOMCO 
(Ch CO '^ »-< 



« 

>.'^ 



cbS 

•rS 

C C3 
•^ be 



.2 



■S2 



2,7. 2^ >H 



<^ 



^—  



i^is:- i% 









=: o b 
> S-- 

^ 00 c 
■^j *j "::? 

CD lO t^ 

o— < r- 

n* oi .-H 



> !- . 

*j .— C3 

>> - . 

Wo 



rPgZ 

oTI-Sm 

o 

a 



,+-3 






??Q 



 COp^ C7 
JC5 O 
>0 (M 



'o' 3 f" v-r 

-^ ^ ■*-' 

.-^.^ 

C3 (N ■* 



O 

C.2 



o 

OS r . 



.0 






a>K 



a 



rm^ 



fflco cj; 

CO CJOl^ 

x; »o CR o 

T^ CO CO o 






O C 

^5 



« o o 
CO ^ _; 



fc--^ o 

« 3^ 
- •„ o 



J -^ f-H o 









" r>j j^ -tj ^ ~'~^ »M — < ""- 



m 



D 



o 

g 

3 









O 
C3 aj 

fed 

— -.5 ti £ 



o 
bi) 
c3 

3 






js p. 



. tyj:: 



c-C 



CO o 



(N c-q 

^ »-o o 



^ o r"^ ^ij j=; 
o 3oc*'1 o 

'-<r> O CD 

CO W 10 'H 



f^^^r 



33 

<= W 10 

1-1 <N 









rax 
S5^3S 

t^^|S|o 

005 M to in'-' 
•^ 05 »o »o 

■-KN CO-O 



o 
o 



3 

5 

o 

s 



3 
cs.q o 



SCK c3 ;x -L-r.--* ^^X 
- -'-- - c; .''. r. .^ 



» 






o o 



2« 

T3 ^ 



2h S'^ ^- 



• yj 



3 3 

:g(2 



5333333 



3 3 

c3 ^ 






: Uh i _r 9 



.C3 






Z, V Z2 :2 zi 

— scs 



3 3 



o o 
>. C3 

no 



-' ^ -'^ 3 

^•^ 3 3 3 

rt'S'cJ c3 C3 
QQOCU 



C3 v^ 

■c 2 — "p 
0/ a . ^ 

J PI 



3 
o 

a 
>> 

03 






" ^ -J '3 (DTS -^ 



S'cJ 3 3 
a ^ ;^ ;^ 
Cl C3 C3 c3 

ouou 



C3 C3 c3 



^ ;0 

3 '-- 

3 = o 

^-^-' S o ^■ 
3«Ort 

E o" fe s 

M ^ !-• tn 

c3 C3 c! c3 



03 

C pfn 

I S-a" 

3 3 be 
a 3 03 
o p 3 

05 W r' 

c3 03 03 

000 



i^j-d c3 
be fc- 3 ,n 

S~ Ss: S 

.3 3*5';; . 
^ •?; g — o 

03 !S 03 cl c3 
J=J=J3X)XJ 
ODOQU 






9 o 
g o 



X 



rta-s-s 

r^ >>0 03 

^-3„- 
t/i tnii'S 

60QU 






P- 



Q^^ « 












P^?^^ P4 






a38 scope of soviet activity in the united states 



o 

o 



e 

o 

"Ml 

c 
s 






s 



CO 






o 
ft 

Pi 



a 
o 

i 



08 






a 



T3 

d 



co ro CO CO 

Oi Oi Oi OS 



:3i.  - '•^ 



cccocococococococorocococo 

OOiOlCiOiOiCiOiOTOi CiOSOi 






^^ 






CO CO CO CO CO CO 
03 Oi Ol 05 Ol OS 



• ^ 1- ;=; >.^- ^• 



i-H 


1^ 


1937 
1937 
1938 


s 


co" 

CM 


s°="s 


ft 


>> 


Mar. 
Apr. 
.Tan. 



t^ r>- 1>- 1^ ^- 1* 

CO CO CO CO CO CO 
OS OS OS OS Od o 



O lO iO »o OO Tj* 
1-H 1—1 r-t 

P^ I-, 03 1^ <! 03 



03 
03 

t^ OOO 05 

CO O 005 
O t^ O CO 
CO CO CO fO 



S^ 



03 M<li 



Oj" o • 

S fl Ee X 

> ^ fe w 

^ o a ^ 

Sft«S 

^H t^ O t"* 

CO rH Tfi O 



c 

C3 
CO 

o - 

•^ o 

00 QO 
CO to 

COCN 



■^OCOSCDCCGCOS'^OSiOO 
Os 1— ( 40 l"^ 1— ' X' *rf - ■— • CO l-~ 

^rsr^-GOTt'Osh-ioo— "-fro 

■^'^OOCOiOt^-rTGOCSiC:-^ 
CMOSOOiOOC»OOSOS'^iO 

■^'^■^Tj'cocoTfrococo'* 



d 

C3 

CO lO 

COO-- 
CO CO 



-^ l-CCCO 

ojc<i ^ (X) 

OS -^ CO CO 

cc r^ (^C' o 

CO CO y^ "U? 
CO ^ "^ CO 



I ''f CM tMM (M CM CO CM (N C^» CM CM CM CM Tji CO CM CM CM 






•^"S «■" "b' 

c 



no 



« 



3CC 



t^&^ 



-co o; 
,g oj w -^ ^ g 



-IN 1 



^=t?g«c3. 

S 00 00 -* cs 
•-• CO r^ ■«< ■* o t. 

ie=; ^^ Tj< ,-1 »o ^ h^i 



> , 

fl . 

^5 5. - 

lyjCO Ui^^ 
C3 CM O <!-• 

w-gao 

. 0) C3 o 

I & 03^ 

t^ CO 

(MCO CO 
<M O CO 00 



o 
o 

"3 



03 

o 



Z-' 



« o3 

:zPM 



CM 

n3 S>H 

W °  

oi2z 



tfl 

60 

.g 

ft 

fl _~ 
O . 03 '^ 

o3D2q 
CO -?3 - 

lo CO j:: 

CO .'J'p^ Oi 



O 
>-fl - 

<o 

pd Cfi T? 

^ooo 

wo (N 

r>. to Tj* 



<; 

fl S'S 

CO CO 



d 

' c3 

tOcC ^ 
CO »C "Tf 

OS to r^ 

CO t^ CM 

b- COCO 

CO CO CO 



4 'z 






Jo^ d 

o «^'^fl-3 



; C3 CO Z 






a^ 



t^'^ I^ OOS1-* 
CM ►.!>. CO CS CO 

-^ OS »0 ^CM r^ 

«: o CO CM 1-t Tf 
CO o t-- r- 1-- 1-» 

CO t^ Tj( CO -^ -^ 



s 

d . 
•^ o 

COuH 

031-1 

' r+j 

<5 CO 



O 



■> fl^o3*;a 



_ o 



o"'^ "" S "' d fl 
oo ~^°x: a o w ■- 

t^CO CO CM i-H CO !< CO Cq 



o ^ 

fill 

pa jr fl*j 

CCOIM 
^OCOO 
CM 1-1 CO —1 



03 o 

IS 

wa 

®«- 

X3 C3? 



03 

.o 



> 

6 



o 



fl fl.s 



c o 

to CO 



CO C3 



O > 

55 



03 >> 
03 O 

 -O 

ft) 03 O 1 

ooc 



3 

03 

Pi 

Oi2 



)00 



a 

03 
,C 
03 

3 ' ;a.fl 

•fl J '^r^ 
t- D. * t., ^-^ 
<1 ®^ cS « 

o3.Q.OT3fl 

o o o o o 
OOOCO 



 fl" fl" a" 

a> o Qi 
o o o 



fl-e 

O) j_j o 

fl"a"o 

O Gj O) 

,a,a.a 
o o o 
OOO 



w).tj 03 

•- S rH 

 ojja fl 



fl 
o 
O 



fl 
o 
03 - 

-ce 

a te 

«2c 

CO OJ g^ 



, «•; 



■2g °tf-^ 

.ftslaS 

o o o o o 
OOOOO 



H 03 



■-" g a - 
aJ O g ;- 

fl fl fe o 

a fl fl5 

OOO 



. CO 

■fl§>^ 

l-H^ 03 I 

l^-Sfl a 
3 s.a.a 

J4".ii" O C" 

o o o o 
o o o o 

oooo 



flfl 

03 •< 

Ofl 

O fl OJ 

l.£PoJ 



a 
o 

K 

03 

P3 



03 

a 

> 



03 a» 



O O O O O fcl 2 

ooooooo 



^P^e.H M Ph 



PhP-i 



fiP 



Pg 



PhPhPhPh 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES a39 

r^ 1^ r^ :o r^ r^ CD t^ i^h* CD r» t^ t^t^cDt^r^r^ t^ h- t* r^ r^ (^ cc t^ h* r^ r^ r^ h* cD r^ cd go »-• r^ tr tr ^^ 

CO comnnmmm mn rococo roeocororoco cococococococoro nnnnn !2S2!2!2S3S2 22 2 

Ob ^^OCSCRCiCS 0>0> Oi Oi <^ 0503<35C30iO> 05C30i005C350iOi 050505050i C:05C5Ci050i oao» 2 



cm 

3 



lllllll II III .^1 






« !3 d ^ I*" '^ '^XJ <- 



03 

9 



a 

03 

> 



C^ 00 t - 00 h* O Oi 
•-H t- Tj- .-I .— ' O »0 

Tf t^ OO O C5 00 CO 
00 r* lO CD CD lO CO 
M Tf CO CO ^ fO ^ 



.S3 



coco IJ^CO rH 

iO lO ooco o 

|>.-^ CD t-H O 

lo CO -^ t-^ r^ 



C 
CO 
J2 
■^ 00-^ C*« CO • 

T?« t-- «r--. CD b* 

CS CD C?5 W O CO 
CO lO (M O 1^*^ 
CD I^ (N t^ CD05 
CO CO CD CO CO CM 



Tf CO 

Q> CD 
CO(M 



.CD' r- O O I (M 
•^ Oi ■^ iM O CD 

00 oo a> 1-^ c>< r^ 
r- oi C5 CO Oi t^ 

CD >0 CD CO >— < CD 
CO CO CO TP CO CO 



oio ^ r^co 

OCO '-H 00 03 

■"S- or r^ c^ c^ 
o "<*' r^ GC o 
roiNco-*-* 



^H o5 cs Q. Oi --; 

^ (N t~ -'i CO 
00 O »0 lO lO CO 

»o r^ »^ -^ c^ o 

CO ro ro »o -^ -^ 



a 
g 

i a 

' 03 

;cQ 

IM . 

r^ ^^ 

coo 

CD "O 



COCOO0COI^--<t^0O 

esicoc5(NCSNC^N 




i 



w 



03 
03 
C3 

o 



o 



O I"-? 



S 03 

a ^ 

3 



■5 >> . 









<B" 



P3^ 



CO 

P3 g 



° -^ 5 g ® • 

73 -^ -w ^S ft :- 




a 
S 



'5§ 



0.9 s 
a c3 =0 

oro 17 

tOOO 
(N.-ICO 



3 

D!>- 

o . 

Om r' 

ceo -(J 

IS" 



o 









>>b. 



cm -<2 1 

S C i^ 

ls3c;S 



Ill 

^^'^ 

C5 UO »0 
t^ CO t^ 



CO r > -^ -H 



CO 



onS^! > 



t 

D 


03 



1 

bo 




3 


Y. 


III 


\j 


fe 


a 




Q 





d 




fe'O I 



Sj ~ C ° to 

^•oi: c g 

M IMUM^t^33 

D OOOOOUO 



o^ i-lu- 



t- c 
<A ^'' 

a'io 
DQ 



« - C3 
3^Ph 

Coo 

Si: 3 
PQQ 



(?-=< c 
-^ > M 



o 






■a 

Coo 

O 1^ C3 
03 C3 O 

qppcOQ 



Cl^ > 
c3 C3 c3 



5 



. a 

c s 

-♦J r^ 
^ o 

.SH 

o 

^^ w as 

«-a..j^33 

o ° N Ph J5 
«•-> O o 



&^ 



•g O O tJ 



.C 03 

o„-c g-| 

'o'o 000000 

QOGQQPQQ PPPPPP 




PhPli 



O^ 






w PhPM Ph 



(l-f^pH^ Ph*"" 



P 



PhPhP-i 



p« 



Pk 



a40 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTR'ITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



cococococccocococoeoco 






c 

03 



eocccoccec cc 

Ol C2 C3 C2 o> O: 



t- © t. . u  



CO CO 



cot- 

coco 

0)0> 



PQ P 



cococococococooo 



>. . i; fc." jT a> 5 t>. 

03 ■« 03 03 g g d 03 

sossps>5;s 



coco 
cso> 



CS 



o CO cq CO r^ r^ X5 o^ lO -"^ o co 

O OOOl »0 O C5 --H CO Ci »-< 00 

r^'<j<co^Hcooc*^oo»oco t^ 

CO CO Tf CO ^ CO CO cs -^ -^ CO -* 



03 
CO 



o o o 
o o o 
o; w: CO 

*S '3 *o 
sad 

« 03 a 

^ U Ui 



d a d 

OS cJ 03 

\intxim 
.o - •, -oi 

COC^-^ C^ (M t^ 

O C t^ CO -^ "^ 

cr c^l CO ^- CO o 
»o »c lo ^3 >^o oc 

C-^ Tjt CS CO CVl -^ 



o 
C 
c3 

d 

03 
CQ 
CO . 
oco 
CO c^ 

00 05 
COCO 






CO CO 

O O 
_ o o 

g crt CO 

— '3 '3 

O t^ ^ 

|gg 
Ahmcq 

» » * ici 05 

00 iC »C5 CO c^ 
CO CO 'CtJ C5 OJ 

■* oco t^r^ 
CO 40 »c r* lo 

r-l>-.<NCOC0 



t^ lO t^ 

»C CO Tt< 

rt CO^ 



1^00 

00 "O 



c 
o 

o 



s 

ss 

s 






< 



03 

a 



3 
o 

d 

c3 



a 

"3 



< 



si* 

o — 

b-i ® 












4-3 03 . 

.9 « o 

'^oo^ 

o y^H-?- 



d-ap 

73 o d 



c3 
O 






II 



>7»- CO ( 

<H or 

o 



CP _ 

O^P 



O o 



*o ^ r^ 



O'O o 
<N CJ—I 

COt'-CO 



•-H CO 

f-H (M 



f> CD 

-^d 

r- CO 



O ;3 






O 






■c^ 2 " 
5 to'co 

>^^C3 

'"d'S 

»cc/i oj — 



O'^ d 

^ S °5h 
^ o3 CO 5 

gia C3'' 

d r^; 



■0-- O 
> . o 

^ ^ CO 

o« 5 

CO CaO 
O)~»00 

imP5 00 



§ 

d 

M 

OS'S 

a Gs 

■a .fLi 
k^ -C co._ 

- O^ => 

C - » a 

■g §<:§ 

« .§3| 
■^" >^ J"3 

i2^ t> o d 
'=^' fc^ 03 i: 

>-i o) Ota 



— o 
OR 



o o> 



o 

o , 

Hr CO 

2, O 



o " 

2« , 

CO •*^ *•-• 
■-' 03S 

pioO 

Ph 53 o 

. d CO 

c3 CO-- 

rfc! O d 



coz; 3 

d s« 

p . « 

>.3 ^ 



Ofe 



-!<(; 



0-3£^E: 



CD 

y'o5" 
> -«2| 

^•k^ co»^ 
^1^ ca^ 

P3ZS« 



o 

a 

iCO 

<D O 

o . 
a; >. 

c§^ 

Ci o 

o>^ 



w^ ^ \ 



coZ o-^O 

C» CO-H 

(N Wt^ 



©■T=-a5 

oco 1—1 
00 -H 



■*-= ^ P ^ 
. — d ^ c3 ( 

,i:.2dj' 






lO o 
^ CO 



^ CC Oi 03 - 

^ 4J +^ +j .;i: 

: »o o t^+^ 

(>3 rH 1— t CO 
s +a +J 4J f^ 
^ CO CO CO '*— 

; 03 <S 03 « 

CO'* O,™ 



;5 

. o 

ll 

■3 ® !>>o3« 
§2iiO"2 

P, CJ o c ^ 

p,co O-^Tt* 
O CO o 

CO iOi-H 



a 

03 



o 



03 



iJ2 

gSScog 

d op^ "^ ^ 



d 03 
9P 



O 









 • .  _- -^ ^ 

£3>>.g3 

O O C3 O t-< ^ 



o 

si 

CO w 

O d 



03 aj'^ 

CO a ^ 

d 03 b 

o„-J 

- c; . 

O d CO" 
C3 I-. O 



d& 

C3 O 

o o 



t3 >. 



PPPPPPPPPPP 



4J>; C3 C n3 
t*! I>>03 03 O 



3 S 
o o 



o 

dps 



_ d 

d C3 
O bj) 

1^ 

Hg 

17-r O 

-§§ 

c«-.2 



WW 



d 

03 

Ph 



d 

3 

.a 

o ,- 



WW 



w 



^ , o 

. a 

;;j fcH o I 

= P o« 

-& 3 cT J 

) bf 



^a 



d ■ai^<) 
■d o3-« „ 

las.5§ 

c3 P^ 1^ D tic 

PWB«g 



n 



o 

d 

I 



0^ 

3 

d 

03 






^ .Xi- a:> *j ^ *:> 



a 5 d d — . 

KHHWHWWWW W 



W CO CO CO >2 

aaaats 



&* oJ bT-" 

OJ CO r! *a 

-wgfs 

WW 



d 



|JmI-3/-\ 1-5 vJ iJ 
(IiSOh'-' fl| PL, PL| 



o 
w 









h5 

PM 



p , p 



a 
f^ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a41 






to 






t~ to 
CO :o 



•2 ^ 



1^ h, h- r- t^ 

CO CC CO CO CO 
Oi 0> C> Oi Oi 



CO CO CO 
Oi G5 Ol 



COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO 
^ O) O^ Oi O) O^O^O^OiOOOC^ 












O "-I t-H c^ C4 C^ ^ C^ i-H c*:; cs 

5 ►-sH5i*h-5i<=imi-j-«;i>=;i-sf-5(^<; 



s 



c»co 



»; 


•n 




9 


o 


e<I 


in 


*tf7 






fl 


<r> 


2 


s 


t( 


a 


c 


n 


03 


3 


t/J 





- 00 C^ '-^ CTJ 05 -Ol CO 



o 

a 
a 

C3 
CO 
<N . 

>ooo 

-* QO 



O C^ O C^ CO 
I^ Oi-H CO^H 

C4 CO CO -o o 
'<*' 00-^ t^ o 
O O CO CO 00 
■^ Tf< CO CO ^ 



c8 
u 

ooc^ - 

»0 »0 CO 

■<»* r- CO 

lO »0 »-H 
CO'*!-! 






o o _ 

M CO 2 

o Or- 



o 

CO 

O 'J --J I'/^ 



K«cn 



c o 
o c> 
.2.2 



CO CO CO 



O Ol (>? r 

CS O IOC 

a>o Ci r 

COTt<C^C 






-oooor^'-<C^.*iM-s< 

.10 0^ *TT*NCO0P 
l-^OCOOClCOtO'* 

5co:oaocotocooo^ 
^cocococo-^-^co-* 



oc^Tj-cf-^o-^ooct^r^ 

COCOCOCSCOCSWC^(NC<IC<I 



■^C 00-HO coos coco C^ 00 •-'O— iO—< 
COCO<NlNCOr^CNIC4CC:OCOe<lCOIM.-OCO 



o 



CS 



o 



a 

03 
be 

>> 

o 

<» 

J3 



i c 

o 

JO 






oKI'co 

^ — > 
Qca 



6 2" 

Or? 

>-^ 



S>- 



a c; 

.S goo C3 

■?, o ■" ^ 2 
^ j2 en -a 

O ■■- — 

^ coP5 Oi 



^ S ,„- .^ 

|oSc.H 

S S a o 

a ^^ c«c^ ^ 

03 J"m "*J a; 

5^.1 ii 

K '^ o: C-I 
o — -H o t^ 

<N to CO -H to 



il2 cf 

e8> 



o » 



O CO 

:^.2 



^ CO 
T3 C3 
CO ft . 
O o ft 

-.^% 

k  <^ 

'*>ci CO 



:^; 






o 



:o- 

co , . c .o 

^ -^ <^ c3 a 

c* '"■ ^^ c3 



c3 



CO : 



'o3^.2.5g 

CO h.r, CJ ^ ':4 C3 



>■. - 

•a'S 
cqinO 



CO 






■ofc>- 

ooo"^ 

lO ^ CTi 



i«^:-!.a4< 

a— c3 c j; c3 - 

to ^ a rt — I lo .2 
r^ ? c3 o "-I -a- o 

P*- totr' CO i-i 






5 



cO.2 



03 

a 


>^ 


o 




^ 


'Z 


y. 


'V 




a 




CTt 


>. 


to 


4^ 


h-t 






D 








^ 


"^ 



o 



. cbPh 



sZiZ; 



o 
o 



o 

a 

13 



o 

S| 
c ' r 

ES 

■« co- 
q rS 3 .'a 



O 



.w.i4 o 
CO 1- cu 



-^ ? - to 

- ^ c 

lO ^ .« , • 

'^ I— I ^^ . 
00 o --. 

■-Hco W 









.«-3 


bf) 




3 


I J 




Ti 


m 



02 5f 

a^ 

+.S to r1 

A "3 c 

 fti-i-g 
ft *►-; 
■<«^ 

111 



o 



W 03 W - 

M ^3 W -^ 



O 

"3 
ao 
a 
<1 

hn to 

. O 

CO ^ 



'^r^^co-oKgg 
.^L.* 0^ ft C3 ^'-' 



'5 °E "3 ? !^ -S -M ' 

■^ lO f-i  -^^ -' 



S >> w c 
os^^a 

o -^ a; c3 



2; 



c3 

r.-i rn, 
■"ft-" 

"a!?cS 

c -o tr. 

-" oi -" a 
.2nS a 

ca c S 

CO C CO 
00 CO 00 --I 
c: o lO 

^^ C^ T-l O 



>^ ^5 6^^03 



' 3 






■" a 

CO S 

^2 

00 o 



! d.ce^r 



fl C3 '-" r ^ n +^ ^ 



io9^ 



iO »0 O CD O ^ CD 
1--005CO-<SOQ 



a-^ 
f-> . 

a 'la"" 

?i ftPj g to 
CO to , ^ M 

.5 = ^ -a 

JS«w"5.Sco| 
" -a— .'^ 
*i «^ 

^ r^ -" C . 

»C !^ r-i 

>C OCO O 
M 00 CO C^ 



a 
5 



:^ s 



2 § 



C3 
« 



.a ^ 



o 



rt 03 

^a:.2 a 

►^'^5 5 

k- CO 



a 

_C3 

•^ a 

r- O 



o 

"3 
x 
a 
o 

O 
o 

? CS 



.2 o 



2 5-=^<:s 



; f= _•■ . H ~ 



•^ "^ ^ ^-^ '- 
.a u. CI n .^ ■" 

a 53 ,C3 ^03^03^ 



£:_-&. 






c 
a 



i-iU tJLi .2h ^ ^i, Cli ,^ 



o 

.2 ^ 

'5 "Si 

O M 

as. 









c a .a-p: -r i 



.3 i-j — 



'I 



; c3 to 



<» Q a , 



Is 

^ _c/ i _a _c a _a to to 

t- ^ — ^ Ci. fa fa fen 



O 

a" 
a 
.a 



2 



E.2a 

(— (72 C "^ 

C; O t- 
<ft^g 

.a :_ T3^ 

Ofafa c 



3 



a 

G/ OC , 



o ^ 1 c; 



30a 

CO.^*-! 

3 



c o 
2Q 



C3 



r'r, a^ 0^ q; a 
■«-i rf c3 c3 c3 

fa fafafafa 



3 9'tf ^ 

• 3 fa c .— =;'•■ 
■'2 ""£2 !r. t3 ."-, 

03 I 

■a Z 



£5 £ 3 5 



^-. 2 03 r C — 



— —So 
fafafafa 



00c 

fafafa 



^1; a a a 

.; £ c3 es c3 

O O U Lh u. 

fafafafafa 



pHft&H fafapHft ft 



3: Q G GQ 



ft ft ftftt; *• 



Plft ft 



a42 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 



CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
OiOSOO^CT Oi 0:1 C Oi 



CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi CJi Oi Oi Oi 



COCO CO 



•Tt^ CO OS N -Tjf ,_, ,— I ^ '■ 










l-s 



05 as 



J2 O 



f*5 CO CO CO 

en cr^ ^^ Oi 



t^ Ci 00 o 



O OS O 53 



CO CO CO CO CO 
ry) <^ Oi Oi Oi 



s § 






coeoeo 

0^ OS OS 



^ ^ ki 

03^ OS 



COOS C^ CO— < 

CO ■^ coco I^ 
r^ 10 10 01 01 

CO t^ CO "* CO 
CO 10 !>■ CO O 
'(j^ CO CO CO '^ 



CO W ^- 00 

r^ -^ c^co 

CO CO c:)"^ 
o CO r^ CO 

C^ CO CO CO 



'O CO OS CO GO 

o -* o o t^ 

10 CO O CO CfS 
OS CO CO C^ 00 
-^ CO o o to 
-^ CO -n* CO CO 



a 

03 

n 
00 oT 

00-; 
10 CO 










o 

o 



oq 
c 






«0 

s 

e 






d 

03 

a 



o 



a 

CS 



a 

03 









1-1 ja 

eft O  

la 0'«ir 

j^ too 

o al^i 



-" M fe 



03-" 



0^6:c 



O 









Q> 31- 



^-^-^r 



CO *-H O (M O ^ ^^ CO •-< O •^ Q -^ 



.a 

o 

a" 
o 

§ 

o 

o a 

>.^ 
^ - 

-*-:* CO 

O" C8 O 

a 03'-' ^ 
awo s 

5 00 <D 

5) cooi>r 



a 

'^g^fea'^'^'T; 

*J « B<MOO/^ 
■O •O^'h OSIM 





i 



03 a^ 

aiSs:^ 
•a-oaa:? 

M c; a; a; -2 

03 CD O) Qj OJ 

U (>4 Lh ti U 



b£ 



a 

C3 
C3 



•a a 



a OS 



^ S 03w 


edman, 
edman, 
edman, 
ledman, 



p^(I<(i<p=< 



JO) o -J 

<5 ^ i-:a 

a *j .„-i— I . 
c« ja -" " — 

t3 "C Ti, » ts 
0) s^s a 
x; a a 3_2 



5'sSa^ 
.— . ja ^ 



o a> 

1-5 a> 



^ C3 03 ofd 
}^ ^ j^ i^ '^ 

cQ cg c3 o3 cS 

00000 



.ij "-v 



£■§ 



03 03 

00 



O 

.2§ 
>a 

a-^ 

EaO'S 

a 0? 

03 03 

00 



A< 






^' t- a 
a g3 



tfi 









O L. ;. 

I O q^ CJ 



3g5 
iJ S o 

_ ai-» 
■a « . 
a. c3 J3 

-^ ' o - > 



.3 ® 

<i> <v - - - 

0000000000 



gag 

4>S CO 
o ojtU 

s a o 
COO 



•a 
a 



ClSQoj 



^3^,^:] 



f^SQ 



Dh^P^ 









Ph 



PhPh 









SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a43 



tN. r. h. !-« t« h* r* r^ « b* h*t>-r>.r^ 

Oi 0:1 'y- 0> O^ 0> Oi Oi Oy Oi 03C5CTiOi 






f, i^ h* t^ (^ r» r- f'- h- r>- 00 »^ 

CO cc 00 cc CO CO CO CO CO ro coco 



cm'tjToo 



10 CO -"^Oi O OS i-T 



.0 


^ ^ >- r^ L -! 

« « rt -S 0.-S 


^dc^ 


June 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Feb. 


C5-9 ^^a 7; C g r! 




§4?5S 




1 1 1 1 1 1 
1 1  1 1 1 






1 1 1 C/3 

1 1 1 (U 


! V3 ! 1 1 

I a> J J I 

is i i i 
1 1 1 1 
















! 1 ! ! ! i 








1 ^ 1 1 1 




111!!! 






1 1 l-*^ 


1 fl 1 1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 < 






11.3 
1 ! > 


;2 ; : ; 
,pn 1 1 1 




;;;:■; 






CD 


; g : ; 1 


-ri 


?D 05 CO CO r^ 


ol 1 loo 


oco>nt^ 


'. 1 ',g , :m ; i ; 

t^ CO CO "^ *# -co CO 1 


S 


CD CO OJ t^ "^ CO 


Ci IM t^ 


CO 00 CO lO 




<M rH CO "^ -^ --1 


oor-05 r^ 


00-<05 


<N CO CO -^ CO 00 CD Oi 1 










-0 


(M CJ r^ to ci CD 


—  r- ^ —  


10 CO r^o 




CO 


rr Tf« CO C? CO CO 


•* -^r c^ -^ 


-* r^mm 


CO CO ^ l-- ^0 "^^ CO "J' ^^i ' 






3 3 









PI 
0! 
CO 
-coos 

00 00 00 
OCOCO 
CO'^CO 



S3 
O C<1COOO .CC05 

00 rH O O CO »0 ^ 

CO .-1 CO c-> ro N <M 

01 10 CO 00 (N t^ r^ 

10 CO CO CO ^H ^- t^ 
CO 00 CO C*3 CO •<*« -^ 



^co 



§ 



CO ir^ -^l* 10 o O 
c<e^e<coc-jco 



^CDCO-^OCO-^^'OCO 
■*|(MC<1C<<C0 1NCO(M1NC*I 



IS 

z 



OS 

o 



5 >^>^ 



5-^Z* 

"2 id p. 2 



CQ 



c3.: 



•7i.:-2?-< 



o 
o 



02 



03 O 






■Ok. ^00 

00 »o cs 



o 

 0) l> ^ " 

<>><^ cs " 

C3 03 O" 

WWHco 

— -.7 

•^ IC C^ 05 



HH -r- Oi 

S 03 

.ca 

3 <u'^ .. 

^> 

coo. IS'" 

I- CD C ■" 

. ooo o:t; 

&ZCW(5 



C3 

2" 
3 



o 



o 



S3 
03 ^K- 






a 

CO 

o -; 



rt '00 
Ti ,*J I— t 



S o 



o -^ 
c« 

a; I* 

■^ o 
5 a* r. 

3 (B 
. ^-> 
tS en 

few 

Co 
o 



>. -00 

^000 
&^^^ 

ir^ a <n Qj 
•^^ 0)02 CO 

o >y^'^ 

T^ 03 en m 
g — aj 1) 

^^^^ 



a 

03 

M 

oT 

o 

a 

Q 

• , & 
50 • 

>i « 

^ -co 



u 



o 
a 

CA 

03 

ft 
c 



O CO 

CO c6 '^ CD 



3 
W§2 

,co f 






Q 



ipQ 






_^ ^ ty 

 r rg r -.a 
cooSco ?^ J2 



i^^og-J" 






cfi O c3 



CO +J oosco 

iM CO CO CN Oi 

CO r^ cs <—< c^ 



S .-s a s <l 

aO™0 co' 

§ o 3 - 

^ ►^^ ,^ > 
-^ o&<< 
• o~ »^ 

2 - r -C3 
«M >CO ^ 

. q M -H M g 

ht a- 03 ,^ 03 J5 

CO »0 ^H ^H Tj' 
■'J' 00 ^ CO .-H 



qP 



- M .M 



« ^ 






rxi 



as^z 



ss ■§ 



3 (D t- 03 03 



S O o : 
t* <; Ph 1^ CO cq 




.a S CO 



o! 
•.— • 

N 

ft 

o 



.a 



o 

O 






SS fe 03 03 c oS 

^j2X2 Et; w 

73 'O T? TJ 'T3 T? 

'o'o'o'o'o'o 

000000 



;.a .a .3 .3 .a 



0000 

0000 



>,T3 

"•^ c5!;3J5 
= =333 

o c c o o 
00000 



Ǥ3c*^ 

es a C ? o 

C c o o i- 

00000 

00000 



.S5to i; 

^ w~- 05 

m'^ C 5^0 

— ^ ^- c; t-i 

C - Qj •-< o 
O C r; OT ««-i 

1- » 03 03 03 

C O K. ^ ^ 

00000 



a." 

03; 

CO 



,0 






;-< 03 o 



Ko3^' 
03 g S 

d c a 

C* C) Q^ 



. s-. 
. O 

"' a 
o 



03 03 o 
000 000 



o tu. I — 1 c/a 
o a. 1^ o 
L. i^ i-i ;-t 

0000 



3 
S 

ftC 03-^ 

o) 0: t. a 

CO ^ rj. 0/ 



0000 o 



03 



O 

ft 



ft 

.a 

en 

3 

03 
ft 
CO 

OS 

d 

o 

a 

as 
ft 

<Xl 

o 

-*^ 
■*^ 

a 
3 

o 



1 










J J J 

Ph Ph Pi 



w^r' 



PlfLlpH 



Q Q 



iJfJi-:! 
PhPhP-i 



cSa 



.J J P5 

P< P-i Ph 



a44 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



_£ 

a 
o 
O 



e 
e 
o 

8 



e 

CO 



o 






!>0 



C 
o 



3 
O 



03 



C3 






6 






t- h- r>. i^ [--. Oi 

CO CO CO CO CO CO 

03 Oj Oi 03 OS O 



CO CO 



r- r^ r- r^ o r^ t~- 

COCO CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi o^ 



r- r^ t--. t--. r- 1~^ t-- r^ h-oor- t~- i-- 

coco cocococococo cococo coco 

OS 05 Oi Ci OS CR 05 Oi OS Oi Ci OS O 












j2 bl >> 



03 S> rt d 



as 



5 s => » 3 a 



03 






Pf^ f■'■^ 



.-^ CO ic 

CO OS lO 
CD — CO 
CO CO ^i 



l--(M 

CO 00 
CO CO 



to o 
co»o 

TI' CO 



03 Ot^ CO 
M cococo 



t^ I^ CO Ol CO ■* 
IMM«(N MCO 



D-i » 

HI .1-5 
Q>  



S 

o 
o 



tf 



• C8 "•■> 
i« (» C3 

3 C^ tM rj' 

^ iO CO CO 



CO^ >H 

°^ rS 

■'^ r^ 
*N C C3 

a -• oj 
■J O Oi 

J 00 TT ^ 
30 — ^J 
CD !N CO 



£> 



C O 

coo^ 

CD-* - 

h- Too 

CO t-H t^ 

CO CO ^ 



lO «U(» 

to o - — 
r^ CO CD to 
00 00 to o 

t-- to 00 CD 
CO CO ■«*< CO 



to CI 
t~- to 
C^ CO 

CO r-- 
co-* 



. o 



O -QO -^ ^c^ 
CO -"H QO C^ o CS 
CO GO f- Ci Xt O 
»-- OS CD :D r— O 
CO CO -^CC U3 CO 



CDrH .-I 

CO CO o 

w oso 

•^TjICO 



0)CD 
00 CO 



o 



CO ;:i 



":i CO 00 

CO<M C^* 



I^COt^OO 
CS CO C^ <M 



— *C0 "O 
CO C^ CO 



00 00 -^ CD CO ^ 



lO 00 C^ 



OS l^^ iM t- .~, 

WCOiMtN »- 



w 4S 



c«l2 
o 

.>^ 
a* 



o 



:z; 



03 



S3 

a 



013 



g SE a" 
a -OS 

£e§§ 

OCCO 



O C V- o _ S 

o o>H SS 3 
CO to a* c^ — to 

tO' — ^7 to CD C^ 
1-H C^ ^ t^ i-H i-H 






O 

0(X<jt— ( I- 



E or" 
■f 1^ 

>tt-H C3 



l-l O 

§2^ 



est 

-♦J 

2, 



"■" E u 03 a 

(N i^co^ 

TJH -^ K-* to to CO 
D CO to C^ 00 ^H 
H COCO CO ^00 



^° 

oO 

>H cn 
^1 

>>^ o 

QS . 

O-^J. CD 
c« 03 

^co 



 .43 § 



> c3 

Qj g 

sm 

_03 . 

ca:=: 
^ o 

.S "■J ^■' 

in CM 



> i3 

Im8 r 









r <!JfOro 
r> .-g 



>^1 



:(^ 



oJ*^ jl^O 
K r~w . 
_<-^<i c 
J3C0 ^ OJ o 

■g r- K !>.2 

S T, o o cj 
5.£f>;j r: 

O to ,- 

CO O-^ 'O •*< t^ 

r^ 00 to o - - - - ^ 

C^ F-. CO to CO to •* ^H CD CO to 



■ti C/D w 

d <s a> o' 



, C3 



A 


c 


^ 
s 


1 




G 






CI 


C5 



>.^ §-? 



CDC<J(N OCSI^b-OS 



tf S 



^ E 



, .3 1^ §■ ? 

c— ci =t i 

. >..2 o! S 

c3 !?3 C3 cj oJ 



« 



o ti >) 
t> o o 



c o 

C.2 

CU 03 O 

03 j- fc ra 
-'- c3»^fr- 

■^ ^ m' L. , 
.2 . cu a- 

.a da "3 

t^ tij K c-J 

S i5 « «- 
3300 



t- CO ?^ ^ 

J2 • ^-' > w 

<; M c g .2 

cm 0^ £3 --: 
> 3h5-o^ - 

J:: 'S is ■" ? 

►— f »* . u; 03 i- Cu 

c ■< o >■ ^ ■•— ' 

S M.73 £; w m m 

Q..2 p bO I- '1- iH 

cj oj 03 CJ3 03 03 



OS 



^1 

O ' — ' 

O CU w 

S3 ®^ 

t~ C/3 CO 

03 OS ca 



wa 

. C3 



Sr !£ S 3 
^>%^^  

C 03 <; £ en 
. ^ - C CO S 
a, c« S =8 CS 

cS c3 03 c3 c3 ^ 






6m 5 



ce o - 

agg 

t-H CO 
17 3 u 

S>^ - 

K CO 

•r o 3 
S >.>> 

i:8 cs 03 



<u 



cS-3 03 o 
I. &'-' a> 

C^J - 

>-.>-> (-1 CD 

c3 cj o bxj 

Oi OJ OJ Q> 





 -^ 


n 


rr, 


a 







0) 


mxr 





•c 






4> 


03 


a 


3 


03 
3 


■5 

C. 


q 


t/J 




n 






3 


-*.» 










c 


§ 


o-ts 


CO 




CO -*^ 




t- 


p 


C 




P, 




t>- 




r/; 


3 


CtJ 





U. 


"2 


w 









^ 


JD 




03 




3 


^ 


0- 


OS 


IS 


-* 



IDtntCW S" ; 






PL, 






PhPLiPh 






W 






Q^ 









P-CL, 



Kg 



hJ S- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES a45 





CO C*3 C*3 CO CO 
OiOi 0> Oi Oi 


O C3 


CO ro CO 


h-. r^ r-. t^ 

rocoro ro 


='"'^"?fs' 


2^""'S2 


lo-o" 


2j3-« 


oT oi" r-^ cjT 

!N .-< !N C^ 


Nov. 
Feb. 

May 
May 


o i; 5 « "^ 




Mar. 
Sept. 
Dec. 


July 
Aug. 
May 
Apr. 



t^ 1^ cc o »o '^ r^ 

CO « CO CO CO CO CO 
0301050003 



1^ t~ r- r~ 

co^sco.-o 

o o o o 



cc r^ -^ r^ 
ro coco CO 

O O C3^ O 



CO COCO 



i! 3 o » « tu » 






QO<!Q 






COOOM 

oco i-'5 or 

C5 CO '•'? CO 
CO >»^ C^ TI" 
00 CC c c^ 
^ co-^ -^ 



s 

c3 n 

oc^ to ..^». 
r^rfo -i-^ 
CO cs -^ c^ * 
•jr t~ — o o 

:C *0 CO tC t^ 
COCO-S- M» 



00 "O 
C^ O 

01 •<*< 

r^ CD 

to to 
coco 



o o 

CO OT 

'So 

a CI 

u :-■ 

fl el 

. -o 
~o -s< 

O — . o 

m r- lO 

lO .-< »o 

C^ CO CO 



CI 

C3 

CO .r- CO 
•o >c »o :io 

<0 lO Tf c^ 
CD — .OO 
ID " C^O 
'sf CO ^ ^ 



o -r^ -^ o o 00 
r- to o tM CO 00 CO 

O CO Cl CO f^ -^ 00 

O cr. cc 00 O O •^- 

r^ o »o o :r lo .--o 

CO CO CO CO C-l CO -^ 



C 

co o »-< c^ 

01 c ooo 

-H»"CO'00 
CO Goto t^ 
CO -^ CS "^ 



W Tf 1 o 
O iO .* Ol 

CC »f^ -H o 

tc CI c: o 

»o or 00 o 

CO -^ CO -^ 



tc X *r «o 

Cj — CO CO 
CO CO *o ^ 



-OQC 



u 



O C9(N 

^02 



CS^JM >. 

-tfl5o 

Phi- r^ 



^(5 



o 



p. 



D 



' o 

"373 



<6 



w 



^^ cjM ^.C3 



— - -fc^ J^ *j .X 

C3^ C3 S 
— W K S 
r^ CO — 

»C t^ ^- to 
t-O -"T t-O CO 



<1 

C C3 



^;^w r 






T3: 
OS 

03 
o o 

ma 



■a 
ci 

03 



;«; 





s:^ 




tX-iJ 




•3^ 


>■ 


-< 


Ssc; 


— . 


f t^ 




CM-* 


oi ro — 



■^ T5 to ^ "^'"^ 

'""" c3^ jr 

r J — CO 

to ^ tc ■<?■ 
O t^ CM 

X CO to 



--1^ r- 

ill 



qM 
g-M 



> O 
I -. 03 

-HtC 

dO 



03 



3 -J~0 
©to oc 

^CMCO 



d 
- >.'S. ax: 

^.3?g^ 

h .■:; t3 "^ '^ S 
su o'fl" to j; 



St3> o'-' 

^ o --.^ -'-' 

-^ CO 53 

+-» CO 

^ r^ t^ 

tOi< CO o -^ 
CM CO -^r ^t* 

CO -1 rt CO 



M 



03 

d 
'5c 



,« p 

O C3dj 03 

. j: ca'Q 

«2'^^?5 

^f^ca'g 

O o QJ 

ooogfe 



. « — o 
cs'a.S 

oif - S 
rai-a 03 



bo 

03 






,■3 r. 



•a 
a 
.2 

'w 

t— I 

btT3 
C<5) ; 03 

03 H P,— ' 



o -U - . 



o 

c 

C3 



M 


vJ 


.a 


fc 






g 


M 


to 


ja 










00 


■* 




(N 


>> 


to 



ca 

OJ 

o 

•t-3 

CO 



§• £ '3 c3 c 

lO r-H .— » ao '^ 



'H^^^Q 

■* p- ro oi 

to CO to -^ ^j 
■* CM CO t^ "<. 






Si'tf ® 

C O >>03 

"O-C 
00 CM CM 



^ 




<M 






o 


X 




o. 


§ 


>^ 


03 


m 


Z 


o 


pTi 


z 


> 


a 




-^ 


ffl 




g 


t/; 

l-H 


o 


03 


bc 
O 




to 


►-I 


S 




z 



a 

< 

o 

•g 
3 

CO 



31 



a5 



S  S 03 

.— Q> *- r; 
CO oft,-<; 

Cb.2 -w 

bi.~ ■;:? 3 



"3 

> !2 



36 



=?c 



ta - 






o: , .C 

c a M 



 a 

crj . —  

o-r~l'U'3 ^ 

3 c3 o a oa 
>-- > 5 = /2 

.12':^ . t/j 



s 

. a. 












■.KH^H-tW.* V— ( w- ►^ .^ Hpi i-H ►^ ™. i-p. N-. H-i — I 



o c o c o 



CO 



a 

o 

_; a 



, o 
■Com 

P. f-\ ca ^ 



a . ,Tr; 



a 

"^ ; a 

03 

g 

a 3 w 

x: 

c 



ca a 






J= °" 



C 03 

CO ^"o 

" > " k "3 -^ a" '^ 

S S'-S o '^ '5 ? 2 

_aci-i-3> > 

ooocooo c 

tit tl^ ^ S tl^ H^ a hH 



^'i^-^^ 



03£ . 
O 3 3 

M^ "^ tc 



3 a ,03 



.2 O 03 

^ C3--X: 
2x:~0 



UJ c^ a t- 






a i_- 1,"^ 
c3 ii o_r 

3 = 32 

3 3 3 3 

t-H ^-- Hf.. i-H 

htH MH »J-t l-Lt 



a 

CA 

3 

a 

0] 



to ' S 

03 ^« U. 

"3 -cS 

s-« S'^ 
< 0^ 2^ 

2 '-- 3'" s 
mts-c a 

3 >>>>>> 



a 

OS 



m 

■6 
a 

.3 
"3 



« 



C3 



p^d-p. -p.," 






Ph P-2- -i, Ph 



PL, 



72723— 57— pt. 23a- 



a46 scope of soviet activity est the united states 



COCOCOCOMCOMCOCO CO ro CO cc 



cocofocoeococoro 



CQccoocccoiTOcocorocoiroro 



00 t^ h- (^ h- lO r^ 

CO CO CC CO CO CO CO 
Oi Oi Oi O Oi 0> O 



« ® 3 31^ 3»i =^ ®,2^ ®>H^aJ 



-Si-XirxNOtO-OM 









^- ^ g >* § § >^ 



-31^ 3 ag 



^^-5^-s^ 



r-- ^ io o "^ lo oi *os f-* i-H 

(NCCMTTCOCOuOurJi— l-^'rfi 

t-t^cooiM-'^c^ccr^Oir^ 

r^OiCCOlMiXSO'^OSiOtO 
'^COTfT-H'«fTP'<**C>lTfC0CO 



r^ CO 

■^ 00 



CO r-- »o Oi -o 

c> Tt- r- CO Oi >— I 
04 o •* 01 u:>05 

C-? O C^ 1— ' 'C c-i 
TT CO Oi ;D o :c 
Tp CO -^ CO '^ iM 



■0 05 '^ T 

c c-i t-^ 10 



CO o 



1 izi tm 

'•3.2 
' o it 

 dS 

mm 



^ .3 CO ^ I I 'CO 

I C- I I CO 00>O I 
10 ■* CD (M CO -^ CO 

O I- t^ CO CO Oi t^ CC 
COf— tCOCOCO^COCO 



03 OC^l 

05 O CO CO CO 03 h- 

O '-' Ci C^ O OJ Tf< 

I I J 0-. » >o ■* 
ai 1^ di CO o o CD 

Oi 03 ^ (N CO ^ O 

Tj- CO -* -^ -^ c^ ^ 






T3 

a; 

3 

a 

-t-i 

c 
o 

o 



a; 

O 

e 



e 






c 

o 



3 
o 

IS 

d 



d 

C3 






a 
^3 



T3 r 

2; d -"^ » 03^ 

*^ -^ >■ . - . r,-^ 



O 



Z . 



a 

a 






U O QJ 

te c<3 

za 



CO 



K 



^3 
» o 



^S 3 



OCOCOCOCOOCOJS 



Sz 

So. 

>■§ 



CO >»o 

H o gj 
««> 

^ J3 

CC"! fl CO 

« 3;> .-t. »S 



,.s 






."SI 
,Og 

U '^ w 

. . r— « OJ 3 

>H U)<1 3 
co"co^ 

0> F^ 00 CO 
i-l t^CO --1 



C3 t- 

■3 
art 

"3 d 

'^ i^ 
- o 

Oj > 

C3 



coH 



•co'O 

z 2 - 

=3 O 
rt'5! S 

■J -'3 
^ S o 
OwJ~ 

«md 

- .03 
>C0 - 

d^d 

3 d S 

^ d M 

ftc3^, 

ZO^ 

OS 00 CO 
CO 05 C^ 
CO >-i "O 



•a 



!_. CO • 



rt so ot; 
•d * . i! <S 
c3 c^-rt ° ~ 



C3 tfM rt <j 

5oogSz 

§Tco^^« 

B<-n:0 00 f-H 
Tf* CO '«*'Oi 



fSiZSPn 

- .0 
'-^o o r 



P 



<^3 



cooS 
^ fc- . d o rt 

-"q SCO'S It. 

00 <N CO t^ 
^ C^ M C9 



::.^zzs 

^^cd-.3 
£Z^^§§^ 

o aj " >* c3 -." 
" ?^co^ d S 

ca"*< rt * <^'S 

- - •- cu 
■3 rt oi 03 H a> 



-05 M* WCO h- »0 



a 
z 



o J 2 

03 >>S 



pq o o d 
3 - w . . 

p-O taobt g 

b£ d d d CA 



O 
u 

^^d 

tied > 
. a>'^ ».^ 

O ^ -rt 



» o o 

s s a 

Cfl 03 03 

1-1 1-5 1-5 



o 

-d Ja 
o a 

a; Ol 

> rt 03 

Co 01 rt p 

(s; o a >> ° 
3 w . . 00 

O . en w 2 

J<1 O O O O* 
O O CJ o o 

rt rt rt rt rt 
1-5 1-1 1-5 1-5 1-5 




» rt 
OJ d 

^a 

■d rt 

">"a 

' rt a< >> a , 
iQPq 1- « a 

'"-^iS c 

2 §§".§§ 

. d' d"!5 fe rt 

rt rt2^.S 

"CO o.£3S 

' i; rt rt rt 

Oi 



0^ 

rt a 

d rt 2 
3W> 

rtM >. 

s 
:«aa 

'A a & 
WWW 



1 i^) 
en 5 



J3 

w ?^ O 
CC S^ O 



. i- 4i rt "^ 

?i c d d S*; d 

tt-r rt rt~ d o 

3 C Ert p. Q. u. ti 
rt rt rt rt rt rt rt 

w w w w w w w 



d 



HlJlJ QlJ JlJ 

5 PL| p, *-l Ph fL| Ph 



WQ^^Q ^Q 



J iJ kJJiJ i-J 

p^ Ph PhPhP-i Ph 



^ OOQC^ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a47 



CROS 



^.< 



rc ec Oi c? fc CO 

Cl Oi CC Oi 05 OJ 



'— " S ^ flj ^ c5 



33 



00 ■* 

22 


is 




2222 


■rao 


iC^ 


'T' 








-0^ 

CO 


Jan. 
May 
June 
May 



CO cc cc cc CO re CO ro co CO co co CO 
W <N C^ (N C^ <-t C^ CS I-* M r-< 



§5 

— S 


OS oco u^co 
UO ^ 00 CO O 1— 1 
--< — ^ U-: (N O OO 
wt CO .-< CC U7 C^ 
»0 iC C^ lO I"- *o 
■^CO "^ CO CO (N 


8SS 


lOOt^fNCOCO 
W M W CS CO w 



00 

O5 00 

ic as 
>ooo 



t^ 00 

^ o 



o 

tc 
C9 
o 

s 

Cl-osco -^ 

»0 00 o 

03 Oi »o ^ 
I^ OCC CO 
Tf -^ ■* lO 



■»*^00<MCOC<»COCOCC> 

00C^'!)'^O«^»— r-H 

00 00 O CO O t^ CO 00 

01 to CS t^ CO O I^ 05 

ccco-^-^cococcco 



ooo< t^oioo 

.— <N00-^-* 

occoo o«o 

iO O lO PO t^ 



00»OCOC^O5 ot^oo»^»o»ocoa5 C^00t>-"^»OCO 
CCC^NCSN CO Tfi CO C< C^ CO C<5 IN CO « (N (N CO C» 



T) 

s 



o 

c3>< >. 



be 



w ..£ 



a >> 

O C3 
..03 

^o 

> 

wdQ , . 

» a r; ^r-, '^ ^ O 

-0)2 - -c IS 






b ?J^ 






S TCQi-icO»000»CljCI— lo- 



I 3 



I o 

1 a 

O M 

o 



2S 

wj O 

tJD p 

l« 

00 <^ S 

ots « 

O S 03 



O '^ 



— ^WOS N i-i ,-« CO CO -^ 



^ IM 



6^ 

> >o coco 










ta 



•art 

^ X > 

o c> ^ 



O o 






1 cfl O 

.2S2 

- -J^* 

03 .c3 

"S ^ o 

b-"3 -^ 

O'o'C 

gag 

►^^ r- Oi 
X^CO^>H 

§^.2S 



' o 

I 

ii * 
Ota 

Is 



a > - 

CO '-' fl X --— 

.CO t*-, g !>.^ 

kT-* ^^ O c3 O 
oJrt cCQ I* ^ 

Kr S^ CO « * .-2 



Ooo *-> H 



:^^; 






^ 






CO iC CJ 
(N COQ 






.-. oo"Ci« O'oco'^r o<N CU 

CDOOt^CO lO CO "<f CO T-^ o 
■^ lO rH ^ ^COC^^^CO 



a 

03 

.3 

a 

cs 



n 






£1 

o 
o 

03 



a 
o 



o 



:9 c3 



3 

§3^ 

2 cK«2S) 

f^5 C 3 c £ 

i .E S - - 

— S tJ ^1 f^"3 ? S 

•SS 03 C3 G! C8 03 03 



bfi 

s 



w 



!« 



2-S 

^'^ 

.2S 
"3 S 

C9.S 
03 . 



~ ^ -9 

e>) C o; 3 
03.^ 0) OJ 



o 

3 
p 

^ QJ 






03 . ^ 

o„- 
3^3 



^^ 



3 ^' H 



- S >> 

„ _ ^ QJ w ^ 

C 'o '^ "o 1-^ 'oj 

www w 



o 

Q 



X3 



43 

^ o 

a- 

o.i<) 
X! " 

3 C 
O' O) 



« 



3 S 
•-03.2 

a*.2 

Com 



M M WWMWM WWMW53SW 



^a5 

» »^ 03 

o P S 

ojx; 



!W 



■^3 03 g c3'5! 
PhP3t3J3'=< 

SS4<!CQ 3 

•■'2 s" 
ce a^ s« 




g«<jaQ5 
l.a'.sa.sa* 

u c/: O) a; a; 3^ 






3^ iJ 









k5 



ia 






PMPh 



P 



a48 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



00 r- 

CO so 



r- r^ r^ r-- r- r- i-* t-^ f- co 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 

a Oi a 0:> Oi Oi 0:t Oi Oi Oi 



t>. 1^00 t- t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO 

cr- o Oi CJ3 o 



cccocorocococococo 



t^CO I^'"'^*"00 



c> 









p. Ci o o ^ 






C (u ^ 01 fc^ j3 »H » ii^ O O O O irt 

f^ ai<H fe <. 1-5 1< cc 1^ c-'j P=< f^ (i< <i 



C 
03 



t^ r^ h^ cc 

fOCOMCO 






eg 
-■^ 

OOC^l 

Tf 1— I 

coco 
co-^ 



T« -^ 30 O 'O 
00 GC O CO r-- 
CO 00 O lO '^ 
OS O t^ CO '30 
CO CO CO CO CO 



CO CD 
00'-' 



O CO 
00 QO 

coco 



err -^ CO O -"^ 
OO OO C J --0 o 
t^ 00 r- cs ijO 
cc r- <N o .-» 

CO -tP lO CO -^J* 



ctcc 
CO r~ 
coco 



CO CO -<N CO -^ * 
!-< C) (M iC O) O Ci 

CS TT* CO O Ol to CO 
■^ O CO '<*' 00 lO o 

fs. t-- --< cc CO CD r- 

■•S-' CO CO CO CO CO c^ 



coticoo 

^ l-H CO 

CO to »o ^ 
OcDcOCC 

cor-cocs 



13 

o 

o 



B 

s 

o 

s 



«0 

s 
e 









-a 

G 
03 



■a 



03 

>> 

p 
3 

o 

a 
c 
w 



03 



S'^ ■« 



O en 



o 

J. =3 M 



« 



03 O 



3 -« - 03 •-- ^ t- 

CO " ~ 









CCCQ . 

r- r^ * 

bo o o 

o e.S 
t2«,P3 

I— t lO 



2«2 
C3 3 

M —I 












O 03 03 /^, 5 ^ 

t^ O '^ ^ ^^ 30 . 

O "^ "^1 <0 CO '-0 -v« 
T-H CO — ' »0 O: CO t-H 



Ti M '.O 

IC t-H  



".SO 

..n.^-0 
. t •§>- 

' "^ o te 
■?§ r 

'^ Cfd ^ 
co»-5 00 3 



o 



O OJ 

W Qj ^. 



Z 



'lO O 



o u 

>^ a o 

^2:2 - 
- K -2 

>< f^ ni — 
O '- '' - 

 o > .. S 

<1 



08  



— - 

+oOO 

f^£:5o 

"il O o3 



03 

Ah 

3 
J2 



^ '^ - o 



C3 >-' 



~ S > o 

M— a 

c3t3 * fl> 
l> SCO <U 

!^ *^ •"* ^ 






OJ 






O « 



in ; 



"00 00 
i-< t^ 00 



i- o ^ r-t 



1^ jm _ 

S Z3 CI -th E 



■a OT-'Ti.iS, 



Oj 3 



M m 






S "^ »0 CO i-? 
O ^^ CJ -^ c 



CO O '^ 00 
o —■ » t^ 
«CO C) o= 



OJ 

— CO 

03 1^ o" 

" 0, 03 

S3.2 
>■>.£) 



C3 



•^ <u h o 

jj (-. 03 -. 

D, c c3 tS '^ 
■" — o 

c r-« :> *i^ ^ 

S ^^ 9 S 
00.O oj ftS, 
to 






■" -PQ, 



O^ 



^Q 



•ijja 



CB 

<x> 

 ^ "S 
CO S-j^-C 

X3 n r^ w 
+J 03 ^ o 

§Wc5tf 

r- lo to CO 

CO 00 Qt^ 
coco ■^(M 



i 



o o 
C'S 



ss 



w 

o 



M 



0^ 

-^,<X3 03W 
o|&3 -C 

3 § ft -3 s r 

S^ d) o o o 



a 

"3 
o 

.3 
ta 

13 

Wo! 

^3 

§.2-3 

|.3feis 

_g_--_o_o 
o'o'o'o 



03 w - 

o o o 



,  o 
ocoS 

"3 o 3 



Sag: 



o 

•n 

o 



c« 






a- ^ 



G> 



-^A! d 3 

U U. Lh F.^ ^ 

o o c o o 



a; a; 

o a S if 

'^.'5 -Sot. ^ . 

*^ .^O oc»^ 

r:. Z2 i„ 

•t: t^ c  

a O -J-j • 

[- 10 '-'■J .^ PH .*- CSJ 

o o o o o o o 



3 

a 

CO 



08 






1^1 



■3^ 

- ..£ 

C3 c3 C3 rt 

u, ^ u u* 



T3 

3 
« 
be 



P 









«p^ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a49 



t* h* h* r* 1^ h- 1^ 

ro W ro ro TO CO ro 

Ci 05 OS OS o; o> Ci 



In. h* r^- 1>. o b- r^ ooi^o 

CO PO rO « CC CO CO CO CO ?0 

Oi Oi Oi ^ Oi Oi Oi Oi ^ 0> 



ogQ o cTocs ■^" -^ t^ CO »« ^"oo t^* ooTr c 






. h-> h-s Pi (-S <^ ■< ttJ 






3; 



J3 



r^ n t>. 

« com 
C) o> o> 



23! 



s 



r- 10 1- r- »^ t^ to 00 r^ r- 1- 1 - 1^ t- r- r^ *o to '^ 

rorororocorocorocococofococofocococoro 
C50iOi0505C5JSOiCiOC60i0^050iOiOSCi35 



-f^^^^-S^-g^d^: 



"S a-^ So S 3i2~ Ok2'3t_a)o;-^-uH 



i-H Cmo CO 00 CO 00 

00 c^ 01 •-( o o c^ 
COO"*CS O*^ tN 

Tji CO o or> 10 « to 
o to to CO t- oc r* 
CO CO ro '^ CO CO "^ 



t^ ic 1-H 00 o ?:i t^ 
ic to 1^ t-* a> 00 cs 
Ci ro cc r- 00 00 
o c^ o ":; o ^ t^ 
to OS to to ic 00 to 

"*' CO CO CO CO TT CO 



OOOlC^ 
00 .-H 10 
Oi -^ W3 
Tf-^CO 



c3 
id 

lOC^ — 4 
CO lO c^ 

otDob 

■«:}4 lO Cn| 



I I t I I ' -'• . I . o ' ' 

■<^C50Q00CO'^C0r^*^.^'-«fCit--fONtOt'-S'^00 
r-i— itOC^tOi— "05iO'-«OI-^COCS'^Clt-'^C^CO 
OOOOtCC^OT-iOOC005»OCJtO-^0 -Oil— I 
tOOC'tOtOOOl'*COtCOOOcCuttOtOtO'^>OtO 

coi— "■^coco'^fcoioco-^'^coc^rococot^coN 



ss 



CO 00 ^ 10 ^ -^ t'- 


CO «o to »o 


§5 


»-( »0 iO 


CO 


c^ c^ CO CO ro (>> cN 


(N<NtJ4 CM 


CCMW 


coco 



o 






5 ^ 

^ .3 



,r <i 



.a CO 






.-IOQ<N--. 



, 3 

"boo 

^ ri 
."y c 

w ?> a> 
nan 









' '^ li cc 

^r o 

3 L-^ 10 O 
■I ^ CO '-' 






c 

a) 



•iO'S o § ^ g 

P !-, W fe-^ 
IB C O K 



i3 

o 



O 



3 o 
•3 i?q 



«S3 



.0-3 =i 






3_-0 M 
^g.3 '3 



"_3 

• aj 

-■at* 






-,^g-e1 



» 



i ^ Q 



»0 10 Q O »0 «3 



tz) _; O c3 o O 
oO ooo(-H 

OJ 01 O CSI 

T^ O a^ r-l 



3 
,3 


<; o) 
J, 3 



3 =:cc 



'Oh : 



--.y '■- ; 



■3 CM 2 

s2£ 



>>=3 

^ O! Ct 



t:o^ 



"' C3 



o teoO£ 



3a2;2^  
X t; M m • 4J t; 



3 .-H S.J3+J 



o 



ce 









CO 

«CM t^ ic to t^ 
CO CO i-i'^CM 



Qj rr»^ O til>ti 
>^. i- 03- 

-<^ ^ffl o 

O "^ ^3 

•Era r'^- - 

•^ :CK~~ 

:>:o>oiil 

^ ■^'^ ^ a; 

Tf 1-- »0 ^ CO 
t^ X 10 1-H CD 
C^l ^ IC CC C3 



= 13 > 

ii S o 
3 -cj 

ill 

CO 

o -^ 01 
t-^ to o 



pq 



0>C/3^ 

r:; ^ '"^ o 
00 ^ 00 -^ 



o 

C3 O 

.S3 

J3 o 



a^ ^ 



■«-c 



a 

S 
o 
o 



r^ ffl 



3 o 



GQ 






03 

O 

03 

i<-i aid- 



=3 q 



3 

■5 ® 
<! 3 



§3_- 



.3 
a 
3 
M 



.Si 



CD 



CO 






ji . t J^ " 

''w Si 0.3 a 
3 s aaa 



'-> -^ s 

^ r; Oi 3 

3 — 00 
r- - r-. 3 






w 



a 



a 
o 



a 
o 



Oi 3 
-3 2 

3p; g 



:='J 



t3 a) 

^ 2, 






3 3 3^ 



r--3'-:' 

3 o> 



h3 <^ 



1-5 <3 t- 



3 3 3 
rt c3 C3 

-3hh l-H 



C3^ 

69 



3 3 

1-4 h:) 



o c3 ai 

'^ - » 

t- g o 

QJ 3 o 

w-g o 

3 ^ ;- 

c^ C3 03 



3 



t- ^ C3 W 

P >^C3^ 
c3 c3 o a> 
h4iJiJi-4 



<^ 3 lii,^ 



coo 

-if! tie 3 

0000 



T3 

^':;o 



-. {-. t/3 

o 3 
■^ 3;= 
G'S 3 



3 on 

a! o 

at 



5^ ''W-S 




301 as 








thicr, 
way, 
0, Da 
po, E 
ler, 


e 


a aac 


J 


^3,23^ 





a 



o 

CO 



as 



h4 



PC 



Ah Pi 



p ft 






i-Ji-3 



'Jr^Hl 



^ 1— ■^ - >-i " *-i 

p^ P^ M M PL, l-l P^ 



a50 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 



P 



CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
O^ 0> O^ OiOi Oi 0> O) 






CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 

o cs* od' c^ 00 tN~ -^ oT OS 00 



h* t^ i^ h- t^ r-- 00 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi CS Ci OS O^ Oi ^ 



O [iH k; <1 f=( 02 1^ 



cocccc 

Oi Oi OS 



C3 S CS 



coco 

OlOS 



m r-l 









CO CO CO CO 
Oi Oi Ol Oi 









S3 

d 



o 

a 

CO 

w 

c3 



t^CNh-uO^tNOOO 
CD -^ C^ CS ^■^ t^ lO 

r--r--c<)oio>i^ooo 

COCOTPCOCO^O^^rf 



T^C4^ 



O"^ 



CD C^ !>• - i-*u ' — 1 !--<   (^i -]■ 
OOS-H *C50C^ .CO Ol 

OSUtfNtDOSGOC^ai'— lOO 
COCD'Mt^CT'^-^COOOO 
■^COC^^COCO'^CD'^TJH 



, ^ OS (N CO I 

GO t^ -o o ?5 o 
O "^ cr> >o o CD CO 
^ r-- cr oc o lo CN 
oo CD t-- '^ CD r^ CO 

^ CO ^ ^ CO ^ "O 



a 
a 
13 

O -00 
(MOSIM 

1 -ICO 



§ss 



.a 

§ 

o . 

CC CO 
OCD 

toco 

CO<M 



o -o - 

Oi CO f-t >o 
I^ 00O5 M 
CO t^ ^ CO 

■*cD'*cO 



to 



73 



c 
o 

u 



e 






60 

e 



1 (NM(N(NMC^ 1N< 



Ci t^C^ OOOOO IC-^^ ^ 1-H OOOCO 00»O CO C005 M* ■« 
CS N IM e^ C^ CO IN CO C^ CO C^ CO IN CS CM C< <N M 1-1 IN- 



3 
o 






ca 



73 

< 



o 
bo 
03 

s 

o 



CO 

43 



3>. 



n 



o 



15 



^ 3 

. o 






SO , . 
Sc5d>^ 



?o, 



- ^^ 52 o o ^ 



o 

o 

so 



o 

S CO 

e . 

,0 St 

M c3 



^ ly^ "z^' f/^ ^i •-* o 



=n 



P3 



'0\ 



2S 



c3^ rS 



;g.^ji<«^ij^j^j' 






» Ph -_- CO a> te t. Sir 



iCO 03 



•iSS'-i 



CO P 



p,^x oS Sn-K 



(U /vi fo m V 



te-s 3 fl-a^ 

CO 00 00 ^^ CO >o CO CO ao t^t^cM 

»-i CM CO t^ "5 CO ^ t^ »0 CO ^ C^ 



^«o5t5«,^ 



CD C 

031^ 

IC CO 
CO o 



S -2 -^ _ 

•S t* > J3K5 

> aS^ o 3 



o 

o 

a 
,2 

tig 



OS 






.-- — W a;i 



a |c3 



o 



rco 



CO 
ca5 



S3S 

^3 

«3 



•« 3^_ 

«-w'^t/}CM 

W ^+^ fl fc CO  

CMi^O'*'*'-' ' 
rt 1^ Tl< O ?^ CM • 



^sw 



bo 

w O m 

t-l ^^ 
° te 

■< c3m 
1-3 3 

M o H 



iJ - 

-M O 

< >. « 

; o ^ 

3 > 

- -^ '5 
: a; 03 

00 00 

5 — ir^ 

> mCM , 

 CM CMcOCMM< 



i -;! 

I 03 c 
iS "^ 

'§,•3 
o «^ 

-3 .^M 



3 
03 o 

IS 

^ W t 



tf O-S^O o 

03 3 r (i C8 
^S ^ !3 3 

^2mco 



f^3 I 

goo; 

CO 

-co I 



03 S 

•tart: 



SSmt^g 



o . 

ft>> - 
o-«Og 

3cM rt a 
^ „ .- -a ■« 3 -c 

>P=l>Oo33=?2hH 
^ .2o-.=^iN 

f-H »OCO 

N -^oo 



^3«, 



s 



CO <^ coos 

~ 00-^ CO 
UOCO »-H 



E 
ce 



03 

w 






m t> g 

O Oi Ol 



S 

§11 

Jsi -IB 

a 3.9 

^ <V <£> 



a 

CO 



9 , , 
'303 

® S O 



IMi^h 



c a> o) 

3 9.S 
> > *> 

O O) O) 



O) C U5 I-* 
I 0) bo CO ^ 

.3.9 9.-S 
■>■>■>■> 

I 03 oD 0^ a:) 



SB 



6so:s 



►^ 03 I 
' E^-3 ' 

..- S « ' 

>, C3-.->«i 
05 O © I 

iJi-:!!-:;!. 



03 P"> 

i§3 

to mtS^ 

■?'?&-§^ 
a> cu.^.rt.~ 






:o 



§1 

CS Q, 

a; o c3 ;J -r- 

3 m ■« r- 
O t- 3 ^ 
--" _- S o 2 
-^ 9 S-S w 

60 p aaS 

35333 



b-s 



w 



H 



-03 -P 

C, ■— * w a 
-3 j_ ^ (/) 2 

^ g O OJ tUD 
.t^.^ O O O 



^|2g 

000 



' • 3 

i— I Oi 

3"S|3 

r COi^ 

S'o °£ 

a t« CO > 
000c 



3 









Ph'-'PiPh^ 



P- 



Ph 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a51 






•-4 r~( r-i ,-i fH C^ ft C^ .— ' 






rcccscro 



J3 ^_C t^ t-xi^'^,HJO»-*-*icl 



f'- 




r^ r-» 


co 




co.-o 


Ol 




OiOS 














1—1 




r^ r^ 




O 


r-«CN 




Q 




01 






tM 





CD c^ CO ro re ro C5 ro i^s cc fo ro 



g 3^ CD C1.13 ^5 c)^ P.S 



OCSiOtO^C.— il-f-t^ 

CO 'tf* CO CO CO CO CO ^ CO 



SS 



1-t »oo iC 

OOt- ^ c^ 
CS O O CD 
t-* I— ' CC h* 

CO "^ CO ^ 



CO »0 

CD CD 
CD CD 
CO CO 




'o'o 

§ 03 

C3 § 
WW 

CD — H lO CO *-< 

00 Tf as (M r^ 

1—1 00 OS ^O (N 
CO OOOcD Oi 
CO CO ^ CO CO 



a 

03 
OJ 

fi 0> -.»C ""^ t- U5 
COOCOT' -00 o 

»o CO -^ "rr* 1— < Tj* CO 

05 .-' CD t-^ C^ CO CO 

CD r* r- CD <— < Ol CO 

CO Tf C4 CO ^ CO ^< 



^?ii 



•O (N CO IM N IM C< IM iO CO C^ "«> r< 






I 03 

.M J3 H w 

O . ■rcO 03 
*^S^" C3- 

5 l-H pi, I— I ^ 



-^CO-'T CD ^ 

»0 CO r-i O O 



a 

03 
Of 

§J 

. o o 

III 

O a> 03 

5-3 5 

.a ^5 

■*Ji O CO 
O CO o 
■-100CO 



5 

.■so 
o 



C3 

OS » 
* 3 



03 Q^ 



D 



C3-! 






." 3S -s ^ -^ 



r<±i 



CO 



6 

o 

>^ 

So 



K 



xi-px: 



S^KS^g^ 



00 



^ rtMtc; t? 03^ 03 

^^ r^ sD 

C^l CD O O CS CO C^ 
O 3i t-H .— I C^ c^ CO 



«ro^ 

■^ w - 

ao > 

lis 



■;^Ph 



o 

c3iH 



 o 



, 3 , 
i^ 1 >. 

I 4J 

I o-S (1 
•33° 

0>HO 
. ^ O 

ro 



CO 



a 

o 
o 

ffl 



3 o . 



a 









•^7 CO * 
i— « ca o 

00 3 



CO 03 



;«ro£5 



h^ -^ ^^ ■*^ .*^ 

r-(K^ c^ (N CO c 

-H »oco. 






3 0; 



■>:? o^iiJ S 0,9 



COOSO — . 
0(N01 i-H 
■^ uo ,— ( t-H 



'-'rt ■" 



o3 

OS o 

00 o 

. ;-< 

> . 

ffl t. '^ 
3 ®<1 

Cos 00 
CO ..^ 
<NCO 



03 

g.2 3 

^ S« 

a> CO 
>- ft : 

g§ 

ill 03 o. 

3 03 '-J 

«S3 

mp:5 



03 



■^ "w 






03 
O 






73 

Ol 



'O 



« 



>o 



>T3 
o Go 



I pi 

w.ce-§ 

T3Ja 0! 

CO a^ 

W^ 
t* .3 o3 

thPh . 

!* O 



03 
>^S>hCB 

^ be ^ o3 
'■330 



.?Z 



as 

o i 

Ml 



.-> O g 03 
>Z^ CuCQ 

° - "S - 
Q J'-d CQ '^'' 

-topi X 



^3 -^-Sg^fS 



= ^"^26 § 

3 CD -^ <H 05rH 



t. 

2; - 
t- 1.  

CO M*i . 

CD - r 

+^ O OT © 



3 3 



-a^-: 



3 5*2 

_C3 o 3 



m 3 ^"OS o<i 
O o4" «— 1- . 

■^ -^ hH t- .-. .3 ..- 



[<^ 






-«^ 03 

b!:.2iB-3 

03 03 C3 03 



03 
03 C3 






ss 



p^** 



|§.wES 

03 am 

^M ° 3 3 3 

03 03 03 03 03 
fc^ ^ k-< ^— 1^ 



03 

'o'S 

§3.2 



o 



x: £f ® a S 

■^3.5 ii C3-S 

. 03; :3 *j 

03 S O 3 rt g 
O o taO U.3.^ 
(^ l-i ^ u ;.H b 

03 03 ^ 03 03 03 
>^ »-' ^ VI kri '5 



aj 3-0 



O O 3 

MM cr 



(S 3 

3 S 

.s>: 

o 

-<=5 



T3 

a> 

Pm 

o 

d 



Ph 



•3 <^ 

£3 

03 O 



s-.g .g 



N 3 fe 



03 03 



•9 ,- 

t> CO 

3 
bc 

+^ .^ Tj -*^ >■-? 

W 03 3^. t: 
■cn-S'1'^g 

2 ^--3 el 

3 3 o 1 2 

.^ ^ CA x . 



3 
oi 

03 3 



f^ 



i/j i/j -^" -*" ■•«• -^» '^" 

, 03 03 C3 03 03 c3 03 



3 a 

■3 . " >, 
0"0 03— "J3 

as 3 3 Sr=^ 

03 o3 33 03 U 



§^g§ssss^ss§ss 



►jhj 



vh3^:i, 



PhPl, fiSE^ 



>-3iJhJi-; iJ — i-H 1-3 ^ >-5 iJ iJ M 






MIiPh P-1 '^ PhOh 



Ph 



a52 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



coco M 
Oi Oi o> 



t- "E 2 

a a a 



CO CCC*3 CCCO 
OS Oi OS OS 05 



ooo t^ 

CCCO CO 

OS OS OS 

cfoJ — " 



00 -^ t^ r^ « t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO CO 
OS OS OS CS OS OS 



<0 fc. >j,-w 



&0 









;<ipm 



COCO 

OS OS 



03 a 



h- h- r- r^ t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO 
05 CI OS OS Ol 






t^ t^ t^ t^ h- t^ 

CO coco CO coco 

Oi Oi 03 OS OS OS 



3 <» » 3 ^3 <a 

<; ft, fn -< CO <; fi, 



3 

R 



o 



c3 



a 

o! 
CO 

r« (N LO 

OS lO ^ 

t^TJ' OS 
CO-* OS 



tC t~00COiO 

.-I O*^ (M O 

OS O r* (N -<f 

^H 00 ^ -^ 00 

CO -"S* I^ o t^ 

CO •**■ CO -^ ■* 



OfO 

00 CD 
O CO 
CO lO 

»oco 



« t. 

o o 
•3.2 

O " 
Sfl 

tH c3 

CO -^ 

-^ OS 00 GO 00 
CO -(N CC --H 00 

Oi C<t CAj C^ t^ rM 

^ CO'* O (M 00 
CO — '-0 O (N O 
CO 00 CO CO lO CO 



'* ^ 



Tt* 00 CO —I IN 

00 *-iO: b- O 
O'^ -?f (N ^ 

O ^- ^ o lO 
lo OS -.c cT' r- 

■* CO CO CO ■* 



C/iCO 

o S "^ c^ CO ^ 

C^ fO OS CO C: C'l 

o 2 OS '30 I - OS 

,_. ■^f :0 cC r^ CD 

CO c^^ ;o -^ ^** -^ 



13 



o 
O 



.to 

o 

e 
S 

S 



s 

Co 






a 



3 
o 



03 



<1 



"55 " 

o; 3 






a 

3 
o 

3 



X! 
O 



^ a 

* o o 
aft a 

.*^ »^ CO 
>, OJCO 



^jr^ 


r/2 




o 


s^ 


i<i 




a 


P-.:;' 


o 






C/J 


00 t^ 


^ 


oo 




■^ lO 


1—1 



tf ■" 
.. o , 

CO S^ M 

<i3' 
C 3 S 

9SJ ^co 

CO ~ 
CD Tt^ 



to 

a 
■< 

in 

C3 O 



1 3 

' SE !* 
" s - " 

>^ r 

- s 

CO o-r; 

1 — I -*J w 

O) M S 

0-* o 
r-.<MCO 



>H 



2. >> 



o 


m 




o 


^ 










ca 


> 




> 


a* 




Qi *J 




3 

> 


■2 




^ 


03 O 



-a 

3 
W 



|i< 



M CO 



•~ ? 

X OS 



C3*^ ;>i 



o o 



o 



efl o g o 
•3 c. '-' 9< o 

=^-|S-3 
1:^8552 

<i CO 1-^ I>- OS 



-2 o 

03 ai"^ 

ffl . i- T 

.2 » g; C V "^ 

.=r 03 a j«i k" "^ 

» g " a^ - 
^-35^« 



fi< 









-O 



■2fe 



m-rJ 



w.: 






3^ 

■^ a coS cs 

woo wo — , 

w O 'O CO ^ 



.9 a 

O W) 

'g-3 

cq^ 03 

a CO -M 
■r S-^ 



3 
O 

lO ,§ 
. >. 

S^ - 
; ~' . CO 

'^ i o 

■.■"■7 a 

-- f-< "D H - 

o o -a c . • 

.a '^ s s 03 
S ^•^ S' 



^' 

a" 
>. 

3 
o 
o 

PQ 
'-''OSSo-K - 

-co l^ tH ^ 

_, M a CO a r^ Tij 

a 0) o a- 3 Soq 

^g^co^^l^ 

' S C35 --* GO "^ '^ CO 
''^inCMrtCS CS 



Jcow^ 









a 

C9 



a 



a 

03 



■2 ;; 

a aiJ 
3-1 -2 3-3 

SO 3 3 C3 

oSooQ 

oS o u o 



.a 



O 



-S 



a 
W 



P5 



a >sa g« 
g -H ^ 

3 >>> « 

rt o 4^ at a 

Wcoco W)^ 
o o o q;'CQ 



i- O CO 

i3 o o 

■— C3I-S 



>s 

a 
o 

a 
■< 

a 

« 
.a 

a 

a> 
M 



* SI N 

Oj P > 

a a a 

a; c OJ 



o o 

ao3" 

a"' CO 
® 



Q^ CO 
03 '*J 

■^ L; S 



s 3 o 

.D C9»^ 



o,9.°3 3 



3 ■« 

>^o3 



oi CD C' .^ 7:2 r 



' w ^ 



^ o ^ 

■— M > ■— -d 

3'-l,i;§3 

- o a> t-" is 

« mo.§ a 

S ra .- o o 



a 

I C3 

o a I >, 

i«.25fa 

■S;=: '-' ° 

s « - 

03^ 03 a* 

t- •- O 

O O O O 



1-a 

a >> 
> 3 



a 

2 

"ca 

< 



IH H" 



a' - 

tZ CO 

o o 



o 



ssssss § 






P-i"PhPh 



0'^ 



Q 
I 



Ph Pi 






PhPhPh 



^ « 



CO 
05 



o 



CO CO 
05 05 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY 



ys n M ro ^^ CO ro CO CO coco co ^ ro ro co fo ^ 






■c a 
"a 



•g <ai5 ci^ as 



IC^ CO i-< •-H ^H 



IN THE 


UNITED 


ST> 


^TE 


s 


2 






b- Op 


i-H 


coco 

CRO) 


CO 


=^'?5 


t^ioioco" 


§5S 


S" 


■^"t^ 


o 
O 


1^5 


Jan. 
Apr. 
Aug. 
Jan. 


03 OJ 

l-sh. 


3 


ii 



a53 



o 

12: 



?§S 



03"^ <M (N OS 1^ 05 CS Oi 

O ^-< OS Ci CC CN iC ^ ac 

05"^ h* OC O -^ 00 CO CiS 

■^os inr-'Oi^oso^ 

tcco cc^<x;o3csor^ 

CO ^ CO CO CO CO to C^ lO 



iccooic^cooc^r^-^ 
ococ^cooscot^ot^ 

Tj*?0COrPC0C0C0C0»O 



03 
CO 



CO 



05C0 

r^ CO 

Osl^ 

Tf 00 

CCrP 



05 OS CO <-• 
O O to 00 
CO '-^ CO CO 

OS CD O 

coco "^ CO 




coco 



i?5 



CO '^ -^ 00 o CD r- 

M '^ C^ C^ C^ CM C^ 



TPOMoOTOOOt^CO 


CO 


CO r^ 


05 O CO t^co 


-«• CO 


t~o 


00 lO 


£2 


(Ncoc^coc^?0'<j'coro 


CO 


coc^ 


-WCOC^l M CM 


IN CO 


MCO 


MCO 


CO 



a 
o 

'■*^ 
03 



u 

o 



O 



- c 
S o 






..O 

c c 

O.H 






^H 



o 



CO 

43 



^ * P 



o 



o 
o 

P-i >i to . 

o 



«%^ 



jK^ P j; .^Z.2 



;2S 






O) O 



"2-3 5« 

«"1N &-W 

— *^ ^"3 



^•o 



C 0-3J«( 
C3-" « t- 

E-*^ o 

Qj bo ® ® r 

o O.S a 



n 



>'«'3'3 



c« tcSJ 



- O r^ 
O tJ5^ 
M fl - 

.S3o 
O .a 






— "— ^ OS n 



FQ. 



r > 



a> o 



U fits JO 






^ !-CC Ot^ 

bT; ® ^ C « 

■— OJ « it M 

— ^ a; oi a; 



H S. t- w = 



1 - 1 


1 1 I 


r ^ 1 


1 1 > 


\ZC \ 


1 bjo ' 


'^ 1 


IS : 




;o : 


1 O 1 




!^ : 


!"§ ' 


ID 




;H : 


',2 ' 


;< 


' »-t ' 




1 o 1 


1 1^ 1 


If^ i 


CO 1 




1 "^ 1 




1 CM 1 


1 -M 1 


' . .. ' 


.CO 1 


'XI 1 


' p ' 




'S i? 


:s d( 


^^ ' 



"3 >>-2i '-I 



O O) 

& r 



<ti 3 
OS o 
bo CO a; 

c3 c5 
Q OJCM 



cw » 



I CO 









too 00 

iO 1-H TT 



w 



rfi O I^ CM CD O ^ C/2 C/- O S 
^^ O CO i-H lO .Tt" »-^ 

00 lO CO 1-1 CO 00 --H 



'-' to 

i-HC^ 



• C _-. c3 

>*SE3 

>fe- 3 O 

Kr >0 CM 
^ CM t^CM 

ooco 
I-H r^ ^^ 



,2 iT3 



O 

c 

cu 

o 

"-^^co 



M 



pHOQ 
bJO 3 

Ph'-' 

ii 



CO o 
C3 ti 






CO CM 



o 



CO 



iCO 



.a.s 

CO .5 

at 

■3 " 



fc"S 



fep 



o° . 

■« 3 
Odo 

Pj3 



roar 



CO 



1 3 "3 *^ 

i cS-« =? 



.o 



o 

I 

CO 

.a 



-Ti C 



« C , 



co.ti.ii: 



o '.^r";^ 



.3 -^ CO 

o tj c; 



^ M 3 ^ 



C3 

o3^gw 

y-i 05'" O 
'-I .^ _Qj m 3 
"^ c* .3 'rt? 
c^co £i3 « 

t-l to »^ 



03 

a 

bo 



o 



■3 
3 
O 

e 

03 



03 



3 3 
o o 



3-3 

o i: 

.*.d C3 

|i 



3 

<« 

>i-3 

O i-i 

« ? 

. :* 

biK 

* CO 



o 



3 o<; . 



:§ sj 



F*i< 



3 g'-S « 

5 2 bt.rS 



,9 o 

o o 

go 

'1° 

"32.2 
= SS 

S3 E . 

C C3 C^ 
3 o o 

"3 3 3 



03 a> 05 



3 

<!i "? r, 

-31-^.2 
 .- 1 3— =^ 

« -;r; csSW 
>'3 o X ^, 

B'^K ® rt 3 

- o 3 . . 3 

3 t: 3 03 t- fc- 

o 2 3 *^ <ii « 

m 3 fe.a-C-C 

« S S.H.2.2 

:2;2;z:2;^:sz:^;z; 



bJD 

3 



o 

XI 
o 

rfi 
O 



3 

>-.o 



O O 

^12; 



oS^S 

.2<C = 
; ►^ CO fc- ^ 

I ►'^ 03 CD -?^ 

x:' 2 5 ■§ - 

o 3 H _- # 
'-'H -50 

_•• . 3 o -^ 
3 aJo > c« 

.— • — ^ ^ k^ .'^ 
00000 

;s:z;Z2;Z 



03 . 

x: i- 



03 
u 

o 

"3 

bo 

3 
<5 

.2" 

t4 

03 

o 

o 



3.i2 



 C3 



2;o 



Of-, ofi^ 



03Q 

oc 



o 

HH 3 

oJ-^ 
=5 03 

1^ ^ 

f--3 

cf« 
•^ ^■" 

TO Qj 

00 



3 
o 

A 

a 



a 
o 

o 






fl,'~'P-i PhPh 






PhPiPh 



PL, 



P-l PL,^ 



PkPn 



a54 scope of soviet activity est the united states 



?:5 

03 


00 

cc 

en 
1—* 


CO cc CO CO cooo 
05 C5 g; 05 o; C5 


t^ r^r^ t^^- 
co CO CO CO CO 

Ol Oi Cl 05 05 


rrv rO 

cScn 


-t* GO 
CO CC 
03 Oi 


« 


ITS 


T~t »— < CO 


^ lO cr- o 1-^ 

C^ rt <N rt 


''S 


§s 




d 

03 


June 
July 
Feb. 
July 
Apr. 
Mar. 


May 
June 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Feb. 


•23 


^J bo 
o 3 



cocococoiorcrccc 

'1^ d 05 C5 (^ '.iri O: Oi 



^ocococopococo^oco 



a, " « o) 1^ 3 3 3 
CO < fi< QQ »=; l-s 1— tT> 






n 

3 

d 



C3 



C3 
CC 



f^ ^ 



o 

to O 



C.2 
ce rt 



— I rc O 

ceo «: 



d 

03 
CO 

O •— < CO 

CI t- o 

-rt* (M --( 
»C CI O 
"^ CO (N 



d 

^i-i CD UO Ci 
lO ^H CO OS t-^ 
--I t^T 1— I 00 O 
M< ^ 00 ^ (•- 
I-, lO :C i^ CD 

C^ '^ CO '^ CO 



00 CD 
■^ CD 
iC O 



-^ O 



00 



ooocs 

I^Cs-«*< 

CD ic r^ 

CO GCCO 



O =OJ 

OD "<J* 00 
O CO lO 
.-o ■* -5- 



m w 3 

.S -S C5 



; o o s 

be bc.a 
c3 <S Q. 

CI CI ™ 



CO 



-^ 00 o t^ - 
IC O CO OO CO 
— < CO O CC' -* 
rf '-O r^ CO CO 
O CI "^O CO CO 
CO CO CO CO CO 



C3 -H*^ t^ 

r- I--, t-- c^ 

^J^ ^^ "^ '^^ 



o 



s 

e 
ss 

8 






b£ 



.a 

w 

3 
o 
o 

a 

c3 



T3 

3 

C3 



■a 



<D 
i 



he 



.23 o 

g X 

c« ^ 

.^ c« 



c 
ce 

CO 



a 
"2 

o 
o 

O 






.3 

CO 



o 

n 






c3 

Q 



2 

3 



3 



>H 



,p^' 



§ o p 

h-l C3 ^ 

■«0 6 
t- -> 

*J 4.3 ^ 

p « 



.O-^co 

« 2 



i^ "<r CO 

.-H (M C5 
CO f-H 00 



c>-'.-a 

^ o P 

'^ p O) 

"o ., r 

°^ <i- o 






. — a; 

bD 3 > 
^ o o 



03 



C8 
Ph 

c3'>^ 






aj-i 



 o 

:2: 



 >> 

; c3 
1 is 

^ 03 

^^ 

a 
>>. • 

o . 

m . 

-a 



S 

03 Q 

SO 









3cO 

.3 . 



<4 ■-' o 
"g C3 O 

o a> =- 



^ ■-• 'w -* v-v r-* ._^ fc , (__ __j ^ 



O 
t> • O 



CO ^ ■# 



o 2 

±?M - 






fn 



a<u 

CO > 
-3 

S S 
"!; a 

<) 03 

> 



a ®a3 

O cfi eg 
CN CO "^ 






Vc«--tS 
O cfl .^ 

■r o :s 

.<)co 3 
o 



03 

ft 
O 



.i«!,3 



■§« 



^co?-<' 



3 2;-§ 



■"-^ g; CO w L 
i-'^ " CO <* O 



M Si; 

3 oj c2 o; 
2 1> o -q 



•a ^ 



"r-.:'P 



4-^-3 

i: r- cH- =^ 

"Z o-o 
o ot- 



O ? 



03 

Ph 
en _-. 

73 a 

& 

c3 o 

ll 



;3 a> 

SS f? a g 

COS 2 03-=S 

. C» *J ^ Q 



sg:^ 



coco 



»o 



CO r4J^ 

.4-. CO 00 



clO 



CO CO CO CI IM C-. p. O 
^ CS 005CO Oihl 
<M <M lO C^l r^ CD W 



-* (N COU 



_ a.a 

"J .2*;; 

lO CO o 

^coco 

(N ^CO 



2 kj 03 a CO 
S^ag*^ 
M-^ o •:; w 

■" S >> C3 03 
4J 03 k^ i^ M 

ClO o o oc 
CO QO Ol 1^ 



a > *^ 340 

M^iJ 03 (B 

J.- .a ;^ »^ 3 

!- 4f fe 03 .3 

C3 ^ >^ r_ S^ 

HcOm'^'^ 

0-*05iMC^ 

00 CO CO »o CO 



J5 

'3 

i5 



W h:; 



3 
1- _ °  

^ 33^ 

SǤa 






w 



o o £'3'"' "usa" • 
" on 
J53g 
3.a ^ 

o o oooooo 






03 _ 
=3 S "S 

a^T3 

,«H o' 
a m _, 

!* N 03 
00|l4 



3 

o 



a 

o 



&«s-| 



5;2 
5'ca 

a 

"J !3 bjO"3 

S 

H -s-TC 

c3 o 0^ 






03 a> 

Q4 tS) 

. c3 

- a 

jPh^ 

.S to 3 

S.H o 

"^ 1-5 



d 



> 



1-1 *. 



(1, p,W;i, pLifL, fL, 



° o a 

; c3 c3 03 ce 
iPhPhPhPi 






S mo 
.2 ca tn 

■:3 a 3 

03 03 c3 

PhPm 



C3 

a. 
a 

03 

PL, 



03 

.a- 



1^ w 



■53 

<: c/: 
•-^ 

o'^-a 

o 






^ S  



J 

f^ 



03 03 03 

PhPhPh 






a; a> CD , 

c3 (^ o3 
PhPh^h 



o--^^a-2 

■•3 cn't^ Fl M 



1.5 






IL- t_ ;_i O) +-» . -. 

^ C3 C^ C3 ^ C3 



RQP 



So 

■" OH 
03 ^^ 
^— 'fe 

fl ^ - 
O o 0^ 

^'?>. 

03 c3 eS 

P-iPMf^ 



^a 

>>'3 

««3 
> « p 

o) t-i a> 

a a o 
?. >-..i4 

03 03 a:> 
PhPh!^ 



a '< 

1.3 2 

Ai a a 

3^ Q O) 

14 04 PL, 



O^ 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a55 



T^ t^ 1^ t- r* 

c;o: 3: 35 03 












d op -^ CJ^^C^i <N ^ (N (M --^ C^ CN1 cs c^ 

_ c =3 c3 fl-g a c3 5_c a 






CO ?o c*:) ro 

3! Oi 31 C. 



55 35; 



n ^^or:^o^c:ccc^^c^c*^coco 

o 33 31 c; 3: 3; Oi 3: 01 Ci 3: cs oa 

oi « o.^:^ Qj o) S fci; ^ 3 ,i; o 3 

fa fe <t; <; ^ tm^ ^ ,t^ -*; < fa <; 



.2 M 

f^ 9 



— ro '-f i^o 1^ 
r*'^?' I- DC CD 

-^ C? '.C iC o 

■*"^ re c*5 '<*' 



COCOC0COCOCOO0'<t<CC00CCfC'^"^ 



"^ CO Oi O »-( 

H t^^ f^g -Tt* lO lO 



00 "O 



^ 



o t^ 



=3 

w.- CO -0C(M''^' 

t^ 10 ^.-H r* t^ CO CO 

— - O -^ -H 00 O C'l -^ 

oooias-^oooooo 
"-t-n^oioooaicor* 

PCOt^;OCQ(NCOCO-^ 



r^co 00 

00 Ti< CO CD 
t-^ CO CQ CO 
lO OS CO *o 
t-^ (M »0 t-* 
CO "^ "^ CO 



10 .— (C000»H-*t<I-^.-i4CJO coo 

lO 'Tt*i-«'^iOCS(Ni— i'^OOlifJC-1 

O COOOC. COOOO'-HiOCCOOO 

I-^ t^ CN O Ci O -^ CO cO^ GO h-(3> 

CO CO :?5 1^ CO t~ CO iM i:^ t-^ »o CD CO 

CO CO CO CO CO CO ro "^ CO "^ cs CO -^ 



^O 






. C3'- 

:2E 



»U ' a^ >> 



■^ -a 

-^ o 
- o 



>o 






O^ 









> 



^~ ^3d-' 



CC/ -^ "^^ 






= § 



f O '*>'3 tS ♦; S ^ "U 

jsi;.a-g-g£2.s3'2 

CO COi^OC^iOOO 
^ »-*COC^CO'^-^0 



3 

,03.3 

^^ 

.03 

ss 

C3 Q 

3 m 

Ho. 



5-^ 

O Gj 

13 03 

la 
5° 



> ^ 
oco 






"SO 03 



.2 
O 

;5 

g 
o 



O 



^m ' 



ai43 
c^co 

(N CO 



"5 Is 

-t^ -4^ to 3 

t^ lO Tji CO 

CO -5t- -^ r- 

COCQ.-l!M 



T'^ O 3 ^ ►,  
> . 3 W 2 g 

3 ^J WpH 



*J X3 hH 
03 

°o_ara 

■S3 03 



03 1: 
® S 



03 o 

0>^ 03* 

g^ - 
I"" 






rJ- -iS 



'r^ 



W o 









m 






-000 

■— ' >.■. o i-H TjH r>. 

'^J' 1— I O i-H r-H 00 



00 

— . 0-* 
CO CSICO 
<MIM m 






^ 0)02 



2: ° 



g^ 



3 -tuPQ'^^ 






^ (M 



03 

w 

cl 

S^ 
ca . 

03M 

oB 

■"^( 

.£>; 

mo 
^^ 

035 



o r 

' Oi 



.2 a 



03 

Q 

I -' 



!>.c ^ ^ 






'P3 



a 
o 

a 
.a 



.a  ''7cri*^-tffSS - 






^-aco 



O tr. • 

Oct: 



- ".^ 10 »0 ^ : 



O t^ rt l-H 



ot^Oi 



5 „ .a ^^ . 

^^OI-tcooo^*ooc^^»o^^ 

iCCiOOOOrt-^COi-tWc^Ci 



O 



5 a 

■^ a .^ 

2— 1^ c B 

< M a ^r . 

-a g c >? 

© 4> O o CJ 



, =5 



•23 



i q'=H y 2 a a 

O t> — fr.« •^ ^ .— 

o £;.g o >.£ o 

03 I— "1 o C3 *^ l-s 

- a -So 

^.M Si.'" " '-''■3 

w^a 03 0) c; 0^ 

tH C/3 4.^ 4^ .^4. .^^ ,^ 

o) <v 9 ci OP o a> 
PnpnPmiiPuPHai 



.a J 

> 03 
t4 ^ 
030 

*j o  

I fcN ai^ 

• «C3 03 

05-5 



ai 03 



-" t;^ J«! 

I OJ3.S 



^ 03 

o a-s 

•"^ S a3 

— "O-S 

^ o 

03 

(1(Ph0.4 



03 
bi) 

03 



WS 



.2i^S^ 



. 09 

aOa 

*^ 03 03 

-on ffl 
17 "^ '- 

oOa ° 
.X -^.^ 
ajai*© 



e^j 03 ..a 

O O -M 03 
;-i r/} .^^ .4_> 4.J 



— OJd _ 

o-rj-gja 

PhKI 03^' 



==a 
III 

^ ._._„_„ _ o'o'o 

iiHPHfr<fiiP-iCi<P^>:>HP-iPHp-iP-i 



03 

a 

03^X3 

CO 
fcuOrS W M 



i2 S a o 



i; 03 a 0—1 03 

3! O ^ tn > c3 
O O O O O si 
(1, A4 P-( Ph Ph P-i 



1 o .^^ 

ti3§ 

fe 03hJ 

•--'-' CO 

<; -c 

§'.3.2 



.6 'O 

2'J-2„- 



S a .2 j<i ii J 

^i-^23333 
|1( Pm Ph P.4 PL| Ph P^ Ph C 






S3 ft 






Q 

63 



PhPh PuiPiPiiPi 



h3 iJ 
Pi P^ 



a 



Ph PhPhP-i Ph Ph 



a56 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



CO CO COCC CO CO 



Oii-« iCi-t 



g flfl ac ^^ 

h^ HsH, '<3Hs ^1*^ 



r-co 

CO CO 

C: OS 



t- b- r^ fC 

CO CO CO CO 
OS OS 03 OS 



CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
OSO^OsOSOSOsOSO^OSOSOSOsOsOSOSOsOSOi 



<— I O CS| •-• (N t^ 



«1 



& " 



03 



So ^£Sp S 







CO 
OS ^ -C^l t^ 

r-* OS OS X OS 
Ol CO X) lO OS 
CO ^-^ O O 'X 
O OS o :D !->• 
^ CO CO CO CO 



CO 

Tt* ^coos 

OS 00 CD CO 

o ^ o oc 

iO OS '— ' OS 
CD lO T-M O 
CO « -^ CO 



■^J^ 00 (N ^-^ CO ^(M OS CD 
OS <—! 00 -CS »0 O tO CO 
^00>OTf"rt<00^COOS 

OC<iOOCDCOI>»OSCO 
Tt<"<J^CO»OCOCO»OCOCO 



T3 

o 

o 



e 

e 
8 

o 

to 

e 
e 



s 
e 

•»o 






I 



3 

c 



C3 



T3 

<! 



'iH.-< TO oi 



=5^-m" S^^ 



r- --H t^ (M 




<X} 

i 



IS 






S€ 



05 
W 

si 

If 



S S 5 

S£| 



e 03 03 



3 O 
5 3 2 



-Ol 



> C 



o ca 



03.2 

g C o n ca .tl 

ca o So "i; la G 

b/, M o ^ C c 

rt 03 J-* ^ 03 o3 



is -H' o3 



a 

o 

d 

6 



*^ t> fc- 
O "^ Sn 

ij, <:d O 



;§ c ■a •S'£ 



rL _ c3 ►^ 









03 03 fn 03 



ca 03 ojW 03 ct> 



^ - ► a* 

<u a> CJ o 

Q> O) 4J CU 



O W 



^3J 

dJ w g jl^ 



o3§<1< 

"^ '^ „ ^  
<u o O Oj I 









a <D 
^§B 
5 = <! 



o^mS 






c8*^-r!_3 



o 



ca 

as . 

A^ CO 

u o o 



a 






Q 



SS 



H 



►jj^ 



^ gfLiPnPH 



Ph 



PhPLiPhPh Pm pn'-^^-ip^PL,'-' ft,  



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a57 



CC CO CO 

0& A 03 



«S5 



t>. lo or t^ 

core CO CO 



r>. r^ t^ r^ t-^ r^ r^ 

CO CO PO CO CC CO cc 



t^ r^ h* h- op r^ i^ 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 



cococo CO cocococo CO cocooococococo cocococomcoco 

0& 03 Od O^ 0> C^ Od ^ Oi a 0> Oi Oi 0> Oi ^ 023)0^^7^^^ 



t^ r- r— r* CO f* t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
^ ^ Oi ^ Oi Oi 0> 



CO CO CO CO CO 

05 0105^ 0> 









S o" ^' O Ol" CD* CO 
■i ^ C^ CO ^ ^ CN 



-■e-5 5 ^ 



p-s; •>< •< fc. 3 •< «; 



g <s a k -g 



h- r-- r- 

CO CO CO 



fcXi rj 1-1 



00^ CO 

^CO CO 

o oa lo 

lO M CO 

co"<r -^ 



W<^cO CO O 

CO CO O — ' zo 

- : CO Tf cr 

r-. Tj* OS ,-. -q* 

CO CO OS t^ CO 

CO C3 Tp CO c^ 



a 

c3 

fj* -O CO f^ ""-^ oo -^ 

cr 05 oc •-' o t^ o 

iC — TT C; t^ "~ (M 

Oi CO »o CO cr 00 CO 

Oi CO cc c<» ic o> o 

CO CO CO '«*' C^ CO Tt* 



c^ 40 c^ lo r^. 

lO ■<»" TJ" t^ CO 

OS CO o CO c: 

CO CO (N t^ t' 

CO CO "^ CS lO 



CO OS 

:^co 

o t^ 

C)cO 

O OS 
CO CO 



0:1 lO C^ r-1 UO ■^ lO 

00 CD .— I 30 O TP (N 
C<l 0C> O ^ t^ 00 <N 
O CO OS CO lO OS OS 
"^ ■* CO CO CO CO ?! 



Oi-H 0000 "5 

-— "M OOCO »0 

uo r^ OS CO 1—t 

00 OS C^l -** 1^ 

Tf ^ coos CO 

'^ "^ CO CO CO 



ICO-* 

OS coo 

00 GOO 

00 "V 00 

COCO OS 
■^ CO CO 









o -o 



ET:-;«iw^ 



2.S3 
O^CL, 5 

C^ OS i-H 

OS *C uo 



> O w 

■* -H 2 



- C3 

tnP-l 



PQ 

o 
o 

!5 



02 

.a 

05 
00 

■*-> 
a 
o 

CO 



o 

o 
a 
a 

fao 

c 

o 






^3 






o >. 

mm 



.0 



■:o3- 



c3 
O, 

en oPh be 






w 



^SSf?^^-^ 



0£i: 



^'^6 



CO 



Q 



O 



< o 



as 

a>  



e 

O 



> i 



S-Za 



«g^.m>.>.^<js>H^z 

'^ '  ^ i-i c'i < - 



^, ^ C^ . 



§J^ 



V3 Swco 



^M 



a;'' 



rr « i«! « 

'? ^ s • 

2° K 



■f'O 



^■^ V -C ■-  ra — 



; CO Z r-c .c 






m.>2;u, 

C To 



o 

^ ,5 
■< 

m^-«2 
o2 

"ma 

03 "O I- 



O 



> 



< t» — ^ C r-r. rvi 1" M _. M *^ *-^ /v^ > ►^ " ra *- >5 






' ^ ^ 



s 



- — I <M 

 (Mas 
fc — • 

(N IM 



— C^ O 01 U3 Oi CC ^ O t^ -^ OJ 
PC lO (N T-H O (N .-I to CO t^ 00 O 
rtCMlOi-HCO-^^HT-tcOr-ICCC^ 



/C o ^ s- 
h-i o -^ 



. o 

s- Jo d 

^^ rQ 



03 

C 

o 
o 



02 



CO >> 3i 



- ^ 9 

2 r>; 



OJ 



EgS5^ 
o<;co'3 



■o CO o p, 5 ■* "-■ 



OOOtO 00 
OCOC<3 O 
^ i-H (N -H 



r;-^ ts . om 

a^.«fe«=-: 
C3 cx<<  o o 

■<i rt moo 



,.-s-g 



««« 



C c3u- 

pq go 



.2 B5 

3 » 
000 

«2:k 



o 
.2 cs 



^=ii =«.5ms 



o-gx: c-i 

0000 



03 

^> O *J 

X) C 3 



03 
O 

o 



C 



3 o 



■. -rt C R 03 

rO w,S 3 

 03 P3 



''^ .^ .•- 03 0^ ■'- 



O OJ o o 



c^ o -^ 
p m w 
3 c/3 O 
O = O 
««« 






t. 3 3 3 
03 a* 0; o 
Vj vj in v: 

0000 



5 =^ 3 

3 3 3. 
c; o 0^ V3 

t/J E/i 1/1 V. 

0000 
«««« 



> 

o 

03 



m 



So 4< 



^^•O 3 

^-0 5g 



j-O tj 3 

3^3^ 






o a 



-CO - - - 

-S -S =" ai 3 3 



VI •- 3 > # 

00000 



-3 

3 3 3 3 

tfCStftf 



.3 

a 



— .:: Pi 



O 

3 

.s 

'S 

w 

3 
« 



J5 

a 



C9 

m 
a 

3 -cd 
2.2 

^ o u 
ri c3 03 

Ka;a2 



A^Pli 



fia 



fell, Ph Ph (i, Ph i-'PLiPhPh'-'"!-' 



mp-iPiPi p-( 






h4 ^ 



a58 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



'-3 
C 
o 

O 



e 

cq 

e 
s 
o 

e 
s 



s 

e 



^ 

b 



(3 

Q 






o 



C3 



be 



•a 
c 

03 



T3 

<1 



C3 



1 



1^ r^ 1^ 

CO« CO 



CO cc cc ro ro CO co co 

1— li— It— (i— II— (i-H T— ( ?-H 



co cocccocccoccrococc. coccrcco—r 

,—1 r-t ,-H ,—( ,—1 1—1 ,-( ,—1 ,—(—.,—(,—, ,-H -H I-* 

t>^ cc co'arorT-rco"rj<*crc^ -— ' oT M-* ■^ cd" 









. >J 



to > til »2 



^§-<2;-<S 



O fe 









■^03 3>3>' = 

(-S 1-5 I^ PH K^ 



t^ t^ t^ r- r^ 

CO re coco ?7 

C3 C3 <7) C2 C^ 



t. ^ aj t>>  



CO-H 

00 — 



.22 

CD v: 



o 
o 

P5 

S^ 

> 



P-( 

03 

m 



TOC<1 N NOO 

TT «D O tc CT- Cfc 
C-1 'Tf to 00 ^75 00 
-^ « -M -i; o ■* 
'~ C 1- 00 r~ ■-- 
cc ■^ ^ -^ T c^ 



M tJ 



OJ 
PL, 

to 

Ph . 



c. 

S 
ce 

a 



03 

of-' 



sS^^^ 



.a ♦J o -*:f 
oe css^ 3 

Tf .-H ^ rP 



00 1-^ r-. r-H ■, 

.— I yC lO ^H • 



.S£o 

2 S " 

255 



u 



■G .a 

c a 

OS 03 

^ 2 

r Ph 

' ^ ,^ o 

 "5 C ti w 



X >. 



in , 



"^ 



^ locooco'cocc'r-'co'^'odoo 






CO O 
CO o 



(» '—' t^J ^J "iW I"— CJ ^^ (.^^ WJ 

■- ^1 ic CO o t' cc r- cr CO 
O'ji f — - 



CO »-C o '45 CO Q. r^ (M Oi ':© 
t^ 'X^ '-C t'. 00 ^ rC' -— ' :D »C' 
cococococcco.-^'<fcc-^ 



cr o en CJ OS 
-H o c« o »^ 

00 O -^ (N i.- 

CD 00 00 t^ t^- 
I^ CC ^ ,-1 CD 
CO CO ^ ^ CO 



.^1 
-■^ 

Ci 03 

-o 

"I 

S, to *J 
1^ a; •— 
^ • o o 



a 



> 

O 1' c- 

•^ w c 

roc 

coPh'S 

C "*'o3 



"^ c 



6D^ 

■02; =«- r 






; o 

>.'^ CO 



o.^ 



:fc 



?cs 



'«■ 



(N 

H LO 



CC^ CO 



1-7. O O UO 



tZi o ^ 

Oj bij.- h 
^ « > 

r ci-= 

CO 1-1 T-i 

C^ CO o 

o — 'o:; 

CS CO 1— I 



1=" 



S c* 



^<1 



>^0 : 



 w 

>,S.2 o 



>^ .. 



a- 



> 
o 



<;gx 






O 

b .22 

'S 03 C 
<U U O) 



'03 <; 



""J c -^ 






■^ "OotO 
'J^ O I CO 

CO cr. Tji ^ 

CO —t CO' ^^ 



0-* C-J'^ 
— COC — 
to IM~Tf 
*Cj .^ C^ tc 



■i*tc"CP 

^"■«^^^ 

rT 03 O > HH +^ 

■^ r^ « Oi 

r^ -.0 o -^05 

C^I — CO T-f -^i 






s-^ 



js^ : 



oof^t: 
o . o 



a n 



o 

ft 
o 
tjj 



^ '-5 Cfi r, 



ffl. 



+J 


^ 





r' 




a ciT3 




K-j 









fl^ 


















'<1 


r- 











c 


C 









C. 






c c 

a.' 
Rpq 


•-• 


03 


m 


hn 








/!i^ 




«^ 


s s 


^ 


cs 




crt 


« 


C3 C3 


rt 


irnXUiW 




KCCCC 



> 



S 03 

^~ p fa o 

-.15 ra (li jn 

SSSl-H 

jr O O <u p 

.ii c e c s 

03 03 03 03 03 

a.' CO CO t/j c/:> 



V3 

,2 



I o 

I ^ 

■SOJ 






2'3'^__o3'ra"o 

,f -0,^03 .5 
t-l t-H .iC 4.S *i +J 

a c r3 a c c 

03 03 03 03 03 03 



J0 43C 

& S f* 

w 3 K' 
ca rt 03 
WWW 



<0 



,- *-" '—" ^- ^ 

C O c OJ 03 

t^ 03 cc 0^ o 
03 i- .c x: j= 
o o c c; o 
Vi-SlWlflW 



.  Dm 
a 'Ss 

>-'3 fc 
K 3 o^ 









C > o- 

o o Cj 
ffi W CQ 



- a^ 0^ a, 

+- .^ r« .i- 

■a'S'S § 
a a a o 

a o o o 
WW WW 



^ O 03 Si 03 
03 «?* i. --. 

3> 3 . . 



Oi 3y -J 

£ 2 a as 

c o c; c o 
K CO CO CO aj 



iJ 

Ph 



Ph 



Ph 



Ph 



«^ 



QOp,OPp.Ci,f^ 



a 

3! 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES Ao9 



r^ M i^ r^ ■<*• f^ 

« « « .-O M W 

c: c: » Oi O: ^. 















C <!3 c-g c 



h* h* t^ 




t^ r^ i-^ r- CD I'- 
cocc cc ro ro rc 


t^ r^ f^ 1 * r^ -^ r^ t^ 


Sf'^'S 


Do. 

May 27, 
Mar. 31, 


gS?5^"SS 


2?3 = ?,SS22 


June 
Feb. 
June 


S[£;3 § rt " 

Hs f^ >-^ >-, 1-, P< 





r^ r^ 1^ r^ r- jo 

CO CD re ro CO ro 

oiosa: ai cft 31 



^- :2 ■; ^- r-, 

c: ;:: ^ «-? ; 
<< 1-1 )-^ »«^ [— ' »■ 



(Ooc-^ cc '— r- 



a> h- 04 cc ^ 






■3 a5,_ 

■i '^ 3 

■—00 



cc — re 00 



OOOWi— M "-.— ?<:rre 
t^ cc t^ ut c^ r? t-7 cc r^ r^ »c wO 



C5 ■<»• !N CC 



2S^ 



Oi 



^^ cc^ CO '^ 



fcH ^ ^ 



^ ^'S 



r-oo o 
00 00 00 

^- -^ CM 
^ CO o 

^^r fO -^ 



G 
nj 

CO •— < 

t-- OJ 00 

C^ '^f Oi 
00 COO 
^ CS CO 

^ -^ C^ 



I-" ^ o r- 04 ic 

Ci CO >— ' o r— 

C^ C^ CD O Oi CO 
cOOiCO CO TP CO 



C4<-^'OCO»C0C^-''-^ 

cs c: --c ■— ri >-: i^~ — ' 
— c — -J' t - cr -^ -— 
C5 7-1 X -c c^i »-- t- x 

cO'^rorc-^coco-^ 



W 0) ^ 

O C3 
fe -^ 03 



.a> »o 04 



!ZP5 

.. -GC ^ 30 C^ 
^ »C 't CJ C 00 

1^ ffj X 00 r^ 03 
CO ?o ^ r^ -.c -^ 

CD-^ CS CC C0»0 



•"f MCOC^ csc^ 






o 



■I" 



c 
1- bi. 

3 ^sicc r 
c^ 9 o 

o.gJ«^ r 
-O ^ CO ■-" *^ 

S ? C £^t^ 

r~ i 5 Ci ^ 

c c^t^ 

re r^ -^ 00 — 
01 C^ 'C — o 
— t^ 00 cs cs 



S >> V, 

>. p 



■2^ 






.IN 



m 



c 



<» 



o o :S — 
bt 5^ c c .= ■; 

3— °<^ <=-■- 



i2 ofe: 



S ca 









o r 
:3 tft 



O 
p 

03 

(X, 

n 



3 03 -t^ 



^ 1= fe 



be 
C 
< 

O 

> 

<1 



d 
a 
o 

^ -2 



>^>^ 
^'2: 



00 'T I— ' CO o: C5 






a 3 

3J "T* -t-i .— 



»0 CO 

— o 



3 c30 

r3'^oo 

Ps CS (N 



^ C80Q 
CO .> 

=- -1^ 2 



;&^ 



■feois 



C M — (M 
IM C<5 



O 

:o 

- o C > 
C J- >>® 

,-H CD !N 



a 
, « 

°£ 

tJO 






> 


^ 


T3 


Q 





te 




OJ 


^ 




c 




or- 




t^ CO 





¥ £ ^-^ 

«j 3 
'^ E 

CC CO 
CC CN OS — 



|o 



1W.-S 






 < 



csC 
■^d . 

^5f -c = 
c.3 2;^ 3 

I c«.3 . jy 

rH C/j t_ .-.. ^ 

I 5 c3 oi 5v 
. r-C 3 

3«^£Sj^. 

•- ^ '^ =S S 

f- c^ — P-i 
.-^ ^- r^ ..^ 
Tl- — . -^' CO 



^ 



• CO 



o .g 

-s 3.2:- 

3 S^ 

J3 =3 o 

g-ll 

6?, g'^ 

coco 
en T-* 



O 



c 
>- 

S 



^ 



.^J M 3 > 

.3w_. K"^ 

*j >; 3 ^ 

« .P5 a; 

OOCC 
t^ CO — 



-3 



-> a> 
08 "O 
it 3 



C3 3 >■ 



Ci 

•^ 3 (_ ~ 

a^ -X c! ^ ~ "3 

3:F r <K 



•3 -tr < < "o 3 2 



c3 

o a. 



bl 3 3 



c- C.C 0:.: 



>- !r-'^.3 






N^ ^S^"" -<;^^ 



-t;u ^ - - 


^ c ^;-. 


^ I' — e*: ^; 




















2 '"■ z; — is :? 


p= == ^ ^ 


j3-c;=:^^^ 






Ci cj c; C/ 


;^ c^ t> ci 


Oj Oi CA CH X X 


rr^zfjWW 



c? P !r- .^ ■^ I-" t: r- 



P.35: 






O 9' 



O 

3 
>. bij a. 

£SE 

a> a; aj 
cc IX cc ct ly- CO CO tc 



■- 3 bl' 

o 3 t- j:^ 
3 2 o o 
c3 si o 
,>-— O ^ 

C3 



.3.3_C3C3003;- 

" -  -- i/ o a, a. . 



•— > a- »— 

3 C. > 5 
o a, 0.3 

CCjCCCt CO 



3 

3 aj , 

r> «^ a;> 

3£S 
£52 
^3>: 

C' 3 tJ 
.USB 
C3 a c3 



03 



a 

o 
be 

*^ «— < 

>-§ 

r»ir-< 

•3 



^ 3^ O 03^ 



03 

3 3 1 i^ 



. . o 



Ct; - 



a c. aaJ a S 

03 ^ 03 a. a' a> 
^.=:.c j:.c.3 
CO CO CO CO Oi CC' 



•I3- -3 ..i>-3'.2 
X 3 i g r 5^ 2 > 

.3 )3 ^" *" "■ 3 

5!bS£5.c.s2 
CO CO CO ct CO CO CO CO 



O' 1 -1 



- 3 S S E 






o o 



3 3 3 
C3 C3 03 

3 



"1(2 3 S 

— — fc- t- ^ 

C^ C^ • Oi o o 







1^; 



^fc^Ai 



Ph^P^ f-^ P_^ )<;h W h- i Pl,P^ 



|1< 



Q Q 



fr( P- — pM '—'-fLff^ 



P-lP-lP^ 



a60 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



03 

Q 



00 r^i>- r^ CO 

CO CO CC CC CO 

o; o 05 ci Oi 



t^ r^ t^ t^ r^ r^ r>. 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi 0> O^ O^ Oi Oi Oi 



t^ cc t-~ t^ t^ t^ t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi 



CO t^ 

CO CO 



oot^r-t-»i^t-5Dh-h- 

cocococococofococo 



t-- t^ r^ t^ t^ t^ t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi ^ Oi Oi ^ Oi O^ 



I 1-3^ S(^ 



^ G PI ri « -g fl* 

»«^ CO Hb Ha l-s hM 1-5 






Oi •O O CO CO lO T— CO GO 
CO (M .-H (M o» c^ c^ 

bi ri ^^' >-' &' r"* cii; t-* -Jf 



t^ t>- CO •-> '^ -^ -^ 



03 



d 
c 



o 

a 



d 

pm 



' C3 

'CO 

ooc^ .^co 

t^ CO CO CO O 
OS CO Oi "^ -V 
CO ^"tJ — « "^ 00 
»0 CO lO 1^ CO 
tO^ C<» CO 00 



^ CO C^ 03 Tt< CD OS 

1— t r- oi ■^ uo t- CO 

OJ C^ Tt< QO CO 40 00 

t^ t^ ^ o: c^ c: c^ 

r- r^ cC' CO CO CO CO 
CO TT CO ro CO CO CO 



M 
COC^I -CD CO '^f O 

CJ OS GC CO C^ O C^ 

Cft •-* c*3 CO (M o:' Oi 

CO ^ OS »C I-^ Oi CO 
CO C^ rf CO CO C.C —I 
CO CO CM CO CO OO Tf 



•^ 






fcO 



d 
o 
■o 
d 
o 

r-I 1-' O! to 

CC O CO t^ -co t^ 



ico — oo^cocotoc, 
r^r^ooi^-ccoooii^ 



s ® 

5 w 

C3 

t^ o 

03 

d.H 

^5 

O -co 

O lO »— ' 

r- CM »o 

Oi r- CO 

CM '^ CO 



d 

Hi 

CO 

_-OOOlO 

^ t^CO OS 

■^ ":i 00 (N 
00 to r^ ^ 

(N C'^ CO -^ 



T3 
(U 

3 

c 
o 

o 



e 
s 

o 
e 






CO 



01 

its 



(N C^ CO M -^ CO c 



COTf-HCOCCtNtOtOO 
MCSCOCNMCOOOM'"*' 



a 

03 



73 




5 



o . 
IS - 






3 gSQSS*^ 



is--! 



03 m w 

S|w 

t^coeo 

■*<NCO 






-ago 

^ OS Tj* 

. ^ 0'-^ 

CM CO OS 1-f ^ CM 






« O oj 






00 2 m 
»0 CO d o 



3 ^ 



t; <i -^ w o _ 
CO to o .2 K 3 



-o d 

T3-H g . 

.Hwco^; 



a o dxi 
S b o o 

d O 60^ 

-« S^d 
S2Sf 



C3 



d 
o 

"3 






:: ^ 









M 



3fa 



> cu d^ 



iJ'3 



• ONhrt oo<>< 



MSS2 



c3 b dx 
«' ro - 

i-H c3 

./^ d q; a- 

f^tO-* <M 

. -H oc3 

CO C^l^ 



x; 
a 

■a 
.2 
!S 

Ph 

o.£f ^ 

■^ 1-1 o 

►I -am 

(NOOO 
(NOOtO 
.-IC^tO 



a 

03 



3J. 



ij cp d nxi 

^ 3 o a> 03 

o o a 2i^ 

a.§.§l.§ 
cocoa) wS 



03^ 

s o 



.11  tUT? 



§-'-^^ 

d s s ci ^, 
■- c3 a— a^ 

.a ^ ^ .S .2 

MOICOCOCO 



3 

03 d 

CB-d 
^ o 

d^ 

■- d 



<I> o 
03 1-^ 



o 

m 



■? g g S fc d te 
■j3 xT^'xT jsxs'xfja" 



_ BBsaaasa 

cnccit/jcQcoiBajcocoa! 



d -s 



O 



a 

CO 



as 

3<J 



x: P 

BB 
coco 



a|S 

OJ 
c >-. 

c3 Cfl > 

o o- c 

c: c fl 



a 



03 
dJ3 a^ 

o£ o 



C3 

d 

03 

O ® 
.-CO > 



>^-<io 



doc 
to CO CO 



O d ^ 



aSB 

o o o 
CO COM 



fc- e« i 
a)*^XJ 

t; > S 
o o a 
mcoco 



d 
cs 

■> g 

>a 



^ d a^-S 
03 p5 H « 

^ d CO . 

S.SiS.S 

aa aa 
wmoacc 



d 
« 
be 
o 
1-5 



PhAh 



hJ hJiJiJiJ iJiJ 

Ph PhPhPiPh PhPh 



Q hJlJlJ 



iJ 
(In 



R (l,POfL,pL| 



OlJ iJ Q tJ iJ h? 
Ph^'~'PhPhPh 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a61 



h- 1-^ t>- h- h- h- 

cc cc fC cc ro CO 

OS Oi 05 d 05 CS 



1^ r^ t^ 

coco CO 
CJ5 CR OS 



00 r^ t^ 

CO CO CO 
Oi d 0> 



cocorocorococorscococorococococoro 

050iJlC505wl050JOSO>OOlOlOiOiOJ 05 



h* 1-^ h* 

CO CO CO 
0> OS 03 



r* h- r^ r^ h- t -. 

" 'I ro CO CO CO CO 

' OS OS OS OS OS 



m 



CO coco 
0> Oi o> 



M — < 



o! C3 C3-5; C3 a 



5X1 -i 






do2£oS''-'i3«xJtiotii-'u:'3u 



-<<5Q 









w3 



^H CD CO »o 00 t^ 
00 OCC --« 00 o 
C^ 05 O C5 ^ -^ 
r- 00 C3 -^ o -^ 
t^ ^-. *-« cc r^ CD 

CO TJ* -^ CO CO CO 



CI 
c3 

-co o 
05 r^ o 

Oi »o oo 

(M CDCi 
lO CD t^ 
«COt(< 



X O 
U o 

1=3 



a> 



c3 



r^ 05 to 
Oi r^ I-* 

S— ICD 
COCO 



"o'l- 
So 

p^ bj) 



C^ f-H 00 Cl T-4 »0 <M -i-h05C^M - 
— 'COOpiMOOOtOCOIMOlCOCT) 



ioj 



CDC^ 



i-HCOOOCNCOOiOCO'MOSCOOS -(N-t«C^ 
OSOOOSO^OCt-"-H-^fOOr^OS0005CO 
QOOOt--OOr*CO-rftDOOcpOOOOSiOOSUDCO 

ooo-^cot-^oosooocot^oooosoot-u^ 
cO'^-^cO'^'^coc^'*cOTi''Tr'co'<J*cococo 






U O 

CO --^ 
C^ lO CO 
CO ^"^ o 
t-* OS OS 

M Tfl -^Ijf 






C3 

;w 

ooo -»o 

■^ »^ C^ 00 -00 

S05 »C 00 CM »o 
CO ^ -O OM* 
C^ 05 t^ ^ CD 00 
■^ CO C^l CO t^ rt* 



C8 

a> o 

ooo 
coco 






ClM05(M-H'*a0-*C0C0t^(N00Oa>r-H 
COCOCOlNCOlNCOMlMIMC^C^StcOC^CO 



"o 

03 

a , 
C o 



c« ' 

•-V 



a.Ho, . 
O 00 g =.02 a 

,ij *J O P c« c3 

«00" 00 

(N — < >-0 <M <M CO 

T-CCOt^NC^^ 



C3 O 

^^ 

•r-d 

II 



C30 









-O' 



.oj.S 
j; ? 3 



i> o o 



a> aT) 

i*^ 3 c«>*^ 

as-a^of^Jg 



ffl 



«:z;yMj' 



-CO 



=3, 



^a rf 



CD 



.o 






Sco 3 
'jao! 



= SQ 



3 3<; ^ 



. ) "O 



• O j5 
S3 i-^^ O^ 03U5-W 

Sgoio >^o.-ia.' 

3*i *^ la-" w o 

:a o '^ '^ >o '^ CO o ^ 

XlO-^^^CDCJLO-^ 



E a 

a a; 






^ C3^ 



CO 



a 



Q 



-— ' t-. a:* 

■a 

rS r^i 

« a* -■ 

C/3 GJ > 



03 
O 



>» '■- 



O QJC 






c3 o t; 
o-S-3 

r^ r; 03 

V. <! ^ 

- WO 

•^ > tj 



o 

en 

03 



^ - 

Ah 03 m 
y c3 



3k 



03 



3 



03 

a 

r o 

2 >^ 



pq -£ 

00 <D OJ 






Sk=^ 

03 



, yj ^^ -- 'T ''iTi" .W/S 'JUU^'*' 

^-*-^Ct .^^r^C^^Lj -" ^ — ._ ^ f^ 






ooM a"^ 



5 "^ t^ 3 c3 i 



3§§?5 
cocom-a" 



0-H»J 
OC^ Ci CO 
^ CO t^ CO 
rt rt r-l(N 






"*< Th ^^ 
OOC^ 05 



■•«Q.a° 



CO a 



- O w 



CO 



H -.^ C 
H OOC 



^^^ OcBJ^^T)< 
00 o . a.' ■* "s c-j 10 
•^r (N --. ^H c^ r-- 

rt i-lM-l CO MICO 



& 

o 

w 



3.^* 

3 03 



CI 

o 
a 

■a 3 

t) 03 

53 
-^ >, 



j^ CO 
-03^^ 



o 
022 






£5-3 

"H-l  

2 S ^ " 
3-9 2; c3 



3 

"o 



co-"^.^^ .a -«■ 
S £233^3-3^ 

^^ -J.^ ^..^ _k_J2 '^^ u_^  'k 1 -^ 



-j 03 O 

•36.3.3 

a; 3; o o 



a 

03 

I PI 

g-a 3 03 

0>-i'~* - 
• . -a 

£ t- a 03 
a a at! 

o 0.- a> o 



0^ 

•3 

a >^ 
>.7^ a 

fe^ o 

a«^. 



« , 



ra wjJ'.S 



cj o'3 
Q'3 03 

„-SK 
.3.2 § 



3 2-^.- 

ES a a 

■.".•. C/3 

a a a § 

O O C i^ 



^ 4J en 



CO CO 03 

3 3.2 
03 03 a> 



WtD'Ximmai KMCO OiXMMTiCOCOCOCQCOCQCOCQCOmWCOCOaicOM 



3 
03 
Ph 



.^ t5 -*-* 

fc.<a" 

bBf.r S 
a S M 
cob 

b. L^ 3 
4.J .4-3 4^ 

CQMCO 



a 

o 

-I 

•St; .2 
Sp5^ 

- - CO 

03 3 g 
> > 3 

Si=3 

3 3 3 

Moaw 



■a J £" 
aB.3 

CO W: *J 

3 3 3 



a 

03 

a 

03 



5 



■30 



03 03 



C9 

.k-3 

CO 



o 

o 
u 

CD 

o 

a 

3 

X! 

a 

< 



a 

CO 



2 .9 
B 



o 
a. 



1^ Ph 



PhPhPh 



'-'PhPh 



jk.3 oSk:i hSiJ 

PhPh PhPI^ PhPh 



Q 
Ph 



p.gS« 



►J 

Ph 



Ph^PhPhPh 



Ph PhPh 



72723— 57— pt. 23a- 



a62 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



03 
P 






c 
o 
O 



-e 
e 

e 
o 

s 

CO 

s 
e 






d 
_o 

s 

3 
a 



3 
o 



a 

05 



T3 
< 



a 



b£ 
h3 



00 r^ r^ t^ r^ 

coco MCOfO 
Oi Oi 05 Oi 05 



00 r^ r^ t^ to 
cocofo ro CO 

Oi C5 Oi Ol ^ 



oot~^t^^-»^t^?ot^t^r^t^r^t^t^t--t^r-.i^t--t>.r- 

COCCCOCOCOCOCOCOCOMCOfOCOfCCOCOfOfCCOCOCO 



t~* ic r-- h- :o r^ t- 

C*5 fC CQ CO C*5 CO CO 
O^ O^ C^ 0> O O O 



03 03 CO -9 "^ 



>> <U X >- CJ 



tic 

D 






H, H^ -< i-s (-1 [in 1-5 



i^ -^ S ^ t^ 

00 IN-* on 

00 00 r^ CO t^ 

lO CO 00 fC oo 



-"<S(i; 03 

^ ^ rt o --• » c 



ca t^ ic 00 ■*?" 

OOQ CO 



3 03 

:z3 
o 



^ 


>, 




-*-' 


o 


o 


fe 


■2 


O) 


o 



2;^ 

re/. CI 



"o 
O 

> 

•as 



^,a;2 



o 

B 

'•^ 

n 

V 



03 



z^ 






oOTj^^^^co-Hr^iMt^cooo^o 
o5 CO Tf -OS ooc^^ ooco-* -<N 
oooiooa)»oeO'*t^'*?5^'^»co 

OSOSCDCW^OCC-^OOCOt^-^C^OO 
OJC^O5t^t-.t^'^00t^cOCOO5t>-t^ 
TJHTJICO-^COCOOOCOCOOOCOCO'OCO 



-3 C3 



3 3 

03 <S 

com 

3-*c»5oocoes 
^ 00 c-» »o o •<*« 

3 GO IC O ■* -* 

3 t-- :C CO ^^ »o 
) CO CO CO CO (M 



CO c« 

G3_CU 

'CC 

03 O 
CO t/3 

o o 

CO ^ 

o'S 

a a 



o (N ^ CO CO r^ •»** 

O CO ^»0 lOOO — » 
CD ■»?' <M ■* — O ■»»* 

o CO (N -^r oc r^ Tt« 
CO <N r- 00 ».; CO CO 

CO (N — . ■* CO CO CO 



4<« 
o 
o 

PQ-! 



« o 

03 - 



o 



■p— I . 1^ M C 

->, -03 3 



03t;O .>^cnpSB 



o 



o 

id 05 I 









.';^^ > « 



m 



O^ 



<5 '3 CO J;^' r^ 



co^ 



(M • 






CO .2 



-^CO^C55_^CO' 



5S 



*^ 3 
CO o 



CO I 
03 ! 

CO 3 « 
o .3 o 

2 tf 



^ *J O "'■^ CO 'L 

^— '^COCOC'lt^OO'O 



03: 



CO 03 

t2-< 03 
CO b£)i- 

— o>o 

-^ t^CO 

CO CO^ 



« « « d 

. -<i CO 

'^w-HS § a 

H, 3 .2 M 

<H o o C3 '- 

r>Sj£ 

'O-'J fCO 03 
I; 03 03 03 > 

Sococooo 



(3 .1— t 
3^J3 



to H 

S3 r 

.^ ^- ^ 

PUdn > 

jj 00 



O 



O 

M 

O ^ -« -,- !> 



^Z: 



3 r^ ^ ,-H o> 



CO 30S 3^ 
o oco jj -H 
■<f ni'^5'* 



«PQ 03 S^jfQO 

Z rO W m - - 

r» - .t. ^"03 

« ^ tl 03^ S ^ 

3gggcof^£-§ 

^ CO M fc; CD O 

o3S2|£§|^ 



;j3 

pB 

03—. 

XI b 
o 3 

+^ 03 

• ^ a:" 
fc-^-' o 

:2 3 3 

>- 03":; 

"^ > m 

cococ/j 



o 

o -x: 

~.i£,co 

03 3 t 
S^ O 

CO '^__ _ 

^^ da' 

boftP 

B N e» 
cocot-< 



omns S 

03 CO -: 

03 >. O .03 

3j: ..H;;: 

^ -03 05 ^ 

e .S E 3 3 

c3 ^ c3 rt c5 



3 
J3 

o 

1-5 

a-; 



03 "3 
av 03 

iffl 



O 

2-- 

3 
o o 

a §■ o e 
03 CO o E 

O O 03 "S 

!>. >..Sf .-3 

03 03 03 03 



3 <" 

, cX! 
t— 1 03 C 

a 2-^ 

3 3 CO 
03 03 03 



3 OT 

-«-> t-i 

t- tJ3 
■3 >> 

2 a 
ptdco 

, t", « c; 

>.aB 

03 O O 
J3X; J3 



XI ^ 



t»x^ J= 

03 -^ ^3 

Ctf => 
■^ -O 
a a - 
o o a 

CO CO o 

BFS 
o o o 
x:xix: 
h^E- 



■03-3 fl 

? c3 3 

-5»-5<; 

a" b" a 

o o o 

eES 

o o o 

X3Xli3 



5-w 



b ^ ca 

" ^ QJ rt O 

«^OoE 

3^ 3 -'^ 
2 03-° "« 

a aw .g - 

*-■ ^ t i> t! 

O O 3 S 03 

^j:x3ja.2 



3 ^ • .2 .a i§ -g 



fell 

^Ea 

E^t^E^ 



:3 " 
5 «> 

_ i-s CO O 
D. -c t. 
■3XJ 3 o 

•9 cs-^Tj 

.2 o o o 



h3 

P4 






Ml— 1 

5^1 



o 

03 

a 

a 

XI 









3 
cS 

a 

M 



3 
o 

03 

o 

!• 

X3 
c8 

a 

03 



a 






1-5 



5fLH PM PhPhPh PhPhPh 






.^q k3i-3« E-i 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a63 



SS2 


r^ t^ t>- 

O. 3> a 


CC CO CO CO C»3 CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 


222 


CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi 


1^ r^ CD I- t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO 


1— 1 


SaS 


gSS' 


?;22?f?fs"«'SSSSS:fr2g(?5?s:2: 


t^ -vco 


iNeo « ^ -< c^ 


Q r^ cs 00 o 


?5 


Aug. 
Dec. 
June 


Oct. 
Jan. 
May 




Nov. 
June 
June 


aJ 0.9 a«q go 


Feb. 
May 
Dec. 
May 
Sept. 





t^ lO r^ 

O5 00 "V 

t>. ■^ 'Tf 

cooo -^ 

1^ iO lO 

^* CO ^ 



,X1 



to OC'tD 
Q0t>.O 



".a 



to *-H --.< M. -- »C lO .CO CO O »0 ^H M 00 to 

i^Oiu^»oc^too»CQ6tot^t^i^r^ocooot^ 

r^-VCO.-Hir:tO<N00005(N^-*00<M'OQOu:) 

c^Tj.ooooQcor^ocooooc^t^t^'^05^0 

tOt^tO»OiO00tO000StO0CQ0tO00tDO500r^ 
coco M OICO ■^■V coco 05cC-«" CO CO'* CO ■<><■* 



« 



cS N . 

1> coto 

..-I 05 
OOTf 00 
CO'* c^ 



CO 
Oi - 
■* -T" 

CO »o 

05CO 

cooq 



C^ ■*** CO CO M -O 

CO »-« t^ »0 05^ 
lO lO •* lO CO .- 
.-H 00-H "OO N 
CO CO * * ^ I— * 



OOO OS 00 ' CO 

•* T' 00 CO -^ CO 

»o aocooooo t^ 

00 to to r^ to OS 

to C^4 40 Ca rH ^ 

CO ^ CO 'J* CO M* 



ilMCOCOCOCO 



I •«*« CO to CO •* c*^ 



> 



Sua 



■O.S 

CJ3 

.So 

a 13 o 

a 03 
? a o 

£a>^ 

CO 03 -.J 

MM^ c3><; c 

fl *:> t« " -- . 5 

3:: ?^irm i3 ir 



O 



U 



tT3 Cs w 



.5c«s^^ 



" > V -- 

^'^ So-rc^ 

tO-*P-l MCO 

»o to CO r^ .-« Tf 



= <N •- ^ 

LJ *-= O S 

^ 03 _ W _ ,S 

'C'^ -w ""^ w o 

^ .t; ;? >o 

to w 00 »o ^ 

•* -^J. iC OS ^H 



o r c3> c3 

■Jui J— "^ ""^ "^ ^ 

. ■♦J Q^ ~ 

■K S "-" ^ 0^ M 

2, C3 ^ '-H ^ 

?* ■" c 0; 



.20 

•" 9b 

^ 03 ^^ 

0-3 : 

■2 -^ 
ra<1 a 

'/-. g 3 

■* CO 

Mco 00 

«CO-H 






2 -!^ c 

-CO 2 
Oi M I, o 

cor^co 

TJ« f-i to cs 
i-t ■* c^ to 



' Ol 

; 3 

' to 
• to 

013 

^^ 

'Z c3 



•"* to 

' M .a 

•aE-z 

rco o. 
> '^ _ 
_ oj«j" 

■^s a 0^ 



■a 

o 
o 

»^ 

Qt^ 
^1 

.So 

Is' 
a 

-■> CO 
•J 00 



o 

♦J *J 
03 ^"^ 

en 
fe^ o 

o S - 
: . ^ a 

g.^a^-' 

CO cS CO O 
>0 00 
IN CO 



ol 

a 
o 



o 









od5 



CO c3 
CO 



K.i'-' =3 t" 
^ O # o-^ 

c3 .!2 § t: t- 

W t^ o X 

10 (N O 

■W OCO (Mm 



03 » 
■*^ 03 
bx, r. o C3 T* ^^ o . 

0° o»o>^ 2 - 

3 X! ij Ol o !£ — ; 









O 



c3 






t^-; 



^. 



iort ttO^NtOCJ^ 
CO f-H 00 00 c^ ^ t^ 
00 .-t CO C4 .-I TP r-i 



to Q 



a = ~ 

2-2 ^ 

a -^ 
>>.s „- 

c as 

000 



a . 

C3^ 

.S . c^ 

O cO-C .- 
■3^: 6/, ■*• 
3 o C 3 






c:^' 



a 

43 03 






,^<; 



C 03 
C i£ 



c Z-~ 



£; — C .S ^ tj. t;. _ 

v: 3 3 X—. a 3 t/5 c3 



a. 

03 
C3 . 



^1 3^ 

0« x" 



;C: 



.S a ".n; a •-<-«> 03 ~ r - .— 



C3 03 C3 C3 



S o - 

EC3 ^ 
■a M.2 

X!~ »-a ^. 

+j 0.1 ' (-" r 
(U .— -t-j 5 eg 

C C C 3 ?3 
c3 ^ C3 c3 C3 
>>>>> 



W Oi* t-H 

e.s§ 

Br 1 *-■ ■" 

oW tea 

•^ 3 to 

O o as; 

s g a C2. 
■0-a.c — 

ca .^« 



a 
, o 



-ka: ;:; o 



5 iMt 

.2 o>-5 



'os-g 



^3 c; ^ ^ 



-ofc.£f 
>>>> 



03 o Qi 2i c- :*; 

.3.3 o O O 3 
>>>>>> 



^a 



< .w 

_- a . 

a c3 1- 

O 3 n 

a a 3 

bfj'C bjD 

03 o: C3 



a 

13 Oj ^ s- t^ 

,5? M C3 C3 - 

^ "C^ ^' r-" ^*' 

■w _- vj lyj cn 

'c3 '^ "c^ "c? 'rt 



a 
w 

bl 

a 






►J ij 



« «^h:o^^ 












hH )-^ ^ »J 



a64 scope of soviet activity est the united states 



CO CO CO CO c*o cc 

Ci 3s C5 Cl Oi OS 



r? £ :-" S r ^ 

f^H k-^ -< H^ &- »^ 



CD h- 

coco 

CIO 



0<1 



t^ 1^ t^ OO 

CO MCO CO 

cs cs o o 



h* t^ i>- r* t^ t^ 

CO CO CO CO CO CO 
Oi O Oi Oi Ci Oi 



t- t^ l>- 1-^ t* CO 

CO CO CO CO CO CO 
C5 CS O 05 Cj o 



00 00 CO r^ w c-i lO 

1— I 1-. 1-1 csi 



C3 



53 C3 :3 






sa 



c3 



S— fc-l « Oj -; 3 



t^ :C t^ t^ CO 

CO coco CO cc 

Ol Cj Oi Oi 03 



^ ci »- ^- rl 



CO cc r^ CO 

00 CO C^ CO 

c^ »o •— t >c 

to lO C^ lO 
CO CD QO C^ 
CO ^ CO ^H 



fe >^ 



Oi GO 
lO CO 



i^(0 

(M 00 

O CO 



CO r'- CI o 

o ■* »o o 

(•- r-. o o 

C-1 O lO CO 

IVOO t^ o 

CO CO CO lO 



r*'* o ooc^Oi 

OO O CO "^ O (M 
O C^ OS lO iO o 

o lO r- 00 Oi to 

iM O CO O »0 OS 
rt< CO CO CO CO CO 



cc 

O -OS OS 

r^ CO -M o 

»0 -rf O 00 
O i-O t- "^ 

00 lO o o 
CO C^ CO CO 



CO rr 
•O CO 
lO CO 



T-<OOCO * 
'-> 00 rpoc 
00 C-l iC Oi 

lO »o r~ 00 

CO C^ CO o 



d 

d 

o 

o 



to 
e 

o 

B 






o 

09 

e 

to 

to 



a 
o 



C3 



C5 



73 

T3 

< 



^ >>5 ^ ce s 

•^ V. O GJ ci - t^ 

?!'^.!Sco^ o*^ 



« 



^M' 



. «► 



1^; 






o 



^ 









p 






f> 5; C3 tr^,^^^ 






^ 



s' s 



tf 






'a 



:>.f 



t^ g r2 >?S-e'^-oCC^ s: 



^2^«j2 



;j^ 



G 2 <; f^ oajH 



>m 



OOC-J 
O O I^ 
Oi "^ CO 



: oo; 



C3M 



' ^ O ^ G 



■t> m g 03 J M 






O 






03 



- „ Q Ti> ai 



C3 



CSI OCD^O 
CO C^ '^ OS O O 
CS Tt< lO iM C^ 

CO ^ ?3 ^ (M 



^£ 



C3 _ »o Q CO ^ ,_ <H 



■r; G t- -^ 

— S,0 C3 

o , . 
.^-ti-i^ >3 

of ^ rrM 

G— "-; _ 

C3y5 50o 
>■ M CO --^ 
f'rt -H OS 



^ K^ :i3 

? .a, 

►^■^ jp 

c3 IO.G 

O CJ "^ 

CC— I o 
t^ (M ITS 
O "O C^ 



. 03-r'SiM 



O <DCQ 03 
■*J T) C3 

■sSK . 

— !« 2 „■• 

■w G i^^ 
w O C ' 

c3m C.m 
rvi "-^ w c- 

ic to C3 C^ 

CO (M W.p2 
1-H 40 en ^ 



o . 

go 



1— t 
OS 

I 
o 



w O is- 

^Wg^ 

CO >> g g - 
••a -"I 






G aUn 

-r ^ ^?* o 
c^ »c f— »oo 



03 

z 



a 

be 
<s 






c £ 2 3 ^ - 

C tH t- VD M -♦-» 

03 c3 03 C3 (^ C3 



< - 

-a 



o 

1-5 

fl 

c3 



■G K 
G a 



c-ir" 

to a 

G G 
"? ^ 






G 
c3 
K 

. o 



C3 .• 



a p> 



03 03 



feiS: 



^^^ ?: 



.S.S 



a O x: '-p M 



^2 c "^ G 

.G G > -G 

.-. '_: o', ry, uj t/j 

t-, en _w on _w _^ 

O <P Q^ Gj Qi 4) 
t^ r^ 1^ r^ 1-^ 1^ 






■G ^~ :: 

^ -, - - - 

«a a a S 

.03 03 o:_g 

-G E E a'5 

_OjGjG^ g 



^S3 

az 

c3 to 



^ 3 
a>< O 

■K .« 

2 * M 
. 0- a o 

c si ^ o 

fl H C t-i 

a, 0:1 oj oj 



03 

a' 

OJ C3 

0<^ 'Si 



2; -si 



S^-cSS^ 



o 

t" >^ 2; 



o 

O G^ tl, 

•4^ -4-d -M 

5S!g 















h5 EdO'-''-' I-' '-''-'QCi 



fM 



^fl^(l| (L, p^fL,*' 



Ph Ph' 'PhPmPLiPl, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a65 



OO CD t^ 1^ t^ »o h* 

ec cc ro ro re oc ?o 

CE C3 ^ 05 31 Oi 03 



cc re 



h- h* t^ r^ oo 00 t^ 

CC M Ce PO CC fC CO 

Oi CI Oi Oi O^ 05 0> 



Ct> POCOWPOCOCCCCCCCC 



Cv CT c*3 ro rv c^ i^ c^ -^ c^ c^ c^ n c^ t^ c^j f^ (.--j t'^j fj fj fj cj cj c^j c.i 



I- o; »-i c^ .-^ w:j i>» 









lO t^ Of (MO 



C3' * 






>.. 



O X5 O ^ r- 



O O °5 Q._^ a »•= g <L 



a 



CC C7 CO CC CO 

o> en o C3 o 



n.C G e « 



cc CO ro cc 

03 03 O) <7> 



S' 



O C 3 « 



CC CO CO CO 

o o o ^ 



tCoc or t^ 



O CO -^ t^ ^0 o 
t^ 00 CM ^ ^• (M CO 

00 Ci U^ lO ^ rH »0 
•-1 t^ O ^H CO o o 

OS io r^ ic t^ CO -"^ 

■««« CO CO (M CO C^ -"^ 



CO o 
c^ r* 

■-C 00 

coco 



o 
to u 

o a 
la 

W >OfO 

-co t^ c^ 

■* -^ (N lO 

(N ir: ic o 

r^ »o 00 «c 

•"sf CS -^ CO 



c 
ce 

Zfl 
M^O 

— (N u? 
CO '- 00 
(Tj CO CO 
■^J' CO CO 



1.2 

I C3 p 

'.2 S 

f.^. 

CftiC(M00iCCO-rJ"CO -r- 

00GC(N0CC^»CCOCC^-QC 
Tf^S''^CCCO^fO^-'^CC 



la: 

0>0S GO O - 

r- CN CC M x 

N CCT^ CQ ^P 
»0 C^ GO CM CD 

CS Oi -^ OS lO 
CO -^ '^ -^ C^ 



03 
CO 
O 00 --^ 

co(N cr-co 
CO CD r^ o 

O 40 »0 Oi 
O CD O cr 
CO CO CO CO 



ICCDM W 
CO r: OO 
■**- CO ^ 00 
COCM 00 t^ 
I^ dO t^ o 
^■^■^co 



cor^rfcooocor-^cDcDO coo 

(M C^l -^ CS CM C^ CO CS CO ■*?' '^ CM 



C3 



5 



c 



So-? 
U -" 

" ^ a =:i 
C3 ? CO 

M > 3 • 

E 



a 

C3 

o 
w 



■y^'-. 






>.^ 



o c 



rt >-.^ 



>^''- 


65 


C C3 


^3 


^^ 


^1 


^'^ 


c r 




?^ - 


C3 > 


^+3 


-<J 


^t/j 



iJi-C C3 -w 

>-^^w=o 

<^ CO CO ^.^ 



^ CO o jr 






i-if^iCOCO- 



t^co> 

en c-" 
c<» cz> 
-<co 



>0 00 

»o o 

-HCO 



o 

2 



S C3 
c3 o 

g c: o 
.2ot rt 
•« :^ 
O-*^ - 

> i; o 
ej r'^ 

CO iCi . 



CO aiO 
^ ".2 

gK' g 
.--^ro r 

»0 ^H 4^ 

O^jcC 

OC^"" 
OUDO 
CO CO CO 
CO f-H CO 



o 

o. 

CO 

CO 

C3 

o, 
o 

z 



O c3 



^i 

^« 

r-e >> 

a- o.ti 

■^ -SCO 

S «^ 2 
a c o"^ 

3 cStC-j; 

OOCOrX'^ 
O Ci**^ lO 
O— ' O 

Ci --• CO 



O o 

2?W 



5 Ci-H oj 5 



^ Oj 



fe?cy, 



■a. r-^ « a 



Z3'<!^^ 

00 •-I ''-' -i-a I"^ 

'-^'^oo<y^ 
coco •-■c^ o 

O O CO CO »-H 
rHCCIN .— TT 






,0.3 C3 

5o-i^ 
fcjt.^ o 
C 3.2 



a 
o 



S>. 



3 



o : 



3 '3 2 "^S 

S .3 O --03 cj 

■c o.S_- - 

C "3 6£i2 ft 

* •3.2^5-^; 
.05) .^ 

j_ *J • - C^ w ^ 



.« cJ . - m 






. .ti ^ pn ^ 



a 
3 

3 

■C 

3 



D. 



3-  



£§J 



r^" 



03 >, 



< 



r: ^— — 



«S^ accq 



'^ ^=3 jr O J= bi s^ 
+j o!Zs^^+j XT'-; oj 



C3.J"0 

.. JOcc.2  

• .« -J g 

a; K! aJ m ftj .2 
-< S *< '■'- 



«2iu 



33 



r- ■*^ "ti — <^ *^ ^ - f^ 

— cxjii " -b " j£ *j S "^ 

i2 ^- ? CJ 3 t 



> W ,^ o Ch W t ^^ ^^ ^ ^ _- 

W »Cft^iOiO00 lOCOCOO^ 
rt r-iP-lc»i-l(M rtC^M(Mf^ 



rt« S g2 " 

Q- '^ M -. ^-w  



■^ CJ. S M «>, 

:5 CO fo m "rH 



GJ3^r2 ^ 

CCS_J3 

h; C3 oco 

3(2 o o 

cC.^ 1> .^ 
-hOOOOi 

coc^ o-^ 
.^cs co-^ 



1 te >» 

l-gc : ; ;« 

» C J- *«i t- 3 '^ 

•^■5 ^ \2 5 — 
•-re tnss c3 t- 

fe->:g":gss 

S 3 3 =; st: E 
*j *i ^ "O a.' c .3 



>)CS 

EQ 

3! o 



3 

tn w ^ u 

_ ° 3.5 

' — J 03 t3 

*^ "i? C3r-i C C rj » 







>- 3 

< C3 
iP-i 

3 



orj^ 3 *-> be— I 
"1 ^ .3 S ^- 3 *- 



03 






CC 



en c3 

0'0'0'co o £ 
p: ?:?:?:?:?:?: is is p: 



m c3 

E = 






. 3 
!•« 

lis si 

ml-. 



:is isisp:p:; 



a 

1^.2 '5 
« W^ 

i- c3<; 
" '^ k '«;2 

EE5|.2 

- - •- - - 
C« « G^ C « 

-*^ -4-3 c; ^ H 

c3 c3 c; cp o 



03 

aj= 
34"! S a 

.^c3i-» o 

BJ«) 3 3 
Co 3 3 

OJ .« o o 



P-h'-'Ph Ph 



Ph '-'PhPhPh (1<Ph 



PhPh Ph^ WW(i,(i, p.^ 



OhPhPh 



PL, i<Ph 



P^'-^P^fLi 



a66 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



.a 



a 
a 



o 

a 

m 
m 

03 

Ph 






3 

a 
o 



•2 

B 



O 
so 
S 

e 

=5 



a 
ca 






a 

OS 



■a 

a 



t^ b* t>- r^ t^ t-^ r^ t* t^ t^ ^ (>* h- r^ t^ t>. i^ t^ t^ t^ h- t^ r^ t^ o 

CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 

»o^co co'^'oo^^io »o CO CO t^-^co ^cf c^co r-T c^-^jTirr-* 

N^COCOM'^ -H ^ -nriC^ rtrt 

iJ u u t: rj t^" >^ bi o t: cj bi 1^ 5?^ ►*"£' ^ISS?S? ^S^^cJ 



;« 



^ fi r-- 
■^ uoec 

00 00 GO 
CO Pj PO 





CO 
l-r 

(^ 

a 

03 

CO . , . 

GO ^ O OS ^ ^ -t^ ^ C*3 

oc o c) -^ ?5 rr^ c^ r- r^ -^ 

en to c; o t^ cc •-■: o 'X> GO 



^CO^COfOCO^' 



o 

CO 



1-1 IM iC OS 

-^ c^ -«-j< 10 

GO -^ 00 o 
^ ■<*' CC CO 



wcscsc^wcocs-^c^cs 



CO 
Eh 



*« r^ 



o 

o 

>^ 

o r 



a '^tH':fe<i 






^Iz^^l^-i 



O O O .t^-^'-* Im 

U O t-" 00 O *=* 'O 



CS 
CS 

o 



W aj 



•3 

a 



OS 

CO •■* 



o "^ 

Q. 



c3 

a 
^1 



4<S?3 



•W-^tX 






W .^^ -^ ^ 1,4/ k_; vfci j« (jj - 

SoTWoOCOt-. — rt 
000 ■<»< rH -<** T-H O 05 CO 

Mi-icj CO -H CO -H r~ d N 






oico« 



•OJ3 o »^ 

o ca rnj^ 

Sato's -2 
?^coa> coO 



O 

O . M 

a =5 Jr i 

CD r ^'a 

^-S te-a 



o 

CO 
a 

2 



m 

OS 



OC0>0 OQ 






pqOgo 

•~ca=»§co 
■Sja22jg2 

COC^ CO C^ 



o 
a 

C ^ ca 



-— H » 






, a 
s w o S 

cO 03 ^ o3 

NNNtSl 



■§0 3 

- >-. . > c 

a 2-" ca o 

^ ii i^ tn *^ 

^ ^ ^ ca ^ 
NNNtSJN 



.2 o a 
ij^S a 

S'a-r 2 
•a =9 ^ S 



.a 

C9 ^■^ .-^ 

Bw 22 (^ c^ 
o a -ij t- 

■a MS a Sf 

o ca <x) q; a 



wr 



o 



3 P- O C 

C3C3oa> 

C>5 IS) CS5 tSJ N N N IS! N 



a" o a _- 

•-» -M *J r^ 

NNNN 



SOS 









PPJ 



p 



PL| 





.a" 


-^ 


ts. 


a 


02 


«>> 


as 


•f^ 


V. 


T^ 


cq 


fea 




a « 





^s 


p 


^ 1 





7p 




«S 


e 


Ss 






« 




fi 




»~H 




<» 




^ 




•*i^ 




'S' 


p 


60 


2: 


C 


w 


a 





•^ 


ij 


t- 




cc 




;^ 








CO 




*r* 




i-^j 






Is 




•sa 


K 


(►.CO 


s 


3fl 






». 


P.2 


a. 


J " 


s 
&Q 


bOo 


a a 

■Sli 




D— De 

M— M 
PL— P 





CO CO CO CO 






!« 



>0 Tl<t 

00 t^OCO 

kc CO r^oo 

op eooi t^ 
^cococo 



>o - 
■Z a-.-s 

. o as, 

(- *:? o ^ 

^^ 

rt g rt ts 

MN-'J'CD 

oc t^e^'* 






ija-a 

^ 03 

S-a 
o o 

a - -is 

Eh -2 >m 

a a . 

o'aas 

^ c3 03 M 
a> (^ lh o 
X2AA u 



§s 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a67 



coco SS ro 


r^ 00 r^ t^ 1^ r^ 


t^r^h-t^t^h*r^r*i^ooh-r^r^tDr*t^ocoor-aocDr^r>-.aoi^ 


COPOCOCOCOCOPOCO CO CO 
0dO3O>^O)OS^CnO3 ^ 


roroccrOMM 


POfTS^cocococococC'C^pr'rcroc^'r'corocococococoPOCOco 


O* 03 ^ OJ 


o> Oi ^ Oi o> Oi 


Oi O* OTOiOiO^OSOiOi^Ct C-OiOtC^G5OiO5CiOlO>OiO50505 




jCou: 


"rt"_-C^' 








'"'S^'S 


O QQ lO O --<' O' --i O r-* O C4 C^' 'C ■Tfl' ■««t'" »0 '^' CO 


c^' o oJ c-1 co' OJ oo' "i 00 g-" 


M-H 


-hC5(MC5 C^ CO " -,— .^^(>j^ c*^ 


Nov. 1 
Feb. 1 
Feb. 
July 2 
Feb. 1 
Do 




^CC 


C C C3 






S^^S 


3 03 c3 3 c3.^ 

►->.-> H^ ►"> .-5 <; 










s ; i iss i i i i i is 


is i ; i 


1 I < t 1 1 1 1 1 1 










.^ , , , ••-• ..^ , , ^ 


;■=::; 












^ ^ ^ iM 












a^<i'i'<i' 


«> 












00 ' ' to tfl ' ' CO 


.So i i i 

Oi to 




• ; ;S 


o 1 

1 : 


O 1 1 

.2 : : 


o 1 1 1 1 

1 ; : ; ; 


isco 

isco 
isco 

isco 




1 1 1 o 


O ' 


o . ' 


Q 1 1 1 . 


U>..(LIUiii...O 


" o ! 1 1 




. , . g 


a ' 


c ; ' 


fill'' 


C;;'Cd C 


Af n . . . 




: ;2 


c3 


es ' 
t- o 


S ; ; ; : 


2 c ^' 12 2 ' i ! i ' 12 


°.- i : i 




: ' ;^ 


b ; 


CO 1 

a « . 


■^ i : ; ! 


eSS idd ! ; ; ; ; la 


t^^ :« : 




1 1 ! c 


a ' 


C ' ' ' i 


5, New 
37, San 

848 

Valenci 

244 

482 




... 5 

1 1 IM 


ra ; 


.52 1 


03 ; ; ; ', 


M;°*^ 'COOT ; '  ' ' 'CO 




ocoow . 


-r- 05 


.r^ OS 00.-* CO *^-"*^ »c - .t^oOQooooco -c 
coto.OiOr-ih-t-- . .03 cc.ooc^oor~-ioo;toiit 
r^cotor^Oi^oocot^c^0300oocor^^.-<(MNci 


cpcor>-(Ni— icooico^co 

cDr^cooococ7>t>-i-i(0«5 


otco m 


Tj. to QC 


csio"Ss 


S — o« 05 


eci^g 


cow-*?* 




OiCC-^ 


50Cjq>tOOCacC(N(NOOM->J'<Nt~C-J-HCOtOQ-a-0000-9< .«5CO 

osu^tDr~-cooo-^0505cs^HioTfu^«^iocia5»o'<}'r-.^tot*oto 

CS-*CCCO'<**'*W«fTj*iceCC-4'^COTj.'*Tj.Tf-cmCCOC>ICO«^COCC 


oS"; 


S^CO 


CO ^co 


COCOCOCO*OCQ'*VCOCO 



oooQco T»«oQoQC^'^Tph* »oc>co^cor^oocoo*co^utiTt"'^^oit^c^«:>'^i-H-*t<co»ncO'-<05^-r^or^oc^'^»oco 

C^C5CS ■^WNC^CSCSC^ CS C< CO CO CO CS CN) CO C^ CS CO CO CS C^ CS CO CO C^ C^ C^ -^ C^ -^ CO CO -^ CO CO CO CO •**- CO CS « CI -^ 



.■so- 
«<!o3 

05-<tO 
-<NCO 



^ O.O. 

■•3°=' 

|s§^ 

to g » " 

05 3.2 
-J aJ !>>2 

uO O QJ ^ 

000 1>" 

i^co ■* 

rt OS •* 



1 > '^ 






MS*. 



§■3 



'■^ aj 
o*J2 

y . . to 



"O ". 



COCO — 



o®Eg 

Z^« 

00 I 

CO* o 



^S O' 



^O 






SS d 5 

2 o c 

d r . 



.CO w ^^ 

3..H 00 — 
CO -w o 



nfe-tjd 

•< to 



O C3 

c ce'-"0 
•S2S2 

OS OS 

CO »c ■* t^ 



be o "d 
o:-3*JPh 

x:0 _ »o 

C c3 CxOu3 
t^ 0000 "to 

O "^ CO "j 
MCSCOpH 



■'■So 






d" 


■0 


2 


d 


b( 


0! 


r^ 






J<<J3 


rfl 


CO 





C3 
> 






>. 




n1 




^ 


rn 


•0 

n1 








Lh 




C3 


^" 






CO 


? 



JO 

d CO 

q 03 
*^ to 

s ^ 
s « 



o 



"(2>. 



03 



C3 



-c«U 



Co 

feo- 



2 
2 
o 

a> 

em 
•o >. 

^2 

PQ o 
■:>^ 

QZ 



d^ >. 



>» 03 

^35 dio o ,aO 

-w'-'2S'£^V 



<'P*^J<« 



Od .t-P33!Pfe 
ry 03 « 43 -.d ® <B 



' go 



A o IB ja jj 



fe' 



1^ 0.t: 






to 03 

<; ." .^ 03 r/^ 0)5'^ 



't^^tt-^sa'oj 



'^>v^-.ciS^f^SSc2»S«3K^c2SgS2 
-.Sb2'WofeHS-d-S--§?'°^-'^ 
■STa 3 o 3Wm2 g 

2 t^ 03 ■* CO 



' d- 

'-'S^;..to.*-fHcoco2l3r*sto*Thf)Cto 
c^^^ir.:L^^^*jOJ3{ijtoWa3mc3c3'wJa)CO oa..^ „ 

CQ CO "^ -t-* cs 

os^t^or^ ocooc^-^^o 

C<»^C0^-<J'MCOt^^ds-H 



COCO-.COOrr^'-^C^»"^C^O 



5 



. t. ™ 

' k d 

' '_« o 

. ' ■d« 

S"* S -d 
I- b t- 03 b 

.^ .^ ^»* ^t* 



a . . 
o , o 

Sfe2 



i^ « d 
~ c d 

0^ t- r1 

t. ^> fe .5 .^ « 5 

a ^ o 9 2^ . 

— H -S o d ^- 

W .S§S.d.2 
CO O .--v 

— — — o o c S 



■3 t3 T3 .S ^ 6 33 -r 



•oj=3:.a.::. nadaccE 




I Sosg 

3P^gc"5 

. to id d S 



nnpqn 






Q §S § 



Q Q S §S Q 



PmPh 



QSSS Q P 



a68 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



eccccococococococo 



CCCC CO 

c^ o c^ 












. >1 



S^oS^S.^=^'= 






aa 



5S 



o >. 



a 03 o.a c S '^ c Q d-S'c g-S d g 03 

; 0; 3 ej 3k " 



Di5;«;3e!a'5;caflo33o3S"o33k 



CO CO M CO cc 
03 O O^ Ot 03 



=2 o 3 9 a 



'■*3 
1=1 
o 

O 



<0 

e 

e 



CO 

e 



s 



Si, 
?i. 



o 
a 






1 tn 1 ( 

1 1 1 




















1 ' ' ' .^ ."^ 

1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 i ! i^ '^ 1 S ! ! ! i 

,1,1, cu 




18 ; i 


 . Qi 1 1 






,1,1 en m , , ; , , , 










J 1 . 1 1 




 ' .2 ' I 


i i" i i 




I 
« 1 


' t 1 tn w 1 t 1 1 I. 1 




:§ : : 


, 14^ . 1 




P5 : 


g fl . : ; . ; 1 




1 K ' 1 


1 ' ; ; 




1 

■4-9 1 

u 1 




1- ! I I I 

1 1 bJD 1 1 1 


;co ; ; 


1 1 <^ 1 1 






aris. 

aris. 

San 
Saa 


• . • 1 
! !!S 1 1 i 




cC-iCS 


*1— ( 


cocl,Cl,'*"^'^'***<nco(N - .iOCOi:D:DCC 1, 


(N tCOl--, 




OO'^ 


(0(N 




a>(M cc 05 


-H ec 00 


01 CO ■* 


CO '* 


Oi ► -OOOOOCC't^OCOI^CO'-tCr-i-.COO ' 


I «500 CS 00 00 


t^C^lOOl 


^ 05 1:^ oi -^ 


co-^o 


■-^ r-H 


OS .-H CC IM "«*^ 'f C^ OJ !-< CD .-H C: 10 Tt* CO to r 








(MOO 






cc cc ^ ^ 


<j"^ c:0 '^ "<J^ 


■^ coco 


t-t '^J' 


'^ Oi 1— 1 Tf -^J^ (M rP CO r-* CO CO CO -*< .-1 CO Tf '<*< 1 


1 Tt^iC* Tf CO 



M 
-< 



C^C0C<lC<lCOC0-O<IM-*t 



3 
o 



03 









mpH 



-C3 
I- 



C3I-I ^.^ 
5 O o ti 

■a cj-'^K- 



o 



H 



^■a-3 



O CO 
00 CO 



o 

2; 

3 
.- _ , p 

■'^ ffl^j - .> 
CO p. J; ^J m <^ 

^ XS °° 10 CO g 

O C^ t^ "^ ro »^ 
CO CO C^ O CO 
i-H CO i-H TP CO C^ 



03 

o 

o 

o 

o 

3 
03 

3 
ca 



< 

00 

00 



o 
a 

en 

c3 

a 
o 

2: 



« 



.S o 

3 x: 

2 o 



^ 03 



CO § 

3 — 



So 

.3 0) 



' 03 



CO 



o S 



' C3 __I oi 
i O-'H 03 



3^1^ 

co'-S s 

,00 fc.S 

SO 



<D - 



3Ǥ 

o"2 



. 03 
f^ id". 2" 

Q*^ c3 a 
±; ro S 

CO^Q N 



CO 00 
000 C^ CO 
rt •<J"CO(N 



'^ 



^c«|o-g 

.tao Oj >- p 

03 ep? o_ 

3 CO "fe'^ 



a,A 

3 2 

3 "tn 
a; S 

3'o 
c? * 

Tj CO 
(K CO 

CO t- 

.-. o 

- >»^ 

■•-I 4^ to 



OJ - 3 



03 cu •■So 



x:tll 



Q ° c^ 
o„S^T 
2J 03 S !-t3 



3 ° 3 ao 

1 r i\ ^ *^ ^ t^ 



-J5 " CQ ■" CO ''^ 

-<<*-Sw^go3- 
■3 cu m*^ o ■« -1 « 



>H.2 

- 03 
>>03 

2 1^ 

O CO 



(M CO ^<i CS O 

C^l (N O 000 UO 00 



-iiO C^ 1-H CO 



c3 .t_A 

H 

o o 
Oro 

CO.-, 
CQ»0 



a 

C3 



3 
03 

J ^^ «^ '-' 



03 

cd a: 



3^1 

03 CO 2 

=* 2 



■as-s 









c; 



o^.a^ a; oj ™^ 5 



3 o 3 3 g c3-a 
3 3 P.>>c3U c3 



a'iifeii'S.s 



-33... 

5PQmfqpqpqpQO 



03 
C 3 
C3 03 
00 



^3 - 
fcg u CO 

03 03 ca 



3 0) 
£ 3 

m s 

38 

gS ;3 
.S 00^ P5 
r^ tua P 

t>,B.coco 



J^ a 3 
o 3 3 



ca 03 cp 

COO 



J3 

a 

"^ CO 

a'-' 

S ^^ 

26 



M C9 

q; o 3 
CO bcS 
coo 

«|§ 

OS'S 



s °^ 



^ 



,3 



s w 



"5) 

3 
o 

P 



3 CO 3 



oTo o ^ 

CO CO CO 5 

03 03 03.3 

DOOO 



OQO 



■i- 3.2 .i«! a 

03 S^ 0_c2 

-^ »r^ cj' — ' 
^13=£^. 

SSi 000 

aoooo 



>,3 c3 M ~ = ~ 

o 5 c>i 03 r^-T,-:: 



tf 



3S 
O c3 

^ o cu n 
."9 3 

a g 3 b" 

'o'o'o'o 
OOOQ 



3 3-.  ^ 

t> .2 20 
fe*=oS 
o - - -S 

^3330 

00000 

00000 



■3 
3 



QQQ P 



P c P 

s 2 ^ 



p s;ss 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a69 






r^ lo" ^ t-^ oT t^ »c cc" CO V ^o" ^ Iff o" t--^ ccT uf -^ 

Nrt -H-H N CS -H (N (N 



a a a g o a o-= c^ a a 



"ka 'ip^ g 



o r^ c^ o t^ Tf ?3 r- 

C^„ „ r-< rl 

^ £? !-■ t^ d S? brj 



COCO0OCOCOCOCO?OPO 
O^ Ci Oi Oi Oi '^ '^^ ^ o^ 



<00 OSfOOOOO-tCOI^O 



1  ! 1 


I 1 w ; 


1 CO w I 




' ' « J 


OJ ai 




1 i'C 1 


i-c-c : 


\% \ \ 


1 1 a> 1 


. o a> 1 


1 i n < 




1 § 1 1 


1 1 O 1 


■88 i 


1 60 , 1 


. ..a . 




1 y 1 t 


1  O 1 


. O O i 


;c ; : 


1 ; a 1 


; c a ; 


oj 


<fl 


33 53 


^ 






'b : > 


: :p^ : 


|p!^^ 1 


' C ' ' 


1 1 fl 1 


i d a . 


' 03 ' ' 


1 1 C3 ' 


' 03 c3 1 


m ; 


: ;m ', 


CO 02 



O O -^ iQ 
C^ iC ^ C^ 

Tf* CO •-< "iO 
CO CC CO lO 

Tr« CO CO CO 



uO 00 -00 

--• t^ QCCO 
00 -V O Tj< 

to CO cn ic 

00C5 <MO 

f Tj< CO "^ 



SCO -^ a; o 
CS lO cs — ^ 

o; ■^ CO CD rr 

i-O O CO t^ 00 
CO "* CO !N CO 



W W I 

O O I 
O O ' 
CO M ' 

*o *« " 

G a 

;-. s-> 

C fl 

COO) 

0*3 CO 
CO (N 



O 

a 
a 

09 
Ol 

?0 !M0 

C^ t^ I 

o »o c 

uo OD I 



CO 0*3 lO ^H »i3 lO Tf 
O '<*' CO O I^ CO o 

00 CO OC O *-< O 00 
CO 00 " CO oc cc t-- 
C*i 00 Ci lO ^H o CO 
TT CC rO CC -<3* -f CO 



a 

o! 
t^ cc oo - 

OS "0 CO ^-" 
Ol rj" t^ (N 
CO00-«< (M 
COO> ^ -H 
CO ■*'*CO 



a 

=3 -. 
^ o 

a.§ 

CO -^ 00 CO 

O 00 - r- 1^ 

Oi O 00 to o 
Oi i^ to ^ CO 

O OS I'^ CO lO 
>0 W ^ CO CO 



1 I 1 w 1 




i j ; a> ; 


1 "^ 1 






 < * u« < 




1 1 1 S 1 


1 o 1 


1 1 1 m 1 




1 1 1 O 1 


! o ; 


1 1 1 U 1 


1 O 1 










I ' < u 1 


' o ' 


; a 


: p ; 


1 1 ! 53 ; 


05 




1 ^ 1 


, , ,pc ; 


ilX4 1 


: i i§ i 


iS ! 


\ \ \m \ 


,tB , 



-Oil— ICO -r^GO ..Ci 

lO O CO C-J Ci CTf CO O OS 
CSt^iOCO(NCO<-*t^t^ 

coco<or^o<NOscooo 

COfOCOCOCOTfCOCOCO 



> 

C3 

p 

3 

a 

03 



S3 



c^»coor-^Tj'ait^"Ocoosc^*^r^iCTt*cooooicooo^^ococ^^-»j» 

COC^IM-*COIMC^T)<COCMOqMIMC^C^COC^O^,-OCO'OC~l'<I<CO-<rcOCO 



a 
o 

in 

as 

.2 

.a 

> 

03 

Q 

a 
o 
a 



o 



ca 



03 



03" 
bO en 



O 



^ ^^ 



> K 



O ^ 

a 
- o 

2;m 



W 



•§° 






i^Sio 



03 - 



(NO 



U3 CO 
CO rt 



03 03 § 

MM g 

> o « 

2 > fe 
a o O 

03*^ O 

CT r^ CO 



03 
03- Sf^ 

^^ 03 w — ; 

<-^ o '£ 

as:--,v,- 



*^ *^ a 






^, - 0^ 



->> 



03 rt "= 



d3f=< 



rwag 
M >.-m 
a '^ .!= ^ ' 

0;ari^ OJ 
I^O o 

<N0Or-<K 



> aS ao 
S^3 






- _o 



-M 03, 



r ro3 r'^^ 50 
MMoa > a,5 r 



p > £ 



t^ a ^o '-<' 



P-j=' 



*j ^-J T3 t^5 ^ 

i OJ oj-ss a ^ o 
H?:;s >^mWm 

310-^ For^co-^ 
3 — ' coi" t^-HCon 
Moocor^»ocor^Ci 



.2 S 

P- 03 
CO -■" 

I aj 

-1^^ a 

K --a =3 

03 :;5 — a 

? a d a 

^§22 
b£i3-a.2v, 

Q 3 w 3J gT3 
-O M > r* S 3 

"^ :2 12 S I* ■-' 



. o 

-gCQ 
>» r 
5m 
W^ 

jj 03 

«2 

a« 
a 5 

^^ 



. 03 



■^ '-Jr?. 










I i> t- * cy k^^. 

ja-goa-^oS 

M o iH >. M O 



&•§•<« 



.3 



.? 



ffl 






< ■'^ ^ ±^ ^ 
^Q =>» a> Six? - 



03 
MM^ 

r,a 



o 

tao 
o 

|o 



 fp 



/"'^oio'^co 

I 00 00 ■* C^^ CO -^ 
I 00 Tj' IM I^ CO 

I C<l -^S^ ^H CO I— I T-H 



M^ a 0^5 

■t^ s- •'^ ■« 03 fe bJO 



=^'^'^0001'^ g 5«o 
00 01 -g* o 10 ^* i; >^o 

— 00'Ot1<0(^<5M'^ 



.g§ 



1 


in 









iM 







^ 


s 









rt 






a 


•a 

n 



CO r- '-1 r-< lo CO 



mW 



00 



■slij 



.as 



•a 



•■^ -- ,^ ,*i *-^ 



a-n 

03 03 
-=0 



■• •> cn 

000 
000 



^ c3 O O.-* 

g-'^-a 3f^ 

a cfe -S 
S == -a a 
0.1 as "^ 
o a at, -. 
00000 
00000 



03 

Ph a 
, •■■o .a & 

■5 03 03 03 
O ^ U ;^ 

0000 






2-H 

a & 






CJ. o — 

3 tH ^ 

Wf^ 03 



« =5 S 

SaSs 



^ Sr'P 

^aa 

03 p o 
000 



aE-i o w 

a -^^' 
3 >»'3— - 

3 3 03 03 

OOQQ 



e s o aQ 

■- b/j m O -■ 

 ■* ^ ^ ^d 
. en w w .a 
^ .^ — , .p »^ 

-.->>■ ^-5 

(^ C3 c3 C3 — < 

QQQQQ 



o 

Q 
o 

a-a 

ai 

a'S 
a.STj'-' 

03 --; C en 

°a 



03 



O 





|a|i :° 






1 a 

I 03 

' *-* £-■ 

to Oj — 1 

tea--' 

^ « a 

§2^ 
so„- 



;^g 

I O m 

a - 
Qj d 

,„. 

' 03 u 



i>>a j- 
o L, 3 



3 

a 

QQCa 



^'3 

03 03 

03 CO CO fe. 

^ o t^M 
o ^ a .2 

a a- — 
3 ►> t, t- 
3oja J3 
CWWCd 



, O OT 

m 3 

a? 

031-5 

n O 



CD 



Oi 03 
.2M 



UTS Oi 

05S2S 
gQ 03 a 

a -cQ 
Ox; 

o <!> — .5 

3 a a a 



<H 



a 

O 

a J oj 2 
~S!:i( a » 

« en ;i^ X3 3 



»0 •«-( 



a h, 

03 , 

»f 

a*^ 

O 10 



ssQss:^ Q< s sss o? 



tf l-H 






SW ^S 






4,^ 

a^- 
,cP 

05 

~ "o 

OQ 



a70 scope of soviet activity in the united states 



C<f CO of ^" C^ t^ M lO" O ^ i-T CO" ^ OO' 00 »0 cT CC '!*<' CO CT CD" ^^ 00 (N lO c^ 



W i-H C^ l-l »-< »-H ^ M 






^ k.4 ^^ a k4 fe. ^4 ^4 4 



^4> 









o 



03 
Oh 



a; 

3 

a 
•I— < 

o 
O 



O 
■?* 

e 

8 
o 

8 

■*^ 

8 



eg 
8 

e 



8 



55- 

s 







Tt*'^TfC^-*-^C^^iOCO-^(NOQ<M05":i-*p-HCO»C'^C^f--l^(Mr^t^»OIOOOcC05CO»/305C^CC'Ct^":iOO»OOi 

mMMcoMM«MC^c^N(NMe^csc^eoc<e<5'«»<<NC^(N'Ococ<5iNc^cococsc^NmNc<5coo>eooi<Nc5Tj<c«5 



a 
o 



a 
o 
o 

a 

C8 



a 



<5 






O O I7 S ^ 






^rt 



o 






£^;S 



m 



^ 



rm; 



^S|2£ 

eg -3 •< M c 

a§.!2ea 

000 1^ to CO 

^ COM 03 o 



• -aj ~-i M «5 =« 

10 Tf ■* CO ■* " (M 
CO to i-l(N C^ >0 CO 



rZO-So-S: 



o 



2 
o 

00 if w ■♦-» ^ i_ 

5 w ^ -S j-> .i«l "O 
S a> ■t^ cfj 10 oj d 

IM rt 01 CO C^ 0» -H 

a> lO --^ o 00 ^H 05 

10 rt rt (M .-( CO C^ 



^;- 






"OB « 
051-1^ 

ra 



C3 
O 






a's>HS 



6t^O J 



>^j3a 



-& 



CO g<i 

•9 'S 



52 



205-5 



- 

C3 ^ 

>r CA 
P CO 

» 03 

S3 



c3 

•'^ — ■" 

t *^ O 

>7 IC A4 

'^'-'co 
00 CO CO 
Wrt CO 
COrt r-1 



o _^ o a; 
SmTI o ■*^ 

«.§ Oo 
■w C c« o 
m t- ffi o 

wmog 

»0 O Oi »o 






" o 



.Si*^ CO 



-O 






2^ 



50 

ja » 

o o 
ZO 
^co 



S "■" ■« J'S p 

>gcoajS^> 

+j "*S -w *^ 4J o _ 

o _ Tj- CO -wti -a 

a>T3(N t-i » S o 

t^ to IC05 c^ 

ot^ »o C^ ^ ^ 10 

»-H O C^ -^ rH 00 ■* 

^ »-l •«(*< CO ^ -^ C^ 



■3 ^5 
ra . 



o 

. co" 



. a 

og 

32> 



^■>H° 



2 ^W 



,03. 



■m 



M-C 



.■So 



r^io as 
r^ oco 

»OcO<N 



« 6 
■" S 

COOCO 
O »S I— t 
1-1 'J' CO 



s 

03 



=« . 
o o 
■a 



o 



•a 
a 

a 



■h-t P 






to a 

03 es 



a 
S 

c« 

J3 C a 

cn*^ • 

. O - w 

^ a^i 



'^ 5S § 3 






3jaja£i 



2 SSm — ^^^ 
0^ _g a p _Q _w _w _w 



,■ a oj- . 



ill 

P^ ft, (l, ptl ptl pE, fe 



g 

■4-3 

a 

CO O 03 

iS-o-a 

•a _r -I 
•.i>>g 

CO to h; 

u t-i a 
000 



a a 

a 



a° 



aaa 

03 a ca 

las'™ 
•fe '^ .a' 

■m'3 

.-=; a a 

C3 ^ CQ 
Im t-. t-i 



a« 
a 



N » 05.3 ^ 

cc 03 a:) a;, .is 

U tri U U bri 

(z< fE4 F14 ;i< fxi 




H S 03 
^ a> o > 

^ ^ a ® 

■.2 aJ^ to 

O-- toX3 

ij > a^ 
0000 



iJ-a fc: 

CO □ c;> 
g > 3 

bbo 



•0 

a 



p p Q p p OOP Q Q 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a71 



CO CO CO CO CO CO 
0> O) 03 O^ Od O) 



CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
O O C3 O) O^ Od Oft Od 



Scvi o CO r>- r* 
v-4 t-H ^H ^H 

•-> >-S f^ P-5 HS <5 



^ "^^ ci ^ ■*-* ri •- C>» 



CO CO CO CO CO CO rO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO C^ CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO _ _ , , 

0> O) 9 O O^ 9^ Od O 000 0> O O 0^00)0^ O) O) Oi 03 O^ 03 O O^ 0> 03 O) O) o^ ^ 

o *c or c^r-Tco -^""^'co io"^GC -H ci'o'co ^o <-«'^"r>r,-r . gTco ^w:> ■^ 



»- o;u^i-i_jjQ >M t^iJ^-J--" Iv^ rj be tuD _j u Cud "v^ ^ »- 



«3, 






3'^ a 08 OS 



t 1 

CO ' 


is ; i 

ii i i 










1 « « I I I I 1 I I eo ! 
1 .2 .4;  1 1 1 '  . » 1 






1 1 1 1 CO ' ' ' 

1 1 1 1 CJ 1 1 1 


lis: 


• CO 1 

1 a) 1 


ser 
ser 

ser 


i i 


;.i i ; 






i il i 




isco 
isco 

SCO 


ii 


1 1 1 
2 1 


:;:;;:;§ 
1 1 ; ; 1 1 ;S 


; ; ; ; 1 : : 1 ; ® ; ; 




', ® ! 


Franc 
Franc 

Franc 


S i 


1«3 1 : 


; ; : 1 :fes : ; 


: ;& : 


;& ! 


' a a a ' 


00 


1 < 1 1  1 1 1 r <i'X^ 1 1 


. Ol 


Ol 


I ^ rt I ' 1 ' ! I I c8 I 


00 1 


,co . . 


1 t 1 1 ) 1 1 ix 


l^'e'35c:c'c5CV|:r"00Co'^^'-H-^t->Ic^'^iCC^Oi'^cD 


iMw ;;;:;; loD 1 


.0 


5 axn 




n . .10 (MO0CCO«C<3 .0 


«£)_4 


»3C^ c « 


cocor^cCTfOico'^ 


COC^I'OCSO'— OliOGO - -XI *o 


-1 r^ -c^cst^ - CD 10 T-H Tf« tt -^ M* (N 05 --r c^ -^ 




t* «coc t- 


001iO»0(NCOOiOGO-^00--HrOO'^'^t->C 


^cC'j'oo-^^r^r^t^r^c^t^^r^co 








c^iox'»oo'or"-o-^QO"-*'^CMiooc*:iOi'^c^'--cO' 










0«^C^CiOccai'XfQOOit--cOC:)yDC005cocOOOCOCS':OCOCOcDt^i-Hi-Hioor-'<Ndi 
^COTt<COCOCOCO'^-<f:C''^CO'^COfOt^'<»<COCO"^-^COCOCSCO'**<"^'^Tf'«J'»OCO'^ 


coco: 


"SC^Tf* 


^ ^ ^co-^-^coo 



0500iOC005QO'^-^"^COC005'— 'TpcOC^^C*^OSC0C0t^»C*CCDQ0C0*OCOCO^»CO4 
^COrOC^C^COC^C^CSCOCNJ05cOOC^C^COC^-^(N"^'<rC^COCOCO«'^C^C^CSCSC^C^ 



;2kh 6i=^ ®<» 

co**^ 3 ■*->'-? +j 
a> - o CO t; CO 
»^ • ir a> > Qj 

•^cd'-'S oJ< 

Tj<'0 .-H 10 Go 
r^ CO ^ CO t-^ CD 



^ 1^ i^ fl *- "■ 



to X) T3 '  ^ ? 



a 
3 
d 

M 
c3 
■*j 

■C 

a 

09 

•a 

3 



tf 



3 

CO 

2coc»oeoT:20H°-- 



^ CO co'o cojo^'cj 
o^copoo o b 



o 
3 






-4-3 03 



^gccg 



0) C3 



"" .5^^' 



^ O 
Jj CO O 



o 

o 

00 

-I 

03 CO J- I 

Cl eg a CO 
=r '-'^ 

00000 



CO 



is 



2 as 

003 o 

O O 



-2. » d 
-11 

c« 

■X «-^ -^ 
t- w to 

ooo 

000 



2a?5a 
00000 
00000 



•3« 3 o 

»-i *o iO -^ 
CO ^ C^ iO 



§d^s 

dj<J O „ 
° <- i, (O 



03 

o 

§.2 

^o 



OQ 



X!<! 



M : 



•^ Ii a, > 
wr' H d 



o ?;^ -^ri -*J 
0"^„*^ di2 

t: d 



gc C OS'S 



■^ iC ^ C^ O 00 o 10 I 
0»005"^'^COCOCD'— 'U:i __ 
CSr-tf-lC>»^^'-l»-f^.-H00C^<NC0*O»O 



0^ = o 

fe S o i; SJ 

5"^d5|g 

;2£oS-S^ 

CO O .g CO ^ ^ 
032iJ "'CQ '" 

Ed la o 

"^ O '-« CD ^H 4) 



m W" 



.,- -■5! 



. .0 

O^ CO ^^ OS 



'21 

o -J 



CO •<*< 00 
«-i -^ cot 



3<< o - -t" aj 

Sen S<-J=j3 J 

^H *j ^ CO ^ 

• ^j CO ^_, a; *j c8 
3 w.'SS'i few 

J? icoocn 

^ *0 CX) 00 CO CO TT 






!^co<! 

08^ o 

>0 o 

£^! 

I— I P CO 
fj* ^ 10 



o 



s^ s 



a 

03 
Xi 

.b 

03 
^Q 03 

■2 d ,1 

d^a 
o o t; 

OOO! 






cS 



;«£ 



^^ 



_ d 
£2 

o"- 



"^ a d 

a.S o 



;W 






7 C3 

>-• •» i: a 
o ■*• ca c 

g33a;cfQ 



■a 
o 
sa 



C8 

;o 

^ a. 
co;d "^ — 

a--g^ 



03 -< 



en C.3 irW 



bj 



Ol 



o 
d 2 



eIII^ 



.S •? t.- " ^ 2 ^ a <= iS 






C 03  




._ c ;= " 03 .Q 

•^ <; ;s a .^ 

K- 1-" - - S d e 

>> m CO CO H 03 S 
73 a'C 'ca >2 

U t. t- U L- t- CO 



03c8o3o3c8c3Qiaj__ 



> 

09 

Q 

«!■§  

(-3 5 CO u 

^d-S| 

'■9-3 P CO 

--. /^^ ^ Q 



,-a 



s«^^s| s^l ^SS 



^SS« 5^S « SS 



jj 



PQ 



fcfi. Sa:p:SSS wwsSSSS 



a72 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a 

'■3 
a 
o 

O 



e 
S 
o 

HO 

e 
s 

!~ 

s 

CO 

• <» 



CO 









03 

Q 



3 
O 



3 



a 



a 






.c 



<1 



SJri^SliJc 






b'xiS^xJfeK-oSe^SEfc-?; 



•J >• iJ X t-' • s s 



,•5.^ egg 






C^ CN (M r^ 

CO (M o 'y:' 
Tf GC c: X 
Tf r- (M — 

CO ■^ M- TJ- 






a 
an 

'-O - 
--T re 



-f re re iM c 



C/3 

'Jl^ CD CJ 

rer>D -H 
ot cr. -^ 

-r rJZ' Oi 

"1 -r "^ 



:r: re I- 

o: QC c: 
Tf -r ^D 



•^ r-- 00 

re GO :e 
n- re -^' 



SI 



0-* 






-o 



--^ 00 00 t^ ^ !N c^ en r^^ CO -r^ocio 

--Tt'f0^-^C<tl^>0C0G0O'0^D05Q0O 
^ I^ t^ --0 to -^ Ci J: O O; 00 r^ rp -^ fO 00 



r^oo^cjDtoc^»o-f*TfOifMOC^r^*-casiO'^oooc-)fO-Hjor^^cccc»o»ocoi^Cic*50-^ooos(M 



o 



1^ 
lO 



?3 *- on 
rot- - 

^" •« 
3.2 "* ^ 



>■•> 



OJ 



73-^5 



P 03 
S 
O 



!2 >>! 



rS;o 



rt cn 00 

r-< to r-4 



:0 

>" ..Sr, -03 
~ 0_2^T30 

>t; ^j,r; 33*s 

r^ , ti- <^ ^ 

J? CO -^ CO 

rj ..^ t^ w c^ c>4 

t^ M CO C <N 

r^ ^ lO I^ -.^ C^l 



-as 

>T3 



5S-2-2§a; 



p 



c3 C3 
C3 i) 

w a 



o 



« o S 

p « ^ ^ 

- o a 
m.a .-e P 



O MO 

Ma 

03 O 

■« -3 

0.3-3 

ro> 

.2J5 

oioo 

* ^ I to 
S lO -^ C^» 
1 TT IM ^ 



■3 g a 
Oa*^ 



O 

>vo" 



■§ .^ & s s 






^ _ 



(UP 






M^ 



o .-'>.a3« 



o j::i>I^KS 00 

tC t- +-S tfl^ CC 

-^ — I O ■- 00 t:~ O f^ 

w^O^^iOCCCOtNO 



o . 
rf* 



06M 



S-oJ _ 

oj g a 
o 



o,°Ot3 rS 

I^Jh 03 !D_j_ 



c3r2 c3 
.0 . 

C3 M C3 
"12 C3 -^ 



m 



2^^=^ rgce 



_ 0) 



> 
> ^ ^ 

a £■ 

CO CO 

00 no 
000 

Tf ZO y-^ 



S?m; 



M "J ro ^ .3 S 
o s; _ c3 o 









33 

o 

o - 

■2-2^  - 

U — ^ . ' C3 

?3 >. 03 - 

^ o s 
fl>-i o,a 

oQ s.a3 

03 - " 

2£^.a 



03 S 03^ t- 03 

Oi ■<—* Cl 

oj -Tt^ -— < 00 we T^ 
c^ re re ■^ c^ r- ' 



c3^ ci 



O 3^ 

irl r-< CO  

ooco o - 



) ■4' -*^ CO OI 
) T^ ^ ^ o 

* ^ re !M t^ 



?5 d 



^^ 



O. 









3h d 



o3 

, a 

i o 



d S 



03 
73 

|2 



.Si5 



W td 



txJ3 jS -' 



~ o o o 






^ a J 
"33' 
a H a K tl H W S M 1! t 



■^ -aO 

3 a a *; 
o s 3 a 



^ ^ J 



WnJa 

M W a? 



03 a 



5^ 



C3 ?3 C3 d O 



S 



„ a 
73 0-53 

o S g fe 

SIS ^73 

q2 fc- en 

a a a s . 

o o o rt N 

w W w W t/3 

gagas 

jq x; J3 t-'S 
o o o o 3 

i-s ^^ i-> H^ 1-5 



03 



=D 



OJ 



-73 OJ 

w S -■§ ° 
— a*i S^ ii 

cd c3 c3 c3 c3 



o 



a , 



t3 I rt 

a OI rj 

pas 



o 03^"" 

nW a a p 

w ,. 03 03 03 

-' s a a e 

s:5"33a 

CJ C3 c3 Cd c3 



a> o 



o"^." 



a a<(;5 
03 o3 _fq 

a a j; - 

3 3 a> 03 
03 03 Qi a> 






hJhJJ* 






p 

.g 



a 

w 
o 

W 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a73 



h» h- h> t-- t-- t— o h* 00 r- GO CO r^ GO t^ I'- h» t - h» t- ic r* r- 



r- -* t^t^uz^c i^ t^ t^ ;c -<?■ r* oc I- I- I' r^ t-i- c:: t^ t^ r^ 



-^ rt c c ■»-^ c: J3 xi c -C XJ x: Q. 



c S* ? >» S?jD > > 



->Si 






' t* o C cj - ■" >>■" -*- S; >v >- o S 5:' 1- - t>« V e o^ 



^^o^^^^&^&&^^ o5-<p^a;i^Sl'i^;^^S5S<^^^5< ^ 



c 
;«! 

O -t 

— 30 r 



co^ ; ; ; 



h-CMiooo .r— fcioio ^'^ ■^ .-H ,-* o: ^ 

 CSOOiXSr-.Tf'^^-CrOOO ..O CO t-t t^ c- 

I-- 1-- .— < CO CO '>! tr; 00 QC re cs r? 00 -^ r-- CO 

c-j^cioco^ot-rcc^corooi'sCtci^ctco 
TrrocO"^co«co^Tfro:ccococccoco 



a 
o 

■4-3 
C/J 

o 

CO »-i CO 

1-t c: 00 
Tj^ Ci (M 
CMCon* 



CD CO O O' C: c: 






> fvj ti^ Uj ^^ I — ;3; ^z; t^ i^ iju > — ' ^^ ' '' ^^ ^^ 



ooo 



X> "O 00 
CC :C 05 
t^ OS'?' 

■<>• — o 
»-H re r^ 






^■^fO'«rOi»oor-cco"<J<occro 






O 

s 

- ° c 






o ^ 

a > t. 
CO cex 

S 3 S 

H o ^ 

race W 
o o c^ 

W IC Q 



^:=' 



;o 



r^ -— o 

■a; § «'C 



Oh' 



O 



M lO t^ ■— 



: << Ji T •- s 
•• ^ t tt p t. 

 "iiS-^ 

^ m C c3 

^ O ±3 c^ -G 

 — « r:" '■^ o 

; C^ CI w 

) ;c ■* ceo c; 

I (N CC •-< CO « 



o. o j: « 



O 
o 

z 

2 --< o 






« 



03 IS 
« 0) 

U w 

■tst;«o 



■g s 



>vX3 



O CjjJ . • 



o 






ro 

Oj 5/ > • 

2 S o . 

(M Oi CC' O 
CO CT' »0 tC 
CM fH ,-( CO 



? « s ?i2 



X ^ "J 
•^ "Z i 
C c 



«>>£ 



. -1 o bjo" ~ « .— tH 



'.Si S C 



12; o 






>< ft . j^ 






-Sc-iz 



--H o CO r~- o 

f-^ C^l CO Ci 1-1 






o 




5 


4i 

n 


S 






< 


< 




r1 


ui 




C; 


o 


•4-> 


>, 




r/; 


h( 


"~f 








ji 


^ 


c: 




f4 


§ 


m 


CD O 




M r!- 


O CO 01 


l-H 


« O 












>1^^ >K cex; gx: §^ 






COO 

C3-W 



*^ +j o 



■^— -C^00h^OC0O'^CD»O 



5Jt3 

T-^ C CS 

cecr. w 



- >> o ^ c 

^ S =- 2 - 
0«22| 

-^ 5 ^ a' Q^ 
j_j t.-. ""■ 0^ .^ 



,-c lO tc .-H O 

lO c> TT r^ o 

CMCO«-<00 ^ 



3 
c3 



S5 



o B - 

0?-Soc»  
^ ■- K c3 X M „ 



fci— S Ok - S^^ 

o Ol oS~~ o o 



C3>^ .1 



03 

flu 



c ^ 



Cfi « 



c-s o 
o c o 



c3 
" c3 ._- t 3 S 

5 ^ ^ c J: C 

»— * t- t, c/3 -» ^ 

C C O C I- H 



■SS 



3 r-.— ' 



o 



2o; 



o 
>. L. 3 3 



o 
.g 

J3  ' 

O C « 

■»-■ /^ o 

c S 

£ o C 

c3 c3 C3 



C3 



o : 



o 



b G „ o 



^J 



o: 3 



■^ — o 
c o o; 

J.!'^ O 

S S^ ? C3 
c3 C3 03 O 



x: . -o 
o o o o 



a 

o 

S 
o 

"o :>, 
CO C 

K O 

03 <U 



C 

 t- o 

 .- o 

.S- £f 

'So 



^03- 






_ o x: c T 

^ S ^ "." ^-' 

•r.^j^^Eo^nc 
o f^^rr; r- r" r-.— .3 

^.— 3En^£^>S^ 

ooooooooo 



C3-" 



C3 
X! 
<1 

03 .S, 

3 C 
to '^ 



C3 -T ►^ 

-r ^ o 
o.i'-c.= 



2 S^a- 



O , , 






a74 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



08 

Q 



eOCOCOfOfOCOCCrOMCCfCCO 






CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 



?fO t^gtrTos ^-^lo ^'oi't-To ■^cococoodo" 



•^Hl'^^gt^'ge-n^S 



^2 

83 fl 

! 3 



^ J ti >> si ti 



5?S^ 









G 
-(J 

O 

O 



Q 

Os 

e 

e 

e 

e 

-si 



CO 

e 
o 

no 
<» 

li- 
ce 



3 

d 



o 

o. 

CO 

cc 

IS 
P-( 



o o 

CO CA 

'S'S 



-H CC •^05 . -co 0> fC M* 00 ■»*< 
C0-^C^<N»OCC)C^050iOf00i 

coof^coa5(M'<i*ooscoo5oi 

<C)Qtr00O5COO500COCO00t^ 

cocoiMcocsmTTTOco^—im 



N *a> CD CD 

M (N CDC^ CO 
t^ -^ -^ I^ lO (. . 
«^ — H <N t^ CO Oi 
F-H 05 t^ CO t^ CO 

Tj< CS Tj* TJ« CO ■<»* 



! <=> 

. . !M , , 
^ c^ c^ -oo * 

. lO 00 •-< CO i^ -^ 

 >0 OCO — COCO 

O CO 05 CD »0 C^ 

00 CO O lO t>- ^^ 

•^ CO CO Tj< lO CO 



CO 



t^OOOXNCOTfCOC^OliOt^COtOrtrf 
lCDOicD^COrHcD*ONCOCPOO^HC4 
3C35QCOCOM"I^'-it^'^0505COCi»Or^ 

HCOOOit^OC^QO^'-J'tCOOcDO^'^ 

^oa>oicDr^c35t^t^»ot^cooocDoo^ 

S C^ ^ Co CO CO CO CO ^ ^ CO CO ^ ^ ^ ^ 






sco-- 
ic5c 



o 



3 
o 



t3 

c 
ca 






"3 f»"s 
OS Ono 

,flco^p3 

(V» CO O * 4) 



o 



^^>^§% 



*ISI 



:s^ 



<Sca 03-S-e 



'dwr 



a om -r 
cB * rcoJ 

3 IS S « ' 



o 

o 

o ® 
o > 



ca -w 



m 



CO -^ »^ ^^ ,-^ ^^ -« ^^ 

C0005— 1 _ 
O ^ ^ COCO 

co'fr O5C0 ^ 



ca . 

O ""^l-H - 

• ca 03 o 

^-^ cj d 

3t32 2 

.« TO 

o-2*f « 



T3 

c 






Co 
c/lk, 
C3l^ 






o 



QX! 



D 



>^cS 



go 

M O 



;>. 



g!^i 



>HO>. 



' t^ C50 
J iO o CO c: 
i ^ SoiCO 
<CO-^i-i rt 



rt 00 

cow 

rt 00 



CO.— -^'— « 

to +j to a> 

^3-0 
T3.sa>co 



< o-^ 3 ^ 

13 7 CI P "^ 

o -w 3 -p "O 
g«2o-g'3 

rt CO « 



^ *-( o 00 o c^ t^ EZ 

■*s Oi ^H 1^ C^ O F-i C^ 



Z^ r.-tig^-o-^M 

<-> •<» "^ •<; « '^ ti .s 

incnoco.ii c*" 
oooocoot^ rr* '-' 
m ■* CO t^ 00 1^ W to 



§ g oZ ^. 
3 P 



cS 






im 



> - 



SP3' 

; j.Bxi 3 - 
\>%<^^ 

- CO ■^ CO C'S 

H lO »-l t^ »0 



- 1/5 

3" 

4<s S 

O *-' 
Xi C3 



■a 



ca 
.2'H 

3 o; 
tS 



W 



CB 



CO 



> 
>0 o 

o2S 



g C3 > §£1 






CO 









B 

ca 



O " „ 

a '^ 
o ® 3 b 

■« t; =« S 
^.cZ - 

tn c3 . C 
^ 3 bo O 

3 C to -^ 

3333 



— 03-M ii 

I- XI o^ 
bxi, 



3 Q. 



fe 



P5 



x:-S--W 
■^> -3' is 

o o o o 3 



ca- 

XI 

-~ , > 

oPLhS'^ 
a 03 c3 a 



3 
X3 
o . 

to 



3^5 >>g 3 



3 ^ c" '^^ o3 

o oSd.-e 

as X ° 

oS^^g 

73 C3 O i^ 

? o H« b 



CO 



a" 6 3 -^^ - --^ 



.» S^'^S'g 



■Ssi-o 3 
.3 
"3 



■a 3 i 



- 3 

3_bf 

.i« 

c3 to a 

C3^ 

-k^3 

;o3§ 



3 

m 



33 3 

!3 CD 



.2 1 Hal' 

>- ^ C — , T to 



■''O 3j 



Bid 



■— •■— 'I— <i— <I-H(-I fH^-l^l>Hf-l>>-><^J 

c3c303c3c3^CTJc3Ci3^cJC3c3 



ca c3 u o (t» 05 



go 
3 3 
^co'^ 
— to'S" 

|Bg 
3 t- 1^ 

^ O 05 






3 -.^. 

.>- cjt-" 

.33 a 

CO c 05 
Of o o 



siisisssslll 



i-g^-o 

to ^ o - 
ir ce~ s- 



■a 
a 



»-3 



§SS 



a<i:ii 



W§^§0 S^SSSS 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a75 



^ o> o^ o> <^ ^ ^ '^ Oi <^ a <^ ^ ^i ^ ^ <y> o> ^ ^ Oi ^ o> 05 o> o^ o^ o) c> o^ Od 



aiccc^'v^t>-^c<c^cDoo*ooooMr*»-HO 






ooooooc 



> ^ C^ C4 CO »-•.-" C^ --• i-H ^ WCi.-HC^fj cOW^i-i^ CO 






§8 



cQco 

S — C^ <D »0 -* 
OC*? "1 t^ o 
OS OS lo r^ t— o 

«0 M CO CO (NCD 
CO CO C* CO Tf M 



^cooo - - 

CD W CO M O 

oor* — CO O 

iC C5 00 Ol ^ 

to o r^ "^ CO 

■V -^ CO C^ CO 




■4b-.OOt*Ot^Oi«DcD'^Of— i^tor*- 



>*T3 ! 1 ! >>-C 






rno 



m,S r-^ 



o 

S,^ : 









o o 



C3-- 






w o rv ^^ o 1*5 re 

coo** — « M (N 



CO 

r^ 1-1 ao 

^ r-H O 






2?§ 



CO o 



OS 'O O ~ 

I ^ •« 3- I 

mJ=C ^ o m 1 

>ir S^ 2 -^ 



M 03 

be . 

a a> 
"S3' 
5> 



3o^S 






•ow 






^«^a^ 



::e- 






a; 



Oi CO -"f -— . Tj« o 
C^< I^ M >!*< 00 -^ <— ' 

— , ,- CMiO ^ ^ ^ 



3 ^ 
OOO 



^ -wZ a_," 
— I'— --^ • 

^<!S)W gZ 

oi; in-h SG 

!> c^^-*"^. • 

^ (N M ^ -^ . 
05 CD O Oi Orv- 

t-^ »C' CC CO ^H ^*^ 



m Ji! 5 b 



I't 



03 C 



,isl 



rx3 
; 03 • 



o c 



S-zS^-^ 

be o^So*^ 
c .a « o o3>^ 

O^OZohJSj 



03 .-S 

^^ 

TO QJ 

f^z 



K U2 









'-'—•c^n^ 



gK-^K^ZM 

00 O CD CO Tf CO Tf 
»0 O CO O ^H CO CO 
— rt ^rt CM — 



F» W > ;&■ ,1; -H r 



g00« 
CO lO « 

e^cocc 



en 

(1) - 03 

> 3 . 

Qi CO ^^ 
3 cn ■-} 



o — I 



(MOO CO 

CDO-^ 



C9 

c^ - 

o w w 

is ■« 0) 
CCl, tuo 

2 -^ 

.MM 
Z-CM 

h; -^ o 
°ZQ 



INCS-^S" 
^ iO .-( 



! a 

03"^ £ 

S.2.2 

03 — 5 



I- c 

03 J= 
*^ 

-C - 
'^ O C3 



OJ=. 






o 
•a 
_o 

'S 

PL, 



?<S: 



3 03 



;S§! 



^ CJ Ci 



o - 

o 



03X 

s'c 

o C 
-> 03 



^^ 






a_< 



Ifc. 



£C 



03 r^2 S; t 
TiS&3:§3^ 

r* 3 a. o t.^^ 

^^ ^-^ - bL ^ 03 

t. c/; O « •—  ■"*■ ^^ 
t- t- t/: —•■—"»- y^ 

C C O 3 - 3 ^ 



?i 


03 


a 




a> 


a 


fe 


2 


rl 


r/; 


hJ 


k« 


s: 


x: 






03 


L« 


C^ 


6 



Ei:< 



c3 c -e 

a '- 3 

Od-c- 



S 3 03 
11^ 



=J 



iT 3 0^ 



O C Oj t.1 

- -03-a 

.c S c c; 






<^ ' 3 

3 t? ■< ._- 

- i: a o 



03 

& ootn 

w'^03 

E Id' 



s a 



03S 



r: 3 c3 
2 St; 



JZ CZ O O 0^ 1- O C CJ •.— -^ 

SZZZZZZZ'ZZ^ 



-03 ^ 
03 03 



ZZilzooocbb 



Jo oi' 



3:"" ^- b" c 

O -■ c 1- 

ZSj^-c 

- t- 03 C-, 

OOPhC^ 



<!£f'aa 



£ o3.r;'aj=-a 

03 c: n 03 c3 c3 
0^ (1. Ph Ch P^ P-i 



►JJ. 



cc 



PuP^S si ^S« SSSS£ w SQSSS SSS wSS§ «S wgSSS § ^S SS^ 



a76 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



ID 
3 

a 

'-+3 

a 

o 

U 



<0 

B 
S 
o 

S 

S 

►-< 



s 






a. 



13 
3 






o 
p. 

(» 

CO 

us 
PL, 



r^i^r^t^r^ oo t^ »o t^ r^ t^ 

I— iT-ti-^r- (1— < .— ,1— It— (i-Hf-H^h 

(N<NC^»-<Oi-l C^O 

l-S (-5 (in l< <; l-5^<1<!l-50 






00 t^ t^ 

coco tn 



coco ooi^r^i^r^i^ 

CO :^ CO CO CO CO CD CO 

1— I^H I— tT-t^HT— I^Hr-* 

cm"-*}*' "-Too i^ooi o't-T 



. 5 >i. 



Lfa,"i 



K, fn I-, i-j Hs ,< •«; h, < 1-5 |2;<; 



s 
S 






• O <D >> • " 





« 


O 05 


0) 












QJ 


W «» 




O O 


O 


o o 


O 


w zn 


(/I 






o o 


o 


gg 


s 



p^p^ 






Ph 



CQ 

f-TCTi CO O 
1— « o O »-0 
"^ CO (M O 

CO cc c^ o 
core CO cc 



a 

C3 

-^ C^ CO 

iTi t-- CS 
■* (N fO 



CO o 

O tH 



o 



M 



-ooo 
ocooo 



"* 00 
O CM 

CD r^ 

CO 00 

»oco 



a 

CI 

m 



to n. 



t^ r- ic r^ c^ 00 

CO I-- :o CO o o 

>o O O 05 :C 00 
1^ t^ CM 00 00 -<*♦ 
CD CO lO M CO O 
^ ^ ^ *^ CO CO 






s 

o 

C3 



a 

03 



73 






S 3 



o 

^- , o*a M 

C3 03«_ C-rSi: 
f^ O = c3 =« o 

■03 mD 2 - 

c, a^ S a -^r; 0^ ^ 



"25 



o a 0^ -i- uv 
•c<< bc ra .Q 
°5 a ««< ^ 






i-H t^ 05 
lO^ CM 



^1 

coco 

■*T-I 



O CO i-H 

10 c^oo Tt< 000 

^ 00 ^ 00 IM IM 

oi (M 10 ^ .-H a> r^ 






ftO, 

s 2 a ^ 5 a" <» 
aj ^ o « 9-3 -S 

•; 0^<M ^ — ~ 
J-" -^ +^ j^ *J QJ — 1 



. O 



O 
-^ a 

&0 



:2 



3. 

a 
. a 

C3 



y.. 



r^8 



|K^i':Sam = 



:m 



f C3 






■§^lS^S£o^^« 



10 4J C^ O CO t-l 05 
Oi O 0<N 00 CO 
i-H C^CO.-hCO ^ 



10 ^Oi^^ 

10 01 r- -^ 



C0(y3jj_ 
*j. 03 (U 

SScSa 

-^syJ JT CO 
CO *— 'rt 

WCM CO 



03 g a. 



.3 

20 






T3 > 

So 



w 



o 



o 



^_3 -*-S 3^ K ^ 

!M (JcO 
COOO CM 
•<J^ C^ CO 



;usc 



-t-j ^ -w .t: i; 

fefc^fefe-3 
- - r rQ 






;:3 ^'Z, 






-*-5 j5 -M 
»o '"' o 

S o =3 

CMrt CM 



55 § 

K W 03 

oi aj;r 

O CO CO 
CC-IC^ 



03 




3:2 _s ■* > a 
jS o o o S 

P-PL,fL,P,PHPHfL|fcCUP-&HC-,eL,&H 



««« 



■a 
a 



>-l 



Q CO 



s^^ :s Q fio 












SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a77 



:C r>- r^ t^ ^- t>- 

Oi Oi Oi Oi Oi a 



Oi 0> Oi Oi Oi O^ Oi Oi Oi 



to cS o" lo" c^*" ^ •-^'" o «-H < 

C^ r-i 1-^ y~* r-t r-l C^ N .-< < 



c c3 c c -£ -^-r <^' S 



r- 00 1^ o t^ t- i^ 00 r^ t^ lO 

03 0> O^ Oi Oi 0> O^ ^ ^- ^ Oi 






t~ i^ !■- t^ I-- 00 1^ i>. !- r^ r^ t-- t^ I* r- i^ r^ r>- r^ 

== =3£ =355; ^55'5o5J3 =*::; ^5* 3^* 



CS t^ "^ M o t- 

gc cc c^ a> c^ o 
o; (N '^ — c^ '— 

P -H C? O »C W 

■^ CC O X' Oi o 
COCC CC '^ -^ CO 



C: -^ O Tf -^ :C' c: cTi — * 

(M 'H o -^ o lO c; cc 05 

CC fO 'CD tC >0 tC' CC' C CO 

^o«c^orocs'<:J*^D'^Tr 



Of 






■^r -r?* ^ »0 r-i C^ -^ tT GC ^ 



cc -rt* »o -^ cc *^. »o ^ ai 03 "T t^ o ^r <r- 



o c 
o o 
en ^tfj 

c c 



03 
CO 



a-. « 

c M- 
CO CM 



C 

ca 
K . 

c — 

03 to 
(N CO 



c^ CM c*^ iri Tt* w CO CO CO c^ co cm cm c^ cvi c<» co cm (N -^ co 10 



•^^lOOO-^O^COrrCOCOiCCO'^CD-^'^COCD 
CM'^CMCMCJCMCOCOCMCMCMCMC^ICSCMCOCMCCCM 



C3 
CM 

c3 



>^^ 



O 
C 
en 
en 

C3 
B. 
O 

z 



o 

tnQ-C 

^CL|i^>-' rc3  
o  -x: & '^> -;: 



C3 
C 

.3 

u 

C 

to .__- 

■^ a 

O ° - 






^s^s- 



C3 O — ^ 



"^-s^ss?:^-?; 



H-- -^ CC "^ c3 



^ .^j cc 



^CC -H o o ^ -^ 

^ TP Tt4 CS C^ ^ C^ 









O (_ 

iC --^ — t CO o: 
t^OO O •*!* O 
rfCOCMi-H "O 



is« 



"^ 3 pi  - - 

^o .am 



>. 



1-H t>-.-r 









•§5 
= 12^ 






w 



5 gM 
5?:.^^'^^?co 

O O CM^I^ 

COC0 050 CM 
10 .— I i-H 10 1— I 



■•-^ Ct CM ^ 3 " K. 

CO uo CO Ol 53 
CO »C' -^ t^ CM CM r ^ 
CO >Oi-llM 1-1 «0 



o w 



O <1> 

si 



•C <ni3 



p5 - 
&f. o 



Sfe -go 



^£ 1-^^ 



>H 






c '^ 



S5W 



^C 






Jw 



~ 5 "^5! fe 
■^ :?^5 r 

^ •*-■ " -fj -i-i 

00 o ►>- 

(M 00 (M '^ i-H 



1^ 
. c 

cJ cj 
^- 1/ C 



m - 



iri 



■^ OiOO 

(^ cocc 

1-1 CO "O 



 1^ 

s -^ 

Isi 

Ph o . 

rSc: 

M C 

O c <^ 

^- ' '-0 

"O c^ o 
COT CM 



U 



'^<^g - 

- .S? o 

p m _, .0 

(5 ? «-^ 



M 



c; re S3 

& ^ O C3 
££r?W 
CM^^^l^ 

CM cc r^ Tji 

•* 1-1 o ■* 

1— I CM TT »-H 



en C3 



'5 



U CO 

c3 c; 

.,£=;=: 

o a, t- o3 

p c;_ E""^ 



.^. o S p = '^ 

S '*' "-^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 



.^ 



08 t. 



c, ^ r-" ^ ^ 

d c — - E-!^^ 

en en -^ 3 cs; *:i ^ 

O O C o O 3 3 



o 

a 

o 



-^SS 



n 


m 


^ 


-—I 




3 




r- 




^ 


CA 










« 


r3 



C3 

_o 
"o 
m 

■^ 3 

h£T3 

C o 

caU 

r- en fVj .S „ 

<■:;£ 3 c; fe o rf 

^ >I en C r: - rj" ' 

. « p £ ^ '" 
'is ~ 

2i . 

C3 03 CS C3 c: C3 - 



llslP^^ 



c> c- o 

►?KZ 



L^3 



0:3 
1^ 



<5 3« 



A« 









^-bllS 






O 0- 



^ ►J'^.J-C' 



-=■= — - 



^ r- ^ 

33^ 



cf g SPh 
H ;^ 3 - 

3 — ^0 

c> o c^ c- 
Oj (/I m CO 



■a2;i^ 



o 
So 



3 >J|S 

O t- 3 - r; 

3 ,r o o o o'lZ 



C3-; 



J3 
P. 

?-C Ci ? 



en ^ - 



Pi 

c 

6 ,. 

>1 r C! 

^ EO 

S cj = 



o 
a; 9s 



-^ ;=x: L: c-o 3 



o! ' 

J3; 

coc 



; a p. 0-0.,= 
: c; cs c3 c3 c 

I K CC c/j K. X' 



' ?" c> 3 

f-E^E 

r- « c^ g; 
E 3 > I' 
j: j:.ri3: 

W CO K K 



° J; 

in CO CO 



"'^<i; 3 

3^<P5 

en ^ .t^ 
S C '3 

^^ 3 

CO CO CO 



K-r 
..^ 

ii en 

E c 
coco 



fia g SS^SS SQ^ SS^gg 



P Q 

2 ;s 



72723— 57— pt. 23a- 



a78 scope of soviet activity in the united states 












!>.t» 






73 

a 
o 

O 



e 

e 
e 
o 

e 
e 

S 



03 

s 



a. 






3 



o 



03 



f-i^pooo^M^H»or^ 



o c 



N 



Sc 



J Oi -^ :D CI »C 00 
ct> ^::; - '^ t^ -^ 'Cn r-- (M 

OCTlOcD-^i— <c^ioo 



o 

be - 

QCCM 



a 

CO ^ in 

lO »0 00 

cc r-- cN 
00 o CO 
'^ fC CN 



^c^r-,.-iQ'-4C^oio-^r--osCi .fC'-'t-Oi<N»ooooot— --Hot^o 
oCfO'«*'*ooioot^c-c:OcC'<r'-Dr-c^(N(MCNi^r^ocsaocscncO'-H 
ooc^-^tooMio.-HTrccicoi-^ot-'-HOico-^cj-^cS'-Hair-.-Hu^ 
'-c^r^OicoosiMcscDroic.o'^oioir-ior^-— "tDco^-ooi»o^■^oo^* 






(MC0«CS«COC^CMC^C4(NC 



.2 

s 

o 

"2 



3 

o 
C 



T3 
C 
03 



<1 






Vt2 03 



* C" tl 60^5 






Oh 



"^>< 5- 



j>j 



^ a: 









o ^ « £ 

-^ aJ - r : 

• S <; M _2 w 

OJ .2 -M ^ bfl C 

Tf< CO lO CM CC 

O O O »0 --* CO 
^ C^ w Oi (MOO 



o5£ 
^° . 

SPh a> 

+i >-'-' -.-4 

00 ^ w 

coo CO 
to r^ 



a! 

a, 

>.§ 
•as 

o . 

at; 



..a 



OS" 



t: « . 

O > -w 



» c3 

.■^ o 

03 t^ 

<a O 



j'y^ 



S5 p o 
-a; C 

0.0' 

- (M Oi 



^'^ G 
Oo o 

OC HH CC 



o 

M 
u 
o 

Jig 






r3 o o 
I 'I 



"3m > 



Soo'rt 

IN 



l-O 



C3 



sms 



vO CO cc 
1-H !N CJ 



O 

bo 

03 , C) 
O— rti- 

C =J oi 

■M k. I 

*im 03 i 

-H COO" 
"(J^ Ci (N- 
.-H r^ 1-1 C 






>. 



. o 

goZ.3 CQ 

^ ® m/-\ 03^ 
CO m 10 P5 -^ .-H 



O 
O 
.0 



C3S«^* 

W 03 o<H 

n <i> e8 

rS^" . 

CO CO f^K, 

°^«£° 

^ O ,0 CO (^ 

Tt« L, CO f-H 

(M W ,-H ^Ph 



C3 

oft*. 

3--S 
ao 






1 ^^ 
' %iP5 



oStn-f^iE 

^^ _ OT 

CO CM —I ^^ 



s 
2 



P5 






a o 03 3 



Is 

o g 

"o o 
coco 



o 

o 

CD 

;^ 

03 0; 

tl|<; . . - 
^ k. o 

■feS-^ - 



S"3 






•71 a ir.. 2 



a 

03 

0.0 » 



CO 

. en 

T3 f-< 



© 



03 ' 






s - -a 
oj 03 ±; ti 

Lh tn T3 03 .— — — ^^ 
tjf;c3oaia)<uo 

CO CO CO CO oj c/j cc m co m 



o . 



) CO ' 



; aj 



; « « sl 



tip 



aS 

03 a a 
a a 3 

KCOCO 



.o> 

03* .2 

^3 



2i3 

coc/j 



a ai2 

a ac 
a a a 

C3 c! C3 



I— i-O^ 

.§00 
.-J . . 

3 ;>.t'. 
0! 03 03 



O 

cu 

a £ £ o 
S o o oi 



Soi 






Z.™"^ 



a 

oI> 






c - CO a t3 » 

oj ffll 3 •"' ^ '5 



^._ 3 S fcZ=J go) 

o^^S-T^ ^ o S 
o o o £ 2 3>?^^ 



59 
t;.2 

, o3S 



.a — 
as 

CU c3 

oPh 

►-5 . 

-a 

XI cu 
en h- 



^^ 



a 

m 
cm 






•s a a eoasssS s a sgosgo 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



a79 






■?, ■" 03 a 05 ^ 




% 



. - «- 



03 
TO 

-ooo 
o cs ^ 

Oi -^ Ci 
OS Tf lO 
« C^ CO 

CO ^ PO 



a 

03 

CC CM O 
OOOV o 
IC »o CM 

ic r^ »c 



for^co»ococciccc(N:cw^'^o^coo5i^'Vtoc^ooo<oaoo'^'-^CMooo 



:?; 



-J a 

.03 
o « 

03ft< 






o 



>.tH^'§>' 



oz^-r^ 



'eq 



y^ c c o E 

^7 fe O O £ £ 03 

« 00 03 CC bjD C - 

OjCMOOCL,^ c 2 



u 

o 



c-e 2 03 "^ oj" 



,»^ OS 



■SSH -«^-g. 



= Q^ 



=i-=' 






:^^^«^|z 



s^: 






.NH g Q CO ^ 



5t , 



.«>. 



tn 



cc*^0»'^aoeo— ^o 

TJ-'<J"T.<»OC^CCCOt^O^OO 



(M -O a; 05 TJ" Tt- 



<CM 



•^ -t-3 4-:> 



CO ^C Oi ^ 









■"^ CO -^ n 

. lO Oi O CO 
(V « CM O CM 
t- — CM -^ CM 



03. 



Ooj 






OP Lh 



Jr s S ""J E 

O0"^CM-< 
CO 00 CO CO 

o -^ o o -^ 

W COC^ '-' CO 






03 



0-2 

O O X 

03 Q C> 






25 o 

'3'> CO 

fcS5S2 



c 

03 

SI ^ 

'^ a 






to 



•o 


i^n 


> 


c . 


03 


o c 


otas 




-C 


i« 


!!i^; 



t = CO "^^ ' ^ 

oj os; 2 £■:: 

o -'^ ^ -^ 

. » . •— »— -*■ 



it 

= '->CQ 

; E ^ t. 

-IS OK 



2 

HI 



p 



ffi r" ^ 






lO -^^ . . „ „ -„ .„ 

(flc3c3Qc>a>i'a;aiQ^oC/a^ 



.!£.2.2.2 c3 i 



0) '-' Q^ O Oj c;' 






•r 3 



g a ™ too _-5' 03 



S^;§:5-^s = __|--S 



~ w o 



2 2 2 ^^ ,^ 



PASSPORT APPLICATIONS: FACTS REGARDING EACH 

Application, Bernard Ades 

This application was executed at tbe Department on February 15, 1937, and 
passport No. 367221 was issued on February 15, 1937. The applicant gave his 
address as 1800 Queens Lane, Arlington, Va. The identifying witness was Helen 
Gerber of 4000 Cathedral Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

The applicant stated that he desired to go to France and England for his 
health and his passport was stamped "This passport not valid for travel in 
Spain." 

Shortly after the issue of the passport Ades went to Spain and served in the 
Spanish Army. He has refused to surrender the passport but he has admitted 
his service in the army and that he deposited the passport with the authorties of 
the International Brigade while he was serving in the army. 

Application, Harry Bergeb 

This application was executed at the passport agency in New York City on 
July 20, 1932, and passport No. 542115 was issued on July 22, 1932. 

The applicant gave his address as 2011 Mapes Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted a birth certificate indicating that one Harry Berger 
was born in New York on February 18, 1892. This birth certificate was obtained 
as a result of a request to the Department of Health of the city of New York 
and was mailed to Harrv Berger, 814 East 181st Street, New York City on June 29, 
1932. 

The identifying witness was Harry S. Goodman, 199-11-104 Avenue, Hollis, 
Staten Island, N. Y. 

The passport was renewed at the American Consulate General at Shanghai, 
China, on June 30, 1934. At that time the applicant stated that he represented 
the Construction Supplies Company of America, 15 Route Paul Henry Shang- 
hai, China, and he gave that place as his foreign address. He stated that his 
legal residence was in New York, N. Y., but did not give any street address. 

The bearer of the passport was arrested in Brazil in December 1935 and it 
was ascertained that his true name was Arthur Ewert. The passport is in the 
Department's files and indicates that the bearer thereof traveled in the Far 
East and in South America. 

Efforts to locate the real Harry Berger or persons who knew him have been 
unsuccessful. 

Harry S. Goodman, the identifying witness, was interviewed in January 1936, 
at which time he was residing at 9104 Baldwin Avenue (68th Avenue), Forest 
Hills, Long Island, and he was the manager of the Publishers' Verified Service. 
Inc., 1472 Broadway, New York City. Goodman claimed that he remembered 
only vaguely the circumstances under which he acted as identifying witness but 
stated that the applicant was introduced to him by an acquaintance of Swedish 
extraction and that he acted as identifying witness as an accommodation for 
his friend. However, Mr. Goodman was unable to remember the name of the 
Swedish acquaintance, his business afiiliations, or place of residence. (832.00 
Revolutions/496.) 

Mr. Max Nathan, one of the partners of the Construction Supplies Company 
of America, which was located at .500 Fifth Avenue, New York City, was inter- 
viewed in January 1936 but claimed that he had never heard of a person named 
Harry Berger and was unable to identify the applicant's photograph. (832.00 
Revolutions/496.) 

Afterward the Department received from Brazil a photostatic copy of a 
letter addressed to Harry Berger by the Construction Supplies Company of 
America, which letter was signed by Leon S. Kahn. This letter reported to 
appoint Harry Berger as a representative of the firm in the Orient for the 
purpose of selling medicines to Chinese physicians and druggists. 

Ewert's wife fraudulently obtained a passport in the name Machla Lenczycki. 

aSO 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES a81 

Application, Helen Lillian Bowlen 

This applic.ition was executed at the passport agency at New York on No- 
vember 22, 1!)2!), and passport No. 14409G was issued on November 23, 1921). The 
applicant gave her address as 258 West 22d Street, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted the birth certificate of Helen Lillian Bowlen who 
appears to have been born at Indianapolis, Ind., on March 29, 1898. 

The identifying witness stated that she was the first cousin of the applicant, 
signed the name Helen Maurer, and gave her address as 258 West 22d Street, 
New York City. 

The applicant executed an application for the amendment of her passport at 
the American Consulate General at Berlin, Germany, on January 15, 1930, to 
show her alleged married name, Helen Kweit. She stated that she was married 
on December 20, 1929, to Nathan William Kweit who was the bearer of passport 
No. 143850 dated November 23, 1929. The amendment was made as requested. 

The applicant is Mi-s. Alexander Bittleman (first name unknown), and she 
also obtained a passport in 1929 in the name Anna Spilberg. She was also 
included in the 1925 application of her alleged husband, Isidore Spilberg. 

Mrs. Bittleman's husband was issued passports in 1925 and 1929 in the name 
Isidore Spilberg and another passport in 1929 in the name Nathan William 
Kweit. 

Application, Walter Frederick Bronstrup 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York City on 
May 29, 1922, and passport No. 182727 was isued on June 1, 1922. The applicant 
stated that he resided at 6 Grove Court, New York City. 

The identifying witness, William M. Beck, stated that he was a bookkeeper 
and that he resided at 829 McPherson Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

An investigation disclosed that the true name of the applicant was Alfred 
Wagenknecht, a naturalized American citizen. Wagenknecht pleaded guilty to 
a charge of violating the passport law and was fined $100. By using the Bron- 
strup passport, Wagenknecht sailed for Europe on June 6, 1922, on the steamship 
Maurctania and returned to the United States on or about August 12, 1922. 

Wagenknecht was issued passports in his own name in 1925 and in 1932. In 
his 1932 application, he stated that he did not use the 1925 passport which he 
submitted with the new application. 

William M. Beck, the identifying witness in this case, was a witness on the 
naturalization petition of Max Schulman whose naturalization certificate was 
used in connection with the Rubens-Robinson frauds. Beck testified for the 
Government at the trial and stated that the photograph on the passport applica- 
tion in the name Max Schulman was not a likeness of the person naturalized. 
He claimed that he did not know where the real Max Schulman resided or how 
he could be found. 

Appucatiox, Earl Russell Browder 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on August 
31, 1934, and passport No. 145182 was issued on September 1, 1934. The appli- 
cant stated that he resided at 2714 Wallace Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was the applicant's brother, William E. Browder, who 
stated that he had known the applicant for 39 years and that he (the witness) 
resided at 31 East 27th Street, New York City. 

The passport was renewed at the passport agency in New York City on Feb- 
ruary 2, 1937, to be valid to September 1, 1938. It was amendetl to be valid for 
travel in Spain on November 26, 1937, upon the submission of a letter from C. A. 
Hathaway, editor of the Daily Worker, certifying that Mr. Browder was being 
sent as a special correspondent to Spain. 

The applicant was issued passport No. 583689 on September 26, 1938, at which 
time he turned in his old passport. 

The 1934 passport bears stamps indicating that the bearer traveled extensively 
abroad and bears stamps showing arrival in the United States on December 25, 
1934, April 30, 1936, September 17, 1935, April 30, 1937, and February 15, 1938. 

In the 1934 application Browder faksely stated that he had never had a pre- 
vious passport, whereas it appears from the Department's files that in 1921 he 
fraudulently obtained a passport in the name Nicholas Dozenberg and another 
passport in 1927 in the name George Morris. 



a82 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Application, Katherine Dozenbeeq 

This application was executed at the passport agency in New York City on 
December 3, 1929, and passport No. 146880 was issued on December 5, 1929. The 
applicant gave her address as 6 Nathan Davis Place, New York, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was the applicant's husband, Nicholas Dozenberg, who 
gave the same address. 

The passport was renewed at the American Consulate General at Berlin, 
Germany, on October 23, 1931. The applicant stated that she had resided in 
Germany from December 1930 to February 1931, in India and China from March 
1931 to October 1931, and again in Germany from October 15, 1931 to date of the 
application. 

Mr. X, when recently interviewed, expressed the opinion that this Katherine 
Dozenberg was not the original wife of Nicholas Dozenberg but was a much 
younger woman. However, the investigation, which was conducted in 1933 by 
a special agent of the Department, tended to show that both Nicholas and 
Katherine Dozenberg were the persons they represented themselves to be. 

Application, Nicholas Dozenberg 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York City on 
March 9, 1921, and passport No. 2990 was issued on March 12, 1921. The appli- 
cant gave his permanent address as 1309 Tremont, Roxbury, Boston, Mass. 

The applicant stated that he was born at Riga, Russia (then Latvia), on 
November 15, 1882, and that he was naturalized by the United States District 
Court at Boston, Mass., on February 6, 1911. 

The applicant submitted the original naturalization certificate of Dozenberg. 

The identifying witness signed the name Katherine Dozenberg and gave the 
same address as the applicant. It is not known whether this was signed by the 
real Katherine Dozenberg who was the wife of the real Nicholas Dozenberg. 

For some reason which is not shown by the files that are available, the Depart- 
ment's suspicions were aroused as to the activities of the person traveling on 
this passport and a cable was sent to the American consul at Riga requesting an 
investigation. However the consul reported that he had been unable to trace 
Dozenberg. 

An investigation has shown that the above-mentioned passport was actually 
obtained by Earl Russell Browder, and that the body of the application and the 
signature thereon are in his handwriting. 

A person who is believed to be the real Nicholas Dozenberg, was issued pass- 
port No. 651802 on November 22, 1928, upon an application in which he stated 
that he had never had a passport previously. This applicant submitted a dupli- 
cate naturalization certificate which had been issued to him in lieu of one that 
he claimed had been lost. The applicant was also issued passport No. 568709 
on December 12, 1932, and submitted with that application his 1928 passport. 

In March 1933 Dozenberg executed a new application and claimed that his old 
passport had been lost. However, after the Department had held up the issue 
of a new passport, he reported that he had found his 1932 one. 

The 1932 passport was sent in the New York pouch and was signed for by one 
Oscar Jacobson, 617 Second Avenue, New York City. Nothing further is known 
concerning Mr. Jacobson. 

In his 1933 application, Nicholas Dozenberg gave his address as 554 48th Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. This address was also shown in the notebook of Albert Feiera- 
bend when he was first arrested. 

Application, Isidor Dreazen 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on June 10, 
1929, and passport No. 80023 was issued on June 12, 1929. The applicant gave his 
address as 654 Beck Street, Bronx, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Morris Nemser of 277 East 172d Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

This applicant was the person he represented himself to be and submitted with 
the application his own certificate of naturalization. 

The applicant did not use the passport and it was found in possession of one 
Charles Krumbein when he was arrested in England, in 1930. The passport is 
now in the Department's files. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a83 

After it was discovered ttiat the prisoner in England had a fraudulent passport, 
an unsuccessful effort was made to ascertain his true identity and nationality. 
After serving his sentence, Krumbein left England for the Soviet Union in 
possession of a document issued by a Soviet consulate in England. 

W^hen the real Dreazen was questioned in 1930 he claimed that he made his 
application in good faith intending to visit relatives in Poland. After obtaining 
the passport he carried it about in his pocket and about 2 weeks later discovered 
that it had disappeared. Thereafter he abandoned his plans to go abroad on 
account of lack of funds. He claimed that he could not identify the photograph 
of the person who used the passport. Dreazen claimed that Morris Nemser was a 
friend of his whom he had met at the Workmen's Union on East Broadway. 

Morris Nemser in 1930 was known as a radical and was supposed to be em- 
ployed in secretarial work for radical organizations. He was said to have been 
identitied with a dentist named Gassen residing at 1527 Morris Avenue, Bronx. 

A few years ago the Daily Worker carried an item regarding the cutting of 
Isador Dreazen who was employed at the New Brighton Public Market, 1115 
Brighton Avenue, Brooklyn. The cuts were inflicted by Joseph Goldman, an 
employer. 

The photograph of Krumbein was affixed to the Dreazen passport and an ex- 
cellent counterfeit of the State Department's impression seal was placed thereon. 

Application, Albert Feiebabend 

This application was executed at the passport agency at Boston, Mass., and 
passport No. 505965 was issued on March 10, 1928. The applicant gave his ad- 
dress as 223 Audubon Road, Boston, Mass. 

The identifying witness was Benjamin Chalfen, a steamship ticket agent of 
427 Washington Street, Brookline, Mass. 

This application was executed by the real Albert Feierabend. 

On March 24, 1928, Feierabend executed an application for the amendment of 
his passport at the passport agency in New York to include the name of his 
alleged wife, Emma Pauline Bleckschmidt Feierabend, to whom he stated he 
was married on March 21, 1928. 

Feierabend submitted with his application his marriage certificate and birth 
certificate in the name Emma Pauline Blackschmidt. The passport was amended 
as requested. 

The photograph on the amended application is not a likeness of Pauline Emma 
Blackschmidt who was born at North Bergen, N. J., on June 13, 1903, but is a 
likeness of a woman of unknown identity with whom Feierabend lived around 
Boston. Although this woman was reported not to be the wife of Feierabend, 
there is actually a record of the marriage. 

The real Pauline Emma Blackschmidt is said to be the wife of Samuel Adams 
Dardeck, known as Sam Darcy, who is one of the prominent Communist leaders 
on the west coast and who was at one time the Communits candidate for Gov- 
ernor of California. 

Dardeck was issued passports including the name of his wife in 1927 and 
1935. Mrs. Dardeck was also issued a limited passport in 1935 to enable her to 
join her husband who had gone abroad ahead of her. 

Application, Susanna Fineberg 

This application was executed at the passport agency in New York on June 27, 
1929, and passport No. 9&400 was issued on July 2, 1929. The applicant gave 
her address as 321 East 17th Street, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant stated that she was born at Emporia, Kans., on June 25, 1902, 
and that she was married on October 15, 1928, to Abram Fineberg who was born 
at London, England, and was not an American citizen. The applicant submitted 
a birth certificate with her application. 

The identifying witness was Griffin Barry of 328 East 15th Street, New York 
City. 

The applicant requested that the passport be mailed to her in care of the Open 
Road, 20 West 43d Street, New York City. 

This applicant is identical with the one who obtained a passport in 1930 
as Susan Abbott Lynd. Her maiden name appears to have been Susanna 
Paxton. 

Nothing is known concerning the identifying witness. Griffin Barry. 



a84 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Application, Samuel Fox 

The first application in this name was executed on October 28, 1927, at the 
passport agency in New York City and passport No. 469396 was issued on 
October 29, 1927. The applicant stated that he resided at 350 West 21st Street, 
New York City. 

The applicant stated that he desired to go to Germany, Poland, and France 
on commercial business for Wagner & Sklar, 56 West 49th Street, New York 
City. 

The applicant submitted with the application certificate of naturalization 
No. 620602, issued to Samuel Fox on May 1, 1915, indicating that a person by 
that name was naturalized at Philadelphia on May 1, 1915. 

The identifying witness was Harry Kweit of 350 West 21st Street, New York 
City. 

The applicant originally requested that the passport be sent in care of Harry 
Kweit at the aforementioned address, but changed this to request that the pass- 
port be sent in the New York pouch which was done. 

The second application in this name was executed by the same applicant at 
the American consulate at Helsingfors, Finland, on March 18, 1930, niul service 
passport No. 352 was issued on March 18. 1930. The applicant stated that he 
had resided in Germany from November 1927 to December 1927, and in Russia 
from December 1927 to date of his application. 

The applicant gave as a reference his wife, Mrs. Eva Fox, 123 East 23d 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

The true name of the applicant is Joseph Zack who was born in Czechoslovakia. 
He is an alien who was originally in this country legally. 

Zack obtained the certificate of naturalization from George Mink. 

Zack also obtained a passport in the name of Joseph Kornfeder. 

Harry Kweit was the identifying witness on a fraudulent application exe- 
cuted in the name Nathan William Kweit. Harry Kweit also made passport 
applications in the names Harry Somers and Edward Riggs. 

The real Samuel Fox has been issued two new naturalization certificates in 
lieu of lost ones. His original certificate was issued on May 1, 1915, his second 
one on May 21, 1928, and his third one on July 23. 1937. Fox claimed that his 
first two certificates had been lost or stolen with his baggage. Fox's latest 
address as shown by the naturalization files is 5438 Walnut Street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Application, Al Gottlieb 

This application was executed before a deputy clerk of the United States 
District Court at Newark, N. J., on April 11, 1934, and passport No. 88,049 was 
issued on April 12, 1934. The applicant gave his address as 16 Wainwright 
Street, Newark, N. J., and requested that the passport be sent to him at the 
same address. 

The applicant submitted a birth certificate showing that a male child named 
Gottlieb was born at New York City on August 10, 1899. The given name of the 
<:hild did not appear on the certificate. 

Identifying witness was Isaac Bambas, 75 Schuyler Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

The photograph on the application appears to be a likeness of George Mink. 

This passport was foimd in the apartment of George Mink when he was ar- 
rested at Copenhagen, Denmark, in February 1935. 

An investigation conducted in the early part of 1936 disclosed that one Abe 
Gottlieb had resided at 16 Wainwright Street, Newark, in 1932, but that he was 
a naturalized citizen and claimed that he knew nothing about the passport ap- 
plication, and that he could not identify the photograph on the application. 

Isaac Bambas, the identifying witness, was also located and informed an 
agent that the photograph on the application was a likeness of one Al Gottlieb, 
whom he had known for the past 5 years as a salesman. Bambas claimed that 
he did not know what line of merchandise Gottlieb sold, where he was, or how 
he could be located. 

The body of this passport application appears to be in the handwriting of 
Leon Josephson. 

Application, Harold Hall 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on July 
1, 1931, and passport No. 416,665 was issued on July 2, 1931. The applicant 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a85 

Stated that he resided at 225 East 16th Street, New York City, and requested 
that the passport be sent in the New Yorlv pouch. 

The applicant suliuiitted a birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., on a de- 
laved report of birth wliicli purported to show that he was born at Scranton, 
Pa., on January 21, 1903. 

The identifying: witness on this application was George Mink who gave his 
address as 235 East 13th Street, New York City. 

The fraudulent report of birth in this case is signed "Mrs. Alice Woods, Aunt," 
and is in the handwriting of some person other than the applicant. The affidavit 
of birth attached to the report was signed by the applicant in the name of Harold 
Hall and was typed on the same typewriter as the one used in preparing the 
affidavit filed in the case of Henry G. Lynd. 

The true name of the applicant was Harold Hynes and he was a British sub- 
ject. H.vnes was issued passport No. 56,060 by the British consul general in 
New York on August 2, 1930 (or 1933), and prior to that time held British Foreign 
Office passport No. 63,702, issued in September 1921. 

Hynes is reported to have been killed in Spain while serving in the Interna- 
tional Brigade of the Spanish Loyalist Army. 

Application, Bruno Herman August Hanke 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on Novem- 
ber 3, 1933, and passport No. 67208 was issued on November 4, 1933. The ap- 
plicant gave his address as 55 East Seventh Street, care of Ames, New York City. 

The applicant submitted what is assumed to be a valid birth certificate of the 
real Bruno Herman August Hanke who was born in New York on August 8, 1898. 

The passport was sent by registered mail to the address given above. 

The identifying witness signed the name Abraham Shafman (?), 55 East 
Seventh Street, New York City. 

This passport was altered by substituting thereon a photograph of another 
person of unknown identity in lieu of the photograph which originally appeared 
on the passport. An excellent counterfeit of the State Department's legend 
machine and seal appears on the substituted photograph. 

The impostor who had possession of the passport arrived at New York on the 
steamship Bremen on March 30, 1934, and was detained by immigration author- 
ities for further inspection at Ellis Island. However, the impostor managed 
to escape and has never been apprehended. It is thought probable that the im- 
postor who used the passport is identical with the one who was issued a passport 
on March 21, 1932, in the name Leon Marks. 

The application was typed on the same kind of machine as the application 
in the name Machla Lenczycki. 

An investigation conducted in New York in 1934 disclosed that a party named 
Ames had previously resided at 55 East Seventh Street, but that the representa- 
tive of that building did not know and had never heard of Hanke or the iden- 
tifying witness. The Ames family was located at 151 Second Avenue in apart- 
ment No. 2A. The family consisted of Mrs. Lena Abrams and her daughter, 
Stella Abrams, both of whom were also known as Ames. Mrs. Ames identified 
the photograph which appeared on the Hanke application as that of the person 
who roomed at her apartment for about 2 months. Mrs. Abrams claimed that 
she had no information concerning the alleged Hanke or the identifying witness 
who also roomed at her apartment. 

Application, Abe James Harfield 

The first application in this name was executed on August 24, 1927, at the 
passport agency at New York and passport No. 453503 was issued on August 26, 
1927. The applicant gave his address as 49 Munroe Street, Boston, Mass. 

The applicant submitted a bona fide birth certificate. 

The applicant stated that he desired to go to Venezuela on commercial business 
for the Lago Petroleum Co., 13 Nassau Street, New York City. 

The applicant requested that his passport be sent to him in care of Vivian 
Wilkinson, room 40, 39 Union Square, New York, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Robert M. Long, of 101 Monroe Street, New York, 
N. Y., who stated that he had known the applicant for 5 years. 

An application for registration was executed by the same applicant at the 
American Legation at Bogota, Colombia, on August 8, 1929. 



a86 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

This applicant was deported from Colombia on November 20, 1932, because of 
his radical activities in that country. He arrived at ISlew York on the steamship 
Santa Barbara on November 28, 1932, and stated that he was going to 15 Ellington 
Street, Boston, Mass. Inquiries at the aforementioned address disclosed that 
no such person was known there. 

Another jierson claiming the same date and place of birth executed a passport 
application at the passport agency in New York City on August 13, 1931, and pass- 
port No. 432338 was issued on August 13, 1931. The applicant gave his address as 
1664 Weeks Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

The second applicant made another application for a passport at the passport 
agency in New York on June 27, 1939, submitting therewith his old passport. No 
passport has been issued on this application. The passport shows that the 
bearer spent a considerable period of time in Russia and returned to the United 
States on November 1, 1932. 

An investigation conducted in the latter part of 1932 disclosed that neither the 
1927 or 1931 applicants was known at the addresses given in the two applications. 
Robert M. Long, the identifying witness on the 1927 application could not be 
located at the address given. Frank Miller, the witness on the 1931 application 
was said to live at the address given but he could not be located for interview. 

It was discovered that the Lago Petroleum Co. had been taken over by the 
Pan American Petroleum which was later merged with the Standard Oil of 
New Jersey. A representative of the Standard Oil made a search of the files of 
the Lago Co. but could find no reference to Harfield. 

Vivian Wilkinson, it was found, had operated a travel or ticket agency at 39 
Union Square, room 40, but had vanished leaving no trace. 

The person who made the applications in 1931 and 1939 was interviewed after 
he had made his second application and he claimed that he was the person he 
represented himself to be. (The investigation has not yet been completed.) 
This man claimed that he was employed by the Prompt Press of 113 Fourth 
Avenue, New York City, and his employment was verified. He stated that while 
in Moscow in 1931-32 he was employed by the Moscow Daily News. 

Application, Kathebine Harrison 

This application was executed on November 23, 1927 and passport No. 476407 
was issued on November 26, 1927. The applicant stated that she resided at 350 
West 21st Street, New York, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Vivian M. Wilkinson, 35 Charles Street, apartment 
6A, New York City. 

The applicant submitted as evidence of her alleged birth in San Francisco, 
Calif., an affidavit executed in the name Jack Harrison who stated that he was 
the applicant's uncle. 

Using the passport the applicant went to Shanghai, China, and lived with Earl 
Browder who was using a pas.sport in the name George Morris. In addition to 
being known as Mrs. George Morris, this woman was also known as Miss Alice 
Read, and rented a post office box in that name. 

She was also associated in Shanghai with a man who had a passport in the 
name W. A. Haskell. 

Miss Harrison made a new passport application at the Passport Agency in New 
York City on April 12, 1932, and gave her address as 101 West 11th Street, New 
York City. An investigation was tliereupon conducted but the applicant could 
not be interviewed although she was said to be residing at the aforementioned 
address at that time. Previously an unsuccessful attempt had been made to lo- 
cate her at the address given in the 1927 application and to locate the alleged 
uncle. Jack Harrison. 

Effiorts of the Department to ascertain the true identity and nationality of 
the alleged Katherine Harrison have been unsuccessful. She is said to be known 
as Kitty Harris and to have been serving as I'ecently as 2 years ago in the Soviet 
Military Intelligence Service. 

Vivian Wilkinson, the identifying witness on the passport application, is a 
a niece of Grace Hutchins, the owner of the building in which the Communist 
headquarters is located. 

The affidavit of birth, signed Jack Harrison, was written and signed by 
John W. Johnstone, also known as Jack Johnstone. He is an important Com- 
munist leader and is now located in Pittsburgh. 

Mr. X and General Krivitsky can testify regarding Katherine Harrison. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a87 

Application, Milton Hathaway 

This application was executed at the passport agency at Chicago on March 1, 
]926. and Chicago Special Series passport No. 2804 was issued on March 3, 
1920. The applicant stated that he was born at Hastings, Minn., on November 
15, 1898, and that he resided at 2251 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

The identifying witness was C. A. Hathaway of the same address who stated 
that he had known the applicant personally for 27 years. 

According to Mr. X, the photograph on this application is that of Tom Bell, 
a British Communist who was in this country at the time. This same informa- 
tion was also received in a letter to the District Attorney at Minneapolis, dated 
March 25, 1931. 

An investigation was conducted in 1931 and disclosed that the real Milton 
Hathaway was residing in St. Paul, Minn., and had never been outside of the 
United States. The photograph on the application is not a likeness of the real 
Milton. Milton stated that he had sent his birth certificate to his brother, 
Clarence, at the latter's request. 

The 0. A. Hathaway who was identifying witness on the passport applica- 
tion is identical with Clarence A. Hathaway who is at present editor of the 
Daily Worker. 

Application, Harry Herman Kaplan 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at New 
York City on March 4, 1927, and passport No. 333079 was issued on March 5, 
1927. 

The aforementioned passport was submitted with a new application which 
Kaplan executed before the clerk of the United States district court at Trenton, 
N. J., on November 27, 1934. Passport No. 156773 was issued on this application 
■on December 3, 1934. 

The 1934 passport was found in the apartment of George Mink when he was 
arrested in Copenhagen, Denmark, in February 1935. It had not been altered. 

Kaplan was questioned shortly thereafter and blamed the loss of the passport 
•on a former employee of the hotel (the American House) which he operated 
in Trenton. However, when he applied for a new passport in 1938 and was 
questioned again, he claimed that he thought the passport was stolen by Barney 
Josephson, a brother of Leon. Kaplan stated that although he could not prove 
it, he had every reason to believe that Barney Josephson stole it at the instance 
of either Louis or Leon Josephson or George Mink. He thinks that he saw Mink 
in Trenton and that Mink was introduced as an agent of a truckman's union. 
Kaplan admitted that he had never used his 1934 passport but claimed that 
his plans were changed after he had obtained the passport. 

A limited passport was issued to Kaplan but he was refused a British visa. 

Appication, Joseph Kornfeder 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New Y^ork on April 
21, 1930, and passport No. 209698 was issued on April 24, 1930. The applicant 
gave his address as 234 West 15th Street, New York City. 

The applicant submitted a birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., on the 
basis of a recently created record. 

The identifving witness was Gertrude Ackerman, 690 Allerton Avenue, Bronx, 
N. Y. 

The applicant originally requested that the passport be sent to him in care 
of Gerbin (or Gabin), 234 West 15th Street, New York City, but changed this 
to a request that it be sent in the New York pouch. 

In a letter dated May 11, 1932, the applicant requested the renewal of his 
passport. In this application he gave his address as Care of Forman, 240 East 
13th Street, New York City. The passport was not renewed inasmuch as the 
Department was not satisfied that the applicant was born in the United States 
as he alleged. The applicant failed to respond to requests that he call at the 
oflice of its special agent in New York. 

The Kornfeder passport was used for travel in Colombia and Venezuela. The 
applicant was arrested in Venezuela on a charge of revolutionary activities and 
was deported to this country where he arrived on September 9, 1931. 

The true name of the applicant is Joseph Zack and he previously had ob- 
tained passports in the name Samuel Fox. 



a88 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

The Scranton birth certificate which was submitted with the passport appli- 
cation was issued upon the basis of a report prepared by Zacli himself to which 
he signed the name Rudolf Kornfeder, parent. There was submitted with this 
application an affidavit executed before Max Kitzes, notary public, by David 
Bankoffi and Katherine Harrison. Nothing is known concerning Bankoff. For 
information concerning Max Kitzes and Katherine Harrison, see memorandums 
under those names. 

The identifying witness, Gertrude Ackerman, was born in Poland and acquired 
American citizenship through the naturalization of her father, Harry Ackerman. 
Miss Ackerman was issued passport No. 159382 on December 24, 1934. In 1936 
the postmaster at Buffalo reported that the Ackerman family resided at 194 Grey 
Street in that city. 

Applications, Jacob Kreitz 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
New York on December 9, 1930. No passport was issued on this application 
but the matter was referred to the Department's chief special agent to ascertain 
whether the applicant was identical with a person who had previously been 
arrested under the name of Jacob Kreitz and found in possession of documents 
indicating that he was in the passport racket. The Investigation disclosed that 
the applicant was in fact identical with the man who had been arrested. No 
passport was issued on the application. The applicant gave his address as 307 
East 14th Street, New York, N. Y. 

The identifying witness signed the name Emily L. Kreitz, 307 East 14th 
Street, New York City. 

Another application was executed in this name by the same applicant at the 
passport agency in New York on September 9, 1932, and the matter was again 
referred to the chief special agent for investigation. At the same time a letter 
was addressed to Jacob Kreitz, 335 Crimmins Avenue, Bronx, N. Y., the address 
given in the passport application. The letter was returned to the Department 
marked "Not at the address given." 

An investigation disclosed that neither the applicant nor his identifying 
witness, Lizzie Kreitz, who had given the same address, was known at 335 
Crimmins Avenue. 

The identifying Vv itness was the same on both applications, although she 
signed one Emily L. Kreitz and the other Lizzie Kreitz, This woman obtained 
a passport in 1930 in the name Lizzie Kreitz. 

It was subsequently ascertained that the true name of the applicant was 
Albert Feierabend and that the real Jacob Kreitz and his family had gone to 
Russia several years before. 

A Mr. Fritz (Fred) Ihler knew both Feierabend and Kreitz and was ques- 
tioned at length on May 6, 1933. At that time Mr. Ihler lived at 39 Liszt Street, 
Roslindale, Boston, Mass. 

Application, Lizzie Keeitz 

This application was executed on December 9, 1930. at the passport agency at 
New York City and passport No. 331274 was issued on December 10, 1930. The 
applicant stated that she resided at 307 East 14th Street, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant claimed that she was the wife of Jacob Kreitz who was natural- 
ized by the United States District Court at Boston, Mass., on April 13, 1914. 

The identifying witness was her alleged husband, Jacob Kreitz, who gave the 
same address. 

The applicant is an imposter of unknown identity. The alleged husband was 
actually Albert Feierabend. However, the applicant does not appear to be 
identical with the woman who was included in Feierabend's passport in his own 
name as his wife. 

This imposter was the identifying witness on the applications executed by 
Feierabend in the name of Jacob Kreitz in 1930 and 1932. 

Application, Amy Esther Schechter Kweit 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on July 2, 
1930, and passport No. 288236 was issued on July 3, 1930. 

This applicant had previously obtained a passport in her maiden name. Amy 
Schechter, and did not submit any evidence of her citizenship with the 1930 
application. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a89 

The applicant claimed that she was the wife of Harry Kweit. 

The .signature of the identifying- witness is illegil)le. He gave his address as 
o3"> Cathedral Parkway, New York City. 

When Harry Kweit wa.s questioned in 1930, he first stated that he had never 
been married. Later when he was questioned regarding this application, he 
stated that he had lived with Amy Schechter but was never married to her. 
He considered that a common-law marriage existed. 

Application, Helen Lillian Bowlen Kweit 
See application, Helen Lillian Bowlen. 

Application, Nathan William Kweit 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on Novem- 
ber 21, 1929, and passport No. 143850 was issued on November 23, 1929. The 
applicant pave his address as 336 East ISth Street, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted an affidavit of birth executed by his alleged brother, 
Harry Kweit, who stated that he was a chemist for E. W. Bliss Co., 53d Street 
and First Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Harry Kweit was also the identifying witness on the passport application and 
gave his address as 336 East 18th Street, New^ York City. 

The liearer of this passport traveled to India and while there aroused the 
suspicions of the police because of his association with Indian Communists. 

The true name of this applicant is Alexander Bittleman. He also obtained 
passports in 1925 and 1929 in the name Isidore Spilberg. His wife obtained pass- 
ports in 1929 in the names Anna Spilberg and Helen Lillian Bowlen. Mrs. Bittle- 
man was also included in the 1925 passport in th.e name Isidore Spilberg under 
the name Anna Spilberg. 

The name Nathan William Kweit is a combination of the names of the two 
brothers of Harry Kweit. Harry Kweit has made passport applications in the 
names Harry Somers and Edward Riggs, and was identifying witness on the 
fraudulent application in the name Samuel Fox. 

Application, Machla Lenczycki 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York City on 
August 9, 1932, and passport No. 547327 was issued on August 10, 1932. 

The applicant gave her address as care of Wolf, 242 East 19th Street, and had 
her passport sent to the New York passport agency. 

The applicant submitted certificate of naturalization No. 2555845, showing that 
Machla Lenczycki was naturalized on September 11, 1928, by the Supreme Court 
of Bronx County, Bronx, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Louis L. Schwartz, 127 University Place, New 
York, N. Y. 

The passport was renewed at the American Consulate General at Shanghai, 
China, on July 1, 1934. At that time the applicant stated that her legal residence 
was 1200 East New York Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., that she was then residing 
at 941 Bubbling Well Road, Shanghai. 

The bearer of the passport was arrested in Brazil in December 1935, and it 
was ascertained that her true name was Elsie Saborowski Ewert. The passport 
is in the Department's files and indicates that the bearer thei'eof traveled in 
the Far East and in South America. When arrested the bearer had in her 
possession a mimeographed questionnaire which was filled in with information 
regarding the woman whom she was impersonating. This questionnaire is 
similar in form to the one found on Albert Feierabend when he was arrested 
in New York a number of years ago, and to the ones found in the possession of 
the imposters who were arrested in Denmark with fraudulent passports in the 
names Nicholas Sherman and Adolph Rabinovitz. The imposter also had in 
her possession the original naturalization certificate of Mrs. Lenczycki. 

Mrs. Lenczycki was located at 320 East 19th Street, room No. 5, New York 
City, on January 3, 1936, and was interviewed by Special Agent Willard. Mrs. 
Lenczycki stated that in the spring of 1932 she and her husband were residing 
In the apartment of a Mr. and Mrs. Schechtman at the corner of Belmont Avenue 
and 179th Street, Bronx, that in June 19.32 they moved to the apartment of Mrs. 
Lenczycki's brother, Manuel Turkewitz, 1060 Fairmont Place, Bronx, and that 
around the first of September 1932 they move to the residence of her mother, 



a90 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Mi's. P"'annie Turkewitz at 1878 Southern Boulevard, Bronx. W^hen Mrs. Len- 
czycki was requested to submit for inspection her naturalization certiticate, she 
stated that it had been mislaid and that to the best of her knowledge it was 
then at her mother's address. Later she reported that the naturalization cer- 
tificate could not be located. Mrs. Lenczycki stated that she was unable to 
identify the photograph on the passport application in her name or the photo- 
graph on the application in the name of Harry Berger. She claimed that she 
did not know a p^erson named Wolf who had resided at 242 East 19th Street, a 
Louis L. Schwartz of 127 University Place, or a person named Harry Goodman 
who was the witness on the Berger application. (832.00 Revolutions/501.) 

Efforts to locate a person named Wolf who resided at 242 East 19th Street in 
August 1932, disclosed that four tenants bearing the name Wolf were then 
residing at that address. Only one, an Arthur Wolf, was residing there in 1936. 
In the absence of Mr. Wolf, the agent interviewed his bi'other-in-law. Dr. Harry 
Baron, a dentist residing at the same address. Dr. Baron stated that he could 
not identify the photograph of the applicant and that he had never heard of 
Machla Lenczycki. A Mrs. Anna Wolf was traced to 301 East 21st Street but 
inquiries revealed that she had again moved without notifying the apartment 
house management of her new address. (332.00 Revolutions/501.) 

An agent interviewed Dr. Louis L. Schwartz, the identifying witness, on Janu- 
ary 4, 1936, at his dental office, 1 Union Square West. Dr. Schwartz stated 
that he had identified the applicant as an accommodation to one of his patients 
whose name he thought was Wolf. He was unable to furnish the full name or 
address of the alleged patient but promised to make a search of his files and 
report later to the agent. A few days later he informed the agent that he was 
not sure that the name of the patient was Wolf. A few days later he refused 
to answer any further questions, having been advised to do so by an attorney 
named Abraham Targum. The attorney called at the office of the special agent 
in charge in New York and stated that he wanted to know what the investiga- 
tion was about. (832.00 Revolutions/498 2/10, 3/10, 8/10.) 

An investigation was made at 1200 East New York Avenue in Janliary 1930 
and one of the tenants, Mrs. Rubin, identified the photograph of the Lenczycki 
imposter as very closely resembling one of the numerous visitors to the apart- 
ment of the Michel family at that address. Mrs. Jacob Michel was interviewed 
at her new home at 1487 St. Marks Avenue, Brooklyn, but denied any knowledge 
of the imposter or of the person who obtained the passport in the name Harry 
Berger. Mrs. Michel's daughter, Sadie Michel Rijock (Ryack) was the wife 
of Isaac Rijock, known as John Stuben, who fraudulently obtained a passport 
in the name of Harold Schlusberg. Mrs. Rijock was the identifying witness on 
that fraudulent application and also on a fraudulent application executed by 
Esther Rigerman. ( 832.00 Revolutions/509 5/8. ) 

Mrs. Ewert's husband fraudulently obtained a passport in the name of Harry 
Berger. 

Application, Henry George Lynd 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on July 
2, 1930, and passport No. 299574 was issued on July 28, 1930. The applicant 
gave as his permanent address Apartment 6A, 25 East 124th Street, New York, 
N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Emanuel Levin, 225 West 16th Street, Apartment 
14, New York, N. Y. The witness stated that he was the cousin of the applicant 
and had known him for 34 years. 

The applicant submitted as evidence of his alleged birth at Scranton, Pa., 
a birth certificate issued on the basis of a delayed report of birth. 

The report of birth in this case was not signed, but there was attached thereto 
an affidavit signed Henry George Lynd. The affiant did not state his relation- 
ship to the person referred to in the birth certificate. The signature is not the 
same as that appearing on the passport application. The handwriting of the 
signature on the affidavit of birth is the same as the handwriting of the person 
who signed the name William Hoffman to the affidavit of birth which was filed 
wath the fraudulent passport application executed by Harry Kweit in the name 
Harry Somers. 

The tru ^ name and nationality of the applicant are unknown. Reported to be 
Serge Mikailov, a Soviet citizen. 

Emanuel Levin, the identifying witness, was formerly a Communist leader 
on the Pacific coast. He was questioned by the immigration authorities a num- 
ber of years ago and stated that he was an alien and that he had no relatives 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a91 

in this country- However, when he was asked concerning Henry G. Lynd, he 
changed his story and stated that he had a cousin by that name whose address 
lie did not know. 

A woman who posod as the wife of Lynd was issued a passport in the name 
Susan Abbott Lynd on November 7, li»30. She was previously issued a pass- 
port on July 2, 192!), in the name Susanna Fineberg. 

Lynd and his alleged wife went abroad using the passports and were arrested 
in India on December 10, 1931, on the ground that they had been found to be 
associated with dangerous Communists in Bombay. They were ordered deported 
from India and left that country on the steamship Vice Roy of India. The depor- 
tation was supposed to be to the United .States by way of London. However, 
before the ship arrived at Marseille, word of Lynd's plight was evidently sent to 
his friends in this country [who] cabled to the consul at Marseille, demanding 
that the alleged Lynd be permitted to debark at Marseille instead of being taken 
to London. The consul at Marseille, not knowing the true facts of the case, 
intervened and was able to obtain permission for the Lynds to debark. 

They left Marseille with Leon Joseplison who had come to Marseille to assist 
them. Nothing further has been heard from them. 

Lynd was arrested in India. There was found on him a letter signed by the 
Governor of New Jersey, certifying that he was an American citizen and a I'esi- 
dent of Trenton, N. J. 

An investigation conducted in this country in January 1932, disclosed that the 
address set forth in Lynd's passport application, apartment 6A, 25 East 124th 
Street, was at that time under lease to Max Bedacht. Mr. Bedacht stated that 
Lynd occupied a room in his apartment during the months July, August, and 
September 1930. Bedacht claimed that he had no information concerning Lynd's 
occupation, citizenshii), place of birth, but did recall that Lynd spoke with a 
slight accent. It was learned that the Lynds had resided at the rooming house 
'of Mr. and Mrs. Carl Carlson, 319 West 77th Street, New York City, from October 
to December 1930. The Carlsons stated that Lynd spoke with a slight accent 
but that his wife did not. 

APPLICATION, SUSAN ABBOTT LYND 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on November 
G, 1930, and passport No. 324447 was issued on November 7, 1930. The applicant 
gave her address as 319 West 77th Street, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant stated that she was born at Chicago, 111., on December 26, 1900, 
and that she was married on November 5, 1930, to Henry George Lynd who was 
born at Scranton, Pa. 

The applicant submitted a birth certificate with the application. 

The identifying witness was Dorothy G. Markey, 4515 Foster Avenue, Long 
Island City. 

The original passport was incorrectly made out in the name of Lyno and was 
sent in by the passport agency at New York for correction. A duplicate pass- 
port in the name of Lynd was issued. 

The bearer of this passport traveled abroad with Lynd as is set forth in the 
sheet regarding the Henry George Lynd application. 

The investigation disclosed that the applicant and her alleged husband actually 
resided at 319 West 77th Street, New York City, from October to December 1930. 
This was a rooming house conducted by Mr. and Mrs. Carl Carlson. 

The identifying witness, Dorothy G. Markey, was issued passports in 1926 
and 1931. This woman has also been known as Dorothy Page and Myra Page. 
According to one report, she was a correspondent for the Daily Worker in 
Moscow. 

The applicant appears to be a native American citizen whose original name 
was Susanna Paxton. Her father stated that she had been married to Mr. 
Bram Fineberg. The applicant also obtained a passport in 1929 in the name 
Susanna P""ineberg. 

Application, Leon Marks 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on December 
21, 1932, and passport No. 569833 was issued on December 23, 1932. The appli- 
cant gave his address as 120 Howe Avenue, Passaic, N. J. 

The applicant claimed that he was born at Scranton, Pa., on July 15, 1905, and 
submitted as evidence thereof a birth certificate issued on the basis of a delayed 
birth report and an affidavit signed Frances Gordon which was executed before 
the notary public Max Kitzes. 



a92 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

An investigation conducted in 1033 disclosed that the alleged aunt, Frances 
Gordon, did not reside at 120 Howe Avenue, Passaic, N. J., the address shown in 
the affidavit but it was reported that she came there for mail. The landlady was a 
Mrs. Bogorade who stated that Marks had roomed at that place several months 
before but she did not know what became of him. She likewise did not know 
where Frances Gordon could be located. 

An investigation at Scranton disclosed that the report of birth and accom- 
panying affidavit were signed Mike Staflk, 421 South Washington Avenue, Scran- 
ton. However, it was ascertained that no such person resided at the address given 
and nobody at that address had heard of Mike or of the Marks family. (Leon 
Marks was supposed to have been born at the same address.) 

The notary public Max Kitzes was interviewed by a special agent and stated 
that he did not know where Frances Gordon was but would make an effort 
to locate her and have her get in touch with the special agent. The agent re- 
ported that Kitzes was anxious to find out why he wanted to see her. 

The applicant first requested that his passport be sent in care of Julius Rosen- 
thal, 345 East 17th Street, New York City, but this was crossed off and the pass- 
port was sent in the New York pouch. 

The identifying witness was Simon Feldman, 244 East 13th Street, New York 
City. Neither Rosenthal nor Feldman were interviewed. 

The bearer of the passport obtained a German visa at New York on December 
27, 1932, and sailed third class on the S. S. Europa with a ticket purchased through 
the Intourist (World Tourists?) office. His designation was given as Lenin- 
grad, Russia, although he had stated in his application that he desired to go to 
Germany to study and travel. 

The person whose photograph appears on the Marks application bears a very 
striking resemblance to the person whose photograph appears on the altered 
passport in the name Bruno H. A. Hanke. He also bears a slight resemblance to 
the person whose photograph appears on the application in the name Louis 

Paretti. 

Application, Valeria Meltz 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
Chicago on January 27, 1927, and Chicago series passport No. 4413 was issued 
on January 31, 1927. There was no identifying witness on this application. 

The applicant submitted as evidence of her alleged birth at Minneapolis, 
Minn., an affidavit allegedly executed by her aunt, Mrs. G. Meltz (Henrietta 
Maurer). This affidavit was issued before Helene Gannes, a notary public. 

The writing of the affiant, Mrs. G. Meltz, has been identified as that of the 
woman who obtained a passport in the name Katherine Harrison. 

The second application in this name was executed at the American Consulate 
General at Berlin on February 5, 1929, and passport No. 1693 was issued by the 
Consulate General at Berlin on February 5, 1929. 

This applicant is believed to be identical with the woman who obtained the 
passport in 1929 in the name Gertrude Larson Shatz. 

An investigation regarding this case disclosed that there was no record of 
the birth at Minneapolis, Minn., of Valeria Meltz. 

The true name of the applicant is unknown. 

Application, Esther Michael 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
New York on September 2, 1931, and passport No. 438088 was issued on September 
4, 1931. The applicant gave her address as 243 Bristol Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Henry Rigerman of the same address who stated 
that he had known the applicant for 5 years. 

The applicant submitted as evidence of her American birth an affidavit executed 
by her sister, Lillie Michael. 

The applicant stated that she had never been married. The second applica- 
tion in this name was executed at the passport agency at New York on October 
1, 1934, and no passport was issued thereon. The applicant gave her permanent 
address as 1200 East New York Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Mrs. Sadie Rijock of 1200 East New York Avenue, 
who stated that she had known the applicant for 23 years. 

The applicant alleged that she had lost her 1931 passport after it had been 
torn by her young niece. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTRITY IN THE UNITED STATES a93 

The applicant also stated in this applicaiton that she had never been married. 
Since the Departmeut had received inforniatoin tliat Esther Jlichael was married 
to Henry Rigerinaii an investi.tration was made in connection with the 1934 
application and it was ascertained that she was married on May 5, 1931, in 
New York City, to Rigerman. 

It was ascertained that the identifying witness on the second application 
was a sister of the applicant. 

Esther Michel Rigerman was issued passport No. 157821 valid for 1 year on 
December 10, 1934, in her married name. The identifying witness on this appli- 
imtion was Belle Finkelsteiu of 278 Christopher Avenue, Brooklyn. This pass- 
IX)rt was extended at the American Embassy at Moscow on August 7, 1936, to 
bp valid to September 22, 1936. 

Mrs. Rigerman expatriated herself by becoming naturalized as a Soviet citizen 
in 1938. 

Mrs. Rigerman's husband, Henry Rigerman, was born in Russia and acquired 
American citizenship through the naturalization of his father. He now resides 
in the Soviet Union and is employed by the Soviet Government. 

Application, George Mink 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
New York City on June 13, 1930, and passport No. 274033 was issued on June 14, 
1930. Mink gave his address as 319 East 19th Street, New York City, and 
requested that his passport be sent in the New York pouch. 

Mink submitted with the application a birth certificate purporting to show 
that he was born at Scrantou, Pa., on April 23, 1899. His identifying witness 
was James C. McCarthy of 512 East 18th Street, Apartment 4, New York City. 

This passport was renewed at the American Consulate General at Berlin, Ger- 
many, on May 31, 1932. 

An investigation which the Department conducted disclosed that Mink's birth 
certificate was issued upon the basis of an affidavit which he had filed in 
June 1930. 

On March 5, 1934, Mink executed a new application at the passport agency 
at New York, with which he submitted his 1930 passport. After an investigation, 
Mink was issued passport No. S4893 valid for 1 year, showing his birth at 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

On December 12, 1934, Mink was issued a duplicate passport without any 
limitation. The original passport issued in March 1934 was retained in the 
Department's files. 

The investigation had disclosed that Mink had served in the United States 
Navy during the world war and that at that time he claimed that he was born 
in Philadelphia. A seaman's document w'hich he submitted also showed his 
birthplace as Philadelphia. He also gave Philadelphia as his place of birth 
when applying for his soldier's bonus. 

In February 1935, while traveling on the duplicate passport. Mink was ar- 
rested in Denmark on a charge of espionage and was sentenced to serve 18 
mouths in prison. He was pardoned on June 30, 1936, and departed for Russia 
on July 22, 1936. No authentic information has been received concerning Mink's 
whereabouts since his departure from Denmark although one rumor states that 
he was executed while in Spain at the request of the Russian authorities. 

Application, Jean Montgomebt 

The first application was executed at the passport agency at New York City ori 
September 8, 1931, and passport No. 43S837 was issued on September 9, 1931. 

The identifying witness on the application was Ethel Shipman, 220 West 13th 
Street, Apartment 51, New York City. 

There was submitted with the application an aflSdavit of birth allegedly exe- 
cuted by the applicant's brother, William Montgomery, who gave his address as 
6 Jane Street, New York, N. Y. The passport was renewed at the American 
Consulate General at Berlin on August 29, 1933. 

The applicant registered at the Consulate General at Berlin on March 28. 1934. 

A new application was executed at the passport agency at New York on Sep- 
tember 17, 1935, and passport No. 240842 was issued on September 19, 1935. The 
passport was renewed at the American Consulate General at Paris, France, on 
September 16, 1937. 

72723 — 57— pt. 2.3a 7 



A 94 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

According to General Krivitsky, this women was actually Margaret Browder 
and she was employed under his supervision in the Military Espionage Service of 
the Soviet Government. The identity of this applicant has been confirmed by 
Mr. X. 

According to the handwriting expert the signature William Montgomery, signed 
to the afiidavit of birth, was written by William Browder. 

From a recent cablegram from Amsterdam it appears that the person known 
as .Jean Montgomery was in that city from June 2 to June 17, 1937, and that she 
had as a traveling companion one Louise Nash. 

Mr. Joseph Jones of the First National Bank of Independence, Mo., has iden- 
tified the photographs on the Jean Montgomery applications as likenesses of 
Margaret Browder. 

Application, George Morris 

This application was executed at the passport agency in New York City on 
November 17, 1927, and passport No. 475085 was issued on November 19, 1927. 

The applicant gave his address as 17 Christopher Street, New York City, and 
requested that the passport be sent care of Williams at that address. The regis- 
tered receipt is not available. 

The identifying witness was George Edward Powers, of 108 Goodrich Street, 
Astoria, Long Island. 

The applicant submitted an affidavit of birth executed by his alleged mother, 
Martha Morris. 

An investigation has disclosed that this application was executed by Earl 
Russell Browder, and that the body of the application, the signature thereon, 
and the body of the affidavit of birth are in his handwriting. The date of birth 
given in the application. May 20, 1891, is actually the date of birth of Browder 
according to his own passport application. 

Using this passport Browder traveled in the Far East. He arrived in China 
on October 11, 192S, from the Philippine Islands and left for Dairen on December 
1, 1928. He stated, when applying for a Japanese visa in Shanghai, that he 
was traveling to Berlin by way of Siberia. 

While in Shanghai, Browder lived with a woman who had a passport in the 
name of Katherine Harrison and who was known there as Mrs. George Morris. 
Later another person, supposedly an American known as Mr. W. A. Haskell, 
took over the apartment. The alleged Mrs. Morris called frequently on Haskell 
with letters and papers after the departure of her alleged husband. 

This case was referred to the Department of Justice in April 1929 for inves- 
tigation and prosecution but the Federal Bureau of Investigation which con- 
ducted the investigation reported that various Communists whom they had 
interviewed refused to give Browder's address, that the photograph on the appli- 
cation was not a likeness of Browder and that the United States attorney's office 
in New York had stated that since the passport was used in China, no prosecu- 
tion could be maintained in New York. The Department of Justice thereupon 
closed the case. 

Application, Andrew George Pape 

This application was executed at the Department on January 5, 1937, and 
passport No. 359676 was issued on January 5, 1937. The applicant gave his 
address as 1121 Owen Street NE., Washington, D. C. 

The applicant stated that he was going to England and France for business and 
study. 

The identifying witness was Bernard Ades, of 1800 Queens Lane, Arling- 
ton, Va. 

Pape sailed from New York with a contingent of men destined for Spain on 
the S. S. Lafayette and arrived at Havre on January 18, 1937. He was first 
reported as wounded in action and later as missing. His mother, Mrs. Andrew 
Pape, resides at 517 Brinton Avenue, Trafford, Pa. 

Application, Louis Paeetti 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on 
December 7, 1932. No passport was issued. The applicant gave his address as 
337 East 18th Street, New York City. 

The identifying witness was George Mink who gave his address as 334 West 
21st Street, New York City. 

There was submitted with this application an affidavit executed in tlie name 
Joseph Paretli with the address as 241 East 14th Street. Tliis case was referred 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a95 

to the office of the Department's special agent in New York for investigation 
and the applicant was requested to submit further evidence of his alleged 
American birth. Paretti was interviewed by a special agent in December 1932 
in tlie presence of a friend of his named W. C. McCuistion, who described himself 
as a seaman and writer. A baptismal certificate for Louis Paretti was presented 
and was found to be authentic. The applicant was requested to bring into the 
special agent's office his alleged brother, Joseph Paretti, who executed the 
affidavit. However, he claimed that he could not do so but sent in to the 
Department affidavits executed in the names William Cole and Lodovico Dresco. 
A check-up on the affidavits disclosed that neither was known at the addresses 
given in the affidavits. The Department refused to issue a passport and refunded 
the passport fee. 

During the investigation it was also ascertained that Mink did not reside at 
the address given in the application. 

No authentic information is available concerning the identity of this applicant 
but he has been reported to be identical with one Bieuko who was a courier 
between Hamburg and Moscow for the International of Seamen and Harbor 
Workers. The applicant bears a slight resemblance to the person who executed 
the passport application in the name Leon Marks and to the person whose photo- 
graph appears on the altered passport in the name Bruno H. A. Hanke. 

Application, Adolph Rabinowitz 

This application was executed at the passport agency in New York City on 
June 17, 1932, and passport No. 52G.500 was issued on June 18, 1932. The appli- 
cant gave his address as 224 Riverside Drive, Apartment 71, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted a certificate of naturalization indicating that Adolph 
Rabinowitz was naturalized on December 10, 1920, by the Superior Court of 
Cook County, 111. 

The applicant first requested that the passport be sent to him at the afore- 
mentioned address but changed this to request that it be sent in the New York 
pouch. 

The identifying witness was Isidore Wolfson of 3572 DeKalb Avenue, Bronx, 
N. Y. A notation on the application shows that Mr. Wolfson submitted his 
naturalization certificate to the passport agent. 

The passport was renewed at the passport agency at New York on November 
16, 1934. At that time the applicant gave his address as 131 West 58th Street, 
New York City. 

The bearer of this passport was arrested at Copenhagen, Denmark, in February 
1935 on a charge of espionage. The fact of his arrest was not disclosed to the 
American consulate general at Copenhagen until May 1935. At that time the 
police reported that the prisoner was actually an Austrian, although he was in 
possession of an American passport. It appears that the prisoner did not 
desire his case called to the attention of the American authorities. 

The person arrested was the one whose photograph appeared on the passport 
application and the passport was not altered. In addition to the passport, the 
prisoner had in his possession the naturalization certificate of Adolph Rabinowitz 
and a mimeographed questionnaire filled in with information concerning 
Rabinowitz. 

The prisoner was questioned by Consul General Lester Maynard and Vice 
Consul Gjessing and was very evasive. Rabinowitz was tried in the Danish ; 
courts and was acquitted on May 24, 1935. The Danish police returned his 
passport to him and he left Denmark, apparently using the passport. 

An investigation disclosed that the applicant was an imposter and that the 
real Adolph Rabinowitz was residing ai 2800 Bronx Park East, New York City. 
Rabinowitz was at that time a hack driver and information concerning him was 
obtained from the New York City Hack Bureau. When questioned, Rabinowitz 
stated that he had not had occasion to use his naturalization certificate for a 
number of years but would look it up when he arrived home. Thereafter he 
reported that the naturalization certificate was stolen from his house in 
November 1932. 

Efforts to locate the identifying witness at the address given in the applica- 
tion were also unsuccessful. 

The Department has never ascertained the true identity of the imposter. 
His photograph, circulars, and fingerprints have been sent to all American 
consular officers. 



a96 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

When the imposter was arrested in Copenhagen, there was found in his 
effects a letter addressed to him by Mr. B. Cooper of the firm of Cooper & Erase, 
22 West 48th Street, New York City, authorizing Rabiuowitz to purchase certain 
jewelry for the firm. 

Application, Edward Riggs 

This application was executed in the passport agency at New York City on 
March 19, 1936. No passport was issued on the application and the applicant 
was arrested at the passport agency when he called for his passport which he 
had requested be sent in the New York pouch. 

The applicant gave his address as 1686 Bryant Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted the birth certificate of one Edward Riggs who was 
born in New York City on April 6, 1900, and who died in infancy. 

The identifying witness signed the name of John F. Berry, and gave his 
address as 745 East 175th Street, Bronx, N. Y. 

The true name of the applicant is Harry Kweit. He was sentenced on April 
21, 1936, to serve 1 year and 1 day in a Federal penitentiary and was placed on 
probation for a period of 2 years following his release from confinement. 

No person named John F. Berry could be located at the address given in 
the application. 

When ariested, Kweit had on him a slip of paper bearing the words "care of 
S. Siegal, apartment IID, 1686 Bryant Avenue, Bronx." Special Agent Kinsey 
called at the aforementioned address in March 1936 and interviewed Mrs. B. 
Lerner who stated that she lived in the apartment with her son-in-law, Samuel 
Siegal and her daughter. Bessie Siegal. She stated that no one else was at home, 
that she did not knew anybody by the name of Edward Riggs, or Harry Kweit, 
that she has never heard of such a person and that she could not identify the 
photograph of Kweit. She stated that her daughter and son-in-law were both 
at work but that she had no knowledge whatever as to the nature of their 
employment or their place of employment. 

Application, Harold Schlusberg 

The first application in this name was executed before the clerk of the supreme 
court of Bronx County, N. Y., on October 31, 1932, and New York series passport 
No. 4313 was issued on November 2, 1932. The applicant gave his address as 861 
Freeman Street, Bronx, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted the birth certificate of the real Harold Schlusberg. 

The identifying witness was Sadie Rijock of 861 Freeman Street, Bronx, who 
stated that she had known the applicant for 15 years. 

The second application, which is in the name Harry Schlusberg, was made at 
the Department on February 16, 1938, and no passport was issued. 

This applicant stated that he resided at 314 Taylor Street NW., Washington, 
D. C, and that he was a buyer for H. S. King, 1504 Seventh Street, NW. 

The identifying witness was Lila Hechler of 1436 R Street NW., who stated 
that she had known the applicant for 5 years. 

An investigation conducted in 1938 disclosed that the true name of the first 
applicant was Isaac Rijock and that he was an organizer of the CIO under the 
name John Steuben. Rijock was interviewed by an agent and admitted making 
the fraudulent application and stated that he was born in Russia and was not 
an American citizen. He stated that since about 1928 he had been known by 
the name John Steuben. 

Rijock stated that in 1931 and 1932 he was in charge of the New York oflSce 
of the Trade Union Unity League and that he went to China because of labor 
problems there, using the passport in the name Harold Schlusberg. He claimed 
that he found the birth certificate in a desk which he had taken over from some- 
one else and that the identifying witness was a stenographer in his ofiice named 
Sadie Rosen. 

However, it appears that the identifying witness was actually Sadie Rijock, 
the wife of Isaac Rijock and the sister of Esther Michel Rigerman. 

The investigation of the second application disclosed that Harry Schlusberg 
did not reside at 314 Taylor Street NW., Washington, D. C, and that he was 
not employed by the H. S. King Co. It was found that the H. S. King Co. was 
run by Sigmund Ades who stated that his brother, Bernard Ades, was ac- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a97 

quainted with the applicant. Subsequently Bernard phoned Mr. Bannerman 
regai-ding the case. 

The identifying witness, Lila Hechler, is a sister-in-law of Bernard Ades. 

Bernard Ades was questioned regarding this case on August 16, 1939, and 
stated that this was a case in which he had asked his brother, Sigmund Ades 
of the H. S. King Co. to permit Schlusberg to use the King con)pany as the name 
of his employer although he is not employed by that company. Bernard Ades 
stated that this was for the purpose of assisting Schlusberg in obtaining em- 
ployment and at first denied Jiaving any knowledge of the passport application. 
Later when questioned I'egardiug his telephone call to Mr. Bannerman he claimed 
that his memory was poor and that he may have phoned regarding the passport 
case. 

An investigation as to the validity of the application brought conflicting 
reports. Some persons stated that the photograph was a likeness of the real 
Harold Schlusberg and others stated that it was not. A further investigation 
is being made. 

Application, Gertrude Larson Shatz 

This application was executed ;it the passport agency in New York City on 
April 19, 1929, and passport No. 19728 was issued on April 20, 1929. The appli- 
cant gave her address as 108 East 91st Street, New York City. 

The identifying witness stated that she had known the applicant for 21 
years and gave her name and address as Katherine Johnson, 341 West 13th 
Street, New York City. 

The applicant submitted an affidavit of birth allegedly executed by her aunt, 
Mrs. Katherine Johnson of 342 West 13th Street, New York City. The writing 
of the alleged Katherine Johnson on the application and affidavit has been 
identified as that of the woman who obtained a passport in the name Katherine 
Harrison. 

This applicant claimed that she was the wife of Phillip Shatz. 

The applicant is believed to be identical with a person who was issued pass- 
ports in 1927 and 1929 in the name Valeria Meltz. 

The true name of the applicant is unknown. 

Application, Phillip Shatz 

The first apx^lication in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
Chicago on July 13, 1926, and passport No. 268266 was issued on July 17, 1926. 
The applicant gave his address as care John Markey, 2010 North Humbold 
Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

The identifying witness was Harry Cannes of 5347 Harper Avenue, Chicago, 
who gave his occupation as a stenographer and who stated that he had known 
the applicant for 5 years. 

The applicant claimed that he was born in Poland and that he acquired 
American citizenship through the naturalization at Cleveland, Ohio, on Sep- 
tember 23, 1916, of his father, William Shatz. 

The second application in this name was executed by the same applicant at 
the passport agency at New York on April 20, 1929, and passport No. 22867 was 
issued on April 24, 1929. The applicant gave his address as 108 East 91st 
Street. 

In 1928 the British authorities became suspicious of the activities of the 
applicant and his alleged wife and made inquiry of this Government. An in- 
vestigation was shortly thereafter made of the bona fides of the two applica- 
tions. 

The naturalization of William Shatz was verified and it was ascertained 
that he stated iu his per.iti(m for naturalization that he had a son, Phillip, who 
was born on July 12, 1907, at New Rochelle, N. Y. Phillip's name is m.en- 
tioned on the naturalization certificate of Mr. Shatz but his place of birth is not 
shown. 

The Department also verified the birth at New Rochelle on July 12, 1907, of 
Phillip Shatz but did not attempt to question the identifying witness, Harry 
Gannes. 

An effort was made to locate William Shatz at Cleveland but he could not be 
found. 

The true name of the applicant is unknown. 



a9S scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Application, Nicholas Sheeman 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on Au- 
gust 12, 1933, and passport No. 55972 was issued on August 14, 1933. He gave 
his address as 91 Woodruff Avenue, apartment 2D, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted certificate of naturalization No. 1465058, indicating 
that one Nikola Jurotovich was naturalized by the United States District 
Court at Pittsburgh, Pa., on December 30, 1921. 

The applicant also submitted a certified copy of a court order purporting to 
change the name of one Nikola Jurotovich to Nicholas Sherman. 

The identifying witness was Joshua Tamer, of 1360 48th Street, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

The applicant originally requested that the passport be sent to him at 25 
Brighton Road, Island Park, Long Island, N. Y., but changed this to a request 
that the passport be sent in the New York pouch. 

The bearer of the passport was arrested at Copenhagen, Denmark, in 
February 1935 on a charge of espionage. In addition to the passport in the 
name Nicholas Sherman, the prisoner had in his possession a Canadian pass- 
port in the name Abraham Goldman and a German passport in the name 
Wilhelm Karl Hermann Brettschneider. 

The person arrested had the naturalization certificate of Jurotovich and a 
mimeographed questionnaire setting forth information concerning Jurotovich. 
The prisoner was sentenced to serve 18 months in prison. 

An investigation conducted in this country disclosed that the applicant was 
an impostor and that the real Nikola Jurotovich died in Aliquippa, Pa., on 
December 19, 1926. His brother, Paul Jurotovich, was residing in East Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., in December 1935. 

The true identity of the impostor in this case has never been established al- 
though it is believed that his wife is the sister of the wife of Joshua Tamer, 
the identifying witness. 

The impostor and the identifying witness, Joshua Tamer, are now under 
indictment in the United States District Court for the Southern District of 
New York for violating the passport laws. 

A circular bearing the photograph and fingerprints of the impostor has been 
sent to all American consular oflicers. 

It is possible that the impostor is identical with the former head of the 
Soviet military intelligence service in the United States. 

Among the effects of the impostor when he was arrested in Copenhagen was 
a letter addressed to him by the American House Incorporated, of Trenton, 
N. J., regarding a communication ordered by L. J. which had been sent to 
him in an envelope with the address of the New Jersey secretary of state on 
it. The American House is a hotel operated by Harry H. Kaplan. There 
was also correspondence addressed to him by Mr. J. J. Harvey, of the Inter- 
Continent Oil Company, Ltd., of New York City. 

Application, Harry Somers 

This application was executed on December 17, 1929, before the clerk of the 
United States District Court at Philadelphia, Pa., and passport No. 150273 was 
issued on December 19, 1929. The applicant gave his address as 2500 North 
33d Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The applicant claimed that he was born at Lahaska, Pa., on April 8, 1897, 
and submitted as evidence thereof 2 aflidavits, 1 executed in the name of Sam 
Wich, before a notary public, and the other in the name William Hoffman, before 
the clerk of the court. 

The identifying witness signed the name William Hoffman and the address 
4206 Parkside Avenue. The witness is the same person who signed William 
Hoffman on the afiidavit of birth. 

The applicant requested that the passport be sent to him in care of M. OIken, 
2500 North 33d Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The bearer of the passport went to India where he aroused the suspicion of the 
police because of his association with Commvinists and with the person who was 
traveling on a passport in the name Nathan William Kweit, 

The true name of the applicant is Harry Kweit. 

An investigation conducted in December 1930 disclosed that neither Sam Wich 
nor William Hoffman was known at the adresses given in their affidavits. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a99 

^Morris L. Olken had a drugstore at 2500 North 33d Street and resided at the 
same address. Mr. Olken stated that he did not know anyone by the name 
of Harry Somers and claimed that he could not throw any light on the case. 

The writing of the alleged William Hoffman is in the same handwriting as the 
signature Henry George Lynd on the affidavit of birth filed at Scranton, Pa., in 
that name. 

Harry Kweit also executed a fraudulent passport application in the name 
Edward Illggs and was identifying witness on the passport aplications executed 
by Alexander Bittleman in the name Nathan William Kweit and the applica- 
tion executed by Joseph Zack in the name Samuel Fox. The person who obtained 
the passport in the name of Amy Schechter Kweit claimed to be the wife of Harry 
Kweit, 

Ajpplication, Anna Spilberq 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York on 
March 13, 1929, and passport No. 685588 was issued on March 16, 1929. The 
applicant gave her permanent address as 2709 West Division Street, Chicago, 
111. 

The applicant requested that her passport be mailed to her in care of her 
uncle, L. Shapiro, 1512 Townsend Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. 

There was no identifying witnesss since the applicant submitted the expired 
passport of her husband which was in the name of Isidore Spilberg. 

This woman was included in the 1925 passport in the name Isidore Spilberg. 
She also obtained another passport in 1929 in the name Helen Lillian Bowlen. 

This woman is actually Mrs. Alexander Bittleman. Her husband obtained 
two passports in the name Isidore Spilberg and one passport in the name 
Nathan William Kweit. 

Application, Isidore Spilberg 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
Chicago on September 18, 1925, and passport No. 121972 was issued on Sep- 
tember 23, 1925. He gave his addresss as 2709 West Division Street, Chicago, 
111., in care of Louis Lerner. 

The applicant requested that his passport include the name of his wife, Anna 
Spilberg, to whom he stated he was married in May 1912. 

The applicant claimed that he was naturalized on December 31, 1914, by 
the Circuit Court of Cook County, Chicago, 111. 

The identifying witness signed the name Anna Spilberg and gave the address 
2709 West Division Street, Chicago. 

On March 5, 1928, the bearer of the passport applied for and obtained its 
extension at the passport agency in New York. He gave his address as the 
Hebrew Seminary, 2709 West Division Street, Chicago, 111., and his address in 
New York as care of Mr. I. Porter, 200 East 83d Street. 

The second application in this name was executed at the passport agency 
in New York on March 13, 1929, and passport No. 684484 was issued on March 
14, 1929. The applicant gave his permanent address as 2709 West Division 
Street, Chicago, 111. 

The applicant at first requested that his passport be sent to him in care of 
L. Shapiro, 1512 Townsend Avenue, Bronx, N. Y., but changed this to a request 
that the passport be sent in the New York pouch. 

The applicant stated that he had traveled in Germany, Russia, and Italy 
from September 1925 to April 1926, and in Germany and Russia from July 
1928 to September 1928. 

The true name of this applicant is Alexander Bittleman. The supposed 
Anna Spilberg is the wife of Bittleman. This man's wife obtained a separate 
passport in 1929 in the name Nathan William Kweit and his wife obtained a 
passport at the same time in the name Helen Lillian Bowlen. 

The real Isidore Spilberg, whose naturalization certificate was used, was 
residing in July 1933 at 1440 South Kolin Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Application, Ltdia Stahl 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York City on 
November 14, 1928, and passport No. 650277 was issued on November 16, 1928. 
The applicant gave her address as 120 West 116th Street, New York City. 



aIOO scope of soviet activity in the united states 

The identifying witness gave her name and address as Anna Kaplan, 54 East 
100th Street, New York City. 

There was submitted with this application an affidavit executed before Max 
Kitzes in the name Lydia Loeb. The affiant stated that she was the aunt of 
Lydia Stahl and gave her own address as 120 West 116th Street, New York City. 

An investigation conducted in 1934 disclosed that the true name of the appli- 
cant is Blsa Bloch, the daughter of Isidore Bloch who v/as then residing at 32 
West 82d Street, New York City, and who was in business at 462 Columbus 
Avenue, New York City. Mr. Bloch stated that his daughter was born at 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y., on June 24, 1904, that she graduated from Hunter 
College and later enrolled in the New York University Graduate School. While 
at the latter school she became a Communist. She had been away from home a 
number of years. The family had at one time received a letter from her from 
Berlin, Germany, in which she stated that she intended to visit Russia. Subse- 
quently letters were received from her from Moscow. Mr. Bloch had last heard 
from his daughter 3 or 4 weeks before when she was in one of the Dakotas. Mr. 
Bloch stated that his wife's maiden name was Loeb but that she was the only 
female child who survived infancy. 

Mr. Bloch stated that his daughter had brought to the Bloch home one Anna 
Kaplan who was also a Communist worker. 

An inquiry at 120 West 116th Street, New York City, disclosed that nothing 
was known there of Lydia Stahl or Lydia Loeb. There was no forwarding 
address for either person. 

There was another woman known as Lydia Stahl who was engaged in espionage 
on behalf of the Soviet Government in France and was arrested about the same 
time as Robert Gordon Switz. It is not known whether or not the American 
passport in the name Lydia Stahl was altered and used by this woman. 

The identifying witness, Anna Kaplan, was reported to have lived at one time 
at 54 East 100th Street with the family of a relative, Mrs. Alice Kaplan, who 
then resided at 51 East 98th Street. Mrs. Kaplan refused to give any informa- 
tion regarding Anna but her daughter, Florence Kaplan, then employed by 
Bergdorf Goodman at Fifth Avenue and ."Sth Street, stated that Anna was a 
distant cousin and had resided with the family for several years. However, 
Anna had disappeared about 2 years before. Florence stated that Anna was 
affiliated with the Trade Union Unity League and attended various Communist 
meetings and conventions. Florence partially identified the photograph on the 
Lydia Stahl application as a likeness of a friend of Anna's who was known to 
her merely as Elsa and as another Communist agitator. 

This passport application was renewed at the American consulate at Berlin, 
Germany, on November 18, 1930. 

Elsa Bloch also obtained passport 147,445 on September 18, 1934, as Elsa 
Meyler. She is the wife of George Meyler. 

Application, Albert E. Stewart 

This application was executed at the passport agency at Chicago, 111., on 
January 9, 1924, and passport No. 364689 was issued on January 15, 1924. 
The applicant gave his address as 2023 Fremont Street. Chicago. 111. 

The applicant submitted an affidavit allegedly executed by his brother John 
Stewart, attesting to the alleged birth at Beaver Falls, Pa., on February 10, 
1889, of Albert E. Stewart. The identity of the maker of this affidavit is 
unknown. 

No identifying witness appeared as the applicant .submitted what appeared 
to the passport agent to be satisfactory evidence of identity. 

The second application in this name was executed on October 17, 1927, and 
passport No. 466661 was issued on October 18, 1927. The applicant gave his 
address as 215 Second Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted his 1924 passport with the 1927 application and 
stated that it had never been used. 

The third application in this name was executed at the American Consulate 
General at Berlin, Germany, on January 22, 1930. and service passport No. 
581 was issued on January 22, 1930. On March 26, 1931, the bearer of the 1930 
passport applied for registration at the American Consulate General at Shanghai, 
China. The applicant stated in the registration application that he was married 
on May 17, 1929, to Margaret Undjus who was then in Shanghai with him. 

The aforementioned applications were executed by Charles Krumbein who 
used the passports obtained thereon. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN" THE ITSTITED STATES A 101 

Uixm the receipt of the registration application in the Department, it was 
noted that the photograph on the corresponding passport applications were like- 
nesses of the same person who used the Isidor Dreazen passport in England. This 
occurred at a time when the Chinese Government was raiding all known Com- 
munist headquarters in and around Shanghai and executing the prisoners almost 
immediately. A hurried investigation disclosed that the Stewart applications 
were fraudulent but did not indicate the true name or nationality of the im- 
poster. The Department was unwilling to take up the passi)ort and leave ihe 
bearer thereof to the mercy of the Chinese officials since it might injure American 
prestige. Accordingly, although Krumbeiu was kept under surveillance, he was 
not arrested and shortly thereafter he obtained passage on a boat destined for 
Dairen, Manchuria. 

The Department cabled to the American consul at Dairen to take u{i the 
Stewart passport upon the arrival of the bearer at that port and to take his 
fingerprints. The consul was also told that in case the l)earer of the passport 
claimed that he had no other document with him with which to proceed to 
the safety of the Soviet Union, to issue him an emergency certificate of registra- 
tion valid only for a limited time. The consul did as directed and since Krum- 
l>ein had no other travel document, he was issued the emergency certifi<'ate of 
registration. 

In the spring of 1934 it was discovered that the person who had used the pass- 
ports in the names of Albert E. Stewart and Isidor Dreazen was C!harles 
Krumbein, the district organizer of the Communist Party in New York. 

Krumbein was immediately arrested and indicted on charges of violating the 
passport law. He pleaded guilty to the indictments and was sentenced on 
February 4, 1935, to serve 18 months in prison, followed by a 4-year period of 
probation. Kurmbein has served his sentence but pi'esumably is still on 
probation. 

Considerable of a doubt exists as to the date and place of Krumbein's birth 
but it would appear that regardless of such place of birth, Krumbeia is a 
citizen of the United States, his mother having been married to an American 
citizen. 

While in Shanghai, Krumbein was associated wtih Margaret Undjus and a 
man who had a passi)ort in the name of Judea Codkind. 

Applications, Ksaviee A. Szpokas 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
New York City on October 11, 1928, and passport No. 641870 was issued on Oc- 
tober 15, 1928. The applicant gave his address as 410 West 154th Street, New 
York. N. Y. 

The applicant submitted naturalization certificate No. 1492648, Issued on 
May 19, 1921, indicating that he was naturalized by the superior court at New- 
port, R. I., on June 26, 1918. 

The identifying witness was Otto Lukas, 336 St. Ann's Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. 

This application was executed by an imposter of unknown identity. The real 
Szpokas was found dead on November 13, 1928, at 55 South Fifth Street, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. An autopsy disclosed that death was due to pneumonia and peri- 
tonitis, and that there was no evidence of foul play. However, three policies 
of $5,000 each had been taken out on the life of Szpokas a few months before 
he died, all payable to persons other than his relatives and the beneficiary of 
his veteran's insurance was changed from a relative to his landlord 3 days 
before he died. 

The identifying witness does not appear to have been located when the inves- 
tigation was made. 

The second application in this name was executed at the passport agency at 
Boston on September 12, 1930, and passport No. 1956, Boston special series, was 
issued on September 12, 1930. The applicant gave his address as 32 Lambert 
Street, Roxbury, Mass. 

The same naturalization certificate was submitted with this application as 
with the previous one. 

The identifying witness was Benjamin Chalfen, a steamship agent, 453 Wash- 
ington Street, Brookline, Mass. 

The passport was renewed at the passport agency at Boston on September 20, 
1932, and the applicant submitted with the renewal application an aflidavlt 
which he had executed before Benjamin Chalfen who was also a notary public. 

The second imposter was Albert Feierabend who traveled extensively on the 



A 102 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

passport and who was arrested on his arrival at New York on April 11, 1933. 

Feierabend was already under indictment in the United States District Court 
at Boston on various charges of violating the passport laws and was taken to 
that city where he entered a plea of guilty to the indictment and was fined 
$1,000 and placed on probation for 2 years. 

Feierabend was thereafter indicted in the United States District Court at 
New York, N. Y., arrested, released on bond, and disappeared. His present 
whereabouts is unknown. 

The second Szpokas passport and the Szpokas naturalization certificate are 
in the Department's files. 

Application, Abeaham Wexlek 

The first application in this name was executed at the passport agency at New 
York City on June 19, 1929, and passport No. 87558 was issued on June 20, 1929. 
The applicant gave his address as 1114 Stratford Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

The applicant submitted his naturalization certificate showing that he was 
naturalized bv the circuit court of Calhoun County, Camp Custer, Mich., on 
May 14, 1919. 

The identifying witness was Francis J. Hogan, 25 South Street, New York City. 

Wexler made a new application at the passport agency at New York City on 
November 10, 1934, and was issued passport No. 1.54245 on November 14, 1934. 
He gave his address as 211 Madison Street, New York, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Ray Hollis Chambers of the Seamans Institute, 
25 South Street, New York City. 

The applicant alleged that he had lost his 1929 passport. 

The second passport issued to Wexler was found in the apartment of George 
Mink when he was arrested at Copenhagen, Denmark, in February 1935. The 
passport had not been used. 

Wexler was interviewed by a special agent of the Department in the spring of 
1936 and admitted having applied for two passports and stated that he had never 
used either of them. He presumed that the passports were removed from his 
clothes while he was intoxicated. He stated that he was then employed as a 
reporter for the Daily News at 220 East 42d Street, that he had been a seaman 
for many years and had belonged to the Marine Workers Union. 

Application, Jakob Genhard Wirkkula 

This application was executed at the passport agency at New York City on 
February 18, 1933, and passport No. 577168 was issued on February 21, 1933. 
The applicant gave his address as 4309 Eighth Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The identifying witness was Laurie E. Laine of 30 East 128th Street, New 
York City. 

The passport was sent by registered mail to 4309 Eighth Avenue, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. The applicant submitted as evidence of his alleged birth in Michigan an 
aflBdavit purportedly executed before Max Kitzes, a notary public, by his brother, 
Adolph Wirkkula. The bearer of this passport was arrested in Berlin, Germany 
on December 20, 1933 for communistic activities. He also had in his possession 
a Norwegian passport in the name Johann Louis Korsell in which his place of 
birth was shown as Oslo, Norway. The German police subsequently ascertained 
that this man was really one Nuls Wirtanen, a former Finnish Communist leader. 

The passport is now in the Department's files. It does not bear any evidence 
of alteration but shows that the bearer arrived at Cuxhaven, Germany, on March 
10, 1933. 

Laurie E. Laine, the identifying witness, was located at 165 East 128th Street, 
New York City, and stated that the photograph on the application was that of 
Jakob Wirkkula and that they had both worked together as printers for the 
Finnish Federation, Inc., the publishers of the Finnish language newspaper 
"Eteenpain", located at 35 East 12th Street. Laine stated that he had first met 
the applicant in Chicago in 1927 when both were in the employ of the Union 
Press of that city. 

Adolph Wirkkula was interviewed at 21 East 125th Street, New York City, 
where he operated a restaurant and delicatessen shop. He stated that he did not 
know whether or not Jakob actually went to Europe as he had planned. He 
claimed that the aflSdavit was brought to him in blank by the applicant's son and 
that he filled it in and returned it later to the son. Adolph stated that Jakob 
belonged to several communistic organizations. Adolph stated that he could not 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 103 

positively identify the copy of the applicant's photograph although the description 
fitted that of his brother. He did not think that the signature on the application 
was made by his brother. 

Mrs. Jakob Wirkkula was interviewed at her home at 4309 Eighth Avenue, 
Brooklyn, but refused to answer any questions, except to say that the photograph 
looked like her husband and then slammed the door in the agent's face. 

The American birth of the real Jakob Wirkkula was verified, and his father, 
who was also Jacob Wirkkula, was located at 2939 Berteau Avenue, Chicago. 
A copy of the photograph on the application was shown to various members of 
the Wirkkula family in Chicago, but they could not identify it as a likeness of 
the real Jakob Wirkkula. 



PERSONS: FACTS REGARDING EACH 

'"-■' LenaAbbams 

See Lena Ames. 

Gebteude Ackerman 

This woman was the identifying witness on a fraudulent passport application 
executed by Joseph Zack in the name Joseph Kornfeder. 

Miss Ackerman was born in Poland on April 21, 1896, and acquired American 
citizenship through the naturalization of her father. Iii 1936 her parents resided 
at 194 Grey Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Bernard Ades 

Bernard Ades is apparently a native American citizen, born in Baltimore, Md., 
on July 3, 1903. He gave his occupation in his passport application as economist, 
although he is said to be a lawyer and to have a law office in Washington. 

Ades applied for and obtained a passport in 1937 by fraudulently representing 
the purpose of his trip abroad and used the passport to go to Spain in violation 
of the restrictions contained therein. 

Ades was the identifying witness on the passport application of Andrew Pape, 
who also misrepresented the purpose of his proposed trip abroad. Ades admits 
that he knew that Pape was going to Spain when he signed as identifying witness. 

Ades was also connected with the case of the man who applied for a passport 
in 1938 in the name Harry Schlusberg. 

SiGMUND Ades 

This man was the proprietor of H. S. King & Co., which was given as the 
employer of the person who made a passport application in 1938 in the name 
Harry Schlusberg. He is a brother of Bernard Ades. 

Lena Ames 

In the case of Bruno Herman August Hanke, the application gave his address 
as in care of Ames, 55 East Seventh Street, New York City. Mrs. Lena Ames 
for Abrams) and her daughter formerly resided at this address and were located 
in June 1934 in apartment 2A at 151 Second Avenue. Mrs. Ames stated that 
Hanke formerly roomed at her apartment, but that she knew nothing concerning 
him. According to her story, he and the identifying witness, Abraham Shafman, 
roomed there for about 2 months. 

L. AUEBBACH 

When Arthur Ewert, alias Harry Berger, was arrested in Brazil in December 
1935, there were found in his possession slips of paper bearing the name L. 
Auerbach, 337 West 14th Street, Apartment 64, New York ; Cable address Poljon, 
New York. 

The aforementioned person, it is thought, may be identical to Lena Auerbach, 
who was issued a passport in 1933. In November 1938, Miss Anitra Lamour 
who gave her address c/o Hotel Langwell. 123 West 44th Street, New York City, 
wrote to the Department and requested that passports be refused to Louis and 
Harry Auerback, formerly of 1487 College Avenue, New York City. Miss La- 
mour stated that the boys were the children of Lena and Joseph Auerback, and 
that their mother was afraid that they were going to Spain to fight. The letter 
alleged that the Communist Party was sending American boys to Spain. 

David Bankofp 

The aforementioned name is signed to an affidavit which was filed in connec- 
tion with the issue of a birth certificate at Scranton in the name Joseph Korn- 

Al04 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a105 

feder. This affidavit was executed before Max Kitzes, notary public, and was 
also sigued by Katherine Harrison. Nothing more is known concerning Bankoff. 

Grifftn Barry 

Nothing is known concerning this person except that he signed as identifying 
witness on a passport application executed in the name Susanna Paxton Fine- 
berg on June 27, 1929. At that time he gave his address as 328 East 15th Street, 
New York City. 

Bart 

Bart obtained a passport in the name of John William Fox, also known as 
Jack Childs. 

Mbs. Babt 

This woman was supposed to be the wife of the man known as Bart. 

Mrs. Bart obtained passports in the nam^g of Annie Morrison and Rosa SaflBn. 

William M. Beck 

Mr. Beck was the witness on the fraudulent passport application executed 
in 1922 by Alfred Wagenknecht in the name Walter Frederick Bronstrup. At 
that time he stated that he was a bookkeeper residing at 829 McPherson Street^ 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and that he had known the applicant for 6 years. 

John F. Beury 

This name is signed as identifying witness on the passport application exe- 
cuted in the name Edward Riggs by Harry Kweit. The address is given as 
745 East 175tli Street, Bronx, N. Y. A special agent called at this address in 
March 1936 and ascertained that no person by the name John Berry was known 
there. 

Blake 

This man was introduced by Bart to one . Blake was aware that 

was traveling on a fraudulent passport and was a party in the arrange- 
ments which were made for the purchase of a steamship ticket through the 
World Tourist, Inc. 

Blake, as well as Bart, seemed to be thoroughly familiar with the personnel 
of the office of the World Tourist, Inc., and was there when final arrangements 
were made for 's trip abroad. 

Blake was said to be a member of the Central Committee of the Communist 

Party. stated that Blake appeared to be a Hungarian Jew, about 45 

years old, well kept, and well dresi^ed. He was about 5 feet 6 inches tall and 
fairly fleshy. He had blue eyes and light hair and wore glasses. 

Blake's real name was Welwel Warszower. He also used the names William 
Wiener and Robert William Weiner. He was financial secretary of the Commu- 
nist Party, vice president of AVorld Tourists, Inc., and president of International 
Workers' Order. 

Isidore Bloch 

This man is the father of Elsa Bloch who executed a pas.sport application in 
the name Lydia Stahl . 

An investigation conducted in 1934 disilosed that the true name of the appli- 
cant is Elsa Bloch. the daughter of Isidore Bloch. who was then residing at 32 
West 82d Street, New York City, and who was in business at 402 Columbus 
Avenue, New York City. Mr. Bloch stated that his daughter was l)crn at 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y., on June 24, 1904, and that she graduated from Hunter 
College and later enrolled in the New York University Graduate School. While 
at the latter school she became a Communist. She had been away from home 
a number of years. The family had at one time received a letter from her from 
Berlin, Germany, in which she stated that she intended to visit Russia. Subse- 
quently letters were received from her from Moscow. Mr. Bloch had last heard 
from his dauiihter 3 or 4 weeks before when she w.-is in one of the Dakotas, 
Mr. Bloch stated that his wife's maiden name was Loeb but that she was the 
only female child who survived infancy. 

Mr. Bloch stated that his daughter iiad brought to the Bloch home one Anna 
Kaplan who was also a Communist worker. 



a106 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Elsa Bloch also obtained passport 147,445 Sept. 18, 1934, as Elsa Meyler, 
wife of George Meyler. 

Mrs. Bogorade 

Mrs. Bogorade of 120 Howe Avenue operated a rooming house at that address. 
Leon Marks resided there for some time. Mrs. Bogorade is a Russian Jewess. 
The alleged aunt of Leon Marks, Frances Gordon, is also supposed to have re- 
sided at Mrs. Bogorade's rooming house. However, Mrs. Bogorade stated that 
Frances did not live there at the time, that she did not know where Frances 
could be located but that the latter came by occasionally for mail addressed to 
her. 

Joseph R. Bkodsky 

Brodsky is a naturalized American citizen of Russian origin and obtained 
passports in 1928, 1932, and 1937. He also obtained a renewal of his 1932 pass- 
port in February 1936. 

Brodsky has been known as a radical for a number of years. 

Brodsky was formerly associated with Isaac tShorr and Carol Weiss King in 
the law firm Shorr, Brodsky & King at 41 Union Square, New York City. How- 
ever, they are not listed as a firm in the New York telephone book at this time. 
Shorr 's ofl3ce is now at 31 Union Square while the offices of Brodsky and Mrs. 
King are at 100 Fifth Avenue. 

The above-mentioned firm drew up the articles of incorporation for the World 
Tourist, Inc., in 1927 and Brodsky stated in his 1928 passport application that 
he was going abroad on legal business for the World Tourist, Inc. Brodsky is 
now listed as president of the World Tourist, Inc., and is secretary of the 
International Publishers Co. of 381 Fourth Avenue, New York City. He is the 
treasurer of the 26-28 Union Square Inc. which holds the lease on the property 
at that address. 

Brodsky was the attorney for Alfred Wagenknecht when he was tried for 
obtaining a passport fraudulently in 1922. He was also the attorney for 
Charles Krumbeiu when the latter was indicted for violating the passport laws 
in 1935. 

In 1935 Margaret Undjus claimed that she had lost her passport when her 
handbag fell out of a rowboat in a lake. Later when the Department refused to 
issue her a new passport she produced the old one, claiming that her attorney, 
Mr. Brodsky, had found the passport in his safe where he had kept it since her 
divorce proceedings were instituted. 

In the early part of 1936 Brodsky went to Brazil in the interest of Victor 
Allen Barron, an American Communist, and Mr. and Mrs. Ewert who had been 
arrested for carrying on revolutionary activities. 

The identifying witness on Brodsky's 1928 passport application was Milton 
Goodman of 8753 110th Street, Richmond Hill, Long Island, N. Y. Goodman 
stated that he had known Brodsky for 12 years. 

(Brodsky is now deceased.) 

Earl Rttsseul Browder 

Mr. Browder is the general secretary of the Communist Party of the United 
States and has been active in the Communist movement in this country since 
shortly after the World War. Browder is a native American of American stock 
and was educated in his native State of Kansas. He served a jail sentence and 
a penitentiary sentence during the World War for evasion of the draft act. 
Browder has obtained passports in the names Nicholas Dozenberg and George 
Mori'is, as well as in his own name. He is known to have made a number of 
trips abroad during periods in which none of the aforementioned passports were 
valid. Accordingly, it is thought probable that he has had at least 2 or 3 other 
American passports in names that are not known to the Department. 

During the recent Spanish civil war, Browder discussed with an officer of the 
Department the matter of obtaining the return of the American passports which 
had been taken from the American volunteers serving in the International Bri- 
gade. Although Browder promised to do what he could and stated that he 
thought that he could obtain the return of the passports, only a few of the pass- 
ports were actually surrendered. Earl Browder is the brother of William 
Browder and Margaret Browder, alias Jean Montgomery. 

While in China Browder lived with a woman who was traveling on a passport 
in the name Katherine Hai'rison. This woman was known as Browder's wife 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a107 

for a number of years and lived with him in this country. However, she is not 
Browiler's present Avife as this woman is supposed to be a Russian who came 
to this country in 1934 and 1935, bringing with her two children born to her and 
Browder in Russia. It has been alleged that this woman is one Anna Glutzman 
who was a well-known judge in Russia in the early ir)20's. 

Browder and his family are now said to be residing at 7 Highland Place, 
Yonkers, N. Y. 

Margaret Browder 

This woman is the sister of Earl Russell Browder and William Browder. 

According to Genera! Krivitsky and Mr. X, the photograph of Margaret Brow- 
der appears on the par:?i>ort applications in the name Jeau Montgomery. Gen- 
eral Krivitsky states that this woman worked for him in the Soviet Military 
Intelligence Service and praised the use of American passports for such agents. 
She urged General Krivitsky to use such a passport himself, but in view of his 
ignorance of the English language at that time, he did not so do. 

The present whereabouts of Miss Browder is unknown. 

She was identified also by Max Bedacht. 

William Browder 

William Browder is a native American citizen, having been born in Kansas in 
1895. He is a brother of Earl Browder and Margaret Browder, alias Jean 
Montgomery. 

Like his brother Earl, William served prison terms during the World War for 
evasions of the draft act. He has been active in the Communist Party since 
shortly after the World War and was until recently president of the Daily Worker 
Corp. William Browder was issued passport No. 363759 on January 27, 1937, 
upon an application in which he stated that he desired to go to England and 
France on business and that he intended to return to the United States within 
1 month. The passport was stamped "Not valid for tra-N el in Spain." 

William Browder, using the passport, arrived at Havre, France, on Febru- 
ary 5, 1937, on the steamship Aquitania. On the same bo; it were a large number of 
American volunteers for service in the Spanish Army. 

However, there is no evidence available that William Browder actually entered 
Spain. 

William Browder was the identifying witness on the passport application 
which Earl Browder executed in his own name on August 31, 1934. 

William Browder executed the affidavit of birth which was submitted with 
the fraudulent passport application executed by his sister, Margaret Browder, 
in the name of Jean Montgomery. To this affidavit William Browder signed 
the name William Montgomery. 

No information is available indicating that W^illiam Browder went abroad prior 
to 1937. 

He previously had a passport in the name George Ross. 

Benjamin Chalfen 

This man was the identifying witness on the passport application which Albert 
Feierabend executed on March S, 1928, in his own name, and was also identify- 
ing witness on the application for a passport which Feierabend executed on 
September 12, 1930, in the name Ksavier A. Szpokas. 

Chalfen was indicted in the United States District Court at Boston, Mass., 
and was sentenced to 1 year and 1 day in the House of Correction but his sen- 
tence was suspended and Chalfen was placed on probation for 2 years. 

Ray Hollts Chambers 

Nothing is known concerning this person other than the fact that he was the 
witness on the 1934 application of Abraham Wexler. At that time Chambers 
gave his address as the Seamans Institute, 25 South Street, New York City. 

Morris Childs 

This man was district organizer of the Communist Party in 1935 and 1936 
with headquarters at Chicago. 

Childs was born in Russia on June 10, 1902, and was naturalized by the United 
States District Court at Chicago, on October 18, 1927. He was issued a passport 



a108 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

in November 1929, at which time he gave his address as 218 East 12th Street, 
New York City. At that time he gave his occupation as a draftsman and stated 
that he desired to go to an art school in Berlin in connection with his employ- 
ment by the interior decorators, Eugene Schoen & Co., Inc., 115 East 60th Street, 
New York City. 

The identifying witness on his application was Nehemiah H. Kishor, 353 East 
19th Street, New York City. 

JUDEA CODKIND 

This man was an associate in China of Charles Krumbein who was then using 
a passport in the name Albert E. Stewart. The alleged Codkind was also known 
as Rosenfeld and sometimes posed as a Frenchman and sometimes as a German. 
He appears to have been a disbursing agent while in Shanghai. 

This man executed a passport application at New York on March 27, 1930, 
and was issued passport No. 184799 on March 28, 1930. He gave his address 
as 200 West 113th Street, apartment 3N, New York. His identifying witness 
was Clara Meltzer of 353 East 19th Street, New York. 

According to Mr. X, the photograph of this man is not that of a well-known 
Communist, Julius Codkind. 

William Cole 

This name was signed to an affidavit of birth submitted in connection with the 
fraudulent passport application in the name Louis Paretti. 

Bernard Cooper 

This man wrote a letter to the impostor in the name Adolph Rabinowitz 
ostensibly making him an agent of the firm of Cooper & Brase, for the purpose 
of purchasing precious stones. Mr. Cooper was born in Russia, now Poland, on 
January 2, 1889, and was naturalized as a citizen of the United States at Camp 
Devens, Mass., on January 26, 1918. He was issued passports in 1924. 1926, 1928, 
1931, and 1935. His wife's name is Lillian Cooper. In his 1924, 1928, and 1931 
applications, Mr. Cooper stated that his wife was born in New York City. How- 
ever, in an application for the amendment of his 1935 passport to include his wife, 
he stated that she was born in Poland. 

Samuel Adams Dardeck 

This man is known as Sam Darcy and is one of the most prominent Com- 
munists on the Pacific coast. He was candidate for Governor of California 
several years ago. 

Mr. Dardeck's wife is Pauline Emma Bleckschmidt, who was born at North 
Bergen, N. J., on June 13, 1903, and whose identity was assumed by a woman who 
married Albert Feierabend. Dardeck was issued a passport in 1927 to include 
his wife. 

In 1935 Dardeck was questioned at length by a representative of the Immigra- 
tion and Naturalization Service and a copy of the hearing is in his passport file. 

Dardeck was born in Russia on November 6, 1903, and acquired American 
citizenship through the naturalization of his father, Isador Dardeck, and bis 
own residence in the United States during his minority. 

The home of Mr. Dardeck's wife's family is 2 East Street, Jersey City, N. J. 
The father of Mrs. Dardeck is a Dr. Bleckschmidt. 

Samuel Dardeck is the eastern Pennsylvania secretary of the Communist 
Party. 

Katherine Dozenberg 

A passport was obtained in the name Katherine Dozenberg on December 5, 
1929, and the passport was renewed at the Consulate General at Berlin on October 
23, 1931. 

Mr. X, when recently interviewed, expressed the opinion that this Katherine 
Dozenberg was not the original wife of Nicholas Dozenberg but was a much 
younger woman. However, the investigation which was conducted in 1933 by a 
special agent of the Department tended to show that both Nicholas and Katherine 
Dozenberg were the persons they represented themselves to be. However, the 
report is not entirely complete and it is thought that a further investigation 
should be made. 

It is not known whether this applicant is the person who signed Katherine 
Dozenberg as identifying witness on the 1921 passport application in the name 
Nicholas Dozenberg. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY lA' THE UKITED STATES a109 

Nicholas Dozenbkkg 

The person who is thought to be the real Nichohis Dozeuberg obtained pass- 
ports in his own name in 1928 and 1932. He was born in Riga, Latvia, on No- 
vember 15, 1882, and was naturalized by the United States Circuit Court at 
Boston, Mass., on Febraury 11, 1911. His naturalization certificate was used 
by Earl Browder in 1921 for the purpose of obtaining a passport for Browder's 
use. 

A copy of a report of an investigation conducted in 1933 is in the Dozenberg 
passport tile. 

Dozenberg was the identifying witness on the passport application in the name 
Marion Emerson. 

The address given in one of Dozenberg's passport applications, 554 48th Street, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., was also shown in a notebook of Albert Feierabeud. According 
to General Krivitsky, Dozenberg was actively engaged at one time in the dis- 
tribution in this country of counterfeit money made in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. X does not think that the photograph on the application in the name 
Katherine Dozenberg is a likeness of Dozenberg's original wife but thinks it is a 
photograph of a much younger woman. 

ISADOR DBEAZEN 

See application, Isador Dreazen. 

LoDOvico Dbesco 

This name was signed to an affidavit of birth submitted in connection with the 
fraudulent passport application in the name Louis Paretti. 

Marion Louise Emerson 

This woman was issued passport No. 576586 on May 28, 1928, upon an appli- 
cation in which she stated that she was born at Chelmsford, Mass., on April 20, 
1883. Her identifying witness was Nicholas Dozeuberg, who gave his address 
as 309 East 14th Street, New York City. 

The apiilieant submitted au affidavit of birth executed at Lowell, Mass., on 
May 26, 1928, by Edwin H. Warren, who stated that he was a cousin of the 
applicant. The affidavit is on the law office stationery of Raymond W, Sher- 
burne, 174 Central Street, Lowell, Mass. 

The validity of this passport application has not been investigated. 

Marion L. Emerson appears to have been prominent in the Communistic ac- 
tivities in this country in 1922 and 1923. 

In December 1922 a letter from William E. Sproule of Lowell, Mass., in- 
dicated that Marion Emerson was the party name of Marion E. Sproule. 
(800.00 B— Haskell, Waldo A.) 

Arthur Ewert 

Arthur Ewert was at one time a prominent German Communist and was a 
member of the German Reichstag. The faction of the party to which he be- 
longed in Germany lost control of the organization in that country and he went 
to work for the Comintern. As a representative of the Comintern he came to 
the United States in 1927 to settle a factional fight in the Communist Party in 
the United States. He placed in power the faction headed by Jay Lovestone. 

He again came to the United States on May 25, 1932, with his wife on the 
SS. American Legion, the couple being in possession of nonimmigrant visas Nos. 
15 and 16, issued at Montevideo on April 29. 1932, both claiming birth in Ger- 
many and destined to the German Consulate in New York City. They were 
admitted for a 6-weeks period but never submitted proof of departure from this 
country. (800.00 B— Ewert, Arthur/51.) 

In July 1932 Ewert applied for and obtained an American passport in the 
name Harry Berger which he used for travel in China and South America. He 
was arrested in Brazil in December 1935 on a charge of carrying on revolu- 
tionary activities and is still imprisoned in that country. 

A large number of documents were found in Ewert's apartment when he was 
arrested, including his own birth certificate in his own name. Photostatic 
copies of these documents are in the document file. 

72723— 57— pt. 23a S 



Alio SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Ewert talked freely with a representative of the American Embassy concern- 
ing his identity and his activities in South America. (800.00 B — Ewert, 
Arthur/16.) 

Ewert's wife fraudulently obtained a passport in the name Machla Lenczycki. 

While in China, Ewert had contact with a Communist agent who had pass- 
port No. 331741 dated December 12, 1930, in the name Paul Walsh (Eugene 
Dennis ) . 

Among Ewert's possessions when he was arrested in Brazil were slips of 
paper bearing the name Bessie Weissman, 383 Madison Avenue, New York, and 
Bessie Weissman, 2800 Bronx Park East, New York. Another slip bore the 
name Mrs. L. Auerbach, 337 West 14th Street, apartment 64, New York ; cable 
address, Poljon, New York. 

The cable address, Poljon, was that of one John Pollak who then resided at 
124 West 79th Street, New York City. Pollak now has an apartment at 65 East 
96th Street, New York, but it appears that he does not reside there at present 
but leases the apartment to a family named Leiberman, from Missouri, and 
calls for his mail. 

Elsie Saboeowski Ewert 

Mrs. Ewert fraudulently obtained a passport in August 1932 in the name 
Machla Lenczycki. She is the wife of Arthur Ewert who fraudulently obtained 
a passport in 1932 in the name Harry Berger. 

Mrs. Ewert is supposed to have been in the United States during the period 
of the World War. She came to the United States on May 25, 1932, on a non- 
immigrant visa issued at the American consulate at Montevideo and apparently 
departed on the Lenczycki passport. She traveled with her husband in the Far 
East and in South America. 

Mrs. Ewert was arrested in Brazil at the same time as her husband in De- 
cember 1935, and was thereafter deported to Germany. According to latest 
available information, Mrs. Ewert is in a concentration camp in Germany. 

Albert Feier abend 

Albert Peierabend was born at Riga, Latvia, on January 11, 1889, and emi- 
grated to the United States in 1907. He was naturalized by the United States 
district court at Boston, Mass., on July 29, 1912. 

During the World War Feierabend failed to respond to notices from his 
local draft board and is recorded in the files of the War Department as a draft 
evader. 

Feierabend was first issued a passport in his own name on March 10, 1928, 
and subsequently had that passport amended to include the supposed name 
of his wife. The true name of this woman is unknown but she assumed the 
identity of Pauline Emma Bleckschmidt, who was born at North Bergen, N. J., 
on June 13, 1903, and who was married to Samuel Adams Dardeck. The 
identity of Mrs. Dardeck was assumed not only in connection with the passport 
but the marriage actually took place under that name, Feierabend using his 
own name. The marriage was at New York City on March 21, 1928. 

In July 1930, Feierabend was arrested in New York City on a charge of 
smuggling watch movements into the United States. When arrested, he gave 
his name as Jacob Kreitz. 

There was found in Feierabend's possession at the time of his arrest a 
fraudulent baptismal certificate in the name of Francisces John Kocius and 
a pencil drawing of the impression seal of St. Georges Roman Catholic Church 
in Brooklyn. Feierabend also had a notebook containing many names and 
addresses. He also was in possession of a badge dated July 18, 1930, signed 
by Max Bedacht, stating, "The bearer of this credential is thoroughly trust- 
worthy and should be given all possible support so that he may effectively 
accomplish the mission he is engaged in." Feierabend also had a supply of 
mimeographed blanks which were evidently intended for filling in information 
concerning a person whose documents were to be used by an imposter. 

Feierabend executed passport applications in the name Jacob Kreitz on De- 
cember 9, 1930, and September 9, 1932. No passports were issued on these 
applications inasmuch as the applicant could not be located for questioning. 
In his first application in this name he gave his address as 307 East 14th 
Street, New York City, and in the second as 335 Crimmins Avenue, New York, 
N. Y. The identifying witness on each of them was Lizzie (Emily) Kreitz, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES aIII 

who claimed to be the wife of the applicant. This woman was issued a pass- 
port on December 10, 1930, in the name Lizzie Kreitz as the wife of Jacob 
Kreitz. She was not identical with the woman who was included in Feierabeud's 
passport in his own name. 

On September 12, 1930, Feierabend was issued Boston Series Passport No. 
195G in the name Ksavier Augustus Szpokas. He stated in this application 
that he resided at 32 Lambert Street, Roxbury, Mass. Feierabend submitted 
with this application the naturalization certificate of the real Szpokas. This 
passport was renewed at the passport agency at Boston on September 20, 
1932. 

In the early part of 1933 the Department discovered that the Feierabend, 
Kreitz, and Szpokas applications were all executed by the same person and 
sent appropriate instructions to the American consular oflfice to keep a look- 
out for the man. 

On April 11, 1933, Feierabend, traveling on the Szpokas passport, arrived 
at New York on the steamship President Adams and was taken into custody. 
Since he had already been indicted in Boston for violating the passport law, 
he was taken to that city and was let off with a suspended sentence and a fine 
of $1,000. 

After the termination of the Boston proceedings, Feierabend was indicted 
in the United States district court at New York for violations of the passport 
laws which occurred in that city and was arrested in Boston for removal to 
New York. He was released on a bond of $200 which was put up by a firm 
which went bankrupt shortly thereafter. Feierabend failed to appear at the 
removal hearing and has never been apprehended. 

When Feierabend was arrested in New York, he had in his possession the 
Szpokas passport, the Szpokas naturalization certificate, a letter signed by 
Benjamin Chalfen, and $28,000 in American money. 

Feierabend appears to have traveled extensively not only in Europe but in 
the Far East. It is thought probable that he was a paymaster. 

One of the addresses which was in Feierabeud's notebook when he was arrested 
in 1930, was 554 48th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. With this notation appears the 
name Liua. It appears that this was the address of one Lina Karlin. This same 
address was given by Nicholas Dozenberg in his 1933 passport application. 

Another name shown in Feierabend's notebook is J. Kalnin. On the passport 
application of August Latz the name John Kalnin is written as the identifying 
witness. 

In China during World War 11. 

Simon Feldman 

This man was identifying witness on the passport application executed in the 
name Leon Marks, on December 21, 1932. He gave his address as 244 East 13th 
Street, New York City, and submitted an auto license as proof of identity. 
Feldman has not been interviewed. 

Susanna Finfbeeg 
See Susanna Paxton. 

Belle Finkelstein 

Belle Finkelstein was identifying witness on the passport application which was 
executed on November 23, 1934, by Esther Michel Rigerman. The identifying 
witness gave her address as 278 Christopher Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. She stated 
that she had known the applicant for 12 years. 

Harky Gannes 

Harry Gannes was born in Hull, England, in 1900 of a Russian father and 
claims American citizenship through the naturalization of his father which is 
said to have occurred on Dec. 6, 1917, in the circuit court of Cook County, 
Chicago, 111. 

Gannes was issued passports in 1926 and 1934. 

Mr. Gannes' wife, Helene Gannes, was born at Kansas City, Mo., on February 27, 
1901, and her name was included in the passport which was issued to him on 
April 1, 1926. 

Gannes was the identifying witness on the fraudulent passport application 
executed in the name of Phillip Shatz on July 13, 1926. 



a112 scope of soviet activity m the united states 

 Harry Gannes is still very prominent in Communist activities and vprites a 
column each day for ttie Daily Worker. 

Gannes also had a fraudulent passport in the name of Henry G. Jacobs. His 
second wife had a passport in the name of Pearl Roth Jacobs. 

Gannes died in the winter of 1939-40. 

Helene Gannes 

Helene Gannes was born at Kansas City, Mo., on Feb. 27, 1901, and was mar- 
ried to Harry Gannes in 1924. She was at one time a notary public and a 
fraudulent affidavit of birth executed by Katherine Harrison in the name of 
Mrs. G. Meltz (Henrietta Maurer) was executed before her. This affidavit 
was Submitted in connection with the fraudulent-passport application in the 
name of Valerie Meltz. 

Harry S. Goodman 

This man was identifying witness on the fraudulent-passport application exe- 
cuted on July 20, 1932, in the name of Harry Berger. 

When interviewed in connection with the matter in January 1936, Mr. Good- 
man claimed that he accompanied the applicant to the passport agency and acted 
as identifying witness as an accommodation to a Swedish friend whose name, 
business, and place of residence he could not recall. (832.00 Revolutions/496) 

No record has been found of the issue of a passport to Harry S. Goodman. 

Milton Goodman 

This name was signed as identifying witness on Joseph R. Brodsky's 1928 
passport application. The identifying witness gave his address as 8753 110th 
St,. Richmond Hill, Long Island, N. Y., once connected with World Tourist, Inc. 

Frances Gordon 

This name was signed to an affidavit executed before Max Kitzes and sub- 
mitted in connection with the passport application in the name Leon Marks. 
The address is given as 120 Howe Ave., Passaic, N. J. An inquiry at that 
address disclosed that it was a rooming house operated by Mrs. Bogorade, a 
Russian Jewess. Mrs. Bogorade stated that she did not know where Frances 
Gordon could be located but that she occasionally came there for mail. 

Max Kitzes was questioned regarding Frances Gordon but stated that he 
did not know where she could be located. He promised to endeavor to get in 
touch with her and have her call at the office of our agent in New York but 
she never appeared. 

Al Gottlieb 

See application, Al Gottlieb. 

Goulis 

Jacob Raisin alias J. N. Golas — Manager of World Tourist. 

Bruno Herman August Hanke 
See application, Bruno Herman August Hanke. 

A. James Harfield 
See application, Abe James Harfield. 

Katherine Harrison 

The true name and nationality of this woman are unknown. She resided with 
Earl Browder as his wife for a number of years and was with him in Shanghai 
in 1928 when he was using a passport in the name of George Morris and she was 
using a passport in the name of Katherine Harrison. 

This woman is also known to Mr. X and General Krivitsky as Kitty Harris. 

In addition to making the passport application in the name Katherine Har- 
rison, this woman has been involved in several other passport frauds. She signed 
the name Katherine Harrison to the report of birth filed in Scranton, Pa., in the 
name Joseph Kornfeder. She signed the name Katherine Johnson to an affidavit 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 113 

of birth attached to the Gertrude L. Shatz application and the same name as 
identifying witness of the application. She signed Mrs. G. Meltz — Henrietta 
Maurer on an affidavit attached to the Valerie Meltz application. 

Jacob Jones Harvey 

This man, as an officer of the Inter-Continent Oil Co. of New York, signed 
letters addressed to Leon Josephson and the imposter known as Nicholas Sherman, 
ostensibly in regard to business being transacted by them for the firm. 

According to Harvey's passport file, he was born at Richmond, Va., on April 29, 
1888, of a native American father. He was issued passports in 1922, 1924, 1926, 
1928, 1931, and 1935. His occupation is shown on his applications as a sales 
manager. His wife's maiden name is said to have been Lavine A. Becker. 

Harvey has not been interviewed regarding the letters he wrote to Josephson 
and Sherman but his partner, Philip Levy, was interviewed by a special agent in 
February 1936. Levy was found at the office of the Inter-Continent Oil Co. on 
Rector Street where the firm had a small room in the office of Manealoff & Co., 
importers and exporters. Levy described J. J. Harvey as "an oldtime oil pro- 
moter" with whom he had entered into partnership. Apparently the Inter- 
Continent Oil Co. had very little if any business and Levy was also working for 
Manealoff & Co. 

Levy was asked whether he was acquainted with Leon Josephson and Nicholas 
Sherman and he stated that he had first met Josephson, a Trenton lawyer, 6 or 7 
years before through business acquaintances in New York City. Levy stated that 
he understood that during his own absence from the country during the winter 
of 1934—35, Josephson called at the office and suggested that Harvey provide him 
with oil samples to take along on a proposed trip to Europe. Since Harvey recog- 
nized Josephson as a friend of Levy's, he agreed to the request and, Levy under- 
stood, made a similar arrangement with one of Josephson's friends whom Levy 
did not know. Levy maintained that this was a perfectly proper procedure since 
he and Harvey were anxious to make sales through any person. 

March 26, 1940. 
W. A. Haskell 

A person by this name is reported to have associated with Earl Browder while 
he was in China traveling on the George Morris passport. 

Haskell is believed to be identical with the person who was issued passport 
No. 578,809 on May 31, 1928, in the name Waldo A. Haskell. This man claimed 
that he was born at Peabody, Mass., on July 14, 1874. Nothing has been heard 
from him during recent years. 

Haskell is reported to have sailed from the Far East for Vancouver on March 
23, 1929, on the S. S. Empress of Asia. Upon arrival at Vancouver, he stated 
that he was going to a friend, O'Leong, 1776 Lexington Avenue. He stated that 
I'is vvife, Mrs. M. L. Haskell, was residing at 527 Washington Street, Boston, 
Mass. 

While in Vancouver, Haskell got in touch with a woman who hod a passport 
in the name Marion L. Emerson, who had sailed from Shanghai for Victoria, 
British Columbia, on April 8, 1929. Miss Emerson stated that she was going to 
3047 Atlantic Avenue, New York. According to a report, both Haskell and 
Emerson were connected with the Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat. (800.00 
B-Haskell,WaldoA.) 

Clarence A. Hathaw.\y 

Clarence A. Hathaway is at present editor of the Daily Worker and is one of 
the most prominent Communists in the United States. He was born in Oakdale 
Township, Minn., on February 8, 1894, of a native American father and was first 
issued a passport on October 3, 1925. He obtained a new passport at the Ameri- 
can consulate general at Berlin on September 20, 1928. Nothing was known 
concerning the passport which he used between October 3, 1927, and the date of 
his second passport. Hathaway was issued passport No. 338862 on August 14, 
1936, which passport does not appear to have been renewed. 

Hathaway's son, Clarence Richard Hathaway, who was born in St. Paul, Minn., 
on February 6, 1918, was residing in Russia from 1932 to August 1936 when he 
was issued a new passport. 

Clarence Hathaway was at one time married to a woman who is now Mrs. 
Florence .Jean Schneller. Mrs. Schneller was issued a passport on May 25, 1930, 



a114 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

upon an application in which she stated that she desired to go to England for 
3 months to visit her sick mother. Mrs. Schneller also had a passport in 1930 
in the name Florence J. Hathaway. 

In recent years Hathaway is said to have been associated with a woman, Vera 
Syrkine, alias Saunders, alias Vera Burns. The Syrkine family is said to have 
been deported from the United States in 1920 or 1921 for communistic activities. 
Vera Syrkine is supposed to have returned to the United States with Clarence 
Hathaway in January 1929 and to have obtained employment in the office of the 
World Tourist, Inc. She was known there as Vera Burns. 

Miss Syrkine is described as 32 years of age, short, stout, very broad face, 
fuzzy, dark, curly hair, decidedly a Jewish type, light brown eyes, and very good 
teeth. Her photograph is not available. In his last passport application, Hatha- 
way gave his address as care of Saunders, 229 West 20th Street, New York, N. Y. 

LiLA Hechler 

This woman was the identifying witness on an application executed in 1938 
in the name Harry Schlusberg. She is a sister-in-law of Bernard Ades who was 
also involved in the case. 

William Hoffman 

This name appears in the case of Harry Somers as identifying witness and as 
the maker of an affidavit. The Somers application was executed by Harry Kweit. 

The same person who signed the name William Hoffman also signed the af- 
fidavit of birth in the name Henry George Lynd which is on file at Scranton, Pa., 
with the birth report in that name. 

Francis J. Hogan 

Nothing is known concerning this person other than the fact that he was the 
witness on the 1929 application of Abraham Wexler. At that time Hogan gave 
his address as 25 South Street, New York City. 

Harold Hynes 

This man procured a passport in 1931 in the name, Harold Hall. See informa- 
tion under the application in that name. 

International Publishers Co., Inc. 

The International Publishers & Booksellers Co., Inc., was incorporated July 18, 
1924, but on December 8, 1924, the name was changed to the International Pub- 
lishers Co., Inc. The directors listed in the articles were Russell F. Thomas, of 
12001 97th Avenue, Richmond Hill, L. I. ; M. B. Nassberg, of 2226 East 15th Street, 
Brooklyn ; Sidney M. Kaye, of the Hotel Narrangansett, 94th Street and Broad- 
way ; A. Phillips, of 1025 East 167th Street, the Bronx ; and Joseph F. Cassidy, 
of 53 Washington Square. The articles of incorporation were executed by 
Bertha Blum, notary public. Bertha Blum's notary number. New York county 
clerk, is 619, and New York county registrar 5584. The papers were drawn up by 
the law firm of Hays, St. John & Buckley, of 43 Exchange Place. 

On December 8, 1924, when the name of the firm was changed by an affidavit 
filed at the county clerk's office, this affidavit was signed by Abraham A. Heller, 
Edith Heller, and Alexander Trachtenberg. The notary in this case was Dora 
Seinberg, New York county clerk No. 590, New York county registrar No. 6572. 
Again the lawyers were Hays, St. John, and Buckley, of 43 Exchange Place. 

The purpose of the company is to carry on and engage in the manufacturing, 
buying, selling, import, and export as principal or agent all kinds of books, 
magazines, newspapers, music, printed matter of every description as well as 
pictures, photographs, engravings, and reproductions from plates of any de- 
scription. 

The other articles deal with the necessary items to cover their publishing in- 
terests, method of handling their stock and in general it is limited to the pub- 
lishing business. The company's principal office is to be located in New York, 
but it can carry on its business in all countries. 

Their capital consists of 1,500 shares of stock, of which 500 shares are 7 percent 
noncumulative preferred with a par value of $100, while the 1,000 other shares 
bear no par value. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a115 

Dun & Bradstreet lists Abraham A. Heller as the president, Alexander Trach- 
tenberg as treasurer, and Joseph R. Brodsky as secretary ; these oflScers are also 
the directors. The company has a capital of $50,000 in preferred stock and 
1,000 shares of common stock, the latter having no par value. 

Abraham A. Heller is 58 years old, married, and is considered the principal 
interest in the company. He was formerly secretary-treasurer of the Interna- 
tional Oxygen Co. of Newark, N. J., but withdrew from that company to organize 
this one. He is said to be identified with other publications of this nature. 

This company retails Communist literature to bookstores throughout the 
country, and sells through an affiliated organization by mail orders. The 
printing and binding is done by other firms on a contract basis. There are six 
employees in the office at 381 Fourth Avenue. This company does a fair volume 
of business and seems to be well managed, and all finances are handled through 
the Amalgamated Bank of Union Square. However, the officers of the company 
have at all times refused to reveal anything concerning their finances or the 
volume of business done. It is known that they have done considerable foreign 
buying, and in February of 1939 they had at least $10,000 worth of stock on hand. 
No trade references are given, as the company only trades with firms or organ- 
izations thoroughly familiar to them. 

Using the same office as the International Publishers Co. is the Book Union 
Inc., which company was incorporated May 3, 1935, with an authorized capital 
of 10 shares of no par value common stock. This company is run by Abraham 
Heller and Alexander Trachtenberg, and serves as the mail order outlet for the 
International Publishers Co. However, no information concerning the finances 
of this company is available. 

Mrs. Kathebine Johnson 

This name was signed by Katherine Harrison on the affidavit of birth sub- 
mitted in connection with the case of Gertrude Larson Shatz. 

John Wilson Johnstone 

This man wrote and executed the fraudulent affidavit of birth submitted with 
the Katherine Harrison passport application and signed Jack Harrison. He was 
issued passports in 1922, 1928, and 1933. In his first two applications, Johnstone 
stated that his father was dead. In his third application, he stated that he 
desired to go to Scotland to visit his father. He was questioned by Mr. Hoyt 
regarding this discrepancy and stated that his father was still living in Glasgow, 
Scotland. He claimed that he did not insert the word "dead" in the two previous 
applications. However, the words appear in his own handwriting. 

Sir. Johnstone was given the passport in 1933 upon the understanding that 
he would surrender it to the passport agency upon his return from abroad. 
However, he failed to do so. 

Barney Josephson 

This man is a brother of Leon Josephson. 

According to Harry Kaplan, Barney Josephson formerly worked in his hotel 
in Trenton, N. J. Kaplan blames Barney for the alleged theft of his naturaliza- 
tion certificate and claims that he thinks that Barney took it at the instance of 
Leon Josephson. 

Leon Josephson 

Leon Josephson was born in Latvia on June 17, 1898, and was naturalized by 
the United States District Court at Newark, N. J., on April 25, 1921. 

He is an attorney by occupation and a member of the law firm of Josephson & 
Josephson, of Trenton, N. J. 

Josephson was issued a passport in this country on June 17, 1927, and another 
one on February 7, 1930, which was renewed at the American Consulate General 
at Berlin on December 29, 1931. His last passport was issued on December 13, 
1934, and is now in the Department's files. 

Josephson, according to his own statement, has been affiliated with the 
Communist Party in this country for many years. 

When the persons known as Lynd were arrested in India in December 1931 
they requested that the law firm of Josephson & Josephson be notified. Leon 
Josephson, who was then in Europe, went to Marseille and met the Lynds upon 
their arrival at that port. In February 1932 the postmaster at Trenton reported 



a116 scope of soviet ACTrV'IXY IX THE UNITED STATES 

that Lynd had resided with Josephson at 1009 Greenwood Avenue. When Lynd 
joined the Wilbur Republican League, Inc., of Trenton, N. J., he gave his address 
as the Broad Street Bank Building. This is the building in which the law firm of 
Josephson & Josephson had its offices. 

Josephson was arrested at Copenhagen, Denmark, in February 1935 on a charge 
of espionage, together with George Mink and persons who had fraudiilent Ameri- 
can passports in the names of Nicholas Sherman and Adolph Rabinowitz. There 
were found in Mink's apartment in Copenhagen American passports in the names 
Al Gottlieb, Abraham Wexler, and Harry Herman Kaplan. The body of the 
application on which the Gottlieb passport was issued appears to be in the hand- 
writing of Josephson. Harry Herman Kaplan was a close friend of .Josephson 
and had access to the place in which Kaplan kept bis passport. Kaplan claims 
that he thinks that Josephson stole his passport. Kaplan also states that he saw 
Mink in Trenton. 

Josephson was kept in prison until May 1935 when he was brought to trial and 
acquitted. Shortly before the trial Mr. Lester Maynard. American consul general 
at Copenhagen, talked with Josephson, who spoke rather frankly of his com- 
munistic activities and his association with Mink and the man known as Sherman. 
He denied all knowledge of the person posing as Rabinowitz. After the trial he 
talked again with Mr. Maynard. The gist of his statements is set forth below. 

Josephson stated that communism was more than a political theory to him ; 
that It was more like a religion. He stated that he was an atheist and a member 
of the active Communist Party and in its inner circle. He stated that his activities 
in Denmark were directed solely against Nazi Germany and that the organization 
to which he belonged was widespread. He admitted long association with the 
man known as Sherman and stated that one of the many mistakes he had made 
was to directly secure letters for Sherman from American concerns so that Sher- 
man might appear to be an American representative and thus more freely move 
about Europe. He stated that Sherman was not a Jew, but was a Slav, and that 
he believed he had last entered the ITnited States across the Canadian border 
without any papers. He stated that Mink's activities in the Seaman's Union had 
brought him into bad repute and that it was only after he had lost his influence 
there that he joined the Communist organization and was sent by them to Copen- 
hagen to act as the center for their courier service. He bitterly denounced Mink 
for carelessness and indiscretions and stressed the failing of Mink in securing 4 
passports, 2 of which bore his own (Mink's) photographs. 

Josephson told Mr. Maynard that it was very easy to procure American pass- 
ports illegally and said that, in his opinion. Mink did not show cleverness but 
stupidity in taking extra passports C359.1121 Josephson Leon/29). 

After his release in Denmark .Josephson returned to the United States and bis 
passport was taken up by Special Agent Kinsey. 

When Harry Kweit was arrested in New Yorlc in April 19.'^6. there was found 
on his person a notebook containing the entry Leon Jackson, Broad Street Bank 
Building. This evidently referred to Josephson. 

When Josephson was arrested in Copenhagen there were found among his 
effects letters addressed to him by Mr. J. J. Harvey of the Intercontinent Oil Co., 
Ltd., of New York City. One of these letters also made reference to Nicholas 
Sherman. There was also a letter written to Josephson by Hannah Josephson 
Levy, the wife of Philip Levy. 

The fraudulent passport application in the name of Samuel Liptzen was in the 
handwriting of Josephson as was the signature of the witness. Tlie passport 
was obtained and used by Gerhart Eisler, an agent of the Communist Inter- 
national to the United States. Transportation was charged to the Communist 
Party on the books of World Tourist, Inc. 

Leon S. Kahn 

In the renewal of the Berger passport application the applicant stated that he 
represented the Construction Supplies Company of America. 

Mr. Max Nathan, one nf the partners of the Construction Supplies Company 
of America, which was located at 500 Fifth Avenue, New York City, was inter- 
viewed in January 1936 but claimed that he had never heard of a person named 
Harry Berger and was unable to identify the applicant's photograph. (832.00 
Revolutions/496.) 

Afterward the Department received from Brazil a photostatic copy of a letter 
addressed to Harry Berger by the Construction Supplies Company of America, 
which letter was signed by Leon S. Kahn. This letter purported to appoint 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a117 

Harry Berger as a representative of the firm in the Orient for the purpose of 
selling medicines to Chinese physicians and druggists. 

Mr. Kahn was issued the pass^wrt No. 687280 on September 26, 1928, which was 
renewed on August 26, 1931. He was also issued a passport in 1924. 

]Mr. Kahn's wife, Yereth Franlv Kahn, was issued a passport in December 1927. 
In September 1936 she nmde an application for a now pa.ssport and claimed that 
she had lost her previous one. However, when she was requested to call at the 
oflSce of the Department's special agent in charge in New York, she brought in 
her old passport and claimed that she had found it since she made her applica- 
tion. Mrs. Kahn stated that it was her intention to go abroad as a member of a 
party sponsored by the "Oiwn Road" and that she might remain in Russia for a 
longer period after the termination of the regular tour. 

Anna Kaplan 

This name was signed as identifying witness on the passport application in 
the name I.ydia Stahl which was executed at the passport agency at New York 
City on November 16. 1928. Tiie identifying witness gave the address 54 East 
lOO'th Street, New York City. 

When Mr. Isidore Bloch was interviewed concerning his daughter, Elsa Bloch, 
who obtained a passport in the name Lydia Stahl, he stated that Anna Kaplan 
had come to the Bloch home and that he knew her to be a Communist worker. 

The identifying witness was reported to have lived at one time at 54 East 
100th Street with the family of a relative, Mrs. Alice Kaplan, who then resided 
at 51 East 9Sth Street. Mrs. Kaplan refused to give any information regarding 
Anna, but another relative stated that Anna was affiliated with the Trade Union 
Unity League and attended various Communist meetings and conventions. She 
partially identified the photograph on the Lydia Stahl application as a likeness 
of a friend of Anna's who was known to her merely as Elsa and as another 
Communist agitator. 

Harey Herman Kaplan 

See application, Harry Herman Kaplan. 

Mrs. Alice Kaplan 

This woman is a relative of Anna Kaplan who was the identifying witness on 
the passport application in the name of Lydia Stahl. 

At one time Anna Kaplan was supposed to have lived with Mrs. Alice Kaplan 
at 54 East 100th Street, the address given by the identifying witness on the 
application. 

When Mrs. Kaplan was interviewed at 51 East 98th Street she refused to give 
any information regarding Anna Kaplan. 

Sarah Kaxifman 

When George Mink went to Denmark in 1934, he is said to have been accom- 
panied by Sarah Kaufman. 

Miss Kaufman was issued a passport on April 20, 1934, upon an application in 
which she stated that she was born in New York City on June 16, 1910, and that 
she resided at 1368 Sheridan Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. The name Sarah Kaufman 
and the address 1447 Macomb Road, Bronx, N. Y., appears in the notebook which 
was found in possession of Nicholas Sherman when he was arrested in Copen- 
hagen. 

An investigation disclosed that Sarah Kaufman had resided at 1368 Sheridan 
Avenue, Bronx, N. Y., with a Mrs. JJsther Rubin. Mrs. Rubin's phone number, 
Jerome 6-5610, was also found in Mink's notebook. 

Mrs. Carol Weiss King 

Mrs. King is a native American citizen and is the wife of one Gordon C. 
King who gives his occupation as an author. Mrs. King was associated with 
Isaac Shorr and Joseph Brodsky in the firm Shorr, Brodsky and King. The 
New York phone book now lists her office at 100 Fifth Avenue, New York City, 
which is also the address of Brodsky. Shorr now has a different office. This 
firm handled the incorporation of the World Tourist, Inc., and the necessary 
paper was sworn to before Mrs. King who was a notary public. 



a118 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Mrs. King was the attorney for Stefano Schiaparelli, an Italian Communist 
who was sentenced in New York on May 26, 1936, for attempting to enter the 
United States in possession of an altered American passport in the name Angelo 
Ragonesi. 

Max Kitzes 

Max Kitzes, an accountant employed by the Communist Party, is a notary 
public and a number of documents in connection with the Communist publica- 
tions have been executed before him in that capacity. 

Kitzes was the identifying witness on a passport application executed by 
John W. Johnstone in 1933. The aflSdavit for Katherine Harrison executed in 
connection with the fradulent birth record in the name Joseph Kornfeder was 
executed before Kitzes. 

An affidavit executed in the name Lydia Loeb which was submitted with the 
fraudulent passport application in the name Lydia Stahl was executed by 
Kitzes. 

The affidavit signed Frances Gordon which was submitted with the passport 
application in the name Leon Marks was executed before Kitzes. Kitzes was 
questioned regarding Frances Gordon by a special agent of the State Depart- 
ment in 1933 but claimed that he was unable to furnish her address. Kitzes 
endeavored to find out why the agent desired to interview the alleged Frances 
Gordon. An affidavit signed Adolph Wirkkula which was submitted with the 
passport application in the name Jakob Genhard Wirkkula purports to have 
been executed before Kitzes. However, Adolph V^irkkula claimed that his 
brother, Jakob, brought him the affidaAdt and he signed and gave it back to 
Jakob. 

[Daily Worker, November 18, 1947] 

CP Leaders Mourn Kitzes 

In mourning the death of Max Kitzes, charter member of the Communist Party, 
the national board and national office said he was a "devoted husband and father, 
integrating a rich family life with his life as a Communist and working class 
leader." 

Max Kitzes died of a heart attack last Sunday. 

The statement signed by William Z. Foster, national chairman, and Eugene 
Dennis, general secretary, follows : 

"Together with our whole party, the national board and the national office 
deeply mourn the loss of one of our most devoted and valuable comrades. Max 
Kitzes. A charter member of the Communist Party, Max grew up with the Com- 
munist youth movement to whose development he brought the Marxist under- 
standing, the selfless service and the unflagging good humor which marked his 
whole life." 

For more than 15 years Max was our beloved coworker in the national office 
where he served as the Communist Party's finance secretary. He was a political 
worker to whom all that touched the party's welfare was of vital importance and 
who guarded its interest down to the most minute detail. 

To Max difficulties, big or small, existed only to be overcome. All of us turned 
to him when things were tough, confident that he would do what needed to be 
done and grateful for his almost gay assurance that the impossible would soon be 
accomplished. 

Unsparing of himself, even in these past months of illness, he always had time 
not only for his manifold party tasks but to keep up his varied interests in mass 
organizations and political developments. He was a devoted husband and 
father, integrating a rich family life as a Communist and working-class leader. 

We extend our warmest sympathy to his wife Leah and to his two daughters. 
We who miss the comradeship of a dear coworker and the political contribution 
of a true Communist share their pride in all that Max Kitzes was and their grief 
at his passing." 

JOHANN Louis KOBSELL 

Nuls Wirtanen, who had an American passport in the name Jakob Genhard 
Wirkkula, also had a Norwegian passport in the name Johann Louis Korsell. 

Charles Krumbein 

See applications of Isidor Dreisen and Albert E. Stewart. 
Died January 1947. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a119 

Laurie E. Laine 

This man was the identifying witness on the passport application executed 
on February IS, 1983, in the name Jakob Geuhard Wirkliula. He gave his address 
as 30 East i28th Street, New York City. 

Laurie E. Laine was located at 165 East 128th Street, New York City. He 
stated that the photograph on the application was that of Jakob Wirkkula and 
that they had both worked together as printers for the Finnish Federation, Inc., 
the publishers of the Finnish language newspaper Eteenpain, located at 35 East 
12th Street. Laine stated that he had tirst met the applicant in Chicago in 1927 
when both were in the employ of the Union Press of that city. 

Louis Lekneb 

In the passport application executed in 1925 by Alexander Bittleman in the 
name Isidore Spilberg, he requested that his passpost be sent in care of Louis 
Lerner, 2709 West Division Street, Chicago, 111. 

Mes. B. Lebnee 

When Harry Kweit was arrested in 1936, there was found on him a note read- 
ing care of S. Siegal, apartment IID, 1686 Bryant Avenue. This apartment was 
occupied by Mrs. B. Leruer, her son-in-law, Samuel Siegal, and her daughter, 
Bessie Siegal. 

Mrs. Siegal stated that no one else was at home, that she did not know anybody 
by the name of Edward Riggs, or Harry Kweit, that she had never heard of such 
a person, and that she could not identify the photograph of Kweit. She stated 
that her daughter and son-in-law were both at work but that she had no knowl- 
edge whatever as to the nature of their employment of their place of employment. 

Emanuel, Levin 

This man was the identifying witness on the passport application executed in 
1930 in the name Henry George Lynd. At that time he was residing at 225 West 
16th Street, apartment 14, New York City. 

Levin was for a number of years active in the Communist movement, particu- 
larly on the Pacific coast. He was the leader of the Communist section of the 
bonus marchers when they were in Washington during the Hoover administra- 
tion. Levin claimed to have served in the Marine Corps. Nothing was known of 
his activities during recent years. He was questioned by the immigration author- 
ities when he was in Washington and admitted that he was an alien. At first 
he claimed that he hadn't any relatives in the United States but when he was 
questioned concerning Lynd, he claimed he had a cousin by that name but alleged 
that he did not know where Lynd could be located. 

Hannah Levy 

See Philip Levy. 

Philip Le\t 

Philip Levy was born in Latvia in 1893 and was naturalized by the United 
States District Courts at Boston, Mass., on April 26, 1915. He was issued 
passports in 1925 and 1934. He is apparently the husband of Hannah Josephson 
Levy, who wxote to Leon Josephson while the latter was in Denmark. 

Levy is also a business partner in the Inter-Continent Oil Co. of Jacob Jones 
Harvey who signed letters on behalf of that firm ostensibly regarding business 
transactions with Leon Josephson and the impostor known as Nicholas Sherman. 

Levy was interviewed by a special agent in February 1936. Levy was found at 
the office of the Inter-Continent Oil Co. on Rector Street where the firm had a 
small room in the oflace of Manealoff & Co., importers and exporters. Levy de- 
scribed J. J. Harvey as "an old time oil promoter" with whom he had entered into 
partnership. Apparently the Inter-Continental Oil Co. had very little, if any, 
business and Levy was also working for Manealoft & Co. 

Levy was asked whether he was acquainted with Leon Josephson and Nicholas 
Sherman and he stated that he had first met Josephson, a Trenton lawyer, 6 or 
7 years before through business acquaintances in New York City. Levy stated 



a120 scope of soviet ACXrV'ITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

that he understood that during his own absence from the country during the 
winter of 1934-35, Josephson called at the office and suggested that Harvey pro- 
vide him with oil samples to take along on a proposed trip to Europe. Since 
Harvey recognized Josephson as a friend of Levy's, he agreed to the request 
and, Levy understood, made a similar arrangement with one of Josephson's 
friends whom Levy did not know. Levy maintained that this was a perfectly 
proper procedure since he and Harvey were anxious to make sales through any 
person. 

Levy denied that either he or his wife was related to Josephson but no mention 
was made to him of the letters signed "Hannah Josephson Levy" which were found 
in the possession of Josephson. Levy stated that his wife's maiden name was 
Hannah Smith and that they were married in New York City on January 29, 
1933. That marriage records indicate that the bride's name was Hannah J. 
Smith. 

Lydia Loeb 

This name appeared on an affidavit executed before Max Kitzes on behalf of 
her alleged niece, Lydia Stahl. This affidavit was submitted with the passport 
application executed in the name Lydia Stahl in 1928. The person who signed 
the name Lydia Loeb gave her address as 120 West llGth Street, New York City. 

An inquiry at 120 West 116th Street, New York City, disclosed that nothing 
was known there of Lydia Loeb or Lydia Stahl. There was no forwarding 
address for either person. 

Robert M. Long 

This man was the witness on a fraudulent passport application executed in 
1927 in the name Abe James Harfield. He gave his address as 101 Monroe Street, 
New York, but could not be located there when an investigation was conducted 
in 1932. 

OTTO LUKAS 

Otto Lukas, 336 St. Ann's Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. A person giving the aforemen- 
tioned name and address was the identifying witness on a passport application 
executed on October 11, 1928, by an impostor in the name Ksavier A. Szpokas. 
The witness was not located and nothing is known concerning him. 

Henry George Lynd 

The true name and identity of the person who made the application In this 
name are unknown. The facts of the case so far as known are set forth under 
the heading, Application — Henry George Lynd. 

Lynd's alleged wife has had passports in the name Susan Abbott Lynd and 
Susanna Fineberg. Information concerning those applications is set forth under 
the names given. 

His real name is said to be Serge Mikailov, a Soviet official. 

Susan Abbott Lynd 
See Susanna Paxton. 

Dorothy Gary Markey 

Mrs. Markey was identifying witness on the passport application executed in 
November 1930 in the name Susan Abbott Lynd. At that time she gave her 
address as 4515 Foster Avenue, Long Island City, N. Y. She could not be lo- 
cated when an effort was made to question her. 

airs. Markey was born at Newport News, Va., on October 1, 1897, and was 
issued passports in 1926 and 1931. Her maiden name was Dorothy Page Gary 
and she has been known at times as Dorothy Page and Myra Page. At one 
time Mrs. Markey was the Moscow correspondent of the Daily Worker. 

Mrs. Markey was also included in a passport issued to her husband, John F. 
Markey, in 1928. Mr. Markey was also issued a passport not including his 
wife on September 2, 1931. He was born at Sheep Run, W. Va., on July 27, 
1898. 

John Markey 

In the 1926 passport application in the name of Phillip Shatz, the applicant 
gave his address as care of John Markey, 2010 North Humbold Boulevard, Chi- 
cago, 111. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a121 

He2J:n Maureb 

The name Helen Maurei- of the address 258 West 22d Street, New York City, 
appears on the fraudulent application executed by Mrs. Alexander Bittleman 
in the name Helen Lillian Bowlen. Miss Maurer was the identifying witness 
and claimed to he the first cousin of the applicant. She has no ijassport appli- 
cation and nothing further is known concerning her. 

Henrietta Maueeb 

This name was signed by Katherine Harrison on the aflBdavit of birth sub- 
mited In connection with the case of Valeria Meltz. 

James C. McCarthy 

This man was identifying witness on the passport application executed at the 
New York passport agency by George Mink on June 13, 1930, on which passport 
No. 274033 was issued on June 14, 1030. Nothing more is known about Mr, 
McCarthy. 

W. C. MCCUISTION 

This man appeared at the oflBce of the Department's special agents in New 
York with the imposter who made an application in the name Louis Paretti. 
McCuistion described himself as a seaman and writer and presented an Army 
discharge certificate showing service in the medical corps at Fort Oglethorpe. 
Ga., during the World War. He also had Seaman's certificate No. 4031 issued 
at Galveston, Tex., on February 24, 1921. He claimed birth at Paris, Tex., on 
December 17, 1900. 

McCuistion was believed to be identical with one Larry McCuistion who was 
arrested at Baltimore on June 26, 19.32, for having assaulted a policeman, for 
which he served in jail 112 days. He is said to be 6 feet tall and to weigh 
about 190 pounds. He is described by the New York police as "the strong 
arm man" for the Communist Marine Workers organization. 

Mrs. G. Meltz 

This name was signed by Katherine Harrison on the aflSdavit of birth sub- 
mitted in connection with the case of Valeria Meltz. 

Valeria Meltz 
See application, Valeria Meltz. 

Esther Michael 
See application, Esther Michael. 

Frank Miller 

This man was a witness on the 1931 passport application in the name Abe 
Harfield. He gave his address as 9124 114th Street, Richmond Hill, N. Y. While 
he was said to reside there at tiie time the investigation was conducted in 1932, 
he could not be contacted. 

George Mink 

Jlink has been active in the Communist movement for many years and at 
one time was head of the International Marine Workers Union. 

During the World War Mink served in tlie United States Navy under the 
name George Martin Mink from June 19, 1917, to January 4, 1918. He later 
served as a seaman on board merchant ships. 

Mink was issued a passport on June 14, 19.30, upon an application in which he 
stated that he was born at S'cranton, Pa. He submitted with this application a 
birth certificate issued upon the basis of an afiidavit which he had filed at Scran- 
ton. His signature on this afiidavit was witnessed by William L. Standard, an 
attorney at law, and by a person who signed the name Jack Gray, 27 East 107th 
St. blink's passport was renewed at the American consulate general at Berlin, 
Germany, on May 31, 1932. 

^link executed a new passport application on March 5, 1934, in whieli he also 
claimed birth in Scranton. After an investigation had disclosed that Mink had 



a122 scope of soviet activity in the imiTED STATES 

served in the Navy and at that time had given his place of birth as Philadelphia, 
and since he could offer no evidence that he was actually born at Scranton, he 
was issued a passport valid for 1 year showing the place of birth as Philadelphia. 
On December 12, 1934, he was given a duplicate passport valid for 2 years from 
the date of issue of the original passport. 

While traveling in Denmark on the duplicate passport, Mink was arrested on 
a charge of espionage and was sentenced to serve 18 months in prison. 

At about the same time that Mink was arrested in Denmark, the Danish 
police also arrested I, eon Josephson and two men who had fraudulent American 
passports in the names of Nicholas Sherman and Adolph Rabinowitz. 

Among Mink's effects were found his ovrn passport and another one in the name 
of Al Gottlieb which bore his photograph. The passports in the names Harry H. 
Kaplan and Abraham Wexler were also found in his possession. These pass- 
ports did not bear Mink's photograph and had not been altered. 

In Mink's notebook were found the New York phone numbers .Jerome 7-5072 
and Jerome 6-5610. The first-mentioned phono was listed in the name of Mrs. 
Millie Walters and was formerly listed in the name Morris Walters. The ad- 
dress in each case was 15 Clark Place, East Bronx, New York. The phone Jerome 
6-5610 was listed in the name of Mrs. Esther Rubin, 1368 Sheridan Avenue, 
Bronx, New York. 

During the course of the investigation it was disclosed that one Sarah Kauf- 
man had gone to Denmark with Mink on his first trip to that country. Mink 
was sentenced to serve 18 months in prison but was pardoned on June 30, 1936, 
and departed for Russia on July 22, 1936. 

Mink was questioned by Consul General Lester Maynard and asked concerning 
the 3 passports which were found in his possession and the addresses of the 
3 men. He claimed that the men had asked him to purchase tickets for them in 
Germany since it would be cheaper to buy them with registered marks than to 
buy them in A^merica. At first he claimed that he did not know their addresses 
but later gave the address of Kaplan as the American House, Trenton, N. J., 
and the address of Wexler and Gottlieb as the Seaman's Churcli Institute, 25 
South Street, New York City. Miuk told vice consul Gjessing that he had met 
Josephson by accident a few days previously. 

Mink gave to Joseph Zack a naturalization certificate in the name of Samuel 
Fox, which Zack used to procure a passport in that name. 

Mink was the identifying witness on fraudulent passport applications exe- 
cuted in the names Harold Hall and Louis Paretti. 

George Morris 

In this name Earl Russell Browder fraudulently obtained a passport and 
used it for travel in China. Although there is a Communist named George 
Morris, Browder does not appear to have assumed his identity when making 
this application since he used his own date and state of birth. 

Martha Morris 

This name was signed to the affidavit of birth which was submitted with the 
fraudulent passport application executed by Earl Browder in the name George 
Morris. An investigation conducted in 1929 disclosed that 1893 Daly Avenue, 
the supposed address of Martha Morris, was a large apartment house known 
as the Daly Apartments, and that Martha Morris was unknown to the superin- 
tendent of the building and to tenants who had resided there for a period of 
years. 

Max Nathan 

In the renewal of the Berger application for a passport, the applicant stated 
that he represented the Construction Supplies Company of America. 

Mr. Max Nathan, one of the partners of the Construction Supplies Company 
of America, which was located at 500 Fifth Ave., New York City, was inter- 
viewed in January 1936 but claimed that he had never heard of a person named 
Harry Berger and was unable to identify the applicant's photograph. (832.00 
Revolutions/496) 

Afterwards, the Department received from Brazil a photostatic copy of a 
letter addressed to Harry Berger by the Construction Supplies Company of 
America, which letter was signed by Leon S. Kahn. This letter purported to 
appoint Harry Berger as a representative of the fii-m in the Orient for the pur- 
pose of selling medicines to Chinese physicians and druggists. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 123 

Mr. Nathan was issued passports in 1925, 1930, 1932, and 1938. His last 
passport. No. 58424G, issued on October 4, 1938, was made valid for China as he 
claimed that he was going there on behalf of the Construction Supplies Company 
of America. 

Joseph Paretti 

This name was signed to an afl&davit of birth submitted in connection with 
the fradudulent passport application in the name Louis Paretti. 

Louis Paretti 

A passport application was issued in this name by a person of unknown 
identity who may be identical with a Communist courier named Bienko. 

Susanna Paxton, Axias Susanna Finebekg, Alias Susan Abbott Lynd 

This woman was apparently born in Emporia, Kans., on or about June 25, 
1902. Her photograph was identified by her father, Mr. J. V. Paxton, who then 
resided at Emporia, Kans., in an interview with the postmaster on February 8, 
1932. Mr. Paxton stated that his daughter was married to Mr. Bram Fineberg 
but had always retained her maiden name. Her last known address at that time 
was Lux Hotel, Moscow, Russia, which address was given to him in a cable 
about January 2, 1932. 

This woman was issued a passport in the name Susanna Fineberg on July 2, 

1929, and was issued a passport in the name Susan Abbott Lynd on November 7, 

1930. In the two applications she made conflicting statements concerning the 
date and place of her birth and concerning her marital relations. 

This woman's alleged husband, Abram Fineberg, is an Englishman, born at 
London on September 25, 1892, and was issued a British passport at London on 
July 21, 1919. A copy of this application is in the file 800.00B Lynd, Henry G. 

For further information concerning the case, see the memorandums regard- 
ing the applications in the case Henry George Lynd, Susan Abbott Lynd, and 
Susanna Fineberg. 

In addition to the foregoing, this woman was a witness on the 1927 applica- 
tion of Julius Rosenthal. At that time she signed the name Susanna Hart 
Paxton. 

George Edward Powers 

This man was identifying witness on the fraudulent passport application exe- 
cuted in 1927 by Earl Russell Browder in the name George Morris. 

An investigation conducted in 1929 disclosed that Powers was a labor-union 
organizer with headquarters at 7 East l.')th Street, New York City, and lived 
at 24-25 27th Street (formerly 108 Goodrich Street), Astoria. Long Island, 
occupying apartment 32 with the family of Maurice La Pa to). Powers claimed 
that he knew Morris to be a writer and interested in labor unions and that 
they had come in contact on several occasions during a period of 4 or 5 years 
at different labor meetings, but that they were not particularly friendly. He 
claimed that he was unable to furnish any other information regarding Morris. 

Powers is believed to be identical with the George E. Powers who in 1937 was 
listed as vice president of the International Workers Order. (See report of 
May 12, 1937, 130, Harris, Albert Lyonel.) 

Prompt Press 

The person who made applications for passports in 1931 and 1939 in the name 
Abe Harfield was employed in July 1939 by the Prompt Press, 113 Fourth Ave- 
nue, New York City. Nothing more is known concerning this organization. 

This organization also did business with World Tourists. 

The son of Joseph Sultan worked there awhile. 

Esther Michel Rigerman 
See application, Esther Michael. 

Henrt Rigerman 

This man was born in Russia and acquired American citizenship through the 
naturalization of his father, Louis Rigerman. He was the identifying witness 
on the fraudulent application executed by his wife, Esther Michel Rigerman. 



A 124 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Itigeraiau was issued a passport on September 3, 1931, and went to the 
Soviet Union where he is now residing. 

Isaac Rijock 

This man applied for and obtained a passport in 1932 in the name of Harold 
Schlusberg. 

He is an alien who was born in Russia. He is linown as John Steuben and 
lived in 1938 at 4118 48th Street, apartment E-34, Sunnyside, Long Island, N. Y. 
He stated that he was living with his wife, Emma (called Frances) Negie, to 
whom he was married in October 1934. 

He was at that time in charge of the New York office of the Steel Workers 
Organizing Committee (CIO), located in room 1306 at 1133 Broadway, New 
York City. Rijock stated that after he heard that we were investigating his case 
he went to see Lee Pressman, attorney for the CIO, and that he was suspended 
from his employment until he was completely cleared by the Government. Irving 
Schwab, an attorney of New York City, was present at the interview with Steuben 
who admitted the passport fraud. 

Although Rijock claimed that the identifying witness on the fraudulent appli- 
-cation was a stenographer named Sadie Rosen, it appears that the witness 
was actually Sadie Rijock who at that time was the wife of Isaac Rijock and 
who was tlie sister of Esther Michel Rigerman. 

Sadie Rijock 

In an application for renewal of the fraudulent passport in the name Machla 
Lenczycki, dated July 1, 1934, the impostor stated that her legal residence was 
1200 East New York Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

An investigation was made at 12U0 East New York Avenue in January 1936 
and one of the tenants, Mrs. Rubin, identified the photograph of the Lenczycki 
impostor as very closely resembling one of the numerous visitors to the apart- 
ment of the Michel family at that address. Mrs. Jacob Michel was interviewed 
at her new home at 1487 St. Marks Avenue, Brooklyn, but denied any knowledge 
of the impostor or of tlie person who obtained the passport in the name of Harr.y 
Berger. Mrs. Michel's daughter, Sadie Michel Rijock (Ryack), was the wife of 
Isaac Rijock, known as John Steuben, who fraudulently obtained a passport in 
the named Harold Schlusberg. Mrs. Rijock was the identifying witness on that 
fraudulent application and also on a fraudulent application executed by Esther 
Rigerman. (832.00 Revolutions/509 5/8.) 

Julius Rosenthal 

Julius Rosenthal was a naturalized American citizen of German (Jewish) 
origin. He was issued passports in 1927 and 1937. 

The identifying witness on Rosenthal's 1927 application signed the name 
Susanna Hart Paxton. She is identical with the pei'son who obtained passports 
in the names Susan Abbott Lynd and Susanna Fineberg. 

The person who made an application for a passport in the name Leon Marks 
first requested that the passport be sent in care of Julius Rosenthal but later 
changed this to a request that the passport be sent in the New York pouch. 

The birth certificate in the name Donald L. Robinson was mailed to 345 East 
17th Street, New York City, the address of Rosenthal as shown in the Marks ap- 
plication. Rosenthal appears to have occupied an apartment in this building until 
some time in 1937 as he was still listed as one of the tenants on December 17, 
1937. 

Rosenthal was issued a passport on January IG, 1937, upon an application in 
which he stated that he desired to go to Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, Palestine, and Italy. However, Rosenthal proceeded to Spain 
and was killed while serving in the International Brigade of the Spanish Loyalist 
Army. His passport was stamped "Not valid for travel in Spain." 

Esther Rubin 

Sarah Kaufman once lived with Mrs. Rubin at 1368 Sheridan Avenue, Bronx, 
N. Y. 

W^hen George Mink was arrested in Denmark, there was found in his note- 
book the New York phone number, Jerome 6-5610, which was listed in the name 
rof Mrs. Esther Rubin, 1368 Sheridan Avenue, Bronx. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 125 

Mrs. Rubin is said to be between 45 and 50 years of age and of foreign birth. 
She has never had a passport. She resides at 1368 Sheridan Avenue, Bronx, with 
her husband, Hiram, and a daughter, and the entire family was described as being 
intensely active in communism. 

Florence Hathaway Schneller 

Mrs. Schneller was born in Kiniberley, South Africa, on May 25, 1895, her 
maiden name being Fawkes. She acquired American citizenship through her 
marriage on June 27, 1916, to Clarence A. Hathaway. 

Mrs. Schneller was divorced from Clarence Hathaway on April 21, 1930, and 
married on July 6, 1931, Maxim R. Schneller, an alien and a native of Gennany. 

Mrs. Schneller was issued a passport on May 25, 1939, upon an application in 
which she stated that she resided at 641 Hudson Street, New York City, that her 
husband was residing at the same address, and that she desired to go abroad for 
3 months to visit her mother in England who was sick. 

In February 1931, Mrs. Schneller and Dr. Maximilian N. Schneller, alias Dr. 
Carl H. Elsaf (Elsef ) were arrested in Worcester, Mass., for living together with- 
out being married. Dr. Schneller was released on hail and disappeared. Schnel- 
ler had previously been arrested in Minneapolis and was released on February 
19, 1930, on his promise to leave the country. While in Minneapolis he had a 
German passport, with two certificates showing service in the French Army, but 
the French Consul would not permit his deiwrtation to France, and the German 
Government returned the German passport, stating that it was not valid. 

Dr. Schneller subsequently left this country for the purpose of avoiding de- 
portation after the German authorities had offered to provide a passport for his 
deportation to Germany. 

In February 1937 the Spanish Ambassador (Loyalist) stated that Dr. Schneller 
had been granted permission to go to Spain. 

Mrs. Schneller was interviewed by a special agent at the City Hall in New York 
in February 1937, at which time she was engaged in WPA work. Her husband 
was then in prison at Rikers Island, New York City (No. 64254). 

Dr. Schneller went to Spain and was connected with the International Brigade. 
He was arrested in Spain on January 22, 1938, and was ordered expelled fi-om 
the country. Mrs. Schneller was interviewed in February 1938 and stated that 
she thought that her husband's troubles in Spain were caused by her former 
husband, Clarence Hathaway. 

The Department's records do not show how Dr. Schneller returned to this 
country, if he has actually done so. If he is in the United States, it is assumed 
that he is here in violation of the immigration law. 

Amy Esther Schechter 

This woman was born in England in 1892 and acquired citizenship through 
the naturalization of her father, Solomon Schechter. She was issued a passport 
in her own name in 1920 and a passport in the name Amy Esther Schechter 
Kweit in 1930. 

When Harry Kweit was questioned in 1936, he first stated that he had never 
been married. Later when he was asked about the application in the name Amy 
Esther Schechter Kweit, he stated that he had lived with Amy Schechter but was 
never married to her. However, he considered that there was a common law 
marriage. 

Harry Schlusberg 

See aprplication, Harold Schluslierg. 

Loxns L. Schwartz 

This man was the identifying witness on the fraudulent passport application 
executed on Augiist 9, 19.32, by Elsie S. Ewert in the name of IMachla Lenczycki. 
At that time Schwartz gave his address as 127 University Place, New York, N. Y. 

An agent interviewed Dr. Louis L. Schwartz, the identifying witness, on 
January 4, 1936, at his dental office, 1 Union Square West. Dr. Schwartz stated 
that he had identified the applicant as an accommodation to one of his patients 
wh^se name he thought was Wolf. He was unable to furnish the full name or 
address of the alleged patient but promised to make a search of his files and 
report later to the agent. A few days later he informed the agent that he wa.s 

72723— 57— pt. 23a 9 



a126 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

not sure that the name of the patient was Wolf. A few days later he refused 
to answer any further questions, having been advised to do so by an attorney 
named Abraham Targum. The attorney called at the office of the special agent 
in charge in New York and stated that he wanted to know what the investiga- 
tion was about. (832.00 Revolutions/498 2/10, 3/10, 8/10.) 

Dr. Schwartz was issued a passport on July 24, 1933, and his identifying wit- 
ness at that time was Abraham Targum, an attorney residing at 754 Mace 
Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. The passport was renewed on May 31, 1935, and was 
amended on the same date to include the name of his wife, Anna Schwartz, 
who was said to have been born at South Bend, Ind., on January 4, 1907. 

Dr. Schwartz claimed citizenship through the naturalization of his father, 
Samuel Schwartz, and his residence in the United States during his minority. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Anna Rosenberg, was born at South Bend, 
Ind., and had previously been married to a Hindu named Chandrakaut G. 
Kulkarni. 

C. Sedbag 

This woman was apparently an employee of the World Tourist, Inc. 

Abraham Shafman 

This name is signed to the passport application in the name Bruno Herman 
August Hanke as identifying witness. He could not be located when an 
investigation was conducted in 1934 and nothing is known concerning him. 

L. Shapiro 

In the passport application executed by Mrs. Alexander Bittleman in 1929 in 
the name Anna Spilberg, she requested that her passport be sent in care of her 
uncle, Mr. L. Shapiro, 1512 Townsend Avenue, Bronx, N. Y. 

In the passix)rt application executed in March 1929 by Alexander Bittleman 
in the name Isidore Spilberg, he at first requested that his passport be sent in 
care of Mr. L. Shapiro. Later he changed this to a request that the passport 
be sent in the New York pouch. 

Gertrude Larson Shatz 

See application, Gertrude Larson Shatz. 

Phillip Shatz 

See application, Phillip Shatz. 

William Shatz 

William Shatz is the father of Phillip Shatz. 

In Phillip Shatz' 1926 passport application he claimed that he was born in 
Poland and that he acquired American citizenship through the naturalization 
at Cleveland, Ohio, on September 23, 1916, of his father, William Shatz. The 
naturalization of AVilliam Shatz was later verified and it was ascertained that 
he stated in his petition for naturalization that he had a son, Phillip, who was 
born on July 12, 1907, at New Rochelle, N. Y. Phillip's name is mentioned on 
the naturalization certificate of Mr. Shatz but his place of birth is not shown. 

An effort was made to locate William Shatz at Cleveland but he could not 
be found. 

Ethel Shipman 

On the passport application executed in the name Jean Montgomery the identi- 
fying witness was Ethel Shipmau, of 220 West 13th Street, Apartment 51. 

Miss Shipman does not appear to have a passixtrt file and our only other record 
concerning her is a notation that her name was found in the papers of Edward 
Royce when he was arrested in California a few years ago. 

Samt^el Siegal, Bessie Siegal 

When Harry Kweit was arrested in 1936, there was found on him a note 
reading care of S. Siegal. Apartment IID, 1686 Bryant Avenue. This apartment 
was occupied by Mrs. B. Lerner, her son-in-law, Samuel Siegal, and her daughter, 
Be.ssie Siegal. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 127 

Mrs Siogal stated that no one else was at home, that she did not know 
anybody by the names Edward Risgs or Harry Kweit, that she Imd never 
heard of such a person, and that she coukl not identify the photograph of Kweit. 
She stated that her daughter and son-in-law were both at work but that she 
had no knowledge whatever as to the nature of their employment or their place 
of employment. 

Fay Siegartel 

See Fannie Zigardler. 

Mike Stafik 

This name was signed to a report of birth and accompanying affidavit which 
were filed at Scranton. Pa., regarding the alleged birth there of Leon Marks. 
Stafik was unknown at the address given in the birth report. 

Lydia Staiil 

This woman was engaged in espionage on behalf of the Soviet Government in 
France and was arrested about the same time as Robert Gordon Switz. It is 
not known whether or not the American passport in the name Lydia Stahl was 
altered and used by this woman. 

John Steuben 

See Isaac Rijock and application, Harold Schlusberg. " 

Joshua Tameb 

This man was identifying witness on the fraudulent passport application exe- 
cuted in the name Nicholas Sherman. 

Tamer is a naturalized American citizen of Russian origin and was issued 
a passport in his own name in 1934. 

Tamer was employed as a chemist by the Crucible Steel Co. in Jersey City, 
N. J. When the Department's special agents endeavored to check up on the 
Nicholas Sherman application, they interviewed Joshua Tamer's brother, Harry. 
Harry claimed that he was unable to give the address of Joshua, that the latter 
left his home immediately and fled to Russia where he still resides. Mr. 
Tamer's wife, Rose Gurevich Tamer, is also a naturalized American citizen and 
was issued passports in 1929 and 1934. She went to Russia with her husband 
when he fled from this country and returned to the United States in 1937. 
When questioned, after her return, she claimed that she knew very little regard- 
ing the alleged Nicholas Sherman and his wife, but knew them as Mr. and Mrs. 
Fink. The two families had resided together at 26 Brighton Road, Island Park, 
Long Island, during the summer of 1933. 

The identifying witness on Mrs. Tamer's 1929 application was Samuel Shoyet, 
who has been in Manchuria for several years. Shoyet is an American citizen 
and has traveled on American passports. 

While employed by the Crucible Steel Co., Joshua Tamer turned over to the 
Soviet espionage service in this country information which he obtained from 
that firm. The apartment house in which he resided, 1671 55th Street, was at 
one time the headquarters of the Soviet espionage system in New York. 

Abraham Peter Targum 

Abraham Peter Targum was the witness on the passport application executed 
by Louis L. Schwartz and advised Schwartz not to talk regarding his con- 
nection with the fraudulent Machla Lenczycki application. In January 1937 
Targum wrote to the Department asking for 100 passport application blanks. 
According to Harry S. Zuckerman, Targum was a close friend of Aaron Sharfim 
and helped him make up a story regarding tlie source of the fraudulent appli' 
cations sent through Marinelli's office. 

The Department does not have a passport file for Targum. 

May 1, 1940. 
memorandum fob the file 

This man was first brought to the Department's attention when he appeared 
at the special agent's office in New York on behalf of Dr. Louis L. Schwartz, 
who was identifying witness on the fraudulent passiK)rt application executed 



A 128 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

in the name Machla Lenczycki. Later, in connection with the investigation of 
the Reubens-Robinson cases, he was mentioned by Harry Zuckerman as a friend 
of the defendant Aaron Sharfin, who had assisted in concocting the story which 
Zuckerman first told about receiving the passport applications from a man 
named Epstein. 

After the conviction of Sharfin and the ot"her persons it was discovered that 
in January 1937 Targum had written for and obtained passport application 
blanks. He was questioned in October 1939 at the courthouse in New York 
and stated that he had given the application blanks either to Zuckerman or to 
Sharfin. 

, A. J. Nicholas. 

A. Petee Targum, 
Counsellor at Law, 
JiOl Broadway, New York, N. Y., January 5, 19S7. 
Bureau of Publications, 

Washington, D. C 

Gentlemen : Will you kindly send me 50 applications for passports for native 

citizens accompanied by members of their families, and 50 applications for pass^ 

ports for naturalized citizens. I require same for the use thereof by my clients. 

I am enclosing herewith my check in the sum of $1 in payment of the requisite 

price. 

Very truly yours, 

A. Peter Targum. 
Alexander Trachtenbeeg 

Alexander Trachteuberg is a naturalized American citizen of Russian origin 
who has obtained various passports from 1920 to 1937. He is president of 
International Publishing Co. and treasurer of the "World Tourists, Inc. 

Trachtenberg is one of the leading Communists in the United States. 

Margaret Undjus 

This woman is supposed to be the wife of Charles Krumbein, although no 
actual proof of the marriage appears in the Department's files. 

Mrs. Undjus was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., on January 2i3, 1897, and lost her 
American citizenship by marriage on November 27, 1915, to an alien named 
Joseph Undjus. She reacquired citizenship by naturalization on April 12, 1923, 
and claims to have divorced her husband. 

Mrs. Undjus executed an application for a passport at the passport agency at 
New York on October 17, 1927, and was issued passport No. 4G6655 on October 
18, 1927. 

Mrs. Undjus was issued a service passport valid for 4 mouths at the American 
Legation at Riga on May 19, 1930, upon an application in which she stated that 
she had resided in Russia from November 5, 1927, to May 18, 1930. 

Mrs. Undjus executed an application for the extension of her passport at the 
American Consulate General at Berlin on .Tune 20, 1930, and stated therein that 
she intended to marry a German citizen in July and that she was to give birth 
to a child in November. Therefore, she stated that she would be unable to return 
to the United States within the validity of her passport. Upon the authorization 
of the Department the passport was extended to be valid to May 19, 1932. 

In March 1931 Mrs. Undjus was in Shanghai wih Charles Krumbein, who was 
then using a passport in the name Albert E. Stewart. Krumbein and Mrs. 
Undjus claimed that they were husband and wife and did not request the amend- 
ment of the Undjus passport to show her name as Stewart. 

After the Chinese raids on the Communist headquarters in Shanghai and 
after the departure of Krumbein for Dairen, Mrs. Undjus left Shanghai for 
Hong Kong. Upon her arrival in Hong Kong her baggage was examined by 
the police and it was found that she was carrying between $12,000 and $15,000 
in United States currency. 

On June 8, 1935, Mrs. Undjus executed an application for a new passport at 
the passport agency in New York City and stated that her last passport was 
obtained from Washington on October 17, 1927, and had been destroyed. When 
questioned by a special agent regarding the alleged loss of the passport, she 
stated that the passport she had in mind was the one issued to her at Riga on 
May 19, 1930. She stated that the passport had been lost in a lake in this country 
when her handbag fell out of a row boat. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 129 

Mrs. Undjns stated that she was known as Margaret Cowl and wrote articles 
nndor that name. She suhinitted evidence of her divorce from Undjus and stated 
that since January 1927 she had considered herself as the common-law wife of 
Charles Krumbein. 

On June 21, 1935, Mrs. Undjus was informed that in view of the circumstances, 
the Department would not accept her statement regarding the alleged loss of her 
passport. 

Mrs. Undjus thereupon forwarded her 1930 passport to the Department with 
an afladavit in which she alleged that her statements regarding the loss of the 
passport were made in good faith but that on June 26 she called at the office of her 
attorney, Mr. Joseph Brodsky, and after she had told him of her difficulty, 
Mr. Brodsky discovered that the passport had been accidentally put away in 
his safe. 

The Department issued Mrs. Undjus passport No. 223410 on July 2, 1935, valid 
for 6 months. The passport was written Margaret Undjus, known as Margaret 
Cowl. 

Now uses name Margaret Krumbein. 

Alfred Wagenknecht 

Alfred Wagenknecht is a naturalized citizen, having been born in Germany on 
August 15, 1881. 

In 1922 Wagenknecht fraudulently obtained and used a passport in the name 
Walter Frederick Bronstrup. 

Wagenknecht was issued passports in his own name in 1925 and 1932. He has 
been for many years and still is one of the leaders of the Communist Party in 
the United States. 

Paul Walsh 

Paul Walsh was issued passport No. 331741 on December 12, 1930, upon an 
application in which he stated that he was born at Austin, Pa., on February 8, 
1904. His identifying witness was Mrs. Margaret Dunne, 420 East 18th Street, 
Apartment 4G, New York City. The passport was renewed at the American 
Consulate General at Johannesburg, South Africa, on December 13, 1932. Walsh 
was issued service passport No. 132 at the American Embassy in Moscow on 
January 8, 1935. 

Walsh is known also by the aliases Waldron and Mitchell, first names being 
unknown. 

Walsh's wife, Regina Karasick Walsh, was issued passports in 1931 and 1936. 

While in China, Walsh is said to have been associated with Arthur Ewert 
(Gerhard Eisler) who was traveling on a fraudulent passport in the name 
Harry Berger. 

Identical with Eugene Dennis. 

Millie Walters 

When George Mink was arrested in Copenhagen, Denmark, in February 1935, 
there was found in his notebook a New York phone number, Jerome 7-5072. 
This phone was listed in the name of Mrs. Millie Walters and her address was 
15 Clarke Place, East, Bronx, N. Y. Mrs. Walters is a native of Russia and 
acquired citizenship through the naturalization of her husband, Morris Walters. 
She was issued passports in 1923, 1929, and 1937. According to her last appli- 
cation, she was divorced from her husband in 1930. Her address at that time 
was 15 East Clarke Place, Bronx, N. Y. 

Morris Walters 

When George Mink was arrested in Copenhagen, Denmark, in February 1935, 
there was found in his notebook a New York phone number, Jerome 7-5072, 
which was listed in the name of Millie Walters who was the wife of Morris 
Walters. 

Mr. Walters was born in Russian Poland in 1887 and was naturalized at San 
Francisco in 1915. He was issued passports in 1920 and 1934. 

Bessie Weissman 

Bessie Weissman was issued passports in 1922, 1928, and 1932. In the 1932 
application she gave her address as 2800 Bronx Park, East, New York, N. Y. 



A 130 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

When Arthur Ewert, alias Harry Berger, was arrested in Brazil in Decembei^' 
1935 there were found in his possession slips of paper bearing the name Bessie 
Weissman, 2800 Bronx Park, East, and 383 Madison Avenue, New Torlc. 

An investigation in January 1936 disclosed that Bessie Weissman has married 
a colored man and tliat slie was then residing in Apartment X-1 at 2800 Bronx 
Parli, East, under her married name, D'Phreulecci. 

Abraham Wexler 

See application, Abraham Wexler. 

Sam Wich 

This name is signed to an affidavit of birth whicli Avas submitted witli a 
fraudulent passport application in the name Harry Somers by Harry Kweit. 

Vivian Wilkinson 

This woman was identifying witness on the passport application executed in 
1927 in the name Katherine Harrison. 

Miss Wilkinson is a native American citizen and was issued a passport in 
December 1928. However she is considerably older than she represented in 
her passport application, having been born at Philadelphia on January 5, 1897, 
instead of at Santa Rosa, Calif, on January 5, 1903, as stated in her application. 

The imposter who obtained a passport in August 1927 in the name Ai)e James 
Harfield requested that liis passport be sent care of Vivian Wilkinson, 39 Union 
Square, room No. 40, New York, N. Y. An investigation conducted in 1932 
disclosed that ViA'ian Wilkinson had at one time operated a travel agency at 
39 Union Square, but liad gotten into difficulties and disappeared. 

Adolph WiRKKTjLA 

This man is the brother of tlie real Jakob (ienhard Wirkkula. He executed 
an affidavit of the birth of Jakob before the notary public, Max Kitzes. This 
affidavit was submitted with the application for a passport in the name Jakob 
Genliard Wirkkula. AVhen interviewed Adolph stated that Jakob's son had 
brouglit him the blank affidavit which he filled in and returned to Jakob's son. 

Adolph Wirkkula operated a restaurant and delicatessen shop at 21 East 125th 
Street, New York City. When interviewed he stated that he did not know 
whether or not Jakob actually went to Europe as he had planned. He stated 
that Jaliob belonged to several communistic organizations. Adolph stated that 
he could not positively identify the copy of the applicant's pliotograph although 
the description fitted that of his brother. He did not think that the signature 
on tlie application was made by liis brotlier. 

Jacob Wirkkxila 

This man is the father of Jakob Genhard Wirkkula, in whose name a passport 
application was executed, and a passport issued. 

The fatlier, Jacob Wirkkula, was located at 2939 Bevteau Avenue, Chicago, 
HI. He verified the American birth of the real Jakob Genhard Wirkkula. He 
could not identify the copy of the photograph on the application as a likeness 
of his son. 

Jakob Genhard Wirkkula 

An application for a passport was executed in the name Jakob Genhard 
Wirkkula by a Finnish Connnunist named Nuls Wirtanen. The real Jakob G. 
Wirkkula w'as an American Communist and apparently assisted in the fraud. 

Mrs. Jakob Wirkkula 

This woman is the wife of Jakob Genhard Wirkkula. in whose name a pass- 
port application was executed and a passport issued. 

AVhen Mrs. Jakob Wirkkula was interviewed at her home at 4309 Eighth Ave- 
nue, Brooklyn, she refused to answer any questions except to say that the copy 
of the photograph looked like her husband. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 131 

NULS WiRTANEN 

This man applied for and obtained an American passport in the name Jakob 
Genhard Wirkkula. He also had a Norwej^ian passi)ort in the name Johann 
Louis Korsell, in which his place of birth was shown as Oslo, Norway. Nuls 
Wirtanen was a former Finnish Communist leader. 

Isidore Wolfson 

This man was identifying witness on the passport application executed in the 
name Adolph Kalnnowitz. He gave his address as 3.")72 DeKalb Avenue, Bronx, 
and submitted his naturalization certiticate. When the case was investigated in 
19o5, Wolfson could not be located. 

World Tourist, Inc. 

The World Tourist, Inc., furnished the transportation for practically all of the 
Americans who were sent abroad to serve in the Spanish Loyalist Army. 

The Dun & Bradstreet report shows that the World Tourists, Inc., of 175 
Fifth Avenue, was incorporated and chartered in New York on June 10, 1927 with 
an authorized capital of $.50,000. There is no financial report on this concern 
available as they have consistently refused at all times to reveal anything con- 
cerning their finances, nor will they even discuss their business. It seems that 
they pay all of their current obligations in cash, although they maintain a 
satisfactory account with the Corn Exchange Bank at 21st Street and Fifth 
Avenue. The company maintains 2 branch othces, 1 at 6 North Clark Street, 
Chicago and the other at 580 Market Street in San Francisco. This company 
appears to be operating profitably and to have money. 

The officers of the company are as follows : Joseph It. Brodsky, president, 
Alexander Trachtenberg, treasurer, and Jacob M. Golos as secretary and 
manager. These three men are also the directors of the company. 

Joseph R. Brodsky is supposed to be .52 years old, married and native born 
and is an attorney with an office at 100 Fifth Avenue. He is the treasurer of 
the 26-28 Union Square, Inc., which was chartered April 28, 1928, in New York 
and which holds the lease on the property at 2()-2S Union Square. Mr. Brodsky 
is also secretary of the International Publishers Co., of 381 Fourth Avenue, which 
company was chartered July 18, 1924. 

Alexander Trachtenberg is 50 years old, married, and is stated to have come 
to this country from Russia as a boy, and is now supposed to be a naturalized 
citizen. He is alleged to have been employed by various local publishers as an 
editor, and also was the chief statistician for the International Garment Workers 
Association. Mr. Trachtenberg is president of the 26-28 Union Square, Inc., 
and is treasurer of the International Publishing Co., Inc. 

Jacob M. Golos is 44 years old, married, and he came to this country some years 
ago from Russia. He is alleged to be a naturalized citizen. Mr. Golos has 
always been employed in the tourist and travel business, and is now the active 
manager of the World Tourists, Inc. (Real name Jacob Raisin, now dead.) 

The alleged nature of this organization is the selling for cash to Individuals 
steamship, bus and railroad tickets and the arrangement of tours. 

The incorporation articles for the World Tourists, Inc., were handled bj^ the 
law firm of Shorr, Brodsky & King at 41 Union Square, and this agenc,\' was 
duly incorporated on June 10, 1927. The notaVy public before whom these 
papers were executed was Carol Weiss King, New York County Clerk's No. 300, 
New York County Registrar No. S272. The directors at the time of incorpora- 
tion were Joseph R. Brodsky, Lsaac Shorr, and Fay Siegartal, and each sub- 
scribed to one share of stock. The capital stock of the agency was to be $.5,000 
of 50 shares of $100 par value stock. The incorporation papers were signed 
by the above three men, Brodsky, Shorr and Siegartal. 

The purpose of the agency is to arrange travel tours between the United 
States and foi-eign countries and to buy, prepare and sell booklets and rates on 
travel. However, from the articles of incorporatiou the company has the power 
to be much more than just a travel agency, and these articles giving this power 
must have been put in there for some specific purpose. 

Joseph Zack 

Joseph Zack was born at Dolnie Motesice, Slovakia, on March 20, 1893, being 
the illegitimate child of one Juliana Zack. The name of the father is not given 
on the baptismal record which was created on the date of birth. 



a132 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

According to Mr. Zack's mother, who is now Mrs. Juliana Volkl, the name of the 
father was Rudolph Kornfeder. 

Mr. Zack has at various times claimed that he was born at either Scranton or 
Philadelphia but his mother claims that he was actually bom in Slovakia. She 
executed an affidavit in 1930 to the effect that her son was born at Philadelphia 
but when questioned by the American Consular office in 1937 she admitted making 
the affidavit but claimed that she did not know that it contained the statement 
that her son was born in the United States. Mrs. Volkl is illiterate and could 
not read the affidavit herself. 

According to Zack's mother, he spent his childhood with his maternal grand- 
parents in Slovakia and that she came to the United States alone when he was 
about 7 years old and resided here for about 2 years. 

Zacb was one of the original organizers of the Communist Party in the United 
States but broke with that party several years ago. He was for many years a 
prominent leader in that movement and wrote articles for Communist publica- 
tions. 

In 1927 Zack obtained a passport in the name of Samuel Fox with the assist- 
ance of George Mink and Harry Kweit. Mink obtained the naturalization certifi- 
cate of Fox, while Kweit acted as identifying witness on the passport application. 
After obtaining the passport, Zack went to Moscow and studied in the workers' 
school there. He obtained a new passport in the name Samuel Fox at Helsingfors 
in the early part of 1930, and apparently used the passport to return to the 
United States. 

After his arrival in this country, Zack obtained a passport in the name of 
Joseph Kornfeder, using a birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., upon the 
basis of a recently created report of birth. The birth certificate was obtained 
upon the basis of an affidavit signed by Katherine Harrison and David Bankoff 
before Max Kites, a notary public. The identifying witness was Gertrude 
Ackerman, another Communist. 

After obtaining the Kornfeder passport, Zack went to Panama where he stayed 
only a short time and departed for Colombia. In Colombia he organized the 
Communist Party and a trade union. From Colombia he went to Venezuela 
where he was arrested because of his activities and was deported to the United 
States in September 1931. 

He is now out of the party. 

Fannie Zigaedlee 

Fannie Zigardler (also known as Fay Siegartel) was one of the incorporators 
of the World Tourist, Inc. 

Fannie Zigardler executed a passport application in 1930 in which she asked 
that the passport be forwarded care of J. R. Brodsky, 799 Broadway, New York 
City. 

She was secretary to Brodsky. 



PROOF OF CONSPIRACY* 

1. Margaret Browder has applied for and obtained passports in the name Jean 
Montgomery, 

2. William Browder executed an affidavit in the name William Montgomery 
which was submitted with the first fraudulent application in the name Jean 
Montgomery. 

3. William Browder was the identifying witness on an application executed by 
Earl Browder in his own name in which he falsely stated that he had never had a 
passport previously. 

4. Earl Browder executed a passport application in his own name in which 
he falsely stated that he had not had a passport previously. 

4a and 4b. Passports in the names Earl Browder, Nicholas Dozenberg and 
George Morris were obtained and used by one person, Earl Browder. 

5. Earl Browder applied for and obtained a passport in the name of Nicholas 
Dozenberg. 

6. Earl Browder applied for and obtained a passport in the name of George 
Morris. 

10 and 11. Margaret Browder, William Browder, and Earl Browder are sister 
and brothers. 

12. Katherine Harrison lived with Browder as his wife. 

13. Katherine Harrison fraudulently obtained a passport in that name. 

14. John W. Johnstone executed a fraudulent affidavit of birth in the name Jack 
Harrison which was submitted with the passport application in the name Kath- 
erine Harrison. 

15. Katherine Harrison executed an affidavit of birth before Max Kitzes which 
was submitted in connection with the filing of the birth report in the name Joseph 
Kornfeder. 

16. Katherine Harrison executed a fraudulent affidavit of birth in the name 
Mrs. G. Meltz (Henrietta Maurer) before Helene Gannes which was submitted 
with the passport application in the name Valeria Meltz. 

17. Katherine Harrison signed the name Katherine Johnson as identifying 
witness on the fraudulent passport application in the name Gertrude Larson 
Shatz. She also executed a fraudulent affidavit of birth which was submitted 
with the same application and also signed it Katherine Johnson. 

18. The passport applications in the names Gertrude Larson Shatz and 
Valeria Meltz were executed by the same person. 

19. The persons who obtained the passports in the names Gertrude Larson 
Shatz and Phillip Shatz represented themselves to be husband and wife. 

20. The affidavit of birth submitted with the passport application in the name 
Valeria Meltz was executed before Helene Gannes. 

21. Harry Gannes was the identifying witness on the passport application 
executed in the name Phillip Shatz. 

22. Harry Gannes and Helene Gannes are husband and wife. 

23. Passport applications containing contradictory statements were executed 
by John W. Johnstone in that name. 

24. Max Kitzes was the identifying witness on a passport application executed 
by John W. Johnstone. 

25. An affidavit of birth was submitted in connection with the passport appli- 
cation of Jakob Genhard Wirkkula was executed before Max Kitzes. 

26. An affidavit of birth submitted in connection with the passport application 
of Lydia Stahl was executed before Max Kitzes. 

27. An affidavit of birth submitted in connection with the passport application 
of Leon Marks was executed before Max Kitzes. 

28. The person who made an application for a passport in the name of Leon 
Marks is believed to be identical with the person who used the altered passport 
in the name Bruno Herman August Hanke. 



♦Numbers in this section refer to lines on chart at pp. 1210 and 1211, pt. 23. 

Al33 



A 134 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

29. The passport applications in the names Bruno Herman August Hanke 
and Machla Lenczycki were typed on the same kind of typewriter. 

30. A. Peter Targum called at the State Department office in New York con- 
cerning the investigation in the Machla Lenczycki case. 

31. The persons whose photographs appear on the passport applications in 
the names Harry Berger and Machla Lenczycki are husband and wife (Mr. and 
Mrs. Arthur Ewert). 

32. The address given in an application in the name Machla Lenczycki was 
the address of Sadie Rijock. 

33. The passport application in the name Harry Berger was executed by 
Arthur Ewert. 

34. Sadie Rijock was the wife of Isaac Rijock. 

35. Isaac Rijock executed a passport application in the name Harold Schlus- 
berg. 

36. Sadie Rijock was the identifying witness on the fraudulent application 
executed by Isaac Rijock in the name Harold Schlusberg. 

37. Sadie Rijock was identifying witness on a passixirt application executed 
in the name Esther Michel Rigerman. 

38. Bernard Ades was interested in the second passport application exe- 
cuted in the name Harry (Harold) Schlusberg. 

39. Bernard Ades applied for and obtained a passport in his own name. He 
misrepresented the pvirpose of his trip and used the passport in Spain in viola- 
tion of the restrictions contained therein. 

40. Bernard Ades was the identifying witness on the passport application 
executed in the name Andrew Pape. Pape misrepresented the purpose of his 
journey and used the passport in Spain in violation of the restrictions contained 
therein. 

41. Vivian Wilkinson was identifying witness on the passport application in 
the name Katherine Harrison. 

42. The first passport in the name Abe James Harfield was sent in care of 
Vivian Wilkinson. 

43. Affidavits submitted in connection with the Scranton birth certificate in 
the name Joseph Kornfeder were executed before Max Kitzes. 

44. The passport application in the name Joseph Kornfeder was executed by 
Joseph Zack. 

4o. The passport applications in the names Joseph Kornfeder and Samuel Fox 
were executed by the same person. 

4P>. The passport application in the name Samuel Fox was executed by Joseph 
Zack. 

46a. The naturalization certificate in the name Samuel Fox was furnished 
to Joseph Zack by George Mink. Mink was also connected with the obtention 
of the Scranton birth certificate in the name Joseph Kornfeder Vihich was used 
by Zack. 

47. Harry Kweit was the identifying witness on the passport application exe- 
cuted by Joseph Zack in the name Samuel Fox. 

48. Amy Schechter obtained a passport in the name Amy Esther Schechter 
Kweit. 

49. and 50. In the passport application in the name Amy Esther Schechter 
Kweit the applicant claimed that she was the wife of Harry Kweit. 

51. Harry Kweit made an application for a passport in the name Edward 
Riggs. 

52. Harry Kweit executed an affidavit in his own name which was filed in 
connection wtih the fraudulent passport application executed by Alexander 
Bittleman in the name Nathan William Kweit. Harry Kweit was also the 
identifying witness on this application and stated that the applicant was his 
brother. 

53. Harry Kweit executed a passport application in the name Harry Somers. 

54. Alexander Bittleman executed a passport application in the name Nathan 
William Kweit. 

55. Alexander Bittleman executed a passport application in the name Isidore 
Spilberg. 

56. The passport applications in the names Nathan William Kweit and Isidore 
Spilberg were executed by the same iperson. 

57. Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Bittleman are husband and wife. 

58. Mrs. Alexander Bittleman obtained a passport in the name Helen Lillian 
Bowlen which was afterward amended at her request to show her name as 
Helen Lillian Bowlen Kweit. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 135 

59. Mrs. Alexander Bittleman obtained a passport in the name Anna Spilberg. 
(>0. The passport applications in the names Helen Lillian Bowlen Kweit and 

Anna Spilberg were executed by the same person. 

61. The passport applications in the names Edward Riggs and Harry Somers 
were executed by the same person. 

02. A yierson of unknown identity signed the name William Hoffman as iden- 
tifying witnes.s on the passp(U"t application in the name Harry Somers and also 
executed an affidavit of birth which was submitted with that application. 

63. The same individual who signed William Hoffman on the passport applica- 
tion in the name Harry Somers also executed an affidavit of birth whith was 
tiled in connection with the obtention of a birth certificate in the name Henry 
Geoi-ge liynd. 

1(4. The jierson who obtained a passport in the name Henry George Lynd resided 
at the apartment of IMax Redacht or at least received mail there. 

O:"). When Albert Feierabend was arrested he was found in possession of a 
badge signed by Max Bedacht. 

60. The passport application in the name Henry George Lynd was executed 
by an individual of unknown identity. 

67. The person who obtained a passport in the name Henry George Lynd 
stayed at the Trenton home of Leon -Tosephson who also obtained for the impostor 
a letter signed by the Governor of New Jersey. 

68. Susanna Paxton and the person who obtained a passport in the name 
Henry George Lynd held themselves out as husband and wife. 

69. Susanna Paxton obtained a passport in the name Siisan Abbott Lynd. 

70. The applications in the name Susan Abbott Lynd and Susanna Fiueberg 
were e"'ecuted by the same person. 

71. The passport application in the name Susanna Fineberg was executed by 
Susanna Paxton. 

72. The persons having possession of passports in the names Henry George 
Lynd and Susan Abbott Lynd held themselves out as husband and wife. 

72a. Susanna Paxton was identifying witness on the passport application of 
Julius Itnsenthal. 

73. Julius Rosenthal obtained passports in his own name and used one of them 
to go to Spain where he was killed. 

74. The passport application in the name Leon Marks at fii'st requested that 
the passport be sent in care of Julius Rosenthal. 

7n. Harold Hynes obtained a passport in the name Harold Hall. 

76. George INIink was identifying witness on the passport application in the 
name Harold Hall. 

77. Gi^orge IMink was identifying witness on the passport application in the 
name Louis Paretti. 

78. George Mink obtained passports in his own name. 

79. Passport applications in the name George Mink and Al Gottlieb bear the 
photographs of the same person, George Mink. 

SO. The passport application in the name Al Gottlieb bears the photograph of 
George Mink. This passport was found in Mink's apartment in Denmark when 
he was arrested there. 

81. The passport in the name Abraham Wexler was found in Mink's possession 
when he was arrested in Denmark. 

82. The passport in the name Harry Herman Kaplan was found in Mink's 
apartment when he was arrested in Denmark. 

83. An impostor having a passport in the name Adolph Rabiuowitz was 
Tarrested in Denm.ark about the same time as IMink. 

84. An impo.stor having a passport in the name Nicholas Sherman was arrested 
in Denmark about the same time as ]\Iink. 

8.". The body of the pasi?port application in the name Al Gottlieli was written 
by Leon Joseph son. 

86. Harry Herman Kaplan was a friend of Leon Josephson and blames the 
latter for the alleged theft of his pas.sport. 

87. Leon Josephson and the impostor having a passport in the name of Adolph 
Rabiuowitz were arrested in Denmark about the same time for the same 
activities. 

88. Leon Joseph.son and an impostor having possession of a passport in the 
name Nicholas Sherman were arrested at the same time in Denmark for 
similar activities. Joseph.son also obtained letters for the Sherman imix)stor 
which purported to show that lie was an employee of an oil company. 



A 136 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

89. Leon Josephson and George Mink were arrested at the same time in 
Denmark for the same activities and admitted their association. 

90. Joseph R. Brodsky was the attorney for Alfred Wagenknecht when he 
was tried for violating the passport laws. 

91. Alfred Wagenknecht obtained a passport in the name Walter Frederick 
Bronstrup. 

92. William M. Beck was the identifying witness on the passport applica- 
tion in the name Walter Frederick Bronstrup. 

93. Joseph R. Brodsky was the attorney for Margaret Undjus and produced 
a passport which she claimed to have lost. 

94. Joseph R. Brodsky was attorney for Charles Krumbein when he was 
indicted for violating the passport laws. 

95. Albei't Feierabend obtained a passport in the name Ksavier A. Szpokas. 

96. An imposter of unknown identity obtained a passport in the name Ksavier 
A. Szpokas. 

96a. Albert Feierabend was identifying witness on the passport application 
in the name Lizzie Kreitz. 

97. Albert Feierabend applied twice for a passport in the name Jacob Kreitz. 

98. Albert Feierabend applied for a passport in his own name and later had 
the passport amended to show the name of his wife who submitted the birth 
certificate of another person. 

99 and 101. Passport applications in the names of Albert Feierabend, Jacob 
Kreitz and Ksavier A. Szpokas were executed by the same person, Albert 
Feierabend. 

100. The persons who executed passport applications in the names Jacob 
Kreitz and Lizzie Kreitz purported to be husband and wife. 

102. The birth certificate of the wife of Samuel Adams Dardeck was submitted 
as the birth certificate of Feierabend's wife. 

103. An address used by Nicholas Dozenberg in his passport applications 
was found in the notebook in the possession of Albert Feierabend. 

104. Charles Krumbein and Margaret Undjus held themselves out as hus- 
band and wife. 

105. Charles Krumbein used an altered passport in the name Isidor Dreazen. 

106. Charles Krumbein applied for and obtained passports in the name Albert 
E. Stewart. 

107. Charles Krumbein traveled in China with Margaret Undjus while she was 
using a passport in her own name. 

108. Margaret Undjus made false and contradictory statements in passport 
applications executed in her own name. 

109. Clarence Hathaway assisted an impostor in obtaining a fraudulent 
passport in the name Milton Hathaway. 

110. Clarence Hathaway, as editor of the Daily Worker, requested that the 
passport of Earl Browder be made valid for Spain. 

111. A birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., on the basis of a recent report 
was submitted in connection with the passport application of Leon Marks. 

112. A birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., on the basis of a recent report 
was submitted in connection with the passport application of Joseph Kornfeder. 

113. A birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., on the basis of a recent report 
was submitted in connection with the passport application of Henry George 
Lynd. 

114. A birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., on the basis of a recent report 
was submitted in connection with the passport application of Harold Hall. 

115. A birth certificate issued at Scranton, Pa., on the basis of a recent report 
was submitted in connection with the passport application of George Mink. 

PARTY CONNECTIONS 

116. Arthur Ewert met Earl Browder when he came to the United States to 
settle a dispute in the American Communist Party. 

117. Arthur Ewert met Joseph Zack when he came to the United States to 
settle a dispute in the American Communist Party. 

118. Nicholas Dozenberg was connected with the magazine, the Communist, 
which was the official publication of the Communist Party of the United States. 

119. Earl Browder was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

120. Morris Childs was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

121. John W. Johnstone was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

122. Harry Cannes was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES a137 

123. Max Kitzes was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

124. Isaac Riioclj was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

125. Joseph Zack was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

126. Alexander Bittleman was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

127. Max Bedacht was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

128. Samuel Adams Dardeck was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

129. Margaret Undjus was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

130. Charles Krumbein was connected with the magazine, the Communi-st. 

131. Clarence Hathaway was connected with the magazine, the Communist. 

132. Amy Soheohter was an officer of the Marine Workers' Industrial Union. 

133. Harrv Kweit was an officer of the Marine Workers' Industrial Union. 

134. Harold Hynes was an officer of the Marine Workers' Industrial Union. 

135. George Mink was an officer of the Marine Workers' Industrial Union. 

Connections Not Shown on Chart 

The imposters who used the passports in the names Machla Lenczycki, 
Nicholas Sherman, and Adolph Rabinowitz were all in possession of mimeo- 
graphed questionnaires which were filled in to show detailed information which 
should be known by anyone impersonating the persons whose naturalization 
certificates were used. A supply of blank questionnaires was found in the pos- 
session of Albert Feierabend when he was arrested. 

Andrew Pape, Bernard Ades, Julius Rosenthal, and Harold Hynes went to 
Spain and served in the Spanish Civil War. 

The transportation of most of the volunteers who went to Spain to serve in 
the civil war was arranged through the World Tourist, Inc., of which Joseph 
R. Brodsky was the president. William Browder, when going to France during 
the existence of the Spanish Civil War also obtained his transportation from 
that organization. 

The Daily Worker from time to time published information regarding the 
Spanish volunteers and what purported to be official lists of those killed. They 
also published numerous photographs of the persons slain which were evidently 
made from duplicates of the ones appearing on their passport applications. 
Clarence Hathaway was editor of the Daily Worker and William Browder was 
the president of the corporation which published it. 

Proof of Conspiracy 

There was found in the possession of Elsie S. Ewert, alias Machla Lenczycki, 
a mimeographed questionnaire which had been filled in with information regard- 
ing the woman whom she was impersonating. This questionnaire is similar in 
form to the one found on Albert Feierabend when he was arrested in New York 
a number of years ago and to the ones found in the possession of the impostors 
who were arrested in Denmark with fraudulent passports in the names Nicholas 
Sherman and Adolph Rabinovitz. The fact that the questionnaires were mimeo- 
graphed is evidence that their use was widespread and that they were not used 
for use only in connection with the particular passport cases. 

When Mrs. Elsie S. Ewert, alias Machla Lenczycki, applied for the renewal 
of her fraudulent passport, she gave her address as 1200 East New York Ave- 
nue. This was the address of Sadie Michel Rijack and her family and another 
tenant of the premises thought that she had seen Mrs. Ewert visiting the Michel 
family. Sadie Rijack was the wife of Isaac Rijack, known as John Stuben who 
fraudulently obtained a passport in the name Harold Schlusberg. Mrs. Rijack 
was the identifying witness on that fraudulent application and also on a frau- 
dulent application executed by Esther Rigerman. 

Abraham Peter Targum was the witness on the passport application executed 
by Louis L. Schwartz and advised Schwartz not to talk regarding his connec- 
tion with the fraudulent Machla Lenczycki application. In January 1937 Tar- 
gum wrote to the Department asking for 100 passport-application blanks. Ac- 
cording to Harry S. Zuckerman, Targum was a close friend of Aaron Sharfin 
and helped him make up a fact story regarding the source of the fraudulent 
applications sent through Marinelli's office. 

William M. Beck, who was the witness to the fraudulent passport application 
in the name Walter Frederick Bronstrup, was a witness on the naturalization 
petition of Max Schulman whose naturalization certificate was used in connec- 
tion with the Rubens-Robinson passport frauds. 



a138 scope of soviet activity in the tJNITED STATES 

Earl Browder used the naturalization certificate of Nicholas Dozenberg when 
obtaining a passport in 1921. An address given by Dozenberg in one of his 
passport applications was found in the notebook of Albert Feierabend when he 
was arrested in 1930. 

Margaret Browder, William Browder, and Earl Browder are brothers and 
sister. William Browder executed the fraudulent affidavit in the name of 
William Montgomery, which was submitted with the passport application executed 
by Margaret Browder in the name of Jean Montgomery. William Browder was 
also the identifying witness on the application executed by Earl Browder in his 
own name in 1934, in which Earl falsely stated that he had never had a passport 
previously. William Browder went abroad with a contingent of persons who 
were en route to Spain and whose passports were obtained upon their repre- 
sentation that they were going elsewhere. 

Clarence Hathaway wrote to the Department concerning the validation for 
Spain of Earl Browder's passport and was the identifying witness on the fraudu- 
lent passport application in the name, Milton Hathaway. 

George E. Powers was the identifying witne.^s on the fraudulent passport 
application executed by Earl Browder in the name George Morris. Powers 
is now one of the head officers of the International Workers Order headed by 
Max Bedacht. A number of persons whose naturalization certificates were used 
in the Rubens-Robinson case were members of the International Workers Order. 

Tlie woman who obtained a passport in the name of Katherine Harrison lived 
with Earl Browder for several years and was known as his wife. They were 
together in China while Browder was using the passport in the name George 
Morris. This woman executed fraudulent affidavits of birth which were sub- 
mitted with the passport applications in the names Valerie Meltz and Gertrude L. 
Shatz. She also executed an affidavit of birth in connection with the obtention 
of a Scranton birth certificate in the name Joseph Kornfeder. The last-men- 
tioned affidavit was executed before Max Kitzes in his capacity as notary public. 

The affidavit of birth signed Jack Harrison which was submitted with the 
Katherine Harrison passport application, was written and signed by John W. 
Johnstone. This man made contradictory statements in his own passport applica- 
tion. The identifying witness on one of Johnstone's applications was Max Kitzes. 

One of the addresses which was in Feierabend's notebook when he was arrested 
in 1930 was 554 48th Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. W^ith this notation appears the 
name Lina. It appears that this was the address of one Lina Karlin. This 
same address was given by Nicholas Dozenberg in his 1933 passport application. 

Another name shown in Feierabend's notebook is J. Kalnin. On the passport 
application of August Latz the name John Kalnin is written as the identifying 
witness. 

The applications in the names Susanna Paxton Fineberg and Susan Abbott 
Lynd were executed by the same person. 

The persons who obtained the passports in the names Susan Abbott Lynd and 
Henry George Lynd posed as husband and wife. 

The persons known as Henry George Lynd and Susan Abbott Lynd resided in 
the apartment of Max Bedacht. 

The person who signed the name William Hoffman on the affidavit of birth 
in the case of Henry George Lynd also signed the affidavit of birth and as iden- 
tifying witness on the fraudulent passport application executed by Harry Kweit 
in the name Harry Somers. 

When Henry George Lynd and Susan Abbott Lynd arrived at Marseille, they 
were met by Leon Josephson. 

Lynd resided with Josephson for a while at 1009 Greenwood Avenue, Trenton. 

Susanna Paxton, alias Susanna Fineberg. alias Susan Abbott Lynd was iden- 
tifying witness on the 1927 passport application of Julius Rosenthal. 

George Mink, Leon Josephson, and impostors having passports in the names 
Nicholas Sherman and Adolph Rabinowitz were all arrested in Denmark in 
February 1935, on a charge of espionage. There were found in Mink's apart- 
ment a passport in the name of Al Gottlieb which bore his photograph, and 
passports in the names Harry H. Kaplan and Abraham Wexler, which bore the 
photographs of Kaplan and Wexler. 

In conversations with American consular officers. Mink, Josephson, and the 
Sherman imposter all admitted being associated vdth each other. 

Josephson admitted to the American Consul General that he had obtained for 
the Sherman imposter letters from a commercial concern in New York. Corre- 
spondence found in the effects of the men directly connect Josephson and the 
Sherman imposter. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES A 139 

Harry H. Kaplan was a friend of Leon Josephson and blames Joseplison for 
the alleged theft of his passport. 

There was found in the effects of Kablnowitz a letter signed the American 
House, referring to a certain document ordered by "L. J.", which undoubtedly 
referred to Leon Josephson. The proprietor of the American House was Harry 
Kaplan. 

Both the Sherman imposter and the Rabinowitz impostor were in possession 
of mimeographed questionnaires which had been filled in to show information 
concerning tlie persons they were impersonating. These questionnaires were 
practically identical with those found on Albert Feierabend when he was arrested 
in 1980, and were similar in form to the one found in the effects of Elsie S. 
Ewart. alias Machla Lenczycki. 

The application in the name Al Gottlieb bears a photograph of George Mink 
and the body thereof appears to be in the handwriting of Leon Josephson. 

George Mink submitted with his passport application a Scranton birth certi- 
ficate issued in the same manner as those submitted with the passport applica- 
tions in the name Henry George Lynd, Harold Hall, Leon Marks, and Joseph 
Kornfeder. 

George Mink was identifying witness on the passport applications in the names 
Harold Hall and Louis Paretti. 

The procedure used in obtaining the passport in the name Nicholas Sherman 
was almost identical with the procedure used in obtaining the passport in the 
name Gerald Mark Moren. In both cases, the applicant claimed to be a native 
of Yugoslavia, submitted the naturalization certificates of deceased persons, 
and had their names changed by court order from the names shown in the natur- 
ization certificates to the ones in which they obtained the passports. 

The affidavits of birth filed at Scranton, Pa., in the cases of Henry George 
Lynd and Harold Hall, were typed on the same machine. 

The passport application in the name of Bruno Herman August Hanke was 
typed on the same kind of typewriter as the application in the name of Machla 
Lenczycki. 

The person who used the Hanke passport is believed to be identical with the 
one who made the fraudulent application in the name Leon Marks. 

Harry Kv/eit was the identifying witness on the passport application executed 
by Joseph Zack in the name Samuel Fox, and also on the application executed 
by Alexander Bittleman in the name Nathan William Kweit. 

George Mink provided Zack with the naturalization certificate of Samuel Fox. 
Zack also obtained a passport in the name of Josepl^ Kornfeder. 

George Mink, Katherine Harrison, and Max Kitzes were also involved in 
the Kornfeder fraud. Alexander Bittleman also obtained a passport in the 
name Isidore Spilberg and his wife obtained passpoxts in the name Anna Spil- 
berg and Helen Lillian Bowlen, having the last mentioned passport amended 
to show her name as Kweit. 

Harry Kweit obtained and used fraudulent passport in the name Harry 
Somers and made a fraudulent application in the name Edward Riggs. A person 
who helped to obtain the Lynd birth certificate was witness on the fraudulent 
application in the name of Harry Somers. 

Amy Esther Schechter obtained a passport in 1930 as the wife of Harry Kweit. 
Kweit was associated in the International Marine Workers Union with George 
Mink. 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the names of an individual or an oi-ganiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

Abello, Thomas Peter A66 

Abram, Abraham (sec Auram, Abraham) A33 

Abramofsky, Bernard A66 

Abramovitz, Nathan Joseph A66 

Abramowitz, Herman (known as "Hymie") A33 

Abrams, Mrs. Lena A85, A104 

Abrams, Stella A85 

Acebido (Asevedo), Servando A34 

Acken, Edgar Laurence (Edgar L.) A33 

Ackerman, Bernard A9 

Ackerman, Gertrude A87, ASS, A104, A132 

Ackerman, Harry ASS 

Acosta, Bertrand Blanchard A66 

Ades, Bernard A80, A94, A96, A97, A1(M, A114, A134, A137 

Ades, Sigmund A96, A104 

Adler, Alexander A67 

Ahearn, Edward Patrick A67 

Aho, Frank Oscar A33 

Ain, Harry A33 

Albert, Reuben A67 

Alexander, Alex A33 

Alexander, Frank Edward A67 

Algus A29 

Allander, William A33 

AUis, John Joseph A9, A12 

Alper, Marcus Mordecai A33 

Alspaugh, Elen A9, A16 

Alstrom, William Oliver A33 

Altman, David Robert—' A33 

Altman, Israel A33 

Altman, Jack (Jace) A33 

Alvarez, Julio (Rodriguez) A67 

Amaniera, Joseph (Jr.) (Giuseppe) A33 

Amariglio, David (Armarigio) A33 

Amatnick, Ernest A33 

Amatniek A33 

American House, Inc A98 

Amery, Alfred Leopold A33 

Ames, Lena A104 

Ames, Mrs A85 

Ame.s, Mrs. Lena (or Abrams) A104 

Amidon, Elmer Merle A07 

Amis, Benjamin De Wayne A22 

Amlie, Hans A33 

Amsbury, Clifton Holman A83 

Andahl, Evelyn Florence (Andrell, Evelyn) A33 

Anderson, Casper Warren A33 

Anderson, Erik Bernard A(i7 

Anderson (Andersen), George H. A A33 

Anderson, John A27, A80 

Anderson, Lawrence A9 

72723— 57— pt. 23a 10 



II INDEX 

Page 

Anderson, Melviu Sigward A33 

Anderson, Ray A33 

Andrell, Evelyn A33 

Andrews, Bryon (Byron) A33 

Andry, Lester Feruand A67 

Anstrom, Otto Edvold A22 

Apiee, Giacomini AG7 

Appleton, Owen . A33 

Archer, Amos A33 

Arion, Irving (knov>'n as Ernest Ariou) A33 

Arkas, Emanuel (Emmanoiue) (Emmanouil) A33 

Armitage, Joseph B A33 

Arndt, Robert Leroy A33 

Arnio, Arne Ferdinand , A27, A30 

Arnold, Sidney Milton A67 

Aronberg, Myron (Mike) A33 

Aronovitch, Mayor AG7 

Arranz-Diaz, Avelino AG7 

Arvola, Edward Ranse (Rause Edward) A34 

Ashford, James, Jr ^^______ A22 

Ashley, Charles Everett __'ri_ri A67 

Atamian, John A34 

Athanasiades, Michael (Michal) A34 

Auerbaeh, Joseph XSi 

Auerbach, L A104 

Auerbaeh, Mrs. L AllO 

Auerbach, Lena A104 

Auerbach, Louis A67, A104 

Auerback, Harry A104 

Auerback, Joseph A104 

Auerback, Louis A104 

Ave-Lallemant, Robert William Edgar Frederick A34 

Avrat, Abraham A34 

Aylaian, George . . A34 

Azar, Joseph Harold-— — _ A34 

B 

Babsky, Ezak (known as Sidney Babsky) A67 

Backman, Osmo Henry A67 

Bagner. Isaac A67 

Bahman, Evely (see Rahman, Evelyn) A34 

Bajac, Slavo James A67 

Bailey, William A34 

Bailino, Morris A34 

Baiza, Stephen : A34 

Baker, George A28 

Baker, William A34 

Bakerman, Bertram A34 

Balagurchik, Elias (Ylia) A34 

Balan, Carl (see Belan, Carl) A34 

Balavage, Thomas James A34 

Balchowsky, Edward Ross A34 

Baley, Bernard Vaughn A67 

Ball, Homer Eugene A67 

Ball, William James, Jr A67 

Baloff, Mike A35 

Bambas, Isaac A84 

Baiigo, Luis Busto A34 

Bankoff. David ASS, A104, A105, A132 

Bannerman, Mr A97 

Baran, Joseph A34 

Barcena, Isidor (Isadore) Frank (alias Isidro Frank Barcona) A34 

Bard, Philip A34 

Barderain, D. (Douey) (Barberian, Doneg) A34 

Barkovich, Thomas Michael A34 



INDEX m 

Page 

Baniett. Jnmcs Cliuton A34 

Baron. Dr. Harry AUO 

Haron. The(i(l(ue A9 

Karr. Charles AM 

P.arr. Charles A .- AM 

Barr. Charles Alfred A:M 

Karr, Herman A34 

Rarraii, Joseph {sec Barau, Joseph) A;i4 

Barrie, Henry Daniel A.'U 

Barron, Victor A A22 

Barron. Victor Allen A106 

Barry, Griffin AS3, A105 

Barsky, Ahraham David A67 

Barsky, Ben A34 

Barskv, Dr. Edvvard K A.S4 

Bart A105 

Bart, Mr A2Q 

Bart. Mrs A26, A105 

Bassen, Adolf A9, A14, A22 

Bassett, William Oliver A67 

Bassin, Sidney A35 

Basson, Joseph A9 

Baszozowsky (Basko), Henry A34 

Bates, Frank David A67 

Bates, Walter A28 

P.attle, Thaddious Arrington A67 

Baublis, Julian A35 

Bauman, Ben A28 

Baumler, Albert John A67 

Eauza, Ulises A3o 

Bayne, James Alexander A35 

Beck. William M A81, A105, A137 

Becker, Lavine A A113 

Beckett, Thomas Latta A67 

Bedacht, Max A23, A91, A107, AllO, A135, A137, A138 

Begelman, Elias A35 

Belau. Carl Gustav (Belan. Carl: Belhaw, Carl) A35 

Bell, Hilda A35 

Bell, Raymond Everett A35 

Bell, Tom A87 

Belli, Henry A7 

Bellows. Carlton Lee (Bellows. Carl) A35 

Benet, James Walker A35 

Bennett, Charles Clifton AG7 

Bennett, Robert Lee A(i7 

Bennett, Thomas Edwin (alias Thomas Browne Bennett) A35 

Benson, A A5 

Benson, Joseph Edward A35 

Beral. Benjamin A28 

Beral, Philip A28, A29 

Beregszaszt. Liidwig A35 

Berg, Esly (Esley Daniel) A35 

Bergen (Bergin), Jacob A35 

Berger, Harry ASO, 

A90. A104, A109, AllO, A112, A116, A117, A122, A124, A129, A130, A134 

Berkowitz, Isidor A35 

Berkowitz, Meier A35 

Berkowitz, Nathan A35 

Berkowitz, Samuel . A35 

Berman, Leopold A35 

Berman, Raymond A67 

Bernard, Abraham A67 

Bernhardt, Albert A9 

Bernstein, Hilliard Edgar A.'^.l 

Bernstein, Louis A35 

Bernstein, Samuel A67 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Berry, Gordon King A67 

Berry, John A105 

Berry John F A96, A105 

Bessie, Alvah Cecil A35 

Bevensee, Court A35 

Bieulvo A6, A23, A95, A123 

Bierman, Samuel A35 

Billings, Marcus Judson AG7 

Binikas, Andrew A67 

Binn, William (alias Max Binn) A35 

Bires, Albert A35 

Birubaum, Saul A35 

Bissell, Franklin Elmore A35 

Bisson, Ellsworth Joseph A3o 

Bittleman, Alexander A89, A119, A126, A134, A137, A139 

Bittleman, Mrs A89 

Bittleman, Mrs. Alexander A81, A99, A121, A126 

Blackschmidt, Emma Pauline A83 

Blackschmidt, Pauline Emma A83 

Blackwell, Russell (alias Russell Negrete) A07 

Blair, Clarence Alvin A35 

Blair, Vaehel Lindsey A3.> 

Blake A6, A105 

Blake, A A5, A9 

Blakeley, Harold Russell A35 

Blanchard, Ralph Bradford AS") 

Blaskiewicz, Stanley A35 

Bleckschmidt, Dr AlOS 

Bleckschmidt, Pauline Emma AlO, AlOS, AIlO 

Bleir, David ACT 

Bliss, E. W. Co A89 

Bloch, Elsa AlOO, AlOS, A106, A117 

Bloch, Isidore AlOO, AlOS, A117 

Block, Paul, Jr ASS 

Bloom, Maurice A35 

Bloom, Sady AG 

Bloom, Sady Saffin. (See Sadie Weiss.) 

Bluestein, Abraham A35 

Blum, Anna AlO 

Blum, Bertha A114 

Blum, Harry A35 

Bodard, Joseph A9 

Boehm, George A67 

Boehnoke, Karl Boyce (known as Charles Boyce) A3S 

Bogorade, Mrs A92, A106, A112 

Bohus, Paul AlO, A15 

Bois. William (Bill) Wolfe A35 

Bonn, Morris AlO 

Bonturi, Bruno A36 

Book Union, Ine Alio 

Borer, Fred A67 

Borer, Wayland A36 

Borisuk, Paul A36 

Bortz, Louis A36 

Borysko, Andrew A36 

Botuck, Elijah A3f; 

Bourne, James Kenneth A36 

Bowers, Edward A67 

Bowers, Max Melcher A36 

Bowlen, Helen Lillian A81, A89, A99, A121, A134, A139 

Bowman, John Nelson A.SG 

Boxer, Harry Jack (alias Harry Cohen) A36 

Boyer, Harvey Karl A36 

Boyer, Jack A36 

Bradbury, Philip Walton A67 



INDEX V 

Page 

Braden, Roy A36 

Brady, Robert Granger A67 

Brage, Raphael Buch (see Buch, R. B.) A3G 

Braley, L. (Roger Lancaster) A3(> 

Brandes, Lillian Livien AlO, A2() 

Branko A23 

Brantis, Alexander A67 

Braun, Wren A36 

Braxton, Milton (alias Milton Herndon) A67 

Bremen, S. S A6 

Brennan, John Francis A36 

Brenning, William A67 

Brettschneider, Wilhelm Karl Hermann A98 

Brezovic, Albert Louis A(>7 

Bridenthal, Kenneth Deforest A36 

Brier, Morris A36 

Briggs, Judson Reynolds A36 

Brisker, Luba A36 

Briski, Anton A36 

Brodsky, Joseph A129 

Brodsky, J. R A132 

Brodsky, Joseph R A106, A112, A115, A117, A131, A136, A137 

Brodsky, Shorr and Siegartal A131 

Bron, Benjamin H. (See Brown, Benjamin H.) 

Bronstein, Eugene (Jean) David A36 

Bronstein, Oskar A67 

Bronstrup, Walter Frederick A81, A105, A129, A136, A137 

Brooks, Minnie AlO, A13 

Brostoff, Bernard Benzion (alias Benny Brostoff) A36 

Browder, Earl Russell (known as Earl Browder, George Morris and Nich- 
olas Dozenberg) A5-A10, A23, A26, A81, A82, A86, A94, A10«. 

A107, A109, A112, A113, A122, A123, A133, A136, A138 

Browder, Margaret (Jean Montgomery) A8. A94, A106, A107, A133, A138 

Browder, William Edwin (also William E. and William) A67, 

A81, A94, A106, Al()7, A133, A137, A138 

Brown, Archie A36 

Brown, Benjamin (Benjamin Charles) A36 

Brown, Benjamin Hirshfield A36 

Brown. Hymie A36 

Brown, John William A28, A29 

Brown, Moses A5, A36 

Brown, Otto A36 

Brown, Roy Augustave A28, A31 

Brown, Tom A68 

Brown, Vernon Wilburt A36 

Brown, William (Brown, William Warner Moore) A36 

Browne, Richard (Richard B. ; Richard DeWitt) A36 

Brudzinski, Czeslaw A68 

Bi'unet Leonard {see Grumet, Leonard) A37 

Brustein, Sam A37 

Bruton, Lawrence Leonard A37 

Bruzzichesi, Ave A37 

Bubich, Mike AGS 

Buch, Raphael (Brage) (Buck, Brage Raphael) A37 

Buckley, Jerome Vincent A37 

Budish, Nathan Norman A37 

Burch, Fernando A37 

Burches, Charles Williams A23 

Burdick, Milton A37 

Biu-ke, Edward (Ellsworth) A37 

Burke, Mary Catherine AlO, A19 

Burke, Paul A37 

Burkett, Roe Handy A68 

Burlak, Ann AlO, A19 



VI INDEX 

Page 

Biiruing, John A68 

Burns, Paul (Paul Arthur) A37 

Burns, Vera A114 

Burozyski, Walter A28, A29 

Burton, Wallace Floyd A37 

Busch, Irving A68 

Buturla, Frank Walter A37 

Busic, Nicholas A7, AlO 

Byrne, Albert Barnitz , AtJN 

Byrne, James Joseph A37 

Byrne, Thelma S. E A68 

C 

Cady, George Arthur A37 

Cadenhead, John A28 

Cain, James Burton A28 

Calcagno, Gioachiuo (alias Giachino Victor Caleagno) A68 

Caldarella. Michael Vincent A68 

Caldwell, Donn Mansfield Afjs 

Callaghan. Thomas Joseph A37 

Callion, Walter A37 

Camnitz, Ben A68 

Campbell, Joseph A37 

Canales, Victor (Cerro) A6S 

Cannon, Jacob '. A37 

Cappadona, Bernard A37 

Carayianes. Apostolos A37 

Carbonell, Jorge Afix 

Carhonell, Victor Antonio Cuevas A37 

Careathers. Benjamin AlO. A21 

Carl, Edwin AO 

Carlson, Carl A91 

Carlson. Mrs. Carl A91 

Carmichael, Edward Brook A37 

Carnell, Roger Gaylord (Camell, Gaylord) A37 

Caron, Berthe AlO 

Carpenter. John Robert A37 

Carroll, Esther A28. A30 

Carroll, George Aloysius Raymond A37 

Carroll, William (Reid) A37 

Carsman, Samuel A37 

Carter, Barton A37 

Casa-Barro. Jesus de la A68 

Cason, Roy A37 

Cassidy, Joseph F A114 

Castle, Guy Wilkinson Stuart, Jr A68 

Castro, Esmaragdo (Seoane) A68 

Castro, Luis Maria A68 

Castronuovo, Alfred A37 

Castronuovo, John Michael A37 

Cavanagh, Frederick A37 

Central Committee of the Communist Party Alor> 

Chadwick, Selma Ruth A68 

Chaikin, George A37 

Chait, Jacob Jack A68 

Chakin, Abraham A68 

Chalfen, Benjamin A83, AlOl, A107, Alll 

Chambers, Ray Hollis A102, A107 

Chapin, Milferd A37 

Chapoff, Samuel A37 

Chappin, Wilfred {see Chapin, Wilfred) A37 

Chase, Van Rensalaer A37 

Chesin, Alexander AlO 

Chester, Hyman Frank A37 

Chestna, William (alias Phil B. Chesna) A68 

Childs, Jack A6, AlOG 



INDEX vn 

Page 

Childs, Morris A107, A136 

Chilton, Gordon A37 

Chirko, Franlv A37 

Chisliolin, Albort Edward A38 

Chisholni, Malcolm Mt-Douell A38 

Chniilowski, Joseph B A68 

Choato. Richard S Ao, AG, A8, A23 

Chochek'S, Isidore A38 

ChodolT. Richard Joseph AtJ8 

Chupak, Anne A 10 

Churchich, Euiil A(>8 

Cicitta. Pasquale A38 

Civiers. Frank J; Civietz, Frank {see Cwierz, Francis Joseph, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. ) - A38 

Clark, Durward Doyle A38 

Clark, George Luther A23 

Clark. Leslie Carlton A08 

Cleveland. Roland A68 

Cloke, Richard A38 

Clute. Wilton A38 

Clyde, John Paul, Jr A38 

Coad, Mack A38 

Coapman, Arthur Henry A.38 

Cobert, Joseph A38 

Cobbs, Walter A38 

Codkind. Judea AlOl, A108 

Codkind. Julius A108 

Cody. Edgar James A38 

Cogswell, Theodore Rose (alias Ted Lewis) A68 

Cohen, Abe (Cohen, Abraham) A38 

Cohen, Alvin A38 

Cohen. Fredericka Imogene Martin A68 

Cohen, Isidere A38 

Cohen, Joseph All 

Cohen, Lawrence^ A38 

Cohen, Leon A3S 

Cohen. Milton Mitchell A38 

Cohen, Robert R A3S 

Cojerean. Stefan A38 

Colbert, CleA^eland Moland A68 

Cole. William A8, AOrj. A108 

Coleman. EdvA'ard Roy A68 

CoUentiue, Robert James A68 

Collins. Leroy A38 

Colodny, Robert G _- A38 

Colon-Gonzalez. Gonzalo A68 

Colon, Guiilermo (alias William C. Palmer) A68 

Colver. Robert Coughlin (alias Douglas Hitchock) A68 

Commins, Robert. (See Cummins, Robert Adair.) 

Communist International A116 

Communist Party Al, A6-A8 

Crmimunist Party, U. S. A.. Report A1-A5 

Communist, The (publication) A136, A137 

Cone. Franklin Fay A38 

Ctmnelly, John Russell A68 

Connelly, William Julius A68 

Conner, Herbert Sharpley A38 

Connon, Karl (see Cannon, Jacob) A38 

Construction Supplies Company of America A80, A116, A122, A123 

Contento, Rogiero A68 

Conway, Maurice (Conway, Morris; Conway, Morris Michael) A38 

Cook, Donald Clarence A68 

Cook, Frederick Joseph A69 

Cook, Gerald Kent A38 

Cook, Hugh Francis A38 



Vm INDEX 

Page 

Cook, Walter A69 

Cookson, John Wilhelm A69 

Coon, John Canty A38 

Coon, John C A38 

Cooper, Bernard A108 

Cooper, Mr. B A96 

Cooper, James Charles All, A17 

Cooper, Lillian AlOS 

Cooper & Brase A96, AlOS 

Cooperman, Philip A69 

Copeland, Abraham A69 

Copp, Fred Leon A69 

Corbin, Rudolph James A69 

Cornelius, Georgiana All 

Cornell, Gaylord (-See Carnell, Roger G.) 

Corrigan, John Horton Anicleto A38 

Costa, Michael A38 

Costanzo, Frank Carl A69 

Cowl, Margaret A129 

Cox, Charles Adolphus (Cox, Charles) A38 

Cox, Thomas, Jr A69 

Craddock, James Patrick Campbell A69 

Craig, Curtis A3S 

Grain, Harry Allen A69 

Crane, Jack A28 

Crawford, Ebb Farris A69 

Crawford, Eugene Victor A69 

Creswell, Virgil Ray (alias Ray Hornberger) A38 

Croizier, Eugene Cyril A39 

Cromwell, Frederick William, Jr A69 

Cronen (Cronin), Charles William A39 

Crosby, Paul A39 

Cross, Donald Ellis A69 

Crotto, Sidney A39 

Crowley, John A39 

Crucible Steel Co A127 

Cruz, Ernesto (Ortiz) A39 

Cuban, Joseph A39 

Cullinen, George Ambrose, Jr At)9 

Ctimmins, Robert Adair A39 

Curry, Thomas Edward A69 

Curtis, Robert Lee A39 

Cwierz, Frank J. (Francis James; alias Frank Cwierz) A39 



Dabelko, Steve A69 

Daduk, Samuel Leon A39 

Dahl, Harold E A69 

Dallet, Joseph Jr A39 

Daily Worker A112, A113, A120, A136, A137 

Daily Worker Corp A107 

Danculovic, Paul Nicholas A39 

Daniels, David A7 

Danko, John A39 

Darcy, Sam A83, A108 

Dardeck, Isidor All, AlOS 

Dardeck, Mrs AS3, AlOS, AllO 

Dardeck, Pauline Emma All 

Dardeck, Samuel Adams (also known as Sam Dareey Donchin) AlO 

All, AS3, AlOS, AllO, A136, A137 

Dart, Rollin A69 

Dashevsky, Morris A39 

Davidow, Ruth Rebecca A40 

Davidson, David A39 

Davis, Edgar A69 

Davis, Helen A28 



INDEX IX 

Page 

Davis, Jesse Jefferson A()9 

Davis, Leon Warren A89 

Davis, Solomon A(J9 

Day, Harold John A39 

Dean, Harold Francis A39 

Delelianty, John A A39 

Dell, Russell A39 

Demas, Nick John A39 

Dempsey, Russell Fielding A39 

Dennis, Eugene (Paul Walsh) AllO, A118, A129 

Dent, Joseph De A39 

Department of State, Passport Division A5 

Derkacz, Nestor A39 

Desevetsco, Casimir (Charles) A39 

Desrosiers, Joseph Antonio All, A13 

Detro, Philip Leighton A39 

Deutsch, Julius Herman A39 

Deutsch, Sarah AlO, All 

Devine, John Michael A39 

Diaz, Avelino Arans A89 

Diaz, Jose Gonzalez A43 

Dickinson, Deark Dick A69 

Dicks, Walter A39 

Dickson, Nathan A69 

Dickstein, Daniel A39 

Di Forino, Alfonzo Caraibla A39 

Dight, Lloyd Louis A23 

Diluca, Sam (alias Domenico Deluca) A(j9 

Dinkin, Lillian All, A14 

Dion, Joseph A28 

Dion, Joseph Raymond A39 

Disbrow, Hamilton T All 

Disch, Raymond Heinrich A(>9 

Dobbs, Sonia A8 

Doe, Jane A9 

Doggendorf, Nicholas A39 

Doherty, James C AG9 

Domas, Abraham (known as Morris A. Domes) A39 

DombrofE, David A39 

Dominguez, Bienvenido A39 

Domjanich, Milan V A39 

Domurat, John (alias John Lee Domurad, Jr.) A69 

Donawa, Arnold Bennett A39 

Doolittle, Kenneth Waldron A39 

Dorland, Norman Edward A39 

Dorsey, Frank Caruthers A89 

Dorsky, Lenal A40 

Doty, Bennett Jeffries A69 

Dougher, Joseph A40 

Doughty, Grace R All 

Doyle, James Peter A40 

Dozenberg, Katherine A82, A108, A109 

Dozenberg, Nicholas A82, A106, A108, A109, 

Alll, A133, A13(5, A138 

D'Phreulecci, Bessie (Bessie Weissman) A130 

Dransky, David All 

Dransky, David (alias Dave Doran) A40 

Draper, George Tuckerman A<J9 

Drausky, David AlO 

Dreazen, Isador A109 

Dreazen, Isidor A82, A83, AlOL A13fi 

Dreisen, Isidor All 8 

Dresco. Lodovico AS, A95, A109 

Drill, Joseph A40 

Drossel, Anthony B A40 



X INDEX 

Page 

Drummond, David All, A19, A40 

Dubac, Constantino A40 

Dubi, Evaristo All 

Du Bois A23 

Dubruel, James A40 

Duerdeu, Allen Richard A69 

Dukes, Larry Stratford A40 

Duncan, Cleo Cannon A40 

Dunne, Mrs. Margaret A129 

Dunos, Edward Albin A69 

Dupont, Woodrow Wilson (alias Robert Charles Dupont) A40 

Durem, Ramon (Ramen) A40 

Dyer, Edithe May (Edythe Mae) A40 

Dykstra, Matthew A40 

E 

Earl, Howard A40 

Eaton, Henry Griffin A40 

Ecker, Norris A69 

Ecstein, Sam A40 

Edelmau, Rebecca A12 

Edwards, Charles Hamilton A40 

Edwards, Thomas A7. A12 

Eggen, Julius Leonard ( Egan, Jack) A40 

Eggert, Kenneth Franklin A23 

Ehrenberg, Isadore A69 

Ehrlich, Edward Afi9 

Ehrlich, Reubiu (Rubin) A40 

Eichler, Anna A23 

Eider, Louis A40 

Eisenberg, Abraham Boris (alias Benjamin Sobel, Sam Abelson, Julius 

Lieberman, Henderson) AG9 

Eisenman, Ida A12 

Eisler, Gerhard A7 

Eisler, Gerhart (Gerhard) A116, A129 

Eladio, Paul (Sec Eladio, Paula) A40 

Elliott. Theodore Roy A69 

Ellis, William Robert A40 

Ellison, Ralph David A23 

Eloesser, Dr. Leo A40 

Elovich, I A12 

Elovich. James A12, A22 

Elovich, Steve A12 

Emerson, Marion Louise (Marion Emerson, Marion L. Emei-son) A109, A113 

Emery. Samuel A12 

Engelson, David Afi9 

English, Carswell Hill A69 

Ensign, Joseph Roscoe A40 

Ente, Leon A40 

Entin, Bernard A69 

Epaillv, Ravmond L A69 

Epstein A128 

Epstein, David A40 

Epstein, Hyman A40 

Epstein, Moses A(i9 

Epstein, Ruth Wilson A40 

Erkkila, John A69 

Estela. Miguel A A40 

Estevez, Manuel Marcelino (alias Manual B. Estevez) A40 

Ettinger, Albert Alton Af;9 

Ettleson, Abraham A69 

Ettleson, Dora A70 

Evaugelista, Crisanto A12, A17 

Evans, Charles A28 

Every, Archibald A40 



INDEX XI 



Page 

Kwei-r. Arthur (Gerhard Eisler) (alias Harry Berger) ASO, 

AK)4. A109, Alio, A129, A180, A1H4. A18G 

Kwert. Elsie S. (alias Machla Leuczycki) A12."i. A187, A1H9 

Kwert. Elsie Saborowski A89, AllO 

Ewerr. Mr A106 

Ewert. Mrs A90, AlOfJ, AllO 

Ewert, Mrs. Arthur A184 

Exstein, Henry, Jr A40 

F 

Faber. William ( .Maurice William) A41 

Fahey (Fahy) ( Jack Bradley) A41 

Fajans, Isidor A70 

Fajardo, Mark (alias ^laroos P\i.iardo) A41 

Faikm, Stanley A12 

Farber. Richard A41 

Fard. Anna R A12 

Farrar. Max A41 

Farris, Harry p]d\vard A41 

Fasanello, Raffaele A70 

Faubion, Howard Henderson A70 

Fawkes. Florence A125 

Fee. Benjamin Junt A29, A30 

Fee. Jay B A29 

Feierabend, Albert A82. ASS, A88, A89, AlOl. A102, A107-A111, A13o-A1.39 

Feierabend. Emma Pauline Bleckschmidt AS3 

Feiugersh, Francis A41 

Feldman, Milton R A29 

Feldnian. Simon A92, All! 

Feldman, Solomon A41 

Feldt, Orrin Erlandy A41 

Feller. Joseph Samuel A70 

Feller, Milton A41 

Fellman, Harry A70 

Felsen, Milton A41 

Fender. Francis Edwin A41 

Ferguson, Harriet A29, A31 

Fernandez, Antonio Alvarez A41 

Fernandez. Avelino (Gonzalez) A41 

Fernandez. Ildefonse (Alfonso Gonxalo) A41 

Ferrero, Frank Louis A41 

Ferrogiaro ( Ferroggiaro), Jerome E. (Ethen) A41 

Ferwerda. Ena A70 

Field. Frederick Ray, Jr A70 

Field, John A41 

Field. Ralph H A41 

Findley, Benjamin Frank (Benjamin Franklin) A41 

Fine. Charles (known as Christopher Cross) A70 

Fineberg, Abram A83, A123 

Fineberg. Bram A123 

Fineberg. Susanna AS3. A91. Alll. A12(J, A123. A124. A13."). A138 

r'ineberg. Susanna Paxton AlO.j, A123, A13S 

Finick, Eugene A70 

Fink. Mr A127 

Fink. Mrs A127 

Finkel. Alexander A41 

Finke!. Benjamin A41 

Finkel, Samuel A70 

Finkelstein. Belle A93, Alll 

Finkelstein. Norman A70 

Finlev, Dinsmore A41 

Finnisli Federation, Inc A102, AUG 

Fiqueiredo, Joseph A12, A16 

First National Bank of Independence. Mo A94 



Xn INDEX 

Page 

Fishelson, Nathan Nelson A41 

Fisher, Harry A70 

Fisher, Sol A29 

Fishgold, Irving A70 

Fishman, Moses (Mosess) A41 

Fishman, Morris Simon A41 

Fishman, Sol A70 

Fitzgerald, Daniel Andrew Lee A41 

Flaherty, Charles Alexander A41 

Flaherty, Francis P. (Patrick) (alias Frank) A41 

Flaherty, Edward Coleman A41 

Flam, Emyl Charles A70 

Planner, John Howard, Jr A41 

Flett, Harold Fay All 

Fliegel (Fliegle), Edward James A41 

Fontaine, Dorothy Wing A70 

Ford, James William A12, A23 

Ford, Robert Preston A41 

Forester, Clarence Michael A41 

Forester, Kenneth A70 

Forman A87 

Forman, Jacob A12 

Forman, Sylvia AlO, A12 

Forristall, James Eugene (alias Leo Forristall) A41 

Fors, Charles A A70 

Forsha, Harold George A41 

Forsyth, Thomas Benton A70 

Fortin, Romeo A12 

Poster, Charles Frank A41 

Foster, Wm. E A25 

Foster, William Z A118 

Foucek, Albert J A70 

Foucek, George A41 

Fowler, James Hiram A41 

Fox, Mrs. Eva A84 

Fox, John W A5, A6, A23, A26 

Fox, John William A105 

Fox, Samuel A84, A87, A89, A99, A122, A132, A134, A139 

Frait, William A70 

Frame, William (Donaldson) A41 

Franco, Victor A41 

Frank, Raymond A70 

Frankel, Isaac A41 

Franklin, Samuel N A70 

Franklin, Zalmond David A42 

Frazier, Samuel A70 

Freed, Edward Milton A42 

Freed, Harry A70 

Freed, Rose A70 

Freedman, Bernard A24 

Freeman, Jacob (alias Jack Freeman) A42 

Freeman, Maurice A42 

Freidberg, or Friedberg, Saul A42 

Freiman, Helen A70 

Fried, Marcus B A70 

Friedle, Sylvester Frank A70 

Friedman, Dr. A. (Abraham Irving) A42 

Friedman, Jack A42 

Friedman, Laurence M. (Morton) A42 

Friedman, Martin A42 

Friedman, Maurice Wolf A70 

Friedman, William A42 

Friends of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade A33 

Fritzhand, Nicholas A70 

Frohman, Raleigh A70 

Fuerlicht, Adolf (Feuerlicht, Adolph) A42 



INDEX XIII 

Page 

Fuhr, Lena Moerkirk (known as Lini Fuhr) A70 

Fuhrer, Saul David A70 

Fulginiti, Francesco (Frank) A42 

Fuller, Thomas Grant A70 

Fuller, Henry Hoyt A42 

Funk, Julius A70 

G 

Gallagher, Anna K A29 

Gandall, AVilliam A42 

Gannes, Harry A6-9, A12, A13, A25, A97, Alll, A112, A133, A136 

Gannes, Heleue A13, A92, Alll, A112, A133 

Gannes, Pearl Roth A7, A24, A25 

Garafolo, Pat A42 

Garcia, Angel Ocasio A42 

Garcia, Jess A29 

Garcia, Marshall (Menendez) A42 

Garcia, Vasquez Ramon A42 

Garland, Walter Benjamin A42 

Garofalo, Patrick J A70 

Gary, Dorothy Page A120 

Gascoyne, Douglas A13 

Gasper, Peter John A42 

Gassen (dentist) A83 

Gates, John {see Ragenstrich, Israel) A42 

Gavin, Eugene Victor A42 

Gavin, Robert Owen A70 

Gayle, Louis Anton A42 

Gebin, Sam A42 

Geiser, Carl Frederick A42 

Gellert, Hugo A24 

Gensky, Toby (known as Tillie Jensky) A70 

George, Henry A42 

Gerber, Bernard A42 

Gerber, Helen A80 

Gerbin (or Gabin) A87 

Gerhardt, Julius A42 

Gibbs, James Delevan A70 

Gibbs, Theodore A42 

Gier, Leo A42 

Gilbert, Florence A18 

Ginsberg, Louis A70 

Girard, Joseph Lucien A42 

Gittelson, Lazarus A42 

Givney, John A70 

Givulinovich, John Albert A42 

Gjessing, Vice Consul A95, A122 

Glick, Ralph A13 

Glickman, Herman Louis A42 

Gluck, Harry A70 

Gluck, Max A71 

Glutzman, Anna A107 

Gneppe (Gnepp), Louis A42 

Goddard. Howard Owen A42 

Goetz, William A24 

Goff, Irving A43 

Goland. Philip Pakier A71 

Golas, J. N A112 

Gold, Isidor (alias Irving Gold) A71 

Goldberg, Alex A43 

Goldberg, Arhtur A71 

Goldberg, Milton A33 

Goldberg, Pincus A43 

Goldblatt, Moses A71 

Goldblatt, Rose A43 



XrV INDEX 

Page 

Goldgaell, Benjamin A29 

Goldgaell, Sadie Algus A29 

Golding, Mabel Irene now Mrs. Mabel Irene Spiegel) ATI 

Goldman, Abraham A98 

Goldman, Joseph A88 

Goldman, Samuel ATI 

Goldman, Sanfred A43 

Goldrick, Mark (alias Mart Goldrick) ATI 

Goldring, Benjamin A43 

Goldstein, Abraham David A43 

Goldstein, Benjamin A43 

Goldstein, Isidore (Essey) A4?. 

Goldstein, Jechem (known as Jack Goldstein^ A43 

Goldstein, Jerome ATI 

Goldstein, Milton ATI 

Goldstein, Morris A43 

Goldwyu, Gerald ATI 

Goloff, Harry S A43 

Golomb, Ned A43 

Golos, Jacob M A131 

Golub, Fannie A43 

Gomer, Alexander A43 

Gomez, Antony Lopez (alias Antonio Gomez) A43 

Gomez, Maximo ATI 

Gonzalez, Fernando Moll A44, ATI 

Gonzales, Francisco A44 

Gonzalez, Francisco Moll ATI 

Gonzalez, Virgilio A43 

Good, Henry Paul . ATI 

Good, Manuel W A13 

Goodman, Carroll A43 

Goodman, Harry AiJ(» 

Goodman, Harry S A80. Allli 

Goodman, Milton A29, A106, A112 

Goodman, Robert William A43 

Goodwin, Michael A43 

Gordon, David ATI 

Gordon, Frances AC, A91, A92, A106, A112, A118 

Gordon, Lazar A43 

Gordon, Louis A43 

Gordon, Philip A13 

Goslin, Louis Melvin A43 

Gotav, Ruben (Montalvo) ATI 

Gottlieb, Abe A84 

Gottlieb, Al A6, AS, A84, A112. A116, A122, A135, A13M 

Goulis A112 

Grachan, Francis G A6, AT, AlO 

Grachan, Joseph A18 

Graeber, Kenneth M A4;) 

Graham, John A18 

Graham, Lillian A A29 

Graham, Meredith Sydnor A43 

Granfortoni (Gianfortoni). Salvatore A43 

Granich, Isaac A13 

Grant, Morris Al.) 

Grant, Samuel A43 

Grant. Walter Fairbanks ATI 

Graver, Willie A43 

Gray, Jack A121 

Gray. Robert ATI 

Grecht, Rebecca A28. A29 

Grecs, Joe A43 

Green. Gilbert A13. A14 

Greenbauin, Adolph A24 

Greenbaum, ^Morris A Al. Ao 

Greenbaum. Morris M AT 



INDEX XV 

Page 

Gveeuberf:. Gilbert A13, A14, AKJ, A24 

Greene. Suinuel >«' ^^ 

Greentiekl, Herman -A^^l 

Greenleaf. Robert Webster A43 

(Jreensi»(t(tn, Artbnr -^.43 

Greenstein, Jacob Lee , — -^43 

Greenstein, Joseph -^43 

Grea;orie. Alnion Forny -^^43 

Greil. Fritz A43 

Greshaiii. William Wilkins A43 

Grigas, Joseph -^43 

Grober, Gilbert Hall -^71 

Groden, I>aniel Samuel A43 

Grodzki, Frank (alias Franciszek Grodzki) A71 

Grodski. Frank ^^3 

Gross, Joseph I.ouis -^43 

Gross, Nathan -^43 

Grossner. Samuel -^''^1 

Grosso, Daniel Joseph A44 

Groves, William Roy A29, A31 

Grimiet, Leonard A44 

Grumet, ilartin Jerome ATI 

Grunsky. Eugenia ATI 

Gruskin, Harry ATI 

Guaralso, Pio - A44 

Guida, Francesco Salvatore A14, A20 

Gunderman, Walter (alias Walter Gunderson) 

Gunshick, Samuel A44 

Gurevitz, Edgar A ATI 

Gurka, Maurice A44 

Gustafson. Bernard K. H ATI 

Gutman, Hans ATI 

H 

HalM?l, Harry A2S, A20 

Haber, Cohn A44 

Haddock, Philip Carroll ATI 

Hadley, William Grant A44 

Hakam, Harsry ATI 

Halev, Jonathan Clifford, Jr ATI 

Hall, Charles Alfred ATI 

Hall, Harold A84, A85, A114, A122, A135, A136, A139 

Hall, Haywood A24 

Halliday, Joseph Daniel . A44 

Hallmon, Nicholas ATI 

Halonen, Oiva Ronald A44 

Halpern, Irving Abraham (alias Alvin Halpern, alias Alvin Berg) A44 

Halpert, Rubin A24 

Hamburger, Joseph Max ATI 

Hamilton, Evelyn (sec Evelyn Rahman) A44 

Hampkins, Nicholas Peter A14, A22, ATI 

Hanke, Bruno Herman August (Bruno H. A. Hanke) A6, AS, AH, A25, 

ASfj, A92, A95, A104, A112, A12G, A133, A134, A139 

Hannigan, Walter R ATI 

Hanson, Francis Edward . ATI 

Hardy, Phillip Henry ATI 

Harfield . AS6 

Harfield, Abe A121, A123 

Harlield, Abe James AS5, A112, A120, A130, A134 

Hargraves, Roger James A44 

Hari)er. Wiley Emil ATI 

Harris, Aaron (alias A. Roy Harris)—, A44 

Harris, Albert Lyonel ATI, A123 

Harris, Arthur A44 

Harris, Kitty A8G, A 112 



XVI INDEX 

Page 

Harris, Lement Upham A14 

Harris, Ray A44 

Harris, William Henry A71 

Harrison, Jack A86, A115, A133, A138 

Harrison, Joseph A17 

Harrison, Katherine A86, 

AST, A92, A'J4, A97, A105, A106, A112, A115, A118, A121, A130, 

A132, A133, A134, A138, A139. 

Harrison, Margaret A14 

Hartniann Hermine Cornelia Pauline ATI 

Hartzman, Jacob A44 

Harvan, Margaret ATI 

Harvey, John Adriance A24 

Harvey, J. J A98, A113, A116, A119 

Harvey, Jacob Jones A113, A119 

Haskell, Daniel Irving A44 

Haskell, Mrs. M. L A113 

Haskell, W. A. (Waldo A.) A86, A94, A109, A113 

Haslan, Robert ATI 

Hassett, James Patrick A44 

Hathaway, Clarence A. (also Clarence Hathaway and C. A. Hathaway )_ A81, 

AST, A113, A114, A125, A136, A13T, A138 

Hathaway, Clarence Richard A113 

Hathaway, Florence J A114 

Hathaway, Milton AST, A13G, A138 

Hathaway, William A44 

Hatner, Herbert Hart A44 

Hauke, Albin A44 

Hautaniemi, Jouko Kalmeiu A44 

Havens, Bernard H A44 

Hawkins, Isaiah A24 

Hawkins, Maurice Harrison A44 

Hawkins, Norman Gilbert A44 

Hayes, John Thomas A44 

Haynes, Jackson Stewart A44 

Hays, St. John and Buckley (law firm) A114 

Heacox, Hiram L A29 

Heagney, Frank Aloyosius A44 

Hechler, Lila A96, A9T, A114 

Hecht, Joseph A44 

Hecht, Leo (alias Seymour Rosenberg) A44 

Heeb, Harry Jack ATI 

Hegedus, George A44 

Heisler, Gus A45 

Helepis, Konstartine A44 

Helfand, Max A29 

Helgeson, Helnar (Helmar) A45 

Heller, Abraham A A114, A115 

Heller, Edith A114 

Hellman, Leonard David ATI 

Henderson, Frank Joseph A45 

Hendler, Max A45 

Hendrickson, George Sidney A45 

Henricher ( Heinricher ) , Stanley Anthony A45 

Henry, Donald Wallace A45 

Herceg, Michael ATI 

Herlink, Jennie A29 

Herlong, Carneller A24 

Herman, E'Vancis J A45 

Heme (Heue), Julius Anault A45 

Herschman, Leon A45 

Hersh, Arthur ATI 

Hershkowitz, Hannah AT2 

Hershkowitz, Herman AT2 

Heurich, Hugo A4o 

Hewlett, Wayland Davis A45 



INDEX XVII 

Page 

Hiat, Joseph A7. A14 

Hissiiis. John A72 

Iligiikiu, Josepli A72 

Hilkevitch, Aaron Arthur ATH 

Hill, Carswell (see Carswell Hill Enj^lish) A45 

Hill, James Cleveland A72 

Hill, Preston Clair A45 

Hill, Sadie A30 

Hinman, Loval Anson A4ri 

Hirshfield, Bernard A A7, A14 

Hirshlield, Victor A72 

Ilobbs. Everett A72 

Ilochberg. Emanuel A45 

Hodge, Elmer Edward A45 

Hoenig. Nathan A24 

Hoff, Harold Smith A45 

Hoffman, Albert Clarence A72 

Hoffman, Herbert Frank A72 

Hoffman. Jlorris A45 

Hoffman, AViiliam A90, A114, A13u, A138 

Hoffstnmi, Waino Emil A45 

Hogan, Francis J A102. A114 

Holborn, Harry A72 

Holmes, Robert Hale, Jr A72 

Holtzclaw, Leonard Martin A72 

Holub, Bobie A14 

Holzman, Benjamin A4.") 

Honeycombe, John Gordon A4~> 

Honig, Michael A30 

Hoolianesian, Galiriel A45 

Horowitz. William (known as William Horvitz) A45 

Horwitz, Dorothy A14 

Horzich, Simon A4."> 

Hourihan, Martin William A4.") 

House, Edward A72 

Hovan, John George A45 

Howard. Joseph Hyman A45 

Howard, Wesley A45 

Hoyt, Mr Alio 

Hubbard, Keith Harry A45 

Hudson. Koy Bannerman A14 

Huff, Polke A30 

Hall, Rus.sell T. (known as Russell Paiil Hull) A4o 

Humanes (Diaz), Bernardo A4.j 

Humrick, Stephen A72 

Hunt, Hugh :Maxwell A72 

Hunter, Archibald James. Jr A4.j 

Hunter, Daniel A72 

Hunter. Oscar Henry A45 

Hunter, Peter A14 

Hurst, Harry Chapman A4.") 

Husa. W. J A30 

Hushier, Allan (alias Allan Kushmier; A4") 

Hutchins, Grace A86 

Hyde, Mark Powell A45 

Hyde, Thomas Alfred A45 

Hyman, Isidore A145 

Hyman, Shirley A30. A32 

Hynes, Harold A85, A114, A135, A137 

I 

Iceland. Ben.lamin Isaac '. A4o 

Ignatulv, Boris A46 

Ihler, Fritz (Fred) ASS 

Indra, Jerome A46 

Ingalls. Robert Zane A4G 

72723— 57— pt. 23a 11 



XVIII INDEX 

Page 

Inget, John Henry A46 

Inter-Continent Oil Co., Ltd A98, A113, A116, A119 

International Brigade A80, A106, A12o 

International Brigade of the Spanish Loyalist Army ASS, A124: 

International Garment Workers Association A131 

International Marine Workers Union A121, A139 

International Oxygen Co A115 

International Publishers Co A106, A114, A115, A128, A131 

International Publishers & Booksellers Co., Inc A114 

International Workers' Order A105, A123, A138 

Intourist A92 

Irungary, France.s Mai-sh A13, A14 

Irwin, Herbert James A30 

Isenberg, Robert Woodrow A46 

Israel, Boris J. (alias Baline Owen) A46 

J 

Jackson, Burt Edward A46 

Jackson, Erie Ivan A46 

Jackson, Leon A116 

Jackson, R. J A14 

Jacobs, Henry George A.5, A7, A9, A24, A25 

Jacobs, Edward Deyo A72 

Jacobs, Henry G A112 

Jacobs, Hyman A46 

Jacobs, Lester A72 

Jacobs, Pearl Roth A.5, AT, A24, A25, A112 

Jacobson. Leon A15 

Jacobson, Louis A15 

Jacobson, Oscar A82 

Jacques, John Charles, Jr A46 

Jaeger, Erich A25 

Jaequire (Jaquier), Ives Delaville A46 

Janiieson, William Edward A72 

Jankovic, Mathilda A72 

Jelin, Maurice A46 

Jenkins, John HoUis A46 

Joachim, Hans A72 

Joannou, James A46 

Johanson, Sven Emil A46 

Johnson, Aaron Bernard A46 

Johnson, Earl Raymond A72 

Johnson, Edward A46 

Johnson, Harry A28, 30 

Johnson, Howard Marion A72 

Johnson, John A46 

Johnson, Katherine A97, A112, A133 

Johnson, Mrs. Katherine A97, A115 

Johnson, Lloyd Edward A72 

Johnson, Oakley Calvin A15, A18 

Johnson, Peter A46 

Johnstone, John W. (John Wilson) (also known as Jack Johnstone) A86, A115, 

A118, A133, A136 

Jokoffsky, Simon Morris A46 

Jones, David Everett A46 

Jones, James Moore A46 

Jones, Joseph , A94 

Jones, Sheldon Starr A46 

Jordan, Denis David A46 

Jordan, Frank Benjamin A46 

Jorgensen, Hans Peder , A72 

Josephson and Josephson A115, A116 

Josephson, Barney A15, A17, ASS, A115 

Josephson, Leon A7, A8, A15, A84, 

AST, A91, A113, Alls, A119, A122, A135, A136, A138, A139 
Josephson, Louis A87 



INDEX XIX 

Page 

Joyce, Robert L ^'^IS 

Juhasz, Ernest ^J4 

Jurotovich, Nikola ^^^ 

Jurotovich, Paul ^^° 

K 

Kacliigiiui, HariT -^4^ 

Kable, Harland M AT^ 

Kalilor, John Henry -^46 

Kahu, Leon S A80, A116, A117, A122 

Kahn, Mrs "^HI 

Kahn, Sarah Selma (alias Sally Kahn) A72 

Kahu, Yereth Frank A117 

Kailin, Clarence -A-46 

Kalke, Karl Jouna A46 

Kalkiu, Alexander A30 

Kalnin, J Alll, A138 

Kalnin, John Alll, A138 

Kamenetsky (Kamenetzky), Louis A46 

Kamiuisky, Levie A46 

Kampel, Morris A46 

Kangas, Anna A30 

Kantola, Olavi A72 

Kapelner, Nathan David A46 

Kaplan, Mrs. Alice AlOO, A117 

Kaplan, Anna AlOO, AlOo, A117 

Kaplan, Benjamin A30, A32 

Kaplan, Florence AlOO 

Kaplan, Harry Herman (Harry H.) A87, A98, A115, A116, A117, 

A122, A135, A138, A139 

Kaplan Sam A46 

Kaplan, Thomas Joseph A46 

Kaplinsky, Pincus A46 

Karaghuzian, George A72 

Karantzales, George A46 

Kardash, William A15 

Kark, Horace L A72 

Karlin, Lina Alll, A138 

Karson, Jacob A46 

Kashton, William A15 

Kasiman, Benjamin A47 

Katine, Benjamin A47 

Katlan, Bernard (alias Bernard or Benjamin Kaplan) A47 

Katz, Hyman Jacob A47 

Katz, Isaac A72 

Katz, Max A47 

Katzin, Harry A72 

Katzman, Sam A47 

Kaufman, Alfred A72 

Kaufman, Hyman A72 

Kaufman, Lewis A72 

Kaufman, Lorenz Ursos Carles A72 

Kaufman, Rubin A47 

Kaufman, Sarah A117, A122, A124 

Kaufman, Sidney A72 

Kaye, Conrad A47 

Kaye, George A47 

Kaye, Sidney M A114 

Kazlering (Keszlering), John (see John Keszlering) A47 

Kecseian, Arnold A47 

Kee, Salaria (alias Sara Lillie Kee) A47 

Keeler, Addison Starr, Jr A72 

Keen, Harry A72 

Keir, Duncan, Jr A47 

Keith. Charles Lawrence (alias Charles L. Kauffman) A47 

Keller, Anton Leonhard A47 



XX INDEX 

Page 

Keller, Fred Paul. Jr A47 

Keller. Leonard Anton (see Keller, Anton Leonhard) A47 

Kelley, Aubrey Kirby A47 

Kelly, David Gillis A47 

Kelly, Joseph A47 

Kelly, Thomas Joseph A47 

Kemppainen, Orvo William A73 

Kendzierski, Roman A47 

Kennan, Thomas Michael A47 

Kennedy, Roy James A73 

Kennel*. Valentin A47 

Kei'hlieker, Anthony A73 

Kesel. Joseph A25 

Keslzrina (Keszlering), John A47 

Kessler, Leo A15 

Ketola, Eino W. (William) A47 

Kevorkian, Vahram A47 

Khachadourian, David A47 

Khachadourian, David A47 

Kidd. Roack Patrock (Roach Patrick) A47 

Kilas, Billy (Bali) A47 

Kilner, Charles A15 

Kilpa trick, Admiral A47 

King, Carol Weiss A106, A131 

King, Mrs. Carol Weiss A117 

King, Gordon C A117 

King, H. S A96 

King, H. S., Co A96, A97, AlO^t 

King, Mrs A106, A118 

Klnsey, Special Agent A96, A116 

Kipniss!, Bertha (E.?) A47 

Kirk, Paul S Alo 

Kirk, Tony A15 

Kirkkula, Adolph AllS 

Kirschbaum, Max A47 

Kirschenbaum, Samuel A47 

Kish, Elmer AlO, Alo 

Kish, Gabor Alo 

Kish, Leslie A47 

Kishor, Nehemiah H AlOS 

Kites, Max AJ32 

Kitzes, Leah AllS 

Kitzes, Max Ari, 

A6, A15, A91, A92, AlOO, A102, AlOS, A112, AllS, A120, A130, A133, 

A134, A137, A139. 

Glein, Albert Jerald A47 

Klein, Herman A47 

Klein, Dr. Jacob (B.?) (alias Jack B. Glein) A47 

Klein, Seymour (R.?) A47 

Kleinman, Joseph A73 

Kleinow, John H. (Henry) A48 

Klerlein, Joseph C. (Carrol) A4S 

Klieger, Gustave A73 

Klimowski, Joseph A48 

Klinghoffer A24 

Klinghoffer, Isidore A14, A16 

Klonsky, Max A73 

Knapp, Malcom Dunlop A48 

Kobeluch, John (Jan) A4S 

Koble, Jacob A48 

Kobrin, Sollie A48 

Koch. Charles D A73 

Kochigan, Harry. (See Kleinow, John H.) 

Koehinski, Cyprian A48 

Kocius, Francisces .John AllO 

Kohen, Louis A73 



IXDEX XXI 

Page 

Kohler, John A48 

Kohii, Albert A48 

Ivuliii. Stanley A73 

KoU, Edwin M. D. (Edwin Lincoln) A48 

Koluw, Morris Samuel A48 

Kolojra, John A48 

Kolowski, Walter A48 

Kondell, Herman Leo A73 

Konefski, Bernard A73 

Koneski, Sam A48 

Konove, Milton A48 

Koplowitz, Kopel A48 

Koplowitz, Morris ATS 

Korb. Max A48 

Koranda, William A13, A16 

Korkowitz, Grace (see Berkowitz, Grace) A48 

Kornblatt, Samuel A48 

Kornblum, Morris A48 

Kornblutt, Joel A48 

Kornell. Mathias Irving A73 

Kornfeder, Joseph (Joseph Zack) A84, A87, A104, A112, 

A118, A132, A133, A134, A136, A138, A139 

Kornfedder. Rudolf A88, A132 

Korsell, Johann Louis A102, A118, A131 

Kortvelyesi. John (known as John Kortvesy) A73 

Kory. Abraham A30, A31 

Kosesak, Gene (Kosoeak, John) A48 

Koslow, Abraham Barney A73 

Kossert, John A48 

Kotti, Kriste G A30 

Koujie, George A48 

Kozar, John , A48 

Koxjak, Steve ^ A48 

Kozlowski, Ernest A48 

Kraddock. James P. C. (see Craddock, James P. C.) A48 

Krafsur, Samuel A48 

Kraman, Daniel A48 

Kramer, Jacob Albert A48 

Kranes, Louis Nathan A73 

Krangel, Morris A48 

Krasna, Louis A73 

Krassavin, Michael A48 

Kratisikoflf, Maurice A73 

Krauthamer, Max A49 

Kreitz, Emily AllO 

Kreitz, Emily L A88 

Kreitz, Jacob ASS, AllO, Alll, A136 

Kreitz, Lizzie (Emily) ASS, AllO, Alll, A136 

Kresclak, Domenico A49 

Kressa, Consten A73 

Krivitsky, General AS, A86, A94, A107, A109, A112 

Krieger, Abraham A16 

Krieger, Samson A16, A19 

Krist. Nikolas (Nikolaos) A49 

Krumbein, Charles A82, ASS, AlOO, AlOl, A106, AlOS, A118, A128, A129, A136 

Krumbein. Margaret A48 

Krupa, Max A49 

Kruth, Mito A49 

Kuchersky, Abraham A49 

Kuleske, George A16 

Kulkarui, Chandrakaut G A126 

Kumpis, John A49 

Kunstlich, Cecil Alexander A73 

Kunz, John A49 

Kuperman, Isaac A49 



XXII INDEX 

Page 

Kupinsky, Wolf (known as Wolf Kupin) A49 

Kupperman, Louis A49 

Kurtz, Sidney (Sydney) A49 

Kustern, Frank A49 

Kutler, Barnett (Steven (?)) A49 

Kutlesa, Steve A73 

Kuusisto, Martin A49 

Kvratt, Israel A49 

Kweit, Amy Esther Schechter A88, A125, A1S4 

Kweit, Amy Schechter A99 

Kweit, Harry A84, 

A89, A90, A96, A98, A99, A105, A114, A116, A119, A125, A126, A127, 

A130, A132, A134, A137, A138, A139. 

Kweit, Helen A81 

Kweit, Helen Lillian Bowlen A89, A134 

Kweit, Nathan William A81, A84, A89, A98, A99, A134, A139 



Labagnora, Michelino A73 

La Belle, Honore T A16 

Lacher, Benzion A73 

Ladman, Louis A49 

Lago Petroleum Co A85, A86 

Laine, Laurie E A102, A119 

Lallemant, Robert W. (see Robert W. E. F. AWF-Lallemant ) A49 

Lamaroa, James A73 

Lamchick, Leonard (alias Capt. Leonard Lamb) A49 

Lamour, Miss Anitra AIM 

Lampert, Josef J A49 

Land, Stafford K A49 

Landberg, Nattie A25 

Landis, Arthur Harold A49 

Lane, James Lawrence A49 

Lane, John Albert A49 

Lanser, Morris A49 

La Pato, Maurice A123 

Lardner, James Phillips A49 

Larocca, Peter A49 

Larsen, Leonard Hans A73 

Lash, Joseph P A73 

Latz, August Alll, A138 

Laukkonen. Lauri Armas A73 

Law, Norman Emmet A73 

Law, Olver A49 

Lawrence, James Duncan A73 

Layton. Paul Eugene A49 

Leap, George Webster A73 

Leary, John T., Jr A73 

Leavitt, Barrett David A49 

Lebovitz, Edwin A49 

Lebowitz, Isidore A73 

Lee, Harold Harvey A49 

Leeds, David (see Amariglio, David) A33 

Lefkowitz, Louis A49 

Leggett, Harry A49 

Lehmann, Edgar Aalbert A73 

Leiberman AllO 

Leider, Benjamin A73 

Leight, Clara A73 

Leighton, John Stuart A73 

Leinoff, Simon A49 

Leiserowitz, Sol (alias Solomon) A73 

Leiviska, George Henry A73 

Lemberger, Myron Edgar A49 

Lembke, John A73 



INDEX XXIII 

Pa?e 

Lenike, Otto Ernest A73 

Lenczycki, Machla A80, A85, A89, A90, 

Alio, A124, A125, A127, A128, A134, A137, A139 
Lenczycki, Mrs A89, A90 

Lenin (Leniin), Thomas Edward - A49 

Lendinir, Isaac Kuward A49 

LeIltlli^'r. Arthur Amand (alias John Lenthier) A49 

Leuway. Clyde Charles A49 

Lepo, Daniel A49 

Leppo, Ernest Earl A49 

Lerner, Abraham A7, AIG 

Lerner. Bernard Morris (known as Murray Lerner) A49 

Lerner, Mrs. B A96, A119, A126 

Lerner, David A73 

Lerner, Hyman A73 

Lerner, Isiah (known as Sol Lerner) A49 

Lernex', Joseph A16 

Lerner. Louis A99, A119 

Lesniak, Waiter Peter A73 

Lessitz (Lissitz), Samuel A50 

Lester. Roddie Carlton A30, A31 

LetA'ie, Abe AHO 

Levenson, Leonard B. (Bertram) A50 

Levick, Lionel A50 

Levin, Emanuel A90, A119 

Levin, Hyman A25 

Levin, Louis A73 

Levin, Nathan A50 

Levine, Abraham Joseph AHO 

Levine, Benjamin A50 

Levine, Louis A50 

Levine, May A73 

Levine, Samuel (alias Sam Levine) A50 

Levine, Sidney AHO 

Levinser, Samuel Harold A50 

Levinsky, Joseph A50 

Levitt, Isadore AHO 

Levy, Hannah A119 

Levy, Hannah Josephson A116, A119, A120 

Levy, Israel AHO 

Levy, Philip A118, A116, A119 

Lewandovsky (Lewandowski), Alex A50 

Lewis, Abraham A50 

Lewis, Charles A73 

Lewis, Samuel John, Jr A30, A32 

Lewis, Walter Chester, Jr AHO 

Lieberman, Julius (alias Abraham Boris Eisenberg) A73 

Lichter, Harry Edward Ar>0 

Lidz, Arthur A50 

Ligrhtcap, Jacob Harold A25 

Lighton, George William A50 

Lilienstein, Nathan A50 

Lilienstein, Regina A16, A20 

Lindberg, Harold Fridjof A73 

Lindfors, Veikko Olavi A74 

Lingeman, Clarence George A74 

Linn, Sidney A50 

Lippert, David Watson A50 

Lipton, David Raphael A.'O 

Liptzen, Samuel A6, A7, A14, A16, AUG 

Lisberg, Norman A74 

Litsas, Christos AOO 

Littleton, Edward Cole A74 

Litvackoff, Isiah A7-A9, A16 

Litvinas, Anthony AoO 



XXIV INDEX 

Page 

Lizarrago, Manvel (Lizarraga, Manuel) -^-J^ 

Lloyd, Thomas Leroy AoO 

Loch, Rudolph A50 

Lockett, John Albert A74 

Loeb, Lydia Al'JU, All«, A120 

Loeisser, Dr. Leo E. (sec Eloessor, Leo) A50 

Loeseh, Victor Michael A74 

Logan, John Monroe A50 

Lombardy, Benuie A30 

Lomsky, Abraham A50 

Loudon, Jessie Brooks A30 

I>ong, Robert M A17, A2u, A85, A8G, A120 

Loomis, p]lliot Burch A50 

I<opez. Herman (Cintrou) A50 

Lopoff, Aaron AoO 

liOrd, Frederick 1. (Frederic Ivis) A50 

Lorraine, Sidney Hotchkiss A74 

Loshak, Israel A30 

Lossowski, Vincent, Jr A50 

Love, Vaughn A50 

Loveman, Eugene Jacob A74 

Lovestone, Jay A109 

Lowry, J. C AS 

Lucas, Frank A50 

Lukas. Otto AlOl, A120 

Luchterhand, Emil E. A A18, A16 

Lucid, John Michael A51 

Luftig, Joseph A51 

Lukaszewis, Frank A74 

Lund, George R A74 

Lundberg, John A29, A31 

Lustgarten, Lawrence A51 

Lutka, Paul A51 

Lutz, Frederick George A51 

Lux, William A51 

Lynd A115, A116 

Lynd, Henry G A85, A91, A123 

Lynd, Henry George AGO, A91, 

A99, A114, A119, A120, A123, A135, A130, A138, A139 
Lynd. Susan Abbott A83, A91, A120, A123, A124, A135, A138 

Mc 

McCarthy, James C A93, A121 

McCarthy, Williaui Fred (Frederick) A51 

McCasland, Virgil Ivan (known as V. Ivan McCasland) A52 

McConnell, Dorthy F A17 

McCiiistion, Larry A121 

McCuistion, William Coulter A52, A95, A21 

McCullough, Lawrence A52 

McDaniel, Edward Luchell A52 

INIcGovern, Peter Joseph A52 

McKearn, Joseph William A74 

jMcKinnon, Daniel Franklin A52 

McNabb, Charles Henry A74 

McSoley, Henry Carter A52 

]McStravick, James Terence A52 

M 

IMaceachron, Paul Norton, Jr A51 

Mackay, Anthony A51 

MacLeod, Donald Blair A51 

Madden, Arthur A51 

JMagrel, John A51 

JIagrini, Peter Michaelangelo A74 

IMaier, Henry Rudolph A51 



INDEX XXV 

Page 

JIaier. Joseph ^^^^ 

Mail, Jack A5i 

.Alaiu, Albert De A74 

RIa.lercik, Miloslav -^74 

Makei, Martii (Maki, Martii David) A51 

Malliiu, Baruey A'<^4 

Male, Douglas Wayne '^74 

Malikin, Ilymau A30, A31 

Mallem, Lloyd A74 

Mallou, Thomas John A74 

Malone, Edwin Harold All A17 

Malopsky (Malofsky) Harold A51 

Mandel, Emanuel A74 

Mandelblatt, Solomon A74 

Manealoff & Co A113, A119 

Manheim, Erwiu A51 

Mani, Freeman Woodman A51 

Manley, Joseph A25 

Manley, Sylvia A25 

Mann, Harold Mulford A74 

Mann, Thomas Dixon, Jr A74 

Manninen, Robert (known as Robert Manning) A74 

Manson, Burton Robert A74 

Mantell, Benjamin A51 

Manuel, Vicente A17 

Marca, Arnold Theodore A51 

iMaxcus, Moritz A13, 17 

Maretio, Joseph A51 

Margolis, Irving A51 

Margulis, Grace Miriam A51 

Marin, Emihano (Emiliano) A51 

Marine Workers' Industrial Union A137 

Marine Workers' Union A102,A121 

MarineUi A137 

Marion, Mary C A17 

Marinoff, George A31 

Market (Markert), Clement Lawrence A51 

Markey, Dorothy G A91 

Markey, Dorothy Gary A120 

Markey, John A97, A120 

Markey, John F A120 

Markowitz, Leo Isaac A51 

Markowitz, Rubin A51 

Markowitz, Sam A74 

Marks, Leon A5, A6, As, A9, A25, A85, A91, 

A92, A95, A106, Alll, A118, A124, A127, A133, A135, A136, A139 

Marotich, Milo A17 

Marquette, Edward Mont A51 

Marron, Mary A17 

Marsh, Archie Rue Aol 

Martin, James Hamilton A74 

Martin, William A28, A31 

Martinelli, William A51 

Martinez, Pedro Seno (see Seno, Pedro Martinez) A51 

Masjuan, Jaime (Rodriguez) A74 

Mason, William Howard A51 

Massey, Marion Burton A74 

Masterson, Louis Thomas A51 

Matejunas, Stanley A51 

Matison, Matthew- Irving A51 

Matosich, Anthony A51 

Mattson, Matti August A51 

Matyas, Zoran A17, A21 

Matz, Morritz A51 

Maurer, Helen A81, A121 

Maurer, Henrietta A92, A112, A113, A121 



XXVI INDEX 

Page 

May, Doris A17 

Mayer, Charles A51 

Mayfield, Obie A17, A25 

Maynarcl, Consul General Lester A95, A116, A122 

Mayoard, Roger A74 

Maynard, Lawrence (Laurance) Af)! 

Mazurka, Anthony Frank A51 

Mazzetti, Frank A51 

Mechailides, Panagiotis A52 

Meersand, Emil A74 

Megguler (Megguier), J. B. (Megquier, Henry Ben) A52 

Meltz, Mrs. G. (Henrietta Maurer) A92, A112, A113, A121, A133 

Meltz, Valeria A92, A97, A112, A121, A133, A138 

Meltzer, Clara A17, A108 

Meltzer, Shoshano A17 

Menacker, Isidore A74 

Mendelowitz, Samuel A74 

Mendelson, Wilfred A52 

Mendlowitz, Jacob A52 

Mendlowitz, Joseph {See Mendlowitz, Jacob; same person) Ai32 

Menihew, Orlando David A17 

Meresca, Stephan (Stephen Anthony) A52 

Merims, Sonia A74 

Merkel, Paul A52 

Meronia, Purfill A74 

Merriman, Robert Hale A52 

Mertens, Frank A74 

Metropolitan, David A74 

Metsonen, Thomas A74 

Meyerson, Wolf A74 

Meyler, Elsa AlOO, A106 

Meyler, Elsa ,. AlOO, A106 

Meyler, George AlOO, A106 

Michael, Esther A92, A93, A121, A123 

Michael, Lillie A92 

Michalchik, George A74 

Michel, Mrs. Jacob A90, A124 

Mickenberg, Morris A52 

Mikades, Gus Constantinos A52 

Mikailov, Serge A90, A120 

Mikalauskas, Vaolav Simon (known as Wesley Mikalauskas) A52 

Miletieh, Steve A74 

Miller, Carol Marion A74 

Miller, David Micah A75 

Miller, Frank A86, A121 

Miller, Fred Ralph A52 

Miller, James A52 

Miller, William Colfax A75 

Miller, William Newton A75 

Miller, William Wesley A52 

Mills, John Edward, Jr A75 

Millstone, Isidore A52 

Miltenberger, John A A75 

Mina, Thomas A75 

Miner, Reuben (alias Ruben Minor) A75 

Mink, George AS, A84, ASS, AS7, A93, A94, A102, A116, 

A117, A121, A124, A129, A132, A134, A135, A136, A137, A138, A139 

Mink, George Martin A121 

Minor, Lydia Gibson A17 

Minor, Robert A17, A25 

Mitchell, Andrew A75 

Mitchell, Irving A52 

Mitchell, Martha Esther . A75 

Mohar, Louis A52 

Molinar, Albert A75 

Molnar, Julius A52 



INDEX xxvn 

Pagr» 

Montauarella, Felice A52 

Moutgomery, Jean A6, AS, A93, A94, A106, A107, A126, A133, A138 

Montgomery, William A8, A93, A94, A107, A133, A138 

Moore, Paul A75 

Moore, Thomas Ayers A52 

Mo ran, Marsden A75 

Morel, William Benjamin A52 

Moren. Gerald Mark A139 

Morenoy, Jean Baptiste Philodore A75 

Moreno, Louis A29, A30 

Morg;an, Crawford A52 

Morin, Francois Xavier A75 

Morning Freiheit A9 

Morris, George 26 

Morris, George (Nicholas Dozenberg Earl Browder) ASl, 

A86, A94, A106, A112, A113, A122, A123, A133, A138 

Morris, Mrs. George AS6, A94 

Morris, Martha A94, A122 

Morris. Virgil Lanny A75 

Morrise, Arthur Walter A18 

Morrison, Annie A6, A7, 9, A16, A18, A26, A105 

Morrison, Irving A52 

Morrison, Morris A7 

Morse, Eugene A75 

Moscow Daily News A86 

Moser, George Cherry A75 

Moshier, Harry Charles A.52 

Moskowitz, Abraham A52 

Moskowitz, I. (Ignatz) A53 

Mosley, Archie A26 

Moulton, Howard (Raymond) A53 

Moulton, Leonard Roy A53 

Mozer, Frank Victor A29, A31 

M'Quarrie, Edgar Roy A53 

Mroczkowski, Edward Andrew A.53 

Mudge, Grover C AIS 

Mullen, John J A29, A31 

Mullen, Lawrence A18 

Muller, J. J A31 

Muller, John Phillip iV75 

Mullinger, Romeyn Charles A75 

Munday, Arthur A53 

Murphy, James Patrick A75 

Murphy, Marcus Alphons A14, A18 

Muscala, Edward Ferdinand A75 

Muso, Giuseppe A53 

N 

Nabried, Thomas A26 

Nagle, Robert Arnold A53 

Nagura, George A17, A18 

Nahanchuk, Iwan (real name Ivan Nahanczuk) A.53 

Nahman, Samuel A53 

Naidi, John Di A75 

Nancarrow, Samuel Conlon (Colon) A53 

Nance, Youngblood (Young Blood) A53 

Narurwicz, Alexander A53 

Nash, Louise A94 

Nassberg, M. B A114 

Nathan, Max ASO, A116, A122 

Neafus, Ralph Lawrence A7d 

Nedvar, Joseph A53 

Neef, Oscar Christian (alias Redi Neef) A75 

Neel, Clyde Harvey A75 

Negie, Emma (Frances) A124 



XXVIII INDEX 

Page 

Nelsen, Marvin A75 

Nelson, Kenneth Frederick ATS 

Nelson, Robert William A.IS 

Nelson, Steve A53 

Nemeroff", Murray A53 

Nemser, Morris A82, ASS 

Netreba, Alfred AT5 

Neufrass, Isidore James Newman A75 

New Brighton Public Market AS3 

Newnnan, Sol A53 

Nicliolas, Ashley J Al, 5, A128 

Nichta, Alexander A53 

Nieder, David Louis A53 

Nieflerman, Bela A.j3 

Niezgoda, Adam John A75 

Nivala, Robert Kustav A75 

Noachowitz, Irving A53 

Nobel, Harry A53 

Noble, Marion Monden A53 

Nolan, Joseph A53 

Nolte, Eugene Victor A53 

Norie, James Lester, Jr A75 

North, Joseph A31 

Northcutt, Charles Lawrence A75 

Norton, Thomas Allen A53 

Norwicki, Frank A75 

Norwood, Robert Webster A53 

Novae, Alba A75 

Novotuak, George AIS, A19 

Nowakowskl, Anthony A53 

Nusser, Charles A53 

Nyland, Annie A17, AIS 

O 

Oberlander, Beatrice A6 

Oberman, Howard Bailey A75 

Obriot, Tersil A53 

Oeasio, Gracis Angel (see Garcia, Angel Ocasio) A53 

Ochs, Mary Rader A75 

Ocken, Anna Helen A75 

Q'Dell, Paul Wilson A53 

Oderaka, William H A53 

Oehler, Edward Hugo A53 

Offner, Rose A18 

Ofsink, Melvin A75 

O'Hara, James Burtle A75 

O'Kane, Walter Elmer A75 

O'Leong A113 

Oliver, Louis Anthony A53 

Olken, M A98 

Olken, Morris L A7, A99 

Olmstead, Philip A18 

Olmholt, Anders A18 

Olsen (Olson), Henry Rudolph A54 

O'Malley, Thomas William A54 

Omholt, Ella Reeve Bloor All, A18 

O'Neil, Oscar A75 

Oretchkin, Boris Rudolph A54 

Ornitz, Louis (Ormnitz, Louis) A54 

Orton, Carl Frederick Gutherz A75 

Osborne, Norman Jardine A54 

Osheroff, Abraham A54 

Oswalt, Lowell Duncan A54 

Owen, Blaine (alias of Boris Israel) A54 

Ozias, Earl Albert A54 



ISDT.X XXIX 

P 

Page 

rabou, Pedro A7r» 

Pacheco, Edward A.")4 

Padro. Antonio Pacheco A?;") 

Page, Dorothy A120 

Paye, Myra A91, A12<J 

Page, Thomas A:j4 

Paine. (.Jrauville Walker A75 

Palega, Edward A54 

Palen, \\'aino A7.1 

Palmer, Frederick Aaron A75 

Palmer, George Anthony, Jr A54 

Palmer, Joseph A30, A31 

Palmer, William (alias; see Colon, Guillermo, alias William C. Palmer) A54 

Panasiiervics (Panaszewicz), John Peter A54 

Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat A113 

Panscik, John A54 

Papadopullo, Michel Antonio (Michael Pappas) A54 

Pape, Andrew A137 

Pape, Andrew George A75, A94, A104, A134 

Pape, Mrs. Andrew A94 

Paretti, Joseph A8, A94, A95, A12o 

Paretti, Louis A6, 

AS. A23, A25, A92, A94, A95, A108, A109, A121, A122, A123, A135, A139 

Parilla, Jack Liber A26 

Parker, Charles Augustus (Agustus) A54 

Parker, Daniel A54 

Parker, DeWitt Webster A54 

Parker, Frank A54 

Parker, Max A54 

Parks, John William A75 

Parmelee, Kenneth C AM 

Parnes, Isaac Harry A54 

Parrotte, Henry John A54 

Pasternaek, Daniel Alvin A.54 

Pasternak, Louis A9, A19 

Patterson, Harry Benjamin A.54 

Paula, Eladio A54 

Paull, Eldred Raymond A7.j 

Pavlich, Matt A54 

Pawlowski, John (Jan) A54 

Paxton, J. V A123 

Paxton, Susanna (alias Susanna Fineberg, alias Susan Abbott Lynd) A83. 

A91, Alll, A120, A123, A13.5, A138 

Paxton, Susanna Hart A123, A124 

Payne, Earl Elwood A54 

Payne, Mel\in Laycock A54 

Payne, Perley Baldwin, Jr A54 

Pearson, Ruth R A.31 

Peck, Samuel A76 

Peebles, Hurley Golden A19 

Pekow, Herman J A54 

Pekow, Milton A54 

Peuino, Pedro A54 

Penrod. John Arthur A54 

Pereins, Manuel (Manuel Perry) A31 

Perez. Aurelio A55 

Perez-Fernandez, Angel A76 

Perkins, Earl William Ao5 

Perlman, Norman A.>5 

Perrone, John A55 

Perry, Leslie Raymond A76 

I*erry, Manuel. (See Pereins, Manuel.) 

Persily, Coleman A5.5 

Persoff, Jacob A5.") 



XXX INDEX 

Page 

Peshkin, Irving A55 

Petaya, Aino Mattea A55 

Peters, George A55 

Peters, Naomi A19 

Peters, Raymond Leo A55 

Peterson, Frank Oliver A76 

Peterson, John Lloyd A55 

Peterson, Kenneth David Richard A76 

Petras, Helen A19 

Petrullo, John A55 

Pettyjohn, Robert Marvin A55 

Phetteplaee, Manch Oral A55 

Phillips, A A114 

Pick, Robert Carl A55 

Piekarski, John A55 

Pietcrs, Cornelius Gerardus A55 

Pike, Robert Marshall A55 

Pirie, Francis Badge A55 

Pistone, Rosario A55 

Pitt, James Albert A55 

Pitts, Dr. Donald H A55 

Pitzer, John Charles A55 

Piusker, Joseph A12 

Platkin, Mary Louise A76 

Platnick (Plotnick), Henry A55 

Piatt, Leon (or Plotkin) A6, A8, A9, A25 

Plugradt, Erich Oscar (Oskar) A55 

Plumb, Franklyn Caroll A55 

Pniewski, Theodore A55 

Poberesky, Ben A76 

Podolin, Isia A55 

Polansky, Samuel A55 

Polen, Abraham A55 

Pollak, John AllO 

Pollack, Sam A55 

Poole, George William A55 

Poole, Grace A19 

Porter, Mr. I A99 

Portnow, Irving A55 

Porvaznik, Andrevp A76 

Posner, Dr. John Jacob A55 

Possoff, Morris A6 

Povelsen (Poulsen), Helge (Hege) A55 

Powers, George Edward A94, A123, A138 

Powers, Vincent Arnold A76 

Prager, Thomas Theodore A55 

Prago, Albert A55 

Pressman, Lee A124 

Primoff, Florence A26 

Primoff, George A5, A7, A26 

Primoff students A27 

Prince, Clarence I A16, A19 

Prince, Clarence Isom A76 

Pringle, Claude A55 

Priovolos, Louis A55 

Prompt Press A86, A123 

Provenzano, Merourio A55 

Prowell, Alphaeus Danfourth A76 

Publishers Verified Service, Inc A80 

Pudinski, Leo . A55 

Puglia, Vito A55 

Pulkkinen, George Albert A55 

Purchick, Harry A76 

Puro, Henry A27 

Purviance, Carlton Clarence A76 



INDEX XXXI 

Pago 

Purviance, Katharine Reynolds A76 

Putek, John A55 

Pylkki, llagnar A55 

Q 

Quiggle, Harlan Gerald A55 

Quinones, Gabriel A55 

R 

Rabie, George (alias George Rabey) A55 

Rabinowitz, Aaron A19 

Rabinovitz, Adolph A89 

Rabinovitz, I A56 

Rabinowitz, Adolph A95, A108, A116, A122, A131, A135, A137-A139 

Rabinowitz, Miriam A19 

Rackley, Mildred A56 

Raddock (Radock), Michael A56 

Rader, Mary {see Ochs, Mary Rader) ASG 

Radin, Walter Jack A76 

Ragawskas (Ragamkas), Albin A56 

Ragenstrich, Isriel (alias John Gates, alias Solregen Streif) A56 

Rahman, Mrs. Evelyn A56 

Rahman, Karl A56 

Raisin, Jacob (J. N. Golos) A5, A7, A112, A131 

Ramatowski, John Augustus A56 

Ramer, Aaron A76 

Ramirez, Nicholas (Nicholas Ramiriz) A56 

Randall, Harry AVayland, Jr A56 

Randolph, P A31 

Ransom, iNIarcus A76 

Rappoiwrt, Isfael A76 

Rappaport, iMordecai Gerson (alias Milton Rappaport) A56 

Rauert. Henry George A76 

Rauscl'.wald. Mark Benjamin AilG 

Rautbort, Tony Henry A56 

Raven, Joseph Robert (known as J. Robert Raven) A56 

Rawlins, Phillip A56 

Ray, Thomas James A76 

Raybor, John Harold A56 

Razanski, Bernard A76 

Reamey, James S A19 

Redlioh, George F A76 

Reed, Harry A31 

Reed, Karl Albert A56 

Reed, Peter Leroy A56 

Reed, Robert Lee A56 

Reed, William Allen A56 

Reeves, Harrison V Ao6 

Reeves, Otto Coleman A76 

Regalia, Edmund John . A57 

Regan, Charles Joseph A56 

Rehil, Francis Joseph A56 

Rehmann, August Ao6 

Reinholm, Axel A56 

Reinleb, Hynian A56 

Reisky, Arnold A76 

Reitz, John A56 

Reopel, Albert Edward A56 

Revera, Leopold (alias Revira) A76 

Revere, Stephen (Steve) A56 

Rezac, Albert A56 

Rhead. Robert George A56 

Rhetta, Virgil A56 

Ricci, Francis A56 

Richards, Albert A5, A9, A23, A26 



XXXII INDEX 

Page 

Richards. Albert Aeury A2t) 

Riclimau, Beiijainin David A5G 

Richman. Morris A5l5 

Richter, William A5(i 

Rifkin, Irving A7G 

Rigerman. Esther A90, A124, A137 

Rigerman. Esther Michel A93, A96, AlIl, A123, A124, A134 

Rigerman, Henry A92, A93, A123 

Rigerman, Louis A123 

Riggs, Edward A84, A89. A96, A99, A105, A119, A127, A134, A135, A139 

Rijock, Isaac (known as Jolm Stuben) _ A6, A26, A90, A96, A124, A127, A134, A137 

Rijoek, Mrs A90 

Rijock, Sadie A96, A124, A134 

Rijock (Ryack), Sadie Michel A90, A124, A137 

Rijock, Mrs. Sadie A92 

Rintz, Norman Charles A7G 

Rios, Oscar Ameliano A56 

Ripps, Alfred A57 

Riszane, Thomas Tito A57 

Rivera, Ferdinand A76 

Rizzo. Anthony Michael A57 

Roach, Douglas Bryan A57 

Robbing. Seymour Stanley A57 

Robel, Charles Edward A76 

Robertson, Charles A76 

Robertson, Milton H. (see Swartzberg, Milton) A57 

Robert.son. Royce Walker A76 

Robinson, Donald L A124 

Robinson. James Miller A57 

Rochester, Sterling T A12, A19, A57 

Rodriguez, Emilio A76 

Rodriguez, Rafael A76 

Rodriquez, .Julius A57 

Rodriquez, Oscar Fernandez A31, A76 

Rodv, .John A57 

Roffeld (Roeffield), Charles A57 

Roffman, Joseph A5V 

Rogers, Alfred Enoch A57 

Rogers. Robert Bruce A57 

Rollins, Fred A76 

Rollins, Wade Cuthbeat A57 

Romer, Edna Di-abkin A76 

Romer, Samuel A57 

Roosevelt, Patrick (see Patrick, Roosevelt) A57 

Rosario. Conrado Fiqueroay A57 

Rosen, Sadie A96, 124 

Rosenbei'g, Abrahara Isaac A76 

Rosenberg, Anna A126 

Rosenberg, Leon A57 

Rosenberg, Nathan A6-A9, A14, A19 

Rosenblatt, Sidney (Sydney) A57 

Rosenblum, Solomon A76 

Rosenfeld A108 

Rosenkrantz. Lawrence A57 

Rosenstein, Joseph A76 

Rosenstein, Sidney A57 

Rosenthal A92 

Rosenthal, Julius A57, A123, A124, A135, A137, A138 

Rosenthal, Leon A57 

Rosmarin, Joseph A77 

Rosner, Hyman A77 

Ross. Adolph A57 

Ross. George A6, A7, AS, A9, A12, A19, A107 

Rossen, John A57 

Roth, Charles A57 

Roth, Dr. Jewel A7 



INDEX XXXIU 

Page 

Hotter, Jacob A77 

liouen, Jean Pierre A77 

Kouillard, John A57 

Rovaineu, Adolpb . A57 

Kowlson, I^ester Leverne A57 

Royce, Andrew . A57 

Royce, Edward A126 

Rozen, Leo Manuel . A77 

Rubin, Mrs. Estber A117, A122, A124 

Rubin, Harry . A57 

Rubin, Henri Mortimer A57 

Rubin, Hiram A125 

Riibin, Mrs A90, A124, A125 

Rucker, James Bernard A77 

Rudner, Sidney AST 

Rudnicki, Wasel (alias William Rudnisky) A77 

Rui, Rudolf . A57 

Rujevcio, Paul William A57 

Rundgreu, Paul AVilliam AST 

Rusciano, Ricco Joseph A57 

Russiano, Thomas Basil A57 

Rutkauskas, Anthony O A77 

S 

Sacalis, Lucas AST 

Sachs, William A77 

Sack, Ely Joseph A57 

Sacks, Leon Meyer A77 

Saffin, Rosa AS, A6, A9, A26, A105 

Saffin, Sady. ( See Weiss, Sady. ) 

Saindon, Arthur AST 

Sakaloska, Joseph ASS 

Saligopolos, Themestodes ( Saligopoplos, Themistocies) AS8 

Sail, Benzion (Bernard) (known as Bernard Sail) ASS 

Saloway, Issik (known as Irving N. Soloway) A77 

Salvini, Frederick ASS 

Salzbrenner, Florenz Frederick ASS 

Samaras, Coustantinos Christodulo A77 

Samuel, Andre A12 

Samulis, Victor A78 

Sanborn, Dallas Velmore (Sanborn, D. V.) ASS 

Sanderson, Paul Murray ASS 

Sandiford, Frederick F A77 

Sandipher, Israel Erwin , A77 

Sanford, Albert Byron ASS 

Sanford, Francis Clair ASS 

Sanforn, Dalles (see Sanborn, Dallas V.) ASS 

Sankari, Aate Hjalmar A7T 

Sankovich, Joseph ASS- 

Sansoue, Joseph A77 

Santa Lucia, Anthony ASS 

Santa Lucia, Joseph Anthony ASS 

Santini, Victor ASS 

Sargent, Edsal Laurence A77 

Sasson, Abraham ASS 

Sauermilch, Alexander ASS 

Savako, John ASS 

Sawitt, Boris A31 

Scarpello, Charles Anthony ASS 

Scelmann, Theodore A77 

Schacter, David ASS 

Schattner, Theodore ASS 

Schatzberg, Jacob A7T 

Schechter, Amy (Amy Esther Schechter Kweit) ASS, AS9, A12S, A13T, A13* 

Schechter, Solomon A125 

72723— 57— pt. 23a 12 



XXXIV INDEX 

Page- 

Schechtman, Mr A89 

Schechtman, Mrs A89 

Schecter, Rubin ASS 

Schembari, Giovanni A58 

Schiaparelli, Stefauo A118 

Schiffman, Joe A26 

Schiffman, Jonas A2G 

Schilling, Nathan Meyer A58 

Scliintone, Victor P A58 

Schlekau, Walter E A58 

Schlesigner, Herbert A77 

Schlossberg, Harold A6 

Schlusberg, Harold A5, A26, A90, A96, A97, A124, A125, A127, A134, A137 

Schlusberg, Harry A96, A104, A124, A125, A134 

Schmidt, J. Norman A77 

Schmitt, Ernest Anthony A58 

Schneider, Eddie August A77 

Schneider, Helen A19 

Schneider, Hyman S A18, A20 

Schneider, Isaac A20 

Schneider, Koleman A31, A32 

Schneider, Leah A14, A20 

Schneider, Murray A58 

Schneider, Theodore Samuel A58 

Schneiderman, Rubin A77 

Schneiderman, William A26 

Schneller, Florence Hathaway A125 

Schneller, Mrs. Florence Jean A113 

Schneller, Maxim R A125 

Schneller, Dr. Maximilian N. (alias Dr. Carl H. Elsaf (Elsef ) ) A125 

Schoen, Eugene, & Co., Inc A108 

Schoenberg, Harry (alias Shinsberg) A58 

Schrieber, Paul A58 

Schrenzel, Isadore ASS 

Schuetrum, Walter J., Jr ASS 

Schuler, Clarence ASS 

Schuler, Maynard ASS 

Schulman, Max A81 

Schulman, Rebecca A59 

Schultz, Ellas AS9 

Schultz, Ellas AS9 

Schulz, William AS9 

Soliultzberg, Gunnar Nils A77 

Schuman, Irving Raymond A77 

Schutz, Herbert Lavs^rence A59 

Schwab, Irving A124 

Schwartz, Abraham A59 

Schwartz, Anna A126 

Schwartz, Louis L A89, A90, A125, A127, A137 

Schwartz, Dr. Louis L A90, A125, A126, A127 

Schwartz, Max A77 

Schwartz, Ralph Waldo A59 

Schwartz, Samuel A126 

Schwartzberg, Mordkai (Mordecai) A59 

Schwartzman, Alexander AS9 

Schweinfest, Robert AS9 

Sciarra, Phillip Lugiano A77 

Scott, Henry A31, A32 

Seacord, Douglass Earl A59 

Seaman's Church Institute A122 

Seamans Institute A102, A107, A116- 

Searl, Herbert Hunt AS9 

Secundy, Louis AS9 

Sedlacek, James A77 

Sedrag, C A126 

Seevin, Arthur A59' 



INDEX XXXV 

Pago 

Seihert, Charles Joseph Ar>0 

Seinberu-, Dora A114 

Selby, Vernon lioniayne A59 

Sellisnian. Joseph, Jr A59 

Seligson, Herman A — 20 

SemenolT, Denieter AoO 

Senford, Francis Clair A59 

Seno, Pedro Martinez A77 

Service, Elman Rogers A59 

Severdia, George Anthony Ao9 

Shafman, Abraham A85, A104, A126 

Shafran. Eva A26 

Shafran, Jacob Joseph An9 

Shahlnian, Harold A77 

Shaker, Kenneth Rubin A59 

Shanks. Merritt N A77 

Shannon, Gilbert Leslie A59 

Shanzky, Michael A59 

Shapiro, David A59 

Shapiro, Elias AS 

Shapiro, Eugene L A77 

Shapiro, Henry A77 

Shapiro, L A99, A126 

Shapiro, Manuel A77 

Shapiro, Mordecai Morris A77 

Shapiro, Saul Mayer A59 

Shappiro David A59 

Shartin. Aaron A127, A128, A137 

Shatz, Gertrude Larson A92, A97, A113, A115, A126, A133, A138 

Shatz, Phillip A97, Alll, A120, A126, A133 

Shatz, William A97, A126 

Shaw, Ralph A12 

Sheehan, Roy J A59 

Sheir. Nathan Meyer A77 

Shelley, John A32 

Shenkir, Joseph Adolph A77 

Shepard. Harry C, Jr A59 

Sherburne, Raymond W A109 

Sherer, Marcel A6 

Sherman, Nicholas A89, A98, A113, A116, 

A117, A119, A122, A127, A135, A137, A138, A139 

Sherod, Richard Montgomery A59 

Shiff, Solomon Ar,9 

Shiffman, Jack A59 

Shilman, Arthur A59 

Shipman, Ethel A8, A93, A126 

Shipman, Evan A59 

Shissler, Robert Goris A59 

Shklar, Constantin A8 

Shorr, Brodsky and King A106, A117, A131 

Shorr, Isaac A106, A117, A131 

Shosteck, Sidney A59 

Shoyet, Samuel A127 

Shuldiner, Anna A77 

Shulman, Jak A59 

Sidorovich, Michael A59 

Siegal, Bessie A96, A119, A126 

Siegel, lone A59 

Siegel, Joseph Isaac A59 

Siegal, S Afl6, A119, A126 

Siegal, Samuel A96, A119, A126 

Siegartel, Fay A126, A131, A132 

Sieve, Horace Lionel A77 

Sills, Benjamin A59 

Silpyan, Samuel A60 



XXXVI INDEX 

Page 

Silverman, Conrad A59 

Silverman, Ivan A A77 

Silverman, Max A59 

Silverman, Samuel A59 

Silverstein, Arthur Paul A60 

Silverstein, Esther Miriam A77 

Simon, John Leopold A77 

Simon, Sauuer (Sanor) A6Q 

Simpson, Donald Arthur A60 

Singer, Bernard A77 

Sinnott, Joseph Martin A60 

Siroka, William A32 

Sirotof, Abraham A60 

Siskin, Louis A59, AGO 

Skean, Joseph Wiliiam A60 

Skepastiotis, Nickolas (Nicholas) A60 

Skifstrom, John Raymond A77 

Skolnick, Abraham A77 

Skoliiick, Yale A60 

Slater, Carl Theador (Theo) A60 

Small, John A60 

Smith, Art AGO 

Smith, Benjamin Carr A77 

Smith, David A60 

Smith, Frank James Jr AGO 

Smith, Hannah J A120 

Smith, Harold AGO 

Smith, Harold Jacob AGO 

Smith, Harold Le Roy A77 

Smith, Harry Wesly AGO 

Smith, John, Jr AGO 

Smith, Lawrence Boyden AGO 

Smith, Owen Jefferson AGO 

Smith, Vern Ralph A26 

Smith, William Poultney, Jr AGO 

Smorodin, Abraham AGO 

Smullins, Isaac A20, A27 

Snead, Joseph AGO 

Snesetzky, William AGO 

Snestzki, Maurice A77 

Snipe, Hammie A20 

Snow, Vernon AGO 

Snyder, John William AGO 

Sobel, Abraham AGO 

Soich, George AGO 

Sollenberger, Randall AGO 

Solodkin, Leo AGO 

Solomon, Herbert B A78 

Soltin, Arthur J AG, A9 

Somers, Harry A84, A89, A90, A98, A99, A114, A130, A134, A135, A138, A189 

Somers, Steve AGO 

Sorber, Homer Lee AGO 

Sorensen, Walter A78 

Sorrell, Alan Howard A78 

Sorsa, Toivo Albert A78 

Sovetski, Bunni AGO 

Soviet Military Intelligence Service A8 

Spanish Civil War A137 

Spanish Loyalist Army A131 

Spencer, Sidney E A20 

Sperber, Gustave . AGO 

Sperry, Charles Vivian AGO 

Spiesisen, Benjamin AGO 

Spilberg, Anna A81, A89, A99, A12G, A135, A139 

Spilberg, Isidore A81, A89, A99, A119, A126, A134, A139 

Spiller, Samuel AGO 



INDEX XXXVII 

Page 

Spinner, Ralph AGO 

Spivak, Albert P A27 

Spramek, Martin A.61 

Sproule, Marion E A109 

Sprungman, Walter Howard r A61 

Staats, Frank Donald A61 

Stachel, Jack A6, A23 

Stadt, Zachary Michlin A78 

Stafik, Mike A92, A127 

Stahl, Lydia A99, A105, A117, A118, A120, A127, A133 

Stala, Stanley A61 

Stamatakos, Nick Michael A61 

Stamler, Harris Hyman (known as Harry Stampler) A61 

Stamm, Morris A61 

Standard Oil of New Jersey A86 

Standard Oil of Pan American Petroleum A86 

Standard, William L A121 

Stanley, Fred Owen A61 

Stearns, Douglas Clark, Jr A78 

Steck, Robert A61 

Steel Workers Organizing Committee A124 

Steele, Alfred A20 

Steele, Raymond Albert A61 

Steffens, Robert William A61 

Steinbach, Raymond A61 

Steinberg, Harry A78 

Steinberg, Jack A61 

Steinman, Aarne Theodore A78 

Stember, Capt. Samuel Julian A61 

Stenberg, Irna Berm A61 

Stephens, Russell Malcolm A61 

Stern, Marvin A78 

Sternbach, Jacob Joel A61 

Steuben (Isaac Rijock) A90, A96 

Steuben, John A6, A124, A127 

Stevenson, xUwyn A61 

Steward, Earl Clyde A61 

Stewart. Albert E AlOO, AlOl, A108, A118, A128, A136 

Stillman, Milton A61 

Stinson, Chester Stewart A61 

Stix, Frederick A61 

Stokes, Floyd Lee A78 

Stojewa, Conrad Henry A78 

Stoloff, Louis A78 

Stone, Harold Wilhelm A61 

Stone, Samuel Wesley, Jr A61 

Stone, William Carl A61 

Stout, Frank Lester A61 

Straus, Dr. Mark A61 

Straus, Sam A61 

Strauss, Walter Frederick A61 

Streisand, Joseph AOl 

Strom, Alfred A61 

Strom, Emanuel A78 

Strong, Frank Paul A61 

Stuben, John A90 

Sturgeon, Peter Assheton AGl 

Suarez, Jose Gonzalez A78 

Sullivan, Martin Carlton A61 

Sullivan, Robert John A61 

Sultan, Joseph A9, A123 

Summers, Thain AGl 

Sundeen, Walter A78 

Sundsten, Tauno Arvid A78 

Susnov, Abraham AGl 



XXXVIII INDEX 

Page 

Sussman, Mina A20 

Sustar, Anton A61 

Sutinen, Henry Oliver A61 

Svorinich, John Staphan A61 

Syrkine, Vera (alias Saunders and Vera Burns) A114 

Swan, William Carry A61 

Swanson, Clarence A61 

Swartzberg, Milton Robertson A62 

Switz, Robert Gordon AlOO, A127 

Syvanen (Syoanen), Carl Ralph A62 

Szevin, Joseph A62 

Szilagyi (Sziliagyi), Sandor A62 

Szkopiec, John (Szkopier, Jean) A62 

Szpokas, Ksavier A. (also Ksavier Augustus Szpokas) AlOl, A102, A107 

Alll, A120, A136 
T 

Tabmkn, Morris (see Tobman, Morris) A62 

Taft, Anna A62 

Taft, Vera All 

Taini, Wayne John A62 

Tamer, Joshua A98, A127 

Tamer, Rose Gurevich A127 

Tamler, Boris (Bud) A62 

Tandarich, Emil A62 

Tannenhaus, Joseph A78 

Tannenkupf, Milton A78 

Tantilla, Reino Herman A78 

Tanz, Alfred Leo A62 

Targum, Abraham A90, A126 

Targum, A. Peter A128, A134 

Targum, Abraham Peter A127, A137 

Tatliam, William John A62 

Taub, Howard (see Toub, Howard) A62 

Taub, Jack Isadore A78 

Taylor, Clyde Donald A78 

Taylor, Daniel Bede A62 

Taylor, Joseph A62 

Taylor, Orville Douglass A78 

Taylor, Wilfred Cottle A18, A20 

Taylor, Wirt Robinson A21 

Teiger, Jacob Louis A62 

Teitelbaum, Morris (Moe) A62 

Temple, Leonora Chandos A62 

Tenor, Leon A62 

Teodorsen, Anthony A78 

Teske, Robert A62 

Thayer, Donald Arthur A62 

Thomas, Henry Harris A62 

Thomas, Russell F A114 

Thomas, Steve AG2 

Thompson, David A62 

Thompson, Krist A78 

Thompson, Richard Chester A62 

Thompson, Robert George All, A21, A78 

Thomson, Godfrey Edward A62 

Thomson, John Llewellyn A62 

Thornton, James Nathan A62 

Thornton, Mark Binns A62 

Thornton, Ralph A62 

Thorpe, Guy Evans A62 

Thurston, George A62 

Thwing, Robert Neil A62 

Ticer, Leon Norvell A78 

Ticer, Raymond Elvis A62 

Tieger, Rudolf A62 



INDEX XXXIX 

Page 

Tirapson, Arthur A62 

Timpson, Arthur Edward A21 

Tinker, F. G. (Frank Glasgow, Jr.) (Francisco Gomez Trejo) A62 

Tisa, John A78 

Tiship, Victor A62 

Titus, William Bertram A78 

Tivin, Isadore -^-78 

Toab, Julius A62 

Tobman, Morris -^.62 

Todd, Robert Moore A78 

Todorovich, Alex A62 

Tom Mooney defense fund A4 

Toney, Anthony A63 

Toohey, Patrick A16, A20, A21 

Toole, Samuel Coleman A78 

Toplianos, Stelios A63 

Torgoff, Leon Sloan A78 

Toub, Howard A63 

Toussaint, Mack A30, A32 

Toutoloflf, John A63 

Tovsky, David A78 

Towsen, Augustus Nebinger A78 

Trachtenberg, Alexander A114, A115, A128, A131 

Trade Union Unity League A96, AlOO, A117 

Trenkler, George A78 

Trogdon, William Rufus A63 

Troka, John R A63 

Troxil, Stephen Edward A78 

Truy, Joseph D A63 

Tseronis, John A63 

Tuggle, Ova Nicholas A78 

Tulikainen, Carlo A63 

Turkewitz, Mrs. Fannie A90 

Turkewitz, Manuel A89 

Turner, John Butler A63 

Turner, Robert A27 

27-28 Union Square, Inc A106, A131 

Tyler, Hamilton Alden A63 

U 

Ulvi, Anton A63 

Undjus, Joseph A21, A128 

tJndjus, Margaret (known as Margaret Cowl and Margaret Krumbein) — A17, 

A21, AlOO, AlOl, A106, A128, A129, A136, A137 

Ungar, Herman A63 

Unger, Henry Frederick A63 

Union Press A119 

Usera, Vincent A63 

United States Veterans of the International Brigade A33-A79 

V 

Vail, Earl Frederick A63 

Vanausdal, Alvin A63 

Van Der Roest, William Allen A63 

Valjato, Charles J A63 

Valuoh, Rudolph A63 

Van Felix, William Crane A63 

Van Meter, Robert Emmet A63 

Van Trier, Charles Johannes A63 

Vauzant, Frances Ralston A63 

Vaughan, Joseph Earle A63 

Vasquez, Frank A63 

Velez, Baudilio Colon A63 

Veltford, Theodore Ernst, Jr A63 

Vercelli, John Augustine A63 



XL INDEX 

Page 

Viggers, Ralph Rushton A63 

Vinaccia, John A63 

Vinovich, George Lawrence A63 

Vogel, Joseph A63 

Vogel, Otto Paul A63 

Vogel, Sidney Leon A63 

Volkl, Mrs. Juliana A132 

Vukcevich, Peter A17, A21, A27 

Vukelich, Nick A63 

W 

Waaranen, Nils Jacob A78 

Wadman, I3ror Helmer A63 

Wagenknecht, Alfred A27, A81, A105, A106, A129, A136 

Wagenknecht, Helen A27 

Wagner & Sklar A84 

Wagner, Ervin E A63 

Wagnon, Alice Elizabeth A63 

Waitzman, Samuel A63 

Waldman, Seymour A21 

Walker, Herbert A32 

WalkofE, Leroy A78 

Wallach, Albert A78 

Wallach, Jesse A63 

Walsh, Bernard A63 

Walsh, Charles Edward A27 

Walsh, Edward Leo A63 

Walsh, Joseph Martin, Jr A78 

Walsh, Paul (Eugene Dennis) (aliases, Waldron and Mitchell) AllO, A129 

Walsh, Regina Karasick A129 

Walsh, Robert Joseph A63 

Walters, Mrs. Millie A122, Ar29 

Walters, Morris A122, A129 

Wang, Edwin A63 

Wanger, Harry Max A64 

Wardlaw (Wardlow), Ralph Wilkinson A64 

Wartield, Frank A64 

Warren, Edwin H A109 

Warren, Paul William A78 

Warzower, Welwel (also known as William Wiener, Robert William 

Weiner, Blake) A5, A7, AS, A9, A105 

Washburn, Griffith Bowen A64 

Washuk, Mike A64 

Wasserstein, Isadore A79 

Waters, George Walter A64 

Watkins, Franklin Lee A79 

Watson, Alonzo A64 

Wawrzykowski, Boleslav A79 

Waxman, Rachel (known as Rose Wacksman) A64 

Wayne, Taine {See Taini, Wayne John) A64 

Weaver, Vaughn William A64 

Webber, Fletcher "W A21 

Weber, Robert Rubin .. A79 

Wegrzynek, John A64 

Weil, Max A79 

Weinberg, Gerald A79 

Weiner, Milton (alias Morris Weiner) A64 

Weiner, Rose A64 

Weinerman, Alexander A64 

Weiuroth, John A64 

Weinshank, Irving A79 

Weir, Harry Oscar A79 

Weiri, Owen A64 

Weis, Jack A79 

Weisenfeld, Nathan A64 

Weisfield, Edwin Sherman A79 



INDEX XLI 

Page 

Weiss, David A79 

Weiss, Henry Nathan A79 

Weiss, Jacob AG4 

Weiss, JIartin AG4 

Weiss, Morris AG, A12, A21 

Weiss, Sadie A12, A21 

Weissberg, Isidore A32 

Weissmau, Bessie A27, AllO, A129, Ai:iO 

Weissiuan, Helene A79 

Weissman, Irving A64 

Weissaian, Dr. Oscar Israel A64 

Weisz, Joseph A79 

Welcli, Ralph Roy AG4 

Wellman, Dave AG4 

Wellman, Saul Laurence AG4 

Wellman, Wilbur Edward A64 

Wendkos, Elkan Leon A64 

Wendorf, Paul A64 

Wendroff, Lawrence Chester A64 

Wentwortt (Wentworth), William Henry A64 

Wergles, Rod Don (alias Rogers Niner) AG4 

West, Oliva George A64 

Wexford, Rose (see also Waxman, Rachel) A64 

Wexler, Abraham A102, A107, A114, AUG, A122, A130, A135, A13S 

Whaleu, Joseph Albert A79 

Wheeler, Wilbert LaPoint A79 

Wheeler, William Gilmore A64 

Whitcomb, Noel Aubrey A64 

White, David McKelvy A79 

White, James Leigh A79 

White, Morris A64 

White, William Edward A64 

White, William Thomas A79 

Whittier, Marks A65 

Whitney, Gordon Porter A65 

Wich, Sam A98, A130 

Wickman, Morris Heni-y AGS 

Widder, Louis Aaron AGS 

Wideman, Jefferson AGS 

Widerhorn, Samuel AGS 

Wiederhorn, Max A21 

Wiederhorn, Samuel A21 

Wiencek, Andrew A79 

Wiener, Robert William A5, AG, A8, A9, A105 

Wiener, William A105 

Wihela, Werner Jalmar A79 

Wiita, John A27 

Wilbur, George Hunt A79 

Wilbur Republican League, Inc A116 

Wildman, Earl Randall AGS 

Wilemon (Wileman), Henry AGS 

Wiley, Samuel Donald {alias Samuel McDonald Wiley) AGS 

Wilkes, Harry A79 

Wilkinson, Vivian A85, A86, A130, A134 

Wilkinson, Vivian M A86 

Willard, Special Agent A89 

Williams, Chester A22 

Williams, Helen A79 

Williams, Jerry Henry ' A79 

Williams, John AGS 

Williams, Lonnie A22 

Williams, Randall Arthur AGS 

Williamson, John A22 

Willis, Samuel Conway A79 

Willoughby, William Everett A79 

Willuweit, Carl Louis AGS 



i,^°?J°^ PUBLIC LIBRARY I 

wim ' 

INDEX 




3 9999 05445 4465 



Page 

Wilson, Charles Lee A79 

Wilson, Frank Causey A65 

Wilson, Frank Edward A65 

Wimmer, Bela A65 

Winsheimer, Lawrence Arthur A65 

Winter, Arthur Myron A65 

Wirkkula, Adolph A102, A118, A130 

Wirkkula, Jakob A119, A130 

Wirkkula, Mrs. Jakob A103, A130 

Wirkkula, Jacob G A130 

Wirkkula, Jakob Genhard A102, A103, A118, A119, A130, A131, A133 

Wirta, Paul Edward A65 

Wirtanen, Nuls A102, A118, A130, A131 

Witt, Arthur A65 

Wittels, Isadore A65 

Woimala, Ralph Aatos A6o 

Wojdan, Wladyslaw A65 

Wolf A90, A125 

Wolf, Mrs. Anna A90 

Wolf, Arthur A90 

Wolf, Nathan A79 

Wolff, Milton A65 

Worden, Carlis A A&S 

Wren, Samuel A65 

Wolfman, Charles A79 

Wolfson, Isidore A95, A131 

Wolk, Robert A65 

Wolman, Eugene A65 

Woods, Mrs. Alice A85 

Workmen's Union A83 

World Tourists, Inc A5-9, A92. A105, 

A106, A112, A114, A116, A117, A123, A126, A128, A131, A132, A137 

Wright, James A65 

Wright, William A65 

Wrought. Alexander A65 

Wuotinen, Antti Arthur A65 

Wyman, Arnold A65 

Wynne, John Joseph Myles AGS 

Y 

Yagoda, Charley A22 

Yandrich, Steve A13 

Yanowsky, Harry Israel A65 

Yanvrich A7 

Yates, James A65 

Yeager, Norbert Terry A65 

Yellin, Jack Harley A65 

Yepes, Victor Manuel A65 

Yerraendijan, Marshall A65 

Yilek, Frank A65 

Yonules, Joseph A65 

Youkelson, Rubin A22 

Youkelson, Ruth A22 

Young, Joseph Lafayette A65 

Young, Martin A6 

Youngblood, Charles A66 

Yourkowski, Joseph Frank A32 

Yuskas, Casimir A66 

Z 

Zablackas, Vete George A66 

Zack, Joseph (Joseph Kornfeder) AS4, 

A87, A99, A104, A122, A131, A134, A136, A137, A139 

Zack, Juliana A131 

Zaionz, Walter A66 

Zajac, Michael A6ff 



INDEX XLin 

Page 

Zajac, Sylvester AG6 

Zak, Stephen A66 

Zakman, Samuel AGS 

Zalon, Sol A66 

Zameres, Joe A66 

Zaret, Daniel Abraham A66 

Zaslavsky, William Boris A66 

Zattoui, Albino Guiseppe A66 

Zauderer, Lewis J A66 

Zawadowski, Joseph T A66 

Zecevich, Milan A66 

Zeronas, Anton A66 

Ziedman, Frank A66 

Ziagos, John A66 

Zielinski, Stephen Charles A66 

Zientz, Harry A66 

Zigardler, Fannie (known as Fay Siegartel) A127, A132 

Zingraf, Charles Lester A66 

Zivin, Louis A66 

Zlatovski, George Michael A66 

Zlotnik, Louis A66 

Zoul, George A66 

Zuckerman, Harry S A127, A128, A137 

Zuskar, John A22 

o