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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE? 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND_OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OP THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MAY 16, 18, 22, 1956 



PART 24 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Bosto-n Public Li'^rary 
Super\nten'':ent of Documents 

DEC 1 7 1956 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi. Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENXER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Inteknax. Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Witness: ^'^se 

Coale, Mrs. Griffith Baily 1255 

Epstein, Julius 1261 

Ileana, Princess of Rumania 12.i7 

Issarescu, Dr. Stefan 1249 

Kingsbery, Mrs. Emily 1296 

Miroshnikov, Michael 1285 

Mischaikow, Michael 1282 

Nagorskv, Zigmunt 1287 

Rudolph-Shabinsky, Vladimir 1314 

[ndex X 

lU 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 16, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee 
To In\t.stigate the Administration of the 
Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security 

Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 : 10 a. m., in room 457, 
Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner presiding. 

Present: Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, ad- 
ministrative counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Jenner. The coimnittee will be in session. 

Mr, Morris. Princess Ileana, and Doctor, will you please stand? 

Senator Jenner. Do you, and each of you, solemnly swear that the 
testimony you will give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Princess Ileana. So I do. 

Dr. Issarescu. So I do. 

Senator Jenner. Be seated. 

TESTIMONY OF PRINCESS ILEANA OF RUMANIA 

]Mr. Morris. Will you tell us, Princess Ileana, your name, and give 
us your address, please. 

Princess Ileana. My name is Ileana, Princess of Rumania, and 3Irs. 
Issarescu, and I live in Newton, 30 Hyde Avenue. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Princess Ileana. H-y-d-e. 

Mr. Morris. Newton, Mass.? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

]Mr. Morris. And you are accompanied by your husband, who is 
also going to testify here this morning % 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you will tell us briefly, for the record, by 
way of cliaracterizing you as a witness here today your background 
in Rumania. 

Princess Ileana. My father was King Ferdinand of Rumania, and 
my mother was Queen Marie ; my brother. King Carol, and my nephew, 
King IMichael. 

Mr. Morris. And you lived in Rumania until what year ? 

Princess Ileana. I lived in Rumania until 1931, when I married 
Archduke Anton of Austria, and lived in Austria until 1944. 

Mr. IMoRRTS. And where did you go in 1944? 

1237 



1238 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Princess Ileana. In 1944 1 returned to Rumania. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you stay there ? 

Princess Ileana. Until 1948. 

Mr. Morris. And did you experience the Communist occupation of 
Rumania ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes; from August 23, 1944, until January 12, 
1948. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would sketch for us some of the cir- 
cumstances that you experienced from the Rumanian Communist 
government. 

Princess Ileana. May I ask you to put that in a more concise form ? 
I mean, there was a lot of experience, both militarily and financially 
and from a political point of view, and I would like to know which 
one you would like me to take first. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the reason the witnesses have been called 
here today is to give testimony about the Soviet redefection campaign, 
of which we find a great deal of evidence. 

Now, we have some Rumanian Communist newspapers which make 
representations about the conditions that exist in Rumania. 

Now, this witness this morning has just testified that she has ex- 
perienced some of these conditions. I think it is rather elemental from 
the point of our evidence, if we are going to be able to assess the 
veracity of this Communist literature, of which we are taking cog- 
nizance, that we know something of the conditions that exist in 
Rumania. 

For instance, does freedom exist in Rumania ? 

Princess Ileana. No. There certainly exists no freedom in Ru- 
mania, certainly not in the sense of the word as you understand it; 
in fact, not at all. 

For instance, nobody can travel without permission. Nobody can 
go on a holiday without a doctor's certificate. Nobody may possess a 
typewriter without permission, such as you would have for a machine 
gun. No one really has the right to live in his own house, or any house, 
without special permission. 

Mr. Morris. Now 

Princess Ileana. Nobody may choose his own vocation or take a job. 

Mr. Morris. You mean, all those things are regulated by the Com- 
munist government? 

Princess Ileana. Entirely. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there secret police in Rumania? 

Princess Ileana. There is a very strong secret police, and it works 
through terror upon the general population. 

Mr. Morris. Have you had any experience with the secret police ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about it ? 

Princess Ileana. Well, I would like to speak about one quite specific 
case. In this case, the name I do not want to divulge because the man 
is still in Rumania. He was one of my wounded whom I looked after 
in my hospital, a man who was very severely wounded, and whom I 
really feel that I pulled through, and he was extremely devoted to me, 
and there had been a very great friendship between us. He was quite 
a young man, and he did divulge all his problems to me. 

After he left the hospital and returned to see me shortly after- 
ward, his attitude had entirely changed, and I thought it was prob- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1239 

ably that he felt shy about the too many things he told me, but I felt 
there was something deeper to it. And so I tried to get it out of him, 
and he wouldn't speak. 

So I took him for a walk, where I felt we were safe, nobody could 
hear us, and I asked him once more, "What is it ; what are you doing ?" 
And then tears began to run down his face, and he said, "I have been 
betraying you. Every word you have spoken to me I have betrayed." 

I said, "Why did you do this thing to me?" and he said, "Because 
my mother has been imprisoned and they have taken off the nails of her 
left hand, and by betraying you I am saving her right hand." 

I think the moral explains itself. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you allowed any freedom at all during the 
4 years that — how many years were you under Communist rule there ? 

Princess Ileana. Over 3i/^ years. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you permitted a certain amount of freedom ? 

Princess Ileana. After the first month, yes. I was, first of all, sort 
of under semiarrest, and then, as I was a Rumanian citizen, you see — 
my husband was not, being an Austrian — he was in prison for 2 years, 
but at home, and I was given an astonishing amount of freedom, when 
I come to think of it today, but I think that that was thanks to the 
hospital that I was running, and that, even in their own Communist 
point of view, it was very difficult to actually accuse someone who is 
running a hospital for the workmen. 

My hospital was for the workmen, so I had a defense in the work- 
men themselves. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you have occasion to speak with any of the 
Communist officials there ? 

Princess Ileana. I had a lot of occasions to speak to many of them. 
They would come in and inspect the hospital, and I got to know them. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever run into Anna Pauker ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. I had several meetings with Anna Pauker. 
She herself wanted to meet me and know me. 

Mr. Morris. What position did she have at that time ? 

Princess Ileana. The first time I saw her she had no official posi- 
tion. Afterward she became Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

Mr. Morris. Now, would you relate to us the substance of the con- 
versation with Anna Pauker ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

My point in seeing Anna Pauker was to try and ease the life of the 
people in prison, if through her we couldn't get permission to get the 
parcels and food to the so-called war criminals and others who were 
m prison. 

And in that time she explained to me about communism, and I found 
it a very good occasion to try and get an idea of what they think. And 
of all the Communists I have ever spoken to, she was by far the 
clearest, and her point was simply this: Capitalism and all the old 
ways were destined to die, while communism was destined to live. 
Therefore, we were fools if we did not go with them ; that even if we 
didn't like it, we would have to join them, because that was the future. 

And she explained to me, for instance, that America could easily 
be destroyed because America was so highly industrialized that, first 
of all, in industry itself it is easy to plant different communistic move- 
ments, but what interested them most of all had to do with electricity 
because, she said : 



1240 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

"In tlie case of a war, before we need to drop an atomic bomb we 
only need to cut off electricity, and America stands still and is at our 
mercy, and then we can put our people in the key positions," she said, 
"maybe without a war." 

It was only after I came to America that I realized how very true 
this was. 

Tlien, another point which interested me very much with her: 
In discussing the prison question, I said, "But you are not convinc- 
ing us. You yourself spent 9 years in prison, and it didn't change 
your point of view." 

She said, "But we are not trying to change your point of view." 
I said, "What are you trying to do?" She said, "We are trying to 
eliminate you but, as we can't shoot you all, your generation cannot 
be convinced, but the young generation can be taught our way of living. 
Therefore, you are going to be terrorized into silence, so that you can- 
not pass on any tradition or any thought out of the past to your 
children." 

That, in a very few words, is the conversation that went well over 
3 hours, 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, Princess Ileana, I wonder if you could tell 
us the circumstances of your leaving Rumania. 

Princess Ileana. Well, after the King was forced to abdicate, in 
the way which I think you all know that he was forced to 

Mr. Morris. What time was that ? 

Princess Ileana. That was on the SOth of January 1947. Pardon 
me — the 30th of December. 

Mr. Morris. December 30, 1947 ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

And we heard it over the radio. The King was not allowed to speak 
over the radio himself. The message was given. 

I then tried immediately to contact the King, which, of course, was 
very difficult because he was held as prisoner in the palace in Bucharest. 

Finally, I got permission to get through to the Queen, and we 
arranged to meet on the way, and I drove down — I was on the other 
side of the Carpathians, in my own little castle at Bran, right up in 
the mountains, with my hospital. So I drove over to meet the King, 
and I met the King halfway, and there we said goodbye, and I asked 
the King what his desire was that I should now do, and he said, 
"If you can, stick it out. But you have six children. I have not the 
right to ask it of you. It is for you yourself to decide. You are free 
to decide what you want." 

I went down to Bucharest with the firm intention of remaining, 
because I felt that if the others could stand it, I could stand it, too. 
But when I saw what the circumstances would have been, what it 
meant to my children, then my courage broke and I decided, no, for 
the children I can't take it. And so I said to myself — the Govern- 
ment was in contact with us through underlings at that time. I wasn't 
any more honored with their personal contact, and that my job was 
over, and it would be greatly appreciated if I would leave. 

So I accepted to leave, and they gave us papers. And they sent us 
to Switzerland, but we weren't allowed to take any personal property 
and no money, 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you come to the United States? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1241 

Princess Ileana. I came to the TTiiited States in 1950. 

Mr. Mouius. And you'luive been living in Newton, Mass., since 
that time? 

Princess Ileaxa. Since then, 

Mr. Morris. Now, are you, Princess Ileana, acquainted with the 
redefection campai<»:n that tlie Soviet governments are now carrying 
on, particuhirly as it bears on Eumanian-Americans here in the 
United States? 

Princess Ileana. Yes, I am. 

Tlirougli my many travels through the United States, wherever 
there are Kumanians or Rumanian groups, I get in contact, and 
naturally I hear from them quite a lot about it. Besides, my husband 
receives the newspaper which is published in East Berlin, and which 
tries to encourage this defection. It is addressed to him in New York 
M'here he used to be. 

Mr. Morris. And you have frequent contact with Rumanian- Amer- 
ican groups ? 

Princess Ileana. I do. 

INIr. Morris. In fact, we read here recently about that shooting in 
New York. 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Before you answer the question about the redefection, 
I wonder if you could just tell us the circumstances surrounding that 
shooting. 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

There is something about that shooting which leaves one with a 
certain amount of doubt as to exactly what the meaning behind it 
w^as. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder. Princess Ileana, before commenting on it, 
if you will tell us exactly what happened. 

Princess Ileana. Well, we went to church at quarter of 12. The 
church was very well filled. 

Mr. Morris. What was the occasion ? 

Princess Ileana. The occasion was the Resurrection service of our 
Easter which, in this year, falls so much later than the western one 
does. 

I arrived there shortly before 12. The church was already filled, 
and also the basement of the church was filled, and the father had 
arranged to have loudspeakers in the basement so that everybody 
could hear the service, and our service starts on the Resurrection 
Night wnth a procession of lit candles out of the church. The gospel 
is read outside and then one goes into the church for the mass. 

And what happened : The priest had just come out of the altar with 
his candle. None of us had our candles lit, and he said, "Take light 
from us," which is the ceremonial words, and began to go down 
through a very narrow passage to the basement, and we had just left 
the door of the basement to come out on the steps when I heard quite 
clearly something that sounded like crackers, or some small explosion, 
three in succession. 

I think that my thought, as well as the thought of everybody, was 
at that moment that these crackers were a sort of thing of rejoicing, 
or something — a very bad joke ; doubtful feeling about it — and follow- 
ing that, there were shots; exactly how many, I don't know. The 



1242 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

police say there were four. That I cannot discuss. There may have 
been four, or not. 

Then there was water that fell on us. That was one of the air 
conditioners which was hit. The moment I personally heard the 
shots, I realized that it was not firecrackers and it wasn't funny. 
My first inkling was to get out and see who had been hurt, as there 
was also a scream, and to prevent any kind of panic. 

The first person whom I saw hit was a young boy who had extra- 
ordinary good fortune that the bullets passed through the back of 
his neck, but in the darkness we couldn't see, except that the wound 
was not deep or serious. 

Then I ran up the steps where the priest already was, because the 
priest was in front of me during the procession. He had already 
gone up the steps into the church, and I rushed in and found the man 
dead, the man who had been shot, and then I called my husband to 
take over, and I took the weeping wife, took her downstairs into the 
basement, and tried to prevent the hysteria of the rest of the people, 
and get them to put out their candles. My thought was that fire 
might break out. And I was quietly waiting for the police to come, 
and the police came and they say there were these four shots. I am 
sure that I heard more, and I am not alone in saying that there were 
more than four shots. 

Mr. Morris. Well, a man has been apprehended, has he not? 

Princess Ileana. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Morris. A man has been apprehended ? 

Princess Ileana. The man has been apprehended. 

Mr. Morris. And what has been done with him ? 

Princess Ileana. He is at Bellevue Hospital, and is being inspected 
to see if he is mad. 

Mr. Morris. Does anybody of the Rumanian- American community 
know him ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. They know him quite well, and he expressed 
a great rage during the whole of Lent, as I understand it, against 
the priest and against the royal family, and tore down a picture of my 
mother. That is what the people say. I didn't see him do it. I can 
only repeat what I was told by the congregation. They immediately 
knew who he was, and they did not consider him mad. 

Mr. Morris. There is no connection, is there, between this particular 
episode and the redefection campaign we are talking about, nothing 
that you know of ? 

Princess Ileana. No. There is nothing that I can say or prove 
that this is, but I could see the effect. The first was, you see, you 
mustn't expose yourself. You see what happens to us if we go to- 
gether any place. 

It was a hit in that direction. If it was meant, or organized, that 
is not for me to say, not now, not until we know more about it. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Princess Ileana, I wonder if you could tell us 
about the redefection campaign. 

Princess Ileana. Well, there are these newspapers that are coming. 
There are letters which come in. 

Mr. Morris. You say there are these newspapers ? 

Princess Ileana. This newspaper. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is that paper ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1243 

Princess Ileana. This paper calls itself the Voice of the Home- 
land — Glasnl Patriei — and it is published in East Berlin. It tells 
one how beautiful and lovely life in llumania now is. 

For instance, this one begins by telling all about the freedom of the 
democratic election. But, of course, it fails to tell us who was al- 
lowed to be — I mean, between what they were choosing. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in other words, as far as you know, Princess 
Ileana, are the facts portrayed in that newspaper false? Are you 
competent to say, to testify as to whether or not the facts which you 
read in this newspaper, whether they are accurate and true? 

Princess Ileana. I know for sure they are not true. They weren't 
true when I was there, and I doubt that anything much has changed 
since. 

In fact, from the news we do get through, for instance, that we 
camiot really communicate with our friends, that the prisoners are all 
shot. Besides, if they really are so anxious to have the Rumanians 
return home, I think it would be a nice gesture if the Russians began 
by sending back 180,000 prisoners they still have in Russia. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you make the point, Princess Ileana, 
that if tliey really want people to return to Rumania for the sake of 
having them come back, they could return the Rumanian prisoners 
who are now in the Soviet Union ? 

Princess Ileana. That is right. 

There were 180,000. We understand through the International 
Red Cross that only 5,000 are still alive. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Princess Ileana, who are the people to whom 
they appeal the most in this redef ection campaign ? 

Princess Ileana. Here they appeal to the Rumanians generally. 

Mr. Morris. In this newspaper? 

Princess Ileana. In this one, they appealed to no one in particular. 
No person is addressed. In other newspapers which I have seen, for 
instance, there is a letter from Mr. Ghilezan, who lives in the United 
States, and there is a facsimile of a letter from his mother, asking 
him to return. There are letters from children to their fathers, let- 
ters from parents to their children, from wives to their husbands, 
begging of them to return, and telling them how beautiful and how 
perfect life is, and everybody — everything would be just the same 
as it was before. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say there were some letters to Emil Ghile- 
zan? 

Princess Ileana. Yes, from his mother. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know him ? 

Princess Ileana. I know him, and I used to know his mother, and 
I know her for a very brave mother, and I very much wonder what 
pressure was used on her to write. 

Mr. Morris. You say you saw a letter from her, in particular, in 
the paper? 

Princess Ileana. There was a facsimile, yes, in the newspaper. 

Senator Jenner. Do you know, or have you learned of the number 
of Communist troops still stationed in Rumania ? 

Princess Ileana. I couldn't give you a — no. I'm afraid 

Senator Jenner. When vou left there ? 

Princess Ileana. "VVlien I left there, it was four of them, I can say. 

Senator Jenner. Do you have any idea of the number ? 



1244 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Princess Ileana. About a million and a half. 

Senator Jp:nner. And that was in 19 

Princess Ileana. 1946. That was when — certainly they controlled 
all the roads. For instance, you couldn't drive from one place to 
aliother. All the police, even the traffic police, were Russians. 

Senator Jenner. Do you laiow of your own knowledge, or informa- 
tion that you have recently learned, that there are still Communist 
troops in Rumania ? 

Princess Ileana. I have heard some but, of course, I have not seen 
it. I haven't been there. 

Mr. Morris. Princess 

Senator Jenner. Have you learned of any people who have rede- 
fected, gone back, who had been killed and their bodies left in the 
streets ? 

Princess Ileana. No; I have been told. I know about as much, I 
think, as anybody else has heard and knows about it. I don't know 
them by name. I only know the same report which was in the news- 
paper and which was current among Rumanian colonies, but I don't 
know anything besides about it. 

Mr, Morris. What was the story that was current ? 

Princess Ileana. The story was that it was people who had defected 
from here who had gone back and who liad first been made to speak 
on the radio and to write in this paper, because there are some who 
have written in this paper how lovely it was to get back and how they 
found everything, and afterward were shot for having defected, ac- 
cording to their ideas about defection, I mean, that they were traitors 
to the Popular Republic. 

Mr. Morris. As you say, you do not know Avhether or not these re- 
ports are right, the extent to which they are right. 

Princess Ileana. No ; I don't know from my own knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. You were telling us about one particular letter from 
Mr. Ghilezan. Will you spell that, please ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes; G-h-i-1-e-z-a-n. 

Mr. Morris. In this particular letter you had peculiar knowledge 
because of the fact that you were a friend of this man's mother ? 

Princess Ileana. That is it. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would recite all the facts you know 
about that one case so that we might 

Princess Ileana. I quite honestly did not take contact with Mr. 
Ghilezan after the letter was there. ' The only thing was that I saw it 
in the newspaper, that I recognized the writing, and knowing the 
woman's character from before, I can only say that some horrible pres- 
sure has been used upon her to do such a thing. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat did the letter say ? 

Princess Ileana. Unfortunately, we don't have that paper here 
today. The letter more or less was just : My dear son, come back to me. 
1 am so alone. I am old. I long to see you before I die. I want to 
embrace you once more. Come back. This is your country. This 
is where you should be. There is a great future for you here. Come 
back, my beloved son. 

That is about the tenor. Those are not the exact words. I didn't 
learn it by heart. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you any instances such as that that you can 
tell the subcommittee about, Princess Ileana ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1245 

Princess Itj:axa. Well, the instances, apart from that wherein I 
actually knew tlie name — T liave seen many otlier letters, but I didn't 
know the people. What I know wliich is of sj)ecial interest, it seems 
to me, actually here the contact that the Kumanian consulate has taken 
is with the llumanians who are American citizens who have either been 
born here or broug-ht up here. They don't really take contact with 
the refugees themselves. There is no direct communication with them. 
They know that they can't fool them. But they do manage most suc- 
cessfully to fool others, and I have myself had discussions with them 
where I had the feeling that I was living in another world. I mean, 
that there was one M'oman especially in Philadelphia. She is maybe 
just a little bit not an intelligent person, just a very simple woman, but 
she told me how she was going back and how she was selling all she had 
here to go back to Rumania because there she had her family and her 
home and they told her to come back and everything was all right. 

I said, "But you haven't got a home in Rumania. Don't you under- 
stand there is no home in Rumania for anybody to go back to ? No- 
body has such a thing." 

She looked at me pityingly and said, "'Oh, my darling, but you don't 
understand. You have still got a memory of the war. That is all 
long passed. Xow it is all beautiful and it is perfect and I will write 
to you, my darling, from there and then you will come back and we 
will all be there happily together." And my words had absolutely no 
effect on her whatsoever. The woman was completely convinced and 
she is selling all she has to go. 

]\Ir. ]\IoRRis. Have there been many people returning? I think you 
showed us the figures. 

Princess Ileaxa. I have just spoken this very morning with our 
priest in Cleveland, but there are 15 Rumanians who have left last 
week from Detroit. 

Mr. Morris. From Detroit ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes; from Detroit. I would explain immediately 
why. 

And 19 more are leaving next Aveek. 

Mr. Morris. From Detroit ? 

Princess Ileana. From Detroit. And this through the propaganda 
of the bishop. Bishop Moldovan. 

Mr. Morris. "Will you spell that, please? 

Princess Ileana. M-o-l-d-o-v-a-n. He is a Communist bishop who 
was imposed here, sent here by the Patriarchy of Bucharest, sent by 
the Communists against the rule of the American church, the Ameri- 
can-Rumanian Church here. According to our church, our bishops 
have to be chosen by their flock, and then they are consecrated by 
wherevei' they come from, and the flock have refused him. That is the 
interesting part. The flock has refused him here. He has very little 
power, perliaps only 1 or 2 churches that he has bamboozled into 
following him, and it is he who is organizing these excursions back into 
Rumania. 

Mr. Morris. And from Detroit alone there were 15 last week and 19 
making preparations to go next week. That is Detroit alone. 

Princess Ileana. That is Detroit alone. 

Mr. Morris. And you say there is — that is largely the result of the 
activities of Bishop Moldovan ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 



1246 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. What is tlie situation in Cleveland? Is there a large 
Rumanian community in Cleveland? 

Princess Ileana. Yes, but there evidently it hasn't had any success. 
Mr. Moldovan has no influence on the population, and Cleveland as 
a whole refused Moldovan. He has failed in our episcopate here and 
they have not let themselves be impressed. 
But I do not know of Mr. Theodore Andrica. 
Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please? 

Princess Ileana. Theodore just as it sounds. Andrica — 
A-n-d-r-i-c-a — and he is a reporter on the Cleveland Press. He told 
me the story himself. He is, of course, not in the slightest bit im- 
pressed and he, I believe, has got a visa to go and to come ;back and 
he wanted to go to scout what had happened. 

So he has gone. He is in Europe now. But he is not one of those 
who have defected. I am not meaning from that point of view, but 
it is interesting that he is one of those who could tell you more about 
it because he was perfectly clear as to what was happening. 

Then, in Detroit itself those who again did not defect but have been 
asked to go there is a certain printer and his wife, Jack Gasper. 
Mr. Morris. Please spell that. 
Princess Ileana. G-a-s-p-e-r. He is a printer. 
Mr. Morris. In Detroit? 

Princess Ileana. In Detroit, and his address is 5350 Russell, De- 
troit. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what about that ? You say he has been the object 

of 

Princess Ileana. He has been the object and they have tried to 
convince him. Two men came from here, from Washington, from 
the consulate in Washington, to convince him to go back to Rumania. 
Mr. Morris. I see. In other words, you cite that as an instance that 
Rumanians from the Rumanian Legation here in Washington travel 
as far west in this case as Detroit. 

Princess Ileana. Detroit and Cleveland, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Detroit and Cleveland to induce these people to go 
back to Rumania. 

Princess Ileana. That is it. 

Mr. Morris. And now you say they have been the object of in- 
ducements. Now, do these inducements take — are they any stronger 
than inducements and encouragement ? Are there— is there any pres- 
sure involved at all ? 

Princess Ileana. Any what? 
Mr. Morris. Any pressure. 

Princess Ileana. No, not exactly. They only offer them a better 
living. And the pressure is always gently indicated by : "You have a 
brother ; you have a cousin." 

Mr. Morris. Back in Rumania? 
Princess Ileana. Back in Rumania. 

Mr. Morris. And the mere fact that they mention the brothers and 
cousins, the names of the brothers and cousins, is that in your opinion 
some form of pressure? 
Princess Ileana. Plenty. 
Mr. Morris. Plenty. 

Senator Jenner. This Bishop Moldovan, when did he come to this 
country ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1247 

Princess Ileana. I couldn't tell you that exactly but it was about 5 
or 6 years a^o. He has two sons in the army in Rumania. 

Senator Jennek. You don't know whether he has come to this coun- 
try since the passage of the McCarran-Walter Act, which was passed 
in 1950 ? 

Princess Ileana. I am afraid 

Senator Jenner. AVould he have come here since the passage of the 
McCarran-Walter Act in 1950 ? 

Princess Ileana. I couldn't answer that. 

Senator Jenner. That can be ascertained. 

Princess Ileana. That can be easily ascertained. 

Mr. Morris. Now, this printer in Detroit, Gasper, he did not go 
back. 

Princess Ileana. Oh, no, no. 

JNIr. Morris, But he has experienced 

Princess Ileana. He has only experienced it, and they were just 
telling me about it ; well, what is going on. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know Mrs. Perlea ? 

Princess Ileana. And he said, he went along with him a little bit 
in the conversation and said, "All right, that is very interesting. Can 
I then begin being a printer in Rumania, because that is what my 
profession is?" 

They said, "Well, no, not printing. Printing is a thing that belongs 
to the goverimient, but we will give you lots of other possibilities." 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know a Mrs. Perlea ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What was Mrs. Perlea ? 

Princess Ileana. Mrs. Perlea lives in New York and she is the wife 
of one of our biggest conductors. lonel Perlea. 

Mr. Morris. He is a conductor where ? 

Princess Ileana. Well, he was with the Metropolitan Opera and 
jiow he is conducting in Europe. 

Mr. Morris. I see. But he has made the United States his home ? 

Princess Ileana. He has made the United States his home. He is a 
permanent resident. He teaches at the Manhattan School of Music, 
xind he travels, gives concerts everywhere, and is at this moment, I 
think, giving concert, I don't know, I think at La Scala or something 
like that. That I don't know exactly — his program. 

Mr. Morris, And Mrs. Perlea is known well to you ? 

Princess Ileana. She is a very good friend of mine. 

Mr. Morris. Was he known to you, too ? 

Princess Ileana. Both of them are well known. 

Mr. Morris. Have they been the objects of any of these induce- 
ments ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. Already last year he received letters asking 
him to come back, telling him how useful it would be if he came back, 
how much he would be doing for the country and what great advan- 
tages he would have out of it, and they use as inducements, then, 
telling him that Enescu, the musician, had accepted to go, which as a 
matter of fact was not true, and then he died. Enescu died last year. 
There was then quite a lot in the newspapers about this. They said 
that Enescu was going back and — well, he didn't mean to go back. 
Besides that, the poor man died. And they tried to use his name as an 
inducement to Perlea to return, and he was very upset about it. It 



1248 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

was just before he left for Europe last year and we induced him— 
advised him then to go with the letter to the FBI, which I believe 
he did. 

This year he met people who had written to him in Paris who were 
there sent on a mission. 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute. You say he could identify the indi- 
viduals who had been writing to him ? 

Princess Ileana. Oh, yes. I will tell you who they were. I know 
them quite well myself. I knew them, too, and again it is to me one 
of those horrible things because they are people I have known all 
my life. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, you say he encountered these two people who had been writing 
to him in Paris ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes. He met them in Paris. 

Mr. Morris. What were they doing in Paris ? 

Princess Ileana. They were there on some official musical mission 
sent by the Government, the Rumanian Government. 

Mr. Morris. What liappened when he met them in Paris ? 

Princess Ileana. When they met him in Paris, it seems they were 
quite open in saying that life in Rumania was very difficult, but to 
come back to give a concert for just 3 or 4 months. After awhile, they 
would pay him much better than he had ever been paid before in 
Europe or in America and, therefore, it would be a very advantageous 
thing for him to come. And at which he answered, "All right, I will 
on the day that you liberate a Hungarian singer" — whose name I am 
afraid I don't know — "who also went back to Budapest under the 
inducement of a 2-month concert and hasn't returned for 5 years.'' 
Upon which day, then — and they used the threat, "All right, you 
won't come. We will make you come. And we are going to pressure 
the American Government to send you." 

Of course, we know that that doesn't mean anything, but probably 
in their minds it did. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are there any other instances such as that, people 
3'OU know, residents of the United States, citizens of the United States, 
people who are about to become citizens, that have been pressured? 

Princess Ileana. No. I have heard vague murmurs. You know. 
Wherever I have been. But I don't want to say anything which I 
can't verify that it is so. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know of the activity of any of the representa- 
tives of the Rumanian Legation here in the Washington ? 

Princess Ileana. Except from what I have heard that they have 
tried to contact all our churches. Most of our priests have refused to 
meet them, but they have tried to contact them all. 

]\Ir. Morris. Now, since Rumania has been made a member of the 
United Nations, you now have a Rumanian delegation to the United 
Nations. 

Princess Iij:ana, We have? 

]Mr. Morris. I am sorry. 

Princess Ileana. Excuse me. 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me. The Rumanian Communist Government 
now has a delegation in New York. 

Princess Ileana. Yes, it has. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been able to observe the activities of that 
particular group as yet? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1249 

Princess Ileana. I have heard nothiiio^ special and I think it is 
much too short a time. As much as 1 know— it is quite short. 

Mr. jM ORRIS, lias the Rumanian community in general heard any- 
thing from them at this time? 

Princess Ileana. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Doctor, I wonder if you could add anything to 
tlie testimony of Princess Ileana as of now. 

TESTIMONY OF DK. STEFAN ISSARESCU 

Dr. Issarescu. Sir, I have nothing to add except for the fact, which 
she already mentioned, that I am receiving this paper which is pub- 
lished in East Berlin. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how many people receive that paper? 

Dr. IssARioscu. I couldn't tell you but so many people I know of the 
Kumanian colonies, everybody tells me he is receiving one. 

Mr. Morris. How manv Rumanian-American refugees are here 
now? I use the word "refugees" to describe those people who have 
escaped from the Soviet regime. 

Dr. Issarescu. I couldn't tell you. I couldn't qualify them all as 
refugees. But according to the New York Times for May 13, there 
was a statistic of Rumanian immigrants since 1946 up to 1954 and 
there is a statement of about 11,500. 

Mr. Morris. 11,500. 

Dr. Issarescu. I w-as talking this morning with our Rumanian 
priest in Cleveland and he has been very active in sponsoring and 
helping refugees, and immigrants, to come to this country, and he 
confirms this figure which he know^s from his own experience, 

Mr. Morris. And to your knowledge, is it your belief that all of 
these 11,000 people are getting that publication? 

Dr. Issarescu. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Is it your belief or opinion that all 11,500 are receiving 
that neW'Spaper? 

Dr. Issarescu. I couldn't say. I don't think so because many of 
them have unknown addresses. I don't receive my own at my address. 
I receive it at a place I used to work in New York 2 years ago. I was 
a doctor in Cornell Hospital and I received it in that place and it is 
forwarded. 

Mr. INIoRRis. Are you an American ? 

Dr. Issarescu. No, I am not. I am expecting to become a citizen 
in 2 years. 

]VIr. Morris. Are you a medical doctor ? 

Dr. Issarescu. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That is printed in East Germany and it is just mailed? 

Dr. Issarescu. It is just mailed. The first paper, also printed in 
East Berlin, I receive from Buenos Aires. The second paper I received 
in a closed envelope from London, and the third, fourth, and fifth I 
received from East Berlin. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are there any other instances not mentioned by 
your wife here this morning that you can tell us about? 

Dr. Issarescu. To my feeling it is complete what she has told. I 
wouldn't have anything to add. 

72723— 56— pt. 24 2 



1250 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything you can add about conditions in 
Kumania as opposed to the conditions described in that newspaper? 

Dr. IssARESCu. Well, I would ask if possible for the press not to put 
down what I am going to say here because I have family in Rumania 
and as far as I know, my family lives. 

Mr. Morris. You said 

Dr. IssAREscu. I would like to ask the press not to publish this 
part. 

Mr. Morris. That is very difficult. 

Senator Jenner, It is very difficult to do. Doctor, because this is 
an open hearing, and if it is something you don't want published, I 
suggest you give it to us in executive session. 

Dr. IssAREScu. It is not a controlled fact because I have no com- 
munication whatsoever with my family who is behind the Iron Cur- 
tain, but from people who are receiving letters, I don't know how, I 
learned that my family is in a very bad condition from the point of 
view of nutrition and anyway from the general conditions. So I 
believe that this speaks in itself for the conditions which are in 
Rumania. 

My family used to earn their living, but now they do not have any 
job and any possibility of earning. 

Princess Ileana. To add to that, I would like to say that it is to 
give you a picture of how unnatural the lack of communication is, 
that we have only learned 2 weeks ago that my husband's mother 
died 2 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. Died 2 years ago ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes ; and we had the news only now. So you see 
now unnatural it is. 

Mr. Morris. Well, do you find any relaxation whatever, on the part 
of the Communists, of the regimen that you observed while you were 
in Rumania ? 

Dr. IssARESCu. No. 

Mr. Morris. Have you anything else to add, Princess Ileana, about 
the general situation that we are interested in here, namely, the 
redef ection ? 

Princess Ileana. No. I have only one thing I feel I should say 
and the importance that I feel should be stressed to the Americans, 
not to us because we know it, that the Communists do not live on their 
popularity; that it didn't succeed in Rumania because they were 
popular; that they have never succeeded anywhere because they are 
popular, but that it is purely a thing of force and of fear, and that is 
what it is based on. 

It isn't a question of illuminating the minds of the people behind 
the Iron Curtain. Unfortunately it is a question of illuminating the 
minds of the free people. 

Mr. Morris. The people behind the Iron Curtain know what the 
score is. The people on this side don't. 

Princess Ileana. That is right. They don't. 

Mr. Morris. Did you find that to be the case here. Princess Ileana ? 

Princess Ileana. Yes ; and through my many journeys I have found 
it so much so that sometimes I have felt that it is like a voice speaking 
in the wilderness. So many questions I have been asked at a lecture, 
like, "When do you go home?" and "How often did you travel over 
there?" 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1251 

Mr. Morris. Do yon think we have a lot to learn ? 

Princess Ile^yna. "Why don't we revolt," is also one of the favorite 
questions. 

Mr. Morris. You say, then, we have a lot to learn ? 

Princess Ileana. I am afraid so. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions. 

Senator Jenner. I want to thank you. Princess, for appearing here 
this morning and for this testimony that you have given this com- 
mittee. We feel it will be very helpful to the committee and to the 
people of the country. 

Thank you very much, both you and the doctor. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Senator Jenner. May I just ask you one more question? Right at 
the conclusion of your testimony you say many of the people, when you 
are out lecturing, ask you, "Why do you not revolt?" 

What is the answer to that question ? Why don't your people revolt ? 

Princess Ileana. Wliy don't our people revolt ? Well, first of all, 
because the armament is in the hands of the Communists, of the Rus- 
sians, quite clearly. Our army was forced to give up their arms 
to them. Therefore 

Senator Jenner. At that time when they were forced, didn't you 
have about 19 divisions ? 

Princess Ileana. I couldn't tell you that. I don't know. And then 
they took over everything that had to do with communications, roads, 
railways, water — I mean ships and so on — telegraph, telephone, all 
that. 

Mr. Morris. Press? 

Princess Ileana. Press ? Press, yes ; the first thing. I forgot that. 
I have so forgotten the idea of liberty that press, of course, is non- 
existent. 

And then they took anything that was on deposit. Any amount of 
food, medicines, everything that was supplies was taken. With that 
your hands are tied. 

And then what they did, of course, was to the peasantry. This is 
important, though, that they have for the moment got the peasants 
under their control because of the more immense taxes they have put 
onto the farms. You see, 85 percent of the land belongs to the peas- 
ants; 75 percent of it still belongs to the peasants, but they have to 
give so much of that that they can hardly live on it. They have to 
give between 50 and 75 percent of what the land produces. They 
have to give it to the Government. 

So, they are hungry and they are tired and they are — they have 
the impossibility of communicating with each other, and they are 
disarmed. 

But, they have not been able to force communal farming. They 
have not been able to close the churches. And they have not been able 
to educate the young as they wanted. So, hope there is, 

(A reproduction of the passport of Andrew Moldovan, whose name 
appears in the foregoing testimony, was ordered into the record at a 
meeting of the subcommittee on May 22, and appears on the follow- 
ing pages.) 



1252 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

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1254 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mitchell, will you take the stand, please. 

Mr. Mitchell. I have been sworn previously. 

(Mr. Mitchell's testimony will appear in a subsequent volume of the 
subcommittee's inquiry series entitled "Interlocking Subversion in 
Government Departments.") 

Senator Jenner. We stand adjourned. 

(Wliereupon, at 12 : 30 p. m., the committee was adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Redefection Campaign 



FRIDAY, MAY 18, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate 

THE Administration of the 
Internal Security Act and Other 

Internal Security Laws of the 

Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. 0. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 35 a. m., in the 
caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner pre- 
siding. 

Present : Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research director; and 
Robert McManus, research analyst. 

Senator Jenner. The Committee will come to order. 
Mrs. Coale, will you stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony given in this hearing will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 
Mrs. Coale. I do. 

Senator Jenner. Yoti may proceed, Mr. Morris. 
Mr. Morris. Senator, the hearing this morning will be on the sub- 
ject of the Soviet redefection campaign. The first witness will be 
Mrs. Coale, who has been recalled for the purpose of appearing here 
today. 

Mrs. Coale, again will you give us your full name and address? 

TESTIMONY OF MES. GRIITITH BAILY COALE, ASSOCIATE DIREC- 
TOR OF THE AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR EMIGRES IN THE PRO- 
FESSIONS, INC. 

Mrs. Coale. Mrs. Griffith Baily Coale, C-o-a-l-e, 163 East 81st 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or occupation ? 

Mrs. Coale. I am associate director of a nonprofit organization, the 
American Council for Emigres in the Professions. 

Our function is to try to assimilate the intelligentsia and profes- 
sional refugees into the life of the country. 

1255 



1256 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. You brought to the attention of the committee the 
gentleman who testified before the subcommittee yesterday under 
the name of Andriyve? ^ 

Mrs. CoALE. I did. 

Mr. Morris. When did you meet this man ? 

Mrs. CoALE. I have known him for about 21/2 years. 

He was sent to me by an American physician who is a personal 
friend of mine, and who vouched for his integrity and character. 

Since then I have had his technical qualifications evaluated by two 
American aircraft companies, who have the highest opinion of him. 

I have established the fact that he is highly regarded by other 
Russian scientists working for many years in this country. We have, 
through our committee, secured work for him for the Government. 

Mr. Morris. I have here, Senator, four pages of testimony taken 
from the same gentleman on the same day as we took the testimony 
that was introduced into the record yesterday. 

This bears on the subject of today's hearing. I would like to put 
these four pages into the record. I think we shall do what we did 
yesterday. 

Senator Jenner. Yes; you may proceed. 

Mr. Morris. This was Senator Jenner presiding at an executive 
committee meeting at which Mr. Andriyve is testifying. I will ask 
the questions, and Mr. Mandel will answer. 

(The excerpt from the testimony of E. Andriyve, May 16, 1956, was 
read into the record, the questions being read by Mr. Morris, and the 
answers being read by Mr. Mandel, and was as follows:) 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with any efforts on the part of Soviet author- 
ities to encourage redef ection ? 

Mr. Andriyve. Well, personally, I never had any pressure or anything of that 
sort. I am acquainted, of course, with a lot of cases, which are the subject of 
discussion among all the immigrants, because, after all, we are all in the same 
boat. 

Particularly, I was told by an acquaintance of mine of cases, numerous cases, 
in New York, of pressure exerted on persons who entered the United States on 
not entirely clear papers. 

Mr. Morris. Who have not got clear papers? 

Mr. Andriyve. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Who have not got clear papers? 

Mr. Andriyve. Some of the Russian immigrants who entered here under false 
names and false addresses, and so on. There is quite a number of such persons 
here. 

Mr. Morris. And that these people are being subjected to pressure? 

Mr. Andriyve. I was told they have been specifically subjected to pressure. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say you have been told. You do not know of your own 
experience, though? 

Mr. Andriyve. I do not know, and if I knew, I would not tell it to you because 
the persons concerned are afraid to be deported, and they find themselves between 
two fires. 

Incidentally, I do not know the names. 

Mr. Morris. We are not asking you any names. I wanted to know whether 
you know of any cases directly? 

Mr. Andriyve. Directly, no ; but indirectly I could tell the names and addresses 
of people who know direct cases. 

Mr. Morris. Is there any one particular case that you can tell us about? 

Mr. Andriyve. Yes. There is one case I do know, and that was a medical 
doctor in Boston. He was from Russia and was living in Boston for. I believe, 
5 years or more. Tben one day — it was 2 or ?> weeks ago — he came around to 



1 Another phase of the Andri.we testimony appears at p. 1003 of pt. 19. Scope of Soviet 
Activities in th<- United States. Full Andriyve testimony appears in pt. 21. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1257 

all these acqiiaintances and bid his farewell, and said that he was disappearing. 
WliyV Because he is pressured by the Soviet agents to return baelv to the 
beloved motherland. 

So they asked him, where does he goV He says, "I will go to New York, it 
is the easiest place to be lost in." 

He actually disappeared since that date. I know the man, and also my 
people, my wife, knows him, and we think that the m;in really was pressured 
and really disappeared here just to avoid any Communist agents. He positively 
did not return. 

Mr. MoRKis. And you do not know where he is now? 

Mr. Andriyve. I do not know ; he did not contact us. 

Mr. MoKKis. Do you have any reason to believe that he has left the country? 

Mr. Andriyve. Pardon? 

Mr. MoKRis. Do you have any reason to believe that he has left the country? 

Mr. Andriy've. I do not think so. I think, on the contrary, he is here. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any ideas as to how the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee or any executive agencies of the Government can cope with this 
situation? 

Mr. andriyve. Well, I think I have at least one suggestion. That suggestion 
comes from the analysis of what the Soviets actually do in this case. 

First, they lure the people by active pro-Soviet propaganda and anti-American 
propaganda. Then they transport the people back to Russia. Then, by some 
sort of a mockery they call justice, they sentence the people or shoot them, or 
send them to camps. That comes usually in a few weeks or a few months, at 
the most, after the people have been brought to Russia. 

Having all those facts, it is easy to combat them. 

Mr. Morris. How do you know those facts? 

Mr. Andriy've. Well, we know those facts, very simply, because the German 
POW's who are released from Russia, they bring, usually, the most modern infor- 
mation from there. So we know such facts very closely. 

If, say, a group of people are somehow transported back to Russia, they are 
usually going to Siberia or some other place in the corrective labor camps. 

So now it is very easy to cope with this situation, in my opinion. All you need 
is to challenge the Soviet Government openly to produce, say, to American 
reporters in Russia, somel)ody, or better, many people, who returned to Russia 
a year, 2 or 3 years ago. 

They will not be al)le to produce anybody. Not the man who left the United 
States last Sunday, no, but the man who left the United States or Germany 
1, 2, 3, or 4, years ago. 

Mr. Morris. I tliink that is enough, the point lie is making is there. 

NoM% Mrs. Coale, are you prepared to tell us any other instances 
that 3'ou liave encountered in your professional work in connection 
with the Soviet redef ection campaign ? 

Mrs. CoALE. Yes; I have been doing some work on collecting letters, 
for instance, that are being written to refugees living in the New 
York City area, pressuring them to go home. I can testify that I 
have seen eight envelopes which are a sampling of many similar 
envelopes containing letters written to a Rumanian man living in 
Xew York Cit3^ 

Mr. Morris. In other words, that man got eight letters? 

Mrs. CoALE. He got a great many more. I just saw eight of them. 
The}'- get them all the time. They get so many more that — here are 
2 or o that haven't even been opened — they don't even open them. 

Mr. Morris. You indicate that they are coming in great quantity? 

Mrs. CoALE. The letters are coming in great quantity. The letters 
I specifically saw are coming from Communist agents in Rumania, 
are mailed from East Berlin, from London, one from the Argentine 
came by special delivery, from Vienna, from all over Western Europe. 

All these letters are from people he has never heard of or from 
before. Many enclose copies of a newspaper published in April by 



1258 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

the Kiimanian Communist Government in East Berlin. This is the 
paper. 

This edition of the paper contains an article or open letter addressed 
to all Rumanian priests in the United States and Canada, and indeed 
outside of Rumania, and who are taking care of the spiritual needs 
of the Rumanian refugees. 

The purpose of this open letter is to invite them to return to Ru- 
mania. Copies of this paper have been sent to all Rumanian refugees 
in this country without exception, even to those who have been here 
up to 45 years and who are United States citizens, and even some who 
are veterans of United States military service. 

This is to show that the Soviets make it obvious that they know the 
addresses of every Rumanian in the country. 

Mr. Morris. That is the same publication about which Princess 
Ileana testified here, 2 days ago. 

Senator Jenner. The record will so show. 

Mr. Morris. The Soviet authorities have the addresses of all the 
refugees who live in the country ? 

Mrs. CoALE. It not only indicates it to me, but also to the Rumanians 
and throws a terrible scare into them, of course. That is the point. 

Now, I have here a photostatic copy of an envelope postmarked in 
Rumania, and portions of the letter it contained. I saw this letter in 
New York 3 days ago. It is addressed to a young Rumanian man, 
living in New York City, and is sent by his wife, living in Rumania. 
He has been getting letters from her written, through the mails, and 
not every letter has been censored. Some letters came through which 
are very cheerful, and contained nothing very serious. 

Tliis particular letter says : 

My heart is bleeding and I cry all the time. I had my hopes that you would 
return to your home and little child — but now I see that I have been mistaken. 
* * * You should never forget that you have a child, and that you are morally 
obliged to give him the necessary education as a father. Remember yourself 
how you have been brought up alone without anybody's help, and how diflacult 
it was. 

I do not know how long I shall resist with my health because I feel destroyed 
and sick. My heart does not help me any longer, and my tension is so bad that 
I may die very soon — and with whom would our child remain? 

Therefore, my dear, my only wish is that you should take care of the child, 
and for your name day, I wish you many happy returns and happiness, but do 
come to us as we are longing for you. 

This letter was obviously written under duress. 

Mr. Morris. How do you know that? 

Mrs. CoALE. He had had other letters, you see. 

Mr. Morris. Did he receive a subsequent letter? 

Mrs. CoALE. Yes, about 2 weeks later this man received another 
letter through the regular mails from his wife. She thanked him for 
a parcel she received, and did not mention his returning. This con- 
vinces him that the attached letter was written under duress. That 
is a psychological pressure. 

Mr. Morris. Are there other letters you have? 

Mrs. CoALE. Yes, I have two. I will leave them here. Unless, of 
course, you want me to read them. 

Mr. Morris. No, just make the point. 

Mrs. CoALE. This one is written from Rumania to a man living m 
New York. It was mailed on April 7, this year. It speaks of the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1259 

father of <a little boy. The little boy is terribly worried that his 
father doesn't want to come back to Rumania wliere his friends can 
be repatriated. It mentions the fact that because of existing laws, 
Rumanians outside of Rumania have a right to repatriate if they want 
to until August 1956. 
The letter ends: 

If this man does not want to come, it is all right, but let him remain among 
strangers and all by himself. 

This other one — this is written by a son. 

Your coming to Rumania is possible if you have serious intentions, and if 
there is in the United States no other family, and if you still love my mother — 

and so on. 

It is just another letter urging him, because the laws have been 
changed, to come back. 

Mr. Morris. Are there other such letters or such incidents that you 
can tell us about at this time ? 

Mrs. CoALE. Well, when this man gave me the photostats of the 
letters, he had a briefcase which contained hundreds of such letters. 
There is no dearth of letters. 

I think that is the only specific thing I want to say at this time. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much, Mrs. Coale. 

Senator Jenner. Thank you very much. 

Will you call your next witness ? 

Mr. Morris. Will Julius Epstein come forward, please? 

Before we leave this point. Senator, all those letters will go into 
the record? 

Senator Jenner. They will go into the record and become a part of 
the official record of this committee. 

(The documents referred to were numbered exhibits 263 to 263-C. 
Translations of the letters, with explanations by Mrs. Coale read as 
follows:) 

Exhibit No. 263 

Attached is a photostatic copy of an envelope postmarked in Rumania and por- 
tions of the letter that it contained. I saw the original of this letter in New York 
City 3 days ago. It is addressed to a young Rumanian man living in New York 
and is written by his wife. This man has been receiving letters constantly from 
his wife, all of which were quite cheerful and contained nothing very serious, nor 
did they ever suggest his coming home. 

A translation of a portion of the attached letter reads as follows : 

"My heart is bleeding and I cry all the time. I had my hoi)es that you would 
return to your home and little child — but now I see that I have been mis- 
taken. * * * You should never forget that you have a child, and that you are 
morally obliged to give him the necessary education as a father. Remember your- 
self how you have been brought up alone without anybody's help, and how difficult 
it was. 

"I do not know how long I shall resist with my health (because) I feel destroyed 
and sick. My heart does not help me any longer, and my tension is so bad that 
I may die very soon — and with whom would our child remain? 

"Therefore, my dear, my only wish is that you should take care of the child ; 
and for your name day, I wish you many happy returns and happiness, but do 
come to us as we are longing for you." 

About 2 weeks later this man received another letter from his wife, but this 
time she was not iinder pressure. She thanks him for the parcel and does not 
mention his returning as she did in the other letter. This convinces him that the 
attached letter was written under duress. 



1260 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 263-A 

Attached is a photostatic copy of a letter and its envelope, the original of which 
I saw in New York City 3 days ago. This letter was mailed from Sulina, Ru- 
mania, on April 7, 1956, to a man living in New York City. A partial translation 
reads as follows : 

"My Deau : Peter is very worried because his father does not want to 

return to Rumania, where many of his friends have been repatriated and have 
come home. [Note. — I'eter's father is in Israel now and intends to come to the 
United States.] 

"If he does not receive a visa [to go to the United States of America] then he 
has nothing to do and he should come home, because we shall do everything in our 
power to bring him back to our country if he want it, because a law was passed 
according to which all Rumanians outside of Rumania have the right, if they 
want to, to repatriate until August 19-56. If he wants to come it is all right — but 
if he doesn't, let him remain among the strangers and all by himself." 



Exhibit No. 263-B 

Attached is a photostatic copy of a letter and its envelope, the original of which 
I saw 3 days ago in New York City. This letter, postmarked in Rumania, was 
received on March 29, 1956, in New York City by a man who has lived there for 
the last 35 years. It is written to him by his son who was a young boy of 2 
years when his father left. During all this time the father has sent money to 
his wife and children, and only last week he sent $100 because his wife has been 
taken ill. 

A translation of the marked portion of the letter reads as follows : 

"Your coming to Rumania is possible if you have serious intentions, and if 
there in the United States you have no other family, and if you are still in 
love with my mother and with us, and with our country Rumania in which we 
live today and in which you yourself have eaten bread for 40 years. 

"Now this is possible to return here on the basis of the existing laws which 
permit repatriation of Rumanians living outside of Rumania and who would like 
to come back. 

"I repeat, my only wish is to know you, and is the only wish which I do not 
know if it will be realized." 



Exhibit No. 263-C 

I can testify that I have seen eight envelopes which are a sampling of many 
similar envelopes containing -letters written to a Rumanian man living in New- 
York City. These letters come from the Communist agents of Rumania and are 
mailed from East Berlin, from London, one from the Argentine by airmail special 
delivery, from Vienna and from Rumania. All these letters are from people 
whom he has never heard of or from before. 

Many of them sent him copies of a newspaper published in April by the Ru- 
manian Communist Government in East Berlin. This edition of this newspaper 
contains an article or open letter which is addressed to all_ Rumanian priests in 
the United States and Canada and indeed anywhere outside of Rumania, and 
who are taking care of the spiritual needs of Rumanian refugees. The purpose 
of this open letter is to invite them to return to Rumania. Copies of this edi- 
tion of the newspaper have been sent to all Rumanian refugees in this country 
without exception, even to those who have been here up to 45 years and who are 
United States citizens and even veterans of United States military service. A 
copy of this newspaper is attached hereto. 

Mr. Morris. Will you stand and be sworn, Mr. Epstein ? 

Senator Jenner. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will 
give in this hearino- will be tlie truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Epstein. I do. 

Senator Jenner. You may proceed, Mr. Morris. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1261 

TESTIMONY OF JULIUS EPSTEIN, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Mr. MoiiRis. Mr. Epstein, will you give your full name and address 
to the reporter i 

Mr. Epstein. Julius Epstein, E-p-s-t-e-i-n, 470 Fourth Avenue, 

New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born? 

^Ir. Epstein. Vienna, Austria. 

Mr. Morris. When did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Epstein. On March 9, 1939. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Epstein. I am a writer and a foreign correspondent for Ger- 
man newspapers. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Epstein, do you have any knowledge of the 
subject matter which was discussed by a man who has testified before 
this subcommittee as Mr. Andriyve, about people being in the United 
States on false papers ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what you know about that and the 
sources of your knowledge ? 

Mr. Epstein. This is a very old problem in the United States. 
There are now 20,000, at least, maybe thirty or forty thousand, former 
Soviet nationals living in the United States. 

They had to falsify their identities in Europe, mostly in German 
refugee camps, in order to escape forced repatriation behind the Iron 
Curtain. 

JNIr. ]\Iorris. Will you explain that, please ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes; I would like to quote our President, who men- 
tioned their case in his wonderful message to Congress, on February 8, 
1956. when he said : 

A large group of refugees in this country obtained visas by the use of false 
identities in order to escape forcible repatriation behind the Iron Curtain; the 
number may run into the thousands. Under existing law, such falsification is a 
mandatory ground for deixirtation. The law should give relief to these unfor- 
tunate people. 

These are the words of President Eisenhower on February 8. 

I understand there is now an amendment pending in Congress 
which would deal with this problem. But I want to point out 

Mr. iSIoRRis. Wlio are these people; these people, I mean, that are 
the subject of this beneticial legislation ? 

Mr. Epstein. Ukrainians, Russians, some Poles. You know that 
according to the Yalta agreement, we had to repatriate these people. 
They dicln't want to go back, even those who were deported by Hitler 
to Germany from Russia. Millions of them preferred to stay in 
Germany. 

But we repatriated between 1 and 2 million of those people, prison- 
ers of war as well as civilians, against their wishes. 

Now, many who are afraid of this tried to save themselves by 
falsifying their identities. 

Mr. Morris. Will you explain that? They wanted to conceal the 
fact that they were Soviet citizens; is that right? Because if they 
were Soviet citizens, they would have been forced to return to the 
Soviet Union. 



1262 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Epstein, Yes; without any regard to their individual wishes. 

Mr. Morris. You say there were more than a million people forced 
to return ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. 

Senator Jenner. On what basis were they caused to return? 

Mr. Epstein. Well, on the basis of the Yalta agreement on the 
exchange of prisoners of war and liberated civilians — it was signed 
under the protest of our Acting Secretary of State, Joseph C. Grew, 
who, wired our Secretary of State Stettinius, then in Yalta, and 
warned him against a conclusion of any agreement which could 
enforce repatriation of prisoners and civilians. 

Mr. Morris. How do you know that ? 

Mr. Epstein. I studied very carefully the Yalta documents and I 
came across a little note, "not printed." A certain document, sur- 
prisingly, does not appear in the Yalta papers. So I asked Secretary 
Dulles to release this diplomatic note to me. 

A few days later, I got a letter signed by the Chief of the State 
Department's Historical Division, Bernard Noble, dated April 28, 
1955: 

Dear Mr. Epstein : Enclosed is a copy of the Department's note of Feb- 
ruary I, 1945, to the Soviet Embassy relating to prisoners of war. You re- 
quested this in your letter of April 11, 1955. 

You also requested a copy of any answer to the message of February 9, 1945, 
from the Secretary of State, Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., to Acting Secretary 
Joseph C. Grew. No record of such an answer has been found. 

Now, this note, which was presented to the Washington represent- 
ative of the Soviet Union, Mr. Novikoff, on February 1, 1945, exactly 
3 days before the beginning of the Yalta Conference, explained to 
the Soviet Government which wanted repatriation of Soviet prisoners 
then in the United States, captured in German uniforms. 

Now the State Department, over our Acting Secretary Grew's 
signature, told the Soviet Government that — 

We will never return these people. We cannot repatriate these people, be- 
cause this would be a gross violation of the Geneva Convention. They were 
captured in German uniforms, and the Geneva Convention does not permit us 
to look behind the uniform. 

Mr, Morris. Wliat is the date of the Grew letter ? 

Mr. Epstein. The note was presented to Mr. Nicolai "V. Novikoff on 
February 1, 1945. 

Mr. Morris. And you say that note was a protest that we would 
never return these people because a repatriation would be a violation 
of the Geneva Convention, and that was dated February 1, 1945? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. I quote : 

I would like to outline to you the reasons why, in the opinion of the American 
authorities, these persons cannot, without presenting serious diflSculties, be 
delivered for shipment to the Soviet Union. It appears to the appropriate 
American authorities, who have given most careful consideration to this situa- 
tion, that the clear intention of the Convention — 

meaning the Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929 — 

is that prisoners of war shall be treated on the basis of the uniforms they are 
wearing when captured, and since the containing power shall not look behind 
the uniforms to question the citizenships. 

Senator Jenner. So our State Department then was aware that 
returning these refugees by force after 1945 was a violation of the 
Geneva Convention. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1263 

Mr. Epstein. Absolutely. This was not only a violation of the 
Geneva Convention, but also a complete reversal of the old American 
tradition of ready asylum for political exiles, because we also re- 
patriated by force hundreds of thousands of civilians. 

If you will permit me to read a very illustrative letter which Amer- 
ican Ambassador Grew wrote me on September 19, 1955, I will do 
that. 

I appreciate very much the facts you have set forth about the part I tried to 
play in the forced repatriation issue. I remember one occasion when as Acting 
Secretary of State I learned that a ship had already sailed from one of our 
ports carrying prisoners for forced repatriation. I gave innnediate orders which 
resulted iii the ship being held up and returned to port for a thorough screen- 
ing of those sailors who wanted to return and those who wanted to stay. The 
figures of the result of such episode are not now before me. 

JNIr. Morris. Now, Mr. Epstein, you read a while ago in the first 
letter from Mr. Dulles that such a note is not in existence '. 

Mr. Epstein. Yes; but it doesn't appear in the Yalta papers al- 
though the Yalta papers contain about 64 documents which were 
issued before the beginning of the Yalta Conference. There is a 
reference in one of the cables to this note. Since there is a little foot- 
note "not printed," I had a feeling that might be an important docu- 
ment which proves in official State Department terms that the forced 
repatriation of about 2 million anti-Communists, prisoners, and civil- 
ians, was a violation of the Geneva Convention. 

We do not know who overruled at Yalta this well-established State 
Department policy. 

Senator Jenner. When did you get this letter from Secretary 
Dulles ? Would you read the date of that again ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes ; on April 28, 1955. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Epstein, in other words, may I be sure I under- 
stand your position? 

You have learned now of the existence of a letter from Mr. Grew 
dated February 1, 1945, in which he unqualifiedly stated the position 
of the United States Government to be that they would never permit 
the return of these 2 million people back to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Epstein. This is not quite correct. Judge Morris. This note 
deals with the Soviet prisoners of war captured in German uniforms 
fighting on the west front. 

Now, for instance, a lot of people, many other Soviet nationals en- 
listed in the German Army in the hope that they would get the op- 
portunity to fight against the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Were there 2 million of those people? 

Mr. Epstein. There were about 1 million of those people, 900,000 to 
1 million. 

Mr. Morris. And ]\Ir. Grew made the point that the United States 
cannot return them because it would be a violation of the Geneva 
Convention. 

Mr. Epstein. It would be a violation of the Geneva Convention, and 
also jeopardize our own people. We had many foreign nationals in our 
own Army who were in fact in exactly the same position. They 
fought in American uniforms, but they were Germans. We did not 
want to jeopardize their fate. 

Mr. JSioRRis. The Yalta Conference was held a few days after that ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes; the Yalta Conference opened on February 4, 
1945. 



1264 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Do you know what liappened at the Yaha Conference 
to overrule the United States position on this matter? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. When it became clear that the British and 
Soviet were going to sign the agreement on the exchange of prisoners, 
Grew sent a telegram to Stettinius and told him : 

We cannot sign this ; we just delivered an official diplomatic note to the 
Soviets which explains that we cannot forcibly repatriate Soviet nationals 
captured in German uniforms. 

In addition to that, we have many prisoners who were not citizens of the 
Soviet Union on September 1, 1939. 

This is the essence of Grew's telegram of February 7, 1945. 

Two days later, Stettinius wired back and informed Grew that 
we have to sign it because we w^ant our boys, who are now in prisoner- 
of-war camps in Germany in the Soviet Union, back as soon as pos- 
sible; that we cannot deal with the intricacies of the Geneva Con- 
vention ; that we cannot deal with these considerations of humanitar- 
ian principles in the Geneva Convention. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, we acquiesced in yielding up the terms 
of the convention ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. General Dean signed for the Americans and 
General Grizlov signed for the Soviets the now famous Yalta agree- 
ment on the exchange of prisoners of war and liberated civilians. 

Mr. Morris. How many people were sent back? 

Mr. Epstein. That is a very difficult question, Judge Morris. No- 
body knows the exact figure. Maybe the Pentagon knows. But 
everything concerning the repatriation is highly classified, even now. 

I had a lengthy corresj)ondence with the Secretary of the Army and 
the people in G-2, and so forth, and I couldn't get one paper because 
they told me they are all highly classified. 

In one letter they wrote me, they said that a representative of the 
Department of the Army will confer with Senator Eastland about 
the declassification of the key paper. This is a paper called Operation 
Keelhaul. 

Senator Jenner. At this point I want to direct our staff to com- 
municate with the proper officials to ascertain what are the true facts 
in the position of the United States Government in the breakdown 
of the Geneva Convention. 

Mr. Morris. It shall be clone, Senator. 

Mr. Epstein. May I give you the exact number and title of this 
document? This is a highly classified document. The number is 
383.7-14.1, Forcible Repatriation of Displaced Soviet Citizens, Opera- 
tion Keelhaul. 

This document was issued for internal use only, and is now de- 
posited — at least I hope so — in the Historical Records Section of the 
Army in Alexandria, Va. 

Mr. Morris. Is that Keelhaul ? 

Mr. Epstein. That is right. It was named for one of the most bar- 
baric punishments in the old British and Dutch Navies. 

According to Webster, it means : 

To haul under the keel of a ship, either athwartships or from bow to stern, 
by ropes attached to the yardarms on each side. It was formerly a punishment 
in the Dutch and British Navies, and a method of torture used by pirates. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE XJNITED STATES 1265 

Now, the fact that the iiiilitary authorities chose this name for an 
official Pentagon survey of forced repatriation proves that they knew 
\\ hat it ^vas. 

Mr. Morris. You say, as a result of this particular situation that 
you have just described, this viohition of the Geneva Convention, that 
we have a present security problem in the United States tliat is re- 
sponsible for considerable Soviet activitj^ here today? 

Mr. Epsteix. Yes. These '2( ),()()() to 80,()(K) refugees living under 

false identities present a tremendous potential pool 

Mr. Morris. Who are these 20,000 to 30,000 people? 

Mr. Epstein. These are people who are living here right now under 

false identities, to whom the 

Senator Jenner. And, but for their false identities, they would 
have been forced back into Russia under this agreement? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. They are still afraid because the Yalta Agree- 
ment is still in force. 

Mr, Morris. So if they used their right identities and right names, 
they might be even now forced back to Soviet Russia ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. "We know the Soviet intelligence apparatus is 
very active in this country, and it doesn't take much imagination to 
imagine how these people are being blackmailed not only to return 
to Russia, but into spy activities. 

Let us take a man, for instance, who lives in a small community in 
Minnesota. The Soviet agency might tell him, "We know you are a 
Soviet citizen, and you are living here in the United States under a 
false identity. Unless you give us some spy information, we will 
destroy your existence in this community by exposing you as a swinder, 
and according to the law you would have to be deported." 

Senator Jenner. Under this agreement, the Government would be 
forced to deport these people. 

Mr. Epstein. Yes, because they must still carry out 

Senator Jenner. The Yalta Agreement has never been repudiated, 
so it still stands as a valid agreement. 

Mr. Morris. And I might point out that we are looking into that 
very problem now. There is some reason to believe that there are 
some cases in which pressure is being put on these people now. 

Senator Jenner. There ought to be some pressure put on from all 
angles in this situation. 

Mr. Epstein. Before I left New York, I spoke to 1 or 2 Russians, 
and they told me of 1 or 2 cases of people living under false identities, 
or identification, who have been approached by Soviets. But the man 
did not give me their names, and did not permit me to use his name, 
because he said these people are afraid. 

Under existing, standing American law, they could be deported. 
Some of them even have children in the Army, for instance. 

Mr, ^loRRis. Would you agree with ^Nlr, Andriyve, whose testimony 
we read here today, that it is very difficult to go into these cases because 
the people don't want to take chances and give their names? 

Mr. Epstein. That is right. That is the reason why 1 proposed, a 
few weeks ago, in an article as well as in a broadcast over WEVD, 
that the President should declare a time limited amnesty to these 
people saying: 

If you come forth within a certain time with the whole truth about your 
falsification and your false identities, and with every shred of evidence of pos- 
72723—56 — pt. 24 3 



1266 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

sible Soviet approaches to you, you have nothing to fear. You may even be 
allowed to live under your false name. 

You see, it is very embarrassing in little communities to change the 
names. Such an amnesty would yield, in my opinion, a tremendous 
stream of information for the FBI, therefore enabling the FBI to 
deal with this problem. 

Two days later, after I spoke over WEVD I got two visitors from 
the Immigration Service, who had listened to this broadcast and then 
said that Immigration is very much interested in this proposal, and 
I should tell them all. 

So they came to my office and I told them all about what I know. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know of any forced repatriation going on at 
any time now ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes, a few months ago, we had a bad situation in 
Austria which seems to be better now. But right now there is a cer- 
tain degree of forced repatriation going on from Trieste to Yugo- 
slavia. I have here a memorandum dated March 20, 1956, written 
and signed by Constantin A. Fotitch, former Yugoslav Ambassador 
to the United States, and JNIichael Krek. He is the leader of the Free 
Slovenes in the United States. 

If I may quote a few lines and paragraphs, so you will see how this 
situation is, according to Ambassador Fotitch and Mr. Krek. 

Mr. Morris. When you do that, you will put the whole document 
in the record ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 264" and reads 
as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 264 
Memorandum : Forcible Extraditions of the Yugoslav Refugees in Italy 

Political emigrants-escapees from the countries dominated by totalitarian Com- 
munist governments have been since the Second World War a generally ac- 
cepted phenomenon, an effect of the Iron Curtain. 

Tlie democratic and other non-Communist governments consider these escapees 
victims of the struggle for democratic liberties, accept them on their territories 
with sympathy, assist and help them in their efforts to resettle in the free world. 

Due to notorious facts such as the overall suppression of political, economic, 
cultural, and religious liberties in the Communist-dominated countries and the 
manifold dangers of illegal, clandestine crossing the borderlines, the escapees 
have been as a rule generally considered political refugees and given the privilege 
of political asylum. 

This viewpoint and attitude of the free humanity regarding the refugees from 
the Communist-dominated countries has been preverted by the Italian Govern- 
ment and by the Delegate of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 
in Italy. 

After the London agreement of October 5, 1954, which settled the territorial 
Trieste dispute between Italy and Yugoslavia, the Italian police authorities 
made efforts to get rid of the refugees from Yugoslavia and to prevent newcom- 
ing escapees from that country. 

At the end of 1954 the Yugoslav refugees in the DP camps in Italy were in- 
formed that they will have to leave Italy or to face repatriation to Yugoslavia. 
The Italian police actually invaded the DP camps at several occasions, de- 
ported groups of Yugoslav inmates to the Italian-Yugoslav borderline, and deliv- 
ered them to the Yugoslav border guards. 

This practice was discontinued at the beginning of 1955. Since then the in- 
mates of DP camps are no more subjects of "purge actions" of the Italian police. 
Its efforts are the more concentrated on the newcomers, escapees from Yugo- 
slavia. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1267 

The oflScial dealings with these refugees are "top secret." The public state- 
ments of the Italian authorities are composed of generalities only and evi- 
dently phrased for political purposes. The principles and rules awjlied in the 
processing of the cases are not known. Known are the deplorable results only. 
These are, in short, the following: 

The refugees from Yugoslavia have to undergo hearings at the headquar- 
ters of the Italian police force (Questura) at Trieste, or Questura at Udine, 
Afterward, they are questioned and examined by the members of a commission 
which functions under the authority of the United Nations High Commissioner 
for Refugees. This Commission has its otlice at Via Pradamanoi, Udine. The- 
Chairman of this Commission is Dr. Schlater, a Swiss ; members are certain 
employees of the Italian police at Trieste and Udine. Known are the names of 
Dr. Portada, Dr. Giannini, and Dr. Morelli. 

From the moment the Yugoslav refugee reports to the Italian authorities, he 
or she is considered as under ari'est, is deprived of every contact with the outside 
world, cannot obtain any legal advice or other help, and is put in a camp called 
Campo di Smistamento del Profughi at Udine. The interviewing, examining, 
and other processing of each case is considered "top secret." "Top secret" is 
also the decision itself. Not even the \'ictim, the person involved, obtains any 
information about the decision concerning his or her fate until the very moment 
on the spot when he or she is faced with the Yugoslav guards on the border line. 
According to our observers who saw individual groups of refugees escorted and 
extradited to the Yugoslav frontier guards, and according to news published in 
the Italian papers, 73 percent of all refugees from Yugoslavia to Italy who crossed 
the border line during 1955 were forcibly repatriated. 

Reliable inside reports tell us that the employees of the Commission at Udine 
quite often do not even take the trouble to find out the real motives of escape in 
each case. As a rule every refugee from Yugoslavia has to be returned. Those 
who obtain the permission to stay in Italy and then apply for emigration into 
overseas countries are exceptional cases. The questioning and hearings of the 
refugees are considered and dealt with as an unessential form of procedure. 

Dr. Giannini and the Yugoslav vice consul in Trieste, Mr. Cibic, are in excellent 
relations. This fact is probably the clue to the explanation of the otherwise 
mysterious fact that in some cases the refugees from Yugoslavia who reported in 
the morning to the Italian police in Trieste were deported back to the Yugoslav 
border line and delivered to the Yugoslav border guards the same day. No 
opportunity was given to to them to plead for themselves. 

During 1955 and January 1956, the Italian authorities as a rule returned to 
Yugoslavia by force — 

All men who fled the Yugoslavia armed forces and those of military age ; 
All minors ; 

All refugees and escapees who asked for political asylum and were not 
able to prove that they had been persecuted in Yugoslavia for reasons of 
political discrimination. 
The forcible extraditions are executed mostly at night. We were able to trace 
the following cases : 

From November 1954 to March 1955, 97 persons were forcibly returned 
against their will. 

On March 5, 1955, 40 persons were forcibly extradited by the Italian police 
to the Yugoslav border guards at the place Farnetti on the Yugoslav-Italian 
border line. 

On April 5, 1955, again 35 persons were extradited at Farnetti. 
On May 12, 195.5, a larger group of persons from Beograd was returned by 
police escort after they reported to the Italian police at Torino and asked 
for political asylum. 

August 3 to 5, 1955, 20 persons extradited. 
August 10, 1955, 23 persons extradited. 
August 12, 1955, 18 persons extradited. 
August 13, 1955, 32 persons extradited. 
August 24, 1955, 24 persons extradited. 
August 25, 1955, 42 persons extradited. 
In December 1955, 65 persons extradited. 

On January 12, 19.5G, a group of 40 refugees from Yugoslavia was escorted 
by the Italian police to the Italian-Yugoslav border line and given over to the 
Yugoslav border guards at Farnetti. These Yugoslav refugees were loaded 
into a car of the train No. 1674, which according to the schedule should have 
arrived from Udine to Trieste terminal at 3 : 12 p. m. The victims were told 



1268 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTR'ITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

that they will be placed into the DP camp at Trieste. In fact, the car with 
the group of refugees was detached from the train at the railway station 
Sistiana near Trieste. The police immediately surrounded the car and told 
the refugees to enter two police buses which transported them to Farinetti 
where the Yugoslav police unit was already expecting them. At the very 
moment when the victims saw the Yugoslav police, they began to ci"y, to 
shout for help and a few women (there were six among the prisoners) 
fainted. Nevertheless the Italian police retreated, the Yugoslav guards took 
over the group of refugees and chained everyone of them. The observers 
were able to see the dramatic scene of struggle between the refugees and the 
Yugoslav guards. 

The newspaper "Candido" reports in its issue of February 5, 1956, the 
forcible return of 30 Yugoslav emigrants on January 26, 1956, in following 
terms : 

"We have informed the Parliament, the Government, and the public, that 
we (Italians) are the only nation in Europe forcibly returning the political 
emigrants into a Comnnmist state. We are ashamed of this fact, yet unable 
to do more. We are stupefied with horror at the reports of the latest trans- 
port of a few days ago. 

"Horrifying scenes were witnessed at the Trieste jail where those unfortu- 
nate people were assembled to be handed to Tito's hangmen. They pro- 
tested, cried, tore their clothes to pieces, asked to be rather shot than re- 
turned. They made desperate attempts to avoid being deported. When the 
carabiuieris came to force them to leave the jail, they barricaded them- 
selves in their cells, broke their beds so that firemen had to be called to help 
the carabiuieris to subdue them. Finally they wei'e firmly tied up, put into 
police trucks and brought to the frontier." 

According to the reports published iu Italian and Yugoslav newspapers and 
according to the reports of our reliable observers, such and similar tragic extra- 
ditions of refugees from Yugoslavia have been performed at the Italian-Yugoslav 
border line repeatedly every month since October 1954. They provoked public 
attention and sympathy for the victims in Italy and approval in the Yugoslav 
Communist press. Members of Parliament in Rome protested. In the city 
council of Trieste sharp and acid words were pronounced against these inhuman 
dealings with the refugees ; newspapers carried exciting stories on the subject, 
yet it seems that nothing can stop the forcible extraditions ( II Piccolo, Trieste ; 
II Messagero Veneto, Udine ; II Candido, Milano ; II Gazzettino, Trento ; La Vita 
Niiova, Trieste; Osservatore Romano, Vatican ; Oggi, Agenzia Italia; Katoliski 
Glas, Glorizia ; Demokracija, Trieste ; Sloveuski Porocevalec, Ljubljana ; Vjesnik, 
Zagreb). 

The Italian Government made several statements on the subject. It asserted 
that only those refugees from I'ugoslavia have to be returned by force to their 
home country, who are qualified as "economic refugees," as opposite to the 
"political refugees." We do not know of any statement of the United Nations 
High Commissioner on the subject. 

International law, practice, and tradition consider every refugee from any 
country ruled by totalitarian dictatorship, asking for political asylum, a victim 
of political conditions entitled to protection and help. 

The Constitution of the Italian Reptiblic guarantees the right of political 
asylum to every person who escaped from a country where he could not enjoy 
liberties given to tlie Italian citizens according to the constitution. 

The Yugoslav Communist Government is a notoriously known dictatorship. 
Political liberties, personal freedoms, and economic free enterprise are not 
existing in Yugoslavia today. It is a fact that the Yugoslav, as any other Com- 
miuiist government, discriminates against non-Communist citizens in all fields 
of activities. 

The refugees from Yugoslavia therefore are political refugees, and have to be 
considered as such, unless evidence is produced in individual cases to the 
contrary. 

By the bulk the refugees from Yugo.slavia are anti-Communists, democratic- 
minded people, whose lives under the Communist rule became unbearable. They 
consider the escape as their only means of survival. They are well aware of all 
dangers which they have to surpass at their clandestine crossing the bordei'- 
line. They risk their lives to reach freedom. 

The present practice in dealing with the Yugoslav refugees in Italy disregards 
the practice generally accepted in the free world, is contrary to the international 
law and tradition, contrary to the text and spirit of the Italian Constitution. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 1269 

Tho forcible repatrintion of tlio Ynuoslnv rofn^^eos is inhmiinii accnrdiiif? to all 
staudanls of the Christian c-iviii/.ation : it is dcijlorabiy daiuaKiu.u" tho efforts of 
the West in its strujrgle with the romimmist conspiracy and killinj:; the spirit 
of persistence and resistance in the Coninninist-doniinated countries, particu- 
larly in Yu.troslavia. 

We implore the representatives of the l'. S. A. Government to work for the 
abolition of forcible extradition of the refugees and escapees from Yugoslavia 
in Italy. 

Michael Krek. 
constantin a. fotitch. 

Washington, March 20, 1950. 

Mr. ErsTEiN. The Italian police authorities made efFoi'ts to get rid 
of tlie refugees from Yug-oslavia. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this : Did this stop in 1955 ? 

Mr, Epstein. No. It only stopped as far as the old refugees who 
had been living for many years in Italy were concerned. Until 1955, 
according to my information, the Italian Government repatriated anti- 
Connnunist Yugoslavs who had been living for as inucli as 10 years in 
the Trieste area. 

They don't do this any more, but the newcomers are repatriated. 
Ambassador Fotitch quotes a very illustrative article which appeared 
in the Italian newspaper Candido, in its issue of February 6, 1956. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Epstein, this indicates that there are people 
now being forcibly repatriated, but does that pose a security problem 
to us in the United States ? 

Mr. Epstein. In a certain respect ; yes, sir. 

First of all, we are supporting Yugoslavia and Italy; we recently 
sent money and machines, and so on, from this country, paid for by 
the American taxpayer, so the American people have a legitimate 
interest in the things. 

Secondly, those things happen under the eyes of the United Nations 
High Commissioner for Refugees, Dr. G. J. van Heuven Goedhart. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that for the record, please? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. G. J. v-a-n H-e-u-v-e-n G-o-e-d-h-a-r-t. 

Mr. Morris. And who is he ? 
_ Mr. Epstein. His official title is "United Nations High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees," with headquarters in Geneva and an office in 
New York. 

Mr. Morris. He has jurisdiction over this problem ? 

Mr. Epstein. He has to watch over these people, in my opinion, and 
it is his duty to protect those people. 

Senator Jenner. What has he done to protect them ? 

Mr. Epstein. As far as I know, nothing. 

Senator Jenner. Where is he from ? Who is he ? 

Mr. Epstein. He is a Dutchman, a Dutch writer and a Dutch editor. 
His background will sliow that it is not at all too difficult to under- 
stand why he has done nothing. 

Senator Jenner. What has he done, if anything ? 

Mr. Epstein. Well, he wrote the introduction to the most vicious 
pro-Communist book ever published in America, written by Sayers 
and Kahn, called The Great Conspiracy Against Soviet Russia. 

Senator Jenner. He did what ? 

Mr. Epstein. He wrote the introduction for the Dutch edition of 
this b(jok. 

Senator Jenner. That is a Communist book, isn't it ? 



1270 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Epstein. That is a Communist, or, at least, the most pro-Com- 
mmiist book, written after the war in the United States. I understand 
that Mr. Kahn was before this committee as late as March 7, 1955, 
when he used the fifth amendment when Senator Eastland asked him, 
"Are you a member of the Commmiist Party ?" 

Mr. Morris. You say that this man, who is High Commissioner of 
Refugees, wrote an introduction to the Dutch edition of that book ? 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. Here is the Dutch introduction. I have also 
a translation, if you would like it. 

Senator Jenner. I order that the translation go into the record and 
become a part of this record. 

(The translation referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 265" and 
reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 265 

Thr Library of Congress, 
Legislative Reference Sekvioe, 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Translation (Dutch) 

Michael Sayers and Albert E. Kalm, The Great Conspiracy 
[Against Russia], with a foreword by Mr. G. J. van Henven Goed- 
hart, ex-Minister of Justice and Chief Editor of Het Parool (Re- 
publiek der Letteren, Amsterdam) . 

[introduction] 

Asked if I would like to furnish an introduction to the Dutch translation of 
The Great Conspiracy Against Russia by the two American writers Michael 
Sayers and Albert E. Kahn, I had to confess that I had never read that book — 
that book, too, among others. I have since repaired the damage, for that is 
what it was, and I now emphasize when asked : "This book must be widely 
read." And it is a pleasure for me to send it on its way through the Netherlands 
with a hearty recommendation from me. 

Years ago, in view of all sorts of slackness in Dutch and non-Dutch domestic 
and foreign affairs, I pointed out, in a newspaper article, the need for the 
emergence of strong men. I meant then, and I still do, that democracy and 
misery do not go hand in hand ; yes, even that democracy is compatible with 
vigorous leadership of politicians, whose vision is much broader than what we 
call, with slight contempt, the masses, and who run the risk of standing alone, 
unpopular, and misunderstood, and consequently are accused of being Fascists. 
That admission alone firmly pins the Fascist label on me. Tears later, during 
a lecture I pointed out the futility of refusing all collaboration with the Com- 
munists because of ideological anticommunism. The result was that, here and 
there, as foreseen, I have since been called a Communist. 

The world — I am sure our country also — suffers from label pinning. Ruth- 
lessly we pin on the statements of almost everybody a political label, thereby 
often achieving the realization of a miserable objective : the arousing of sus- 
picion. Few have had the good fortune that has been mine : Anyone who has 
been labeled both Fascist and Communist can also hope to be believed when 
he says : I am a democrat. 

Being a democrat is for me, above all, the belief in the fundamental equal 
worth of all men — not their "equality" [sameness] — to be topped by intellectual 
freedom and thus supporting the rights of the "minority." It seems to me, how- 
ever, that the democratic concept is at variance with some, perhaps essential, 
elements of the Communist as well as Fascist ideology. If I were to describe the 
elements of my idea otherwise, I would risk coming into conflict, with, for ex- 
ample, the Reformed, the Catholic, and the Liberal ideology. But if everyone 
of us withdraws further into his ideological ivory tower, and especially if every 
one of us West Europeans — stanch individualists as we are — were to do so, 
where is the basis for any sort of practical collaboration? Something is missing. 
As it is the undeniable right of a democrat to maintain his "own concept," it is 
also his undeniable duty, for the sake, alone, of wanting to live together, to 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1271 

cooperate with otber-thinking persons, whenever and insofar as such cooperation 
may be possible. 

Nowadays, from a national and international viewpoint, political cooperation 
of other-thinkinj? persons with the Communist is perhaps the touchiest problem 
that must bo solved for the sake of peace. Likewise, the fabulous war effort of 
the Soviet Union to stand up against the Fascist strength has not in any way 
put a stop, either ideologically or emotionally, but carried to a large extent by 
plainly materialistic motives, to an anti-Russiaism, which a great and admirable 
military leader such as Winston Churchill introduced into his anti-Soviet speech 
at Fulton 6 months ago. The immeasurable losses which Soviet Russia sustained 
on the battlefields from Smolensk to Stalingrad in order to stem the tide of 
international fascism has done even more to make the world conscious of her 
anti-Russianisni than Litvinov's stubborn efforts to substitute tiie laclv of unity 
between the nations so welcomed by Hitler by activating the League of Nations 
to give a clear definition of the term "aggressor." On the contrary, as soon as 
the flags of England, Russia, and the United States were flying above the ruins 
of Berlin, the threads of the anti-Soviet campaign, spun in 1917, were picked 
up again. 

Day by day millions of people are in their thought, their speech, and their 
writing committing the crime of getting ready for world war III — against Rus- 
sia — by considering it possible, probable, or even imavoidable. A crime, indeed. 
No military or civilian who between 1939 and 1945 has been in the thick of it 
can think other than with horror of a repetition of the happenings in those years. 
No human being can shirk the obligation of doing everything in his power to 
prevent this. 

But what about the Russians? Aren't they hoping that some day the whole 
world will adhere to their Communist ideas? Haven't they for years been stand- 
ing on the threshold of an attack on the world around them daring the world 
to force its system upon them? Two questions — two answers. Anyone who 
has any belief to peddle is doing so here, be he American or Russian, British or 
German. But while Hitler stole into nation after nation like a thief in the 
night to spread his gospel of violence, nobody can truthfully say that Russia 
aims at aggression. Nevertheless, millions believe that she is doing just that. 
Nevertheless the world has talked for well nigh 30 years — with amazing lack of 
logic — simultaneously about the "approaching crumbling" of the Soviet regime 
(ad nauseam making all sorts of dire predictions) and the threatening leap 
by power-hungry Soviet Russia for world domination. 

The nature of the catastrophes has never been indicated by the anti-Moscow 
hotheads. Twenty years ago Sir Henry Deterding was so sure that Soviet Rus- 
sia's regime could last 1 year at best. When Hitler flew at Russia's throat the 
panic-struck suggested that it would capitulate within a month. When "Lady 
Luck changed her mind" at Stalingrad they announced that, as soon as the Soviet 
Army had reached Russia's former frontiers, Stalin would stop and make a 
separate peace with Hitler. When the facts "threw" that tale also "to the 
ravens," the explanation was that the "Russian steamroller," once set in motion, 
would roll right down to the beaches of the North Sea. When that "kite," too, 
"failed to get off the ground," the "tale of Job" was spread that the Red army 
would never leave either north Norway or Czechoslovakia. When that also — 
but no, the story is really beginning to get monotonous. Thirty years of more 
or less crusade-like anti-Soviet proposanda have thoroughly poisoned millions 
of minds, and for these people the Michael Sayres and Albert Kahn book can 
be effective medicine. With an avalanche of facts, justified by bibliographical 
notes, the main features of the "great conspiracy" against Russia have been 
revealed which began in Kerensky's days and has lasted to the present ; a con- 
spiracy plotted and schemed with a beautiful ideological feeling of coming 
to "the rescue of civilization," <yt "safeguarding of Christianity," of "defend- 
ing man against beast." But, the real motive, save for exceptions, of its most 
important and, to be sure, most powerful devisers was too much capitalistic fear 
for their pocketbooks and too much imperialistic hunger for land. 

For years Hitler had kept his criminal designs concealed behind a screen of 
quasi-humanitarian anti-Russianism ; indeed, he himself helped rally the ap- 
peasers in every country in favor of signing and rejoicing over the shameful 
Munich Pact because "the" foe stood in the East and the Fuehrer, in his effort to 
free mankind from the threat of the "Bolshevist monster" upon acceptance of his 
"last territorial demand," still found people willing to listen to him. Thus fifth 
columns sprang up in almost every country serving the sinister German cause 
behind an anti-Russian camouflage. Thus all governments, including the pre- 



1272 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

1940 Dutch, found themselves in a pitifully weak situation when their Fascist 
highway robbers struck their blow, as their auti-Russianism (Mussert of Mos- 
cow") had, moreover, been pronounced as a very extenuating circumstance. 

For all this, millions — 15 million Russians alone — have paid with their lives In 
the 6 years of the war. The bitterest pill to swallow was the unconditional sur- 
render first of Italy, then of. Germany, and finally of Japan. Since then unity, 
painfully achieved by bitter struggle and after so many years of poisonous 
propaganda of distrust even more fragile of nature, has melted away. The 
same world that knew how to win the war is on its way to lose the peace. Any- 
one with eyes to see and ears to hear doubts that the war years may be followed 
by any great chance for a resumption of the song of the Russian bogeyman which 
had been chanted so quickly, so loudly, and so as-though-nothing-had-happened- 
and-nothing-had-changed — that is the disillusionment and, at the same time, 
in a nutshell, the danger. 

Anyone who reads the book by Sayers and Kahn — and really ; it must be 
read — should understand why, however valid the reasons may be, the Russians, 
from a political viewpoint, are suspicious, and he will forget his gruesome one- 
sideness of the ignorant policy of regarding Russia as "the danger" [threat]. No- 
body denies him the right of having misgivings concerning the definite objec- 
tives of the Soviet regime, a right that I, too, won't have anybody take away 
from me. But his understanding of Russian policy as a result of reading the 
Sayers and Kahn book will bring him closer to it, even maybe to seeking a place 
in the ranks of those who regard a better understanding and sincere cooperation 
between the Russian and non-Russian world as a condition for a lasting peace. 
There are scarcely 2 persons, or 2 parties, or, let alone, 2 ijhilosophies, who don't 
somewhere in real life come to a crossroads where each must go his own way. 
The crossroads is at all times reached almost too soon. Irresponsible, to be 
sure, is the man who today chooses to walk alone, because tomorrow there may 
not be a chance of walking together. 

May the Sayers and Kahn books also in our land promote a more thorough 
and more honest idea of policy of that country which has made such big and 
admirable sacrifices for containing the threat which, other than the Russian, 
has remained very real, yet not one hundredth of the talking and doing about 
the so-called danger to the peace coming from the East has been evidenced rela- 
tive to the danger of reactionary fascism with its glorification of violence, with 
its destruction of intellectual freedom, with its inhumanity practiced by man. 

G. J. VAN Heuven Goedhart. 

October 1946. 

(Translated by Elizabeth Hanunian, May 8, 1956.) 

Mr. Epstein. If you will permit me to quote a few lines. 
He says in liis introduction to this book, which appeared in 1946 
in the Netherlands, about the same time it appeared here : 

Asked if I would like to furnish an introduction to the Dutch translation of 
The Great Conspiracy Against Russia, by the two American writers INIichael 
Sayers and Albert E. Kahn, I had to confess that I had never read that book- 
that book, too, among others. I have since repaired the damage, for that is 
what it was, and I now emphasize when asked, "This book must be widely 
read." And it is a pleasure for me to send it on its way through the Netherlands 
with a hearty recommendation from me. 

And further : 

Likewise, the fabulous war effort of the Soviet Union to stand up against the 
Fascist strength has not in any way put a stop, either ideologically or emo- 
tionally, but carried to a large extent by plainly materialistic motives, to an 
"anti-Russia-ism" which a great and admirable military leader such as Winston 
Churchill introduced into his anti-Soviet speech at Fulton 6 months ago. 

Day by day millions of people are, in their thought, their speech, and their 
writing, committing the crime of getting ready for world war III — against 
Russia — by considering it possible, probably or even unavoidable. A r-rime, 
indeed. 

Tlien, again : 

While Hitler stole into nation after nation like a thief in the night to spread 
his gospel of violence, nobody can truthfully say that Russia aims at "aggres- 
sion." Nevertheless, millions believe that she is doing just that. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1273 

Sonator Jenner. I would like to state that I think it is oiitra^ieoiis, 
deplorable that a man who holds such views would be the High Com- 
missioner of Refugees of the United Nations, and I am going to take 
that matter up with the chairman of this conunittee. 

I think a proper directive should be sent to our American Am- 
bassador to ask him to do something about a man who holds the posi- 
tion and has the views that you have just stated, if they be true. 

Mr. Epstein. I agree w^ith you. Senator. Thank you for this state- 
ment. I have never read anything so pro-Communist as this book, 
and this introduction, so I didn't understand how this man could get 
this high position. 

I believe there is an American vote in the United Nations. 

Mr. Morris. You have one more letter, have you not, to a man named 
Kliniov ^ 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you just tell us what that is and put it in the 
record ^ 

Mr. Epstein. Gregory Klimov is the editor of a Russian refugee 
periodical appearing in Munich, Germany, called Svoboda, and he is 
right now in the United States. He gave me, when I interviewed 
him in December, the first information about the seamen from the 
Tuafse, and told me they are accosted and approached every day by 
Soviet agents. 

I wrote at that time an article which was distributed by North 
American Newspaper Alliance on December 19, 1955. 

Mr. ]\1orris. Just tell us the highlights, and put it in the record. 

Mr. Epstein. Mr. Klimov showed me a photostat of a letter he got 
from Berlin, signed by General Kolosov, asking him to return. 

Mr. Morris. This is a letter from an official in Soviet Berlin asking 
him to go back ^ 

Mr. Epstein. Yes. 

This article was distributed by NANA on December 19, 1955. This 
letter reads as follows 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Just put it into the record. 

Senator Jenner. It will oo into the record and become a part of the 
official record of this committee. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 266" and reads 

as follows:) 

ExHiiiiT No. 266 

Agents Trail Russian Refugees in United States, Urge That They Return 

TO Soviet Union 

(Julius Epstein, a frequent contributor to American magazines and United States 
con-espondent for a numl)er of West German newspapers, has been reporting 
international news for more than 30 years. Stories he wrote in 19.51 were in- 
strumental in bringing about the congressional investigation of the Katyn 
massacre of Polish officers during World War II) 

(By .Julius Epstein, North American Newspaper Alliance) 

New York, Deceml)er 10. — ^Nine former Russian seamen who sought asylum 
in the United States after their tanker was cnptured by the Chinese Nationalists 
are persistently being followed by Soviet agents in New York, it was reported 
totlay. 

The Soviet representatives are urging that the sailors, who are living in 
seclusion in New .Jersey, return to their homeland. 

Disclosure that Russia's campaign to induce its escaped nationals to return 
had extended to the streets of New York was made by Gregory Klimov, a former 



1274 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Army major who is a leader of Russian defectors in West Germany. 
Klimov, on a visit to this country, learned of the sailors' experiences while con- 
ferring with them on their problems as fugitives from the Soviet Union. 

Their ship, the Tuatse, was captured by the Chinese Nationalist Navy on 
June 23, 1954, while carrying oil through Formosa Strait en route to Chinese Com- 
munist ports. Of the 49 crew members, 11 remained in Formosa. 29 returned 
to the Soviet Union, and the 9 arrived in the United States October 20, classed as 
"special immigrants." 

Two weeks later, Klimov quoted the seamen, the first effort was made to 
persuade them to go back to Russia. 

Two of the nine had visited a friend on 141st Street in upper Manhattan and 
boarded a subway train for Times Square when a Russian representative ap- 
proached them. He urged them to return home and promised forgiveness and a 
new start in life in the U. S. S. R. 

The two defectors immediately contacted the New York oflBce of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, they told Klimov, where they were shown pictures of 
Russians known to the FBI to be operating as agents in this country. Among 
the photographs, the pair recognized one of the men who had accosted them in 
the subway. 

A third sailor off the Tuatse was approached a few days later near Broadway 
and 42d Street in the heart of Manhattan. This time, a Negro who commanded 
fluent Russian spoke for return to the Soviet Union. 

The most striking event in the series of persuasion attempts took place No- 
vember 26, when the whole group of nine attended a "ball of the nations" at New 
York's St. Nicholas Arena. An unknown man approached the table of the 
Russians and handed them a big parcel, then disappeared. Inside the parcel 
the Russians found handwritten letters and photographs from their near and 
distant relatives, friends, and sweethearts in the Soviet Union. In addition, 
there was also a letter addressed to all members of the group and signed by the 
secretary of the Tuatse post of the Young Communist League. 

The letter contained an invitation to return to the Soviet Union under the 
provisions of the Soviet amnesty to Russians living abroad. Minutes later, the 
seamen found the man who had given them the parcel and asked him for an 
explanation. He asserted that another man, unknown to him, had given him 
the parcel with the request to deliver it. 

These events have frightened the sailors, reported Klimov, who himself took 
refuge in the West several years ago while, as a Red army oflBcer, he was in 
charge of industrial development in Eastern Germany. The sailors are unable 
to understand how the Soviet agents are so well informed about their movements 
and at liberty to approach them in the public streets. They are baffled by the 
explanation that the Russians, who presumably are in the United States under 
diplomatic passport, are free to speak to whomever they wish. If a similar event 
occurred in Moscow in behalf of a foreign country, Klimov quoted the refugees, 
an arrest would be made immediately. In recent weeks, the sailors have stopped 
appearing in public ; their location is a tightly kept secret. They are being sup- 
ported by refugee organizations. 

The seamen's experiences are illustrative of the vigor of current Russian cam- 
paign for redefection, Klimov said. Heavy pressure to come home, he reported. 
Is exerted on Russians in West Germany, where 100,000 former Soviet citizens 
have lived since 1945 and where the refugee agency he heads has it headquarters. 

In East Berlin, Russian General Michailov heads the Committee for the Return 
to the Homeland, which publishes a bimonthly paper, distributed among refu- 
gees from the Soviet Union all over the world, the United States included. The 
committee also sends out thousands of personal letters, containing a mixture of 
lure and threat. 

Michailov's righthand man, according to Klimov, is Lieutenant Colonel Kolo- 
sov, who defected in 1945, went to Australia, and was later deported. He went 
to West Germany, where he ran a chicken farm. In September 1955 he redefected 
to the Soviet zone. Today, Klimov reported, he is broadcasting anti-American 
speeches from East Berlin. 

Klimov, who is president of the most important anti-Communist Refugee 
Organization in west Germany, called TCOPE (Central Association of Postwar 
Emigrees From the U. S. S. R.) and also editor in chief of the organization's 
periodical Svoboda (Freedom) is himself a constant target of the Soviet cam- 
paign for the return to the homeland. A few weeks ago, Kilmov received a 
personal letter, signed by Kolosov. The letter reads as follows : 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1275 

"Grigorij Petrovich : I am writing from east Berlin, by order of a member 
of the Committee for the Return to the Fatherland. 

"Frankly spoken, I personally consider you a useless man and would not bother 
to write to you or to invite you to return to the fatherland. But the committee 
here considers you and those similar to you with great indulgence. You are 
considered as a young and hopeful man who can still be saved. Your work is 
well known here but it is not considered as very important. You certainly know 
very well what the success of TCOPE and similar outfits in the fight to over- 
throw communism amount to. 

"You have probably read the Soviet Amnesty ; you do not fall under its provi- 
sions. But there is a rather broad back door through which your friends could 
let you in and transport you back to the fatherland, together with those who 
fall under the amnesty directly. The condition is voluntary surrender and par- 
ticipation in patriotic activities. You certainly know what voluntary surrender 
means. And the meaning of 'patriotic activities' should also be clear to you. 
As a leader of the TCOPE you have contacts with many postwar refugees and 
know their addresses. Through your contact with Lebedev and others, you can 
obtain the addresses of all those refugees who subscribe to Satirikon. (This 
is an anti-Soviet satirical periodical, appearing in West Germany.) You don't 
have to bother with old emigrees and those who never were Soviet citizens because 
the amnesty does not include them and the committee has no right to invite them 
or to guarantee their return to the fatherland. But we need the addresses of 
the new and newest ones ; the committee would like to send them its periodical 
and personal letters. 

"A great deal of your terrible sins would be forgiven if you were able to or- 
ganize a group which would collaborate with us. But this might be diflScult 
and dangerous for you. Therefore, do rather only one thing, but do it thor- 
oughly. 

"Thus, you have a chance to redeem your guilt in a rather easy way. You 
know when they forgive in our country, they do it with all the broadmindedness 
of the Russian soul. 

"I don't know who has greater influence upon you, the foreign intelligence 
services or the fatherland. But I'm telling you, neither you nor your friend 
Artsiuk, nor the solidarists will overthrow communism. In spite of all pre- 
dictions, the Soviet Government has lived and will live. If you decide to go 
home, you'll become an equal member of the family. If you stay abroad, you'll 
remain an outcast. The old emigration has been wandering around the globe 
for almost 40 years. You know the results — they lost their human face. The 
same fate will befall you and all those who will reject the magnanimous offer, 
now made by your fatherland. 

(Signed) "Mikhail Kolosov, East Berlin." 

Mr. Morris. I hope yoii won't mind if we move along. We have 
four other witnesses here this morning. 

I want to thank you very much for the helpful testimony you have 
given the Internal Security Subcommittee. 

Senator Jenner. Yes, it has been very helpful, ver}' enlightening, 
and very shocking. 

(A prepared statement by Mr. Epstein was later ordered into the 
record as exhibit No, 267 and reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 267 

Statement by Julius Epstein 

I am deeply grateful to you, Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to appear before 
this Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security and to give testimony about 
certain aspects of our present refugee problem. 

To give you in this brief statement just one example : There are now at least 
20,000 refugees from Iron Curtain countries, mostly Russians, Ukraines, Poles, 
and Baits living in this country under false identities. They falsified their 
ties in order to escape American sponsored forced repatriation. They simply 
forged their credentials while in European DP camps. They presented these 
forged documents to the American authorities all over Europe and they were 
admitted to the United States as well as to other countries under these false 
identities. They are living here in fear and in terror. In many cases, their 



1276 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

sons are in the American Army, Navy, or Air Force. They have daily to 
continue the swindle unless they want to expose their parents as forgers of 
documents. All those former Soviet nationals, living now under false identities 
in our country, represent a dangerous reservoir to be tapped by the tremend- 
ous Soviet intelligence apparatus, now operating in this country. It does not 
take much imagination to envision how Soviet agents may intimidate and black- 
mail those unfortunate people into submission to Moscow, especially those work- 
ing in defense plants and living in small communities. 

The President has mentioned their case in his message to Congress of Febru- 
ary 8, 1956, when he said and I quote : 

"A large group of refugees in this country obtain — mark the present tense of 
the verb 'obtain' — visas by the use of false identities in order to escape forcible 
repatriation behind the Iron Curtain ; the number may run into the thousands. 
Under existing law such falsification is a mandatory ground for deportation. 
The law should be amended to give relief to these unfortunate people." 

Now, let us take a look at the past. How came it about that we Americans 
dei)orted to their sure death on Soviet gallows, before Soviet firing squads or 
in Siberian slave-labor camps, between 1 and 2 million anti-Communist prisoners 
of war and civilians who had just one desire : To surrender to the Americans, 
to stay in the West and to fight communism? How came it about that we vio- 
lated the spirit of the Geneva Convention and reversed the old American tradi- 
tion of ready asylum for political exiles? By doing this, we destroyed the most 
valuable potential force in the battle against Moscow's conspiracy against free 
mankind. 

That it was a gross violation of the Geneva Convention and a ruthless abolition 
of the American tradition of ready asylvim for political exiles can be proved by 
State Department and Pentagon documents. Let me again just give you one 
example : 

When the Soviet Government, early in 194.5, demanded from our Government 
the forcible return of Soviet nationals captured in German uniforms, we right- 
fully rejected this demand. 

In an official diplomatic note of February 1. 1945, signed by our then Acting 
Secretary of State Joseph C. Grew, we informed the Soviet representative in 
Washington, Mr. Nikolai V. Novikov, that we could never forcibly return Soviet 
nationals captured in German uniforms, because their forcible repatriation 
would constitute a violation of the Geneva Convention. This diplomatic note 
which surprisingly does not appear in the Yalta papers but was released to me 
by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, was presented to the Soviet repre- 
sentative in Washington just 3 days before the opening of the Yalta Conference. 
The note proved the well-established policy of the State Department in accord- 
ance with international law and old American traditions. This well-established 
policy against any forced repatriation was overruled at Yalta within a few hours. 

When it became clear that our Yalta delegation would — imder British and 
Soviet pressure — conclude the infamous Yalta agreement on the exchange of 
prisoners of war and liberated civilians, our Acting Secretary of State, Am- 
bassador Grew, sent a wire to Mr. Stettinius. our Secretary of State, then at 
Yalta. In this wire. Grew strongly warned against the conclusion of any agree- 
ment which could ever result in forced repatriation of anti-Communist prisoners 
of war and civilians. 

It was in vain. 

Our Yalta delegation — including Mr. Alger Hiss and possibly under his advice — 
had no qualms to renounce any consideration of the Geneva Convention of which 
we were and still are a member, the American tradition of the right of asylum 
and other humanitarian principles. The secret agreement was signed on Febru- 
ary 11, 1945, for the Americans by General Dean and for the Soviets by General 
Gryzlov. 

It was this agreement which served as the pushbutton to unleash the great 
tragedy, and I do not hesitate to say the crime of forced repatriation of anti- 
Comnumists, although even this agreement does not contain any reference to the 
use of force. We do not yet know whether there was any other secret written 
or oral agreement at Yalta, providing for the use of force for repatriation pur- 
poses. But we do know that the agreement containing not the slightest refer- 
ence to the use of force was — arbitrarily — interpreted as in favor of force by 
our Joint Chiefs of Staff. This, too, can be documented by official Army papers. 

One of these Army documents is the still unreleased official report : The Recov- 
ery and Repatriation of Liberated Prisoners of War, Occupation Forces in 
Europe, 1945-46. This highly interesting document was prepared under the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1277 

authority of the Army Chief Historian. Col. Harold E. Potter, by the Chief 
Archivist Gih'tte Griswokl. 

This (Idciinu'iit luovos to tlie hilt that not only SHAEF but the Joint Chiefs of 
Staff deliberately chose to use force to drive Soviet nationals to their death — 
not because they had to but because they wanted to. On page 04 of this docu- 
ment we read and I quote : 

"The princiiile of forcible repatriation of Soviet citizens was recognized in 
Supreme Headquarters in April l!»4r>. Although the Yalta agreement did not 
contain any categorical statement that Soviet citizens should be repatriated re- 
gardless of their jiersonal wishes, it was so interpreted by the Joint Cliiefs of 
Staff. On instructions from the latter, theater headquarters ordered repatria- 
tion regardless of the individual desire." 

But we went even further to appease Stalin and his hangmen. We did not 
only forcibly repatriate anti-Comnuinist prisoners of war and civilians, in- 
cluding women and claildren, but also anti-Communist heroes of Soviet origin 
wlio had fought heroically in our own ranks and who had been decorated by 
our own American generals. I am referring to the tragic case of Tinio, a 
nomad from a Turkistanian area who had joined one of our divisions, fighting 
against the Nazis in Italy under our General Almond. Tinio had joined our 
ranks, together with a whole band of comrades. After the end of hostilities, 
a Soviet repatriation mission in Italy asked for his and his comrades' extra- 
dition. General Almond had to deport Tinio and his comrades, in spite of the 
fact that he knew very well it meant the immediate destruction of Tinio and his 
comrades. 

Now, Tinio and his comrades were by no stretch of the imagination "prisoners 
of war" or "liberated civilians," they w^ere members of an American military 
unit. Therefore, the Yalta agreement did not cover them, no matter how arbi- 
trarily and wrongly one might have interpreted it. His surrender by American 
military authorities was a crime — pure and simple. 

But to get the complete picture of the horrible events, the mass suicides, the 
violation of international law as well as of time-honored American traditions, the 
Department of Defense should immediately release to the press and therefore 
to the American jjeople the vast amount of top-secret documents it is still 
locking away in its files. Among those papers is the report of the forcible re- 
patriation of about 200 Soviet nationals from Fort Dix, N. J. They had to be 
drugged in order to overcome their fierce resistance to forced repatriation. 

The Pentagon should release what is probably the key document to all the 
still hidden details of forced repatriation after the war. I am speaking of the 
highly classified document with the file number and title : "383.7-14.1 Forcible 
Ivepatriation of Displaced Soviet Citizens — Operation Keelhaul." This docu- 
ment was issued for internal use only on September 1, 1948, and is now de- 
posited — at least I hojie so — in the Historical Records Section of the Army in 
Alexandria, Va. 

Keelhaul was one of the most barbarous punishments in old Dutch and 
British Navies. According to Webster, "Keelhaul" means, I quote, "To haul 
under the keel of a ship, either athw'artships or from bow to stern, by ropes 
attached to the yardarms on each side. It was formerly a punishment in the 
Dutch and British Navies and a method of torture used by pirates." 

The fact that our military authorities chose Operation Keelhaul as code 
name for an official report on forced repatriation speaks for itself. It does not 
need any further comment. 

Today, the specter of forced repatriation is still haunting lis. Nothing has 
ever poisoned our spiritual and moral relations to our secret allies behind the 
Iron Curtain more than this forced repatriation of millions of anti-Communists 
after World War II. 

We should also not forget that the Yalta agreement is still in force in 1956, 
and continues to terrorize thousands of refugees and to force them — as the 
President said in his message to Congress— to falsify their id*>ntities. 

But not only that. Forced repatriation of political refugees was a live issue 
a few months ago in Austria. It is today a live issue in Italy. According to a 
reliable source, the Italian Government is forcibly returning anti-Communist 
refugees, Yugoslavs, to Tito's Communist dictatorship. At the same time, it 
was reported. Tito forcibly repatriates anti-Soviet refugees to Rumania. This 
latter fact is a direct result of Tito's reconciliation with the Kremlin. 

All this is happening under the eyes of tliet U. N. High Commissioner for 
Refugees, whoses office is partly paid for by the American taxpayer. 

While nothing can eradicate the indelible blot on our honor and especially on 
our tradition of ready a.sylum for political exiles, brought about by our own 



1278 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNTITED STATES 

deeds, thet least we should do is to find out the whole truth and to give this 
truth to the American people as well as to our secret allies behind the Iron 
Curtain. 

It is my belief that Congress has the moral obligation to investigate Impar- 
tially the whole forced repatriation program as carried out by our military and 
civilian authorities (UNRRA, IRO) in the years 1945-47. Only such 
investigation will show the American people how it was possible that we did 
what turned out to be not only a crime against humanity but also the greatest 
blunder of our postwar policy. 

I deeply hope that Congress will discharge this moral duty not only in the 
interest of a historical truth of tremendous significance but also in the interest 
of the restoration of morally and spiritually sound relations to our millions of 
allies, before and behind the Iron Curtain. 

(The following correspondence between Chairman Eastland and 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, chief United States delegate to the United 
Nations, relative to the High Commissioner for Refugees, was ordered 
into the record at a meeting of the subcommittee on June 26 :) 

May is, 1956. 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., 

The Representative of the United States 
of America to the United Nations, 

Neiv York, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Lodge : At a hearing of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee 
held on Friday, May 18, testimony was presented which aroused great concern in 
the mind of the then acting chairman. Senator William E. Jenner, and in my 
own mind. Testimony and documentary evidence were presented to show 
that the present United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Mr. G. J. van 
Heuven Goedhart and former ex-minister of justice and chief editor of Het 
Parool wrote an introduction to a book entitled "De Grote Samenzwering" (The 
Great Conspiracy Against Russia) by Michael Sayers and Albert E. Kahn, 
published by Republiek der Lettern of Amsterdam, Holland. 

Albert E. Kahn, coauthor of this book, appeared before the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee on March 7 and 8, 1955, and invoked the fifth amendment 
on the grounds of possible self-incrimination when asked whether he was then or 
had ever been a member of the Communist Party. I enclose herewith Mr. 
Kahn's testimony. Michael Sayers' writing have appeared frequently in Com- 
munist Party literature, oftentimes in association with Albert E. Kahn. 

Permit me to quote from Mr. Goedhart's introduction to this highly pro- 
Soviet work : 

"Asked if I would like to furnish an introduction to the Dutch translation of 
The Great Conspiracy Against Russia by the two American writers Michael 
Sayers and Albert E. Kahn, I had to confess that I had never read that book — 
that book, too, among others.. I have since repaired the damage, for that is 
what it was, and I now emphasize when asked : 'This book must be widely read.' 
And it is a pleasure for me to send it on its way through the Netherlands with 
a hearty recommendation from me. 

"Years ago, in view of all sorts of slackness is Dutch and non-Dutch, domestic 
and foreign affairs, I pointed out, in a newspaper article, the need for the emer- 
gence of strong men * * * Years later, during a lecture I pointed out the futility 
of refusing all collaboration with the Communists because of ideological anti- 
communism. The result was that, here and there, as foreseen, I have since 
been called a Communist. 

"* * * Likewise, the fabulous war effort of the Soviet Union to stand up 
against the Fascist strength has not in any way put a stop, either ideologically 
or emoCTbnally, but carried to a large extent by plainly materialistic motives, 
to an 'anti-Russianism,' which a great and admirable military leader such as 
Winston Churchill introduced into his anti-Soviet speech at Fulton 6 months 
ago * * *. 

"Day by day millions of people are in their thought, their speech and their 
writing committing the crime of getting ready for world war III — against Rus- 
sia — by considering it possible, probable, or even unavoidable. A crime, 
indeed * * *. 

"But what about the Russians? Aren't they hoping that some day the whole 
world will adhere to their Communist ideas? Haven't they for years been 
standing on the threshold of an attack on the world around them daring the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1279 

world to force its system upon them? Two (inestions — two answers. Anyone 
who has any belief to peddle, is doing so here, be he American or Russian, 
British or German. But while Hitler stole into nation after nation like a 
thief in the niijht to spread his gospel of violence, nobody can truthfully say 
that Russia aims at 'aggression.' Nevertheless, millions believe that she is 
doing just that  * *. Thirty years or more or less crusade-like anti-Soviet 
propaganda have thoroughly poisoned millions of minds, and for these people 
the Michael Sayers and Albert Kahn book can be effective medicine. With an 
avalanche of facts, justitied by bibliographical notes, the main features of the 
great conspiracy against Russia have been revealed which began in Kerensky's 
days and has lasted to tlie present; a conspiracy plotted and schemed with a 
beautiful ideological feeling of coming to 'the rescue of civilization,' of 'safe- 
guarding of Christianity,' of 'defending man against beast.' Bat, the real 
motive, save for exceptions, of its most important and, to be sure, most powei'ful 
devisers was too much capitalistic fear for their pocketbooks and too much 
imperialistic hiuiger for land * * *. 

"Anyone who reads the book by Sayers and Kahn — and really it must be 
read — should understand why, however valid the reasons may be, the Russians, 
from a political viewpoint, ai-e suspicious, and he will forget his gruesome, 
one-sidedness of the ignorant policy of regarding Russia as 'the danger [threat].' 
Nobody denies him the right of having misgivings concerning the definite ob- 
jectives of the Soviet regime, a right that I, too, won't have anybody take away 
from me. But his understanding of Russian policy as a result of reading the 
Sayers and Kahn book will bring him closer to it, even maybe to seeking a place 
in the ranks of those who regard a better understanding and sincere coopera- 
tion lietween the Russians and non-Russian world as a condition for a lasting 
peace * * *." 

In behalf of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, I wish to ask you as 
the representative of the United States within the United Nations to determine 
how a man of Mr. Goedhart's outlook came to head the United Nations Organ- 
ization for Refugees. We would also like to know whether the United States 
voted in favor of this choice. 

We are particularly concerned about this question at the present time, in 
the light of our current investigations of pressure being exerted by Communist 
governments to cause redefections among those who have sought asylum in 
the free world, a question in which a man with Mr. Goedhart's position and 
power could wield considerable weight and influence. 

We look forward to a detailed analysis of the facts on this matter as far 
as you are in a position to present them. 

Senator Jenner who presided at the hearing thought that it was outrageous 
and scandalous that a man who would so associate himself with Communists 
should have to be looked to by refugees and forced repatriates who are being 
subject to Soviet pressure and terror and forcibly transported behind the Iron 
Curtain. 

Very sincerely yours, 

(Signed) James O. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 



May 21, 1956. 

Deae Senator Eastland: This acknowledges receipt of your letter dated 
May 18 which was published in the newspapers of May 20. 

In response to your question, the records indicate that Mr. G. J. van Heuven 
Goedhart was first elected to be the United Nations High Commissioner for Refu- 
gees by the General Assembly of 1950. At that time the United States sup- 
ported Mr. J. Donald Kingsley. 

In 1953 the mandate of the High Commissioner for Refugees was extended 
by the General Assembly for 5 years over the bitter opposition of the U. S. S. R. 
The delegations of the U. S. S. R. and the satellite countries strongly attacked 
Mr. van Heuven Goedhart personally for not taking action to repatriate the 
refugees and alleged that he was serving the interests of the United States 
and other western Governments. The United States supported the extension of 
the High Commissioner's mandate and the decision to take this action was, 
of course, made in Washington. 

At the 1953 session of the General Assembly Mr. van Heuven Goedhart was 
the only nominee of the Secretary General for the post of High Commissioner, 
and he was declared elected for the 5-year term. 



1280 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

It may be pertinent at this point to say that Mi-, van Henven Goedhart. in 
his appearances at the United Nations, has frequently taken issue witli positions 
of tlie Soviet Union and has been a prime target for the attaclis of that Gov- 
ernment. Last year wlien tlie Soviets, as part of their redefectiou campaign, 
souglit in tlie General Assembly to get language into the refugees resolution 
which, in our opinion, might have made ix)ssible the forcil)le repatriation of 
refugees, Mr. van Heuven Goedhart openly and vigorously opposed this at- 
tempt. With the support of the United States the Soviet attempt was defeated. 

I, of course, wholeheartedly disagree with the tenor of the statements at- 
tributed to Mr. van Heuven Goedhart which you quote in your letter. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) H. C. Lodge, Jr. 



June 22, 1956. 
Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., 

The Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, 
Neiv York, N. Y. 

Dear Mr. Ambassador : I refer to my letter to you dated May 18, 1956, and to 
your reply thereto dated May 21, 1956, in the matter of Mr. G. J. van Heuven 
Goedhart, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 

You will remember that in my letter of May 18 I called your attention to an 
introduction written by Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart in 1946 for the Dutch edition 
of a book by Michael Sayres and Albert E. Kalin entitled "The Great Conspiracy 
Against Russia." In that introduction, Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart, who is in 
charge of the United Nations program for refugees from behind the Iron Curtain, 
referred to "the futility of refusing all collaboration with the Communists,'' and 
called for "an avalanche of facts" to overcome "30 years of more or less crusade- 
like anti-Soviet propaganda" which he declared had "thoroughly poisoned mil- 
lions of minds." 

In your answering letter dated May 21, you pointed out that in recent years 
Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart has on several occasions taken issue with the publicly 
stated position of the Soviet Union in matters before the United Nations. You 
added, however, that you "wholeheartedly disagree" with the introduction 
written by him for the Sayres-Kahn book. 

I now call your attention to an item in the Netherlands News Bulletin, pub- 
lished by the Netherlands News Agency A. N. P., 32 Parkstraat, The Hague, under 
date of Wednesday, June 6, 1956. I quote : 

"As regards certain reproaches made against him in the United States in con- 
nection with a preface he wrote to the book, The Great Conspiracy Against 
Russia, in 1946, Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart said he thought it was one of the 
best he had ever written. 'I do not think there is the slightest occasion to 
defend myself against the nonsense uttered with regard to this preface,' lie said. 
If some United States Senators thought he was a Communist then he was in the 
same company as Professor Oppenheimer." 

In other words, as late as June 6 of this year Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart 
regarded the statements in his introduction to The Great Conspiracy Against 
Russia as some of the best he had ever written. And as for his views on com- 
munism, Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart considers himself in the same category as 
J. Robert Oppenheimer — whose security clearance was withdrawn by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States after his intimate, extensive, and dangerous con- 
nections with Communists and communism had been established. 

I will appreciate being advised whether you consider that this latest statement 
by Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart affects in any way his qualifications to serve as 
the T'nited Nations official in charge of its program for refugees from Communist 
oppression and tyranny. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) James O. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 



[Netherlands News Bulletin, The Hague, Netherlands, June 6, 1956] 

Refugee H. C. Might Resign 

The Hague. — In bitter terms the United Nations Commission for Refugee.?, 
Dr. G. J. van Heuven Goedhart, has complained at a press conference here of lack 
of funds for refugees and hinted that he might resign. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1281 

Ho said it was "an absulnto scaiidnl that. 10 yoavs after the war, 65,000 refu- 
gees are still liviii,^ in misery in a Europe bul^iinj;" with i)rosi)erity." 

Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart was profoundly pessimistic about tinancial pros- 
pects and said he could not see in what way the states coo])('ratinii: to aid refugees 
could be persuaded to j^ive new life to the aid projiranuiie of the United Na- 
tions. 

"I have done all I i)ossil)ly can to set more numey for refuf^ees, hut the re- 
sults have been so disappointinu- that I must ask myself if it would not be 
better if someone else took my place," he declared. 

Van Heuven Goedhart said that "jrreat apathy" could be observed among the 
refugees now that they had been in camps for more than 10 years, and they no 
longer make much effort to become independent. 

TALKS WITH GERMANY AND AUSITIIA 

Talks were now going on with Germany and Austria to liquidate the camps 
in these countries before 1958. 

Without a cei'tain amount of pressure the camps there w^ould never become 
empty, he said. It was true that the number of refugees had declined since 
1[)54 from <S5,000 to 05,000, but on the other hand the number had greatly in- 
creased because Austria would have to receive this year ;!,000 Hiuigarians and 
3,000 Italians. It was very encouraging, the High Commissioner went on, that 
the money from the Nobel Prize has made it possible to empty completely a 
camp on the Greek island of Tinos and to house its 120 inhabitants satisfactorily 
elsewhere. 

As regards the financial side of the refugee problem. Mr. van Heuven Goedhart 
said that through voluntary contributions by members of the U. N., $1(5 million 
would be collected divided over four years. For the first year a target amount 
of 4.2 million had been fixed but. ultimately, only 2.7 million was received, a 
deficit of 1.5 million. The High Commissioner had proposed to the U. N. that 
this deficit should be added to the target amount for the next year, 195(5, so that 
this would become 5.9 million. But he could already say that this amount would 
never be realised. 

HOLLAND'S "EXEMPLARY RECORD" 

Mv. Van Heuven Goedhart had also tried to obtain money from private in- 
dustry and social institutions. A few countries had shown good will but none 
of them had such an exemplary record as the Netherlands. 

He drew attention to the new fund that had meanwhile been established by 
Pierre Schneiter, the special representative of the Council of Europe for the 
problem of overpopulation in Europe and refugees. "This fund is now knocking 
on the same doors as I am,' 'said the High Commissioner, "but ministers of 
finance do not usually increase their budget for assistance when the number of 
organisations is increased. If the number of candidates increases, but the cake 
remains the same size, then it simply means that everyone gets a thinner slice." 

As regards certain reproaches made against him in the United States in con- 
nection with a preface he wrote to the book, The Great Conspiracy against Rus- 
sia, in 1946, Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart said he thought it was one of the best 
he had ever written. "I do not thinl: there is the slightest occasion to defend 
myself against the nonsense uttered with regard to this preface," he said. If 
some United States Senators thought he was a Communist then he was in the 
same company as Professor Oppenheimer. 

The High Commissioner, just back from a tour of South America, said that, 
with the exception of Venezuela, there was not much future for European 
refugees in that part of the world since capital was necessary for emigration 
there. 



June 26, 1956. 

Dear Senator Eastland : This acknowledges yours of June 22 in which you 
cite further statements attributed to Mr. Van Heuven Goedhart and ask me for 
my opinion. 

In reply I will say that I completely disapprove of the latest statement which 
your letter attributes to Dr. Van Heuven (Joedhart on the l)asis of a foreign press 
report and that it is certainly something which, if verified, should be taken into 
account by those who make the decision on his qualifications to hold office. 

72723 — 56— pt. 24 4 



1282 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I should in all frankness point out that the matter of the United States endorse- 
ment of international oflScials, such as Dr. Goedhart, is one concerning which I 
receive formal instructions from Washington. 
Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) H. C. Lodge, Jr. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Miscliaikow. 

Senator Jenner. Will you be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give in this hear- 
ing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. MiscHAiKow. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL MISCHAIKOW, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please ? 

Mr. MiscHAiKow. Michael Mischaikow, M-i-s-c-h-a-i-k-o-w, 48 Mon- 
roe Place, Brooklyn 1, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, before asking this witness questions, the par- 
ticular evidence that he can contribute today, that this witness can 
contribute today, bears on still another aspect of Soviet activity in 
connection with the redefection campaign. 

Mr. Mischaikow, you have been in the United States for some time ? 

Mr. Mischaikow. I am here since January 1956. 

Mr. Morris. Where have you been prior to January 1956 ? 

Mr. Mischaikow. In Europe, Germany. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you in Germany ? 

Mr. Mischaikow. Eleven — ten or eleven years. 

Mr. Morris. You are a native of what country ? 

Mr. Mischaikow. I am Bulgarian. 

Mr. Morris. When did you arrive in Germany ? 

Mr. Mischaikow. I have been a German student at the time of the 
collapse — the end of the war. 

Mr. Morris. How did you escape from Bulgaria? 

Mr. Mischaikow. I didn't escape. I actually stayed. I was in 
Germany and didn't return to Communist Bulgaria. 

Mr. Morris. I see. You were in Germany and didn't return ? 

Mr. Mischaikow. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mischaikow, while you were in Germany, were 
any efforts made on the part of the Bulgarian Communist officials to 
cause you to return to Bulgaria ? 

Mr. Mischaikow. Not me personally, but especially in the last time, 
hundreds and hundreds of cases, not only of Bulgarian but all East 
European nationals living as refugees in Germany and around Eu- 
rope, have been approached by a letter or personally to return to their 
homelands. 

The striking fact in this action, as far as Europe was concerned, 
was that the enemy approach is not always coming only from the 
face, as far as the refugees are concerned. 

This means facing tlie enemy to what it is. It means many of the 
letters asking the refugees to go back to their country have been 
mailed from countries from the free world, France, Austria, Switzer- 
land, Belgium. What is much more striking psychologically — I would 
say very dangerous — it has been learned that among these letters com- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1283 

ing from the free world asking a refugee to go back to liis home 
country are also letters mailed in the United States. 

Letters mailed in the United States reach European immigrants 
asking them to go home. It is said the fact that such letters can be 
mailed in the United States has a psychological effect concerning the 
feeling of insecurity of this refugee, seeing that the letters can come 
from the United States. 

All signs point to a very good network system operating on such 
psychological depression, asking them to go to the Communist occu- 
pied country. 

Mr. Morris. It indicates that there is a network existing around the 
world ? 

Mr. MiscHAiKow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Which is psychologically playing on their minds? 

Mr. MiscHAiKow. That is right. So the simple, common refugee 
who believed that he escaped the secret service of the Communists, 
the NKVD and other political organizations, hasn't escaped the fact 
that he is nowhere secure, because from all countries of the free world 
there are small places or nests wherefrom letters or action are coming 
to press him to go back. 

Mr. Morris. You say these letters are from the United States? 

Mr. MiscHAiKOW. I learned that letters from the United States 
reach these European emigrants in Europe, indicating cities like New 
York or Chicago, asking them to go back to their countries. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen any of these letters from the United 
States? 

Mr. ISIiscHAiKOW. I have seen letters. I didn't see the envelopes, 
but all these letters have been mimeographed, without any heading — 
I mean official headings, and without any signature, in a very polite 
way addressing to the person as "Dear Countryman," or indicating 
that the country is expecting him to go back, and that his amnesty 
doesn't hold, and so on. 

Mr. Morris. Would you describe these letters for us very briefly? 

Mr. MiscHAiKOW. It says, as follows : 

Dear Countryman : Maybe it is brought to your attention the fact that the 
government of your country — 

indicating the country specified — 

issued an amnesty which will provide you no punishment when or if you decide 
to go home. The country waits on you, and we wiU be glad to welcome you 
again in its community. 

Mr. Morris. Does this have an impact on these people ? 

Mr. MiscHAiKow. Oh, sure, sir. You can't imagine. I know it is 
a psychological problem, because for a long time I worked in a division 
of the International Refugee Organization, and I started this psycho- 
logical problem long ago before it became a political problem, as a 
psychological background. 

Every refugee from Soviet-occupied countries is afraid. He wants 
to go as far as possible from the Iron Curtain. 

One of the reasons for emigration to far remote countries is that. 
If these people got letters, especially from countries where they thought 
they would be secure, you can't imagine the psychological reactions, 
and the psychological effect which proves that the Soviet claim or the 
Communist claim tliat their hand is long and can reach everywhere 
is true. 



1284 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. It indicates to tliem that the long-handed Soviet intel- 
ligence is reaching them, even from the United States. 

Mr. MiscHAiKOW. I can imagine that a man ^Yho has logical think- 
ing has no explanation if he gets or when he gets letters from the 
United States. 

Never mind who sends the letters, whether it is a diplomatic repre- 
sentation or simply a man in charge of snch activity. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any of these letters '( 

Mr. MiscHAiKow. No ; I do not have. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Is there anything else, Mr. Mischaikow, which 3'ou can 
tell us about this problem '( 

Mr. Mischaikow. Yes, Judge Morris. 

As I arrived in the States in January of this year, for a certain time 
I tried to keep my address unknown, as w^e usually do, because of in- 
security and so on. 

At that time I was trying to get a job, with my line. The new 
emigrants are looking for a job what they can get. At that time, 
when I didn't get my proper job, I would say, just in an occasional 
position. 

In Munich where I lived, my house lady has been called by persons 
indicating to be my friends, asking her to deliver to them my address 
in the United States. As she didn't know all of my friends, she asked 
tliem to reveal their names. They refuse. 

They tried many times, and after they didn't have success, they 
tried to call at the house at the time the house lady was not at home, 
and only the children, small girls between 10 and 17 years of age, 
were there. 

They would ask them whether the children could deliver my address 
to the caller. The children asked for the name of the caller. The 
caller refused to reveal the name, and insisted that they are my 
friends, and want my address in the United States. 

My house lady asked me in letters whether she should or shall 
reveal my address in the United States, and I told her no. 

Now, if they are friends, why do friends not reveal their names? 
If you consider it as an indication. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Chairman, before concluding with this par- 
ticular witness, I would like to point out that all of the witnesses who 
haA'e been appearing on this general subject have themselves been 
experiencing particular difficulties and particular fears in connection 
with their personal appearance. 

I think all the more so, Senator, we should be grateful for this and 
other witnesses who have appeared. 

Senator Jenner. On behalf of the subcommittee, I want to thank 
you for appearing here and cooperating with us on this very important 
subject. 

Mr. Mischaikow. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Miroshnikov, will you come forward please? 

Senator, Mr. Barsky has graciously returned to help us with this 
witness. Mr. Barsky has been previously sworn. 

Senator Jenner. Will you be sworn, Mr. Miroshnikov ? 

Do you solemnly swear tliat the testimony you are about to give in 
this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1285 

TESTIMONY OF IVAN MIROSHNIKOV, BROOKLYN, N. Y., THROUGH 
HIS INTERPRETER, MR. BARSKY 

Mr. iSIoRKis. Will you give your name to the reporter ? 

ISIr. INIiROSHNiKOV. My name is Ivan Miroshnikov. I-v-a-n M-i-r-o- 
s-h-n-i-k-o-v. 

Mr. Morris. Would he object to his giving his address in the public 
record ? 

Senator Jenner. It isn't necessary if he has any objection. 

Mr. Barsky. He says he has no objection. 

Mr. Morris, Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. 12 Jetferson Street, Brooklyn, X. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Miroshnikov ? 

Mr. ISIiROSHKiKov. The Ukraine. 

Mr. jSIorris. Were you a lieutenant colonel in the Ked army ? 

Mr. ]MiR0SHNiK0v. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Morris. Did you defect from the Red army in the year 1948 ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. June 20, 1948. 

Mr. Morris. Did you come to the United States in 1951 ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. Yes, on November 1-4, 1951. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Mr. ]\Iiroshnikov, since you have been here in the 
United States, has anyone urged you to return back to the Soviet 
Union ? 

]\Ir. Miroshnikov. Not until the 3d of May of tliis year. 

Mr. :Morris. The 3d of May of this year, 1956 ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. Right, except that I was receiving the news- 
papers regularly. 

5lr. Morris. What newspapers? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. The newspapers published by General Mikai- 
lov. The newspaper's name is "For Return to the Homeland." 

ISfr. Morris. Where is that published? 

Mr. JMiROSHNiKOv. It is published in East Germany, in Berlin. 

]Mr. Morris. In East Germany? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Under Communist auspices? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. Did you subscribe to that paper ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. No ; never. 

Senator Jenner. How did they get your address to send it to you? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. I don't know how did they get my address. 
They are just sending the paper to me, every issue of it, since No. 3. 

Mr. Morris. That indicates to him that they know where he is and 
Avhere he lived ? 

iSlr. Barsky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do many other refugees — do many other Russian 
escapees or Russian refugees receive this publication ? 

]VIr. ]\IiR0SHNiK0v. I don't know. I don't meet with many. 

Mr. Morris. What happened on May 3 ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. "NA'hen I left my house and was closing the 
door 

Mr. ^SfoRRis. This Avas on the morning of May 3? 

Mr. ]MiR0SHNiK0A-. At 7 o'clock in the morning on May 3. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Leaving your home in Brooklyn ? 

Mr. ^Miroshnikov. Yes. 



1286 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. What happened ? 

Mr. MiROSHNiKOv. When I was turning my face to the door, clos- 
ing the door, a man, a colored man of about 27 to 28 years of age came 
to me and said, "Ah, Mr. Miroshnikov." 

Then I asked him, ''Who are you and where do j^ou know my name 
from?" 

He said, "I am from here, from the United States. I am an 
American, and I know your name." 

He did not disclose from where he knew my name. 

Mr. Morris. What did the man say to you, and what did you say 
to the man ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. He said to me, "Why should you live in this 
dirty hole while your homeland is awaiting, expecting you? As I 
see, you are living in this dirty hole here." 

I answered him, "At the present time, I don't need your advice, but 
if I would need your advice, and if you would be willing to give it to 
me, just leave me your address, and I will ask you when I feel so." 

After that he left. 

Mr. Morris. Did he give his address ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. No; he didn't give his address, and left 
immediately. 

In about 2 hours, I got a phone call, and when I asked who was 
calling, I was told it was the police department calling. 

"What do you need?" asked I. 

"Does Mr. Miroshnikov live here?" they answered me. 

I repeated the question, "What do you need?" 

"I have a personal affair with Mr. Miroshnikov," was the answer. 

Then I told him that I am Miroshnikov and I wondered what he 
needs. The man who was speaking English said, "O. K., O. K. ; all 
right," and hung up. He hung up the receiver on the other end of 
the line. 

After an hour, there was another call. I asked who was calling. 
No answer, and the receiver was hung up again. 

Around 5 or 6 o'clock of the same day, I got another phone call. 
I took off the receiver and was waiting until they say "Who is that 
calling?" 

There was no conversation, though apparently they were expecting 
me to say something first, and I was expecting them to say first, and 
then I hung up after a while the receiver. I am sorry, they hung up 
the receiver. 

Next day there were several calls, again silent calls, neither I nor 
they spoke, and after that there were no more calls. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

That is the substance of the efforts that he has experienced re- 
cently — that you have experienced recently, Mr. Miroshnikov? 

Are these people Communists, do you know ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. No doubt they are. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Miroshnikov, would you prefer to live in Brook- 
lyn than in the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Miroshnikov. If I would have preferred to live in the Soviet 
Union, I wouldn't have been in the United States. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much, Mr. Miroshnikov. I appreci- 
ate your testimony, and the difficulties attendant on your coming 
down. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1287 

Senator Jenxer. Tliank you very mucli. 

The next witness? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nagorskj'. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Nagorsky, will you be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God '? 

Mr. Nagorsky. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ZIGMUNT NAGORSKY, BRONXVILLE, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the 
reporter, please, Mr. Nagorsky? 

Mr. Nagorsky. Zigmunt Nagorsky. The first name is Z-i-g- 
m-u-n-t, 3 Bolton Gardens, Bronxville, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. I am a newspaperman. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us how you are engaging in that profession. 

Mr. Nagorsky. I am editor of the Foreign News Service. I was a 
free lance writer. 

Mr. MoRitis. What is the Foreign Newspaper Service? 

Mr. Nagorsky. It specializes in news and issues from the satellite 
countries. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nagorsky, have you recently been approached by 
an agent of the Polish Communist Government in connection with 
their redef ection campaign ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. Yes, sir ; I have. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about it ? 

First, where were you born, Mr. Nagorsky ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. In Warsaw, Poland. 

Mr. MoRitis. When did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Nagorsky. In 1948. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about this encounter you had with an 
agent of the Polish Government? 

Mr. Nagorsky. I have a little memorandum I have prepared, which 
I would like to submit for the record, and give you the highlights of it. 

I was approached by a former college mate of mine last December, 
who was an official of the united national delegation of the Polish 
U. N. delegation. 

He called me at home and suggested a meeting. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nagorsky, you do know that this man is a member 
of the Soviet Polish delegation to the United Nations ; is that right ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. He was a member at that time ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. This is December 1955 ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. You say he is known to you personally ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Do you want to give us his name, or do you have some 
objection to giving us his name? 

Mr. Nagorsky. Sir, I can give you his name, but I would feel per- 
haps it would be preferable if I wouldn't. 

Mr. Morris. You will give it to us in executive session ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. Yes. 

Senator Jenner. That will be satisfactory. 



1288 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, tell us about this encounter. 

Mr. Naoorsky. I met this former friend of mine for lunch in New 
York. I expected to meet a man who would try forcefully to sell me 
on the idea of going back to my native country. Instead, I met a man 
whose approach was both flexible and extremely intelligent. 

He started talking to me in terms of a Poland which is not free, but 
a Poland where people like myself can do a much better job in fighting 
communism than I could in the United States. 

When I asked for explanation, this story unfolded. 

Right now, in every satellite country, particularly in Poland, there 
are two groups of people, one which wants to get the satellite coun- 
tries into the Soviet orbit and transform them into Soviet republics. 

Others are not Communists, but believe in state socialism, and that 
they feel that in the foreign and defense policies, Poland has to go 
along with the Soviet Union, and they are engaged in saving the rem- 
nants of Polish cultural tradition. 

Therefore, those people are doing a much better job for the future 
of Poland than anybody who is in exile. He told me, in fact, that 
lining up the interest of Poland or any of the satellite countries with 
the West today is a mistake, Mr. Chairman. 

It is a mistake for the simple reason that the West is weak, divided, 
and unwilling to take up a stand in case they would be in conflict 
between the western interests and interests of Poland. 

If there would a conflict, Poland, of course, would be sacrificed as 
it has been in the past. 

He didn't say so, but he indicated that the number of international 
agreements which were signed in the past were directly responsible 
for the fact that he and others had to live in Poland, which is under 
Soviet domination. 

In short, what he wanted to say is this : That Poles in exile are back- 
ing the wrong horse, that Poles in Poland, without becoming Com- 
munists, can very well be more instrumental in restoring a limited 
kind of democracy in the future than the Poles in exile would ever 
have a chance to be. 

He also painted to me a picture of how^ people like myself could help 
in influencing the youth of Poland and telling them that they should 
not be Communists. He was constantly talking about the Communists 
as "they." But would never say "We." 

Mr. Morris. But do you think in fact he was a Communist ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. Well, he is not a member of the Communist Party, 
but he is a deputy in the Polish Parliament, and few deputies in the 
Polish Parliament have been elected without the blessing of the party. 

There was a genuine concern in one of his approaches. When he 
was talking about youth, he told me that the youth of Poland is getting 
completely cynical about present conditions. 

He was reierring in this particular case to his own son, and he said, 
"I am a Catholic; so is my son. But he doesn't believe in God any 
longer, because the school killed his faith. Yet it failed to instill in 
him any communistic ideas. He graduated from his school empty. 
Nothing is left but cynicism, and he is not — lie hasn't got any ideology, 
any backbone, any moral standards to fall back upon. Therefore, 
people who know the West like you do" — he told me — "if you would 
ever come back, you would have' a terrific job to perform in Poland 
to bring the youth of Poland back to the cultural traditions. 



SCOPE OF S0\1ET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1289 



ii\^^ 



'You see"- — he said to me — "if yon bank on western foreign policy, 
yon are bound to lose, because in the AVest, particularly in Western 
Europe, the people kept asking me only one question : 'How can we 
avoid war?* Therefore, it was quite obvious to me that the West 
would do anything to avoid another world war, and therefore would 
make any compromises at the expense of the satellite countries in order 
to pay the price of avoiding war with the Soviet Union." 

Mr. Chairman, it seemed to me that this apjn-oach was effective, and 
would be effective on a number of people for two principal reasons. 

One is that few exiles living abroad and living in this country have 
a purpose in life. Secondly, many have felt that they are not wel- 
comed into the community of nations, in the coimnunity of free nations, 
that they are not welcomed, say, in this country and therefore there are 
various ways and measures to oft'set that approach of the Communists, 
that flexible, intelligent, and custom-made approach to every indi- 
vidual case, if you would give the exiles a purpose in life. 

I want to make just one recommendation, Mr. Chairman, if I may. 
I just came back from a trip to Latin America, where I was as a 
newspaperman. 

I ran into an army of Communist missionaries in Brazil, actual mis- 
sionaries who Avould go into the interior and preach Communist faith 
among the natives. Those people are not paid by anybody. They are 
the natives who are convinced that what they are doing is really the 
best solution for Brazil. 

They go from one place to another into the areas of Brazil which 
are out of reach for any ordinary mortal, and sell the natives on the 
Communist faith, and they are successful. They are successful for 
one reason, that there is nobody else around to tell those people that 
perhaps there is the other side of the picture. 

It seems to me, Mr. Chairman, that perhaps the exiles from com- 
munism, people who lived under communism, if they could be brought 
into the picture and used as the missionaries of our side, as people 
who would go over there to the underdeveloped countries of the world, 
to the uncommitted countries of the world, you would achieve two 
purposes. 

One, you will give them a purpose in life. 

After all, these people escaped communism not in order to have a 
good job or a better standard of living, but because they were in the 
political fighting line. You w^ould bring them back into that fight- 
ing line. 

Two, you would offset Communist propaganda and the Communist 
gain in the underdeveloped countries. 

Senator Jexxer. Did you And this situation existing in any other 
country in Central or Latin America, with the exception of Brazil? 

Mr. Nagorsky. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. What other countries? 

Mr. Nagorsky. Chile. 

Senator Jenner. Any others ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. AYell, I went to Uruguay and Argentine, but there, of 
course, the situation is different, although acute. 

Mr. Morris. JNIr. Nagorsky has a six-page statement which he asked 
to be able to read, but I told him he would have to forego it. 

May it go into the record. Senator? 



1290 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. It may go into the record and become a part of 
the official record of this committee. 

(The complete prepared statement of Mr. Zigmunt Nagorsky was 
marked "Exhibit No. 268" and reads as follows :) 

Zigmunt Nagorski, Jr. 

I submit that the redefection campaign is bound to be successful unless two 
fundamental problems are solved. One is to give the refugees from communism 
a purpose in life. The other is to make them feel vpelcome in the community 
of free nations. 

When I was approached by an agent of the Polish Government, it was obvious 
that he was hoping he would find these two weak spots in my inner fiber. He 
acted on the assumption that I had become disillusioned and on the hope that I 
had no other purpose in life than to earn enough money to support my family. 
He must have also assumed that I did not feel at home in America. His whole 
line of argumentation was based on these premises. 

I must admit that for a Communist missionary who was trying to recruit new 
converts, he was rather poorly informed. My roots in this country are firm. 
I have a purpose in life in addition to making money. Ironically enough, that 
purpose is to help the West in winning the battle for human minds, the battle 
against communism. This has been my purpose in life since the early days of 
1945, when I decided to come to this country and settle here. It Is still the 
same. One does not change horses in midstream. 

Anyway, he came to me as an old friend whom I had known during college 
days. His attitude was far from that of a party-line agitator. He displayed a 
fair judgment of the political situation. He was flexible and openminded. 
He did not try to paint a picture of a Poland where freedom truly exists. Far 
from it. He gave me to understand that should I ever decide to return I would 
have to face the reality of the situation. Poland, as a country within the Soviet 
orbit, has no freedom of speech, press, or in the field of decisionmaking in foreign 
policy. 

When I listened to him, the thought flashed through my mind that If it is so, 
why should he even try to induce me to go back? But my former friend, an old 
hand at reading people's minds, was a step ahead of me. "You can combat 
communism more effectively at home today," he said in effect, "than you are 
doing in America." 

I was taken aback and waited for him to develop this idea. He did, and 
the picture he painted presented a life with a purpose — that precious commodity 
which is missing from the lives of so many exiles. 

In Poland today, he went on, a battle is being waged between those who 
want to impose a strict party line upon the masses of the population and those 
who still feel themselves to be Poles primarily. The former are pushing the 
country into the Soviet orbit, lock, stock, and barrel. They would rewrite 
history and educate new generations of men whose acts, feelings, and instincts 
would be conditioned to the Soviet way of life. They would destroy all tradi- 
tional values and instill new ones in their stead in the young minds. In short, 
they want to turn Poland into a province of the Soviet Union. 

The latter, however, oppose this trend. They have enough political sense 
and realism not to meddle in foreign and defense policies, but the rest is wide 
open. It is important to preserve Polish national traditions, to maintain the 
influence of the Roman Catholic Church, and, above all, to imbue Polish youth 
with certain fundamental values. 

Would you like, I was asked, to help in this task? 

People like my former friend, I was given to understand, can explain to 
anyone who might want to go back the best way of contributing to this fight. 
It is they who get priests out of jail. It is they who see to it that the state 
publishing plan includes Polish classics. It is they who keep a watch on the 
preservation of Polish national culture. And it is up to them to make sure that 
no Communist of note attains a decisive voice in fields other than those of foreign 
and defense policy. ^-u ^ ,4. • 

Here is purpose in life for any creative exile, for anyone who feels that It is 
important to save as much as is possible from the wreck of Poland. The cul- 
tural field is the only one left But without people like the exiles, who can 
bring home the personal knowledge of the West and who can contribute greatly 
to the easing of tension at home, the task of Polish cultural missionaries in the 
sea of communism is very difficult. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 1291 

I could not follow one link in his thinking. I failed to grasp how the returning 
•exiles could possibly ease tension at home. 

That's the easiest part of the job, he came right back at me. If the hostile 
activities of the refugee centers abroad are curbed, the Polish regime would 
feel much safer at home. This, in turn, would make the task much easier for 
those who are defending Polish cultural institutions. The Communists would 
ease restrictions on the cultural front with an increase of security on the foreign 
policy front. 

The final part of his approach dealt with the futility of the exiles' life. He 
made no distinction between the exiles still deeply buried in political problems 
of the past and those who, like myself, have become part of American society. 
He treated tlieni all as one homogeneous group. They are all wasting their time, 
he implied by tyins up Polish foreign policy with the West. "The West is 
weak," he said "and furthermore, it would lightly sacrifice Polish national in- 
terests. The western frontiers of Poland are a case in point." 

What was he offering to me and to people like myself? He suggested that we 
reconsider our earlier decision. That instead of being uncompromising, instead 
of backing the West, which has long ago abandoned the cause of a free Poland 
and of freedom for the other captive nations, we change horses. Political reality 
indicates that from the two extremes of black and white a gray will emerge — 
the color of compromise between two opposing camps. And there will be no 
room for the exiles — uprooted people belonging nowhere. 

Now is the time for reconsideration. Now is the time to grasp the tre- 
mendous opportunity of finding a new purpose in life. The chance to work 
among one's own people for the preservation of their national traditions. Such 
work may make it possible for the day to come when much more freedom will be 
restored to the captive Europeans than one can imagine today. 

What is the alternative for the exiles, he asked me? What sort of incentive 
do they receive from the West? Most of them are leaving ideological warfare 
for the sake of making a better living. A great number of them are totally 
disillusioned. They feel, and rightly so, that the West would pay any price to 
avoid another war. A small part of that price would be to abandon the exiles and 
let them rot away. 

He left me at that. 

I must confess, Mr. Chairman, that I was disturbed by this conversation. I 
was disturbed because I had expected to meet a stiff-necked Commimist with 
limited horizons, no thoughts of his own, and an approach carrying little or 
no conviction. Instead I met a man who was flexible, ready to admit errors — 
a man who knew something of the life of an exile and one who knew how to 
attack the weak spots. To me as a writer he showed the possibility of doing 
creative writing, writing along the same lines as my writing in the West. He 
would have me fight Communist infiuence in Poland — to help him in restoring 
basic values to Polish youth. This was the only time during our conversation that 
I detected genuine concern in his voice. He has a son who is 18. The boy has 
graduated from high school and has lost everything which his family had tried 
to instill in him. But the Communist Party failed to replace this loss with its 
own ideology and total cynicism resulted. The boy ceased to believe in anything. 
He left school empty. The purpose in life of such people as myself would be 
to write on that empty young blackboard whatever I believed was necessary. 

Mr. Chairman, this is a persuasive and effective way of tackling people who 
have escaped communism and have settled in the West. A tailor-made version 
is used in each individual situation. And when a missionary like my former 
classmate approaches people whose lives are frustrated, who, after fleeing com- 
munism, staked their entire existence on the possibility of fighting communism 
and contributing to what they consider the most decisive battle of our times, he 
can count on a very good response. 

What can be done to offset this redefection campaign? 

A number of things. The exiles could be encouraged to work in their own 
cultural fields here. Their scientific and cultural institutions could be sup- 
ported. The time spent by men and women in refugee camps in Germany and 
Austria, time spent waiting, could be reduced. Older men, people who are almost 
at the end of their Journey and whose political, scientific, and cultural contri- 
butions are often very impressive, ought to be treated with respect. It is not 
unusual for them to meet with contempt and to be treated as beggars, unable to 
earn their living by physical labor. Young exiles can be given a vision of a better 
future, of a world in which material weU-being is important, but spiritual 
"values are still more important. 



1292 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

All that, however, is in the realm of theory. Unless there is a clear-cut policy 
vis-a-vis Eastern Europe, we have little ammunition with which to light the re- 
defection trend. But there is at least one avenue open right now which may 
offset Communist efforts and give the exiles a purpose in life. 

About 10 days ago I returned from a trip to Latin America. I went there on 
an assignment for a newspaper syndicate, to write a series of articles on Com- 
munist advance in South America. 

The Communists are making progress there as a result of the work of their 
own missionaries, native, who firmly believe in the faith they are propagating. 
They go from one settlement to another, from one village to another, and preach 
communism. They do it with ardor and fire and win disciples. 

Why can't people who have lived under communism and have escaped from it 
be used as missionaries of the V^estern World? 

The task involves an elaborate scheme, but it is worth considering. The 
exiles, interested and able to conduct an active fight against communism, 
would be sent to do the .iob in the first line of fire. Their field of operation could 
cover the entire noncommitted world — Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Their 
task would be to tell the people who are confused, who don't know and have 
no way of knowing what communism really means in practice. And once they 
would' get that part of the message across, they would have to be prepared 
to answer the inevitable question: What else, if communism is so bad? 

The project involves a plan for language history, and social science train- 
ing for the prospective missionaries. Each of them would have to have basic 
knowledge of the people, customs, religion, social problems, and language of 
the area to which he would go. The project also involves a recruitment program. 
But should this idea ever bear fruit, the exiled communities all over the world 
would once again be back where they belong. These communities are primarily 
composed of soldiers fighting for ideas. Once they are idle, the enemy can make 
heavy inroads in terms <jf winning their minds and appealing to their national 
emotions. But give them weapons and something to fight for and the old fire 
will be burning again. 

This is one of the ways of offsetting the redefection campaign. It is also a 
way of making the tremendous intellectual resources of the escapees a vital part 
of western society. Missions undertaken by exiles in underdeveloped countries 
may prove to be one of the most effective weapons in the hands of the Western 
countries. 

The redefection campaign, however, ought to be stopped now, not a year from 
now or 6 months from now. One of the most effective ways of stopping it would 
be to make public United States foreign policy toward the captive nations. 
Such a statement ought to be combined with a different, more human, more flex- 
ible aproach to the refugees as individual human beings. 

The whole problem boils down to the two points I mentioned at the beginning : 
give the refugees a purpose in life and make them feel at home in the countries 
of their adoption. 

Senator Jenner. I want to thank you, Mr. Nagorsky, for appearing 
here this morning. 

Mr. Morris. We have two Polish seamen who have come all the 
way from New Britain, Conn. 

Before the next witnesses come on, I would like the record to show 
that in connection with our request for the project, Operation Keel- 
haul, Mr. INIcManus of the staff has informed us that Colonel Fleischer 
of the Pentagon has in the past offered to discuss this particular 
project with the chairman of this committee. 

Senator Jenner. Thank you. 

Gentlemen, will you be sworn ? 

Do you, and each of you, solemnly swear that the testimony you 
will give at this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

First Witness. I do. 

Second Witness. I do. 

Mr. Morris. These men have requested that their right names not 
be used in this public testimony today. The have given us their 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1293 

names in executive session. In view of tlie fact that tliey have been 
subjected to pressure by the Soviet Polish authorities, I conceded that 
there would be no advantage in our putting their names in the public 
record. 

Senator Jkxxer. Your request will be honored by the committee. 

In view of the fact that we are in session, that is a vote call You 
have both l>een sworn. I am going to order tliat you now proceed into 
executive session, giving this testimony, and I will direct the statf 
that after testimony is taken in executive session, it may be released 
to the press. 

So at this time we will stand in recess as far as the open session is 
concerned. 

Mr. Morris. Before we go into executive session. Senator, ISIr. Xa- 
goi'sky is going to act as interpreter for these men, and he will need 
to be sworn as interpreter. 

Senator Jenner. Do you swear that the translating you will do 
from each of these witnesses just sworn before this committee will be 
truly interpreted ? 

Mr. Nagorsky. I do. 

Senator Jenner. You will now go into executive session, and the 
testimony will be released to the press. 

(Whereupon, at 12 oclock noon, the subcommittee proceeded into 
executive session.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Redefection Campaign 



TUESDAY, MAY 22, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the 
Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security 

Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 50 a. m., in the 
caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker pre- 
siding. 

Present : Senators Welker and Jenner. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Welker. The meeting will be in order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the hearing today varies slightly in 
subject matter from the hearings we have been holding of recent date, 
they bearing on the Soviet redefection campaign on the one hand and 
the Soviet efforts to lure back to the Soviet Union the five Russian 
seamen and then subsequently the Polish seamen. 

This morning we have some testimony which, according to the 
first witness, provided the background for the Russian efforts, the 
Soviet efforts, to take back the five Russian seamen. The first wit- 
ness is Emily Kingsbery. 

Now, before beginning. Senator, I would like to put into the rec- 
ord at this time a few facts that have come to the committee's atten- 
tion in connection with Thomas L. Black. We have learned that 
Thomas L. Black, who is having difficulty holding his job now in 
Newark, N. J., has actually been registered under the terms of the 
Internal Security Act of 1950 as someone who had been working with 
the Soviets and is not complying with the law. 

Now, he was told in 1950 by the FBI that he had to register be- 
cause he had, in fact, been a Soviet agent and he agreed to do so. 
The forms from the Department of Justice came to him early in 1953, 
and on February 9, 1953, under Registration No. WEF : RGB : JKG- 
146^1-15-131, he has registered and made full disclosure and is so 
registered under the terms of the internal security law. 

In addition, Senator, I would like to point out that his name came 
up in the public trials in connection with the testimony of Harry 
Gold, back in, I think the year was, 1950, Senator, and he has been, 
for all intents and purposes, in the public record as someone whose 
position with the Soviet organization has been well known. And it 

1295 



1296 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

was not until he made full disclosure before the subcommittee, ex- 
posing the Communist organization that he got into any difficulty 
with respect to his own job. 

Senator Welker. And because of the fact that he did cooperate 
with the committee and with the FBI, he lost his job; is that correct? 

Mr. Morris. Well, certainly it took place after that. I do not know 
the causal connection, Senator. 

Senator Welker. I understand the subcommittee is doing every- 
thing they can to restore the man to his employment. 

Mr. Morris. That is right, Senator. We received some assurances 
yesterday. Percy Healy has flatly said he will stay on his payroll, but 
we have not quite gotten the situation at the Newark plant straightened 
out yet, at the Schroeder Co., at the Atlas Refining Co. 

Senator Welker. I want to speak on behalf of the chairman and 
the whole committee, that we will do everything we can to help Mr. 
Black because it has been stated that there is very little need of people 
coming to our aid if they are then going to be destroyed by virtue of 
coming to our aid. 

Call your first witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Kingsbery, will you stand and be sworn, please? 

Senator Welker. Do you solennily swear the testimony you will 
give before the committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. I do. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF EMILY KINGSBERY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Emily Kingsbery, secretary of the Committee To 
Combat Soviet Kidnapings. 

Mr. Morris. And what is the address of that organization ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. 55 West 42d Street, room 1212. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your residence ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. My residence : 57 West 73d Street, New York. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us what the Committee To Combat 
Soviet Kidnapings is, Mrs. Kingsbery ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. The Committee To Combat Soviet Kidnapings 
was organized in April 1954, at the time of the brutal Soviet kidnap- 
ing of Dr. Alexander Trushnovich in West Berlin. It was originally 
organized in an effort to save Dr. Trushnovich who had been kidnaped 
by the Soviets. 

Mr. Morris. And it was formed in New York City ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And who made up the original committee? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. The original committee 

Mr. Morris. Just tell us in general. You do not have to go into 
detail. 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Oh, yes. A group of prominent Americans and 
emigrees. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. A group of prominent Americans and emigrees. 

Mr. Morris. Eight. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1297 

Now, did yon know at that time, Mrs. Kinojsbery, that there had been 
a carefully planned campaign originating in Moscow to embark on a 
certain course? 

]\Irs. KixGSBERY. Not at that time, but we found tliat out sliortly 
tliereafter. because there was a series of these kidnapings and attem]ited 
assassinations, and so Ave investigated and within a month or two, 
we had found out that this was the launching of a very definite cam- 
]>aign under orders of the Soviet Government and the Central 
(^ommittee of the Communist Party. 

!Mr. jNIorris. Now, I notice that you make reference to that in the 
statement which you have offered to the committee, which you filed 
with the connnittee yesterdav. 

Mrs. KixGSBERY. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you look at that paragraph, Mrs. Kingsbery, in 
vour statement? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Do you wish me to read it ? 

Mr. Morris. Will you read it, please ? 

Mrs. KixGSBERY. Yes, 

A carefully planned campaign was organized in the autumn of IO.jB, on orders 
of the Soviet Government and the Central Committee of the Communist Party, 
signed by Georgi Malenkov and Nikita S. Khrushchev. The most active emigree 
leaders were listed for liquidation by assassination. Other prominent anti- 
Communist Russian emigrees were listed for kidnaping with the expectation 
(not yet realized) of brain-washing these victims into phony public confessions 
of "voluntary redefection" to communism. 

This was the case of Dr. Trushnovich. This was what they lioped 
to do. [Continuing:] 

Against the rest of the Russian emigration in the free world, a campaign of 
blackmail, intimidation, and coercion was mapped, in an effort to force refugees 
and emigrees into collaboration with Soviet agents, or into returning to the 
U. S. S. R. where they could be propagandized as "voluntary redefectives." 
Those who did not fall for such Soviet "persuasion" were expected to become 
sufficiently intimidated to cease any anti-Communist activities. 

Mr. Morris. Now, INIrs. Kingsbery, you said that you learned that 
was the Soviet plan at that time ? 

Mrs. KixGSBERY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how did you learn that ? 

Mrs. KixGSBERY. We learned it partly through testimony and partly 
through investigation. The testimony of Nikolai Khokhlov, for ex- 
amjile, was extremely informative on this: then the investigation 
of the 

Mr. Morris. The investigation that you conducted? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. That we conducted and that the intelligence, of 
course, conducted, the western intelligence. Reports from all of these 
sources were coordinated. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder, Mrs. Kingsbery, if you could, as much as 
possible, and in executive session where security necessitates, give us 
the basis for that conclusion which you have set forth. 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. 

Nov.-, do you have any suggestion as to the rationale or the purpose 
behind this particular ])roject by the Soviets ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Yes. You see, so many, hundreds of thousands, 
now of the people from the Soviet Union have come into the free 

72723— 56— pt. 24 5 



1298 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ATorkl. Their very presence here gives the lie to the Soviet propa- 
ganda. They constitute also a group of well informed people who 
can work as a force against communism, that Imows what communism 
is, knows how to combat communism and can give very valuable in- 
formation to the West. And this w\as just beginning to be realized 
by the West. We were beginning to use it; it was beginning to show 
in our psychological warfare and in our broadcasts and so forth. 
And so for these two reasons, it was important. 

Then, of course, another very important reason is that the most 
active of these emigree organizations, particularly NTS, the National 
Alliance of Russian Solidarity, has formed a very definite liaison with 
the Russian people and constitute a very grave danger to the Soviet 
Union because they are giving direction to the growing unrest in the 
Soviet Union and constitute a very strong liaison between the free 
world and the Russian people, which is the thing which the Soviets 
fear above all. 

So, for these reasons, it was very necessary for the Soviet leaders 
to launch this campaign to get rid of as many as — they planned to 
eliminate the emigrees whom they felt there was no chance of changing 
or persuading or intimidating, and then to intimidate the others, so 
that they would not cooperate with the rest, to separate us from these 
potential allies. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Kingsbery, you have set forth there, again on 
the first page of the statement which you filed with the committee, 
a summation of those views. 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. So your committee was formed in the face of that 
Soviet campaign 

Mrs. Kingsbery. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. With the rationalization that you have just described? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And on the occasion of the kidnapping of 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Dr. Trushnovich. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell his name, please? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. T-r-u-s-h-n-o-v-i-c-h. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you are prepared to set forth for us this morn- 
ing some of the instances of Soviet kidnappings that you have encoun- 
tered in connection with this work. Now, will you also tell us, before 
we get into the individual cases, Mrs. Kingsbery, of what efforts 
you have made and to whom you have directed your appeals by way 
of letting us know what you have been trying to do in this connection ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Do you want a general review ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, please. 

Mrs. Kingsbery. All right. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I might point out that Mrs. Kingsbery has 
set forth all of these things rather in full detail in the statement that 
she has filed. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. But there are certain things I would like to highlight, 
Senator. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mrs. Kingsbery. We wanted to present these to the public opinion 
of the free world and to the United Nations in an effort to establish 
some precedent for international justice on cases of their kind. They 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1299 

-svere in direct violation of human rio-lils, direct violation of the 
United Nations Charter and in violation of international Uiw. 

Mr. INIoRRis. In other words, these things are a violation of inter- 
national law, a violation of the United Nations Charter 

]\Irs. KiNGSBERY. (Charter ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. And particularly those provisions relating (o inniian 
rio-hts? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Correct. 

Mv. Morris. Now, what have j^ou done about them ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. We presented these cases formally to tlie United 
Nations, in the first four cases that occurred in April through June 
1954. They were all major cases. We presented these to the United 
Nations in July 1954. And they received the usual routine treat- 
ment. We learned the ])rocess 

Senator Welker. What do you mean by the usual routine 
treatment ? 

JSIrs. KiNGSBERY. They have a routine. Senator. Unfortunately, 
you send your cases in, you get a letter back that they have been re- 
ferred to the Commission on Human Rights. Then they can ask — 
I can read this if you like. 

Senator Welker. No. Go ahead and tell me in your own words. 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. O. K. Fine. 

Then they state that following their procedure, this will be presented 
to the offending Government ; it will go into the archives of the Human 
Rights Commission. But unfortunately — well, they do not say, "un- 
fortunately" — but that Human Rights Commission has no power to 
take action on cases of violation of human rights. 

Senator Welker. In other words, it is a dry run, so far as you are 
concerned ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Yes ; definitely. 

Mr. Morris. And you got no results at all ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. No ; we did not. We made every effort and we 
tried to contact tliem. We were notified that these cases would be 
noted in executive session in Geneva in April 1955, And knowing 
what "noted in executive session" means, we tried to get some kind of 
outside action from some of the delegates. We wrote to all the dele- 
gates, non-Communist delegates, who were going to attend the meet- 
ing of the Commission, and to tlie nongovernmental agencies, suggest- 
ing and urging that some kind of statement could be made to the 
press or some sort of action could be taken outside on the cases. 

The reaction to that — do you want that ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, please. 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. The reaction to that was a few foiinal answers, a 
few conferences from some interested delegates, all of which were 
completely fruitless. They regretted exceedingly this 1947 resolution 
which the Soviet bloc had put through, wliich rendered them power- 
less to take action. 

Many of the — not many — well, among the smaller nations, of the 
few with whom we had conferences, they stated that if the United 
States or England would take the initiative in holding a press con- 
ference or bringing these things out into the open, they would back it, 
but they, themselves, did not feel strong enough to take the initiative. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 



1300 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. We had a conference with the adviser at the United 
Nations delegation who was interested and sympathetic and courteous. 
We, at the same time, launched an international campaign, using 
the anniversary of the kidnaping of Dr. Trushnovich, commemorating 
this anniversary, because this was the first act in this campaign. We 
got tremendous response all over the free world, in Europe, in South 
America, even in Malaya and in parts of Asia. 

There were protest meetings; there were memorial services. There 
were TV and radio and so forth. The press was wonderfid. 

All of this happened at this same time, but the Commission met in 
executive session and we heard nothing until we finally, several months 
later, continued to ask the United Nations what had happened. So 
we got a little note saying that the Commission had decided to note 
these cases among others in executive session. 

Mr. Morris. To note them? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you run at all into the High Commissioner 
for Refugees of the United Nations, a man named Van Goedhart? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Has he been very helpful in this project? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. We have not needed him particularly. He has 
asked us for some help. 

Mr. Morris. He has asked you for help ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been able to give him any help ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Well, not of the type, perhaps, that he wanted. 
This was in connection with the refugees in Austria, and we had 
received word from the refugee camps there that Soviet teams were 
operating among the refugees in violation of the Austrian Treaty. 

We sent telegrams of protest and we sent letters of protest to the 
High Commissioner of Refugees and so forth and I might add that his 
office has been cooperative in supplying figures and statistics. 

Mr. Morris. But has he given you an}^ assistance whatever in these 
various projects? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. No, no. We have not asked him for it particu- 
larly. Then he asked us for a report, if we could give him a report as 
to the basis of our protest against the violation of the Austrian Treaty 
in connection with the refugees in Austria. 

So we are working on that. One of our people is in Europe now. 

Mr. Morris. Should the High Commissioner for Refugees do some- 
thing to prevent kidnapings of refugees ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. I clou't kuow, sir. I am not well enough versed. 
I would think so. 

Mr. Morris. But it is your contention, Mrs. Kingsbery, that because 
nothing has been done — in effect, very little has been done — in connec- 
tion with these kidnapings, that a situation developed here in the 
United States ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you make reference to that on page 3 ? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would read that reference, please? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY (reading) : 

The kidnaping of the Russian sailors by Soviet secret police agents in New 
York on April 7, 1956, bears ont the warnings issued for the past 2 years by the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1301 

Committee to Combat Soviet Kidnapings. The fact that the Communist crimi- 
nals have befu allowed to get away with similar outrages in countries under the 
protection of the Western Powers for the past 2 years emboldened the Soviets 
to violate the right of political asylum in the United States itself and under 
the cloak of United Nations diplomatic immunity. 

May I add my favorite quote ? 

Mr. Morris. By all means, Mrs. Kingsbery. 

Mrs. Kingsbery. That all that is necessary for evil to succeed is for 
good men to do nothing, and the good men of the West unfortunately 
did nothing and this is happening. 

We have a letter on that here. Incidentally, we have a lot of cases 
here. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would take 1 or 2 of the more notable 
cases, particularly those that might relate to the zone under the protec- 
tion of the United States Government, and then we will put the rest 
of them into the record for committee perusal. 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Of course, the kidnaping of Dr. Trushnovich hap- 
pened in the British Zone so we will not go into that. 

The first one that occurred in the American Zone was the attempted 
assassination of Georgi Okolovich. That is 0-k-o-l-o-v-i-c-h. That 
Mas Frankfort-on-the-Main, which was in the American Zone of Ger- 
many. This was before Germany was independent. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that very briefly ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. All right. It created quite a bit of sensation. I 
believe that Nikolai Khokhlov, the intelligence officer who was commis- 
sioned by the Soviets to arrange and carry out this assassination, has 
testified before your committee. So this is in your record. His back- 
ground is interesting. He was, of course — 



Mr. Morris. JNIr. Okolovich ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. No. This is Khokhlov, Nikolai Khokhlov, the 
Soviet intelligence officer. 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; you are talking about his case ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. This is tied up with the case of Okolovich. I can't 
talk about one without talking about the other. 

Khokhlov received orders in October 1953 to carry out the assas- 
sination of Georgi Okolovich. Prior to that time, Khokhlov himself 
had become disillusioned with communism, particularly under the 
influence of his Christian wife, Yanina. He had tried to get out of the 
MGB and had been unable to do so. He even risked arrest to do so. 

When he was given this order to assassinate Okolovich, he had al- 
ready learned about Okolovich. He had already learned about NTS, 
the National Alliance of Russian Solidarity, of which Mr. Okolovich is 
one of the major executives, and Mr. Okolovich had charge of the 
underground operations of NTS inside the Soviet Union. In his in-, 
telligence Avork, Mr. Khokhlov had learned of the work of NTS. It 
is the Russian revolutionary movement against the Soviet regime. 

Mr. Morris. The NTS? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Yes; the Russian revolutionary movement has 
inany, many people who are involved in this. But NTS is the director 
in this. It is the only organized group that is operating within the 
Soviet Union itself. 

Mr. Morris. What do the initials NTS stand for? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. In Russian or in English? Well, NTS in English 
means the National Alliance of Russian Solidarity. There is no exact 
translation of the words, but this is what it means. 

72723— 56— pt. 24 6 



1302 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. So where were we ? 

Mr. Morris. You were telling us about the Okolovich case. 

Mrs. Kjngsbery. Oh, yes. Anyway, Khokhlov had already learned 
about this. He had become convinced that the Soviet Government is 
the enemy of the Russian people and he also became convinced that the 
Russian revolutionary movement, and particularly this directing 
force, NTS, was the main hope of the Russian people. 

So you can imagine his feelings when he was given the orders to 
arrange the assassination of a man who was in that operation. He 
was also given very definitely to understand that if he refused the 
assignment, it could mean death to him and to his family. 

So this was something he could not decide on. He talked to his wife 
about it, and he even argued that hired assassins will do this thing, 
"and not I. So if I do nothing, the man will be killed." 

She said, "As a Christian and as a Russian, you must not only not 
obey these orders but you must actively prevent his murder." 

So he agreed. They planned then that he would work out — he would 
pretend to go along with the order but work out a way to thwart the 
assassination, which is what he did, and I believe everybody is famil- 
iar with the sensational details of the cloak-and-dagger aspects of this, 
the cigarette case pistol, and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. And how did it terminate, Mrs. Kingsbery ? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Mr. Khokhlov arranged things so that the as- 
sassination could not take place without his coordination of every- 
thing. Then he went to the one man that he could trust, who was Mr. 
Okolovich, and he went to him. From his intelligence work, he knew 
the one hour that Mr. Okolovich would be alone. 

So on February 18, 1954, he went to Mr. Okolovich and told him that 
he had been ordered to arrange his assassination ; he did not want to 
carry it out; that he wanted to prevent the assassination and also 
save his family from the vengeance of the MVD. 

Mr, Okolovich, on the advice of NTS, went to the American author- 
ities in Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

There is an interesting sidelight here. At this particular time, 
in February 1954, the assassination was scheduled to take place along 
about this time, but then the Four Power Conference got scheduled in 
Berlin, and the Soviets did not want any unpleasantness to occur, so 
they were ordered to delay action on this assassination and this gave 
Khokhlov that opportunity. 

It was also at that time that the United States, after 8 years of 
holding out against article 16 of the Austrian treaty, agreed to accept 
it. This just shows how all of this campaign ties in together. 

Am I confusing the issue? 

Mr. Morris. I think that is clear, Mrs. Kingsbery. 

Senator Welker. Very clear. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Kingsbery, I wonder if you would get to case 
No. 4. That also took place in the American Zone; did it not? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERRY. Ycs. That was in the American Zone of Austria; 
Linz, Austria. That was Valery Tremmel and this was an attempt 
by the Soviets to kidnap one of the emigree leaders, hoping, I suppose, 
to make a phony confession, and the Soviet story was released that 
Mr. Tremmel and two other people had been arrested in the Soviet 
Zone for distributing anti-Communist literature. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1303 

The investigation of the Anstrian police showed that this was com- 
pletely false: that Mr. Tremmel had been druc^ed and kidnaped by 
the two Soviet agents in the American Zone. He lived in the Ameri- 
can Zone and he had been drugged and kidnaped by them and taken 
over into the Soviet Zone. 

The investigation got to this point where this was definitely proved 
and then the pressure of the Soviet autliorities on the Austrian au- 
thorities halted the investigation, 

Mr. Morris. So the Austrians did not even continue their investijza- 
tion? 

JNIrs. IviNGSBERY. No ; because we did not give them very much help, 
"we" meaning the United States. We didn't even protest on this one. 
We protested on the others. And the committee sent telegrams and 
letters. I have the reply here from the Foreign Office. We sent 
letters and telegrams and so forth urging that a protest be made, 
urging that they support the Austrian police in their investigation and 
so forth. We were told that this was being referred to the proper 
people, and it would seem advisable that it continue. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the outcome of that particular case? 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. Well, we have received a report later, since then, 
within this year, that Mr. Tremmel is in a slave-labor camp in the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. And you think that, in that case, you found that nothing 
was being done either by the United States authorities involved or very 
little by the Austrian authorities, because they acceded to the Soviet 
demands to do nothing? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. That is right. They did at first conduct a ver}' 
active investigation, but then when it got too hot, they acceded to 
pressure. And this one was officially buried, also in the Human Rights 
Cominission. This was one of the first four that got officially buried. 
They have a ritual by which they bury them. 

Mr. Morris. Mr, Chairman, Mrs. Kingsbery and the Committee to 
Combat Soviet Kidnapings has set forth 11 cases in all here 

Mrs. Kingsbery, Yes, sir, 

xVIr. Morris. Mr, Chairman, I think that all these 11 should go into 
the record, from Mrs. Kingsbery's own statement. 

Senator Welker. It will be so ordered as a part of the record, 

(The statement of Mrs. Kingsbery was marked "Exhibit No, 260" 
au'J reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 269 

The Committee to Cojibat Soviet Kidnapings 

The Committee to Combat Soviet Kidnapin.trs was organized by prominent 
Americans and emigrees in New York in April 1954, in an effort to save Dr, 
Alexander Trushnovich, founder-chairman of the West Berlin (Russian) Res- 
cue Committee, who was brutally kidnaped by Soviet agents in West Berlin 
on April 13, 1954. 

Nine days later, on April 22, 19.54, the Soviet plot to assassinate Georsi Okolo- 
vich, well-known Russian anti-Communist emigree leader, in the American Zone 
of Cermany, was exposed in Bonn by Nikolai Khokhlov, the Soviet Intelligence 
officer who had been assigned to carry out the plot. Subsequently Khokhlov's 
wife, baby, and young sister-in-law were seized as hostages by the MVD (So- 
viet secret police) in Moscow. The committee was asked to handle both of 
these cases. 

r)n .Tune 20, 1954, another anti-Communist Russian emigree leader, Valery 
Tremmel, was drugged and kidnaped by Soviet agents in Linz, Austria (Amer- 



1304 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ican Zone ) , and this case was also submitted to the Committee to Combat Soviet 
Kidnapings. 

Investigation by the committee revealed that these four crimes marked the 
launching of an intensified Soviet underground campaign against anti-Com- 
munist emigrees in the free world. These emigrees constitute a triple threat 
to the international Communist conspiracy: (1) Their very pi'esence gives the 
lie to Soviet propaganda, both external and internal; (2) these emigrees com- 
prise a positive, informed force against communism, the importance of which 
was (in 1953-54) at last beginning to be recognized and used effectively by the 
West; (3) the most active emigree organizations, notably NTS (National Al- 
liance of Russian Solidarists), have established a dangerous liaison with the 
people of Russia, supplying direction and leadership for the growing unrest in 
the Soviet Union, which could lead to internal democratic revolution. It there- 
fore became necessary for the Soviet Government to make every effort to elim- 
inate and/or immobilize these potentially powerful emigree allies of the free 
world, before the West should become fully aware of their significance. 

A carefully planned campaign was organized in the autumn of 1953, on orders 
of the Soviet Government and the central committee of the Communist Party, 
signed by Georgi Malenkov and Nikita S. Khrushchev. The most active emigree 
leaders were listed for liquidation by assassination. Other prominent anti- 
Communist Russian emigrees were listed for kidnaping, with the expectation 
(not yet realized) of brainwashing these victims into phony public confessions 
of voluntary redefection to communism. Against the rest of the Russian emigra- 
tion in the free world a campaign of blackmail, intimidation, and coercion was 
mapped, in an effort to force refugees and emigrees into collaboration with So- 
viet agents, or into returning to the U. S. S. R. where they could be propagandized 
as voluntary redefectors. Those who did not fall for such Soviet persuasion were 
expected to become sufficiently intimidated to cease any anti-Communist activi- 
ties. 

This was and still is the plan of the Soviet redefection campaign, which has 
been progressively intensifying among emigrees from all Communist countries 
during the past 2 years. 

In an effort to halt this criminal underground campaign at its start and to save 
its first victims, and in the hope of alerting tlie Western world, the Committee 
to Combat Soviet Kidnapings undertook in the summer of 1954 to bring the 
four international Soviet crimes noted above (cases Nos. 1 to 4 attached) to 
the attention of the United Nations and the public opinion of the free world. 
These cases were formally submitted to the United Nations in July 1954, and were 
referred to the Commission on Human Rights. 

But no precedent exists for international justice in such cases. Bureaucratic 
redtape and apathy work to the advantage of the Soviets. It soon became ap- 
parent that a long-range program was necessary. 

In November 1954, political research project was organized to ^erve as the 
secretariat and research body of the committee. The office at 55 West 42d 
Street, New York opened with the first major United States press conference 
of Nikolai Khokhlov and his dramatic appeal to the American people to help 
save his wife and baby. At the same time Khokhlov's story broke in the Satur- 
day Evening Post in a series of four articles, "I Would Not Murder for the 
Soviets." Public and press response were quite encouraging. 

In December 1954, the project, on behalf of the committee, participated in 
the demand for the return of the 11 American flyers illegally held in Red China. 

Early in 1955, political research project was informed that the cases presented 
by the committee to the U. N. would be presented at the meeting of the Commis- 
sion on Human Rights in Geneva in April-May 1955 — but that these would be 
merely "noted in executive session," as the U. N. Commission on Human Rights 
has no jwwer to take action on the violation of human rights. In an effort to 
arouse some sort of action — such as statement to the press, queries during the 
session, etc. — the project wrote to all non-Communist delegates to the Commission 
and to participating nongovernmental organizations. Sympathetic but non- 
productive conferences resulted with a few delegates, including the United 
States Mission to the U. N. Active and interested cooperation was received from 
the International League for the Rights of Man and the International Confedera- 
tion of Free Trade Unions. FoUowup letters were sent to the delegates at 
Geneva, reminding them that : 

"All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good men to do nothing." 

During this same period, political research project, in cooperation with sympa- 
thetic organizations in many countries, organized an international campaign to 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1305 

commemorate the anniversary of the kidnaping of Dr. Trushnovich. Protest 
meetings, commemorative services on hehalf of all victims of Communist crimes, 
features in international press, radio, and TV brought widespread public re- 
sponse. Telegrams and petitions with thousands of signatures poured into the 
United Nations and to various governments throughout the free world. 

However, the four cases of international Soviet crimes, together with many 
other violations of human rights, received quiet oflficial burial in executive session 
of the Commission on Human Rights. 

In late April 19o5 the committee became alerted to the fact that article 16 of 
thet proposed Austrian Treaty amounted to the legalized kidnaping of some 
30,000 ani-Communist Russian refugees in the free zones of Austria. The Am- 
bassadors' Conference on this treaty was scheduled for the first week in May 
in Vienna. Political research project immediately sparkplugged a vigorous 
campaign against article 16. Cooperating organizations and individuals through- 
out the free world responded actively. The press was aroused to action, and 
humanitarian groups everywhere participated in the campaign. Backed by such 
support, the W^estern Powers stood fii*m, and after a 2-day deadlock with the 
Soviet Union, article 16 was eliminated from the final treaty draft. 

In July 1955, after 6 months of continuous effort, the project was forced to 
abandon the committee's attempt to promote an appeal campaign through Ameri- 
can churches on behalf of Dr. Alexander Trushnovich and Mrs. Yanina Khokhlov. 
Both of these cases have an especial Christian appeal, since both of these victims 
of Communist inhumanity were motivated primarily by Christian principles. 
However, it proved impossible to obtain the cooperation of the churches in such 
a campaign. 

Early in July the project sponsored a lecture at the Carnegie Endowment In- 
ternational Center by Dr. V. D. Poremsky on "Coordination of the Liberation 
Movements in Europe and Asia against Communism." Dr. Poremsky was re- 
turning to Europe after attending a conference in Taiwan (Formosa) of the 
Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League, as the invited representative of the 
Russian people. He was the first person, outside of government officials, to 
talk with the Russian sailors from the captured Soviet tanker Tuapse. 

At the time of the summit conference, political research project (by request) 
made public the views of the Russian opposition, which had been presented 
to the Western Powers prior to the Conference in Geneva. 

In August 1955 the Committee to Combat Soviet Kidnapings presented 3 more 
cases of international Communist kidnapings to the U. N. : The kidnaping of 
anti-Communist German journalist, Karl W. Fricke, by Red agents in West Berlin 
on April 1, 1955 ; the kidnaping of Maj. Sylvester Murau, defector from East 
German Communist police, by Communist agents in West Germany on August 6, 
1955 ; and the kidnaping of Clara Herskovits, Romanian national, by the Soviets 
from a "liberated" Nazi concentration camp in July 1945, submitted to the com- 
mittee by her surviving brother. These cases were well covered by the press, 
but received the same official routine treatment at the U. N. as previous cases. 
(Cases Nos. 5-7 attached.) 

Representatives of the survivors of the Kalmuk people appealed to the com- 
mittee for assistance in their efforts to obtain justice in the case of the genocide 
of the Kalmuk people and others, committed by the Soviet Government in 1943. 
This case had been presented to the U. N. by the Kalmuk Committee to Combat 
Bolshevism in January 1954, and had received the usual official burial by the 
Commission on Human Rights. (Case No. 8 attached.) 

It had become obvious that an international information service was needed, 
showing the consistently coordinated pattern of international Communist 
strategy. Therefore, in September 1955, political research project initiated such 
a service on a very modest scale, under the general title, "Behind the Communist 
Line." The initial special report on Communist global strategy received favor- 
able reviews in the international press, and a rerun was necessary to fill re- 
quests. Subsequent monthly bulletins have been mailed to a select list of offi- 
cials, press, researchers, educators, etc., in most countries of the free world. 
(The list is necessarily restricted by budget limitations.) The plan and de- 
velopments of the worldwide Soviet redefection campaign have been covered in 
the report and bulletins. 

In October 1955, the committee backed United States Delegate Jacob Blausteiri 
in his firm and successful stand against the Soviet attempt to push through a 
resolution to implement the repatriation of anti-Communist refugees through 
the U. N. 



1306 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Representatives of the committee met with the nine Russian sailors from the 
Tuapse who had been granted political asylum in the United States, under the 
auspices of Church World Service. The committee has cooperated as much as 
possible, especially through contacts with Russian emigres, in helping these 
young men adjust to their new life. Warnings that Soviet agents would attempt 
to blackmail and intimidate them have been tragically justified. 

In December 1955, the project was instrumental in exposing several new de- 
velopments in the Soviet redefection campaign : The "amnesty hoax" in the case 
of A. M. Novikov in the U. S. S. R. ; the illegal operations of the Soviets among 
refugees in Austria ; and the Soviet clerical delegation to Canada. 

In January 1956 political research project was incorporated under the laws of 
the State of New York as International Research on Communist Techniques, a 
private nonprofit corporation, to continue and expand the operations of the 
project and the committee. It was granted Federal tax-exempt status. 

In February 1956, two new cases of international Soviet crimes were sub- 
mitted to the committee : The Soviet attempt to assassinate Dr. V. D. Poremsky, 
president of NTS (National Alliance of Russian Solidarists), in Frankfurt/Main 
in December 1955 ; and the kidnaping of Robert Bialek, former "VoPo" who had 
exposed Soviet operations in East Germany, by Communist agents in West 
Berlin on February 6, 19.56. Because of the frustrating experience with pre- 
vious cases submitted to the U. N., it was decided that new procedures should be 
explored in the handling of these cases. Consultations with highly qualified 
advisers have been and are being held in this regard. (Cases Nos. 9 and 10.) 

Through International Research, the first direct evidence of active Soviet par- 
ticipation in the Korean war was released in an interview (in Europe) with 
Victor S. Uyinsky, a former member of the Soviet Signal Corps in Korea, who 
escaped from the touring Moscow circus on January 29, 1956. 

Response to a questionnaire enclosed with the February 1956 bulletin indicates 
that this information service is proving of useful value. The record to date 
shows that the reports and analyses in Behind the Communist Line generally 
anticipate developments in Communist strategy and tactics by several weeks to 
6 months, international sources and outlets have been developed throughout 
the Americas, Europe, the Pacific, Asia, and parts of the Middle East. A chief 
consultant of International Research is currently touring Latin America (April- 
June 1956). 

The kidnaping of the Russian sailors by Soviet secret police agents in New 
York on April 7, 1956, bears out the warnings issued for the past 2 years by the 
Committee To Combat Soviet Kidnapings. The fact that the Communist 
criminals have been allowed to get away with similar outrages in countries under 
the protection of the Western Powers for the past 2 years emboldened the Soviets 
to violate the right of political asylum in the United States itself and under the 
cloak of United Nations diplomatic immunity. (Case No. 11 attached.) 

Word of this kidnaping first reached the committee about noon on April 8, and 
immediately all available facts were obtained and released to the press. Subse- 
quent investigation by International Research, newsmen, and Government author- 
ities substantiates the committee's first statement that this is an international 
political kidnaping in deliberate violation of human rights, international law, and 
the United Nations Charter. 

Because of the climactic importance of this case, the Committee To Combat 
Soviet Kidnapings is seeking high-level conferences for advice on appropriate 
action. The committee is convinced that, unless a precedent for international 
justice can be established in this case, the stand of the free world and the United 
Nations on human rights will become a complete mockery. 

May 18, 1956. 

Personnel and Sources 

International Research on Communist Techniques, Inc., carrying on the work 
of the Committee To Combat Soviet Kidnapings and political research project, 
is a private nonprofit corporation, supported by private donations and contribu- 
tions. It was granted Federal tax-exempt status on February 6, 1956, under 
section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. 

Officers of the corporation, all of whom are American citizens, are : 

Vladimir N. Rudin, chairman of the original committee, president. Well 
known as a writer and political analyst, Mr. Rudin has been active in combating 
the Communist conspiracy in many countries over a period of 21 years. 

Eugene Lyons, also a member of the original committee, vice president. Cur- 
rently a senior editor of Readers Digest, Mr. Lyons spent 6 years as a foreign 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1307 

correspondent in the U. S. S. R. during the 1930's, and is author of Assignment 
in Utopia, The Red Decade, Our Secret Allies : The Peoples of Russia, and other 
works. 

A. G. Elmendorf, vice president and treasurer, directed the world student 
relief program in Greece, headed the refugee work of World Council of Churches 
in Greece and Trieste, and was recently executive director of the Tolstoy Foun- 
dation. 

Elmily Kingsbery, secretary, served as the committee's representative on the 
west coast prior to organization of political research project, when she came to 
New York to take charge of the office. A writer, editor, and public-relations 
executive, she has had firsthand experience in combating Communist propaganda 
and infiltration. 

Natalie Kushnir, assistant secretary, is a linguist and researcher who has 
worked with the committee since its inception. She is a student of international 
affairs, with firsthand knowledge in countering communism. 

Although the regular staff of the corporation is limited by the small budget. 
International Research is fortunate in having a highly qualified corps of volun- 
teer researchers and consultants, both here and abroad, who not only have a 
wide background of experience and knowledge, but are also in touch with current 
events. A minimum of 9 languages is covered within the immediate staff, and 
among the research consultants this extends to approximately 40 languages and 
dialects. 

Sources of information include exclusive contacts on both sides of the Iron 
Curtain, special correspondents in many countries, reviews of the press, official 
bulletins, etc., and an intelligent reading of Soviet press and literature. Special 
sources include RAP, Russian (anti-Communist) Press Agency, Frankfurt/Main 
and Bonn ; Possev, international Free Russian weekly with special underground 
etlition, Frankfurt /Main ; Bote der Freiheit, German anti-Communist newspaper 
for underground distribution in East Germany, published in West Berlin ; For 
Return to the Homeland, monthly publication of the Soviet Redefection Com- 
mittee, East Berlin. Research exchanges are maintained with the Institute for 
Study of the U. S. S. R., Bad Homburg v.d.H. ; Institute for Study of the U. S. S. R., 
Munich ; Investigating Committee of Free .Jurists, West Berlin ; International 
Committee of Jurists, Hague ; Democratic Research Society, Bombay ; Institute 
of International Relations, Taiwan ; Asian Peoples' Anti-Communist League, 
Taiwan ; Confederacion Inter-Americana de Defensa del Continente, Mexico ; 
and American organizations in similar field. 

Honorary Chairman of the Committee to Combat Soviet Kidnapings is Adm. 
William H. Standley, former United States Ambassador to the U. S. S. R. and 
author of Admiral Ambassador to Russia. Members of the original Committee 
include: Judge Robert Morris, now counsel of the Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee of the United States Senate; Rev. Charles Lowry, now head of the 
Foundation for Religious Action; Archbishop Paul Yu-Pin, of Nanking, head 
of Sino-American Amity; Metropolitan Anastassy, United States head of the 
Russian Orthodox Church in Exile ; Miss Alexandra Tolstoy, founder and presi- 
dent of the Tolstoy Foundation ; Adm. Paulus Powell, Gen. Charles Willoughby, 
Capt. Boris Sergievsky, Mr. Montgomery Green, Prof. Oleg Anisimov, Mr. John 
Hvasta, and a number of other important Americans and emigrees. 

Inteknational Communist Crimes 

Case No. 1. De. Alexander Trushnovich — ^Kidnaping 

On the night of April 13, 1954, in the British sector of Berlin, Soviet agents 
brutally boat and kidnaped Dr. Alexander Trushnovich, humanitarian-physician 
founder and chairman of the West Berlin (Russian) Rescue Committee. Investi- 
gation by the West Berlin Police definitely established that Dr. Trushnovich was 
the victim of an elaborate 3-year betrayal plot, of which Heinz Glaeske, a Soviet 
agent masquerading as an anti-Communist, was the leader. Subsequent evidence 
and investigative research indicate that the kidnaping was ordered by top Soviet 
Government and Communist Party authorities, and that the Soviet intention was 
to force a phony "confession" from Dr. Trushnovich as a high point in their 
intensive "redefection" campaign against Russian emigres. His actual fate is 
still unknown. 

Official protests of British and American authorities have been ignored by 
the Soviets, as have the appeals of Mrs. Trushnovich, the Committee to Combat 
Soviet Kidnapings and other organizations and individuals. The case was 



1308 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

presented to the United Nations in July 1954 by the Committee to Combat 
Soviet Kidnapings, supported by hundreds of petitions from all parts of the free 
world. It received official burial at Geneva in April-May 1955 at an executive 
session of the U. N. Commission on Human Rights, which by a 1947 resolution 
rendered itself powerless to take any action on violations of human rights. 

The case, however, received widespread publicity during 1954 and again in 
1955, when commemorative services and protest meetings were held throughout 
the free world on the anniversary of Dr. Trushnovich's kidnaping. Through 
underground channels and free world broadcasts, this Soviet crime has also 
been made known to the captive Russian jjeople. 

At the time of his abduction. Dr. Trushnovich was 61 years old. He was a 
Slovene by birth, a Russian by choice, and since 1917 had actively identified 
himself with the Russian fight against the Communist dictatorship. He was 
an executive of NTS (National Alliance of Russian Solidarists), the directing 
force of the anti-Communist Russian Revolutionary Movement. 

The Rescue Committee, which he founded in 1950 only 2 miles from the Soviet 
sector of Berlin, became the outpost of freedom and safety for victims of Com- 
munist persecution, and the name of Dr. Trushnovich the symbol of courage and 
hope behind the Iron Curtain. Fourteen different nationalities are represented 
among the 2,300 escapees (as of 1954) wlio reached the free world through the 
efforts of the Rescue Committee. Thousands of others have received food, cloth- 
ing, and medical aid. 

In 1952, the Communists launched intensive smear attacks against the Rescue 
Committee, and the Soviet Secret Police began their attempts to kidnap or 
murder Dr. Trushnovich. These efforts are being continued today against Dr. 
Trushnovich's successors. Alexander Svetov and Oleg Krassovsky. But the 
doors of the Rescue Committee, open 24 hours a day, have never closed. 

DOCUMENTATION ON TRUSHNOVICH KIDNAPING 

Report of West Berlin police investigation 
Report of NTS investigation 

Records of West Berlin (Russian) Rescue Committee 
Testimony of Nikolai Khokhlov, former Soviet intelligence officer 
United States Congressional Record ; speeches in British, Australian, and Cana- 
dian Parliaments 
Letters of Mrs. Zinaida Trushnovich and others 
Hundreds of petitions 
Press file 

Case No. 2. Georgi Okolovich — Attempted Assassination 

Chi the night of February 18, 1954, in Frankfurt/Main (American zone of 
Germany), Soviet Intelligence Capt. Nikolai Khokhlov voluntarily gave himself 
up to Georgi Okolovich, member of the executive board of NTS (National Al- 
liance of Russian Solidarists), and revealed the elaborate Soviet plot for 
Okolovich's assassination, of which Khokhlov was in charge. (NTS is the di- 
recting force of the anti-Communist Russian Revolutionary Movement.) On 
Okolovich's recommendation, Khokhlov went with him to American authorities. 
For 2 months he stalled the MGB (Soviet intelligence), while Western intelli- 
gence checked his story and found it to be authentic in every detail. The two 
hired assassins. Communist agents Kukowitsch and Weber, who had been spe- 
cially trained in Moscow for the job, gave themselves up and confessed. At an 
international press conference on April 22, 1954, in Bonn, Germany, the assassi- 
nation plot was publicly revealed. 

Captain Khokhlov belonged to the Ninth Section "for terror and diversion" 
of the Soviet Ministry of State Security (MGB, at that time part of the MVD). 
He had been drafted into the MGB at the age of 19, during World War II, and 
did outstanding service for his country. After the war, however, he became 
thoroughly disillusioned with communism, and under the influence of his Chris- 
tian wife, Yanina, found moral direction for his life. But his efforts to leave 
the MGB, even at the risk of arrest, proved futile. 

In October 1953, Khokhlov was put in charge of the assassination of Georgi 
Okolovich, who, as director of NTS underground operations within the Soviet 
Union, was classified in top-secret files as "the most dangerous enemy of the 
Soviet regime." His assassination was ordered by the Soviet Government and 
the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the orders signed by Georgi 
Malenkov and Nikita S. Khrushchev. (The kidnaping of Dr. Trushnovich (case 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1309 

No. 1) and the assassination of Dr. V. D. Poremsky (case No. 9) were ordered 
at the same time.) To Khokhlov, NTS and Okolovich represented the one hope 
of the Russian people for liberation from the tyrannical Communist regime. 
Yet to refuse to obey Soviet orders could mean death to him and his family. 
He conhded in his wife, and they both agreed that Khokhlov should pretend to 
follow orders but find a way to prevent the assassination, regardless of the per- 
sonal risks involved for them. 

Special weapons were designed for the assassination — the now famous "cig- 
arette case poison bullet" electric pistols. On these Khokhlov worked directly 
with Panyushkin, former ambassador to the United States and other countries, 
actually a high official of the MVD. Khokhlov carefully selected as assassins 
two agents whose credentials satisfied Panyushkin, but who could be induced 
to give themselves up under pressure. He planned every move so that only 
he could coordinate all parts of the plot for the final outcome. Then he went 
to the one man whom he could trust — Georgi Okolovich, the intended victim. 

This case created a worldwide sensation. As a former officer of the Austrian 
and German desks of MGB, Nikolai Khokhlov supplied information that com- 
pletely disrupted these Soviet spy networks. Although this case of attempted 
international political murder received the same official burial in the U. N. 
Human Rights Commission as that of Dr. Trushnovich, Khokhlov's continued 
articles and lectures in the United States are proving to be one of the most 
I)otent weapons in the fight against the Communist conspiracy. 

DOCUMENTATION ON OKOLOVICH ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT 

Testimony of Nikolai Khokhlov 

Reports of Western intelligence 

Report of NTS investigation 

Testimony of Kukowitsch and Weber (the hired assassins) 

United States Congressional Record ; speeches in other free parliaments 

Press file 

Case No. 3. Yanina Khokhlov — Hostage 

On June 2, 1954, word reached the West through diplomatic channels that Mrs. 
Yanina Khokhlov, wife of Nikolai Khokhlov, had been seized by the Soviet secret 
police several weeks before in her Moscow apartment, and was being held hostage, 
together with Khokhlov's 18-month-old son and Yanina's 14-year-old sister. 
These innocent persons are imprisoned by the Soviet in reprisal for Nikolai 
Khokhlov's refusal to carry out a criminal order of the Soviet Government. His 
action was legally justified by the Nuremberg resolutions, which were signed by 
the Soviet Union. 

Even under Soviet law, Yanina Khokhlov committed no crime. She is being 
held in violation of both Soviet law and the United Nations Charter, for the 
"offense" of trying to prevent her husband from committing murder. Official 
requests by American authorities and by international organizations that she be 
allowed to rejoin her husband have been ignored by the Soviet Government. 
Presented to the United Nations by the Committee To Combat Soviet Kidnapings, 
this case received the same treatment as cases No. 1 and 2. 

It is believed that the continued international publicity about and interest in 
the fate of Yanina Khokhlov has kept her alive, although she may be in a slave- 
labor camp. Among the Russian people behind the Iron Curtain, she has become 
a symbol of moral courage and spiritual defiance of the Communist regime. 

Yanina Timashkevich Khokhlov is a Uniat Catholic, brought up in a Christian 
home, with her faith unshaken by Communist doctrines. At the time of her 
disappearance she was 32 years old, a quiet, intelligent, and deeply spiritual young 
woman. She was both a skilled construction engineer and a devoted wife and 
mother. Under her influence Nikolai Khokhlov, brought up as a Communist, 
became a Christian. At the risk of their lives, they had their baby baptized in a 
Christian church. When Nikolai, fearful of reprisals against his wife and baby, 
argued that the assassins of Okolovich would be hired killers, not himself, Yanina 
replied that if he was the planner, he was also the murderer. As a Christian, he 
must not only refuse to obey a criminal order — he must actively prevent the 
murder. 

Khokhlov's major concern when he gave himself up to NTS and then to the 
West, was how to prevent the assassination of Okolovich and also save his own 
family. A plan was worked out to do this in conjunction with Khokhlov's 
revelation of the plot at the Bonn press conference. For some as yet unexplained 



1310 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

reason the plan tragically failed, and Tanina EThokhlov, her baby, and her sister 
were seized by the MVD. 

DOCUMENTATION ON TANINA KHOKHLOV HOSTAGE CASE 

Testimony of Nikolai Khokhlov 

Report of NTS investigation 

Confidential reports 

United States Congressional Record, speeches in other free parliaments 

Press file 

Cases Nos. 4 Through 8 

Case No. 4. Valebt Tremmel — Kidnaping 

On the night of June 20, 1954, in Linz, Austria (American Zone), NTS mem- 
ber Valery Tremmel was drugged and kidnaped by Soviet agents. These facts 
were established by the Austrian police, proving false the Soviet claim that 
Tremmel and his abductors were arrested in Urfahr (Soviet sector of Linz) for 
distributing anti-Soviet propaganda literature. Further investigation wag 
blocked by Soviet pressure on Austrian authorities. A recent NTS report re- 
veals that Tremmel is now in a Soviet slave labor camp. 

documentation 

Austrian police report; telephone report from Austrian Embassy in United 
States; NTS reports 

Case No. 5. Kael W. Feicke — Kidnaping 

On April 1, 1955, in West Berlin, the German anti-Communist journalist Karl 
W. Fricke, who had fled from East Germany in 1949, was kidnaped by the Com- 
munists after apparently being doped with poisoned candy. West Berlin police 
report points toward Communist agent Kurt Rittwagen as the abductor, although 
no direct evidence has yet been established. Case is still under investigation. 

documentation 

West Berlin police report ; press file 

Case No. 6. Clara Heeskovits — Kidnaping 

Clara Herskovits, a Rumanian national, is reported by eyewitnesses to have 
been abducted by the Soviets from a "liberated" Nazi concentration camp in 
Praust (near Danzig) early in 1945, and transported with other inmates for 
slave labor in the Soviet Union. The case was reported in 1955 by her surviving 
brother, now in the United States. 

documentation 

Brother's testimony; eyewitness reports (Rumania) 

Case No. 7. Major Sylvesteie Mueau — Kidnaping 

On or about August 6, 1955, in Western Germany, two Communist agents kid- 
naped Major Sylvester Murau, a defector from the East German Communist 
Police (VoPo), who was apparently betrayed by his daughter. Final report 
of West Berlin police investigation not yet received. 

documentation 

West German police report ; press file 

Case No. 8. The Kalmuk People — Genocide 

At the request of representatives of the approximately 1,000 survivors of the 
Kalmuk people in the free world, the Committee To Combat Soviet Kidnapings 
has agreed to follow up on the genocide case of the Kalmuk people. This case 
was presented to the United Nations in January 1954 by the Kalmuk Committee 
to Combat Bolshevism, not only on behalf of the Kalmuk people but also on be- 
half of the Chechen-Ingush, the Crimean tartars and all other peoples who have 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1311 

been victims of Soviet genocide. It received the same treatment by the U. N. 
Human Rights Commission as previous cases. 

In December 1943, on order of the Soviet Government, tens of thousands of 
peaceful Kalmuks in soutliern Russia were forcibly abducted from lands they had 
occupied for 300 years. They were herded into unheated cattle cars in freezing 
weather and carted off by the Soviet Secret Police to death or oblivion. 

DOCUMENTATION 

Record and photostats of oflBcial Soviet documents 

Eyewitness account by the senior NKVD (Secret Police) officer in charge of 

Kalniuk genocide 
Testimony of surviving Kalmuks 

Report of United States House Select Committee on Communist Aggression 
Report of Djab N. Kaminow, officer of the Kalmuk Brotherhood and the Kalmiik 

Committee To Combat Bolshevism, delegate to Bandung Conference 

Case No. 9. Dk. V. D. Poremsky — Attempted Assassination 

(The following data was declassified by Supreme Court of German Federated 
Republic, as of April 16, 1956.) „ .. x. 

On December 29, 1955, in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, Dr. V. D. Poremsky, 
president of NTS (National Alliance of Russian Solidarists), received a telephone 
warning of an assassination plot against him. The caller identified himself 
as the assigned killer. Subsequently a meeting between two NTS representatives 
and the alleged assassin was arranged for December 30, at which time the man 
gave himself up. He carried forged documents as a political refugee from 
East Germany under the name of Wolfgang Weber, but revealed himself as 
Wolfgang Wildprett, SSD (East German Communist Secret Police) agent. He 
showed a loaded Walter police pistol, which was to have been the murder weapon. 

Wildprett, 30, has a background of special Nazi school training and postwar 
connection with the criminal underground of East Germany as a speculator and 
petty smuggler, until he was drafted by the SSD as an informer. Early in 1955 
he faked an "escape" to West Berlin, where for 8 months he posed as a political 
refugee in a refugee camp, but actually served as an SSD agent. 

Early in December 1955, Wildprett received orders to murder Dr. Poremsky in 
Frankfurt/Main, and necessary data about the intended victim. He was pro- 
vided with forged documents as Wolfgang Weber, resident of West Berlin, and 
paid 500 West German marks in advance, with the promise of 20,000 marks after 
the assassination. Deadline was set for December 30, the day on which Wildprett 
surrendered to NTS in Frankfurt/Main. He said that 20,000 marks was not 
worth risking murder for, and that he was afraid that after committing one 
murder for the Communists they could force him to commit other murders until 
he got caught. 

On the advice of the NTS representatives, Wildprett surrendered to the West 
German Police at the Frankfurt Procuracy. After preliminary investigation, the 
case was turned over to the Supreme Court of the German Federated Republic 
at Karlsruhe, which conducted a secret investigation of the case for 4 months 
before releasing certain information on April 16, 1956. Final investigation is 
not yet completed. 

When the above data was released, it was also revealed that Dr. Poremsky was 
No. 2 on the Soviet assassination list, according to the orders signed by Malenkov 
and Khrushchev in mid-1953. The lapse of ly^ years since the failure of the 
assassination attempt against No. 1, Okolovich (case No. 2), indicates the extent 
to which Nikolai Khokhlov's defection disrupted the Soviet network in Europe. 
The employment of a gunman from the East German criminal underworld in this 
latest attempt is in marked contrast to the elaborate plot against Okolovich. 
This change in tactics indicates two possibilities: (1) Soviet authorities are 
afraid to risk another high caliber intelligence officer (such as Khokhlov) on 
an assassination assignment against NTS and/or (2) this assassination attempt 
against Dr. Poremsky can be merely a blind, calculated to relax NTS vigilance 
and make Poremsky an easier mark for a more skilled assassin. It also indi- 
cates that the top Soviet still consider NTS, the directing force of the Russian 
Revolutionary Movement "the most dangerous enemy of the Soviet regime." 



1312 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

DOCUMENTATION 

West German police reports 

NTS report 

Personal interviews with Dr. Poremsky and other NTS executives 

Case No. 10. Robert Bialek — Kidnaping 

On February 6, 1956, in the British sector of Berlin, Communist Secret Police 
drugged and kidnaped Robert Bialek, former inspector general of the VoPo (East 
German Communist Police), who fled to West Berlin in 1953 and has subse- 
quently exposed the grim Red rule in East Germany in numerous writings and 
broadcasts. 

According to early police reports, Bialek was apparently drugged while a guest 
at the apartment of his supposed friend, Paul Drzewiecki, another former VoPo 
oflScer who allegedly fled to the West, and who has also disappeared. Other 
guests were Herbert Hellwig, East German police sergeant who was visiting 
West Berlin, and a young woman who has identified only as Drzewiecki's "niece." 

Bialek, evidently realizing that he had been drugged, locked himself in the 
hall bathroom, where he was discovered unconscious by another tenant who 
summoned Drzewiecki. Bialek's "friends" carried him into a dark limousine, 
declaring that they were taking him to the hospital. None has been seen since. 

According to West German newspaper accounts, investigation of Drzewiecki's 
background revealed that he joined the Communist Party in 1945, and soon 
became an SS'D (East German Communist Secret Police) agent identified with 
previous kidnapings and kidnaping attempts. In 1953 he allegedly fled to West 
Berlin with his wife, who died the following year. Drzewiecki lost his job. He 
was recognized by former associates and approached to handle other Communist 
Secret Police assignments. He has induced Bialek to his apartment by pretend- 
ing that he was celebrating his birthday. Mrs. Bialek remained at home. 

The kidnaping was headlined in the West German press, and received short- 
ened accounts in some American papers. 

Final police report has not yet been received. 

documentation 

Preliminary West Berlin police report 
press file 

Case No. 11. Refugee Russian Sailors' Kidnaping 

On April 7, 1956, five young Russian sailors who had been granted political 
asylum in the United States were forcibly repatriated to the U. S. S. R. by 
Soviet secret police agents, oi)erating from the headquarters of the Soviet Mis- 
sion to the United Nations, 6Sth and Park, New York. The five victims are: 
Valentin Lukashov, 25 ; Alexander Shirin, 26 ; Michael Shishin, 25 ; Viktor 
Ryabenko, 23 ; Nikolai Vaganov, 23. Evidence indicates this is the boldest politi- 
cal kidnaping committed by the Soviet Government to date. 

The young Russians were former sailors from the Soviet tanker Tuapse, cap- 
tured by the Nationalist Chinese when it attempted to run the blockade to Red 
China in July 1954. Of the 48 crew members, 28 were persuaded after a year to 
return to the U. S. S. R., chiefly because of threats of reprisals on their families. 
The remaining 20 asked for political asylum in the United States, and 9 were 
admitted in October 1955 under the auspices of Church World Service. 

Almost from the time they arrived, attempts to blackmail and intimidate 
these young men were made by Soviet agents, operating from headquarters of 
the Soviet delegation to the United Nations in New York. Letters from family, 
relatives, and friends — obviously dictated by the MVD — were shown to the 
sailors. When these means failed, the Soviet tactics became more drastic. 

Investigation and testimony to date indicates that the five victims were 
lured or coerced into the Soviet U. N. delegation headquarters, at 68th Street and 
Park Avenue, New York, transported to Idlewild Airport under heavy MVD 
guard, railroaded through a brief hearing by the United States Immigration 
Service, and herded into the airplane. The young men were flown via Scandina- 
vian Airlines from New York to Helsinki, thence to Moscow, where they are 
being exploited as voluntary redefectors. 

Evidence indicates that the kidnaping was engineered under the direction of 
or with the cooperation of Arkady A. Sobolev, chief of the Soviet delegation 
to the United Nations. Case is still under investigation. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1313 

DOCUMENTATION 

Personal interviews. 

Investigation by United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee. 

Press file. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything else, Mrs. Kingsbery, other 
than what you have here in this report now, that you feel the sub- 
committee should know in connection with this general subject? Do 
you, for instance, tind out — is it your conclusion that if you make 
concessions to the Soviets in these things, so as not to stir up trouble, 
that tends to placate the situation? 

]Mrs. Kingsbery. No, delinitely not. It tends to aggravate it. You 
cannot compromise with these people. It is like the old fairy story of 
St. George and the dragon, you know, and the dragon was besieging 
the city and they kept feeding him the people and feeding him the 
people to make him go away. And so he kept on eating up everybody 
and then he demanded the princess. And until somebody came and 
challenged, to call the dragon's bluff and kill him, he would have eaten 
up everybody. 

A demonstration of what happens when you call the Soviet bluff 
was the demonstration against article 16 of the Austrian treaty. On 
that one, the campaign was — that is on page 2 — and article 16, in the 
original draft of the Austrian treaty, amounted to legalized kidnaping 
of some 30,000 Russian refugees in the free zones of Austria. So noth- 
ing much was said about article 16. It was brought to our attention 
first by the people in the refugee camps there in Austria, and by Mr. 
Julius Epstein who was studying the thing. So we spark-plugged the 
campaign and this time there was response from everyone, not only 
all over the United States but all through the free world, and other 
organizations got into it. 

Telegrams, letters, and phone calls came into the various capitals 
and tlie Western Powers did stand up against the Soviets on this in 
Vienna, and because of this tremendous popular support and tre- 
mendous popular demand, the Soviets were forced to give in, and 
article 16 was eliminated from the treaty. 

Mr. Morris. And that is one of the unusual cases, you say ? 

Mi's. Kingsbery. Yes. And another case in which the United States 
stood up to the Soviet Union was in the Third Committee in the 
United Nations, when the Soviets tried to get through a resolution that 
would facilitate this repatriation of the refugees through the U. N., 
and our delegate, Mr. Jacob Blaustein, stood up against it. We 
backed him and other organizations backed him, and the Soviets 
backed down. 

^Ii'. Morris. I have no further questions of this witness, Senator. 

Soiator Welker. Generally, just what have you done to inform the 
American people of the work of your committee ? 

Mrs. Ivingsbery. Pardon me, sir ? 

Senator Welker. Generally, just what have you done, or has your 
committee done — 

Mrs. Kingsbery. Wliat have we done on what? 

Senator Welker. What have you done to inform the American 
people of this kidnaping threat? 

Mrs. Kingsbery. We have gotten out numbers of releases — news 
releases, television interviews, radio interviews, and so forth — and 



1314 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

they have been very well received by the press. The press has been 
very cooperative and very interested and it has been brought to the 
attention through all of these media all over the country. We have 
clips on this. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Thank you very much. 

Mrs. KiNGSBERY. You are very welcome. 

Mr. Morris. Colonel Rudolph, will you stand to be sworn ? 

Senator Welker. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you give 
before the committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Rudolph. I do, sir. 

rURTHER TESTIMONY OF VLADIMIR RUDOLPH SHABINSKY, AS 
INTERPRETED BY COKSTANTINE GRIGOROVICH-BARSKY 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Grigorovich-Barsky, who has been 
sworn previously and has acted as interpreter previously, is here to 
assist us again. You have been sworn, Mr. Grigorovich-Barsky. It 
is not necessary to be sworn again. 

Mr. Grigorovich-Barsky. Yes, sir ; I was sworn. 

Mr. Morris. It is not necessary. Will you give your full name 
and address to the reporter, Colonel Rudolph ? 

Mr. Rudolph. Vladimir Rudolph Shabinsky. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that again for the record ? There has 
been a little misunderstanding in the past. Will you spell that last 
part of your name once again ? 

Mr. Rudolph (spelling). S-h-a-b-i-n-s-k-y. 23 West 83d Street, 
New York. 

The Interpreter. 23 West 83d Street, New York City. 

Mr. Morris. Colonel Rudolph, you were in the American Zone in 
Western Germany ; were you not ? 

Mr. Rudolph. Yes. I come in April 1947 and I come to U. S. A. 
in summer of 1951. 

Mr. Morris. So for 4 years you were in the American Zone in 
Western Germany ? 

Mr. Rudolph. Yes. I was 2 years in the Soviet Zone, in the Soviet 
military administration. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you were born in the Soviet Union, were you not? 

The Interpreter. I wasn't born in the Soviet Union proper, but 
the most part of my life I lived in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And what did you do in the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Rudolph. I finished high school. I worked in the building 
industry, in the ship industry 

The Interpreter. After finishing my school I worked in the con- 
struction industry and in the naval building industry, shipbuilding 
industry. 

Mr. Rudolph. I studied in Leningrad University. 

In 1937 1 was arrested. I had 10 years' concentration camp but after 
4 years, in November 1941, 1 escaped from concentration camp and in 
wartime, the first year I worked in industry, superintendent in my job, 
and in wartime I am mobilized ; I was in army, in Germany, first time, 
in special committee in Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union 

Mr. Morris. I think that is enough, Colonel Rudolph. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 1315 

Now, were you ever the object of violence on the part of Soviet au-.- 
thorities while you were in the American Zone ? 

Mr. Rudolph. Yes. In summer 1948 

Mr. Morris (to the interpreter). Will you shorten the sequences 
here ? 

The Interpreter. Well, it is one sentence. 

Mr. Morris. Sorry. 

The Interpreter. I was living, in summer of 1948, in a country 
house on Ammersee in village of Eching. 

Mr. Morris. That is the Western Zone of Germany ? 

Mr. Rudolph. The American Zone ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. The American Zone. 

The Interpreter. I was living in a separate house on the second 
floor. 

Downstairs was living the superintendent of the house. 

One night after 2 a. m., a car came to the house. Three men de- 
scended from the car. 

One man has brought the car to the reeds on the border of the lake, 
put out the lights and left the car there. These three men climbed the 
fence of the garden. The fourth rang the bell. The superintendent 
appeared. They asked him whether Vladimir Rudolph lives here. 
He said, "Yes." 

Mr. Morris. Now, who said, "Yes" ? 

The Interpreter. The superintendent. 

Mr. Morris. The superintendent said, "Yes." 

The Interpreter. Where.is he living ? 

And the superintendent told him that on the second floor is his 
bedroom — but that he is not here ; he is in Munich. 

When the three approached the superintendent, he heard that they 
were speaking Russian among themselves. 

I slept lightly, especially because I was afraid of the possibility of 
kidnaping or killing, and therefore, I woke up and overheard this 
conversation and jumped out from the window on the other side of 
the house and fled. 

In the morning I went to the Augsburg office of CIC, Counterintelli- 
gence Corps, and asked them what to do. They advised me to leave 
ray living place and to go to live in Munich. 

Next night, these people arrived again. 

They brushed off the superintendent and entered the house. 

Wlien they got convinced that I was not home, they stayed a while 
there and, leaving the house, they told the superintendent, "We will 
catch that bird yet." 

I did not return to this house and lived in Munich. 

Mr. Rudolph. That is all. 

Mr. Morris. Were there any other such attempts made against you, 
Colonel Rudolph? 

The Interpreter. I don't know whether this was an attempt on 
my life, but once in the winter of 1949, I was going through the 
English part in Munich and there were several shots fired at me, but, 
of course, that may have been simply bandits. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Colonel Rudolpli, wliile you were in the Ameri- 
can Zone, did you have occasion to learn of' the kidnapings on the 
part of the Soviet authorities of any important people, or any people 
for that matter, from the American authorities ? 



1316 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

The Interpreter. I am sorry, you said "American Zone," Judge 
Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Kidnaped from the control, from the supervision of the 
American authorities ; in other words, they were under the protection 
of the American Government at the time. 

The Interpreter. I know of kidnapings from American and British 
Zones, from the Soviet sources, when I was in the Soviet Zone and 
worked for Soviet Military Administration. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about some of the more notable of these 
cases, particularly those relating to the technical and scientific branch? 

Mr. Rudolph. Yes. 

The Interpreter. After the end of the war, all Soviet ministries 
have sent their representatives to Germany. 

They were busy dismantling factories, finding equipment, but one 
of the activities was to look for German people, German scientists, who 
would be able to fulfill the plans of these particular ministries. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, the Soviet authorities wanted to sup- 
plement the personnel of these technical and scientific bureaus back 
in the Soviet Union, or the ministries in the Soviet Union. So in order 
to get their personnel, they went out into the Western Zone and appar- 
ently undertook to kidnap them ? 

Mr. Rudolph. Yes. 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Were there any particular branches, such as aviation 
or chemical warfare or anything like that, in which there were special- 
ties? 

The Interpreter. The general leadership in this work had the 
technical and scientific branch of the Soviet militai"y administration. 

The cases of which I know were the kidnapings among the aviation 
specialists, specialists in secret weapons, physics experts, and chemical 
experts. 

But also kidnaped were those Soviet officers and soldiers who fled 
to the West. 

In the Soviet Zone in the town of Bautzen. 

In December of 1946 — were imprisoned the Soviet soldiers and offi- 
cers in two groups. One group was those who were forcibly re- 
patriated by the Western Allies; the other group was those who were 
kidnaped after the end of the war and of those there were 

Mr. Rudolph. Thirty. 

The Interpreter. About 30. 

Mr. Rudolph. In December of 1940 

Mr. Morris. May I be sure I understand that. Colonel Rudolph? 
You say in this prison, maintained by the Soviet authorities, there was 
a breakdown into two separate compartments ? 

Mr. Rudolph. Right. 

Mr. Morris. In one compartment were those Soviet officers and men 
who had been forcibly repatriated, and in the other compartment were 
those Soviet officers and men who had been kidnaped ? 

Mr. Rudolph. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now^, how many were in each compartment ? 

Mr. Rudolph. In December 1946, in this part, the kidnaped people 
are about 30. 

Mr. Morris. How many ? 

Mr. Rudolph. About 30. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1317 

Mr. Morris. About 30. 

Mr. KuDOLrii. In December 1946. How many in other parts, I 
don't know, but hundreds and hundreds. 

The Interpreter. Hundreds and hundreds of those repatriated, and 
about oO of the kidnaped. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

The Interpreter. At least, that was the number as of December 1946. 

]Mr. Morris. In other words, at the time, in the prison, even thougli 
they had only 30 at that time, there was room for many more ? 

The Interpreter. They were transient prisoners, because they were 
being shipped to tlie Soviet Union from time to time and this is the 
number for December 1946, of which I remember. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was the Soviet officer w^ho w^as in the overall 
charge of this project of kidnaping technicians and scientists? 

The Interpreter. Up to March of 1946, the kidnapings were con- 
ducted by Soviet officers who were under command of the special 
offices in Karlshorst in the Soviet administration and mider orders of 
the then Col. Gen. Ivan Serov. 

Mr. Morris. Ivan Serov, S-e-r-o-v ? 

Mr. Rudolph. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And that is the same gentleman who recently had 
difficulty in England from the English Government ? 

Mr. Rudolph. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And what was his job at that time ? 

The Interpreter. Now, he is the chief of the committee for state 
security at the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Could you tell us something about the techniques that 
were employed by these Soviet intelligence officers by which they were 
luring German scientists into the Soviet Zone ? 

The Interpreter. As I have been told by Mr. Krasev, chief of local 
branch of the Soviet military administration, after March 1946, the 
Soviet administration has employed German Communists for kid- 



napings. 



Such case was, for instance, on the occasion when German Com- 
munists were sent to either kidnap or kill a Soviet defector. Colonel 
Mikhej^ev in Hamburg, in Germany. 

The Interpreter. As to the German scientists, and engineers I 
will give you a sample of one of the three coauthors, or coinventors of 
the V-1 and V-2 weapons. 

Mr. Morris. One of the coauthors of the V-1 and V-2 weapons was 
among the scientists Avho were kidnaped by the German Communists? 

The Interpreter. He was lured from the Western Zone of Ger- 
many by exercising pressure upon his family, relatives, who were 
living near Peenemiinde in Eastern Germany. 

The Soviet authorities have forced his relatives, his immediate fam- 
ily, rather, to write him a letter in the Western Zone in Germany to 
appear secretly to them in Peenemiinde and when he appeared there, 
the Soviets captured him. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name? 

Mr. Rudolph. I am sorry, I don't know, but I saw him 

The Interpreter. I cannot remember his name, unfortunately, but 
I saw him at the Berlin Airport when he was flying to Moscow to- 
gether with his family. 

Mr. Rudolph. And I talked with him. 

72723— 56^-pt. 24 7 



1318 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Interpreter. I talked with him. 

That is one of the samples. 

The other sample is that of Engineer Guenter of Henkel aviation 
factory, chief constructor of jet-propelled aircraft, at Henkel's fac- 
tory. 

Mr, Morris. What happened to him ? 

The Interpreter. In 1945, there came orders from Moscow, from 
a special committee headed by Malenkov to find the blueprints and 
the men who were working on German jet aircraft. 

Mr. Morris. How does he know that. 

How do you know that. Colonel Rudolph ? 

The Interpreter. I was working with Saburoff of the special com- 
mittee in Berlin. 

Mr. Morris. Spell Saburoff's name. 

The Interpreter. S-a-b-u-r-o-f-f. 

Mr. Morris. What was his job at that time? 

The Interpreter. Saburoff's job, sir? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

The Interpreter. Then he was deputy on German affairs to Malen- 
kov who was presiding over the special committee. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

And he knows from that source that Moscow directed that the 
blueprints for this particular kind of construction be obtained at all 
costs ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Then General Serov gave orders to his subordinates. They knew 
that this man whom they were looking for was Engineer Guenter, to 
find this particular Engineer Guenter and to present him to the Soviet 
authorities. 

I don't know the details of this case but Engineer Guenter was lured 
to the Soviet Zone of Germany through pressures exerted upon his 
sister, and from there he was sent to the Soviet Union. 

As far as I know, there were three methods of kidnaping German 
scientists. 

When the Soviet authorities working with German scientists in 
the Eastern Zone were finding out the names of men in whom they 
were interested, they were trying to find out, in the first place, whether 
they had any relatives in the Soviet zone of occupation. 

They wanted to lure them primarily into the Eastern Zone of Ger- 
many. If that did not happen, they lured them at least to the Western 
sectors of Berlin and kidnaped them there. 

And only in seldom cases by ultimate means they were kidnaping 
the German scientists in the Western Zone of Germany. 

I don't remember now the names of two people, a couple, a married 
couple, who invented the intercontinental airplane in Stuttgart in 
Germany. 

Serov and the special committee have orders to find them. 

So far as I know, this couple was at that time in France and the 
Soviets didn't take a chance to kidnap them from there. 

Mr, Morris. I see. 

Now, are there any other examples that you feel that the committee 
should know about, that you have learned about from your own experi- 
ence, Colonel Rudolph? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1319 

The Interpreter. There is, in American Zone of Germany, an or- 
ganization of former Soviet soldiers and officers who defected to the 
West at the end of the Second World War. The Central Organ- 
ization of Emigi-es of Post- War Time. 

The initials of this organization are COPE.^ This organization's 
headquarters is in Munich, In December of 1953, a special agent was 
sent to jMunich by the name of Igor Gert. 

He recruited two criminals and had elaborate plans for kidnaping 
and bringing to Soviet Union of deputy president of this organization, 
the COPE, Igor Kronzas. But they were disclosed and at the present 
time they are in German jail, all three of them, awaiting trial. 

Mr. Morris. Trial for what ? 

The Interpreter. For attempts of kidnaping. 

Mr. Morris. Colonel Rudolph, there is one more subject that the 
committee has gotten into of late, and that is to look into the nature 
of the security threat that is posed to the United States by virtue of 
the fact that there are in the United States variously estimated be- 
tween 20,000 and 40,000 people who are here with false papers. Now, 
we have been led to believe — and the evidence is beginning to show — 
that many of these people are beinar threatened bv Soviet asrents with 
exposure. Soviet agents apparently threaten individuals that they 
will go to the immigration authorities and reveal to them the fact 
that these people are living here illegally. 

Now, do you have any experience whatever with that particularly 
difficult situation ? 

The Interpreter. I know of many people who, after the Second 
World War, being afraid of forcible repatriation, came to the United 
States under false names and false biographical data. 

Many of them who are living here 5 or more years are eligible for 
American citizenship, but being in such situation, they are afraid 
to take the oath of allegiance, because they are afraid of possible de- 
portation proceedings against them. 

But the Soviet agents know who they are. And they are trying to 
exert pressure upon them by sending to them the newspaper for Re- 
turn to Homeland published by General Mikheyev's^ Committee in 
East Berlin, sending them letters or speaking by radio to them. 

Mr. Morris. Do you mean, Colonel Rudolph, that these people 
living here under false papers — now, in every case, they are probably 
on the record as people from some other country, other than the Soviet 
Union, such as the Baltic countries, Lithuania or Estonia — do you 
mean. Colonel Rudolph, that these people are receiving communica- 
tions from Soviet intelligence people which indicate that the Soviet 
intelligence knows that they are not what they appear to be on their 
papers ? 

The Interpreter. The Soviet authorities are very well aware of 
presence of such people with false history in the United States, and 
they are trying to blackmail them and, in several cases, the people are 
just choosing rather the alternative to return than to stay under these 
pressures. 

There are several cases where people were personally approached 
on the streets. If such an emigrant cannot be intimidated to return 



1 Note correction on p. 1320. 

» Also spelled Mikailov elsewhere. 



1320 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

to the Soviet Union, they simply denounce him before the immigra- 
tion authorities, telling who the man is really and exposing his un- 
willing fraud. And so the question of deportation arises. 

Mr. Morris. And the Immigration Authorities have been enforcing 
the letter of the law on that subject, have they not ? 

The Interpreter. Of course, that is what they are doing. They 
have a law and they enforce it. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have asked some of the people 
against whom the law is being carried out to testify here, and I think 
on Friday we will have the first of those witnesses. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Does that conclude your interrogation, counsel ? 

Mr. Morris. Has Colonel Rudolph finished with that last question ? 

The Interpreter. That is all. 

I am sorry. May I read this thing. I just got a notice here. 

Senator Welker. Very well. Proceed. 

The Interpreter. This is the correct initials of this postwar immi- 
gration association. The initals are ZOPE and it is called Union of 
Russian Postwar Emigrees. 

Senator Welker. I would like to say that the evidence this morn- 
ing impresses me with the plan of the Soviet intelligence of kidnap- 
ing and arrests to obtain their objectives. They have used their meth- 
ods to get important scientists and other human beings to suit their 
purposes. 

The free world has been all too complacent and the Soviets have 
been bolder as a result of our complacency in the face of our commit- 
ments. It is apparent to me because they got away with so many kid- 
napings in the American Zone of Germany that in April of 1956, they 
tried it here in the United States with that seamen case which should 
be in the mind of every person in America. 

I want to say as corroboration, to show the plan, the scheme, of the 
Soviet intelligence and their agencies, we have here received today 
authentic information of Soviet redefection activities in Norway, and 
I want to read that for the benefit of the gentlemen of the press : 

It has now been disclosed that the Soviet Embassy in Norway was involved 
in an attempt to persuade refnsees to return to Soviet Russia. Two refugees 
living in Drammen, 45 kilometers from Oslo, were approached by a former 
friend, Nikolai Tilrhanowski, who had already been persuaded by the Soviet Em- 
bassy that he ought to repatriate. During the war, he had escaped from a Ger- 
man prison camp in Norway and has stayed there since. 

The two other refugees, however, refused to follow his advice, and during 
the Easter holidays, Tikhanow.ski brought with him two members of the staff 
of the Soviet Embassy in Oslo to Drammen to make a final attempt. The Em- 
bassy people had brought vodka and specially prepared food with them. The 
argument got hot and ended in a brawl. Tikhanowski pulled out a revolver and 
fired 2 shots at 1 of the refugees. He also grabbed the bottle and hit his former 
friend over the head. Police were called and Tikhanowski was arrested. He 
was indicted before the court 2 weeks later and is still in prison pending final 
.judgment. Because of the refugees, the court session was closed, but it is 
known that one of the Embassy people who managed to get away is the second 
secretary, Boris Chirkin. The other was the Embassy's driver who is probably 
an MVD. 

The Norwegian Foreign OflSce is now investigating the case and trying to col- 
lect evidence about the I'ole of the Soviet diplomats involved. It is known that 
they have been approaching through Tikhanowski sevei'al refugees who have 
remained in Norway after the war, but so far without success. 

The incident has caused a stir in Norway and has warned refugees in captive 
countries of the activities of the diplomatic mission. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1321 

Now, in conclusion, that statement alone, which has been authenti- 
cated, certainly corroborates t\\Q evidence that the Internal Security 
kSubcouiniittee has received with respect to the llussian sailoi^s, and 
I think that it is very apparent that everyone, especially the refugees 
liere antl the Americans here, be on the alert for those things to happen 
in the future. 

It has happened in the past. They have gotten away with it. They 
were smart characters when they got the 5 seamen but they were not 
so smart when the other 4 remained here in the free world. 

I want to commend my counsel today for his very fine work and I 
Mill appreciate very much the hearing coming on in a few days with 
respect to those whom the Soviets are using as blackmail subjects, 
because of passports and otherwise, to get them back to either a slave- 
labor camp or to sudden destruction. 

I desire to thank the two witnesses and the interpreter who appeared 
before us today on behalf of the whole committee and the staff. 

The committee is now adjourned. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, before adjourning, may we put some entries 
from the Morgenthau diary into the record ? 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

(The Morgenthau diary excerpts will be found in subsequent publi- 
cations of this subcommittee.) 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mitchell, will you come forward, please? 

Thank you. Colonel. Thank you, Mr. Grigorovich-Barsky. We 
appreciate very much your interpreting for us. 

Mr. GRiGOROvicit-BARSKY. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, one other thing. I would like to offer 
for the record in connection with our inquiry into the activities of 
Rumanian Bishop Andrew Moldovan, a passport application made out 
by that gentleman, dated April 17, 1956, wherein he indicates that 
he was then planning to go to Soviet Rumania. I would like that to 
go into the record in connection with our inquiry into that particular 
matter. 

Senator Welker. It will be so ordered. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 270" and ap- 
pears at p. 1252 in this volume.) 

Mr. Morris. I have no further business with this meeting, Sen- 
ator. 

Senator Welker. The meeting is adjourned. 

Mr. Morris. Tomorrow the witness will be Countess Tolstoy who 
will testify about the nature of Soviet efforts to exploit people living 
here on false papers. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 05 a. m., the subcommittee recessed to reconvene 
at 10 : 30 a. m., Wednesday, May 23, 195G.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A Page 

Alexandria, Va 1264 

America 1320, 1239, 1240. 1245, 1248 

Americans 1249, 1250 

1256, 1257, 1262-1264, 1286, 1296, 1302, 1313, 1315, 1316, 1319, 1321 

American Ambassador 1273 

American Council for Emigres in the Professions, Inc., the 1255 

American Government 1248 

American-Rumanian Church 1245 

American Zone of Austria 1302, 1303 

American Zone of Germany 1301, 1314-1316, 1319, 1320 

Ammersee 1315 

Amsterdam 1270, 1278 

Andrica, Theodore 1246 

Reporter, Cleveland Press 1246 

Andriyve, E 1256, 1157, 1261, 1265 

Excerpt from testimony. May 16 1256, 1257 

Anton, Archduke 1237 

Argentine 1257, 1289 

Army 1263, 1265 

Army: 

Department of 1264 

Secretary of 1264' 

Asia 1300 

Atlas Refining Co 1296 

Augsburg office of CIC 1315 

Austria 1237, 1266, 1282, 1300, 1302, 1303, 1313 

Austrian 1239 

Austrian Treaty 1300, 1302, 1313 



Baltic countries 1319 

Barsky, Constantine Grigorovich 1314, 1321 

Interpreter for Vladimir Rudolph Shabinsky 1314 

Bautzen 1316 

Belgium 1282 

Bellevue Hospital 1242 

Berlin 1273, 1285, 1302, 1318 

Berlin Airport 1317 

Berlin, East 1319 

Bialek, Robert 1306, 1312 

Case No. 10 1312 

Bishop Moldovan (Moldovanu) 1245 

Black, Thomas L 1295, 1296 

Registered with Justice Department 1295 

Blaustein, Jacob 1305, 1313 

Boston 1256 

Bran 1240 

Brazil 1289 

British ; 12^4 

British Zone J1J1JL~_~_V_V__~__~___~___~__~___~__~ 1301, 1316 



n INDEX 

Page 

Bronxville, N. Y 1287 

Brooklyn 1282, 1285, 1286 

Bucharest ,- 1240,1245 

Budapest 1248 

Buenos Aires 1249 

Bulgaria 1282 

Bulgarian 1282 

C 

Canada , 1258 

Candido (Italian newspaper) 1269 

Capitalism 1239 

Carpathians 1240 

Catholic 1288 

Central America 1289 

COPE (Central Organization of Emigres of Post-War Time) 1319 

Chicago 1283 

Chile 1289 

Chirkin, Boris L__ 1320 

aeveland 1245, 1246, 1249 

Cleveland Press 1246 

Coale, Mrs. Griffith Baily (testimony of) 1255 

Associate director of American Council for Emigres in the Profes- 
sions, Inc., 163 East 81st Street, New York, N. Y 1255 

Commission on Human Rights 1299, 1303 

Committee to Combat Soviet Kidnappings 1296, 1301, 1303 

55 West 42d Street, room 1212, New York 1296 

Founded April 1954 1296 

Communist 1238, 1239, 1245, 

1250, 1251, 1257, 1270, 12S0, 1283, 1285, 1286, 1288, 1289, 1296, 1301 

Communist bishop 1245 

Communist Bulgaria 1282 

Communist Germany 1317 

Communist Party 1270, 1288 

Central Committee of 1297 

Communist Russian ^migr^s 1297 

Communist troops 1243, 1244 

Communist Yugoslavs 1269 

Congress 1261 

Cornell Hospital 1249 

Correspondence between Chairman Eastland and Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge 

re High Commissioner for Refugees, Mr. G. J. Van Heuven Goedhart_ 1278-1282 
Council of Ministers of Soviet Union 1314, 1317 

D 

Dean, General 1264 

Detroit 1245-1247 

Drzewiecki, Paul 1312 

Dulles, Secretary 1262, 1263 

Dutch 1269, 1270 

Dutch navies 1264 

E 

East Berlin 1241, 1243, 1249, 1257, 1258 

East Germany 1249, 1285 

Easter 1241 

Eastern Zone 1318 

Eastland, Chairman 1264, 1278-1282 

Eching 1315 

Eisenhower, President 1261 

Eleven American fliers illegally held in Red China 1304 

Elmendorf, A. G 1307 

Enescu 1247 

Engineer Guenter 1318 

England 1299, 1317 



INDEX m 

Pas« 

English 1286 

Epstein, Julius 1259-1278, I.'JIS 

Testimony of 1260-1278 

470 Fifth Avenue, New York 1201 

Born Vienna, Austria - 1261 

March 9, 1939, came to United States 12G1 

Writer and foreign correspondent for German newspapers 1261 

Statement by 1275-1278 

Estonia 1319 

Europe 1246-1248, 1261, 1282, 1283, 1289, 1300 

European immigrants 1283 

Exhibit 263-263C — Translations of letters with explanations by Mrs. Coale 

on possible Rumanian redefections 1259, 1260 

Exhibit 264 — Memorandum : Forcible Extraditions of the Yugoslav Refu- 
gees in Italy 1266-1269 

Exhibit 265 — Translation, G. J. van Heuven Goedhart's introduction to 

The Great Conspiracy 1270-1272 

Exhibit 266 — Agents Trail Russian Refugees in United States, Urge That 

They Return to Soviet Union, by Julius Epstein, NANA 1273-1275 

Exhibit 267— Statement by Julius Epstein 1275-1278 

Exhibit 268 — Zigmunt Nagorsky, Jr.'s prepared statement 1290-1292 

Exhibit 269— Statement of Mrs. Kingsbery re 11 cases 1303-1313 

Exhibit 270 and 270A — Reproduction of passport of Andrew Moldovan_ 1252, 1253 

F 

FBI 1248, 1266, 1295, 1296 

Fleischer, Colonel 1292 

Forcible repatriation of displaced Soviet citizens, Operation Keelhaul 1264 

Foreign News Service 1287 

Foreign Office 1303 

"For Return to the Homeland" 1285 

Fotitch, Constantin A., Yugoslav Ambassador to United States 1266, 1269 

Four Power Conference 1302 

France 1282, 1318 

Frankfort on the Main 1301, 1302 

Free Slovenes in the United States 1266 

Fricke, Karl W 1305, 1310 

G 
G-2 1264 

Gasper, Jack, printer in Detroit 1246, 1247 

General Assembly of 1950 1279 

General Assembly of 1953 1279 

Geneva 1269,1299 

Geneva Convention of July 27, 1929 1262-1265 

German Army 1263 

German jet aircraft 1318 

German POW's 1257 

German refugee camps 1261 

Germans 1263 

German uniforms 1262, 1263 

Germany 1257, 1261, 1264, 1282, 1301, 1314, 131&-1318 

Gert, Igor 1319 

Ghilezan, Mr. Emil 1243, 1244 

Glaeske, Heinz 1307 

Glasul Patriei (paper) 1243 

Gold, Harry 1295 

Government 1251, 1255, 1257, 1265 

Great Conspiracy Against Soviet Russia, The, by Sayers and Kahn 1269- 

1272, 1278-1280 

Communist or pro-Communist book 1269, 1270 

Grew, American Ajnbassador 1263 

Grew, Joseph C 1262, 1264 

Acting Secretary of State 1262 

Grew's letter, February 1, 1945 1262, 1263 



IV INDEX 

Page 
Grew's telegram, February 7, 1945 1264 

Grizlov, General 1264 

Guenter, Engineer 1318 

H 

Hamburg 1317 

Hanunian, Elizabeth 1272 

Healy, Percy 1296 

Hellwig, Herbert 1312 

Henkel aviation factory 1318 

Herskovitz, Clara 1305, 1310 

Het Parool 1270, 1278 

Historical Records Section of Army, Alexandria, Va 1264 

Hitler 1261 

Human Rights Commission. {See Commission on Human Rights.) 

Hungarian singer 1248 

I 

Ileana, Princess 1237-1256, 1258 

Testimony of 1237-1249 

Princess of Rumania 1237 

Mrs. Issarescu 1237 

30 Hyde Avenue, Newton, Mass 1237 

Father, King Ferdinand 1237 

Mother, Queen Marie 1237 

Brother, King Carol 1237 

Nephew, King Michael 1237 

Lived in Rumania until 1931 1237 

Married Archduke Anton of Austria and lived in Austria until 1944 1237 

1944-48, lived in Rumania 1237 

3% years under Communist rule 1239 

Came to United States, 1950 1241 

Ilyinsky, Victor S 1306 

Immigration authorities 1320 

Immigration Service 1266 

Internal Security Act of 1950 1295 

Internal Security Subcommittee 1321 

International Red Cross 1243 

International Refugee Organization 1283 

Iron Curtain 1250, 1261, 1280, 1283 

Issarescu, Dr. Stefan 1249, 1250 

Testimony of 1249, 1250 

Doctor at Cornell Hospital 1249 

Husband of Princess Ileana expected to become American citizen in 2 

years 1249 

Italian 1269 

Italy 1266 

J 

Jenner, Senator William E 1237, 1255, 1295 

Justice, Department of 1295 

K 

Kahn, Albert E 1270-1272, 1278-1280 

Used fifth amendment March 7, 1955, when asked if member of 

Communist Party 1278 

Coauthor of the Great Conspiracy Against Russia 1269 

Kalmuk people 1305, 1310 

Karlshorst 1317 

King 1240 

Kingsbery, Emily 1295-1314 

Testimony of 1296-1314 

57 West 73d Street, New York 1296 

Secretary, Committee to Combat Soviet Kidnapings 1296 

King Carol 1237 

King Ferdinand of Rumania 1237 



INDEX V 

Page 

King Michael 1237 

Kiugsley, Mr. J. Donald 1279 

Khokhlov, Nikolai (Capt.) 1297, 1301-1304, 1308-1310 

Khokhlov, Yanina 1301, 1305, 1309, 1310 

Wife of Nikolai Khokhlov 1301 

Khrushchev, Nikita S 1297, 1304, 1308, 1311 

Klimov, Gregory, editor of Svoboda 1273, 1274 

Kolosov, Gen. Mikhail 1273-1275 

Krasev, Mr 1317 

Krassovsky, Oleg 1308 

Kronzas, Igor 1319 

Krek, Michael 1266, 1269 

I>eader of Free Slovenes in United States 1266 

Kukowitsch 1308 

Kushnir, Natalie 1307 

L 

La Scala 1247 

Latin America 1289 

Lebedev 1275 

Leningrad University 1314 

Lent 1242 

Linz, Austria 1302 

Lithuania 1319 

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot, chief United States delegate to U. N___1278, 1280-1282 

London 1249, 1257 

Lukashov, Valentin 1312 

Lyons, Eugene 1306 

M 

Malaya 1300 

Maleukov, Georgi 1297, 1304, 1308, 1311, 1318 

Mandel, Benjamin 1237, 1255, 1256, 1295 

Manhattan School of Music 1247 

McCarran-Walter Act 1247 

McManus, Robert 1255, 1292 

Memorandum : Forcible extraditions of the Yugoslav refugees in Italy. 1266-1269 

Metropolitan Opera 1247 

MGB 1301 

Michailov, Russian General 1274 

Mikailov, General, published For Return to the Homeland 1285 

Mikheyev, Colonel 1317 

Mikheyev's, General, Committee in East Berlin 1310 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 1239 

Minnesota 1265 

Miroshnikov, Ivan 1284-1286 

Testimony of 1285-1286 

12 Jefferson Street, Brooklyn, N. Y 1285 

Born in Ukraine 1285 

Colonel in Red Army 1285 

June 20, 1948, defected 1285 

November 14, 1951, came to United States 1285 

Mischaikow, Michael 1282 

Testimony of 1282 

48 Monroe Place, Brooklyn, N. Y 1282 

January 1956, came to United States 1282 

Lived in Germany 11 years 1282 

Native of Bulgaria 1282 

Mitchell, Mr 1254, 1321 

Moldovan, Andrew 1245, 1246, 1251-1253, 1321 

Reproduction of passport 1252, 1253 

Rumanian bishop 1321 

Also spelled Moldovanu. 

Morgenthau Diary 1321 

Morris, Robert 1237, 1255, 1256, 1295 

Moscow 1297, 1317. 1318 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 9999 05445 4077 



INDEX 



Page 

Munich, Germany 1273, 1284, 1316, 1319 

Murau, Maj. Sylvester 1305, 1310 

Case No. 7 1310 

MVD 1302, 1303 

N 

Nagorsky, Zigmunt 1287-1293 

Testimony of 1287-1292 

3 Bolton Gardens, Bronxville, N. Y 1287 

Newspaperman, editor of Foreign News Service 1287 

Born in Warsaw, Poland 1287 

1948, came to United States 1287 

NANA (North American Newspaper Alliance) 1273 

NTS (National Alliance of Russian Solidarity) 1298, 1301,1302 

Netherlands 1270, 1272, 1278, 1280 

Netherlands News Bulletin, The Hague, Netherlands, June 6, 1956 — 

"Refugee H. O. Might Resign" 1280, 1281 

Newark, N. J 1295, 1296 

New Britain, Conn 1292 

Newton, Mass 1237. 1241 

New York 1241, 1248, 1249, 1255-1258, 1265, 1269, 1283, 1288, 1300, 1314 

New York Times 1249 

NKVD 1283 

Noble, Bernard, Chief of State Department's Historical Division 1262 

Norway 1320 

Norwegian Foreign Office 1320 

Novikov, A. M 1306 

Novikoff, Nicolai V 1262 

O 

Okolovich, Georgi 1301-1303, 1308, 1309 

Operation Keelhaul 1264, 1292 

Definition of 1264 

Oppenheimer, J. Robert 1280 



Panyushkin 1309 

Paris 1248 

Patriarchy of Bucharest 1245 

Pauker, Anna 1239 

Minister of Foreign Affairs 1239 

Peenemiinde in Eastern Germany 1317 

Pentagon 1264. 1265, 1292 

Perlea, lonel 1247 

Conductor with Metropolitan Opera 1247 

Perlea, Mrs. (wife of lonel Perlea) 1247 

Petrovich, Grigorij 1275 

Philadelphia 1245 

Poland 1288 

Poles 1261 

Polish Communist Government 1287 

Polish Parliament 1288 

Polish seamen 1295 

Polish U. N. delegation 1287 

Popular Republic 1244 

Poremsky, Dr. V. D 1.305,1306,1309,1311 

President 1261,1265 

Q 
Queen 1240 

Queen Marie 1237 

R 

Redefection 1250, 1256, 1257 

Redefection campaign 1282, 1287, 1295, 1320 

Refugee Russian sailor's kidnaping 1312 

Resurrection Night 1241 



INDEX vn 

Page 

Return to Homeland, published by General Mikheyev's Committee 1319 

Rudin, Vladimir N 1306 

Rumania 1237, 1246, 1247, 1250, 1257-1259 

Rumanian 1237-1246, 1249, 1257-1259 

Rumanian-American refugees 1249 

Rumanian-Americans 1241, 1242 

Rumanian Comnnmist Government 1238, 1248 

In East Berlin 1258 

Rumanian delegation to U. N 1248 

Rumanian Government 1248 

Rumanian Communist newspapers 1238 

Rumanian Legation 1246 

In Washington 1248 

Rusher, William A 1237, 1255, 1295 

Russia 1243, 1244, 1257, 1261, 1265, 1270, 1272 

Russian 1251, 1256, 1261, 1265, 1298, 1301, 1302, 1315 

Russian refugees 1285 

Russian sailors (seamen) 1295,1300,1306,1321 

Ryabenko, Viktor 1312 

S 

Saburofl, deputy on German affairs to Malenkov 1318 

Sayers, Michael 1269-1272, 127&-1280 

Coauthor, Great Conspiracy Against Russia, The 1269 

Schroeder Co 1296 

Seamen from Tiiatse 1273 

Second World War 1319 

Secretary General 1279 

Senate Internal Security Subcommittee 1257 

.Serov, Col. Gen. Ivan 1317, 1318 

•Sbabinsky, Vladimir Rudolph 1314-1320 

23 West S3d Street, New York 1314 

Came to United States summer of 1951 1314 

4 years in American Zone of Germany 1314 

Lived most of life in Soviet Union 1314 

Studied at Leningrad University 1314 

1937 arrested; spent 4 yeai's in concentration camp 1314 

In special committee in Council of Ministers of Soviet Union 1314 

• Shirin, Alexander 1312 

/Shishin, Michael 1312 

'Siberia— 1257 

Sobolev, Arkady A 1312 

South America 1300 

Soviet 1249, 

1257, 1258, 1261, 1264-1266, 1282-1284, 1288, 1295-1299, 1301-1303, 1313, 
1316-1319, 1321. 

Soviet, agents 1273 

Soviet Berlin 1273 

Soviet Embassy 1262 

Soviet Embassy in Norway 1320 

Soviet Military Administration 1316, 1317 

Soviet redefection campaign 1238, 1:241, 1242 

Soviet Rumania 1321 

Soviet secret police 1300 

Soviet Union 1243 

1261-1264, 1285, 1286, 1288, 1289. 1297, 1298, 1301-1303, 1313, 1314,' 
1316-1320. 

Soviet Zone 1303, 1314, 1316, 1317 

State : 

Department of 1262, 1263 

Secretary of 1262 

Stettinius, Edward R., Jr., Secretary of State 1262, 1264 

Stuttgart • 1318 

Svetov, Alexander 1308 

Svoboda 1273 

Switzerland 1240, 1282 



VIII INDEX 

T 

Page 

Tikhanowski, Nikolai 1320 

Tolstoy, Countess 1321 

Trieste 1266 

Tremmel, Valery 1302, 1303, 1310 

Trushnovich, Dr. Alexander 1296-1298, 1301, 1303, 1305, 1307-1309 

Tuatse 1273,1274 

U 

Ukrainians 1261 

Ukraine 1285 

United Nations 1248, 1273, 1278-1281, 1287, 1298-1301, 1313 

Charter 1299 

High Commissioner for Refugees, Dr. G. J. van Heuven Goedhart 1269- 

1273, 1278-1282, 1300 

United States 1240, 1241, 1243, 1247, 1248, 1256-1259, 1261- 

1266, 1269, 1270, 1273, 1278-1288, 1299-1303, 1313, 1314, 1319, 1320 

United States Government 1301 

Uruguay 1289 

U. S. S. R 1279,1297 

V 

V-1 and y-2 weapons 1317 

Vaganov, Nikolai 1312 

van Heuven Goedhart, Dr. G. J 1269, 1278-1282, 1300 

U. N. High Commissioner for Refugees 1269 

Dutch writer and editor 1269 

Wrote introduction for The Great Conspiracy Against Soviet Russia 1269, 

1278 

Ex-Minister of Justice and chief editor of Het Parool 1270 

Vienna 1257,1313 

Voice of the Homeland — Glasul Patriei 1243 

W 

Warsaw, Poland 1287 

Washington 1246 

Weber, Wolfgang 1308, 1310, 1311 

Wolfgang Wildprett, SSD 1311 

Webster 1264 

Welker, Senator 129.") 

West 1288,1289 

West Berlin 1296 

Western Allies 1316 

Western Europe 1257 

Western Powers 1301, 1313 

Western Zone of Germany 1315-1317 

WEVD 1265,1268 

Wildprett, Wolfgang 1311 

Yalta 1262 

Yalta Agreement 1262, 1264, 1265 

Yalta Conference _— 1262-1264 

Yalta papers 1262, 1263 

Yugoslav Ambassador ._ 1266 

Yugoslavia 1266, 1269 

Z 
ZOPE (Union of Russian Postwar Emigrees) 1320 

o 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE. TO..i]S.YE§TIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATKW W'THE INTEMAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL tSECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOUKTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED gTATES 



MAY 23, 25, JUNE 13, JULY 20, 25, AND 27, 1956 



PART 25 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Ptiblic LtTirary 
Superintendent of Documents 

JAN 2 8 1957 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER. North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arljansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal 
Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER. Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counnel 

William A. Rusher, Administrative Coiiiiycl 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

U 



CONTENTS 



Witnesses: ^^se 

Barmine, Alexander 1339 

Berezov, Rodon 1 349 

KorolkoflF, Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas 1359 

Martin, Nicholas N 1407 

Olshanskv, Gerda ]\Iarguerita 1387 

Pirogov, Peter 1355, 1370 

Schatoff, Michael 1363, 1375 

Szeiko, Sergei 1346 

Tolstoy, Alexandra Leo 1323 

Tremi,' Vlad 1394 

Unidentified witness No. 1 1364 

Unidentified witness No. 2 1383 

in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Redefectioii Campaign 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 23, 1956 

United States Senate Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the 

Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 10 : 20 a. m., in the 
caucus room. Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker 
presiding. 

Present : Senator Welker. 

Also present : Robert Morris, chief counsel ; William A. Rusher, ad- 
ministrative counsel ; and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Welker. The meeting will come to order. 

Will you raise your right hand, to be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEXANDEA LEO TOLSTOY, PEESIDENT, TOLSTOY 
FOUNDATION, INC., NEW YOKK, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please. 

Miss Tolstoy. My name is Alexandra Tolstoy. My office address is 
989 Eighth Avenue, the Tolstoy Foundation, in New York. 

Mr. Morris. What is your name, again ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Alexandra Leo Tolstoy. 

Mr. Morris. You were formerly Countess Tolstoy ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is riglit. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you might tell us, for the record. Countess 
Tolstoy, who your mother and your father were. 

Miss Tolstoy. My father was the Russian writer, Leo Tolstoy, and 
my mother was born Bers. I was born in Russia in 1884. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you come to the United States ? 

Miss Tolstoy. In 1939. 

Mr. Morris. And now that you are an ^American citizen, we address 
you as ISIiss Tolstoy ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Miss Tolstoy. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Tolstoy. 

Now, Miss Tolstoy, what is the work of the Tolstoy Foundation ? 

1323 



1324 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Miss Tolstoy. Well, the Tolstoy Foundation's business now is 
primarily in the immigration of refugees, the former displaced per- 
sons. And it is according to the RRA ; the RRA are bringing people 
over, and then we are following up the cases that they are bringing 
over, and also, we are working abroad. We have 14 offices. 

Mr. Morris. How many offices do you have in the United States? 

Miss Tolstoy. One central office. 

Mr. Morris. And you say you have 14 offices abroad? 

Miss ToLSTOY. Abroad, yes; all over Europe, in the Middle East; 
and in Brazil, two offices. 

Senator Welker. May I ask you, what are the principal functions 
of the 14 offices abroad? Are they for screening purposes? 

Miss Tolstoy. Screening ; yes. They send over people, they screen 
people sent over for immigration in the United States and other 
countries, and also the settlement, we are greatly helped by the 
United States escapee program abroad. 

Senator Wih^ker. I wonder if you would tell me just what steps 
you take in screening an alleged refugee who comes from beyond the 
Iron Curtain and tells you a story that he or she is a refugee. Would 
you tell the committee what steps you take in screening that person ? 
How would you know whether or not they are telling the truth ? 

Miss ToLSTOY. Well, usually quite a number of Russians in Europe 
and the United States, those who reside here, and they always — 
Russians always know a spy when they see one. That is the main — 
you know, they have a feeling that this man is a security risk, and 
they are afraid of him. And this is the main source, the source that 
we get from all the Russians that Ave know very well, for years and 
years. 

Senator Welker. I am still a bit confused. You say the Russians 
can tell when a man or a woman is a spy. So I think we had better 
hire a few of them. But I am interested in this proposition. 

Someone — and we have had them before this committee, great 
fakers, great actors come here, they fool the American people, they 
fool Russia, they have fooled everyone. And I am concerned as to 
how you can have a definite finding of your committee as to whether 
or not this alleged refugee is a security risk or not. 

Miss Tolstoy. Every refugee we get has to go to CIC, through the 
American authorities. 

Senator Welker. I understand that. What I am interrogating 
you about goes to the CIC, too. It seems to me a bit difficult— if the 
Communists want to plant someone in this country, he could come to 
your organization, say that he was a refugee who was seeking haven in 
the free world, and then he might be a spy or an espionage agent. 

Do you follow me, madam ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes ; I follow you. 

And I think that the national groups, more than anybody else, can 
size up a spy, if we know one. And, of course, we can make mistakes, 
and maybe we do — I don't know that the Tolstoy Foundation has 
brought any spies over; we have never heard about it; it might be. 

But I think that, knowing our people as we know them, we can, 
to some extent, understand if this man is a security risk or not. 

Senator Welker. Very well, Countess; thank you very much. 

Counsel, proceed. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1325 

INIr. Morris. Miss Tolstoy, you have experience, do you not, in 
connection with the work you have just described, with coming into 
direct and immediate contact with thousands of escapees and thous- 
ands of refugees? 

Miss Tolstoy. Tliat is right, Mr. Morris. 

Mr, Morris. Now, there are two problems, Miss Tolstoy, before the 
conmiittee. One is, Ave are examining the whole Soviet repatriation 
program, and at the same time we are analyzing a situation that has 
been called to the attention of the committee, whereby thousands of 
Russian escapees who come to the United States under papers that 
are false, in that they give, on their papers, a false place of birth and 
a false name in order to escape forcible repatriation back to the Soviet 
Union, where a fate that is very undesirable awaits them. 

Now, the subcommittee is analyzing that situation. Miss Tolstoy, 
to determine whether or not this group of people constitute a security 
menace to this particular country. I wonder if you are in a position 
to give us any testimony on that subject ? 

Aliss Tolstoy. I think they present a pretty good authority for the 
Soviet agents to woi'k under. 

Mr. Morris. In the first place, have you encountered many of these 
people ? 

Miss ToLSTOY. I have met hundreds of those people, who came to 
me for protection. But what can I do ? 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe the circumstances surrounding 
which these hundreds of people that you know about have come to 
you for protection ? I wonder if you would give a little description of 
how they come to you ? 

Miss ToLSTOY. Well, there was a man who came to me on Friday, and 
he said he was an engineer, that he was in the country 7 years. And 
now his eldest son is graduated from high school and is going to col- 
lege, or university, I don't remember which. And he says he is offered 
a very good job as a metallurgist in one of the cities in this country. 

Now, he said he does not dare take his second papers out and become 
a citizen, because, he says, "I cannot lie any more, I just cannot, and I 
will not." 

And I said, "What is your trouble ?" 

He said, "I was born, and my children were born, in Russia. But I 
said that I lived in Poland, and that my youngest daughter was born 
in Poland. All the rest is right ; that we are old immigrants, not new 
immigrants." 

And I told him, "What are you afraid of ?" 

And he said, "I would be deported if I go and tell the truth." 

And I said, "No, you will not, because we had some cases of misrep- 
resentation that we took on, the Tolstoy Foundation took on, and now 
they are American citizens, because the immigration authorities took 
into consideration the fact that those people had to lie when they were 
facing death after the Yalta Agreement was signed, because they were 
repatriated by force." 

So then he said, "Are you sure I won't be deported ?" 

I said, "We have many cases of the Berezov disease." Those 
repatriation cases are called the Berezov disease. 

Mr. Morris. I have heard that term many times. I wonder if you 
could tell us exactly what it is. 



1326 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Miss Tolstoy. It is when people come into this country on false 
documents — say he was born in Russia, he said he was born in Poland. 
In this case he said the daughter was born in Poland, all the rest were 
born in Russia, and so on. Sometimes they even change their nation- 
alities; they say they are not Russian, they are Poles, or something, 
or Yugoslavs, or anything. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Miss Tolstoy, Berezov was a well-known Russian 
writer, was he not ? 

Miss ToLSTOT. That is right. He is a poet. 

Mr. Morris. What was his first name ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Rodon. 

Mr. Morris. And his last name is Berezov, B-e-r-e-z-o-v ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you say he was a well-known Russian poet ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, he came here on false papers, did he ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What were the circumstances ; do you know ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Well, I don't know the circumstances very well. I 
know only that he was to be deported, and then I 

Mr. Morris. Yes. But he came to the United States in order to 
escape repatriation back to the Soviet Union, did he not ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. If he had given his original place of birth, by the terms 
of the Yalta agreement he would have been forced to return to the 
Soviet Union ? 

JNIiss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Rather than do that he chose to come to the United 
States? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is it. In all those cases it is the same. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Why is it called the "Berezov disease" ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Because it became known, the Berezov case became 
known to everybody. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me if this is not so: Did not Berezov choose 
to — instead of concealing his real identity he choose to come forward 
and tell the trutli and make a test case out of it ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is right. He was a professor, a teacher of 
Russian, and he was dismissed after he told the truth. And then the 
order of deportation came. And at that time I approached Governor 
Dewey, who approached IMr. Brownell. Here I have a copy of this 
letter, xlnd Berezov is still in this country. 

Mr. Morris. Is he still under an order of deportation ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Well, I don't know. I suppose it is pending. But 
where can you deport those people ? 

Senator Welker. You don't supjDose Russia would accept him back ? 

Miss Tolstoy. I don't think the United States would send him back 
there. 

Senator Welker. For what reason ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Because he would be killed, executed. 

Senator Welker. How many emigrees or refugees would you as- 
sume came here under false papers ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Senator, I have young men who come to see me 

Senator Welker. Will you repeat that? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1327 

Miss Tolstoy. J have Soviet yoiinji' men, my friends, who come to 
me, whom we brought, tlie Tolstoy Foundation brou<iht over, and 
sometimes for 4 or 5 years I did not know that they came under false 
documents. 

So how many there are, it is very dillicult to say. Unless they know 
that they are safe, and they all come into the open, 1 think we find tliat 
there are no less than 15,000, maybe more, in this country, under these 
false documents. 

Senator Welker. 15,000, or maybe more, under false documents in 
this country? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. But I cannot 

Senator Welker. Of course, that is estimation on your part? 

Miss ToLSTOY. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. But you personally have encountered approximately 
how many. Miss Tolstoy ? 

Miss Tolstoy. I should say hundreds. 

And may I finisli this story of this man that I started to tell you? 
When I told him that he has to go and take his second papers, and that 
1 think he would not be deported, the face of this man — he was another 
man, he was smiling. 

And then he said, "May I ask you to come as a witness?" 

I said, "Yes." 

So he went, and he was so happy, so happy. And he said, "Now, I 
will not be afraid every minute of my life, because you told me that you 
think I won't be deported." 

That is the way that they are, all scared. 

Now, I know another — should I tell about the school? In one of 
the Northern States of the United States — I have here a questionnaire 
that we sent out during the last 5 days to all the people whose addresses 
we know, asking them if the Soviet agents have approached them, per- 
suading them to go home. And only now we are getting the answers. 

Senator Welker. lYliat are the answers ? 

Miss Tolstoy. I only got nine. Some of these say, "Yes," and they 
don't give their names. One man came personally, and he said that the 
group that has settled in one of the States of this country has been 
threatened all along, saying that they came under false documents, and 
that they would be deported, and that they would have to go to P^llis 
Island, and so on, and be deported. 

And he came to me and said, "For mercy's sake, protect us, do 
something, because all the people are so scared of these threats that 
they don't know^ wdiat to do. Here we came to a free country, to the 
United States, we thought that we wouldn't be bothered, and here we 
are bothered." 

Now, who is this man ? Nobody knows. Is he an agent or not ? I 
don't know. Now, we reported him to the FBI, and the FBI will find 
out if he is a Soviet agent or not. But I think that if they approached 
these people, they did not approach them as Soviet agents, but they 
were certain they approached them as their neighbors or their ac- 
quaintances, and so on. They will not come into the open. 

Senator Welker. You, no doubt, folloAved the hearings this com- 
mittee held with respect to the four seamen who refused to go back ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Senator Welker. And that followed very closely the line that you 
have related here today. They expressed happiness when they knew 



1328 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

that our country would stand up and figlit for tliem, rather than per- 
mit them to be kidnaped, as was the case of the original 5 or 6. Is that 
correct ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is right. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Tolstoy, I am having a little difficulty under- 
standing the advice that you give to these people. You say that the 
advice is that what they should do is come forward and give their 
true identity, because even though they would be subject to deporta- 
tion proceedings, nothing, no effective foliowup could be carried out 
upon the part of the immigration authorities, because they have no 
place to be deported to, even though they would be subject to 
deportation. 

Miss Tolstoy. Some will follow my advice, but the majority will 
not follow this advice, Mr. Morris, because they are still afraid. And 
I am hoping so much that this bill is going to pass, which I think has 
passed the House, where those people could be safe. And it will 
certainly weaken the efforts of the Soviets to get those people back. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Miss Tolstoy, do you know that the Soviet author- 
ities know the identity of these people ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. I don't know if you are acquainted with the 
newspaper Return to the Homeland. 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; we have had testimony about Return to the Home- 
land. 

Miss Tolstoy. Well, this newspaper is being sent not only all over 
Europe but it is being sent now to many escapees in this country. 
And how they knew the addresses, the residences of these people, I 
don't know. But many people come to me and say they have received 
this newspaper. Return to the Homeland, the Homeland Committee. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this. Miss Tolstoy: Do you mean that these 
people who have been living here as Poles and Baits, with false names 
and false addresses, receive this paper in their Russian names ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. At the address at which they are living, in an entirely 
different name ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is right. I don't know how many. 

Now, I hope that my questionnaire — which I would like to give for 
the record 

(The questionnaire and accompanying letter, as translated, were 
marked "Exhibits No. 271 and 271-A" and read as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 271 
Translation 

Deak Friends : On April 8 of this year, 5 former Soviet sailors from the ship 
Tuapse, who had chosen freedom in the United States last year, were taken back 
to the U. S. S. R., under pressure. 

What happened? How did these sailors get into the hands of the Soviets? 
We do not know, but there is full reason to think that they were taken forcibly 
by Soviet agents. 

Though these sailors were not among the thousands of refugees from the Iron 
Curtain which the Tolstoy Foundation brought to the U. S. A., their bitter fate 
has upset all of us and we are sure that it has upset also all of those who in their 
time left the Soviet Union. 

Nearly 40 years personally I am struggling with all the means I have, against 
the Soviet slavery, and it is already 17 years that the Tolstoy Foundation is 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1329 

trying to liolp the largest number of victims of communisiii. What happened with 
the five saik)rs must not happen again. You who found freedom from Soviet 
shivery here must help us to prevent a repetition of such cases. It is very im- 
portant for us to know if somebody has approached you or some of your friends 
or acquaintances who came over to this country with the help of the Tolstoy 
Foundation and if the Soviet agents threatened them with provocational black- 
mail to come back to the U. S. S. R. 

We do not need your names, we need facts so that we can struggle against them. 

Please respond, fill out this questionnaire immediately and return it to lis. 
The information which you will give will remain absolutely confidential and it 
will only be used to defend those who are threatened by the Soviet agents. 

We repeat once more, if you do not want to give your names or that of your 
friends, do not sign your name on this questionnaire. But if you know of some 
cases of Soviet provocation, please fill out the questionnaire and return it to us. 
We are waiting for your help. Remember that you can always turn to the Tolstoy 
Foundation for advice and assistance. 

Alexandra Tolstoy. 



Exhibit No. 271-A 

Questionnaire, Tolstoy Foundation, Inc., 989 Eighth Avenue, New York 

19, N. Y. 

1. When did you come to the United States of America? 

2. In which State or States did you live after your arrival, and how long? 



3. Have you ever received the newspaper For the Return to the Homeland or 

any letters from the Committee for the Return to the Homeland? 

Yes No 

If "Yes", how many issues? and what letters? 



4. Has anybody ever offered you to return to U. S. S. R.? 

Yes No 

If "Yes," tell us all possible details about it. 



5. Do you know of any instances when your friends or acquaintances were 
approached with offers to return to U. S'. S. R.? 
Yes No 

If "Yes," let us know about these cases. (We are not interested in names. We 
need facts.) 



6. We shall be thankful for your additional remarks. 



Do not sign this questionnaire if you don't want to, but fill it out and return 
it to us. 

(Miss Tolstoy's comment, received with the foregoing letter and 
questionnaire, reads as follows:) 

In answer to our questionnaire, we have received as yet very few letters. 
This is one of the samples signed by Nadesda Malchevskaya. 

To the question, "Do you know any cases where your friends or your ac- 
quaintances were approached with the offer to go back to the U. S. S. R." Yes. 
Our friends who live in the country about 30 to 40 miles from Philadelphia, 
were approached with the offer to go back to Poland (former .territory belonging 
in 1939 to Poland), where their children and their relatives are still residing. 
They were promised good jobs and old-age care. When they categorically 
refused to go back, they ceased getting letters from their relatives in Poland, 
U. S. S. R., which grieves them very much. 



1330 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Miss Tolstoy. I hope that this questionnaire will give more light, 
because we have in this questionnaire : 

Do you receive the Soviet newspaper Return to the Homeland? 

I don't know also if you know about the radio broadcast that the 
Return to the Homeland Committee is now broadcasting, telling 
the refugees that the United States wants them for forced labor, wants 
them as laborers, and as spies, and so on and so forth. 

All of this is written in this Return to the Homeland newspaper, 
and is also broadcast by the Soviet agents, by the committee of General 
Michailov, in East Berlin. 

Mr. Morris. And who is General Michailov? 

Miss Tolstoy. Well, he is heading that committee. Return to the 
Homeland. 

Mr. Morris. And he also publishes the newspaper, does he not? 

Miss Tolstoy, Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, if he sends this newspaper, Return to the 
Homeland to these people who are living here under false names, 
not the names that they have assumed, but in their Russian names, 
it would indicate that they know who these people are ? 

Miss Tolstoy. I suppose you are right, Mr. Morris. Of course, they 
would know who they are. 

Mr. Morris. I mean, if they are sending it to them in their names. 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with all this work. Miss Tolstoy, 
does the U. N. High Commissioner for Refugees — is he of much 
assistance to you in this particular work that you are carrying on? 

Miss Tolstoy. Well, he has assisted the Tolstoy Foundation only 
once in our relief for the old people, but as a general fact ; no. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever observed him working among the 
escapees and the refugees ? 

Miss Tolstoy. I don't knov/ if you will know about my last year's 
report to the Appropriations Committee, when I witnessed — well, I 
would say I expressed my opinion that the appropriation ought not to 
go to the High Commissioner, because he sent his representative, 
Mr. Virubov 

Mr. Morris. What is that name ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Virubov. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that for the reporter, please? 

Miss Tolstoy. V-i-r-u-b-o-v^iis representative, together with the 
Soviet Committee on Repatriation of the escapees living in Germany 
and Austria. So I thought it was not a proper thing to do, to send 
his representative, even as an observer, with the Soviet Repatriation 
Committee. 

So I expressed my opinion then. 

Mr. Morris. And what was your opinion ? 

Miss Tolstoy. My opinion was that the appropriation should be to 
the ICEM instead of the High Commissioner. Then I didn't express 
it. I will express an opinion that much more good would be done 
if this appropriation, this money, would go to voluntary American 
agencies. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Tolstoy, in connection with the last series of ques- 
tions prior to this particular subject, you said that these newspapers 
are sent to the escapees in their original Russian names. Do you think 
it would be possible, as a result of your questionnaire, to obtain some 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1331 

of those papers in tlieir original wrappers, so that we could really 
have that list as first-hand evidence? 

Miss Tolstoy. I will try to, Mr. Morris. 

]Mr. ]\[oRRis. Because, you see, that would be a very important point. 
Miss Tolstoy. It would show conclusively that the Soviet people 
know who these people are, whereas our own authorities do not know 
that, for very understandable reasons. 

Miss Tolstoy. I will try to obtain such. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Tolstoy, it may well be that there are among these 
people this reservoir of people which you estimate to be upwards of 
15,000, people Avho by their own experiences may w^ell be a source 
of intelliiience for us in the United States; is that right? 

Miss Tolstoy. These people — these escapees, you mean 'i 

Mr. Morris. If, for instance, you have a former MKVD man wdio 
is living under these circumstances, now^ he probably, under the cir- 
cumstances, would be reluctant to come forward and tell his story 
to tlie Intelligence people here, because of the bad situation that you 
have described. Is that right ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Of course, they would be afraid. I know of cases 
when engineers, doctors, and people of high qualification, are even 
afraid to get jobs as engineers, because immediately he would be 
asked, "Where did you graduate from?" 

In those cases, I had plenty, I had several engineers, doctors, who 
are doing just manual work, because they were afraid to say wdio 
they were and where they got their education. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Miss Tolstoy, as you begin to get results from the questionnaire that 
you sent out — how many have you sent out ? 

Miss Tolstoy. We have sent over three and a half thousand, not 
counting all the Eussian press that we covered with those question- 
naires. 

Mr. Morris. That is 3,500 you have sent out ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, as the returns come out, will you — and I assure 
you that we will protect the names of those that want the protection — 
would you let us know the results of your inquiry ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Certainly. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything, ISIiss Tolstoy, that you can tell 
us about the Soviet repatriation campaign that is now in force? 

Miss Tolstoy. Well, I have here a report on the Soviet repatriation 
campaign, which I would like to leave here for the record. 

Senator Welker. Very well; the report will be received and made 
a part of the record. 

(The report of the Tolstoy Foundation on Soviet Activity To En- 
courage Repatriation Among Russian Escapees w-as marked '"Exhibit 
No. 272" and reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 272 

Tolstoy Foundation, Inc., 
European Headquarters, Munich, Germany. 

SOVIET activity TO ENCOURAGE REPATRIATION AMONG RUSSIAN ESCAPEES 

On March 29, 195.5, Radio East Berlin broadcast at 0200 hours in the morning 
that a group of Soviet citizens have requested in writing that the East German 



1332 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Government allow them to form an organization and open an oflSce in East Ger- 
many in the interest of counteracting any anti-Soviet propaganda and to provide 
facilities for patriotic Russians in the West to return to their homeland. The 
Associated Press had already reported on March 28, 1955, that the Russians 
were organizing a propaganda committee charged with the basic task of per- 
suading Russian exiles in the West to return to the Soviet Union. It was dis- 
closed by the East German news agency APM that this committee would be 
headed by Red army Maj. Gen. N. P. Michailov. Among the claimed mem- 
bers of the committee were to be the Ukrainian writer I. L. Muratov and a 
G. P. Krutey. The anti-Bolshevist Ukrainian Socialist Party in Munich stated 
that Krutey had probably been kidnaped by agents, according to the Associated 
Press release. 

The initial manifestation of the activity of the East zone committee was a 
Russian language four-page newspaper entitled "For Return to the Home 
Country" which appeared initially in Germany, followed by appearances in 
Austria, France, and Belgium. Only in the middle of May did the newspaper 
make an appearance, being mailed direct from Vienna, in Italy. 

The psychological approach of this newspaper has been particularly effective 
on two important points : the newspaper is mailed as a private first-class letter 
from various offices in East Germany and in Vienna to the correct name and 
address of the Russian escapee. By its apparent form as a personal letter the 
uninitiated Russian escapee opens the letter to suddenly being confronted with 
this repatriation newspaper propaganda. It is of course most disconcerting to 
the escapee that his correct name and present address had been used by this 
committee. This carries into this propaganda field the basic belief which the 
Soviet regime fosters at every opportunity, i. e.. that the Soviets are everywhere 
and know everything, that no men can ever escape their reach. The wave shock 
that swept the Russian escapee field can thus be understood. 

On April 6, 1955, Tolstoy Foundation was contacted by an American journalist 
and later in the same day by a German newspaper reporter. Both of them wanted 
to know the truth about a case which they said had recently repatriated to Rus- 
sia via the East Zone of Germany. Both reporters stated definitely that they 
were informed that this case came from the Tolstoy Foundation Karlsfeld Center 
and that more cases in the center were considering the same action. An im- 
mediate check on this story showed that the ease referred to was one Sokolowsky 
who not only had never been in the TF Karlsfeld Center but was further never 
even registered with the Tolstoy Foundation. He and his wife had been resident 
in the new German housing project in Ludwigsfeld and had finally gone back 
through East Germany. 

The repatriation newspaper, issue No. 1 was followed approximately 2 weeks 
later by issue No. 2, and this in turn was followed 2 weeks later by issue No. 3. 
A sample of the type of article which appears in this newspaper is attached as 
enclosure No. 1. 

In Germany the initial concentration of activity was seen. Persons with new 
addresses as recently as 30 days before the first copy of the newspaper was pub- 
lished, received their copies at their new address. One of the first copies of the 
newspaper was mailed directly to the United States consulate general in Munich.^ 
Unpleasant refugee camp conditions in various areas were commented upon, the 
situation being of recent date, such as in Ingolstadt. TF was approached by a 
tremendously increased number of persons who came forward for faster, more 
efficient migration services so that they could escape from what they felt to be 
a net that was closing about them. One case that returned to East Germany, that 
of a man named W. P. Wassilaki was well publicized in the second issue of the 
newspaper, completed with pictures of Wassilaki departing from East Germany 
for his home and the promise of an excellent job in the U. S. S. R. 

At the beginning of May a few selected people began to receive letters addressed 
to them as though written from one friend to another in which the background of 
the person was mentioned and he was asked why he continued to live in impos- 
sible circumstances when he could return to Russia in his profession, be hon- 
ored and well paid. One or two instances were reported of persons who received 
letters from relatives in which, because of some personal event that the escapee 
had knowledge of, were found to have been letters written 1, 2, or 3 years previ- 
ously and apparently held until an appropriate time. Other sample instances 
have been reported of persons who have received current letters from close rela- 



1 On June 14, 1955, an envelope containing No. 3 of this publication addressed to TF, 
Kockland County, N. Y., was received. Sender Magddeburg, H. Postamt, P-facIi 163. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1333 

tives in East Germany or in the U. S. S. R. suggesting that they return. The 
entire approach appears to bo that a general amnesty overall is not guaranteed 
but that the individual may have to pay minor penalty for his rashness in having 
come west but that after he had served a normal prison sentence, he will be able 
to pick up normal life in the U. S. S. R. once again. 

With the mailing of the second issue of the newspaper, a small handbill was 
included in the actual native language or dialect of the person to whom it was 
addressed, in Ukrainian for Ukrainians, for example. 

It would be premature to state definitely the final reaction of this propaganda, 
which most probably has tremendous financial resources and certainly tre- 
mendous numbers of employees serving on its behalf. It would not be rash to 
consider the possibility that in the near future a transport probably of paid per- 
sons or persons imder duress would be returning to the East Zone, complete with 
pictures, newspaper stories, etc., etc. It is most improbable, however, that this 
action or even the results of the newspapers will sway a substantial number of 
the Russian escapees from their genuine desire to relocate themselves in the west. 

The entire problem in Austria was much more serious than that in Germany 
as the newspapers wore delivered initially at the time that the entire group of 
refugees in Austria were in grave fear that they would be repatriated to their 
homelands if the Austrian state treaty were signed including the famous article 
No. 16. The near hysteria of the Russian group, when faced with the possibility 
of a repetition of the repatriation activities that took place in Lienz, Austria, at 
the conclusion of World War II was further increased by the arrival of the first 
copy of this newspaper. The mailing lists of the Austrian caseload were appar- 
ently not as complete as in Germany for in at least 2 camps in the Salzburg area 
the newspapers were delivered at night throughout the camp, including 1 copy 
pushed beneath the door of the Orthodox bishop in Lager Parsch. 

The Austrian police action, taken to avoid any possible incident during the 
formal signing of the treaty, resulted in further anxiety on the part of the 
Russian caseload. Tvro cases were reported where Russians were arrested and 
held without formal charges throughout the length of the weekend. This 
added to the fear of the refugees with regard to the treatment which they could 
expect in Austria. To most of them Western Germany seemed the nearest and 
most practical immediate haven. Fortunately article 16 was eliminated from 
the state treaty and the Russian escapees relaxed only a tiny amount from 
their careful observation of the Austrian scene. During this period voluntary 
agencies including Tolstoy Foundation made the strongest possible recommenda- 
tions in Europe and in the United States of America to the effect that a positive 
statement concerning the future of the refugees in Austria will be desirable. It 
is hoped that the USEP program for contact of the refugee in conjunction with 
the voluntary agency handling that case will prove of value in this regard. The 
refugees will continue, however, to be highly nervous until some public positive 
approach is manifested. The psychology of the Russian escapees in Austria is of 
such acute antisovietism that it is not a question that any would consider return 
to their homeland except possibly for agents planted in the group. 

BELGIUM 

The repatriation activity in Belgium started before the formation of the 
"Homeland Committee" in the East Zone of Germany. As early as the fall of 
1954 it was reported that some persons in Belgium were returning to the U. S. S. R. 
including some ill and homesick persons. Russians in Belgium were invited 
to parties, social gatherings and musical evenings at the Russian Embassy or in 
other locations with officials of the Russian Embassy as hosts. Special provision 
was made for the care of children and the emphasis was that the people could 
return to their homeland without fear of serious retribution. Persons selecting 
repatriation embarked on a Soviet ship at Antwerp and thus were sent straight 
back to the U. S. S. R. A tremendous amount of time, energy, and money has 
gone into this program of the Soviet Embassy in Belgium but to date only a tiny 
handful of persons have returned. The repatriation newspai)er appeared in 
Belgitim for the first time in the month of ^lay. 

FRANCE 

The problem of the repatriation activity in France is increased by the number 
of Communist sympathizers in the various branches of the Federal bureaucracy. 
There seem also to be suflBlcient part-time workers on behalf of the repatriation 



1334 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

activity that the entire urban area of metropolitan Paris has been combed for the 
correct name and address of the Russian refugees, resulting again in the mailing 
of a newspaper with accurate name and address. It is estimated that between 
live to ten thousand copies of this newspaper have most probably been distributed 
in the city of Paris alone. Because of the wide scattering of the Russian caseload 
outside of Paris, it is not possible to estimate the completeness of the activity 
in rural France at this time. 

ITALY AND TRIESTE 

Up to the present date there is no record received that the newspaper has been 
sent into the remaining refugee camps in Trieste. The first copy of the news- 
paper reporting from Italy was a copy addressed to the Tolstoy Foundation 
in Rome on May 16, 1955. This newspaper was mailed from Vienna and it can 
be assumed that Russians in Italy either have or will be receiving copies of this 
newspaper. 

The overall effect of the newspaper is disturbing because of the individual 
basis on which the distribution has been based. The refui;ee problem in Western 
Europe is that complex and that large that it is not difficult for the newspaper 
to find material to include in its pages. The best possible answer is in the posi- 
tive increasing numbers of Russians being migrated, amelioration of present dif- 
ficult circumstances of living and a positive recognition of the problems facing 
the escapees so that the people themselves realize that they are neither neglected 
nor forgotten. 

The newspaper itself represents only the serious activity, the far more serious 
implications are contained in the amount of money and the number of persons 
actively engaged in this program of repatriation. The initial shock of the news- 
paper can be and is being well exploited by this concerted effort which is so 
destructive to the basic tenants of the West and to the escapee who has sought 
refuge away from communism. 

[Excerpts from the newspaper For Return to the Home Country, No. 2, April 1955] 

Refugee Bosses Sell DP's to American Intelligence 

throw off ridiculous fears ! 

The public speech of Mr. W. P. Wassilaki stressed the unfair work done by 
refugee bosses paid by American Intelligence among DP's. These political 
profiteers deal with their countrymen, being in a foreign country and in great 
need, shoving them to a disgraceful and disastrous track of espionage and 
sabotage against their home country, and preparing them to serve as cannon 
fodder for imperialistic adventurers. 

The refugee bosses are not interested to let displaced persons return to their 
country, because they are receiving for them good money from xlmericans to be 
able to buy cars and country houses. We know that the majority of our country- 
men still love their country and sincerely wish to return back. They tarry to 
return because they have been tangled with false information concerning the 
Soviet Union, falsehood about repressions awaiting refugees returning to their 
country. 

Countrymen ! throw oft" ridiculous fears, do not believe political profiteers 
making a fortune out of your sweat and blood ! Break with them — and return 
to your country ! This is the only thing to do if your human dignity, conscience 
are dear to you ! 

"AMERICAN committee" RECRUITS SPIES AND SABOTEURS 

The main reason impelling me to return to my country was : my personal con- 
tact with employees of the so-called American Committee for Liberation of 
Bolshevism. I had the opportunity to study closely their scope and practical 
realization of their work. It is perfectly clear to me that this organization is 
a governmental institution of the Department of State and that it follows in its 
practical activity and policy the lines and regulations prescribed by the Ameri- 
can imperialism. Facts that prove it are: both chiefs of this committee, Kerk 
Stevens and Sergeant are official collaborators of the State Department of the 
United States. Hiring of the chairman and his deputy is also done by the State 
Department. During my conversation with them they told me that 99 percent 
of the total budget comes out of funds officially assigned by the American Gov- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1335 

ernment and Congress to undermine the work in democratic countries. In fact 
the committee carries out a campaign directed exclusively to exploit refugees 
in political and espionage adventures ag;iinst U. S. S. R. and the democratic coun- 
tries. 

During recent years a great number of refugee organizations were created. 
The American committee tried several times to consolidate all of them and 
make them a dutyful and blind weapon for the realization of its policies. 

In February l'Jo~) the new chairman of this coumiittee, Sergeant, stated that 
there will be no money spent any more on any activity of refugee organizations 
except financial aid given to practical work. By this practical work Mr. Sergeant 
means espionage, sabotage, terror, and also a political sabotage against U. S. S. R. 
and democratic countries. 

One of the detachments of this American Intelligence Service camouflaged as 
•'Institute for Culture" is administered by American Intelligence Service officers 
from Heidelberg, officially acting as American advisers (Balles and Alexander). 
Director of this installation is an emigrant Boris Jacovlev or Noreikis-Bereikis, 
or Troitzkiy. His real name is Normann, Nikolai. During World War II he 
was commander of a PW camp in Baltic States and was known as an unhuman 
person. His assistant, Djakov or Juriy Dikov, treated Soviet prisoners in an also 
unhuman way. 

Miss Toi,STOY. Then, also I can leave the questionnaire. 

Tliis is the case of Mr, Dtmajew. This is a case that has been cleared 
by the American authorities, the case of Mr. Dunajew. 

(The document referred to %Yas marked "Exhibit No. 273" and reads 
as follovcs:) 

Exhibit No. 273 
Dunajew, Anatolij, 7 Auburn Street, Paterson, N. J. 

Anatolij Dunajew was born on May 26, 192G, in Krasnyj Lucz, Donbass, Russia. 
Until 1941 he was a high-school student in his own city, finishing seven classes. 
When the war started in 1941 he was mobilized and up to 1943 worked on trenches 
in a laborers' brigade. In the spring of 1943 the Germans occupied Krausnyj 
Lucz. In the winter of 1943 they began retreating, the whole town was evacuated, 
including Mr. Dunajew and his parents, at first to Melitopol (South of Russia) 
and then to Rumania. They had their own horses and carts for transportation. 
Anatolij and his parents were mobilized to dig trenches for Germans against the 
Communists. In May 1944, Anatolij was separated from his parents. All the 
young men were given a choice of joining either the German or the Vlassoff Army. 
As the Vlassoff troops were hard to reach, Mr. Dunajew joined the Russian Pro- 
tection Corps (organized in Yugoslavia) and was promoted to sergeant. His 
service consisted in guarding the railroads in Yugoslavia. In January 194.5, 30 
young sergeants from the Corps were sent to an officers' school ( Vlassoff s) in 
Muensingen, Germany. In April 1945 this school was transferred to Krumaiik 
CSR. At that time the Soviet troops were approaching from one side, the United 
States troops from the other. The leaders of the school moved toward the United 
States troops. They gave themselves up to United States Army asking for pro- 
tection. In May 1945, after the German capitulation, the Russians remained 
as POW's with the Americans. The first camp was at Landau, the next at 
Regensburg. 

It was then that rumors started to spread that all Soviet citizens were to be 
repatriated by force to Soviet Russia. Anatolij was transferred to Plattling, 
where he changed his documents which stated that he was born in 1918 in Russia 
(and not in 1926), that his parents emigrated with him to Yugoslavia in 1930 
and lived there ever since. Anatolij knew that if his parents were still in Soviet 
Rumania, they would certainly be sent to forced labor, perhaps even executed, as 
parents of a "criminal and deserter." He also knew that he would have to face 
death after having fought against communism, if forcefully repatriated to his 
homeland. The only way of saving his parents and himself was to change his 
documents. 

In February 1946 his fears were confirmed, as almost all officei's of the Vlas- 
soffs Army (there were about 3,000 of them in Plattling camp) were repatriated 
by force. The fate of these people is well known — they were sent to forced labor 
or executed. 

72723—56 — pt. 25— — 2 



1336 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

In May 1946 Mr. Dunajew was discharged from the POW's camp, went to 
Goebingen near Stuttgart ( Wuerttemberg, Germany) and started working there 
with United States Army as a driver. He lived in Uingen from where he com- 
muted by train to the Army club where he was working. In December 1946 he 
was returning from work by train at 10 : 30 p. m. There were a few American 
soldiers in the same car, and two Russian girls who were returning from their 
work with Anatolij. The GI's had been drinking and one of them started to em- 
brace one of the girls. She protested, and in order to get rid of him said that 
Anatolij was her husband. The two girls got oft at the next stop, and Anatolij 
went on further. At that time the trains were not lighted, it was dark. Anatolij 
suddenly saw one of the GI's quite close to him ; something shiny flashed before 
his eyes, he was hit on the head, and passed out (he still has the scar). When 
Anatolij regained consciousness, he found himself lying across the rails; the 
GI's had thrown him out of the train while it was in motion. Anatolij tried to 
get up, but could not, his leg had been cut off. The railroad employees found 
him near the tracks and took him to the hospital in Goebingen. 

The whole case was immediately recorded by United States authorities (the 
dociiments are in claims' office headquarters, Frankfurt). 

He stayed in the hospital until the spring of 1947 and returned to his old 
apartment. He had no money for an artificial leg, he could not work and lived 
on what his friends were able to get for him. 

In the spring of 1948 he received 50,000 reichsmarks as a lump sum from the 
Army. This was 2 months before the currency reform in Germany, and the 
devaluation of the reichsmark, so that what he received amounted to only 5,000 
deutschemarks. After he got an artificial leg, Anatolij started to work again. 

In 1951 Anatolij was informed by a friend that he had read in a newspaper 
that his parents, Foma and Barbara Dunajew, were trying to locate their son, 
Anatolij. He immediately wrote to Novoye Russkoe Slovo in New York that 
he was the searchee, and a week later he got a cable from his parents. They 
were already living in New York City, brought over by the Tolstoy Foundation. 
He wrote to his parents about his situation, and in answer received an advice 
from them advising their son to tell only the truth to the American authorities 
concerning his birthdate and his residence in Soviet Russia. But he was 
afraid that he would never be admitted to the United States of America and 
would never again see his parents if he followed their advice ; so he decided to 
wait until he arrived in the United States. 

He applied for immigration to United States of America through Church 
World Service in Ludwigsburg, and came to the United States of America spon- 
sored by them on January 31, 1952. 

Three weeks after his arrival (he lived with his parents in Brooklyn, Snedicker 
Avenue, 339) he started to work for Horo-Light Manufacturing Co. as a welder, 
and stayed with them until the whole family moved to Paterson, N. J., in January 
1953. From January to May 1953 he was working with the Engineering Tool 
Corp., in Singac near Paterson. In June he started to work with Chambers 
Manufacturing Co. at 50-54 Hamilton Avenue in Paterson as die and tool maker, 
a job he is holding now, also working as a foreman in the evenings with a part- 
time group of mechanics. 

Dunajew came to the Tolstoy Foundation Office last week. He was very 
disturbed. 

"I had to tell the American authorities the whole truth," he concluded. "We 
were forced to lie in Soviet Russia all the time to save our lives ; again we lied 
in Germany, but now I cannot lie any longer. I want to have a clear conscience — 
to have a right to be happy, to laugh. I have bought a car, I want to enjoy it. 
But I cannot, and yet I have not done anything bad. Believe me when I went to 
the immigration authorities and told them everything, it was as if a heavy 
load was lifted from my soul * * * Happen what may * * *" The man had 
tears in his eyes. 

He contacted the Immigration and Naturalization Service in August 1952. He 
confessed that he had falsified part of his documents, told them the whole truth 
and explained the reason for having concealed it. 

In February 1954 Anatolij married a Russian girl. Vera Riasnyansky. 
After interrogation of Anatolij and his parents by Immigration and Naturaliza- 
tion Service in the early part of March 1954 Anatolij was called with his father 
once more to Immigration and Naturalization Service (New York City) and 
was handed a request for him to appear at Ellis Island on March 31, 1954, where 
was to see Mr. D. Floyd of the Immigration Service. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1337 

Miss Tolstoy. And this is my letter to Mr. Brownell. 

(The letter of September 27, 1954, from Alexandra Tolstoy, presi- 
dent of Tolstoy Foundation, to Attorney General Herbert Brownell, 
Jr., ^Yas marked ''Exliibit No. 274" and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 274 

Tolstoy Foundation, Inc., 
New York, N. Y., September 21, 195Jt. 
Re Beresov, Rodion, 312 South Boyle Avenue, Los Angeles 33, Calif. 

Attorney Genekal, 

Washington, D. C. 

Hon. Herbert Brownell, Jr. 

Dear Mr. Brownell: The Russian daily, Novoye Russkoye Slovo, has just 
informed me about the case of Mr. Rodion Beresov, alias Rodion Akulshin. 

Rodion Beresov came to this country 5 years ago. Soon after his arrival he 
got a job as (»ne of the teachers of Russian in the Monterey Military Language 
School. But after some time in the United States Mr. Beresov-Akulshin felt 
that he Cduld not conceal his true name, Akulshin, and while tilling out the ques- 
tionnaire for the Monterey school he gave the true facts about himself : that he 
came to Europe in 1944, and not in 1937 as he had stated ; he gave his real place 
of birth and his name — facts which he concealed because of fear of repatriation. 
As a result, Mr. Beresov not only lost his job but there immediately arose the 
question of his deportation. A special bill S. 432 was not passed by the Con- 
gress, and on the 24th of September Beresov-Akulshin received an order, as I 
understand, from the San Francisco immigration authorities, to leave the country 
within 15 days. In case Mr. Beresov does not leave, he will be imprisoned for 2 
years and will have to pay $1,000 tine. 

I want to inform you that the Beresov case is known to all the Americans and 
immigrants of Russian origin from the west coast to the east, as all the Russian 
newspapers gave it a great deal of publicity. There is even an expression that 
has been launched by the newspapers — "The Beresov disease." I am positive 
that in case of Beresov's deportation all the Russian newspapers will again 
start writing about the case which will be very unfortunate for several reasons : 

1. It will certainly not help our escapee program ; 

2. It will interfere with the desire of all those who are sick with the 
"Beresov disease" and have concealed their place of birth and sometimes 
their names because of fear of repatriation, to state the whole truth before 
becoming American citizens. 

3. It will play into the hands of the Soviets, and they might use the "Bere- 
sov disease" as means of propaganda against the United States of America. 

This is why, dear Mr. Brownell, I am appealing to you with a request of post- 
poning the deportation of Mr. Beresov-Akulshin until the question of those who 
came under false documents will be solved in its entirety. 

Beresov-Akulshin is an average person, he is a writer, a poet. He is honest and 
I think there is no doubt that he is an anti-Communist and never was a Soviet 
agent. 

But unfortunately, Beresov and his "disease" have become symbols, repre- 
senting a certain group of Soviet escapees, and this is the main reason M'hy this 
case has to be treated from the political angle with the greatest care. 

I would, dear Mr. Brownell, be very grateful to you if you could inform me at 
your earliest convenience what your decision is going to be on this most delicate 
case. 

Very truly yours, 

Alexandra Tolstoy, President. 

Miss Tolstoy. Now, mostly, the Repatriation Committee approaches 
people in Europe. 

Mr. Morris. The people who are conducting the Soviet repatriation 
campaign ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is right. 

Now, as I say, the Repatriation Committee approaches those people 
through newspapers here, mostly, and through maybe agents that are 
camouflaged. We don't know that they are agents of the Soviet, but 



1338 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

it seems like they are too clever to approach those people as real agents 
of the Soviet, to come to the open. 

Senator Welker. Any further questions, counsel ? 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Senator. But I would like 
to await the responses that Miss Tolstoy will receive from the 3,500 
questionnaires that have gone out. 

Miss Tolstoy. May I make a suggestion, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Miss Tolstoy. 

Miss Tolstoy. Senator, I think if a sort of a questionnaire would 
be printed in the Russian newspapers by the committee, and a cer- 
tain guarant}^ would be given to those people, I think you would get 
thousands of people who would respond to that questionnaire. 

Senator Welker. I assure you, madam, the committee's staff will 
make a study of that proposal. 

To sum up your testimony this morning, madam, may I say that 
this is perhaps the conclusion of the acting chairman: That you 
had numerous cases wherein you know of your own knowledge, or of 
your committee's knowledge, the people who came to the free world, 
escapees, refugees, from the tyranny of the Communists, using forged 
passport papers or visas, and have now been threatened by agents, or 
someone working for and in behalf of the Communist government, 
threatening them with deportation back to the land where they will 
face sudden death, or at least a trip to the Soviet labor camps in 
Siberia, or otherwise. Is that about a correct conclusion of your tes- 
timony this morning ? 

Miss Tolstoy. That is right, sir. 

Senator Welker. Do you have anything more to add, madam ? 

Miss Tolstoy. No, Senator. 

The only thing I want to add is that as soon as the questionnaire, 
as was suggested by Mr. Morris here, as soon as I have more answers 
to that questionnaire, I will have more information for this commit- 
tee. 

Mr. Morris. And there will be investigation on the question : Have 
you been approached by anybody who seems to you to be a Soviet 
agent, or you have reason to believe is a Soviet agent. 

Miss Tolstoy. That is the question ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; that is included in the questionnaire ? 

Miss Tolstoy. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Miss Tolstoy. 

Senator Welker. Thank you. very much. We are happy to have had 
you before the committee. 

The committee will now adjourn. 

Mr. Morris. We meet again on Friday. 

(Whereupon, at 10 : 50 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned, to re- 
convene on Friday, May 25, 1956.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Redefection Campaign 



FRIDAY, MAY 25, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration or the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 

OF the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C . 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10 : 30 a. m., 
in the caucus room. Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner, 
presiding. 

Present : Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, reseach director. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Gen. Alexander Barmine. 

Mr. Chairman, the subject of the testimony this morning will be 
the situation that exists, the situation that has been described as a 
bad security situation in the United States by virtue of the fact that 
there are an unestimated number of people living here on false papers. 
And the mere fact that they are here with false names, and have given 
false states of birth, according to the evidence so far, poses a security 
problem for the United States. 

That is as a result of the forced repatriation under the Yalta 
agi'eement. 

Senator Jenner. Will you be sworn ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you will give in this hearing will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Barmine. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEXANDER BARMINE, ARLINGTON, VA. 

Mr. Morris. Woidd you give your name and address to the reporter ? 

Mr. Barmine. Alexander Barmine, 1013 South 18th Street, Arling- 
ton, Va. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Alexander Barmine is here this morn- 
ing in his private individual capacity, and he is going to give general 
testimony on the general subject. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Barmine, are you acquainted with the situation 
which has been described as Berezov's disease? 

1339 



1340 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Barmine. Yes; I am. In my free time after work I have con- 
tacts with Soviet displaced persons, with Russian emigree organiza- 
tions. I met many of them on my trip to the countries of Europe, 
and I personally came in contact with many cases identical to the 
cases you are going to hear of people living under false papers and 
identities, living in fear and terror of being deported and executed. 

I think this is a very important problem which deserves the atten- 
tion of the Senate Internal Security Committee. 

Mr. Morris. Before beginning, Mr. Chairman, I would like to put 
into the record the biographical sketch of Mr, Barmine. As he has 
testified before the committee, his background is that he was a briga- 
dier general in the Red army, and has been in the United States — 
since what year, now ? 

Mr. Barmine. 1940. 

Senator Jenner. It may become a part of the official record of this 
committee. 

(The biographical sketch of Alexander Barmine was marked "Ex- 
hibit No. 275" and reads as follovfs :) 

Exhibit No. 275 
Biographical Sketch of Alexander G. Barmine, Chief, Russian Branch 

Born: August 16, 1899, Mohileff, Russia. 
Naturalized United States citizen July 15, 1945. 
Education : 

Kiev, state gymnasium (high school and junior college), 9 years. 

Kiev, St. Vladimir University, 1 year. 

Minsk, Infantry Officers' School, 8 months. 

Moscow, Frunze General Staff College, 3 years. 

Moscow, Oriental Languages Institute, 3 years. 
Employment : 

1919-35: From private to brigadier general, Russian Army, (active duty and 
reserve). 

1921 : Military attache, consul general, Russian Legation, Bokhara. 

1923-25 : Consul general, Russian Embassy, Persia. 

1925-28 : Director-general manager. International Book Corp., Moscow. 

1929-30 : Director-general, Russian trade delegation, Paris. 

1931-32 : Director-general, Russian trade delegation, Italy. 

1932-33 : First vice president. Machine Tool Import Corp., Moscow. 

1934-35 : President, Automoto Export Corp., Moscow. 

1936-37 : Charge d'Affaires, Russian Legation, Athens. 

1937-39 : With Air France Co., Paris. 

1941-42 : National Broadcasting Corp., New York. 

1942-43 : United States Army. 

1943^4 : Office of Strategic Services. 

1944-46 : Readers' Digest. 

1948 (Oct.) : State Department. Voice of America. 
Languages (foreign) : Russian, French, Italian, Persian, Ukrainian, Polish. 
Books and articles : 
Russia : Articles in Russian newspapers and magazines. 
Europe : 

Book, Memoirs of a Soviet Diplomat. 

Articles in French, Belgian, Dutch, Scandinavian press. 
U. S. A. : 

Editorial advisory work for Readers' Digest, Harper & Bros., Life, etc. 

Articles in New York Times, Harper's, Readers' Digest, Saturday Evening 
Post, Catholic Digest, New Leader, Aviation ; also in newspapers in United 
States of America and Canada through NANA, Overseas Press Agency, 
INS., etc. 

Book, One Who Survived, published in 23 languages. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1341 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Barmine, will you relate to us some of your 
own experiences'? You say on the basis of Imndreds — is that the term 
you used ? 

Mr. Barmine. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Hundreds of incidents and experiences, you feel that 
you can orive some testimony on this subject? 

Mr. Barmine. Yes. I think it is relevant to the situation to ex- 
plain also how this i)roblem came to exist. 

JNIr. JNloRRis. Please tell us about that. 

Mr. Barmine. I would say that this is a concern of mine as an 
American citizen of Russian descent, and of many other of my com- 
patriots, primarily on the hnmanitarian ground, because these people 
are forced into this situation, and they should receive justice and be 
able to straighten out the situation. 

I would say that it was an unfortunate situation when in the press 
you have the mention of this affair. The press is saying that there are 
thousands of people hiding under false papers and false identities. 

So, naturally, the question rises wdiy they did it. Did they commit 
some crime; have they some shady past? Why do they find them- 
selves in this situation at this time? 

You know that in some kinds of simplification, when the press 
speaks about the activities of the Communist clique, or their deeds and 
policies, it often mentioned — they mention and use the term "Rus- 
sians." And I would like to state in the beginning that we should 
not confuse the activities of these cliques with the Russian people as 
such, because the Russian people are the biggest and first victims of 
the Communist tyranny. 

The result of this, w^hat we have now, is that soon after the war in 
1045, when the war ended, you had in Germany and the theater of 
war several million former Soviet citizens who were there. 

I would like to give the committee some definition of what kind of 
people were there, and how they got there. 

You had about four and a half million prisoners of war who were 
taken by the Germans during their aggression, rounded up and sent 
back to Germany. 

This was particularly tragic, because the Soviet Government re- 
fused to acknowledge its interest in the fate of any of those prisoners. 
They didn't care about the fact that the Geneva convention applied 
to them. The result was that about 3 millions perished from starva- 
tion and disease in concentration camps, in the camps of prisoners of 
war in Germany. 

What was the attitude of the Soviet Government about it? I 
quote you the order of the day by Generalissimo Stalin, who mentioned 
in his order of the day No. 260 — he said that those who were taken 
prisoner of war are traitors to their country. 

And Molotov in one of his statements said : "We don't have prisoners 
of war ; we only have deserters." 

So these people who survived knew what they could expect when 
Germany was occupied. If they came back then what they could 
expect was Siberia. And many of them didn't want to return. 

The second group which was there were the people taken by the 
Germans forcibly as slave labor to Germany, against their own will 
And there were hundreds of thousands of those. They were warned, 
too, even in some cases by the Soviet repatriation officers, that if 



1342 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

they went back they should not expect to join their families, and also 
that they would be sent to far parts of Russia for forced labor. 

Mr. Morris. How many were there in the first category ? * 

Mr. Barmine. In the prisoners of war ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Barmine. There were about a million and something that were 
left alive. And of course they were repatriated, partly by force, but 
many of these succeeded in escaping. 

Mr. Morris. The ones that were repatriated by force were the ones 
which by the terms of the Yalta agreement were sent back to the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. Barmine. Yes, the prisoners of war. 

Mr. Morris. And in the second category, you say there were hun- 
dreds of thousands, is that it, the forced labor group ? 

Mr. Barmine. The forced laborers that were taken by Germans in 
Russian territory and sent to Germany. There were also many thou- 
sands of them left that didn't want to go back. 

There was also a sizable group of people who retreated with the 
Germans. They knew that the German cause was lost, but they didn't 
want to change Nazi tyranny for Soviet tyranny again, and they 
went with the German troops, trying to break tlirough to the Ameri- 
can occupation zone, to the free zone 

And finally there were the active troops, the Red army that oc- 
cupied Germany. They were surprised that the state of Germany 
was not what they were told, the level of life and conditions were so 
different. They were also disillusioned that the promises that the 
Soviet Government gave them during the war, of various freedoms, 
were not fulfilled; and some of them defected, and remained in 
Germany. 

Those who remained chose freedom; they hoped to remain in the 
free world; they were anti- Communist. And the effort of the Soviet 
Government was directed to getting them back. 

The Soviet Government was successful in getting back most of them, 
but many of them remained in order to escape forced repatriation 
under the agreement which provided that evei^ybody who left the 
Soviet Union after September 1, 1939, and who was born in the Soviet 
Union, would be forcibly repatriated. 

Mr. Morris. Anyone who left after September 1939 ? 

Mr. Barmine. Anyone that was in the Soviet Union before the first 
of September 1939, was to be forcibly repatriated. 

Mr. Morris. Under the terms of the Yalta agreement. 

Mr. Barmine. Yes. Here was the beginning of the problem. They 
knew that the government could send them to concentration camps 
in Siberia. They tried to avoid it by trying not to be in tliis cate- 
gory. 

They had to change their names, the place of their birth, the date 
of their leaving the Soviet Union. In that way, they could avoid 
the demand by the Soviet Repatriation Commisison that they be 
deported. 

In this action they also had the sympathetic support of many Amer- 
ican officers and the members of the military government — of course, 
not all of them. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1343 

I Tvould say IRO and UNRRA were infiltrated by some people that 
were trying to help the Soviets to get them back. But at the same 
time the remaining Americans realized the difficulty. 

Now, during 19-15 and 19-16 we have cases of forced repatriation 
from many camps, you have tlie cases of repatriation of thousands 
and thousands from' Kempten, from Dachau, and in Marbourg there 
were 200 people brought from the United States. 

Mr. Morris. What was that ? 

Mr. Barmine. The camp in Marbourg. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that ? 

Mr. Barmixe. M-a-r-b-o-u-r-g. 

And, finally, in Lienz, in the British Zone. This repatriation was 
connected with the terrible tragedy when people were killing them- 
selves, locking themselves in and burning the houses where they were, 
jumping from trains, killing themselves by jumping from viaducts. 

I will give you an example. In Plattling, Germany, in 1946, out of 
250 people who had to be repatriated on a certain day, 14 were killed, 
21 seriously injured, and 100 slightly wounded. 

More or less, about 2 million people were repatriated by force, but 
several hundred thousand escaped by hiding, by changing their names 
and identities, some of them Avith the help of those Americans who 
realized the situation. But not all of them did. 

I will quote you the statement of one of the Russian captains. 

j\Ir. Morris. This is a statement of a Russian captain ? 

Mr. Barmine. Of a Russian captain — I would give his initials as 
M. B. He spoke to a young American second lieutenant. The second 
lieutenant said, "I don't understand why Russians don't want to 
return." 

The captain answered him, "Because they can expect to be sent to 
the gallows or before the firing squad or to the camps in Siberia." 

The second lieutenant answered, "This is impossible. I think you 
are exaggerating. The countrj'- needs you for the reconstruction 
work. And if you don't like the conditions there, in the next election 
you cannot reelect Stalin any more." 

So this basis of naivete and lack of understanding brought these 
tragic cases of forced repatriation. 

Mr. Morris. How many people were forcibly repatriated ? 

Mr. Barmine. As I said, about 2 million people were forcibly re- 
patriated in the years 1945-47. 

Now, this was the condition in which they came in the United States 
under false identities, and I consider the number higher than Countess 
Tolstov mentioned Wednesdav. I think we have at least 30,000 or 

% "■' 

more of such cases. 

Mr. Morris. You say at least 30,000 ? 

]VIr. Barmixe. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you base that on estimates on your own experi- 
ences as you described today ? 

]Mr. Barmixe. Yes. I met hundreds of them who are living in fear 
and agony, who are afraid of loss of citizenship, who are afraid to 
use their ability and knowledge and their talent and what they know, 
because they think they will be deported and executed. 

And tire point I want to make is to make clear that these people are 
honorable and freedom-loving people, and decent, and they could be 



1344 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

useful citizens, if we provide them with the possibility of coming out 
clean and straightening out their affairs. 

They could be useful, for instance, in telling the American people 
of their experience under Communist tyranny. Now they are afraid 
to do so. 

Mr. JSIoRRis. Are there any former NKVD people there who might 
give intelligence material ? 

Mr. Barmine. I am sure of one thing : Among them are many Soviet 
Army officers who could give valuable intelligence material, and engi- 
neers and scientists who could provide us with information and give 
help. And also, as I say, these people, were they not in this condition 
of fear, could be valuable American citizens who could help here to 
expose the Communist propaganda which is spread among minority 
groups at the instance of the American Communists, or the interna- 
tional Communists. 

I will cite you a case which is known to me as having happened in 
Chicago. One of tliese people, in the course of his job, had to join 
one of the fraternal organizations which was dominated by a leftist 
pro-Soviet group. In one of the meetings of this organization the 
people who never were in Russia and knew nothing about it praised 
the Russian regime. Tliis man could not understand it, and he walked 
up on the stage and told them the truth. He said, "I was in the Soviet 
Union, I lived there, and this is the way it really is." 

But according to his papers he wasn't a Russian ; on his papers he 
was, I think, a Pole. And 3 days later he was denounced and the 
immigration authorities brought him in for arrest and deportation. 

Of course, tliere are many cases where they keep silent and do not 
say anything, because they might be subject to this, and because of 
that we are losing tlieir valuable assistance. 

Now, we have the security angle. They liave children. The children 
grow. Some are taken into the United States Armed Forces, some 
of them might be taken into factories where they make secret products. 
These children are growing up in the same fear, feeling the same 
instability of this abnormal situation. There is a potential reservoir 
for blackmail by Soviet agents. And we hear about cases where 
already, despite the fact that tliey are here as Poles, Esthonians, and 
Latvians, they are receiving the Russian newspaper of General Mik- 
hailov's committee. And the Soviets are letting them know that they 
know who they are, letting them know that they know where they are. 
And this is a preliminary statement for possible blackmail, to include 
them in their blackmail and espionage schemes. 

Also, I know many cases, for instance, in my own work, where we 
have talented writers, propagandists, artists, which we could use. I 
approached dozens of them, and they were under dire conditions, they 
had no jobs, but they wouldn't have lied for a job. They didn't offer 
their services, valuable services that our Government needs, because 
there is a problem of clearance. They don't want to tell a lie again, 
and therefore, they prefer to stay where they are, not using their 
abilities, because then the question of false identity would come up, 
and then they might be faced with deportation. 

I want to bring to your attention that this situation was acknowl- 
edged by President Eisenhower in his message to the Congress of 
February 8, when he considered the plight of these people. And he 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1345 

mentioned in his text that a Lir<2;e jxroiiji of refugees in this country are 
obtaining; visas by tlie use of false identities in order to escape forcible 
deportation behind the Iron Curtain. 
He said : 

The nuinbor is in the thousands. Under existing laws that is ground for de- 
portation. Tho law should be amended to give relief to these unfortunates. 

Now, the other things that I want to state. Recently the immigra- 
tion top officials and executives and many immigration inspectors and 
investigators were rather sympathetic, understanding, and helpful in 
these cases; they were lenient. And there were cases that had dragged 
for years, such as the case of the former Russian writer, Rodon Akul- 
sliin, who came under the name of Berezov with a Polish birth cer- 
tificate, and who, having this thing on his conscience, came out to 
clear himself. 

Now, his case came up for deportation, and it has already been 
dragging for 5 years. He was not deported, however. 

There are other cases, too. But also, in some places you have in- 
dividuals in the immigration office, particularly in New York — and I 
had occasion to meet with some of the victims of the situation — who 
certainly show an unusual zeal in hounding these people, and putting 
them under deportation procedures. 

But fortunately, up to now there have been no actual deportations in 
recent cases. And I hope that — of course, I can understand that im- 
migration officials are bound by the law, they have to carry it out, 
and they probably would be very much relieved also, if this situation 
could be straightened out. 

]Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I say for the record that General 
Swing, the Immigration Commissioner, assured us yesterday that he 
was not actually deporting any of these people, that even though the 
law requires that, that he is not following the law and exercising some 
discretion and restraint in that connection. 

Mr. Barmine. Well, the recent activity in connection with the 
Tuapse sailors, and several cases that have come to our attention 
from the immigration officials, show that the Soviet authorities are 
beginning to tap this reservoir of potential agents and blackmail 
them. We have cases which are very difficult to bring in, because 
people who are subjected to this are so afraid, knowing that they 
are in trouble with the American law. And now, being approached 
by the Soviet agents, they try, instead of coming to the FBI, they try 
to disappear. They are hiding, they are changing their names and 
their work, and then we lose trace of them. 

I think that the Soviet agents will be able to find them. 

Mv. Morris. General Barmine, Countess Tolstoy testified the day 
before yesterday and said that these people request not to be de- 
ported because the Soviet Union will not take them. Does that solve 
our problem? 

Mr. Barmine. Well, here is the situation, of course. Legally they 
can be deported to the coimtry where they came from, or the country 
of their origin. Some of them the Soviet agents think would have 
interesting possibilities in connection with work in the army or in a 
factory. The Soviets would not be interested in making them defect ; 
they would like them to stay here, because they could blackmail them 
here and force them to work for them. But as to the mass of these 



1346 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

people, we must face the possibility that tomorrow the Soviet will 
declare that they accept all of them and and declare amnesty, and 
therefore, accordino- to the letter of the law, these people could be de- 
ported to the Soviet Union, and certainly will meet severe reprisals 
instead of remaining, as was their hope and dream, in a free country 
and living here as Ameiican citizens. 

Mr. Morris. It is very likely, is it not, that in view of the Soviet 
repatriation campaign that is being undertaken that they might just 
take that attitude ? 

Mr, Barmine. It is very possible they would take it, as to some of 
them. But those that could be valuable agents here, and whom they 
can blackmail, they might refuse to accept. 

Mr, Morris, That covers the point, does it not. General Barmine? 

Senator Jenner. Thank you very much, General Barmine. 

The next witness is Sergei Szeiko. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

( The witness indicated assent. ) 

Mr. Morris. Will the interpreter come forward, please? 

Senator Jenner. Will the interpreter be sworn. 

Do you swear that the questions put to the witness will be properly 
interpreted by you and ])roperly translated into true facts before this 
committee this moi'ning ? 

The Interpreter, Yes, I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SEEGEI SZEIKO, AS TRANSLATED BY JULIA 

MANSVETOV 

The Interpreter. He was born in 1918 in the city of Smolensk, in 
the Kiev region in Russia. 

Senator Jenner, Ask the witness if he understood the oath just 
administered to him. 

The Interpreter. Yes, he did 

Mr, Moiffiis, What is your name ? 

The Interpreter. Sergei Szeiko. 

Mr. Morris. His first name is Sergei? 

The Interpreter. S-e-r-g-e-i. 

Mr. Morris. And where do you reside ? 

The Interpreter. In New York. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born ? 

The Interpreter. He was born in 1918 in the city of Smolensk, in 
the Kiev Region, in Russia, 

Mr. Morris, Will you tell us briefly of your experiences in the So- 
viet Union ? 

The Interpreter. In 1935, in the city of Smolensk, he finished high 
school. After his graduation from high school, he entered the Uni- 
versity at Kiev. But, in the university, the War Ministry drafted him 
to — they took him into the tank school to learn tactics. In 1938 he 
was drafted as an officer of the Red army in the tank forces. 

In 1941 his division took part in a battle with the Germans in west 
Prussia, and he became a prisoner of war. And in 1941-42 he was 
in the prisoner of war camp. In 1943, he worked in the forests of 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1347 

Boliemifi. And in 1943 lie voluntarily joined General Vlassov's army, 
and till the end of the war he served in General Vlassov's army. 

In 1945 he landed in prison camp. He was up against a situation 
where he would have to go back to the Soviet Union. He escaped 
from the camp August 15, 1945. And his good friends, American 
Army people, helped him write documents. 

Mr. Morris. Helped him write his document? 

The Interpreter. Yes, helped him write his documents. 

And in this document he hid the fact that he was born in Kussia, 
and wrote that he had been born in Poland. 

Mr. Morris. And you say that friendly Americans, or the military 
personnel, helped him prepare these papers? 

The Interpreter. That is right. 

JNlr. Morris. So that he would not have to be forcibly returned to the 
Soviet Union ? 

The Interpreter. That is right. 

In the fall of 1945, he went to Munich. But in Munich the Repa- 
triation Commission, the Soviet Repatriation Commission, was very 
active, and he decided to flee to northern Germany in order to escape 
them. And in June of 1946 he ran away to a small village in northern 
Germany. 

In 1947, his American friends again helped him to escape to the 
United States. He said that he was in a very difficult situation. They 
said, "TN'lien you get to the United States, everything will straighten 
out." 

He came to the United States and established himself, got a good job. 
But he cannot apply for citizenship. His children are Americans, and 
in some way he has to open a way for his children to live honestly in 
this country. 

He said he can't go through life lying. He hasn't committed any 
crime. His wife is the daughter of an old emigre someone who has 
been here long ago. 

She was advised to apply for citizenship. Two weeks after she ap- 
plied for her citizenship papers they were both called into the im- 
migration officials. The immigration officials indicted him and told 
him that they knew. 

The indictment was, first, that he hid his place of birth. 

Mr. Morris. You mean the immigration officials knew that he had 
false documents ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. And he hid his entire past, that he had 
been in the Red army, that he had hidden where he had been educated, 
and so on. His case began, and now has dragged out for 2 years. In 
January of this year he was arrested by the immigration officials in 
New York, and they demanded $2,500 bond. An officer in the Ameri- 
can Army helped him raise the bond. In February his hearing began. 
Yesterday was the first session of this hearing. At this hearing his 
10-year-old son, who was not born in America, was also present. He 
is also to blame. 

Mr. Morris. I didn't get that. 

The Interpreter. I don't know whether that is his personal state- 
ment 

(The interpreter spoke in Russian to the witness.) 

The Interpreter. He is also at fault, the 10-year-old. 



1348 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Jenner. The lO-year-old boy was not born in this country? 

The Interpreter. Not born in this country, no. 

Mr. Morris. Why do you say he is at fault ? 

The Interpreter. He received a Polish visa, you see, through the 
papers which Major Szeiko had. The officials in Philadelphia were 
extremely cordial to him when his case first started. 

And also in spite of the extremely cordial attitude of the judge who 
is hearing this case, he feels that he is being blamed for things of which 
he is not guilty. 

The situation is very difficult. He earns $Y0 a week. He has to pay 
lawyers $1,500 in this case. He borrowed the money from three 
banks which he has to repay. The family of his wife is helping him, 
and that is saving him from complete disaster. 

He would like to enter into American life honestly, and he would 
like the honorable Senator to sympathize with his case and to know 
about it. 

Mr. Morris. Major, liave j^ou been approached by any Soviet agents ? 

The Interpreter. lie personally has not, but his friends have been. 

Mr. Morris. Now, without disclosing the identities of your friends, 
would you tell us about these approaches? Give us a concrete case 
without disclosing the identity. 

The Interpreter. In New York there was a former Soviet chemist. 
He came to the United States as a citizen of one of the satellite coun- 
tries. He received his American citizenship this year through those 
papers. He is now receiving papers and other communications from 
the Eepatriation Committee in Berlin. He went to the post office 
and said he did not wish to receive that kind of mail. The post office 
people told him to sign a paper that he refuses to receive this mail. He 
said he cannot sign this paper, because that would reflect on his family, 
which is still living behind the Iron Curtain. 

So the only recourse left to him, he feels, is to flee from New York 
to someplace where he will not be found in America. That is one 
example. 

Mr. Morris. Before getting away from that, did he receive these 
papers in his assumed name or in his correct name ? 

The Interpreter. They send it to him in the name which he had in 
the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Even though he has dropped that name completely? 

The Interpreter. Even though his name is different on his 
documents. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, in connection with that particular case, you 
see, as counsel to the committee, I cannot very well ask this man to 
come in and testify about the episodes, because, in so doing, he would 
be putting into the formal record facts which could cause a warrant 
of deportation to be served against him. 

Senator Jenner. Any other examples ? 

The Interpreter. He said that many people received newspapers of 
General Mikhailov, but they are afraid to come forward and say that 
they are receiving them. He says he knows of it, but he cannot speak 
concretely about it. 

Senator Jenner. Cannot what ? 

The Interpreter. Cannot give concrete examples of it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1349 

Mr. Morris. You were before the immigration authorities yester- 
day ; were you not ? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. jNIorris. Will you tell us about that ? 

The Interpreter. This is the fourth session. 

INIr. Morris. How long did this session last ? 

The Interpreter. Eight hours. 

jMr. Morris. Tell us about it. 

The Interpreter. Tlie preceding sessions, two sessions, were exam- 
inations and interrogations by Government prosecutors. 

Yesterday was the cross-examination by his own defense counsel. 
He said the Government, or the prosecutor, didn't give him a chance 
to answer questions, but states objections at every question, so that 
thev cannot be answered. The only thing he can answer is "Yes" 
ami '"No." 

But the cjuestions are so stated that it isn't possible to answer them 
by ''Yes" or ''No." He says that this gives the impression that he is 
really a criminal of some sort, whereas all he did was change the 
place of his birth. 

He said the situation is softened somewhat by the cordial attitude 
of the judge. 

He said that is all he can tell you. 

Mr. Morris. I think, Senator, that is all the questions I have to ask 
of this particular witness. 

Senator Jenner. If there are no further questions, we want to thank 
you for appearing here- 

And thank you. Miss Interpreter. 

Major Berezov. 

Do you swear that the testimony you will give in this hearing will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

JMr. Berezov. I do. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF EODON BEREZOV, AS TRANSLATED BY JULIA 

MANSVETOV 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter. 

The Interpreter. His name is Eodon Berezov, but his real name is 
Rodon Akulshin. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell your real name? 

The Interpreter. A-k-u-1-s-h-i-n. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your first name ? 

The Interpreter. Rodon, R-o-d-o-n. 

Mr. Morris. The Rodon he has kept in both cases ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you are now known as Mr. Berezov? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this witness is the witness for whom the 
situation that we have been describing as Berezov's disease was named. 

^Miere were you born ? 

The Interpreter. He was born in the village of Bilovatoya, 

Mr. Morris. And will you tell us about your life in the Soviet Union, 
briefly? 



1350 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Interpreter. In 1915, he finished teachers' college. For 10 
years he was a village teacher. In 1925 he went to Moscow and started 
to write stories and poetry, and wrote almost 20 books. And he 
traveled around the country and gave lectures, and had literary 
evenings. 

In 1941 he was drafted into the army. After 3 months he became 
a prisoner of war. In this camp there were over 70,000 prisoners. 
Life there was extremely difficult. There was hunger and cold and 
freezing. At first 200 people a day died, then 300, 400, and it went up 
to 600 people a day. 

There was a German-Russian there who tried at least to save the 
intellectuals and the intelligentsia, and tried to make life a little easier 
for them. The witness received his freedom from the camp and went 
to the city of Smolensk. There was a Russian newspaper there. 
There he changed his name to Berezov, and there he wrote a great 
deal about how people lived under Stalin and the Bolsheviks. 

Mr. Morris. 'Wliy did you change your name ? 

The Interpreter. Because he had a family and relatives in the 
Soviet Union, and he knew if he used his own name that they would 
suffer for it. 

When the Germans retreated he went with them to Germany. In 
March of 1945 he found himself in Salzburg, and a month after that, 
camps were organized there for displaced persons. He was in that 
camp. 

There were 2,500 Russians there, old emigres and recent emigres. 
All the new emigres did not call themselves Russian. They thought 
up other different nationalities for themselves. Organization IRO was 
functioning. They offered these emigres, proposed that they fill out 
papers. And then all the Russians started to think up legendary 
names and places where they were born. And he made up his own 
legend. On those papers he wrote that he had been born in Poland 
and, during the first war, he fled to the Volga, and that in 1937 he had 
fled back to Poland. 

Into this camp came the Repatriation Commission of the Russians, 
2 members of the NKVD, 2 Americans, and he was called before 
them and interrogated for 20 minutes. 

Two weeks later the Soviet officials called him again. And they 
wanted to take him back to the Soviet Union. 

The third time, only the Americans were there. 

The fourth time, when he was supposed to be called, before he could 
get there he ran away from the camp. 

In November 1948 he came back to the camp. 

And in July 1949 he came to the United States. He was overjoyed 
to come to New York ; what a wonderful place it was. He worked as 
an ironer and presser. And he got $32 a week, but he was very happy. 

After 3 months he was assigned to teach Russian in the Monterey 
School in California. And when he came to Monterey his conscience 
began to bother him. He thought that America was such a fine 
country, and it did so much for Russians in this country, that he 
was deceiving America. 

Three days after he got there he decided to tell the truth there about 
his papers, and so on. The chief of the school there fired him. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1351 

One of tlie colonels said that it was a good thing that he had told 
the trnth. His documents and all papers were handed over to the 
innnigration officials in San Francisco. 

When he was called to the immigration office at San Francisco, one' 
of the officials said, ''Of course, the truth is a good thing, and the 
truth is the basis of religion, and the truth is written about a lot in 
books and poems, but truth causes a lot of disturbance with people, 
and the fact that you told the truth means that you have built up a lot 
of difficulties for us, and we are going to have a tough time." "This 
case is going to drag out for 3^ears,'' they said. 

He answered, he said, "Yes, but now I have a clear conscience." 

In May of 1951 an immigration officer came to his apartment and 
said that, "You are under arrest, but if you have $1,500 you can pay 
it and I will leave you here." 

Mr. Berezov saici, "No, I don't have it." And the immigration offi- 
cial said, "Well, you will have to come with me." 

And they took him to the immigration prison, detention house, took 
fingerprints and profiles of full face. And they led him into a room 
and locked the door. The prison room was on the 13th floor — a 
ioeautiful view, he was overjoyed. And he said to himself, "Well, 
good, I am going to rest here." The food was good, just like the 
sanitorium. But unfortunately, 2 days later his friends came to bail 
him out, and said, ""\Yliat is the matter, you don't look very happy." 

He said, he was quite happy, he Avas awfully sorry, he just couldn't 
learn the way of life in prison. 

In October of 1951 his trial began. He engaged a lawyer and wit- 
nesses. The judge said, "I understand that you have told a lie to save 
yourself, but just the same you told lies." And they decided they 
were going to deport him. 

He filed a petition, appeal. The appeal was rejected. He appealed 
to a Princeton professor, whose friend was Senator Smith. And 
Senator Smith proposed a bill, a special bill. The bill was not passed. 

In October of 1954 he got another paper for deportation. He said 
it didn't bother him too much. He said, "For a writer, everything 
is interesting." 

Nevertheless, he wrote a farewell to America, and thanked America, 
even if she was deporting him, still he loved America. 

His papers came to Washington, and every month he appears at 
the immigration office. And that has been going on for 6 years. He 
can't even hope for citizenship during this time, of course. And his 
only thought is when we will hold this hearing. And he would like 
it to end as quickly as possible. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have here an excerpt from an article 
that Mr. Berezov has written. 

Senator Jenner. I have read this article, and I would like to make 
this a part of the record. 



72723 — 56 — pt. 25 3 



1352 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(The article by Mr. Berezov was marked "Exhibit 276" and read.« 

as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 276 

Of Redefectoks 

(Excerpts from article in Novoye Russkoye Slovo, June 8, 1956) 

And so they returned to their homeland; the defectors became redefectors: 
mechanics Shishin and Lukashev, sailors Shirin and Riabenko, bookkeeper 
Baganov. . . .^. ^. „ 

They did not, of course, return to the homeland on their own initiative or ot 
their own volition, but under pressure. There is no doubt about this. The ques- 
tion is. what kind of pressure? I do not believe that the Soviets exerted physical 
pressure. Except, of course, during the last stage of their stay in America, when 
the five men from the Tuapse were solidly encircled by Krushchev's boys to keep 
their victims from changing their minds at the last minute and attempting to 
free themselves from the guardians thrust upon them. The pressure exerted on 
the Tuapse sailors was of an entirely different nature: it was moral and psycho- 
logical. 

I did not know any of the sailors from the tanker Tuapse intimately. But I 
talked to almost all of them— and at some length. Usually in a bar, over a 
glass of whisky or gin. Under such circumstances, a person is apt to exaggerate. 
But, at the same time, he opens his heart, and because of this, what he reveals 
is of interest. 

I am absolutely convinced that fear for the fate of their relatives and friends 
was the hook on which the Soviets caught the Tuapse sailors, for it all started 
when letters from relatives and friends were handed over to them. This feel- 
ing is understandable to many i)eople, if not to everyone, and no one can judge 
or blame anyone for it. 

But there were other reasons which kept them from living peacefully. The 
Tuapse sailors could not understand much of what goes on in America. 

"Explain to me," says the half-drunk Shishin, "why the Americans receive 
Polevoy, Sofronov, and company through the front door as honored guests, while 
those who work with Radio Liberation or the Voice of America, if they are ad- 
mitted into politics at all, it is through the back door, like people suspected of 
something." 

I answered that the American Government looks on the Voice of America as 
the sole means of addressing the Soviet people over the heads of their Govern- 
ment, which conceals much and distorts much. Radio Liberation makes it pos- 
sible for anti-Communist emigrees and those Americans who do not express the 
point of view of the Government to make themselves heard. 

9p 0J^ ^« ?j* SfC ^* 9t* 

We were both, to put it mildly, slightly high. But we hadn't lost our heads, 
and I think Shishin was sincere. I remember that he leaned over to me and 
whispered in my ear : "I know this from reliable sources ; I heard it from people 
who know what's what. Better informed than you." 

I must say that at that time I did not pay much attention to this half-drunken 
conversation. But the circumstances attending the redefection to their home- 
land of the five Tuapse sailors forced me to reflect on what I'd heard. Especially 
since Riabenko spoke in the same way : 

"One day the Americans heap dollars on your head, and the next you get a kick 
in the pants and go to work in a match factory, and it's good if you can get even 
that. Are you sure that someday you won't be dragged in a police car to our 
consulate— that you won't be thrown out when you're no longer wanted?" 

It seems to me that these talks reveal the key to the type of pressure exerted 
on the sailors from the tanker Tuapse. At first they were terrorized by fear for 
their relatives and friends. They were given to understand that the son would 
answer for the father, the mother for the son. Then, albeit vaguely, dimly, in- 
distinctly — in somewhat foggy terms — the forced repatriation of anti-Communist- 
minded emigrees was intimated. And it was pointed out to them that this possi- 
bility was not so remote, i. e., after the presidential elections. It would be better 
if they left voluntarily and did not wait to be thrown out. 

I ain in America little over 4 years, and am not yet an American citizen. But 
I know America enough to maintain that this country is not dependent on who 
will rule her — Republicans or Democrats — and will never refuse to grant the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1353 

risht of asylum to victims of th(> Commnuist rosimcv In the event th(^ Democrats 
come to power, there will be no question of any enforced repatriation, nor of any 
prosecution of anti-Communists. Even the thought of such a thing seems to me 
to be ridiculous. 

r.ut I do believe that both Zaruhin and Sobolev would, with the greatest pleas- 
ure, dispose of Barmiue and Sargent. But God doesn't give horns to a butting 
cow. All this I wanted to explain to Shishin. 

I am afraid that my words did not make any impression on him. He did not 
believe me. 

The Tuapac sailors judge everything by their experiences on tlie other side. 
And what would any change in power in the Soviet Union mean, both at the top 
and at the bottom, whether it l)e the death of Stalin or the removal from office of 
the secretary of the most remote district committee? There will be oppression, 
the downfall of authority, court trials, the threat of prison, and exile. The young 
sailors were made to fear that the same things would happen in x^merica. 

The Tuapse sailors were not yet made to understand that America is not the 
Soviet Union ; and that democracy is not totalitarianism. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you presently reside, Mr. Berezov ? 

The Interpreter. He lives in San Francisco. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. And what is your age ? 

The Interpreter. Sixty. 

Mr. Morris. Now, does this situation that he has so colorfully de- 
scribed, does this present any security hazard to the United States ? 

Mr. Barmine, I wonder if you might help us. We are having diffi- 
culty conveying that last question. 

Do you understand the question, Mr. Barmine ? 

Mr.BARMiNE. AYliat is the question ? 

Mr. Morris. Does the situation which he has so colorfully described, 
does this present us with a bad security hazard ? 

(Mr. Barmine confers with the witness.) 

The Interpreter. He said the situation was extremely harmful to 
the United States — are you talking about his particular situation, or his 
and thousands of others ? 

Mr. Morris. Does he understand, does the situation that he has de- 
scribed generally present any security hazard to the United States ? 

The Interpreter. He said yes, because thousands of people actu- 
ally lead a double life. And people have to conceal things, and if they 
have to conceal and hide, then they are afraid. And if they are afraid, 
Soviet agents take advantage of the situation and press on it. 

Mr. Morris. I have no further questions of this witness. 

Senator Jenner. It seems to me this situation has resulted because 
of the squirrel-headed attitude of our country at Yalta. And as a 
member of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee and the Judici- 
ary Committee, I plan to do everything possible to expedite the pas- 
sage of legislation to remedy this situation so far as that can be done 
by^the Congress. And I intend to propose an individual bill of my 
own, and I will have it referi'ed to this committee. 

If there are no further witnesses the committee will stand in recess. 

Mr. Morris. The next meeting will be Tuesday. 

Tliank you very much, Mr. Berezov. Thank you for coming and 
testifying today. 

("\Miereupon, at 11 : ?>0 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned, to recon- 
vene at 10 a. m., Tuesdav, May 29, 1956.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 13, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the 
Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security 

Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 12 : 20 p. m. in room 
P-G3, United States Capitol Building, Senator John M. Butler pre- 
siding. 

Present: Senator Butler. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Kusher, 
administrative counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Will Mr. Pirogov come forward, please, and the inter- 
preter 

Senator, will you swear in Mr. Barsky first ? 

Senator Butler. Raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly swear that you will truly interpret to the witness 
the questions directed to him, and will truly interpret the answers 
given by the witness, to the best of your ability, so help you God ? 

Mr. Barsky. So help me God. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Witness, hold up your right hand. 

Do you in the presence of Almighty God solemnly swear that the 
evidence you will give before the Internal Security Subcommittee 
this morning will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pirogov. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PETER PIROGOV, AS INTERPRETED BY 
CONSTANTINE GRIGOROVICH-BARSKY 

Senator Butler. You may proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Would you give your name and address to the reporter ? 

Mr. Pirogov. Peter Pirogov, 612 Hill Court, Alexandria. 

Mr. Morris. You are a defector from the Soviet Union, are you 
not, JNIr. Pirogov ? 

The Interpreter. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Woud you tell us briefly the circumstances surrounding 
your defection? 

The Interpreter. In 1948 I and my friend, Anatole Barzov, took 
a Soviet airplane from the base in Kolomaya and flew to the American 
Zone of Austria. 

1355 



1356 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Did Mr. Barzov and yourself then come to the United 
States for asylum ? 

The Ipterpreter, After 4 months in the American Zone in Austria, 
we got permission to go to the United States. 

Mr. Morris. And did Mr. Barzov stay in the United States after he 
arrived ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, he stayed, and was here until August 15, 
1949. 

Mr. Morris. How long did he stay in the United States? 

The Interpreter. About 6 months. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. And then did he return ? 

The Interpreter. And then he returned to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he talk to you before returning to the Soviet 
Union, Mr. Pirogov ? 

The Interpreter. During 1 week prior to his return to the Soviet 
Union lie was talking with me. 

Mr. Morris. This was 1 week before he returned to the Soviet Union, 
and the date, therefore, is 1 week before August 15, 1949 ? 

The Interpeter. Yes, but not on the day, during the week pre- 
ceding. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Yes. 

The Interpeter. We lived in one room, but I didn't know that he 
was already to the Soviet Embassy and had decided to return to the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. And he did urge you to go back, too ? 

The Interpreter. During the .whole week he was trying to per- 
suade me by wa3's, so to speak, not openly, to return to the Soviet 
Union, and only 2 hours before he left actually for the Soviet Union 
he discovered that he wanted to go himself. 

Mr. Morris. Was he promised anything by the Soviet officials here 
in the United States ? 

The Interpreter. His last statement to me was that he was to the 
Soviet Embassy here, and he showed to me his passport which he 
has got from the Soviet Embassy. And he said that when he was 
in the Embassy the passport for him was ready, and also for me. 

And he asked me why I didn't want to return. 

I told him — not too seriously, though — that I signed a contract 
with the publishing house, Duell, Sloane & Co., and got from them 
quite this big amount of money ; and, therefore, I cannot return to the 
Soviet Union until I paid this debt off. 

He told me then that the Embass}^^ — that the people in the Embassy 
told him that whatever money I would need would be given. 

Mr. Morris. Did he have a promise from Ambassador Panyushkin ? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; it is so. 

Mr. Morris. AVliat did Barzov tell you that Panyushkin promised 
him ? 

The Interpreter. Panyushkin told him 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, for the record. Ambassador Panyush- 
kin was the Soviet Ambassador in Washington at this time and, ac- 
cording to the testimony of Mr. Rastvorov and other information that 
we have since received, he was then head of the NKVD in the United 
States. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1357 

The iNTF.RrRETER. AmbiissacToi" Paiiyiishkin told Barzov that, al- 
tliouffh he has committed a crime, if he returns — if he returns alone 
lie will <;et only 2 yeai'S in jail. If Barzov could persuade me to come 
back, too, he promises that Ave will not be punished at all, neither of 
us. 

Mr. Morris. And if he goes back alone ? 

The Interprktkr. Then 2 years of prison. 

Mr. Morris. That w^as the promise Panyushkin gave Barzov? 

The Interpreter. That was the official promise. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we received what I believe is an ad- 
vance copy — I know it Avas very difficult to obtain— of a book by 
Vladmir Petrov. 

Vladmir Petrov is the man who defected from the Soviets in Aus- 
tralia. And he has written about this episode. I would like Mr. 
Manclel to read certain portions of that excerpt into the record at 
this time. 

Senator Butler. It Avill be so ordered. 

Mr. Mandel (reading) : 

Excerpt from Empire of Fear by Vladmir and Evdokia Petrov, published by 
Andre Deutscli, Ltd., 1956 (pp. .340-341) : 

"The story of Borzov has probably never been told before, but it is a story 
which should be linown everywhere, especially among former Soviet citizens 
abroad who may be moved by a yearning to see their native land and their loved 
ones again.^ 

"I remember reading in 1949 a small paragraph in Pravda to the effect that 
3 Soviet airmen had been forced by petrol shortage to land in the American 
Zone of Austria ; 2 of them had gone over to the Americans, the third had in- 
sisted on returning to his Soviet homeland. 

"The man who returned was the radio operator, the two who went over to the 
Americans were the pilots, Pirogov and Borzov. I have just read with great 
interest Pirogov's book in which he describes the careful planning of the escape, 
the flight, the arrival in the American Zone, the International Commission which 
examined their case, the arguments of the Soviet representative who strove to 
induce them to return to the Soviet Union. They disbelieved his promises and 
went to America, where tliey gave interviews and made speeches. Pirogov is 
presumably in America still. 

"But Borzov, after a time, began to pine for his wife and his 4-year-old son, 
whom he had left behind. In the end he could bear it no longer, and approached 
the Soviet authorities in the United States, who encouraged his hopes and 
arranged for him to be repatriated to the Soviet Union. That is where I take 
up the story. 

"One day in 1950 at MVD headquarters in Moscow, my colleague Igolkin, who 
worked in the American section of the SK department, told me of Borzov's return 
and said that he was interrogating him in his cell in the Taganskaya Prison. 
Igolkin had a series of interviews with Borzov, wlio supplied a mass of valu- 
able information. He was talking freely and was describing every detail of his 
experiences in American hands, in the hope of working his passage back to 
pardon, and of being permitted at least to see his wife and son again. As 
Igolkin described it to me, 'Each time I go to see him he looks at me like a dog 
that wags its tail and gazes at you in the hope of a bone.' 

"They kept Borzov about S months in prison because he had so much interest- 
ing information to supply and because so many senior MVD officers wanted to 
check up on various points in his story. 

"Of course, no one told him that he had been sentenced to death while he was 
still in America. When they had finished with him they shot him without letting 
him see his wife and son again. 

"If this story helps some waverers who are hesitating on the brink of returning 
to their Soviet homeland, it will have been worth the telling." 



1 Also spelled Barzov. 



1358 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Pirogov, is this the first information that you have 
heard about your fellow flyer, Barzov ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Officially this is the first news of him. 

Mr. Morris. You have been trying to find out for a long time what 
happened to Barzov, havent you ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. I was always trying to find out his fate, and was fol- 
lowing the Soviet press for some news about him. But I got a possi- 
bility of getting some news of Barzov when the Soviet agriculture 
delegation was visiting the United States last year. 

I was then in Mount Vernon. While I was speaking with my wife 
in Kussian, a representative of the Soviet Embassy, by name Zegal, 
approached us and started to talk to us by remarking that we speak 
Russian well. 

I answered him that if he would spend so much years in America as 
I spent in Russia he would undoubtedly talk as well English as I do 
Russian. 

That started our conversation. He asserted that after Stalin's death 
everything has changed to the better in the Soviet Union. But I 
decided to ask him the main question, the question about Barzov. 

He told me that he knew about this case, and that he is sure that 
Barzov is still alive, although he doesn't know where does he live. 

In order to prove his statements, he has given me the following 
example. 

He said that in 1946 he met a man, a former Soviet citizen, who 
killed a Soviet officer and went over to the Germans during the war. 

In spite of this, he met him 2 years later in 1948 in Riga, where this 
man has married and is living happily. 

He told me if this man who killed a Soviet officer during the war and 
went over to the Germans was pardoned for these crimes, what rea- 
sons do you have to doubt that Barzov, who didn't commit such a 
crime, was pardoned, too ? 

To my question, "Why Barzov doesn't write to me" — not to me, why 
Barzov doesn't write to people whom he promised to write. My wife 
told him he promised to write to me, although she didn't know him. 

He said it is stupid to expect a letter from Barzov, because the Amer- 
ican authorities would never let the man receive a letter from Barzov. 

I asked why. 

He told me that if some one of the Russians will receive here a letter 
from Barzov, the whole American propaganda machine would be 
beaten, because they are trying to prove that he has been killed. 

Mr. Morris. Now, this is Victor Zegal who is talking? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. He is the second secretary of the Soviet Embassy ? 

The Interpreter. I don't know who he is. 

Mr. Morris. We have i-eason to believe that Victor Zegal is now the 
second secretary of the Soviet Embassy. 

Now, Mr. Pirogov, is that man telling the truth, do you believe? 

The Interpreter. No ; to my best conviction he didn't tell the truth. 

Shortly afterward I wrote an article for a Russian emigree publica- 
tion called Svoboda, which means "Freedom," in which I gave account 
of my meeting this man who told me that Barzov is alive. 

As proof that Barzov is not alive any more, I said that he would be 
the best case for the Berlin committee of General Michailov. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1359 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you challenged General Michailov to 
produce Barzov 'i 

The Interprktek. It was not an official challenge to Michailov, it 
was a challenge to our publication which they ignored. 

Mr. Morris. Would you be willing to make a public challenge at this 
time today, Mr. Pirogov, to Michailov? 

The IxTERi'RETER. 1 am fully prepared to make this challenge right 
here now. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you challenge Michailov that if their 
repatriation campaign is genuine that they should be able to ])rove 
that Barzov received the reward Ambassador Panyushkin promised 
him at that time? 

The Interprei'er. Very correct. 

Besides, I want to say I also consider as lies all the promises of the 
official Soviet persons that are given to emigrees in the countries this 
side of the Iron Curtain. 

I would like every emigree who has been or will be approached by 
Soviet representatives to understand that all their promises are only 
a lure to death by returning to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, there are some other incidents that this 
witness can testify to, but I think we can take it in executive session 
and put it in the record later on. We have the Korolkoffs here. 

Will you stand by, Mr. Pirogov. 

Mr. and Mrs. Korolkofl", will you come forward, please ? 

Thank you, Mr. Pirogov. 

Will you stand and be sworn, please ? 

Senator Butler. Will you hold up your right hands. 

Do you swear in tlie presence of Almighty God that the evidence 
you will give to the Internal Security Subcommittee will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. KoROLKorr. We do. 

TESTIMONY OR MR. AND MRS. NICHOLAS KOROLKOPP 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
first, Mr. Korolkoff? 

Mr. KoROLKOFF. Nicholas Korolkoff, Farmingdale, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Korolkoff, wdll yoti give your name? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Mrs. Nicholas Korolkoff, West Farms Road, 
Farmingdale, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Korolkoff. In 1929. 

Mr. Morris. And you, Mrs. Korolkoff'? You came together? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. We came togetlier. 

Mr. Morris. And you have been living in the United States con- 
tinuously since 1929? 

Mr. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. While in Farmingdale, N. J., you have been aiding 
liussian emigrees to integrate themselves into our society; have you 
not? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Helping resettle people. 

Mr. Morris. Helping to resettle people. How many Russians have 
you helped to resettle? 

Mr. Korolkoff. Over 2,000 people directly. 



1360 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us briefly liow you managed that ? How 
do you do it? What is your contribution to this resettlement? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Are you asking me? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mrs. KoROLOKorr. O.K. We were working through the Church 
World Service and the Tolstoy Foundation, they asked us to sponsor 
some people. We live in a place where there are mostly chicken 
farmers, and we can resettle them better than other places. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you get them jobs? 

Mrs. KoROLKorr. AVe get them jobs, and when they arrive we tell 
them they should rest a little while, for a few days, and then we send 
them to work. Sometimes the farmer who sponsored them has a very 
good couple, he says, "I am sorry, I have a very nice couple," and 
maybe you just resettle with somebody else. It is quite a problem, 
because we have go no resettlement house, nothing. And then we 
asked a displaced person that came before, 5 years ago, if they could 
take the people in for a week, or whenever we find a job for them. 

From the start it works all right, but when you have to go there 
every week people get tired of that. 

So that is the problem. Otherwise, it works out all right. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Korolkoff said you helped more than 2,000. 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes, we have Kalmucks, people of the Mongolian 
race. 

Mr. Morris. What about Kalmucks? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. We have them, too, and sometimes it is a problem, 
we can't place them very well in factories, because they are the yellow 
race, and they cannot get jobs so easily like other people. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you had any experience with this Soviet 
repatriation campaign ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. We have had a few experiences with a group of 
people that came under other names — they are from Soviet Russia — 
and they are receiving some kind of paper, it says to come back to your 
homeland. 

Mr. Morris. Before going into that, Mrs. Korolkoff, can you estimate 
how many of these more than 2,000 people that you have resettled 
have come here on false papers ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. My husband knows that. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us, Mr. Korolkoff ? 

Mr. Korolkoff. About 40 percent. 

Mr. Morris. And why are they here on false papers, Mr. Korolkoff? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Because of the fear, otherwise they wouldn't come 
here. 

Mr. Morris. What is their fear ? 

Mr. Korolkoff. Because this time, sending them back to Russia, the 
repatriation committee sends peoj)le back — they are Ukranian, Yugo- 
slavian, Bulgarian, they said, and the repatriation committee would 
send them back. 

Mr. Morris. Why are they here on false papers in the first place ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. You see, w^hen the repatriation commission comes 
to the displaced persons camp, if you are Soviet Union you have to 
go back. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, they did that so they wouldn't have to 
go back to the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. The Soviet Union. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1361 

Mr. IMoRRis. INIr. Cluiirman, Me had a bill that came out of the Judi- 
ciary Committee yesterday. I wonder if in this part of the record 
Mr. Rusher will tell us what happened to that bill. 

Mr. Rusher. The bill reported yesterday was H. R. G880 and cer- 
tain amendments, but in the bill as reported to the Senate by the Judi- 
ciary Committee there is included the original section 7, now renum- 
bered section 6, which provides that those provisions of law which 
would require the deportation of an alien for misrepresenting his place 
of birth, identity, or residence, shall not apply in the case of an alien 
who obtained a visa by such misrepresentation because he was afraid, if 
repatriated to his homeland, he would be persecuted because of his 
race, religion, or political opinion, and if tliis misrepresentation was 
not committed simply for the purpose of evading quota restrictions, 
or an investigation of the alien. 

In otlier words, it removes the threat to these people who are here 
simply because they misrepresent that fact in order to avoid being 
forced back to the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. And the Internal Security Subcommittee is very inter- 
ested in that aspect of the bill because of the testimony that has been 
taken. 

Tliat has already passed the House; is that right? 

Mr. Rusher. It has. 

Mr. ]VIoRRis. And there will be a conference on the bill as it is ap- 
proved by the Judiciary Committee ? 

Mr. Rusher. x\s I understand it, that is correct. 

Senator Butler. That has not yet been passed by the Senate? 

Mr. Rusher. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. With respect to this 40 percent, Mr. Korolkoff, of the 
peo])le who are here on false papers, do you have any reason to believe 
that there are Communists or Communist agents working on these 
people ? 

Mr. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about it ? 

Mr. KoROLKOFF. Well, many members of our organization got 
pamphlets from this committee. 

Mr. Morris. The mere fact that they got pamphlets and letters from 
the Michailov committee, does that show to you that the Communists 
were working in your group ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Because we live in the country, we have mailboxes 
outside before the houses, and we get numbers from the post office, and 
lately, because the township is growing, we are having a new route, 
new numbers, and all of these pamphlets to come back to your home- 
land come under old numbers, like — the man that I am talking about 
has 118 now; before he had 259. That is such a long time ago, and 
still he receives mail under that address. 

And another person, we always thought he comes from Yugoslavia, 
that is how he was accepted between our people. And he received 
the same pamphlet. 

And he came in at nightime all upset, because it means so much to 
them, such a thing. And we asked him, "We always thought you were 
from Yugoslavia, why should you be worried?" 

And he says, "I came as a Yugoslav, but I came from Soviet Russia. 
But who knows that I am not Soviet and have that kind of name?" 



1362 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he was receiving the Michailov litera- 
ture in his right name ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. In his right name and the right address too. And 
we personally sponsored him. 

Mr. Morris. And you had no idea of that? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. And we were friends, and he always talked about 
that he came from Yugoslavia, and then it turned out that he did come 
from Soviet Russia. 

And he said he was upset because the people came here peaceful, and 
they found a little peace, and they start all over again. 

It is upsetting us, because we trust them and we want to help them, 
and continue helping them. And we don't know who is doing things 
like that. We would like to find out. 

Mr. Morris. You know the Michailov committee knows the true 
identity of these people? 

Mr. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And somebody is giving them the numbers of the mail- 
boxes ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes, because it is an old box, it isn't done this year, 
it must have been done last year or 2 years ago, because this year we 
have dift'erent numbers on the mailboxes. 

Mr. Morris. What is this letter you have given the committee, Mr. 
Korolkoff? 

Mr. Korolkoff. This is a letter from the General Michailov com- 
mittee, "Come back to the homeland." 

Mr. Morris. And you have taken off the name of the person who re- 
ceived that ? 

MDrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And the man who received that, is he a man who has 
false papers? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Senator Butler. And this is directly from the Soviet Union? 

Mr. Korolkoff. No, from east Prussia. 

Mr. Morris. East Berlin? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. It is propaganda. And we have a class of people 
which are not highly intelligent ; they are from farms and they were 
punished for things they didn't do, and they know all the propaganda 
about Soviet Russia. This is a new kind of propaganda, because they 
are playing on their heartstrings, calling them back. 

The wives are crying for their husbands, the children for their 
fathers, and it upsets the people. They have a good living here, and 
they are happy. And now the wives and children are calling them 
back, and now they don't want to go back, because they know what 
is waiting for them. 

They are never going to see them anyway. It upsets them. 

Senator Butler. Have they, to your knowledge, helped the Com- 
munists by reason of threat of exposure ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Only one in Paterson. 

Senator Butler. There is one case that has been effective? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Senator Butler. But in the other cases they told you about it, 
and this law is to protect that sort of people. 

Mr. Korolkoff. Bight, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1363 

Mrs. KoROLKorr. Another thing, we are working very hard for 
tlieni, and they are always sending — they are writing from llussia to 
their hnsband, and they want to help their wives. They are sending 
all the money. They never receive anything — he writes a letter, 
"Send me a picture what yon bought for the money," but they never 
got anytliing back. And we don't know if they received the money, 
and we don't have tlie heart to tell (lie man, "Don't send your wife 
an}' money." 

Mr. Morris. According to all the evidence, the publications of the 
Michailov Committee are causing a great deal of terror. 

JNIrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

jNIr. Morris. In France they have banned publications from the 
]Michailov Committee, they have passed a law against these things 
coming into France. 

Senator Butler. Is there a similar law pending here ? 

Mr. Morris. Not that I know of. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Most of the letters don't come directly from 
Europe. Some of them are mailed in New York from the post office. 

Mr. Korolkoff. Some from Berlin. 

jMrs. Korolkoff. xVnd some from New York. 

Mr. JNIorris. And some came from New York, which indicates that 
someone in New York is working with them. 

Mr. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. And mailing them from the post office in New 
York. 

Mr. jNIorris. Senator, we have here, now that the photographers 
have gone, a man who would be willing to testify, but who has re- 
ceived threats the last week, or very recently — last w'eek, I think is an 
overstatement. Just very recently. 

But he does not want to give his name into the public record, because 
he also is here on false papers, and also has relatives in the Soviet 
Union. 

And if. Senator, you can see your way clear to taking testimony 
under those circumstances, I think it would be a valuable asset for 
the record. 

Is there anything, Mr. and Mrs. Korolkoff, that you feel we should 
know about this further? 

You are experts, you have been dealing with these people, and you 
say there are 40 percent with false papers. 

Mr. Korolkoff. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And that the Michailov literature is terrorizing them. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris;. And that the Michailov Committee seems to know the 
true identity of the people. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Tliere was one man who said he was a Yugoslav, and 
you thought he was. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. I have known him for 5 years as a Yugoslav. He 
came in one time and we were discussing it, and he didn't know what 
to do. They came to us, and it is 20 miles to drive at night, and he 
asked us what we should do. And what can we do? We wish some- 
bod}^ would find out what is going on in that place, because there are 
many displaced y)ersons there. 



1364 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. We have heard from time to time of the great work 
the Korolkoli's have been doing, at the great personal sacrifice to 
themselves. They have been helping a great many people. And 
because of that reason, and their reputation, and the things that they 
are doing for people, v>e thought that their testimony would be helpful. 

Senator Butler. Is there anything further that you would like to 
say, Mr. Korolkoff? 

Mr. Korolkoff. I know in Europe, in France, or Switzerland they 
don't get permission to send these papers. 

Mr. Morris. They do not allow it ? 

Mr. Korolkoff. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That coincides with my understanding. You make 
the suggestion, Mrs. Korolkoff, that we do something about it here. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. I would appreciate it very much, because 
I worry about the displaced persons in my section. They trust us 
and talk to us, and they look to us to help tliem, and we don't want to 
disappoint them. 

Senator Butler. You say some of this is brought into America and 
mailed in New York. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. From New York. 

Mr. Korolkoff. Directly from New Yoi'k. 

I asked our mailman. He said he had a hundred letters. And 
people destroy them 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Some of them are afraid to bring it to us, and 
they don't want to tell us. And vre feel, you know, that when you 
have a group of people, you can feel that something is going on. We 
don't know what we can point a finger at. They are all upset and 
worried. 

Senator Butler. If you only had one defection I think you have 
done a very marvelous work. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. 

Sir, will you come forward now ? 

We guarantee this man that he will not have his picture taken or 
his identity known. 

Senator Butler. The interpreter has heretofore been sworn. 

Will you stand and raise your right hand. 

Do you solemnly promise and declare that the evidence you will 
give to the Internal Security Subcommittee will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

The Witness. Yes ; I do. 

TESTIMONY OE AN UNIDENTIFIED PERSON (LATER IDENTIFIED 
AS MICHAEL SCHATOFF), AS INTERPRETED BY CONSTANTINE 
GRIGOROVICH-BARSKY 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, this man has given his name to us in 
executive session, and for that reason I am not going to ask him his 
name now. And he also has given us the name of the two men of 
the Soviet delegation of the United Nations who approached him. And 
he is going to tell us about those approaches. But because it would 
tend to identify him to the Soviets, we are not putting their names 
into the record at this time. 

We will, however, transmit the information to the FBI. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1365 

^Y[\en did you come to the United States, roughly, don't give an 
exact date? 

The In TKRrRETER. In January 1952. 

Mr. IMoKRis. And you originally were in the Soviet Union; were 
you not ? 

The iNTERrRETER. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. When did you defect from the Soviet Union ? 

The Interpreter. In 1D42 I was imprisoned by Germans during the 
war. 

Mr. INIoRRTS. And did you later join ^Hassov's army ? 

The Interpreter. In 1942 I joined the Russian National Peoples 
Army under connuand of General Royarsky, who was senior adjutant 
to the late Marslial Tuchavsky. Upon a certain time this army was 
disbanded by Germans because its nationalistic Russian feelings were 
not in conformity with the Nazi ideology. 

The commanders of this army were sent to the German concentration 
camp. 

In 1944 1 joined the army of General Vlassov. 

Mr. IMoRRis. And briefly, at the end of the war, you were supposed 
to go back to the Soviet Union ; is that right ? 

The Interpreter. I was, as a former Soviet citizen, subject to the 
Yalta agreement, but of course I didn't want to return to the Soviet 
Union willingly. 

On 16 May 1945 I received my first false papers in order to escape 
the forcible repatriation. 

Mr. IMoRRis. In other words, without going into details, you gave a 
false name, a false place of birth, to the authorities ? 

The Interpreter. I changed my nationality to Bulgarian so that 
nobody could suspect that I was a Soviet citizen. 

Mr. Morris. And you are now in the United States as a Bulgarian ? 

The Interpreter. No ; I am stateless now. 

On the I7th of May I was arrested in the town of Schwatz in Austria. 
Someone has alleged that I am an S. S. officer — that I was an S. S. 
officer in the German Army. 

I confessed to the CIC people everything what happened to me, and 
was told that I would be forcibly repatriated. The head of the Ameri- 
can officials of the CIC thought I should be, as a regular prisoner of 
war, given to the proper authorities. 

I was transferred to the camp in Ludwigsburg, where several Vlassov 
generals were imprisoned, too. 

These were extradited to the Soviet authorities, and I was trans- 
ferred to the camp in ITeilbron, near Stuttgart. 

The interpreter in this camp was very kind to me. And I was left 
in the camp and not repatriated as many others. And after a certain 
time I left this camp as a free man, also with the help of that inter- 
preter. 

I came to Stuttgart, and I assumed an identity of a Polish Ukrainian 
from Galicia. But since I had a pass as a Bulgarian they put me in 
the Bulgarian part of the camp. 

The hero of the Soviet Union, Zharov, head of the repatriation mis- 
sion in Stuttgart, wanted to speak to us, which prompted me to flee 
from the camp. I fled to the French Zone, where my family was. On 
the second day of my sojourn in the French Zone a Soviet detachment 



1366 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

arrived. I fled, although they fired on me, and I am happy to have 
stayed alive. 

Mr. Morris. You mean they actually fired at you, fired guns? 

The Interpreter. Yes, they did. I have hundreds of witnesses and 
documentary proof of this. 

Because I had Bulgarian papers, and my wife was Russian, we had 
to legalize our position by going to the German civil authorities to 
legalize our marriage. 

On May 9, 1945, a son was born to us. 

My wife has registered this child with my name in my absence, and 
therefore, we had to legalize it. 

Mr. Morris. We haven't much time left. AVould you just come 
down to the present issue? I mean, it is very important, but we do 
not have the time for it now. 

The Interpreter. In 1948 I again told the CIC my story 

Mr. Morris. You mean you told them your true identity ? 

The Interpreter. No; they didn't ask me for my real name, and 
I didn't tell them. 

I was deprived afterward of displaced persons status, and had to 
wait in 1952 for the permit, the entry permit into the United States. 

Mr. Morris. Since you have been in the United States have any 
Soviet officials approached you? 

The Interpreter. Recently in one of the schools I am attending I 
have met Soviet officials. 

Mr. Morris. Were they officials of the Soviet delegation to the 
United Nations ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, they were. 

Mr. Morris. Therefore, subordinates of Arkady Sobolev, the chief 
delegate ? 

The Interpreter. They were subordinates to Sobolev. 

Mr. Morris. ^Yliat did they do ? 

The Interpreter. At our first meeting I assumed that I was speak- 
ing with regular Russian emigrees. On April 9, 2 days after, 2 Soviet 
officials of the United Nations delegation were expelled from the 
United States. One of them has shown me his identification card, 
and asked me whether I am afraid to talk to him, being a Soviet 
official. 

I told him tliat I am living in the United States, and therefore, 
I am not afraid to speak to anyone, but his career may be endangered 
if he would be caught speaking to a Russian emigree. 

He told me that he is not afraid. As a matter of fact, he told me 
such meetings are encouraged by our superiors. And later on I got 
a confession from him that our conversations were reported by him 
through the channels to the upper echelons. 

Mr. ]M()RRis. Did lie know that you were a Russian emigree? 

The Ini-erpreter. On this same day he told me, why do I sign docu- 
ments against the Soviet Union Avhich are published in the Russian 
emigree newspapers? 

I told him that I felt it is my duty to be against the Communist 
government. 

The main line of his conversations with me was that America will 
at the end lose its fight, lose her fight against communism. The 
emigrees are not in too good a position, and the sooner they return to 
the Soviet Union the better it will be for them. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1367 



Mr. MoKHis. Did lu' know thai voii wciv a Kussian iMiiij^ree? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; he did. 

Mr. Morris, Did he know your real identity ? 

The Interpreter. On tlie IDtli of May one of them told me — we 
were speakino- about Vhissov's army 

Mr. Morris. One of the members of the U. N. deleo-ation, <he Soviet 
delegation ^ 

The Interpreter. Yes, si r. 

jNIr. Morris. One of tliem told you that '( 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. "What did he tell you ? 

The Interpreter. He told me that he knows wlio I am, and knows 
of my position in Vlassov's army, and he does not know these things 
only about me, but about many others. 

]Mr. INIoRRis. Did he know your name, your former name ? 

The Interpreter. He didn't tell me directly that, but he let me 
understand that he knew' my name — I am sorry, it was not the 19th 
of May, it was the 19th of April — the same day he named the emigree 
political organization, of which I am a member. 

From the manner of his talk I felt that he had a very secure posi- 
tion to do so, and perhaps was even sent to speak to emigrees about 
such matter. 

The same day he invited me to visit him, play chess, drink some 
vodka. 

I have all these conversations recorded in my writing in Russian, 
and if the committee would like to have them for the record I would 
be willing to give them for the record. 

In one of our conversations I told him that the Soviet Finance 
Ministry owes me much for my services. And he proposed that he 
regulate these debts of the Soviet Ministry — made it clear that he 
is in position to do so, which I regarded as a case of a rather subtle 
attempt for blackmail. 

On May 17, at 10 : 25 in the morning, he called my office and asked 
me by phone, asked me whether I have accomplished the tasks he 
has entrusted me with. 

Mr. Morris. You say he called you on the phone May 17 and asked 
you if you accomplished the tasks that he gave you ? 

The Interpreter. Right. 

Mr. Morris. Had he, in fact, given you any tasks? 

The Interpreter. He wanted me to buy for him a rather insignifi- 
cant thing which he could have bought himself anyplace in town, but 
because he felt that I knew America better and speak better English, 
that I would do this errand for him. 

Since he called me from his office — and I presume that the wires 
may be tapped — I think that this was again an attempt of throwing 
a shadow on my loyalty to the United States, since he didn't mention 
what kind of errand was that, but simply asked me whether I accom- 
plished the task he gave me. 

Mr. Morris. And you think he recorded the conversation, and will 
sometime use it for blackmail purposes ? 

The Interpreter. Maybe so. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else to add to that? Senator Butler 
has to go, and I was wondering if we could conclude it. 

72723— 56— pt. 25 4 



1368 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Interpreter. I may tell something about another Soviet repre- 
sentative if you want me to. 

Senator Butler. Yes ; you may proceed. 

The Interpreter. Later on I met another man -who approached me 
with the same question, why do I write against the Soviet Government 
and work against the Soviet people, as he chose to express himself. 

This man was mostly interested in economic and other literature 
published by Russian emigrant organizations, Russian emigrant or- 
ganizations, and was also very interested in the activities of these 
organizations. 

After all our conversations, when he knew very well that I am 
opposed to the Soviet Government, I asked him, "What do you want?" 

He told me that he wanted me to come home and to cease my political 
activity in emigrant circles. 

Ten days as:o I received a letter from Australia, a former member 
of the French resistance army writes to me that a former Vlassov 
man who is now set free in the Soviet Union is trying to locate Vlassov 
men who are abroad. This letter I gave to the American security 
organization. 

That will be all I could testify to now. 

]\f r. INIoRRis. Have vou been in touch with the FBI ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce into the 
record, in connection with this present series of hearings — which I 
think we can conclude, Senator, and make our report — an article that 
appeared in the Novoye Russkoye in New York, which was an appeal 
^o people who were in the position of this particular witness and 
other witnesses who have been described here today, that if they would 
come forward and send their cases to the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee that we would take the cases and not disclose their 
identitv and work them into the report. 

I would like to put into the record that appeal that went into th^> 
Russian-lanjjuage newspaper in New York. 

Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 277" and reads 
as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 277 

Now It Is Up to the "Berezovtzy" (Cases Similar to Berezov's) 

By V. Yurassov, Novoye Russkoye Slovo, May 29, 1056 

Every refugee knows what is meant by the so-called Berezov illness. Novoye 
Russkoye Slovo at one time described it in detail. Novoye Russkoye Slovo fre- 
quently collected petitions and letters addressed to the Congressmen, Senators. 
and the President. And refugees always responded to this newspaper campaign 
against the Berezov illness. 

But the so-called Berezov illness is linked to the McCarran-Walter Act. Tho 
review of this act would be quite a complicated matter for several reasons. Bere- 
zov illness continues to poison refugees. Thousands are still afraid of what 
might happen to them. Thousands of our countrymen who have lived in the 
United States of America for the past ^ years or more are afraid to take out 
American citizenship. Many people who have wide and valuable knowledge of 
Soviet reality are forced to stand aside. They are not taking part in useful 
activities because they cannot talk about their Soviet past. Some Berezovtzy 
risked becoming citizens with falsified biographies and thus they were doomed 
to constant fear and to possible deportation according to the existing laws. 

Recently, in connection with the intensified activities of the infamous Com- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1369 

mittee for the Return to the Homeland and the harmful acts of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment directed against refugees, cases of pressure and blackmail against the 
Berezovtzy iuiieased. There were incidents when a refugee residing in the 
I'nited States of Americ:i under an assumed name and listed as an emigree from 
Poland, Czechoslovakia, or Yugoslavia, received the newspaper, For the Return 
to the llomehind, or letters from the U. S. S. R. Sometimes the refugee was 
addressed by his real name. One woman emigree received a letter from her rela- 
tives in U. S. S. K. which was delivered to her by the representative of the 
Soviet delegation in the United Nations. 

One refugee visited a few days ago the editor of the Novoye Russkoye Slovo, 
M. E. Weinbaum, and told the editor that he had an argument with an acquaint- 
ance who happens to know that he is a Berezovetz. The refugee said : "I am afraid 
that he will denounce me. What am I to doV" Someone spread the rumor in 
American circles that emigrees in the United States of America with falsified biog- 
raphies are a menace to United States security; that Soviet agents were planted 
as Berezovtzy. Some Berezovtzy started thinking: Why should I vpait until 
they deport me from United States of America V Wouldn't it be wiser for me to 
return to the I'. S. S. R. of my own accord? 

The Senate Internal Security Committee was confronted with all these prob- 
lems (luring its investigation of the case of the five sailors from the tanker Tiinpse 
and of the kidnaping of other refugees. Senators Eastland, Jenner, and Welker 
admitted that the situation involving the Berezovtzy gives the Soviet agents a 
chance to blackmail the emigiees and to carry on disruptive activities against 
them and against American interests. 

It was decided to start a special investigation of the Berezov cases. 

On Tuesday of last week the former lieutenant colonel of the Soviet Army, 
Vladimir Rudolph, testified before the subcommittee; on Wednesday, Alexandra 
Tolstoy; and on Friday, the former S >viet diplomat, Alexander Barmine, a 
Berezovetz, Sergei Szeiko, and Rodion Berezov, who was summoned from San 
Francisco. 

Readers of Novoye Russkoye Slovo already read about the testimony given by 
Alexandi-a Tolstoy, Rodion Berezov. and Alexander Barmine. Alexander Bar- 
mine, by the way, told the conmiittee about the postwar forcible repatriation 
which resulted in the so-called Berezov illness. He assured the subcommittee 
that the al)S)!ute majority of the Berezovtzy are loyal to the United States. They 
are all anti-Communists and would become useful American citizens. He re- 
mlndetl the Senate subcommittee abmt the I'resident's message to Congress of 
Felnmary S, in which the President said : 

"A lage group of refugees in this country obtained visas by the use of false 
identities in order to escape forcible repatriation behind the Iron Curtain. 
The nunibei' may run into the thousands. Under existing law such falsifica- 
tion is a mandatory ground for deportation. The law should be amended to give 
relief to these unfortunate people." 

Senator Jenner declared that the committee will introduce a bill which will 
do away with the unhealthy and dan-ierous position of the Berezovtzy. But 
does it mean that the question concerning the Berezovtzy has already been 
solved? Not at all. 

The Senate sul committee must have facts to enable Congress to pass the law' 
which would give the Berezovtzy the right to reconstruct their biographical data. 
The subcommittee needs facts which would confirm the danger of the so-called 
Berezov illness. Witnesses are needed from the Berezovtzy group, who would 
tell the committee about the pressure used upon them by the Soviet agents and 
the Michailov committee. 

In short, the successful outcome of the case depends now on the Berezovtzy 
themselves. 

Everyone who received the newspaper, For the Return to the Homeland, or 
letters from the U. S. S. R. ; to everyone who was warned by Soviet agents or 
who was subjected to blackmail and pressure should apply to the Senate sub- 
committee : Mr. Robert Moi-ris, chief counsel. Internal Security Subcommittee, 
the Senate, Washington, D. C. 

The Senate subconnnittee is aw-are of the fact that the persons suffering from 
the Berezov illness are frightened and that they are afraid to speak about 
themselves. The Senate subcommittee is aware of the fact that these people 
are worried about their future and the fate of their relatives in the U. S. S. R. 
The Senate subcommittee is willing to hear their story w^ithout making their 
names public ; if they prefer to do so, they may use a difterent name at the hear- 
ing ; the Senate subcommittee may arrange an executive session for this purpose. 



1370 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Senate subcommittee will protect each witness. This means that every 
refugee who will report his case does not risk anything, but, on the contrary, 
will be assisted by the subcommittee in his difficult position. 

The practical solution would be for each Berezovetz who underwent pressure 
from the Soviets to write a letter to the above address with a brief description 
of the Irind of pressure used upon him. This letter may be written in any 
language. The Senate subcommittee will subpena the witness it may need. 
A subpena is an order to appear before the Senate. All expenses covering the 
trip (airplane, train, or bus fare) will be paid by the Senate. The existing allo- 
cations will cover subsistence and hotel bills. A person who is called to the 
Senate and has such a subpena in his possession, is entitled to assistance from 
American citizens and institutions. He will get assistance from his employer, the 
airport administration, and from the railroad officials. 

Until now refugees often complained that the American legislative bodies 
and the American Government don't do a thing to help the Berezovtzy to be- 
come useful members of society. Now the emigrees got this opportunity. The 
final successful outcome depends on the emigrees themselves. It is up to those 
people who have suffered from the Berezov illness for so many years. 

Berezov illness, this tragic situation concerning thousands of people, may 
now be settled by the Berezovtzy themselves. They must do this for their own 
sake, as well as for the sake of their families, their children, and other emigrees. 
They must do this for the good of our new homeland — the United States of 
America. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to put in the testimony of Mr. Bialer 
which we took in executive session and didn't finish in open session 
last week. I would like to put that in the record. 

Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. 

(The testimony appears in pt. 29.) 

Mr. JNIoRRis. And we also are receiving the results of a questionnaire 
which Countess Tolstoy sent out, and we have promised that we will 
have the result of that questionnaire in 2 or 3 weeks. And we have 
gotten G letters as a result of this appeal in the Russian newspaper 
which we have, and we are working on it. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will stand in recess until the 
notice of the chairman. 

Mr. Morris. The witness tomorrow will be Bella Dodd, at 10 : 30. 

(Whereupon, at 1 : 40 p. ul, the subcommittee recessed until 3 p. m. 
of tliesameday.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

TESTIMONY OF PETER PIROGOV— Resumed 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Pirogov, since you have been in the United States 
have you been approached on any other occasion by persons you 
recognized as Soviet officials ? 

Mr. Pirogov. No ; except one case which happened after Mr. Barzov 
decided to return to Russia, and at that time we met. 

Mr. Morris. When was tliat ? 

Mr. Pirogov. In a restaurant here in Washington, 

Mr. Morris. What happened at that time ? 

Mr. Pirogov. Well, it is hard to say. I still don't understand today 
what actually happened there. And if I can't tell 

Mr. Morris. Tell us what happened. You were there. 

Mr. Pirogov. This is what happened. Barzov had gone from New 
York to Washington for good with his plans to return to Russia. 

Mr-. jNIorris. He had left Wasliington and gone to New York ? 

]\Ir. Pirogov. No; he left New Yorlv and went to Washington to 
see officials in tlie Embassy to receive tickets for his ship or airplane 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1371 

on liis wa}^ to Russia. And then after 1 week I decide to send him a 
letter and meet him once more before he left the United States and 
tried to help him to change his decision about that. 

Mr. jNIokkis. You advised him, had you not, not to go back ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Of course, but this particular time I wanted to have 
one more meeting with him. And then the next morning — well, I 
sent a letter, for instance, the next morning, I was not in my room 
in the hotel, but somebody, the manager, told me that some man was 
here and left a letter for me. I took that letter, that letter was Mr. 
Barzov, from Washington, from the Russian Embassy. In that letter 
he said, ''"I want to have a meeting with you in one condition that 
supposed to be without any witnesses, just you and me." 

Mr. Morris. This is what the letter said ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Yes ; his letter said that. 

Mr. Morris. Do you still have the letter ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Oh, I think somebody has it. I don't. I think the 
P'BI people; I don't know who. And then he said, "I want to meet 
you in the Three Musketeers Restaurant," and he put in the same letter 
a small piece from a newspaper, advertising about that restaurant. 

Well, he said, "I want to see you today — no — tomorrow at 5 o'clock." 

Since I received that letter I called friend of mine in Washington 
and asked him if he thinks it is okay that I will go and see Barzov. 
He said, O. K. Then I take a train the next morning and come to 
Washington. 

Well, I was afraid to go just by myself to that restaurant and see 
Barzov. I asked that friend if he will come with me. He said, "No ; 
I don't want to go with you, but you supposed not to be w^orried. I 
will be there, or somebody will be there whom I know." Now, he give 
me a plan of that restaurant. 

Mr. Morris. Who gave you the plan of that restaurant? 

Mr. PiROGOv. My friend. He said, "You supposed to meet Mr. 
Barzov in the dining room, not in the barroom." Well, then I took 
a taxi and come to the restaurant, and I was waiting on the street. 
Well, it was about 5 or 6 minutes and then Barzov come. He looked 
strained and tired and completely different in appearance from what 
he was before. 

And he said, "O. K., let's go in the restaurant and have some talk." 
And then when we arrived in that restaurant and that barroom there, 
too many people over there, it is almost impossible to expect to find 
a table. Then the waiter come to us and say, "You looking for a 
table?" We said, "Yes." He said, "For two?" and we said, "Yes," 
and he said, "Come with me." 

And that table was already reserved for us, by whom I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. By whom you don't know ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Yes. That table was close to the wall. He showed 
me a chair which was close to the wall. I was afraid to sit there and 
I just decided to sit on the chair which was opposite the wall. And 
then a waiter come and Barzov ordered two drinks. Then I ask the 
waiter if he had a dinner, because I had just come from the train and 
I want to have some dinner. The waiter said, "No, sir; that is not 
the dining room. We have a dining room just across the hall." 

Then I recognized I had made a mistake. I was supposed not to 
be there, but friends of mine would sit in the dining room. Then I 



1372 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

just get up and said, "Well, I am sorry. Let's go to the dining room, 
and I want to have my dinner. And you can order drinks from here 
and they will deliver them to the dining room." 

Well now, the restaurant, you know, the King Cole Room is on the 
right side and the dining room or restaurant, Three Musketeers, is 
on the left side; between the two halls is a small corridor. I was 
going first, I just stopped in the corridor, then I see 2 men from this — 
3 or 4 men from another side, you know, just located us in the center 
of that corridor. With our not talking or saying anything or any 
questions, I just, or somebody, hit me. Then, you know, another man 
took my arm and put it in back and put handcuffs on my right hand. 
Then in front of me a small man, I will say about 5 feet, took a pistol 
and I don't know what he started, but I just hit him with my leg. 
At that time another man took that pistol from his hand and knocked 
me in the head. 

Well now, that happened in the corridor between this hall and this 
hall, and the door in the dining room was locked. It was closed. 
Then, I just — I mean I tried to give some signal to a friend of mine 
who was sitting in the dining room. I am sure he was there, but since 
it happened — you know, just too many movements. Then I come 
too close to that door and knocked that door and the door opened and 
then, you know, many people there. I don't know, maybe 10 or 15 
boys stand up and come out from that dining room. I understand that 
the people who come from the dining room, it was people whom my 
friend asked to be there. 

Mr. MoRKis. In other words, this other episode where someone tried 
to put handcuffs on you and pulled the gun on you was in the corridor 
concealed between the dining room and the bar? 

Mr. PiROGOV. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. It was all concealed and hidden in there ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Yes. And then when these people come, friend of 
mine and his friends, well, that time fight started which I couldn't 
understand who is who and who hit whom. I know one things I have 
couple more in my head and face, and one man just tried to do every- 
thing to put that second end of the handcuff on my wrist, you know, 
arm, but he couldn't, you know. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, somebody was trying to forcibly kidnap 
you? 

Mr. PiROGov. Yes. Well, it looked that way, is how it happened 
to me. 

Mr. Morris. You know whether these men were Russians ? 

Mr. Pirogov. Well, I don't know. One thing I forget to tell you. 
Before I met Barzov, I step out from a taxi and then I thought Barzov 
already waiting for me inside. Then I come inside, in that entrance 
was small couch, 2 very young, I mean, 2 very pretty girls sitting 
on that couch, and when I pass I heard a Russian word, "on," which 
means "him." 

Mr. Morris. "Wliich is Russian for "him" ? 

Mr. Pirogov. Yes. Then I was afraid, completely, you know, what 
to do. You know people mention that is him. That concerned me. 
Then, I go out of there and I met Barzov and then, you know, we 
come in and that happened in that corridor you know. And then 
my friend and his friend come to me, took a taxi and go to some 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1373 

house. I don't know, I think it was some hotel, and then some trouble 
come, because ihey couldn't remove the handcuffs from my arm. 

Mr. Morris. They couldn't take the handcutl' oli' your arm? 

Mr. PiROGo\-. No; and it took about 1 or 2 hours, because, you know, 
too many keys 1 hey tried. At last they hnd one. 

Mr. Morris. Who were these people who tried to remove the hand- 
cutl"? 

Mr. PiROGoA-. They were my friends. 

Mr. Morris. Have you any reason to believe that the manaoement 
of either the Three Musketeers restaurant or the King Cole bar, or 
any of the employees, such as the waiter, were a party to this thing 
that happened ? 

Mr. PiROGOV. I am sure now, because the waiter, you know, the 
same waiter come first to me when I arrived first there to seek Barzov. 

lie immediately came to me and asked if I want to have a table. I 
said, "Xo, 1 wait for a friend of mine." 

Then, the next time we arrived, both, with Barzov, same man come 
and otl'ered us table. When there were too many people, it was im- 
possible to mention you can find table. 

JNlr. Morris. In other words, there was no other empty table in the 
whole restaurant ? 

Mr. PiROGov. No; that was the main point that I was surprised 
about. That seems to me like somebody ordered that table before 
or asked that waiter to have that table empty. 

Mr. Morris. Did the waiter seem to know Barzov ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Yes. 

Mr. JNloRRis. What makes you say that ? 

Mr. PiROGOV. Because just how he looked at him. We just come 
in, you know, and that man seems so familiar, you know, or like you 
meet somebody who knows you, but at that time I interpreted, then, 
because Barzov was staying 1 week in the Russian Embassy. The 
Russian Embassy was too close to the restaurant, to Three Musketeers. 

Mr. Morris. What street is the Three Musketeers on ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Connecticut Avenue. 

Mr. jMorris. In other words, it is near the Soviet Embassy ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Yes. And I thought Barzov often come to that restau- 
rant and that is why the waiter know him. But I don't know, but it 
was so — everything was prepared. 

Mr. Morris. Had you warned Barzov he would be shot in 6 months? 

Mr. PiROGOv. Certainly, I told him many times. We just sit at a 
table, we start to talking. He look at me and said, "Well, you want to 
smoke a cigarette ?" He opened a pack of Russian cigarettes, Kazebek. 
Well, I said, "No, I have mine," and I took some cigarettes. He look 
at me and said, "You think that is already yours, you qualified your- 
self like an American already." I said, "No, I am still not American, 
but I try to be." He said, "Nonsense." 

Then, conversation is filiished. He said — that is before the waiter 
come, you know, for the order, and he said, "You see, I start writing, 
too, but 1 will write book which will be much better than any books 
which emigrants wrote here in America about Russia." 

I looked at him and said, "You supposed not to be worried about your 
book. They will write for you. You will sign your name and after 
6 months, the author will not be alive. They will kill you." 



1374 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

He said, "Well, after 5 or 10 years you will be there, too." 

He said, "I will be free, but you will replace my place where I 
come now." 

That means, in 2 or 3 years he Avill sit in jail and then will be free. 
And they told him — I forget to say that — when he returned from 
Washington, he said, "They said to tell Pirogov if he don't want to 
return now, he supposed to know that 5 or 10 years will pass, but he 
will be in our hands." 

Mr. Morris. You, of course, have no intention of going back to 
the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. PiROGOv. No, I would not even think about it. I have my family 
here. I mean, I am satisfied with living here, and I like to be here. 
Why I should want to go there? I just heard yesterday they killed 
him. Even if that was not happened, you know, I still don't think 
of going back there. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. That is all. 

(Whereupon, at 3 : 35 p. m., adjournment was taken.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, JULY 20, 1956 

ITnii-ed States Senate Suboommitttse 
To Investigate the Administration of the 
Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 : 20 a. m., in tlie caucus 
room, Senate Office Building, Senator John Marshall Butler pre- 
siding. 

Present : Senator Butler. 

Also present : Kobert Morris, chief counsel ; William A. Rusher, ad- 
ministrative counsel: and Benjamin Mandel, director of research. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, the subject of this morning's hearing will be 
the effort on the part of Soviet agents in the United States to induce, 
by various means, Russian emigrees and Russian refugees to return to 
tlie Soviet Union. The first witness this morning will be Mr. Michael 
Schatoff, who previously testified before the subcommittee. Senator, 
but at that time did not disclose his name, for security reasons. 

Mr. Schatoff, will you stand to be sworn, please ? 

Senator Butler. Will you hold up your right hand ? 

Do you, in the presence of Almighty God, solemnly promise and 
declare that the evidence you give this subcommittee of the Judiciary 
('ommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth ? 

Mr. Schatoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, Mr. Grigorovich-Barsky has previously 
been sworn. So it will not be necessary to swear him at this time. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHAEL SCHATOFF, AS INTERPRETED BY 
CONSTANTINE GRIGOROVICH-BARSKY 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schatoff, I wonder if j'ou will tell us very briefly, 
very succinctly, the substance of your last testimony before the sub- 
committee. 

The Interpreter. I was learning the English language at Colmnbia 
University. I was late in starting these courses because I was in Ger- 
many at an anti-Communist conference. 

Several times I was together with a Mr. Petukhov, of whom I didn't 
know that he was a member of the Soviet U. N. delegation. After 
several meetings, Petukhov has shown me his credentials as a Soviet 
diplomat. 

1375 



1376 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

His first question was whether I was afraid to speak to him, to which 
I answered that I lived in a free country, in the United States, and I 
haven't c^ot fear of anything. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was this gentleman who was talking to him, 
now ? 

The Interpreter. Petukhov. 

Mr. Morris. That was Mr. Petukhov ? 

The Interpreter. Petukhov. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, Mr. Petukhov, Aleksei Petukhov, is 
working for the Secretariat of the United Nations and is the Technical 
Assistance Program Director for Asia and the Far East, at the United 
Nations. 

Now, that is the man. Senator, that Mr. Schatoff is now talking 
about. 

The Interpreter. He didn't tell me his occupation in detail. I only 
knew that he was a Soviet diplomat with the United Nations. 

I wondered why Petukhov should worry about my career and my 
prosperity here, and I told him he had better take care of his own 
career, which may be jeopardized by speaking to me. 

Petukhov told me that at tlie present time they are encouraged to 
meet emigrees and that he is in no way jeoi^ardizing his career while 
speaking to me. 

In the course of our next meeting, Petukhov told me that I have no 
future in the United States and that, on the other hand, the emigrees' 
plans about changes in the Soviet Union wnll never be accomplished 
and that the sooner I return to the Soviet Union the better it is for me. 

Petukhov also told me at one of our meetings, not directly, but by 
allusion first, that he knows wlio I am and what is my name, and once 
he even told me directly that he even knows who I am. 

Further, Petukhov tried to blackmail me and expressed some threats, 
and I understood that they wanted to make me a Soviet agent. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you say they tried to blackmail you, Mr. Schatoff. 
Will you tell us what that eti'ort of blackmail was ? 

The Interpreter. I got a call from him in which he asked me 
whether I accomplished that which he asked me to accomplish. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who was this speaking ? 

The Interpreter. Petukhov. 

Mr. Morris. Petukhov, again. Now, so far, has Shapovalov come 
into this at all ? 

The Interpreter. Pardon me ? 

Mr. Morris. Have you mentioned Shapovalov at all ? 

The Interpreter. After several meetings with Petukhov, Mr. 



Shapovalov 

Mr. Morris. Now, may the record show that Mr. Shapovalov spells 
his name R-o-s-t-i-s-l-a-v S-h-a-p-o-v-a-l-o-v, and he is the second sec- 
retary of the Soviet mission to the United Nations. So we have two 
individuals in separate categories here. We have Mr. Petukhov, who 
is with the Secretariat of the United Nations, whereas Mr. Shapovalov 
is working with the Soviet mission to the United Nations, two different 
categories. 

The Interpreter. Yes. Mr. Shapovalov approaclied me and gave 
me to understand that he knows who I am and he knows my back- 
ground. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1377 

Shapovalov asked me to get for him tlie literature of the Munich 
Institute for U. S. S. R. study, in which there is shown his intention 
to make me a member of the Soviet agents" group. 

I gave my testimony here on the IStli of r) une. 

In the evening there was a report in the press that t^yo Soviet U. N. 
mission members were involved in pressure u])on Russian emigrees. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Now, let me see if I understand this, IVIr. Schatoff. 
You testified here on June 13. That evening there was a report in 
the papers. Was there a report of your testimony ? 

The iNTERrijETER. No, it was not. 

Mr. JSIoRRis. ^Vhat was this report in the papers that was men- 
tioned on June 13? 

The iNTERriiETER. There was a brief report that there was a closed 
session of this committee and that on this session a former Soviet olli- 
cer has reported the attempt of two Soviet U. N. delegation members 
lo approach him. 

The next day, on the 14th of June, at 4:18 p. m., Petukhov called 
me on the phone. 

Mr. Morris. Now, this is the day after your testimony here ? 

Mr. Schatoff. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, this you have not told the subcommittee before, 
naturally, because this happened after vour appearance here ; is that 
right? 

The Interpreter. Yes, that is right, sir. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, wdiat happened at that time ? 

The Interpreter. ]My friend at work told me that this was the same 
voice who had called me the day before, on the 13th. 

Mr. Morris. In other w^ords, the very day you were down here testi- 
fying, Mr. Petukhov was calling you in New York ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, that was on the 13th. Now, he called 
again on the 14th ; is that right? 

The Interpreit:r. Yes. 

]Mr. jVIorris. Now, on the 13th, j^ou did not speak with him, but on 
the 14tli you did speak with him? 

Mr. Schatoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us what happened. 

The Interpreter. Yes, I spoke to him on the 14th, and I told the 
colleague who took the calls on the 13th to tell Petukhov that I don't 
work any more in the university. 

From the words of Petukhov, I understood that he is very well in- 
formed as to the happenings of the 13th. 

He asked me whether I lived in my old apartment. He invited me 
to go with him to Long Beach, and told me that it was of utmost im- 
portance to meet with him immediately. 

Mr. Morris. Now, excuse me. AVlien he asked you to go to Long 
Beach — that is in New York — when did he want you to go to Long 
Beach ? That day or some subsequent day ? 

The Interpreter. There were several invitations to go to Long 
Beach, and that was one of them. It was not a specific date that he 
was talking about. 

There was again talk about whether I accomplished his mission, 
whether I had done what he had asked me to do, in the same conver- 
sation. 



1378 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I refused to meet with him. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was that that he asked you to do previously ? 
What was the mission he had discussed ? 

The Interpreter. I don't know what he was talking about. There 
was no specific task that he had assigned me at that time, and I re- 
garded that as another attempt to discredit me. Since I gave the 
testimony in a closed session, apparently they did not want it to come 
to an open session, so that I could testify some more. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Schatoff, had he known who it was who had 
testified ? He did not know it was you testifying, did he ? 

The Interpreter. According to his conversation, I have no doubts 
that he knew about it. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, you had testified previously that you felt when he mentioned 
the word "mission" on the phone, you felt that the conversation was 
being recorded ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, it could have been recorded just for black- 
mail purposes in the future. 

That forced me to make my testimony public, and on the 21st 
of June, I aj)peared at a press conference in New York. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And then you related all the events that you 
had told the subcommittee previously ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, I repeated the testimony before the sub- 
committee. 

Mr. Morris. Did you mention the most recent approaches, the sub- 
sequent approaches, to your appearance before the committee ? 

The Interpreter. I am sorry, sir ? 

Mr. Morris. Did you mention at the press conferences the sub- 
sequent approaches upon the part of Mr. Petukhov whicli took place 
after your appearance before the subcommittee? 

The Interpreter. Yes. I mentioned it at the press conference, and 
I again emphasized that these approaches have forced me to make 
the public testimony here and herewith to appeal to the American 
public, and for the protection of the American Government. 

Mr. Morris. Now, during this period were you in touch with the 
FBI? 

The Interpreter. Yes. I was in touch with the FBI, and they 
advised me not to meet with Petukhov any more. 

Mr. Morris. Now, previously had you been in touch with the FBI ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, dui'ing this period j'^ou also received at the same 
time, contemporaneously, you also received some literature from the 
Soviet Union ; did you not ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that? 

The Interpreter. Yes. At that period I received a letter from Aus- 
tralia, from a friend of mine, who was notified by another friend in 
France that a former officer of the Vlassov army, who had served his 
term in a concentration camp in Siberia and is free now, is looking 
for his former friends, namely, for me, too. 

That gave me the idea that they know who I am even in Soviet Union, 
and that this is somehow a concerted approach to foi-ce me to go to 
do something for them. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1379 

Mr. MoKRis. And is that the whole story about receiving the litera- 
ture from abroad? 

The Interpretek. Yes, that would be all, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long have you been in the United States, INIr. 
Schatoff? 

The lNn':Ri'RETER. Since January 1952. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And you came to the United States having 
previously been an officer in the Red army ; did you not ? 

Mr. Schatoff. Yes, 

Mr. Morris. And, for security purposes, can you tell us what your 
present job is? 

The Interpreter. I am working at Columbia University in the 
acquisition department as a researcher. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know a man named Boris Olshanslvy? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; I knew him very well, about 7 years. 

Mr. Morris. Now, that is 0-1-s-h-a-n-s-k-y ? 

The Intepjpreter. 0-1-s-h-a-n-s-k-y. 

Mr. Morris. That is Boris Olshansky ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you have known him for 7 years ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. So your knowledge antedated your arrival in this 
country ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. I knew him well in Germany and I know 
his family, too. 

We belonged to the same organization of Russian emigrees. 

Mr. Morris. And how frequently have you seen him since he has 
been in the United States ? 

The Interpreter. When he was living in New York, I saw him 
almost every week, or even more often. 

We were meeting at the offices of the Voice of America in New 
York and also in Radio Liberation. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Schatoff, did he reflect at any time any 
disaffection or any dissatisfaction with the United States? 

The Interpreter. No ; I have never heard of it. 

Mr. INIoRRis. When did you first learn that he had disappeared? 

The Interpreter. I learned about it only a few days ago. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what do you know about his disappearance? 

The Interpreter. The only thing I can tell is that I think that 
his disappearance is the result of work of Mr. Sobolev and Zarubin. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Sobolev is the chief of the Soviet delegation to 
the United Nations, and Mr. Zarubin is the Soviet Ambassador? 

The Interpreter. Yes, sir. 

]Mr. Morris. Now, what is the basis for that conclusion on your 
part, Mr. Schatoff? 

The Interpreter. All activities of Mr. Olshansky here in the States 
showed that he was anti-Communist. He wrote a book about his 
deception. He wrote almost in every political newspaper of Russian 
emigrees. He wrote for radio stations. 

Of course, I do not know the technique of forcing such people to 
go back to the Soviet Union. But, in my opinion, I firmly believe that 
the Soviet officials were guilty of his disappearance. 

Mr. Morris. What is the basis for that conclusion, Mr. Schatoff ? 



1380 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

The IisTTERrRETER. Nobodj is taking care of repatriation to the Soviet 
Union bnt Soviet officials. 

JNIr. JNIoRRis. Yes. But why do you think he did not return of his 
own volition ? 

The Interpreter. I think lie is wise enough not to go to the Soviet 
Union to be faced with an execution squad. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any personal conversations of any kind 
with Mr. Olshansky about whether or not he would like to go back 
to the Soviet Union '^ 

The Interpreter. Many conversations. I was in his family and we 
met very often in organization meetings, and he has never shown 
any desire to depart for the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. What can you tell us about his anti- Soviet activity here 
in the United States ? 

The Interpreter. I repeat that he was systematically working for 
political emigrees' newspapers which are appearing in the United 
States. He was appearing at programs of the Voice of America and 
of the Radio Liberation. Also, he made several appearances, public 
appearances, in meetings of Russian emigrees. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you. know the circumstances of his disappear- 
ance ? 

The Interpreter. I don't know anything in detail. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Do you know that he had an assignment to go to Ger- 
many? 

The Interpreter. Yes, I know that. 

Mr. Morris. What was the nature of his assignment ? 

The Interpreter. He had to go to Germany to work for a Russian 
political organization, the NTS 

Mr. Morris. Now, you are a member of the NTS, are you not ? 

The Interpreter. No ; I am not. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is the NTS ? 

The Interpreter. I am sorry. I did not finish his previous answer. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. 

The Interpreter (continuing). To work for NTS in its news- 
paper called Possev. 

I am not a member of the NTS myself. 

Mr. Morris. What is the NTS ? 

The Interpreter. It is a revolutionary political organization which 
fights for liberation of peoples of the Soviet Union from the Bolshe- 
vists. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Schatoff, would you tell Senator Butler what 
is the nature of the NTS ? 

The Interpreter. Shall I repeat that ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Will you repeat what he just said as to what the 
NTS was? 

The Interpreter. Yes, sir. The NTS is a revolutionary political or- 
ganization of Russian emigres which is fighting for liberation of 
peoples of the Soviet Union from communism. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, this man, ]VIr. Olshansky, whom Mr. Schatoff 
testified he has known intimately for a period of 7 years, has re- 
cently had an assignment to go to Germany for the NTS, for this 
organization which he has just described, and he never did report 
there, did he, Mr. Schatoff ? 

The Interpreter. No ; he never did report there. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1381 

Mr. JNIoRRis. And instead, he turned up in the Soviet Union, did he 
not? 

The Interpreter. Instead he turned up i n the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you only know that he turned up in the Soviet 
Union, not from your own personal experience, but from what you have 
heard ? 

The Interpri'.ter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And let me sum up your evidence. You have no direct 
knowledge of what happened to Mr. Olsliansky here? You have no 
direct knowledge; however, you have testiiied that, knowing the man 
on the basis of 7 years and knowing his extensive anti-Soviet activity, 
that you feel that he did not go there voluntarily ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. That I assert. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know whether or not there was any rede- 
fection involved in this, which is asking the same thing another way, 
Mr. Schatoff? 

The Interpreter. I presume this is a series of the same work of the 
redefection campaign. 

It has two aspects : First, to prove to American authorities that they 
cannot trust to the defectors from the Soviet Union ; and, second, to 
disturb the confidence which Russian emigrees may have in such people 
and sow distrust among the emigree circles. 

Mr. Morris. Would it not occur to you, Mr. Schatoff, that if this 
man were really redefecting and had really gone back to the Soviets, 
that it might have been important for him to stay on his job with 
NTS? 

The Interpreter. To stay on the job? 

Mr. Morris. If this man had seriously redefected and gone back to 
the Soviets, might not it have been strategic for him to stay at his job 
at NTS, and in that way work for the Soviets ? 

The Interpreter. And not to go back to the Soviet Union, you 
mean ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

The Interpreter. Naturally. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, this evidence that we have here, you see, is 
indirect evidence, and it is only based on Mr. Schatoff's knowledge of 
this particular man. However, Senator, I feel it fits directly into this 
particular inquiry that the subcommittee is carrying on, and we shall 
endeavor to learn some facts to see whether or not there are factors 
in this thing which sliould be known by the Senate. 

Now, Mr. Schatoti', do you know anything more about the activities 
of Soviet subordinates of Arkady Sobolev here in the United States ? 

The Interpreter. I Imow as a fact that the private chauffeur of 
Arkady Sobolev approached a Russian emigree in order to persuade 
him either to go back to the Soviet Union or to work here as a Soviet 
agent. 

Mr. Morris. Who is the x^rivate chauffeur of Arkady Sobolev ; do 
you know ? 

The Interpreter. I don't know him personally, but I have knowl- 
edge that he is the son of one of the former Fishery Ministers of the 
Soviet Union. 

Mr. Mopoiis. What knowledge is that that you have, Mr. Schatoff 2 

The Interpreter. Knowing that I was testifying in the Senate, 



1382 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

the man whom the chauffeur approached has spoken to me and he has 
told me that. 

Mr. Morris. I see. He told you. 

Now, how did he know ? You say that the man who was approached 
by the personal chauffeur of Sobolev told you that Sobolev's chauffeur 
was the son of the Commissioner of Fisheries ? i 

The Interpreter. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how did the emigree who was approached by the 
chauffeur know that ? 

The iNTERPRE-rER. The chauffeur told him that himself. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now, Senator, instead of accepting the testimony of Mr. Schatoff on 
this, since it is indirect testimony and hearsay testimony, I suggest 
that we try to ascertain the identity of this emigree who was ap- 
proached by the chauffeur of Arkady Sobolev and find out from him 
the direct story and have him tell that under oath. So we shall, Sena- 
tor, endeavor to find out from Mr- Schatoff the identity of this emigree 
and let him tell us the story directly. 

Senator Butler. Do you have any further questions of Mr. 
Schatoff? 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else, Mr. Schatoff, that we should 
know at this time, about this particular case ? 

The Interpreter. The last one ; not about this case, but about an- 
other one. 

Sobolev, the head of the Soviet delegation to the U. N., has called 
my testimony a provocation and a lie. 

And they are trying to represent that case as though I was working 
for some American organization, for some organ of the American 
Government. 

I solemnly testify here that I was under no obligation to any Amer- 
ican governmental agencies and that I acted only according to my 
conscience as an anti- Communist and as a man loving the United 
States. 

The committee may ascertain the sincerity and the truth of my 
testimony. 

If Mr. Sobolev would like so, I could testify to the same facts in 
any American court. 

Mr. Morris. You recognize you are under oath this morning? You 
recognize, do you not, Mr. Schatoff, that you are now testifying under 
oath? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; I know. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Schatoff, during the period that Messrs. 
Petukhov and Shapovalov were approaching you, you were in contact 
with the FBI ; were you not ? 

The Interpreter. Yes ; I told the FBI about this thing. 

Mr. Morris. Contemporaneously ? Did you tell them contempora- 
eously about these approaches, while they were going on, Mr. Schatoff ? 
Did you tell the FBI while these events were going on ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. So, in other words, if it would be possible at some time 
for corroboration, the reports, the contemporaneous reports, that 
Mr. Schatoff made to the FBI w^ould support the testimony he now 
gives under oath ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1383 

The iNTEKriJKTER. Yes. I may also give some witnesses from the 
university Aviio could testify about our interrelations during this 
episode. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, Mr. Schatotf, you have given the sub- 
committee the names of some persons who witnessed some part of 
these particular episodes? 

The IxTERruETER. Yes. 

Mr. jNIorris. And the subconunittee has subpenaed two of these peo- 
l)le, has it not ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, as far as I know. 

]Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, at this point I would like to ask the 
photographers if they would cooperate with the committee to the 
extent of not taking pictures of the next two witnesses. They have 
agreed to testify, and they have given us their names in executive 
session, and they have asked that their names not appear in the 
newspapers. 

Xow, I think if their ]:)ictures were taken, their privacy might be 
invaded to that extent. It is an o])en hearing, and we can only ask 
the cooperation of the photographers. 

Thank you very much, ]\Ir. Schatoff. We appreciate your testi- 
mony. 

Senator Butler. Thank you. 

Mr. ]MoRRis (to the next witness) . I do not want to call you by name. 
Would you come forward ? 

Will you stand and raise your right hand? 

Senator Butler. Do you solemnly promise and declare that the 
evidence you give this subconunittee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

The Witness (through the interpreter). Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF AN UNIDENTIFIED WITNESS, AS INTERPRETED BY 
CONSTANTINE GRIGOROVICH-BARSKY 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I would like the record to show that the wit- 
ness who has just been sworn has given us his name and address in 
executive session, and it is now in the committee records, and at the 
request of the witness we are not making it ])ublic at this time. 

Now, I wonder if you could tell us, if it fits with your idea of se- 
curity, where you work now. 

The Interpreter. Yes, I can. I work at Columbia University. 

]\Ir. Morris. And do you know Michael Schatoff, the previous 
witness ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, I know^ him. 

Mr. ^Morris. How well do you know Mr. Schatoff? 

The Interpreter. During the last semester we met maybe 3 or 4 
times. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Did you ever see him iu the company of Mr. Shapovalov? 

The Interpreter. Yes, I saw him. 

Mr. ;Morrts. Will you tell us about that? 

The Interpreter. Yes. Mr. Shapovalov was learning English at 
the same course. 



72723— 5ft— pt. 25- 



1384 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTRaTY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. At Columbia University ? 

The Witness. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, the man that we are talking about is the 
second secretary to the Soviet mission to the United Nations. 

Senator Butler. Yes. 

The Interpreter. I did not know he was a Soviet representative, 
but I know it now. I saw him meeting with Mr. Schatoff, and I think 
it was two times that they left the auditorium, after the lessons, 
together at 10 o'clock in the evening. 

Mr. Morris. Now, could you approximate the time? 

The Interpreter. In March and April of this year. 

Mr. Morris. And you say you saw Mr. Shapovalov and Mr. Schatoff 
together twice? You saw them leave the auditorium of Columbia 
University together ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you personally have any dealings with 
Shapovalov ? 

The Interpreter. I don't know from where he knew that I speak 
Russian, but one evening he approached me with approximately the 
following words 

Mr. Morris. He even approached you, then ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, he did. 

Mr, Morris. Will you tell us about that speech ? 

The Interpreter. Shapovalov said: "I know that you are a man 
with a university education and that you are working here as a 
janitor." 

Mr. Morris. Proceed. 

The Interpreter (continuing). "There are better places where you 
could work." 

I answered him that I am very satisfied with my present work and 
that it has no importance whether I work as an intellectual or as a 
physical worker. 

I saw that he was dissatified with my answer, and then I left. 

Mr. Morris. Was there any other conversation that you had with 
him? 

The Interpreter. No, there was not any. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you interpret his approach to you in any 
way? 

The Interpreter. I think that he was approaching me as he does 
it usually, to attempt to persuade me to go home to Latvia. 

Mr. Morris. And in addition to the approach to you, you also can 
testify, as you have testified today, that Mr. Shapovalov — that you 
did in fact see Mr. Shapovalov in the company of Mr. Schatoff ? 

The Interpreter. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Thank you very much for your testimony 
here today, sir. 

(To the next witness :) 

Will you raise your right hand and be sworn, please ? 

Senator Butler. Do you solemnly promise and declare that the 
evidence you give this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

The Witness. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1385 

TESTIMONY OF AN UNIDENTIFIED WITNESS, AS INTEilPRETED BY 
CONSTANTINE GEIGOROVICH-BARSKY 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, the circumstances are the same for this 
witness. He has given us liis name and address in executive session, 
and he has asked us that, for the sake of security, he not put his name 
in the public record, and 1 see no reason. Senator, as far as our evidence 
is concerned, why we cannot comply with his request. 

Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know the witness Michael Schatoff ? 

The Interpreter. Yes, I know him. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Do vou know a Soviet official, Aleksei Petiikhov ? 

The Interpreter. I met him for several minutes in the company of 
Mr. Schatoff by accident. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us when that meeting took place ? 

The Interpreter. A couple of months ago I walked into a bar and 
ordered a beer. I saw, then, my acquaintance, Mr. Schatoff, who was 
sitting at the table with a person unknown to me. I approached Mr. 
Schatoff to greet him, to say "hello" to him. Schatoff introduced me 
to a man who was sitting with him and who called himself Petukhov. 
I didn't know at that time who he was. We exchanged a couple of in- 
significant sentences. I told him that I had to finish my beer and go 
home. He invited me to sit down to have a conversation with him, 
but I refused. 

Mr. Morris. Wlio invited you to sit down? Mr. Petukhov? 

The Witness. Mr, Petukhov. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, did you know at this time, at the time of the invitation, that 
he was a Soviet official ? 

The Interpreter. No, I did not have any idea of it. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was there any other conversation between you 
and him? 

The Interpreter. No; only insignificant sentences. One of the 
sentences was — I noticed that one of the guests at the bar went to take 
some relish and some herring which is given free to people sitting at 
the bar. I told Mr. Petukhov that if such a custom of giving free 
relish and herring was in the Soviet Union, the Soviet workers would 
be swarming to dine in such bars. 

Apparently he did not like that remark, and he told me that much 
has changed in the Soviet Union in recent times. 

After that, I left the bar, and Mr. Schatoff and Petukhov remained 
there. 

Mr. Morris. And is there anything else you can tell us about this 
particular episode? 

The Interpreter. No,.not much more. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, that is all the testimony I have here. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Morris, if there are no further witnesses, I 
will recommend that the subcommittee pursue tliis inquiry into the 
activities of Soviet U. N. representatives and that a transcript of these 
hearings be sent to Henry Cabot Lodge, our American Ambassador at 
the U. N. for immediate action. 

If there are no further witnesses, the subcommittee will stand in 
recess until called by the Chair. 



1386 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Senator, before finishing, we have issued a subpena for 
Mrs. Olshansky in connection with the thing that incidentally came 
up during the course of this inquiry, and we have also looked into the 
matter, and at this time we cannot find any evidence at all that there 
was any sign of violence or any sign of kidnaping on the part of any 
Soviet officials. 

The only thing the record shows is that there is a presumption, 
because of his anti-Soviet activities, that he may have gone involun- 
tarily. But I w^ould like the record to show that we have no evidence 
to the contrary. Senator. 

Senator Butler. Very well. 

1^ Whereupon, at 12 : 05 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 25, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the 

Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security 

Laws, of the Co3Imittee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The Subcommittee met, piu'siiant to call, at 11 a. m., in room 121, 
Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner presiding. 

Present : Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel; Benjamin Mandel, director of research; and 
Frank W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Mr. Rusher. This is Mrs. Olshansky. 

Senator Jenner. How do j^ou do 't Will yoii be sworn to testify ? 

Do you swear the testimony given in this hearing will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so helpyou God? 

Mrs. Olshanky. I do. 

]Mr. Rusher. And Mr. Vlad Treml. 

Senator Jenner. Do you swear the testimony given in this hearing 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Treml. I do. 

Mr. Rusher. Senator, before we proceed, will you accept for the 
record five items which I have here to be put in appropriate places in 
the record? They refer to previous hearings. 

Senator Jenner. They will go in the record, and become a part of 
the record at the appropriate place. 

Mr. Rusher. Thank you. 

(The document thus ordered into the record will appear at the con- 
clusion of the testimony of Mr. Treml.) 

Senator Jenner. You may now proceed, counsel, with the ques- 
tioning of the witness. 

Mr, Schroeder. Thank you very much. Senator. 

("VMiereupon, at 11:07 a. m., the subcommittee recessed to recon- 
vene at 11: 10 a. m., in the caucus room. Senate Office Building, the 
same day.) 

TESTIMONY OF GEEDA MARGUERITA OLSHANSKY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the re- 
porter ] 

Mrs. Olshansky. My address is 1418 N Street XW., Washington, 
D.C. , ^ , 

1387 



1388 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mv. Morris. Now, for how long have you been married to Boris 
Olshansky ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. We married in 1948. 

Mr. Morris. And where was that marriage ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. In Regensburg, Bavaria, in Germany. 

Mr. Morris. And what was Mr. Olshansky doing at that time? 

Mrs. Olshansky. We were doing nothing. We had just skipped 
from east to west and got married as soon as possible and we didn't 
have a job then. Just I worked a little bit as a housekeeper. 

Mr. Morris. You were a German national at that time, were you ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And he was an escapee from the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

• Mr. Morris. What had he done in the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. I met my husband as a captain. 

Mr. Morris. He was a captain in the Soviet Army ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And he had escaped, had he, from the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No, not then. In 1945, he was a Soviet captain. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. But how did you leave the Soviet Union after 
1945? 

Mrs. Olshansky. We lived for 2 years in East Germany and were 
under the Soviets. My husband was released from the Army Decem- 
ber, one year, 1946, and he was a teacher in the Russian school there, 
in the Russian high school, a teacher of mathematics. 

Mr. Morris. And he met you and you were married in 1948 ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you come to the United States ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. The 2d of January 1952. 

Mr. Morris. And what was his immigration status ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. DP. 

Mr. Morris. He had DP status. Both of you? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You had not become a citizen, however ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Not yet, no. 

Mr. Morris. You have applied for citizenship ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Had he? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Well, we had our first papers, 

Mr. Morris. Both of you had your first papers ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, while he was in the United States, was he active 
in anti- Soviet work? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes, he did. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us about it to some extent. 

Mrs. Olshansky. My husband sold articles and columns in emi- 
gration papers, and he also wrote articles in American Mercury and 
New Leader, and he also wrote a book about his experience during 
the Second World War. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything more you would like to tell us 
about his anti- Soviet activities ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No ; just his journalistic work. 

Mr. Morris. He testified before at least one congressional commit- 
tee ; did he not ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1389 

Mrs. Olshansky. That is right. He testified — I cannot say it. 

Mr. Morris. That is the committee that was investigating tlie 
Katyn massacre? 

Mrs. Olshansky. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And did he ever express to you any feeling about re- 
turning to tlie Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Well, whenever we talked about it, he always 
knew that he will be hanged in the Soviet Union if ever he returns 
back or if ever he gets caught. At least, he gets 15 years of concen- 
tration camp, and he always knew this and he always expressed this 
to me. 

Mr. Morris. At any time did he ever give any intimation of any 
weakening of his resolve not to go back to the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. He sometimes asked me, if Soviet Kussia becomes 
free of communism and he would go home, if I would go with him. 

Mr. Morris. But not under the present circumstances? ^ 

Mrs. Olshansky. No; not with communism. If ever it becomes 
free, he said, if I would go to Russia with him. I always answered 
that this would be a reason for divorce. So he always knew I re- 
fused to go to Russia. 

Mr. Morris. He did not at any time express a desire to go to the 
Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No ; not at any time. 

Mr. Morris. Or any inclination whatever ? 

Mrs, Olshansky. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was his employment, Mrs. Olshansky ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. We used to live in New York for 1 year. My 
husband worked for the American committee in New York for a while. 

Mr. Morris. Which American committee is that? 

Mrs. Olshansky. I don't know what it is. 

Mr. Epstein, do you know ? 

Mr. Epstein. Ajnerican Committee for the Liberation of Bolshe- 
vism, Radio Liberation. 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Epstein, who happens to be one of the people 
listening to this hearing today, has suggested that it was the Amer- 
ican Committee for the Liberation 

Mr. Epstein. Liberation of Communism. 

Mr. Morris. Liberation of Communism. Is that the organization ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. That is right. 

And later my husband obtained a job here at Georgetown University 
as a teacher of the Russian language, and we moved to Washington. 
He worked there for a year and a half. 

Mr. Morris. "W^iat did he do in Washington ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Well, he was a teacher at the Georgetown Uni- 
versity. Then he lost his job. He was unemployed for a couple of 
months, and then he started to write scripts for Voice of America 
again, and for Free Europe. Besides, he worked in a bookstore at 
14th Street. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he was experiencing financial difficul- 
ties? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 



1390 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, could you tell us how he got his job at George- 
town University ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Mr. Boldyreff. 

Mr. Morris. He helped him get the job ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you last see your husband ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. I saw my husband last time when he went to the 
airport to leave for Montreal. 

Mr. Morris. This is in connection with the assignment that you 
had assumed he was taking up 'i 

Mr. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us when you first heard about that 
assignment ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. That my husband is missing ? 

Mr. Morris. No. He had an offer for a j ob, did he not ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Oh, I see. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us when you first heard about that offer for a 
job? 

Mrs. Olshansky. It was a month ago. My husband said he is 
going to have a better job with a better salary, and I asked him what 
it is. He said it is a job we were talking about since 2 years for the 
paper. Posse v. 

Mr. Morris. Now, who had offered him that job ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Mr. Romarov, in Germany, Frankfurt-am-Main. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when had that offer been made? 

Mrs. Olshansky. We were talking about this for 2 years. I didn't 
let my husband go 2 years ago. I wanted him to wait. Unless he had 
citizenship, I feared he wouldn't come back. 

Mr. Morris. You mean your fear was based on immigration diffi- 
culties, and not for any other reason ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. It is too dangerous for him to live in Germany 
right now, because of the Soviets. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. So you were opposed to his taking this trip, or taking 
this assignment? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Well, my huband did not tell me that he goes to 
Germany. He knew that I would be against it, even right now. He 
said he is going to work for Posse v, but in New York, and maybe later 
on he had to go to Germany for that vrork. So I did not know when 
he had left that he was leaving for Germany, but for New York. 

Mr. Morris. So when he left on June 4, you did not know he was 
en route to Germany ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. 

Mr. Morris. You thought he was going to New York ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. But he told my son that he is going to Ger- 
many, and he has to tell me now that he is on the way to Germany, 
because he did 

Mr. Morris. How old is your son ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. He is 15. 

Mr. Morris. Was he the son of Mr. Olshansky ? 

Mr. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. He is not your son, though, is he, Mrs. Olshansky ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1391 

Mv. Morris. He was the son of Mr. Olshansky by a previous 
marriage '? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

;Mr. Morris. Now, you say that Mr. Olshansky told him 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes, to tell me 

Mr. Morris (continiiino-). To tell you that he had gone to Ger- 
many ? 

Airs. Olshansky. To tell me that he had gone to Germany. 

Mr. Morris. And vou have not seen him since June 4 ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. 

Mr. Morris. Have you heard from him since June 4 ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Not until the last letter we had last week, Tues- 
day. 

Mr. Morris. Tuesday of last week? 

INIrs. Olshansky. Yes, when I received the letter from Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. You received a letter from Moscow ? 
• Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that letter ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. I received one letter which was written to my 
little son, Victor. It was written in Eussian, and he said that he is 
in Moscow now and thinking all the time about his children, his 
family. Then at tlie same time, I had a little paper that the post- 
man' dropped in my post box that I had to pick up a registered letter 
at the post office, and I became suspicious that it miglit be a letter of 
my husband. I went to the post office right away and it was a letter 
from my husband written by himself and had the post stamps from 
Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. And what did he say in that letter ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. He said that he is in Moscow and he asked me 
to follow him with my children right away, not to be afraid and to 
meet my husband in Moscow. He would stay in Moscow and wait 
for my answer. 

Mr. Morris. Have you had any other letter from him ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Just these two, but he mentioned that he wrote 
more letters which obviously I did not receive. 

Mr. Morris. Now, let me see. You say that your son received a 
post card? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you received a registered letter ? 

Mi's. Olshansky. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you have received no other letters ? 

INIrs. Olshansky. No other letters. 

Mr. JMoRRis. Off the record. 

(Discussion off' tlie record.) 

Mr. Morris. Back on the record. 

Now, were both the letter and the post card delivered by the United 
States post office ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. The registered letter had been postmarked 
and delivered by the post office. But the other letter was given to me 
by the lady next door. It had no post stamps. 

]Mr. Morris. The other letter you referred to was a post card? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did that have a postmark on it? 

Mrs. Olshansky. It had no postmark on it ; no. 



1392 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. You say the woman next door gave it to you ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Where did she get it ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. She said it was dropped in her post box. It had 
my address, but it was dropped in her post box. 

Mr. Morris. But it did not have any postmark on it ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. It did not have any postmark on it. 

Mr. Morris. Where are this letter and post card now ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. I gave it to the FBI for copying. 

Mr. Morris. Now, they will return it to you, will they not ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Olshansky, when they return it will you 
allow us to see it in the event that we may want to make photostatic 
copies or examine them for the purpose of this inquiry ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are there any other facts, Mrs. Olshansky, that 
you feel that Senate Internal Security Subcommittee should know in 
trying to determine the circumstances surrounding your husband's 
departure to Moscow ? 

Let us just state for the record here what we are trying to do. This 
Internal Security Subcommittee is trying to determine the nature and 
scope of Soviet activities in the United States. 

Now, if your husband voluntarily returned, if that is the case, we 
would like to know what Soviet officials here may have had an influ- 
ence on him. If, of course, his departure was involuntary, then we 
want to know the circumstances surrounding this involuntary 
departure. 

Mrs. Olshansky. I myself cannot believe my husband went to 
Moscow by himself. There are so many reasons. At first he did love 
his own family very much. 

Mr. Morris. You just relax now, Mrs. Olshansky. I know this 
must be very difficult. 

Mrs. Olshansky. I catch myself up in a minute. 

Mr. Morris. You take your time now. 

Mrs. Olshansky. He was always a good father and worried about 
his children, and if ever he would have to return to Russia, he would 
know in what difficulty he leaves me here. The second reason is that 
he knows what is expecting him. He always knew it. 

Mr. Morris. He knows what awaits him in the Soviet Union? 

Mrs. Olshansky. He would know that there is no life for him ; he 
has to be executed or to live in a concentration camp. He knew this. 
Those are the two reasons. 

Then my husband was very happy to have a job now which gives 
him better pay and gives him — he could support his family better, 
and it was going to be all right here after we made some money and 
we could live happy here. He thought a great lot about the job he 
became at Possev. So I see no reason why my husband should go of 
his own will to Russia. 

And by the way, he also did not take his luggage along to Russia. 
As I remember, when we escaped from East to West my husband did 
not take a suit, nothing with him, but he took his personal souvenirs, 
his letters from our first love letters and the letters of his wife. He 
had them always in his hand. He would not leave them for nothing. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1393 

And now lie just sent them to Germany, as we know his luggage is 
in Germany. 

JMr. Morris. Now, you say he did not take his luggage ? 

Mrs. Olsiianskt. No ; he did not take his luggage. 

Mr. Morris. It is in Germany ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. It is not in Germany. 

Mr. Morris. He took it from home ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. He did take it from home. 

Mr. Morris. Where is his luggage now ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. His luggage is in Bremerhaven, in Germany. 

Mr. Morris. How do you know that ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Just a few days ago the publisher from Possev 
wrote a letter to us. The company of the ship waiits my answer 
what to do with my husband's luggage, to mail it back or what to do 
with it. There are two suitcases in Bremerhaven. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you have gotten word from Possev 
that his baggage arrived in Bremerhaven ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did they tell you by what means, by what route his 
baggage had arrived in Bremerhaven ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. They said it came with the boat, the 
Seven Seas^ exactly the boat my husband was supposed to take to 
Germany. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you do now know that he booked pas- 
sage on the liner Seven Seas? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. He intended to go with the boat, the Seven 
Seas, to Germany. 

Mr. Morris. How do you know that ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Because his luggage was on the boat, and my 
husband cannot have too much time here. He left here the 4th of 
June and the boat was supposed to leave the 5th of June. So he 
just shortly arrived in Montreal, and he just could place his luggage 
on the boat and he had to leave the other. That is my own theory. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he have his baggage personally with him 
when he left on the 4th, or had he sent his baggage on ahead ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. When he left, he had two suitcases. 

Mr. Morris. And those were the two suitcases ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes ; the ones that are at Bremerhaven. 

Mr. Morris. And you do not have any independent knowledge 
whether he himself was on the ship to Bremerhaven ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. I don't know anything where he 

Mr. Morris. "\Aniat line operates the Seven Seas? 

Mrs. Olshansky. I couldn't find out. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything else that you feel you should 
tell the committee at this time, Mrs. Olshansky? Have you heard 
from the Possev people in Germany other than the notification that 
his baggage had arrived ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. No. They wrote a letter about 5 weeks after 
my husband was missing. They informed me that my husband did 
not arrive in Germany and that they fear my husband has been 
attacked by the Kussians and something happened to him. They 
asked me to report it right away and to ask for help and to search 
for my husband. 



1394 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I reported it right away to the FBI, but we could not find anything 
out until we had the letter from Moscow. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mrs. Olshansky, the staff of the committee now 
has your telephone number and you have the number of the sub- 
committee ; have you not ? 

Mrs. Olshanskt. Not yet ; no. 

Mr. Morris. We will give it to you. And if anything develops 
on this, will you call us, Mr. Schroeder here 

Mrs. Olshanskt. T shall. 

Mr. Morris (continuing) . Who will see that you have our number 
and how you can reach us day and night. If there are any develop- 
ments, will you keep us informed ? 

Mrs. Olshansky. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you come forward, Mr. Treml ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes. And may I have this with me ? 

Mr. Morris. Surely. 

TESTIMONY OF VLAD TREML, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Treml, will you give your full name and address 
to the reporter ? 

Mr. Treml. Vlad Treml. 

Mr. Morris. 'Wliere do you reside ? 

Mr. Treml. At 247 Vermont Street, apartment 16, Brooklyn 7, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your occupation ? 

Mr. Treml. I am a graduate student at Columbia University, and I 
have a part-time job at night in a brokerage house. 

Mr. Morris. ^\1iere were you born, Mr. Treml ? 

Mr. Treml. I was born in the Soviet Union, at Kharkov. 

Mr. Morris. And you left the Soviet Union during the war ; did you 
not? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in Germany during the years 1944 to 1950 ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work for the International Refugee Organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. For what period of time ? 

Mr. Treml. For 3 years. 

Mr. INIoRRis. And then what else did you do in Germany ? 

Mr. Treml. I worked for the Technical Intelligence Branch, Euro- 
pean Command, United States Army. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do for them ? 

Mr. Treml. I was a monitor. I was monitoring the Soviet broad- 
casts, interpreting, and I was reading the news. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Treml. In April 1950. 

Mr. Morris. Have you served in the military forces of the United 
States? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. For 2 years I was serving with the United 
States Marine Corps. 

Mr. Morris. And what rank did you have ? 

Mr. Treml. I was honorably discharged with the rank of corporal. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1395 

Mr. MoRius. What branch of service were you in in the marines? 
Wliat section of the marines ? 

Mr. Treml. I was attached to the G-2, Intelligence Section of the 
lleachiuarters of the 2(1 Division, and 1 Avas instructor on connnunism, 
Soviet weapons, Soviet xVrmy, and Soviet economics for the intelli- 
gence scliool of the division. 

Mr. MoRKis. Where was the Headquarters of the 2d Marine Divi- 
sion ? 

Mr. Treml. Camp Lejenne, X. C. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted Avith an organization called the 
National Alliance of Russian Solidarists ^ 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. In Russian this organization is called the 
NTS, and I am a member of the NTS since 1946. 

Mr. Morris. You are married ; are you not, Mr. Theml ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes ; I am married. 

Mr. Morris. And you have how many children? 

Mr. Treml. One child. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Treml, do you know Mr. Boris Olshansky? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. I know Mr. Boris Olshansky personally. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. When did you first meet Boris Olshansky ? 

Mr. Treml. I don't exactly remember the year, but this was a few 
weeks after his arrival in this country, when I was assigned by the 
NTS to help him find an apartment in Brooklyn. 

INIr. Morris. Have you seen him regularly since that time ? 

Mr. Treml. A few times, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Could you tell the committee anything about Mr. 
Olshansky that may be helpful in connection with this present inquiry 
into the circumstances surrounding his recent departure from the 
United States and his appearance in Moscow ? 

Mr. Tre:ml. Yes, sir. First, I would like to give the committee 
a few details about his planned trip to Germany and the assignment 
he took with the newspaper, Possev. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are j'ou acquainted with those details? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir; I am acquainted, and I am officially author- 
ized to speak on behalf of the United States branch of the NTS. 

Mr. Morris. You are authorized to speak here today? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what the NTS is, in connection with 
Mr. Olshansky ? What is the relationship between Mr. Olshansky and 

the NTS? 

Mr. Treml. About a year ago INIr. Olshansky suggested that he 
would go to Germany to work for the NTS neAvspaper, Possev, in 
Frankfurt, Germany, and for several months there were several 
exchanges of letters, and then finally the editor of Possev accepted 
his proposal and arrangements Avere made for his transfer to Ger- 
many, where he was supposed to live in Frankfurt and work just 
as a regular staff writer, staff journalist, at Possev and for the maga- 
zine Grani. 

The NTS knew Mr. Olshansky as a very gifted journalist and a 
crifted writer. Here is the book he published, a very interesting, 
fiercely anti-Communist book, "We Come From the East." This 
would be the English translation of it. 

Besides this, Mr. Olshansky was known that he had written various, 
from my point of A'iew, excellent anti-Communist articles in Russian 



1396 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

emigrant newspapers. He was broadcasting and lie was writing 
scripts for Voice of America. In general, he was known as a very 
gifted writer and as an anti-Communist. And lie accepted the pro- 
posal that he would be working for Possev for 350 deutschemarks — 
that is German currency — per month, which is the regular salary 
in Frankfurt, where everybody receives the same sum. 

In addition to this, the NTS agreed to pay $100 monthly support 
for his wafe and children, who were supposed to stay in Washington, 
D. C., and the NTS agreed to pay all his expenses incurred during 
his trip to Germany. 

Mr. Morris. They would pay his expenses and pay his wife $100 a 
month in Washington? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, as long as he is employed by Possev in Frankfurt. 

Arrangements were made for Mr. Olshansky to go to Germany on 
May 11, 1956. 

Mr. Morris. The arrangements for him to depart on May 11, or 
arrangements were made on May 11 for him to depart? 

Mr. Treml. No ; for him to depart on May 11. But he could not 
get everything cleared with the immigration office. And the trip was 
postponed until June the 4tli, and he was supposed to leave on the 
steamship Seven Seas, Happag-Lloyd Lines. They are the travel 
agency which was assigned — the Happag-Lloyd sent the tickets for 
the sea voyage from Germany. The tickets were purchased in Frank- 
furt and sent to Mr. Olshansky. And on June the 4th, Mr. Olshansky 
was supposed to leave Washington, D. C, by plane to Montreal, 
Canada. 

Mr. Morris. He was supposed to leave Washington ? 

Mr. Treml. He was supposed to leave Washington, D. C. I have 
a letter from him, not addressed to me, but addressed to Mr. Samarin, 
who is the head of the United States branch of the NTS, and the let- 
ter said that he is ready to depart. 

Mr. Morris. That was mailed from Washington ? 

Mr. Treml. It was postmarked in Washington. As a matter of 
fact, I have two letters. The first one — the first sentence is: "I am 
writing this letter 3 hours before departure." 

The second letter is just that he received some money; he thanks, 
and he shakes Mr. Samarin's hand, "sincerely yours, yours truly." 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you make these available for our record? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir, these and 

Mr. Morris. Now, just put the portions in the record that may be 
relevant to this inquiry. There is some personal material in the let- 
ter ; is there not ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. If it is put into the published record, we will take 
those personal things out that do not relate to the subject of this in- 
quiry. 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you have any reason to believe that he did not 
go directly from Washington to Montreal ? 
^Mr. Treml. In his letter he says that his plane would stop in New 
York, but for such a short period that he won't be able to see Mr. 
Samarin. I was not able to get anything out of the airlines. So I 
have no information about whether he actually did go to Montreal or 
not. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES ] 397 

Mr. Morris. In other words, no inquiries were made at this time 
as to whether or not he left the plane at New York when it stopped '? 

Mr. Treml. Not by us. 

May I just present a few more facts? 

Mr. Morris. By all means. 

Mr. Treml. Then on June 26, we received a telegram from Frank- 
furt telling us that Mr. Olshansky did not arrive in Bremerhaven on 
the ship, tlie Seven Seas. We immediately notified the proper author- 
ities about his being missing, and started to conduct inquiries, trying 
to check on his whereabouts. 

Recently, about a week ago, we received a telegram and then a 
letter from Germany that his luggage arrived in Bremerhaven. 

Mr. Morris. Was Bremerhaven the port that the Seven Seas was 
to go into ? 

Mr. Treml. The destination ; yes, sir. 

The question might arise why it would take so long, from June 5 
until July 9, because a sea voyage to Europe takes about 5 or 6 days. 
This was a very small line which stopped at various points between, 
like Quebec and various other cities. 

Mr. Morris. Have you checked from the steamship line whether 
or not he was ever on the ship ? 

Mr. Treml. He had never entered the ship, and neither did he cancel 
his reservation, which he had on the ship. 

Mr. Morris. But the baggage did arrive ? 

Mr. Treiml. The baggage did arrive. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ascertain how the baggage arrived aboard 
ship? 

Mr. Treivil. No, we could not. All we know is that the steamship 
told our agent in Bremerhaven that he never boarded the ship again. 
Neither up to the present moment did the ticket turn up any place. It 
was neither canceled nor sent back nor cashed. At least, the travel 
agency which usually arranges for all our trips didn't receive the 
ticket. 

Mr. MoREis. When you say "never boarded the ship again," you 
mean "never boarded the ship" ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes ; never boarded the ship. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Treml, do you know of anyone who saw 
Mr. Olshansky after he had boarded the airliner in Washington, 
June 4 ? 

Mr. Treml. We were told by Mr. Rudolph 

Mr. Morris. That is Colonel Rudolph ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes; Colonel Rudolph, who works for Radio Libera- 
tion, that he received a call allegedly from Mr. Olshansky, but Mr. 
Rudolph was not home at that time, and the landlady just took down 
the name. Unfortunately, Mr. Rudolph doesn't remember the exact 
day, or at least he didn't remember when he told us, but all he can 
remember was that this was after June 10. 

Mr. Morris. That was the day that Mr. Rudolph was in Wash- 
ington? 

Mr. Treml. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rudolph also has stated, has he not — at least, he 
has told me this on the telephone, and I am asking you if you know 
anything about it — that his landlady was a person who would not 
recognize Mr. Olshansky's voice if she heard it ? 



1398 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Treml. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. You don't know. 

Now, is there anyone else who saw or heard from Mr. Olshansky 
while he was in New York or in Montreal 'I 

Mr. Treml. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. Or any place else in the United States ? 

Mr. Treml. No, sir. We checked with various members of the NTS 
in New York and in Montreal in our group, and nobody either saw 
or heard from Mr. Olshansky in this period between the 4th and the 
present day. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything else, Mr. Treml, that you can 
tell the subcommittee with respect to this inquiry that we are making, 
surrounding the circumstances of his disappearance to Moscow ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes. We want to present our interpretation. Of 
course, we cannot be sure, because we do not know all the facts. 

Mr. Morris. But what you have told us up to now are direct facts 
that you know ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you would like to present to the committee your 
interpretation ? 

Mr. Treml. My interpretation, and a few more either facts or a few 
more points from his letter which may be enlightening. 

Mr. Morris. Proceed, Mr. Treml. 

Mr. Treml. In the first place, since we are more or less well in- 
formed about the methods and the purposes of the activities of the 
Soviet agents in the United States, it would surprise us very much if 
Mr. Olshansky was a Soviet agent. 

Mr. Morris. You mean, you are considering the possibility that he 
has been a Soviet agent through the years ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes. If he was a Soviet agent, he would be most defi- 
nitely told to go to Frankfurt, at least for several weeks, because, from 
various sources, we know that the Soviet Government is highly op- 
posed to our organization, and this would give the Soviet Government 
a wonderful propaganda weapon if Olshansky would go to Frankfurt 
and then go to the Soviet Union. 

In addition to this, if Mr. Olshansky was a Soviet agent, he would, 
of course, bring some material to Moscow, like addresses, names, and 
possibly pictures from Frankfurt. This is one reason to believe that 
he was not a Soviet agent, and he didn't go of his own will. 

Mr. Morris. Of course, you base that on just the facts that are avail- 
able to you ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Without raising any issue about what things could 
have happened. If that was the case, and purely suppositious, he 
could have learned that his identity was known and he might have 
made a fast departure. So it does not rule it out completely. 

Mr. Treml. It is possible. 

The second reason is this. If he wanted his wife to be in Moscow 
with him, why clidn't he take her and his children together with him, 
because it is quite normal that anybody in this country can declare 
his intention to return to the country of origin. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Treml, his wife's views on her refusal to go to 
Moscow were pretty well known. 

Mr. Treml, So were 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1399 

Mr. Morris. In fact, you heard her testimony here today that under 
no circumstances woulcf she ever consent. In fact, when he left here, 
he had to leave on the assumption, until he told her, that he was going 
only to New York, and not to (lermany. 

But continue, Mr. Treml. 

Mr. Treml. Mv. Olshansl^y, of course, knew quite well what he 
should expect in the Soviet Union. As a matter of fact, he told on 
various occasions to our NTS members about the future of those who 
are foolish enough to return to the Soviet Union. So he was well 
aware of the fact that he would be punished and possibly sentenced to 
years in prison or a concentration camp, and so on.^ 

Now, there are a few points about his marriage life. 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute, now. Off the record. 

(Discussion oft' the record.) 

Mr. Morris. Proceed. 

Mr. Treml. According to what we know, he lived separately from 
his wife, and they had certain difficulties in the past for which he was 
to blame, as far as we know. 

Mr. Olshansky had certain human Aveaknesses and his married life 
in the last few years was not exactly a happy one. There are reasons 
to believe that he was influenced in his decision to go to Germany 
by his desire either forever to part with his wife or at least to sepa- 
rate for some time. In a letter which I would present to the com- 
mittee for the record, he asks us not to reveal to his wife his destination, 
that he is going to write to her personally. Then he makes a comment 
about the generally strange nature of this woman who was so dear 
to him, but who made his life so difficult. 

Now again, it would be very strange if Mr. Olshansky, after his 
arrival in Moscow, would suddenly change his mind and invite his 
wife to join him in ^loscow. 

Mr. Morris. You are making reference to the fact that his letter, 
which has become known to you, urged his wife to come to Moscow ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

If we assume that Mr. Olshansky was a Soviet agent and went 
volmitarily, for a few weeks, at least, he would be a celebrity in Mos- 
cow, and nobody would approach him with any requests to write a 
letter against his will. 

Now, I believe that this letter was, according to all the evidence 
we have, written against his will. It was just directly dictated to 
him. 

Mr. Morris. You feel that because his wife and he were, in fact, 
separated, that an invitation to her to come there did not properly 
reflect the attitude that you knew at the time ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

In addition to this, in this letter — I have not seen the letter, but 
I was told that in this letter he requests her to send his luggage from 
Washington to Moscow. Now, since we know that he took all of his 
belongings with him to Canada, this is interpreted, at least by his 
wife, as she told us, that he wants her not to believe this letter, because 
it is a known fact that he didn't leave anything behind in Wash- 
ington ; that, in general, this is a confused letter which does not cor- 
respond either to the facts, nor would reflect the true family relations. 
Mr. Morris. We will have the letter, Mr. Treml. 



72723— 56— pt 25- 



1400 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Olshansky, as you heard, has told us that when she receives 
the letter from the FBI, it will be made available to us. And if the 
point is as you say it is, it is certain that the committee will look 
into it. 

Mr. Treml. Now, what could have happened, in our opinion, is 
this. Mr. Olshansky was an anti- Communist and was a gifted person, 
an intelligent person, but he had certain weaknesses and he had many 
difficulties, in this country especially. He could not adjust himself 
to life in the United States. He changed various jobs and various 
positions. He always had financial difficulties. 

I personally was in contact with him for about half a year when he 
was asking me to arrange for him to be employed by the stockbroker 
I work for, and at least on the phone he just sounded desperate, "We 
are just about starving, no money, no position," and so on. 

Now, I quote from his letter of February 25, 1956. 

Mr. Morris. His letter to you ? 

Mr. TREaiL,. A letter to Mr. Samarin. All these letters are to Mr. 
Samarin. 

If I am going to stay in this country for 1 or 2 more years, I am going to go 
down. The only way out for me is to go to Germany to work. 

According to the entire letter, the work he makes reference to is 
the work for the NTS. 

In the next letter, he refers to work in Possev as the "searchlight 
of my life." That is a direct translation. 

Mr. Morris. This indicated to you that he was very anxious to take 
up this job in Germany ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes. And in another letter he calls the departure and 
the work in Germany the "present purpose" of his life. 

We were aware of certain weaknesses in his character, and we, of 
course, in a polite form, warned him about the conditions in Frank- 
furt, and that 350 deutschemarks is not very much, and that the people 
worked very hard in Frankfurt, and so on, and that he would have to 
adjust himself. And I believe he personally was thinking of his trip 
to Germany as the last resort, the last chance he had. 

Now, if any blackmail or anything interfered with his doing his 
trip, if, for instance, he became intoxicated or anything which could 
put some blame on his name, he would probably know that the NTS 
would cancel the entire arrangement, and, of course, then, according 
to the letter, according to the interpretation that he gave of this, 
according to all the hopes he had about this job, he could become quite 
desperate. 

Now, his two weaknesses he had could have made him a very easy 
target for the Soviet intelligence agents here. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me, did he have the reputation of drinking? Is 
that the weakness you referred to ? 

Mr. Tkeml. Yes, sir ; at least, I heard it from several of his friends, 
and it was claimed. He was not an alcoholic or not a drunkard, but 
he was seen intoxicated several times. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything else, Mr. Treml, any other facts 
that you think we should have in connection with this inquiry ? 

Mr. Treml. I would just like to mention the fact that I have just 
finished to prepare a special report for the Tolstoy Foundation in New 
York about the entire Soviet redefection campaign, and I believe this 
report would show a quite impressive Soviet intelligence net, at least 
in large metropolitan centers. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1401 

Mr. Morris. Now, is that report almost ready ? 

Mr. Treml. The report is ready in a draft iorm and is being edited 
now. 

Mr. Morris. "VVlien will you have that ? 

Mr. Treml. I would say in a few days, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you otfer that just as soon as you have it, for 
our record? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And that will be in a few days ? 

Mr. Treml. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. «Tust as soon as you have that ready, will you notify us? 

Mr. Treml. I do not know whether the subcommittee might be in- 
terested 

Mr. Morris. This is off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this, Mr. Treml. Has Mr. Olshansky ever 
actually worked for the NTS ? 

Mr. Treml. He has only written several articles for the Possev, but 
he was never actually working for the NTS, nor was he a member of 
the NTS. 

Mr, Morris. Thank you very much, Mr. Treml. 

^Whereupon, at 12 : 05 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 

(The following documents, two letters from refugees and a press 
release of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee dated March 
13, were ordered into the record at a meeting of the subcommittee on 
June 26:) 

New Yobk, June S, 1956. 

Mr. ROBEET MOKEIS, 

Chiei Counsel, Internal Security Subcommittee, 
The Senate, Washington, D. C: 

We are very glad that you, dear Senator, most honorable President of the 
United States of America, and the majority of honorable Congressmen wish to 
help us. We don't doubt that you have the best intentions. I am in the same 
position as many others. I had a talk with 4 Communist agents: 2 Russians 
and 2 residents of South America. There was no pressure ; there were only 
explanations. Although they do have some trump cards against me, I know from 
past experience that they are not going to use them as long as I am not too 
active. The agents spoke to me in a friendly manner. They probably were in- 
formed about my temper. Besides, I don't walk around emptyhanded. 

Dear Senator, I cannot appear before you because after that I will become 
an illegal resident. At once some of the so-called legal but actually dark 
forces who were responsible for the death of millions in Austria, Germany, 
Korea, Vietnam, and the United States of America, will start proceedings against 
me. At present we are law-abiding citizens. It is safer this way. And now 
N. Khrushchev's visit to the United States is expected. God knows how all this 
will end. I noticed only one thing : that Washington actions forced the Comin- 
form agents to withdraw. Even the number of the house of the local branch of 
the Michailov repatriation committee was recently rubbed off. 
Very truly yours, 

[Signature illegible.] 



June 15, 1956. 

To Whom It May Concern: 

I am suffering with "Berezovski sickness." Here is a short autobiography of 
my tragical life. This is what made me change my name and birthplace. 

I am White Russian but in all my papers I wrote that I was born in Poland. 

I was born in a small village and was educated in a public school. I was 
raised in middle-class family. 

In 1929 it was the beginning of sending people to concentration camps. My 
first relatives to be sent were Peter and his family of 13 members — 8 of them died 
in the concentration camp. 



1402 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

In 1930 my father and sister were on the way to Siberia but they escaped and 
lived on forged papers. In that same year my aunt was sent to Siberia but a 
group of five people, including her, escaped. She also lived on false papers. 

The others were not as fortunate as those who escaped. In 1930 my brother- 
in-law was sent to concentration camp in Far East. My uncle, in 1930, was 
sent to concentration camp at Vladivostok for 5 years. 

In 1935 my other uncle was sent to concentration camp at Karand. He was 
sent on NKVD line for 5 years. In 1937 my aunt was sent to concentration camp 
at Marinsk, Siberia, for 10 years on NKVD line. 

Many of my close relatives were shot by the Communists. In 1942 my 8-year- 
old cousin and 70-year-old uncle were shot by the Communists. In that same 
year my aunt and second cousin were shot by the Communists. 

In Germany, I and 12 other members of our family worked on a farm. In 
December of 1944, Soviet Army was coming to that farm ; I and four members 
of my family escaped to the region where American Army occupied. The other 
eight members were lost and by this day I don't know what has happened to 
them. 

After the war I had to change my name and birthplace from AVhite Russia to 
Poland. I done this because for me and my family there was a danger of forced 
deportation to U. S. S. R. After my change I and my family were accepted into 
Polish camp. 

We came into United States on a false name. We would like very much to 
become citizens of the United States. We live in United States and obey all laws 
and pay all the taxes. I always be ready to take arms against Communists. 

I am asking the Congress of the United States to look at my hardship. 

If you want more information I will be glad to give it to you. You can send 
any message to be published in Novoye Russkoye Slovo, 243 West 56th Street, 
New York 19, N. Y. I will be looking for it. 

Thank you. 



Washington, March 13. — Senator James O. Eastland, Democrat, Mississippi, 
said today he had been assured that a deportation order against Klaus Samueli 
Romppanen, a former ammunitions inspector for the Finnish Army, will be 
reviewed. 

Romppanen was scheduled to sail for his homeland tomorrow. 

Senator Eastland said he had been assured by the oflSce of Gen. J. M. Swing, 
Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, that the deportation order 
will be stayed until it can be reviewed by the Commissioner's office. 

A statement which appeared in the press on March 9 said Romppanen had 
turned over, to the United States Defense Department, official documents con- 
cerning Communist activities in Helsinki. 

Senator Eastland, who is chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee and 
of its Internal Security Subcommittee, said he has asked Commissioner Swing to 
determine the truth or falsity of the statement. 

"I feel," he said, "that the circulation of such a statement could be harmful 
to the security of this country. Accordingly, I asked Commissioner Swing to 
make a careful review of the case and to advise the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee of his findings. 

"I was informed by his office today that this will be done." 

(The following article from the New York Times was ordered mtn 
the record at a meeting of the subcommittee on July 25 :) 

[New York Times, July 20, 1956] 
Armenians Seek To Return to United States 

EMIGRES WHO WENT TO SOVIET IN 1947-49 ASK EISENHOWER TO HELP THEM 

COME BACK 

By Harry Schwartz 

From Erivan in Soviet Armenia has come a dramatic appeal to President Eisen- 
hower to permit the return to the United States of a group of Armenians who 
emigrated to the Soviet Union during 1947-49. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1403 

The appeal was given in Erivau to a New York businessman who visited 
there recently as a member of a delegation to the Soviet Union. The American, 
who requested anonymity, returned here this week. 

"We now appeal to the magnanimity of tlie Government of tlie United States, 
to forgive us, its errant children, who want to return home," the handwritten 
appeal says. "We feel we have paid the penalty of our mistake and we did our 
American-born children a great injustice in depriving them of their right to live 
as Americans." 

The document explains why these former Americans wish to return home 
in these words : 

"We have gone through all manner of hardships and discrimination to maintain 
our sustenance, but the greatest of our suffering has been the lack of freedom 
and justice. It is solely this reason for which we and our children cannot 
adapt ourselves to this mode of life and remain here. 

"Many among us tried to get in touch with our Ambassador since 1948, for 
which attempt they were arrested and exiled from 10 to 15 years, often without 
trial. Included were young boys of 17, a young girl of 18, and a woman. 

FEAR IS EXPRESSED 

The fear of the group that sent the petition is expressed in one paragraph : 

"In closing we plead for precaution and not to expose us to publicity^ until such 
time as you think safe. For the threat of Siberia is ever imminent. Also, if 
you ever hear or receive anything that we are not desirous to return, please 
understand that such a paper has been forged or forced upon us." 

The New Yorker who brought back the appeal explained he had decided to 
make it public because of his hope that publicity might enable congressional 
action to be taken to help the disillusioned former Americans. He sent the appeal 
yesterday to a State Department oflScial for transmission to President Eisenhower. 

In Erivan, the businessman, he was told that about 300 persons had gone to 
Soviet Armenia from the United States. The adults are believed to have given 
up their United States citizenship and become Soviet citizens, but it is believed 
that the minor children who accompanied them retained their United States 
citizenship. 

"I talked to about 30 of these people in Erivan," the New Yorker said. "They 
were from Boston, Philadelphia, New York, and other cities and were desperately 
anxious to know about the United States and their hometowns. 

"Their condition was heart-rending. They earn from 350 to 550 rubles a month. 
On that pay scale a day's wages are just enough to buy a pound and a half of 
sugar. Their wives all have to work and one wife made 300 rubles a month, I 
was told. One woman told me she had sold everything she had, including her 
wedding ring, in order to survive." 

SOME HAVE ADJUSTED 

He added that he had been told a few of the former Americans had adjusted 
and were satisfied. The leader of one of the groups of emigrants is now an 
important figure in Soviet Armenia and a member of the Armenian supreme court. 

Some of the emigrants admitted they had been members of the Communist 
Party in the United States, the New Yorker said. They also told of having been 
promised they could return to the United States within 2 years if they did not 
like Soviet Armenia. But after their arrival and disillusionment they found 
there was no way to return. 

One United States Government oflicial aware of the appeal said its publication 
might have a powerful deterrent effect on the present Soviet campaign to induce 
former Soviet and eastern European citizens to return home. 

The New Yorker reported that he had been told by the United States Embassy 
In Moscow that its personnel were not i)ermitted to go to Armenia and therefore 
had no way of getting into contact with the would-be repatriates. 

Several months ago when Christian Pineau, French Foreign Minister, visited 
Erivan he was besieged in the streets by Armenians who had emigrated from 
France and who begged him to help them return there. 

A visitor to Erivan last October met several former Americans who similarly 
pleaded they be allowed to return to the United States. They painted a grim 
picture of hunger and oppression and declared themselves to have been fools to 
have believed Soviet promises and to have emigrated. One of them said ; 



1404 SCCJPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

"I was a GI in World War II. I jnst hope United States troops march in here 
and when they do I am going to go back on active duty by reporting to the nearest 
commanding officer." 

(The following documents Avere entered in the record during the 
foregoing hearing, in addition to others which have been attached to 
testimony to which they referred and therefore appear in other printed 
volumes. Correspondence relating to the subcommittee's report on 
recording of jury deliberations, published July 12, 1956: (1) Letter 
July 15, Chairman Eastland to Attorney General Herbert Brownell, 
Jr., submitting report as directed by subcommittee; (2) acknowledge- 
ment by Deputy Attorney General William P. Kogers:) 

July 10, 1956. 
Hon. Heebebt Beownell, Jr., 

Attorney General of the United States, 

Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 
Deab Mb. Attorney General : I herewith enclose a transcript of the record and 
a report thereon by the Internal Security Subcommittee of the recent investiga- 
tion into the recording of jury deliberations. 
I call your attention to the recommendation of the subcommittee which reads : 
"That the transcript of these hearings be submitted to the Attorney General 
of the United States for his examination and determination as to whether any 
violation of the law occurred during the operation of this project by the University 
of Chicago." 

On January 9, 1956, I introduced S. 2S87 (to further protect and assure the 
privacy of grand or petit juries in the courts of the United States while such juries 
are deliberating or voting), which passed the Senate and is now before the 
House Judiciary Committee. I am also enclosing a copy of this bill, together 
with the report thereon. 

Very sincerely yours, 

James O. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Suicommittee. 



United States Department of Justice, 
Office of the Deputy Attorney General, 

Washington, D. C, July 17, 1956. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Senator : On behalf of the Attorney General I wish to acknowledge and 
thank you for your letter of July 10, enclosing a transcript of record and ac- 
companying report thereon of the recent investigation by the Internal Security 
Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary into the recording of 
jury deliberations and also a copy of your bill (S. 2887), to further protect and 
assure the privacy of grand or petit juries in the courts of the United States 
while such juries are deliberating or voting, and the report of your committee 
thereon. 

This matter wiU receive careful consideration by this Department. 
Sincerely, 

William P. Rogers, 
Deputy Attorney General. 

Department of Justice, 

Criminal Division, 
Washington, July 25, 1956. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 
United States Senate, 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Dear Senator : This will reply to your letter of July 10, 1956, forwarding to 
the Attorney General a transcript of the record and report of the Senate Internal 
Security Subcommittee's investigation of the recording of jury deliberations. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1405 

The hearings do not disclose any conduct in violation of existing Federal criminal 
laws. 

On January 6, 1956, the Attorney General addressed letters to the Vice Presi- 
dent and the Speaker of the House of Representatives transmitting proposed 
legislation to make it a criminal offense to eavesdrop upon or record in any 
manner the deliberations or proceedings of Federal juries. In submitting the 
proposed legislation, the communications stated that there is no Federal rule 
or statute which now specifically prohibits eavesdropping upon the proceedings 
or deliberations of Federal juries. 

With respect to S. 2887 which passed the Senate on March 26, 1956, the 
Deputy Attorney General in a letter to the chairman of the House Committee on 
the Judiciary on April 16, 1956, urged favorable consideration of that bill. 
Sincerely, 

Warren Olney III, 
Assistant Attorney General. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, JULY 27, 1956 

United States Senate, 
suhcommittee to investigate the administration 

OF THE Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 34 a. m., in room 
232, Senate Office Building, Senator Arthur V. Watkins presiding. 

Present: Senator Watkins (presiding). 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
administrative counsel ; and Frank W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Watkins. The committee will now be in session. 

Mr. Martin, do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about 
to give the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee is the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. IVIartin. I do. 

Senator Watkins. You may continue with the hearing. 

TESTIMONY OF NICHOLAS N. MAETIN, DETROIT, MICH. 

Mr. Morris. What is your name, sir ? 

Mr. M.\RTiN. Nicholas N. Martin, M-a-r-t-i-n. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Martin. At 17922 Brush Street, Detroit 3, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Martin. I am promoting the American Eagle spark plugs for 
the American Eagle Corp. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you are a salesman ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, salesman and public-relations man for the com- 
pany. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been the controller of a Rumanian church 
in Detroit ? 

Mr. M2VRTIN. Pardon me ; wouldn't it be better to give the name of 
the church ? 

Mr. Morris. I am asking you. What is the answer ? 

Mr. ^Iartin. I was the controller of the Holy Trinity Church, 1799 
State Fair Street, Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. And when were you the controller ? 

Mr. IVIartin. 1954 ; just 1 year. 

Mr. Morris. What were your duties when you held that office ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, just checking the books, auditing the books to 
see that the finances of the church are in good standing. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a Bishop Moldovanu? 



Mr. Martin. Yes; I do. 



1407 



1408 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Who is Bishop Moldovanu ? 

Mr. Martin. He is the canonical bishop of the Rumanian Orthodox 
diocese of the United States and Canada, but there are very few 
parishes that recognize him as such, for the reason of having been 
ordained in Rumania in 1950, while the Holy Synod was under the 
domination of the Communist government. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Martin, was the church to which you were 
controller under the see of the Rumanian Orthodox bishop 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. That you have just described? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Was that one of the churches that recognized his 
supremacy ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. It was? 

Mr. Martin. It was. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any dealings, direct or indirect, with the 
bishop while you were acting as controller to that church ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Have you met him personally ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; I know him since 1923, ever since he came to this 
country. 

Mr. Morris. Now, we have had testimony from Princess Ileana, 
who said that the man has been — I don't think she used the word 
"technically," but she said that he was a Communist. 

Now, do you know anything about his activities which would indi- 
cate that he has been working for the Communists ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, in my association with Bishop Moldovanu, prior 
to his ordination as bishop, I always found him a good American and 
a good Rumanian. 

After he was ordained as a bishop in 1950, I naturally held the 
position, even though we didn't have a bishop, but we had somebody 
that held — like vicar, he held the seat of bishop, and I was the adviser 
to the diocese and the bishop, and also the editor of the diocese news- 
paper, Solia. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that for the reporter? 

Mr. Martin. The newspaper Solia, S-o-l-i-a. 

Now, during the time that I was associated with him, until about 
late 1954, they could not demonstrate much of sympathy toward the 
Communists, and I did not notice. They may have made efforts, but 
if it had been done, it was done behind my back. They knew that I 
was very much anticommunistic, and also wrote against the Com- 
munists, and reported them, and one thing and another, but somehow 
during the year 1952, while I was in the hospital for 2 months, for 
2 major operations, instead of them continuing to publish my paper, 
because Solia was suspended, the publication, instead of continuing 
to publish my paper, the Rumanian Tribune, they started publishing 
a paper called Credinta, C-r-e-d-i-n-t-a, The Faith, in English. 

Mr. Morris. When you say they published that paper, who do you 
mean by "they"? 

Mr. Martin. Bishop Moldovanu and Glicherie Moraru. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that for the reporter ? 

Mr. Martin. The first name is G-1-i-c-h-e-r-i-e ; the last name is 
M-o-r-a-r-u. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1409 

The reason for that, I suspected it then, T\as because -while I was 
editor and publisher of this paper, they could not tell me what to do, 
I just run it the way I thought best for all concerned, the diocese and 
our country. 

So, while they started this paper, Bishop Moldovanu had stated that 
it was Moraru's ideas and deeds to start this paper, and discontinue 
mine. 

Of course, I didn't have to discontinue mine because of them, but I 
discontinued because it couldn't be financed by the general public of the 
diocese. 

And, while they started the paper, they left my name out altogether. 

Mr. Morris. You weren't even an editor? 

Mr. ]\'L\RTiN. No ; so I wouldn't have anything to say at the paper. 

Mr. Morris. That was after 1950 ? 

Mr. Martin. This was 1952, when they started. 

So, I let them run it their own way. 

In 195-1, during the election — congressional election. Senators, and 
one thing and another — I used the paper, the Credinta, at giving some 
advertising to some of my friends, and also write up — like Senator 
Ferguson, Homer Ferguson, and Congressman George A. Dondero and 
Congressman Louis Rabaut. So, in a couple of those articles I 
wanted to accredit to Senator Ferguson and George Dondero their 
anticommunistic activities and credit them that they always were 
anti-Communist and pretty good workers for Rumania and against 
the Communist government. 

And, at the time, I noticed that they left out the most important 
words of exposing and attacking Communists. 

Mr. Morris. Maybe they left it out because it was political. 

Mr. Martin. Well, they had no riglit; all they could do is to tell 
me that they couldn't publish it, and if I wanted to 

Mr. Morris. You feel if that was the case, they should have told you 
so? 

Mr. JVIartin. Absolutely, because I was a newspaperman. That's 
the duty. If you don't publish a thing the way it is handed to you, 
you can't take the responsibility of making any correction, which they 
did. 

And, when I received a copy for proofreading, I asked them for the 
manuscript. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this, Mr. INIartin. Was there any sign that this 
Credinta was pro-Communist in orientation ? 

Mr. jVIartin. Well, I wouldn't sa;^ it was pro-Communist, but I 
wouldn't, either, say that it was anti, because they never published 
anything attacking or exposing the communistic activity in Rumania 
or elsewhere, but they kept kind of quiet. In other words, approving 
of their deeds. 

Mr. Morris. It being a church publication, they possibly felt that 
they shouldn't go into the things that they considered might possibly 
be political? 

Mr. Martin. Well, you can have the pretense, but it doesn't make 
sense because all church newspapers, if it's anything communistic, they 
always expose them because the Communists hurt the cause of the 
church. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Martin, at the time of his ordination in 1950 in 
Budapest 



1410 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Martin. In Eucliarest. 

Mr. Morris. In Bncliarest, did the bishop receive any money from 
the Kumanian Communists ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, I must answer in a different way to expose it. 
May I make a statement that when he left to be ordained I advised 
him, as the adviser to the diocese, that he should make no connection 
whatsoever with anyone in Rumania, political or otherwise, outside of 
spiritual. 

Mr. Morris. You advised him that ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir: and I have witness to that effect, and I also 
told him not to touch a single Rumanian lei 

Mr. Morris. That is spelled 1-e-i ? 

Mr. Martin. L-e-i ; which you say is American dollars. Not to 
touch a single Rumanian lei because as soon as he would do that he 
would be under obligation to the church, which is under the obligation 
of the Communist government in Rumania. 

]Mr. ISIoRRis. You being a friend of his, you so advised him prior 
to the time of his investment ? 

Mr. Martin, Positively. And he promised not to touch anything 
and accept my advice. 

And when he came back I met him at the airport. The first thing 
I asked him after shaking hands, congratulating him, I asked him 
whether he followed my advice, whether he touched anything, made 
any connection with anvone, political or otherwise. "No." 

Mr. Morris. He said "No"? 

Mr. IMartin. That's right ; that he did not receive any money. 

So it was not known until one of the priests showed me the maga- 
zine that I have sent over here. 

Mr. Morris. This is the publication which I now present to you. 
Will you describe that publication for the record ? 

Mr. Martin, This is — you may take the name from the English, 
over here — this is the official publication of the Rumanian patriarchate 
of Bucharest. The name is Biserica Orthodoxa Romana. 

Mr. Morris. What is that? 

Mr. Martin. These are the minutes and the decisions of the Holy 
Synod and the national gatherings of the Rumanian church. 

Mr. Morris. In Bucharest? 

Mr. Martin. In Bucharest. 

Mr. Morris. Is it an official publication of any kind ? 

Mr. Martin. This is official publication of the patriarchate and the 
Holy Synod. This is volume LXX, 6-8, for the months of June and 
August of 1952. 

Mr. Morris. Where did you receive that volume ? 

Mr. Martin. This I received as volume from Father Moga. 

Mr. Morris. AVlio is Father Moga ? 

Mr. Martin. Father Peter Moga, M-o-g-a. 

Mr. Morris. And who is Father Moga ? 

]Mr. Martin. Father Moga is a Rumanian priest in Detroit, and 
he received this by mail from the Rumanian patriarchate, from 
Bucharest. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything in that volume which you have 
described for the subcommittee that relates to the conversation that 
you have just described with Bishop Moldovanu? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1411 

After Father Moga called my attention to this, I was rather sur- 
prised to see and read about the amount of money that Bishop 
Moldovanu received from the Holy Synod, or from the patriarchate, 
because he always denied of receiving anything from them. 

Now, as I see here, and as I stated there, in the financial report of 
the patriarchate, they say that they have given Bishop Moldovanu 
1 million lei 

Mr. Morris. What page are you reading from? 

Mr. ]\LvRTiN. Page 462. For the purpose of adding it to the funds 
of the monastery. 

Mr. Morris. Wlio gave Bishop Moldovanu the 1 million lei ? 

Mr. Martix. The Rumanian patriarchate. 

Mr. Morris. In Bucharest? 

Mr. Martin. In Bucharest. 

Mr. Morris. Where did he get that money, do you know ? Do you 
have any reason to know where he got that 1 million lei ? 

Mr. Martin. How he got it ? 

Mr. Morris. Where did the patriarchate get the 1 million lei? 

Mr. Martin. Well, according to this here, this magazine, the 
patriarchate and the Church of Rumania is subsidized by the Govern- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. Does that volume say so ? 

Mr. JNIartin. Yes; it's somewhere in here. And, all the clergymen 
are paid by the Government. 

Mr. Morris. You can't tell us precisely where in that volume? 

Mr. Martin. No, I have to — well — — 

Mr. Morris. Otf the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. On the record. 

Before you answer that last question, Mr. Martin, about how you 
know that the patriarchate gets its money from the Rumanian Gov- 
ernment, is there any other indication in that volume that the bishop 
received other lei from the patriarchate ? 

Mr. jMartin. Yes, it's one item here, page 465, of 993,000 lei, which 
was given to the Cathedral of the Episcopate in America, which 
would mean the Cathedral of the Episcopate is the Holy Trinity 
Church, of which Rev. Glicherie Moraru is the pastor. 

Mr, Morris. Tell me this : What is the dollar equi\ alent of 1 million 
lei? 

Mv. ]\Iartin. You get 6 lei to the dollar now, but at the time when 
they got the money, Moraru claimed he was selling the dollar for 300 
leis ; that is, he was paying 300 leis for the dollar. 

Now, that is his say-so. That is all I know. I don't know more 
than that. 

Mr. Morris. You mean, that in 1950 

Mr. Martin. No; 1952 — 1951-52, that's the time I believe they 
got the money, according to this report. 

Mr. Morris. So he claimed to ^rive up 300 lei for every dollar? 

Mr. ]\Iartin. Well, at the time, he claimed that the rate was 150 
lei to the dollar, but he gave double. In oilier words, black market. 
He gave 300 lei to the dollar. 

Mr. Morris. In Bucharest ? 

Mr. Martin. Right here. 



1412 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Of course, he took the dollars here. Let me put it this way : He re- 
ceived money from various people that wanted to send money to their 
relatives, whether it was $20, $50, or $100 or more. That money was 
held back here by Moraru. He wrote the name and address of the 
party in Rumania to the patriarchate, that the patriarchate should 
pay such-and-such a party at such-and-such an address the sum of 
10,000, 20,000, 50,000— whatever the lei amounted to. 

That is the way he is operating. 

Mr. Morris. He left the lei in Bucharest ? 

Mr. Martin. Absolutely. 

No lei was transferred here, or anything else, but the dollars are kept 
here and the leis over there. 

Mr. Morris. So, as he would get dollars from the people from his 
church here, he would 

Mr. Martin. Not only from his church; he contracted with an 
agency in Indiana Harbor, like Pora's Agency, I think a million and a 
half lei he sold to that guy, and he got the dollars for it — and different 
agencies. 

Mr. Morris. "W^iere did he get that million and a half lei ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, he sold it. 

Mr. Morris. '\"\1iere did he get the million and a half lei to sell ? 

Mr. Martin. That I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. That was not the million, nine hundred ? 

Mr. Martin. No. 

Mr. Morris. This doesn't represent, to your knowledge, all the leis 
that were assigned to him ? 

Mr. Martin. He takes any amount of dollars in this country, and 
the patriarchate pays over there any amount of lei this guy asks him 
to, over there. That is the way the transaction is made. In other 
words, instead of the patriarchate sending money here through the 
diplomatic channels, whatever they are, they simply say, "Well, there 
is so many Rumanian people in the United States that send some 
help to their relatives in Rumania, why not keep the dollars over here 
in America, use it for whatever purpose you think best, and we will 
pay the lei to the people you claim." That is the way the thing goes. 

Mr. Morris. You say the official rate of exchange is now 6 to 1 ? 

Mr. Martin. Six to one, and Moraru is paying, through the patri- 
archate over there, 10 to the dollar. 

Mr. Morris. And you say in the past he says he has paid 300 to 1 ? 

Mr. Martin. That's what he said; yes. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. So, now, to your knowledge, how has he spent the first 
million lei, the one he received for the building of a church? Has he 
built a church or monastery? 

Mr. Martin. Well, that was received by Bishop Andrei. 

Mr. Morris. Bishop Andrei is Bishop Moldovanu? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, Bishop Moldovanu. 

When I put him on the spot, I simply asked him about this 1 million 
lei. I said, "How do you try to keep things away from me when I 
am putting my face all over for you people w^hen you get in trouble, 
I am trying to whitewash you to keep the name of the church clean 
in the public's eye ?" 

Well, the answer was, "Well, you know, I just didn't want to say 
nothing about it because I was, you know, afraid that somebody else 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1413 

would hear about it, and just make so much fuss about a million lei 
because it's from Rumania, and Rumania is Communist," and one thing 
and another. 

I said, "It's much better to come out and let the people know outright 
what you are doing, than working behind the bush, because they 
will make it bad. Then you will be suspected to really work favorable 
for the Communists." 

So, that was that. And then I was convinced that he did receive 
the million lei, but he said that the money that he got, he invested 
it at the Holy See, making improvements of 200 acres of land, and 
dilferent buildings, and one thing and another, out there. 

]\Ir. Morris. His church has 200 acres of land there ? 

Mr. ISIartin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And he said that the million lei that he did get, that 
he made improvements with that ? 

Mr. Martix. Improvements over that property. 

Mr. Morris. But he didn't erect a building, a monastery ? 

Mr. ISIartin. No. 

Mr. Morris. And this would indicate that he received that for the 
purpose of building the monastery ? 

Mr. Martin. For the building fund ; that's right. 

Mr. Morris. And he told you that he made improvements. Do you 
know of any improvements that he made ? 

Mr. Martin. Not from that money, to my knowledge. I don't know 
what improvements he could make. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know of any improvements that he made ? 

Mr. Maritn. Well, some repairs to the buildings, and plowing and 
fertilizing the soil, and all that, but that money came from the people, 
from the 

Mr. Morris. Congregation ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; from the people that belonged to the 

Mr. Morris. With respect to this 993,000 lei that was given to the 
Episcopate Cathedral in America, that is the episcopate of bishop 

Mr. IVIartin. Moldovanu. 

Mr. Morris. It is not the church of Reverend Moraru ? 

Mr. Martin. That's the church, but it's under the jurisdiction of 
Bishop Moldovanu. 

Mr. Morris. This 993,000 lei were given to the Reverend Glicherie 
Moraru ? 

Mr. ]\L\RnN. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. So, the first million were given to Moldovanu, the sec- 
ond to the Reverend Moraru ? 

Mr. jNIartin. According to the statement here. And, I checked the 
books. There was no money entered on the church books as a donation 
from the patriarchate of Rumania for the cathedral. 

Mr. Morris. Which item ? 

Mr. Martin. 993,000. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

You have access to the books, do you ? 

Mr. IVLvRTiN. I had had, at the time. 

Mr. MoRRis. At the time. 

And, you say there was no entry in the books of this contribution 
of 900,000? 

Mr. ^Iartin. No. 



1414 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

And, when I talked to the priest about it and told him, and asked 
him 

Mr. Morris. This is the Reverend Moraru ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. What became of the money, he always denied 
it. He said he never received that money. So I said to him, "Maj^be 
you did not receive it, but the money is included in your transaction, 
because you don't receive cash from Rumania but you have such a 
transaction, so people don't know." 

He said it was a mistake in the financial report of the patriarchate. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he said that that was a mistake 
[indicating] ? 

Mr. Martin. That's right. 

Mr. Morris. In addition to these two items of 1 million lei to Bishop 
Moldovanu and 993,000 lei to the Reverend Moraru, you do know, you 
have testified, that there are other transactions in which people make 
monetary contributions to the church, and in return have lei assigned 
to beneficiaries of some particular transaction in Rumania ? 

Mr. Martin. I don't want to be contrary. The money is not made 
or contributed to the Rumanian Orthodox Church in America and 
then paid to their friends in Rumania. The financial transaction 
between Moraru and an individual has nothing to do with the church. 
That is Moraru 's Inisiness. He is doing this, as any other people would 
do business, which he has no right to do it, because 

Mr. Morris. In other words, on the side he is carrying on an 
exchange ? 

Mr. Martin. That is right, and he has no license for the carrying 
out of an exchange business. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know of any such instances, to your own 
knowledire ? 



to'- 



Mr. Martin. Of people 

Mr. Morris. Who made such a transaction as you have just 
described. 

Mr. Martin. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about them ? 

Mr. jVIartin. Well, now, offhand I couldn't — I could give the last 
name, but I don't remember the address of certain people, but if you 
really want that, I can check out with the people and give full name 
and address. 

Mr. Morris. Why don't you do that, and we will leave the record 
open at this point. 

Mr. Martin. I will be happy to. 

Mr. Morris. Give us some particular transactions of people who 
have given Bishop Moldovaini money and, in return, he was 

Mr. Martin. Moraru. He is the agent. He is the transactor. 
Moldovanu is just sitting back there and waiting for somebody to 
bring him the — he is not a go-getter. Moraru is the go-getter, so 
Moraru is dominating the bishop. 

Mr. Morris. In addition, you are going to give us, are you not, Mr. 
Martin, the authority that the patriarchate is subsidized by the Ru- 
manian Government, the Communist government of Rumania ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You will also give us that. 

(The information was supplied by Mr. Martin and was placed in 
the subcommittee record. ) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1415 

Mr. Morris. Off the record. 

( Discussion off the record. ) 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Has the Reverend Moraru ever registered as an agent 
for the Rumanian Government ? 

Mr. Martin. No. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge? *7| 

Mr. IVIartin. No. 

Mr. Morris. Did the issue ever come up that he should have reg- 
istered ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; it was in 1941. 

Mr. Morris. 1941? 

Mr. ]\Iartin. Yes, 1941 and 1942, and then the Federal Government 
went after them, and in 19 

Mr. Morris. Are you sure it's 1941 ? 

Mr. Rusher. He is not finished. 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; that is the time it started, with Free Rumania. 
It started in 1941. He was the head of it, you know, Free Rumania, 
which, in other words, at the time was more or less — the Nazis, with the 
Iron Guard — being anti-Communist, they wanted Rumania to be 
free of a foreign yoke. 

Mr. Morris. This was a committee that was really protesting the 
Government that controlled Rumania at that time ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. He was the head of that movement, the Free Rumania 
movement ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. The reason was because King Carol was expelled 
from Rumania, and this guy got around King Carol and got some 
money from King Carol, and, according to the records with the De- 
partment of Justice, there is 13,000, and I think 500, that is known of 
it, but he made a statement, Moraru, to a very close friend of his that 
he got 40,000 from King Carol. I knew of 13,500 from the Depart- 
ment of Justice because I was mixed up in that affair, I am sorry to 
say, that I struggled hard to free him from this thing because of the 
church, as a whole, was quite a black mark. 

Mr. Morris. Was this registration — did it have anything to do with 
the Rumanian Communist government ? 

Mr. Martin. Not at the time. 

Mr. Morris. Or at any subsequent time ? 

Mr. Martin. Not at the time. That was in the early forties, and 
him and another priest and a newspaper editor were convicted, and 
Moraru got a fine of $3,000 fine, and 5 years in jail. 

Mr. Morris. But that was for accepting money from King Carol ? 

i\Ir. Martin. Well, he was convicted as a representative of a for- 
eign government. 

Mr. Morris. That is right; but, I mean, that is accepting money 
from the King Carol group without registering that fact with the 
Department of Justice ? 

Mr. :Martin. That's right. 

Mr. Morris. There have been no such convictions or actions taken 
against him because of his representation of the Rumanian Com- 
munist government? 

Mr. Martin. Not at the time. 

72723— 56— pt. 25 7 



1416 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Or at any subsequent time? 

Mr. Martin. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Martin, is there, on page 498 in that volume 
that we have been referring to, still another grant of Rumanian leis ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; it's a grant to the episcopate of the two Americas, 
of 933,000 leis. 

Mr. Morris. What is the episcopate of the two Americas ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, that's the diocese, what you would call. The 
diocese of the two Americas means the North and South America. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, that would be to the bishop ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That would be a grant to Bishop Moldovanu? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What were the dates of those three grants ? You have 
mentioned three. One million lei from the Rumanian patriarchate 
for the building of a monastery ; what was the date of that ? 

Mr. Martin. They do not give the date here. It's over in 1951 and 
1952, and then they give financial report, which they had to give — I 
hnd it some place here — to the Government, of what they did with the 
money. 

Mr. Morris. So, in other words, that grant was made during 1951 
or 1952? 

Mr. Martin. That's right. 

Mr. Morris. What about the other two grants ? 

Mr. Martin. All three grants. 

Mr. Morris. All three were during that period ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You do not know of any other grant since that time? 

Mr. Martin. No. 

Mr. Morris. Have you any reason to believe that there have been 
other ffrants ? 



fe 



Mr. Martin. Well, I would say yes. 

Mr. Morris. What reason do you have to believe that there were 
other grants? 

Mr. Martin. Because this Moraru is accepting dollars here and 
order paying of leis over there, so it must be 

Mr. Morris. But you don't know whether the bishop is doing that ? 

Mr. Martin. No, not the bishop. 

Of course, he does it, I imagine, with the consent of the bishop. Of 
course, he gives the tone. 

Mr. Morris. Did any one of the people that we have been talking 
about warn you against coming here today ? 

Mr. Martin. No, not today, but I was told a few days ago, 2 or 8 
days ago, by a party that told Moraru that I was publishing, that is, 
putting out a pamphlet against all his deeds, you know. 

Mr. Morris. Who is this ? Can you identify for the record who this 
person was Avho told you? 

Mr. Martin. Well, he is a priest. I don't know whether 

Mr. Morris. Would you give us his name, but we won't put it in the 
record. 

Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. What did this man, whose name you have given to us 
off the record, what did he tell you a few days ago ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1417 

Mr. Martin. He told me that Reverend Moraru was there, and he 
told him that "Mr. Martin is ffoing to put out a pamphlet, but from 
what I understand that pamphlet is so strong, it's going to destroy 
you." In other vrords, destroying Moraru. 

And he said, "Would you sue him?" 

He said, "No, I will not sue him, but I will see what his pamphlet 
states, but I am not going to sue him, I am going to find soms Italian 
or some colored people that will give him the thrashing of his life." 

Mr. IVIoRRis. He said that Moraru said that he would find some 
colored people that would 

Mr. Martix. Colored or Italian. 

Mr. Morris. "Who would give you a thrashing ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; a good beating, instead of taking me to court. 

Mr. Morris. That is what the Reverend Moraru told this other 
person ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

"Well, he did that about 2 years ago, when I had been working hard 
to change the administration of the church, and I finally got to a point 
where I succeeded, with 1 or 2 votes, to overthrow Moraru 's adminis- 
tration in committees, and at the time he threatened again that he was 
going to have certain people that were going to beat me up, and if I am 
not going to stay put he is going to organize a group of Rumanian 
churchwomen and they are going to give me a beating right in the 
church, because he couldn't do his way with me being in there, because 
he knew every twist and turn I blocked his unproper deeds in the 
church, or otherwise. 

Mr. Morris. Does he know you are coming here to testify today ? 

Mr. Martin. No, 

Mr. Morris. ]\Ir. Martin, in this Biserica Orthodoxa Romana there 
is a decree in there ; is there not ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. A decree proclaiming the Rumanian Church part of 
the — tell us about that proclamation. 

Mr. Martin. This is a decree having to do with the opening of the 
meeting of the National Church. 

Mr. Morris. And this Patriarch Justinian is set up as head of the 
Rumanian Church, is he not, by this decree? 

Mr. Martin. He is the head of the church ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. "What does this decree do for him ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, this decree is just to indicate that all the church 
functioning is done with the governmental approval and decreed by 
the government. 

Mr, Morris. This decree mentions "His Holiness accompanied by 
Dr. Petru Groza, president of the Great National Assembly of the 
RPR, and by Mr. Vasile Pogaceanu, minister of cults, and the Holv 
Fathers Metropolitans entered the meeting hall, and His Holiness 
occupied the president's chair." 

Mr. Martin. That's right. 

Now, this minister of cults, he is the head of the churches and school, 
and he is responsible for financial subsidy or support of church, school, 
clergy and teachers, and he is a member of the cabinet. So, that is 
enough of proof that everything is done with the consent of the 
government, which finances and supports the churches, clergies, school, 
and teachers. 



1418 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Martin, by the way, before finisliing, has there 
been any public statement on the part of either the bishop or the 
Reverend Moraru with respect to these three grants that we have men- 
tioned from the Biserica? 

Mr. Martix. Well, there has been a statement published in the dio- 
cese newspaper, Credinta, The Faith, in October 1953, stating that they 
had received itemized statement from the patriarchate, to the amount 
of, September 7 — it doesn't give the date, whether it was 1951 or 1952 — 
851,000 leis; September 18,142,000 leis; and September 28, 7,000 leis, 
a total of 1 million leis. 

They disclaimed the other 993,000 and the 933,000, the patriarchate 
disclaims that they did not give that money, only the million leis. 

Mr. Morris. Let us put the whole statement in the record from that 
publication that you have described. It will all go in the record at 
this point, a translation of that particular article that you have been 
referring to will have to go in the record at this time. 

(The document referred to is as follows :) 

[Translation from Rumanian] 

[From the newspaper Credinta (The Faith), Detroit, Mich., October 29, 1953] 

Certificate From the Rumanian Patriarchy 

Following a confusing noise created by the owls Trifo-Trutziste, which filled 
the springtime air a few months ago with their nightly hooting, calculated to 
infect or to poison public opinion with their shouts that His Eminence Andrei 
is receiving millions of lei from Rumania for Communist propaganda, I ask, in 
my capacity of controller, and I received from the Rumanian Patriarchy of 
Bucharest the following explanations : 

Mr. Alexandru Suciu (address in town). 

"We acknowledge that the Rumanian patriarchy, in 1951, has given to 
the Rumanian Orthodox episcopate of the two Americas a gift of 1 million 
lei, to continue the construction of the monastery Schitul Maicii Domnului 
of Vatra Romana, U. S. A. 

"The Rumanian patriarchy did not pay to this episcopate other sums under 
[any other name], as the accounting department mistakenly gave to the 
same account and printed after these listed names the pages 465 and 498 
of the periodical Biserica Ortodoxa Romana No. 6-8, 1952. 

"Signature of a Patriarch, the Seal of the Rumanian patriarchy, the 
Ofiice of the Patriarch. 

(Signed) N. Grosu, Secretary." 

Note of the controller : Our orthodox Christian brothers in America should 
ask Mr. Trifa about this fund, because His Eminence Andrei repaired the 
premises of Vatra, occupied today by Trifa, and he bought animals, poultry, and 
fodder, sold [later] by Trifa and Trutza, for a price [and disposed of the money 
in a manner] known only to themselves. 



Bucharest, March 18, 1953. 
His Eminence Bishop Andrei Moldovanu, 

1771 East State Fair, Detroit 3, Mich., U. S. A.: 
In reply to Tour Eminence's letter No. 31/953, we forward to you in the original 
the Rumanian patriarchy certificate relating to the 1 million lei gift, granted by 
the patriarchy to the Rumanian episcopate of the two Americas, as directed by 
Your Eminence. 

This assistance was granted to the Rumanian Orthodox episcopate of America 
in 1951 for the continuation of the construction of the monastery Schitul Maicii 
Domnului of the Vatra Roman, U. S. A. 

A similar certificate, signed by His Sanctity the Patriarch Justinian, was for- 
warded to Mr. Alexandru Suciu (Sage) of Chicago. 
With the authorization of his sanctity the patriarch. 

Office of the Patriarch, 
N, Grosu, Secretary. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1419 

Bucharest, March 18, 1953. 
Administration op the Patriarchy, 
Accounting Department No. 2315 

We acknowledge that the Rumanian patriarchy, in 1951, granted to the Ru- 
manian Orthodox episcopate of the two Americas 1 million lei for the continuation 
of the building of the monastery Schitul Maicii Domnxilui of the Vatra Romana, 
U. S. A., which was paid on different dates as follows : 

Pay order No. 2049 of Sept. 7 L851, 000 

Pay order No. 2070 of Sept. 18 L142, 000 

Pay order No. 2101 of Sept. 28 L7, 000 

Total LI, 000, 000 

We also acknowledge that those listed in the periodical Biserica Ortodoxa Ro- 
mana No. 6-8/952, pp. 462, 465, and 498, refer to the 2 above sums, a total of 
993,000 lei, the third sum being omitted to be added in the total published in the 
report. 

The Rumanian patriarchy did not transfer to this episcopate other sums, under 
other names like Episcopia celor doua Americii [episcopate of the two Americas], 
Catedrala Episcopala din America [Bishopric Cathedral of America], etc., since 
the accounting department gave by mistake the names of the same account and, 
afterward, again by mistake, printed those account names on pages 465 and 498 
of the periodical Biserica Ortodoxa Romana [Rumanian Orthodox Church] No. 
6-8, 1952. 

On page 498 the real figure is not 933,000, but 993,000 as on page 465. It is a 
typographical error which can be checked with the total in chapter A, which is 
exact if the sum of 993,000 is added and not 933,000. 

All the titles given to the account of the 993,000 lei, plus the 7,000 lei mentioned 
above, amounting to a total of 1 million lei, was a grant of the Rumanian patri- 
archy for the work of construction of the church Schitul Maicii Domnului of the 
Vatra Romana. The proposed cathedral of the Rumanian Orthodox episcopate 
of America (of the two Americas) is also the residence of the bishop, bought with 
the Rumanian Orthodox patriarchy moneys, which [patriarchy] is the owner of 
the buildings of Vatra Romana where [the patriarchy] does not recognize any 
other authority than that of the canonic bishop Andrei Moldovanu. The former 
legionnaire, Viorel Trifa, heretical and false bishop of today — together with the 
heretic Truta [Trutza]— joining the ranks of the heretics, are no longer members 
of the Rumanian orthodox Christian community. 

For which I give this present certificate. 

[seal] Justinian, Patriarch. 

(Translated by Dr. Raoul Gheorghiu, legal analyst, supervised by Dr. Vladimir 
Gsovski, Chief, Foi'eign Law Section, Law Library, Library of Congress, August 
9, 19.56.) 

Mr. Morris. Do you know anything about the bishop's efforts of 
repatriation ? 

Mr. Martin. Pardon me one minute 

Mr. Morris. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Martin. No. Moraru and tlie Bishop Moldovanu, they have 
encouraged the visits to Rumania for the purpose of, and the sole 
purpose, what I can see and adjudge it, was for them to make money, 
and also to encourage, to a certain extent, a denial of — well, how should 
I put it — denial of the bad situation in Rumania. In other words, 
they claimed that these people came back and say that Rumanian peo- 
ple were free and the church was free, and 

Mr. Morris. In other words, they have been encouraging people to 
go to Rumania? 

Mr. Martin. That's right. 

And my estimation, my judgment, is that they used that as favora- 
ble propaganda to the Communist government of Rumania. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know of any efforts they mad(5 to go back to 
Rumania, to stay? 



1420 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr, Martin. They are soliciting people, trying to influence tliem 
to go back and make a visit to Riunania, and, of course, they realize, 
I think, from what I understood, I am not positive, between $150 
and $200 per passenger. 

Mr. Morris. They supply the money ? 

Mr. IVIartin. I beg pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Do they supply the money ? 

Mr. Martin. No ; the individual person pays his own money, and 
then they make from each round trip ticket $150 to $200, their com- 
mission, or profit, whatever they call, and they get a free ticket for 
every 20 passenger — plane passenger. 

Mr. Morris. How do you know that? 

Mr. JMartin. That's their statement. Moraru's wife was over there 
just about 5 or 6 weeks ago, and she went free with her child be- 
cause they had 19 or 20 passengers. 

Mr. Morris. Moraru's wife did go to Bucharest? 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any knowledge that the Eeverend Moraru 
was engaged in any commercial transactions? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, I have the information that he sent 1 Chevrolet 
and 2 Cadillacs, and some people that went over there and came back, 
seen 1 or 2 of the cars, and over at the patriarchate they were told 
that those are the cars that the Keverend Moraru sent us. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know what the nature of that activity is ? 

Mr. Martin. I would not ; I do not. 

Mr. Morris. Does he buy the cars? 

Mr. Martin. Well, if it was one car, I would say that it would have 
been a present to the patriarchate for transaction of Moraru's busi- 
ness, giving lei over there, and holding dollars over here. 

Mr. Morris. You do know he sent three cars over, and you don't 
know anything more about it ? 

Mr. Martin. No. 

Mr. Morris, Do you know, Mr. Martin, whether or not there is any 
connection, either with Bishop Moldovanu or Mr. Moraru, with the 
Rumanian Legation in Washington ? 

Mr. Martin. The Rumanian Legation ; yes. 

Not very long ago some inquiry was made to the Rumanian Lega- 
tion about this going to Rumania, and the Legation referred people 
to their representative in Detroit, which would be Reverend Glicherie 
Moraru. 

Mr. Morris. So, when anyone makes inquiry of the Legation about 
any endeavor to go to Rumania, they are referred to the Reverend 
Moraru ? 

Mr. Martin. Or Bishop Moldovanu. 

Mr. Morris. Do they visit the Legation in Washington? 

Mr. Martin. They do. 

Mr. Morris. How do you know that ? 

Mr. Martin. Well, Moraru visited the Legation about just before 
I was here, I say about 4 weeks ago. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1421 

(See following letter.) 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much, Mr. Martin. 

Detroit, Mich., July SO, 1956. 
The United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Honorable Committee : On Friday, July 27, 1956, when I testified under oath, 
two things were left out from the records. 

In November of 1946, Reverend Moraru tried hard to oust me as the editor of 
the newspaper Solia which was published by the Rumanian Orthodox diocese in 
the United States, because he could not sell this newspaper services to the 
Rumanian Communist Legation in Washington, with me in the position of editor 
and very hostile to the Communist cause. 

Also, that in the spring of 1951, I broke up a meeting that was to take place 
between Mr. Moraru, Bishop Moldovan, and the Rumanian Communist leader, 
Mr. George Vocila, at the Bishop's See at Grass Lake, Mich, I am making this 
statement under oath.^ 

Nicholas N. Maetin. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 15 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 

(The following letter to Chairman Eastland from James J. Wads- 
worth, deputy representative of the United States to the United 
Nations, was ordered into the record at a meeting of the subcommittee 
on November 21, 1956 :) 

The Deputt Representative of the United States 

TO the United Nations, 
New York, N. Y., July 24, 1956. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee, 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Senator Eastland : In the absence of Mr. Lodge, who is on vacation, I 
am pleased to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of July 20, 1956, enclosing 
a transcript of the testimony taken before your subcommittee on July 20, con- 
cerning pressures exerted on Russian refugees in the United States. 

I am confident that Mr. Lodge will appreciate your having forwarded this 
transcript to him. It will undoubtedly prove useful should the State Department, 
as the result of its inquiry into this matter, instruct us to take action with respect 
to it. 

Sincerely yours, 

( Signed ) James J. Wadswoeth. 

^ Obviously, not under oath when he wrote the July 30 letter. 



INDEX 



Note.— The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Administration of the Patriarchy 1419 

Akulshin, Rodon. {See Berezov, Rodon.) 

Alexandria, Va 1355 

America (n) 1325, 1330, 

1341-1848, 1350, 1351, 1357, 1364, 1366, 1367, 1373, 1381, 1408, 1414 
America : 

North 1416 

South > 1416 

American Ambassador 1385 

American Army 1347 

American Committee for the Liberation of Bolshevism, Radio Liberation — 1389 

American Communists 1344 

American Eagle Corp 1407 

American Government. {See United States.) 

American Mercury 1388 

American security organization 1368 

American Zone of Austria 1355 

Andre Deutsch, Ltd 1357 

Andrei, Bishop. {See Moldovanu.) 

Appropriations Committee 1330 

Arlington, Va 1339 

Australia 1357, 1368, 1378 

Austria 1330, 1355-1357, 1365 

B 

Baits 1328 

Barmine, Alexander, 1013 South 18th Street, Arlington, Va 1339-1346, 1353 

Testimony of 1339-1346 

Biographical sketch of (exhibit No. 275) 1340 

Barzov, Anatole 1355-1359, 1370-1373 

Bavaria 1388 

Berezov disease 1325, 1326, 1339 

Berezov, Rodon (resides San Francisco) 1326, 1345, 1349-1353 

Testimony of 1349-1353 

Interpreter, Julia Mansvetov 1349 

Author and poet 1350 

Born in Vilovatoya 1349 

Real name, Akulshin 1349 

Berlin 1348, 1358, 1363 

Bialer, Seweryn 1370 

Bilovatoya 1349 

Biserica Orthodoxa Romana 1410,' 1417, 1418 

Blackmail 1344-1346 

Bohemia 1347 

Boldyreff, Mr 1390 

Bolsheviks 1350 

Bolshevists 1380 

Boyarsky, General 1365 

Brazil 1324 

I 



n INDEX 

Page 

Bremerhaven, Germany 1393, 1397 

British Zone 1343 

Brooklyn, N. Y 1394, 1395 

Brownell, Hon. Herbert 1326, 1337, 1404 

Bucharest 1410-1412, 1418-1420 

Bulgarian 13G0, 1365, 1366 

Butler, Hon. John Marshall 1355, 1375 

C 
California 1350 

Camp Lejeune, N. C 1395 

Canada 1399, 1408 

Cathedral of the Episcopate in America 1411, 1413 

Chicago 1344 

Church World Service 1360 

CIO 1324, 1365, 1366 

Columbia University 1375, 1379, 1383, 1384, 1394 

Commissioner of Fisheries (Soviet Union) 1382 

Communist (s) 1338, 1341, 1343, 1361, 1362, 1366, 1408, 1409, 1413 

Communist agents 1361 

Communist Government (Rumania) 1408-1410, 1414, 1415, 1419 

Communist propaganda 1344 

Communist tyranny, victims of 1.341 

Congress 1344, 1353 

Connecticut Avenue 1373 

Credinta (The Faith) 1408, 1409, 1418 

D 

Dachau 1343 

Detroit, Mich 1407, 1410, 1420, 1421 

Devrey, Governor 1326 

Dodd, Bella 1370 

Dondero, Hon. George A 1409 

D. P 1388 

Duell. Sloane & Co 1356 

Dunajew, Anatolij, case of (exhibit No. 273) 1335-1386 

E 

East 1392 

East Berlin 1330, 1362 

East Germany 1388 

Eastland, Hon. James O 1402, 1404 

Eisenhower, President 1344 

Ellis Island 1327 

Emigree(s) 1326,1376 

Emigree (s) , Russian 1359, 1366, 1367, 1375, 1377, 1379-1381 

Empire of Fear, by Vladmir and Evdokia Petrov (excerpt) 1357 

English 1358, 1367, 1375, 1383 

Escapee (s) 1325, 1328, 1330 

Espionage schemes 1344 

Esthonians 1344 

Europe 1324, 1328, 1337, 1340, 1363, 1364, 1397 

Exhibit No. 271 — Letter to escapees from Tolstoy Foundation along with 

questionnaire (translation) 1328, 1329 

Exhibit No. 271-A — Questionnaire from Tolstoy Foundation 1329 

Exhibit No. 272 — Report of Tolstoy Foundation on Soviet activity to en- 
courage repatriation among Russian escapees 1331-1335 

Exhibit No. 273 — Case of Anatolij Dunajew, 7 Auburn Street, Paterson, 

N. J 1335, 1336 

Exhibit No. 274 — Letter from Tolstoy Foundation to Hon. Herbert Brow- 
nell, September 27, 1954 1337 

Exhibit No. 275 — Biographical sketch of Alexander Barmine 1340 

Exhibit No. 276— Of Redefectors, by R. Berezov 1352, 1353 

Exhibit No. 277 — Now It Is Up to the "Berezovtzy," by V. Yurassov, from 

Novoye Russkoye Slovo, May 29, 1956 1368-1370 



INDEX in 

Exhibits unniunbered : Page 

Armenians Seek to Return to United States, by Harry Schwartz 1402-1404 

Certificate from the Rumanian Patriarchy (translation) 1418 

Letter to administi'ation of tlie Patriarchy from Justinian, Patriarch, 

Bucharest, March 18, 1053 1419 

Letter to Bishop Andrei Moldovanu from N. Grosu, Bucharest, March 

18, 1953 1418 

Letter to Hon. Herbert Brownell from Hon. James O. Eastland, July 

10, 1956, re recording of jury deliberations and S. 2S87 1404 

Letter to Hon. James O. Eastland from Warren Olney III, July 25, 

1956, re recording of jury deliberations 1404, 1405 

Letter to Hon. James O. Eastland from William P. Rogers, July 17, 

1956, re recording of jury deliberations 1404 

Letter to United States Internal Security Subcommittee from Nicholas 

N. Martin, July 30, 1956 1421 

Press release, Washington, March 13 1402 

Statement published in Credinta, October 29, 1953 (translation) 1418 

F 

Farmingdale, N. J 1359 

FBI 1327, 1364, 1368, 1371, 1378, 1382, 1392, 1394, 1400 

Ferguson, Hon. Homer 1409 

Fishery Ministers (Soviet Union) 1381 

Forced repatriation 1342, 1343 

France 1363, 1364, 1378 

Frankfurt-am-Main 1390 

Frankfurt, Germany 1.395-1398, 1400 

Free Europe 1389 

French Resistance Army 1368 

French Zone 1365 

G 

G-2 1395 

Galicia 1365 

Geneva Convention — 1341 

Georgetown University 1389, 1390 

German (s) 1341, 1342, 1846, 1350, 1358, 1365, 1366, 1396 

German Army 1365 

German national 1388 

German-Russian 1350 

Germany 1330, 1341-1343, 

1347, 1350, 1375, 1379, 1380, 1388, 1390, 1391, 1393-1396, 1399, 1400 

Grant (magazine) 1395 

Great National Assembly of the RPR 1417 

Grigorovich-Barsky, Constantine 1355, 1364, 1375, 1383, 1385 

Grosu, N 1418 

Groza, Dr. Petru 1417 

H 

Happag-Lloyd Lines 1396 

Heilbron 1365 

Holy Fathers Metropolitans 1417 

Holy See 1413 

Holy Synod 1408, 1410, 1411 

Holy Trinity Church, 1799 State Fair Street, Detroit, Mich 1407, 1411 

Homeland Committee, the 1328, 1330 

House of Representatives 1328, 1361 

H. R. 6880 1361 

I 

ICEM 1330 

Igolkin 1357 

Ileana, Princess 1408 

Immigration Commissioner 1345 

Immigration of refugees 1324 

Indiana Harbor 1412 



rv INDEX 

Page 

Intelligence people 1331 

International Commission 1357 

International Communists 1344 

International Refugee Organization (IRO) 1343,1350,1394 

Iron Curtain 1324, 1345, 1348, 1359 

Iron Guard 1415 

J 

Jenner, Hon. William E 1339, 1387 

Judiciary Committee 1353, 1361 

Justice, Department of 1415 

K 

Kalmucks (people of Mongolian race) 1360 

Katyn massacre 1389 

Kazebek (Russian cigarettes) 1373 

Kempton 1343 

Kharkov (Soviet Union) 1394 

Kiev region, Russia 1346 

King Carol 1415 

King Cole room 1372, 1373 

Kolomaya 1355 

KorolkofE, Mr. and Mrs., "West Farms Road, Farmingdale, N. J. : 

Testimony of 1359-1364 

Came to United States in 1929 1359 

L 

Latvia 1384 

Latvians 1344 

Lei (Rumanian currency) 1410-1414, 1416, 1420 

Letters from refugees 1401, 1402 

Lienz (British Zone) 1343 

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot 1385 

Long Beach 1377 

Ludwigsburg 1365 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 1323, 1339, 1355, 1357, 1375, 1387 

Mansvetov, Julia 1346, 1349 

Marbourg , ^_ 1343 

Martin, Nicholas N., 17922 Brush Street, Detroit 3, Mich. : 

Testimony of 1407-1421 

Employed with American Eagle Corp 1407 

Michailov Committee, the {see also Return to Homeland Committee)- 1361-1303 

Michailov, General 1330, 1344, 1348, 1358, 1359, 1362 

Middle East 1324 

Minister of cults 1417 

MKVD 1331 

MVD 1357 

Moga, Father Peter 1410, 1411 

Moldovanu, Bishop Andrei 1407-1414, 1416, 1418-1420 

Molotov 1,841 

Mongolian 1360 

Monterey School (California) 1350 

Montreal, Canada 1390, 1393, 1396, 1398 

Moraru, Rev. Glicherie 1408, 1409, 1411-1420 

Morris, Robert 1323, 1339, 1355, 1375, 1387, 1407 

Moscow 1350, 1357, 1391, 1392, 1394, 1395, 1398, 1399 

Mount Vernon 1358 

Munich 1347 

Munich Institute for U. S. S. R 1377 

N 

National Alliance of Russian Solidarists (NTS) 1395 

National Church 1417 

Nazi 1365, 1415 



INDEX V 

Page 

Nazi tyranny 1342 

New Leader 1388 

New York, N. Y 1323, 1345- 

1347, 1350, 1363, 13G4, 1370, 1377-1379, 1389, 1390, 1396-1400 

New York Times 1402 

NKVD 1344, 1350, 1356 

Novoye Russkoye (New York) 1368 

Now It Is up to tlie "Berezovtzy" (exhibit No. 277) 1368-1370 

NTS 1380, 1381, 1395, 1396, 1398-1401 

NTS, United States branch of 1395, 1396 

O 

Oluey, Warren, III 1405 

Olshansky, Boris 1379-1381, 1388, 1391, 1395-1401 

Olshansky, Gerda Marguerita 1386, 1387-1394 

1418 N Street NW., Washington, D. C 1387 

Testimony of J 1387-1394 

Married Boris Olshansky in 1948 1388 

Married in Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany 1388 

Came to United States January 2, 1952 1388 

Of Redefectors, by R. Berezov (exhibit No. 276) 1352, 1353 

Order of the Day No. 260 (Stalin) 1341 

P 

Panyushkin, Ambassador 1356, 1357, 1359 

Paterson, N. J 1362 

Patriarch Justinian 1417, 1419 

Petrov, Evdokia 1357 

Petrov, Vladmir 1357 

Petukhov, Aleksei 1375-1378, 1382, 1385 

Philadelphia 1348 

Pirogov, Peter, 612 Hill Court, Alexandria, Va. : 

Testimony of 1355-1359, 1370-1374 

Interpreter, Constantine Grigorovich-Barsky 

Plattling, Germany 1343 

Pogaceanu, Mr. Vasile 1417 

Poland 1325, 1326, 1347, 1350 

Poles 1326, 1328, 1344, 1345 

Polish 1348,1365 

Polish Ukrainian 1365 

Pora's Agency 1412 

Possev 1380, 1390, 1392, 1393, 1395, 1396, 1400, 1401 

Pravda I357 

Princeton 1351 

Pro-Soviet group 1344 

Prussia 1346, 1362 

Q 
Quebec 1397 

R 

Rabaut, Hon. Louis 1409 

Radio Liberation 1379, 1380, 1397 

Rastvorov, Mr 1356 

Recording of jury deliberations, letters re 1404, 1405 

Red army 1340, 1342, 1346, 1347, 1379 

Redefection campaign 1381, 1400 

Refugee (s) 1324, 1326, 1330, 1345 

Refugee (s), Russian I375 

Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany 1388 

Repatriation 1419 

Repatriation Committee (see also Soviet) 1337, 1348, 1350, 1360 

Return to the Homeland 1328, 1330 

Return to the Homeland Committee 1328,' 1330 

Riga ' 1358 

Rogers, William P 1404 



Illlliliillllllilli^ 

3 9999 05445 4176 



INDEX 

Page 

Romarov, Mr 1390 

RRA (Refugee Relief Act and/or Administration) 1324 

Rudolph, Colonel 1397 

Rumania (n) 1407-1410, 1412-1417, 1419, 1420 

Rumania, Church of 1411, 1414, 1417 

Rumania, Free 1415 

Rumanian Communist 1410 

Rumanian Government 1411, 1414, 1415 

Rumanian Legation 1420 

Rumanian Orthodox 1408 

Rumanian Orthodox Bishop 1408 

Rumanian Orthodox Church 1414 

Rumanian Patriarchate 1411 

Rumanian Tribune 1406 

Rusher, William A 1323, 1339, 1355, 1361, 1375, 1387, 1407 

Russia 1323, 1325, 1326, 

1342, 1344, 1346, 1347, 1358, 1360, 1363, 1370, 1371, 1373, 1389, 1392 
Russian 1324, 1326, 1328, 1330, 1338, 1341- 

1343, 1345, 1350, 1359, 1365-1368, 1372, 1384, 1388, 1391, 1393, 1395 
Russian Embassy. ( See Soviet Embassy. ) 

Russian emigree organizations 1340 

Russian escapees 1325 

Russian language 1389 

Russian National People's Army 1365 

Russian newspaper 1370 

Russian press {see also Soviet press) 1331 

S 

S. 2887, correspondence regarding 1404 

Salzburg 1350 

Samarin, Mr 1396, 1400 

San Francisco, Calif 1351, 1358 

SchatofP, Michael 1364-1370, 1375-1385 

Testimony of 1364-1370, 1375-1383 

In United States since January 1952 1379 

Interpreter, Constantino Grigorovich-Barsky 1364, 1375 

Schroeder, Frank W 1387, 1394, 1407 

Schwartz, Austria 1365 

Schwartz, Harry 1402-1404 

Senate 1361,1381 

Seven Seas, The 1393, 1396, 1397 

Shapovalov, Rostislav 1376, 1377, 1382-1384 

Siberia 1338, 1341-1343, 1378 

SK Department, American Section of 1357 

Smith, Senator 1351 

Smolensk, Russia 1346, 1350 

Sobolev, Arkady 1366, 1379, 1381, 1382 

Solia 1408 

Soviet (s) 1327, 

1328, 1331, 1337, 1338, 1343, 1344, 1346, 1348, 1355, 1357, 1359, 1364, 
1366, 1368, 1390. 

Soviet agents 1325, 

1327, 1330, 1338, 1344, 1345, 1348, 1353, 1375, 1381, 1398-1400 

Soviet agents group 1377 

Soviet agriculture delegation 1358 

Soviet Ambassador (Washington) 1356,1379 

Soviet Army 1344, 1388 

Soviet authorities 1345 

Soviet citizens 1341, 1357 

Soviet delegation to the United Nations 1364, 1366, 1375, 1377, 1382 

Soviet displaced persons 1340 

Soviet Embassy 1356, 1368, 1370, 1373 

Soviet Finance Ministry 1367 

Soviet Government 1341, 1342, 1368, 1398 

Soviet labor camps 1338 

Soviet officials 1356, 1370, 1392 

Soviet press {see also Russian press) 1358 



INDEX VII 

Page 

Soviet Repatriation Committee 1330, 1337, 1342, 1347, 1350 

Soviet repatriation officers 1341 

Soviet repatriation program (see also Repatriation) 1325, 

1331, 1337. 1346, 1359, 1360 

Soviet Russia 1360-3362 

Soviet tyranny 1342 

Soviet United Nations Mission 1377, 1384 

Soviet United Nations representative 1385 

Soviet Union 1325, 

1326, 1342, 1344-1350, 1355-1362, 1365, 1366, 1368, 1374-1376, 
1378-1381, 1385, 1388, 1380, 1392, 1394, 1398, 1399 

S. S. officer 1365 

Stalin, Generalissimo 1341, 1343, 1350, 1358 

Stuttgart 1365 

Svoboda (Freedom) 1358 

Swing, General 1345 

Switzerland 1364 

Szeiko, Sergei : 

Testimony of 1346-1349 

Interpreter, Julia Mansvetov 1346 

Born, 1918, Smolensk, Kiev region, Russia 1346 

Resides New York 1346 



Taganskaya prison 1357 

Technical Intelligence Brancli (U. S. Army) : 

European Command 1394 

Three Musketeers Restaurant 1371-1373 

Tolstoy, Alexandra Leo 1323-1338, 1343, 1345, 1370 

Testimony of 1323-1338 

President, Tolstoy Foundation, 939 Eighth Avenue, New York 1323 

Born in Russia in 1884 1323 

Came to United States in 1939 1323 

Formerly Countess Tolstoy ; 1323 

Daughter of Russian writer Leo Tolstoy 1323 

Mother's maiden name, Bers 1343 

Tolstoy Foundation 1323-1325, 1327, 1330, 1359, 1400 

Letter to escapees (exhibit No. 271) 1328,1329 

Questionnaire (exhibit No. 271-A) 1329 

Report of Soviet activity to encourage repatriation among Russian 

escapees (exhibit No. 272) 1331-1335 

Letter to Herbert Brownell, September 27, 1954 (exhibit No. 274) 1337 

Tolstoy, Leo 1323 

Treml, Vlad, 247 Vermont Street, apartment 16, Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Testimony of 1394-1401 

Born in Kharkov, Soviet Union 1394 

Graduate student, Columbia University 1394 

Employed IRQ, 3 years ' 1394 

Employed Technical Intelligence Branch, United States Army 1394 

Came to United States, April 1950 1394 

United States Marine Corps, 2 years 1394 

Member of NTS since 1946 1395 

Married, one child 1395 

Tuapse HailoTs 1365 

Tuchavsky, Marshal 1365 

U 

Ukrainian 1360, 1365 

Unidentified Witness No. 1 : 

Testimony of 1383, 1384 

Interpreter, Constantine Grigorovich-Barsky 1383 

Unidentified Witness No. 2 : 

Testimony of 1385, 1386 

Interpreter, Constantine Grigorovich-Barsky 1385 



Vni INDEX 

Pago 

United Nations 1364, 1366, 1376, 1385 

Delegation 1367 

High Commissioner for Refugees 1330 

Second secretary of ttie Soviet mission 1376 

Secretariat of 1376 

Teclinical Assistance Program Director for Asia and ttie Far East 1376 

United States 1323, 1325-1327, 

1330, 1331, 1340, 1343, 1347, 1348, 1350, 1353, 1356-1359, 1365-1367, 
1370, 1371, 1375, 1376, 1379-1382, 1394, 1395, 1398, 1400, 1408, 1412 

Armed Forces 1344 

Army (see also American Army) 1394 

Escapee program 1324 

Government 1344, 1349, 1378, 1382 

Marine Corps 1394 

Post Office 1391 

UNRRA 1343 

V 

Victor 1391 

Viriibov, Mr 1330 

Vlassov, General 1347, 1365, 1368 

Vlassov's army 1365. 1367, 1378 

Voice of America 1379, 1380, 1389, 1396 

Volga 1350 

W 

War Ministry 1346 

"VVasMngton 1351, 

1356, 1370, 1371, 1374, 1387, 1389, 1396, 1397, 1399, 1420 

Watkins, Hon. Arthur V 1407 

We Come From the East, by Boris Olshansky 1395 

Welker, Hon. Herman 1,323 

West , 1392 

World War II 1388 

Y 

Yalta 1353 

Yalta Agreement 1325, 1326, 1343, 1365 

Yugoslavia (n) 1360-1362 

Yugoslavs 1326 

Z 

Zarubin 1379 

Zegal, Victor 1358 

Zharov 1365 

O 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTS ATE THE 

ADMmiSTRATIO]N*'0F TtiE I}JTEE^3tL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAEY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



MAY 29 AND JUNE 5, 1956 



PART 26 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
72723 WASHINGTON : 1956 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Document* 

JAN 2 8 1957 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JB., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arl^ansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming HERMAN WELKER. Idaho 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Secueitt 
Act and Other Internax Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arlcansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho 

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

William A. RnsHER, Administrative Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Witness : ^*^^ 

Behrstock, Arthur 1452 

Conal, Bernard 1445 

Lautner, John 1423 



m 



S( OPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Redefectioii Campaign 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 29, 1956 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
and Other Internal Security Laws, of the 

Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommitee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 11 : 05 a. m., in 
tlie caucus room, Senate Office Building, Senator Herman Welker 
presiding. 

Present : Senator Welker, 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, ad- 
ministrative counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research director; and F. W. 
Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Welker. The meeting will come to order. 

Will you raise your right hand and be sworn ? 

You solemnly swear the testimony you will give before the com- 
mittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Lautner. I do. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN LAUTNER, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter? 

Mr. Lautner. My name is John Lautner, spelled Ij-a-u-t-n-e-r. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Lautner. Washington, D. C. 

Mr. ISloRRis. ;Mr. Chairman, Mr. Lautner has appeared before this 
committee before, and he has been asked to come back and testify under 
the general framework of Soviet activity in the United States, with 
particular references to the reorganizations of the Communist Party 
of the Ignited States. 

I wonder if you would tell us, for the record, by way of background, 
^fr. Lautner, what position you achieved in the Connnunist Party — 
what were your highest position or positions ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, I was a district organizer of the Communist 
Party for about 5 years, in the State of West Virginia. 

I was head of the New York State Review Commission of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Morris. What is the review commission ? 

1428 



1424 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Lautner. The discipline commission of the Communist Party 
in New York State, from 1947 up to the beginning of 1950. 

And also a member of the National Eeview Commission of the Com- 
munist Party in 1948 and 1949, and the beginning of 1950. 

Mr. Morris. And you separated from the Communist Party, under 
circumsLances you have previously told us, in 1950 ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. On the 17th of January 1950. 

Senator Welker. Would you mind putting the mike just a little 
closer lo you, Mr. Lautner ? 

Mr. LAUT]srE:R. I will. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Mr. Chairman, with those qualifications I would like to 
ask Mr. Lautner some questions about Communist Party organiza- 
tion. 

Senator Welker. Proceed, counsel. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell, first, of your ow^n experi- 
ences, the instances of Soviet control, that is control Sy the U. S. o. R., 
of the Communist Party of the United States ? 

Mr. Lautxer. Well, let me rephrase it Soviet control. The Soviet 
is a form of state. And the very same group that controlled that par- 
ticular state, that form of state, known as the Soviet, or U. S. S. R., 
that v'erv group controlled the Communist International and, through 
the Communist International, gave leadership and guidance to all 
Communist Parties or so-called working class parties who adhere to 
the principles of Marxism-Leninism in each and every country where 
such parties were operating. 

Mr. Morris. With particular reference to the United States, and 
particular emphasis on your own experiences, would you answer the 
same question ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, the Communist International had control over 
the policies, over the Communist Party of the United States of 
America, and sent representatives to this country to supervise and 
give leadership and guidance in unfolding and developing the policies 
of the Communist International in the United States. 

I^eaders of the Communist Party of the United States of America 
went to the Congresses of the Communist International held in Mos- 
cow from time to time and they were elected to the executive com- 
mittees of the Communist International. 

So in that way they drew upon the experiences of the warlike 
Communist Party, and the warlike Communist movement through 
the Communist International, helped the Communist Party of the 
United States of America in developing its ]H'ogram and policies in 
this country. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lautner, did you meet any Soviet representa- 
tives? 

Mr. Lautner. I met in the course of my party membership two of 
them. 

Mr. Morris. 'VMio were they ? 

Mr. Lai'tner. One was a person known to me at the beginning 
by the name of "Edwards." Edwards later on turned out to be Ger- 
hardt Eisler. And the other one was a person known to me at the 
beginning as "Alpi" — A-l-p-i — later on he was known to me as Fred 
Brown, and later on as Farucci Marini, M-a-r-i-n-i. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1425 

Mr. Morris. AV^ere there any other Soviet representatives or rej)- 
resentatives of any Soviet satellites you encountered during your 
experiences in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Lautnek. I have no recollection. 

Mr. Morris. And could you tell us the circumstances through which 
this control was exercised from the practical point of view from 
where you were in the control conmiission and as a district organizer 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, both: Alpi, as P^dwards, was involved even 
in the organizational problems of party leadership in carrying out 
party policies over here; Edwards, I sat with him at least in three 
meetings in party councils. 

At one meeting we wei-e discussing some of the mistakes made by 
the party in the New York organization pertaining to the organiza- 
tion of the transport workers. 

And another meeting Eisler sat in was on the question of develo]^- 
ing a mass Communist Party press Avhere he, in his s])eech, submitted 
the success of the German Communist daily, the Rote Fahne, and 
set that as an exam})le for the (\)mmunist Partj^ of the Ignited States 
to develop that kind of official paper, mass paper. 

And on the tliird occasion, he was in a meeting where the partv 
was discussing the need an.d necessity to penetrate into the Armed 
Forces of the Ignited States, specifically in the New York area, the 
Xational Gnai"d units. 

And at this meeting, too, he cited as an example tlie failure of the 
German Party in the early 1930's to pay attention and bore from 
within the Stahlheimer Organization, Avhich later on became the base 
of the Nazi Party as a military organization. 

These were the three meetings in which Gerluirt Eisler participated. 

Mr. Morris. Did he exercise control tlien '. 

Mr. Latttner. But definitely; his word was oni' authority in that 
meeting — in those meetings. 

Then Alpi worked in the organizational department of the Commu- 
nist Party of the United States from the first time I met him in Detroit 
in 1930 — I am wrong — in the spring of 1931, where he informed me 
that there was a decision made in the department for me to go to 
Canada. And then later on he worked as an organizational specialist 
for the central committee of the Communist Party, U. S. A. 

Later on he was a member of the nationality groups commission of 
the Communist Party. I was a member of that with him at the same 
time. 

Later on, the Communist Party decided to send in a lumiber of 
party leaders into one of the most important mass organizations of 
the party, the International Workers Order. Alpi ancT myself, Ger- 
hardt and others were sent into this organization to strengthen its 
ideological leadership there. And then he functioned up to about 
1948 or 1947, thereabouts, and left the country. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lautner, I wonder if you could tell us of your 
experiences with purges within the Communist Party? 

Mr. Lautxer. Yes. 

Well, these purges took place from time to time. There were dis- 
cussions in the party on the ideological differences, earliest purges in 
the struggle against Trotskyism in the early 1930's, the struggle against 



1426 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

the Radek deviationists in the party, the Bukharinites, Rakosi and 
Rajk, and these types of deviationists and their purge from the Com- 
munist Party. 

Later on there were, in the late 1940's, a new wave of purges in the 
Communist parties in Poland, in Czechoslovakia, in Hungary, in 
Bulgaria, in Rumania. 

I am perfectly Avell acquainted with the purges that took place in 
Hungary. 

In the Communist leadership in Hungary there were 3 groups, 3 
main groups. 

One group was the domestic Communists who shared leadership in 
that party. 

The other group was the so-called Communist leaders, who gravi- 
tated, during the Hitler days, toward the West. Among these were 
the Spanish veterans, the Connnunists who came back to Hungary. 

And the third group was the Moscow gang, headed by Matthias 
Rakosi. 

In these struggles in 1949, the Moscow group, Rakosi, Rajk, and 
others, succeeded in eliminating, in purging and liquidating, these two 
other groups. 

And only recently, as late as 3 months ago, there is a new evaluation 
going on in the various Connnunist parties and Rakosi, the general 
secretary of the Hungarian Connnunist Party, has admitted publicly 
that these purges were a mistake, that they committed serious errors 
in conducting these purges and they are being rehabilitated, while they 
were hanged and shot at the time. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lautner, this particular purge had an indirect 
effect on you ; did it not ? 

Mr. Lautxer. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us how that came about, Mr. Lautner? 

Mr. Laiti'ner. In 1949, in the fall, when the Rajk case — R-a-j-k — 
who was accused of being an imperialist agent, a Titoite and whatnot, 
during that trial, in Hungary, my name came up through one of the 
witnesses. This witness alleged that I was the one who, during the 
war, introduced him to Titoites in Italy, in Bari, Italy, where I served 
in psychological warfare during the war. 

Tliat is true. I introduced a lot of people to a lot of people, and 
I was introduced to a lot of ])eople in these days. 

But in 1944 — in 1943 and 1945, there was no issue of Titoism, there 
M-as a war, a World War going on. And the Titoites were fighting 
the Germans, just like were doing in Italy. 

In the course of tliat period we were instructed — we had Army ni- 
structions — to develop a communications system and a new system 
for these newly integrated partisans, Yugoslav partisans who were 
pulled out of the hills and integrated into a new Yugoslav Army. 

Mr. Morris. Now, ]\Ir. Lautner, for the purposes of the background 
of this record, what position did you have in psychological warfare ? 

Mr. Lautner. I was head of the Hungarian unit in Bari and I was 
an enlisted man — I was a sergeant. 

Mr. Morris. Psychological warfare of the United States Army ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr, ISIoRRis. At the same time you were an experienced Communist ; 
were you not? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1427 

]\rr. ]\roRi{TS. And what position did you have in tlie Communist 
Partv at tliis time? 

JNIr. Lautxkr. At that time I had no jiosition in the Communist 
l^irty, because the Communist Party made a decision at the be^inninjr 
of the war that all those ])arty meml)ers wlu) will be drafted into the 
Army or serve in the Armed P'orces, they are automatically out, of 
the jmi-ty, because they cannot fuKill the jn-eliminary ])rere(iuisites of 
a ])arty luembei- — they cannot attend party meetinofs, they cannot pay 
dues, et cetera. 

So I Avas not in the i)arty, technically, at that time. 

Mr. Morris. So if anyone should have asked you at that time if you 
wei-e a member of the Communist Party, would you truthfully have 
stated that you were not? 

Mr. Lautnp^r. That is riiiht. Put if anybody would have asked, 
"Are you a Communist," I truthfully would have stated, "Yes." And 
J did so. 

]Mr. Morris. At that time, were you in contact with Communist 
Party officials? 

Mr. Lautxer. Yes. From time to time I got letters from the 
United States; particularly, I w^as in communication with Gurley 
Flynn at this time. 

i\Ir. ]\IoRRis. Were you receivino; any orders from Conununists at 
that time? 

Mr. Lautxer. No. 

Mr. INIoRRTS. In other words, you were reall}^ on your own as a 
Connnunist ? 

]\Ir. Lautxer. That is riofht. What I did receive was trends in 
the party and the drivine: toward the dissolution of the Communist 
Party, the Teheran decisions, the oriranization of the Communist 
Political Association, which later was characterized as a revisionist 
error on the part of Browder. 

This type of information I did receive, while I was in the service. 

Mr. JSioRRis. Did you receive any assignments from the Commu- 
nist Party during your service? 

Mr. Lautxer. No. 

Mr. Morris. And how did you carry out your positions in psy- 
chological warfare as a Communist — did you do it com])letely on 
your own or did you take complete orders from the United States 
"Government authorities? 

Mr. Lautxer. I was assigned to Allied Force headquarters, which 
was at first the Eisenhower headquarters at Algiers, and then later 
on it became the Allied headquarters in Casserta, headed l)y Marshal 
Alexander, who was the Chief of the Mediterranean Theater of Op- 
eration. 

Our specific general who was in charge of psychological warfare 
was General IVIcClure, and we received our instructions through chan- 
nels from his headquarters. 

Our main job there was to gather intelligence that came through 
the air raids of the various enemy stations, to gather that and assimi- 
late that, edit it, and give out a daily report. 

In addition to that, I was broadcasting for about G months to Hun- 
gary at that time, out of an Allied Force radio station, in Bari. 



72723—56 — pt. 26- 



1428 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

In addition to that I was also heading a leaflet-production unit 
that prepared leaflets for our 15th Air Force bombers when they went 
on missions so that they could drop these leaflets behind the enemy 
lines. 

This was in the main my work. 

Mr. Morris. It is your testimony, is it not, that in 1950, because of 
some contacts you had at that time, you were purged from the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. 

Instructions came to this country to get rid of me. 

First, they tried to lure me behind the Iron Curtain. I, in all clear 
conscience, applied for a passport. Fortunately, I didn't get it be- 
cause at that particular moment there was a diplomatic break between 
liungary and the United States over the Vogeler case. 

Mr. Morris. AYliat case was that? 

Mr. Lautxer. Vogeler case. 

]Mr. Morris. Robert Vogeler? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. I got a letter from Mrs. Shipley, in 
which she advised me that they cannot issue a passport to Hungary at 
this time. However, if I decide to go elsewhere in Europe, they are 
i-eady to issue a passport for me. 

So that scheme of the party leadership over here to lure me behind 
the Iron Curtain didn't succeed. 

So a few weeks later, another scheme was worked out to get me 
(loMii to Cleveland, Ohio, where I had a very awful personal experi- 
ence in a cellar with Communist Party leaders and thugs. And as 
a result of that, 1 am out of the party. 

Mr. Morris. That was, Mr. Lautner, contemporaneous with the 
l)urge of Rajk in Hungary? 

Mr. Lautxer. That is right. It was traced to that. In eil'ect, 
there is no clearer demonstration of this fact, when I spoke to the 
l^ureau about it in 

Mr. Morris. The Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mr. Lautxer. That is right. My expulsion as it is stated in the 
Daily AVorker, is a lie from the beginning to the end — that my ex- 
})u]sion was initiated from abroad, and this party had no alternative 
l)ut to follow out that instruction. It was most clearly demonstrated 
in the Flynn case in Xew York, where I was on the witness stand for 
.'U days. I was 16 days cross examined in that case. If there was any 
brainwashing done, as an example, this was it. 

For 3 whole days John McTernan, one of the defense attorneys in 
that case, for ?> whole days tried to break me down and prove that 
I was a Tito agent, that I had contacts with the Hungarian Titoites 
in Hungary, 

I told him he was all wet. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any knowledge that the purge of Xoel and 
Herman Field had something to do with the Rajk purge in Hungary? 

Mr. Lautner. Definitely. In that cellar in Cleveland I was time 
and again asked what were my connections with Noel and Herman 
Field, while they were with the so-called Unitarian Overseas Service; 
did I in any way try to attempt to build liaison with them and their 
relief service, that they, the Communist Party, thought was a spy 
service behind the Iron Curtain at that time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1429 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have some testimony which we will 
release later on which concerns this very episode, except that this 
other testimony relates to events that were going on abroad in con- 
nection with this very testimony that Mr. Lautner is giving us this 
morning. That is in connection with Herman Field. 

Senator Welker. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Lautner, have any of these people who were 
purged at that time — the 1949 purge — been now rehabilitated? 

I think you have told us to some extent. I wish you would give 
more details. 

Mr. Lautxer. IIow can you rehabilitate somebody who was shot 
and killed ? You can establish maybe a mistake was made. And back 
in the thoughts of the Hungarian people there is still that lingering 
idea, well, they were branded as traitors of the cause; they were 
branded as Fascist mad dogs. They were branded as imperialist 
flunkies: there must be some element, some grain of truth in that. 

You cannot rehabilitate completely even those that are alive. They 
already carry that stigma — that stigma of ostracism throughout their 
life. And there is no way to rehabilitate. And a decision by a 
party oligarchy will not rehabilitate these people in the truest sense 
of the word. Most of them are shot. Thousands of them were shot. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Lautner, does this rehabilitation campaign 
which is now taking place in the year 1956 of people who were purged 
in the year 1950, do you have any knowledge from your own observa- 
tions as to the purpose and the manner of reorganization that is being 
effected ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us about it, will you ? 

Mr. Lautner. First, since the death of Stalin, there Avas some evalu- 
ation about the incorrectness or the bad features of a so-called one- 
man leadership. The very nature of the Communist Party organiza- 
tion and structure demands a polarization of leadership. This so- 
called collective leadership at the present time is a transitory period. 
And eventually, a polarization will take place again, when one guy 
will jump out in the front and he will be another Joe Stalin. 

However, an evaluation took place in order how to exploit some of 
the bad mistakes that were made under the Stalin regime, and how 
to capitalize, how to exploit some of these self-admitted mistakes, 
in order to put across again another line, another tactical line around 
which new forces could be gathered, a new realinement of forces could 
take shape. And that is exactly what is happening today. 

Fortunately, those that study the strategy and tactics of the world- 
wide Communist movement in this instance, Eiiro])ean labor leaders, 
right off the bat, finally and effectively, rejected any kind of a united 
front activity or united front action with Communist hierarchy or the 
C^ommunist leaders. 

However, there will be gullible sections of populations and some 
public leaders somewhere who will give a grain of consideration or a 
little faith that the Russian line as announced by Khrushchev has 
changed. Nothing changes. Only new tactics, new forms, are being 
employed today to achieve the very same objective that they originally 
set out to establish, that is, worldwide Communist domination. 

Mr. Morris. Have you read the proceedings of the 20th Congress? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes ; I have it. 



1430 SCOPE or soviet activity in the united states 

Mr. Morris. Have you any excerpts from tliat or what you just 
said ? 

Afr. Lautner. I liave Khrusclichev's report right here witli me. 

Mr. MoRius. "Will you put the pertiuent portions of that report into 
the record, Mr. Lautner, please? 

Mr. Lautxer. Well, these excerpts, first, come from point 5, with 
the head, '"The Soviet I^nion in the Struggle for the Consolidation 
of Peace and Internal Security" 

Senator "Weeker. What are you reading from? 

Mr. Lautner. This is the official organ of the Communist Informa- 
tion Bureau. The name of it is, "For a Lasting Peace and a People's 
Democracy," and this is the P^ebruary 17, 1956 issue. 

The next heading says, under point 6, "Some Fundamental Ques- 
tions of Present Day International Developments." 

By the way, this is that famous 7-hour report that Khrushchev 
gave to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
T'nion at the 20th Congress. 

Mr. Morris. What was the date of that? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, that was the end, at the beginning of Febru- 
ary, this issue. 

Mr. Morris. 1956? 

Mr. Lautner. 1956, yes. 

Well, in speaking about a reorientation which was widely misin- 
terpreted in this country and elsewhere, that the Soviet line changed, 
well some of these excerpts from the very same ])erson who made that 
report, contradict that kind of an evaluation. I just want to cite a 
few of them here. 

At one point Khrushchev quotes Lenin and he quotes the following 
excerpt from Lenin : 

All nations will arrive at Socialism. This is inevitable. But not all will do 
so in exactly the same way. Each will contribute something of its own in one 
or another form of democracy or one or in another form of variety of the dic- 
tatorship of the proletariat. 

Our enemies — 

says Khrushchev — 

like to say that we Leninists advocate violence always and everywhere. True, 
we recognize the need for the I'evolutionary transformation of capitalist society 
into socialist society. There is no doubt that in a number of capitalist countries 
the violent overthrow of the dictatorship of the bourgeois and the sharp aggrava- 
tion of the class struggle connected with this are inevitable. 

Then he further says : 

Leninism teaches that the ruling classes will not surrender their power volun- 
tarily and the greater or lesser degree of intensit.v which the struggle ma.v assume, 
the use or the nonuse of violence in the transition to socialism, depends on the 
resistance of the exploiters, on whether the exploiting class itself resorts to vio- 
lence, rather than the proletariat. 

He is trying to reiterate the old argument and the old accusation 
that it is not the Conniiunist who resorts to violence but it is the 
bourgeois, who would not give power over peacefully to them. 

Then further down, he says : 

In countries where capitalism is still strong and it has a huge military and 
police apparatus — 

Mr. Morris. You are coming to the United States ? 



SCOPE OF sovi?:t activity in the united states 1431 

Mr. Laitner. It sounds like the TTnited States. AVe will come to 
that. 

and police apparatus at. its disiwsal, tlie reactionary forces will, of course, in- 
evitably offer serious resistance. There the transition to socialism will be at- 
tended by a sharp class revolutionary struggle. Whatever the form of transition 
to socialism, the decisive and indispensable factor is tlu' i)olitical leadership of 
the working class headed by its vanguard. Without these there can l>e no 
transition to socialism. 

In other words, you must have a strong Communist Party as a 
vanguard. 

And transitions can take different shapes and forms. In countries where there 
will be a resistance, we will fight them. 

And that is the United States. 

Now, what does Khrushchev mean that you can, under certain con- 
ditions — under certain conditions, there is a possibility? There are 
two "ifs" of peaceful transition. And Mikoyan in his report to the 
20th 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell that, please ? 

Mr. Lautner. M-i-k-o-y-a-n — cites the example of Czechoslovakia, 
right after the Second World War. 

What happened in Central Europe? Anybody who knows a little 
contemporary history knows that after the defeat of fascism and 
Plitlerism, there was a political vacuum in central Europe. There 
were a lumiber of exiled governments, like the Polish and Czecho- 
slovakian Governments in London. Those that were in power during 
the Hitler regime in central Europe, they were compromised. The 
new forces that were to.come up as political factors in the post second- 
war period, never had a chance, because the Moscow boys came back 
right on the backs of the Eed army and through the force and threat 
of the Red army ground up all anti-Communist democratic forces in 
Poland, in Czechoslovakia, in Hungary, in Bulgaria, and by 1948-49, 
they established their sole domination — the domination of the Com- 
munist or workers parties, the one party system. 

And the state or form which they organized was know^ii as the 
People's Democracies, in Poland, and Czechoslovakia. 

So these were the conditions on which Khruschchev, Mikoyan, and 
others are trying to build now that, under certain conditions it is pos- 
sible, but if those conditions are not present, force and violence, the 
old tried and tested Marxism-I^nin doctrine, is still applicable, and 
the only doctrine that is applicable in the transition to socialism by 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. That is according to the minutes of the 20th Congress i 

Mr. Lautner. That is stated very clearly by Khrushchev. 

Mr. Morris. Mv. I^autner, I wonder if you would tell us of the 
reorganization of the Communist Party that you were engaged in in 
1950 when you were expelled from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Lautxer. Yes. 

Well, the reorganization actually began in 1948 — 1948, in September. 
The Comnnmist Party in this country was under attack. The toj) 
leadership, the national board, headed by Deimis, Poster, and others, 
were arrested and indicted for violating the Smith Act. 

At that time I was called into a meeting with Bob Thompson who 
was a member of the boaixl and two other members of the New York 



1432 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

State secretariat, where Thompson gave a report that Foster, who 
was in Europe in 1946 and 1947, made a survey on this particular 
problem, the very problem, with the international leadership, and 
in his report he related some of the experiences that the other parties 
have on the other side when they were under attack. 

And on the basis of Foster's report, there was a contraction of 
l>ractically 90 percent of the membership in these parties when they 
were under attack on the other side. 

Mr. Morris. What do you mean by contraction ? 

Mr, Lautner. Contraction — by 90 percent of the party member- 
ship strayed away and about 10 percent remained. And this 10 per- 
cent was the party, the organized force that carried on activities 
under any and all conditions, whether fascism or nazism or any kind of 
re})ression. 

So in 1948, September, at this meeting, Bob Thompson raised the 
question, "Now, we still have a little chance — we are under attack — 
to find that 10 percent of the membership that would be most effec- 
tive, if it integrated now, in carrying out party activities as an organ- 
ized group under any and all conditions." 

And we worked out a plan over there which was known as the 
three system, the Troyka system, based on the old Russian under- 
ground and other undergrounds in Europe. 

Mr. Morris. Let me see if I understand : The party reappraised 
the whole situation ? 

Mr. Lautxer. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. They found they were going to take out 10 percent, 
which 10 percent woidd be reliable under all circumstances '( 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. With respect to the remaining 90, what did they do 
with them '? 

Mr. Lal'tner. Well, at that point, that was not even considered. 
That was not the problem at that moment. At that moment the 
])roblem was how to find the 10 percent first. Certain criteria was 
<et up, who shall be integrated into the 10 percent. 

Mr. Morris. These people who were selected were the most reliable 
ones ? 

Mr. Laitxer. The first criterion was absolute devotion and loy- 
alty to the party under any and all conditions. 

Second, ability. 

Third, being in a mass organization, or in a trade-union movement 
where there is a lot of elbow room, where one can work and carry 
on Communist activities. 

LTnder these criteria that integration of 10 percent began, about late 
fall in 1948. And at the time I left the Communist Party in 1950, 
17th of January, tliis phase of work was accomplisheed, checked in the 
New York State organization of the Communist Party, where approxi- 
mately 3,000 party members were integrated into the underground 
out of a paper membership of about 30,000 at that time. 

Mr. Morris. In 1950 there was a membership of 30,000 in Xew York 
State and they selected 3,000 of the most loyal and disciplined and 
efficient members and they processed them into an underground? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And you helped — you were a party to that processing? 



S' 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1433 

Mr. Lautner. Well, tliat was my m:iin work, to inte«^r:ite with the 
so-called vertical structure, certain horizontal features, like finances, 
party presses, hiding;- places, contact places, making available paper 
for printing, giving de[)osits to small jobbers in the printing indusiiy, 
to increase their volume of paper supply, a connnunication system. 

These were some of the features that we blended in with that under- 
ground at that time. That was my nuiin function in that period of 
time. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony with respect to the other 
27,000, it was just not part of your assignment '{ 

Mr. Lautxer. A lot of them drifted away. And then there was 
a legal party functioning on the top. In the 1950 December con- 
vention, they elected some additional alternate members of the na- 
tional conmnttee to those that were the national connnittee members 
of 13, and they carried on their activities on the surface. Most of them 
went underground, who were not prosecuted, and they just marclied 
back recently like a good platoon on orders to submit themselves to 
prosecution again. There is another reason for that. 

Mr. MoitRis. Will you tell us about tJiat, Mr. Lautner — you just 
nuide a reference there? 

Mr. Lautner. In 1948 our main consideration was to organize the 
underground to enable the party to function under any and all con- 
ditions and to give leadership to this party. So that this myth of 
leadership was upheld. It was not even a myth. It was a reality. 

When Dennis and the others reported to serve sentence, Gil Green, 
Bob Thompson, and Henry Winston remained fugitives. 

In the party it was a clear indication that this leadership is giving 
leadership in that particular period, that there is a continuity of 
leadership in the Communist Party which is very important in the 
eyes of the party membership. 

In addition to these three 

Senator Welker. Just a minute. You say they remained fugitives. 
What happened there — they jumped bond? 

Mr. Lautxer. Thev went underground. 

Senator Weeker. They went underground? 

Mr. Lautx'^er. That is right. Instead of reporting to serve sen- 
tence — they were sentenced in the first case — instead of reporting like 
Dennis, Gates, Ben Davis, and the others did, they remained nncler- 
ground — they didn't reoort. 

Senator WELKf:R. And they forfeited their bond i 

Mr. Lautner. They forfeited their bond. I think it was $20,000 
each. 

Senator Welker. Who furnished that bond ; do you know ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, I think at that time it was the CRC, the Civil 
Rights Congress, which was another front organization for the party 
in collecting fmids, to make funds available for these legal defenses, 
and for other purposes. 

Senator Welker. You mean to tell the conmiittee then that these 
men who didn't accept their sentences, didn't serve their sentences 
at first, the party actually controlled them and asked them to go 
underground ? 

Mr. Lautxer. That is correct. 

Senator Welker. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Lautner, That is right. 



1434 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Before departing any further, Mr. Lautner; with re- 
spect to the people who would raise funds in the Civil Rights Con- 
gress, would any of those, with respect to the 30,000 Communist 
Party members in 1950, New York, would the other underground 
people be engaged ? 

Mr. Lautxer. Well, you see, there is no sharp separatio )i between 
one who was in the legal party or one who was in the underground. 
There were instances that party leaders were up in the open party 
and they were also in the underground. There were instances where 
the underground person was a respectable trade-union leader. 

So it is a fluid situation. What there is, there is a compact, or- 
ganized force of 3,000. That is the only implication. An organized 
force of 3,000 party membei'S who carry on as an organized force 
under any and all conditions, even if the legal party is dissolved. 

As far as financing, the manifold activities of the Communist Party, 
that came from both sources. A lot of money was channeled into the 
underground for underground purposes. 

I, for example, was asked to make up a list of 20 people in the 
spring of 1949. At that time the New York State organization of 
the Communist Party proposed a budget of $650,000 for the New 
York organization alone. A certain amount of this money had to 
be channeled into the underground. I was asked to prepare a list 
of 20 names, party and nonparty people. And the primary considera- 
tion in the selecting of these names would be, whether this individual 
to whom anywhere from $10,000 to $20,000 would be entrusted as 
party funds, would this individual change his loyalty to the party 
for $10,000 or $20,000. That was the key question there. 

Others were asked to prepare such lists. 

And I found that at 1 point 3 whole lists of 20 people were given 
to Bill Norman, the executive secretary of the New York organiza- 
tion. And we left it up to him to select his 20 people out of 60 recom- 
mendations — out of 60 names, where to place money for the under- 
ground. 

So there was an interchange. It depended on what was more im- 
portant at the moment as far as finances were concerned. There was 
no sharp separation there. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lautner, how do you interpret the reemergence 
from the underground of the Communist leaders who are coming into 
surrender ? 

Mr. Lautner. Dennis and the others served their sentence. And 
they came back into civil life. They were on probation for a while. 
And so somewhere around last January or so, that probation ended. 
They were ready and free to act again as Communist Party leaders. 

For 4 or 5 years you had this situation where the underground 
leadership gave leadership to the whole party, political leadershi]). 
You cannot continue that. 

There is only one leadership in the Communist Party. So the word 
went out and these underground leaders, those that were not appre- 
hended in the meantime, like Bob Thompson and Sid Stein, just came 
marching back and reporting to the authorities ready to stand trial 
or ready to serve their sentences. 

Mr. Morris. Was that movement out of strength or weakness? 

Mr. Lautner. That was a calculated movement out of their organi- 
zation strength. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1435 

Mr. Morris. Out of strength or weakness ? 

Mr. Lautner. They determined when, who shall report back, they 
determined Avluit shall happen. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we have been taking testimony on a 
proposed amendment to the Smith Act. The bill has gone from 
Internal Security to the Senate Judiciary Committee. 

Last week there was a conference of attorneys general out in the 
"West — I think it was in Santa Fe — and there the issue came up as to 
whether the individual States would join with the Federal Govern- 
ment in asking for this amendment to the Smith Act. 

The attorneys general last week supported the Bridges-McCarthy 
bill, which is the name of the bill that is now before the Judiciarv 
Conmiittee and about which we have been taking testimony. 

Now last week there were just a few attorneys general, I think the 
attorneys general of California, New Jersey, and New York, opposed 
the position of the Federal Government and opposed the Bridges- 
McCarthy bill. At least, one of them voiced the opinion that the 
Communist Party does not attack and does not have as its target the 
various State governments and there is no conspiracy by the Com- 
munists against the State governments. 

(A letter to Chairman Eastland from Herbert B. Cohen, attorney 
general of Pennsylvania, regarding this matter and enclosing state- 
ments of himself and other attorneys general, together with the perti- 
nent resolutions of the National Association of Attorneys General, 
Avere ordered into the record at a meeting of the subcommittee on 
May 10 and appear at the end of this testimony.) 

Mr. Morris. We have here a man who was district organizer. He 
had the position of the control officer, one of the control officers of 
the Communist Party of New York State. 

I would like to ask him to testify on that particular point. 

Does the Communist Party — did it, while you were one of the State 
officials, attempt to conspire against the State ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. First of all, the State government, 
as well as the Federal Government, is considered in the thinking and 
evaluation of the Communist Party leadership, as a political upper 
structure, a political upper structure that safeguards the vested inter- 
ests. That is the way they put it. 

Now, I personally feel that there are a lot of legal questions involved. 
I am not an attorney. There are a lot of legal questions involved, in 
this wliole issue of State rights versus Federal rights. 

Mr. Morris. Without getting into that, Mr. Lautner, was there any 
conspiracy on the part of the Communist Party with respect to the 
State government ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, all Communist Party activities, in order to 
achieve the basic aims of Marxism and Leninism, are directed against 
all State as well as Federal authority and Federal Government. There 
is no misunderstanding or no mistake about that because they are both 
part of the Communist terminology, the upper structure. 

Senator Welker. Are you basing that statement upon your own 
experiences ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is right. That is right. 

Senator Y/elker. Will you tell us any experiences you had on that? 

72723—56 — pt. 26 3 



1436 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Lautner. I Avas teachino- Marxism and Leninism for a number 
of years in Communist Party schools. 

And it is a very simple proposition. There is an economic founda- 
tion in society. The relationship to that economic foundation deter- 
mines a class relationship. Those that own the means of production, 
and the means of transportation are one particular class. They have 
their class interests. 

Those that do not own the means of production only work in fac- 
tories and in transportation, are a class and they have their separate 
interests. 

On this economic foundation a structure is built. That structure 
has two parts. It is an ideological structure, the battle for the minds, 
and a political structure. 

Both of these upper structures on this economic foundation, safe- 
guard that relationship at the base, at the point of production. 

In other words, the bourgeois state as they say it, economic capi- 
talism, that controls the state machine, also controls the Federal Gov- 
ernment, the Federal machine. 

So when you fight against the bourgeois, when you fight against 
monopoly and imperialism, you fight against the same state machine 
as well as the Federal machine. There is no mistake about that. 

I did not want to go into the legal, as I said, controversy, state 
rights versus Federal rights. 

But I also feel that because of the very monolithic nature of the 
Communist leadership, and the very discipline and authority that 
is being exercised in the Communist movement, I think a dispersed 
type of an approach would defeat any attempt to cope with this 
problem. I think there is long overdue a need for a centralized group 
to study this movement in all its manifestations, with all of its rami- 
fications, and give the benefit of their study to the authorities, so that 
they can intelligently handle the problem. 

These are very skillful propagandists, they are dedicated profes- 
sional revolutionists. If you spit them in the face, they will just 
turn around and will say, "It is raining," and they will try to prove 
that it is raining. That is the kind of people that you deal Avith. 

I give you one example : They dissolved the Communist Information 
Btireau in the last few weeks now. Well, why did they do that? 
To create the impression that their intentions are really peaceful. 
And they do not want the Communist Information Bureau, anyway ; 
it has already otitlived its usefulness. 

But at the same time, Khruslichev warns the worldwide Communist 
movement and its leadership in the Pravda, the official organ of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union, only a feAv days after the 
dissolution of the Cominform, and he says — this is a quote that the 
NeAv York Times carried from the Pravda, and I read the exact 
quotation : 

Simultaneously with the demotion of Joseph Stalin, steps were taken to 
liquidate the Communist Information Bureau. Pra\'da asks you, however, it 
needs to establish suitable links with friends and parties oriented towards 
socialism — 

meaning Communist Party. And the Pravda also makes clear that— 

the ending: of the Communist Information Bureau in no way means a weakening 
of links Ijetween Communist I'arties. 

These are the exact Avords from the Pravda. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1437 

Mr. Morris. Will you read that aoain? 

Mr. Lautner. And Pravda also makes it clear that "the ending of 
the Cominiinist Information Bureau in no way means a weakening of 
links between Communist parties." 

Mr. Morris, ^[ay I come back to the position of State contentions 
with the Communist Party. 

Massachusetts had indicted Prof. Dirk J. Struik. Because of the 
Supreme Court decision in the Steve Nelson case, the case against 
Struik had been dropped. Do you think at that particular level, a 
professor in an individual State, that that is the lit subject for a State 
effort to suppress the Communist activity within its borders? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, I think and I feel that the State has a right to 
protect itself against subversion. There is no question about that. 

Well, as I said before, these are a lot of legal problems, legal ques- 
tions involved. I am not competent enough to deal with or to even 
comment on these problems. But I feel that the State has a right 
for its own protection to defend itself, and defend the people that they 
represent in that State, because the State is the dulv elected body of 
people who represent the views and aspirations of tlie people of that 
particular State. They have that right. I think they should. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lautner, the last time you testified, you gave us 
some testimony about Constantin Radzie, who was a member of the 
control commission of the Communist Party of New York State; did 
you not? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That was in 1952, 1 believe ; was it not, Mr. Lautner ; or 
1953? 

Mr. Lautner. We were up in New York at that time ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes; 1952. 

Mr. Lautner. 1952 ; yes— or 1953. 

Mr. Morris. At that time it was disclosed that Constantin Radzie, 
even though he was a member of the control commission of the Com- 
munist Party and, therefore, one of the leaders of the Communist 
Party, had been naturalized in the United States and had stated in 
his application papers that he had never been a member of the Com- 
munist Party and denaturalization proceedings were commenced 
against him ; were they not ? 

Mr. Lautner. That was said. Well, I don't know whether he took 
his citizenship paper out or not. All I know is that he was a Com- 
munist Party member, since I was, in 1929, and if he took his citizen- 
ship papers out after 1929, and if he so alleged that he was not a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party, or of any group that tries to overthrow 
the United States Government by force and violence, then he was mis- 
taken. He was wrong. He was not telling the truth. 

Mr. ^Morris. Do you know what happened to that denaturalization 
proceeding ? 

Mr. Lautner. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge do you know whether he has been 
deported I 

Mr. L.VUTNER. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Was he denaturalized ? 

Mr. Lautner. I have no idea — I don't know what happened to him. 



1438 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Since Mr. Lautner lias testified, Mr. Chairman, pre- 
viously, about a Peter Rhodes, I wonder if you will tell us who Peter 
Rhodes is ? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, when I graduated from War Department Mili- 
tary Intelligence Training School during the war in 1943, spring, I 
was immediately shipped overseas with a small group of other sol- 
dier. And we were assigned to Allied Force Headquarters in Algiers, 
to Eisenhower's headquarters. And we were assigned to Psychological 
Warfare Branch. 

The person who was in charge of all monitoring units of Psycholog- 
ical Warfare Branch was a person by the name of Peter Rhodes. 
He was a civilian, he was with OWI. And he was our boss, as far as 
our assignment and work was concerned. He gave us a number of 
orientation lectures outside of Algiers at "L. B. R," 

And then later on I was assigned to the Balkan unit, up the Adriatic 
coast. And he came around there from time to time visiting the vari- 
ous units of Psychological Warfare Branch in the IMediterranean 
theater of operation. He was a simulated lieutenant colonel and he was 
our chief in this war period. 

He introduced me in Algiers to some of the international leaders of 
the Veterans of the International Brigade. Through them I got 
introduced to some of the French deputies who were in Algiers, Com- 
munist deputies at that time, Florimond Bonte and the others, and 
he also introduced me to a woman who was the general secretary of the 
Algerian Communist Party. 

We never spoke about his party membership. 

When I came back I had a discussion with John Williamson, who 
was a member of the national board and labor secretary of the party, 
and I told him about my experiences with this person. So he was 
laughing. He says, "I knoY^' him." 

Then I checked through Dorothy Loeb, who was a section organizer 
of a sensitive section in New York organization in the party. Peter 
Rhodes was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. MoKEis. Mr. Chairman, when Winston Burdett testified a vear 
ago he, too, mentioned Peter Rhodes. We have been making a rather 
concerted effort to try to locate Mr. Rhodes, by way of asking about 
this particular testimony, to find whether he is a competent witness 
to testify about the Communist conspiracy in the United States. To 
date we have not been successful. 

\)o you have any idea where he is at all ? 

Mr. Lautner, I have an idea. He was married to a Belgian woman. 
And I don't know — recently I heard that he was out of the country, he 
was either in France or Belgium. 

The last time I saw him was in 1046. He lived in Knickerbocker 
Village downtown, had an apartment there, and I went up there a 
couple of times to see him. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lautner, you were district organizer in West Vir- 
ginia, were you not ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. At that time, did you have people in the political par- 
ties of West Virginia ? 

Mr. Lautner. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Without going into any names, will yon tell us gen- 
erally about that, Mr. Lautner ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1439 

Mr. Lautner. Well, since the miners, in the main, were in the Demo- 
cratic Party in West Virginia, especially in the heavily populated coal 
areas like Beckley and Logan and Williamson, it was our task to go 
where the miners were, going to the Democratic Party. And we had, 
in the party — the chairman of the West Virginia State Youth Com- 
mittee of the Democratic Partv. was a party member. 

We elected finally one party member into the State assembly. State 
representative, through the Democratic Party. 

We made other attempts. We failed there. But we were in the 
Democratic Party. We had a little toehold. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. But the Connnunist Party does take that activity 
which you have just described, infiltrating both Republican and Demo- 
cratic Parties, to your own knowledge — ^you know that from your own 
experiences ? 

Mr. Lautner. That is correct. Not to do so would be branded 
as sectarianism. 

Mr. Morris. Not to do what ? 

I\Ir. Lautner. Would be branded as sectarianism which is an error. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else, Mr. Lautner, that you feel would 
help us, this Internal Security Subcommittee, at this time, which is 
analyzing Soviet activity as it expresses itself through the organi- 
zation and reorganization of the Communist Party of the LTnited 
States? 

Mr. Lautner. Well, offhand, I have 

Senator Welker. Any further questions ? 

Mr. Lautner (continuing). No contribution to make. 

(On the basis of earlier testimony by Mr. Lautner, supplemented 
by other records in the subcommittee files, the staff has prepared a 
word picture of the activities and characteristics of an ubiquitous 
Communist agent, who operated in the United States for two decades, 
and who is most frequently referred to as J. Peters. This document 
appears as appendix I of this volume. ) 

Senator Welker. Any further questions. Counsel ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have something here for the record. 

I thought we could put into the record today — I have been trying 
to get some verification of it — it is not exactly established yet but we 
received a letter from Australia this morning in which the man who 
wrote the letter, who was the secretary of the Australian Committee 
for the Cultural Freedom, had read in the Newsweek, May 21, 1956, 
that Mr. Vladmir Mikheev, who was the subject of hearings before 
the House committee, and that he wanted to point out to tliis com- 
mittee that there were 14 witnesses who gave testimony before the 
Petrov Royal Commission in Australia about the activities of Mikheev 
when he was in Australia. 

This man who wrote the letter to us said that he was then the Tass 
correspondent in the South Pacific area and was the first Tass corre- 
spondent in Australia. 

_ I would like that, Senator, subject to our verifying that it is pre- 
cisely the same man that this man says he is — I would like that to 
go into the record in connection with our inquiry into the Tass News 
Agency which is now underway by this Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee. 



1440 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Welker. It will be permitted but it is a great deal of 
hearsay. We will take it for whatever value it contains. It will be 
permitted at this point. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandell has prepared, Mr. Chairman, excerpts 
from the testimony of the Royal Commission, on this point, and I 
would like to offer them for the record at this time. 

Senator Welker. It is so ordered. 

(The material was marked "'Exhibit No, 278" and reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 278 

(Tlie following references to Tass are taken from Report of the Royal Com- 
mission on Espionage, dated 22nd August 1955, issued by the Commonwealth of 
Australia : ) 

Tass : This is the abbreviation for Telegrafnois Agenstvo Sovietskavo 
Soiuga (Telegraphic Agency of the Soviet Union), the organ of the Soviet Gov- 
ernment which is concerned with the collection and dissemination of news 
(p. 19). 

An illustration of the importance which the Moscow Centre attached to this 
rule of secrecy (which was designed, amongst other things, to minimize the 
risk of compromising the Ambassador or the Embassy should M. V. D. activities 
become known) is given in the Moscow Letter No. 6 of 25th November 1952, 
paragraph 12. The paragraph is in these terms : 

"Concerning the Motor Car. 

"Both you and Antonov knew the cover story for the purchase of the motor car. 
In accordance with this cover story all the employees of the Embassy, Pakhomox's 
acquaintances, and the counter-intelligence have every reason for considering 
the car to be the property of the Tass agency. The authorization for the purchase 
of the motor car was given in an unciphered communication in the name of the 
directorate of the Tass agency. Therefore, Antonov's statement to the Am- 
bassador that he knows nothing about the motor car, that no one told him 
anything about it in the Tass agency, and that the motor car belonged personally 
to Pakhomov (which you likewise confirmed to the Ambassador), we consider 
to be an infringement of the rules of secrecy, which occurred because of an 
oversight on your part. Your and Antonov's statement to the Ambassador caused 
the exposure of Pakhomov as our cadre worker. 

"In the situation which has now arisen, the motor car should be left in 
Canberra and it should be used for operational purposes after you or Kislytsin 
have obtained a driving license. 

"Taking into consideration Antonov's statement that he refuses to take the car 
because he is afraid to drive a motor car in Sydney, we recommended to Antonov 
that, pending a final decision, he should take a course of driving lessons and 
tjhat for this purpose he should use fl5 out of the resources of your M. V. D. 
section" (pp. 87 and 88). 

274. Palchomov, who held the overt post of Tass representative, was an 
M. V. D. worker who had already returned to the U. S. S. R. Antonov, who 
was also an M. V. D. worker, had relieved him as Tass representative (p. 88). 

275. The Letter is of interest also from other points of view. It illustrates 
the care taken by the Moscow Centre to preserve its activities and the identity of 
its workers in Australia from the knowledge of our Security Service by procur- 
ing the Moscow Directorate of the Tass Agency to send Pakhomov the "cover 
story" by a communication "in clear" in the belief that communications with 
Australia were the subject of censorship examination, and in the hope and an- 
ticipation that the communication would thus come to the knowledge of our 
Security Service and lull any suspicions they might have that Pakhomov, the 
overt Tass representative, was concerned with espionage activities. The Letter 
shows also that the M. V. D. Resident had funds at his disposal separate from 
the ordinary Embassy funds (pp. 88 and 89) . 

277. During Makarov's Residentship, Mosov (code name "Tekhnik") was 
the Tass representative in Australia. He was an M. V. D. worker under Makarov 
and subsequently, for a short time, under Sadovnikov. In August 1950 he re- 
turned to the U. S. S. R. (p. 89) . 

281. In June 1950 Pakhomov (code name "Valentin"), another M. V. D. 
worker, arrived to replace Nosov as Tass representative and to work under 
Sadovnikov (p. 89). 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1441 

2S3. Ill April 1951 Sadovnikov was recalled to Moscow. An unfavorable re- 
port concei-ninji his conduct as an Embassy official which bad been made l),v the 
Ambassador was the reason for his recall. But he did not know this, and believed 
that he was merely going on leave and would return after a short interval. 
Before his departure he was instructed by the Moscow Centre that Pakliomov 
would act as temporary Resident during his absence and that Mrs. Petrov would 
tnke over the M. V. 1). cipher work and papers, including the ciphers. This 
she did (pp. SO and 00). 

284. I'akhomov, however, who bad arrived in Australia only in June 1950, had 
had little opportunity to accustom himself to Australian ways of life or to make 
acquaintances. From the M. V. D. point of view he was under the fvirther 
di-sadvantage that he lived in Sydney and had no diplomatic immunity (p. 90). 

285. Pakhomov remained temporary Resident until the end of 1051, when 
Petrov was appointed temporary Resident in his place. Thereafter, Pakhomov 
acted as an M. V. D. worker under Petrov, who was promoted to the rank of 
Colonel during 1052. From the time of Petrov's appointment as temporary 
Resident, Mrs. Petrov, who had been Pakhomov's cipher clerk and technical 
assistant, acted as Petrov's cipher clerk and technical assistant (p. 90). 

286. Petrov remained temporary Resident until April 1954, when he left the 
Soviet service. From early in 1953 he had known that he was to return to the 
U. S. S. R. and to be relieved of his position as temporary Resident. In fact, he 
was relieved by Kovalenok (code name "Stoun"), an M. V. D. cadre worker, who 
arrived in Sydney on the 3rd April 1954 as temporary Resident. It was intended 
that an M. V. D. worker more senior than Kovalenok would later come to 
Australia as permanent Resident. It is worthy of note that in Moscow Kova- 
lenok had served in the Fourth Directorate of the M. V. D., which was concerned 
with the training of espionage agents for work in an "Illegal Apparatus" and 
procuring their entry into foreign countries. This is significant in view of the 
desire of the Moscow Centi"« to create an "Illegal Apparatus" in Australia (p. 90) . 

291. ANTONOV (code name "Ignat") arrived in June 1952. His overt work 
was that of Tass representative in succession to Pakhomov. Antonov's principal 
M. V. D. duties — as laid down by the Moscow Centre — were to make the acquaint- 
ance of and "study" journalists. Members of the Parliament, and others who 
were thought to be of interest to the M. V. D. Like Kislytsin, his inadequate 
understanding of English handicapped him. Antonov left Australia with the 
members of the Embassy after Petrov's defection (p. 91) . 

(f) When Sadovnikov left Australia in 1951 Pakhomov, who still remained 
responsible for the Tass work and had been in Australia for only a few months, 
was suddenly called upon to take over the control of Sadovnikov's Apparatus, and 
both he and Sadovnikov believed that this was merely a temporary expedient 
(p. 96). 

.564. There is also a reference to Maclean in one of the G Series of documents, 
namely, the Enclosure to the Letter of 10th November 1949 (G. 3). It reads: 

"Maclean — journalist, sympathetically disposed towards us, a very well 
informed man. In 'T's' opnion, he will give information." 

"T" stands for "Tekhnik," the code name of Nosov, a Tass representative and 
an M. V. D. worker under Makarov and later under Sadovnikov (p. 159). 

091. It is apparently the world-wide Soviet practice for Tass representative.*; 
to be recruited espionage agents. It certainly was so in Australia, where Nosov. 
Pakhomov, and Antonov — in succession the Tass men here — were all active 
M. V. D. cadre workers (p. 193). 

692. The "study" of journalists for the M. V. D. was primarily the task of the 
Tass representative, who could without exciting attention mix freely with 
journalists and would be naturally accepted by them as one of themselves. He is 
thus in the way of gaining access to such information as they have and may be 
able to u.se them as at least unwitting informants (p. 193) . 

697. Miller told us that in 1943 he had — with the consent of his employer — 
made an arrangement with Nosov, whom he believed to be merely a Tass repre- 
sentative, to supply Nosov with news which might be of interest for him to cable 
to Tass. For these services, Miller said, Nosov, with the knowledge and approval 
of the proprietor of the "Daily Telegraph", paid him a weekly sum of £2. Miller 
told us that he had earlier been a member of the Communist Party but had 
ceased to belong to it in 1042 because he disagreed with its policies. There was, 
he said, nothing improper in the arrangement made by him with Nosov, and such 
an arrangement to supply information of interest to correspondents of overseas 
newspapers is, we were told, a common practice in newspaper oflSces (p. 194). 



1442 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

720. Although, as we have previously pointed out, O'Sullivan must have known 
that the Tass representatives was an ofQcial of a Soviet Government organ, he 
said that he had no knowledge that Pakhomov was an M. V. D. worker. He said 
that he gave Exhibit H to Pakhomov witli the purpose solely of assisting the 
latter to influence journalists to publish Soviet news (p. 19S). 

721. We think it is most improbable that Pakhomov would have disclosed to 
O'Sullivan that he was an M. V. D. worker, or that O'Sullivan would have known 
it, but O'Sullivan's excuse for giving Pakhomov Exhibit H does not explain what 
appears to be a design to hide the fact that he was its author. Writing in the 
third person, he inserted some particulars about himself — including an indefinite 
statement of his age. Nor does his excuse seem to afford an explanation of 
the references in it to persons believed by O'Sullivan to be connected with our 
Security Service (p. 19S). 

722. Whatever O'Sullivan's purpose may have been in supplying Exhibit H, 
it is clear from the Moscow Letters that the document was got by Pakhomov for 
M. V. D. purposes, and that after its dispatch to Moscow the Centre took a keen 
interest in O'Sullivan and regarded him as a promising prospective agent who as 
a result of his secret meetings with Pakhomov and of his supplying Exhibit H 
was "on the small hook". That interest became intensified after O'Sullivan 
became Press Secretary to the Leader of the Opposition in April 1953 (p. 198). 

In addition to these M. V. D. workers or collaborators on the Embassy staff, 
the following Tass representatives in Australia were M. V. D. workers : 
(i) Nosov ("Tekhnik") 
(ii) Pakhomov ("Valentin") 
(lii) Antonov ("Ignat") (p. 297). 
Paragraph 7 of Letter No. 5 of 27 September 1952 to Canberra. 

The information set out in para. 7 of your Letter No. 4 of 28.8.52, should 
have been notified to us by you by cable. Please take this into consideration 
and in future inform us immediately about similar happenings. 

We agree that Antonov should not go any more to the editorial oflice 

of the "Tribune", (°1). In so far as materials supplied by the Information 

Bureau and Photo Chronicle (°2) through Tass, intended for the Australian 

press, are official (°3) and are examined by censorship (°4) upon receipt, 

it appears expedient to us that Antonov should come to an arrangement 

with the editorial oflice of the "Tribune" (°5) that a technical worker 

should be sent to him for such material when necessary^ (p. 371). 

9. Petrov stated that Exhibit H had been handed to him in February 1952 by 

one Pakhomov, the then representative of the Tass Agency and said to be a 

cadre-worker of the M. V. D., who had told him that the document had been 

supplied to him late in 1951 by a .iournalist named Fergan O'Sullivan then on 

the staff of the "Sydney Morning Herald" (p. 420). 

12, The testing of the authenticity of Exhibit J proceeded as follows : 
The Petrovs had stated — 

(a) that it was typed during three successive days in April or May 1953, 
at a time when Petrov was in the Canberra Community Hospital, and had 
been given by its author to one Antonov, the then representative of the 
Tass Agency and also said to be a cadre-worker of the M. V. D. 

(b) that it was typed in the Soviet Embassy at Canberra. 

(c) that it was typed by Lockwood (p. 420). 

CONCLUSIONS 

The following characteristics of Tass demonstrate its illicit character as a 
conspiratorial agency : 

(1) Its Russian staff has consisted largely of Soviet Military Intelligence 
personnel who are not professional journalists and who operate under aliases 
and false credentials. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of Mr, Lautner, Mr. Chair- 
man. 



^ The following words and phrases are handwritten on the original at the places indi- 
cated : 

(°1) "edit, of the Tribune." 

(°2) "inform, bureau and photo chr." 

("3) "offlc." 

(°4) "censorship." 

("5) "editorial office Tr." (p. 371). 



SCOPE OF S0\lb7r ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1443 

Senator Wfj.kkr. Tliank you very jnuch for appearino-. 
And the meeting is now suspended. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 10 p. ni., the hearing was adjourned.) 
(The letter from Herbert B. Cohen, attorney general of Pennsyl- 
vania, with related documents, referred to at p. 1435 read as follows) : 

COMMOXWKAT.TII OF I'KN XSYI.VAN TA, 

Okfic'K of tuf. Attokxf.y Gf.nkuai., 

lIarr\Hbur(j, Julif J8, Id'iG. 
Hon. .Tames O. Eastiam), 

Chaint)an, Senate Judiciary Committee, 

Se7}atc Office Building, Washington, J). C. 
Dear Senator Eastland: The attorueys general of California, Di'laware, 
Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Nevada, and Khode Island, have 
authorized me to transmit the enclosed statements to you as an expression of 
our dissent to the actions of the National Association of Attorneys General at its 
50th annual meeting (1956). 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) Hehbeut B. Cohen, 

Attorney Oencral. 

Statement of Position on Resolution 14 of the National Association of 
Attorneys General 50th Annual Meetin(i, 1956 

SUBVERSIVE activities 

The undersigned members of the National Association of Attorneys General, 
believing that the security of the Nation and of each of the States will best be 
served by uniform Federal investigation, control, and prosecution of subversive 
activities and having dissented from the action of the association at its 50th 
annual meeting (1956) endorsing Federal legislation to permit enforcement of 
State penal statutes in this field, adopt this statement as their formal expres- 
sion of dissent from such action of the association and desire that this formal 
expression of dissent be made known to the presiding officers and appropriate 
committee Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives of the 
United States. 

Edmund G. Brown, Attorney General of California ; Joseph D. Craven, 
Attorney General of Delaware; Thomas M. Kavanagh, Attorney 
General of Michigan ; Miles Lord, Attorney General of Minne- 
sota ; Grover C. Richman, Jr., Attorney General of New Jersey ; 
Harvey Dickerson, Attorney General of Nevada ; Herbert B. 
Cohen, Attorney General of Pennsylvania ; William E. Powers, 
Attorney General of Rhode Island. 



Resolution 14. Subversive Activities 
The National Association of Attorneys General, 50th annual meeting, 1956 

Be it resolved hy the 50th annual meeting of the National Association of At- 
torneys Oeneral, That this association endorses the enactment of Federal legisla- 
tion authorizing the enforcement of State statutes prescribing criminal penalties 
for subversive activities involving State or National Governments or either of 
them ; and be it further 

Resolved, That the secretariat is requested to forward copies of this resolution 
to the presiding officers and the appropriate committee chairmen of tlie Senate 
and House of Representatives of the United States. 



72723— 56— pt. 26- 



1444 SCOPE or soviet activity in the united states 

Statkjeent of Position on Resolution I.j of tue National Association of 
Attorneys General, 50th Annual Meeting, 1950 

RULES of construction TO GUIDE THE SUPREME COURT 

The uudersigned members of the National Association of Attorneys General, 
believing that the delineation of the proper spheres of activities of the Federal 
and State Governments is properly a function of the Supreme Court of the United 
States and not one to be circumscribed by legislative enactment and having dis- 
sented from tlie action of the association at its 50th annual meeting (195G) 
approving enactment by the Congress of legislation attempting so to circumscribe 
this judicial function, adopt this as a formal expression of their disapproval of 
such legislation (in particular, H. R. 3 and S. 3143, now pending in the 84th 
Cong.) and their dissent to such action of the association, and desire that this 
formal expression of disapproval and dissent be made known to the presiding 
officers and appropriate committee Members of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States and to the sponsors of the above-named bills. 

Edmund G. Brown, Attorney General of California ; Joseph D. Craven, 
Attorney Genernl of Delaware; Thomas M. Kavanagh, Attorney 
General of Michigan; Miles l/ord, Attorney General of Minne- 
sota; Grover C. Richman, Jr., Attorney (Jeneral of New Jersey; 
Jacob K. Javits, Attorney General of New York ; Harvey Dicker- 
son, Attorney General of Nevada ; Herbert B. Cohen, Attorney 
General of Pennsylvania; William E. Powers, Attorney Gezieral 
of Rhode Island. 



Resolution 15. Rules of Construction To Guide the Supreme Court 

The National Association of Attorneys General 
50th Annual Meeting, 1956 

Whereas members of this association have expressed alarm on several occa- 
sions in recent years over the increasing tendency of the Supreme Court of the 
United States to hold that enactments by Congress operate to exclude or super- 
sede any State laws on the same subject matter and to preempt the field for 
Federal occupancy ; and 

Whereas such exemptions of Federal power by judicial interpretation have 
impinged and continue to impinge directly upon the powers reserved to the States 
and the citizens thereof by the 10th amendment to the Constitution, and thus 
present a real threat to the continued independence and integrity of the States : 
Now, therefore be it 

Resolved by the 50th annual meeting of the National Association of Attorneys 
Oeneral, That this association approves the enactment by Congress of legislation 
to clarify its intent that no future act of Congress shall be considered to exclude 
any State laws on the same subject matter unless such congressional act contains 
an express provision to that effect, nor shall such congressional act invalidate a 
provision of State law which would be valid in the absence of such act unless a 
power expressly granted to the Federal Government by the Constitution of the 
United States is involved ; and be it further 

Resolved, That this association extends to the Members of Congress who ha^e 
introduced H. R. 3 and S. 3143, now pending in the 84th Congress, its sincere 
appreciation for sponsoring legislation designed to accomplish the objectives 
set forth above, and the secretariat is requested to bring this resolution to the 
attention of the presiding officers and to the appropriate committee chairmen 
of the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States as well as 
to the sponsors of the named bills. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Soviet Redefectioii Campaign 



TUESDAY, JUNE 5, 1956 

United States Senate, Subcommittee 
To Investigate the Administration of the 
Initsrnal, Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 10: 40 a. m., in 
room 318, Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jenner pre- 
siding. 

Present: Senator Jenner. 

Also present: Eobert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, ad- 
ministrative counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research director; Robert 
jNIcjNIanus, research analyst ; Jonathan Mitchell, consultant to the com- 
mittee ; and F. W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Jenner. Mr. Conal, will you come forward, please. 

Do you swear the testimony you give in this hearing will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. CoNAL. I do. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed, Mr. Morris. 

TESTIMONY OF BERNARD CONAL, ACCOMPANIED BY LEONARD 

BOUDIN, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Conal, will you give your full name and address 
to the reporter, please? 

Mr. Conal. Yes. Bernard Conal, 203 West 90th Street, New York. 

Mr. Morris. What is your present occupation, Mr. Conal ? 

^tr. Conal. Community analyst, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Community analyst. Would you speak up, please? 

Mr. Conal. Community analyst. 

Mr. BouDiN. Could we hold the questioning until the pictures are 
over. 

Senator Jenner. Take your pictures, gentlemen, and then Ave will 
proceed. 

Mr. BouDiN. Mr. Chairman, could we proceed with the hearing? I 
am not interested in the photographers taking pictures. 

Senator Jenner. Yes. Please take your pictures so that we can go 
ahead. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what a community analyst is, Mr. 
Conal? 

1445 



1446 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. I analyze the composition of the population, 
its conditions, its problems, their similar purchasing habits, their 
electoral proclivities, and so forth, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us what companies you have been 
associated within that work that you have just described for us. 

Mr. CoNAL. What companies 1 have been associated with? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. We mentioned some of them in executive session. 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I think it would be more expeditious if you told us 
which ones you were associated with and at what periods of time. 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. I had my own company, the Voters Eesearch 
Institute, in 1945 through 1047, and then I was associated with the 
American Management Council. 

Mr. Morris. The American Management Council ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Council, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was Palmer Weber working with you at that 
time ? 

Mr. CoNAL. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work in this kind of work with Palmer Weber 
at an*}' time ? 

Mr. CoxAL. Yes, sir ; in Communitj^ Inventories. 

Mr. Morris. Community Inventories? 

Mr. ConaIj. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. When was that? 

IMr. CoNAL. That was subsequent to American IManagement Council. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Specifically when was it? 

Mr. CoNAL. It was 1951-52. 

Mr. IMoRRis. I see. 

Now, what was Community Inventories doing at that time in iyi)i 
and 1952 wlieii you were working with Palmer Weber? 

Mr. CoNAL. We were primarily interested in — that is, the firm was 
interested in — obtaining clients on market analysis or electoral an- 
alysis for plant-location work and so forth. These were the main in- 
terests of the firm at the time. 

It was not a successful operation, sir, and as a consequence the 
chief owner of the firm, Mr. "Wlieat 

Mr. Morris. What is his name ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Wheat. 

Mr. Morris. W-h-e-a-t? 

Mr. CoNAL. W-h-e-a-t. That is right — liquidated it. 

Mr. Morris. In what year ? 

Mr. CoNAL. That was 1953. 

Mr. Morris. 1953. Was that after Palmer Weber testified before 
this subcommittee ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You know, of course, do you not, that Palmer Weber 
testified before the Internal Security Subcommittee and when asked 
about his membership in the Communist Party, he invoked his privil- 
ege against incrimination. Do you recall that, sir? 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, I think so. 

Mr. Morris. And Weber was working with you at that time in Com- 
munity Inventories ? 

Mr. CoNAL. That is right, sir. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1447 

Mr. MoRKis. Now, in this connection were you doing any work like 
this for tlie political parties^ 

Mr. CoNAL. At what time, sir? 

Mr. MoRKis. In 1951, 1952, and 1953, I think, is the period we are 
talking about. 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. We had clients — it was called the Connecticut 
Committee, sir. It was a committee of businessmen that was inter- 
ested in the analysis of the electorate in Connecticut. Many of the 
leaders of this committee were businessmen, industrialists, and so 
forth, who were interested in, most of them, I would say, in the condi- 
tion of the Republican vote. 

We made what were community analyses covering what is broadly 
called the social-economic problems, issues, electoral issues, and so 
forth, of the voters throughout the State. 

Mr. Morris. And now, had you done that earlier ? 

Mr. CoNAL. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Morris. Had you done that kind of work earlier ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. For another period of time ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What period of time did you do that previously ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Well, I think that in the period of 1945-46, and also sub- 
sequently in 1947, 1 made such analyses for Mr. Wallace. 

Mr. Morris. That is Henry Wallace ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. The Political Action Committee ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you do that at any time subsequent to 1947 and 
1948— between 1948 and 1951 ? 

Mr. CoNAL. I don't recall. I did this work for Mr. Wallace through 
1947 and 1948. 

Mr. Morris. And whom did you work for in 1949 and 1950 ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Well, I went into the American Management Coimcil 
in 1950. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, were they doing surveys like this for the 
political parties ? 

Mr. CoNAL. No, sir. The American Management Council was a 
dorma^nt research organization of a law firm that was interested in tax 
analysis and in pensions, I think, too. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, what law firm was that, Mr. Conal ? 

Mr. CoNAL. I think the firm was then called Simon & Shur. 

Mr. Morris. Simon, S-i-m-o-n ? 

Mr. CoNAL. And Shur. 

Mr. Morris. Spell "Shur." 

Mr. CoNAL. S-h-u-r. 

I don't recall the full name of the firm. The contents of this work — 
some of this was, they would have certain research aspects, like mar- 
ket research. They had a company, a client of theirs that was inter- 
ested in getting an analysis of its distribution, the distribution of its 
sales force and its cost of production as against its cost of sales. 

We would make analyses like that for a pharmaceutical firm that 
was interested in an analysis of its cost-sales distribution, and so forth. 
They were the ones who obtained the Connecticut committee as a client. 



1448 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I believe it was the Connecticut committee in 1951 for ^Yllicll we made 
these various analyses of the issues on a completely objective, non- 
partisan basis. 

Mr. Morris. And you would supply the results of your surveys to 
the people who hired you to give it to them 'I 

Mr. CoNAL. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And it is your testimony that you carried out those 
surveys in a dispassionate, careful way ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Absolutely. 

Mr. Morris. Now, where were you born, Mr. Conal ? 

Mr, CoNAL. I was born in Belfast, Ireland. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Mr. CoNAL. In Belfast, Ireland. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And when did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. CoNAL. 1924. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And have you worked for the United States 
Government ? 

Mr. CoNAL. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Have you worked with any congressional committees 
in Washington ? 

Mr. CoNAii. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris, What was your employment during the war? 

Mr. CoNAL. I was war activities director for the CIO. 

Mr. Morris. War activities director for the CIO ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Yes, sir ; all of the activities of the CIO connected with 
raising funds for Red Cross and for the various organizations and for 
obtaining contributions to it of various kinds. I think I received a 
citation from the Red Cross for it, 

Mr, Morris, Now, did you 

Mr, BouDix, Excuse me a se<3ond. Judge Morris. 

Mr. Morris. How long were 3'ou war activities director for the 
CIO? 

jMr, CoxAL, Up until, I think, the beginning — 1943. I was asked 
by Mr. Hillman, because I was considered an expert in community 

Mr. Morris, "Hillman" is Sidney Hillman ? 

Mr, CoNAL, Mr, Sidney Hillman, yes, (Continuing) — whether I 
would undertake the analysis of the CIO activity — of the PAC's ac- 
tivity at that time in the city, and I functioned for that then, 

Mr, Morris. Now, give us the terminal dates for that employment, 
would you, as war director? 

Mr. CoNAL, Yes, sir, I left — after the election campaign, I was 
over there in that year, and after, I think, a vacation, I came back 
and I subsequently tendered my resignation there, and the actual 
terminal date was March of 1945, 

Mr, Morris. I see. And you started in 1942, you sav ? 

Mr. Conal. In 1941, 1 think, 

Mr. Morris. 1941, Now, what did you do prior to 1941 ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Well, I was at WPA for a period of time, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What part of WPA ? 

Mr. CoNAL. The writers' project. 

Mr. Morris. In New York City, was that ? 

Mr. CoNAL, Yes, 

Mr, Morris, And then after you ceased being the war activities 
director of the CIO in 1945, what empiloyment did you take up ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1449 

Mr. CoNAL. I set my own organization up, called the Voters Re- 
search Institute, sir. And I was with that, as I indicated before, 
through 1947. 

Mr." Morris. And you were then working with the CIO Political 
Action Committee ? 

Mr. CoxAL. Not 

Mr. Morris. Not after 1945 ? 

Mr. CoxAL. Not after 1945. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you do work for them ? 

Mr- CoxAL. No, sir; I didn't. I made analyses for various 
candidates. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you do several surveys on a contract basis 
forthePAC? 

Mr. CoxAL. How would you define "contract basis," sir ? 

Mr. Morris. I thought that would be a term that you would use in 
connection with your employment. 

Mr. CoxAL. Not with PAC, sir. My work with PAC was wholly 
at that time through the CIO. 

That is, I was With the New York CIO, which had a New York 
PAC. I was not in the national PAC. I was wath New York. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in 1952, did you prepare a survey, a political 
survey ? 

^Ir. CoxAL. Yes, sir. I made a number of analyses in 1952. One 
of them I mentioned to you, the one of the Connecticut State — of the 
various communities in Connecticut. I also made one in Ohio, in the 
11th and 22d Congressional Districts in Ohio. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And what other surveys did you make at that 
time ? 

Mr. CoxAL. I am trying to think, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You did not do any on a national level, did you, in 
1952? 

Mr. CoxAL. Of a nationwide level? No. I made certain predic- 
tions, I guess, on the basis of the sort of sampling that our studies 
permitted us to make, but I did not do any national-level study. 

Mr. Morris. You did not do any work for the Republican National 
Committee at that time ? 

Mr. CoxAL. No, sir, not for the Republican National Committee. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you done any work for the Democratic 
National Committee ? 

Mr. CoxAL. Well, I w^as asked by Mr. O'Neill, who was the publicity 
director then, to do a number of — that was in 1945-46 — to do a number 
of congressional district studies in various narrow-margin districts, 
and I made a number of these in various parts of the country. 

Mr. Morris. And then later, in the 1951, 1952, and 1953 period, you 
did work generally for the Republican groups; is that right, sir? 

Mr. CoxAL. Well, in most instances, yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. xVnd that would be in Connecticut and Ohio? 

Mr. CoxAL. It would depend on the client. For instance, in 1950 
1 was asked, just before the termination of the campaign in Con- 
necticut, whether I could come in and indicate what the outcome 
might be as between Mr. Bowles, and I forget who was running against 
him then, and I was in there briefly for an analysis of that. 



1450 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE tTNITED STATES 

As I say, I went in there briefly and made an analysis of that, but 
there wasn't rnuch that I could do. It was possible to make a rather 
accurate prediction of the outcome, but I would say that it was luck. 

Mr. Morris. When did you last see Palmer Weber, Mr. Conal ? 

Mr. CoNAL. I pointed out to you, my recollection, the last time I 
saw him, it was as I was Avalking out of a restaurant in New York 
about 6 or 7 months ago, I thin_k. 

Mr. Morris. And you have not seen him since 

Mr. CoNAL. No. 

Mr. Morris. Since you and he dissolved the last corporation — 
what was it — in 1953 ? 

Mr. CoNAL. The Community Inventories. 

Mr. Morris. The Community Inventories. 

Now, have you been a member of the Communist Party, Mr. Conal ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Have I been? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, sir. 

Mr. CoNAL. My answer to that, sir, is that in the last 10 yeai-s I hav& 
had no party affiliation or membership in any political party what- 
soever. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a member of the Communist Party 
when you were on the WPA prior to 1941 ? 

Mr. Conal. In view of the long period there, I would decline to 
answer that under my privilege under the first and under the fifth 
amendments to the Constitution. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will recognize your refusal to 
answer under the fifth amendment, but not under the first amend- 
ment. 

Mr. CoNAL, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, during this period were you the executive sec- 
retary of the New York Conference for Inalienable Rights, specifi- 
cally in the year 1941 ? 

Mr. CoNAL. For the same reason, sir, I decline to answer under the 
fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Senator Jenner. Under the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. CoNAL. The fifth. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist while you acted as executive 
director for the New York Conference for Inalienable Rights for the 
year 1941 ? 

Mr. Conal. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a Communist while you were head of 
the war activities committee for the CIO during the war ? 

Mr. Conal. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a member of the Communist Party 
when you commenced your first survey work after the war in 1916 
or 1947? 

Mr. BouDiN. Excuse me a second. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. Conal. My answer to that is the one I gave you before, that 
[in the last 10 years] I have not been a member of any political party. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Did you give up your membership in the Com- 
munist Party when you began the survey work ? 

Mr. Conal. That is a serious question, sir. I would like to assert 
my privilege under the fifth amendment on that. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1451 

I think my other answer covered that. I think that I had answered 
that, that during this 10-year period I have not been a member of any 
political party. 

]\Ir. Morris. Specifically, I wonder if you would answer the quevS- 
tion : Did you give up your Communist Party membership when you 
took up your work with the survey groups ? 

Mr. CoxAL. The way you put the question, sir, I would have to de- 
cline to answer that under my privilege under the fifth. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you first meet Palmer Weber? 

Mr. CoNAL. The first time I ever met him was when he was research 
director for the National PAC, and some time in 1944 he came to New 
York and I was first introduced to him. 

Mr. Morris. In 1944? 

Mr. CoNAL. I think so, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And then you and he worked together 

]Mr. CoNAL. No, sir. We did not work together there. I didn't see 
him again until — oh, I might have seen him off and on at certain meet- 
ings, but we did not work together. I did not work together with him 
at all, sir, until the time that he applied for a job with Commmiity 
Inventories. 

]Mi-. jSIorris. Until the time of what ? I missed that. 

jNIr. CoNAL. Until he applied for a job at Community Inventories. 

Mr. Morris. I see. And you gave him the job ? 

Mr, CoNAL. Yes, sir. I thought he was qualified to do research 
work. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. I see. 

Now. to your knowledge, did j'^ou know that he was or ever had been 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

( The witness consults with his attorney.) 

]\Ir. CoxAL. I decline to answer that on the basis of my privilege. 

Senator Jenner. Your privilege under the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. CoxAL. Under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. And you are sure you will not answer that question ? 
It is important, Mr. Conal, because at the time when you were begin- 
ning this survey, it is of some interest to the committee whether or not 
you know that Palmer Weber was a Communist at that time when you 
hired him. 

Mr. CoxAL. I would stand on my previous answer, sir. 

Mr, Morris. Now, are you a Communist now ? 

Mr. CoxAL. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you bear with me 1 minute, Senator, please? 

Were you a member of the executive committee of the New York 
County Communist Political Association during the war? 

Mr. CoxAL. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you the editor of the Bill of Rights News ? 

Mr. CoxAL. Published when? 

Mr. Morris. It was published by the National Emergency Confer- 
ence for Democratic Rights. 

Mr. CoxAL. What period? 

Mr. Morris. That was 1944. 

Mr. CoxAL. 1944? No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You know nothing of a publication called the Bill of 
Rights News ? 

Mr. Cox^VL. No, sir, not in 1944. 



1452 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Well, at any time? 

Mr. CoNAL.. I don't recall, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been connected with the National Emergency 
Conference for Democratic Rights? 

Mr. CoNAL. What period Avas that, sir ? 

Senator Jexner. Any period. 

Mr. Morris. Any period. 

Mr. BouDix. Excuse me. 

(The witness consults with his attroney.) 

Mr. CoNAL. I would assert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you been closely associated with William 
Schneiderman, who was a leading Communist Party member on the 
west coast ? 

Mr. CoNAL. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I did not hear you. 

Mr. CoNAL. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you marry Greta Spiro ? Is that the name 
of your wife ? 

Mr. CoNAL. Greta Spiro. 

Mr. Morris. Spiro. 

(The witness consults with his attorney.) 

Mr. CoNAL. I would decline to answer, sir, on my privilege under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know Nathan Gregory Silvermaster ? 

Mr. CoNAL.. I decline to answer that, sir, on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you written for a publication called "Fight," 
F-i-g-h-t, which was an official organ of the American League Against 
War and Fascism ? 

Mr. BouDiN. AVliat was the spelling of that ? 

Mr. Morris. Fight, F-i-g-h-t ; the American League Against War 
and Fascism. 

Mr. CoNAL. I have no recollection, sir, of anj^thing like that. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I have no more questions of this witness 
at this time. 

Senator Jenner. You will be excused. 

Mr. BouDiN. Thank you. 

Senator Jenner. Call the next witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Behrstock. 

Mr. Behrstock, will you stand and be sworn, please ? 

Senator Jenner. Do you swear the testimony you give in this 
hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Behrstock. I do, sir. 

Senator Jenner. All right. 

TESTIMONY OF ARTHUR BEHRSTOCK/ ACCOMPANIED BY LEONARD 

BOUDIN, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, since our last session with Mr. Behr- 
stock, we have received from the department of public safety, city hall, 
Jersey City, N. J., under date of April 26, 1956, from Lawrence A. 



1 Previous testimony begins on p. 745 (pt. 13). 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1453 

Whipple, director, a paper which purports to be the Communist Party 
card of Arthur Behrstock, dated 1940, which gives tlie section and the 
branch of the Communist Party that he was at that time alleged 
associated with. 

I have shown you this card in executive session, have I, Mv. 
Behrstock ? 

]Mr. Behrstock. Is that the same card ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, the same card I showed you in executive session. 

Mv. T^EHRSTOCK. What was your question ? 

]Mr. ]MoRRis. Have you seen this card ? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes ; if that is the same card. 

Mr. Morris. It is the same card. 

Mr. BouDix. That is a photostat ? 

Mr. Morris. A photostat of a card. 

]Mr. BouDiN. Yes, a photostat. 

iSIr. jNIorris. Is tliat your Communist Party card ? 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Behrstock. I would give the same answer now that I gave in 
executive session, ISIr. Morris. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. And wliat is that answer ? 

Mr. Behrstock. That I decline to answer that question on the 
grounds of the first and the fifth amendments. 

Senator Jexxer. Your refusal to answer the question on the fifth 
amendment will be recognized by this committee, but not your refusal 
under the first amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, after you testified here, did you go to your 
employer — who employed you the last time you were here, Mr. 
Behrstock ? 

Mr. Behrstock. The Xational Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Now, after you testified here, did you then go to your employer and 
deny to him your membership in the Communist Party, which fact 
you did not deny before the Internal Security Subcommittee? 

Mr. BouDiN. You mean as to which fact the privilege was pleaded 
before the committee ? 

Mr. Morris. He did not deny it. He said he invoked his privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. BouDix. He did not admit it ; he did not deny it. 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

Mr. Behrstock. I decline to answer that question under the same 
grounds that I previously stated this morning. 

Mr. Morris. Did you not go to your employer and specifically deny 
that you had ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Behrstock. I assert the same privilege, Mr. Morris. 

Senator Jexxer. The photostatic copy of the Communist Party card 
of Arthur Behrstock will go into the record and become a part of the 
record. 

Mr. Morris. Together wnth the letter of transmittal. Senator, show- 
ing where we got this card ? 

Senator Jexner. Yes. 

(The letter and card referred to were marked "Exhibit No. 281 and 
No. 281- A" and are as follows :) 



1454 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 281 

Department of Public Safety, 

City Hall, 
Jersey City, N. J., April 26, 1956. 
Hon. Robert Morris, 

Chief Counsel, XJn- American Activities Committee, 
Care of Senator Eastland, 

United States Senate Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Judge : I am enclosing herewith what apparently appears to be a photo- 
static copy of Arthur Behrstock's membership in the Communist Party, U. S. A. 
With kind regards, 
Sincerely yours, 

Lawrence A. Whipple, Director. 

Exhibit No. 281-A 



COMMUNIST f ARTY 0P,flil m%A. 





scopp: of soviet activity in the united states 1455 

Mr. Morris. Noav, did you, on May 15, 1953, give a fund-raising 
party — did you participate in a fund-raising party for Steve Nelson 
at GO Ilicks'Street, in Brooklyn? 

Mr. Behrstock. 1 decline to answer on the same grounds that I pre- 
viously stated this morning; namely, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. You have worked for the Daily Worker in the past; 
have you not? 

Mr. Behrstock. I decline to answer that on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. AA^iat was your assignment with SCAP ? You know 
what SCAP is; do you not, Mr. Behrstock? 

Mr. Behrstock. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify it for the record, please? 

Mr. Behrstock. I will have to recall the initials now. 

Mr. BouDiN. Excuse me a second. I know Judge Morris will for- 
give me and the witness will, of course, answer. But these questions 
were taken up 3 times, in 2 executive sessions and 1 public session. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Boudin, you understand 

Mr. Boudin. I am not objecting. I was just reminding you. 

JNIr. jNIorris. You understand there was a ditference of wording on 
some of these questions, which was veiy important. I think you will 
recall the last time I asked him if Steve Nelson had been at his house 
or his apartment at 60 Hicks Street. 

Mr. BouDiN. I am referring to the SCAP situation, which I thought 
you had covered fully. I just want to call that to your attention, but 
we have no objection. 

Mr. Morris. We appreciate that, Mr. Boudin. But there are a few 
things I want to add about the SCAP thing, and I would not want 
to put them in out of context. 

Mr. BouDiiSr. Fair enough. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what your role was in SCAP, Mr. 
Behrstock? 

Mr. Behrstock. As I said before, it was a kind of omnibus job. 
Its functions were not very clearly defined at the beginning of an 
occupation, and the job evolved in a certain sense as the occupation 
bedded down, so to speak. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what SCAP stands for? 

Mr. Behrstock. Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

And then you had this omnibus job that you were telling us about? 

Mr. Behrstock. Well, omnibus in the sense that it wasn't quite well 
defined, but in general 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you at that time — what were the terminal 
dates of your employment with SCAP ? 

Mr. Behrstock. The terminal dates? 

Mr. Morris. The terminal dates. When did you begin and when 
did you end ? 

Mr. Behrstock. I think I came into SCAP probably about July 
1944, and I think I ended about June 1946, roughly, give or take a 
month or so. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do after you left SCAP in 1946 ? 

Mr, Behrstock. AAHiat was my job? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Behrstock. I was a free-lance writer. 



1456 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. A free-lance writer? 

Now, did you write an article called Snafu in Tokyo, in the Nisei 
Weekender for January 1, 1947 ? 

Mr. Behrstock. May I see the article, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Behrstock. I assert the same privilege, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

The last time you testified that you were Chief of the Planning and 
Operational Division, did you not? 

Mr. Behrstock. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And for what particular subdivision of SCAP? 

Mr. Behrstock. Civil Information and Education. 

Mr. Morris. Now, on the basis of information that you received 
at that time, did you write this article which has just been shown 
to you? 

Mr. Behrstock. I assert the same privilege, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may that article, which is an article 
that is highly critical of General MacArthur and General MacArthur's 
administration in Tokyo, which was purportedly written by Arthur 
Behrstock, a fact which the witness does not deny, but instead invokes 
the privilege under the fifth amendment, go into the record? 

Senator Jenner. It may go into the record and become part of the 
official record of his committee. 

(The article above referred to was marked ""Exhibit No. 282" and 
was placed in the subcommittee tiles. ) 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know a Japanese Communist named 
Shiga while you were in Japan ? 

Mr. Behrstock. Otfhancl, the name isn't familiar, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist while you were with SCAP ? 

Mr. Behrstock. I assert the same privilege I did before. 

Mr. Morris. Are you a Communist now? 

Mr. Behrstock. The same answer, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like to put into the record 
several articles that had more to do, Senator, with the last session 
that we had, when we put into the record the testimony of Mr. Rast- 
vorov about the head of the trade mission in Jaj^an. I would like 
to CTO into the record at this time. 

As I say, they bear more on the other hearing, Senator, than this 
present hearing. 

Senator Jenner. They may go into the record at the proper place. 

(The newspaper articles referred to were mai'ked "'Exliibits No. 
283 and 28.VA" and appear at p. 815, pt. U. ) 

Mr. Morris. ^Yha.t was your relation to the C. I. and E. Library in 
Tokyo? 

Mr. Behrstock. My relation to the C. I. 

Mr. Morris. Civil 

Mr. Behrstock. Civil Information and Education. 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

Mr. Behrstock. Library? 

Mr. Morris. Library, yes. 

Mr. Behrstock. At best, most perfunctory. I had no special con- 
nection with the library there. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1457 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Now, were you acquainted with the radio program 
known as the Hour of Heroes ? 

jSIr. Beiirstock, It is not familiar to me. Radio was not a speciality 
of my daily work. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you specifically deny that in the spring of 
1946 you met regularly at night with a Japanese Communist named 
Shiga on the fourth lloor of the Radio Tokyo Building in Tokyo? 

(The witness consults wath his attorney.) 

Mr. Beiirstock. I assert the same privilege, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. When I asked you about Shiga before, you said you did 
not recall, as I recall it, Mr. Behrstock. 

Mr. Behrstock. I don't recall the name. But on the advice of my 
counsel, I am taking the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet with any Japanese Communists on the 
fourth fioor of the Radio Toyko Building in Japan? 

Mr. Behrstock. I assert the same privilege. 

Mr, Morris. Did you prepare a movie code for Japan ? 

Mr. Behrstock. A movie code? 

Mr. Morris. A movie code. 

Mr. Beiirstock. No, sir ; I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work on it at all ? 

Mr. Behrstock. No. 

JSIr. Morris. Did you know a Japanese named Tamin Suzuki ? 

Mr. Behrstock. That name is not familiar, 

Mr. Morris. Did you know a publication in Japan called the 
Akahata ? 

Mr. Behrstock. No. I don't read Japanese, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with that publication ? 

Mr. Behrstock. No, I am not. 

Mr. Morris. You have done no work for that publication? 

Mr. Behrstock. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You do not know that the word "Akahata" means red 
flag in Japanese ? 

Mr. Behrstock. Your knowledge of Japanese exceeds mine. 

Mr. INIoRRis. You were there several years, Mr. Behrstock. 

Mr. Beiirstock. I should say, Mr. Morris, as I said before, that I am 
not an expert on the Far East and never have been. I went to the Far 
East as an infantry officer. I came into MacArthur's headquarters, 
and my interest in the Far East was as a part of a job at that period, 
and my interest dwindled very fast, because I am not a far-eastern 
expert or anything of that kind, and I never knew Japanese other 
than how to say "Good morning," or something of that kind. 

Mr. BouDix. The witness does not, however, contest your transla- 
tion. Judge Morris. We accept it. 

Senator Jenner. How did you happen to be assigned to SCAP ? 

Mr. Behrstock. Well, if I might make a small personal aside, I was 
in a replacement depot in Buna, New Guinea, waiting to be assigned 
to a replacement division as an infantry platoon leader, when Mac- 
Arthur formed the Psychological Warfare Headquarters, and a stop 
order, I guess, was put on all people who could write or had any jour- 
nalistic background, and I think I mentioned that at the last session. 

^Vlien I was interviewed for this position, I was very much torn, 
because I wanted to go in infantry. Put it that way. 

Senator Jenner, All right. 



1458 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, S«nator. 

Senator Jexner. I have no further questions. 

You will be excused. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, before the hearing is over, I -would like 
ro put the Certificate of Incorporation of Connnunity Inventories and 
an amendment, apparently, of the Certificate of Incorporation of Com- 
munity Inventories, into the record. 

Senator Jenner. It may go into the record and become a part of the 
official record. 

(The documents referred to, entitled "Certificate of Incorporation 
of Conmnmity Inventories, Inc.," and "Certificate of Amendment of 
Certificate of Incorporation of Communitj^, Inventories, Inc., were 
marked "exhibit 284 and 284- A" and read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 284 

Cektificate of Incorporation of Community Inventories, Inc., Pursuant to 
Article 2 of the Stock Corporation Law 

We, the undersigned, for the purpose of forming a corporation pursuant to 
article 2 of the stock corporation law of the State of New York, do hereby 
certify : 

First : The name of the proposed corporation shall be Community Inventories, 
Inc. 

Second : The purposes for which it is to be formed are : 

To market a service analyzing socioeconomic data and information. 

To purchase, acquire, sell, lease, mortgage, pledge, transfer, or otherwise 
deal in real property. 

To acquire, and pay for in cash, stock, or bonds of this corporaticm or other- 
wise, the goodwill, rights, assets, and property, and to undertake or assume 
the whole or any part of the obligations or liabilities of any person, firm, 
association, or corporation engaged in the same or similar business. 

To purchase, hold, sell, assign, transfer, mortgage, pledge, or otherwise dispose 
of shares of the capital stock of, or any bonds, securities or evidences of indebted- 
ness created by any other corporation or corporations organized under the laws 
of this State or any other State, country, nation, or government, and while the 
owner thereof to exercise all the rights, powers, and privileges of ownership. 

To issue bonds, debentures, or obligations of this corporation from time to 
time for any of the objects or purposes of the corporation, and to secure the same 
by mortgage, pledge, deed or trust, or otherwise. 

To purchase, hold, sell, and transfer the shares of its own capital stock; 
provided it shall not use its funds or property for the purchase of its own shares 
of capital stock when such use would cause any impairment of its capital except 
as otherwise permitted by law; and provided further that shares of its own 
capital stock belonging to it shall not be voted upon directly or indirectly. 

In general, to carry on any other similar business in connection with the 
foregoing, and to have and exercise all the ix)wers conferred by the laws of 
New York upon corporations formed under the act hereinbefore referred to, 
and to do any or all of the things hereinbefore set forth to the same extent as 
natural persons might or could do. 

The foregoing clauses shall be construed both as objects and powers, and it 
is hereby expressly provided that the foregoing enumeration of specific powers 
shall not be held to limit or restrict in any manner the powers of this corporation. 

Third : The total number of shares that may be issued by the corporation is 
100. All shares shall be common stock without par value. 

The capital of the corporation shall be at least equal to the sum of the aggre- 
gate par value of all issued shares having par value, plus the aggregate amcnmt 
of consideration received by the corporation for the issuance of shares without 
par value, plus such amounts as, from time to time, by resolution of the board 
of directors, may be transferred thereto. 

Fourth : The ofiice of the corporation is to be located in the city of New York, 
county of New York, and State of New York. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1459 

The address to which the secretary of state shall mail a copy of process in 
any action or proceedinir against the corjtoration which may be served upon him 
is room 1201, 2;W Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Fifth : The duration of the corporation shall he perpetual. 

Sixth: The number of its directors shall be three; directors need not be 
stockholders. 

Seventh : The names and post-office addresses of the directors until the first 
annual meeting of the stockholders are: 

Names Post-office addresses 

Osborne A. McKegney 2728 Henry Hudson Parkway, Bronx, 

N. T. 

David T. Walsh 265 East 181st St., Bronx, N. Y. 

Catherine McKee 308 Hickory Ave., Paramus, N. J. 

Eighth : The name and post-office address of each subscriber of this certificate 
of incorporation and a statement of the number of shares of stock which each 
agrees to take in the corporation are : 



Names 


Post-oflice addresses 


Number of 
shares 


Osborne A. McKegney 

David T. Walsh 

Catherine McKee -. 


2728 Henry Hudson Parkway, Bronx, N. Y 

265 East 181st St., Bronx, N. Y. 

398 Hickory Ave., Paramus, N. J 


1 

1 
1 







Ninth : All of the subscribers of the certificate are of full age, at least two- 
thirds of them are citizens of the United States, at least one of them is a resident 
of the State of New York and at least one of the persons named as a director is a 
citizen of the United States and a resident of the State of New York. 

Tenth : The Secretary of State is designated as the agent of the corporation 
xipon whom process in any action or proceeding against the corporation may 
be served. 

In witness whereof, we have made, signed, and acknowledged this certificate, 
this 18th day of July 1952. 

Osborne A. McKegney. 
David T. Walsh. 
Catherine McKee. 
State of New York, 

County of Neic York, ss: 

On this 18th day of July 1952, before me personally came Osborne A. McKegney, 
to be known, and known to me to be one of the persons described in and who 
executed the foregoing certificate, and he duly acknowledged to me that he 
executed the same. 

Arthur Engelmann, 
Notary Public, State of New York. 
Term expires March 30, 1954. 



State of New York, 

Comity of New York, ss: 

On this 18th day of July 1952, before me personally came David T. W^alsh, 
to be known, and known to me to be one of the persons described in and who 
executed the foregoing certificate, and he duly acknowledged to me that he 
executed the same. 

Arthur Engelmann, 
Notary Public, State of Nru- York. 
Term expires March 30, 1954. 



State of New York, 

County of New York, ss: 

On this 18th day of July 1952, before me per.sonally came Catherine McKee, 
to be known, and known to me to be one of the persons described in and who 
executed the foregoing certificate, and she duly acknowledged to me that she 
executed the same. 

Arthur Engelmann, 
Notary Public, State of Neiv York. 
Term expires March 30, 1954. 



1460 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 284-A 

Certificate of Amendment of Certificate of Incorporation of Community 

Inventories, Inc. 

pursttant to section thirty-six of the stock corporation law 

We, the undersigned, being the holders of record of all the outstanding shares 
entitled to vote upon an amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation of Com- 
munity Inventories, Inc., hereby certify as follows : 

First: That the name of the Corporation is Community Inventories, Inc. 

Second : That the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation was filed in 
the oflSce of the Secretary of State, Albany, New York, on the 21st day of July, 
1952. 

Third : That the Certificate of Incorporation is hereby amended to effect one 
or more of the changes authorized in Subdivision 2 of Section 35 of the Stock 
Corporation Law as follows : 

A. Authorization of new shares of PrefeiTed stock with par value 

B. Authorization of new shares of Preferred stock without par value 

C. Reclassification of shares 

Fourth : That the Certificate of Incorporation is hereby amended by amending 
Article Third of the Certificate of Incorporation so that said Article Third shall 
read as follows : 

Third : The total number of shares which may be issued by the corporation is 
One Thousand One Hundred (1,100). Of the said shares Seven Hundred (700) 
shall be classified as Preferred Class A and the par value of each such share 
shall be One Hundred Dollars ($100.00) ; Three Hundred (300) shares shall be 
classified as Preferred Class B, all of which are without par value and One 
Hundred (100) shares shall be classified as Common Stock, all of which are 
without par value. 

The designations and the jwwers, preferences and relative, participating, 
optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions 
thereof, of the various classes of stock of the corporation are as follows : 

The holders of the Preferred Class A shares shall be entitled to receive out of 
the net profits or net assets applicable to dividends a cumulative dividend at the 
rate of seven percent (7%) payable annually beginning twelve (12) months 
after issue before any dividend shall be paid or set apart for payment to the 
holders of the Preferred Class B or Common shares, provided however, that 
whenever a dividend is paid on the Preferred Class A shares and full cumulative 
dividends thereon for all previous dividend periods have been paid or provided 
for, the directors shall have the power in their discretion to declare and pay a 
dividend for a like period on the Preferred Class B shares at the rate of Seven 
Dollars ($7.00) per annum. Any further fmids applicable to dividends may, in 
the discretion of the Board of Directors, be distributed to the holders of the Com- 
mon shares. 

The holders of the Preferred Class A and Preferred Class B stock shall be 
entitled, in case of liquidation, dissolution, or winding up of the corporation, 
whether voUintary or involuntary, before any amount shall be paid to the holders 
of the Common Stock to be paid One Hundred Dollars ($100.00) per share and 
the dividends accumulated or declared and unpaid thereon, but shall not partici- 
pate in any further distribution of the as.sets of the corporation. 

At the discretion of the corporation the shares of Preferred Class A and Pre- 
ferred Class B shall be subject to redemption in whole or in part, by lot or pro 
rata at One Hundred and Ten Dollars ($110.00) per share if redeemed not later 
than seven (7) months after issue: at One Hundred and Twenty Dollars 
($120.00) per share if redeemed not later than twelve (12) months after issue; 
and at One Hundred and Thirty Dollars ($1.30.00) per share if redeemed thirty- 
six (36) months or later after issue. 

Except as otherwise provided by Statute, the holders of the Preferred Class A 
and Preferred Class B shares shall not be entitled to vote, the sole voting iwwer 
being vested in the holders of the Common Stock. 

The capital of the corporation shall be at least equal to the sum of the aggre- 
gate par value of all issued shares having par value, plus the aggregate amount 
of consideration received by the corporation for the issuance of shares without 
par value, plus such amounts as, from time to time, by resolution of the Board 
of Directors, may be transferred thereto. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 1461 

In witness whereof we have signed this certificate this 8th day of November 

1952. 

Clayton E. Wheat, Jr., 
Bernard Conal. 
State of New York, 

County of New York, ss: 
On this Sth day of November 1952, before me personally came Clayton E. 
Wheat, Jr., and Bernai-d Conal, to nie known and known to me to be the indi- 
viduals described in and who executed the foregoing certificate, and they sever- 
ally duly acknowledged to me that they executed the same. 
[seal] 

State of New York, 

County of New York, .v.'*.- 

Mary C. Wheat, being first duly sworn on oath, says that she is the duly elected, 
qualified, and acting secretary of Community Inventories, Inc., and, as such, is 
the custodian of the stock book of said corporation ; that the persons who have 
executed the foregoing certificate in person or by proxy constitute the holders of 
record, as disclosed by said stock book, of all the outstanding shares of said 
corporation entitled to vote on the amendment of the Certificate of Incorporation 
of said corporation intended to be effected by the foregoing certificate. 

Mary C. Wheat. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this Sth day of November 1952. 

[seal] Sam Netjstadt, 

Notary Public, State of New York. 



State of New York, 

County of Neic York, ss: 

Clayton E. Wheat, Jr., and Mary C. Wheat, being duly and severally sworn, 
each for himself, deposes and says that he, said Clayton E. Wheat, Jr., is Presi- 
dent, and she, said Mary C. Wheat, is Treasurer of Community Inventories, Inc., 
and that : 

(a) the number of additional shares not resulting from a change of 
shares which the corporation is hereby authorized to issue by the foregoing 
certificate is one thousand (1,000) shares, and the number of such addi- 
tional shares with par value is seven hundred (700) shares, and the par 
value thereof is one hundred dollars ($100.00) per share and three hundred 
(300) shares are without par value : 

(b) the number of shares changed as provided in subparagraph five of 
paragraph (C) of subdivision 2 of Section 35 is no shares of the par value 
of $no per share and the number of shares resulting from such change is 
no shares, and the par value thereof is $no per share ; 

(c) the number of shares not resulting from a change of shares of which 
the par value has been increased is no shares, and the amount of the 
increase in par value is $no per share. 

Clayton E. Wheat, Jr.. 

President. 
Maky C. Wheat, 

Tren.surer. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this Sth day of November 1952. 
[seal] Sam Neustadt, 

Notary Public, State of Netv York. 
Commission expires March 30, 1956. 

Senator Jenxer. If there is nothing further, the committee will 
stand in recess. 

Mr. BouDiN. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Mr. Boudin. Thank you, Mr. Behrstock. 

("Whereupon, at 11 : 25 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



XoTE. — The Senate luterual Security Subcommittee attaches uo significance 
ti) the mere fact of the appearance of the names of an individual or an organi- 
zation in tliis index. 

A 

Page 

Aliahata, publication in Japan 1457 

Allied Force headquarters 1427 

American Management Council 1446, 1447 

Antonov ("Ignat") 1440, 1442 

Article entitled "Snafu," Nisei Weekender. Tokyo, dated January 1, 1947 — 14r)() 
Australian Committee for the Cultural Freedom 143;) 

B 

Behrstock, Arthur (testimony of) 14r»2-14t)l 

Leonard Boudin, attorney 14r)2 

5th on identity of CP membership card issued in his name 1453 

5th if participated in fund-raising party for Steve Nelson 1455 

5th if worked for Daily Worker 1455 

Was free-lance writer 1455 

5th if wrote article for Nisei Weekender, Tokyo 145(i 

5th if Communist 14.56 

5th if had meetings with Shiga, Japanese Communist 1457 

Bill of Rights News 1451 

Bonte, Florimond 143s 

Boudin, Leonard, attorney for Arthur Behrstock 1452 

Bridges-McCarthy bill 1435 

Browder 1427 

Brown, Edmund G., attorney general of Calif 1443, 1444 

Brown. Fred (alias Alpi and Farucci Marini) 1424, 1425 

Bukharinites 1426 

Bulgaria 1426 

Burdett, Winston 1438 

C 

Canada 1425 

CIO 1450 

CIO Political Action Committee 1449, 1450 

Civil Information and Education Library. Tokyo 1456 

Civil Rights Congress 1433. 1434 

Cohen, Herbert B., attorney general of Pennsylvania 1435, 1443, 1444 

Cominform * 1436 

Communist/s 1427, 1432, 1456 

Communist Information Bureau 143(> 

Communist International 1424 

Communist Party 1423-1434, 1436, 1437, 1439. 1441. 1446, 1450-14.53 

Community Inventories, Inc 1446, 1450, 1451, 1458, 1460, 1461 

Conal, Bernard ( testimonv of) 1445-1452 

203 West 00th Street, New York 1445 

Leonard Boudin, attorney 1445 

Community analyst 1445 

Owned Voters Research Institute, 1945—47 1446 

Born Belfast, Ireland 1448 

Came to United States 1924 1448 

War activities director for CIO 1448 

5th if executive secretary of New York Conference for Inalien- 
able Rights 1450 



n INDEX 

Conal, Bernard (testimony of) — Continued Pa8« 

5th if member of CP when with WPA 145(1 

5th if head of war activities committee for CIO , 1450 

5th if member of executive committee of New York County Commu- 
nist Political Association 1451 

5th if connected with National Emergency Conference for Demo- 
cratic Rights 1452 

5th if married Greta Spiro 1452 

Constitution 1444 

(Jraveu, Joseph D., attorney general of Delaware 1443, 1444 

Czechoslovakia 1426, 1431 

D 

Daily Worker 1428, 1455 

Davis. Ben 1433 

Democratic National Committee 1449 

Dennis 1431, 1433 

Dickerson, Harvey, attorney general of Nevada 1443, 1444 

E 

Eastland, Senator 1435 

Eisler, Gerhardt (alias Edwards) 1424,1425 

Exhibit No. 278 — Reference to Tass from report of the Royal Commission 

on Espionage, August 22, 1955 1440-1442 

Exhibit No. 281 — Letter to Robert Morris from L. A. Whipple enclosing 

CP membership card of Arthur Behrstock, dated April 26, 1956 1454 

Exhibit No. 281-A — Copy of Arthur Behrstock's membership in the CP, 

dated 1940 1454 

Exhibit No. 282— Article entitled ^'Snafu" in Nisei Weekender, Tokyo, 

dated .January 1, 1947, by Arthur Behrstock (in subcommittee files) 1456 

Exhibit No. 284 — Certificate of incorporation of Community Inventories, 

Inc 1458, 1459 

Exhibit No. 284- A — Certificate of amendment of certificate of incorporation 

of Commiuiity Inventories, Inc 1460, 1461 

F 

FBI *1428 

Field, Herman 1428 

Field, Noel 1428 

Fifth amendment 1450-1453, 1455, 1456 

Fight, publication of American League Against War and Fascism 1452 

First amendment 1450, 1453 

Flynn, Gurley 1427 

For a Lasting Peace and a People's Democracy, February 17, 1956 1430 

Foster 1431, 1432 

G 

Gates 1433 

Green. Gil 1433 

H 

Hillman. Sidney 1448 

Hour of Heroes (radio program, Tokyo) 1457 

House of Representatives 1443, 1444 

Hungary 1426-1428 

I 

Internal Security Subcommittee 1435, 1439, 1446, 1453 

International Workers Order 1425 



Javits, Jacob K., attorney general of New York 1444 

Jenner, Senator 1445 



INDEX m 

K 

Page 

Kavanaugli, Thomas M., attorney general of Michigan 1443, 1444 

Khruslichev 1429-1431, 1436 

Kislvtsin 1440, 1441 

Kovalenolc ("Stoun") 1441 

L 

Lautner, John (testimony of) 1423-1444 

Lives Washington, D. C 1423 

District organizer for CP in West Virginia for 5 years 1423 

Head of New York State Review Commission of GP 1423 

Purged from CP 1428 

Lenin 1430 

Leninism 1435, 1436 

Letter to Senator Eastland from H. B. Cohen, July 18, 1956 1443 

Loeb, Dorothy 1438 

Lord, Miles, attorney general of Minnesota 1443, 1444 

M 

MacArthur, General 1456, 1457 

^IcClure, General 1427 

McKee, Catherine > 1459 

McKegney, Osborne A 1459 

McManus, Robt 1445 

McTernan, John 1428 

Maclean 1441 

Makarov 1440, 1441 

Mandel, Benjamin 1423, 1445 

Marini, Farucci (alias Alpi and Fred Brown) 1424,1425 

Marxism 1435, 1436 

Mikheev, Vladmir 1439 

Mikoyan 1431 

^[iller 1441 

Mitchell. Jonathan 1445 

-Morris, Robert 1423, 1445 

Moscow 1426, 1431, 1441 

Mosov ("Tekhnik") 1440 

MVD 1440-1442 

N 

National Association of Attorneys General 1443, 1444 

National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights 1451, 1452 

National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis 1453 

National PAC 1451 

Nazi organization 1425 

Nelson, Steve 1437, 1455 

New York 1425, 1431, 1432, 1434, 1435, 1437, 1438, 1448 

New York Conference for Inalienable Rights 1450 

New York County Communist Political Association 1451 

New York State Review Commission of CP 1423, 1424 

New York Times 1436 

Newsweek, May 21, 1956 1439 

Norman, Bill 1434 

Nosov 1440-1442 



O'Neill, Mr 1449 

O'SuUivan, Fergan 1442 

OWI 1438 

P 

PAC 1449 

Pakhomov ( "Valentin" ) 1440-1442 

Peters, J 1439 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Petrov 1441, 1442 

Petrov Royal Commission in Australia 1439, 1440 

Political Action Committee 1447 

Powers, William E., attorney general of Rhode Island 1443, 1444 

Pravda 143t) 

Psychological Warfare Branch 1438 

Psychological Warfare Headquartei's 1457 

I'oland 1426, 1431 

R 

Radek deviationists of CP 142G 

Radzie, Constantin 1437 

Kajk 1426, 1428 

Rakosi 1426 

Rastvorov , 1456 

Republican National Committee 1449 

Rhodes, Peter 1438 

Richman, Grover C, Jr., attorney general of New Jersey 1443, 1444 

Rote P'ahne, German Communist daily 142.") 

Rumajiia 142o 

Rusher, William A 1423, 144r> 

s 

Sadovnikov 1440, 1441 

SCAP (Supreme Conmiander for the Allied Powers) 14;jij-1457 

Schneiderman, William 14r»2 

Schroeder, F. W 1423,1445 

Senate 1443, 1444 

Shiga 1456, 1457 

Shipley, Mrs 1428 

Silvermaster, Nathan Gregory 1452 

Simon and Shur 1447 

Smith Act 1431, 1435 

Some Fundamental Questions of Present Day International Developments- 1430 
Soviet Union in the Struggle for the Consolidation of Peace and Internal 

Security, The 1430 

Stahlheimer Organization ( base of Nazi Party) 1425 

Stalin 1429, 1436 

Stein, Sid 1434 

Struik. Prof. Dirk J 1437 

Supreme Court 1437, 1444 

Suzuki, Tamiu 1457 

Sydney Morning Herald , 1442 

T 

Tass News Agency 1439, 1440, 1442 

Thompson, Bob 1431-1434 

Titoism 1426 

Trotskyism 1425 

Troyka system 1432 

20th Congress of CP 1429-1431 

U 

United States 1424, 1428, 1430, 1431, 1437 

U. S. S. K 1424,1440,1441 

V 

Veterans of the International Brigade 1438 

Vogeler, Robert 1428 

Voters Research Institute 1446,1449 

W 

Wallace, Henry 1447 

Walsh, David T 1459 

War Department Military Intelligence Training School 1438 



INDEX V 

Page 

Weber, Palmer 1446, 1450, 1451 

Welker. Senator 1423 

West Virginia 1438 

West Virginia State Youth Committee 1439 

Wheat, Chiyton E., Jr 1446, 1461 

Wheat, Mary C 1461 

Whijiple, Lawrence A 1452 

Williamson, John 1438 

Winston, Henry 1433 

WPA 1448, 1450 

o 



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