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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

, BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MAY 16, JUNE 18, AND JULY 23, 1957 



PART 62 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1957 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

NOV 1 8 1957 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JR., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration op the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. Sourwine, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Witness : 

Bialasiewicz, Joseph (interrogatory) 4003 

Dende, Leopold : 

Statement 3993 

Testimony 3987 

Lazewski, Alois 3979 

Zielinski, Marian 3961 

m 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, MAY 16, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

and Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 35 a. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator John Marshall Butler presiding. 

Present : Senators Butler and Roman L. Hruska. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William Rusher, as- 
sociate counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, the witness this morning is Mr. Marian 
Zielinski, who has very recently defected. He represented the Polish 
Communist government here in the United States. 

Senator Butler. Will you rise and hold up your right hand? 

In the presence of Almighty God, do you solemnly promise and 
declare that the evidence you will give this subcommittee will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Zielinski. I do. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you will also swear Mr. Nagorski, who has 
acted as interpreter before us previously. 

Senator Butler. Do you solemnly swear that you will truly inter- 
pret the evidence given by this witness before this subcommittee? 

Mr. Nagorski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARIAN ZIELINSKI, AS INTERPRETED BY 

ZYGMTJNT NAGORSKI 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Nagorski, will you give your name and address, 
please ? 
Mr. Nagorski. Zygmunt Nagorski, 56804 AVilson Lane, Bethesda, 

Md. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give the reporter your full name, Mr. 
Zielinski ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Marian Zielinski. 

Mr. Morris. And you have recently come to the United States ; have 
you not ? 

Mr. ZrELiNSKi. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances of your arrival into 
the United States ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Are you asking about the escape, or asking about 

the actual arrival ? 

3961 



3962 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. The actual arrival, preliminary to your defection. 

Mr. Zielinski. I arrived here together with the crew assigned for 
the World Trade Fair in New York as a representative of the Foreign 
Trade Enterprise. 

Mr. Morris. When did you come to the United States? 

Mr. Zielinski. April 10. 

Mr. Morris. Did you come into the port of New York ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, sir ; the port of New York. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us briefly what you did in 
connection with this assignment you had with the Foreign Trade 
Ministry. 

Mr. Zielinski. I was attached to the bookstand at the New York 
World Trade Fair of the Polish Cabinet. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances surrounding your 
defection ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Since I was a little afraid how to do it, having 
been brought up in a Communist system, 2 days prior to my final 
decision to escape in New York, my friends took out my suitcase from 
my hotel room, and I remained for another 2 days to be certain that 
I am not followed ; and then I escaped. 

I escaped during the night, left the hotel in the middle of the night. 

Mr. Morris. What hotel were you staying at, at the time? 

Mr. Zielinski. The Henry Hudson Hotel in New York City. 

Mr. Morris. And the friends avIio took your suitcase, were they 
American citizens or were they Polish? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes ; American citizens. 

Mr. Morris. That you had met in connection with your work over 
here ? 

Mr. Zielinski. We met during the World Trade Fair in New York. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did anything happen during the World Trade 
Fair that encouraged your defection? 

Mr. Zielinski. I made my decision earlier, but there was one inci- 
dent which may be of interest to you. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us that? 

Mr. Zielinski. On the second day of the exhibition a Polish com- 
mercial attache asked me, "What are the general questions people are 
asking you while visiting the fair?" 

Among others, there was a question whether Poles like the Russians. 
And since I didn't know exactly how to answer that question, I said, 
''We Poles like everybody who are not harming us." 

And the attache told me that this was a very poor answer. 

Mr. Morris. Who was the attache? 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Koscinsky. 

Mr. Morris. And what is his position? He is Polish commercial 
attache ? 

Mr. Zielinski. He is the attache in Washington. 

And then he said how I should have answered it. 

Mr. Morris. What did he say ? 

Mr. Zielinski. That the Poles like the Russians because we have 
the same policy, and that the Russians are helping us, and that we 
have similar purposes, political aims and goals. 

And during my last conversation with him, which was on another 
occasion, he drew attention to the fact that he was not pleased with 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 3963 

me, because during the trade fair I was going around by myself with- 
out sticking to the group. 

Mr. Nagorski. I wonder if I should translate what was in the rest 
of the answer, which was a personal thing, what he was doing when 
he was alone. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you were the representative of the Foreign Trade 
Enterprise, were you not? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And where were your headquarters ? 

Mr. Zielinski. In Warsaw. 

Mr. Morris. What particular part of the Foreign Trade Enterprise 
were you in charge of ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I was in charge of a book section o f the export divi- 
sion. My responsibility was to export books to the United States of 
America and to Latin America. 

Mr. Morris. Plow many employees were there in the Foreign Trade 
Enterprise altogether ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Around 250. 

Mr. Morris. How many in your particular section, that is, selling 
books to Canada and the United States? 

Mr. Zielinski. I was alone covering the United States of America 
and Latin America. 

Mr. Morris. And how many people were there in that section ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I was alone. 

Mr. Morris. Now. how many books did you send to the United 
States in 1956? 

Mr. Zielinski. Around 90,000 volumes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us as much as you can about the 
nature of these books? What were they ? 

Mr. Zielinski. The first year, until 1954, we were sending to the 
United States quite a lot of Communist books, particularly classics, 
Marx, Lenin, Stalin. 

After 1954 American mail authorities stepped in and started to 
seize these books. Therefore, a very small quantity of those books 
were shipped from Warsaw, and finally it dwindled to almost zero. 

Then our policy was changed, and we were trying to get across to 
Americans of Polish descent. We followed the line of trying to 
divide various Polish organizations in the United States and then 
tried to play one against the other. We knew in Warsaw that the 
Polish community in the United States is strong, and we were trying 
to disorganize it as much as we could. 

Mr. Morris. You were trying to disorganize the Polish- American 
community in the United States? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You knew it was strong in what sense, anti-Com- 
munist? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, anti-Communist, in their anti-Communist 
feelings. 

Senator Butler. Can you tell us whether or not there is any free- 
dom of religion in Poland ? 

Mr. Nagorski. The witness is asking permission to finish his first 
question, if you don't mind. 

Mr. Zielinski. We were sending books which were trying to play 
up the national sentiments, the national feelings of Poles, and change 



3964 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

their political opinions to a certain extent. And the books which 
were sent by our headquarters were all subsidized. They were not a 
paying proposition. 

For each book sold by us the Government had to add about 200 
percent of the value of the book. So if the book was— supposing the 
book was sold for $1, the Government was giving us $1.83— it is flexible 
between $1.83 and 200 percent. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zielinski, you say that up until 1054 you were 
sending straight Communist propaganda, doctrinaire books? What 
was the nature of the books you were sending in 1956 and the early 
part of 1957? 

Mr. Zielinski. I cannot say exactly that only up until 1054 they 
were Communist propaganda books. Since we couldn't send books 
which were purely political propaganda, we started sending books 
which did not appear to be purely political, but had a hidden political 
message included in the content. 

For instance, there was a time when we were trying to send ele- 
mentary textbooks for children of American-Polish descent, but we 
couldn't sell them in the United States, because they were too obvious 
in their political propaganda approach. They had, for instance, a 
picture of late Communist President Bierut, and the text of the 
International. 

In other books which were sent to the United States, for instance, 
fiction, the text was never changed, but a preface would have to be 
written which had political propaganda elements which were pro- 
Communist. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have any American books originally written 
by Americans translated into Polish and then sent back? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes ; Howard Fast's books were. 

Mr. Morris. Any others ? 

Mr. Zielinski. It is difficult for me to say now, but I am sure that 
there were others, too. 

Mr. Morris. Nov/, what general breakdown was there of the foreign 
trade enterprise ? 

Mr. Nagorski. The witness is wondering whether he shouldn't 
answer your question now, sir. 

Senator Butler. And also I would like to ask the witness this ques- 
tion : He was in Poland at the time of the affair in Hungary ; was he 
not? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Senator Butler. What was the general reaction toward that affair ? 

Mr. Nagorski. The witness is asking which question he should take 
first, the Hungarian or the church. 

Senator Butler. Either one. The question in connection with the 
church was prompted by reason of the fact that we have such a strong 
Polish element in America that are deeply religious people who are 
very anti-Communist. 

Mr. Nagorski. He would like to answer, first, the first question, if 
he may. 

Senator Butler. All right. 

Mr. Zielinski. Religion prior to 1055 was strictly limited, but the 
more the Communists tried to restrict religious activities of the popu- 
lation, the more the people were going to church, as a rule. There 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3965 

were even people going to church who never before were known to be 
practicing Catholics. They were demonstrating their protest against 
the Communist Government and its policy. 

Therefore, the Communists had to change, in a way they were forced 
to change their attitude, simply because it backfired. 
Mr. Nagorski. That is the essence of his answer. 
Mr. Zielinski. If you care to ask me any other questions I would be 
glad to answer them. 

Senator Butler. Yes. I would like to know from the witness the 
general opinion of the population as he found it in connection with 
the Hungarian revolt, and whether any opinion was expressed in con- 
nection with the stand of this Government, in connection with that 
revolt. 

Mr. Zielinski. When the revolution broke out in Hungary the Poles 
were extremely unhappy. There was a revulsion in Poland against 
the Soviet action. Many people thought — more than thought, they 
were convinced — that Hungary would receive help from the United 
States of America. 

When it appeared clear that no help would be forthcoming, the Poles 
were extremely disappointed and bitter. This is why, during the last 
period of time the confidence and trust which the Americans enjoyed 
in Poland diminished to a great extent, because there was no help 
forthcoming for Hungary. 

One could hear in Poland opinions expressing the general view that 
the Americans were no longer interested in the fate of the captive 
peoples of Europe. And I think that in order to restore this confi- 
dence in Poland — right, now, as far as I know, there are negotiations 
for a loan for Poland — it seems to me that in order to help the nation, 
the people, not the Government, such loan from the United States 
should be granted, since I think that the Poles deserve it, perhaps more 
than anybody else. 

It is possible that some people will say that the loan will be taken 
over by the Eussians and will not go to Poland. But the Polish 
public opinion is greatly interested in the fate of the negotiations 
and the possibility of the loan. And there is no possibility of hiding 
from the Poles the fact that the loan was granted, and, therefore, 
not the slightest chance that the Eussians would be able to lay their 
hands on the goods or money which would be forthcoming. 

The Poles are listening to the western radio. 

Mr. Morris. Do the Polish people, listen to the Voice of America 
or Radio Free Europe ? 

Mr. Zielinski. They listen to Radio Free Europe, BBC. 

Senator Butler. Is there any restriction on that? 

Mr. Zielinski. When I left Poland there were no restrictions 
against this. But people were not talking about the fact that they 
were listening, they just listened. 

Perhaps it was a legacy of previous clays, and also trying to be 
secure for the future, should a change of policy be enacted. 

Do I answer your question, sir ? 

Senator Butler. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is there any anti-Soviet talk in Poland now? 

Mr. Zielinski. In Poland quite a few people don't like the Eus- 
sians or the Communists, and there are plenty of discussions on that 
subject, but not publicly because there is still fear of reprisals. 

93215— 57— pt. 62 2 



3966 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, you were never a member of the Communist 
Party ; were you ? 

Mr. Zielinski. No ; never. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with the foreign trade enterprise 
with which you worked, who was the head of that ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Schoenborn ; first name Slawomia. 

Mr. Morris. Was he a Communist? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. For whom did he work directly ? 

Mr. Zielinski. He was working under the supervision of the Min- 
istry of Foreign Trade. 

Mr. Morris. And was he in charge of the operation in which you 
distributed to the United States and South America ? 

Mr. Zielinski. He was chief of the entire foreign trade enterprise. 

Mr. Morris. And he told you what to do ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I was getting my instructions from my immediate 
chief. 

Mr. Morris. Who was he ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Biegala. 

Mr. Morris. You say Schoenborn was a Communist? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did he send Communists to the United States from 
time to time to supervise the work you were doing here ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes; within the last few months, in January and 
February, two people were sent. 

Mr. Morris. Who were they? 

Mr. Zielinski. Miss Maria Wscieklica and Zdzislaw Jablonski. 

Mr. Morris. What was the purpose of their mission to the United 
States? 

Mr. Zielinski. They came to the United States to establish contact 
with commercial firms in order to be able to export books from Poland 
directly to their own dealers in this country. 

Miss Wsciaklica is a member of the Communist Party, Jablonski 
is not a member of the party. But during the German occupation he 
declared himself as Volksdeutsch. 

Mr. Morris. And what is a Volksdeutsch? 

Mr. Zielinski. They were the Poles who declared themselves for 
collaboration with the Germans against the Poles. He is now serving 
the Communists, and he has been twice sent abroad, which is a sign 
of great confidence in the party. 

Mr. Morris. Now, will you tell us, for instance, some of the con- 
tracts that he negotiated while he was here? 

Mr. Zielinski. Among the others, they signed a contract with a 
Polish newspaper, Everybody's Daily, published in Buffalo, which is 
the only Polish-American newspaper in the United States which is 
cooperating with our institution now. 

Mr. Morris. That in itself is not a Communist newspaper, is it? 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't know whether it is a Communist newspaper. 
When I saw one of its editions, all news from Poland was written in 
a strikingly similar way to similar news items published in Poland — 
not now, but in 1955 or 1954, when the general policy was that every- 
thing is going extremely well in Poland, much better than it ever was 
before the war. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3967 

The contract was signed with this newspaper for export of Polish 
books from Warsaw to Buffalo. The annual volume from 1957 is 
6,000, and for 1958 it will be 13,000. 

Mr. Morris. 13,000? 

Mr. Zielinski. 13,000 volumes. And the same number for 1959. 

I am sorry, I have to correct that statement. The 6,000 was the 
amount of money, $6,000 and 13,000 volumes for 1957, 1958, and 1959, 
not 6,000 volumes for 1957. 

Mr. Morris. You gave 2 figures ; 1 was the volumes and the other 
was the amount ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What were some of the other distribution points of the 
pro-Communist books that you were sending to the United States? 

Mr. Zielinski. There are quite a few distribution points in the 
United States. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about them generally ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I have already given to another agency the list of 
about 30 points, but if you care, I can repeat it. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give us some of the more important ones now ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Polonia International in New York. 

Mr. Morris. Who runs the Polonia International in New York? 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Pargiello is the president. 

Mr. Morris. Pargiello ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Right. But all the commercial dealings with Po- 
land are in the hands of Mr. Leopold Dende. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Leopold Dende ? 

Mr. Zielinski. He was several times in Warsaw, and I saw him in 
our office. He is a representative of a travel agency, and he also repre- 
sents and is the editor in chief of a publication known as Polonia 
Reporter, published in this country. 

Mr. Morris. Is that published in New York, too ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did he collaborate with your Communist superiors 
when he was in Warsaw ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, he was collaborating, when he was in Warsaw 
he was clearing the text of his magazine with our headquarters. 

Mr. Morris. Is his office 335 East 14th Street, New York City? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How many times did you see him clearing his material 
with your Communist superiors ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I saw him only once, but I know that he lias been 
to Warsaw three times, and I saw him in my office twice. But the 
clearance, the actual clearance, I witnessed only once. He was show- 
ing in our office a few copies of Polonia Reporter, and he was asking 
our director what was his opinion of it. 

This periodical was given free to everybody who visited the Polish 
stand at the World Trade Fair in New York. Dende sent us around 
3,000 copies for free distribution. 

Mr. Morris. Now, your whole operation in the United States was 
watched over by Mr. Koscinsky, was it not, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, Koscinsky, as the commercial counsel of the 
industry, has the right to supervise all of our activities, and also the 
power of decision. And he was the one who requested copies of all 



3968 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

our correspondence with our dealers in the United States. He was 
the only one among all our commercial counselors over the world who 
was persistent in asking for copies of such correspondence. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he got all copies of all correspondence 
that you sent from Warsaw to any dealer or anyone for whom you 
transacted business here in the United States? 

Mr. Zeelinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you have any copies of the Polonia Inter- 
national, any of their pamphlets or leaflets with you ? 

Mr. Zeelinski. I have here copies of periodicals which are pub- 
lished in Poland for export only in the Polish language. 

Mr. Morris. What are they ? 

Mr. Zeelinski. One is called Our Fatherland, in Polish ; the other 
is Seven Days, in Polish. 

Mr. Morris. Those were not your products, were they ? 

Mr. Zeelinski. They were exporting them. 

Mr. Morris. That was not under the book division, was it? 

Mr. Zeelinski. No, it was not in mine, but I know a little about it. 

Mr. Morris. But this is in addition to the 

Mr. Zeelinski. Those periodicals are only for export, and one can- 
not buy them in Poland, because the}'' are publications of strictly 
propaganda character geared for American Polish. Everything is 
described in rosy colors as far as Poland is concerned. 

Mr. Morris. Does it accurately portray conditions in Poland? 

Mr. Zeelinski. No; it does not accurately portray conditions in 
Poland. Those periodicals are similar to illustrated magazines put 
out by the Soviet Union for the same purpose. 

Mr. Morris. Do any of the officials of the Soviet Union superin- 
tend or look over the work you were doing in the book dh 7 ision, or 
what your associates were doing in the pamphlet division? 

Mr. Zeelinski. There was no supervision in my section; I don't 
know of any. 

Mr. Morris. Did you see Soviet officials at any time in Warsaw? 

Mr. Zeelinski. Yes; there is a Soviet delegate who has been col- 
laborating with our enterprise. His name is Malinin. 

Mr. Morris. What is his first name; do you know? 

Mr. Zeelinski. No. His job is to blueprint cooperation between 
our headquarters and similar institutions in the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you ever have occasion to know that this 
book operation — and, by the way, it was broken down into two 
sections, was it not, one for capitalist countries and the other for 
the so-called people's republics? 

Mr. Zielinskt. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever work with any section other than the 
United States, the United States and South America? 

Mr. Zeelinski. Yes; I did. Prior to my last assignment, I was 
also in charge of the Canadian section. Lately I was working only 
for the United States and Latin America. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you at any time encounter any instances 
where this operation was being used as a cover for intelligence? 

Mr. Zielinskt. I can only say that in France, for instance, there 
is an institution which is exclusively occupied by selling pur books. 
And this institution is not paying us for the books it receives. And 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3969 

when we approcached the Minister of Foreign Affairs asking for 
help and some kind of a solution, the Ministry answered that it can- 
not be done. And then I, personally, asked my own boss, and he 
told me that the lady who is in charge of that institution in France 
has also other jobs to perform. And I think that perhaps there is 
some intelligence work involved. 

Mr. Morris. You say you think ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What is the reason for your thinking there is intelli- 
gence work involved? 

Mr. Zielinski. Because an institution which receives books and 
doesn't pay — and it was not permitted for us to stop further dis- 
patch of books — must have some other character, must be covering 
something else. This is purely my own deduction. The name of the 
lady in question is Mrs. LaFontaine. I also heard a similar opinion 
about her activities from someone else in our institution who was in 
charge of the French section. 

Mr. Morris. What was that ( 

Mr. Zielinski. Similar opinion about the lady which I just ex- 
pressed. 

Mr. Morris. What is the name of the institution, since we have gone 
into it so much ? I think that may well go into the record now. 

Mr. Zielinski. Polish Book in France. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you will tell us some more of the major 
distribution points in the United States for your products. 

Mr. Zielinski. The major point of book distribution in the United 
States is Buffalo. 

Mr. Morris. What else is there in Buffalo other than Everybody's 

Daily % 

Mr. Zielinski. No; in Buffalo, Everybody's Daily is the only dis- 
tributor. They have extremely good arrangements with us. The 
The Polish Book Importing Co. in New York. 

Mr. Morris. Who runs that ; do you know % 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Opalinski. Gayf Publications. 

Mr. Morris. Where are they ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Albany, N. Y. ; Polish American Book, in Chicago. 

Mr. Morris. Who is the person in charge of Polish American Book 
in Chicago ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Bialasiewicz. 

Mr. Morris. Anything else in Chicago ? 

Mr. Zielinski. No ; nothing else. 

Mr. Morris. What are some of the others ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Polish Publications in Milwaukee. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know who is in charge of that ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't remember. 

Mr. Morris. Are there any others ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Imported Publications & Products in New York 
City. Mrs. Coul is in charge. Stechert-Hafner in New York City. 

]VIr. Morris. Now, are there any other large United States cities that 
receive these books ? 

Mr. Nagorski. He gave some more, about 30 distribution points, 
but he doesn't remember them now. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything in Cleveland or Detroit that you 
think of offhand ? 



3970 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Zielinski. There are, but I don't remember which one. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with the South American operation, 
did you generally have the assignment of collecting addressees, the 
names of addressees ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I saw in our headquarters a list of addresses of Poles 
living in Brazil which contained about 4,000 names and addresses. I 
think that this list was received through our Embassy in Brazil. 

Mr. Morris. Generally, did you receive from either your own Com- 
munist government or from the Soviet Union a list of bookdealers or 
a list of possible addressees of all your publications ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. We have once received from the Soviet 
Union a list of dealers with whom the Soviet Union is cooperating 
worldwide, for our use if we wanted them. Among others, on that 
list was the firm which is operating in the United States, Four Conti- 
nent Book Corp., in New York. 

Mr. Morris. That, Senator, has occurred repeatedly throughout all 
our hearings. Now, in connection with these particular bookdealers 
who purchased your book, they aren't necessarily Communist book- 
dealers, are they ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I cannot say anything on that subject, but I know 
that quite a few dealers refuse to cooperate with us, because they con- 
sider that Poland has a Communist government. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything more you can tell us about the dis- 
tribution of the books here in the United States that the Senate In- 
ternal Security Subcommittee should know about ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I would like to say that the entire enterprise of ex- 
porting books to the United States is conducted under a very strict 
supervision of the Polish Embassy in Washington ; the headquarters 
where I worked was sending books in foreign languages, among 
others in English, in order to conduct propaganda, not only among 
the Poles, but also among the Americans. 

Mr. Morris. You mean the object of this Polish propaganda in the 
United States was not only Polish-American groups, but people not 
even of Polish extraction ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes; it is not only confined to people of Polish 
extraction. 

Mr. Morris. And you say the Polish Ambassador superintends all 
this? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Who is the Polish Ambassador? 

Mr. Zielinski. It is not controlled personally by the Ambassador, 
but by the commercial counsellor, Koscinsky, mentioned earlier. And 
books which are not published in the English language very often are 
shipped with summaries and explanations attached to the books, in 
English. And they are books published in Poland especially for 
export with much better covers, and the entire quality of the book is 
far superior to domestic production. 

The purpose of this special production, special editions, is to give 
an impression that in spite of the fact that Poland has a poor repu- 
tation in the West, people would think that, if Poland can afford to 
produce such luxurious books, things are not so bad over there at all. 

There is also a periodical called Poland which is published in Eng- 
lish and several other languages. And this is a propaganda publica- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3971 

tion aimed at the Americans and given free by the Embassy in Wash- 
ington. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zielinski, this book that yon have before you is of 
much inferior quality than the type of thing that you produced; is 
it not? 

This you would not call a book, would you ? 

Mr. Zielinski. No. It is not a book. It is a periodical. 

Mr. Morris. And the books that you sent to the United States were 
elaborate, full-sized books, were they not? 

Mr. Zielinski. Full-sized books. 

Mr. Morris. Permanent bound books ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Not always. There were various kinds of bindings, 
both paper and permanent. 

Mr. Morris. But you do know of your own knowledge that this was 
a heavily deficit operation ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, I do. We had quarterly meetings, quarterly 
conferences in which I participated. In our office we were always 
giving figures on how many books and what amount we have exported, 
and how much the state subsidized us. 

There was a trend in our office of trying to put this on a healthy 
commercial basis, but the answers to those people who were making- 
such suggestions was that we were not a commercial institution, but 
our institution was a propaganda outfit, and this is much more 
important than making money. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge were the sections that had to do 
with the various publications such as the newspapers and periodicals 
that you have before you also deficit operations ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes ; they were deficit operations. 

Mr. Morris. Can you give us a general idea — I know it is probably 
difficult, because you are only one part of it — how much money the 
Polish Communist government spends on propaganda against the 
United States every year ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I couldn't give you any figure, but I know that it 
is a very substantial amount, because I knew from my own small 
section how much we have been spending to propagandize both the 
Americans and the Americans of Polish descent. 

Senator Butler. How many people were employed in his section ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Our entire section was composed of 11 people, but 
I was alone for the United States. 

Mr. Morris. That doesn't mean that you actually did the shipping, 
does it? 

Mr. Zielinski. No ; I did not. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do actually ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I was receiving orders, negotiating contracts with 
the distributors and giving instructions for the actual shipments, and 
also, I was giving instructions regarding the dispatch of catalogs and 
book lists. 

Mr. Morris. And you said altogether there were 250 employees in 
the Foreign Trade Enterprise ; did you not ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What did that embrace ? 

Mr. Zielinski. The headquarters was divided into several divisions : 
A division of books, which was in turn divided into capitalistic coun- 



3972 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

tries and socialistic countries ; and then there was a division of periodi- 
cals, and a division of various articles such as stamps, gramaphone 
records, and antique furniture, and other similar objects. 

As far as the division of books, the capitalistic section was divided 
into two, import and export. And there was another division which 
was buying books for export. This was a division which was making 
decisions as to what kind of books were to be purchased from pub- 
lishers and used for export. 

We had our own storehouses where the books were kept. The value 
of our books stored in our storehouses was between 20 million and 
30 million zlotys. There was also another division, which was a com- 
mercial division, which was in charge of the publicity and propaganda 
work. They were publishing prospectuses, catalogs, pricelists, and 
they were also in charge of organizing trade exhibitions and book 
exhibitions abroad. 

Mr. Morris. I have just a couple of questions, Senator, if I may 
quickly finish up. 

We plan to have hearings in Philadelphia in the near future. Can 
you think of any Philadelphia outlets? 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't believe there is one, but you know that cur- 
rently there is someone, a representative from our headquarters in 
Warsaw, traveling all over America, and Philadelphia may be one 
of his targets. 

Senator Butler. Is there an outlet in Baltimore ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't know of any. 

Mr. Morris. After Howard Fast announced that he was leaving 
the Communist Party, did that change the shipment of Howard Fast's 
books to the United States ? 

Mr. Zielinski. The action after Hungary was different than it was 
in other Soviet block countries, and because of that there were no 
repercussions in Poland, and those books, as far as I know, were not 
withdrawn from our operations. 

It is possible that he won't be reprinted again, but all books were 
not taken out of operation. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you work for Foreign Trade Enter- 
prises ? 

Mr. Zielinski. From August 1, 1953. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Chairman, I should like to ask this : During 
the Hungarian revolution, the activities of the young folks of high- 
school and college age were very great in the actual fighting — they 
threw these gasoline bottles and lighted the tanks, and did whatever 
they could. 

I am wondering what is the attitude of Polish youth of that same 
age after all of their education in Communist schools and with Com- 
munist doctrine; what is their feeling, what is their spirit? 

Mr. Zielinski. Polish youth — in spite of the fact that for the last 
12 years they have been indoctrinated by the Communist schools, 
Polish youth is not Communist. 

The youth knows from either parents or friends how Poland looked 
before the war, and they know how it looks now, so they can make a 
comparison. And they all listen to the western radio, Free Europe, 
the Voice of America, on BBC from Madrid and Ankara, Polish pro- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3973 

grams. And I think that it will never change in terms of having never 
been pro- Communist. 

And they cannot forget that the Russians took Polish freedom away. 

During the Hungarian revolution, in Poland, if only it would have 
been physically possible, the entire Polish youth would have joined 
the Hungarian freedom fighters. 

Senator Hruska. Have you read or heard of the speech that 
Gomulka made in Poland yesterday ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. What difference is there between the latest speech 
in Poland in October during the revolution and the speech that he 
gave yesterday ? 

Mr. Zielinski. In his October speech, Gomulka promised liber- 
alization in Poland. He promised that workers councils will be 
created which will be in charge of administration in the places of 
production, and promised freedom of speech and expression. 

In the last speech, Gomulka underlined the fact that Poland can 
only speak about liberalization when the party will be strong. But 
once the party is strong, how the liberalization looks we have the best 
example in the Soviet Union. 

Senator Hruska. When you speak of liberalization as a means of 
production, does that include farms? There is the collective farm 
and the cooperative farm. 

Mr. Zielinski. Liberalization also includes agricultural policy, be- 
cause it was permissible to withdraw from collectives, particularly 
the peasants who were forced to join collectives earlier, they were 
permitted to leave. 

Mr. Morris. As a matter of fact, about 80 percent of the farms 
were no longer — maybe 90 percent — were no longer collective, were 
they? They were either cooperative, which is different from collec- 
tive, or they were privately owned, is that true ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Because they resisted those cooperatives which 
farmers were forcibly asked to join, the liberalization was to give 
them a chance to get out of it. 

Senator Hruska. But that chance is now being taken away from 
them if Gomulka's speech of yesterday will mean anything. . 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't know how much of his yesterday's speech 
reflects the new agricultural policy in Poland. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Chairman, I should like to say that this sub- 
ject should be of current value to .Members of Congress and to 
America generally for this reason. I don't know that they are still 
here, but recently there was a Polish delegation here seeking to reach 
some agreement with reference to a loan in terms of agricultural 
products and also in terms of industrial machinery and otherwise. 

Now, I recall — and it is reported in the New York Times on May 
2, and it was generally in the press — that there were tentative agree- 
ments made for about $95 million worth of farm commodities, sur- 
plus, mainly wheat and cotton, and the rest for mining machinery. 
And one of the reasons assigned for making available to them this 
wheat, the key commodity, would be to enable the Polish peasants to 
free themselves from compulsory deliveries of wheat, that they raise 
on their farms, to the central government. 



93215— 57— pt. 62- 



3974 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Butler. The witness has already referred to that subject, 
Senator. And I understood his testimony to be to the effect that the 
people of Poland generally would like to get this loan, and it would 
boost morale there if they got it. 

Is that correct? 

Now, the effect that it would have on this particular program, I 
don't know. 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Senator Butler. The people of Poland wanted the loan, irrespec- 
tive of this new farm policy of the Soviets. 

Mr. Zielinski. That is correct. 

Senator Hruska. The point I make, Mr. Chairman — and I will ask 
the witness a question after a while — I assume that he is getting the 
substance of my remarks — the point I make is that representations 
have been made to us that surplus commodities were being made avail- 
able to Poland to jar them loose from this compulsory crop delivery. 

Yesterday, in his speech, Gomulka emphasized the importance of 
getting Polish peasants back into the collective farms which they de- 
serted last fall as a means of insuring "the socialistic transformation 
of the countryside." And he gives as one of his three essential funda- 
mentals the future program : Democratic government, socialization of 
the means of production, and former farms and the creation of a 
framework and central management for the entire national economy. 

The question I should like to ask is : Granted that these commodi- 
ties will be helpful, and they will increase the good morale of the 
Polish Nation, if they are going to bolster and strengthen a totally 
Communist concept here in a Communist setup, whose side are we on, 
anyway ? 

That is the question I should like to ask. And how much difference 
is there ultimately in helping Poland, which will function entirely 
within the Russian sphere and the Russian philosophy, and helping 
Russia itself? That is the question I should like to ask. 

Mr. Zielinski. I think, sir, that in this whole issue you have two 
aspects. One is to give a loan to the regime of Poland. And the other 
is to help those Poles who fought during the Poznan riots last year, 
and who last October were instrumental in forcing the Polish liberali- 
zation, and called for more freedoms. 

It is important to give a helping hand to the people of Poland. It 
cannot be taken over by the Russians, as I explained earlier, because 
the entire Polish community fully realizes that negotiations are being 
held right now, and as soon as it is officially known that the loan is 
granted, the Poles would know about it, and because Polish opinion 
and the reaction in Poland is extremely vivid to any developments 
right now of that kind, the Communists would be afraid to do any- 
thing, fearing that perhaps a move of that kind would precipitate in 
Poland another Hungarian tragedy. 

It seems to me that the Poles should be given this loan. And that 
is all I wanted to say. 

Mr. Morris. That is not answering the Senator's question. 

Mr. Zielinski. Will you explain what you mean ? 

Senator Butler. The question goes to only one fact, we are to give 
agricultural commodities to Poland so that these people can get out 
of the collective farms and be free farmers. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3975 

Now, Gomulka says that that is not going to happen. 

Senator Hruska. That is right. 

Mr. Zielinski. Some of the collective farms have been already dis- 
solved. And outside the collectives the majority of the farm proper- 
ties are in private hands. And there are more small landowners, small 
holders in Poland, than there are collectives. And they will be the 
ones who will profit. And they will be the ones who need more help 
than anybody else. 

Senator Hruska. That is true, but here is Gomulka saying yester- 
day, that is all behind us, we are going to have a program now which 
stresses the importance of getting the Polish peasants back into col- 
lective farms. 

Now, obviously, the government like Poland has, whatever the 
leader says, that goes, they don't have referendums there, they don't 
have to take orders. So even if they are largely privately owned 
now, the program and the plans for the future mean more collective 
farms and not less. 

Mr. Zielinski. In Poland you cannot expect many more new col- 
lective farms, in spite of what Gomulka said, because Polish peasants 
don't want to join. And even at the early date when they were forced 
to join, physically forced to join, not always were the Communists 
successful. 

I don't believe that the situation exists as you describe it, that when 
the leaders say something they will do it, because the past proved 

Senator Hruska. You don't think, then, that Gomulka will be able 
to force them into collectives. 

Mr. Zielinski. No ; I don't think he will be able to force them. 

Senator Hruska. What above cooperatives ? 

Mr. Zielinski. The same, as far as cooperatives are concerned. 

Senator Hruska. Well, those are the only observations I have to 
make at this time, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Butler. Any further questions ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Rusher has one question. 

Mr. Rusher. Mr. Zielinski, how old are you ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Twenty-four. 

Mr. Rusher. Could you give us a little of your educational back- 
ground ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I was graduated from an eighth grade elementary 
school, and also graduated from a 3-year school of commercial admin- 
istration, and a 2-year school of foreign trade. 

Mr. Rusher. About a year ago or less we had an official who de- 
fected just previous to that, who had been an official of the central 
committee of the Polish Communist Party. I believe his name was 
Czeslaw Biegala. Are you familiar with the facts or any of the reac- 
tions as to his defection, in Poland, that is ? 

Mr. Zielinski. No. I don't know any details about his escape, but 
in Poland a press release was issued about his escape after he started 
speaking to Poland over Radio Free Europe. 

Mr. Morris. Was the broadcast effective? 

Mr. Zielinski. Very effective. Quite a few people were listening to 
him. He was declared a traitor to the Polish cause, by the Polish 
Government. 

Mr. Rusher. I have no other questions. 



3976 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Butler. Any further questions? 

Mr. Morris. No questions. 

Senator Butler. Senator Hruska ? 

Senator Hruska. No questions. 

Senator Butler. If there are no further questions, the subcommit- 
tee will stand in recess, subject to the call of the Chair. 

(The following accounts of Polish loan negotiations, to which 
Senator Hruska made reference were later ordered into the record:) 

[From the Washington Post of May 16, 1957] 
"Get Tough" Policy Set in Poland 

The new sense of freedom in Poland since the bloodless revolution of 
last October is described by Delia and Ferdinand Kuhn in the first of a 
series of articles appearing Monday in the Washington Post. 

Warsaw, May 15 (UP). — Communist leader Wladyslaw Gomulka said today 
that any of Poland's Reds who differ with party leadership should get out of 
the party. 

"Any member of the party who does not agree with its policy or * * * its 
ideological principles should hand in his party card or face the threat of ex- 
pulsion," Gomulka told the Communist central committee at its first meeting 
since he returned to power last fall. 

In a 6-hour speech, Gomulka also — 

Called for decentralization of Poland's industry, following the example set 
in Russia. 

Emphasized the importance of getting Polish peasants back into the collective 
farms tbey deserted last fall as a means of insuring the "socialist transformation 
of the countryside." 

Declared that the party must "step up its attack on the masses" — apparently 
meaning that the Reds plan a major membership drive to close the gaps left 
in their ranks by mass resignations last fall. 

Proclaimed Communist opposition to the renewal of religious instruction in 
Polish schools, while declaring at the same time that the Party wants peaceful 
coexistence with the Roman Catholic Church. 

Gomulka said that for the most part control of Poland's state-owned factories 
should be transferred from central ministries to regional administrations in 
the provinces. 

He said the "road to socialism" could take different forms in different coun- 
tries, so long as the "universal principles deduced from the Soviet Union's 
experience of Socialist construction" were taken into account. 

These essential fundamentals, he said, were : 

The organization of a Marxist-Leninist party of the working masses to ally 
workers and peasants. 

The overthrow of bourgeois rule and the establishment of a dictatorship of the 
proletariat. 

Socialization of the means of production, farm reforms and the creation of a 
frame-work of central planning and management for the entire national economy. 



[From the New York Times of May 2, 1957] 

United States-Polish Talks Near Agreement on $95 Million Aid — Pact 
Awaits Congressional Action on Farm Surpluses — Warsaw Satisfied 

Washington, May 1. — The United States and Poland have reached virtual 
agreement on a United States aid program amounting to about $95 million. 

Actual signing of the agreement, revealed today by officials of the two na- 
tions, must await congressional passage of a bill adding $1 billion to the present 
authority for the sale of farm surpluses for foreign currencies. The bill has 
passed the Senate and the House Agriculture Committee may report it at the 
end of this week. 

The Polish negotiators are understood to be satisfied with the aid offer, though 
they had originally asked for about $300 million. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3977 

FARM SURPLUS INCLUDED 

Of the $95 million, about $80 million will be in the form of surplus farm 
commodities, mainly wheat and cotton. The rest is understood to be for mining 
machinery. 

About two-thirds of the aid will be extended under the farm surplus disposal 
law. The Poles will buy the farm commodities for zlotys. Negotiations are said 
to be still proceeding on the question of what disposal to make of the Polish 
currency. 

The rest of the total will be in the form of a dollar loan, financed from the 
$100 million special Presidential emergency fund in the foreign aid appropria- 
tion. Loans to any one country under this fund are limited to $30 million. 

Because the current farm disposal authority is nearly exhausted, passage of 
the bill extending the program is necessary before the United States can make 
its full offer. The talks may be concluded within 2 weeks. 

THIRD OF ORIGINAL REQUEST 

Although the final amount is only about one-third of the original Polish re- 
quest, the Poles are said to feel that the amount of wheat, the key commodity, 
will be enough to enable them to free the peasants from compulsory deliveries. 
In part their needs have been reduced by procurement of wheat elsewhere. 

It is perhaps more than a coincidence that it was United States aid that 
enabled Yugoslavia, the first Soviet satellite, to break away from Moscow dom- 
ination, to modify her system of compulsory deliveries of farm goods by the 
peasants. 

In the case of both countries, reserve stocks are a prerequisite to an end of 
compulsory deliveries. These reserves can be used by the Government to pre- 
vent sharp price increases in case the peasants should hold back their crops. 

(Whereupon, at 12 o'clock noon, the subcommittee adjourned, sub- 
ject to the call of the Chair.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, JUNE 18, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
and Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 a. m., in room 421, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Koman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present : Robert Morris, chief counsel ; William A. Rusher, 
associate counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Hruska. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Alois Lazewski, managing editor of Everybody's 
Daily has prepared a statement that he would like to have introduced 
in the record of the Internal Security Subcommittee, in which he 
makes comment on the testimony of Marian Zielinski before the sub- 
committee on May 16, 1957. And I suggest that he appear to be sworn, 
to swear to the truth of the statement that he has submitted to the 
subcommittee and that the statement be put into the record and be 
made a part of the public record and printed at the time of Zielinski's 
testimony, so that the testimony of Mr. Lazewski will be part of the 
same record. 

Senator Hruska. Is he present? 

Mr. Morris. I believe so. 

Senator Hruska. Will you come forward and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lazewski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALOIS LAZEWSKI, MANAGING EDITOR OF EVERY- 
BODY'S DAILY, BUFFALO, N. Y. ; AGCOMPANIED BY THORNTON G. 
EDWARDS, COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Give your name and address to the reporter. 

Mr. Lazewski. Alois Lazewski, Buffalo. 

Mr. Morris. And you are the managing editor of Everybody's 
Daily ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That is a publication in Buffalo? 

Mr. Lazewski. Right, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You are appearing here today with a prepared state- 
ment ; are you not ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes. 

3979 



3980 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Is that your statement that you composed, that state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You know the full contents of it ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Morris. Are you willing to swear here under oath that these 
statements in there are truthful and accurate statements ? 

Mr. Lazewski. I do, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Zielinski testified there were books purchased 
by you from the present Polish Government ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Were they, in fact, purchased by you ? 

Mr. Lazewski. They were purchased by us in February, I believe, 
of this year. 

Mr. Morris. When was it? 

Mr. Lazewski. In February. 

Mr. Morris. In February of this year ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How many books were involved ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Four books were delivered to us — rather four dif- 
ferent titles. We have them here. We brought them along. These 
are the exact books that we have received, up until today. 

(Witness handed counsel four volumes.) 

Senator Hruska. How many were ordered of each of them? 

Mr. Lazewski. There were a thousand of each ordered. 

Senator Hruska. And delivered? 

Mr. Lazewski. And delivered, yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How much did you pay for them per unit ? 

Mr. Edwards. My name is Thornton G. Edwards of Buffalo, N. Y., 
of the firm of Hodgson, Russ, Andrews, Woods & Goodyear, and I 
appear as counsel. 

Everybody's Publishing Co., as the statement indicates, on May 4 of 
this year, filed under chapter XI of the Bankruptcy Act. As a result, 
none of the books have been paid for. The Government sold the books 
as a general credit and, presumably, will receive a dividend on that. 

Senator Hruska. How much did you agree to pay for them? 

Mr. Lazewski. I understand that it was 50 cents a book. 

Mr. Morris. Had you planned to sell them? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. At what price? 

Mr. Lazewski. We discussed it between the management — about 
98 cents a book or $1 would be our price that we would be selling it for. 

Mr. Morris. And you would like to submit the point, as I under- 
stand it, that these books contain no Communist propaganda? 

Mr. Lazewski. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Either in the body text or in the preface? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zielinski said that the texts were not Communist 
texts by any means, but there was a pro-Communist preface put into 
the books. You are going to submit the books 

Mr. Lazewski. The books. 

Mr. Morris. As proof of the fact that the preface did not have 
anything pro- Communist ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3981 

Mr. Lazewski. It contained a preface — one is a preface and the 
other one is more like a prologue. And they are both written by the 
author. One is signed by the author and one is a prologue to a story. 
And both of these prefaces are the same as on the shelves of the Buffalo 
Public Library. And when matched with these books and with the 
copies as we have in our Buffalo and Erie County libraries, the same 
prologue, the same wording and the same preface is there as stated in 
these books. In other words, there is no change whatsoever between 
the preface in the books printed in possibly 1920 or 1925, and the books 
printed now, that we have purchased. 

Mr. Morris. A translation by the subcommittee of these books, 
which are in Polish, will show that ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Eight. 

Senator Hruska. All of that material which you told us about 
orally, plus other statements that are contained in your written state- 
ment which you have submitted to the committee, they are there ? 

Mr. Lazewski. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Very well, that statement will be received and 
made a part of the record at this point. 

Mr. Lazewski. Thank you. 

(The statement referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 465" and is as 

follows :) 

Exhibit No. 465 

Statement of Alois Lazewski, Managing Editor of Everybody's Daily 

My name is Alois Lazewski and my address is 12 Veterans Place, Cheektowaga, 
N. Y. I am managing editor of Everybody's Daily, a newspaper published in 
Polish and in English in Buffalo, N. Y. I am the official immediately responsible 
for the editorial policy of the newspaper. I have served in this capacity since 
May of 1955. I have been employed by the paper in various capacities for the 
past 25 years. 

On May 16, 1957, Mr. Marian Zielinski testified before this subcommittee on 
the subject of the propaganda efforts of the Polish Communist government in the 
United States. Mr. Zielinski testified that he was a citizen of Poland and former 
official or employee of the Foreign Trade Enterprise, which I understand to be 
an agency of the Polish Government. He further testified that he left Poland 
and sought asylum in this country in April 1957. Some of Mr. Zielinski's 
testimony concerned Everybody's Daily. 

Mr. Zielinski stated that the mission of his agency, the Foreign Trade Enter- 
prise, was to distribute communistic propaganda and that Everybody's Daily 
was the only Polish-American newspaper in the United States which was 
cooperating with the Foreign Trade Enterprise. He stated that the major 
point of distribution in the United States for the propaganda of his agency 
was Everybody's Daily in Buffalo. He stated that 90,000 volumes were 
shipped from Poland and distributed in the United States in 1956 and strongly 
implied that our newspaper was the major distributor of those 90,000 volumes. 
Mr. Zielinski informed this committee that Everybody's Daily had entered into 
a contract with the Foreign Trade Enterprise to purchase 13,000 volumes from 
his agency in each of the years 1957, 1958, and 1959. Finally, Mr. Zielinski 
stated that, although he did not know whether Everybody's Daily was a Com- 
munist paper, he had seen one issue in 1954 or in 1955 and noted that its news 
from Poland was written in a strikingly similar way to similar news items 
published in Poland. 

I would like to deal with the statements one at a time. In the first place, 
I should like to refer to Mr. Zielinski's statement that our newspaper was and 
is a major distributor of Communist propaganda from Poland. I should like 
to emphasize this statement : Everybody's Daily has never distributed any books 
or other reading matter prepared in Poland by the Polish Communist govern- 
ment, the Foreign Trade Enterprise, or any of its agencies, either in 1956, 1957, 
or any other year. We absolutely did not receive or distribute any material 
from Poland in 1956 nor have we distributed any books or other items from 
Poland in any of the previous years while it was under Russian and Communist 
domination. 



3982 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I should now like to refer to Mr. Zielinski's statements concerning an alleged 
contract by which we were to purchase 13,000 books from Poland in each of 
the next 3 years. In January of this year, two representatives of an organiza- 
tion called Ars Polona came to the United States. It is now my understanding 
that Ars Polona is a trading agency of the Polish Government. The names of 
these representatives were Jablonski and Wscieklica. Mr. Zielinski referred to 
them in his testimony as the leading representatives of the Foreign Trade Enter- 
prise visiting in this country. We knew them only as representatives of Ars 
Polona, an organization with offices in Warsaw specializing in the export of 
books, pictures, phonograph records, and religious articles from Poland. Their 
arrival in the United States was given considerable publicity and we have in 
our files reports of a dinner held in their honor by a leading and politically 
conservative American publishing company. 

Their arrival in this country followed a series of revolts that had led to the 
creation of the Gomulka government in Poland. We have been led to under- 
stand that it was the foreign policy of the United States Government to encour- 
age to a certain extent relations with the present Gomulka government as a 
symbol of the gradual turning away from Russian domination without the 
bloodshed which occurred in Hungary. It was with awareness of this policy 
of our Government that Everybody's Daily accepted and ran paid advertisements 
as to Polish participation in the World Trade Fair recently held in New York 
and American participation in the trade fair currently going on in Poznan, 
Poland. 

Our paper has been run by citizens of Polish descent; the paper exists for 
and covers matters which interest other Americans of Polish descent who are, 
as a group, very devout and sincere Roman Catholics. We decided that we 
would be happy to be able to offer our readers the opportunity to read Polish 
classics in the original Polish. Because the market for books in Polish in the 
United States is small, there is very little opportunity to produce these classics 
in Polish in the United States except at prohibitive cost,. We contacted these 
two representatives and found that we could obtain classics in Polish at quite 
resonable prices. We disclussed an arrangement whereby Ars Polona would 
send to us within approximately the next 7 months, 13 classic titles consisting 
of 1,000 volumes per title or a total of 13,000 volumes. Contrary to Mr. Zielin- 
ski's testimony, no contract was signed in this regard. We made no agreement 
concerning purchases for 1958 or 1959. 

Every one of the 13 titles, which were to be shipped in 1957, is a well-known 
classic in Polish literature. To the best of my knowledge, every one of these 
titles was written prior to World War I. One of the books, Quo Vadis, by 
Henry Sienkiewicz, is a well-known international classic describing the strug- 
gles and the triumphs of the early Christian saints and martyrs in ancient 
Rome. Only recently it was made into a great motion-picture film by a leading 
Hollywood producer and seen by many millions of Americans. 

The other books, while they do not enjoy the same international reputation as 
Quo Vadis, are undeniable classics of Polish literature. To date we have re- 
ceived 4 titles or 4,000 books. Again I should like to emphasize this statement — 
not one of these books has been distributed. They are sitting in our warehouse 
except for the copies before me and one copy of each which we used for exami- 
nation. We did not and would not distribute them until we had a Polish liter- 
ature expert read each book, page by page, and line by line, to make sure that 
not a word of the original classic had been revised so as to introduce Com- 
munist propaganda. The expert whom we asked to read the four books which 
we have received is Mr. Alphonse S. Wolanin, a representative of the staff of 
the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library and an instructor in Polish cul- 
ture and literature at the University of Buffalo in that city. With the sub- 
committee's permission I should like to read the brief affidavit of Mr. Wolanin 
concerning the four titles which we have received. 

"To the Senate Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security 
Laws 

"Affidavit of Alphonse S. Wolanin Concerning Everybody's Daily of 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
"State of New York, 
"County of Erie, ss: 

"Alphonse S. Wolanin, of 3638 Seneca Street, West Seneca, N. Y., being first 
duly sworn deposes and says : 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3983 

"1. I am a member of the staff of the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library, 
of Buffalo, N. Y., and an instructor of Polish culture and literature at the 
University of Buffalo in the same city. 

"2. At the request of Mr. Alois Lazewski, managing editor of Everybody's 
Daily of Buffalo, N. Y., I have read copies of four Polish language books which 
Mr. Lazewski described as having been printed in Poland and received by 
his newspaper in February and March 1857 ; and I have made a page-by-page 
comparison of said books with books of the same title in Polish on the shelves 
of the Buffalo Public Library. The titles of the books are as follows : 
"1. Placowka. 
"2. Dewajtis. 

"3. Dziurdziowie-Cham (2 novels in 1 book). 
"4. Chata za Wsia. 

"3. The books received by Everybody's Daily are accurate reproductions of the 
editions in the Buffalo Public Library which I used for comparison. I found 
no pro-Communist deviations from the text. Two books, Chata za Wsia and 
Dziurdziowie-Cham, contained introductions ; and these also conformed to the 
introductions in the Buffalo Public Library editions. The books received by 
Everybody's Daily contain orthographical changes which substitute modern 
Polish spelling and word usage and which reflect the orthographical moderniza- 
tion of the Polish language that occurred in 1935. In my opinion, some of the 
changes improve upon, and some detract from, the literary value and readabil- 
ity of the earlier editions. However, such orthographical changes nowhere 
alter the sense of the earlier texts in the Buffalo Public Library, and such 
changes produce the same effect in Polish as would a reprinting of Shakespeare's 
plays in modern English. 

"4. The aforesaid books are well-known classics in Polish literature. The 
following are brief observations on each book and its author : 

"5. Placowka, which means 'The Outpost,' was written in 1885. At that 
time Poland was not free; it was divided among its three neighbors, Germany, 
Russia, and Austria. The novel dramatizes the strong attachment of the Polish 
peasant to his father's soil and demonstrates how that attachment provided 
the Polish peasant with strength to withstand the foreign domination. The 
author, Boleslaw Prus (the pen name for Aleksander Glowacki), lived in the 
period 1845-1912. He has been described as the Charles Dickens of Polish 
literature because of his humor, love of children, and tender descriptions of 
human suffering. 

"6. Dewajtis (an oak tree) was written in 1887. The story concerns the tradi- 
tional life of the country gentry and peasants in Polish Lithuania. The author 
idealized this life in Dewaitis and in her other books. The author, Maria Rod- 
z'ewiczowna, was born in 1863 and is believed to have died in 1944. 

"7. Dziurdziowie (a family name) and Cham (a rustic person) were written 
in 1888 and 1889, respectively, by Eliza Orzeszkowa, commonly regarded as the 
first great woman writer of Poland. She lived in the period 1841-1910. Her 
novels reveal an ardent patriotism and concern for the social problems of her 
day. She wrote of the plight of the poor peasants and poor Jews and of corrup- 
tion among administrative officials. 

"8. Chata za Wsia (The Cottage Behind the Village) was written in 1854, by 
Jozef Kraszewski. It is a novel about village life. The author, who lived in 
the period 1S12-S7. was one of the most prolific novelists of Poland. His writings 
were characterized by intense Polish patriotism at a time when Poland was ruled 
by Germany (Prussia), Russia, and Austria. 

"9. It is to be expected that I and other stndents and critics of Polish litera- 
ture may disagree as to the literary ranking of the aforesaid authors and novels 
relative to each other, but such authors and novels are recognized generally as 
among the leading figures and works in Polish literature. 

"[seal] "Alphonse S. Wolanin. 

"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 14 day of June 1957. 

"Henry J. Stange, 
"Notary Public, State of New York, 
"Residing in Erie Count)/ at time of appointment. 

The books which I have before me are identical to those examined by Mr. 
Wolanin. I shall be happy to turn them over to the subcommittee for its inspec- 
tion if it is interested. 



3984 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I think Mr. Wolanin's sworn statement is a complete and emphatic answer to 
Mr. Zielinski's testimony that these books or parts of these books were revised 
to reflect pro-Communist propaganda. 

Mr. Zielinski testified that in fictional works, the text was not tampered with, 
but that the preface would contain pro-Communist propaganda. I hope that the 
subcommittee will note that only 2 of the books were received contained introduc- 
tions and that those 2 have introductions identical to those in the volumes which 
Mr. Wolanin used for comparison. 

Mr. Zielinski told this subcommittee that Everybody's Daily was a major point 
of book distribution in the United States. I hope that the subcommittee will 
be as encouraged, as I am, to know that the biggest and best distributor of sup- 
posedly Communist books has thus far distributed not one single book and has 
not received any book showing any sign of Communist propaganda. If Every- 
body's Daily is the biggest and best distributor for Mr. Zielinski's former em- 
ployer, the efforts of the Polish Government to distribute propaganda in the 
United States in book form are indeed producing no results whatsoever. 

We have not been able to find anything wrong with the books we have received 
thus far. We do not plan to receive further shipments beyond the four titles 
which we already have. This is not because of any belief that the books we have 
are communistic. 

The corporation which publishes Everybody's Daily went into reorganization 
under chapter XI of the Bankruptcy Act on May 4, 1957. Since that time, 
the company has been run under the general direction of a receiver, Mr. 
George F. Bates, appointed by the Federal District Court for the Western Dis- 
trict of New York. When Mr. Bates, a short time after entering upon his duties 
as receiver, discovered the situation with regard to our purchase of books, he 
decided that we should not purchase additional books because the cash position 
of the company would not justify tying up funds in such a venture. His de- 
cision was made on that basis alone. 

When asked before this subcommittee whether Everybody's Daily was a Com- 
munist newspaper, Mr. Zielinski replied that he did not know, but stated that 
in the one edition of the paper which he had seen, in 1954 or 1955, news from 
Poland was covered in a "strikingly similar way to similar news items pub- 
lished in Poland." He strongly implied that the one edition which he had seen 
in 1954 or 1955 suggested to him that Everybody's Daily might be a pro-Com- 
munist newspaper. Although the basis of his suggestion to this subcommittee 
was admittedly about as thin and shaky as it could be, his suggestion and its 
implication were given such wide publicity that in fairness to the good name 
of our newspaper itself and the many loyal citizens associated with it as em- 
ployees and readers, I should like to place on the public record a small frac- 
tion of the large volume of material available to show that the implication 
of his testimony was and is completely false. 

Our paper has followed a consistent and unwavering course of absolute op- 
position to the pro-Russian and pro-Communist regime in Poland and to com- 
munism and Communist regimes everywhere in the world. It is the only course 
we could possibly follow. Our employees and our readers, being for the most 
part Americans of Polish descent and devoutly religious people, are pained and 
angered by the enslavement of Poland under Russian and Communist domina- 
tion. If there were ever a taint of procommunism in our newspaper I can as- 
sure the subcommittee that we would be without employees and without readers. 
Our newspaper has been publishing for 50 years. We have always consid- 
ered it one of our most important missions to promote Americanism and Ameri- 
can ideals and to help the immigrant arriving from Poland to understand and 
cherish and become a valuable part of our American way of life. I shall not 
take the committee's time by itemizing all of the formal awards and citations 
that have been awarded to our newspaper by community leaders and organiza- 
tions in tribute to its record of promoting Americanism and American ideals, not 
only among Polish-Americans but among all citizens of the communities which 
we serve. Neither I nor our loyal readers and subscribers can imagine a state- 
ment more unfounded than the statement that we were distributing Communist 
propaganda in the United States. I should like to quote briefly to this com- 
mittee one of the editorials and statements which we published regarding com- 
munism on October 22, 1954, one of the years referred to by Mr. Zielinski : 

"The meeting of the executive board of the Polish American Congress again 
gave an opportunity to Americans of Polish extraction to demonstrate their 
opposition toward communism. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3985 

"In warning the people about the aims of communism the executive board 
issued the following statement : 

" 'The battle with communism as an active group within the boundaries of our 
country demands continuous alertness.' 

"To this we must add : 'Besides alertness we must also wage a constant war 
against communism which is a symbol of slavery, tyranny, and at the same time 
treachery against one's own country and community.' 

"It is not the first time Americans of Polish descent have taken this attitude 
toward communism. They have been doing it for years — always warning our 
Nation about the dangers of communism ; even when opposition to communism 
was not popular in many quarters. 

"The executive board of the Polish American Congress maintains that the 
current world crisis is a result of the policy of appeasement toward communism. 
It reiterates that peaceful coexistence of communism and democracy is a hollow 
motto in practice, since it can't be realized because of the tenets of communism. 
Besides it is immoral and dangerous on account of the great ideological differ- 
ences. 

"You don't have to look far for examples of the above statements. You can 
see them everywhere, where communism is continually carrying on its aggressive 
aims in one form or another. 

"The Communist offensive does not always take the form of open warfare. 
Sometimes — as in Korea and Indochina — it takes the form of civil war, but in 
reality it is a program of conquest and aggression conducted by the leaders in 
Moscow or Peiping. 

"We also have a third form of Communist aggression under the guise of legal 
political parties in democratic countries. No one doubts that these parties serve 
only the interests of Russia. 

"When speaking about coexistence, a favorite expression of some diplomats 
and politicians, we must remember, above all, the aims of Red aggression." 

As to Mr. Zielinski's specific remark that the one issue of the paper which he 
saw in 1954 or 1955 had news strikingly similar to news reported in Poland, of 
course, I cannot answer in detail because I do not know of which issue he speaks. 
At that time the source of almost all of our foreign news was the United Press 
and the Free Europe Press, to which we subscribe. I believe that it is an accurate 
statement to say that our news concerning Poland upon any day in 1954 and 1955 
was substantially the same as the news concerning Poland printed in any other 
American newspaper subscribing to a major news service. 

The back issues of our newspaper, which are open to inspection by representa- 
tives of the subcommittee and anyone else, will bear out the statements that I 
have just made. We welcome such inspection. 

As the subcommittee knows, testimony such as Mr. Zielinski's, when afforded 
wide publicity, as Mr. Zielinski's testimony was, can result in grave injury to the 
personal and business reputations of individuals and business organizations. 
Mr. Zielinski's testimony with regard to Everybody's Daily has resulted in such 
injury. I have with me here, and would like to offer to the subcommittee for in- 
clusion in the record, a certified copy of the petition of Mr. Bates and the order of 
the referee in bankruptcy granting permission to Mr. Bates to send me here today 
to testify. I should like to thank the subcommitte for the opportunity to appear 
here and set the record straight as to Everybody's Daily. 

Mr. Edwards. You will note that the prepared statement of the 
witness contains a three-page affidavit from Mr. Wolanin, and we have 
an original executed copy of that affidavit. 

Senator Hruska. It will be received. Are there any further ques- 
tions ? 

Mr. Morris. I think that, certainly, in fairness to the witness and by 
way of completing our record, this statement, I feel, should be part 
of the record and be read in connection with the testimony. When we 
have these translated, they, too, will be made part of the record. 

Senator Hruska. Very well ; it shall be done that way. 

The hearing is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 10 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, JULY 23, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
and Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 :20 a. m., in room 457, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
associate counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research director; and F. W. 
Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The committee will come to order. 
Judge Morris, who is the first witness ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Dende is the first witness, Senator Hruska. 
Senator Hruska. Will vou be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony that you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Dende. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEOPOLD DENDE, HAZLET, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Hruska, on May 15, 1957, Mr. Marian Zielin- 
ski, who has just recently asked for asylum from the Polish Com- 
munist Government, testified before our committee. 

In the course of his testimony, he mentioned the witness here this 
morning, Mr. Dende. 

We asked him about some of the distribution points of pro-Com- 
munist literature emanating from Warsaw, and he mentioned the 
Polonia International of New York? We asked who represented the 
Polonia International, and he said the man who handled the commer- 
cial dealings in Poland was Leopold Dende. 

We asked him who was Leopold Dende, and Mr. Zielinski said that 
he was in Warsaw, and that he saw him in his office. He said that Mr. 
Dende was the representative of a travel agency, and that he also 
represented and was the editor in chief of a publication known as Po- 
lonia Reporter, published in this country. 

And then I asked Mr. Zielinski if he, Mr. Dende, collaborated with 
Mr. Zielinski's Communist superiors when he was in Warsaw, and 
Mr. Zielinski said yes, he was collaborating when he was in Warsaw, 
and he said that he was clearing the text of his magazine with his 
headquarters. 

3987 



3988 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

And then I asked Mr. Zielinski how many times did he see him 
clearing the material with his Communist superiors, and Mr. Zielinski 
said, "I saw him only once, but I know that he had been to Warsaw 
three times, and I saw him in my office twice. But the clearance, the 
actual clearance, I witnessed only once. lie was showing in our office a 
few copies of the Polonia Reporter, and he was asking our director 
what was his opinion of it. This periodical was given free to every- 
body wiio visited the Polish stand at the World Trade Fair in New 
York. Dencle sent us around 3,000 copies for free distribution." 

Now, that is the testimony that you would like to answer, is it not, 
Mr. Dende? 

Mr. Dende. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Can you recall having been to Warsaw 

Mr. Dende. With your permission, sir, I have a prepared statement 
which, if you wish, I can read. 

Mr. Morris, The only difficulty with that, Mr. Dende 

Mr. Dende. You mean it is too long ? 

Mr. Morris. It has in it things that are not directly connected with 
this testimony. If you will, at the outset, talk about this particular 
testimony, then you may put into the record anything else you want. 

Mr. Dende. All right. Your question was, whether I was in 
Warsaw ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Dende. Yes, that is true. 

Mr. Morris. Did you go there for the Polonia Reporter? 

Mr. Dende. I went the first time — naturally, since March of last 
year, I was in Poland 4 times, not 3 times, as Mr. Zielinski testified. 

Mr. Morris. For what purpose did you go? 

Mr. Dende. There were several purposes. One purpose was to 
establish travel to Poland, which is relevant in this case. 

And then the second purpose was to see what commercial arrange- 
ments could be made to import to America articles that would be of 
interest to Americans of Polish descent. Among these articles, were 
articles of a religious nature, and then some books, mostly picture 
albums that would portray the scenery of Poland, and books, Polish 
classics, things like that. 

It was at no time even considered to import any so-called pro- 
Communist publications, I mean pro-Communist books. 

Mr. Morris. Did you talk with the director of Polish Communist 
propaganda in Poland? 

Mr. Dende. No. Of course, I realized that all directors of foreign 
trade enterprises are pro-Communist, but I did talk to Mr. Zielinski's 
superior, Director General Schoeuborn. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that for the record, please? 

Mr. Dende. I think Mr. Zielinski knows the spelling better than I 
do. I think it is S-c-h-o-e-n-b-o-r-n. And his assistant director, 
Kuzminski. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that ? 

Mr. Dende. K-u-z-m-i-n-s-k-i. 

Mr. Morris. And did you talk to them ? 

Mr. Dende. I did talk to them about selecting some books that I 
thought it would be all right to import and distribute among the 
Polish- Americans, and they did present a great variety, a great assort- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 3989 

ment, and from this assortment I selected certain publications of a 
nature which I thought would be better — mostly picture albums, 
scenery albums about Poland, Polish original pictures, things like 
that. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zielinski told us that they were part of the propa- 
ganda policies of the Polish Government. 

Mr. Dende. I could not answer as to the policies of the Polish 
Government, or the policies of the Polish publishing firms in Poland. 

However, the books I selected, in my opinion, were not Communist 
propaganda. They were only portraying Poland as it is, or as it was 
before the war. 

Senator Hruska. And you said you had made four trips to Poland ? 

Mr. Dende. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Who else did you see on any of these other trips 
besides the people you have so far mentioned ? 

Mr. Dende. Well, I have seen many other 

Senator Hruska. Pertaining to books and literature, publications. 

Mr. Dende. Pertaining to books and literature, nobody else, because 
Ars Polona is a monopoly. That is the name of their foreign trade 
enterprise, and they are in that field, so if you want to import, you 
have to see them. 

Senator Hruska. So, on each of the four times that you were there, 
insofar as books and literature and magazines are concerned, those are 
the people you saw, Mr. Zielinski's superior 

Mr. Dende. That is right. 

Senator Hruska. And the second gentleman that you named — what 
was that name ? 

Mr. Dende. Kuzminski. 

Senator Hruska. Those are the two men with whom you dealt ? 

Mr. Dende. That is right. No one else in that department. 

Of course, when they were presenting yarious items, because they 
also handled the religious objects, and also handled some art objects, 
peasant art, people's art, so naturally they knew the different people 
from different departments. I don't even remember some of those 
names; among those people was Mr. Zielinski. I never went to see 
Mr. Zielinski, but Mr. Zielinski was called to the main office, and then 
I met him, and, frankly, I did not even remember his name, or didn't 
recall him until I had seen him at the Polish stand of the United States 
Trade Fair in New York. I had no direct dealings with Mr. Zielinski. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Dende, he- said that your Polonia Reporter 
was distributed by the commercial officials at the World's Fair. 

Mr. Dende. As I said in my statement, the arrangement was this. 

Since the magazine is dedicated to the promotion of good-will be- 
tween Poland and America, and amongst others, to the promotion of 
Polish- American trade, I had published a special issue which was 
dedicated to the United States participation in the Poznan Fair, and 
to the Polish participation in the World Trade Fair in New York. 
In conjunction with those, I issued several pages of advertisements 
of the Polish foreign trade enterprises in Poland that were exhibiting 
their goods in New York, and in conjunction with that, I agreed to 
deliver to them 3,000 copies for distribution. 

However, not all copies were distributed because there were certain 
items in the Polonia Reporter which — only about 2,000 copies actually 



3990 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

were distributed, and the rest were not, because of a certain phrase in 
the magazine which was interpreted by the Polish commercial officials 
at the fair as possibly offensive to Russia, and they did not wish to be 
involved in political controversy. So that additional 1,000 was 
stopped in distribution for that reason. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Dende, Mr. Zielinski further said that you 
showed copies of the Polonia Reporter to these Communist propa- 
ganda officials. 

Mr. Dende. Well, I would not call them propaganda officials. 
Again, it is true, as I said here, that I had not only shown but dis- 
tributed a large number of copies of the Polonia Reporter in Poland, 
not only to Ars Polona officials, but many other people, including the 
Primate of Poland, Cardinal Wyszynski — I was the first American 
to have audience with the cardinal, and there is evidence to that fact, 
and he made an endorsement, of which I will leave a copy as evidence 
here, in which he indicated approval of the aim of the magazine. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, Mr. Dende, what part of Mr. Zielinski's 
testimony is it that you are asking for an opportunity to refute? 

Mr. Dende. The basic part I object to is that where he testified 
that I cleared the text of my magazine with his Communist superiors. 
I never cleared the text of my magazine with anyone, and he admitted 
that maybe he misunderstood. 

I talked to him since, and he said that he was misunderstood in 
his testimony. 

I did show the copies, which is a natural thing if you are a publisher 
or an editor of a paper, and when you take 100 or 200 copies to Poland 
that you want to distribute copies of. 

Mr. Zielinski, in private conversation with me, told me what he 
meant by "cleared the text." 

But I did talk with an advertising official of the Ars Polona by the 
name of Sosposki, and did talk about an advertisement of Ars Polona 
in the publication, and this advertisement I did discuss with him, 
and that is what he meant, at least that is what he says now, when he 
made the statement I cleared the text. 

Of course, he did not understand what "clearing of the text" means. 
He did not understand it. I never cleared any editorial or any other 
matter with anyone. 

Senator Hruska. Are there any other aspects of his testimony to 
which you would like to refer and make an explanation ? 

Mr. Dende. Well, the only aspect is, on the basis of his testimony, 
certain papers, especially one paper in Scranton, Pa., the Scranton 
Tribune, ran a front page, 5-column headline, "Ex-City Newsman 
Charged With Communist Activity." And the story was featured 
in such a way as to cast suspicion not only upon me but my nephew, 
Henry J. Dende, a school director, who was then running for renomi- 
nation. And the paper ran a story that said, in part : 

A former Scranton man, one time national news editor of a newspaper printed 
for national circulation, has been accused in Washington by a Polish trade 
official as being part of a link wbich carried on a propaganda campaign by 
Communists to indoctrinate the United States schoolchildren, and disrupt Polish- 
American communities. 

Now, I was never involved in anything like that, and Mr. Zielinski 
told me today that he did not say anything of the sort. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3991 

This is probably the last thing — well, in this connection I make the 
statement in my prepared statement that : 

I hope the newspapers which have published Zielinski's false charges against 
me and my publication will also publish my answer to the same, namely, that I 
was never engaged in Communist activity, and, on the contrary I have cooper- 
ated with this subcommittee in the investigation of Communist activity, and 
Mr. Schroeder knows that. 

Mr. Morris. I read the transcript, and I thought you refused to 
answer the question, you invoked the privilege of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Dende. Oh, no, that is not so. I cooperated with the Internal 
Securities Subcommittee of the Senate, and Mr. Schroeder can testify 
to that fact, several years ago, and this was a private corporation, 
if he can recall. 

Mr. Morris. Well, before the House Un-American Activities Com- 
mittee 

Mr. Dende. Well, that one before the House Un-American Activ- 
ities, I did not want to divulge in public and otherwise certain names 
of my clients that had nothing to do with the Communist activity, 
when I had an office, public relations office, in Scranton, Pa., I did 
not want to embarrass them ; some of them were maybe involved in 
political life, or something like that, nothing to do with Communist 
activity. 

Mr. Morris. One other thing, did you take any of these publica- 
tions to Warsaw ? 

Mr. Dende. Did I what ? 

Mr. Morris. Did you purchase any of these publications in War- 
saw? 

Mr. Dende. I published — I purchased some publications, as I told 
you. I purchased maybe several thousand dollars' worth of different 
published books, that is true. 

Mr. Morris. Would you consider them to be Communist propa- 
ganda ? 

Mr. Dende. No ; they were not Communists propaganda in the sense 
that I understand Communist propaganda. They were advertised in 
the Polonia Reporter. You can have the list ; you can examine them. 
I can send you all the copies. They were cleared by the United States 
customhouse, and by the United States Post Office, and 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Zielinski said that the flagrant propagan- 
distic products of your organization were stopped in 1954, and he 
said from that time on they were very subtle propaganda ; that was 
so that it would pass customs inspection. 

Mr. Dende. Well, I don't know that you can consider a work by a 
Nobel prize winner as Communist propaganda, or any prewar writers, 
what would you consider — that is, of course, a question of judgment. 

Pictures of Poland, showing how Polish scenery looks, or how re- 
constructed Warsaw looks — well, I have currently 1,000 copies of War- 
saw Churches in Reconstruction, which was published by the council 
of the primate of Poland. If that is Communist propaganda, I plead 
guilty to it ; but in my opinion there was not one book that I imported 
that is Communist propaganda. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything you want the record to show. I 
mean, is there anything you want to testify about, anything you wish 



3992 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

to add in order to completely express your stand here, anything else 
you would like to offer in the record ? 

Mr. Dende. No ; with the exception of this, that you have probably 
already read my prepared statement, and I would like to have that 
included in the record, that statement. I do not think it is necessary 
to read it — part of it was already answered in your questions and my 
answers. 

Senator Hruska. Have you furnished the committee any list of 
books you purchased, or is there any listing in the magazine? 

Mr. Dende. They are listed in the magazines, and I am leaving 
them, if you wish, of the Polonia Reporter, that were published so far, 
so you can examine them at your leisure, and if you have any ques- 
tions I will be glad to answer. 

Senator Hruska. That will be very helpful. 

Mr. Dende. And I would also like to leave for the committee the 
clipping of the Scranton Tribune, to which I referred, to show how 
the story was twisted. 

Mr. Morris. "For the record, will you give your full name and ad- 
dress to the reporter ? 

Mr. Dende. The reporter ? 

Senator Hruska. Yes ; that man there. 

Mr. Dende. Leopold Dende. 

Mr. Morris. And where do you live ? 

Mr. Dende. Hazlet, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business or occupation ? 

Mr. Dende. I am now editor and publisher of the Polonia Reporter ; 
that is all. I am not associated any more with Polonia Interna- 
tional. 

Mr. Morris. When were you associated with Polonia International ? 

Mr. Dende. Up to May 1 of this year; so, any dealings that hap- 
pened since then, I cannot refer to. 

Mr. Morris. And the dealings that Mr. Zielinski testified to were 
prior to that ? 

Mr. Dende. Was prior to that; yes, sir. However, the president 
of Polonia International, Mr. Pargiello, just returned from Poland, 
he was in Poland several weeks, and what arrangements he had there, 
I don't know, and I am not any part of it. 

Mr. Morris. If there is nothing further, I would like the record to 
show that the witness asked for this hearing. 

Senator Hruska. We are grateful to you for the material that you 
arg leaving, and for your statement. 

Mr. Dende. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zielinski also asked to make a statement. 

Senator Hruska. He was already sworn, and it will not be neces- 
sary for you to be sworn again, Mr. Zielinski. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Dende is still occupying the witness chair. Could 
you do that writing in this other chair, Mr. Dende, so Mr. Zielinski 
can testify ? 

Mr. Dende. I am sorry. 

Mr. Morris. There is another reporter here. We will wait just a 
minute. 

(The material submitted by Mr. Dende is as follows :) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3993 

Statement of Leopold Dende 

My name is Leopold Dende and I reside in Hazlet, N. J. 

I am the editor and publisher of Polonia Reporter, a monthly magazine dedi- 
cated to the promotion of good will between America and Poland. 

On May 16, 1957, Mr. Marian Zielinski, former employee of Ars Polona Foreign 
Trade Enterprise in Warsaw, Poland, who refused to return to Poland after his 
work at the Polish stand at the United States World Trade Fair in New York 
had ended and requested asylum in the United States, testified before this sub- 
committee that I have collaborated with his Communist superiors, while in 
Warsaw, and that I was clearing the text of my publication with his headquar- 
ters. 

To the question of Mr. Morris "How many times did you see him clearing his 
material with your Communist superiors?" Mr. Zielinski replied: "I saw him 
only once, but I know that he has been to Warsaw three times, and I saw him 
in my office twice. But the clearance, the actual clearance, I witnessed only once. 
He was showing in our office a few copies of Polonia Reporter, and he was asking 
our director what was his opinion of it. This periodical was given free to every- 
body who visited the Polish stand at the World Trade Fair in New York. Dende 
sent us around 3,000 copies for free distribution." 

Mr. Zielinski also testified that in Polonia International, Inc., of New York, all 
the commercial dealings with Poland were in my hands. 

Mr. Zielinski's testimony is partly true and partly false. 

It is true that up to May 1 of this year I had handled most of Polonia Inter- 
national's commercial dealings with Poland. Since May 1, I was not associated 
with that firm and, since Mr. Zelinski testified on May 16, he was obviously unin- 
formed about the composition of Polonia International then. 

Mr. Zielinski's charge that I have collaborated with his Communist superiors, 
while in Warsaw, and that I was clearing the text of my publication with his 
headquarters, is false. 

He indicated as much in his own testimony by saying that I was showing a 
few copies of Polonia Reporter in Ars Polona's office in Warsaw and asking 
his former superior what was his opinion of the magazine. Not only in Ars 
Polona's but in many other places in Poland I was not only showing but actually 
distributing Polonia Reporter and asking people's opinion about same. One of 
those who thus received Polonia Reporter was the primate of Poland, Stefan 
Cardinal Wyszynski, who indicated his approval of the magazine's aim and 
policy, and the evidence of this is in the second issue of Polonia Reporter, which 
I am offering as evidence, as well as all other copies of Polonia Reporter pub- 
lished so far. 

Polonia Reporter is an independent American publication and I have never 
cleared the text of my magazine with anyone. 

As a publication devoted to the promotion of Polish-American trade, Polonia 
Reporter carried in the two preceding issues several pages of advertisements 
of Polish Foreign Trade Enterprises, plus appropriate features. In this con- 
nection 3,000 copies of April issue were to be distributed at the Polish stand 
at the United States World Trade Fair in New York but actually only about 
2,000 copies were distributed and the rest were not used because a certain phrase 
in the magazine was interpreted by the Polish commercial officials at the fair 
as possibly offensive to Russia and they did not wish to be involved in political 
controversy. 

By his false testimony Mr. Zielinski caused me and others a lot of harm. 

For example, on the basis of Zielinski's testimony, the Scranton Tribune 
published on May 17 the front-page 5-column headline "Ex-City Newsmen 
Charged With Communist Activity." The story was featured in such a way 
as to cast suspicion not only upon me but also on my nephew, Henry J. Dende, 
Scranton school director, who was then running for renomination. The paper 
said in part : 

"A former Scranton man, one-time national news editor of a newspaper printed 
for national circulation, has been accused in Washington by a Polish trade 
official as being part of a link which carried on a propaganda campaign by 
Communists to indoctrinate United States schoolchildren and disrupt Polish- 
American communities. 

"The man accused is Leopold Dende, 335 East 14th Street, New York City, 
head of the Polonia Reporter, who until about 6 years ago was an editor of 
the Polish-American Journal, 413 Cedar Avenue, published now by Henry Dende, 
a Scranton school director and distant relative of the Scranton publisher. 



3994 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

"International News Service said the accusation was hurled in Washington 
by Marian Zielinski, 24-year-old Polish trade official, before Senate investigators. 

"The witness named Dende, editor in chief of Polonia Reporter, and said he 
saw Dende in Warsaw 'clearing the text' of his publication with high-ranking 
Polish officials." 

I do not know how many other newspapers ran similar stories, but I do know 
that as a result of it I have suffered a loss of advertising and subscription. 

I hope that the newspapers which have published Zielinski's false charges 
against me and my publication will also publish my answer to same, namely, 
that I was never engaged in Communist activity and, to the contrary, I have 
cooperated with this subcommittee in its investigation of the Communist activity, 
and presently trying to contribute my small share toward the realization of 
President Eisenhower's people-to-people program on the Polish-American 
sector. 

I also hope that in view of conflicting testimony in the Zielinski case, this 
subcommittee will turn the matter to the Department of Justice for perjury 
action, as it would be un-American to permit a defector to slander loyal Ameri- 
can citizens and firms in order to enhance his chance to obtain political asylum 
in this country. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zielinski, you understand this is a continuation 
of your previous sworn testimony before the Senate subcommittee. 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Are you the same interpreter we had? 

Mr. Starosolski. No ; I am a new one. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify yourself, please? 

Mr. Starosolski. I am George Starosolski, of the Legislative Ref- 
erence Service of the Library of Congress. 

Senator Hruska. Will you be sworn ? 

Mr. Starosolski. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that you will truly inter- 
pret the questions which are asked of this witness, and that you will 
truly interpret the replies which are given by him? 

Mr. Starosolski. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MARIAN ZIELINSKI (THROUGH GEORGE 
STARASOLSKI, INTERPRETER) 

Mr. Morris. You are appearing here because of the testimony of 
Mr. Lazewski, who testified here on June 18, 1957. He is the man- 
aging editor of Everybody's Daily. 

Mr. Zielinski. The name is Lazewski. 

Mr. Morris. You are here in response to his testimony and at your 
request ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. 

Now 7 , you have presented to the staff of the subcommittee a text 
that runs 12 pages. Is this a truthful statement you have made to 
the subcommittee ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, will you tell us briefly your comments 
on the testimony of Mr. Alois Lazewski ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Lazewski said in his testimony that what I said 
was not true. That is why I gave some additional information, ex- 
planation — some additional information to my previous statement, 
which does not change in any way my previous statement. 

Mr. Morris. What did you tell us about Mr. Lazewski in May ? 

Mr. Zielinski. In May? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3995 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Zielinski. In answering the question of the committee- — before 
that he mentioned the delegates who were in this country from Poland, 
so that my question was what kind of contacts they made here in this 
country, with whom, and what kind of contacts. 

Mr. Morris. You were then working for a propaganda agency of 
the Polish Government, were you not ? 

Mr. Zielinski. It was not exclusively the purpose of this agency, 
but, among others, propaganda was the purpose. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

"What was the name of the agency ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Ars Polona Foreign Trade Enterprise. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with the work you testified this was 
propaganda of the Polish Government, did you not? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Then you handled the propaganda, as far as books 
were concerned ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I did, as far as books were concerned, in the territory 
of the United States, but I had my superiors, two. 

Mr. Morris. Who were your two superiors ? 

Mr. Zielinski. The chief of the section, in my section, and the direc- 
tor were the two superiors. 

Mr. Morris. Who were they ? Name them, please. 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Biegala, B-i-e-g-a-1-a, was the chief of the sec- 
tion. 

Mr. Morris. He was head of the section ? 

Mr. Zielinski. And Mr. Kozera, K-o-z-e-r-a, was the chief of the 
department. 

Mr. Morris. Were they both Communists ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Biegala is no Communist. He does not belong to the 
party. 

Mr. Morris. The other gentleman ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Kozera is a party member. 

Mr. Morris. Both, however, work in the Polish Communist govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Zielinski. And there was a director, Schoenborn, S-c-h-o-e-n- 
b-o-r-n. 

Mr. Morris. Was he a Communist ? 

Mr. Zielinski. He was a Communist. He was a party member. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you tell us that up to a certain point the 
propaganda you put out was blatant propaganda, conspicuous, 
marked, open propaganda ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Ars Polona doesn't contain any open propaganda, 
but some articles, of course, are of propaganda context. To prove this, 
I submitted two books to the committee, one of which had some 
propaganda material in the preface and in one of the articles, and the 
other one just in the foreword. 

Here I have one catalog of the Ars Polona, one of the books, it is 
published 12 times a year, or monthly, which all of the books I am 
ready to submit. 

Some of the titles show that the book means propaganda. For 
example, the book One Hundred Years Ago, which I submitted to the 
committee, is a propaganda book. 



3996 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. What book is a propaganda book ? 

Mr. Zielinski. One Hundred Years Ago. 

Mr. Morris. Is that one of the books that Mr. Lazewski bought ? 

Mr. Zielinski. No. 

Mr. Morris. What books did Mr. Lazewski buy ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I want to finish this before I answer the other 
question, if I may. 

This book is Communist propaganda which the committee has in its 
possession. For example, The French Communist Party, in a fight 
for the United Front of Working Class for a People's Front. 

This is another book. Works by Lenin, too. 

Mr. Morris. But the difficulty there is Mr. Lazewski said the books 
he purchased were not propaganda. Do you remember the four books 
he purchased ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I said before that not all books include propaganda. 
1 don't know the books which were purchased by Mr. Lazewski. I 
didn't read the books, so I don't know the context of the books. I 
didn't say that he had a receiving point for these Communist books in 
this country. 

Mr. Morris. You said he was the receiving point ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I didn't testify before that I had a receiving point in 
this country for these Communist books. 

Mr. Morris. What did you testify ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I said before that these receiving points in this 
country purchased the books directly from Ars Polona. 

Mr. Morris. Was Everybody's Daily one of the receiving points, or 
was it not one of the receiving points ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, it was. 

As far as Everybody's Daily is concerned, I testified that there was 
a special edition 

Mr. Morris. A special edition of Everybody's Daily? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And did you see this special edition ? 

Mr. Zielinski. It was distributed in a few thousand copies at the 
New York Fair. 

Mr. Morris. Did that contain any Communist propaganda? 

Mr. Zielinski. I testified before that the news contained in this 
panorama was the same as published in Poland in 1955, so there are 
facts as they were in 1955 in Poland, but there were no critical com- 
ments on the Polish Government or system. 

Mr. Morris. So you will stand by your previous testimoney that 
it was distributing information that was propaganda ? 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't change in any way my testimony. 

Mr. Morris. Did you hear Mr. Dende testify a few minutes ago? 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Dende said that in a private conversation with 
me that I said — that he cleared just advertisements. 

Mr. Morris. I didn't hear you 

Mr. Zielinski. Mr. Dende said that in private conversation with 
me, I said that he cleared with the Polish Government just advertising 
articles in the Polonia Reporter. Just advertising. But 

Senator Hruska. Is that true? 

Mr. Zielinski. These are not my words. These are the words of 
Mr. Dende, which he used to me. Mr. Dende said these words to me. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3997 

Senator Hruska. What is the fact in regard to this clearance be- 
tween Mr. Dende and the man in the propaganda agency ? 

Mr. Zielinski. As I said before, I saw Mr. Dende showing direc- 
tor Schoenborn a few copies of the Polonia Reporter. And I saw how 
he turned to Mr. Sosnowski, who is in the section of propaganda and 
advertisement 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schoenborn is a Communist ; is he not ? You have 
testified ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes ; Mr. Dende showed the copies to Mr. Sosnowski. 

Mr. Morris. What did he say when he showed them to him? 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't know, but I heard — Mr. Dende required 
from Mr. Sosnowski to send him some material. When Mr. Dende 
asked director how he liked the publication, the director said it was 
very good. 

In general, I don't know how the Polonia Reporter is being dis- 
tributed in Poland. I don't know how, and I don't know why and how 
it is the Polonia Reporter was distributed free at the New York Fair, 
and I don't know who was paying for it, who paid for these copies 
which were distributed free. 

In the previous testimony, there was a phrase, "My office." I didn't 
have any office of myself, but there was an office in which I worked. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything else you would like to tell the 
subcommittee in connection with this, Mr. Zielinski? 

Mr. Zielinski. Maybe I could say something, but since I don't 
understand English well, I don't know what it was about 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Zielinski, would you be satisfied if your statement, 
which you prepared, goes into the record as a sworn statement by 
you? 

Mr. Zielinski. Yes, I would. 

Mr. Morris. I offer that for the record. 

Senator Hruska. It is received, and may be made part of the 
record. 

(The statement by Mr. Zielinski was marked "Exhibit No. 466" and 
reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 466 

New York, N. Y., July 7, 1957. 
Hon. Robeet Morris, 

Chief Counsel, United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir : I would like to thank you for the opportunity you granted me to 
acquaint myself with the contents of the statement made to the United States 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee on June 18, 1957, by Mr. Alois Lazewski, 
managing editor of the Everybody's Daily, of Buffalo, N. Y. 

In connection with the above statement I ask your permission to submit to 
the subcommittee the following : 

Being a political refugee from Poland, now under Communist rule not of its 
own accord, I considered that I served my country best when, at your suggestion, 
I agreed to appear before the United States Senate Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee, and — after being duly sworn — I answered conscientiously, to the best of 
my knowledge, questions asked by the subcommittee. 

Obviously, I am not responsible for distorted published versions of my deposi- 
tions. These may have been made for the purpose of undermining confidence 
in my veracity or of depicting me as an agent-provocateur (Everybody's Daily, 
issue of May 28, 1957), who is serving the Communist regime. I abhor that 
regime, and I left it at the first opportunity, as a nightmare ; to be able to freely 
speak of it in a free world ; to tell what this system really means to the average 
man of my homeland in his daily life. 



3998 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Having no transcript of the subcommittee hearing of May 16, 1957, and being 
unable to quote from my replies to questions posed by the subcommittee, I want 
only to say this in connection with Mr. A. Lazewski's statement: 

Mr. Lazewski claimed that "* * * Mr. Zielinski stated that in the one edition 
of the paper which he had seen, in 1954 or 1955, news from Poland was covered 
in a strikingly similar way to similar news published in Poland." 

I did not know anything about the Everybody's Daily in 1954 or in 1955; I 
never heard anything about the existence of that paper in those years, and I did 
not say so — to the best of my recollection — in my depositions or replies to ques- 
tions asked by the subcommittee. The first time I learned about Everybody's 
Daily was when two influential representatives of Ars Polona, an agency of the 
Warsaw Ministry for Foreign Trade, returned from a business trip to the United 
States. One of them is a Communist, the other decidedly pro-Communist. They 
then commissioned me to execute a contract which — according to them — they 
reached with the Everybody's Daily, of Buffalo, N. Y. To the best of my knowl- 
edge this was the only Polish-American newspaper to have reached an under- 
standing with these two delegates of an agency of the Warsaw Communist 
regime. This was quite an achievement on their part and this is why the name 
of that newspaper stuck so well in my memory ever since. 

My statements made in reply to subcommittee questions about one-sided 
(partial) presentation of conditions in Poland and of Communist "achievement" 
in that country, were based on the contents of the special issue of Everybody's 
Daily dated April 12 and 13, 1957, a copy of which is attached hereto for your 
perusal. A few thousand copies of this special issue of the Everybody's Daily 
were distributed free of charge during the International Trade Fair in New 
York. Obviously, this business, transacted in the booth of the Warsaw govern- 
ment at the fair, must have been done with the full knowledge and approval of 
the Warsaw regime's Embassy in Washington. This was the only Polish-Ameri- 
can newspaper to be thus distributed in the said booth. I cannot see any reason 
for their disapproval since this edition of the Everybody's Daily was edited in 
the traditional form of the regime's propaganda pamphlets. 

To prove that my depositions before the subcommittee regarding the propa- 
ganda character of news from Poland in the Everybody's Daily were not base- 
less, I quote the following excerpt from the enclosed copy of that paper's special 
issue of April 12 and 13, 1957 : 

"The victory of the social left in 1945 opened new perspectives to the Polish 
farmside" (meaning peasants). 

The above is being followed (p. 4 of the enclosure) by a lengthy discourse 
on what was allegedly accomplished (by the Communists) in the ei - stwhile 
backward Polish farmland and how this became the "fountain of progress." 
Can the forcible enrollment of peasant in Communist land-collectives (kol- 
chozes and sovchozes) and a system depriving them of the fruits of their labor 
be called perspectives? And to quote further from the same article in this 
special issue of the Everybody's Daily: "* * * Of considerable importance to 
the farmers was the abolishment of vast land estates." The article then claims 
that because of this "the Polish peasant got rich." The author, however, omits 
the fact that soon thereafter Polish peasants were deprived (by the Communist 
regime) of what farm holdings they possessed, and that they were practically 
driven into the so-called farm collectives. 

This entire article (p. 4 of enclosure) entitled "Yesterday, Today, and 
Tomorrow of the Polish Farmside" and subtitled "Yesterday" and "Tomorrow" — 
is edited according to the regular pattern of reports read at meetings of the Com- 
munist Party activities in Poland. It blackens and distorts the past, all and 
everything which happened before 1945, that is before the advent of the Com- 
munist rule in Poland. It presents as a counterpart a rosy picture of the future 
which is (allegedly) being built by the present (Communist) regime. The 
audacity of the author of this article destined for Polish-American consumption 
is best illustrated by the fact that 7 months after the October 1956 events in 
Poland he presents the so-called peasant self-aid (Chlopska Samopomoc), an 
ultracommunistic organization, most hateful to Polish peasantry — as a positive 
factor. 

This special (April 12 and 13, 1957) issue of Everybody's Daily is full of 
(Communist) statistics, of (Communist) achievements, of gigantic (Communist) 
progress, of minute (Communist) planning of everything in life. While the 
authors of this propaganda prepared a rosy picture of life in Poland, the country 
was in the throes of total bankruptcy of the Communist economic system, and 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 3999 

the Polish people — in spite of all fabricated statistics — have reached the bottom 
of dire need and misery. This truth of the situation and this real picture of 
Poland is completely erased ; nay, blotted out ; in the special issue of Everybody's 
Daily so freely distributed during the New York Fair. I was struck by this, 
knowing the facts of life in Poland, and I felt a deep disgust. The appeal on 
page 5 of the special issue ("We are with you") contains these words: 

"Let us then be together in these days of toil to restore the strength of that 
very nation whose success determines the stability of world peace." 

These words, written right after the aforesaid fabrications of statistics, are 
reminiscent to me of the constantly used and sickening slogans which I was 
compelled to listen to and to read while in Poland under Communist rule. The 
enclosed full copy of that special issue of Everybody's Daily proves the truth 
of my statement practically on every page of the 20 that make up the issue. 

Mr. Lazewski further stated that: "We have been led to understand that it 
was the foreign policy of the United States Government to encourage to a 
certain degree relations with the present Gomulka government as a symbol of 
the gradual turning away from Russian domination," etc., etc., and he continued : 
"It was with awareness of this policy of our Government that Everybody's 
Daily accepted and ran paid advertisements as to Polish participation in the 
World Trade Fair," etc., etc. 

During my short stay in this country I was unable to learn much about United 
States foreign policy, but I vividly recall what the Voice of America (and Radio 
Free Europe) was telling the people of Poland when I was there. Never did I 
hear in those broadcasts that we — Poles — should give credence to such propa- 
ganda nonsense as is contained in the special issue of Everybody's Daily distrib- 
uted without charge at the New York World Fair. But even if told to believe 
in that nonsense, we, back there in Poland, never would do so, as we all knew 
the real facts about life in Poland. To be sure, our people, including the young 
generation on whom the Communists so arduously labored applying diverse in- 
doctrination methods — somehow do not hate the past. The youth — unfamiliar 
with it — prefer to believe their elders than Communist propagandists. Family 
ties are still strong in Poland today. 

Considering all the above, it is hard for me to believe that the Government 
of the United States wants Poles to believe in Communist lies, or in Communist 
whitewash, and nonexistent Communist achievement in Poland. Somehow I 
cannot be convinced that belief in all these can lead to a "gradual turning 
away from Russian domination" — as Mr. Alois Lazewski seems to imply. 

An editorial in the May 7, 1957, issue of Everybody's Daily extolling its 
special New York Fair issue (of April 12 and 13) seems to me to top every- 
thing along the above lines. This editorial claims that the issue was perfectly 
edited, and, continuing, it goes on to say : 

"It played the role of the best prospectus." 

The language of that article is full of vile expressions and invectives directed 
at another Polish language newspaper in this country because it criticized 
the Warsaw regime for its poor showing at the New York Fair. To quote just a 
few of these terms : "Vipers," "reptiles," "lizards," "ignominy," "bands," etc. As 
for myself, I share the opinion that the Polish booth at the New York Fair was 
exceptionally poor. This opinion was also expressed by numerous visitors who 
were quite open in their remarks. In this connection I was reminded of simi- 
lar language as that used in the Everybody's Daily editorial. This was during 
the worst period of Communist occupation of Poland. It was then used by Com- 
munist writers and speakers in reference to the "decadent and corrupted West." 

Returning to Mr. Lazewski's statement to the subcommittee I am at a loss to 
understand how a man of such a responsible position in a newspaper could be 
unaware of the fact that Ars Polona and the Foreign Trade Center are parts 
and parcels of the Communist government of Poland. Needless to say, in all 
Communist-ruled countries important branches of economic and social life, and 
especially all propaganda activity, are in the hands of the government. 

In my replies to the questions of the subcommittee I presented a general out- 
line of the Communist book-export system as I knew it. I claimed then, and I 
repeat now that Ars Polona endeavored to smuggle pure propaganda books 
along with classics of Polish literature. I did not identify purchasers in the 
United States of suspicious books. That would have been rather difficult to do 
from memory in the absence of documentary evidence. I did say, however, that 
there were several phases of this activity — even when Ars Polona dealt to a 
great extent in Communist literature. 



4000 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I cannot recall of ever having identified the Everybody's Daily or any other 
distribution point in the United States with the dissemination of Communist 
literature. Replying to questions posed to me at the hearing, I mentioned from 
memory some recipients of Ars Polona goods in the United States. Some mis- 
understanding may have occurred as a result of incorrect press reports of 
my depositions. I do not doubt that among bookdealei s are people who have noth- 
ing to do with communism. However, the fact remains that Communist 
regimes, and the Warsaw one particularly, know how to smuggle their poison. 
The best proof thereof is that only a few days ago two books reached my hands 
in this country. One of them, titled "Through the Centuries," is an assortment of 
stones from Poland's history. It bears the imprint of issue in December 1950, 
after the advent of the new Communist group in Poland. Graphically well 
executed, innocently titled, the book contains stories with a decided slant, a 
peculiar hatred of all in Poland prior to World War II. There is no his- 
torical truthfulness, instead a pile of class warfare motifs : plenty of glorification 
of Bolshevist soldiers mingled with efforts to defame and slander the prewar 
Polish Armed Forces. The book does not lack lengthy accounts of the doings 
of the Communist Party in Poland, and of Lenin as "providential man" who 
struggled for freedom and the independence of the working class throughout 
the world. 

The second book which — like the first one — came to my hands from a regular 
bookshop whose owner, a professional bookdealer, is an honest man from all I 
know, is titled "In Childi-en's Eyes." It was published in Warsaw in 1055, and 
contains an assortment of drawings and paintings by children. A seven-page 
introduction contains the usual Communist slant, an apotheosis of the Com- 
munist system and of Communist soldiers who are portrayed as "the saviors of 
Poland." While the drawings allegedly done by children depict many workers' 
parades and are meant for children, the introduction is meant for the children's 
parents. 

In my depositions during the subcommittee hearing I stated that Ars Polona 
engages in dissemination of books of various types from classics of Polish litera- 
ture to openly Communist pulp, in some cases with ingeniously prepared intro- 
ductions. 

I have nothing to add or to detract from that statement. 

In my depositions before the subcommittee I stated that the terms of the con- 
tract signed by the Everybody's Daily was most advantageous to that publica- 
tion. I sustain that statement now. The Ars Polona usually gave 40 percent 
rebate while it gave 50 percent to Everybody's Daily in spite of the fact that 
the books ordered were considerably marked down in price. I do not know 
the reason for this special bargain. That was a decision of my former superiors. 

Mr. Lazewski further claimed that : "We contacted these two representatives 
and found that we could obtain classics in Polish at quite reasonable prices. 
We discussed an arrangement whereby Ars Polona would send to us within 
approximately the next 7 months, 13 classic titles consisting of 1,000 volumes 
per title or a total of 13,000 volumes. Contrary to Mr. Zielinski's testimony, no 
contract was signed in this regard." 

If, as Mr. Lazewski claims, no agreement whatsoever was signed by Everybody's 
Daily for import of books from Poland — how come that 13,000 volumes were 
to be delivered to that newspaper and 4,000 volumes were received by these 
people? Is not a formal order, giving all details of delivery demanded and pay- 
ment to be made — which was forwarded to Warsaw and which was accepted 
by Ars Polona — tantamount to a signed contract? 

The instruction which I received from my superiors in Warsaw explicitly 
stated that the agreement with Everybody's Daily was to include shipments of 
books from Poland also in 195S. This may have been the result of some business 
discussion of the Ars Polona representatives with that publication during their 
stay in the United States, at any rate this is bow they interpreted their talks 
in Buffalo. 

Before concluding I would like to stress that editorial attacks directed at 
me, especially in regard to alleged acts or words which I did not commit or 
say, and printed in the columns of the Everybody's Daily of Buffalo, N. Y., do 
hurt me. Dealing in half-truths or distortions arising from quotations out 
of context — they tend to arouse this country's public opinion against me. Some 
of these attacks are in the form of threats and even blackmail should I seek 
permanent asylum in the United States. This is a threat not only to me but to 
all others who in the future might follow my example and choose freedom. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4001 

I am not at all surprised that the Communist weekly which is printed in Polish 
in Detroit, Mich., continues to call me a traitor to my homeland. I am not 
excited a bit that my name is constantly mentioned in the consecutive issues 
of that paper. However, I am puzzled and I feel hurt that a personal campaign 
against me, a political refugee from Communist oppression, is being waged by a 
Polish newspaper which professes to have back of it many years of traditional 
struggle with Communist dictatorship. 

The Everybody's Daily accused me time and again of participating in some 
sort of a "conspiration" to break up negotiations for United States economic 
aid to Poland. While it is hard to believe that my depositions during the bear- 
ing of the United States Senate Internal Security Subcommittee could have been 
of such importance as to influence the Government of the United States in its 
decision regarding the said aid to Poland, I have come to the conclusion tbat 
such a campaign as the one waged against me by the Everybody's Daily may 
have been instigated by someone who is specifically and particularly interested 
in preventing in the future such flights to freedom as the one I made this year. 

Having in mind the possibility of just such action against me on the part of 
the Communist regime of Poland. I have especially requested you, sir. to give 
me an opportunity to make a statement relative to the aid-to-Poland program. 
I am sincerely grateful to you for enabling me to present during the hearing of 
the subcommittee, in answer to questions directed to me, my modest remarks 
regarding the morale of the truly anti-Communist Polish people in their home- 
land and their great hopes for United States aid. America was and still is 
the Polish people's last hope in their difficult struggle for a better tomorrow. 

Even if Communists do rule Poland today — against the will of her people — 
outside economic help rendered Poland at this time can be fruitful more than 
at any other time heretofore, because the Communists were forced to relent in 
their terror under the evergrowing pressure of the indomitable will of the people 
of the country. Under these conditions foreign aid is bound to reach the people 
and to lessen, even if only temporarily, the frightful misery brought about on that 
unhappy land by Soviet occupation and by Communist misrule. 

"Subversion" of which I am being accused by the Everybody's Daily surely 
does not stem from me. It does not unless by "subversion" that newspaper 
means telling the truth about that great danger that is communism. Or if it 
means decoding and unmasking of Communist methods. If it be so, I intend 
to remain such kind of a "subversive," and I mean to continue to serve with 
all the means at my disposal in the struggle with that diabolical system. 

Since my possibilities of defense against the aforesaid attacks and that great 
personal press campaign against me are limited, I humbly appeal to the United 
States Senate Internal Security Committee for moral, if no other, protection. 
As the attacks against me are being published in this country and as I have 
no other means of defending myself, I request the committee for permission to 
publish in the press of this country this statement of mine which I humbly 
submit for your information and approval. 
Respectfully, 

Marian Zielinski. 

Mr. Zielinski. About conditions of how Everybody's Daily im- 
ported books from Poland, I forgot to say that Everybody's Daily, 
in addition, had discounts. The 13th, book he had to get free, in the 
amount of a thousand copies. A thousand copies of the 13th title, 
he got free. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, inasmuch as the witness of the day, the 
scheduled witness of the day, is waiting to testify, and inasmuch as 
the testimony of both Mr. Zielinski and Mr. Dende has been simply 
providing them with an opportunity to present their views, they 
have both submitted statements, and both testified to the points at 
issue ; I suggest that we get along with the other witness. 

Senator Hruska. Have you anything further to add, Mr. Dende? 

Mr. Dende. In order to clarify this model of clearance, if I may 
be permitted to ask him, in Polish, questions to really clarify it, be- 
cause I think he is slightly confused. 

Mr. Morris. You have had your opportunity to speak, Mr. Dende. 



4002 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Dende. Just two questions, actually, if it is permissible or 
agreeable to the committee. 

Senator Hrttska. It is not pursuant to the rules of the committee. 
I have never seen it done. I don't know if Judge Morris has seen it 
done. 

Mr. Dende. Just two questions, because this model of clearance is 
not clear. 

Senator Hruska. If it is for the purpose of clearing up what you 
think is a language difficulty, if you will ask your questions in Polish, 
and the interpreter will interpret them for us. 

Mr. Dende. Did you see me at any time to clear material — editorial 
or news material — with Ars Polona officials? 

Mr. Morris. I don't think that is a proper question. The witness 
has testified to exactly what happened. He gave us details. This 
is a question looking to a conclusion. 

Mr. Dende. The question is what he told me in private was what he 
did see when I discussed the advertising matter. That was the only 
thing I discussed. The advertising as published in the Polonia Re- 
porter. That is what I wanted to bring out, and nothing else. 

Senator Hruska. It was my understanding of the witness' testimony 
that you also showed the editorial and other contents of the magazine, 
in addition to the advertising. Was I mistaken in that ? 

Mr. Zielinski. No ; you are correct. 

Mr. Morris. Tell the Senator what you saw him show the director. 

Mr. Zielinski. I saw Mr. Dende showing to the director a few 
copies of the Polonia Reporter, and ask him what he thought of it, and 
the director said it was very good. 

Senator Hruska. When he showed him the magazine, did he show 
him only the advertising, or did he show him the editorials and the 
articles in the magazine, as well ? 

Mr. Zielinski. He gave the director the copy, and the director 
looked over all the copy. 

Mr. Morris. Did he just look at the advertising, or did he look at 
the whole magazine, including the editorials ? 

Mr. Zielinski. He looked over all the copy. 

Senator Hruska. Did he look it over slowly enough that he read 
the contents of the editorials ? 

Mr. Zielinski. Slowly enough to be able to read all the articles. 

Mr. Dende. That is not true, but that is all right. That is my 
statement. He looked over, as I testified, but he didn't have time- 
there were 10 or 15 people at the time 

Mr. Morris. You asked for the right to ask him a couple of ques- 
tions. You have testified, and we have to end it somewhere, Mr. 
Dende. 

Mr. Dende. O. K. Another thing, the so-called clearance. I talked 
to Sosnowski only 

Mr. Morris. Senator, he is not asking a question only. Did he ask 
a question at that time ? 

The Interpreter. He said, "Is it true that I — ?" That is the way 
he asked. He makes a positive statement in a form of question. A 
positive question, with a question mark. 

Mr. Dende. Is it true that I only discussed the matter of Ars 
Polona advertising? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4003 

The Interpreter. Is it true that I showed to Mr. Sosnowski the 
model of advertising, the way of advertising? 

Mr. Zielinski. I don't know whether Mr. Dende talked to Mr. 
Sosnowski about advertising only, or about some other articles, too. 
I don't know. And Mr. Dende asked Mr. Sosnowski to send him some 
material for this publication. 

Mr. Dende. Advertising material. 

Senator Hruska. Let me ask a question 

The Interpreter. He didn't say advertising. 

Senator Hruska. He asked for material in general 1 

Mr. Zielinski. In general. What kind of material was asked for, 
I don't know. I didn't know, and I didn't say. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. Thank you very much for coming 
back and submitting a statement in this testimony. You are now 
excused; unless you have a further question, Mr. Morris? 

Mr. Morris. No further questions, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. You are excused. 

(The following sworn statement of Joseph Bialasiewicz was later 
ordered into the record : ) 

Answers Under Oath of Joseph Bialasiewicz to Written Interrogatories 
Propounded by Robert Morris, Chief Counsel, United States Senate Inter- 
nal Security Subcommittee, on July 31, 1957, Re Testimony of Marian 
Zielinski, a Recent Polish Communist Defector 

State of Illinois, 

County of Cook, ss: 

I, Joseph Bialasiewicz, of 1165 North Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, 111., being 
duly sworn, in answer to the written interrogatories propounded on July 31, 
1957, by Robert. Morris, chief counsel of the United States Senate Internal Secu- 
rity Subcommittee, in reference to certain testimony of one Marian Zielinski, . 
testify and depose as follows : 

Interrogatory 1. Did you, in fact, pnrcbase books from, the Communist Polish 
Government through the Foreign Trade Enterprise? 

Answer. The Polish American Book Co., of which I am a copartner, located 
at 1136 Milwaukee Avenue, Chicago, 111., has purchased several books from Ars 
Polona, Foreign Trade Office in Warsaw, Poland. 

Interrogatory 2. How many books did you purchase? 

Answer. From the time representatives of the agency Ars Polona called at 
my bookstore in the early part of February 1957, to May 16, 1957, the date at 
which one Marian Zielinski concluded his charges at a hearing before the Internal 
Security Subcommittee, the Polish American Book Co., purchased and received 
some 29 books at a cost of $65.05. 

Interrogatory 3. What were their titles? 

Answer. The name of the author, where listed, the original title and, in 
parentheses, the title in English with explanatory note are as follows : 

(1) Voragine, J., "Zlota legend:'." (Golden Legend — legends about Catholic 
saints). 

(2) Brzezicki, "Sila. radosc, piekno" ( Strength, Joy, and Beauty — album of 
photographs about sports). 

(3) "Polish Architekture up to the Mid-19th Century" (Album) . 

(4) "Wawei" (album about the collections at the historical castle of Wawel, 
in Cracow, Poland ) . 

(5) Jez, T., "Pamietniki" (Diary). 

(6) Fiedler, A., "Dywizjon 303" (Division 303 — story of Polish airmen 
fighting in the Battle for Britain). 

(7) Dabrowski, M., "Noce i dnie" (Nights and Days — a novel). 

(8) Dolega-MostowiczT., "Kariera Nikodema Dyzmy" (the career of N. Dyzina). 

(9) Dolega-Mostowicz T., "Pamietnik Pani Hanki" (The Diary of Mrs. 
Henrietta ) . 

(10) Weyssenhoff, J., "Zywot i mysli Podfilipskiego" (The Life and Thoughts of 
Podfilipski ) . 



4004 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(11) Prus, "Lalka" (The Doll— a novel). 

(12) Scott, W., "Waverly." 

(13) Iwaszkiewicz, J., "Opowiadania" (Tales). 

(14) Iwaszkiewicz. J., "Slawa i chwala" (Fame and Glory — fiction). 

(15) Sienkiewicz, H., "Trylogia" (Trilogy— three novels that glorify the strug- 
gle for Polish national existence in the 17th century. The author was the first 
Polish Nobel prize laureate. 

(16) Fiedler, A., "Kanada Pachnaca zywica" (Canada — Fragrant With Pines — 
a travel account). 

(17) Gasierowski, W., "Huragan" (Hurricane — a novel of the Napolenonic 
period). 

(18) Gasierowski, W., "Rok 1809" (Year 1809— another novel of the Napoleonic 
period ) . 

(19) Potocki, "Rekopis" (a manuscript found in Saragossa). 

(20) Uminski, W., "Znojny ckleb" (Hard Bread). 

(21) Fiedler, A., "Wyspa Robinsona" (Robinson's Island— fiction for chil- 
dren ) . 

(22) "Polska rzezba wspolczesna" (Contemporary Polish Sculpture— album of 
photographs). 

(23) "Ogrody polskie" (Polish Gardens — album of photographs and technical 
commentaries). 

(24) Stankiewicz, Zofia, "Teka" (a volume of author's drawings) . 

(25) Kobylanska, "Chopin w. kraju" (Chopin in his native land— an album 
of photographs about Chopin). 

(26) Zeromski, S., "Dzieje grzechu" (Annals of Sin — novel) . 

(27) Zeromski, S., "Popioly" (Ashes— a novel). 

(28) Verne, J., "20,000 mil podmorskiej zeglugi" (20,000 Leagues Under the 
Sea). 

(29) Podgorzelski, "Analyza matematycyna" (Mathematical Analysis). 
(Comment: Packages containing the books on delivery were always marked: 

"Passed Free U. S. Customs Chicago, P. O.") 

Interrogatories 4 and 5. Were there any prefaces in these books? If so, 
could you give us a text of the prefaces? 

Answer. None of the above numbered books or albums contained any preface 
except as to the following: 

(10) Preface has a review of the author's literary works. 

(20) Book has been sold and it not known what, if any, preface it had. 

(26) No preface — but a note from the editors written by Prof. S. Pigon. 

Interrogatory 6. What were the financial arrangements that you made with 
the Polish Communist Government? 

Answer. The agreement between the Polish American Book Co. and "Ars 
Polona" relative to the terms of purchase of books was expressed in a letter 
from me dated February 25, 1957, which (translated here from Polish) reads in 
full as follows : 

"In connection with the visit in Chicago of Miss M. Wscieklina and Z. Jab- 
lonski as representatives of Ars Polona, I wish to inform you that the following 
terms have been established with our bookstore: 

"(1) The bookstore will be making purchases directly through Ars Polona. 

"(2) No amount of expected annual purchase has been agreed on, since that 
will be determined by practical cooperation and the customers' demand here. 

"(3) The bookstore shall be credited with a 40-percent discount on literary 
books and 25 percent on technical books. 

"(4) The bookstore will pay delivery postage. 

"(5) Invoices, sent by airmail, will be remitted within 60 days from date 
thereof by cheeks sent to Warsaw or to an address in the United States designated 
by Ars Polona. 

"(6) Subscriptions to periodicals will be made by the bookstore for not less 
than a year with a 20-pereent rebate. 

"(7) Price of books will be accepted by the bookstore as quoted in the catalogs 
of Ars Polona and expressed in dollars the same as regards periodicals. 

"Kindly confirm approval of these terms." 

I wish to add that in connection with tins transaction, neither my firm nor I 
personally have received any other direct or indirect gift, favor, gratuity, or 
consideration. 

Interrogatory 7. Is there anything else about the existence of such an 
arrangement that you feel the United States Senate Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee should know about? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4005 

Answer. The Polish American Book Co., of Chicago, 111., as a bookstore has 
listed under one form of business organization or another, some 87 years. 
[ acquired the bookstore as a copartner on January 24, 1955. The former 
nvners had been purchasing books through Ars Polona and its preceding agency 
is they had in the past from other agencies in prewar Poland. 

As copartner of the Polish American Book Co. I have had no special arrange- 
ment with Ars Polona other than to submit orders at agreed discount for books 
Df my own selection. These books, as indicated heretofore, could be technical, 
historical, or literary and which could not be easily or at all obtained from any 
publisher outside of Poland ; provided they would not be Communist propaganda. 
' When the agency preceding Ars Polona published a brochure stating on the 
(lap that Subscriptions may be ordered from (inter alia), the Polish American 
Book Co., I mailed them on February 6, 1956, a protest that this was done with- 
out our knowledge or consent and a demand that the name of the Polish Ameri- 
can Book Co. in this connection be stricken from any further publications. 

My letter of explanation in this regard was also sent to all leading Polish 
patriotic publications in France and England. Polish weekly in London, "White 
Eagle," published my announcement on page 4 in the May 5, 1956, issue. 

In a letter of February 6, 1956, to Ars Polona, then known as "Prasa i Ksiazka 
(Press and Book) in connection with certain accounts payable of our predecessor, 
I wrote, in material part, as follows : 

"The question of distribution of books published in Poland is dependent solely 
and exclusively on the character of the books. We are not interested in any 
dissemination of propaganda. 

"Books which are truly valuable and which depict the Polish nation in a 
worthy manner may rind an outlet thru our firm." 

In reply to the above I received their letter dated February 24, 1956, which in 
material part reads as follows : . 

"From your letter we conclude that basically you are not interested in books 
by contemporary Polish writers. We can supply you, however, with belles- 
lettres and others, not containing any, as you say, propaganda. 

"And as regards the question of listing your address in our catalog, we wish 
to inform you that in accordance with your wishes the name of Polish American 
Book Co. henceforth will not be listed in any of our catalogs." _ 

In this regard I hereby categorically deny the charges of Marian Zielmski, 
made on or about May 16, 1957, at a hearing before the Subcommittee To Inves- 
tigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary— Scope of Soviet Activity in 
the United States, volume 112, pages 5445 and 5451— to the effect that "Polish 
American Book, in Chicago" in charge of "Mr. Bialasiewicz" is a "distribution 
point" "of the pro-Communist books" that are sent "to the United States' ; and 
I wish to conclude that — 

There has never been any express or implied understanding or agreement 
either between me personally or as copartner of the Polish American Book Co., 
in Chicago and the Ars Polona or any of its agents or principals to have the 
Polish American Book Co. knowingly sell, distribute, exhibit, or solicit any book, 
pamphlet, album, or article designed to spread Communist propaganda in the 

United States. 

As a journalist dedicated to the presentation of facts, as a former prisoner 
of Nazi concentration camp, as an American citizen of Polish birth, pledged to 
oppose communism and fascism alike, I respectfully request the Honorable James 
O. Eastland, chairman of the United States Senate Internal Security Subcommit- 
tee, to incorporate this deposition in the official records and give it just recog- 
nition. „ 

(Signed) Joseph Bialasiewicz. 

Dated September 3, 1957, at Chicago, 111. 

Joseph Bialasiewicz, being duly sworn, says that he is the person mentioned in 
and who subscribed the foregoing document, and that the matters and facts 
therein stated are true of his own knowledge, except as to matters specifically 
stated therein upon information and belief, and as to those matters he believes 

them to be true. 

Joseph Bialasiewicz. 

Sworn to before me, a notary public, this 3d day of September 1957. 

[seal] Sylvia Lichten, Notary Public. 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Affidavit of Alphonse S. Wolanin 3982 

Albany, N. Y 3969 

American-Polish (see Polish-American). 

Ankara 3972 

Ars Polona (see also Foreign Trade Enterprise) 3982, 

3989, 3990, 3993, 3995, 3996, 3998, 3999-4001, 4003-4005 
Authors and books, list of books purchased by Polish American Book 

Co 4003, 4004 

Article from New York Times dated May 2, 1957, entitled "U. S.-Polish 

Talks Near Agreement on $95 Mililon Aid, etc." 3976 

Article from Washington Post dated May 16, 1957, entitled "Get Tough 

Policy Set in Poland" 3976 

Austria 3983 

B 

Baltimore 3972 

Bankruptcy Act 3980 

Bates, George F 3984, 3985 

BBC radio station 3965, 3972 

Bialasiewicz, Joseph : 

Copartner in Polish American Book Co 3969, 4003, 4005 

Sworn statement re Zielinski testimony 4003 

Biegala, Mr., immediate chief to Zielinski 3966, 3995 

Biegala, Czeslaw, Polish defector 3975 

Bierut, Communist President 3964 

Brazil 3970 

Brzezicki 4003 

Buffalo 3966, 3967, 3969, 3981, 3982 

Buffalo and Erie County Public Library 3981, 3982, 3983 

Butler, Senator John M 3961 

O 

Canada 3963 

Catholics 3965, 3982 

Cata za Wsia (book) 3983 

Chicago 3969, 4004, 4005 

Cleveland 3969 

Communist/s 3962-3967, 3970, 3972-3975, 

3980, 3981, 3984, 3988, 3991, 3993, 3994-3999, 4001, 4005 

Communist Party 3966, 3972, 3998 

Polish 3975 

French 3996 

Coul, Mrs., in charge of Imported Publications & Products in New York_ 3969 

D 

Dabrowski, M 4003 

Dende, Henry J 3990, 3993 

I 



II INDEX 

Page 

Dende, Leopold 3996, 3997, 4003 

Editor in chief of Polonia Reporter 3967 

Testimony of 3987-3994 

Hazlet, N. J 3987 

Statement of 3993 

Detroit 3969 

Dewajtis (book) 3983 

Distribution points in United States for Communist books 3967 

Dolega-Mostowicz, T 4003 

Dziurdziowi-Cbam (book) 3983 

E 

Eastland, Senator James O 4005 

Edwards, Thornton G., counsel for Alois Lazewski 3979 

Everybody's Daily, Polish newspaper published in Buffalo 3966, 

3969, 3981-3985, 3994, 3996^001 

Everybody's Publishing Co 3980 

Exhibit No. 465 — Statement of Alois Lazewski 3981-3985 

Exhibit No. 466 — Statement by Zielinski dated July 7, 1957 3997-4001 

F 

Fast, Howard 3964, 3972 

Fiedler, A 4003, 4004 

Fifth amendment 3991 

Foreign Trade Center 3999 

Foreign Trade Enterprise 3962,3963,3966,3971,3972 

3981, 3982, 3993, 3995, 4003 

Four Continent Book Corp. in New York 3970 

France 3968 

Free Europe Press 3985 

G 

Gasierowski, W 4004 

Germany 3983 

Gomulka 3973-3976, 39S2, 3999 

Government : 

Polish Communist 3971, 3987, 3989, 3995, 4003 

United States 3999 

Gayf Publications, Albany, N. Y 3969 

H 

Henry Hudson Hotel 3962 

Hodgson, Russ, Andrews, Woods & Goodyear, Buffalo, N. Y 3980 

House Un-American Activities Committee 3991 

Hruska, Senator Roman L 3961,3979 

Hungarian revolt 3965, 3972, 3973 

Hungary 3964, 3965, 3972, 3982 



Imported Publications & Products in New York 3969 

In Children's Eyes (book) 4000 

Indochina 3985 

Internationa], text of 3964 

International News Service 3994 

Iwaszkiewicz, J 4004 



Jablonski, Zdzislow, representative of Ars Polonia 3966, 3982, 4004 

Jez, T 4003 

Justice Department 3994 



index m 



Page 

Kobylanska 4004 

Korea 3985 

Koscinsky, Polish attache in Washington 3962, 3967, 3970 

Kozera, Mr 3995 

Kraszewski, Jozef 3983 

Kuhn, Delia & Ferdinand 3976 

Kuzminski, Mr 3988, 3989 

L 

La Fontaine, Mrs 3969 

Latin America 3963, 3966, 3968, 3970 

Lazewski, Alois 3994, 3996-4000 

Testimony of 3979-3985 

Managing editor of Everybody's Daily 3979 

Buffalo, N. Y 3979 

Thornton G. Edwards, counsel 3979 

Lenin 3963, 3969, 4000 

Lichten, Sylvia, notary public 4005 

London 4005 

M 
Madrid 3972 

Malinin, Soviet delegate 3968 

Mandel, Ben 3961, 3979 

Marx 3963 

Marxist-Leninist 3976 

Milwaukee 3969 

Ministry of Foreign Trade (Warsaw) 3966, 3969, 3998 

Morris, Robert 3961, 3979 

Moscow 3985 

N 

Nagorski, Zygmunt, interpreter for Marian Zielinski 3961 

New York 3962, 3969, 3973, 3982, 3987, 3988 

New York Times 3976 

O 

One Hundred Years Ago (book) 3995, 3996 

Opalinski, Mr., with Gayf Publications 3969 

Orzeszkowa, Eliza 3983 

Our Fatherland (Polish periodical) 3986 



Pargiello, Mr., president of Polonia International in New York 3967, 3992 

Peiping F 3985 

Pigon, Prof. S 4004 

Placowka (book) 3983 

Podgorzelski 4004 

Poland 3964, 3965, 3967, 3968, 

3970, 3972-3976, 3981, 3982, 3984, 3985, 3988-3993, 3995-4001, 4005 

Poland (periodical) 3970 

Poles 3962, 3963, 3965, 3966, 3970, 3977, 3999 

Polish-American 3963, 3964, 3968, 3970, 3981, 3988, 3989, 3990, 3993, 3994, 3998 

Polish American Book Co. in Chicago 3969,4003,4005 

Polish American Congress 3984, 3985 

Polish Book in France (institution) 3969 

Polish Book Importing Co. in New York 3969 

Polish Embassy in Brazil 3970 

Polish Embassy in Washington 3970,3971,3998 

Polish loan negotiations 3976 

Polish Publications in Milwaukee 3969 

Polonia International in New York 3967, 3968, 3987, 3992, 3993 

Polonia Reporter, published in New York 3967,3987-3994,3996,4001 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Potocki 4004 

Poznan 3974,3982 

Poznan Fair 3989 

Prus, Boleslaw 3983, 4004 

Q 
Quo Vadis (book) 3982 

R 

Radio Free Europe 3965,3972,3975,3999 

Rodziewiczowna, Maria 3983 

Roman Catholic Church 3976 

Rusher, William 3961, 3979 

Russia 3983, 3985, 3990, 3993 

Russian/s 3965, 3973, 3981, 3999 

Schoenborn, Slawomia, head of Foreign Trade Enterprise— 3966, 3988, 3995, 3997 

Schroeder, Mr 3991 

Scott, W 4004 

Scranton Tribune 3990, 3992, 3993 

Seven Days, Polish periodical 3967 

Sienkiewicz, Henry, Polish Nobel prize laureate 3982, 4004 

Sosnowski, Mr 3997, 4002, 4003 

Sosposki 3990 

Soviet Union 3968, 3970, 3973 

Stalin 3963 

Stankiewicz, Zofia 4004 

Starosolski, George, interpreter for Marian Zielinski 3994 

Stechert-Hafner in New York City 3969 

T 
Through the Centuries (book) 4000 

U 

Uminski, W 4004 

United Front of Working Class for a People's Front 3996 

United Press 3985 

United States 3961-3964, 3966- 

3968, 3970, 3971, 3976, 3982, 3984, 3989, 3993, 3995, 3998, 4000, 4001 

United States Customs 4004 

University of Buffalo 3983 

V 

Verne, J 4004 

Voice of America 3965,3972,3999 

Volksdeutsch, Poles who declared themselves for collaboration with 

Germans against Poles 3966 

Voragine, J 4003 

W 

Warsaw 3963, 

3967, 3968, 3972, 3976, 3982, 3987, 3988, 3991, 3993, 3998-4000 

Washington Post 3976 

Wawel 4003 

Weyssenhoff, J 4003 

White Eagle, Polish weekly in London 4005 

Wolaniu, Alphonse S., representative of staff, Buffalo and Erie County 

Public Library 39S2, 3983, 3984, 3985 

World Trade Fair in New York 3962, 

3967, 3982, 3988, 3989, 3993, 3997, 3998, 3999 

World War II 4000 

Wscieklica, Miss Maria, representative of Ars Polonia 3966, 3982, 4004 

Wyszynski, Cardinal 3990, 3993 



INDEX V 

Y 

Page 

Testerday, Todav, and Tomorrow of the Polish Farruside 3998 

teromski, S I 4004 

Ilielinski, Marian 3979, 3982, 3984, 3985, 3989, 3991, 3992, 3993 

Testimony of 3961-3977 

Arrived in United States April 10, 1957 3962 

Representative of Foreign Trade Enterprise to World Trade Fair in 

New York 3962 

Attached to bookstand at New York World Trade Fair of Polish 

Cabinet 3962 

Headquarters in Warsaw 3963 

Testimony resumed 3994-4005 

Statement of 3997-4001 

O 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MAY 21, 1957 



PART 63 
American Forum— for Socialist Education 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1957 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

NOV 18 1957 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON. South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MA HONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. Sodrwine, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, MAY 21, 1957 

United States Senate, 
sljbcomittee to investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
and Other Internal Security Laws 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 : 30 a. m., in room 
424, Senate Office Building, Senator John Marshall Butler presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William Rusher, asso- 
ciate counsel and Benjamin Mandel, research director. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will come to order. 

In his analysis of the Communist Party Convention early this year, 
J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
pointed out that the strategy and tactics of that convention were 
calculated — 

To lay a foundation for possible unity with other leftwing groups * * * 
with Socialists, members of the non-Communist left, liberals, and so forth, in 
an effort to secure their support for Communist projects. 

Now, 3 months after that convention, there has been a development 
which may or may not be a concretization of that estimate by Mr. 
Hoover. On May 13, 1957, the Daily Worker proclaimed the forma- 
tion of the 40-member national committee of the American Forum 
for Socialist Education." 

This morning we shall hold a hearing to take testimony and to 
receive evidence from staff members of the Internal Security Sub- 
committee about the nature of this organiaztion. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, we had subpenaed for this morning 
five witnesses. One was Mr. Clifford T. McAvoy; 1 was Victor 
Perlo; 1 was Bert Cochran; 1 was Milton Zaslow, and 1 was Albert 
E. Blumberg. The lawyers for the respective witnesses who have 
been subpenaed advised us that their clients were not at their homes 
last week, and as a result, subpenas which we issued on the 14th in 
many cases were not served until last night. They say they couldn't 
possibly be down here this morning. So the only 1 of the 5 wit- 
nesses scheduled today present is Mr. Blumberg. 

As you have set forth the framework of the thing, Senator, I think 
Mr. Mandel is prepared now to read from the draft of the Com- 
munist Party Convention in New York in February. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Mandel has previously been sworn, and may 
proceed. 

Mr. Mandel. This is a draft resolution for the 16th National Con- 
vention of the Communist Party, United States of America, adopted 
September 13, 1956. 

4007 






4008 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

This pamphlet contains the authorized text of the draft resolution adopted 
by the national committee of the Communist Party on September 13, 1956, and 
presented for discussion by the membership approaching the party's 16th national 
convention, February 9-12, 1957. 

In releasing the draft resolution, Mr. Eugene Dennis, general secretary of the 
Communist Party, made public a "Letter to all Communist Party members," 
which is also included in this pamphlet. 

I read from the pamphlet certain excerpts : 

The struggle to bring about a political realinement, based on the formation 
and election to power of an antimonopoly coalition led by labor, is the great 
strategic task of the next stage in the democratic and social advance of the Ameri- 
can people. It is the giant corporations which block the path to economic 
progress, civil rights, fuller democracy, and durable peace. It is their chal- 
lenge that must be met by the American people as they carry forward their 
struggle under the new conditions of today. 

. * * * The emergence of socialism from the limits of one country to a world 
system embracing several states and one-third of mankind was described by 
the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as "the chief 
feature of the present era." 

These conditions make possible a great new trend toward unity among 
Socialist-minded people which has already begun to be felt not only abroad but 
in our own country. The new features of independence and mutual criticism 
in the relationships among Communist Parties also tend to remove barriers 
between Communists and other supporters of socialism. 

For some months our party has had under consideration the question pre- 
sented in Eugene Dennis' report to the national committee meeting last April, 
of our attitude toward the perspective of a united party of socialism in this 
country. 

The new developments point to a certain revitalization and growth of Socialist- 
oriented and pro-Marxist currents and groupings * * *. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, we have been taking executive session 
testimony. We have also been making inquiries from general sources, 
and we have further heard, Senator, that early in 1956, at a top meet- 
ing of the Communist Party, a decision was made that there should be 
some kind of a union of Communists, some Trotskyites, and some like- 
minded groups. At that time, there was a four-step program laid 
down which provided : 

One, that there should be contact with individuals whose thinking 
was toward the left. 

Two, to arrange for public meetings and forums to discuss the 
situation. 

Three, a circulation of memorandums by the party to explain what 
was being attempted. 

Four, a campaign to get Communist Party members to realize the 
necessity for a new organization. 

We have further been told, Senator, that the first concrete step 
took place when Albert Blumberg contacted Mr. A. J. Muste. 

Now, Senator, Mr. Blumberg has been subpenaed here today for the 
limited purpose of giving testimony about the formation of this or- 
ganization, the American Forum for Socialist Education. 

Senator Butler. Will you be sworn, Mr. Blumberg? 

Do you solemnly promise and declare in the presence of the Al- 
mighty God that the evidence that you will give to the Internal 
Security Subcommittee w T ill be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4009 

TESTIMONY OF ALBERT E. BLUMBERG, NEW YORK CITY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the re- 
porter ? 

Mr. Blumberg. My name is Albert Blumberg. The address is 628 
West 151st Street, New York City. 

Mr. Morris. I am only going to ask Mr. Blumberg questions about 
the formation of this particular organization. 

Mr. Blumberg, do you know of a top Communist meeting early in 
1956, at which it was decided that there should be an organization 
setting up the union of Communists, some Trotskyites, and some other 
likeminded groups? 

Mr. Blumberg. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer this question on 
the following grounds : 

First, that, in view of the subject and in the context of these pro- 
cedures, I believe that both the question and any answer that I might 
make to it could not conceivably serve any valid legislative purpose. 

Further, I believe the question invades my rights of political opin- 
ion, of political discussion, of political association, as guaranteed 
under the first amendment. 

Further, I believe that the question — I rest my refusal to answer the 
question further upon the rights contained and set forth in the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Blumberg, this committee has consistently 
refused to recognize the right of a witness appearing before it to 
plead privileges under the first amendment. It has consistently re- 
fused to accept the thesis propounded by you, that the hearings of 
this subcommittee serve no useful legislative purpose. Therefore, 
the Chair overrules those two objections. 

Now, if it is your wish to rest your answer on the fifth amendment 
of the Constitution of the United States in the belief that a truthful 
answer by you would tend to incriminate you, the Chair will accept 
that declination. Otherwise, the Chair overrules your objection, and 
directs you to answer the question propounded by counsel. 

Mr. Blumberg. I believe that, under the circumstances, such an- 
swers might tend to incriminate me. 

Senator Butler. And you rest your declination and your refusal 
to answer on the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United 
States? 

Mr. Blumberg. I rest on all three grounds, including the fifth 
amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Blumberg, you are a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the American Forum for Socialist Education ; are you not ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I decline to answer on grounds already given. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, we have a public announcement, have we 
not, of the formation of this organization ? 

Mr. Mandel. Yes ; we have. 

Mr. Morris. Does that public announcement indicate that Mr. 
Blumberg, the witness here this morning, is in fact a member of the 
executive committee of this new organization? 

Mr. Mandel. In the press release, dated May 13, 1957, issued by the 
American Forum for Socialist Education, it states that Albert Blum- 
berg, of New York City, is a member of the national committee. 



4010 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Butler. Are you the Albert Blumberg referred to in that 

release read by Mr. Mandel and made a part of the record ? 

Mr. Morris. May I oifer that as part of the record ? 

Senator Butler. It will be made a part of the record. 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

(The press release referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 467" and 

reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 467 

[For release Monday, May 13, 1957] 

American Forum — for Socialist Education 
new york, n. y. 

(Contact: A. J. Muste, CH 3-5411 or UN 4-1700, ext. 1002) 

New York. — Announcement was made today of the establishment of a 40- 
member national committee of American Forum — for Socialist Education. The 
statement of purposes declares tbat American Forum seeks to promote "study 
and serious untrammeled political discussion among all elements that think of 
themselves as related to historic socialist and labor traditions, values and ob- 
jectives * * * however deep and bitter their differences may have been." 

In announcing the launching of the project, A. J. Muste, well-known pacifist, 
who will serve as chairman, emphasized that persons serving on the national 
committee do so as individuals and not as delegated representatives of any 
group. American Forum proceeds on the conviction, said Mr. Muste, that "in- 
dividuals from all tendencies should be involved in the discussion, provided they 
commit themselves to a free exchange of views in a spirit of inquiry." 

He further stated that American Forum is not a membership organization 
and does not propose to promote united action by various parties or groups, 
mergers or new organizations. It "neither promotes nor seeks to inhibit such 
developments" in which people may wish to engage. 

The secretary of American Forum is Sidney Lens, author and director of 
local 329, A. F. of L., Chicago, 111. Vice presidents are Kermit Eby, professor 
of economics, University of Chicago ; Milton Mayer, author and lecturer, Carmel, 
Calif.; John T. McManus, managing editor, National Guardian, New York; 
Bayard Rustin, one of the editors of Liberation magazine ; and Mulford Sibley, 
of the political science faculty, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 

The statement of the purpose reads as follows : 

"A. J. Muste — Liberation, 
"110 Christopher Street, New York City. 

"AMERICAN FORUM FOR SOCIALIST EDUCATION 

"American Forum is organized in order to stimulate study and serious, un- 
trammeled discussion of the problems of socialism in the United States. 

"There is a growing interest in such discussion among all elements that think 
of themselves as related to historic Socialist and labor traditions, values and 
objectives — however deep and bitter their differences may have been. Moreover, 
there are indications that in the ranks of labor, among farmers, in the colleges 
and among the American people generally there are many who do not accept 
the status quo and who are developing an interest in political discussions pro- 
vided a fresh and undogmatic approach is undertaken. 

"Those who organize American Forum do so not on the ground that the prob- 
lems of building a sound and effective American left have been solved and agree- 
ment for action has been reached. Their simple aim is to promote study and 
especially continuous discussion in a situation where many of the answers are 
not known and much division, confusion, and consequent frustration exist. They 
believe that all individuals from all elements should be involved in this, provided 
they commit themselves to a free exchange of views in a spirit of inquiry. 

"American Forum holds that eventual Socialist unity requires clarity on funda- 
mental social issues, along with tolerance of differences on other matters and 
comradely discussion of them within a common forum. It believes, therefore, 
that all important problems must be frankly and sharply discussed but equally 
that the discussion should be oriented to the future and not the past and con- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4011 

centrate on discussion of the program of a democratic Socialist movement in the 
United States and how such a movement may be brought into being. 

"Since it is of the greatest importance that large numbers of people, includ- 
ing youth, be drawn into discussion locally, from labor unions, farm organizations, 
colleges, churches, etc., American Forum will have as one of its aims the forma- 
tion, encouragement, and assistance of local groups or committees for this pur- 
pose. This may include assistance to local groups in setting up forums, etc., 
and going beyond mere occasional discussion meetings. 

"Other purposes will be : 

"(1) To call attention to the various periodicals and publications of groups 
whose members are involved in the discussions and encourage people to read 
them ; and to publish bulletins or pamphlets under its own imprint an occasion 
requires. 

"(2) to organize regional and national conferences, and by these and other 
means to contribute not only to intellectual clarification but to the building of 
a new morale and ethic, a spirit of fair play, labor militancy, determination, and 
hope among the progressive and radical forces in this country." 

Officebs and National Committee of Ameeican Fobtjm as of May 9, 1957 

Chairman : A. J. Muste, New York City. 

Vice chairmen : Kermit Eby, Chicago ; Milton Mayer, Carmel, Calif. ; John T. 
McManus, New York City ; Bayard Rustin, New York City ; Mulford Q. Sibley, 
St. Paul. 
Secretary : Sidney Lens, Chicago. 
National committee : 

James Aronson, New York City. 

Joseph Atkins, Baltimore. 

Michael Baker, Minneapolis. 

Paul Baran, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Stringfellow Barr, New York City. 

Albert Blumberg, New York City. 

Carl Braden, Louisville. 

Derk Bodde, Philadelphia. 

Harald Charbnau, Chicago. 

Bert Cochran, New York City. 

Jack Cypin, Nassau County, N. Y. 

Dorothy Day, New York City. 

Dave Dellinger, Glen Gardner, N. J. 

Farrell Dobbs, New York City. 

W. E. B. DuBois, New York City. 

J. Stuart Innerst, Pasadena. 

Russell Johnson, Boston. 

Oliver Loud, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

Conrad Lynn, Rockland County, N. Y. 

C. H. Mayer, Andes, N. Y. 

Clifford McAvoy, New York City. 

Benjamin McLaurin, New York City. 

David McReynolds, New York City. 

William Neumann, Baltimore. 

Russell Nixon, New York City. 

Harvey O'Connor, Winnetka, 111. 

Sam Pollock, Cleveland. 

Joseph Starobin, New York City. 

Fritjof Thygeson, Berkeley, Calif. 

Charles Walker, Cheyney, Pa. 

Doxie Wilkerson, New York City. 

William Appleman Williams, Eugene, Oreg. 

H. H. Wilson, Princeton, N. J. 

Milton Zaslow, New York City. 

Waldo Frank, Truro, Mass. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, on behalf of the National Committee of the 
American Forum for Socialist Education contact a Mr. A. J. Muste ? 
Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 



4012 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Did you ask Mr. Muste to provide a memorandum 
which would set up a framework for an exchange of opinion on this 
subject ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did Mr. Muste, in fact, supply you with such a docu- 
ment? 

Mr. Blumberg. May I consult counsel ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Was the suggestion made to Muste that the document 
he prepared was too anti-Soviet in tone, and was he thereupon asked 
to tone it down? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did he finally supply a paper entitled, "Where Are 
We Now?" 

Mr. Blumberg. I again refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Thereupon, was the decision made by the Communist 
Party that step 3 in the original plan set forth above — in other words, 
there should be a circulation of memoranda as to what was being 
attempted by the party. Was step 3 immediately put into action and 
specifically on September 17, 1956, was there, to your knowledge, sent 
to all districts of the party, a memorandum? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Was there subsequent to September 17, 1956, and in 
accordance with prearranged plans, put into operation a series of 
meetings in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, 
New York, and Philadelphia? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Were you present on March 23, 1957, at a meeting at 
which were in attendance Mr. Albert E. Blumberg, John Gates, Mil- 
ton Zaslow, Clifford McAvoy, John McManus, Farrell Dobbs, and 
Tom Kerry ? Were you at such a meeting ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. At that meeting, was a goal set forth that a program 
should be enacted that was to be practicable, workable, and acceptable 
to all concerned? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Shortly thereafter, and to your knowledge, was there 
a Committee for Socialist Unity, headed by Mr. Clifford" T. McAvoy, 
established ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Morris. Did not the National Guardian of April 22, 1957, an- 
nounce that a May Day rally, sponsored by the Committee for Social- 
ist Unity, would take place? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Morris. Now, to your knowledge, did Carl Marzani, who has 
been identified in our record as a Communist Party member, speak 
at the Socialist Unity forum on November 9, 1956 ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, did Angus Cameron, who has 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4013 

been identified in our record as a Communist Party member, speak 
at the Socialist Unity Forum on January 2, 1957? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, did Russell Nixon, who has been 
identified in our record as a Communist Party member, speak at 
the Socialist Unity Forum on February 15, 1957 \ 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did Victor Perlo, who has been identified in our 
record as a Communist Party member, speak at the Socialist Unity 
Forum on March 15, 1957? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, did Fred Fine, a member of the 
national committee of the Communist Party, speak on a symposium 
on American democracy in Chicago ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Did Clarence F. Hiskey, who has been identified in 
our record as a Communist Party member, speak at the American 
Socialist Forum on October 14, 1956? 

Mr. Blumberg. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, we have some pamphlets and throwaways 
to the effect of establishing the answers to some of those questions; 
do we not ? 

Mr. Mandel. We do. 

Mr. Morris. Some we have in answer to executive session testi- 
mony ; do we not? 

Mr. Mandel. Those we have evidence of. 

Senator Butler. Is it your wish that they bt made a part of the 
record ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, I would like to put them in. 

Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. They will be made a part 
of the record. 

Mr. Morris. How many are there, Mr. Mandel ? 

Mr. Mandel. Seven exhibits. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, will you want an identification by Mr. 
Mandel ? 

Senator Butler. Will you put them in the record, identifying them 
as you put each one in the record \ 

Mr. Mandel. Announcement of the Socialist Unity Forum, Octo- 
ber 26, 1956, with Albert Blumberg, legislative director of the Com- 
munist Party, as a speaker, and Clifford McAvoy on the program. 
The title is "Left Wing Policy in the 1956 Election." Carl Marzani 
is listed as a speaker on November 9, 1956. Victor Perlo is listed on 
March 15, 1957, as a speaker. 

Fred Fine is listed in the Daily Worker of March 28, 1957, as a 
speaker. Clarence Hiskey is listed in the circular dated October 14, 
1956, as a speaker at the American Socialist Forum. 

Then we have a forum announcement in the Worker of An oust 
26, 1956, the Daily Worker, October 5, 1956, and October 19, 1956. 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibit No. 468 and 
are as follows:) 



93215— 57— pt. 63 2 



4014 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 468 

(Cover and back cover) 

SOCIALIST UNITY FORUM 

announces 

Pkogram of Public Discussion 

(Winter 1957) 

229 Seventh Avenue (near 23d Street) New York City 

[See schedule on inside] 

The Socialist Unity Forum is sponsored by a group of New Yorkers who are 
working for the establishment of a socialist America, who favor peaceful co- 
existence between East and West and who desire to aid in the formation of a 
democratically organized socialist movement which will facilitate these aims. 

The forum will provide a platform where Socialists of various persuasions 
may discuss important problems facing the contemporary movement. Such an 
exchange of opinions, by creating greater clarity and hence greater unity (if 
purpose, should contribute toward the regroupment of Socialists in a new and 
united movement. 

We hope especially to draw together into meaningful activity some of the 
thousands of convinced Socialists who for one reason or another are not members 
of any of the existing Socialist organizations. 

For further information write to : Socialist Unity Forum, 229 Seventh Avenue, 
New York 11, N. Y. 

(page 1) 

Can the Left Unite? 
A Symposium on Socialist Regroupment 



A. J. Muste 

(Fellowship of Reconciliation) 

John T. McManus 

(National Guardian) 

Farrell Dobbs 

(Socialist Workers Party) 

Max Shachtman 

(Independent Socialist League) 

Chairman: Clifford T. McAvoy 

(Former Legislative Representative CIO-PAC) 



Friday, January 18, 8 p. m. 

Great Northern Hotel 

118 West 57th Street 

(page 2) 

At Socialist Unity Forum Hall 

229 Seventh Avenue, New York City (near 23d Street) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4015 

Friday, January 25, 8 p. m. 

America's Road to Socialism — A Reexamination 

Joseph Starobin, Author: Paris to Pekin 
Angus Cameron, Editor and Publisher 

Friday, February 8, 8 p. m. 

Labor and the South 

The Battle for Integration 

Olive Knowles, Educational Director, Eastern Region, United Packinghouse 

Workers 
Conrad Lynn, Civil Rights Attorney, Counsel in Braden Case 

Friday, February 15, 8 p. m. 

American Labor Politics 

Democratic Party or Third Party? 

Russ Nixon, National Legislative Representative, U. E. 

Robert Claiborne, Writer 

Tom Kerry, Chairman, New York Local S WP 

(Page 3) 
Friday, March 8, 8 p. m. 

The Eisenhower Doctrine — For and Against 

Robert Meagher, United States State Department Lecturer, member, For- 
eign Policy Association 
A. J. Muste, Fellowship of Reconciliation 

Friday, March 15, 8 p. m. 

United States Economic Trends — And Marxist Thought 

Otto Nathan, Assistant Professor, New York University, Executor, Albert 
Einstein Estate 

Victor Perlo, Author "American Imperialism'' and other works on eco- 
nomics 

Friday, March 29, 8 p. m. 

Science, Socialism, and America 

Automation, Synthetic Foods, Solar and Atomic Energy and Their 
Effect on Capitalism and Socialism 

Michael H. Baker, Chemical Engineer, Former Executive Vice Chairman, 
Minnesota Progressive Party 

(Page 4) 
( Second session, 1957, at Adelphi Hall, 78 Fifth Avenue) 
Friday, October 26, 8 p. m. 

Leftwing Policy in the 1956 Election 

Clifford T. McAvoy, Former Legislative Representative, New York City, CIO 

Council and National CIO-PAC 
Albert Blumberg, Legislative Director, Communist Party 
David Dellinger, Editor, Liberation 

Friday, November 9, 8 p. m. 

Prospects for American Socialism 

Dr. W. E. B. DuBois, Noted Historian and Negro Leader 
John Lewine, Former Director, Eugene V. Debs School 
Carl Marzani, Author of We Can Be Friends 



4016 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATE8 
Friday, November 23, 8 p. m. 

SOCTAT.TSM AFTEE STALIN 

William Mandel, Author: Guide to the Soviet Union, The Soviet Far 

East, etc. 
F. G. Clarke, Journalist and Lecturer 

Chairman : Mike Zaslow 

Subscription : One dollar each lecture ; two dollars fifty cents the series 



Exhibit No. 468-A 

[Daily Worker, New York, Thursday, March 28, 1957] 

Chi University Resists Legion Attack on Forum 

Chicago, March 27. — The University of Chicago today rejected demands of 
the Cook County American Legion Council that a scheduled symposium tonight 
on "Socialism and Democracy" be canceled, Fred Fine, newly elected member 
of the National Committee of the Communist Party, is to speak, together with 
Mulford Sibley, professor of political science at the University of Minnesota and 
Max Sehachtman, national chairman of the Independent Socialist League. Law- 
rence Scott, of the Chicago American Friends Service Committee is announced 
as the chairman of the symposium. 

The symposium, which is sponsored by the Socialist Club and the Young 
Socialist League of the University of Chicago has been under fire from the 
American Legion and the Chicago Tribune. 

Chancellor Lawrence A. Kimpton of the university told the American Legion 
that it is neither "desirable nor wise" to cancel the meeting. The Legion called 
the meeting "disgraceful." 

Kimpton stated that the dean of the students office had OK'd the meeting 
and that he had no intention of overruling the dean's office. 

Kimpton stated that "I am not welcoming Communists under any circum- 
stances," but he added that he had confidence that the student body "will be 
able to judge at their real worth the assertions the Communist representative 
makes." 



Exhibit No. 468-B 

american socialist forum 

Recent Developments in Atomic Energy 

Lecture by 

Dr. C. F. Hiskey 

Dr. Hiskey will speak on the social, political, and biological consequences 
of atomic energy. He is particularly qualified by his experiences as a former 
research chemist for TVA, section manager in the Manhattan project arid, in the 
postwar period, as associate professor and head of the department of analytical 
chemistry at Brooklyn Polytechnical Institute. 

Friday, October 14 
S63 Broadway 8 p. m. 

(near 17th Street) 

contribution, 50 cents 
Auspices : American Socialist 



Exhibit No. 468-C 

[P. 4, the Worker, Sunday. August 26, 1956] 

Road Ahead for American Left Topic of Forum 

Chicago.— Arrangements have been completed here for a symposium represent- 
ing five varying points of view on the road ahead for socialism in America: 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 4017 

Harvey O'Connor, author ; Rev. A. J. Muste, president emeritus of the Fellow- 
ship of Reconoeiliation ; Sidney Lens, author, and Chicago labor official ; Claude 
Lightfoot, chairman of the Illinois District Communist Party ; and Bert Cochran, 
editor of the American Socialist will speak on the topic, What Next for the 
American Left? 

The symposium will be held on Friday, October 5, at Chicago's Temple Hall, 
332 South Marshfield Avenue. 

The open forum is the first of its kind agreed to by diverse left groupings in 
many years. Individual members of the Fellowship of Reconciliaton, the Social- 
ist Party, the Communist Party, supporters of the American Socialist, the 
National Guardian, the Monthly Review, and unaffiliated socialist-minded people 
have cooperated to make this gathering possible. 

While the meeting is not arranged in the form of a debate, speakers will be 
given time to ask each other questions. 

While it is expected that attention will be directed toward the past and present 
programs of varying socialist groups, a great deal of debate will be centered on 
the basis for socialism and the immediate future for progressive currents in 
America. 



Exhibit No. 46&-D 

[Daily Worker, New York, Friday, October 5, 1956, p. 5] 

Nonpartisan Symposium Set for Tonight in Chicago 

Chicago, October 4. — A nonpartisan political meeting "in the interest of free 
discussion" will be held tonight (Friday) at 8:30, at Temple Hall, 332 South 
Marshfield. 

The Chicago symposium titled, ""What Next for the American Left," will include 
the Reverend A. J. Muste, secretary emeritus, Fellowship of Reconciliation : 
Sidney Lens, author and union official ; Harvey O'Connor, author of Empire of 
Oil, Mellon's Millions, and other books ; Bert Cochran, editor, American Socialist, 
and Claude Lightfoot, State chairman, Communist Party of Illinois. 

Robert Pickus, a member of the social science department, University of Chi- 
cago, and former secretary of the peace section, American Friends Service 
Committee, will be the moderator. 

Sponsors of the symposium include : The Reverend Muste, emeritus ; the Rev. 
Alva Tompkins, director, Olivet Center ; the Rev. William J. Faulkner, minister, 
Park Manor Congressional Church ; the Rev. Robert Worth Frank, former presi- 
dent, McCormick Theological Seminary ; Prof. Kermit Eby, social science depart- 
ments, University of Chicago ; Lawrence Scott, Peace section, American Friends 
Service Committee, and Hal Charbnau, national executive committee member, 
Socialist Party. 



Exhibit No. 468-E 

[Daily Worker, New York, Friday, October 19, 1956, p. 3] 

Forum October 26 on Elections 

A symposium of Left Wing Policy in the 1956 Elections will be held under the 
auspices of the Socialist Unity Form (sic) October 26. 

Participants in the forum, which will be held at 229 Seventh Avenue, will 
include Clifford T. McAvoy, former legislative representative of the New York 
City CIO Council and the national CIO-PAC ; Albert Blumberg, legislative 
director. Communist Party ; and David Dellinger, editor of Liberation. Mike 
Zaslow will chair the discussion. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Blumberg, have you been attending meetings of 
the American Forum for Socialist Education ? 

Mr. Blumberg. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. I suppose you will not tell us who the members of that 
organization are? 

Mr. Blumberg. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Butler, we have furthermore addressed a let- 
ter to Dr. A. J. Muste, dated May 17, 1957, in which we ask him to 



4018 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

answer many of the questions we have asked Mr. Blumberg here 
today. 

Senator Butler. Is it the desire of counsel that that be made a part 
of the record ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, and Mr. Muste's answer when we receive it. 
Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. 

(Copy of letter referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 469" and 
reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 469 

Mat 17, 1957. 
Dr. A. J. Muste, 

Fellowship of Reconciliation, Neio York, N. Y. 

Dear Dr. Muste : The Internal Security Subcommittee has scheduled a hear- 
ing next Tuesday on the nature of the American Forum for Socialist Education. 
This is in connection with the subcommittee's inquiry into the nature of Com- 
munist activites in the United States. 

You are listed as chairman of the forum, and therefore I would appreciate 
your answering just a few questions about the organization. It would be most 
helpful if I had your reply by Tuesday, in which event it will be put in the record 
on that day. In any event I ask you these questions for the record. 

The subcommittee would like to know from you to what extent Mr. Albert E. 
Blumberg was a moving factor in the formation of the American Forum for So- 
cialist Education. Would you tell us the extent of your dealing with Mr. Blum- 
berg in this and all related matters during the last 18 months? Did you present 
a memo to Mr. Blumberg outlining an exchange of opinion on the whole subject 
of a union by the Communist and Socialist-minded groups? If you did present 
such a memorandum, would you supply the subcommittee with a copy thereof? 

Will you tell us also of your dealings with other representatives of the Com- 
munist Party, U. S. A., with relation to the forum? 

The subcommittee would like to have a full account of the following matters 
pertaining to the formation of the American Forum for Socialist Education : 

(1) When and by whom was the formation of this organization first suggested 
to you? 

(2) Who handled contacts with prospective members of the AFFSE national 
committee? To what extent were these contacts personal, and to what extent 
by mail? 

(3) What meetings have been held, when, and where, attended by persons 
now members of the AFFSE national committee, at which formation of the 
AFFSE and related matters were discussed? 

(4) Has each of the 40 members of the AFFSE national committee personally 
assented to serving as such? To whom, and in what form, were such assents 
given? Does each of these 40 members have an equal vote in management of 
the affairs of the AFFSE? 

(5) Is there any group or body other than the AFFSE national committee 
which is or will be concerned with AFFSE policy or administration? Who are 
the members of the administrative and executive staff of the AFFSE? 

I ask you also to inform the subcommittee as fully as your knowledge permits 
respecting the source or sources of funds used by or available to the American 
Forum for Socialist Education. 
Yours very truly, 

James O. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 



Exhibit No. 469-A 

New York, N. Y., May 23, 1957. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Eastland : I am in receipt of your letter of May 17, 1957, addressing 
to me a long series of questions relating to American Forum — For Socialist Edu- 
cation. May I call your attention to the fact that this letter was sent to an old 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4019 

address and had to be forwarded from there? Consequently, it did not actually 
come into my hands until late yesterday, Wednesday afternoon, May 22, 1957. 

It is relevant in this connection to point out also that many weeks ago I sent 
you and the subcommittee a copy of a letter dated April 2, 1957, and addressed 
to Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, Chief of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. A com- 
munication from Mr. Hoover to your subcommittee dealt with the presence at 
the Communist Party convention in February of a number of observers, all non- 
Communists and outspoken critics of Communist totalitarianism. Mr. Norman 
Thomas, among others, had been associated with me in working out this project. 

Mr. Hoover in his communication to your subcommittee spoke of me as having 
"long fronted for Communists" which, as any one who has any acquaintance with 
these matters knows, was the exact opposite of the truth since I have for over 
20 years been an intransigent opponent of united fronts with Communists. 
A major basis for Mr. Hoover's charge was that I had taken some part a year or 
so ago in a petition to the President for amnesty for Communists convicted under 
the Smith Act, a petition in which over 40 well-known citizens such as Mrs. 
Eleanor Roosevelt, Norman Thomas, and Dr. John C. Bennett, the dean of Union 
Theological Seminary, New York, joined. 

That there should be in such high quarters a pattern of thinking which can 
regard the exercise of the right of petition by such citizens as evidence of Com- 
munist "fronting" is truly alarming and exposes the existence of the virus of 
political inquisition, one of the marks of totalitarianism, in the highest official 
quarters. 

Turning now to your letter of May 17 to me, I regard it in its context as evi- 
dence of the same dangerous tendencies. The American Forum has just come 
into existence. Its development has been completely open and aboveboard. Its 
launching was announced to the press together with the list of members of a 
provisional national committee whose connections were easily identifiable. 

Now, before American Forum can engage in any activity other than announcing 
formation of a committee, your subcommittee announces that it is investigating 
the forum in connection with communism. It issues subpenas to 5 persons, 1 of 
whom is not on the national committee. Mr. Victor Perlo is someone who has 
never had the remotest connection with discussions leading to formation of 
American Forum. I have never known him or had the slightest connection 
with him. It is impossible to avoid the inference that the purpose of bringing 
his name into this picture at all is to suggest some devious connection of 
American Forum, organized purely for purposes of open discussion, with espio- 
nage or other such treasonable activities. In any case, you and your staff workers 
are well aware of the fact that in the atmosphere which has been created in our 
country such an inference about American Forum is bound to be drawn by many 
people and because of this many who would like to take part in its work will be 
forced to shun it or be subjected to persecution . 

There seemed for a time to be a tendency among congressional investigating 
committees such as yours to exercise some care in a matter of this kind, to in- 
vestigate first without advance publicity and not to expose loyal citizens to public 
inquisition and persecution before there was some slight ground for supposing 
that questionable activities had taken place. In this ease not even this minimum 
of care to observe the old American tradition of not branding citizens as somehow 
guilty before they have ever been charged with any crime, seems to have been 
observed. 

I must on grounds of conscience and in line with my conception of my duty 
as a citizen in a democratic society, decline to answer the questions in your 
letter, written by you as chairman and on behalf of the Senate Internal Security 
Subcommittee. 

As I have already stated, American Forum was organized in a completely 
open and above board fashion. Since you make reference to such matters as 
united action and "the whole subject of a union between Communist and Social- 
ist-minded groups" let me observe that there has never been any question of 
American Forum having anything to do with such matters or anything except 
discussion between people who differ on many fundamental issues, not people 
who have an agreed-upon basis for common action. In making this statement, 
I do not mean to imply that if there had been talks relating to legal activities 
of a political nature, your committee or any such Government agency would, in 
my opinion, have a right to conduct an inquisition into them, any more than I 
think any such agency has a right to conduct such an inquisition into your 
political activities which, as you must know, are also unpopular in rnauy 
quarters. 



4020 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Your letter makes a reference to memorandums. Any that I have had anything 
to do with or American Forum as a body have been freely sent around to anyone 
who might be interested and are in no way secret. In view of the persuasive 
espionage activities which unfortunately characterize our country in this period, 
I surmise your subcommittee already has these materials. 

Primarily, my declination of the request to answer the questions presented by 
you in your official capacity is due to my firm conviction that inquisition into 
the political — the same would be true of religious — views and activities of citi- 
zens is evil, a resort to methods characteristic of totalitarian regimes, unconsti- 
tutional and profoundly un-American. In a free society, we have to draw a line 
between advocacy, discussion, and all such matters on the one hand, and acts 
which are illegal, subversive, or treasonable on the other hand. The line be- 
tween the two may not always be easy to draw. This is precisely the basis on 
which totalitarian regimes seek to justify all their antidemocratic measures. 
We must not go up that road to perdition. 

Should I be subpenaed to appear before the Internal Security Subcommittee, 
it would be impossible for me to do more than appear and state my reasons for 
declining to answer questions of the nature set forth in your letter of May 17, 
1957. I can assure you that if this should come to pass, I shall not appeal to 
the fifth amendment. This is not meant, however, as a reflection on any indi- 
vidual who may have done so. 

It happens, Mr. Eastland, that I differ profoundly from you on such very 
fundamental matters as the position citizens should take toward the unanimous 
Supreme Court decision on integration in the public schools and on the whole 
question of relations between races. I do not see how your attitude can be 
squared with democratic concepts or with the central teachings of the Christian 
faith. I also believe that because of its effect on hundreds of millions of people 
in all parts of the world, your stand and activities relative to these matters 
constitute an immense threat to the security and good name of the United States 
and certainly give a major assist to Communist propaganda. 

Yet I am aware of the complicated character of these problems and of rela- 
tions between human beings. And I trust you can and will believe me when I 
say that I have no personal animosity toward you. Both of us, in the final 
analysis, do not stand before any human tribunal but before the judgment seat 
of God. May we both humbly seek divine guidance at all times and especially 
with regard to the situation in which we happen now to be involved. 
Sincerely yours, 

A. J. Muste. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel has made a compilation of some of the 
other individuals who make up the national committee. 

Mr. Morris. Will you read the names of those people in the first 
two categories ? 

Mr. Mandel. The following are all listed as members of the execu- 
tive committee of the national committee of the American Forum for 
Socialist Education. They all have invoked constitutional privilege 
in refusing to affirm or deny Communist Party affiliation. James 
Aronson, John T. McManus, Russell Nixon, and Harvey O'Connor. 

The following persons in that group have been cited in sworn testi- 
mony as members of the Communist Party: Carl Braden, Russell 
Nixon, Albert E. Blumberg, Joseph Starobin, and Clifford T. McAvoy. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel has compiled another grouping in that 
committee, Senator, which I am not sure we should put into the record 
as such. He has a category there of 14 additional names who have 
been identified with supporting Communist causes. Since a person 
could support Communist causes for a variety of reasons, I suggest we 
just note the number, and not put their names in for actual record. 

Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. 

Mr. Mandel. There are 15. 

(The list of names was placed in subcommittee files. ) 

Mr. Morris. Herman Singer, who is the national secretary — will 
you identify what organization he is in ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4021 

Mr. Mandel. He is national secretary of the Socialist Party, which 
is a merger of the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic 
Federation. 

Mr. Morris. Speaking in that capacity, he has repudiated this 
merged organization, has he not ? 

Mr. Mandel. He has done so in a letter which he sent out on May 
15, 1957. He says in that letter : 

In America, the Socialist Party-Socialist Democratic Federation is the affiliate 
of the Socialist International * * *. As such, the American Forum misuses the 
name Socialist. The Socialist Parties of Great Britain, France, Belgium, Ger- 
many, Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, which are affiliated with the Socialist 
International, have consistently condemned Soviet tyranny and advocated widest 
democratic rights for workers on both sides of the Iron Curtain. 

The statement of the American Forum says nothing of the Soviet dictatorship, 
nor does it mention the fact that Democratic Socialists have, as their first con- 
cern, a world in which the exploitation and enslavement of men by men and 
peoples by peoples is unknown. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, for the legislative purpose of this subcom- 
mittee in looking into this : If this, as the evidence all seems to indi- 
cate, is the beginning of an extensive plan on the part of the Commu- 
nists to present themselves, camouflaged as the evidence would indi- 
cate today, it is certainly something of which the Internal Security 
Subcommittee should take cognizance. I would like the whole of Mr. 
Singer's letter inserted in the record. 

Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. 

(The letter referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 470" and reads 
as follows:) 

May 15, 1957. 

Editor, Letters to the Times, 

New York Times, New York, N. Y. 

To the Editor : In commenting on the American Forum for Socialist Educa- 
tion, your editorial of May 15 deserves commendation for reaffirming the right 
of any group to set forth its political views. What the Times failed to make 
clear was that the American Forum is not representative of Socialist thought 
in America and that its spokesmen are not in any way affiliated with the organ- 
ization of democratic Socialist parties represented in the Socialist Interna- 
tional. . In America the Socialist Party-Social Democratic Federation is the 
affiliate of the Socialist International. 

As the New York Times news story reported, the American Forum includes 
members of the Communist Party and representatives of two Trotskyite or- 
ganizations. As such, the American Forum misuses the name "Socialist." The 
Socialist Parties of Great Britain. France, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Norway. 
and Denmark which are affiliated to the Socialist International have consis- 
tently condemned Soviet tyranny and advocated the widest democratic rights 
for workers on both sides of the Iron Curtain. 

The statement of the American Forum says nothing of the Soviet dictator- 
ship nor does it mention the fact that democratic Socialists have as their first 
concern "a world in which the exploitation and enslavement of men by men 
and peoples by peoples is unknown." In .the Soviet Union and in the satellite 
countries exploitation and enslavement are the commonplaces of everyday life. 
The American Forum has no right to employ the name "socialism" if its mem- 
bers include spokesmen for the Communist Party, a group dedicated to the 
support of dictatorship. 
Very truly yours, 

Herman Singer, National Secretary. 

Senator Butler. Any further questions? 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I would like to have Mr. Mandel, with respect 
to the 8 individuals or the 9 individuals who have been identified 
in the 1 case with Communist Party membership, 3 of them claim- 



4022 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ing privilege in the fifth amendment, in addition, when asked about 
Communist associations, and 1 invoking his privilege under the first 
amendment with respect to Communist affiliations — ma} r they go into 
the record? 

Senator Butler. It will be so ordered. 

Mr. Morris. Just those nine. 

(The names referred to are as follows :) 

James Aronson, John T. McManus, Russell Nixon, Harvey O'Connor, Carl 
Braden, Doxey A. Wilkerson, Albert E. Blumberg, Joseph Starobin, Clifford 
T. McAvoy. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel says there are a few other compilations. 
May they also go into the record ? 
Senator Butler. Yes . 
Any further questions ? 
Mr. Morris. I have no further questions. 
(The compilations referred to above are as follows :) 

Publicly admitted members of the Communist Party: Albert E. Bluuiberg, 
Doxey A. Wilkerson. Joseph Starobin. 

Writers for the American Socialist, a magazine edited by Bert Cochran: Carl 
Braden, Harvey O'Connor, William E. B. OuBois, Conrad Lynn, Kermit Eby, 
Clifford T. McAvoy. Michael Baker. 

Writers for the magazine, Liberation, edited by A. J. Muste: Dave Pellinger, 
Bayard Rustin, Charles Walker, Sidney Lens, Mulford Sibley, Waldo Frank, 
Milton Mayer. William Neumann. 

Condemned the Smith Act under which Communist leaders have been con- 
victed: Derk Bodde, W. E. B. DuBois, Waldo Frank, Oliver S. Loud. Harvey 
O'Connor, H. H. Wilson. 

Senator Butler. I hope the Internal Security Subcommittee will 
vigorously pursue its investigation of this organization. It is some- 
times most difficult to tell the extent of the knowledge of the persons 
who associate themselves with organizations such as the one now 
under investigation. I hope that a large majority of the people who 
comprise this national board of directors, and who are taking part 
in the activities of this organization, are doing so unwittingly and 
unknowingly. We, of this Internal Security Subcommittee, certainly 
have no authority to say that any organization is subversive. That 
is not our purpose. Our purpose is to follow out the mandates of 
the resolution and the law under which we are created. However, 
the report of this committee for 1956 recommended that legislation 
lie framed that would make acts in the time of cold war, which in the 
time of actual war may be considered treason, punishable by law. 

This investigation may have some bearing on legislation of that 
type. It is my hope that the subcommittee will give consideration to 
the framing of such legislation. 

In the meantime, I think persons and people in general would be 
well advised to make note of what we have heard here today on Com- 
munist affiliation and activity of the large number of people who 
comprise the board of directors of this organization. Meantime, I 
suggest to the Department of Justice that they proceed under the Sub- 
versive Control Act of 1054 at the earliest possible moment to deter- 
mine whether or not this organization, the American Forum — for So- 
cialist Education, is in fact a Communist organization, and if it is 
so found, that it suffer the penalties prescribed by that act. 

The subcommittee will stand in recess until call of the Chair. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4023 

(Thereupon, the subcommittee adjourned at 11 : 50 a. m.) 
A letter from Chief Counsel Morris to Mr. George Meany, presi- 
dent of the AFL-CIO, and Mr. Meany's reply were later ordered into 
the record. The text of these letters follows : 

May 18, 1957. 
Mr. George Meany, 

President, American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial 
Organisations, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: On May 13, 1957, the Daily Worker carried an announcement of 
the establishment of a national committee of the American Forum for Socialist 
Education. The forum proposes to reach youths, labor unions, farm organiza- 
tions, colleges, and churches. Included on this committee are two leading mem- 
bers of the Communist Party. 

The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee is planning to hold hearings be- 
ginning on Tuesday, May 21, dealing with the nature of this new organiza- 
tion. In view of the announcement made that it proposes to approach labor 
unions, the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee has instructed me to solicit 
your opinion of this new organization, its significance to labor and the Ameri- 
can people generally. We would appreciate your earliest reply. 
Sincerely yours, 

Robert Morris. 

Chief Counsel. 

American Federation of Labor 
and Congress of Industrial Organizations, 

Washington, D. C, May 22, 1951. 
Mr. Robert Morris, 

Chief Counsel, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Morris : This will acknowledge your letter of May 18 in which 
you solicit my opinion, as to its significance to labor and the American people 
generally, the recent establishment of a national committee — the American 
Forum — For Socialist Education. 

The much-belated admission by the Soviet dictators that their master and 
teacher, the late Joseph Stalin, was a power-mad, ruthless murderer and the 
savagery with which the Kremlin rulers crushed the heroic revolt of the Hun- 
garian people for national independence and human freedom have severely 
damaged Communist influence and strength throughout the world. 

Under Moscow's instructions and direction, Communists everywhere are now 
frantically trying to overcome the moral ostracism which the above events have 
inflicted on them. In the United States, this effort to break out of the ensuing 
isolation has assumed national proportions in the organization of a new Com- 
munist front misnamed the American Forum — For Socialist Education. 

The Communist Party's Daily Worker of May 14, 1957, editorially hailed the 
foundation of this body as "especially welcome" and boasted that it "also in- 
cludes two leading Communists." The same editorial further confessed that, 
"the position of the Communists with regard to developments of this kind was 
set forth in the resolution adopted overwhelmingly at their recent national 
convention." 

American labor will shun like a plague this self-styled American Forum For 
Socialist Education which obviously was conceived and created in line with a 
decision adopted by the last convention of the Kremlin-controlled Communist 
Party in the United States. This organization, like all other Communist fronts, 
has, in its aims and actions only one goal— to hide its Communist objective 
and, under a beguiling name, appeal to, mislead and entrap well-meaning Amer- 
icans into serving the cause of Communist subversion and the interests of 
Soviet imperialism. 

No self-respecting American trade unionist, no worker loyal to the ideals 
which have made our democracy vital and our country great will have anything 
to do with the so-called American Forum — For Socialist Education or any other 
front which the Communist fifth column may organize. 
Very truly yours, 

George Meaxy, President, AFL-CIO. 



4024 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Texts of correspondence between Senator Eastland and the Attor- 
ney General also were later ordered into the record and read as 

follows : 

June 5, 1957. 
Hon. James O. Eastland, 

Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee, 
United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Senator Eastland : Thank you very much for your letter of June 4 
transmitting copies of the transcript of hearing held under Senator Butler's 
chairmanship into the origin and control of the American Forum — For Socialist 
Education. 

The Department of Justice is very interested in the possible Communist con- 
trol of this organization, and I am referring the copies of the hearing transcript 
to the Internal Security Division, together with Senator Butler's suggestion 
that the Department of Justice might wish to proceed against the organization 
under the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950. 
With my personal regards, 
Sincerely yours, 

William P. Rogers, 
Acting Attorney General. 



June 4, 1957. 
Hon. Herbert Brownell, Jr., 

Attorney General of the United States, 

Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Attorney General : You are undoubtedly familiar with the fact 
that a new organization was recently formed under the name of the American 
Forum — For Socialist Education. It counts among its founders a number of 
active members of the American Communist Party, as well as a long list of in- 
dividuals whose names are frequently linked with Communist-front organiza- 
tions. 

On May 21, 1957, under the chairmanship of Senator John Marshall Butler, the 
Internal Security Subcommittee conducted a hearing in which it attempted ro 
ascertain the true origin and effective control of this new organization. I 
enclose herewith two mimeographed copies of the transcript of that hearing, 
and I think you will agree with me that the Communist Party appears to have 
played a very large role in the inspiration and domination of this new organiza- 
tion. 

At the close of the hearing, Senator Butler suggested that your Department 
might wish to proceed under the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 to 
determine whether or not this new organization is a Communist organization 
within the meaning of that act. Accordingly, I am transmitting to you herewith 
his suggestion, and copies of the transcript for such action as you may deem 
appropriate. 

With my personal best wishes, I remain, 
Sincerely yours, 

James O. Eastland, 
Chairman, Internal Security Subcommittee. 

The following article from the Daily Worker also was later ordered 
into the record : 

[From the Daily Worker, May 27, 1957, p. 1 1 
Muste Rejects Eastland's Political Inquisition 

The Reverend A. J. Muste, chairman of the recently formed American Forum 
for Socialist Education, yesterday refused to answer a series of questions put 
to him by Senator James O. Eastland. 

Eastland, chairman of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, had written 
a letter to Dr. Muste questioning him on the part Communists or the Communist 
Party may have had in organizing the forum. 

In a letter replying to Eastland, Reverend Muste declared that "on grounds of 
conscience and in line with my conception of duty as a citizen in a democratic 
society, I must decline to answer the questions in your letter of May 17. 1957." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4025 

Dr. Muste gave as his primary reason his "firm conviction that inquisition into 
the political — the same would be true of religious — views and activities of citi- 
zens is evil, a resort to methods characteristic of totalitarian regimes, uncon- 
stitutional and profoundly un-American." 

He declared that "if subpenaed to appear before the Internal Security Sub- 
committee, it would be impossible for me to do more than appear and state my 
reasons for declining to answer questions of the nature set forth in your letter 
of May 17, 1957." He added that "if this should come to pass. I shall not 
appeal to the fifth amendment." 

The letter stated that American Forum was "organized in a completely open 
and above board fashion" solely for purposes of discussion among people with 
differing views, not for united action or mergers. Concerning Eastland's in- 
quiry about memoranda about the forum, Dr. Muste stated that these were 
"freely sent to any who might be interested and were in no way secret" and 
adds that "in view of the pervasive espionage activities which unfortunately 
characterize our country in this period, I surmise your subcommittee already 
has these materials." 

Dr. Muste, in a reference to Eastland's attitude toward the Supreme Court 
decision on integration in the public schools, declared that Eastland's racist 
attitude could not be "squared with democratic concepts or with the central 
teachings of the Christian faith." 

Dr. Muste, who is a Presbyterian clergyman and a Christian pacifist, assures 
Eastland that he has "no personal animosity * * *. Both of us, in the final 
analysis, do not stand before any human tribunal but before the judgment seat of 
God. May we both humbly seek divine guidance * * * with regard to the 
situation in which we happen now to be involved." 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the names of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

Adelphi Hall 4015 

AFFSE. (See American Forum for Socialist Education.) 

AFL-CIO 4023 

American Forum for Socialist Education 4007-4011,4017-4025 

Officers and National Committee of 4011 

American Friends Service Committee 4016, 4017 

American Imperialism, by Victor Perlo 4015 

American Socialist (publication) 4017 

American Socialist Forum 4013, 4016 

Program of, exhibit No. 468-B 4016 

Andes, N. Y 4011 

Aronson, James 4011, 4020, 4022 

Atkins, Joseph 4011 

B 

Baker, Michael H 4011, 4015, 4022 

Baltimore 4011 

Baran, Paul 4011 

Barr, Stringfellow 4011 

Bennett, Dr. John C 4019 

Berkeley, Calif 4011 

Blumberg, Albert E 4007 

Testimony of 4009-4022 

628 West 151st Street, New York City 4009 

Member of National Committee of American Forum for Socialist 

Education 4009, 4010 

First amendment 4009, 4010 

Fifth amendment 4009, 4010 

Refusal on grounds that investigation serves no valid legislative 

purpose 4009, 4010 

Bodde, Derk 4011, 4022 

Boston 4011, 4012 

Braden, Carl 4011, 4020, 4022 

Brooklyn Polytechnical Institute 4016 

Brownell, Attorney General 4024 

Butler, Senator John Marshall 4007, 4024 

C 

Cameron, Angus . 4012, 4015 

Can the Left Unite? (a symposium on Socialist regroupment) 4014 

Charbnau, Harold 4011, 4017 

Cheyney, Pa 4011 

Chicago 4010-4013, 4016 

University of 4010 

Chicago Tribune 4016 

Chicago University Resists Legion Attack on Forum, article from Daily 

Worker of March 28, 1957, Exhibit No. 468-A 4016 

CIO Council, New York City 4017 

CIO-PAC 4017 

Claiborne, Robert 4015 

I 



II INDEX 

Page 

Clarke, F. G 4016 

Cleveland 4011 

Cochran, Bert 4007, 4011, 4017, 4022 

Committee for Socialist Unity 4012 

Communist/s 4008, 4009, 4016, 4019, 4020, 4023, 4024 

Communist Party 4007, 4008, 4012, 4013, 4015, 4017-4023 

National Committee 4008, 4013, 4016 

Communist Party Convention, New York City, February 1957 4007, 4019 

Cook County American Legion Council 4016 

Cypin, Jack 4011 

D 

Daily Worker 4007, 4013, 4023, 4024 

Day, Dorothy 4011 

Dellinger, Dave 4011, 4015, 4022 

Dennis, Eugene 4008 

Detroit 4012 

Dobbs, Farrell 4011, 4012, 4014 

Du Bois, W. E. B 4011, 4015, 4022 

E 

Eastland, Senator James O 4018, 4024, 4025 

Eby, Kermit, University of Chicago 4010, 4011, 4017, 4022 

Empire of Oil, by Harvey O'Connor 4017 

Eugene, Oreg 4011 

Eugene V. Debs School 4015 

Exhibit No. 467 — Press release of May 13, 1957, issued by the American 

Forum for Socialist Education 4010 

Exhibit No. 468 — Socialist Unity Forum, program of public discussions 4014 

Exhibit No. 468-A — Chicago University Resists Legion Attack on Forum, 

article from Daily Worker of March 28, 1957 4016 

Exhibit No. 468-B — American Socialist Forum program 4016 

Exhibit No. 468-C — Road Ahead for American Left Topic of Forum, article 

from Daily Worker of August 26, 1956 4016 

Exhibit No. 468-D — Nonpartisan Symposium Set for Tonight in Chicago, 

article from Daily Worker of October 5, 1956 4017 

Exhibit No. 468-E — Forum October 26 on Elections, article from Daily 

Worker, New York, October 19, 1956 4017 

Exhibit No. 469 — Letter from Senator Eastland to A. J. Muste, May 17, 

1957 4018 

Exhibit No. 469-A — Letter to Senator Eastland from A. J. Muste, May 

23,1957 4018 

Exhibt No. 470 — Letter to editor of New York Times from Herman Singer, 

May 15, 1957 4021 

F 
Faulkner, Rev. William J 4017 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 4007, 4019 

Fellowship of Reconciliation 4014, 4015, 4017 

Fifth amendment 4009, 4022, 4025 

Fine, Fred 4013, 4016 

First amendment 4009, 4022 

Foreign Policy Association 4015 

Forum October 26 on Elections, article from Daily Worker, October 19, 

1956, exhibit No. 468-E 4017 

Frank, Rev. Robert Worth 4017 

Frank, Waldo 4011, 4022 

G 

Gates, John 4012 

Glen Gardner, N. J 4011 

Great Northern Hotel 4014 

Guide to the Soviet Union, by William Mandel 4016 



index in 

H 

Page 

Hiskev, Clarence F 4013, 4016 

Hoover, J. Edgar 4007, 4019 



Illinois District of the Communist Party 4017 

Independent Socialist League 4014, 4016 

Innerst, J. Stuart 4011 

Iron Curtain 4021 

J 

Johnson, Russell 4011 

Justice, Department of 4022 

K 

Kerry, Tom 4012, 4015 

Kimpton, Chancellor Lawrence A 4016 

Knowles, Clive 4015 

L 

Labor and the South 4015 

Left Wing Policy in the 1956 Election 4013, 4015, 4017 

Lens, Sidney 4010, 4011, 4017, 4022 

Letter to all Communist Party members, from Eugene Dennis, releasing 

a draft resolution re AFFSE 4008 

Letter to editor of New York Times from Herman Singer, May 15, 1957, 

exhibit No. 470 4021 

Letter to A. J. Muste from Senator Eastland, May 17, 1957, exhibit No. 469_ 4018 
Letter to Senator Eastland from A. J. Muste, May 23, 1957, exhibit 

No. 469-A 4018 

Letter to Robert Morris from George Meany, May 18, 1957 4023 

Letter to George Meany from Robert Morris, May 22, 1957 4023 

Letter to Attorney General Brownell from Senator Eastland, June 4, 1957 — 4024 
Letter to Senator Eastland from William P. Rogers, Acting Attorney 

General, June 5, 1957 4024 

Lewine, John 4015 

Liberation magazine 4010, 4015, 4017, 4022 

Lightfoot, Claude 4017 

Local 329, AFL, Chicago, 111 4010 

Los Angeles 4012 

Loud, Oliver I 4011, 4022 

Louisville 4011 

Lynn, Conrad 4011, 4015, 4022 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 4007 

Mandel, William 4016 

Manhattan project 4016 

Marzani, Carl 4012, 4015 

May Day rally 4012 

Mayer, C. H 4011 

Mayer, Milton, Carmel, Calif _> 4010, 4011, 4022 

McAvoy Clifford T 4007, 4011, 4012, 4014, 4015, 4017, 4020, 4022 

McCormick Theological Seminary 4017 

McLaurin, Banjamin 4011 

McManus, John T 4010, 4011, 4014, 4020, 4022 

McReynolds, David 4011 

Meagher, Robert 4015 

Meany, George 4023 

Mellon's Millions, By Harvey O'Connor 4017 

Minneapolis 4011, 4012 

Minnesota Progressive Party 4015 

Monthly Review 4017 

Morris, Robert 4007 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Muste, A. J 4010-4012, 4014, 4015, 4017, 4018, 4020, 4022, 4024, 4025 

Muste Rejects Eastland's Political Inquisition, article from the Daily 

Worker, May 27, 1957 4024 

N 

Nassau County, N. Y 4011 

Nathan, Otto, New York University 4015 

National Guardian 4010, 4012, 4014, 4017 

Neumann, William 4011, 4022 

New York City 4011, 4012 

New York University 4015 

New Yorkers 4014 

Nixon, Russell 4011, 4013, 4015, 4020, 4022 

Nonpartisan Symposium Set for Tonight in Chicago, article from Daily 

Worker of October 5, 1956, exhibit No. 468-D 4017 

O 
O'Connor, Harvey 4011, 4017, 4020, 4022 

P 

Palo Alto, Calif 4011 

Paris to Pekin, by Joseph Starobin 4015 

Pasadena 4011 

Perlo, Victor 4007, 4013, 4015, 4019 

Philadelphia 4011, 4012 

Pickus, Robert 4017 

Pollock, Sam 4011 

Press release of May 13, 1957, issued b ythe AFFSE, exhibit No. 407_ 4009, 4010 
Princeton, N. J 4011 

R 

Road Ahead for American Left Topic of Forum, article from Daily 

Worker of August 26, 1956, exhibit No. 468-C 4016 

Rockland County, N. Y 4011 

Rogers, William P., Acting Attorney General 4024 

Roosevelt, Eleanor 4019 

Rusher, William 4007 

Rustin, Bayard 4010, 4011, 4022 

S 

Schachtman, Max 4014, 4016 

Scott, Lawrence 4016, 4017 

Siblev, Mulford, University of Minnesota 4010, 4011, 4016, 4022 

Singer, Herman 4020, 4021 

Sixteenth National Convention of the Communist Party, U. S. A. (See 
Communist Party Convention, New York City.) 

Smith Act 4019, 4022 

Socialism After Stalin 4016 

Socialist/s 4007, 4008, 4010, 4014-4016, 4021 

Socialist Club 4016 

Socinl Democratic Federation 4021 

Socialist International 4021 

Socialist Party 4017, 4020 

Socialist Unity Forum 4013,4014 

Program of Public Discussion, exhibit No. 468 4014 

Socialist Workers Party 4014 

Soviet dictatorship, tyranny 4021 

Soviet Far East, The, by William Mandel 4016 

Stalin, Joseph 4016, 4023 

Starobin, Joseph 4011, 4015, 4020, 4022 

Subversive Control Act of 1950 4024 

Subversive Control Act of 1954 4022 

Supreme Court decision on integration 4025 



INDEX V 

T 

Page 

Temple Hall, Chicago 4017 

Thomas, Norman 4019 

Thygeson, Fritjof 4011 

Trotskyites 4008, 4009 

Truro, Mass 4011 

TVA 401G 

Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 4008 

Union Theological Seminary 4019 

University of Chicago 4010, 4016, 4017 

University of Minnesota 4010, 401P 

W 

Walker, Charles 4011, 4022 

What Next for the American Left? 4017 

Where Are We Now? (paper re AFFSE) 4012 

Wilkerson, Doxie 4011, 4022 

Williams, William Appleman 4011 

Wilson, H. H 4011, 4022 

Winnetka, 111 4011 

Y 

Yellow Springs, Ohio 4011 

Young Socialist League 4016 

Z 
Zaslow, Milton 4007, 4011, 4012, 4016, 4017 

o 



>Lr >^«^i j 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAEY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



MAY 14, 23, AND 28, 1957 



PART 64 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1957 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

NOV 18 1957 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

h 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. Sourwine, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

H 






CONTENTS 



Witnesses : Page 

Boatin, Paul 4030 

Cinzori, Mack 4055 

Dorosh, Walter 4027 

Fireman, Hyman 4043 

Philo, Harry M 4059 

Simmons, James M 4057 

Trachtenberg, Max 4048 

Van Horn, Harriet Edith 4037, 4044 

rii 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, MAY 14, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
and Other Internal Security Laws, 

I of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 : 40 a. m., in room 
404, Senate Office Building, Senator John Marshall Butler presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; J. G. Sourwine, asso- 
ciate counsel; William Rusher, associate counsel; and Benjamin 
Mandel, research director. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, in connection with the hearings that the sub- 
committee is conducting on Communist activity among the labor 
unions, we subpenaed four persons for this morning and, as you know, 
yourself and Senator Hruska conducted the executive session. We 
have been able to hear in the executive session testimony of only 2 of 
the 4 witnesses up to this time. In other words, Senator, as you know, 
the executive session took longer than we had anticipated. For that 
reason, Senator, we are prepared to have an open hearing at this time 
with two of the witnesses, Walter Dorosh, who is on the stand, and 
Mr. Boatin. 

Will you please rise ? 

Senator Butler. In the presence of Almighty God, do you solemnly 
promise and declare that the evidence you give will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER DOROSH, DEARBORN, MICH., ACCOMPANIED 

BY DAVID REIN, HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Butler. The witness is sworn. Counsel may proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Give your full name and address to the reporter. 

Mr. Dorosh. Walter Dorosh, 2861 Roulo, Dearborn, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business, Mr. Dorosh ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I am employed by the Ford Motor Co. I am a die- 
maker. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been with the Ford Motor Co. ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I started in 1934, in the school, the Henry Ford Trade 
School, and continued with them in employment to the present time. 

Mr. Morris. You served in the Army, did you not ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I did, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you in the Army ? 

4027 



4028 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Dorosh. About a year, I believe, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What year was that ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I went in in 1941 and 

Mr. Morris. And you stayed until 1942 ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I believe that is correct, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you attended the recent convention of the United 
Auto Workers at Atlantic City, did you not ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I did. 

Mr. Morris. And you were a delegate to that convention? 

Mr. Dorosh. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I notice, Mr. Dorosh, you were listed as tool and die 
secretary. 

Mr. Dorosh. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Was that a correct listing ? 

Mr. Dorosh. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe what that position is ? 

Mr. Dorosh. Well, it is secretary of the skilled workers. We have 
16 divisions there. It is one of the divisions that I am secretary of. 

Mr. Morris. You say there are 16 divisions ? 

Mr. Dorosh. Eighteen divisions. I want to correct that. 

Mr. Morris. Of what? 

Mr. Dorosh. Eighteen unit divisions. Eighteen buildings set up 
there. 

Mr. Morris. In what? 

Mr. Dorosh. Ford local 600. 

Mr. Morris. Ford local 600. In other words, 18 divisions of the 
Ford local 600 and the tool and die section is one of these ? 

Mr. Dorosh. One of the 

Mr. Morris. One of the 18, and you are the secretary. 

Mr. Dorosh. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How many members in this particular unit ? 

Mr. Dorosh. About 4,300, 1 believe. 

Mr. Morris. 4,300. What does the duty of secretary of that partic- 
ular unit entail ? 

Mr. Dorosh. The usual duties of secretary, keeping minutes of mem- 
bership meetings, executive board meetings, answering of communica- 
tions, acting as coordinator on grievances. General duties of a secre- 
tary. 

Mr. Morris. And what is local 600 ? 

Mr. Dorosh. What do you mean, what is local 600 ? 

Mr. Morris. I mean, you said it is one of the 18 components of local 
600. Now, would you tell us for the record what is local 600 ? That 
is a local of UAW, is it not ? 

Mr. Dorosh. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And what is the jurisdiction of local 600? 

Mr. Dorosh. I don't follow you. What do you mean? 

Mr. Morris. Whom does local 600 organize ? 

Mr. Dorosh. Well, it represents the Ford workers. 

Mr. Morris. The Ford workers. 

Mr. Dorosh. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. At any particular plant or all Ford plants ? 

Mr. Dorosh. All Ford plants in the Detroit — in the River Eouge 
area. 

Mr. Morris. Only the River Rouge area ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4029 

Mi*. Dorosh. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Chairman, we have had sworn testimony that 
the witness here today has been at least, in the past, a member of the 
Communist Party. I would like to ask you, Mr. Dorosh, have you 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
granted me by the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question under the fifth. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Dorosh, do you feel that an answer to that 
question would tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I do, sir. 

Senator Butler. You don't refuse to answer on some other basis. 
You feel that a truthful answer to that question would tend to directly 
incriminate you. 

Mr. Dorosh. Yes, I do, for those reasons, sir. 

Senator Butler. I didn't exactly get that answer. 

Mr. Dorosh. Yes, I do, for those reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you presided as chairman at a meeting of the 
Ford Plastic Tool and Die Communist Club held at the West Side 
section of the Communist Party headquarters of Michigan at 5642 
Michigan Avenue ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended a meeting of the Ford section coun- 
cil of the Michigan Communist Party at 2800 Salina, in Dearborn ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question on the same basis. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Progressive caucus of 
local 600 ? 

Mr. Dorosh. Same grounds. I refuse to answer. 

Senator Butler. What is the Progressive caucus of local 600 ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question, too, on the same basis. 

Senator Butler. Is it a part of the UAW ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that on the same basis, the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Ford section executive 
committee of the Michigan State Communist Party ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Phil Schatz ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Has Phil Schatz been a superior of yours in the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended a meeting of the Ford Progressive 
Club? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Specifically holding a meeting at 8030 Michigan Ave- 
nue. 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question on the fifth. 

Senator Butler. Is that the same organization that you have re- 
ferred to, that has been referred to here previously as the Progressive 
council or caucus ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a combined meeting of Ford Progres- 
sives and Communists at 5911 Michigan Avenue in connection with 



4030 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

the stand that was to be adopted with respect to a certain forthcom- 
ing strike during the year 1949 ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
granted me under the fifth. 

Mr. Morris. Did you later that year attend the Ford Dearborn sec- 
tion Communist Party conference held at Communist Party head- 
quarters, the section headquarters, 5642 Michigan Avenue, on Decem- 
ber 3, 1949? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question, sir. 

Mr. Morris. On January 7, 1950, were you present at a meeting of 
leading Ford Communist employees represented on the Communist 
Party Ford Dearborn section council held at 5642 Michigan Avenue 
in Detroit? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Was the purpose of this meeting a discussion of the 
Communist Party's position in the scheduled Ford local 600 union elec- 
tions to be held in February and March 1950? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question, sir. 

Senator Butler. I assume that these declinations 

Mr. Dorosh. All on the fifth. 

Senator Butler. All on the basis of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Dorosh. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a banquet for the Michigan Commit- 
tee for the Protection of Foreign Born on March 7, 1954 ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
extended me under the fifth. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a member of the Communist Party, Mr. 
Dorosh ? 

Mr. Dorosh. I refuse to answer that question based on the privileges 
extended me under the fifth. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have many more questions but I think in 
view of the witness' responses I feel it would be unavailing to ask any 
further questions. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Sourwine, have you any questions ? 

Mr. Sourwine. At this time ; no, sir. I think we would get no more 
answers now. 

Senator Butler. The witness is excused. 

Have you another witness ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Mr. Boatin, Senator. 

Senator Butler. Mr. Boatin, will you stand and hold up your right 
hand? 

Do you, in the presence of Almighty God, solemnly promise and 
declare that the evidence you will give to the Internal Security Sub- 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth ? 

Mr. Boatin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL BOATIN, DETROIT, MICH., ACCOMPANIED BY 
MITCHELL COOPER, HIS ATTORNEY 

Senator Butler. Now, Mr. Morris, I understand that this witness is 
the witness, of course, that we have had in executive session. He has 
been cooperative? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4031 

Mr. Morris. Yes. That is right, Senator. 

Mr. Boatin, after the subpena was served on you, I think you made 
the announcement that you had been served. Is that not right, Mr. 

Boatin 

Mr. Boatin. Well, the papers seemed to have known about it, so 
there was no point in my hiding it, Judge Morris. 

Mr. Morris. I see. As I say, Senator, we have an extensive execu- 
tive session which hasn't been finished yet, and the reason it wasn't 
finished is that he has been, as we pointed out, a responsive witness, 
Senator, and I think, in view of the fact that it is known that Mr. 
Boatin is here present today, I think we should have this short, open 
session. 

Senator Butler. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Just so he might state what his position is. 

Will you give your full name and address ? 

Mr. Boatin. My name is Paul Boatin. I live at 2690 Woodmere 
Avenue, Detroit 9, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business, Mr. Boatin 

Mr. Boatin. I am an employee of the Ford Motor Co. 

Mr. Morris. And what do you do at the Ford Motor Co.? 

Mr. Boatin. Well, I have just been elected president of the engine 
division at the River Rouge plant. 

Mr. Morris. How big is the engine division ? 

Mr. Boatin. Well, the particular area where I am confined, the 
building to which I am confined has about 5,000 people. 

Senator Butler. Are they all members of a unit of local 600, 

UAW? 

Mr. Boatin. Yes, Senator. The River Rouge plant is composed 
of 18 divisions or units, as the company calls them, and the engine 
division is one of them. But the 18 units combine into making up 
the total looal 600 of the UAW. 

Mr. Morris. And you were recently elected, were you not, Mr. 
Boatin? 

Mr. Boatin. To one of the units; yes, last week. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Boatin, have you been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Boatin. I was a member of the Communist Party from either 
late 1939 or early 1940 to about the late fall of 1949. 

Mr. Morris. And what happened in the late fall of 1949? 

Mr. Boatin. Well, in the late fall of 1949, after considerable dif- 
ferences of opinion and criticism, I was expelled from the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was there an immediate transition ; I mean was 
there a transitional period there, that I think you told us about in 
executive session ? 

Mr. Boatin. Well, I would say that because of the fact that the 
River Rouge plant is such a compact area and you work closely 
with people, and I have been at Ford's now 31 years, since 1925, in 
August, it took me some time before I could actually understand 
what was transpiring and the policies being what they are and the 
spring of 1950 was an election year, it took me 6 months or thereabouts 
to digest, to fully realize my position, to understand the events that 
1 was living through. 

93215— 57— pt. 64 2 



4032 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE "UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us, for the record — I think 
it would be helpful, would it not, Senator — the reasons why you broke 
with the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Boatin. Well, I have had occasion to think very seriously about 
my position in the Communist Party in the past and my position 
on the Communist Party at present. I would say that, in relation to 
the policies of the Communist Party inside of the union, the Com- 
munist Party itself has admitted that many of the policies that they 
pursued over the war years and later were erroneous. 

I had felt that they were, and, in relation to the influence of Soviet 
Russia on the thinking of Communists in this country, I had become 
disillusioned, and now, as I think back, with the cold war and the 
Korea situation and the revelations of the Khrushchev reports and 
many of the things that happened in the — oh, 1949 in the satellite 
countries where not only so-called enemies were done away with but 
even Communists themselves in Hungary and Czechoslovakia and 
Bulgaria, and so on. 

Subsequent to that, of course, the Hungarian situation, on which I 
took a public position, I think — I am pretty sure I wrote either 1 or 2 
articles in our own union publication on the matter — all of these 
things combined — of course, in opposition to what was happening in 
Hungary, and I said very definitely that the Soviet Union was wrong 
and they should get out of there and let the Hungarian people run 
Hungary themselves. 

I might say, too, that I support the position of the UAW, President 
Reuther's position in relation to Communists in the union, and the 
position of the union, of the UAW, is that no Communist should hold 
office in the union, and I, myself, have found it difficult to reconcile 
the two positions, the position of a Communist and a UAW guy during 
the period that I was in leadership, and it is difficult to reconcile the 
position of the Communists with that of a private citizen. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, in view of the fact that we have not completed 
our executive session, as you know, with this particular witness, I have 
no more questions to ask of him in the open session at this time. 

Senator Butler. All right. You will stand by, subject to the call 
of the Chair. 

Any further witnesses, Counsel ? 

The subcommittee will stand in recess subject to order of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, the subcommittee retired into executive 
session. ) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, MAY 23, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

and Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 : 15 a. m., in room 
424, Senate Office Building, Senator Olin Johnston presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; J. G. Sourwine and 
William Rusher, associate counsel; Benjamin Mandel, research di- 
rector; and Frank Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Johnston. The subcommittee will come to order. 

In that we are dealing here today with labor, more in particular 
we are dealing with people affiliated with the AFL-CIO, I think it 
would be well for us at this time to make a part of our record here 
the AFL-CIO code of ethical practices. 

I notice in this little booklet that I hold in my hand, on page 25, 
beginning at the middle of the page, it reads as follows : 

First, the AFL-CIO and each of its affiliated unions should undertake the 
obligation through appropriate constitutional or administrative measures and 
orderly procedures to insure that no person who constitutes corrupt influences 
or practices, or who represents or supports Communists, Fascists, or totalitarian 
agencies, should hold office of any kind in any trade unions or organizations. 

Second, no person should hold or retain offices or appointed positions in the 
AFL-CIO or any of its affiliated national or international unions, or subordi- 
nate bodies thereof, who has been convicted of any crime involving moral 
turpitude offensive to trade union morality. 

I just read those two paragraphs, but it goes on. I think it would 
probably be well to have those incorporated in the record at this time, 
clue to the fact that it does have some bearing on just what we are 
endeavoring to do at the present time. 

(The booklet referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 471," and ex- 
cerpts therefrom relating to the matter under study by the subcom- 
mittee read as follows :) 

Exhibit No.- 471 

1. AFL-CIO Constitution * * * On Ethical Practices 

Article II, section 10 

The objects and principles of this federation are : 

To protect the labor movement from any and all corrupt influences and from 
the undermining efforts of Communist agencies and all others who are opposed 
to the basic principles of our democracy and free and democratic unionism. 
******* 

4033 



4034 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Article VIII, section 7 

It is a basic principle of this federation that it must be and remain free from 
any and all corrupt influences and from the undermining efforts of Communist, 
Fascist, or other totalitarian agencies who are opposed to the basic principles 
of our democracy and of free and democratic trade unionism. The executive 
council, when requested to do so by the president or by any other member of the 
executive council, shall have the power to conduct an investigation, directly or 
through an appropriate standing or special committee appointed by the president, 
of any situation in which there is reason to believe that any affiliate is dominated, 
controlled, or substantially influenced in the conduct of its affairs by any corrupt 
influence, or that the policies or activities of any affiliate are consistently di- 
rected toward the advocacy, support, advancement, or achievement of the program 
or of the purposes of the Communist Party, any Fascist organization, or other 
totalitarian movement. Upon the completion of such an investigation, including 
a hearing if requested, the executive council shall have the authority to make 
recommendations or give directions to the affiliate involved and shall have the 
further authority, upon a two-thirds vote, to suspend any affiliate found guilty 
of a violation of this section. Any action of the executive council under this 
section may be appealed to the convention, provided, however, that such action 
shall be effective when taken and shall remain in full force and effect pending 
any appeal. 

Article XIII, section 1 (d) 

The committee on ethical practices shall be vested with the duty and responsi- 
bility to assist the executive council in carrying out the constitutional determi- 
nation of the federation to keep the federation free from any taint of corruption 
or communism, in accordance with the provisions of this constitution. 

2. AFL-CIO Resolution * * * On Ethical Practices 

(Adopted by AFL-CIO Convention, December 1955) 

The democratic institutions of the United States of America were established 
on the foundation of honesty, integrity, responsibility. The free and democratic 
labor movement of our country similarly rests upon the foundations of brother- 
hood, honesty, and integrity. 

Any departure from the most exacting ethical principles is harmful not only 
to the people directly affected but to the whole fabric of our civilization. 

The American labor movement has ever been quick in its denunciation of public- 
officials who betray their trust. We have been equally critical of businessmen 
who have used corrupt methods and bribery to gain their selfish, acquisitive 
ends. We must be equally quick to recognize and condemn those instances of 
racketeering, corruption, and disregard for ethical standards when they occur 
inside our labor movement. 

The vast majority of labor union officials accept their responsibility and trust. 
They endeavor honestly to carry out the democratic will of their members and 
to discharge the duties of their office. Yet the reputations of the vast majority 
are imperiled by the dishonest, corrupt, unethical practices of the few who 
betray their trust and who look upon the trade-union movement not as a 
brotherhood to serve the general welfare, but as a means to advance their own 
selfish purposes or to forward the aim of groups or organizations who would 
destroy our democratic institutions. By the adoption of the constitution of the 
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, the 
American labor movement has clearly accepted the responsibility for keeping its 
own house in order and to protect the movement "from any and all corrupt 
influences and from the undermining efforts of Communist agencies and all 
others who are opposed to the basic principles of our democracy and free and 
democratic unionism." Only by their wholehearted dedication to this consti- 
tutional objective can labor unions meet their obligations to their memberships. 
Failure to meet these responsibilities can only result in governmental assump- 
tion of what are properly trade-union functions. Reliance on the agencies of 
government for keeping our movement free from the infiltration of racketeers, 
crooks, Communists, Fascists, and other enemies of free democratic unionism 
would constitute a threat to the independence and freedom of the entire 
movement ; 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4035 

Now, therefore, be it resolved : 

1. The first constitutional convention of the AFL-CIO calls upon all its af- 
filiated national and international unions to take whatever steps are necessary 
within their own organizations to effect the policies and ethical standards set 
forth in the constitution of the AFL-CIO. When constitutional amendments or 
changes in internal administrative procedures are necessary for the affiliated 
organizations to carry out the responsibilities incumbent upon autonomous or- 
ganizations, such amendments and changes should be undertaken at the earliest 
practicable time. 

2. This first constitutional convention of the AFL-CIO pledges its full support, 
good offices, and staff facilities of the AFL-CIO committee on ethical practices 
to all national and international unions in their efforts to carry out and put into 
practice the constitutional mandate to keep our organization "free from any taint 
of corruption or communism." 

******* 

Ethical practices code III — 

Racketeers, Crooks, Communists, and Fascists 

(Approved by the AFL-CIO executive council, January 31, 1957) 

This is the third in a series of recommended codes which the committee on 
ethical practices has developed in accordance with the direction of the executive 
council that it should "develop a set of principles and guides for adoption by 
the AFL-CIO in order to implement the constitutional determination that the 
AFL-CIO shall be and remain free from all corrupt influences." 

Article VIII, section 7, of the consitution of the AFL-CIO establishes that 
"it is a basic principle of this federation that it must be and remain free from 
any and all corrupt influences and from the undermining efforts of Communist, 
Fascist, or other totalitarian agencies who are opposed to the basic principles of 
our democracy and of free and democratic trade unionism." Under this con- 
stitutional provision there is no room within the federation or any of its affiliated 
unions for any person in a position of leadership or responsibility who is a 
crook, a racketeer, a Communist, or a Fascist. And it is the obligation of every 
union affiliated with the AFL-CIO to take appropriate steps to insure that this 
principle is complied with. 

To be sure, neither the AFL-CIO nor its affiliated unions are law-enforcing 
agencies. It is not within the purview or authority of a trade union to convict 
its members of a violation of statutory law. But it is the duty and responsi- 
bility of each national and international union affiliated with the federation to 
see to it that it is free of all corrupt, Communist, or Fascist influences. Conse- 
quently, a trade union need not wait upon a criminal conviction to bar from 
office corrupt, Communist, or Fascist influences. The responsibility of each 
union to see to it that it is free of such influences is not a responsibility placed 
upon our unions by law. It is a responsibility which rests upon our unions 
by the AFL-CIO constitution and by the moral principles that govern the trade- 
union movement. Eternal vigilance in this area is the price of an honest 
democratic trade-union movement. 

It is not possible, nor is it desirable, to set down rigid rules to determine 
whether a particular individual in a position of responsibility or leadership 
in the trade-union movement is a crook, a racketeer, a Communist, or a Fascist. 
Obviously, if a person has been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude 
offensive to trade-union morality, he should be barred from office or responsible 
position in the labor n.ovement. Obviously also, a person commonly known to 
be a crook or racketeer, should not enjoy immunity to prey upon the trade-union 
movement because he has somehow managed to escape conviction. In the same 
manner, the fact that a person has refrained from formally becoming a member 
of the Communist Party or a Fascist organization should not permit him to hold 
or retain a position of responsibility or leadership in the trade-union movement 
if, regardless of formal membership, he consistently supports or actively partic- 
ipates in the activities of the Communist Party or any Fascist or totalitarian 
organization. 

In this area, as in all others, determinations must be made as a matter of 
commonsense and with due regard to the rights of the labor unions and the 
individuals involved. 






4036 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

On the basis of these considerations, the ethical practices committee, under 
the authority vested in it by the constitution of the AFL-CIO, pursuant to the 
mandate of the first constitutional convention of the AFL-CIO, recommends 
that the executive council of the AFL-CIO adopt the following policies to safe- 
guard the good name of the AFL-CIO and its affiliated unions : 

1. The AFL-CIO and each of its affiliated unions should undertake the 
obligation, through appropriate constitutional or administrative measures and 
orderly procedures, to insure that no persons who constitute corrupt influences 
or practices or who represent or support Communist, Fascist, or totalitarian 
agencies should hold office of any kind in such trade unions or organizations. 

2. No person should hold or retain office or appointed position in the AFL- 
CIO or any of its affiliated national or international unions or subordinate 
bodies thereof who has been convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude 
offensive to trade-union morality. 

3. No person should hold or retain office or appointed position in the AFL- 
CIO or any of its affiliated national or international unions or subordinate 
bodies thereof who is commonly known to be a crook or racketeer preying on 
the labor movement and its good name for corrupt purposes, whether or not 
previously convicted for such nefarious activities. 

4. No person should hold or retain office or appointed position in the AFL- 
CIO or any of its affiliated national or international unions or subordinate 
bodies thereof who is a member, consistent supporter or who actively partici- 
pates in the activities of the Communist Party or of any Fascist or other 
totalitarian organization which opposes the democratic principles to which our 
country and the American trade-union movement are dedicated. 

Senator Johnston, You may proceed. 

Do you care to have anything else put in there ? 

Mr. Morris. No. 

Senator Johnston. I think that is sufficient for the project you 
have under consideration at the present time. 

Mr. Morris. This is a continuation of the hearings which were held 
here last Thursday, at which time the witnesses were Mr. Paul 
Boatin and Mr. Walter Dorosh. 

Since that time, Senator, the subcommittee had subpenaed four 
officials of the IUE — that is a recently formed organization, AFL- 
CIO organization. They were subpenaed to appear last Tuesday, 
Tuesday of this week. 

Now, in view of the fact that there are hearings in New York by 
the SACB, the subject of which is the United Electrical Radio and 
Machine Workers of America, UERMW, of which the four officials 
who were subpenaed for Tuesday had been members in the past, the 
subcommittee decided to defer the hearing of these four IUE officials 
until a later time. 

Senator Johnston. I know I speak probably for all the members 
of this subcommittee. We are not having these hearings in order to 
do any injury to the American Federation of Labor or the CIO. I 
want it plainly understood, as far as I am concerned, I think organ- 
ized labor has done a wonderful job in the United States, and I am in 
favor of organized labor. I am one southerner that believes in it. I 
think we need organized labor the same as we need organization in 
other activities in our life. At the same time we want to help organ- 
ized labor, and we feel that probably we can do so by investigations 
such as we are endeavoring to make at this time. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Van Horn, will you stand and be sworn ? 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear that the evidence you give before 
this subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the Senate will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God \ 

Miss Van Horn. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITT EST THE UNITED STATES 4037 

TESTIMONY OF HARRIET EDITH VAN HORN, DETROIT, MICH., 
ACCOMPANIED BY DAVID REIN, HER ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the 
reporter, Miss Van Horn ? 

Miss Van Horn. Harriet Edith Van Horn, 654 Continental, 
Detroit. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation, Miss Van Horn ? 

Miss Van Horn. My occupation is actually a production worker in 
the Chrysler Corp. 

Mr. Morris. A production worker in the Chrysler Corp. ? 

Miss Van Horn. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Where specifically do your work? 

Miss Van Horn. I work specifically in the wire room. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give us a short description of what your 
job is? 

Miss Van Horn. My job actually is chief steward at the present 
time of the wire room for Dodge Local 3. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you hold office in the UAW, do you not ? 

Miss Van Horn. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. That is, chief steward ? 

Miss Van Horn. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what other positions do you hold in connection 
with that? 

Miss Van Horn. In connection with that? The education com- 
mittee. I am a member of that. 

Mr. Morris. You are a member of the education committee of Dodge 
Local 3. 

Miss Van Horn. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what is the makeup of Dodge local? Who are 
eligible for membership in the Dodge local? 

Miss Van Horn. All the production workers and skilled workers in 
the Dodge main plant, Hamtramck, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. Even though you work for Chrysler, you are active in 
Dodge Local 3? 

Miss Van Horn. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. How many members are there in the Dodge local ; do 
you know ? 

Miss Van Horn. Roughly, 26,000. 

Mr. Morris. What is your work as a member of the education 
committee? What does it involve? 

Miss Van Horn. It involves serving on the committee once a month. 
Do you mean the duties of the committee itself ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Miss Van Horn. The duties of the committee are to have charge 
of the editing of the Dodge Main News, our union paper, and to con- 
duct the educational activities for the local. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Van Horn, there has been sworn testimony by 
Mrs. Bereniece Toby Baldwin before the House Un-American Activ- 
ities Committee that you have been educational director of the Dodge 
Club of the Communist Party. 

Have you ever served as educational director of the Dodge Club 
of the Communist Party ? 



4038 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendments. I would like to add, though — no ; that is all. 

Senator Johnston. I think we had better identify, too, that she has 
an attorney with her. It might be well to put your name and ad- 
dress in. 

Mr. Rein. David Rein, 711 14th Street NW. 

Senator Johnston. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I would like a ruling on the witness' 
claim of privilege. She has claimed privilege under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Senator Johnston. We acknowledge your right of entering a plea 
against answering the questions that you think might incriminate you, 
and set u,p the fifth amendment. Now, as to the first amendment, we do 
not acknowledge that you have any rights, under that amendment, 
to refuse to answer. 

Mr. Morris. You will not deny, then, Miss Van Horn, that the 
testimony of Mrs. Bereniece Baldwin that you were at one time the 
educational director of the Dodge Club of the Communist Party is 
true? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that under the first and fifth 
amendments. 

Senator Johnston. Again, let me state that we acknowledge your 
right not to answer it under the fifth amendment, which really covers 
the situation at this time. We do not acknowledge that you have any 
such rights under the first amendment, and each time that you answer 
the question, I want to preserve time by saying my reply will be the 
same. 

Mr. Rein. May I suggest that, in the future, if the witness says she 
declines under the same reason, it includes your statement? 

Senator Johnston. I will include my statement, to preserve time. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Van Horn, have you acted as chairman of a 
Communist Party meeting at the auto miscellaneous section, at 2419 
Grand River, Detroit, Mich., on May 17, 1949 ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you attended a State convention of the 
Michigan Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. In fact, you were, in 1948, elected as a member of 
the State commission of the Michigan Communist Party, were you not ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, on April 23, 1949, attend a meeting sponsored 
by the Ford section of the Michigan Communist Party for the purpose 
of raising money for defense of the 12 indicted national Communist 
leaders ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Now, on July 23, 1949, did you attend a testimonal 
banquet honoring Nat Ganley on the occasion of his departure as edi- 
tor of the Communist Michigan Daily Worker ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Was this meeting sponsored by the auto miscellaneous 
section of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4039 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you attend, on September 14, 1949, a meeting 
of the Ford Foundry Club, Communist club, held at 5642 Michigan 
Avenue in Detroit ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, on October 20, 1949, participate in a picket 
line in front of the Detroit Federal Building for the purpose of pro- 
testing the guilty verdict passed on the 11 national Communist Party 
leaders? This was under the auspices of an organization known as 
the Emergency Committee To Save the Bill of Rights, Michigan 
Communist Party, and the Civil Rights Congress? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. On May 7, 1950, did you attend the annual Communist 
May Day meeting sponsored by the Michigan Communist Party \ 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Was Fred Fine, national legislation director of the 
Communist Party, a speaker at that same meeting ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend, on May 4, 1952, the May Day cultural 
festival for peace and civil rights, sponsored by the Civil Rights Con- 
gress, the Michigan Committee for the Protection of the Foreign 
Born ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. On February 3, 1952, did you attend a mass meeting 
sponsored by the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, on April 6, 1954, at the Carlton Theater, 
attend a showing of the film, Salt of the Earth? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, on March 22, 1952 — going back now — attend 
a meeting of the Wayne County Club of the Progressive Party of 
Michigan, at which Mrs. Vivian Hallinan was the speaker ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

Senator Johnston. You mean for the same reasons that it might 
incriminate you ? 

Miss Van Horn. It might tend to, Senator. 

Mr. Sourwine. Does the record show that the motion picture, Salt 
of the Earth, was Communist financed ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, do you have anything on that ? 

Mr. Mandel. Salt of the Earth was a picture produced by the In- 
ternational Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers, which has 
been testified to as under Communist control, and is presently under 
proceedings by the Subversive Activities Control Board. 

Mr. Sourwine. Does the record show that the particular showing 
of this motion picture, with regard to which Mr. Morris has ques- 
tioned the witness, was sponsored by the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mandel. The author, Mr. Waldo Salt, I believe, took the fifth 
amendment regarding his Communist Party membership. 

Mr. Sourwine. I am inquiring about the particular showing about 
which Mr. Morris questioned the witness. 

Mr. Mandel. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. When did you last see Mr. Nat Ganley ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer, for the same reasons. 

93215— 57— pt. 64 3 



4040 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 

Could I at this point inject in the record that I am not now a 
member 

Mr. Morris. I was going to get to that. 

As you know, Senator, when we asked Miss Van Horn if she was 
presently a member, she answered "No." 

Senator Johnston. As I recall, you asked questions about different 
times in the past. She answered parts of them, and some she refused 
to answer, and set up her rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. That is right. 

I specifically asked you, Miss Van Horn, if you were a member of 
the Communist Party when you attended the May Day cultural 
festival for peace and civil rights on May 4, 1952. What is your 
answer to that? Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
that time ? 

Miss Van Horn. On that particular date, I was not a member. 
What was that again ? 

Mr. Morris. May 4, 1952. 

Miss Van Horn. At that time, I was not a member. 

Mr. Morris. But you did attend the May Day cultural festival 
under the auspices of the Michigan Committee for the Protection of 
the Foreign Born and the Civil Rights Congress, did you not \ 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time since this date in May 1952? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Oh, the answer to that is no. I thought you said prior. 

Mr. Sourwine. You had stated that you were not a member on a 
particular date in 1952, and I was trying to establish if you had been 
a member since that date. 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Party at any time 
within a year prior to that date ? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. At any time subsequent to the 1st of January 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time subsequent to the 1st of January 1952 ? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. This could progress to a particular date, Mr. Chair- 
man. It might be of some interest to endeavor to do it. What is 
the Chair's wish? May I proceed? 

Senator Johnston. Proceed. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time during the last 6 months of the calendar year 1951 ? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time during the second calendar quarter of the year 1951 '. 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time during the months of February or March 1951 ? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the month of January 1951? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4041 

Mr. Sourwine. Well, then, you have not been a member of the 
Communist Part}' at any time since January 1, 1951? 

Miss Van Horn. That is correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the last 6 months of 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that under the fifth amend- 
ment. I am sorry. The answer to that is no. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
any time during the second calendar quarter of 1950 ? 

Miss Van Horn. Second calendar quarter? 

Mr. Sourwine. The months of April, May, and June. 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the months of February or March 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the month of January 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Then you have not been a member of the Communist 
Party at any time since the 1st of January 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. That is correct. 

Mr. Sourwine. Didn't you decline under your rights of the fifth 
amendment to answer a question with respect to since January 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. Not since then. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
at any time since January 1949 ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the last 6 months of 1949 ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the last 3 months of 1949? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time during the month of December 1949 ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. We have this down to the month, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell me the circumstances of your leaving the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. • 

Mr. Morris. But you have, since January 1950, associated with per- 
sons you know to be Communists ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen, within the last year, Mr. Nat Ganley ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen during the last year Mr. William Allen ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, I wonder if you will identify Mr. Ganley 
and Mr. Allen ? 

Mr. Mandel. Nat Ganley, also known as Nat Kaplan, is a known 
leader of the Communist Party in the State of Michigan. 

William Allen is also a known leader of the Communist Party in 
the State of Michigan, and a writer for the Daily Worker. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us, Miss Van Horn, what your associa- 
tions with those two gentlemen have been during the past year? 



4042 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know either of those two men ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Did you effect any kind of a formal disassociation from 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been active in the Civil Rights Congress in 
the past year ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been active recently in the Michigan Coun- 
cil for Peace, which is a Communist-front organization ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. You were a speaker, were you not, during the second 
session of the 2-day conference sponsored by that organization in May 
of 1952? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness. 

Mr. Sourwine. May I ask one question ? 

Senator Johnston. Proceed. 

Mr. Sourwine. During the period which you have testified you 
have not been a member of the Communist Party, since January 1950, 
have you been at any time subject to Communist discipline ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer for the same reasons — Just a 
minute, please. 

Mr. Rein. If I may 

Mr. Sourwine. The witness has answered, Mr. Rein. Do you want 
to tell the witness to give the committee a different answer? 

Mr. Rein. Perhaps the witness didn't understand the question. 

Mr. Sourwine. I will ask it again. 

During the time which you have testified you were not a member 
of the Communist Party, that is, since January 1950, have you been 
at any time under Communist discipline? 

Miss Van Horn. No ; I haven't. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions, Senator. 

Senator Johnston. How long have you been an officer in the 
AFL^CIO? 

Miss Van Horn. I have held elected positions off and on for the 
past 10, 12, 13 years. 

Senator Johnston. What branch were you in prior to the amalgama- 
tion of the AFL and CIO ? 

Miss Van Horn. I was still with Dodge Local 3, IT AW. 

Senator Johnston. Was it connected with the AFL ? 

Miss Van Horn. It is now, but it wasn't in the past. It was the 
CIO then. 

Senator Johnston. Are there any other questions ? 

Mr. Morris. I have none, Senator. 

Senator Johnston. You may be excused, then. 

Will you call the next witness ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Fireman, will you be sworn? 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear the evidence you will give before 
this subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the Senate will be 
the truth", the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 
Mr. Fireman. I do. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4043 

TESTIMONY OF HYMAN FIREMAN, ROYAL OAK, MICH. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the 
reporter? 

Mr. Fireman. Hyman Fireman, 3223 North Connecticut, Royal 
Oak, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your business and occupation, Mr. Fire- 
man, please? 

Mr. Fireman. I work for General Motors Corp., and I am a metal- 
worker in the shop. 

Mr. Morris. You are associated with the United Auto Workers, 
are you not ? 

Mr. Fireman. I am a member of the UAW. 

Mr. Morris. And you hold an elective office in the UAW ? 

Mr. Fireman. I do, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What position do you hold ? 

Mr. Fireman. I am a member of the bylaws committee of Local 
160, UAW, AFL-CIO. I am also a member of the election commit- 
tee of UAW, Local 160. 

Mr. Morris. What other positions do you hold ? 

Mr. Fireman. Last year I was recording secretary. 

Mr. Morris. You are recording secretary ? 

Mr. Fireman. I was recording secretary of my unit of local 160. 
I am not the recording secretary now. I declined to run. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long have you been associated with the 
UAW? 

Mr. Fireman. I think I joined the UAW in 1940 or 1941. 

Mr. Morris. What principal offices have you held during that 
period ? 

Mr. Fireman. I think I have just enumerated them to you, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Fireman. Sir, I decline to answer, stating my refusal on the 
first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Senator Johnston. This committee acknowledges your rights to 
refrain from answering a question that you think might incriminate 
you. We think that under the fifth amendment you probably have 
that right. But we do not recognize that you have any rights for 
refusing to answer under the first amendment. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a meeting on May 16, 1953, sponsored 
by Mr. William Allen, editor of the Michigan Daily Worker? 

Mr. Fireman. Sir, I decline to answer for the reasons that I just 
gave. 

Senator Johnston. We acknowledge your rights under the fifth 
amendment, if you think it might incriminate you — — 

Mr. Fireman. I would like to interject, please, if I may, it might 
tend to incriminate me. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a meeting of the Michigan Council for 
Peace, a Communist Party front organization on August 24, 1952 ? 

Mr. Fireman. I decline to answer for the reasons I just gave, sir. 

Mr. Morris. On September 1, 1952, did you attend a meeting spon- 
sored by the Michigan Civil Rights Congress, and the Michigan Com- 
mittee for the Protection of the Foreign Born, both of which are 
Communist-front organizations ? 



4044 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Fireman. I decline to answer, sir, for the reasons I just gave. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with the testimony of Bereneice 
Baldwin, a former member of the Communist Party in Detroit, to 
the effect that you have been a member of the Communist Party in 
the United States ? Are you acquainted with the testimony ? 

Mr. Fireman. Yes ; I am acquainted with the testimony. 

Mr. Morris. Was that truthful testimony ? 

Mr. Fireman. I decline to answer for the reasons I just gave. 

Senator Johnston. The committee takes the position, then, that 
every time you set up the fifth amendment and the first amendment, 
you "have a right to refuse to answer if you see fit under the fifth 
amendment. This committee rules that you have no rights under the 
first amendment to refuse to answer the questions. 

Mr. Fireman. Well, I also consider it an invasion of my privacy. 

Senator Johnston. We hold otherwise. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Fireman, did you attend the Atlantic City conven- 
tion a few months ago ? 

Mr. Fireman. No, sir ; I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have some more specific questions to ask, 
but I think in view of the witness' responses, it will be unavailing to 
ask any more questions. 

Senator Johnston. Do you have any more questions, Mr. Sourwme ? 

Mr. Sourwine. No, sir. 

Senator Johnston. With no further questions, the witness is ex- 

cused. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Sourwine would like to ask Miss Van Horn a few 

more questions. 

Senator Johnston. You are excused, Mr. Fireman, but please re- 
main in the room for just a little bit. 

Miss Van Horn, please come back. You have been sworn already. 

FURTHER TESTIMONY OE HARRIET EDITH VAN HORN— Recalled 

Mr. Sourwine. I think it is possible to make the record perhaps a 
little clearer with respect to the witness' last question asked, as to 
whether she had been at any time under Communist discipline since 
January 1, 1950. Your answer to that question was "No,' 1 unequivo- 
cally, that you had not? 

Miss Van Horn. That is right. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you at any time subsequent to January 1950, 
attend a meeting of which you we're advised by a person known to you 
to be a Communist? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that— did you say at any time, 
Senator? 

Mr. Sourwine. Since January 1, 1950. I am not a Senator. I am 
an associate counsel of this committee. 

Miss Van Horn. No ; I did not. 

Would you restate that question, please ? 

Mr. Sourwine. The question was whether you had at any time 
during this period since January 1, 1950, attended a meeting of which 
you were advised by a person known to you to be a Communist? 

Miss Van Horn. I didn't attend any meeting of the Communist 
Party, so I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Sourwine. I will break the question down. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4045 

Do you know any persons who, to your knowledge, are members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you during the period since January 1, 1950, 
had any communication with any individuals known to you to be 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you since January 1, 1950, received from a 
person known to you to be a member of the Communist Party notice 
of a meeting of any kind ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you on more than one occasion since January 
1, 1950, received from a person known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party notice of a meeting of any kind ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you since January 1, 1950, attended any meet- 
ings of the Dodge Club of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. When you attended, on March 18, 1950, the banquet 
launching the Michigan Communist Party $35,000 fund drive, did you 
have a ticket to that banquet ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that under the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you receive a ticket to that banquet from a 
person known to you to be a Communist, a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. When you attended a showing of the motion picture, 
The Young God, a Communist propaganda film on June 10, 1950, did 
you have a ticket for that performance ? 

Miss Van Horn. I have no recollection of that movie at all. 

Mr. Sourwine. Well, I will ask you directly. 

Did you, on June 10, 1950, attend a Jewish community center show- 
ing of the picture, The Young God, a film dedicated to the 30th anni- 
versary of the Young Communist League of the Soviet Union, and 
a film which was then and there shown by the Michigan chapter of 
the Labor Youth League ? 

Miss Van Horn. I have no recollection of that at all. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you have any recollection of attending the picnic 
of the Michigan Communist Party at Welcome Park, Clawson, Mich., 
in July of 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. No ; I have no recollection of that. 

Mr. Sourwine. Did you attend a farewell banquet honoring James 
and Esther Cooper Johnson for their work in the progressive move- 
ment — in the Communist movement in Detroit in January 1950? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you ever received from a person known to 
you to be a Communist notice of a meeting of the Civil Rights 
Congress ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you ever, since 1950, January 1950, received 
instructions from any person known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 



4046 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Sourwine. Have you since January 1, 1950, received any re- 
quests from any persons known to you to be members of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Van Horn. I don't know what you mean. 

Mr. Sourwine. Do you know what a request is ? 

Miss Van Horn. Do you mean in writing or verbally ? 

Mr. Sourwine. Orally or in writing. 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Sourwine. I have no more questions. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to call the attention of the witness to the 
fact that Mrs. Baldwin has testified that you attended a Communist 
Party meeting on April 21 and April 22, 1950, at Jericho Temple, 
2705 Joy Koad, in Detroit. Will you deny that testimony ? 

Miss Van Horn. I will decline to answer that under the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Morris. The date, Mr. Rein, is April 21 and 22, 1950. 

There is sworn testimony that you attended a meeting on those dates, 
Miss Van Horn. 

Miss Van Horn. I have no recollection of that meeting. 

Mr. Morris. But she has so testified that you attended this meeting. 
Jericho Temple, 2705 Joy Road, Detroit. 

Miss Van Horn. I testified ? 

Mr. Morris. No; she has testified that you were present at that 
meeting. 

Miss Van Horn. I have no recollection of that meeting at all. 

Mr. Sourwine. You have testified here, I think, more than once, 
that you have not since January 1, 1950, attended any Communist 
meetings ? 

Miss Van Horn. That I wasn't a member. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Sourwine, she was very careful not to say that. 
She has said she was not a Communist member at that time. When 
we asked her about particular Communist Party meetings, she has 
claimed her privilege. 

Mr. Sourwine. I thought I had asked the question whether the 
witness had, since January 1, 1950, attended any meetings of the Com- 
munist Party. If I did not, I will ask that question now. 

Senator Johnston. I believe the record shows that she testified 
that she was not a Communist since January 1, 1950. 

Now, then, the question pending is, Have you attended any meeting 
of the Communist Party since January 1, 1950, and you knew that it 
was a Communist meeting. 

Miss Van Horn. I didn't attend any meetings, to my knowledge, 
that were meetings of the Communist Party since that date. 

Senator Johnston. Have you attended any meeting that you found 
out even later was a Communist meeting? 

Miss Van Horn. No. 

Mr. Morris. Miss Van Horn, you were at the May Day cultural 
festival for peace and civil rights sponsored by the Civil Rights Con- 
gress on May 4, 1952 ; were you not ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Certainly the May Day cultural festival at that time 
was a Communist meeting ; was it not ? 

Miss Van Horn. I decline to answer that. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4047 

Mr. Sourwine. I would like to ask that the witness, Mr. Chairman, 
be ordered and directed to answer that question. That is in the na- 
ture of fair cross-examination on a question she had previously an- 
swered. I don't think she has any privilege with regard to that 
question. 

Senator Johnston. Would you please rephrase your question ? 

Mr. Morris. Would you read the question back ? 

( Whereupon, the pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Soxjrwine. Mr. Chairman, the witness having previously an- 
swered that she had not attended a Communist Party meeting, no 
meeting that she knew as a Communist meeting, this question is fair 
cross-examination by Mr. Morris on that question. 

Senator Johnston. You had answered that you had not attended 
any meetings since January 1, 1950, any Communist meeting that you 
knew at the time was a Communist meeting, or you even found out 
afterwards was a Communist meeting. 

I believe that is your testimony, isn't it? 

Mr. Retn. I wonder if I could address myself to this for just a 
second. I think I may clear it up. 

Senator Johnston. You may address yourself to it, but you are not 
fixing to testify for her, are you? 

Mr. Rein. No; I think I can clear up any misunderstanding that 
there may be. 

My understanding of the record, Mr. Chairman, is that she said she 
did not attend any meetings of the Communist Party. I understand 
this was a different question. It is not as to whether it is a meeting 
of the Communist Party, but whether it was a Communist meeting. I 
think that is the ambiguity here. 

Mr. Morris. You think she will answer questions technically, if it 
is technically a Communist Party meeting, but involving groups that 
are led by the Communist Party, like the Civil Rights Congress, she 
will decline to answer? 

Mr. Rein. I think the record is clear on that. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, speaking for the witness, seems to be making 
the point that she will claim her privilege about her attendance at 
meetings which were organized by, roughly speaking, Communist- 
front organizations, but with respect to technical Communist Party 
membership meetings, she will make a denial ? 

Mr. Rein. That is right. I think there is no inconsistency. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, that would be any meetings even down 
to date ; is that right ? You will claim privilege with respect to any 
Communist-front meetings, but you will enter denial as to any tech- 
nical Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Rein. I am prepared to state what the record is at the present. 
But 1 think there is ambiguity between answering for a Civil Rights 
Congress meeting, and meetings of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. The witness has made the distinction. It is acceptable 
to me. if it is to the Chair. 

Mr. Sourwine, is that acceptable to you ? 

Mr. Sourwine. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Morris. I have no further questions of this witness. 

I have one more witness, Mr. Trachtenberg. I will try to be very 
brief. 



4048 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Johnston. All the Avitnesses who were here, remain in the 
room until the hearing is over, and we will tell you what we will do 
with you in the future. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Trachtenberg, will you be sworn? 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear that the evidence you will give 
before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the 
Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MAX TRACHTENBERG, WYANDOTTE, MICH. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Trachtenberg, will you please give your name and 
address to the reporter? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. Max Trachtenberg, 13126 Irene, Wyandotte, 
Mich. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or occupation ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. Auto worker. 

Mr. Morris. Where are you employed ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. De Soto plant for Chrysler. 

Mr. Morris. Are you chief steward there ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. Right now, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where are you a chief steward ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. In the trim division. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us what that is ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. The trim division is where they put all the up- 
holstery into the bodies, the chrome, the handles, and the glass work; 
all that stuff. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been a chief steward ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. About 3 months. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been press director, specifically on Octo- 
ber 30, 1951, the press director of the West Side Industrial Section of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of my rights under the Constitution, the first amendment and the fifth 
amendment. 

Senator Johnston. Let me warn the witness again, as far as the 
first amendment goes, we do not recognize that you have any right 
to refuse to answer all questions. But, if you set up the fifth amend- 
ment, we do recognize that you have a right if you think it might in- 
criminate you. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with your work as a chief steward — what 
local are you associated with in that connection ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I am in Local 227, UAW, CIO-AFL. 

Mr. Morris. What is local 227? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. A local consisting of all De Soto workers. 

Mr. Morris. Specifically, did you attend a Communist meeting in 
the home of Lee and Dorothy Marsh on October 1, 1951 ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the same reasons I gave before. 

Senator Johnston. The same ruling of the Chair. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended meetings under the auspices of the 
Michigan Civil Rights Congress? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4049 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds that I did before. 

Mr. Morris. On December 23, 1952, were you the press director of 
the West Side Industrial Area of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds as I gave before. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend meetings at the headquarters of the 
Michigan Worker, which is the Michigan Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline for the same reasons I stated before. 

Senator Johnston. Just to clarify the record, are you a Communist 
at the present time ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline to answer that for the same reasons I 
gave before. 

I might interject here that I was in the middle of an election cam- 
paign of the local. The elections are going on there today, and I 
didn't think it was right for me to be here when I was having an 
election going on in my home local. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I did not know that. When the man called 
yesterday with regard to your appearing here today, he said the 
reason you couldn't be here today was you wanted us to advance 
the money for your trip. There was no mention of your having a 
union election today. 

Mr. Trachtenberg. Perhaps there was a misunderstanding, but 
there is an election going on, and I am running as a candidate, and 
I am not there. 

Mr. Morris. I spoke to Mr. Joseph Forer yesterday, and I spoke to 
another lawyer from Detroit, and no mention was made of it. 

Senator Johnston. I certainly didn't know it until you mentioned 
it just now. 

Mr. Morris. There has been testimony by Herbert H. Donnelly 
that you have been a member of the Communist Party. Will you 
deny that? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline to answer on the same reasons I gave 
before. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

I have one other thing. 

Have you been employed by the city of Flint, Mich. ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. Yes ; I was. 

Mr. Morris. What position did you have in the city of Flint ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I helped to put sidewalks down, the rough 
work, laying sidewalks. 

Mr. Morris. Physical work. 

Mr. Trachtenberg. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Communist faction 
of the Communist Party in the city of Flint, Mich. ? 

Mr. Trachtenberg. I decline to answer that question for the same 
reasons I gave before, 

Air. Morris. I have no more questions, Senator. 

Senator Johnston. Are there any more questions, Mr. Sourwine? 

Mr. Sourwine. No, Senator. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

Senator Johnston. You may be excused. 

Is there any further reason for holding these witnesses here ? 

Mr. Morris. No, Senator. 



4050 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Johnston. You are excused, Mr. Trachtenberg, and so are 

the witnesses who appeared before you. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to offer for the record an issue of the 
Ford Facts, which is a publication of the UAW, local 600, Saturday, 
March 18, 1957, which has a large front-page story about a report 
of Carl Stellato, who was president of local 600— which I understand 
is the largest local of the UAW— in which he gives a report to the 
local after he came here to Washington. 

Now, we extended to Mr. Stellato the courtesy of sitting in on the 
executive sessions, and he has now apparently given a full report to 
Ford Facts about what happened at these particular executive ses- 
sions. He takes the position, Senator, which seems rather extraor- 
dinary, of criticizing Mr. Paul Boatin, who was the UAW official 
who appeared here and gave responsive testimony to the committee's 
questions. We asked him if he had been a Communist, and he said 
"Yes." We asked him certain other questions. Our records show 
that he has been a completely responsive witness. That is the man 
Mr. Stellato criticizes. 

With respect to Mr. Walter Dorosh, another member of the local 
UAW, who claimed privilege to all questions, Stellato is very obvi- 
ously, as this will appear, defending that particular man. 

He also made some statements about what went on in the execu- 
tive sessions' testimony, and I think particularly with respect to the 
testimony of James Watts, and I think the Internal Security Sub- 
committee should give consideration as to whether it will put Mr. 
Watts' testimony in the record. 

I wonder if you will accept this for the record. It is a report of 
Carl Stellato on the Washington security hearings — the hearings 
held here. 

Senator Johnston. I think it would be well for it to be printed in 
the record at this time in order for us to have the full information. 

(The article referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 472" and reads 
as follows:) 

[From Ford Facts, May 18, 1957, p. 1] 

President Carl Stellato Reports on Washington Security Hearings 

Regrettable as it is, my responsibilities are such that it necessitates my bring- 
ing to your attention a time-worn adverse problem — adverse in a sense that it 
hurts the union and its membership. I am, of course, referring to the sub- 
penaing of four local union officebolders, namely, Brother John Orr, vice presi- 
dent of local 600; the local union editor, James Watts: Brother Dorosh, re- 
cording secretary, tool and die unit; and Paul Boatin, president-elect of the 
engine plant. 

antiunion forces on the move 

If the membership does not fully realize the daily increase in the activities 
of the antiunion forces in the country, then it is my thinking that we had better 
get hold of ourselves and take a good hard look at the situation. 

For example, the McClellan Senate committee, which was established by the 
Senate to investigate improper activities in labor-management relations, has 
so far confined its headlines to alleged gangsterism and racketeering in trade 
unions to the exclusion of management. While I am vigorously opposed to rack- 
eteering in unions, I am just as vigorously opposed to it on the part of man- 
agement or anyone else. 

SEEKING "RIGIIT-TO-WORK" LAWS 

In my way of thinking, this committee is concerned more with the passage of 
legislation comparable to the present "right-to-work" laws now enacted in 18 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4051 

States than to help the unions in winning the new goals set in the 16th UAW 
constitutional convention necessary for a better life for all of the people in 

the country. 

The counterpart of the McClellan committee active today is the Eastland 
Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security, of the Senate Judiciary Committee. 
I don't feel that I should get into all of the ramifications of the activities of this 
committee which is charged with policing the Internal Security Act passed in 
1950. I will not quarrel with the United States Senate on its investigative need. 
I feel they are properly constituted by law and therefore must be respected as 
an agency of Congress. 

WHY CONCENTRATION ON LABOR? 

A considerable number of American citizens are asking, and I am wondering 
if they are not correct in asking, why is there so much concentration on labor. 
Yes, the concentration is on militant trade unions and unionists. Shouldn't the 
Eastland Committee on Internal Security spend some time investigating and 
curbing the activities of organizations that pose an equal security risk to the 
United States, such as the KKK, White Citizens Councils, etc.? Have we as 
a democracy deteriorated so much that some 200 million people don't know right 
from wrong? Are we on our way to outlawing the right to dissent? Has 
democracy become weak and is crumbling? I believe not. 

We are fast approaching a new era for mankind. Just imagine the century 
of atomic energy just before us. Automation, shorter workweek, more leisure 
time for recreation, educational, and cultural purposes for ourselves and our 
children. The UAW stands at the fore united with millions of other organized 
workers. 

MILITANT TRADE UNIONIST 

In our eagerness to accomplish these goals, we become militant, our thoughts 
become dynamic and we can't wait for the day when our visions will be ac- 
complished. 

Isn't it possible that before the birth of our great unions that amongst our 
ranks we had those with great vision in the organization of the workers in the 
union — visions of security rights, vacations, holiday pay, pensions, and who, be- 
cause of their visions, sometimes may have become militant — and to those in 
opposition may be overmilitant? 

I journeyed at my own expense to Washington, D .C, with three subpenaed 
officers of the local — Brothers Orr, Watts, and Dorosh. My purpose was to 
defend my local union and learn firsthand what were the reasons for calling 
some local and unit officers. I acted, at their request, as counsel for Vice 
President Orr and Editor Watts in an executive hearing before the Subcommit- 
tee on Internal Security. In this hearing Senator Butler acted as chairman. 

PROUD OF BROTHERS ORR AND WATTS 

Brothers Orr and Watts agreed that both would testify in an executive hearing 
in the presence of each other along with myself. My conclusions on this phase 
of the hearings are that I am proud of the way both Brothers John Orr and James 
Watts answered all questions relating to their own activities within the union 
and as Americans. 

Brother Orr made it crystal clear to Senator Butler and counsel for the 
committee, Mr. Morris, that he, as an American, resented and felt personally 
insulted in having been subpenaed to testify. He said that a subpena from the 
Committee an Internal Security left the impression with many people that he 
had something to hide or that he had to be forced to appear for questioning 
when the opposite was true. John said, "1 have nothing to hide. I am not now 
nor have I ever been a member of the Communist Party," and proceeded to 
answer all questions. 

WATTS ANSWERED ALL QUESTIONS 

Brother Watts also answered all questions and admitted having attended some 
Communist meetings for some 9 months in 1943 or 1944. Neither of them availed 
himself of any constitutional amendments. Their testimony was confined to 
answering questions based on information about their own activities that were 
contained in the committee files. 

Brother Dorosh, tool and die recording secretary, gave testimony in the execu- 
tive session and the open hearing on trade-union matters dealing with his post 



4052 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

as unit secretary. When the question arose of whether he was a Communist 
now, or was in the past — after having consulted with the international union 
and being told that union policy frowns on the use of constitutional privileges 
when testifying on union finances but not when dealing with civil liberties and 
upon advice of his attorney — Brother Dorosh invoked his constitutional privi- 
leges. Brother Dorosh refused to discuss the activities of other union members 
or the activities of the progressive caucus which seemed to be the central point of 
the committee's questioning. Brother Dorosh was dismissed by the committee. 

FIFTH PART OF UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION 

My conclusion on this phase of the hearing is that whether one agrees with 
an individual using the fifth amendment or the first amendment is not important. 

What is important, in my opinion, is that as Americans we all recognize that 
both the first and fifth amendments were written into the Constitution of the 
United States of America by the fathers of our country. The Constitution of the 
United States of America is the very basis and the "guts" of American democracy 
and all Americans are entitled to exercise their rights and privileges. To frown 
upon one who exercises his right under our Constitution is, in my opinion, to 
frown upon democracy. 

The other witness was the president-elect from the engine plant, Paul Boatin. 
Boatin, I am given to understand, consumed a little better than an hour in the 
executive session on Tuesday. 

BOATIN ADMITS COMMUNIST TIES 

In the open hearings, Paul Boatin admitted membership in the Communist 
Party and went briefly into his experience before his alleged expulsion. The 
counsel for the committee interrupted the hearing after some 5 minutes of 
testimony and suggested that Boatin be held on a standby basis — for further 
hearing, I suppose. 

My conclusions on this phase of the testimony concerning Paul Boatin are 
that Boatin has a right to confess to Senator Eastland his subversive activities 
and leadership in the Communist Party from 1939 to 1949. And while Boatin 
was quoted in the Detroit Free Press, dated Wednesday, May 15, 1957, as 
stating : 

"The lawyer the local hired at that time, Ernest Goodman, advised us to 
claim the fifth amendment protection" Boatin said after Tuesday's hearing. 

"The local took the position at the time that the Un-American Activities 
Committee was antilabor, and refused to cooperate." 

BOATIN LIED UNDER OATH 

Paul Boatin lied again. (1) The local did not hire Ernest Goodman or any 
other attorney in 1952 when the Un-American Activities Committee visited De- 
troit; (2) Boatin and others who were represented in the hearings by Good- 
man paid for his services out of their own pockets; (3) the local did not 
instruct, advise or indicate in any way how anyone should behave. 

Is it true that Paul Boatin in the 1952 Un-American Committee hearings used 
the fifth amendment to protect himself from possible prosecution and possible 
deportation under the immigration law for having possibly falsified his applica- 
tion for citizenship, for, by his own testimony in 1952, he said he applied for 
and received his naturalization papers in 1947 after having enjoyed the fruits 
of American democracy for 25 years? At the recent hearings he admitted being 
a member of the Communist Party between 1939 and 1949. 

BOATIN WILL BE STAR WITNESS 

Without question, Brother Boatin, in my opinion, will be a star witness in 
future hearings for both the Un-American Activities Committee and the Senate 
Committee on Internal Security. 

I imagine in the 10 years of admitted leadership in the Communist Party 
Paul Boatin must have signed up into the Communist Party many decent, 
honest American union members whom he was able to convince with his lies 
that the answer to all of the problems facing American workers would be 
found in the Communist Party. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4053 

I would like to conclude by bringing to the attention of the membership the 
need for complete unity. I need only refer you to the flat and emphatic "No" 
that Mr. Bugas gave to Brother Reuther as his answer to the union's request 
that a joint committee be set up to lay the groundwork for a shorter workweek. 
However, neither Bugas' "No" answer and the attacks on us from various com- 
mittees, nor the attacks upon union officers by former Communists will deter 
local 600 from moving ahead to do the job for the membership. 

Mr. Morris. Just one other order of business. One other man ap- 
peared here today in executive session. I would like the public record 
to show that he was a responsive witness. We will be very careful 
not to allow his name to come out, because he says he would be em- 
barrassed if it were known that he testified here. 

In the event it is known through some source other than the com- 
mittee, I would like the record to show that the fourth man who ap- 
peared here today in executive testimony was a responsive witness. 

Senator Johnston. It shall be so entered, and I want the record to 
show that I verify this statement, also. 

That shows when they come and testify and give information that 
shows clearly to us that they are not in any way connected with the 
Communist Party, we do not want to embarrass them in any way. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Senator. 

Senator Johnston. Are there any other matters to come before the 
subcommittee ? 

Mr. Morris. These hearings, Senator, will be continued next Tues- 
day, when we will have witnesses of the same general category of 
those today scheduled to appear. 

Senator Johnston. The subcommittee is recessed until next Tues- 
day. 

(Thereupon, at 12 noon, the subcommittee adjourned.) 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, MAY 28, 1957 

United States Senate 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
and Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 : 05 a. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland, chairman, pre- 
siding. 

Also present: Kobert Morris, chief counsel and Benjamin Mandel, 
research director. 

Senator Eastland. We may as well swear all the witnesses to- 
gether. 

Mr. Morris. Will all the witnesses please stand. 

Senator Eastland. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give to the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee of the 
Committee on the Judiciary will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Cinzori. I do. 

Mr. Simmons. I do. 

Mr. Piiilo. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MACK CINZORI, DEARBORN, MICH., ACCOMPANIED 
BY DAVID REIN, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter ? 

Mr. Cinzori. My name is Mack Cinzori. I live at 3021 Syracuse. 
Dearborn, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. Is that spelled C-i-n-z-o-r-i ? 

Mr. Cinzori. Right. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or occupation ? 

Mr. Cinzori. I am a diemaker. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you work ? 

Mr. Cinzori. Ford Motor Co. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been a diemaker with Ford Motor 
Co.? 

Mr. Cinzori. Well, I have 1932 seniority. 

Mr. Morris. You have been elected as tool and die committeeman 
for local 600: have vou not? 

Senator Eastland. "What union? 

Mr. Cinzori. CIO. 

Mr. Morris. United Auto Workers ? 

4055 



4056 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Cinzori. Eight. 

Mr. Morris. What is the membership of United Auto Workers? 

Mr. Cinzori. T would estimate 1,300,000. 

Mr. Morris. What is the membership of local 600 ? 

Mr. Cinzori. That is another estimate. I would estimate around 
45,000. 

Mr. Morris. How big is the tool and die division of that local? 

Mr. Cinzori. Tool and die division is between 4,000 and 4,500. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been the tool and die commit- 
teeman ? 

Mr. Cinzori. Since 1943. 

Mr. Morris. And you also were the convention delegate from 
the tool and die division of the local, were you not ? 

Mr. Cinzori. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Where was that convention held ? 

Mr. Cinzori. At Atlantic City. 

Mr. Morris. When was that? 

Mr. Cinzori. I believe that was — it started on April 7 or 8, 1957. 

Mr. Morris. Are you presentlv a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, based on the privi- 
leges granted me under the fifth amendment.^ 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I would like to point out that three wit- 
nesses have identified this witness here today as having been a 
member of the Communist Party, and having attended Communist 
Party meetings. 

Senator Eastland. Where ? 

Mr. Morris. These witnesses have testified before the House Un- 
American Activities Committee March 11 

Senator Eastland. Where were the Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Morris. In Detroit, Senator. 

Mr. Cinzori, have vou attended Communist Party meetings in 
Detroit? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same rea- 
sons mentioned before. 

Senator Eastland. When was the Atlantic City convention? 

Mr. Cinzori. 1957, last April. 

Senator Eastland. In April, 1957. 

Now, did you attend any caucuses of Communists during that 
convention ? 

Mr. Cinzori. I did not. 

Senator Eastland. Proceed. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you attended the Atlantic City convention? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. That is, claiming privilege under the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Cinzori. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the special meeting organized by the 
Communist Party of Michigan, featuring Harry Bridges of the Inter- 
national Longshoremen's Union, on December 7, 1952? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. On March 13, 1950, were you present at a meeting of 
the Ford Progressives of local 600, held at the YMCA located across 
the street from Clark Park in Detroit ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4057 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reasons 
mentioned previously. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Progressive Caucus of 
local 600? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended Communist meetings at Arabian 
Hall, at 1040 Dix, in Detroit, Mich.? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reasons 
mentioned before. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Ford section of the Michigan 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. Is there now a Ford section of the Michigan Commu- 
nist Party, presently. 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. You attended the State convention of the Michigan 
Communist Party; did you not? 

Mr. Cinzori. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reasons. 

Mr. Morris. I think I have no more questions of this witness at 
this time. 

Senator Eastland. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Morris. James M. Simmons. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES M. SIMMONS, DETROIT, MICH., ACCOMPANIED 
BY DAVID REIN, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please ? 

Mr. Simmons. My name is James M. Simmons. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Simmons. 8797Epworth, Detroit. 

Mr. Morris. May the record show that the preceding witness and 
the witness here are accompanied by counsel ? 

Senator Eastland. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Kein. The reporter has my name and address; David Kein, 711 
14th Street NW. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Simmons, were you recently elected vice president 
of the steering gear and machine unit of Local 600 of the United Auto 
Workers ? 

Mr. Simmons. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. When were you elected to that position ? 

Mr. Simmons. About May 3 of 1957. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how big a unit is the steering gear and machine 
unit of local 600 ? 

Mr. Simmons. There are approximately 750 members. 

Mr. Morris. And you are the vice president ? 

Mr. Simmons. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are you presently a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that question, on the basis of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Are you aware of the fact that four witnesses have 
publicly identified you in 1952 and 1954 as having been a member of 
the Communist Party ? 



4058 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Simmons. No. 

Mr. Morris. Are you aware of the fact 

Do you know Richard O'Hair ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that, sir, on the same basis. 

Mr. Morris. Well, do you know that Richard O'Hair has testified 
that you were a member of the Midtown Club of the Communist 
Party in the State of Michigan ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. For the same reason ? 

Mr. Simmons. For the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Elisio Romano ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that question, on the same basis. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Shelton Tappes, T-a-p-p-e-s? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that, on the same basis. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know that you have been identified as having 
attended Communist Party meetings by Shelton Tappes? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that, on the same basis, my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you not carry, in the year 1948, Communist Party 
membership card No. 70848, signed by Carl Winter, Communist Party 
organizer ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that, on the same basis. 

Mr. Morris. You will not tell us whether or not that was your Com- 
munist Party card number in 1948 ? 

Senator Eastland. Do you have a card now ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that, on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Ford section of the 
Michigan Communist Party? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that, on the basis of my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Have vou been a vice president of the Wayne County 
CIO? 

Mr. Simmons. I was. 

Mr. Morris. You were? 

Mr. Simmons. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party 

Senator Eastland. Well, when? When was he a vice president? 
What are the facts? 

Mr. Morris. When were you a vice president of the Wayne County 
CIO ? Did you hold that office on August 26, 1948 ? 

Mr. Simmons. In order to avoid having any difficulty along that 
line, I will refuse to answer that on the basis of the fifth amendment, 
as to the exact time. 

Senator Eastland. Is that the fifth amendment again? I can't 
hear you. 

Mr. Simmons. In order to avoid any complications relative to that. 
I know I was a vice president of the Wayne County Council in or 
around that time. As to the exact date, I would not be able to answer. 
On that basis, I would invoke the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Did you at that time petition President Truman to set 
aside the indictment of the 12 national Communist leaders on con- 
spiracy charges, in your capacity as vice president of the Wayne 
County CIO? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 4059 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended Communist Party meetings in the 
company of Phil Schatz, S-c-h-a-t-z ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that on the basis of my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been nominee of the State committee of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer, on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Eastland. You were elected on the 3d of this month, the 3d 
of May 1957? 

Mr. Simmons. That is correct, sir. 

Senator Eastland. Who opposed you? Did you have opposition 
in the election? Did anyone run against you for vice president? 

Mr. Simmons. There were three of us. 

Senator Eastland. Now, before the election, did you attend any 
caucuses or meetings? Did you and your supporters further your 
campaign for vice president ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that, sir, on the basis of the fifth 
amendment. 

Senator Eastland. Now, were they Communist meetings, in order 
to further Communist candidates in that election for offices in the 
division of the local ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that question. 

Senator Eastland. You refuse to say whether or not. 

Now, was there a Communist plan to elect officers and to take that 
local over ? 

Mr. Simmons. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that, on the basis 
of the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Eastland. On the basis of the fifth amendment, you refuse 
to say whether there was a plan. 

Now, I would like to ask you : 

Were the Communists successful in electing a slate of officers in 
that election ? 

Mr. Simmons. I refuse to answer that question, for the same reasons. 

Senator Eastland. You refuse to answer that, on the fifth amend- 
ment ? 

Mr. Simmons. Yes, sir. 

Senator Eastland. That is all. 

Mr. Morris. Call Mr. Philo. 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY M. PHILO, DETROIT, MICH. 

Mr. Morris. Give your name and address to the reporter. 

Mr. Philo. Harry M. Philo, 3201 Lawrence, Detroit, Mich. 

Mr. Morris. And you were recently elected financial secretary of 
the STAR plant, were you not ? 

Mr. Philo. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. What is the STAR plant ? 

Mr. Philo. The standard transmission and radiator department of 
the Rouge plant. 

Mr. Morris. How many employees are there in the STAR plant? 



4060 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 

Senator Eastland. That is Ford ? 

Mr. Morris. Right. 

Mr. Philo. In our bargaining unit, there are about 1,700 workers. 
That doesn't include everyone in the building, in the standard trans- 
mission and radiator building. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, there are people in the building who 
are members of some other plants ? 

Mr. Philo. Tool and diemakers. 

Mr. Morris. So you are financial secretary of a unit comprised of 
1,700 men? 

Mr. Philo. Well, we have some 100 or 500 retirees who are members 
of our unit, too. 

Mr. Morris. So the STAR plant would have, roughly, 2,200 
members ? 

Mr. Philo. Somewheres around there. 

Mr. Morris. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Philo. I am a major assembler. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been a major assembler ? 

Mr. Philo. About 2 years. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how many plants are there, such as the STAR 
plant, in Local 600 of the United Auto Workers ? 

Mr. Philo. I don't know the exact number of buildings, but there is, 
I believe, 18 bargaining units within local 600. 

Mr. Morris. Yours would be 1 of the 18 comprising the whole local? 

Mr. Philo. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, by what vote were you elected financial secretary 
of this plant ? 

Mr. Philo. I believe I received 791, and my opponents received 
639. I am not positive of those 2 figures, but I know I won by 152 
votes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you previously worked in the Ford Motor Co., 
Green Island plant in Troy, N. Y., did you not ? 

Mr. Philo. I did. 

Mr. Morris. At what time ? 

Mr. Philo. I believe it was 1950, probably from May till December 
or June till December. 

Senator Eastland. Green Island plant of what ? 

Mr. Morris. Ford Motor Co. 

Now, Mr. Philo, did you know a man named John Patrick Charles, 
C-h-a-r-1-e-s? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, because I don't care to be a 
witness against myself, under the guaranties provided by the fifth 
amendment of the Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know that Mr. Charles has testified that you 
were an organizer and cochairman of the American Labor Party, and 
also a member of the city committee of the Communist Party of 
Albany ? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with his testimony on April 7, 
1954, to that effect? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Arbor Hill group of 
the Communist Party in Albany ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4061 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been an organizer for local 471, hotel and 
restaurant union ? 

Mr. Philo. I was employed in an organizational capacity for the 
Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philo. No, I am not a member. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member at the time of your election on 
May 3, 1957? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds stated 
previously. 

Senator Eastland. Was that the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Philo. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You will refuse to answer whether or not you were 
a member of the Communist Party at the time of the election on 
May 3, 1957? 

Mr. Philo. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. But you are not a member of the Communist Party 
now? 

Mr. Philo. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did you consult a lawyer here in Washington? 

Mr. Philo. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time you conferred with the lawyer ? 

Mr. Philo. I refuse to answer, on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. After you contacted the lawyer, did you effect a tacti- 
cal resignation from the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philo. I refuse to answer that, for the same reasons. 

Senator Eastland. When did you consult a lawyer ? 

Mr. Philo. I consulted a lawyer yesterday. 

Senator Eastland. Now, the clay before yesterday, were you a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Philo. Senator, I don't care to pinpoint any particular date to 
the committee. I decline to answer this question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Senator Eastland. Well, now, if it is under the fifth amendment, 
it will be recognized. If not, I will have to order and direct you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. Philo. I declined on the same ground. 

Senator Eastland. The fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Philo. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I have no further questions, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. Now, did you attend caucuses or meetings with 
your supporters when you were a candidate for financial secretary? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that question, sir. 

Senator Eastland. Were there Communist meetings to promote 
your candidacy? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds. 

Senator Eastland. Were you the Communist candidate for finan- 
cial secretary on May 3 ? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds. 

Senator Eastland. Was there a Communist slate now to take over 
your division of local 600 ? 



4062 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Philo. My opinion whether there was a Communist slate or 
not? 

Senator Eastland. Do you know whether there was or not ? I don't 
want your opinion. Do you know ? 

Mr. Philo. I decline to answer that, on the same grounds. 

Senator Eastland. That will be all. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I think you are acquainted with the fact that 
in the last 3 sessions here of the Internal Security Subcommittee, there 
have been 7 elected officials of the United Auto Workers about whom 
the subcommittee have evidence of Communist Party membership, and 
who, when asked about this evidence and other information in evi- 
dence, refused to answer questions under the fifth amendment. 

As far as we know, there has been no action taken of any kind on 
the part of the AFL-CIO with respect to this. 

Senator Eastland. I hope there is no double standard between 
Beck and these things. 

We will recess now. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 25 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

AFL-CIO 4033, 4036, 4042, 4043, 4048, 4062 

AFL-CIO Constitution * * * On Ethical Practices (booklet), exhibit No. 

471 4033-36 

Albany, Communist Party of 4060 

Allen, William 4041, 4043 

American Labor Party 4060 

Arabian Hall (Detroit) 4057 

Arbor Hill group of Communist Party (Albany) 4060 

Atlantic City 4028, 4044, 4046 

Auto miscellaneous section (Communist Party) 403S 

B 

Baldwin, Mrs. Bereniece Toby 4037, 4038, 4044, 4046 

Beck 4062 

Boatin, Paul, testimony of 4030-4032, 4036, 4050, 4052 

2690 Woodmere Avenue, Detroit 9, Mich 4031 

Attorney Mitchell Cooper 4030 

President, engine division, River Rouge Plant of the Ford Motor 

Co 4031 

Bridges, Harry 4056 

Bugas, Mr 4053 

Butler, Hon. John Marshall 4027, 4051 

Bulgaria 4032 

C 

Carlton Theater 4039 

Charles, John Patrick 4060 

Chrysler Corp 4037, 4048 

Cinzori, Mack, testimony of 4055-4057 

3021 Syracuse, Dearborn, Mich 4055 

Attorney, David Rein 4055 

Diemaker, Ford Motor Co 4055 

Tool and die committeeman for Local 600, UAW 4055 

CIO (see also AFL-CIO) 4055 

Civil Rights Congress 4039, 4040, 4042, 4043, 4045, 4046, 4047 

Clark Park (Detroit) 4056 

Communist/s 4027,4032, 

4033, 4038, 4039, 4041, 4042, 4044-^050, 4052, 4053, 4056-4058, 4061 

Communist May Day meeting 4039 

Communist Party ^_ 4029-4032. 

4037-4047, 4049, 4052, 4053, 4056-4059, 4061, 4062 

Communist Party leaders 4039 

Communist Party membership card No. 70848 4058 

Congress 4051 

Cooper, Mitchell (attorney for Paul Boatin) 4030 

Czechoslovakia 4032 

D 

Daily Worker 4041 

Dearborn, Mich 4027, 4029, 4055 

DeSoto Plant 4048 



n INDEX 

Page 

Detroit, Mich 4028, 4030, 4031, 4037, 4039, 4044, 4046, 4056, 4057, 4059 

Detroit Federal Building 4039 

Detroit Free Press 4052 

Dix, 1040 (Detroit) 4057 

Dodge Club of the Communist Party 4037, 4038, 4045 

Dodge Local 3 (UAW) 4037,4042 

Dodge Main News (union paper) 4037 

Donnelly, Herbert H 4049 

Dorosh, Walter 4027-4030, 4036, 4050, 4051, 4052 

Testimony of 4027-4030 

2861 Roulo, Dearborn, Mich 4027 

Attorney, David Rein 4027 

Diemaker, Ford Motor Co 4027 

E 

Eastland committee 4051 

Eastland, James O 4055 

Emergency Committee To Save the Bill of Rights 4039 

Exhibit No. 71— AFL-CIO Constitution * * * On Ethical Practices— 4033-4036 
Exhibit No. 472 — President Carl Stellato Reports on Washington Security 

Hearings, article from Ford Facts, May 18, 1957 4050-4053 

F 

Fascists.- 4033 

Fifth amendment 4029, 4030. 4038-4046, 4048, 4049, 4052, 4056-4061 

Fine, Fred 4039 

Fireman, Hyman, testimony of 4043-4044 

3223 North Connecticut, Royal Oak, Mich 4043 

Metal worker (General Motors) 4043 

Member, bylaws and election committees of Local 160, UAW 4043 

First amendment 4038-4043, 4045, 4046, 4048, 4049 

Flint, Mich 4049 

Ford Dearborn section, Communist Party conference 4030 

Ford Dearborn section council, Communist Party 4030 

Ford Facts (publication) 4050 

Ford Foundry Club 4039 

Ford Motor Co 4027, 4031, 4055, 4060 

Ford Plastic Tool and Die Communist Club 4029 

Ford Progressive Club 4029 

Ford Progressives and Communists (combined meeting) 4029 

Ford Progressives of Local 600 4056 

Ford section council of the Michigan Communist Party 4029 

Ford section executive committee of the Michigan State Communist 

Party 4029 

Ford section of the Michigan Communist Party 4038, 4057 

Forer, Joseph 4049 



Ganley, Nat (also known as Nat Kaplan) 4038,4039,4041 

General Motors Corp 4043 

Goodman, Ernest 4052 

Grand River, 2419 (Detroit) 4038 

Green Island Plant (Troy, N. Y.) 4060 

H 

Hallinan, Mrs. Vivian 4039 

Hamtramck, Mich 4037 

Henry Ford Trade School 4027 

Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union 4061 

House Un-American Activities Committee 4037,4056 

Hruska, Hon. Roman L 4027 

Hungary 4032 



INDEX HI 

I 

Page 

Internal Security Act of 1950 4051 

International Longshoremen's Union 4056 

International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers 4039 

IUE 4036 

J 

Jericho Temple (Detroit) 4046 

Johnson, Esther Cooper 4045 

Johnson, James 4045 

Johnston, Hon. Olin D 4033 

Joy Road, 2705 (Detroit) 4046 

K 

Khrushchev 4032 

KKK 4051 

Korea 4032 

L 

Labor Youth League, Michigan Chapter 4045 

Local 227, UAW 4048 

Local 600, UAW (Ford) 4028,4029,4031,4050,4055,4056,4057,4060,4061 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 4027, 4033, 4055 

Marsh, Dorothy 4048 

Marsh, Lee 4048 

May Day cultural festival for peace and civil rights 4039, 4040, 4046 

McClellan committee 4050, 4051 

Michigan Avenue (Detroit), 5642 4029, 4030, 4039 

Michigan Avenue (Detroit), 5911 4029 

Michigan Avenue (Detroit), 8030 4029 

Michigan Civil Rights Congress 4043, 4048 

Michigan Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born_ 4030, 4039, 4040, 4043 

Michigan Communist Party 4039, 4041, 4045, 4056, 4057 

Michigan Communist Party, State Committee of 4058 

Michigan Communist Party, State Convention of 4038, 4057 

Michigan Council for Peace 4042, 4043 

Michigan Daily Worker 4038,4043,4049 

Midtown Club of the Communist Party of the State of Michigan 4058 

Morris, Robert -. 4027, 4033, 4055 

O 

O'Hair, Richard 4058 

Orr, John 4050, 4051 

P 

Philo, Harry M., testimony of 4059-^062 

3201 Lawrence, Detroit, Mich 4059 

Financial secretary, STAR plant 4059 

President Carl Stellato Reports on Washington Security Hearings, article 

from Ford Facts, May 18, 1957, exhibit No. 472 4050-4053 

Progressive caucus of local 600 4029, 4057 

Progressive Party of Michigan 4039 

R 
Rein, David : 

Attorney for Walter Dorosh 4027 

Attorney for Harriet Edith Van Horn 4037, 4044 

Attorney for Mack Cinzori 4055 

Attorney for James M. Simmons 4057 

Reuther, Walter 4032, 4053 

River Rouge plant (Michigan) 4028,4031 



IV INDEX 

Page 

Romano, Elisio 4058 

Royal Oak, Mich 4043 

Rusher, William A 4027, 4033 

S 

Salina, 2800 (Dearborn, Mich.) 4029 

Salt of the Earth (film) 4039 

Salt, Waldo 4039 

Schatz, Phil 4029 

Schroeder, Frank W 4033 

Simmons, James M., testimony of 4057-4059 

8797 Epworth, Detroit, Mich 4057 

Attorney, David Rein 4057 

Vice president steering gear and machine unit of local 600 (UAW) 4057 

Sourwine, J. G 4027,4033 

Soviet Union 4032, 4045 

STAR plant (standard transmission and radiator department, Ford)_ 4059, 40(i0 

Stellato, Carl 4050 

Subversive Activities Control Board 4036, 4039 

T 

Tappes, Shelton 4058 

Trachtenberg, Max, testimony of 4048-4050 

13126 Irene, Wyandotte, Mich 4048 

Chief steward, trim division, DeSoto plant 4048 

Troy, N. Y 4060 

Truman, President 4058 

U 

United Auto Workers (UAW) 4028,4029, 

4031, 4032, 4037, 4043, 4048, 4050, 4051, 4055, 4056, 4057, 4060, 
4062. 

United Auto Workers, 16th Constitutional Convention 4051 

United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UERMW)__ 4036 



Van Horn, Harriet Edith, testimony of 4037-4042, 4044-4047 

654 Continental, Detroit, Mich 4037 

Attorney, David Rein 4037, 4044 

Production worker, Chrysler Corp 4037 

Chief steward of wire room, Dodge Local 3 4037 

W 

Washington, D. C 4050, 4061 

Watts, James 4050, 4051 

Wayne County CIO 4058 

Wayne County Club of the Progressive Party of Michigan 4039 

Welcome Park (Clawson, Mich.) 4045 

West Side industrial section of Communist Party 4048, 4049 

West Side section of the Communist Party headquarters of Michigan 4029 

White Citizens Councils 4051 

Winter, Carl 4058 

Wyandotte, Mich 404S 



YMCA 4056 

Young Communist League of the Soviet Union 4045 

Young God, the (film) 4045 



O 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 



BEFORE THE 



SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAEY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH COXGKESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



JULY 3, 1957 



PART 65 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1957 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

NOV 18 1957 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. Sodrwine, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of : Page 

Burns, Milton 4070 

Gilpin, DeWitt 4081 

Newhoff, Andrew 4092 

Verri, Albert (affidavit) 4097 



ni 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 3, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

and Other Internal Security Laws 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 a. m., in room 457, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
associate counsel, Benjamin Mandel, research director, and F. W. 
Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Mr. Morris. Are the following witnesses present, please? If they 
are please say so for the record. 

Milton Burns i 

Mr. Rauh. He is here. 

Mr. Morris. And he will listen to Senator Hruska's opening state- 
ment. 

DeWitt Gilpin ? 

Mr. Rauh. He is here. 

Mr. Morris. Andrew R. Newhoff ? 

Mr. Rauh. He is here. 

Mr. Morris. And they will be present during Senator Hruska's 
statement. Let the record so show. 

Senator Hruska. If at any time the witnesses will not be able to 
hear me while I read this rather lengthy statement, I wish they 
would make it known so I can speak louder or have them move closer 
because we want to be sure they hear it. 

This meeting of the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate 
Judiciary Committee is being held pursuant to the rules of that com- 
mittee and under the authority with which it is vested. This authority 
is not only by reason of the inherent power of the Congress and its 
committees to conduct investigations as a part of its legislative process 
but also by reason of Senate Resolution 366 of the 81st Congress, 
and Senate Resolution 58 of the 85th Congress, and pertinent parts 
of rules of the Judiciary Committee, copies of which have been duly 
furnished to the witnesses before us today and to their counsel as 
well. 

This subcommittee is charged with and engaged in making a com- 
plete and continuing study and investigation of : The administration, 
operation, and enforcement of the Internal Security Act of 1950, title 
T of which contains, among other things, a provision prohibiting em- 
ployment of members of Communist-action groups in defense facili- 

4063 



4064 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ties; and the administration, operation, and enforcement of other 
laws relating- to espionage, sabotage, and protection of the internal 
security of the United States; and the extent, nature, and effects of 
subversive activities, and infiltration by persons who are or may be 
under the domination of the foreign government or organization con- 
trolling the world Communist movement or any other movement seek- 
ing to overthrow the Government of the United States by force and 
violence. 

The subject of inquiry at this particular session will include the 
subcommittee's continued study and investigation in the general fields 
and respects already referred to. 

It will also include, but not be limited to, the following : The exist- 
ence, activity, programs, and objectives of the Communist Party of the 
United States of America, and any other Communist Party, organiza- 
tion or movement which seeks to or is engaged in efforts to overthrow 
the Government of the United States by force and violence, or to 
engage in illegal and subversive acts toward those ends ; the location of 
headquarters or offices of such parties, organizations, or movements; 
the methods, agencies, and other organizations by or through which 
they are engaging or seeking to engage in such illegal and subversive 
acts or to obtain or execute such activities, programs, or objectives. 

Also, to ascertain the membership in such parties, organizations, and 
movements, from whence and by whom they were recruited; by whom 
they are employed, in what capacities, and the nature of the work they 
do; the training and instructions, if any, such members are given in 
regard to and for the execution or attainment of the programs, objec- 
tives, and activities of such parties, organizations, or movements, and 
by whom such training or instructions are given ; the number of such 
persons recruited for membership, and their names and identities in 
order that they also may be interviewed or questioned on like subjects 
and in like manner as outlined and described herein. 

It is the plan and intention of this subcommittee to ask of today's 
witnesses, questions which will bear upon and relate to the subject of 
inquiry as just described. 

Questions asked of these witnesses will also include such as these: 
Whether the witness is or has been a member of the Farm Equipment 
Workers Union, and if so, when and for how long; the names of the 
present officers of said union, or those who were officers of the union 
during such membership, if any; similar questions in regard to the 
United Auto Workers; and to the United Electrical, Radio, and Ma- 
chine Workers Union; whether to the knowledge, information, or 
observation of witness a Communist cell or organization was existent 
or active within any of these unions I just named, and if so, the extent 
of the activity in, or the control of, the union as exercised or possessed 
by such Communist cell or organization; in what fashion and by what 
means such activity or control was achieved. 

Whether the witness is now or ever has been a member of or active 
in the Communist Party of the United States of America or any 
other Communist Party, organization, or movement having for its 
objective, or seeking the overthrow of the United States Government 
by force and violence or the commission of any illegal or subversive 
acts; and, if so, the details as to such membership or activity, the 
knowledge, information, or observation of witness as to the pro- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4065 

grams and objectives of such party, organization, or movement within 
the labor unions referred to hereinabove, and any activities relating 
thereto; whether witness attended any meetings of any Communist 
Party or organization since he joined the United Auto Workers or 
the Farm Equipment Workers Union, or the United Electrical, Radio 
and Machine Workers Union, and, if so, the particulars relating 
thereto; whether witness knows of members of the United Auto 
Workers Union or the Farm Equipment Workers Union who are or 
have been members of or active in the Communist Party of the United 
States of America, or any other Communist Party, organization, or 
movement which has for its objective or which seeks the overthrowing 
of the Government of the United States by force and violence, and, 
if so, how many such union members did so join, where and by whom 
they are or were employed, the nature of the work in which they 
were or are engaged ; and their names and identities and other related 
information. 

The subject of inquiry as referred to hereinabove has an urgent, 
present legislative purpose and necessity. Among other reasons for 
this is the fact that testimony already taken by this subcommittee 
indicates that existing legislation in this field has its shortcomings. 
On May 8, 1957, Robert L. Applegate, the Staff Director of the In- 
dustrial Security Programs Division of the Office of the Secretary 
of Defense, testified before this committee. Although this subject 
immediately at hand was the communication system, this statement 
by him is pertinent : 

Up to this time we have been unable to satisfactorily meet under existing 
legislation all the security problems which arise in this complex field. This is 
best illustrated in the facility where we may or may not have classified infor- 
mation, but which, because of the nature of the service rendered by the facility, 
the Department of Defense depends upon to a high degree. Many public-utility- 
type facilities fall into this category. 

In such facilities, when classified information is involved, we are able to 
determine the employee who is considered a security risk and to prevent him 
from working on classified work or from having access to classified information. 
Such an individual, however, may continue his employment with the facility, 
thus constituting a potential threat to our security posture. 

This situation is further aggravated in instances where the employees of the 
racility, who, with minor exceptions, are loyal, trustworthy Americans, yet 
are being represented in labor-management relationships by a union which is 
Communist controlled. Such loyal employees, although ostensibly serving a 
genuine union cause, can be misled to serve a purpose which, in fact, is politically 
inspired and contrary to our Government's best interests. Notwithstanding 
the good intentions of a majority of the members of such a union, the fact that 
Communist leadership controls the policy of the union presents a real danger. 

We should recognize that whenever any kind of situation, such as that 
discussed here, is identified and then permitted to continue, the element of risk 
to our Nation's security runs unacceptably high. 

Another instance is found in the Communist Control Act of 1954, 
which, according to the evidence in our subcommittee record, seems 
to be inadequate to meet the requirements that the Department of 
Defense seems to feel are necessary at this time. 

Under the act, before action could be instituted against a labor 
union as a Communist-infiltrated organization, it would have to be 
established by the Department of Justice that the organization is — 

substantially directed, dominated, or controlled by an individual or individuals 
who are, or who within 3 years have been actively engaged in, giving aid or 
support to a Communist-action organization, a Communist foreign government, 



4066 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

or the world Communist movement referred to in section 2 of this title, and (B) 
is serving or within three years has served, as a means for (1) the giving of 
aid or support to any such organization, government, or movement, or (2) 
the impairment of the military strength of the United States or its industrial 
capacity to furnish logistical or other material support required by its Armed 
Forces * * *. 

This subcommittee is seeking to learn, among other things, whether 
this standard of proof is too stringent. . 

Congress has very serious obligations to the country in the race 
of the fc potential dangers involved. It is in the public interest and 
for its safety that thorough investigation and study be accorded these 
matters in detail such as referred to in this statement, in order to 
determine the adequacy of present laws, the desirability of additional 
or new laws, or amendment of old ones. t 

The questions we propose to ask as referred to and described in 
this statement are clearly related and highly pertinent to the subject 
of inquiry. In this regard let us recall the role, the mission, and 
the proven record of the World Communist Party and movement 
with its headquarters in Moscow, and the Communist Party of the 
United States, which has been a satellite of the Soviet Union since 
its inception more than 30 years ago. . 

The findings of the Subversive Activities Control Board included 
the following about the Communist Party of the United States of 
America : 

At the outset of its existence it joined the Communist International * * * In 
joining the international, the party agreed to accept its direction and to adopt 
the policies enunciated by it * * * Thus there is inside our borders a dis- 
ciplined organization which under Soviet Union control seeks, by unconstitu- 
tional means, to install a Soviet style dictatorship in the United States, just as 
other Communist parties in other countries have done * * * Our reconsidera- 
tion of the record as expunged leads to the conclusion that the evidence estab- 
lished bevond doubt that respondent is substantially directed, dominated, and 
controlled by the Soviet Union, which controls the world Communist move- 
ment * * * and operates primarily to advance the objectives of such world 
movement; and our prior determination to this effect is reaffirmed. We find, 
therefore, that the Communist Party of the United States is a Communist-action 
organization as defined. 

Hio-hly pertinent in this connection are the recently declared aims 
and program of the Communist Party of the United States of America 
as disclosed in its 16th convention held in New York City last Feb- 
ruary. One of the resolutions adopted and released by that conven- 
tion reads : 

To end its isolation and expand its mass work, the main task of the party today 
is to overcome completely the influence of left-sectarian estimates, policies, and 
tactics in all fields of work * * * This effort has been underway in the party 
particularly since the end of 1952. Following the results of the 1952 elections, 
the national committee began a serious struggle against left-sectarianism as the 
main danger in our mass work. This found expression : * * * in serious efforts 
to influence the left-led unions to reenter the mainstream of the labor move- 
ment * * * 

J. Edgar Hoover in a statement analyzing that' Communist Party 
convention of February 1957, stated that the strategy and tactics of 
that party convention were designed to accomplish, among others, 
the following objectives: ... 

1. To gain greater mass acceptance. Aboveground activities of 
the Communist Party have suffered ever since 1950. The party now 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4067 

hopes to send its members out among the non-Communist masses and 
to gain for them through false representations of being "loyal" and 
"democratic" a sympathetic hearing. 

2. To lay a foundation for possible unity with other lef twing groups. 
The Communists desperately hope to "make contact" with Socialists, 
members of the non-Communist left, liberals, etc., in an effort to 
secure their support for Communist projects. Such policies were 
not possible in the recent years of party underground activity. This 
is merely an echo of the aims of the international Communist move- 
ment. 

In another part of his statement, J. Edgar Hoover stated : 

The 1957 party convention was no different from previous party gatherings 
which brought about revisions in the constitution of the Communist Party 18 
times, and the changing in the name of the party on 9 prior occasions * * *. 
The Communist Party before and after its 1957 convention is part and parcel 
of the worldwide Communist conspiracy. It is still responsive to the will of 
Moscow; it still works for the destruction of the American way of life; and 
it is still dedicated to the building of a Soviet United States patterned after 
the basic concepts of Marxism-Leninism. 

The foregoing makes very pertinent the material contained in The 
Communist Party — A Manual on Organization by J. Peters, pub- 
lished in July 1935 by the Workers Library Publishers, in which ifc 
is stated : 

The most important points where the Communist Party must work untiringly 
so as to fulfill the task of winning the majority of the working class for the 
struggle against capitalism are the following: 

1. The big factories, mines, mills, docks, ships, railroads, etc., where the 
great masses of the basic sections of the proletariat are employed. The Com- 
munist Party puts its main energy into building party organizations in these 
places. 

Now, it is true that that manual was written back in 1935 and yet 
it is current. The Communist Party has demonstrated that it does 
not rewrite its rule books. It does not reconsider and redraft its 
gospel, and as J. Edgar Hoover so well put it, those doctrines are 
still effective today and they are the guidebook by which the party 
still goes. 

Quoting from the proceedings in the 16th National Convention of 
the Communist Party, U. S. A. : 

Workers who are Communists are organized on the basis of their natural 
day-to-day working life in shops and industries. (2S9) * * * 

The Communist Party is deeply convinced that the workers of our country 
are that class which will lead the whole people toward a better future. This 
conviction leads the Communists to do all in their power to help the workers 
in their struggles, to assist in organizing them, and to stand shoulder to shoulder 
with their fellow unionists in the front ranks when the battle grows hot. 
(290) * * * 

The point of view of the Communist Party is that of class struggle * * *. 
(290) * * * 

The foregoing detail has been set out in order to avoid the vice of 
vagueness. The subcommittee is desirous of adequately informing 
the witnesses as to the subject of inquiry, the clear and urgent legis- 
lative necessity which exists, a description of the field, area, and 
nature of the questions we propose to ask, and their relevancy and 
pertinence to the subject of inquiry. 



93215— 57— pt. 65- 



4068 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

And as the Chair has already stated, a copy of this entire statement 
which this chairman has been reading has been furnished m advance 
to counsel for each of the witnesses here this morning. 

The subcommittee has no desire to expose the private affairs of 
individuals without justification. It will make every effort to avoid 
unjustifiable encroachment upon the witnesses constitutional rights 
and privileges. 

But we have a job to do. We have the defense, the safety, and the 
well-being of our country and its citizens to protect. We can do so only 
by enacting proper and effective laws toward that end. 

But we cannot legislate in a vacuum. Laws cannot be made in the 
abstract, They must be designed and drafted for ultimate application 
to definite, concrete situations, and to hard, real conditions, and cir- 
cumstances. It is to enable the Congress to legislate in that fashion 
and with that goal in mind that we seek to elicit from the witnesses 
the information referred to and described hereinabove. These ques- 
tions are asked for a public purpose, and for specific legislative needs. 

This statement is a long one, This is so deliberately and with the 
realization that assertion of privilege under the first amendment as 
the witnesses have declared they will do, is a decision which they make 
at their own peril. In fairness to the witnesses, we point out that an 
erroneous judgment on their part in this regard will result in then- 
being subject to prosecution for contempt of the Senate, either under 
title 2, United States Code, section 192, or at the bar of the Senate, 
whichever of these methods that body decides upon. 

Now, Judge Morris, will you let us know who the first witness is. 
We will proceed to swear him and interrogate him. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Senator, the three witnesses this morning are 
generally in the same category. They are three staff members, inter- 
national representatives of the United Auto Workers, about whom 
the subcommittee has evidence that they were members of the 
Communist Party at some time in the past, and they were also people 
who were associated with the Farm Equipment Workers Union at a 
time when the Communist influence within that union was quite ex- 
tensive. 

Up to date, Senator, we have had seven officials of the United Auto 
Workers who appeared before the subcommittee in this series of hear- 
ings who have invoked the fifth amendment privilege rather than 
answer questions of the subcommittee about their Communist Party 
membership. As you have said, Senator, the three witnesses this 
morning have indicated they are not going to claim this privilege 
under the fifth amendment but instead, invoke their privilege under 
the first amendment as they believe it defined by Chief Justice War- 
ren's decision in the Watkins case. 

First, the witness, Milton Burns, who has appeared in executive 

session. 

Mr. Rauh. Mr. Chairman, before Mr. Burns takes the stand, I re- 
quest that the lights be turned out and all the photographers and tele- 
vision cameras and movie cameras up there be dismissed from the 
room. It seems to me the witness has a right to appear before any 
subcommittee of the Senate without being sensationalized. It indeed 
seems to me evidence of the committee's purpose of exposure rather 
than legislation. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4069 

I ask that the gentlemen be asked to leave the room. 

Mr. Morris. Before we go into the hearing, Senator, I think the 
record should show, in view of the unwarranted statements made by 
counsel, that he appeared earlier before us to make a request and he 
was told, Senator, that the subcommittee rules are that the subcom- 
mittee does not discriminate against any form of reporting and that, 
when we had an open hearing, anyone is entitled to be here. 

However, if some reporter carries on in such a way that it actually 
distracts the witness, as a matter of fact, then the subcommittee will 
ask the particular reporter to desist from distracting the witness. 

Senator Hruska. The chairman would like to state that, insofar as 
counsel's statement refers to the desire to unduly publicize this hear- 
ing is concerned, the Chair is somewhat resentful and wants to say 
that is not true whatsoever. An announcement has been made that 
witnesses here intend to take advantage of the first amendment and 
assert certain rights under it. That first amendment also asserts the 
right of freedom to the press and, to the extent the representatives of 
the press are present here, they are asserting that privilege under that 
same first amendment. 

Now, to the extent that the presence of any of the members of the 
press will be contributing to the physical discomfiture of any of the 
witnesses or distracting to his testimony, to that extent the witnesses 
will be fully protected, as counsel was assured before this meeting 
commenced, and, therefore, gentlemen manning the bright lights of 
the cameras, we will ask that they be dimmed and put out so that the 
witness will not be discomfited, the subject of discomfiture, in that way. 
Any of the still photographers who are here will desist from taking 
pictures during the course of the testimony of the witness. Either 
before or afterward, they may do so. Insofar as the request of coun- 
sel is concerned that these men manning these cameras leave the room, 
that request is very forthrightly and firmly denied. 

Mr. Rauh. But it is your ruling, then, that they may take no further 
pictures in this room ; is that correct ? 

Senator Hruska. That is not the ruling. Insofar as the bright 
lights are concerned and any action that results in discomfiture of the 
witness and undue distraction, that is true, and, if at any time during 
the course of the hearing counsel or the witness feel they are being 
encroached upon in that respect, the Chair invites his attention to be 
called to those acts. 

Mr. Rauh. Counsel feels, after discussing with the three men, that 
the use of television or movie cameras or any of the cameras that are 
up there will itself distract the witness and unduly publicize the 
hearing. We request that the cameramen be instructed not to use 
their cameras in this room. 

Senator Hruska. In the past, the committee has followed the policy 
that, if the cameramen want to take pictures of other objects in the 
room besides the witness, they are free to do so, and that ruling will 
stand in this particular instance. 

Mr. Rauh. But they may not take a picture of the witness, then, or 
his counsel, I take it. 

Mr. Morris. While he is actually testifying. 

Senator Hruska. While he is testifying. That is true. 

The witness will be sworn. 



4070 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rauh. This is testimony, when you get up to be sworn. There 
was a man actually shooting the camera at that moment. 

Senator Hruska. The Chair will have to request that the camera- 
men desist from taking pictures, and, if they do not choose to obey 
the Chair, we will ask them to leave the room. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Burns. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON BURNS, CHICAGO, ILL., ACCOMPANIED BY 
JOSEPH L. RAUH, JR., AND DANIEL H. POLLITT, HIS ATTORNEYS 

Mr. Morris. Give your name and address to the reporter, Mr. 
Burns. 

Mr. Burns. My name is Milton Burns. I live at 9532 South Ben- 
nett Avenue, in Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Burns. Mr. Chairman, before I answer the questions, I would 
like to, by your leave, read a short statement for the record. 

Senator Hruska. The Chair wants to say for the record that the 
statement which the witness now proposes to read was submitted to 
the subcommittee as of yesterday, as required by the rules of the sub- 
committee, and it is, therefore, in order that he read it now, if he so 
chooses. 

Mr. Burns. Mr. Chairman, I am here, unwilling, in response to the 
subpena of this committee. I have no information about current or 
recent Communist activities in the labor movement. In view of this, 
I do not believe that this committee has any authority to ask me ques- x 
tions about my past activities and associations under its resolution or 
under the Watkins decision. 

Despite my personal feelings on this matter, I am going to answer 
all questions about my own past activities, no matter how irrelevant 
or unconstitutional those questions may be. I do this in line with the 
policy which the United Automobile Workers has adopted, that its 
staff members shall answer all questions put to them by a congressional 
committee about their own activities. 

I will not, however, name persons whom I knew long ago and sub- 
ject them to public stigma and scorn. Identifying these men could not 
possibly aid this committee or Congress in its legislative activities, and 
I most respectfully invoke my rights under the first amendment as to 
this type of question. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you are setting yourself up as the judge 
of what information can help this subcommittee? 

Mr. Burns. Mr. Chairman, that isn't what I said. I didn't say I 
was setting myself up as a judge of anything. I think the statement 
is clear. 

Senator Hruska. You may proceed. 

We will deal with the questions — we will deal with the statement 
as it applies to specific questions as we go along. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Burns, have you been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Burns. I was a member of the Communist Party up to 1947, at 
which time I left it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4071 

Mr. Morris. When did you join the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burns. I joined the Communist Party, I believe — I am not 
sure— in 1938 or 1939. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with your last formal membership 
in the Communist Party, will you tell us what kind of a unit you 
belonged to? 

Mr. Burns. Prior to and up to 1947, I belonged to a unit of 4 
people. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was that unit? Would you tell us the gen- 
eral nature ? I am not asking you at this time the names of the indi- 
viduals in that, but give me the general jurisdiction of the unit. 

Mr. Burns. This was a group of staff people. 

Mr. Morris. In what union ? 

Mr. Burns. In the Farm Equipment Union. 

Mr. Morris. Farm Equipment Workers Union. In other words, 
this unit of which you were a member was at staff level of the Farm 
Equipment Workers Union ? 

Mr. Burns. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Was the unit made up as a result of the reorganization 
of the Communist Party, which was effected in late 1946 and 1947, 
which indicated that the Communist unit should be broken down into 
groups of 3 and 4, and that there would be a top-level group of 3 or 4 
which would be responsible for the activities of the lower group, which 
in turn would be responsible for a lower group within a particular 
given area ? 

Mr. Burns. The unit I referred to, regardless of what structure was 
changed, was a consistent unit. 

Mr. Morris. Was a what? 

Mr. Burns. It was a consistent unit for the entire time I was in the 
party. 

Senator Hruska. Were the personnel of that unit always the same? 

Mr. Burns. I don't remember, Mr. Chairman, whether it was a 
unit. 

Senator Hruska. Where there different people that met with you? 
You and three others would meet in this unit. Were those three 
others that met with you always the same people ? 

Mr. Burns. I think they were, but I am not sure. I think they were. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, we have had testimony before the House 
Un-American Activities Committee, by Mr. Lee Lundgren, to the 
effect that this particular witness was a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Now, are you acquainted with that testimony of Mr. Lundgren? 

Mr. Burns. I knew that Mr. Lundgren had testified and, of course, 
this morning you told me the nature of that testimony. Yes. From 
what he said, and I pointed out that Mr. Lundgren was, I think — I 
think the first time I had seen him or met him was during the time of 
that hearing. 

As a matter of fact, he came up to me afterwards and I asked him, 
"Where did you get all this information? I don't even know you." 

Mr. Morris. Was his testimony accurate about your party member- 
ship? 

Mr. Burns. I don't recall the exact testimony. If you will read 
it to me, I will tell you. 






4072 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. You say up until 1947 you were a Communist? 

Mr. Burns. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I think you told us in executive sesison that for secu- 
rity purposes, the Communist Party had these units at various levels 
within the Farm Equipment Workers, to the best of your belief. 

Mr. Burns. I assume that is what they did, because I knew of our 
unit being restricted to that number. 

Senator Hruska. In the meetings which you had, what did you do? 

Mr. Burns. We discussed the so-called line of the party, with 
respect to trade unions. 

Senator Hruska. What would be some of the outstanding items of 
that line? 

Mr. Burns. Lend-lease; opening the second front. 

Senator Hruska. Would you speak a little louder? 

Mr. Burns. The question of lend-lease. I think the party was 
attacking it at that time. 

Mr. Morris. This was not in 1947 ? 

Mr. Burns. I don't recall the exact positions, but whatever the line 
happened to be at that time, that is what we were discussing and 



using 



Senator Hruska. What was this lend-lease to which you refer? 

Mr. Burns. One time the Communist Party was in opposition to 
the lend-lease program. 

Senator Hruska. The lend-lease program of the United States 
with England and France and other countries ? 

Mr. Burns. I think that is what is was. 

Senator Hruska. And you were instructed in that committee, were 
you, that that is what the line was, and that is the opinion you should 
express ? 

Mr. Burns. Yes. 

We knew what the line was, and we were to use the influence to the 
best of our ability to carry that line out. 

Senator Hruska. And in what other respect were you instructed or 
were you informed about party line ? 

Mr. Burns. Well, that was the respect in which we learned it, was 
in this unit. We knew what the line was in the Daily Worker, and 
so on, and we just discussed how we could carry it out. 

Senator Hruska. How was it proposed that it be carried out ? 

Mr. Burns. Simply by using your influence with local unions and 
local union people, to try to get them to take the same position. 

Senator Hruska. And witli the press, if you knew any members of 
the press, or with radio stations or magazines, or anything of that 
kind ? Was that included in it ? 

Mr. Burns. No. We had no such instructions. 

Senator Hruska. During the course of your meetings in this unit 
of four, were vou informed as to the other working parts of the Com- 
munist Party organization? 

Mr. Burns, i am sorry ; I didn't quite hear you. 

Senator Hruska. During meetings of this unit of four, were you 
informed about the other working parts of the Communist Party 
organization ? 

Mr. Burns. We were informed to the effect that the entire party 
organization was interested in getting that line carried out wherever 
they happened to be. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4073 

Senator Hruska. Were you informed about other units which 
existed ? 

Mr. Burns. Not — We didn't concern ourselves with other units. 
We only concerned ourselves with what this unit could do, in terms of 
carrying out its responsibilities at that time. 

Senator Hruska. Were you informed as to the officers of the Com- 
munist Party, as to who they were ? 

Mr. Burns. We knew who they were, as a matter of public record. 

Mr. Morris. I think you indicated in — Go ahead. 

You indicated that it was your belief there was a unit above you 
and a unit below you. In fact, you called the unit below you a rank- 
and-file unit of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Burns. Mr. Chairman, when this question was asked, I said 
I assumed there was such a unit. I assumed that would be the struc- 
ture. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with the workers within your par- 
ticular unit, for instance, did you discuss strike strategy at these 
various meetings ? 

Mr. Burns. Strike strategy? That was a trade-union function. 
As trade unionists, we would discuss it. 

Mr. Morris. As a matter of fact, you did. Is that your answer? 

Mr. Burns. I assume we did. A bunch of trade unionists 

Mr. Morris. How did 

Mr. Burns. Pardon me. A group of trade unionists getting to- 
gether under any conditions, if there is a strike, would discuss strike 
strategy. 

Mr. Morris. We wanted to know whether the Communist Party 
formally and officially was discussing strike strategy. 

Mr. Burns. No. If you are saying that the Communist Party had 
laid down a strategy 

Mr. Morris. I am not saying — we are wondering if you, at your 
formal Communist Party meetings, discussed strike strategy? 

Mr. Burns. No, sir ; no, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you in this unit of four? 

Mr. Burns. Well, I would say for about, in the farm-equipment 
union, for about 3 years, 4 years. 

Mr. Morris. What kind of a unit were you in prior to that time? 

Mr. Burns. It was another unit of the same type. 

Mr. Morris. You mean a small unit of four ? 

Mr. Burns. Four. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the general jurisdiction of this unit? 
You say from 1947 running back for about 3 years you were in this 
unit of 4. That was about back in 1944 ? 

Mr. Burns. In 1944, I was in the United States Marine Corps 
overseas, so I could hardly have been in a unit. 

Mr. Morris. Prior to that, what unit were you in? 

Mr. Burns. Prior to 1943 — that is when I went into the service — 
I think I still was in this same unit, but prior to that I was in another 
unit of four of the same type. 

Mr. Morris. Of what union ? 

Mr. Burns. Of the farm-equipment union. 

Mr. Morris. And still the unit was only of 4 and you knew only 4 
Communists in that unit ? 

Mr. Burns. That is the way we operated ; yes, sir. 



4074 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you have knowledge that there were other 
units within the farm equipment ? 

Mr. Burns. I am sure there were. 

Mr. Morris. You didn't know them? 

Mr. Burns. I didn't know them. 

Mr. Morris. Who was the leader of the unit in 1947, the unit of 
four, in the Farm Equipment Workers Union when you were present ? 
Who was the leader? Who was the Communist leader of that Com- 
munist group ? 

Mr. Rauh. Mr. Chairman, I made a request in executive session to 
be able to deal with the questions of pertinence myself. You didn't 
rule on that at the opening. Do you care to rule now ? 

Senator Hruska. Yes. The Chair will rule now. Because of the 
precedent which has grown up in this subcommittee that counsel is 
not allowed to interpose objections to such questions on any grounds, 
I feel reluctant to depart from that precedent at this time. I would 
prefer to defer to the chairmanship of this committee, or the full 
Judiciary Committee, the parent committee of this subcommittee. 

However, the Chair does want to state that that ruling will not go 
to the point of preventing counsel from conferring with witness at 
any time or the witness with counsel. 

Mr. Burns. I believe at the time you stated, I was the leader of 
that unit. 

Mr. Morris. You were the leader of the unit ? 

Mr. Burns. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, who were the other individuals who were 
in the unit at the time ? 

Mr. Burns. Pardon me, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Hruska. All right, the record will show that opportunity 
is being given for counsel to confer with witness. 

Mr. Burns. Mr. Chairman, the other members of that unit are not 
in the labor movement at this time and therefore, I don't — and I 
have heard your statement that you read — I don't think answering 
that question with respect to those people is pertinent to the inquiry 
as outlined, and I certainly don't want to engage in identifying people 
who might be out of the party at this time and may be hurt because 
of their civilian occupations. 

Therefore, I must respectfully stand on the rights of the first 
amendment. 

Senator Hruska. Well, the Chair, of course, and this subcommittee, 
have their own ideas, and their own judgment as to pertinency and 
relevance of questions, and information which they seek. Now, before 
accepting the asserting of privilege which you are making, I want to 
ask you again whether you heard me read the very detailed statement 
at the opening of this meeting and whether you have considered its 
substance and its contents, in which an effort is made to show the 
relevance and pertinence of the question at hand, and the answer which 
we seek to elicit. 

Mr. Burns. Yes. I heard the statement and I don't think that this 
question that was put to me is pertinent in view of the statement that 
you read. 

Senator Hruska. Now, as I understand it, you are relying then 
upon the privileges accorded you by the first amendment of the Fed- 
eral Constitution and all decisions thereunder; is that true? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4075 

Mr. Rauh. Are you asking me, sir ? 

Senator Hruska. No. I am asking the witness. 

Mr. Rauh. Then we will have to consult because you are now en- 
gaging in a legal discussion with a witness who is not a lawyer. 

Senator Hruska. You may consult with your witness. 

Mr. Burns. I almost answered it before 

Mr. Chairman, I am relying on the first amendment, but I am also 
relying on the fact that I don't think this type of question is pertinent 
to the inquiry at hand. 

Senator Hruska. You are not, however, relying upon the fifth 
amendment in any way, self-incrimination? 

Mr. Burns. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. The rights against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Burns. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. The Chair will instruct and direct the witness 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Burns. I respectfully decline for the reasons I just stated, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Senator Hruska. Next question. 

Mr. Burns. And in my statement which I originally read before 
the questioning began. 

Senator Hruska. The objection is overruled. The record will so 
show. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, this brings us to an important point that 
I think the subcommittee should face. Here is a witness who testified 
that he was the head of a Communist unit in 1947 and that he knows 
and can tell us the names of the 4 particular individuals who were — 3 
individuals who were subordinates of his in this Communist organiza- 
tion. He says he doesn't want to tell us because they may not be now 
Communists. 

In other words, he himself is setting himself up as the judge as to 
their present Communist Party membership, and he has also said he 
doesn't believe they are in the labor movement. 

I would like the record to show that we have only to go by man's 
own interpretation of what the labor movement is. Not knowing 
the individual, we don't know the connection, direct or indirect, with 
the labor movement. They may be in the newspaper field reporting 
on the labor movement. They may be in some other area ; even though 
it does not bear directly on the labor movement, it may be directed to 
our own investigation and, therefore, having the information could 
warrant the subcommittee to go from there further into this present 
investigation and into the next investigation. 

If, for instance, three of these people are now holding jobs in some 
place, let us say, suppositiously, in the defense industry. In other 
words, this witness is taking the position that he shall be the final 
arbiter as to what we should know in connection with our investiga- 
tion for the Senate. I think it is an injustifiable position, Senator, 
and on that basis I ask that he be directed to answer the following 
questions. 

Senator Hruska. The Chair will ask the witness — first of all, the 
Chair would like to observe that we have already taken the position 
that the question is relevant; it is pertinent to the subject of inquiry. 

93215— 57— pt. 65 3 



4076 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I should now like to ask the witness if, after the comments of counsel, 
he would like to reconsider his answer and answer the question ? 

Mr. Burns. Mr. Chairman, first, the people that Judge Morris was 
referring to I can unequivocally state that they are not in the labor 
movement or any adjunct thereof. 

Secondly 

Mr. Morris. How do you know that? 

Mr. Burns. Let me finish the answer, please. Secondly, after your 
outline of what the relevance of the question is, I still don't feel that 
the question is pertinent. 

Senator Hruska. I take it the objection, then, is the same as that 
which you have asserted heretofore? 

Mr. Burns. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. The objection is overruled. 

Mr. Morris. Now, can you tell us if any of these particular people 
have gone into the newspaper field, for instance ? 

Mr. Burns. They have not. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us whether they have gone into Govern- 
ment service? 

Mr. Burns. They have not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with the group that you were in in 
1943, will you tell us who the individuals were in that particular group, 
1948; who was the leader of the 1943 group? 

Mr. Burns. I was. 

Mr. Morris. You were again ? 

Mr. Burns. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how many subordinates did you have in the 1943 
group ? 

Mr. Burns. How t many 

Mr. Morris. Subordinates in the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burns. We had no — you say subordinates. 

Mr. Morris. You were the leader, Mr. Burns? 

Mr. Burns. That is right, 

Mr. Morris. If you were the leader, the others were subordinate to 
you in the sense that you were the one imposing the discipline? 

Mr. Burns. I have never — when I say "the leader," I never imposed 
any discipline on these people, I wasn't an officer in that respect. 

Senator Hruska. The question, Mr. Witness, is who were the other 
members of the unit as of that time? 

Mr. Burns. The answer is the same. These people are also not in 
the labor movement, nor in the newspaper business, nor in the other 
business. 

Senator Hruska. Where are they; what fields are they in? 

Mr. Burns. General civilian occupations, nondefense, if that is 
what you are interested in. 

Senator Hruska. Have you maintained contact with them in the 
intervening years, Mr. Witness? 

Mr. Burns. I have seen them from time to time as friends. I have 
run into them ; yes, although 

Senator Hruska. Have you consulted with them about matters per- 
taining to the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burns. Absolutely not, 

Senator Hruska. What has been the nature and extent of your 
contacts with them ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4077 

Mr. Burns. Old friends, known them many years, social; had a 
drink, talked to them about baseball, whatever 

Senator Hruska. Are they members of the UAW ? 

Mr. Burns. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Burns, since you have left the Communist 
Party — according to your testimony, you left the Communist Party — 
you have participated in Communist Party rallies and demonstra- 
tions; have you not? 

Mr. Burns. Judge Morris, if you are referring to rallies or meetings 
open only to members of the Communist Party, the answer is "No." 

Mr. Morris. No ; I am not. Let me give you an exemple. Did you 
specifically address the May Day rally at Union Park, march in the 
May Day parade in 1948, the year after you say you left the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Burns. You said earlier that I did. I have no recollection of 
that. I am not challenging the fact. I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. I think you acknowledged that you did; did you not? 

Mr. Burns. I say it may well be that I was there because the union 
endorsed this rally, this FE. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a broad Communist meeting at Viani 
Grove in Chicago in 1948, Viani Grove Park? 

Mr. Burns. I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a Communist Party mass meeting at 
Ashland Boulevard Auditorium in Chicago on October 10, 1948? 

Mr. Burns. If this was a meeting open only to Communists 

Mr. Morris. I mean a Communist rally is something not open only 
to Communists. The purpose of a meeting like that is to draw new 
people into the Communist Party. It is a broad, general Communist 
Party rally, Ashland Boulevard Auditorium, specifically on Octo- 
ber 10, 1948. 

Mr. Burns. Judge Morris, I just don't recall. That is 1948, about 
9 years ago. I just don't remember. 

Mr. Morris. And that is the best answer you can give us to this 
question ? 

Mr. Burns. If I don't remember, it is, yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, on November 1, 1948, urge the President of 
the United States to dismiss the indictments of the 12 Communist 
leaders in New York as reported by the Daily Worker of that date? 

Mr. Burns. It is possible. I don't recall I still am against the 
Smith Act indictments of that kind. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a Communist Party rally on March 19, 
1949, at the Ashland Boulevard Auditorium in Chicago ? 

Mr. Burns. I just don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. In your official position as political action director of 
the Farm Equipment Workers Union, did you protest Judge Medina's 
ruling on Gil Green as reported by the Daily Worker of June 23, 1949 ? 

Mr. Burns. Yes, we did, and I don't see anything wrong even now 
with protesting Smith Act indictments. 

Senator Hruska Was that protest also endorsed by the union and 
taken as a union position ? 

Mr. Burns. The union at that time endorsed any policy on the fight 
for civil rights, and the union was opposed to the Smith Act indict- 
ments at that time. And the Supreme Court has subsequently ap- 
parently taken the position with respect to that. 



4078 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you attend a Paul Robeson rally sponsored 
by the Civil Rights Congress which is a Communist front organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. Burns. Is that the one you asked me about in Washington 
Park ? 

Mr. Morris. No; 4130 South Indiana Avenue, Chicago, Septem- 
ber 24, 1949. 

Mr. Burns. I don't recall. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended any Civil Rights Congress meet- 
ings in the intervening years ? 

Mr. Burns. That is entirely possible. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the 15th anniversary of the Abraham 
Lincoln Brigade Veterans at Chopin Cultural Center at Chicago on 
May 25, 1952? 

Mr. Burns. Judge Morris, I would have to say the same thing I 
asked you. Was this a social affair? I don't really know. I may 
have, if it was a social affair. If it was an affair open only to members 
of the Communist Party ; no. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know that the Abraham Lincoln Brigade Vet- 
erans is a Communist organization; do you know that? 

Mr. Burns. I don't know that. 

Mr. Morris. You don't know that ? 

Mr. Burns. It is possible. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in May of 1953 a member of the organiza- 
tion commission, district 8, of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burns. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. That is an unequivocal answer. 

Mr. Burns. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you participate in the Chicago Area Confer- 
ence for World Peace at the Fine Arts Building in Chicago on October 
17, 1953? 

Mr. Burns. I will have to give you the same answer, Judge. I don't 
recall. It is possible. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the International Workers 
Order? 

Mr. Burns. I may have been. 

Mr. Morris. Have you remained a member of the International 
Workers Order subsequent to 1947? 

Mr. Burns. I don't think so. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us, what is your present 
position, Mr. Burns ? 

Mr. Burns. I am an international representative assigned to the 
International Harvester department of the union, processing griev- 
ances, policing the contracts, and I am also one of the two people who 
handle arbitration of grievances which can't be resolved at any other 
level. 

Mr. Morris. You are not, as such, an official of the UAW. You 
are a staff member ? 

Mr. Burns. Just a staff member. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you could tell us the circumstances sur- 
rounding your departure from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Burns. Yes, sir ; I can. In 1947—1 think that is the year the 
Taft-Hartley Act was passed — we had quite a rhubarb in our union 
over this question of signing or not signing the Taft-Hartley Act. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4079 

I was one of those who, although disciplined by the union's position 
of not signing it, fought against this position. I thought it was 
wrong, and I felt that that would lead to the destruction of the farm- 
equipment union, which it did subsequently. 

And, as a result, I then broke and I said I don't want to be subject 
to any discipline of any kind, because this is wrong and it will probably 
be consistently wrong, and that was it. 

And, as a result of this situation, I then, from that point on, wanted 
to get the farm-equipment union — what was left of it, and particularly 
the Harvester segment, which I was a part of — into some organization 
where their rights would be protected; and I would say that, over 
the violent objections of the UE leadership, I negotiated with the 
UAW top officers this breakaway from the UE, and brought them 
into the UAW. 

Senator Hruska. Can you give us at this point the chronology of 
the farm-equipment workers, the UE, and the 

Mr. Burns. Yes ; I can. 

Senator Hrtjska (continuing). And the UAW? 

Mr. Burns. In 1947, when the farm equipment union went on 
record against the signing of the Taft-Hartley Act, Taft-Hartley 
affidavit, so that they could use the facilities of the NLRB, after a 
series of raids, and so on, the union having lost some of its locals as a 
result, in 1949 there was a decision to go into the UE, late in 1949. I 
think it was December, as a matter of fact; I am not quite sure. 
They became part of the UE, and, as a matter of fact, even there we 
had some problems because we were always called FEUE because we 
had this division and hostility from the time we went into the outfit. 

In 1952 we lost a strike in the Harvester chain, as a result of not 
being united, being split between two unions. From that point on 
there was a group of us who caucused and decided that we would pull 
that group out, something like 20,000 workers, out of the UE, and in 
1954 we started that. In 1955 it was accomplished. 

Senator Hruska. What strike do you refer to as having been lost ? 

Mr. Burns. 1952, the Harvester strike. That portion of Harvester 
chain covered by the UE, or the FEUE, was lost. 

Senator Hruska. And it was in 1952, then, that you pulled out? 

Mr. Burns. No ; in 1952 the strike was lost, and in 1954 a group of 
us began this fight to get the Harvester people out, over the objections 
of the National UE leadership, and in 1955 we accomplished it. 

Senator Hruska. And became a part of the 

Mr. Burns. United Auto Workers. 

Mr. Morris. You have been a correspondent for the Midwest Daily 
Record ; have you not ? 

Mr. Burns. I was. I wrote a — I wrote a sports column for them. 

Mr Morris. That was not in connection with your activities as a 
labor organizer? 

Mr. Burns. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. That was a Communist newspaper; was it not? 

Mr. Burns. It was called that, although my relationship was as a 
sports contributor. I like sports, and — I think that was back in — I 
don't remember the date, Judge. 

Was that in 1939, 1937, or 1938 or something? 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions of this particular 
witness. 



4080 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Have you told the United Auto Workers' officials that you were 
once the head of a Communist unit ? 

Mr. Burns. No, sir ; I did not, because when I went into the UAW, 
the position of the union was that what you had done before is your 
business. One thing is for sure : You cannot be in this union and be 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Had you told them about the long attendance and 
participation in Communist rallies from 1947 right down to 1954? 
Have you told the UAW about those activities ? 

Mr. Burns. Well, I didn't tell the union that, because, as I said 
here, I broke away in 1947, and there was no sense, after 7 or 8 years, 
to discuss this question with them. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Burns, you have testified here that you 
have, since 1947, not attended any meetings which were held ex- 
clusively for Communist Party members; you have, however, at- 
tended a great many rallies, demonstrations, and social meetings 
and things of that kind from time to time. Is that true ? 

Mr. Burns. That is possible. 

Senator Hruska. Which were sponsored by the Communist Party, 
or some part of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Burns. I don't know about that, about being sponsored by 
the Communist Party. Some of the meetings he asked me about, I 
don't know whether they were or they weren't, and I don't know 
whether I was there or not. But, as a trade-union official in the 
union I was in, we did attend meetings and did explain the position 
of the union. 

Senator Hruska. Several times during the course of your testi- 
mony you referred to meetings having been endorsed by the labor 
union. 

Mr. Burns. Like the May Day rally, sir ? 

Senator Hruska. Sir? 

Mr. Burns. Like the May Day rally. 

Senator Hruska. Were there any other examples like that? 

Mr. Burns. That is the only one I know of. 

Mr. Morris. How about the Abraham Lincoln Brigade and the 
Civil Rights Congress? 

Mr. Burns. I don't know. 

Senator Hruska. Was it the policy of the labor union to encour- 
age its representatives and staff members to keep in close touch with 
rallies and meetings sponsored by the Communist Party, Mr. Wit- 
ness? 

Mr. Burns. No ; it wasn't. However,' on the May Day, this had 
a relationship to our particular union because that was tied in 
with the celebration of the Haymarket situation. I don't know 
the date, and that was why 

Mr. Morris. You attended a Lenin memorial meeting at the Col- 
iseum in Chicago. 

Mr. Burns. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. I just want to know whether he has attended any. 
Can't you remember whether you attended a Lenin memorial meeting 
at the Coliseum in Chicago ? 

Mr. Burns. I don't believe so. 

Mr. Morris. Specifically, on January 13, 1946. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4081 

Mr. Burns. I just said I don't believe so. 

Mr. Morris. How many May Day rallies have you attended? 

Mr. Burns. One or two. 

Mr. Morris. You can't recall more than 1 or 2 ? 

Mr. Burns. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. You cannot recall more than 1 or 2. 

Mr. Burns. That is right, 

Mr. Morris. Did you, specifically, attend the May Day rally in 
1946 at the Ashland Boulevard auditorium? 

Mr. Burns. That is possible. I don't recall. Mr. Morris, since I 
have been in the UAW I have attended no such meetings, and there 
I can state unequivocally. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

Senator Hruska. All right; the witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Senator Hruska. Next witness, please. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Gilpin. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but (he truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Gilpin. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DE WITT GILPIN, ACCOMPANIED BY JOSEPH L. 
RAUH, JE., AND DANIEL H. POLLITT, HIS ATTORNEYS 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the re- 
porter? 

Mr. Gilpin. DeWitt Gilpin, 548 Eugenie, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I am an international representative for the United 
Auto Workers, staff member. 

Mr. Morris. And, Mr. Gilpin, in connection with that address, 548 
Eugenie Street, how many apartments are there in that building? 

Air. Gilpin. Before I answer that question, I would like to submit 
the same statement that Mr. Burns did, get that into the record at 
this time. 

Senator Hruska. You may do so, and, if it is agreeable with coun- 
sel and yourself, it can be considered read, having been submitted to 
the subcommittee, its staff, and chairman, the presiding officer, yes- 
terday pursuant to committee rules. The record will show it as 
inserted at this point. 

(The statement referred to is as follows :) 

I am here, unwilling, in response to the subpena of this committee. 

I have no information about current or recent Communist labor movement. 
In view of this, I do not believe this committee has any authority to ask me 
questions about my past activities and associations under its resolution or under 
the Watkins decision. 

Despite my personal feelings on this matter, I am going to answer all ques- 
tion about my own past activities, no matter how irrelevant or unconstitu- 
tional those questions may be. I do this in line with the policy which the 
United Automobile Workers have adopted that its staff members shall answer 
all questions put to them by a congressional committee about their own activ- 
ities. I will not, however, name persons whom I knew long ago and subject 
them to public stigma and scorn. Identifying these men could not possibly aid 
this committee or Congress in its legislative activities, and I most respect- 
fully invoke my rights under the first amendment as to this type of question. 



4082 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. In connection with the address, 548 Eugenie Street, 
how many apartments in that building? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is a two-apartment building, also with a fur- 
nished basement. 

Mr. Morris. Now 

Mr. Gilpin. I live on the top floor. 

Mr. Morris. Now, that is owned by Elmer Johnson, a known Com- 
munist, is it not ? 

Mr. Gilpin. It is owned by Elmer Johnson, who is my landlord. 

Mr. Morris. Does he live on the premises ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, to your knowledge, is Elmer Johnson a Com- 
munist? 

Mr. Gilpin. On that, sir — well, sir, I don't quite see the pertinence 
of my landlord in this inquiry, but I am going to answer it, anyway. 
To my knowledge, I have no knowledge as to whether or not he is a 
Communist or not. I don't think he is. 

Mr. Morris. It is not your knowledge that he is a known Communist 
in the Chicago area? 

Mr. Gilpin. It is not. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Sam Hammersmark? 

Mr. Gilpin. I do. 

Mr. Morris. Now, has he lived in that building? 

Mr. Gilpin. He occupied a room there several years ago. He is 
now in an institution for the senile. Again, I do not see what the 
pertinence of 

Mr. Morris. When did he live there? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I think I answered that he has been gone from 
there several years. If there is any attempt to connect it with this 
inquiry or the UAW, he certainly left before I became a staff member 
of the UAW, but I am not certain of the exact date of his departure. 

Senator Hruska. When did you become a staff member of the 
UAW? 

Mr. Gilpin. March 1, 1955. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, have Communist Party meetings 
been held at 548 Eugenie Street ? 

Mr. Gilpin. To my knowledge, they have not. 

Mr. Morris. And you know of no circumstances that would indi- 
cate Communist Party meetings were held there? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And have you attended any meetings in the apartment 
of Elmer Johnson ? 

Mr. Gilpin. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You maintain friendly relationship with Elmer John- 
son? 

Mr. Gilpin. I have the relationship of a tenant to a landlord, and 
he is known to me. 

Mr. Morris. Apart from that relationship, is the relationship 
friendly ? 

Mr. Gilpin. It is the normal relationship. 

Mr. Morris. I mean, do you visit him socially ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, sir, again I question the pertinency, but I don't 
visit him any more socially than I think you would if — there is a patio 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4083 

on the place ; you cook out, you barbecue ; you are up and down stairs. 
In terms of calling on Elmer, visiting with him, no. 

Mr. Morris. Well, the reason the issue of pertinency has come up, 
the subcommittee has learned from one of our men who was out in the 
Chicago area who learned this, Communist Party meetings have been 
held at 548 Eugenie Street, and they particularly revolved about a 
man named Elmer Johnson. 

I think, Senator, it is pertinent. Here we have a competent wit- 
ness to testify what goes on in these premises, and this witness is now 
an official of the United Automobile Workers. We just want to get 
your best information on it. That is all, Mr. Gilpin. 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, sir, I have given you the information at hand as 
far as I am concerned. 

Mr. Morris. You do not mean Elmer Johnson is a Communist and 
you have no reason to believe he is ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I think I answered that question. 

Mr. Morris. That is your answer ? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is my answer. 

Mr. Morris. You yourself have been a Communist, have you not? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Specifically when? 

Mr. Gilpin. I would say roughly from 1936 to— 1935, 1936—1 am a 
little hazy there, but I know I left the party in 1941. 

Mr. Morris. Now, at the time — I think I asked you in executive 
session, did you use the name Ralph Monroe ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Yes, sir ; and I answered that that testimony was given 
by the former editor of the magazine, Confidential, and I want to say 
about that name, I will stipulate that I may have used it in 1936, 1937. 
I will state categorically I have never used it since. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, since 1951 — I will try to make this brief— 
you have participated in rallies which we have called very loosely 
Communist rallies, have you not, Mr. Gilpin ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I know that you want to get through 

Mr. Morris. Specifically, Paid Robeson concerts, Civil Rights Con- 
gress, May Day parades, May Day rallies? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, you see, you are making a sweeping statement. 

Mr. Morris. I don't mean to. Forgive me. I know it is a broad 
thing. 

Senator Hrltska. You may withdraw that and ask a more specific 
one. 

Mr. Gilpin. If I may try to suit your purpose, I would say that I 
have attended meetings endorsed by the union in which the union at 
that time was participating, and I am speaking of the — well, we had 
better get this straight because, you see, there is a big gap in my history. 
I came back shortly before when I went into the UE and as my counsel 
knows, I was not in the labor movement for a number of years after I 
got out of the Army. 

So, what are we talking about? What kind of meetings? 

Mr. Morris. You were a writer for the Daily Worker in the 1930's, 
were you not ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I would say "Yes," although actually, as I think you 
know, I worked on the Midwest Record. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, and then you were field representative of the Farm 
Equipment Workers in Des Moines, Iowa, at the same time you were 



4084 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

active in the Communist Party matters in the Woods plant in Des 
Moines, is that right ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Sir, I think that information is incorrect. It is in- 
correct. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work in Des Moines, Iowa ? 

Mr. Gilpin. No, sir. The only connection I had with the Woods 
Bros, plant in Des Moines, Iowa, was as an international representa- 
tive who went there, I believe, on 1 occasion, possibly 2, to negotiate 
contracts. 

Mr. Morris. The Daily Worker of October 30, 1940, reported that 
you were active in Communist Party matters in the Woods plant in Des 
Moines, Iowa. 

Mr. Gilpin. I would like to hear that report, and I would deny 
it. I would dispute it. 

Mr. Morris. You say you did go to the Woods plant ? 

Mr. Gilpin. To negotiate a contract with the union. At that time 
it was the FE union. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work with any Communists? Did you meet 
any Communists at that time ? 

Mr. Gilpin. You are talking about the period of my employment 
with the FE which ended in 1941, and it was in the same year that 
I dropped my party membership. Now, your question is did I meet 
with any Communists ? 

Mr. Morris. In connection with this Woods plant activity. Was it 
a straight union activity, or was it a Communist activity, or can you 
not separate them ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I am having difficulty because I don't know to 
what witness you are referring or what evidence you are referring 
to, and I am saying to the best of my knowledge — you realize that 
this is 15 or 16 years ago — the only tiling that I can remember about 
Wood Bros, is those ex-coalminers up there that I worked with and 
negotiated the contract. 

Mr. Morris. And there was no Communist Party activity ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I think I answered that. I can't recall. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a member of the Illinois and Indiana 
district executive committee of the Communist Party in 1941 ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I don't think so. I am pretty positive I wasn't. 
Again, that is a long time ago, but I have a pretty good idea of what 
my relations were with the party at the time I was an international 
representatives for FE. Frankly it doesn't ring a bell. 

Mr. Morris. What was your activity in the party, Mr. Gilpin? 

Mr. Gilpin. My activity in the party — that was in the early day9 
of CIO. We were organizing drives. I used the party apparatus 
for the purpose of getting names of people from plants, to organize 
those plants, get a union in there. I also used the Communist Party 
operators for aid and assistance in strikes. At that time we were 
engaged in knocking out the company union in International Har- 
vester, and I carried out my duties as a trade union official, as a Com- 
munist, and remember, that historical period. That was the early 
days of CIO and a lot of people have similar objectives. Communists, 
Socialists, workers, progressives. 

Senator Hruska. Are they still similar ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I would say no, although that is a pretty general 
question. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4085 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Gilpin, in 1946 were you a writer for the Com- 
munist controlled veterans' magazine, Salute ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I certainly don't conceive that that magazine was 
Communist-controlled, and just because Waltman wrote an article 
that said so doesn't seem to me that people like Bill Mauldin and 
Marion Hargrove and people that contributed and edited that maga- 
zine were Communists or under Communist control. 

Mr. Morris. I'm sorry. The way I should have asked the question 
was not as it was told to us but I should break it down. 

Were you a writer for the magazine Salute ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I was both a writer and later an editor, executive 
editor. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, is that a Communist-controlled 
paper ? 

Mi-. Gilpin. To my knowledge, it was not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you present in the office of the mayor of 
Chicago on March 17, 1951, during a citywide demonstration spon- 
sored by the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is likely. 

Mr. Morris. It is likely. 

Mr. Gilpin. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, was the Civil Rights Congress 
a Communist organization? 

Mr. Gilpin. I would not be there as an individual. If I was there, 
I was there in my capacity as an international representative of the 
union. 

Senator Hruska. Which union ? 

Mr. Gilpin. At that time that would be the UE. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, was the UE or UAW controlled 
by the Communists ? 

Mr. Gilpin. To my knowledge, no. 

Mr. Morris. In your opinion, I mean — I ask you this question as 
a sophisticated political person, someone who has been a member of 
the Communist Party and who knows how the Communist Party 
works, as you were a representative of the UE. In your belief, is 
that a Communist-controlled union, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I will answer that to the best of my ability. 
You have remarked about my political sophistication. I will try 
to give you a sophisticated answer. Obviously, I had no firsthand 
knowledge of Communist domination or control of the UE. 

Mr. Morris. Even though you were the international representa- 
tive at that time ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I am trying to finish my statement. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry. 

Mr. Gilpin. There were certain- policies taken that were under 
attack that gave an indication, at least, that on some major ques- 
tions the UE was not seeing eye to eye with the rest of the labor 
movement. 

Mr. Morris. It was expelled by the AFL-CIO as a Communist- 
controlled union, was it not ? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is correct, sir. Well, historically I would like to 
check that. I don't know whether that was the specific charge or 
not; was it? I would let the record of the AFL-CIO speak for 
itself on that. I just want to be accurate in answering the question. 



4086 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(The following letter and affidavit bearing on this testimony were 
later received by the subcommittee :) 

Rauh and Levt, 
Washington, D. C, August 8, 1957. 
Judge Robert Morris, 

Chief Counsel, Senate Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judi- 
ciary Committee, Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Judge Morris : On July 3, 1957, Mr. Dewitt Gilpin testified as a wit- 
ness before the Internal Security Subcommittee. During the hearing he was 
asked the following question: "It (referring to the UE) was expelled by the 
AFL-CIO as a Communist-controlled union; was it not?" He replied as fol- 
lows : "That is correct, sir. Well, historically I would like to check that * * *. 
I just want to be accurate in answering the question." 

Since the date of the hearing, Mr. Gilpin has had occasion to check the 
accuracy of his testimony, and his notarized statement is enclosed as additional 
testimony on this point. 
Sincerely yours, 

Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. 

Supplementary Statement op Dewitt Gilpin to the Subcommittee on 
Internal Security op the Senate Committee on the Judiciary 

During my testimony on July 3, 1957, I testified that I had no firsthand knowl- 
edge that the UE was a Communist-controlled union. I was asked for my opinion 
on this subject and was also asked if the UE was expelled by the AFL-CIO as 
a Communist-controlled union. I answered that the UE was so expelled, but 
then added that I would like to check. I had been out of the labor-union move- 
ment for 7 years (4 in the Army and 3 in private employment) up to 1949. I 
returned to the FE a very short time prior to its merger with UE, and had no 
firsthand knowledge of the events leading up to the expulsion of the UE from 
the CIO. Since my testimony, I have checked on these facts. 

In 1949 10 CIO unions including the UE were charged by the CIO with poli- 
cies and activities consistently directed toward the achievement of the programs 
or purposes of the Communist Party rather than the objectives set forth in the 
constitution of the CIO. The FE had merged with the UE a short time before 
and consequently had passed out of existence as an independent organization 
and did not receive any charges nor was any action taken against the FE as an 
independent organization. The UE refused to answer the charges and resigned 
from the CIO. Simultaneously with the UE resignation, the CIO adopted a con- 
vention resolution expelling the UE on the basis of the charges issued. 

I told the committee that I would have to check my original statement that 
the UE was expelled as a Communist-controlled union because of these pro- 
cedural aspects. I was not and am not in any doubts as to the political aspects. 

To me, as "a sophisticated political person," (to use the committee's words) 
it was apparent that the UE followed the Communist Party line on the im- 
portant political issues of the moment, including the position of resisting the 
non-Communist oath requirement of the Taft-Hartley Act. It was the UE's 
position on these issues, plus the UE's policy of opposing trade-union unity, that 
led me and the leaders of the Harvester locals with whom I worked to break 
with the UE and seek affiliation with the UAW, it being our conviction, as I 
stated at the hearing, that the policies and programs of the UAW offered the 
right economic and political answers for myself and the Harvester workers. 

Since the affiliation of the former FE-UE Harvester locals with the UAW, 
I have been the international representative servicing three of the locals in 
Chicago. In my work with these three locals I have publicly stated my opposi- 
tion to the Communist Party, and I will continue to do so. I am proud to say 
that these local unions under the UAW have a record of faithfully carrying 
out the policies of the international union, including the UAW's opposition to 
the Communist Party and all other totalitarian groups. These locals have main- 
tained high wages and good working conditions without industrial strife, they 
have raised large sums for Hungarian relief, and they have actively supported 
our union's position on foreign policy, civil rights ,and political actions. 

Dewitt Gilpin. 
Washington, D. C, August S, 1957. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 2d day of August, 1957. 
[seal] Margaret T. Whiston, 

Notary Public. 
My commission expires November 14, 1961. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4087 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the William L. Patterson rally at the 
UE hall, 37 South Ashland Avenue, Chicago, April 15, 1952? 

Mr. Gilpin. I could, counsel, because that was the district office of 
the UE. I worked out of there. I may have been at that meeting. 
I assume that the union had something to do with it or they wouldn't 
have rented them the hall. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I have an identification from Mr. 
Mandel, our research director, about William L. Patterson ? 

Senator Hruska. Certainly. 

Mr. Mandel. William L. Patterson has run for office on the Com- 
munist Party ticket on a number of occasions and has been a leading 
Communist for a number of years. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the annual May Day rally of May 1, 
1952, at the People's Auditorium at 2457 West Chicago Avenue ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Again I don't want to not be cooperative on this ques- 
tion, but you asked me that in executive session and honestly I can't 
remember that. I think I referred to another meeting held at my own 
union hall, which I said it seemed to me it would be very likely I was 
there, because it was being held at my own union hall and apparently 
had been rented by my local to that particular committee who is hold- 
ing the meeting. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a Paul Robeson rally at Washington 
Park, Chicago, on July 12, 1953 ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Possibly. I stated before that I have attended meet- 
ings where Robeson sang and spoke. 

Mr. Morris. And the same for a Paul Robeson concert at the 
Chopin Center in Chicago sponsored by the Chicago Committee for 
Paul Robeson on October 31, 1954? 

Mr. Gilpin. I would give the same answer. 

Senator Hruska. What was the answer ? 

Mr. Gilpin. The answer was, while I am not clear, the chronological 
order of dates, I am willing to say to you that I have attended meet- 
ings, I assume during this same period — I haven't been following 
the dates too closely — when Paul Robeson sang and spoke. 

Mr. Morris. In the Communist Party, what kind of a unit were 
you attached to ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Again, going back into ancient history and hoping 
my memory is reliable 

Mr. Morris. You refer to this ancient history, but all these events 
led right down to 1954. 

Mr. Gilpin. But the events you referred to it seems to me it ought 
to be said for the record, don't have any connection with the Commu- 
nist Party, nor connecting me with it. 

Mr. Morris. Certainly May Day rallies are connected with the 
Communist Party, aren't they ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, just on that, you know, the tradition of Harvester 
workers goes back to Haymarket, my own local does too. They rent 
halls to a lot of people and they are also, sir, interested in civil 
liberties. Just because Communists may sponsor civil liberties doesn't 
make the sponsoring of civil liberties communistic, and I think that 
situation more or less exists in the attitude of my local leader, union 
leadership now. We are not going to let a Communist or the Commu- 
nist Party endorsement of civil liberties stop us from being for civil 
liberties. 



4088 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. This Civil Rights Congress, the May Day parades, 
they are organized by the Communists. They are Communist func- 
tions, are they not ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, you have stated that. To my knowledge I don't 
know. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us what was the last unit you were in 
in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I don't — as I recall, I did not operate in a unit. I was 
a paid official of the union. The dealings I had, and here we are 
speaking of the Chicago period, of course, I met with Communist 
functionaries, Morris Childs, Jack Johnstone, people of that type, 
and I was in no — in the period ending 1941 to the best of my recol- 
lection, I can't recall an organized group of cells as you call it. It 
seems to me that my membership was more or less at large, and be- 
cause of the position I was occupying at that time, I dealt only with 
the top people in the party in that particular city. 

Mr. Morris. What was your assignment at that time ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I had no assignment as such from the Communist 
Party. I was a Communist holding a trade-union position and carry- 
ing out my trade-union duties, and I have testified before that I used 
the Communist Party's apparatus in organizing drives and strikes. 
If you go back to that period, sir, and try to unscramble what the 
party was for, and what the CIO was for, and the New Deal, it is not 
an easy thing. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony you weren't a member of any unit ? 

Mr. Gilpin. To the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. You just worked directly with these Communist Party 
functionaries? 

Mr. Gilpin. I think that would be true, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have any knowledge that any official of the 
Farm Equipment Workers Union was a member of the Communist 
Party, any direct knowledge ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Yes. I would like to have the question rephrased. 

(Question read.) 

Mr. Gilpin. In answer to the question, I refer to my opening state- 
ment, but I would add to that that I certainly had no present knowl- 
ege of anybody in that group. 

Mr. Morris. Well, present knowledge. When you were in the Farm 
Equipment Workers Union did you have any knowledge ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I have to stand on my opening statement with 
just the addition that none of the — if you are talking about officials, 
none of those people are currently in the labor movement. 

Mr. Morris. None of what? 

Mr. Gilpin. If you are talking about FE officials, officials of FE 

Mr. Morris (continuing) . Or staff members. Any of them, to your 
knowledge. Were there any of them, to your knowledge while you 
were there, Communists ? 

Mr. Gilpin. None of them are presently in the labor movement. 

Mr. Morris. I don't mean presently. While you were in the Farm 
Equipment Workers Union. 

Mr. Gilpin. I stand on my statement on that. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4089 

Mr. Morris. You mean you refuse to tell the committee ; refuse to 
answer that question ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Sir, I don't think — well — too many opinions here. It 
doesn't seem to me pertinent to the inquiry of the present situation, my 
being in the UAW. I will say this. Searching my memory — these 
people that I knew, sir, are all out of the labor movement. I don't 
think the question is pertinent. I stand on my opening statement, and, 
just so there is no confusion in the record here, even though Mr. Burns 
has testified that he was a member of the Communist Party, at the 
time I was in the union and up until the time I left the party — the 
union to go into service — at that time I did not know Mr. Burns as a 
member of the Communist Party in the union. 

Senator Hruska. Does the Chair understand, then, that you refuse 
to answer whether or not the officers of the farm-equipment workers 
at the time you were a member were Communists or not ? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is correct, sir, for the reasons already stated. 

Senator Hruska. Your objection is overruled, and you are directed 
to answer it, Mr. Witness. 

Mr. Gilpin. I respectfully decline, sir, for the reason stated. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when you were a field representative of the Farm 
Equipment Workers Union, w r as there any Communist Party official, 
to your knowledge, at that time who was active in the Farm Equip- 
ment Workers Union ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Would you repeat that, sir ? 

(The question w r as read. ) 

Mr. Gilpin. What period is that, now ? 

Mr. Morris. When were you the field representative ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I think from 1938 to 1941. 

Mr. Morris. Are there any persons who were Communist officials or 
Communists generally who were working in the Farm Equipment 
Workers Union ? 

Mr. Gilpin. It seems to me like the two questions are the same. I 
would have to give the same answer, the same 

Mr. Morris. Your first answer. 

Senator Hruska. And your answer is predicated on the first amend- 
ment and not on the fifth amendment ; is that true ? Your objection, 
rather ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Pardon me, sir. I am sorry. My answer is that my 
position is predicated on pertinence and the first amendment. 

Senator Hruska. The objection is overruled, and you are directed 
to answer. 

Mr. Gilpin. I respectfully decline, for the reasons stated. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did the Farm Equipment Workers Union 
go into the UAW? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I think I know what you want, but that question, 
I think, is wrong. At that time we went from the UE into the UAW. 
If you will recall the chronological order 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe the chronological order, briefly ? 

Mr. Gilpin. You asked me when the Harvester workers that I was 
associated with went into the UAW. 

Mr. Morris. And you answer is it went in via the UE ? 



4090 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Gilpin. No. 

Mr. Morris. Well, just what is the answer ? 

Mr. Gilpin. March 1, 19— well, the agreement, I believe, was con- 
summated March 1, 1955, but the mechanics of carrying it out through 
labor-board elections, it took several months. 

Mr. Morris. What happened on March 1, 1955 ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Sir? 

Mr. Morris. What happened ? Precisely what happened ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I think Mr. Burns has testified on that. I was 
not in all of the meetings that led to this move for affiliation. But 
what happened was a culmination of a policy that Burns and some 
of the other representatives had adopted, as he told you, deciding that 
the place that these workers could best be served economically was 
in the UAW. 

Mr. Morris. That is, the farm-equipment workers ? 

Mr. Gilpin. The Harvester local then in UE, whom we led into the 
UAW. 

Mr. Morris. Prior to the time they went into the UE, they were 
members of the Farm Equipment Workers Union. 

Mr. Gilpin. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Then into the UE and then, on March 1, 1955, as the 
Harvester local of UE, went into UAW ? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is substantially correct. There is a timelag 
there. As I said, the mechanics of labor-board elections ; each plant 
had to vote in a labor-board election. 

Mr. Morris. And you have also written articles for March of Labor ; 
have you not ? 

Mr. Gilpin. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Have you done that since March 1, 1955 ? 

Mr. Gilpin. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I note you did write an article, The Man Who Becomes 
a Machine, in that particular magazine in November 19 

Mr. Gilpin. November ? 

Mr. Morris. 1954. 

Mr. Gilpin. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Is that a Communist publication ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I have no knowledge what it was. My own local, where 
I carry my membership, and I think this would partly explain my 
connection, had subscribed to the magazine for all of its shop steMards. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I know these things are hard to be 
precise about, but I ask if you will call on Mr. Mandel to just describe 
the nature of the publication, March of Labor. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Mandel will proceed. 

Mr. Mandel. March of Labor is a labor magazine which was the 
subject of a special report by the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities which described it as a Communist publication. It was 
for years edited by John Steuben, a leading member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I would have to — I am sorry. But I would like 
to say that, again, I want to state, as far as my knowledge is con- 
cerned — I am not arguing with the report — as far as my firsthand 
knowledge is concerned, I have no knowledge of that being a Commu- 
nist publication. 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4091 

Senator Hruska. They gave you no certificate to the effect that they 
were a Communist paper ; did they ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Not only that, sir, but they printed all kinds of articles 
about the labor movement in general ; many of them very favorable to 
AFL-CIO. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know John Steuben ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I have seen him at the union hall. He came there in 
connection with the magazine. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know he was a Communist ? 

Mr. Gilpin. I didn't know. 

Mr. Morris. He acknowledged that before he died recently, that he 
was a Communist. Did you know that ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I assume you are asking me my firsthand knowl- 
edge. 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Gilpin. My answer is "No." 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Hrltska. Mr. Witness, you have testified that you left the 
party in 1941. By leaving the party, what do you mean ; by surrender- 
ing your card and stopping paying dues or breaking with it emotion- 
ally, as the language goes ? Just what do you mean when you sav you 
left the party in 1941 ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, I think it means all those things you said — I 
stopped the mechanics. The date of my emotional break, that is a 
little harder to figure. I was in the Army 4i/o years. I got out. 
How long that exact emotional break took I don't know. I think 
GI's returning have a lot of emotional impacts about everything. But 
T testified that I had been out of the party and I testified that I — 
I will testify that since getting out of service I have attended no 
neetings that were open only to Communists. I haven't taken this 
me, paid dues or knowingly given them any money. 

Mr. Morris. Did the United Auto Workers know of your Commu- 
nist Party membership at the time you entered the TTAW ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Well, the record shows it was quite a while ago. 
Whether they knew or not — because, for example, you brought out the 
fact that I was the correspondent for the Midwest Record. Whether 
there were any in the auto union knew that I don't know. They 
could have. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know whether the UAW knew of your activ- 
ity with these organizations which I have described as Communist 
Party rallies, and like characterizations, going down to — and your 
writing for publications down as late as 1954 ? 

Mr. Gilpin. Again, I don't know about their knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

Senator Hruska. All right. The witness is excused. 

The next witness, please. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Newhoff. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give to this subcommittee will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I do. 



4092 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF ANDREW NEWHOFF, CHICAGO, ILL., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY JOSEPH L. RAUH, JR., AND DANIEL H. POLLITT, HIS 
ATTORNEYS 

Mr. Morris. Give your full name and address to the reporter, 
please. 

Mr. Newhoff. My name is Andrew Newhoff. My address is 5008 
South Dorchester Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business or profession? 
Mr. Newhoff. Mr. Chairman, before I answer questions, can I 
also read this statement which was introduced ? 

Senator Hruska. You may, if you choose, but we will consider it 
as having been read and it will be inserted in the record at this point 
as having been read by you, and it also was submitted on your behalf 
to the subcommittee yesterday, pursuant to the rules of the subcom- 
mittee. The record will so show. 

(The statement referred to is as follows : ) 

I am here unwilling in response to the subpena of this committee. 

I have no information about current or recent Communist activity 
in the labor movement. In view of this, I do not believe this com- 
mittee has any authority to ask me questions about my past activities 
and associations under its resolution or under the Watkins decision. 

Despite my personal feelings on this matter, I am going to answer 
all questions about my own past activities, no matter how irrelevant 
or unconstitutional those questions may be. I do this in line with 
the policy which the United Automobile "Workers has adopted that 
its staff members shall answer all questions put to them by a congres- 
sional committee about their own activities. I will not, however, name 
persons whom I knew long ago and subject them to public stigma 
and scorn. Identifying these men could not possibly aid this com- 
mittee or Congress in its legislative activities, and I most respectfully 
invoke my rights under the first amendment as to this type of question. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I am an international representative of the United 
Automobile Workers of America. 

Mr. Morris. In the Chicago region ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, not necessarily, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Newhoff. Yes, sir ; I have. 

Mr. Morris. When did you join the Communist Part} 7 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I joined the Communist Party, according to my best 
recollection, around 1028. 

Mr. Morris. When did you leave the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Also according to my best recollection, around 1039. 

Mr. Morris. What unit were you in, in 1930, when you left the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I have to correct that statement of unit. 

At the time when I was in the Communist Party there were no 
units. They were known as branches. 

Mr. Morris. What branch were you in at that time ? 

Mr. Newhoff. It was a branch of the Communist Party, I think, in 
Minneapolis, on the north side. I am not exactly clear in my mind 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4093 

what part of the city it was, but it was one of the branches in Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 

Mr. Morris. Who was the leader of that branch ? 

Mr. Newhoff. "Who was the leader of that branch ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Newhoff. To be very candid, I wouldn't remember. This is 
a long time ago, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Morris. Who made up that branch ? What was the jurisdiction 
of it ? Was it a neighborhood branch ? 

Mr. Newhoff. It was a neighborhood branch which met regularly 
each 2 weeks, at which people came to speak on various topics that 
were pertinent at the time. 

Mr. Morris. Did any union officials come and address that branch? 

Mr. Newhoff. Not to my knowledge, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is it your testimony you left the Communist 
Party in 1939? 

Mr. Newhoff. 1939. 

However, I want to add to that, counsel, the fact that, as I stated 
in the executive session, my emotional and friendly ties with the party 
were not severed, that I went into the service right after the first 
break with the party — I mean, the break with the party — and that 
I served for 3 years in the United States Army, and when I came back 
I did attend a number of meetings, as you well know I testified to 
in the executive session. 

Mr. Morris. You attended meetings. Generally, what kind of 
meetings were they ? 

Mr. Newhoff. General popular meetings of all types, open meet- 
ings. 

Mr. Morris. What was your relationship with the Communist Party 
at that time, the subsequent period, the postwar period? 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, should I say it would — to use the vernacular, 
I would say it would be called fellow traveler more than anything 
else. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the Lenin memorial meeting at the 
coliseum in Chicago on January 13, 194G ? 

Mr. Newhoff. 1946. Well, I wouldn't remember the exact date 
on that. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a Lenin memorial meeting? 

Mr. Newhoff. I remember attending a Lenin memorial meeting; 
yes. 

Mr. Morris. In the coliseum ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Whether it was the coliseum or some hall, I will 
say I attended such meeting. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the May Day rally in Ashland Boule- 
vard Auditorium in Chicago on May 1, 1946? 

Mr. Newhoff. I would say I was there. 

Mr. Morris. Did you speak and request collections to cover the 
expenses of Gerhardt Eisler at a meeting in the Viking Temple on 
January 17, 1947? 

Mr. Newhoff. I have already admitted that, sir ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you speak at a meeting sponsored by the 9th and 
10th congressional sections of the Communist Party, at the Viking 
Temple in Chicago, on March 13, 1947? 



4094 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Newhoff. Did I what, sir ? 

Mr. Morris. Speak at a meeting sponsored by the 9th and 10th 
congressional sections of the Communist Party at Viking Temple, 
Chicago, March 13, 1947. 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, now, you say did I speak there ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. We have been told that you spoke there. 

Mr. Newhoff. I did speak at an Eisler meeting. I remember that 
specifically. But this particular point I am not clear about. I don't 
remember that. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a Communist Party rally in the vicin- 
ity of Ashland Boulevard Auditorium on February 15, 1948 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. What was that, again ? 

Mr. Morris. Attended a Communist Party rally in the vicinity of 
Ashland Boulevard Auditorium on February 15, 1948. 

Mr. Newhoff. Would you know what the rally was about, sir ? I 
mean, if you know that. 

Mr. Morris. I am afraid I don't know that. 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, then, I would have to say I wouldn't remem- 
ber, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you take a part in the May Day rally in 
Union Park, Chicago, May 1, 1948? 

Mr. Newhoff. You see, you have asked me about one May Day 
meeting. 

Mr. Morris. This is later. 

Mr. Newhoff. It is very possible. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you attended more than one? 

Mr. Newhoff. I did, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you organizational secretary of the Illinois 
Civil Eights Congress in 1951 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Organizational secretary? Is that the designation 
you have there, sir ; organizational secretary ? 

Mr. Morris. That is the best of our information. On these cases 
I give you the best information. 

Mr. Newhoff. I was connected with the Civil Rights Congress. 

Mr. Morris. But you don't know whether, technically, you were 
the organizational director. Did you do organizational work? 

Mr. Newhoff. I did. 

Mr. Morris. Did you work in the office of the American Peace 
Crusade, in June 1951 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. No, sir; I did not. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in charge of the Civil Rights Congress ba- 
zaar, People's Auditorium, December 12, 1951 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a Paul Robeson jubilee peace and 
freedom, Washington Park, June 1, 1951 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I was at one of the Paul Robeson meetings. I know 
that. And it was an outdoor meeting in Washington Park. Whether 
it was that exact date or not, I can't say. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, if you will bear with me, I have about 4 or 
5 more questions. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the Civil Rights Congress carnival, 
People's Auditorium, Chicago, December G, 1952 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Carnival, you say? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4095 

Mr. Morris. Civil Rights Congress carnival, People's Auditorium, 
Chicago, December 6, 1952. 

Mr. Newhoff. I don't remember a carnival, sir. 

Mr. Morris. All right. Now, how about a Steve Nelson rally at the 
People's Auditorium in Chicago, 2457 West Chicago Avenue, spon- 
sored jointly by the Civil Rights Congress and the Veterans of the 
Abraham Lincoln Brigade on April 4, 1953 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Yes ; I think I was there, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the May Day rally at Labor Temple, 
1110, South Oakley Boulevard, Chicago, 111., May 1, 1953? 

Mr. Newhoff. An indoor meeting, you say ? An indoor meeting at 
where ? 

Mr. Morris. Attended the May Day rally at Labor Temple, 1110, 
South Oakley Boulevard, Chicago, 111., May 1, 1953 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I wouldn't remember that, sir. I don't remember 
that particular one. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend a meeting called Spare the Rosenbergs, 
at 410 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111., May 28, 1953 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And then did you attend the Sam Hammersmark birth 
day party at the Greek Workers Hall February 20, 1954 ? 

Mr. Newhoff. What was that ? 

Mr. Morris. Sam Hammersmark's birthday party. He is a Chicago 
Communist ; is he not ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I have heard of him. 

Mr. Morris. These are concrete instances of things you engage in in 
your activity, what you call fellow traveling activity. 

Mr. Newhoff. I would say it would be that ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you consider yourself now a fellow traveler ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I do not, sir ; by no means. 

Mr. Morris. When did you desist from being a fellow traveler? 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, I desisted from being a fellow traveler several 
years ago because of the fact that I don't agree with many of the ques- 
tions that have come to light in relation to the Communist movement 
with which I do not agree. 

Mr. Morris. Subsequent to 1954. 

Mr. Newhoff. I would say it was before that. Way before that, be- 
cause I broke with the Communist Party way before that, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You mean claimed friendly relations, as you say. 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, there were friendly relations based on my own 
feeling about certain civil-rights cases, sir. And certain questions 
that I also felt a kinship to. I was always connected with the civil- 
rights movement in this country, and that was the real reason for 
what one might call my fellow traveling. I use the word. It may 
not describe it adequately. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did the United Auto Workers know of this ac- 
tivity on your part when you became a staff member of the United 
Auto Workers ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, I guess not. But they know it now, I'm sure. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I think in view of the witness' responses, 
which have been — he has been very candid and direct as far as I am 
concerned, Senator. I have no more questions. 

Mr. Newhoff. One thing. May I state one thing ? 



4096 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. Yes. 

Mr. Newhoff. When you asked about the Sam Hammersmark 
question 

Mr. Morris. The birthday party. 

Mr. Newhoff. "Did you know that he was a Communist" — did you 
say that ? 

Mr. Morris. I mean, is he known as a Communist ? 

Mr. Newhoff. Well, I don't know that, sir. I mean, all I know 
him as, or as I recall him was as a bookstore man. That is the only 
way I have seen his name connected with anything. 

Mr. Morris. Well, he is a — It a Communist bookstore that he has 
been associated with ; is it not ? 

Mr. Newhoff. I don't know that, but I do know one thing, that 
Sam Hammersmark dates way back in the labor movement, so far 
as that is concerned, and that is how I have heard of him. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. The witness is excused. 

(Witness excused.) 

Senator Hruska. The Chair would like to observe that all three 
of these witnesses, although they have all testified that they quit the 
party at certain dates, yet our evidence shows, and some of their 
testimony indicates, that they have maintained some contact, and 
they have been friendly with many of the organizations sponsoring 
various Communist activities and affairs. And it is that area in which 
this committee will make further research and further investigation, 
because we believe it pertinent to the subject of inquiry and for our 
legislative needs. 

Mr. Kauh. Wouldn't it only be fair, Senator Hruska, to state for 
the record equally that there hasn't been one bit of testimony or 
suggestion that any 1 of the 3 men at any time since they have become 
connected with the United Automobile Workers have attended any of 
the functions to which you referred, and that their conduct as repre- 
sentatives of the United Automobile Workers has not been in question 
here in any way, shape, or form % 

Senator Hruska. The record will speak for itself in that regard, 
and I think counsel has fairly stated that since March 1, 1955, there 
is an absence of testimony in that regard. I mention it only because 
they have asserted their privilege under the first amendment and 
then by the very text of the record which we have, and part of which 
is in open testimony, as well as by their very apparent reluctance to 
testify, there is some reason to doubt whether there was such a com- 
plete break as that which they have testified to as of the time that they 
testified. 

Mr. Kauh. The record will also show that they answered every 
question excej^t a few about ancient associations, going back as far 
as 20 years. 

Senator Hruska. That — we will let the record speak on that, and the 
Chair has made his own observations as to the very evasive character 
of some of the testimony, and counsel may form his own judgment 
in that regard. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, there is a Mr. Albert Verri who was suh- 
penaed by the subcommittee to testify and we told his counsel that 
we were not ready to take his testimony at this time. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4097 

Now, I have been informed by counsel that he has come forth 
anyhow and is here to testify. 

Senator, I am not prepared. I haven't gone into the case. The 
investigation on that particular subject is not completed by any means 
and I ask that he be directed to appear at a later date and not today. 
And he has been freely told that he was not to appear here today. 

Mr. Kauh. That is correct, Mr. Morris. We are not challenging 
that. He was here, and we thought simply you might be able to deal 
with him. If not, can we get a date ? 

Mr. Morris. You understand in many of these cases we have to make 
inquiry. The stall' work necessary, as you can see for the first three 
witnesses 

Mr. Rauh. We have no argument on that score, I would like to say. 
I would just like to know the date whenever you are ready. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

Mr. Morris. We mentioned the name of Clair Feller last week in 
connection with the testimony. She works in the Western Union Co. 
in New York and she was identified in the record. 

Pursuant to our practice, if any name comes up like that as someone 
who was identified as a Communist, we would like as much as possible 
to give them an opportunity to answer it. May we communicate on 
that? 

Senator Hruska. You may do so, and the committee will entertain 
any request on your part to appear before this committee at any reason- 
able time when we can accommodate her presence to make such state- 
ment or denial as she desires to do in that connection. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you. 

(Whereupon at 1 p. m., the committee adjourned, to reconvene at 
the call of the Chair.) 

The following affidavit of Albert Verri was later received by the 
subcommittee and was ordered into the record on July 17, 1957 : 

Affidavit 

Albert Verri, being duly sworn, deposes and says that : 

1. By subpena dated the 14th of June 1057. I was directed to appear on June 25, 
1957, before the Subcommittee on Internal Security of the Committee on the 
Judiciary of the Senate of the United States. By telegram dated June 19, 1957, 
signed by Senator James O. Eastland, I was informed that my appearance be- 
fore the subcommittee had been postponed until Tuesday, July 9, 1957. I was 
present at the hearings held before the subcommittee on July 3, 1957, when 
Messrs. Burns, Gilpin, and Newhoff were called as witnesses. At the close of 
that hearing there was some confusion as to the time of my appearance and my 
attorney, Daniel H. Pollitt, called William Rusher, associate counsel for the 
subcommittee, in my presence during the afternoon of July 3 and it was agreed 
between Pollitt and Rusher that I would appear on July 9, 1957, as scheduled 
unless I heard to the contrary. 

2. I appeared as directed on July 9, 1957, but no hearing was held. Instead, 
it was agreed that I would submit this notarized statement in lieu of testimony 
this morning. I shall conform this statement as closely as possible to the testi- 
mony given by Messrs. Burns, Gilpin, and Newhoff. 

3. My name is Albert Verri. 

4. I live at 2912 North Pine Grove, Chicago, 111. 

5. Since March 1955, I have been employed as an international representative 
of the United Automobile Workers, coming in through the FE-UE route. 

6. 1 joined the Communist Party in 1939 and I left it in 1949. 
7. Since that time, I have not attended meetings open only to members of 
the Communist Party, I have not paid dues or made any contributions to the 



4098 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Communist Party, and I have not accepted the discipline of the Communist 
Party. 

8. My break with the Communist Party started in 1946 and in 1946 I stopped 
regular attendance at meetings and I stopped periodic payment of dues. How- 
ever, I was still emotionally tied to the Communist Party until a final break 
in 1949. 

9. I started to break with the Communist Party because of their unrealistic 
position on the Marshall plan and aid to the underdeveloped countries and be- 
cause of the party-line decision to refrain from signing Taft-Hartley non- 
Communist affidavits. Last year I collected almost $1,000 to aid the Hun- 
garian refugees and in the course of my campaign to raise this money I spoke 
vehemently against the Communist dictatorship. 

10. Prior to and up to 1946 I belonged to an area branch of the Communist 
Party made up of housewives, students, professional people, business people, 
and rank-and-file shop workers. 

11. In 1949, when I left the Communist Party, I was attached to a neigh- 
borhood industrial branch of the Communist Party made up of rank-and-file 
shop workers. 

12. Up until 1946, I was a shop worker in South Bend, Ind., and my function 
as a Communist Party member was confined almost entirely to aiding the 
Government in its total war efforts against the enemies of our country. I 
worked actively in the shop and local union promoting programs to help win 
the war by increasing production and by combating inflation, discrimination, etc. 

13. From the latter part of 1946 until 1949, I was an organizer for the Farm 
Equipment Workers Union, CIO. My function as a Communist Party member at 
that time was to try to influence people in the union to adopt the policies of the 
Communist Party. During most of this 1946—49 period, I was assigned to 
different locations by the union for organizational purposes and I had little, if 
any, contact with the Communist Party. 

14. Since 1!)49, I have attended a very few meetings and rallies. One was a 
concert by Paid Robeson. Another was a demonstration in favor of the Rosen- 
bergs sponsored by the Rosenberg committee. As to this latter meeting, I had 
no prior intention of attending this meeting and in fact I did not even know it 
was scheduled. I was in the vicinity, saw it and joined in as a spectator. A 
third meeting was sponsored by a peace organization, whose name I do not 
recall, and I participated at the request of my union to explain why trade with 
China would decrease the then heavy unemployment in the farm-equipment 
industry. Another meeting was sponsored by the Negro labor council and I 
attended as an inactive participant. There wei-e a few Civil Rights Congress 
meetings which I cannot recall too well and I think that is about the extent, since 
1949, of the association I have had with the type of groups about which this 
committee asked Messrs. Burns, Gilpin, and N'ewhoh". 

15. None of the persons I knew as Communists during my period of member- 
ship (1939-49) are presently employed by the Government or any labor union. 

16. I was present when Senator Hruska read his opening statement at the 
hearing on July 3, 1957, and since that time I have read it in the report of 
the proceeding. I have also heard and read the opening statements of Messrs. 
Burns, Gilpin, and NewholT, and I adopt their opening statements as my own. 
I trust this affidavit will meet the needs of the subcommittee. 

Albert Vkkki. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this 9th day of July 1957. 

[seal] Mary C. Asay, Notary Public. 

My commission expires December 31, 1957. 

X 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade -1080 

Veterans 4005 

15th anniversary of 4078 

Affidavit of De Witt Gilpin re expulsion of UE from AFL-CIO dated 

August 3, 1957 4086 

Affidavit of Albert Verri 4097 

American Peace Crusade 4094 

AFL-CIO 4085, 4086, 4091 

Applegate, Robert L 4065 

Asay, Mary C, notary public 4098 

Ashland Boulevard Auditorium in Chicago 4077, 4081, 4093, 4094 

B 

Burns, Milton 4089, 4090 

Testimony of 4070-4081 

Joseph L. Rauh, Jr., and Daniel H. Pollitt, attorneys 4070 

9532 South Bennett Ave., Chicago 4070 

Member of Communist Party until 1947 4070 

In United States Marine Corps 4073 

Leader of Comunist group in Farm Equipment Workers Union 4074 

First amendment re individuals in his Communist unit 4074 

Political action director of Farm Equipment Workers Union 4077 

International representative assigned to International Harvester 4078 

Staff member of UAW 4078 

Former correspondent for Midwest Daily Record 4079 

O 

Chicago 4077, 4078, 4087, 4088, 4093, 4094, 4095 

Chicago Area Conference for World Peace at Fine Arts Building, Chicago 4078 

Chicago Committee for Paid Robeson 4087 

Childs, Morris 4088 

Chopin Cultural Center at Chicago 4078, 4087 

CIO 4084, 4088 

Civil Rights Congress 4078, 4080, 4083, 4085, 4088, 4098 

Bazaar, People's Auditorium, 1951 4094 

Carnival, People's Auditorium, 1952 4094, 4095 

Illinois 4094 

Coliseum in Chicago 4080, 4093 

Communist/s 4064, 

4066-4068, 4070, 4072, 4073, 4077, 4078, 4080, 4081, 4083-4085, 4089- 
4092, 4095, 4096. 

Communist Control Act of 1954 4065 

Communist International 4066 

Communist Party 4067, 

4068, 4070-4073, 4075-4078, 4080, 4082-4084, 4086-4094, 4097, 4098 

Of United States 4064-4066 

World 4066 

Communist Party, The — A Manual on Organization, by J. Peters 4067 

Confidential (magazine) 4083 



n INDEX 

D 

Page 

Daily Worker 4072, 4077, 4083, 4084 

Defense Department 4065 

Des Moines 4083, 4084 

E 

Eastland, James O 4097 

Eisler, Gerhardt 4093, 4094 

England 4072 

Farm Equipment Workers Union (FE) 4064, 4065, 

4068, 4071-4074, 4077, 4084, 4086, 4088-4090, 4098 

In Des Moines 4083 

Feller, Clair 4097 

FEUE 4079 

Fifth amendment 4068, 4075, 4089 

First amendment 4068^070, 4074, 4075, 4089, 4096 

France 4072 

G 
Gilpin, De Witt : 

Testimony of 4081-4091 

Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. and Daniel H. Pollett, attorneys 4081 

548 Eugenie, Chicago 4081 

International representative for UAW 4081 

Left Communist Party in 1941 4083 

Used name of Ralph Monroe 4083 

Worked on Midwest Daily Worker 4083 

Field representative of Farm Equipment Workers in Des Moines, 

Iowa 4083 

Affidavit of 4086 

First amendment if any Communist Party official 4089 

Active in FE at time Gilpin a representative of FE wrote for March 

of Labor 4090 

Greek Workers Hall, Chicago 4095 

Green, Gil 4077 

H 

Hammersmark, Sam 4082, 4095, 4096 

Hargrove, Marion 4085 

Harvester (See International Harvester.) 

Haymarket 4080, 4087 

Hoover, J. Edgar 4066, 4067 

House Un-American Activities Committee 4071, 4090 

Hruska, Senator Roman L., statement of at beginning of hearing 4063^068 

I 

Illinois 4084 

Indiana 4084 

Industrial Security Programs Division 4065 

International Harvester 4078, 4079, 4084, 4086, 4089, 4090 

International Workers Order 4078 



Johnson, Elmer, landlord of DeWitt Gilpin 4082, 4083 

Johnstone, Jack 4088 

L 

Labor Temple, Chicago 4095 

Lenin 4080 

Lenin memorial meeting at Chicago, 1946 4093 

Letter to Morris from Joseph Rauh dated August 8, 1957, re testimony 

of DeWitt Gilpin 4086 

Lundgren, Lee 4071 



index m 

M 

Page 

Man Who Becomes a Machine, The, by DeWitt Gilpin 4090 

Mandel, Benjamin 4063, 4090 

March of Labor (Communist publication) 4090 

Marshall plan 4098 

Marxism-Leninism 4067 

Mauldin, Bill 4085 

May Day : 

Parade, 1948 4077 

Rally 4080, 4081, 4083 

In Ashland Boulevard Auditorium in Chicago 4093 

At Labor Temple. Chicago, 1953 4095 

At People's Auditorium, Chicago, 1952 4087 

At Union Park, Chicago 4077, 4088, 4094 

Medina, Judge 4077 

Midwest Daily Record 4079, 4083, 4091 

Minneapolis 4092, 4093 

Monroe, Ralph (alias of DeWitt Gilpin) 4083 

Morris, Robert 4063 

Moscow 4066, 4067 

N 

Nelson, Steve, rally at People's Auditorium in Chicago, 1953 4095 

New Deal 4088 

Newhoff, Andrew : 

Testimony of 4092-4097 

Joseph L. Rauh, Jr. and Daniel H. Pollitt, attorneys 4092 

5008 South Dorchester Avenue, Chicago 4092 

International representative of UAW 4092 

Left Communist Party around 1939 4092 

Served in United States Army 4093 

NLRB 4079 

P 

Patterson, William L., rally 4087 

People's Auditorium, Chicago 4087, 4094, 4095 

Peters, J 4067 

Pollitt, Daniel H : 

Attorney for Milton Burns 4070 

Attorney for DeWitt Gilpin 4081 

Attorney for Andrew Newhoff 4092 

President of the United States 4077 

R 

Rauh, Joseph L., Jr 4086 

Attorney for Milton Burns 4070 

Attorney for DeWitt Gilpin 4081 

Attorney for Andrew Newhoff 4092 

Robeson, Paul : 

Concerts 4083, 4098 

Jubilee, Washington Park, 1951 4094 

Rally, Chicago, 1949 4078 

Rally at Washington Park, Chicago, 1953 4087 

Rosenbergs 1 4095,4098 

Rusher, William A 4063 

S 

Salute (Communist-controlled veterans' magazine) 4085 

Schroeder, F. W 4063 

Sixteenth Convention of Communist Party U. S. A., February 1957 4066, 4067 

Smith Act indictments 4077 

Soviet Union 4066 

Spare the Rosenbergs, meeting in Chicago, 1953 4095 



IV INDEX 

Page 
Steuben, John, editor of March of Labor 4090, 4091 

Steve Nelson rally 4095 

Subversive Activities Control Board 4066 

Supreme Court 4077 

T 
Taft-Hartley Act 4078, 4079, 4086, 4098 

U 

UE Hall, 37 South Ashland Avenue, Chicago 4087 

Union Park, Chicago 4094 

United Auto Workers (UAW) 4064, 4065, 4068, 

4070, 4077-4083, 4086, 4088-4092, 4095-4097 

United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers Union (UE) 4064, 

4005, 4079, 40S3, 4086, 4089, 4090 
United States 4064, 4065, 4027 

V 

Verri, Albert 4096 

Affidavit in lieu of testimony 4097^098 

2912 North Pine Grove, Chicago 4097 

International representative of UAW 4097 

Left Communist Party in 1949 4097 

Viani Grove Park, Chicago 4077 

Viking Temple, Chicago 4093, 4094 

W 

Warren, Chief Justice 4068 

Waltman 4085 

Washington Park, Chicago 4078, 40S7, 4094 

Watkins case/decision 4068, 4070, 4081, 4092 

Western Union Co 4097 

Whiston, Margaret T., notary public 4086 

William L. Patterson rally 4087 

Woods Bros, plant in Des Moines 4084 

Workers Library Publishers 4067 



o 



POSITORY ^i^ 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



SUBCOMMITTEE' TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



FEBRUARY 8, JUNE 27, AND AUGUST 1, 19r,7 



PART 66 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1957 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JAN 2 9 1958 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER. North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS. Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. Sourwine, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Korchak-Sivitsky, Rev. Michael 4171 

Mandel, Benjamin 4126 

Tytell, Martin Kenneth 4099, 4117 

Appendix 4173 



in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administkation 
of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2 : 30 p. m., in room 
253, Senate Office Building. 

Present : Senator Olin D. Johnston. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
associate counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, director of research. 

Also present: Chester T. Lane, 150 Broadway, New York, N. Y., 
and Byron N. Scott, 517 Wyatt Building, Washington, D. C. 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear the evidence you are to give before 
this subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the United States 
Senate to be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Tytell. I do, Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Let the record show that, at the direction of Senator 
Johnston, we are proceeding to room 155, where the interrogation will 
be had, and counsel for Mr. Tytell have so consented. 

(Thereupon, the following proceedings were had in room 155, Sen- 
ate Office Building.) 

TESTIMONY OP MARTIN KENNETH TYTELL, ACCOMPANIED BY 
CHESTER T. LANE AND BYRON N. SCOTT, AS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Would you give your full name and address to the 
reporter ? 

Mr. Tytell. Martin Kenneth Tytell. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Tytell. 3031 Scenic Place, Riverdale 63, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business or profession, Mr. Tytell ? 

Mr. Tytell. I am a typewriter mechanic ; I am a typewriter dealer ; 
and I am a typewritten-document analyst. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have your own business ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What is the name of your business ? 

Mr. Tytell. Tytell Typewriter Co., Inc. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Is that the only corporation with which you are 
associated in the businesses you have stated ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you operate under the New York corporation laws? 

4099 



4100 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Tytell. New York corporation. 

Mr. Morris. When was that incorporated ? 

Mr. Tytell. Approximately, oh, about 10 j^ears ago. 

Mr. Morris. And will you tell us generally the nature of that 
business ? 

Mr. Tytell. I rent typewriters. I sell typewriters. I rebuild 
typewriters. I convert typewriters to any one of 100 or so languages 
and any special technical keyboards that are required. I build special 
typewriters for television, for the handicapped, for all special pur- 
poses. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business, is it one that would be 
called a successful business ? 

Mr. Tytell. I believe so. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you specialize in any particular type of type- 
writer construction or repairs or business? 

Mr. Tytell. Special machines are our specialty, languages or tech- 
nical, any special purpose. But I also do the normal typewriter 
business. 

Mr. Morris. What do you mean, "normal" ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I mean, we buy and sell normal typewriters. 

Mr. Morris. Do you do any export ? 

Mr. Tytell. No; we do not do export directly to a foreign firm. 
In other words, people who buy here have orders and we sell directly 
to those people. 

Mr. Morris. Not to the export company, you mean, to the people 
who buy them from you ? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; to people who are agents of these foreign buyers. 

Mr. Morris. And would you tell us to whom and what countries 
those machines are sent? 

Mr. Tytell. By that, do you mean since I have been in business, or 
currently, or what ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, I think if you could answer it generally, I would 
appreciate it. 

Mr. Tytell. Well, lately, my machines have been going to Brazil. 
I should say my typewriters are being put out and used all over the 
world. I have made practically every language or dialect 

Mr. Morris. Do you specialize in any particular language? 

Mr. Tytell. No. 

Mr. Morris. Like Kussian 

Mr. Tytell. I have all of them — Serbian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, 
anything you can think of, we have 2 million types in stock. 

Mr. Morris. And you construct and manufacture them? 

Mr. Tytell. Well. I did explain what we do. We do actually, to 
go into it further, we actually solder the letters upon the machines, we 
put in the letters they want, we solder them. We do not manufacture 
the machine. We convert it to what the customer wants. 

Mr. Morris. Have you done any business at all with any of the coun- 
tries in the Soviet bloc, directly or indirectly ? 

Mr. Tytell. I did some work for Amtorg during the Second World 
War. 

Mr. Morris. Would you tell us the circumstances surrounding the 
establishment of that particular business ? I mean, the circumstances, 
how yon got the business. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4101 

Mr. Tttell. They called us and said they wanted to buy a few 
Russian typewriters and asked for a quotation and we gave them a 
quotation and they gave us an order. 

Mr. Morris. Approximately what was the extent of this business 
with them ? 

Mr. Tytell. Very little, maybe a couple of hundred. 

Mr. Morris. Do you remember the name of the individual with 
whom you dealt ? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I cannot. 

Mr. Morris. Have you done any business for the Soviet embassies? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Any of the Soviet consulates ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, the correct answer would be that I have people 
calling in, speaking all languages. I do not ask them if they come 
from any consulate. There is a possibility somebody might come from 
one of the Soviet consulates and has brought a typewriter but I don't 
ask questions. 

Mr. Morris. But if someone comes in and speaks in broken English 
or Russian, the presumption would be that he was from the Russian 
consulate and- 

Mr. Tytell. Well, they speak English very well, these fellows. 

Mr. Morris. Will you answer this question: When the gentlemen 
come in and order typewriters, what language do they order to be 
placed on the typewriter? Some languages have different letters. 

Mr. Tytell. And I answered, I don't ask them where they come 
from. 

Mr. Morris. No; but you make the language for them on the type- 
writer, don't you, you construct the typewriter with a certain 
language ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have Russian typewriters, if that is what you want, 
ready at all times to sell. 

Mr. Morris. And these are made, if I want a typewriter in a cer- 
tain language, you give me that language imposed on the typewriter, 
you do impose that language on the typewriter ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Well, tell us the language of the typewriters you have 
sold to people from consulates who have come to your shop. 

Mr. TVrELL. The only way of answering that is, we bill everybody 
that we sell, and I could get the bills going back to 15 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. I thought you had only been in business 10 years. 

Mr. Tytell. Oh, no ; I have been in business since I have been about 
15 years of age. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you owned your own business ? 

Mr. Tytell. Since I was a kid of 15. 

Mr. Morris. I see, and this company you incorporated, that par- 
ticular company, 10 years? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what business did you have prior to the incor- 
poration of this? What was its name? 

Mr. Tytell. Tytell Typewriter Co. which became Tytell Type- 
writer Co., Inc., and I don't know the exact date but we could get that 
for you. 



4102 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. And how long has that business been in being? 

Mr. Tytell. Since I was about 15 years of age. I am 43 now. 

Mr. Morris. Do you mean, that is the one prior to the one that you 
have now? 

Mr. Tytell. It is the same business, it is just that it was incor- 
porated. 

Mr. Morris. And you cannot tell us with any degree of particu- 
larity without, as you say, referring to your own invoices, what lan- 
guage typewriters were sold to whom over the years ? 

Mr. Tytell. I could specifically tell jou by referring to my bills. 
I could tell you every machine I have ever sold, going way back. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you sold any typewriters to any Bulgarians, 
would you say, in the last 10 years? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Morris. Could you give us an estimate of the extent of that? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, there again, I could show you the bills, who 
bought it, what he paid for it, and the keyboard. 

Mr. Morris. Well, is the same true with respect to Albanian? 

Mr. Tytell. Any language in the world. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I think as a practical thing I might suggest 
that maybe what we should do is that after you get back, after you 
leave here, if you could look through the bills and give us a general 
estimate. 

Mr. Tytell. I asked Mr. Frank (Mr. Nelson Frank of the sub- 
committee staff) what he wanted me to bring and he said to bring 
my material for the talk that I gave before the American Association 
of Science, the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence. Had he asked me for it, I Avould have brought it. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry, and I do not have any idea why he said 
that. 

Mr. Tytell. If any of you would like to come into my office, if your 
research director would care to come to New York I would be glad to 
sit down with him. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry, the only way that we can find what 

Mr. Tytell. If you let your research director come down, at any 
time he wants, he can see every language — every bill, and it is all open 
to you. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. 

Now, did you ever build a typewriter for Marshal Zhukov ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances ? 

Mr. Tytell. My commanding officer, Colonel Morris, gave me an 
order to build one. 

Mr. Morris. You were in the service? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes, working for the colonel in the Adjutant General's 
Office. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you then ? 

Mr. Tytell. 165 Broadway. 

Mr. Morris. And where was Marshal Zhukov at the time? 

Mr. Tytell. He was supposed to arrive at the Pentagon Building. 
I was sent over to the Pentagon with the typewriter and I waited for 
him and he never showed up and I went home. 

Mr. Morris. Have you made any other typewriters for any individ- 
uals of the Soviet personalities? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4103 

Mr. Tytell. What do you mean by "Soviet personalities" ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, such as Marshal Zhukov, Soviet officials. 

Mr. Tytell. Well, again, sir, I will open to you every bill and you 
can decide for yourself who is a "personality" and who is not. I sell 
typewriters regardless of 

Mr. Morris. That is very good. Your suggestion is perfectly rea- 
sonable and we will be very happy to accept your invitation. 

Now, have you ever been to the Soviet Union or any of the satellite 
countries ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with the operation of this par- 
ticular type of business, are there any Soviet individuals or you might 
say communistic individuals that you know of with whom you may 
have been carry ng on business relations? 

Mr. Tytell. No. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, all your transactions have been, you 
might say, off the street ? 

Mr. Tytell. Right. 

Mr. Morris. The man walks in and buys ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you have a reputation for selling typewriters in 
whatever language is desired ? 

Mr. Tytell. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And strictly on that basis ? 

Mr. Tytell. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And you have now what you would call good business 
friends in the Soviet Union or satellite countries ? 

Mr. Tytell. No, I don't. 

Mr. Morris. Were you once registered as a member of the American 
Labor Party ? 

Mr. Tytell. To the best of my knowledge, no. 

Mr. Morris. You don't think you could have been a member of the 
American Labor Party and not recall at this time ? 

Mr. Tytell. Have been a member 

Mr. Morris. Member, registered. 

Mr. Tytell. Register when you went to vote, you mean ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Tytell. I don't remember. Anything is possible, though. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I mean, as a matter of fact, were you a member 
of the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Tytell. I don't recall having been a member of the American 
Labor Party. 

Mr. Morris. Well, have you ever been active in that party ? 

Mr. Tytell. Definitely not. 

Mr. Morris. Do you lecture at any university ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us which ones ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have lectured at New York University. 

Mr. Morris. How often have you done that and over what period 
of time ? 

Mr. Tytell. I took the police science course, 104, last year and I 
taught the document section of New York University last year and 
it is being repeated this September and I am also going to Puerto 



4104 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Eico for NYU in June to take a course in document identification. 

Mr. Morris. Take a course or give one ? 

Mr. Tytell. I am going to give a course there. 

Mr. Morris. Now, where else have you lectured ? 

Mr. Tytell. New York Institute of Criminology. 

Mr. Morris. What is the New York Institute of Criminology? 

Mr. Tytell. It is a private school that trains investigators. 

Mr. Morris. Where is it located ? 

Mr. Tytell. 40 East 40th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Morris. And who is the director of that school ? 

Mr. Tytell. Donald E. J. McNamara. 

Mr. Morris. And how long to your knowledge has that school been 
in existence ? 

Mr. Tytell. About 15 years or more. 

Mr. Morris. And how long have you known Mr. McNamara? 

Mr. Tytell. Since 1955. I took a course with him in New York 
University in homicide investigation. He was the instructor. 

Mr. Morris. How did you come to know Mr. McNamara? 

Mr. Tytell. I took a course with Mr. McNamara. He was an 
instructor. A course in homicide investigation which I took in 1955 
at NYU, as a requisite or one of my courses for my doctor of philos- 
ophy degree. I am working for my doctor of philosophy degree. 

Mr. Morris. Are you familiar with a series of four articles that 
recently ran in the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have read them. 

Mr. Morris. And a name appears on the article, Milly Salwen. 
Do you know who Milly Salwen is ? 

Mr. Tytell. She called me on the phone to tell me the articles 
appeared. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever spoken to or seen Milly Salwen prior ? 

Mr. Tytell. Not prior to this call, no. 

Mr. Morris. Not what ? 

Mr. Tytell. Not prior to this phone call. 

Mr. Morris. Did anyone in the Daily Worker interview you in con- 
nection with those articles? 

Mr. Tytell. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, according to the articles, you undertook an in- 
vestigation of the so-called Yeremin documents of Stalin, did vou 
not? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would just tell your interest in that? 

Mr. Tytell. As a documentary hoax, it is a forgery- 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what your interest was ? 

My Tytell. Well, my interest was that — do you want me to go 
into Life magazine? 

Mr. Morris. Please do. 

Mr. Tytell. If j^ou want to, I can give the entire material to you. 
I have slides that I used in the talk before the American Associa- 
tion 

Mr. Morris. Well, that is not necessary. 

Mr. Tytell. If you want a copy of my talk, you can have it. 

Mr. Morris. I would appreciate it very much. 

Now, would you tell us from the very beginning how you became 
interested in this thing and what you did after you became interested ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4105 

Mr. Tytell. At the time this article appeared in Life magazine, I 
was teaching at Brooklyn College. 

One of my students brought this to me and asked me to justify this 
opinion here, that a typing expert was convinced that the Stalin 
letter (1), and the document known to have come from the St. Peters- 
burg Police Department (2), were both written on machines of the 
same model and make then in use in Russia, yet it is obvious 

Mr. Morris. What was the name of the student ? 

Mr. Tytell. Oh, I don't know. I had about — I think I had TO 
students at that time, I can't remember. 

And so I asked Life to send this thing down to my class and 
they sent us a batch of these and we used them in the class 

Mr. Morris. Approximately when was this ? 

Mr. Tytell. Sometime in May. 

Mr. Morris. Of 1956? 

Mr. Tytell. 1956. 

Mr. Morris. And at that time you were then teaching at Brooklyn 
College? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. As a regular staff member ? 

Mr. Tytell. As a lecturer. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been at Brooklyn College? 

Mr. Tytell. That was the first term. I had taught previously iso- 
lated lectures. This was a complete course. 

Mr. Morris. And you had 70 students ? 

Mr. Tytell. Approximately. 

Mr. Morris. And one particular student brought you the article and 
asked you about it and excited your interest ? 

Mr. 'Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I could not understand how an expert could say 
that the questioned documents Avere done on the same typewriter, 
especially since I know the Remington Russian type. 

So I checked my files. I have extensive documentary files of most 
typewriters, and I could not find any standard of this particular 
type. 

And my students were able to point out differences and none of them 
could come to the conclusion this expert had, that this was the same 
make and model of typewriter. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, in this Life article an expert is repre- 
sented to say 

Mr. Tytell. That both of these are the same make and model 

typewriter. 
Mr. Morris. And you made an analysis, samples of which you have 



giT ie ? 



Mr. Tytell. Well, those are the same, this one is enlarged so you 
can see it easier. 

Mr. Morris. And the samples indicate they were not ? 

Mr. Tytell. Impossible to have been. 

Mr. Morris. Then what did you do? 

Mr. Tytell. I contacted Life magazine to see if I could get a 
better copv because, if you put this under the miscroscope, you get the 
Ben Day dots. 



4106 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Life magazine referred me to Howard McCann, the publisher of a 
book by Mr. Levine, and Howard McCann referred me to Mr. Levine. 

So I called Mr. Levine and Mr. Levine agreed to meet with me in 
New York and bring other papers to show me that this was indeed 
a Remington typewriter or at least he had been advised it had been. 

I also contacted the Stanford University Library and requested a 
copy of what had been used as a standard. 

Mr. Morris. With whom did you speak at Stanford University 
Library ? 

Mr. Tytell. I wrote to the librarian on May 31. 

Mr. Morris. You mean just to "Librarian"? 

Mr. Tytell. To "Librarian," right. 

And I did not get any reply. So on June 13 I called on the tele- 
phone and I spoke to Mr. Sworakowski. 

Mr. Morris. And then what happened ? 

Mr. Tytell. And I wanted additional information because he said 
they had been looking for it and they couldn't find anything, and I 
followed up with a letter on June 20 and then I got a letter back on 
July 3 but they still had not been able to find it but they did find 
some correspondence that they had sent to Mr. Levine. 

Would you care to look at these ? You are welcome to have them. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you will leave them. I will see that you 
get them back in a day or so. 

Mr. Tytell. Why not. 

Mr. Lane. Could they be marked ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, mark them as "Exhibit A, B, C." 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits A, B, C," and 
read as follows :) 

Tytell Exhibit A 

May 31, 1956. 
Librarian, Hoover Library, 

Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

Dear Sir: In the April 23, 1956, issue of Life Magazine an article by Issac 
Don Levine, A Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy, makes references on page 
50, to, "* * * a document preserved in the Hoover Library at Stanford Univer- 
sity. It came from the acting director of the department of police in St. 
Petersburg and was dated Nov. 5, 1912, * * *." 

This article has a photograph of the salutation of this document. 

I am to deliver a paper at the next meeting of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science to be held at the Hotel Statler in New York City, 
and would like to prepare an exhibit of this document in connection with my 
talk. 

May I please have a good sharp copy of this document, or preferably a nega- 
tive that I may use to prepare my blowup. I will cheerfully defray any charges 
in connection with this service. 

If my request is not practical, may I please have permission to examine 
this document at your earliest convenience, to enable me to prepare my ma- 
terial. 

Sincerely, 

Martin K. Tytell. 

Tytell Exhibit B 

June 20, 1956. 
Librarian, Hoover Library, 

Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

Dear Sir: Reference is made to my letter of May 31st, 1956, with regard to 
obtaining a sharp photograph or preferably a negative of "* * * a document 
preserved in the Hoover Library at Stanford University. It came from the act- 
ing director of the department of police at St. Petersburg and was dated Nov. 5, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 4107 

1912, * * *" referred to in the article by Isaac Don Levein in Life Magazine 
issue of April 23, 1956. 

On June 13, 1956, I phoned your office and was connected with Mr. Swora- 
kowski, who promised to write to me about this letter ; to date I have received no 
communication. He also stated that if I could furnish some reference number 
it would assist in locating the document. 

Enclosed is a photostat of the letter given to me by Life Magazine. There 
appear to be some numbers on the documents ; perhaps they are your file 
numbers. At any event it should aid in clearing up the question of the existence 
of this document in your archives. 

Your cooperation in definitely establishing the existence of this document 
in your files is extremely important as it was used as a standard to establish 
the authenticity of a questioned letter. 

May I please hear from you at your earliest convenience. 
Sincerely yours, 

Maktin K. Tytell. 



Tttell Exhibit C 

The Hoover Institute and Library 

on War, Revolution, and Peace, 
Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., July 3, 1956. 
Mr. Martin K. Tytell, 
123 Fulton Street, 

New York 88, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Tytell : Upon receipt of your letter of June 20, I began a search for 
the original document from which the negative photostat you sent was made. 
The photostat gave me an idea of where to look for the material, and I was 
also able to learn from our files that Mr. Don Levine received this photostat 
from the Hoover Library in August 1949. The correspondence between the 
Library and Mr. Levine establishes beyond any doubt that the photostat in 
question is a copy of an original deposited in our Library. In order to find 
the original I have had to check, page by page, a large file pertaining to the 
year 1912. I have done some 30 percent of the checking and will proceed as 
time permits me. However, I do not see what additional evidence you can 
receive from a new photostat. It will be identical with the one you have. 

I am still keeping your photostat as it will guide me in the search for the 
original. 

Sincerely yours, 

WlTOLD S. SWORAKOWSKI, 

Assistant Director. 

Mr. Morris. What happened next ? 

Mr. Tttell. Mr. Levine was able to give me a photostatic copy of 
the standard and the Tolstoy Foundation gave me a copy of the 
questioned document. 

So, I now r had something to work with. So I checked my files very 
thoroughly. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what you were doing, what you are now describ- 
ing, was a task you were undertaking in an amateur way, or as a busi- 
ness venture ? 

Mr. Tytell. Maybe I did not make myself clear. One of my spe- 
cialties is the identification of typewritten documents. 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; but for your own 

Mr. Tytell. As a professional challenge. 

Mr. Morris. A professional challenge; you were not working for 
anyone ? 

Mr. Tttell. Oh, no; as a professional challenge and also material 
to be used for lectures. I always need material to keep my courses 
alive and anything that currently happens makes them more 
interesting. 



4108 scorE OF SOVIET activity in the united states 

And I checked all my files that I had on Remington and I could 
find nothing to match that, and yet the expert here says it is a Reming- 
ton. So, that looks to me like some kind of forgery. 

I went to Elmira — no, first, I checked with Remington Rand in New 
York and then I went to Elmira and I went through everything they 
had at Elmira. 

Do you wish to see copies of all of the different types made at Elmira 
in Russian? 

Mr. Morris. I don't think so ; no. 

Mr. Tytell. I have copies of all of them. And I was convinced 
this was not a Remington. And then I checked Royals, Underwoods, 
L. C. Smiths, and all of the foreign machines and I could find nothing 
to match this type. So, by this time, that made me really curious. 
Well, I had planned on going to Europe to visit the crime labs and 

Mr. Morris. The what? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, the various documentary laboratories. My idea 
of a busman's holiday is to visit typewriter plants, where I watch them 
manufacture types and I go through the plants and I do this whenever 
I can, but I hadn't done any foreign — and the laboratories, I went to 
Scotland Yard, the French Surete, the police lab in Stockholm, in Ber- 
lin, in Wiesbaden, the International Police, the Irish Police 

Mr. Morris. You say you did visit all of them ? 

Mr. Tytell. I visited these laboratories 

Mr. Morris. You mean generally ? 

Mr. Tytell. Generally. In fact, I had planned this for a long time 
and this thing gave me the opportunity to find out further — well, what 
impressed me was what Mr. Levine gave as his chain of evidence, Mr. 
Levine said that he was not just sure because of — well, he had this 
chain of evidence. Now, I teach documentary research, and so I de- 
cided to follow up on his chain of evidence, which I did. 

Mr. Morris. How did you follow it up ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, Mr. Levine mentioned the fact that he went to a 
church on Nachodstrasse in Berlin, this being the result of an interro- 
gation he had with General Spiridovitch. 

He pressed General Spiridovitch, and General Spiridovitch reluc- 
tantly gave him the name of an individual he regarded was the last 
of the agents that could have had contact with Stalin. 

Mr. Morris. What was that name ? 

Mr. Tytell. Dobroliubov, and that this man was believed dead, 
but that, in fact, he w T as hiding out as a sexton in this church, and, as 
Levine puts it very dramatically, here, among all of this political and 
foreign intrigue, this man was hiding out. That interested me. It 
sounded very romantic. So I went to the same church and checked 
with the priest. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have affidavits. That is why I wanted to read 
this 

Mr. Mandel. Was it Adamantov ? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; that was at Wiesbaden ; that is another priest. I 
have here attached the affidavit he gave — the affidavit of my interpreter 
or guide that I employed in that church. This man was a prisoner 
of Avar of the Americans and he spoke very fine English. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4109 

Mr. Tytell. Igor Fromke. And he wrote tip what happened for 
me. And the first man I interviewed was Father Sergius 

Mr. Morris. You went there, is that right, to Berlin 1 

Mr. Tytell. I was in Berlin. I wanted to visit, actually, the type 
factory 

Mr. Morris. Where was this sexton ? 

Mr. Tytell. This alleged sexton was supposed to be working at 
this church. 

Mr. Morris. In Berlin ? 

Mr. Tytell. Initially, yes; and then, according to Levine — and this 
priest said he never heard 

Mr. Morris. Who was the priest ? 

Mr. Tytell. Father Sergius. 

Mr. Morris. And while there you met this Mr. Fromke ? 

Mr. Tytell. He was administering — an altar boy — I explain all of 
that. And at this point I wanted to be sure I was in the right church, 
because I had the right priest, or thought I had, and on further inter- 
rogation it developed that they had another priest. So I immediately 
went to visit this other priest on Sunday, but the other priest was 
preaching someplace else, and so I came back and I was introduced 
to the second priest, and he was even more emphatic that he never 
knew of Dobroliubov. And also he had never met Mr. Levine. I 
showed a book with a picture and neither priest had ever spoken to 
Levine or Dobroliubov, and neither had a sexton by that name, because 
the present incumbent sexton had been there the last 25 years. And 
then Mr. Levine goes on to say how his quarry had fled to this church 
in Wiesbaden, which had been erected by a prince in the memory of 
his wife 

Mr. Morris. What church ? 

Mr. Tytell. It is called the Greek Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden. 

Actually, I had planned to go to Wiesbaden anyway, to visit the 
state center of the Federated — it is called the Bundes Kriminal 
Amt, Federated German Police. They have, incidentally there — 
off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Tytell. And so then I went to this adjoining cemetery, after. 
They have a regular guided tour, it is a tourist spot and I interviewed 
the priest. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have affidavits from him. Archpriest Paul Adam- 
antov. 

Mr. Morris. And what was the purpose of interviewing him ? 

Mr. Tytell. To find out if there was a man by the name of Dobrol- 
iubov that this priest had taken Levine — according to Levine's book, 
this priest had taken Levine, taken -him to the tombstone in the ceme- 
tery and showed him the final resting place, and I wanted to see this. 
But there was no tombstone, no grave. I had the grave register read 
to me, 2 times and there was no name like that going back 15 years. 
And I interviewed the priest's daughter, who speaks English very 
well 

Mr. Morris. Did the priest himself speak English ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes, not too coherently, but he understands — in fact, 
he reads English, he reads several languages. And I have an affidavit 



4110 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

here from the priest's daughter who checked the register. We went to 
the cemetery 

Mr. Morris. What names did you look for ? 

Mr. Tytell. All the names since the last 15 years and there was no 
name 

Mr. Morris. No similar name? 

Mr. Tytell. No name with any resemblance to Dobroliubov. 

Mr. Morris. And they did not by any chance point out there was a 
name resembling that name? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I was looking for any resemblances, I had that 
in mind that somebody might have had a similar name, but there 
wasn't any. 

Mr. Morris. Nor by the first name ? 

Mr. Tytell. I didn't have the first name. All I had was the 
Dobroliubov, that is the second name. 

Mr. Morris. You did not have the first name ? 

Mr. Tytell. No; the book does not speak of any first name, just 
Dobroliubov. 

Mr. Morris. But it is your testimony there was not that name or any 
similar name? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. And I have also an affidavit from the 
priest's daughter and from my guide, Fromke, who went with me. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have copies ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; I took Fromke with me because I did not know 
if anybody there could speak English. 

Mr. Morris. And he was present all the time ? 

Mr. Tytell. All the time. 

Mr. Morris. Shall we make the same arrangement with these ex- 
hibits? 

Mr. Lane. I make the suggestion Mr. Tytell offer the originals. 

Mr. Tytell. Here are the originals and the photostats. This is 
Fromke's original. And this is the priest's daughter's — who, inci- 
dentally, writes double, a very fascinating way in which to write. 

(The material supplied by Mr. Tytell appear as an appendix in this 
volume.) 

Mr. Morris. What language is this ? 

Mr. Tytell. This is Eussian and I have the translation in my speech. 

Mr. Morris. Is this the only affidavit he gave ? 

Mr. Tytell. The priest, Adamantov — it tells that I was there and 
nobody by the name of Dobroliubov is buried there. 

Mr. Morris. The specific question : Was there another affidavit he 
gave? 

Mr. Tytell. Adamantov, no, just one. 

Mr. Scott. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. The point is that you did ascertain from conversations 
with Adamantov, the daughter, the register, that there was no one 
by the name of Dobroliubov or anything like that ? 

Mr. Tytell. Dobroliubov or any similar name as having been in- 
terred in that cemetery or registered in the grave register. 

Mr. Morris. And none similar ? 

Mr. Tytell. None whatsoever. My guide was very eager to see 

Mr. Morris. And Mr. Fromke was the man you took ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4111 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you known Mr. Fromke ? 

Mr. Tytell. When I employed him. 

Mr. Morris. You never met him before ? 

Mr. Tytell. Never met him before. 

Mr. Morris. Who recommended him to you ? 

Mr. Tytell. Nobody did. I just walked into the church and services 
were going on and there was beautiful singing and so I listened to 
the singing for about an hour. 

And I felt that this was excellent singing but I was there for a 
purpose. 

So, I asked the sexton, the fellow selling candles if anybody spoke 
English, and he walked up to the altar and he stopped the entire service 
and of course I asked what time I could come back without disturbing 
the service. 

And I came back and asked if he would act as the interpreter, and 
he was on vacation, 3 weeks, at that time and I asked, "Would you like 
to work with me?" 

And he said "I would" and I checked into him, and I have it, and 
it tells about him, how many children he had, how long he had been 
working, it is all in there. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Tytell, did you go further in connection with 
your undertaking in Germany ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where else did you go ? Did you check any municipal 
records ? 

Mr. Tytell. No, I did not. All of the records of deaths are car- 
ried right in that church, they have a regular book, a bound book which 
has an official connotation there. I did not inquire whether there 
were any other records that I could go to because it specifically said 
here that Dobroliubov is buried in this cemetery . 

So, nobody is buried there unless his name is in the bound book 
and that name was not in it, no record he was buried there, which I 
thought was sufficient. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you exhausted all the possibilities. 
First you spoke to the priest. 

Mr. Tytell. That is right, 

Mr. Morris. And second 

Mr. Tytell. First, the man who was the sexton, alleged sexton ac- 
cording to Levine, but this man had been sexton there before, and I 
asked the priest and they did not know, and there was no one there 
buried by that name, and when I asked for a further check then the 
daughter read all of the names from the book and I had her do this 
twice. And I went to the cemetery and I had the guide check the 
names, all of the names, I did not want any slipup. 

Mr. Morris. But no municipal records ? 

Mr. Tytell. No municipal records. 

Mr. Morris. And you checked the other point, no similar names? 

Mr. Tytell. No similar names, absolutely. 

Mr. Morris. And what next ? 

Mr. Tytell. I went to Hamburg. 

Mr. Morris. What happened there ? 

93215— 57— pt. 66 2 



4112 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Tytell. In Hamburg, I went to interview initially the man — 
the biggest publisher of literature in the field I am interested in, per- 
taining to office equipment and I went there and engaged a young 
man from the University of Hamburg 

Mr. Morris. What was his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. The name was Jurgen Grassel and with Grassel as a 
guide, we polled the university and asked for students who were com- 
petent in English and in German and this man was in the law school 
there and he had also been in England, and I was sent to this big com- 
pany, where I was introduced and I employed him and he went with 
me to the Slavonic section, and I went through all of that and not 
only that but other factories where they made type, but this specific 
thing — I went to the University of Hamburg, the Slavonic section, 
and the upshot was that they told me there that if I wanted real 
documentary proof, to go to Finland because Finland had been a 
possession of Russia until 1917 and that is where I could really get 
the material. 

So, from there, after I went to Paris, where I made arrangements 
to visit certain labs, I went to Finland. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have a visa to go to Finland ? 

Mr. Tytell. No; I did not. I didn't know I would need any visa. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you run into any difficulty on that account? 

Mr. Tytell. No. 

Mr. Morris. You just went in there ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, this is very funny. When I got there they said, 
"Have you got a visa?" Well, I said that they were expecting me at 
the university, and the next day, when I got to the university they 
said, "We have been expecting you." So I had no difficulty. 

Mr. Morris. What happened in Finland ? 

Mr. Tytell. At the university, I spoke to the director's assistant 
there, and they gave me a girl. 

Mr. Morris. What was her name ? 

Mr. Tydell. Maria Wyclnas. 

Mr. Morris. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. What was the general nature of those documents ? 

Mr. Tytell. The affidavits I brought back from Finland, I have 
microfilms, they are from the same office of the MVD Ministry of 
Internal Affairs, signed by Yeremin, the man supposed to have signed 
the questioned document and, actually, there was no resemblance in 
that signature and the signature on the questioned document. That 
shows, definitely, it is a phony document, from the point of signature. 
From the point of typing — I will show you copies of the signature. 

Mr. Morris. Did anyone make any prearrangements for you as 
you did this ? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I did it all while I was there. 

Mr. Morris. You were at the university, and they made the arrange- 
ment, and they gave you all the material ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right; anybody can go there. This is open 
material there. 

Mr. Morris. You have an affidavit on that ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have one from Maria Wydnas; I have an affidavit. 

Mr. Morris. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4113 

Mr. Tytell. The typewriter I finally found at Frankfurt-am-Main, 
made at the Kleyer-Adler Works. 

Mr. Morris. How did you learn that ? 

Mr. Tytell. Burghhagen had established that. 

Mr. Morris. Had established what ? 

Mr. Tytell. Established that Russian type had been manufactured 
in America, had been manufactured by Rosmeyer & Biak, by Gooske, 
and by Adler. And I had checked Rosmeyer, and I had been there, 
but I had not been in Adler. And I was sure that nobody in America 
made that type, and so this left Adler, so, when I got there, I spent 
the whole morning going through 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you were now trying to ascertain scien- 
tifically this machine made by Adler? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, if it Was not made by Adler, then somebody 
would have had to have made it by hand. 

Mr. Morris. And did you find it? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. It was manufactured in 1912. 

Mr. Morris. How did you learn that ? 

Mr. Tytell. From the people at the plant, I told them what I 
was interested in, and they were very helpful and went through all 
of the old machines, and the plant superintendent 

Mr. Morris. What was his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. I don't know his name. 

Mr. Morris. And you don't have any affidavits from him ? 

Mr. Tytell. No, but I took a sample off the machine. 

Mr. Morris. And you do not have a certification from him it was 
made by Adler in 1912 ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I ran into a problem there. All of their records 
had been destroyed. The plant had been completely destroyed dur- 
ing the war, so that Avas the problem, and it was a matter of getting 
enough people who had been there at the factory, and there were a half 
a dozen people, and it was discussed, and the conclusion was, more 
or less, made unanimously that they did not make a Russian type- 
writer until 1912. 

Mr. Morris. But there is nothing scientific ?. 

Mr. Tytell. No ; nothing that you could get, because all the records 
were destroyed. 

Mr. Morris. And you got this from the superintendent? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right  

Mr. Morris. But you don't know his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I was introduced to the fellow. 

Mr. Morris. Maybe, if you check your records, you could tell us 
that. 

Mr. Tytell. No; I did not make any notation, other than taking 
a sample off the typewriter. 

Mr. Morris. Would you recognize the name if you saw it? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I don't think so. 

Mr. Morris. It is your testimony you did speak with him ? 

Mr. Tytell. Oh, yes, and, if this committee wants to go to this 
plant and ask the superintendent, you can ask him if he took a type- 
writer off the showcase, that he never did before 

Mr. Morris. Well, the important thing is to try — it is a point of fact 
to prove it was made in 1912. 



4114 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Tytell. There is nothing definite that I could prove that with ; 
it is strictly this man's opinion and others there, there are no factory 
records, the records had been destroyed. But Mr. Levine did find 
out, somewhere, that they did make Russian machines in 1909 — let us 
assume Mr. Levine is right and that they did in 1909 ; still this doc- 
ument could not have been typed in 1913, unless somebody had put a 
motor under the machine and struck the keys constantly 24 hours a 
day to wear the type down to this point where it looks like this [indi- 
cating], and I know about that; I have had numerous tests that I 
have made and I could prove that this machine had been made and 
was used many years. 

Mr. Morris. And you make the flat statement it was made in 1912 ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. I flatly state they did not make any Russian 
machine until 1912, based upon what they told me, but, assuming I am 
wrong and Mr. Levine is right 

Mr. Morris. The only thing is, you made a statement that it was 
definitely established that Adler's factory first made a Russian type- 
writer in 1912. Now, you are a man of science 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, and when you say something is definitely estab- 
lished, I wonder what documentation you have. 

Mr. Tytell. My documentation is interviewing people that had been 
there a long time and who agreed it was made in 1912 and, in the ab- 
sence of any record, I have to believe them and I see no reason not ; I 
see no reason why they would tell me any other date when they did 
not make it — I mean, this is not materially important to my presenta- 
tion, now 

Mr. Morris. What else did you do at Frankfurt ? 

Mr. Tytell. I also wanted to check whether or not an Adler type- 
writer had ever been used at that time at St. Petersburg. 

Sir, we inquired at the church, the Russian church in Hamburg with 
my guide, and they told us that — about some high dignitaries that were 
at the old-folks' home at Varel, and that is near Bremerhaven ; I got 
up at 6 o'clock in the morning and I got there and interviewed 2 people. 
One had been a district attorney and the other had been a clerk, and 
I have the dates that they were ; it is in my article on page 10. 

I spoke with Colonel Feodor Yurieff, who worked as Government 
prosecutor from 1904 to 1917. This man was 3 months away from 
becoming general, and life had passed him by ; they had the revolution 
3 months too soon. And Stepan Rusanow; he worked from 1908 to 
1918 as typist in various St. Petersburg offices. 

And they said they had never seen an Adler and I have got affidavits 
and the colonel's wife, incidentally, gave me this to show what a fine 
person her husband was (exhibiting) . 

When I got back to New York I gave all this material to Mr. Levine 
except one affidavit, I didn't give this affidavit but all of this other 
stuff. 

Mr. Morris. And that was the end of the trip ? 

Mr. Tytell. And then I gave the talk. 

Mr. Scott. Could I ask, I don't know whether I understood your 
question as to when the machine was built, as to whether or not there 
was scientific proof that it was not built before 1912, but did I under- 
stand you to say that Mr. Tytell had stated that it was — that he had 
definitely established it ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4115 

Mr. Morris. I was reading an excerpt from his speech, if I read it 
correctly — off the record. 

( Discussion off the record. ) 

Mr. Morris. You have no interest in the rehabilitation of Marshal 
Stalin? 

Mr. Tytell. No. 

Mr. Morris. I think that is all. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Lane. I would like the record to show that the paper which has 
been produced as the New York University tape of Mr. Tytell's talk 
states : 

All the records of the company had been destroyed during the war but from 
conferences there with the old men who had been with the company for some 
many years it was definitely established that the Adler Co. first made a Russian 
typewriter in 1912. 

Mr. Morris. Anything else, Mr. Lane, that you think should be 
mentioned before the record is closed ? 

In the event that we may want to pursue the inquiry in any way, 
may we have a meeting by my phoning either Mr. Scott or Mr. Lane ? 

Mr. Tytell. You mean at my office ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, I don't know 

Mr. Tytell. Because that is where I have got all of the information 
you want. 

Mr. Lane. Well, if you want any other formal conferences, they can 
be arranged by telephone. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. That is all, thank you. 

(Thereupon, at 4 p. m. the hearing was adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, JUNE 27, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration 
of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 11 : 30 a. m., in room 
404, Senate Office Building, Senator John Marshall Butler presiding. 

Also present: William A. Rusher, associate counsel, and Benjamin 
Mandel, research director. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTIN KENNETH TYTELL, ACCOMPANIED BY 

BYRON N. SCOTT 

Senator Butler. Will you please raise your right hand. Do you 
solemnly promise and declare in the presence of the Almighty God that 
the evidence that you will give to the Internal Security Subcommittee 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Tytell. I do. 

Senator Butler. The witness is sworn, the counsel may proceed. 

Mr. Rusher. This is a regular open hearing of the submittee held 
at the request of this witness, Mr. Tytell, who appeared some time ago 
in executive session and, as I understand it, wishes to reaffirm in public 
session the truth of the answers he gave in the executive session, subject 
to various corrections as to detail and various additions. So I will 
ask you, Mr. Tytell 

Mr. Scott. May I interrupt just a moment to make a statement that 
I think may clarify the record — just that Mr. Tytell did appear under 
subpena in executive session, did give his testimony and later wrote a 
letter to the committee in which he stated that he thought that 
perhaps, although he was not sure, one answer that he had given to a 
question was not as responsive as perhaps the questioner had had in 
mind when he answered the question at the conclusion of that hearing. 
Request was made that the testimony given at that executive session be 
published or made public. It is my understanding that in response 
to that request, Mr. Tytell was invited to come today to make that 
testimony public. There was a question in Mr. Tytell's mind then as 
to whether he wanted to insist on the right to make his testimony 
public, and in conversation with Judge Morris — was it Judge Morris or 
Mr. Rusher? — Judge Morris, it was stated that the invitation was a 
direction to come and that there would not be an adjournment of the 
hearing. 

4117 



4118 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rusher. I beg your pardon. I think you're referring to a 
phone conversation I had with Mr. Tytell. It was I and not Mr. 
Morris. 

Senator Butler. Are the facts that are stated otherwise correct? 

Mr. Rusher. Yes ; I understand they are. 

Mr. Tytell, you have read this morning the testimony you gave 
before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee on February 8, 
1957? 

Mr. Tytell. I have. 

Mr. Rusher. Do I undersand that this letter of which I now show 
you a photostat, dated March 20, 1957, addressed by you to Robert 
Morris, makes certain addenda and corrections to your testimony? 

Mr. Tytell. It doesn't make any corrections; I believe it is just 
addenda. I stand by everything I said previously. 

Mr. Rusher. Is the testimony contained in this transcript of Feb- 
ruary 8 — are the answers that you gave true? 

Mr. Tytell. The answers are true. There are many typograph- 
ical errors and errors of verbiage, but on the whole this can stand as 
is to save time. 

Senator Butler. Now, I don't understand what you mean when 
you say there is verbiage. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Tytell. Specific examples would be "we called the Univer- 
sity of Hamburg :" the hearing would say "we polled the University 
of Hamburg." Errors of that type which are not important. 

Mr. Rusher. As to matter of substance, Mr. Tytell, you say that 
these answers as stated are true. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Rusher. And you stand by them ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. * 

Mr. Rusher. Now, Senator, may we introduce into the record at 
this point a letter which I described a moment ago ? 

Senator Butler. Without objection it will be so ordered. 

Mr. Rusher. That is Mr. Tyteli's letter dated March 26, 1957. 

Martin K. Tytell, 
Examiner of Disputed Documents, 

New York, N. Y., March 26, 1957. 
Robert Morris, Esq., 

Counsel, Special Subcommittee on Internal Security, 
Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Judge Morris : Mr. Byron Scott, who as my attorney last week examined 
the stenographic transcript of my testimony at the hearing on February 8, tells 
me that the transcript contains the following exchange : 

Q. Now, what you were doing, what you are now describing, was a task that 
you were undertaking in an amateur way, or as a business venture? 

******* 

A. As a professional challenge. 

Q. A professional challenge; you were not working for anyone? 

A. Oh, no ; as a professional challenge and also material to be used for lec- 
tures * * *. 

What I was describing was, of course, my investigation of the claims made 
by Mr. Isaac Don Levine, in his Life article, and his book, as to the authenticity 
of the so-called "Yeremin Letter" dealing with Stain's prerevolutionary activi- 
ties. 

I stand by everything I said in my testimony, but after reconsidering the 
exact form of the quoted questions I think now that to make my answer com- 
plete I should have added one further fact. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4119 

As I recall it, I explained in my testimony how inquiries from my students 
first aroused my curiosity as to the "Yeremin Letter", and led me to investigate 
the soundness of Mr. Levine's "proofs" of its genuineness. I began my investi- 
gation, as I said, strictly as a professional challenge, and I was at no time 
working for anyone. 

However, I should perhaps have added that not long after I began my investi- 
gation it occurred to me that the attorneys for Alger Hiss (for whom I had 
done some work in connection with his motion for a new trial) might perhaps 
be interested in the genuineness or spuriousness of a typewritten document 
sponsored by Mr. Isaac Don Levine. Accordingly, I visited Mr. Chester T. Lane, 
Mr. Hiss's attorney, and explained to him my suspicions as to the document. 
He said that he would be very much interested if my investigation should tend 
to show that the forgery, if it was one, had been done by use of a fabricated 
typewriter, of the kind he thought had been used to forge the documents in 
the Hiss case. I said I thought that was a real possibility, and asked if he would 
be willing to compensate me for my time and expenses to the extent that I 
concentrated my investigation on this angle. He said he would be glad to do 
so. 

In fact I concluded definitely, well before my trip to Europe, that although 
the "Yeremin Letter" was almost undoubtedly a forgery there was no reason 
to believe that it was done by means of a fabricated machine. I so reported 
to Mr. Lane, and as agreed he paid me for my time and expenses involved in 
establishing that fact. From that point on I was completely on my own, and 
neither Mr. Lane nor anyone else paid me anything whatsoever in connection 
with my further investigation or my trip to Europe. 

There is one other minor correction which ought to be made in the transcript. 
Mr. Ben Mandel, you will recall, produced a document which he identified as 
a transcript of a tape recording of my speech. Mr. Lane asked Mr. Mandel — 
off the record. I think — whether this was the WNYC tape, and Mr. Mandel 
said it was. Then Mr. Lane read a small portion of the document into the 
record, prefacing his reading by describing the document as "the paper which 
has been produced as the NYC tape of Mr. Tytell's talk." Presumably your 
reporter was not familiar with the name of New York's municipal station 
WNYC, and so transcribed his notes as NYU, or New York University, which is 
the way the reference appears in the record. 

In fact, I have discovered on investigation that there was no tape record- 
ing taken by New York University, and that although one was taken by WNYC 
it was erased within a few minutes, and no transcript of it was ever made. 
I have this directly from the technician who made the recording and who in- 
formed me that it was erased because my movements around the platform 
made it impossible to secure a satisfactory recording. I have also discovered 
that Mr. Mandel's source was a police lieutenant who attended my lecture 
and took a recording for use in a training course he was giving. It would seem 
desirable that the record be corrected to show the actual source of Mr. Mandel's 
document. Also, in view of the difficulty experienced by the WNYC operator, 
it would seem very doubtful whether the transcript the committee has is ac- 
curate, and if the committee is going to rely on it, fairness to me requires 
that I be given a copy, so that I can check it. 

I think also that in fairness to me the entire record of the hearing ought 
to be made public. Before I was called to testify I was harassed by repeated 
questions and insinuations put to my professional associates by Mr. Levine ana 
by your committee's Mr. Frank. These, as they were repeated to me, were 
obviously designed to cast doubt on my professional qualifications and my 
motives in exposing the "Yeremin Letter" as a forgery. Such tactics could 
only have had the aim of injuring me professionally, and my only real answer 
to them is to meet them with my sworn testimony before your committee. 
The committee's rules permit publication of testimony taken at an executive 
hearing if a majority of the committee approves, and if a witness himself asks 
that this be done, and no question of national security is involved, common 
decency requires that his request be honored. 
Very truly yours, 

Martin K. Tytela,. 

P. S. — There is an additional correction I would like to make as to the date 
when I incorporated my typewriter business. The correct date is July 1938. 



4120 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Rusher. Now, Mr. Tytell, I would like to ask you just a few 
questions about the matters in this letter. You state in the letter 
that before going to Europe you visited Mr. Chester Lane — L-a-n-e — 
who is the attorney for Alger Hiss, and that you told him certain sus- 
picions you had concerning a typewritten document sponsored by 
Mr. Isaac Don Levine. 

And your letter goes on to say that Mr. Lane was very much inter- 
ested and that he agreed to compensate you for your time and expenses 
to the extent that you concentrated your investigation on that subject. 

Why was he interested in establishing the spuriousness of this docu- 
ment ? 

Mr. Tytell. Mr. Lane was interested only in one fact. Now, that 
is an investigation that might show that a forgery had been done by the 
use of a fabricated typewriter. That is the only interest of Mr. Lane. 

Mr. Rusher. In short, he wanted to establish that forgery by type- 
writer was a practical possibility ? 

Mr. Tytell. I didn't say that. Mr. Lane was interested, and is still 
interested, in any case involving a fabricated typewriter — a type which 
is used for the purpose of committing forgery by typewriter. 

Mr. Rusher. Now you say that he paid you for your time and ex- 
penses. Will you tell the committee how much he paid you ? 

Mr. Tytell. One thousand dollars. 

Senator Butler. Including expenses ? 

Mr. Tytell. That included everything — my expenses, my time, and 
my travel. 

Senator Butler. You were not then really compensated, because 
your fare would be more than that. 

Mr. Tytell. This is just one phase covering an investigation about 
the use of a typewriter for the creation of forgery. It had nothing to 
do with my investigation in Europe, or any other part of the investiga- 
tion which I did on my own. 

Mr. Rusher. Isn't it a fact, though, Mr. Tytell, that in Europe you 
also actively concerned 3 T ourself with establishing a typewriter 
forgery ? 

Mr. Tytell. My trip to Europe had nothing to do with Mr. Lane 
and did not involve any more interest in what Mr. Lane had employed 
me for. I gave my report to Mr. Lane in the phase that he was inter- 
ested in long before I left for Europe. 

Senator Butler. I don't think, Mr. Tytell, 3^011 have answered the 
question you were asked. 

Mr. Rusher. I will restate the question. Isn't it a fact that while in 
Europe you actively investigated a case involving possible typewriter 
forgery ? 

Mr. Tytell. It is definitely not a fact. 

Mr. Rusher. You didn't inquire about the first date on which a par- 
ticular typewriter manufacturer made a specific kind of typewriter? 

Mr. Tytell. We are speaking about a fabricated typewriter. Mr. 
Lane's interest is purely in that of a fabricated typewriter. Anything 
away from fabricated typewriter is of no interest to Mr. Lane. 

Mr. Rusher. Will you tell us then 

Mr. Scott. May I insert a remark ? 

( Discussi on off the record. ) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4121 

Mr. Rusher. Will you tell us, then, briefly, what the investigation 
was, for which Mr. Lane did retain you, or pay your expenses ? 

Mr. Tytell. It was obvious to me that the statement in Life maga- 
zine that the questioned typewriter and the typewriter used to produce 
the standard were not the same make and model, that the representa- 
tion as given by Life was false. It was also obvious to me that the ex- 
pert whom Mr. Isaac Don Levine had consulted, and according to the 
statement of Life and of Isaac Don Levine, that the expert had said 
that the two typewriters were the same make and model was also false. 
To the extent that I could, on my own, without giving it full time, I 
checked my files thoroughly. I also checked with the Remington Rand 
office in New York City, and the more I checked the more convinced I 
was that there was something very wrong with the picture as presented 
in Life, and that there was good possibility that somebody had cre- 
ated a typewriter to type the Yeremin document. 

At one point in my research I explained how I felt to Mr. Lane, and 
Mr. Lane said that he would be interested to have me go further and 
to investigate and to show that a fabricated typewriter had been used 
to prepare the Yeremin document. Mr. Lane believe that a fabricated 
typewriter was used to prepare the Baltimore documents in the Hiss 
case, and that is why he was interested. 

When I reported back to Mr. Lane that a fabricated typewriter was 
not used, he paid me. I would not take the research for Mr. Lane on 
any contingency. My answer whether it was or was not a fabricated 
machine had nothing to do with my fee. 

Mr. Rusher. And, also, as I understand it, you are distinguishing 
whether it was a fabricated machine from the question of the authen- 
ticity of the document. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Rusher. In other words, while you remained unconvinced of 
the authenticity of the document, you became convinced it had not 
been written on the fabricated machine? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Rusher. And Mr. Lane's payments to you were only for in- 
vestigations conducted in this country ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Rusher. You mentioned Elmira, N. Y. 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Rusher. Now, what happened at Elmira? 

Mr. Tytell. In Elmira. Mr. Earl Palmeder, a man who has been 
with Remington Rand for 50 years, approximately — for a good num- 
ber of years he was a final aliner ; a final aliner is one who does the 
final inspection operation of the type on a typewriter; he takes off the 
final sheet which is filed to show the actual typing impressions of the 
machine. Today Mr. Palmeder is -in an executive capacity on final 
inspections. 

Mr. Palmeder, as a hobby, or because of his deep interest in special 
foreign-language types, took me to his home where he has a collection 
of various oriental and Cyrillic typewriter keyboards, off actual type- 
writers which he alined, going back for about half a century. He and 
I went over in great detail every Russian specimen he had, to see if 
any of them compared in class characteristics with that of the Yere- 
min document. 



4122 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

At Elmira, I also went over all the type specimens that they had in 
their printed catalogs, going as far back as their records were kept. 

Some of the people who worked with me in Elmira on this problem 
were Mr. Redmond, Mr. Brnce Raye, Mr. John Strong, Mr. Floyd 
Adams, chief type designer. By the end of the day in Elmira, the 
people who worked with me, and I, were of the opinion that the Yere- 
min document was definitely not typed on a Remington typewriter or 
or any machine having Remington type soldered on to it. 

Mr. Rusher. Mr. Tytell, have you ever received any fee from Mr. 
Lane other than the one already described? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; I received a fee for the work I did for Mr. Lane 
in connection with the Alger Hiss appeal for a new trial on newly 
discovered evidence. 

Mr. Rusher. Was that before or after the particular retainer you 
have described heretofore ? 

Mr. Tytell. That Mas about 1951. 

Mr. Rusher. In other words, earlier? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes; about 6 years ago. 

Mr. Rusher. Are those the only two fees he has paid you ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Rusher. Are those the only two jobs you have done for him, 
independently of whether you received a fee? 

Mr. Tytell. Let me put it this way. I have called Mr. Lane ro 
ask him questions regarding some lectures I have given at Brooklyn 
College, New York Institute 

Mr. Rusher. Beyond such phone calls and the two investigation:^ 
you have described, have 3'ou done any other work for him, whether 
paid for or not ? 

Mr. Tytell. Not that I can think of. 

Mr. Rusher. Could you say, definitely, "No"? 

Mr. Tytell. We are covering a period of 1951-57. I may have 
had conversations with him. There is nothing major that would in- 
volve a fee. I may have 

Mr. Rusher. Do I understand that, aside from occasional phone 
conversations or short conferences at your request, there has been no 
other major undertaking for Mr. Lane ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is correct. 

Mr. Rusher. And only those two fees ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is correct. 

Mr. Rusher. Just so we can have a terminal date, can you tell us 
when your last report was given to Mr. Lane ? 

Mr. Tytell. I cannot give you an exact date. I will say it was 
around the last week in June or the first week in July of 1956. 

Mr. Rusher. Was your report to Mr. Lane in writing ? 

Mr. Tytell. No; it was an oral report, but I did give him several 
little diagrams, such as we used in my speech, to illustrate my con- 
clusion, and I did show him photographs of material I have here, 
which you may be interested in seeing, and I will be glad to show you. 

Mr. Rusher. You did not put in writing the conclusion, however, 
for which he had paid the thousand dollars ? 

Mr. Tytell. My reports to him were very informal. They were 
merely vague statements as to what I was doing, the techniques I was 
using to make a determination. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4123 

Mr. Rusher. And it is your statement that none of the costs of your 
trip to Europe were paid by Mr. Lane, nor was he concerned in any 
investigations you conducted there. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes; that is correct. Naturally, I did telephone Mr. 
Lane when I came back from Europe, and told him of my findings, and 
also went up to see him and showed him my speech I was going to 
deliver before the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. But this was definitely in the nature of a social meeting, 
rather than one of a professional nature where I would be retained for 
this part of the investigation. I want to make that very clear. 

Mr. Rusher. I have no further questions. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Scott. Objection is entered now to the designated scope of 
investigation to which the question of Mr. Tytell has contributed. 
That is, it is his feeling that he is not being investigated as a possible 
espionage agent ; that he is called upon by the committee to give infor- 
mation that may be of value to it in its investigative work, but not of 
him as a possible espionage agent. Mr. Tytell stands ready to assist 
the committee at any time with its work, but does not want his testi- 
mony published under the general designation of "Scope of Soviet 
Activity in the United States." 

Mr. Rusher. I can only say this : There is no allegation here, and 
never has been, that Mr. Tytell is an espionage agent. The title for 
the series of hearings is a standard one, from which I think no such 
unwarranted inference should be drawn. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will stand in recess until call of 
the Chair. 

(Thereupon, the subcommittee hearing adjourned at 12:20 p. m.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, OCTOBER 1, 1957 

United States Senate, 

Subcommittee To Investigate the Administkation 

of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 

Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

New York, N. Y. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 12 : 20 p. m., in room 36, 
United States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York City, Senator 
Olin D. Johnston (South Carolina) presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
director of research ; Roy Garcia and Nelson Frank, consultants. 

Mr. Morris. This is the Reverend Michael Korchak-Sivitsky. 

Senator Johnston. "Will you raise your right hand ? Do you swear 
the evidence you give in this case will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Korchak-Sivitsky (through interpreter). Yes. 

Senator Johnston (to the interpreter). Do you swear that you will 
interpret to the best of your knowledge what is conveyed to you, and 
convey it to us ? 

Miss Ginsburg. Yes ; I will. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, this testimony this morning is being taken 
subsequent to the testimony taken of Mr. Martin K. Tytell who has 
already testified before the subcommittee. 

Late in 1956 there appeared in the American press various an- 
nouncements to the effect that John Santo, a former member of the 
Communist Party, U. S. A., who had been voluntarily deported to 
Soviet Hungary, had left that country, that he was in Vienna, and 
was willing to testify before a congressional committee regarding his 
defection from communism. 

Moved by an interest in this case, the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee asked Mr. Benjamin Mandel, its research director, to inter- 
view Mr. Santo in Vienna early in January 1957, with a view to 
possibly securing Mr. Santo as a witness. 

In the meantime certain articles had appeared in the (Communist) 
Daily Worker, specifically on December 31, 1956; January 6, 1957; 
January 13, 1957; and January 20, 1957, which articles dealt with 
the alleged revelations of Martin K. Tytell whom this publication 
referred to as a scientist with a lifelong passion for questionable 
documents; as a lecturer on police science at Brooklyn College and 
New York University; and as a document expert "who had been 
used previously in the case of Alger Hiss to establish forgery by 
typewriter. 

4125 



4126 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Tytell addressed the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science on December 29, 1956, and his remarks were reprinted 
in the Worker of January 13, 1957, pages 3 and 14. The effect of the 
articles was to defend Premier Stalin. 

Concerned about the possibility that Communists might be embark- 
ing on a campaign to rehabilitate Marshal Stalin, the subcommittee 
decided to learn what Mr. Tytell was doing. It, therefore, asked Mr. 
Mandel to look into certain phases of Mr. Tytell's investigation while 
in Europe on the Santo matter. 

Senator, we have here the previous testimony, and we would like to 
take now the testimony of Mr. Benjamin Mandel. 

Mr. Mandel, I wonder if you would stand to be sworn ? 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear the evidence you give to this com- 
mittee to be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Mandel. I do. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with your testimony, Mr. Mandel, you 
have 26 exhibits, do you not ? 

TESTIMONY OF BENJAMIN MANDEL 

Mr. Mandel. I do. Before submitting my testimony, let me insert 
into the record certain data necessary for an understanding of the 
exhibits which I propose to present. 

The Worker of January 13, 1957, pages 3 and 14, printed a report 
titled : 

"Exposing a Documentary Hoax" * * * delivered by a distinguished scientist, 
Martin K. Tytell, December 29, 1956, before one of the seminars of the American 
Academy of Social Science, on Science Versus Crime. * * * Mr. Tytell is a lec- 
turer at several universities on criminology and is recognized as an expert on 
questioned documents. 

The correct title of the organization before which this report was 
given was American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
which met at the Hotel Statler in New York City. The meeting was 
cosponsored by the Society for the Advancement of Criminology. 
Mr. Tytell's report dealt with an article in Life magazine dated April 
23, 1956, by Isaac Don Levine, called Stalin's Great Secret, which 
included A Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy. The article was later 
expanded into a book. 

In this report reprinted in the Worker of January 13, 1957, Mr. 
Tytell is quoted as follows : 

My investigation led me abroad to Germany in July of this year. In Frank- 
furt I found that the questioned document was in fact written on an Adler — a 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4127 

machine manufactured in Germany. The Adler factory was demolished hy bomb- 
ing and, therefore, a determination of the date of the machine used for the ques- 
tioned document was impossible. 

However, company employees who had been manufacturing typewriters for 
many years, stated that Russian type which produced the questioned document 
was first manufactured in the year 1912. 

According to Mr. Tytell, the book mentioned a certain "Dobroliu- 
bov, who had been an officer of the Okhrana, or czarist secret police" 
who had died and been buried in the cemetery of a Russian chapel in 
Wiesbaden, Germany. 

Mr. Tytell's report stated : 

The next day I left Berlin for Wiesbaden, taking Fromke with me to act as 
interpreter. 

Mr. Tytell explained that Igor Fromke was a ministrant at the 
Greek Orthodox Church on Nachodstrasse in Charlottenburg, Berlin. 
Speaking of his trip to the chapel, Mr. Tytell declared : 

I spoke to the local priest * * *. This priest too knew nothing of Dobroliubov 
and had never heard the name in his tenure at the church dating back to 
1908 * * *. 

I went through the adjoining cemetery ; there was no tombstone for Dobroliu- 
bov. There was no record in the church registry of deaths, going back to 1945, 
of a burial of such an individual or anyone bearing a name similar to 
Dobroliubov. 

I arrived in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, on January 15, 1957, 
and remained there until January 16, 1957. During this time I visited 
the Russian Church, also called the Greek Chapel, located at 99 
Kappellenstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany. It is also known as the 
Russian Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden. I interviewed Archpriest 
Pavel Adamantov, the head of this church, and his daughter, Anast- 
asia Adamantov, who speaks English fluently. Her father under- 
stands a little English but speaks only Russian. 

I left for Vienna to interview Mr. John Santo and remained there 
from January 16 to January 21 when I returned to Frankfurt-am- 
Main, remaining until January 25, 1957. 

Between January 21 and 25 I visited the Russian Orthodox Church 
again. 

I asked Archpriest Adamantov, through his daughter Anastasia, 
about the grave of Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky, also known as 
Dobroskok and Dobroliubov and the visit of Martin K. Tytell to the 
church on this matter. Permit me at this point to place in the record 
as exhibit 1, a photograph taken at my direction, of the Russian 
Orthodox Church. 

(The photograph was marked "Exhibit No. 492" and is reproduced 
below:) 



93215— 57— pt. 66- 



4128 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 492 




Russian Greek Orthodox Church at 99 Kappellenstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 2 is a booklet I obtained at the church con- 
taining additional photographs and entitled "The Russian Church on 
the Neroberg in Wiesbaden, usually called the Greek Chapel." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4129 

(The cover of the pamphlet referred to above was marked "Exhibit 
No. 492-A" and appears below:) 

Exhibit No. 492-A 



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Reproduction of the cover of a 26-page descriptive pamphlet entitled "The 
Russian Church on the Neroberg in Wiesbaden, usually called the Greek 
Chapel." 



4130 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY E\ T THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Mandel. As exhibit 3, I present a certified abstract in the 
Russian language, from the Russian Orthodox Church register dated 
February 1 (old calendar) and February 14 (new calendar), 1947, 
showing the death of Col. Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky, aged 65, and 
ask that a certified translation be made by the Library of Congress 
and placed in the record. 

(The abstract referred to above was marked "Exhibit No. 493," and 
is reproduced below, followed by an English translation :) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4131 

Exhibit No. 493 



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Abstract from church record recording death of Dobrovolsky 

[Translation] 

Russian Orthodox Church at Wiesbaden (Germany) 

Kapellenstr. 99. 

Wiesbaden 

Excerpt From the Book of Vital Statistics 

Part 3 

PERTAINING TO THE DEATH 
FOR THE YEAR 1947 

Issued by the Russian Orthodox Church of the Blessed Saint Elizabeth at 
Wiesbaden. 

Item No. : Male 2. 

Month and date of death : February 1/14. 

Month and date of burial : February 9/22. 

Occupation, name, father's name and family name of deceased : Colonel of 
the Russian Army in retirement, Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky. 

Age of the deceased : 65. 

Cause of death : Apoplexy. 

Confession and the last rites : Performed by the pastor, Michael Korchak- 
Sivitskii. 



4132 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 






OS 






SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4133 

Who conducted the burial services and where buried : Very Rev. Pavel Adam- 
antov, assisted by the deacon, Vassili Chekmarev, and sacristan, Iakov Kash- 
chenko ; buried at the Russian Orthodox cemetery at Wiesbaden. 

No. 5/1957. 

[Seal (of Russian Orthodox Church at Wiesbaden) ]. 

In virtue thereof we sign below and affix the seal of the church. 

Wiesbaden, January 21, 1957. 
Pastor of the church : Archpriest Pavel Adamantov, 

Sacristan Iakov Kashchenko. 

(Translated by George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress, September 
27,1957.) 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 4 is a photograph which shows Archpriest 
Pavel Adamantov signing the above document with his daughter 
Anastasia at the upper right. Exhibit 5 is a photograph showing the 
archpriest sealing the above document. 

(The above described photographs were marked "Exhibit 494 and 
494 A" and appear below :) 

Exhibit No. 494 



Photograph of Archpriest Pavel Adamantov signing death certificate referred to 
above. Photo was taken in his home. Woman on extreme right is his 
daughter. 



4134 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Exhibit No. 494-A 




Archpriest Adamantov affixes his seal to the Dobrovolsky death certificate. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 6 is a photograph of the cemetery of the 
Russian Orthodox Church showing Archpriest Pavel Adamantov 
and others. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4135 

(The photograph was marked "Exhibit No. 495" and is reproduced 
below:) 

Exhibit No. 495 




Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 7 is a photograph of a wooden cross headstone 
in this cemetery with the inscription in Russian with the name Ivan 
Vassilievich Dobrovolsky, 5.1.1882, 14.2.1947 which was explained to 
me as the birth and death date of the deceased. 



4136 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



(The photograph described above was marked "Exhibit No. 49G'- 
and is reproduced below, followed by a translation of the marker :) 



Exhibit No. 496 




Wooden cross marking Dobrovolsky grave. 
^Translation, inscription on wooden cross headstone] 

Colonel Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky 
January 5, 1882— February 14, 1947 

(Translated by George Starosolsky, translator, Library of Congress, September 
27,1957.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4137 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 8 is a photograph of Archpriest Pavel Ada- 
mantov with his assistant, Iakov Kaschenko in the Russian Ortho- 
dox Church cemetery near the wooden cross headstone of Ivan Vas- 
silievich Dobrovolsky. 

(The photograph described above was marked "Exhibit No. 496-A" 
and is reproduced below :) 

Exhibit No. 496-A 




Archpriest Aclaniantov and an assistant standing before the grave of Dobrovolsky 
(marked by dark wood cross). Grave is in second tier of the cemetery. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 9 is another photograph of Archpriest Pavel 
Adamant ov at the grave of Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky. 



4138 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(The photograph was marked "Exhibit No. 49G-B" and appears 
below:) 

Exhibit No. 496-B 




  . '  



Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 10 is a photostat copy of a handwritten in- 
scription signed by Martin K. Tytell with his visiting card in the 
book "The World's Greatest Spy Stories" by Kurt Singer, given to 
Archpriest Pavel Adamantov on July 17, 1956, and in turn given to me 
when I visited the archpriest. The book contains, on pages 91 to 108, 
a reprint of the article The $7,500 Typewriter I Built for Alger Hiss 
by Martin Tytell for True magazine, for August 1952. 

(The photostat of the note, and the publishers' "blurb" on the dust- 
cover of the volume was marked "Exhibit No. 497" and is reproduced 
below:) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4139 



Exhibit No. 497 






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Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 11 is a photostatic copy of this article as it 
appeared in True magazine for August 1952. 



4140 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(The article was marked "Exhibit No. 498" and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 49S 

[From True magazine, August 1952] 

The $7,500 Typewriter I Built for Alger Hiss 

(As far as typewriter-expert Tytell knew, a job like the one Alger Hiss 
lawyers wanted had never been done before. This is how he did it) 

By Martin Tytell As Told to Harry Kursh 

It began for me in the latter part of March 1950, less than 2 months 
after Alger Hiss, convicted of perjury, had implied that he was the victim of a 
"forgery by typewriter." I was sitting at my desk behind a jungle of papers and 
typewriter parts when a tall, lean young man of about 28 came in. He carried 
a bulging briefcase by its handle and, standing over my desk, peered intently 
at me from behind thick horn-rimmed glasses. 

He identified himself as a member of the Hiss defense staff and seemed to 
have trouble expressing what was on his mind. He stammered for a few 
moments. "I once read something about you," he said. 

Then he came right to the point. "Do you believe typewriters can be dupli- 
cated?" he asked. 

"I don't see why not," I replied. 

He sat down on a stool near my desk. "Do you think you can duplicate a 
typewriter?" His eyes had an anxious look. 

"I've never given it any real thought. What have you in mind?" 

He sat straight up. Then, looking squarely at me, he said, "Alger Hiss's attor- 
ney, Chester T. Lane, would like to engage you to assist in proving that two 
typewriters can be made to type so much alike that it would be confusing for 
experts to distinguish between documents typed on either of them." 

"Hiss had two jury trials," I said. "And he was convicted. How many 
trials do you want? It would be a waste of time even to try." 

He thanked me for my opinion and left, but only to return the following day. 
"I know how you feel about the case," he said, "but we're not asking you to be 
pro- or anti-Hiss. Would you be willing to take the job on as an experiment?" 

Actually, my first reaction was that I didn't want to have anything to do with 
the controversial Hiss case. I thought I'd discourage him. I told him I could 
not guarantee success, since I had never attempted such a job. 

"Whatever results I come up with," I added, "will become public information. 
I don't withhold any of my knowledge from document experts. If I should fail, 
it would undoubtedly hurt your case." 

"It probably would," he said, "but we want an intensive scientific study. 
We're willing to take a chance on the results, if you're willing, of course, to take a 
chance on your reputation." 

I thought it was shrewd of him to put it that way. Then I said emphatically, 
"But if I do succeed, it will upset the entire theory of identifying typewritten 
documents. It might even set criminals free. It might cast doubt on every con- 
viction ever obtained based on typewritten evidence. Don't you know the experts 
have never even considered the possibility that typewriters can be forged?" 

His answer was simple. "That's quite true. The ends of justice, however, are 
served only when all known factors concerning evidence have been exposed and 
properly considered under law." 

Finally I agreed to take the assignment on the condition that I do it only in 
my spare time, in my own way, without control or dictation from any members of 
the Hiss defense staff, and purely as a scientific experiment. He agreed to this 
and said Chester Lane would draw up the agreement. 

Newspaper columnists around the country have been attempting to explain 
how I did the job, some reporting my fee as high as $30,000. As to how I did the 
job, not one guessed correctly. As to how much I got for the job, I can lay that 
erroneous report to rest right now. 

On April 17, 1950, Chester Lane came to my office with a written agreement, 
which stated I was to receive $2,500 in advance to conduct the experiment and 
that upon the completion of my work I was to receive another $5,000. That's 
what I got. However, the agreement further stated : "It is understood that you 
will work solely from [typewritten] samples without access to or inspection of the 
machine on which the samples are typed." 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4141 

Actually, it was the Hiss defense staff that had found Woodstock No. 230,099 
even though more than two dozen FBI men had turned Washington, D. C, inside 
out to find it. Edward McLean, one of Hiss's attorneys, in April 1949, traced it 
to a man named Ira Lockey, a trucker who said he had gotten it from a family 
named Marlow in exchange for a house-moving job. I knew this ; and my original 
impression was that I would simply make castings of the machine's individual 
type faces, insert them in a similar Woodstock model and adjust the entire 
machine to reproduce the original. The realization that I would have to work 
without the actual machine before me stunned me. I was to work only with 
the specimens of typing from the so-called Hiss Woodstock. But that made the 
challenge all the greater, and I decided to go ahead. 

Like millions of Americans I had followed accounts of the Alger Hiss trials, 
but throughout both of them (the first trial ended in a hung jury) I was also 
busy with my chores running the Tytell Typewriter Co. at my two-story Fulton 
Street shop in lower Manhattan. It's a quarter-million dollar business I've built 
up from scratch over the past 15 years — buying, renting, repairing and selling 
typewriters. I am 39 years old, but I've been handling typewriters more than 
half my lifetime. As a result I have been able to acquire certain skills that have 
given me an international reputation, mainly because I can convert, within 24 
hours, any standard American typewriter to type in practically any language 
you can name. When I was a GI in the last war, the OSS had me "discharged" 
from the Army for 3 months so that I could fulfill a top-secret typewriter proj- 
ect. I am consulted regularly by criminologists. 

It was typewriter evidence that formed the core of the case against Alger 
Hiss. He was convicted officially on two counts of perjury committted before 
an espionage-hunting Federal grand jury in December 194S. But even a school 
kid knew that behind it all lay ex-Coinmunist Whittaker Chambers' spectacular 
charges that Hiss had been passing him confidential State Department data up 
until the time Chambers deserted the Communist Party in April 193S. The Gov- 
ernment charged that 42 out of 43 such documents produced by Chambers had 
been written on the same typewriter as a number of notes and letters admittedly 
typed in the Hiss home during the same period. 

Through more than 8,000 pages and 2,300,000 words of trial testimony, Wood- 
stock typewriter model No. 230,099, built around August 1929, sat on the court- 
room table in New York's Foley Square. It was conceded at the time of the 
trial to have belonged to the Hisses. Government prosecutor Thomas F. Mur- 
phy used the typewriter to bring his case against Hiss to a flashing climax. 
Pointing dramatically to the machine he told the jury that if ever there was a 
charge against Hiss, that typewriter was "the immutable witness forever 
against" him. In fact, Hiss himself practically labeled the typewriter the 
same way. 

When the lean and youthful-looking ex-State Department official stood sober- 
faced before Federal Judge Henry W. Goodard on January 25, 1950, he was 
granted permission to make a statement before sentencing. 

In a packed courtroom the reporters could be seen leaning forward intently, 
pencils poised, for what was expected to be a dramatic declaration of inno- 
cence — or a confession ! But Hiss declared simply : 

"I am confident that in the future all the facts will be brought out to 
show how Whittaker Chambers was able to commit forgery by typewriter. 
Thank you, sir.*' 

What did Hiss mean? Undoubtedly, he meant that somewhere, somehow, 
someone got hold of letters that had actually been typed on his Woodstock 
when he owned it. Then these letters were used to make a machine that would 
reproduce specimens — or documents — with the same characteristics of type- 
writer habits, typeface design, deviations, and flaws. The experts must have 
laughed. 

Much of the expert opinion today comes from a handful of professional men 
known as the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners. Ramos 
Feehan, FBI expert on questioned documents, fulfilled that role for the gov- 
ernment's case against Hiss by comparing the copied State Department docu- 
ments to letters written by the Hisses on their Woodstock back in 1937. 

Using easels, charts, and photographic blowups, Feehan showed the jury how 
the small a, d, e, g, i, I, o, u, and the capital A in the evidence had all the ear- 
marks of the same type faces found in the Hiss letters. That would be up- 
setting evidence in any man's court. Feehan's accuracy was not contested by 
the defense. 



4142 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Is there a chance that identity between typewriter characteristics could crop 
up accidentally in two different machines? Possibly. But such a coincidence is 
remote, to say the least. This was effectively demonstrated by a Cornell Uni- 
versity mathematics professor, Virgil Snyder, in a 1911 New York Supreme 
Court case, the People v. Risley. 

Risley had been accused of fraudulently altering an affidavit by typewriter. 
During the course of the trial, Professor Snyder testified that the chances of 
only six type characters appearing accidentally with identical design and devia- 
tions in the same six type characters of another machine would have to be ex- 
pressed as somewhere between one in 3 trillion to 4 trillion — a virtually im- 
possible accident. FBI expert Feehan was content to point out ten such simi- 
larities in the Hiss trial ! 

Oddly enough, the Risley trial is the only known case in which a conviction 
was obtained because it was shown that Risley had actually attempted to alter 
type faces on one machine to duplicate another. The attempt was made by a 
typewriter mechanic in a second-hand typewriter shop but was crude and 
readily discovered. The mechanic later testified, though, that he had been sus- 
picious of Risley's intentions and had not made as many alterations as he should 
have. I was setting out to make the duplication as complete and accurate as 
I could. 

Unusual jobs aren't anything new to me — though this one promised to be in 
a class by itself. My customers include professionals ranging from designers 
and architects to druggists, chemists, engineers, astronomers, and a newspaper 
columnist who writes on bridge. I design and build keyboards for them in the 
special symbols of their respective fields. For musicians I have made keyboards 
with musical notes. For a well-known mystery writer I once designed a key- 
board with a variety of crosses and bones, and an astronomer once left my 
office with a typewriter containing a fantastic array of space symbols, such as 
ringed planets, comets and stars. A few years ago, I had a man ask me to build 
him a typewriter with question marks— nothing but question marks. On top of 
that, he wanted each symbol to fall at a certain level above or below the line. 
It was probably the weirdest request I've ever received. I completed the job 
according to his specifications, but I never did learn what it was all about. 

Perhaps one of my most interesting jobs found me a Pfc. in the Army. I got 
into the Army in January 1943. A few months later I was discharged, but not 
for good. It seems that the U. S. Government had seized a contrabrand ship- 
ment of 100 Siamese typewriters leaving for ports unknown. Nobody knew 
what to do with such a strange catch. They were placed under the custody 
of the National City Bank in New York. It was at a time when we ourselves 
were experiencing a serious war-bred shortage of typewriters. 

Few knew at the time that one of the most urgent needs for typewriters with 
foreign-language keyboards was with OSS forces planted in different countries. 
Someone suggested that the Siamese typewriters be converted for this use. 
But there was trouble in finding a man for the job. And, with the materials 
shortage, there was trouble in finding the appropriate foreign type and sym- 
bols. I already had many of these in my shop. I stock more than 2 million 
type faces, mostly foreign-language and technical. 

Fortunately, I had once done some unique foreign-language work for a Na- 
tional City Bank branch manager. When he heard about the need for con- 
verting the typewriters, he passed my name along, together with the suggest ion 
that I could convert them for use on several languages at a time. 

One day in August 1943, while I was assigned as a typewriter repairman at 
Fort Jay in New York, a confidential order came through from the War Produc- 
tion Board in the form of a directive. It asked my command to release me for 
a top-secret job. No one at Fort Jay knew what it was all about ; neither did I. 
When I was confronted with the problem, I told top Army brass in Washington 
that I could make each of the typewriters work for many languages. I was told 
to use my own shop, which was being run by my wife largely for typewriter 
rentals — still a good part of my business today — -because they did not want word 
of the project to leak out. The typewriters had to be flown overseas, then drop- 
ped by parachute to dozens of OSS underground headquarters. 

In order to keep the project under a tight lid, I was actually discharged from 
the Army on August 25, 1943, and given a Certificate of Service to certify that I 
had "served in the active Army" in order to keep my draft board from getting 
too inquisitive and to keep the cops from picking me up. Once in mufti, I re- 
turned to my shop and sealed off an entire section of one workroom. I did every- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4143 

thing possible to keep my work secret. But I had to make up some strange stories 
for a lot of curious neighbors who, until they read this, never could figure out why 
I had been released from the Army after only a few months of service. I have 
always been on the tall, round and broad-shouldered side, so to them I was the 
healthiest 4-F ever seen under a shock of light brown hair. 

Within three months, I had completed my assignment. The Siamese keyboard 
had forty-six type bars. Hence, I was able to do more with them than I had done 
with any other machine. I was able to arrange a keyboard that could be used 
for seventeen languages in all, including French, Spanish, Czech, Hungarian, 
Turkish, Danish and German. I never did learn just where they were dropped. 

When I was "re-enlisted," I was returned to Fort Jay. There I was placed in 
charge of typewriter repair and given similar responsibility over 14.000 machines 
in the New York area — with a crew of more than a dozen technicians and still 
a Pfc. Later, I was made a staff sergeant in time to be discharged as such on 
November 26, 1945. 

Unquestionably, though, I still consider work on tracing questioned documents 
my most exciting and challenging assignments. But for excitement and chal- 
lenge, I'd never had anything to compare with the job I was starting out to do 
on the Hiss case. This promised to be the biggest one yet. 

To get started, I asked Lane's secretary to get specimens for me from Wood- 
stock No. 230,099. I asked her for single-spaced pages of typing with whole lines 
of capital A's, then whole lines of small «'s and to continue like that until she had 
covered every symbol on the machine. Then I asked her to do the same thing 
over, except to place capital N's and H's next to each letter, like NaNaNa, HaHa- 
Ha. The N's and J/'s act as guides against which other letters can be properly 
aligned. The reason is simple. 

Most typewriters carry pica or elite type. Any ten symbols on a pica machine, 
including space between letters, fill a horizontal inch. Six vertical lines of type 
also cover an inch. On an elite machine the only difference is that it takes twelve 
symbols to fill a horizontal inch. The Hiss Woodstock is a pica machine. Each 
of its letters, therefore, fills an imaginary rectangle of one-tenth of an inch hori- 
zontally and one-sixth of an inch vertically. Any divergence from this alinement 
is consequently one of the means by which experts trace typewritten documents. 
The letters N and 77 are neat guides against which a mechanic can work to make 
one specimen of typewriting match another in perfect alignment. 

After I got the specimens I had asked for, I went to my own morgue of beat-up 
typewriters, which I have collected over the years as a source of parts, and I 
selected a Woodstock model No. 231,195. It undoubtedly was built in the same 
year as No. 230,099, if not during the same month. I compared specimens from 
both under a magnifying glass and a binocular comparison microscope. When I 
first looked at these side by side. I noticed that my specimens had far fewer 
inconsistencies than those taken from the Hiss machine. The latter appeared 
alien to Woodstock. In fact, this led me to remark facetiously to a member of 
Lane's staff that I was making a forgery of a forgery. ' 

In making a forgery, however, you have to be concerned with more than differ- 
ences in type-face defects and design. To prevent detection by the experts, you 
have to create the same regular or irregular alignment pattern that may show up 
in specimens of the machine you are forging. You'd also have to get the same 
regularity of shading. For instance, since it's almost impossible to get each type 
face to print uniformly by striking dead center, as it should, magnification by ex- 
perts will show up a regular pattern of certain letters darker or lighter on one 
side. 

My major task was to get all the typeface defects and characteristics of the 
Hiss machine engraved into other Woodstock type faces. Since forgery was 
never my line, I decided to enlist the services of a topnotch hand enuraver. 
Every expert engraver I visited in New Ybrk refused the job when I told him it 
was in connection with an assignment from the Hiss legal defense. I was finally 
able to locate a retired engraver in a small New Jersey town. Interested by the 
experimental nature of the job, he consented to take on the assignment. I 
brought an old Woodstock with me and taught him how to remove type. 

I gave him some photographic blowups of typing from the Hiss machine and 
asked him, as a test, to duplicate any two type faces in the blowups. A few days 
later I returned to pick up what he had done. He said it was a slow, tedious 
job, but not difficult. That evening I examined the results of his work under the 
microscope. His success was amazing. I knew from then on all that had to be 
done was for me to give him enough type on which he could copy the exact char- 
acteristics of the Hiss machine type faces. I would then solder the forged type 

93215 — 57— pt. 66 4 



4144 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

faces onto my Woodstock type bars — the slender metal fingers which fly up to 
strike the paper. This would be followed by the mechanical adjustments. 

Meanwhile, I knew that the end results of my work would have to be scruti- 
nized by an outstanding document examiner. His job would be to examine any 
specimens against the Hiss specimens and, with his fresh and expert eyes, detect 
flaws that might escape me. I also wanted other opinions about the possibility 
of accomplishing what I had set out to do. All document examiners I had 
visited refused a professional assignment to assist me. Instead, they berated 
me. 

Once I went to see Albert D. Osborn, a heavy-set balding man of about 50, 
whose father, the late Albert S. Osborn, is considered the founder of scientific 
questioned-document examination. He greeted me cordially but formally in his 
Woolworth Building office. He told me that he had heard some disquieting 
news — that I was doing "something illegal." That surprised me. But I was 
really shocked when he added that it would get me into a lot of trouble 

It seems that word had got around. Like others I had visited, he declined to 
take on the assignment, on the ground that success in my task would not serve 
the ends of justice. It was my old argument thrown right back at me. 

"If anything," I told him, "I am undertaking a purely scientific experiment. 
Any knowledge we can gain from it would help, not hinder, justice. If there 
is something we don't know about questioned typewritten documents, now is as 
good a time as any to find out." 

When I left his office, I was considerably upset. Here was the man who had 
testified in the famous trial of Bruno Hauptmann, later executed for kidnaping 
and murdering the Lindbergh baby. Here was the man who first introduced 
ultraviolet light to document examination. Was I really doing something wrong, 
and in the end, perhaps, making a fool of myself? 

I went to my bookshelf that night and pulled out Questioned Document Prob- 
lems by Albert S. Osborn, which I consider the most authoritative book in 
its field. I had read it many times before. I was up all night reading it again. 
This time I was struck by this statement toward the end of the book : "The 
scientific spirit seeks the truth at all hazards and gradually unlocks the great 
secrets and brings about the desirable reforms." (My italics.) It was enough 
to convince me that if anyone's conception of the scientific attitude was wrong 
it was not mine. 

It was then, too, I decided that I would not submit my typewriter unless it 
came out as nearly perfect as possible, not in just matching the ten letters FBI 
expert Feehan had chosen to use as comparisons in his testimony at the Hiss 
trial, but perfect in every conceivable variation of all eighty-four type faces. It 
was this decision that led me on a hunt for type that was to take me as far as 
Detroit and Chicago. 

I was not content to find type of the same design. I wanted type which had 
practically no wear, so that I could get every single defect of the Hiss machine's 
type faces engraved onto the type faces of my forgery. 

After taking my own Woodstock morgue apart, I went to a former Woodstock 
company branch office in New York. With a magnifying glass I checked every 
type face they had in stock. It took several days. I bought more than 500 type 
faces and took them home, soldered them onto type bars, put them in my 
machine and struck off specimens. Over a period of about two weeks, during 
which I compared each of my specimens against the standards, I finally selected 
a handful for my New Jersey engraver to work on. It was during the month 
of June and he was busy doing work all day on wedding gifts. At night he 
worked for me. 

Several weeks later, I got a call from New Jersey, a call that was to set all 
my plans back more than a year. My engraver had come down with tubercu- 
losis and had to enter a sanatorium. I went back to pick up all my type and 
tools and began looking for a new engraver. After weeks of futile searching, I 
was given the name of a first-rate engraver not far from my own office. 

First I wanted to see if he would do the job if it were for something entirely 
different. So I took along some samples of Hindi type and told him these had 
to be adjusted, otherwise in a Hindi typewriter they would have different 
meanings. He said he could do it easily and asked me to come back with the 
rest of my samples. But when I returned, of course, I had only Woodstock type 
with me. Then I told him it was in connection with my Hiss-case assignment. 
He blew up in my face. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4145 

"If you lay in a gutter with lice, you get lousy," he exploded. "I don't want 
any trouble. Take your damned type and get the hell out of here." I argued, 
but it only made him more violent. 

I told my wife, Pearl, about this experience. Tears came to her eyes. She 
pleaded with me to drop the assignment. "We have two children," she sobbed. 
"We took years to build up our business, now we're begging for trouble." Her 
voice rose to a pitch near hysteria. 

"We're doing nothing wrong," I found myself shouting back. 

"No," she cried, "but why should we be pioneers? We're bucking public 
opinion. Everyone you've seen is against you. They predict trouble. They 
threaten trouble. Don't you realize it might ruin us?" 

After I had pacified her, I reasoned. I told her that yielding to fear was a 
poor excuse for canceling a business obligation. This was as much part of my 
business as renting a machine. I said, "I'd rather a thousand times that my 
children be proud of parents who refused to be beaten to their knees than of 
parents who ran a successful business. 

"Besides," I added firmly, "we may lose a few narrow-minded customers but 
as long as we do honest work we'll gain others. We're doing nothing criminal. 
Nobody can put us out of business." 

We argued for weeks. Finally, she agreed to my views and I told her that I 
would do the engraving myself, though I knew my own engraving skill was such 
that I would probably drag the assignment out for more than a year. I knew, 
too, that I would probably ruin ten pieces of type for every one I would succeed 
in engraving properly. 

This began a mad merry-go-round hunt for old Woodstocks from which I could 
remove more type. My wife got on the telephone and called just about every 
typewriter dealer in New York. I examined thousands of Woodstocks with 
serial numbers close to 230,099 and took home whatever pieces of type I felt were 
good enough to work on. 

Essentially, the engraving process called for the use of three tools : diamond- 
tipped chisels for cutting into the hard steel type faces, a triangular India stone 
for rubbing down chisel marks, and a superfine dental buffing tool to finish 
surfaces. 

From nearly 2,000 pieces of type I had collected, I succeeded in sorting out and 
duplicating twenty-five to match the Hiss specimens. I would need seventeen 
more. Another intensive search around New York failed to yield the kind of 
type I wanted. 

Meanwhile, I used what I had already completed and ran off a few specimens. 
Together with a member of the Hiss defense staff, I went to Chicago and Detroit 
to continue the hunt. These were major business areas close to Woodstock, Illi- 
nois, the town from which the company originally got its name. It was recently 
bought out by the R. C. Allen Company. 

At the same time, I decided to submit my forged specimens to a document ex- 
pert in Chicago. Choosing a name at random from the classified telephone di- 
rectory, I went to the office of D. W. Schwartz at 10 South La Salle Street. I 
gave him my specimens and the Hiss machine specimens. He examined them all. 

"Could you tell me how many machines were involved in typing these?" I 
asked. 

"All came from one machine," was his answer. 

I was elated. Little more than half my goal was accomplished and already I 
was able to stump an expert. The Chicago and Detroit hunt yielded another 
ten type faces into which I was able to engrave successfully all the necessary 
characteristics of the Hiss specimens. But I was still short seven. 

On a hunch, I made a return trip to the Brownsville Typewriter Company in 
Brooklyn. It was like falling into an abandoned mine of Woodstocks. They 
often buy old typewriters from junk peddlers, and they had taken in a bunch 
of old Woodstocks since my last visit. I rented all the old Woodstocks I wanted 
from them on the condition that any type I removed I would replace with an- 
other. This maneuver got me enough type to finish the job. 

From that point on I had to work on mechanical adjustments almost exclu- 
sively. After all the letters were aligned, I had to adjust the typewriter so that 
the spacing between lines was exactly like the Hiss machine to within a thou- 
sandth of an inch. Most people know that the typewriter spacing handle, at- 
tached to the carriage and to a ratchet at the end of the roller, can be set on most 
typewriters for single, double or triple spacing. The hard-rubber roller itself, 
however, plays an important although microscopic part in spacing. The manner 
in which it is ground and the hardness of the rubber used will make fractional 



4146 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

differences between lines, which experts can detect through magnification, al- 
though to the naked eye six lines of typing on any typewriter will still apparently 
cover one vertical inch. On an old machine, as the rubber wears down, varia- 
tions of the spaces between lines become more apparent. Experts can detect 
and measure these variations by placing a special transparent ruler over speci- 
mens of typing. 

I went to the Ames Supply Company in New York, a firm known to the trade 
for its specialization in recovering old rollers through grinding. I had them 
grind about thirty different rollers for me — with deviations from the standard 
thickness ranging from a thousandth to one two-thousandths of an inch and in 
five different rubber densities. I put these in my machine and on each copied a 
page of typescript from the Hiss machine. None was good enough. I went 
back to Ames and borrowed a tool called the Ames Densimeter, which was de- 
signed originally by that company to eliminate human error in gauging roller 
densities. Only about twelve of these delicate instruments are in existence. It 
looks like a small watch with a sweep second hand and a needlelike plunger 
sticking out from its rim. The plunger is inserted into the rubber and the hand 
moves around. Where it stops you get a density reading. From the rollers I 
had, I chose two which were closest in matching spacing on the Hiss specimens. 
I got a density reading on each roller. Between these I struck an average and 
got the company to grind just such a roller for me. 

It worked perfectly. But another major defect had to be copied from the 
Hiss specimens. This was a tendency of the Hiss machine to "creep," that is, to 
crowd letters toward the right-hand edge of the paper. This I knew was caused 
by a defect in the Hiss machine escapement. There's no one part in a type- 
writer by that name. It's a combination of parts in the back of and under the 
machine which control the typewriter's spacing from one letter to the next. 
Through trial and error I made enough escapement adjustment to match per- 
fectly the same creep in the Hiss specimens. 

By this time I had achieved what I felt was a successful forgery. But I was 
too close to the machine. My eyes had become stale. Emotionally, I had come 
to regard it almost as if it were a third child in my family. Every time I moved 
it, I was fearful of dropping it. 

Once more we made the rounds for the assistance of another expert. One, 
J. H. Haring, in New York, who had been consulted in the case by the defense 
lawyers before the first Hiss trial, was willing to discuss the possibility of fur- 
ther employment in the case. But be finally decided to refuse to work with 
us, on the ground that if he were to take part in our experiment he would be 
helping to make a machine to deceive his brother experts, and he thought that 
would be unethical. 

As the search for an expert continued, though sporadically, it was decided that 
I ought to remove my forged typewriter to a safe place. On December 28, 1930, 
after strapping a .38-caliber revolver around my waist, I left my office with a 
friend in a new Cadillac sedan. I was not being theatrical. During the time I 
bad been working on the machine many strange things had been taking place. 

Once, in early June, a girl from Lane's office met me in the street in front of 
my shop. She was returning some samples of specimens I had taken off the 
forgery job. I put the samples in my outer coat pocket, went upstairs and, as 
was my custom, hung the coat in a small outer room at the head of the stairway 
leading to my shop. 'I be stairs go straight up two flights from the street. A few 
minutes after 1 sat down at my desk, I heard footsteps running up. This hap- 
pens all clay long, and I looked for a customer to walk in. But no one came in, 
and I heard footsteps running down very fast. I walked out to look around. I 
looked in the outer room. My coat was gone. 

A number of suspicious incidents around my home cropped up. A telephone 
repairman got by the maid to take care of some complaints — but I had never 
made any complaints. A mysterious inquisitor tried dating my neighbor's maid 
after asking her if she could tell him all she knew about the Tytells and their 
habits. 

I finally reported everything to the police. They suggested that these were 
the techniques of clever burglars. After that I hid the machine I was working 
on and scattered several other similar machines around the house in an effort to 
confuse any attempt at stealing my "third child." 

After I deposited the machine in a Marine Midland Bank vault, I went back 
to my office and Lane gave me a check for $0,000. I signed a note giving him 
complete title to the machine. I agreed, however, to continue any work found 
necessary by any document expert willing to check me on what I had done. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4147 

A New England colleague finally put Lane in touch with Elizabeth McCarthy, 
of Boston. A tall, dynamic woman in her forties, with the vigor and charm of an 
Ethel Barrymore, Miss McCarthy is probably the only woman questioned-docu- 
ment expert in this country. She is used regularly by the Massachusetts State 
Police and the Boston police. For sixteen years, despite her own standing as a 
lawyer, she has done little more than work on thousands of questioned docu- 
ments, and has been giving expert testimony in courts around the nation at least 
twice a week. She has been responsible for the discovery of direct clues in some 
of the nation's most spectacular document mysteries, and she has testified in 
many criminal cases. 

She agreed readily to taking an assignment on the case. But there were many 
long delays, one for a period of six months, before Miss McCarthy, a busy woman 
herself, and I settled down to a close examination of all the typewritten speci- 
mens in my home. When we had decided that there were still some minor flaws 
in my work, I decided to reengrave new type faces. This called for a new hunt 
for Woodstock type. It was late in 1951. After weeks of meticulous searching, 
I came across a small Woodstock branch store in a dingy section of Newark, 
New Jersey. 

I made arrangements for a special appointment with the store manager on a 
Saturday morning and drove out there with my wife early in January 1952. I 
explained to the manager what I was after, but told him nothing about its con- 
nection with the Hiss case. He led me to the basement through a trapdoor a 
little to the right of the store's center. From under an old wooden table in a 
neatly kept room, he hauled out a battered wooden crate used for packing type- 
writers for export. There were about 1,200 type bars in the box. They were 
kept in sets. I chose four sets and went over to a workbench light to examine 
them closely, though without benefit of a magnifying glass. He looked at me 
suspiciously. I also examined several old Woodstock machines. On several I 
found just what I was looking for. I arranged to rent the machines overnight. 

"I might remove some of the type bars," I said. "But I'll replace any I do 
take." 

"That's all right," he said. 

Then, just as I began gathering the machines upstairs to load in my Plymouth 
suburban, he leaned casually against one wall and said haltingly, "Say, Tytell, 
do you know who you remind me of?" 

My wife answered, "No, tell me." 

"You remind me of the FBI," he said. I ignored that, but he continued talking 
to my wife. He put his hand to his head. 

"Now, what was that case they were working on?" He paused, then blurted, 
"Oh, I remember. The Alger Hiss case. When we had our office down on Halsey 
Street a couple of FBI men came into the office and they went through every- 
thing. Right in that office they found what they were looking for." 

I pursued the subject no further. All I wanted was some type. And I had my 
type. 

On the afternoon of January 24, 1952, I dictated my affidavit to Lane's secre- 
tary, attesting to the fact that the machine in Lane's possession was fabricated 
by me. 

During my last weekend working with Miss McCarthy, however, we had a final 
set of specimens made. These were made under a variety of conditions on the 
forged typewriter and on the Hiss machine. In sum, it was a fornnda designed 
to put document experts to the supreme scientific test. This formula is now a 
sealed code in a bank vault. It reveals just which specimens were typed on the 
forged machine, how they were typed, and under what conditions. 

An example, perhaps, of how I think the experts will be stunned can be seen 
in a letter Mr. Lane received only a few days before I filed my affidavit. Dated 
January 14, 1952, it came from Donald Doud, a prominent Detroit questioned- 
document examiner. 

"To subscribe to the theory that typewriter 230,099 was a manufactured ma- 
chine," he wrote, "one would have to assume that some individual had specimens 
of letters written on the machine that Alger Hiss used, and possessed the ability, 
knowledge, and skill to discover all the type-face defects apparent in these docu- 
ments and then in some manner proceed to have these defects incorporated in 
typewriter 230,099. To me this is an almost impossible task. I don't think the 
expert in Boston (Miss McCarthy) could do it, nor could anyone else. * * *" 

Oddly enough, he had outlined generally just the way such a forgery would 
have to be done ; he doubted only that it could be done. Of course, I never saw 
Woodstock No. 230,099, but my Woodstock is No. 231,195. If any expert thinks 



4148 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

he can tell the difference between typing from my forgery and typing from 
230,099, his conclusions will be judged impartially — by the sealed code. 

One expert has already tried. She is Mrs. Evelyn S. Ehrlich, who for more 
than ten years was employed by Harvard University's Fogg Museum of Art 
to detect deceptive print and typography. She was asked to apply her unique 
skills in comparing the Hiss-Tytell specimens. But she was told delinitely that 
two machines were involved. Using a microscope with a magnification of 
thirty, more than six times the magnification I had used, she declared in a sworn 
statement that "an amazingly faithful reproduction of the so-called Hiss ma- 
chine had been fabricated in almost every respect." 

"Except for subtle details," she continued, "I found that microscopic varia- 
tions on one machine had been duplicated on the other so faithfully that I 
might not have believed it possible if I had not been informed that two 
machines were involved." 

So far as I know, this story reveals for the first time how forgery by type- 
writer can be committed. The experts may now come down on my neck, saying 
that I have disclosed secrets which might encourage others to commit typewriter 
forgery and get away with it. I have searched my conscience long and hard, 
but I cannot agree with them. It would be the same as if someone were to say 
that newspapers should not print the details of crimes because it only gives 
criminals and potential criminals encouragement. So long as there are good 
detectives, criminals can be outwitted. As far as I am concerned, I stand 
solidly with Miss McCarthy when, in her affidavit, she said that the "profession 
of document examiners, as well as the public at large, were entitled to learn 
whether any such experiment could be successfully conducted, since, if it could, 
general knowledge of the fact would be essential as a means of preventing 
numbers of forgeries which might otherwise be successfully carried out." 

After I had filed my affidavit, my telephone did not stop ringing for days. 
Practically every news agency, radio and television correspondent wanted a 
statement from me. Some made fancy offers to demonstrate my work on 
television. All had many, many questions. At the request of Chester T. Lane, 
however, lest I disclose the details of my work in such a way that might antag- 
onize the courts, I refused to answer any questions. 

Some of the typical questions appeared in a feature article by Bert Andrews, 
prize-winning veteran Washington correspondent for the New York Herald Trib- 
une. In a lengthy article on the typewriter last January 27, he asked : 

"How long has work on the typewriter gone on? Since the time of [Hiss's] 
sentencing? Or even before that? 

"How was the 'manufacturing' done? 

"How much did it cost? 

"And why — that is, from personal sympathy for Mr. Hiss, or from scien- 
tific interest to see whether it could be done?" 

The facts, he said, were important to any student of the Hiss case. The next 
week he followed up with another article, saying he had done some research, and 
attempted to describe how I might have done the job. 

I think this story gives all the answers. 

Martin K. Tytell. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 12 is a photostat of the death certificate of 
Col. Janis Dobrovolski, dated February 15, 1957, which I secured from 
the city hall in Wiesbaden, Germany. On this certificate is the name 
of the witness Alma Alia Hoppe. The document is in Genu an and 
should be translated by a translator from the Library of Congress. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4149 

(The photostat was marked "Exhibit No. 499" and is reproduced 
below, followed by an English translation. ) 

Exhibit No. 499 
St. ...... 43*... 

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[Translation] 

No. 430. 

Wiesbaden, February 15, lD'/7. 

Retired Colonel Janis Dobrowolskis (this may be Latvian or Lithuanian 
spelling of the name). 

Residing at Hindenburgallee .34, Wiesbaden, died in his apartment at Wies- 
baden on February 14, 1947, 6 : 15 p. m. 

The deceased was born on January 5, 18S2, at Kemmern, Russia. 

Father : Wasili Dobrowolskis. 

Mother : Soja Dobrowolskis ; maiden name not known, both lately in 
Kharkov. 

The deceased was widower of Tatjana Dobrowolskis, maiden name, Karakweli. 

Recorded on the basis of an oral report of the dentist (Miss) Alma-Alla 
Hoppe, Hindenburgallee 34, Wiesbaden. 

The reporting person was identified by her personal identification card and 
declared that she was present at the time of the death. 

Read, approved, and signed. 

Alma-Alla Hoppe. 

Official of the Bureau of Vital Statistics. 

(Signature illegible.) 

(Translated by George Starosolsky, translator, Library of Congress, Septem- 
ber 27, 1957.) 

(On the back of the photostat is the certification, in German, that 
the statements on the face are a true copy of the death record appear- 
ing in the master file of the register of the bureau of vital statistics 
at Wiesbaden. It is dated January 24, 1957, and bears a notation: 
Fee 1 ; Serial No. 12995. The signature of the person acting for the 
registrar is illegible.) 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 13 is a photostat of a letter in Russian signed 
by Archpriest P. Adamantov, dated July 17, 1950, with the English 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4151 

translation. The original was loaned to me by Archpriest Adamantov. 
In the original Russian, one paragraph was excised by a diagonal line 
drawn through it. 

The excised paragraph reads : 

But there is one grave, in which there is buried the Colonel of the Russian 
service in reserve, Ivan Vasilievieh Dobrovolsky, 65 years old. (1/14. February 
1047) Dobrovolsky took up residence in "Wiesbaden where after the 2nd War he 
temporarily carried out the duties of a church sexton in our church. 

Otherwise the letter corresponds with the letter of the same date 
produced by Mr. Tytell. 

(The letter above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 500" and is 
reproduced below, followed by an English translation :) 

Exhibit No. 500 



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4152 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

[Translation] 
Original Uncut Draft of Affidavit Signed by Archpriest P. Adamantov 

Wiesbaden, 17-VII-1956. I, the signer of this, am on duty at the Russian 
Orthodox Church in Wiesbaden since September 1906, till today, except the time 
of the First World War (1914-1919). With me there was not at our church on 
any kind of a job any person with the name Dobrolinubov. Similarly on our 
Russian cemetery there is no grave with the same name. 

(Rut there is one grave, in which there is buried the Colonel of the Russian 
service in reserve, Ivan Vasilievich Dobrovolsky, 65 years old. (1/14. Febru- 
ary, 1947). Dobrovolsky took up residence in Wiesbaden where after the 2nd 
War he temporarily carried out the duties of a church sexton in our church.) 

I do not remember anything about my encounter with Mr. Levine. 

Archpriest P. Adamantov. 

The middle paragraph is in parentheses in the Russian original, and is 
crossed out with a diagonal line through 7 lines in Russian. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 14 is a letter in English signed by Anastasia 
Adamantov dated February 19, 1957, from Wiesbaden addressed to 
me, explaining the circumstances surrounding the excision of the 
aforementioned paragraph. 

(The letter was marked "Exhibit No. 501" and is reproduced 
below:) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4153 

Exhibit No. 501 



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4154 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4155 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 15 is a quotation from the book, Three Who 
Made a Revolution, by Bertram D. Wolfe, appearing on pages 301 
and 302, as follows : "There was the inevitable police agent among 
them, one Dobroskok, nicknamed 'Gold-spectacled Nikolai.' : 

Exhibit 16 is a letter addressed to Benjamin Mandel from Dr. Alia 
Alma Hoppe, of 115 West End Drive, Syracuse, N. Y., dated April 9, 
1957, giving certain biographical information regarding Ivan Wasil- 
jewitsch Dobrowolski. 

(The letter referred to above was marked "Exhibit No. 502" and is 
reproduced below : ) 

Exhibit No. 502 

April 9, 1957. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandell, 
Research Director, 

Internal Security Subcommittee, 

United States Senate. 

Dear Sir : I first knew Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski as a florist in Riga, 
Latvia, in 1930. I heard from various sources that he had been a gendarme in 
Russia before World War I. This information came to my attention through 
newspapers and other persons in Riga. 

I knew Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski until 194G in Berlin and Wiesbaden, 
Germany, as a florist. He died in Wiesbaden in 1947. 

I never knew Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski by any other name. However, 
in the early 30's in Riga, I do remember a newspaper article that referred to 
him as "Dobriskok of the Golden Glasses/' 

At no other time did I ever know him by any other name or hear him referred 
to by any other name. 

Alla Alma Hoppe 
(Dr. Alia Alma Hoppe), 
115 West End Drive, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 17 is a reference from the book by Leon Trot- 
sky entitled "My Life," which on page 171 refers to Dobroskok as 
follows : 

It [the Menshevik group] was betrayed by one of its active members, Dobros- 
kok, known as "Nikolay of the gold spectacles," who turned out to be a profes- 
sional agent-provocateur. 

Mr. Mandel, Exhibit 18 is a letter dated. January 16, 1957, ad- 
dressed to Benjamin Mandel and delivered to me personally in the 
office of Adlerwerke in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, signed by Hans 
Abend, manager of the export division, Adlerwerke, 17 Kleyer Strasse, 
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and notarized by Thomas A. Kelly 
and witnessed by John K. Munson, relative to the manufacture of 
Adler typewriters. 



4156 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(The above letter was marked "Exhibit No. 503" and is reproduced 
below:) 

Exhibit No. 503 



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Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 19 is a letter dated February 7, 1957, from 
Harold A. Voorhis, vice president and secretary of New York Uni- 
versity, relative to the service of Martin K. and Pearl Tytell with the 
university. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4157 

(The letter referred to above was marked "Exhibit No. 504" and 
appears below:) 

Exhibit No. 504 

New York University, 
New York, N. Y., February 7, 1957. 
Mr. Ben Mandel, 

iSenate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Mandel : My associate, Vice President Howley, has relayed to me 
your inquiry concerning Mr. Martin K. Tytell. His name does not appear in any 
of our records covering the whole range of regularly appointed officers of instruc- 
tion. Such records, however, do not cover the names of occasional guest speakers. 
We do find from our payroll accounts that such a guest speaker, in the person of 
one Pearl Tytell, made a few appearances last year before groups in our graduate 
school of public administration and social service. Moreover, I learn from the 
latter source that tentative arrangements have been made for Martin K. Tytell 
and Pearl Tytell to render similar services in the same school at New York 
University in the term beginning next September. I understand that Pearl 
Tytell's specialty is graphology and that of her husband (if this the relation- 
ship) is documentation, and that their projected lectures will have to do with 
the general subject of problems and techniques in documents examination. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) Harold O. Voorhis, 

Vice President and Secretary. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 20 is a letter dated February 6, 1957, to Ben- 
jamin Mandel from Harry D. Gideonse, president of Brooklyn Col- 
lege, relative to the service of Martin K. Tytell with the college. At- 
tached to this letter is a photostat of Mr. Tytell's application for em- 
ployment, dated May 8, 1956, and a photostat of Mr. Tytell's signed 
statement that — 

I am not now a member of the Communist Party and that if I have ever been a 
member of the Communist Party I have communicated that fact to the president 
of the college. 

This statement is dated May 8, 1956. 

(The above letter and statement were marked '"Exhibit No. 505" and 
read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 505 

Brooklyn College, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., February 6, 19-57. 
Mr. Ben Mandel, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Mandel : In accordance with our telephone conversation on Wednes- 
day, February 6, I am sending you the following summary of our conversation. 

Mr. Martin K. Tytell is not a member of our staff now, and he was never a 
member of our regular faculty. He was a part-time teacher in our division of 
vocational studies during the spring of 1956. He took the place temporarily of 
a regular teacher who had died, and he served for 28 teaching hours in May and 
June of 1956. He also served for 4 hour-s as a substitute teacher during the 
preceding term. He taught a course called police laboratory, which is concerned 
with the techniques of document identification, fingerprinting, etc. His name 
was suggested to us by Dean MacNamara of the New York Institute of Crimi- 
uoiogy, and the checked references also include the name of Mr. James W. 
Osterberg of the New York City Police Department. Mr. Tytell signed the re- 
quired statement with regard to the application of the regents rules under the 
Feinberg law. I enclose a photostatic copy of the latter, as well as of the 
revelant pages of Mr. Tytell's application blank at the time of his appointment. 
Sincerely yours, 

Harry D. Gideonse, President. 



4158 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



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4162 SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 21 consists of photostats of the following: 
Page 162 of the 1943 book of enrolled voters, folio 155/2, showing 
Martin K. Tytell residing at 455 Sheffield Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
registration No. 74, date of registration, October 2, 1943, number of 
enrollment blank 196, party of enrolled voter : American Labor Party, 
also photostat of the 1941 enrolled voters, folio 161/2 showing on page 
164: Martin Tytell, 455 Sheffield Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., registra- 
tion No. 723, date October 2, 1941, number of enrollment blank 609, 
party of enrolled voter, American Labor Party. 

(The photostats were marked "Exhibit No. 506" and placed in the 
subcommittee files. ) 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 22 is a photostatic copy of a letter from 
Edward Mulliken of the central European bureau of Time-Life, 
dated February 18, 1957, relative to his visit to Archpriest Adaman- 
tov of the Russian Orthodox Church in Wiesbaden. 

(The letter was marked "Exhibit No. 507" and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 507 

Time-Life Overseas Bureaus, 

Central European Bureau, 

February 18, 1951. 
(Personal and confidential.) 

Mr. Robert Elson, 

Time Inc., New York. 

Dear Bob : I finally had a chance to get down to Wiesbaden and see Archpriest 
Adamantov and was able to bring along an interpreter who speaks Russian as 
well as English and German. The Archpriest, and his English speaking 
daughter, do live, indeed, in the little cottage adjoining^ the Greek Orthodox 
Church overlooking the city of Wiesbaden, and the old man has been there since 
1908. They received us cordially. By now they are used to people inquiring 
after a Dobroliubov. 

To cut through all of the windings and backtrackings of who-was-where-when 
and get to the point of the confusion, I think it is best to begin here. From 
what I was told by the Archpriest and his daughter, it would seem that Mr. 
Isaac Don Levine made two mistakes in Wiesbaden which allowed Mr. Martin 
K. Tytell to attack that section of his story: (1) He got his man's name wrong. 
It is not Dobroliubov but Dobrovolsky (as your letter of January 18 indicates you 
already know and the Daily Worker article of January 6 mentions Levine now 
remembers). (2) He did not make certain that the Archpriest, or his daughter 
would remember his visit to Wiesbaden, which, after all, was 7 years ago. I 
realize at the time Levine had no reason to get written proof that he had talked 
to Adamantov, but today it certainly would help as neither the Archpriest nor 
his daughter can remember Levine's visit, and, in fact, go as far as to say that 
as far as they are concerned neither of them has ever seen Levine. I even showed 
them the picture of Levine which we ran with his April article. 

Now to Mr. Tytell's visit to Wiesbaden, and you will see how he twisted Levine 
mistakes, or omissions, to form the Wiesbaden section of his lecture of December 
29, 1956. Tytell came to Wiesbaden, as he said he did, in July 1956. He arrived 
at about 1 : 30 in the afternoon with his interpreter, Igor Fromke. It was a 
busy day at the church, and the Archpriest was engaged, but he managed to give 
Tytell some time. It was time enough for Tytell and Fromke to learn that there 
had been no Dobroliubov but also time enough for them to learn that there had 
been a Dobrovolsky who perfectly fitted the description given for Dobroliubov 
and who in fact was buried in the nearby cemetery. But Tytell and Fromke 
were aggressively uninterested in the Dobrovolsky. Fromke said, "No, no the 
names are completely different." They also had no interest in going to look at 
the grave. 

Fromke and Tytell also learned that the Archpriest could not remember having 
met Levine. They were onto a good thing and they knew it, but they had to get 
it in writing from the Archpriest. He, however, was too busy. Fromke and 
Tytell had to leave the cottage, but they did not leave the church grounds. They 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4163 

stayed in their car outside from 2 until 6 p. in. At 6 the daughter came 
down, and Tytell offered to drive her to the station to pick up some people she 
was meeting. While they were away Fromke got the old man to write out the 
statement Tytell incorporated in his paper. 

The statement is correct (except that the date 1906 should be 1908) but not 
complete. On the first statement the Archpriest wrote he added an explanatory 
paragraph in which he brought out the theory that although he knew no 
Dobroliubov was it not possible that the man everyone wanted was Dobrovolsky. 
Fromke immediately dismissed this paragraph with a "no, no it can't be," and 
made the old man write another draft of his statement. Then Fromke and 
Tytell, who by then had returned from the station, left. 

If Tytell had probed the old Archpriest a little further, he probably would 
have discovered that Dobrovolsky, indeed, had been in Berlin until 1945. Then 
he had come to Wiesbaden where he served as church warden until 1947 when 
he died. And possibly Tytell also would have found out that the Archpriest 
knew that Dobrovolsky had been in the Okhrana and had been called "Golden 
Glasses." (He still wore gold rimmed glasses when he got to Wiesbaden.) 
The Archpriest said he had got this information from a pamphlet he had read 
long ago. I believe that he got it straight from Dobrovolsky, but the source 
matters little, as the information proves Dobrovolsky was definitely the man 
for whom Levine was searching and was, indeed, in the cemetery in Wiesbaden. 
If he had kept on probing Tytell might even have got the photograph I have. 
It was taken in 1946 and shows the Archpriest holding service in the Wiesbaden 
church. Beside him is Dobrovolsky, still wearing his "golden glasses." But 
Tytell and Fromke had every intention of not admitting "wrong name but right 
man." They had to hang on to their precious six different last letters and 
got no further. I imagine they had this tactic already in mind before they left 
Berlin where they must have discovered that there had been no Dobroliubov but 
there had been a Dobrovolsky. 

The Archpriest and his daughter had another caller about a month ago who 
also was interested in the matter of Dobroliubov and Dobrovolsky. He was 
Benjamin Manclel, an investigator for the Senate Internal Security Committee. 
Mandel got the same story I did and took away with him the first draft of the 
Archpriest's statement which contains the additional paragraph about Dobrovol- 
sky which Fromke had the old man omit from his second draft. Mandel also 
photographed the name plate on the cross at Dobrovolsky's grave which reads 
"Colonel Ivan Vasilezich Dobrovolsky, 5/1/1882-14/2/1947." (My interpreter 
was able to read the Cyrillic lettering.) I also photographed this plate. 

If you are interested in discovering more about Dobrovolsky, the Arch- 
priest told us he had lived with a Mrs. Hoppe, who knew all about him but 
who has gone to the United States. The Archpriest does not know where Mrs 
Hoppe is now but she is a very good friend of Michail Korchak-Sivitsky (also 
is in the photograph of the Archpriest and Dobrovolsky) who now lives in 
apartment 63 at 606 West 132d Street, New York 31, N. Y. Telephone WA 
6-4647 and who might know Mrs. Hoppe's address. 

Thus, aside from this letter, I am packeting to you the photograph of Dobrovol- 
sky, which could you please have copied and returned soonest, and photographs 
of the name plate over his grave. If you need it, I am certain I can get the 
Archpriest to give us a signed statement as to what passed between him, Tytell, 
and Fromke. We did not request it this time as he was getting tired and we were 
not certain you wanted it. 

Edward John Mullikin. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 23 consists of translations with accompany- 
ing photostats of Russian publications giving information about the 
Russian Church at jSTachodstrasse in Berlin. 

The material and translations come from the Library of Con- 
gress. 



4164 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(The translations, with an accompanying letter were marked "Ex- 
hibit No. 508" and read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 508 

The Library of Congress, 
Legislative Reference Service, 

Washington, D. C, June 3, 1957. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandel, 

Research Director, Internal Security Subcommittee, 
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Mandel: In accordance with our recent telephone conversations, 
we have examined the files of the Russian Journal Golos pravoslaviia (The 
Voice of Orthodoxy), published in Berlin by the German Orthodox Diocese of the 
Patriarchate of Moscow. 

From the journal, it appears that there are three churches in Berlin under the 
jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate: (1) The Resurrection Cathedral 
(British Sector) ; (2) the St.. Vladimir Church at Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Nach- 
odstrasse 10 (British Sector) ; and (3) the Sts. Constantine and Helen Church 
(Tegel, French Sector) as well as what appears to be a chapel at the Bishop's 
residence. 

We attach three photostats from the journal in regard to St. Vladimir's 
Church. They are as follows : 

(1) A general description of the church, from issue No. 1 for 1952. This states 
that the church was under the jurisdiction of Archbishop Boris and gives the 
priest's name as Sergei Polozhenskii ; 

(2) A statement, taken from the same issue, showing that Archbishop Boris 
was under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate ; and 

(3) A statement (from issue No. 4/5 for 1953) that Father Polozhenskii re- 
ceived an award directly from the Patriarchate of Moscow. 

We trust that this information will be of interest to you. 
Sincerely yours, 

Sergius Yakobson, 
Senior Specialist in Russian Affairs. 
Enclosures. 
(Translations of the three documents referred to read as follows:) 

Document No. 1 

The Church of St. Vladimir, Prince and Equal of the Apostles (Berlin, 

Nachodstrasse 10) 

In the Church of St. Vladimir, Prince and Equal of the Apostles, church serv- 
ices are performed without interruption, as in the Cathedral. Every day the 
Divine Liturgy is performed. On Wednesdays every week Acathists are sung, 
followed by talks by the Pastor to the laity on topics of Orthodox dogma and 
ritual ; and readings are made from the literature of the Church Fathers, the 
works of Russian saints and teachers of the Church. 

The Rector of the Church, Archpriest Sergei Polozhenskii. who has carried on 
his pastoral work in the St. Vladimir Parish since 1935, carries on his work 
with the assistance of Archpriest Mikhail Radziuk and Priest Ioann Razumov. 

From Golos pravoslaviia, 1952, No. 1. 

Document No. 2 

On the Appointment of the Very Reverend Boris, Archbishop of Berlin and 
Germany, as the Acting Exarch of the Moscow Patriarchate in Western 
Europe 

By a Ukase of the Most Holy Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia and the 
Sacred Synod, dated October 26, 1951, No. 1329, the Very Reverend Boris, Arch- 
bishop of Berlin and Germany, is designated the Acting Exarch of the Moscow 
Patriarchate in Western Europe. 

By the same Ukase, Fotii (Topiro), Archbishop of Vilno and Lithuania, is 
relieved of the responsibilities of Exarch of the Moscow Patriarchate in Western 
Europe. 

From Golos pravoslaviia; 1952, No. 1. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4165 

Document No. 3 

Awards to Clergy and Laity of the German Diocese of the Moscow Patriarchate 

on the Occasion of Holy Easter, 1953 

On the occasion of Holy Easter, 1953, for zealous and beneficial service to the 
Divine Church, His Holiness, Aleksii, the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, 
upon the recommendation of the Most Reverend Boris, Archbishop of Berlin 
and Germany, Acting Exarch of the Moscow Patriarchate in Western Europe, 
favored with awards the following clergy and laity of the German Diocese of 
the Moscow Patriarchate : Archpriest Sergei Polozhenskii, Ecclesiastical Su- 
perintendent of the Orthodox Parishes of the German Diocese, the blessing of 
His Holiness Aleksii, the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, with the pres- 
entation of a testimonial letter signed by the Patriarch. * * * 

From Golos pravoslaviia, 1953, No. 4/5. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 24 consists of translations and photostats 
from the German publication Tagesspiegel relative to the Nachod- 
strasse church. Translations were made by the Library of Congress. 

(Translations of the articles referred to above were marked "Ex- 
hibit No. 509" and read as follows :) 

Exhibit No 509 

The Librae y of Congress, 
Legislative Reference Service, 

Washington, D. C. 

[Translation (German)] 

[Der Tagesspiegel, February 21, 1951] 

NKVD Spy as a Minister 

A BISHOP FROM MOSCOW PREACHES IN THE FRENCH SECTOR (OF BERLIN) 

At the "Saint Vladimir" Church at Tegel-Borsigwalde, a church which was 
built by the Tsarist Government for the Russian community at Berlin, a "Father 
Boris" has been preaching for some time * * * "Father Boris" is not an in- 
nocent minister, but a Red Bishop who was brought to Berlin by the Communist 
rulers of the Kremlin, 10 weeks ago. He is subject to the Soviet Metropolitan 
at Moscow, while the Russian-Orthodox ministers in the Federal Republic recog- 
nize as their head the Metropolitan Anastasiev at Munich, an old immigrant who 
is a bitter foe of the Soviets. "Father Boris" and his two assistants are, in 
their exposed positions, under Moscow's control. To the few Russian emigrees 
who have survived the occupation of Berlin by the Red Army, it is no secret 
that this Bishop and his assistants are men who are spying among the Russian 
emigrees at West Berlin on orders of the NKVD. So far nobody has been ar- 
rested in the church, but several Russian emigrees who were lured to Soviet 
Offices under some false pretense did not return to their West Berlin homes. 
Among them were a remarkable number of Russian men and women whom 
"Father Boris" and his associates had met. This is the reason why the Russian 
emigrees at Berlin do not attend the "Saint Vladimir" Church any more. The 
time has arrived for the responsible authorities to deal with this camouflaged 
Soviet spy net in the French Sector. * * * Some 900 of the about 50,000 former 
Russian emigrees, who managed to live through to our times, live secluded. No 
one trusts the other ; the Soviet arm which could grasp them is too close. The 
only link which has been holding the emigrees together for years, the church, 
is likely to fall down since "Father Boris" started preaching there for Stalin. 



[Der Tagesspiegel, March 11, 1951] 

When Will the Red Bishop Disappear? 

Berliners should be interested in the article by Georges Blun in the Journal de 
Geneve which presents some characteristic peculiarities of the French Sector of 
Berlin. The article quotes our report on the Red Bishop of Tegel-Borsigwalde 
(No. 1657) and subsequently makes the following general remarks ; 



4166 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

* * * As far as Father Boris, the Red Bishop, is concerned, one should know 
that he is not an ordinary innocent minister, but an untrustworthy person whom 
the Russians launched at Berlin some 10 weeks ago. Father Boris is subject to 
the Soviet Metropolitan at Moscow, while the orthodox priests in the Federal 
Republic acknowledge as their head the Metropolitan Anastasiev of Munich, a 
Russian emigre and a bitter foe of the Soviet. To the few Russian emigrees 
who survived the occupation of Berlin by the Red Army, it is no secret that this 
Bishop and his assistants are under the NKVD's orders to spy among the 
emigrees who reside in the Western Sectors (of Berlin). * * * 



[Security Report, April 6, 1951] 

The following information was received from a member of the NTS (Rus- 
sian Emigre Organization) : * * * 

In view of the above described situation among the Russian emigrees in West- 
ern Berlin after 1945 it is understandable that the priests and other members 
of the Community have behaved very cautiously and repeatedly showed their 
loyalty to the Soviet regime. * * * The pastor of the Church at Hohensol- 
lerndamm and two ministers from the Nachodstrasse church were taken several 
times to the NKVD under the pretense of being called to a dying person, where 
they were apparently reminded again and again that they were dependent on 
Moscow. 

* * * At the end of 1950 Archbishop Sergius, who accepted Russian citizen- 
ship, [but who was] probably not "political" enough, was called back to Soviet 
Russia and supposedly made Archbishop of Kazan. In his place the former 
Bishop of Chkalov Boris (Family Name probably Wik) was installed. (Per- 
sonal description of Boris : Between 50 and 55 years old.) Since the prosecution 
of the Church in the middle of the twenties he has been a monk. In 1944 appointed 
Bishop. They think that in the many of the places he was active he got into 
conflict with the Soviet Government, therefore he was transferred so many times. 
Boris is the same Bishop who was appointed Bishop of Tokyo some 2 years ago 
but was not given an entry visa by MacArthur. At Potsdam Boris moved into 
the same villa which was occupied by Sergius before. 

Along with Boris the Priest Michael Sernov came from Moscow, who as early 
as 1945-46 published Soviet-patriotic articles in the paper of the Moscow 
patriarch and who was known for his flexibility at the Moscow Cathedral. 

The priests cannot be suspected of being direct accessories in any kidnaping. 
But it should be assumed that an organization for drafting Russian emigrees for 
spying services has been built around them. There is no reason to believe that 
Bishop Boris is a faithful servant of the Soviet Government, but naturally he 
obeys the state authorities which he cannot avoid doing, and he supports the 
policy of the Moscow Patriarch, who intends to secure a minimum possibility 
for development of the church by making concessions to the state. 

The reputation of the priest Sernov is less favorable, and it is possible that 
he receives political orders from the NKVD. 

It could be said about the other priests that they seem to have too little 
political experience and therefore could be easily abused by the Soviets by 
skillful tricks. Their addresses, as far as is known, are : 

Priests Sergius Polosnenski, Trautenau Str. 9 or 10, Berlin-Wilmersdorf. 

Priest Michael Radsiuk, and Priest Iwan Rasumow, Helmstetter Str. 16 or 
26, Berlin. 

The Pastors of the Churches at Hohenzollerndamm and Tegel reside in the 
premises of the church or at the Alexanderstift. * * * 



[Illustrierte Berliner Zeitsehrift, No. 17, Auril 20, 1951] 
The Red Bishop 

The Russian Orthodox Diocese in Berlin consists of the community Tegel- 
Borsidwalde and the two Wilmersdorf communities of Hohenzollerndamm and 
Nachod Street. In 1894-95 the real property was purchased from the dean of 
the former Botschaftskirche (Church of the Annunciation) and the buildings 
were erected ; in 1929 the title of the property was registered in the name of the 
"Association for the Preservation of the Greek-Orthodox Churches and for 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4167 

Relief of Needy Russians." In 1946 the title was changed again in the name of 
the "Russian-Orthodox Church in Germany and Belgium." This territory of the 
Diocese is extraterritorial and its ruler is "Father Boris." 

"Father Boris," Bishop of the Russian-Orthodox Church in Berlin, is subject 
to the Metropolitan in Moscow, while the believers of his denomination in the 
Federal Republic recognize as their Head the Metropolitan of Munich, Anasta- 
siev, a foe of Stalinism. Boris, they say, used to oppose Communism in former 
days and was arrested for this reason. But he must have proved that he changed 
his mind, because he was made Bishop of Chakalov, and finally took over the 
post in Berlin which clearly established that he enjoys confidence in the 
Kremlin. Sergius, his predecessor, was ordered home because of his political 
passiveness. As a special token of favor Boris received a brand new BMV car 
and a 12-room apartment at Potsdam. 

"Nix verstahn" (incorrect German for "I don't understand") was the answer 
of the sexton at the Tegel-Borsigwalde Church, given to our reporters who asked 
about Father Boris. He pretended not to know his pastor at all. But he must 
be very well aware of the state of fear which rules in the community since 
Boris took over at the end of 1950. 

With sacrificial candles in his hands, "Father Boris" conducts his Mass. The 
robes confirm the impression that he is a patriarchal, good minister. But Boris 
has not been installed in this foreign position outside of the "Iron Curtain" for 
nothing. He is required to prove his abilities by performing spy services for the 
NKVD. A cemetery and a church are under the Red Bishop's jurisdiction. 
Many prominent personalities of Tsarist Russia are buried at Tegel, among 
others, the former Minister of War Sukhomlinov, and the composer Glinka, who 
died in Berlin in 1857. The community, which has 300 registered members, also 
owns the neighboring "Emperor- Alexander-Home" (right picture). Formerly it 
served as a transient asylum for poor Russians, mainly emigrants to America. 
Today 44 old people live there, among them two aged Tsarist Colonels. Of them, 
90 percent are German citizens ; nearly all of them receive social benefits out of 
West Berlin taxpayers' money ; they pay their rent in good Westmarks — to Boris. 



[ Tagesspiegel (Dally Mirror), November 4, 1953] 

An Exile Minister Escapes to Karlhorst — He Took With Him Cash and 
Files — Are There Agents in the Russian Orthodox Church ? 

The endeavours of the Russian Emigrants in West Berlin to establish their own 
Greek Orthodox Church have failed, the Organization of Russians in Exile (NTS) 
reports. According to NTS' information, Father Volontsevich, the Minister of 
this Church Community, fled to Karlshorst (in the Russian Sector) on October 
1, 1953, taking with him the Community treasury — 500 to 600 DM — and the list 
of the 60 Community members. He surrendered to the Soviet Authorities. 
Volontsevich was installed 2 years ago by the Synod of the Russian Orthodox 
Church in Exile. Before that time he was in Holland, at Liibeck and Hamburg. 

* * * When Volontsevich was installed as pastor of the West Berlin Emigree 
Community, the Exile Russians accepted the fact with reservations, because it 
was said that he caused scandals when at Liibeck, Hamburg, and in Holland. 
On September 10th Volontsevich was arrested on orders of the West Berlin Dis- 
trict Attorney on charges of an offense under section 175 (Homosexuality), but 
was set free the next day. Although he was ordered by the District Attorney 
to leave Berlin at once, he remained here. Twice he received visits of Soviet 
Russians and kept on his friendly relations with the leader of the Nashod Street 
Community, Father Poloskenski, as before his arrest. When they searched for 
him in the seat of the Exile Community at Kulmbacher Street 6, Wilmersdorf, 
he hid for some time with the widow and the late pastor of the Tegel Community, 
Sakidalsky. * * * 

[Berliner Zeitung, November 5, 1953] 

Head of Church Breaks With U. S. A. — Politics — Aechimandrit Mstislav 
Turned to the Government of the DDR, a Blow to the Church Dividers 
Especially in West Berlin 

Berlin (own report). — We received a letter from the Archimandrit Mstislav, 
the former Head of the Orthodox Emigree Church in Germany. Mstislav has 
turned to the Government of the DDR (German Democratic Republic) with the 
request for permission to perform his church activities in the DDR. 

93215— 57— pt. 66 6 



4168 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Following we reproduce his letter with nonessential abbreviations : 

"I would like, in the Berliner Zeitung, to publicly express my motives which 
caused me to break with the New York anti-Church group of immigrants from 
Russia, the so-called Karlovchan group of the Metropolitan Anastasi and his 
Foreign Synod. 

What is this anti-Church group which calls itself "Russian Orthodox Church 
Abroad"? 

After the defeat of the White Guardists and the foreign interventionists in 
1920 some bishops, fanatical partisans of the Tsarism, who did not want to 
stay with their people, fled to Sremski Karlovici in Serbia. There, acting 
wilfully, they formed the so-called Highest Church Administration — the Foreign 
Synod, which received the name Karlovatski, and which started opposing the 
highest Church Administration in Soviet Russia. In 1921 this Synod turned 
to the Geneva Conference requesting it not to enter diplomatic relations with 
the Soviet Union. It sent a congratulatory message to Hitler upon his taking 
power, and it blessed the Fascist arms for the fight against the peoples of the 
Soviet Union. Shortly after the war it suggested in an Easter Message of the 
Metropolitan Anastasi, the dropping of atom bombs on the Soviet Union. At 
present, this Synod, which exists on foreign money, keeps slandering the Russian 
Orthodox Church, his holiness, the Patriarch Alexei, and the Soviet Union. 

In 1944, separated from my home country by the events of war, I was sent 
to Western Germany by the Fascists and thus, against my will, I found myself 
among the "Karlovatski" group. After the arrival of the Soviet Liberation 
Army in Germany, Orthodox Bishops from the Soviet Union started traveling 
abroad and telling the truth about church life in the Soviet Union. By and by 
all the falsehoods of the "Karlovatski" group became clear to me. The Soviet 
Constitution strictly protects freedom of conscience of its citizens. The church 
is not limited in its church activities. There is freedom of Divine Services, 
of sermons, of priest seminaries and academies, church congresses to which 
representatives of other orthodox churches are invited. * * * All this proves 
that there is a normal church life in the Soviet Union. I learned that the 
famous "Karlovatski" movement was lacking any religious contents and meaning 
and was nothing else than a group of ill-minded church schismatics with a clear 
political object. I felt it especially strongly after I was sent to Berlin by the 
Munich administration of the "Karlovatski" Synod. I received an order to wage 
a fight against the Moscow Patriarch. I arrived at the conclusion that my sub- 
ordination to the "Karlovatski Synod" was contrary to my being an Orthodox 
priest. 

I do not wish to be a slave of [the] American policy, which is directed against 
my own people. It is contrary to my national and religious conscience. From 
now on I wish to serve my Church and my native country faithfully. 

Arkhimandrit Mstislav. 



[Der Tagesspiegel (Daily Mirror), October 31, 1954] 
Today — Yesterday — Tomorrow 

Berlin. — Archbishop Boris, the Exarch of the Russian Orthodox Church in 
Western Europe, with his residence at Karlshorst, has been nominated Exarch 
for the United States. He will be replaced by Superintendent General Paul 
Statov who will take over the care of the Russian-Orthodox Communities in 
Germany. (UP) 

4 

[Die Neue Zeitung, December 31, 1952] 
Archbishop Servius Dead 

Berlin (DPA). — On December 18th, the former Russian-Orthodox Archbishop 
of Berlin, Sergius, died at Kanzan/Soviet Union. In September 1950 he was 
forced, through intervention of the Soviet Police, to leave his post in Berlin 
which he entered after the war. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EM THE UNITED STATES 4169 

[Die Neue Zeitung, January 7, 1953] 
Russian Christmas 

A few thousand members of the Russian-Orthodox Church in Berlin cele- 
brated Christmas Eve according to the Russian Church Calendar yesterday. 
It was for the first time that the division of the church into an independent 
church and one subordinated to the Patriarch of Moscow (which took place last 
December in Berlin) was apparent at the services. The adherents of the Inde- 
pendent Russian Church celebrated their Christmas Eve in a provisionally 
arranged room, and the adherents of the Moscow line — in their Cathedral at 
Hohenzollerndamm at Wilmersdorf. Along with the believers of Berlin civilian 
members of the Soviet and the Western Occupation Powers took part at the 
Masses. The Service was celebrated by Archbishop Boris, the Exarch for the 
Russian-Orthodox Church in Germany, who resides in East Berlin. 

[Berliner Woche (Berlin Week), December 13, 1952, p. 31 

Exile Church in an Apartment House 

from the onion-shaped cupolas at the fehrbelliner platz to a house altar 

The German Bishop of the Russian-Orthodox Emigrants at Munich had prom- 
ised, several times, that he would send a priest to West Berlin who would as- 
semble in one community, independent from Moscow, all those church members 
who refuse to acknowledge the Patriarch of Moscow as the Head of their Church. 
The man who took over this delicate job in Berlin's heated streets is Father Vol- 
onsevich. He has rented an apartment at the Kulmbacher Street and there he 
has set up a chapel. * * * 

But at the Church located at the Fehrbelliner Platz, Archbishop Boris, whose 
residence is in Karlshorst, has been preaching for a few years. His superior 
is the Metropolitan of Moscow ; his Community in Berlin amounts to some 400 
members. In his opinion, as well as in the opinion of the Soviets, the new pastor 
and his independent Community are schismatics and heretics. But it was the 
Bishop of Karlshorst, whom many exiles call "the Red Bishop with Rasputin's 
Eyes" who involuntarily contributed to the fact that the new parish, in spite of 
its short existence, found a relatively great appeal among the Exiles. 

"We are afraid of Boris" the members of the independent church say. "Since 
his arrival things happen in our church which would never have taken place 
before." For example, the Archbishop's constant companion, deacon Alexander 
Lechno, often takes pictures of the priest and the churchgoers during services. 
Naturally, the greatest part of the emigrants do not care that such pictures go 
to Moscow. "During the revolution we lost many of our relatives and we do not 
want that these photos are used for possible persecution of those still living. 
Stalin is anti-Christ. We cannot trust the church which must exist under his 
regime." These are not the only things which embitter the emigrees. The 
Orthodox Church Calendar for 1952 published by the Patriarchat of Moscow 
contains religious holidays, however small and black is their print. But along 
with them there are, printed in bold red type, all the days which are a sad mem- 
ory to the emigrees : Lenin's memorial day, Day of the October Revolution, the 
day of the Soviet Army, Navy, etc. "In addition," the schismatics say, "Boris 
used to distribute Moscow leaflets in the Cathedral in which, among other things, 
you could read about 'Facts on the American Germ Warfare in Korea,' a report 
of the Russian priests on 'the lies of the Katyn Committee.' These leaflets 
were handed over to the Allied Offices in Berlin. 'We do not want to get infil- 
trated by Communism ; it was for the same reason that we fled Russia.' " 

(Translated by George Starosolsky June 24, 1957.) 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 25 is a photograph taken at Wiesbaden, origi- 
nal in possession of Eeverend Korchak, showing him, Archpriest 
Adamantov, Colonel Dobrovolsky, and others. 

(The photograph referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 510," and is 
reproduced below :) 



4170 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Exhibit No. 510 




Photograph of Dobrovolsky (extreme right), Archpriest Adamantov (second 
from right) , and others including Mr. Korchak-Sivitsky (at extreme left) . 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 26 is an abstract from letter received by well- 
known anti-Communist author, Mikhail Soloviev, now of Washington, 
from Dr. Grigory Saharuni, from Berlin, about Nachodstrasse church. 

(The letter above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 511," and 
reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 511 

Berlin, February 19, 1957. 

Deab Mikhail Stepanovich [Soloviev] : The fact of the matter is that the 
church in Nachodstrasse is in the hands of the "comrades." The "Father" 
Sergius mentioned in the letter, to whom I would have to turn for information, 
is a distinct and very shameless agent of the MGB. Since I live here and am 
active in a manner far from incognito, it is clear that he knows me. Therefore : 

(a) It would be very dangerous for me to visit him at home or in the church, 
risking my head, for in both places he is surrounded by men who carry out the 
orders of the organs of the MGB for whom I am a most desirable morsel. 

(b) He would hardly give me any explanation — not to speak of data — sought 
by Don Levine, for he would know instantly the purpose for which it is needed. 

(Signed) G. S. 
Mr. Morris. Shall I call you Father Korchak ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4171 

TESTIMONY OF REV. MICHAEL KORCHAK-SIVITSKY 
(Through Interpreter Mirra Ginsburg) 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Father Korchak, are you the priest who performed the 
funeral service for the late Colonel Dobrovolsky according to this 
copy of the Wiesbaden Church Register? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You did ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify the photograph and point out in it 
Archpriest Adamantov? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. This priest Adamantov. 

Mr. Morris. That is the second person from the right, the priest 
with the long vestments. Father Korchak, let me ask you the question 
this way : Where is Colonel Dobrovolsky in that picture ? 

Mr. Korchak. Here he is. 

Mr. Morris. He is on the extreme right ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. In other words the person to the left of him as you look 
at the picture is Archpriest Adamantov ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes, that is so. 

Mr. Morris. Do you yourself appear in that picture ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes, here. 

Mr. Morris. You are the person on the extreme left in the picture? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. When was that picture taken ? 

The Interpreter. He doesn't remember exactly but he thinks it was 
in the spring of 1947. 

Mr. Morris. Was that long before Colonel Dobrovolsky died ? 

Mr. Korchak. This was in the spring ; and as I remember, Dobro- 
volsky died in the late fall. 

Mr. Morris. The records indicate that the date of burial was Feb- 
ruary 22, 1947. 

The Interpreter. You see, he doesn't remember the exact dates. He 
remembers it was cold. It must have been either early spring or late 
fall. 

Mr. Morris. But you are sure of the year 1947 ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How long had you known Dobrovolsky then ? 

The Interpreter. He says the photograph must have been in 1946 
because it was some time. 

Mr. Morris. How long had you known Colonel Dobrovolsky ? 

Mr. Korchak. 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948. From 1945 until his death. 

Mr. Morris. Were you aware of his former service in the Okhrana, 
the political secret police. 

Mr. Korchak. It was widely known. 

Mr. Morris. Was he known by any other name ? 

Mr. Korchak. No, he was not known under any other name. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge ? 

Mr. Korchak. No. 

Mr. Morris. Was it a practice of Okhrana officers to use more than 
one name ? 



4172 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Interpreter. He doesn't know that. 

Mr. Morris. I show you a photograph and ask you if you will iden- 
tify the wooden cross with the inscription in this picture which was 
taken in the Wiesbaden Cemetery ? 

The Interpreter. He says that while he was in Europe this cross 
was not there. It was evidently erected after he left. 

Mr. Morris. When did you leave ? 

The Interpreter. Pie left in December 1949. 

Mr. Morris. December 1949 ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What, to the best of your knowledge, is the political 
reputation of the Nachodstrasse Church in Berlin which is under the 
Moscow patriarchy ? 

The Interpreter. He knew the church only before the Bolsheviks 
came, but when they came, the priests who had remained submitted to 
the Moscow patriarchy and he doesn't know any further about that. 

Senator Johnston. When did they come, approximately ? 

Mr. Korchak. At the end of the war when Berlin was taken. 

Mr. Morris. That was the Reverend Sergei Polozhenskii, the pri- 
mate in that church ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is his assistant one Igor Fromke ? 

The Interpreter. He doesn't know. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know whether the Reverend Polozhenskii wrote 
to Archpriest Adamantov in the Wiesbaden Church to come under 
the Soviet jurisdiction ? 

The Interpreter. He says yes, he knows about it. 

All three of them received similar letters, Dobrovolsky and 

Mr. Morris. What did these letters say ? 

The Interpreter. Asking them to submit to the Moscow Church. 
But they did not answer. He says that, at that time, they did not 
know where the church authorities were because they were moving 
from place to place trying to get away from the Bolsheviks and trying 
to get to where the Americans were. When they received the letter 
they were pretty much at sea. They did not know where their superiors 
were and they just let it go. They did not answer. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. We appreciate very much the 
trouble you have taken to come down and testify for us. 

Senator Johnston. We certainly appreciate it. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much for coming. We are most grate- 
ful to you. 

(The subcommittee then heard two witnesses on another subject and, 
at 12 : 55 p. m. the hearing was adjourned.) 



APPENDIX I 

(The following documents were submitted by Mr. Tytell during his 
testimony on February 8, 1957. See p. 4110.) 

Certificate 

Mr. Feodor Yurieff, colonel of the Tsar's Russia, has been employed here as 
warden of the Orthodox Church Peter and Paul at Gbttingen. At the same time 
he holds the direction of the choir of the church. He has executed these employ- 
ments with great cleverness and he was of great use for us as a composer of 
sacred music, too. The wife of Colonel Yurieff, Mrs. Xenia Yurieff, is a member 
of our Church Committee. During the first world war already she has served 
as a nurse and as an artist she performed the decoration of the churches in the 
field hospitals. Living in exile Mrs. Yurieff continued her church painting and 
during this war she painted perfectly, alone, the altar of the Orthodox Church 
at Gottingen ; Mrs. Yurieff was of great use for our church by her employment 
as storyteller and writer of articles of religious and moral character. This is to 
certify that the couple Yurieff are diligent and useful people and have the abilities 
which are needed for these works. 

Signature, 
Priest of the Gh-eek Orthodox Church. 

( For correct translation : Signature illegible. ) 

[stamp] Ubersetzungsburo, 

Welfare Committee, DP Camp Wentorf. 

4173 



4174 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 






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Translation of Adamantov's Statement 

Wiesbaden, July 17, 1956. 

I, the undersigned, have been serving with the Russian Orthodox Church at 
Wiesbaden since September 1908 up to now with the exception of the period of 
the First AVorld War (1914-1919). No person of the name Dobroliubov served 
with me in any capacity. Also there is no grave with an inscription bearing this 
name at our Russian cemetery. 

I do not recall my meeting with the American journalist, Mr. Don Levine. 

Pastor of the Russian Orthodox Church at Wiesbaden. 

(signed) Archpriest Pavel Adamantov. 

(Translated by Dr. George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress, 
October 4, 1957.) 



SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4175 







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Translation of Loriev's Statement 



From 1904 on I served with the Military Court Administration holding various 
positions. At first I was a candidate for [part of the sentence illegible] then 
an assistant to the Military Prosecutor and during the First World War I was 
a Military Prosecutor with the rank of Colonel. 

During that time exclusively Remington typewriters were used in our offices. 
I didn't know any other typewriters. 

As far as I know, in the main office of the Military Court Administration at 
Petersburg, Remington typewriters were also used. 

(Signed) F. Loriev, 
Former Military Prosecutor. 

July 20, 1956. 
Varel (old.) 

Old People's Home, Block 4, Room 41. 

(Translated by Dr. George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress, 
(October 4, 1957.) 



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Translation of Rusanow's Certificate 

I, the undersigned, Stepan Rusanow, residing at the Old People's Home at 
Varel, certify herewith that during my service with the District Attorney's 
office in Czarist Russia from 1908 to 1918 I saw only American typewriters, Rem- 
ington and Underwood, used by the Court Administration. I have no knowledge 
whatsoever about the use of typewriters of the make "Adler." 

Mostly I worked in various agencies of the District of Petersburg and I had 
access to different offices of the District Attorney. 

Varel, July 20, 1956. 

(Signed) Stefan Rusanow. 

(Translated by Dr. George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress. 
October 4, 1957.) 

I, Marie Widniis, who am a Doctor of Philosophy, graduated from The Uni- 
versity of Helsinki-Helsingfors (Finland) in 1952, and an elder assistant 
librarian at the University Library of Helsinki-Helsingfors having been working 
at the forenamed library since autumn 1927, who live in Helsingfors (Finland) 
Eriksgatan 1. C. Phone 37430, hereby certify that I have been asked by phone 
by the University Rector's Secretary on July 25th at 10 o'clock in the morning 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4177 

to meet Mr. Martin Tytell, Examiner of Disputed Documents, and go to him 
to the State Archives in Helsinki-Helsingfors in search for documents dated 
from the time July 1913 and issued by The Russian Ministry of Intern Affairs, 
Police Department, Special Section (Ministerstvo Vnutrennich del. Departament 
Policii. Po osobomu otdelu) to compare them with the document brought to 
Finland by Mr. Tytell issued by Ministry of Intern Affairs. Head of Department 
of The Special Section of the Police Department (Ministerstvo Vnutrennich del. 
Zavedyvajuscij Osobym Otdelom Departamenta Policii) on 12th July 1913 
No 2898 (12 ijulja 1913 goda No. 2898) and signed by Eremin. We went 
through about three thousand documents issued by the said police Department, 
but we did not even find one bearing the name Director of Special Section of 
the Department Police (Zavtdujus'cij Osobym Otdelom Departamenta Policii). 
The opinion of the archivists, who have spent their lifetime in filing Russian 
documents, and especially those of the Governor General's Office's Chancellery, 
which is the only place where documents sent by Russian authorities can be 
found in Finland is that the document shown by Mr. Tytell must be a photograph 
of a forgery, because : because accordingly to the document of June 21th 1913, 
stating that the forenamed Eremin had been appointed on 11th June 1913, to 
be a head of the gendarmery office in Finland, could not sign any document 
issued from the Police Department M. of Intern Affairs in Petersburg (Russia), 
this being the exact statement of an elder archivist Doct. of Phil. Olli Seitkari. 
We spent the first day of research in this helped by archivist Salmela, M. A. 
and archivist Valoniemi, M. A. who was kind enough to have photostats arranged 
for us at the firm Herman Lindell Oy-Ab, Helsingfors-Helsinki, Kaisaniemenk. 
1 C. Next days. We looked with the help of Archivist Salmela through all 
documents even of 1914 from the Chancellery of the Governor General of Finland 
we found some more documents signed by Eremin. The handwriting of all 
these signatures of Eremin, the first of them dating from 19th July 1956, is 
different from the signature on the document belonging in photostat to Mr. 
Tytell, which is the second reason why the archivists, Seitkari, Salmela, Valo- 
niemi and also the elder archivist Blomstedt considered that the document 
brought from America could not be authentical. 

On July 27th we went with Mr. Tytell to the Central Police to make sure 
that there were no Russian documents preserved elsewhere in the archives 
of Helsinki. We also got through the newspapers of Hensinki from 1913 : 
Hufvudstadsbladet, Finlands Allmanna Tidninger and Finl.iand skaja Gazeta to 
get information about when Eremin would have arrived to Helsinki-Helsingfors 
in July or August 1913 — the difference of 13 days between Russian old style and 
Western new style also being taken into consideration. This research is con- 
tinued. After this we went to the firm Lindell to make sure of photostats and 
microfilms of all the material we thus had gathered. 

That all this happened thus and has been correctly related by me is hereby 
certified. 

Helsinki-Helsingfors (Finland), July 27th, 1956. 

I and the staff of 3 archivists spent three full days with Mr. Tytell in 
research. 

Maria Widnas, 
Makia Widnas, 
Dr. Phil, Elder Assistant Librarian. 

Address §Helsinki. Erikeg 1 C 17. Phone nr. 37430. 



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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4183 

Papek to be Presented at the New York Meeting of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, 1956 

Subject : Exposing a Documentary Hoax 

Author: Martin K. Tytell, M. B. A., Lecturer on Questioned Documents, New 
York University, N. Y., Institute of Criminology ; Lecturer on Police Science, 
Brooklyn College ; Lane Scholar, New York University. 
Address : 123 Fulton Street, New York 38, N. Y. 
Time : Saturday, December 29, 1956, 2 : 00 p. m. 
Place : Penn-Top Room, Hotel Statler, New York City 

Program: Seminar: Science Versus Crime. AAAS Section on Social Sciences 
(K) Cosponsored by Society for the Advancement of Criminology 

On April 23, 1956, Life Magazine, one of the most influential mass-circulation 
media in the United States, published an article by the prominent journalist, 
Isaac Don Levine, entitled "Stalin's Great Secret." The substance of the article 
was that the late dictator of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, had been a Czarist 
spy in prerevolutionary days, working for the government against his revolu- 
tionary comrades. In support of this contention was produced a typewritten 
document purportedly signed by a Colonel Yeremin in St. Petersburg on July 
12, 1913. 

To substantiate the authenticity of this document, which identified Stalin as a 
Czarist spy, another letter, an official communication from the Russian Acting 
Director of the Department of Police, dated November 5, 1912, was presented 
as a "standard," in document examiners' parlance. The Life article asserted 
that the Stalin-Yeremin document and the standard were both typed on the 
"same model and same make" of typewriter. Mr. Levine cited a noted docu- 
ment examiner, Mr. Albert D. Osborn, in support of this finding. Mr. Levine's 
article was later expanded into a book published earlier this year by Coward- 
McCann. 

The Life article was of great interest to me, and I read it carefully. Hav- 
ing devoted a lifetime to the study of type and typewriters, and having en- 
gaged in document examination for many years, I was especially attracted 
by the comparison of the Stalin-Yeremin letter and the standard, as presented 
in photographs accompanying the article. Even working from the photo- 
graphs reprinted in the magazine, it was obvious to me that these documents 
were not typed on the same model typewriter, and in that respect at least the 
Life article was inaccurate. 

The next day, I obtained from Life a number of reprints of the article. 
These reprints were distributed by me to my classes in Police Science at Brook- 
lyn College for examination. The students in my classes easily detected 
twenty-five differences in type design between the two documents, and none of 
the students in the group was of the opinion that the Stalin-Yeremin letter 
and the standard could have been typed on the same model or make of machine. 

My interest in the questioned documents led me to request an examination 
of the originals of both letters. I communicated regarding the Stalin-Yeremin 
letter with Mr. Levine, the author, and with Leland Stanford University Li- 
brary concerning the standard. I could obtain the original of neither ; the 
Stalin-Yeremin letter is in a vault of the Tolstoy Foundation, while the Leland 
Stanford people could not locate the standard. However, I did secure a good 
photostat copy of the Stalin-Yeremin letter from the Tolstoy Foundation, and 
a good photostat copy of the standard from Mr. Levine. 

But my investigation of the Stalin-Yeremin letter, which eventually involved 
my traveling through several European countries, interviewing people who 
might have knowledge of this matter, and examining several thousand docu- 
ments, has convinced me that the letter is a fraud. 

Now, I would like to make clear that my investigation concerns the authen- 
ticity of the Stalin-Yeremin letter only as a problem in document examination. 
I say this because I understand that in some circles the letter has led to political 
controversy in which I have no interest whatsoever. In addition, my findings 
are not to be construed as impugning the motives of Life, Mr. Levine, or Mr. Os- 
born. As a document examiner, however, I am concerned with exposing fraud- 
ulent documents, and the Stalin-Yeremin letter is a fraud. 

Because it seems the most logical way in which to tell the story, I should like 
to relate the course of my investigation chronologically from that day when my 
classes at Brooklyn College and I examined the questioned document and the 
standard. 

93215—57 7 



4184 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Levine book and article identify the typewriter used to produce the docu- 
ments as a Russian machine made by Remington and exported to Russia in pre- 
revolutionary days. An investigation at the Remington Plant in Elmira and 
at the offices of the company in this city established that the standard was indeed 
produced by a Remington machine. However, the questioned document, as I 
shall refer to the Stalin- Yeremin letter, was not written on a Remington at all. 

My investigation led me abroad, to Germany, in July of this year. In Frank- 
furt, I found that the questioned document was in fact written on an Adler — a 
machine manufactured in Germany. The Adler factory was demolished by 
bombing, and therefore a determination of the date of the machine used for the 
questioned document was impossible. However, company employees who had 
been manufacturing typewriters for many years stated that Russian type which 
produced the questioned document was first manufactured in the year 1912. 
But the questioned document could not have been typed in 1912 or even 1913, 
but much later since the type is worn and battered. The questioned document 
must have been written many years after the manufacture of the machine used. 
I have taken samples of type taken from the 1912 Adler, which may be compared 
with the questioned document in support of my identification. 

While in Germany, I retraced some of the steps described by Mr. Levine in 
his book. On page 107 of the book, Stalin's Great Secret, Mr. Levine tells of 
his search for a Dobroliubov, who had been an officer of the Okbrana, or Czarist 
Secret Police. The author related how he visited the Greek Orthodox Church on 
Nachodstrasse in Charlottenburg, Berlin, where the priest "responded instantly" 
to the name of Dobroliubov, and he dates this incident some time in March 1950. 
I visited the same church and spoke to the priest, who had held his office for 
many years. He knew nothing about Dobroliubov, and he did not recollect 
meeting any American or anyone else who had mentioned that name. In fact, 
there was a second priest who assisted at the church, whom I interviewed, who 
likewise knew nothing about Dobroliubov and did not recollect any inquiry 
about such person. 

Mr. Igor Fromke, a man of thirty-nine who serves as a ministrant or mass 
servant, who had been a prisoner of war of the Americans and speaks fluent 
English as well as Russian and German, offered to assist me in my research. In 
brief summary, let Fromke tell his own part of the story : 

"On Sunday, July 15, I was called out of the altar to meet an American 
who introduced himself as Martin K. Tytell. He asked could I speak English 
and what time the church service would be over. After the last sermon, Mr. 
Tytell again approached me and Father Sergius and put the following questions 
to us: Could Father Sergius remember an American writer, Isaac Don Levine, 
coming to Berlin in March 1950, asking about a sexton who should work at our 
church for a long period before the last war by the name of Dobroliubov? 
Father Sergius said that such a sexton was never at our church and he can't 
remember Mr. Don Levine. But since our church has always had two priests, 
he said we also should contact Father Michael. On July lGth at 9 : 30 A. M., 
me and Mr. Tytell met again at the entrance to the church, went at once inside 
and saw Father Michael preparing for his duty. We asked him the same ques- 
tions. Father Michael denied them even more strictly and assured me that he 
doesn't know any such man." 

In the Levine book, also on page 107, it is stated : "The search for Dobroliubov 
brought me to Wiesbaden and ended there, in the adjoining cemetery. The 
good local priest had taken me to his grave. He had recently died, and with 
him lay buried many secrets of the Okhrana." 

The next day I left Berlin for Wiesbaden, taking Fromke with me to act as 
an interpreter for a visit to the German Crime Laboratory, still in search of clues 
to the typewritten Stalin-Yeremin letter. A short distance away lay the beauti- 
ful chapel referred to by Mr. Levine on page 107, and I spoke to the local priest 
mentioned there. This priest too knew nothing of Dobroliubov, and had never 
heard the name in his tenure at the church dating back to 1908, and again let 
Fromke tell it : 

"Near to that office (the crime laboratories) on a hill called Nevoberg is erected 
a beautiful Russian Orthodox Church in honor to a dead grand duchess of Russia 
and for her sepulchre. We were led to see the old Russian priest in a adjoining 
small cottage. This still lively and erect old patriarch of eighty-four years, who 
performs his duties in Wiesbaden now for fifty-five years, this priest whose 
memory is functioning well in spite of his age, never saw a Mr. Levine at all, and 
in 1950 especially, never talked to him about a man named Dobroliubov, and 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4185 

never showed him the grave of such a person. The same thing was confirmed by 
his daughter, who is speaking English fluently. We also checked the books about 
all the funerals since 1945 up to now, and couldn't find any trace of a Dobro- 
linbov. There is also no grave in the Russian cemetery with such a name. I 
for myself, can only say that, belonging since my early childhood to the church 
in Berlin Nachodstrasse, I don't know any sexton with such a name. The same 
applies to my mother who is also an old member of this church. Our longtime 
sexton and church warden cannot be that man. He has quite another name. 
Living in the Russian-occupied zone of Eastern Germany, his name cannot be 
quoted for reasons of safety. But no other sexton was employed during all 
that time (25 years)." 

I went through the adjoining cemetery ; there was no tombstone for Dobroliu- 
bov. There was no record in the church registry of deaths, going back to 1945, 
of a burial of such an individual or anyone bearing a name similar to Dobroliubov. 
The "lively and erect old patriarch," Levine's "good local priest," who had 
led him to see Dobroliubov's grave, himself gave me, voluntarily, the following 
affidavit : 

"Wiesbaden, 17-VII-1956. I, the signer of this, am on duty at the Russian 
Orthodox Church in Wiesbaden since September 1908, till today, except the time 
of the First World War (1914-1919). With me there was not at our church on 
no kind of a job any person with the name Dobroliubov. Similarly on our Russian 
cemetery (sic) is no grave with the same name. About my encounter with an 
American journalist Mister Don Levine I don't remember anything." Signed: 
Dean of the Orthodox Russian Church in Wiesbaden, Archpriest Paul Adamantov. 
I then went to Hamburg, where I consulted Professors Tange and Johansen, 
heads of the Slavonic and Finnish departments of the Hamburg University. 
They examined my copy of the Yeremin-Stalin document and labeled it a fraud. 
They referred me to the archives in Helsinki, Finland, for documentary proof. 
From Hamburg, I made a side tour to Varel, near Bremen, where I was able 
to interview two men who had worked in government offices in St. Petersburg 
in Czarist days. Col. Feodor Yurieff of the Russian army worked as a govern- 
ment prosecutor from 1904 to 1917, while Stepan Rusanow worked from 1908 
to 1918 as a typist in various offices in St. Petersburg. They had seen many 
Remington machines in the course of their work, while the Adler was a stranger 
to them. I have affidavits from both these individuals. 

Later in Helsinki, I found that a tremendous quantity of documentary evidence 
dating back to Czarist days is available. In fact, there is a question as to why 
Mr. Levine chose an obscure document from Leland Stanford University Library 
as a standard, when thousands of authentic official communications of Czarist 
days are available in Finland. 

Finland before World War I, was a province of Russia, and the same Yeremin 
who supposedly signed the questioned document identifying Stalin as a spy, 
served as chief of the gendarmerie of the province. I examined more than 3,000 
documents, including S5 signed by Yeremin. None of the documents was typed 
on an Adler machine ; as for the signatures, the difference is so obvious that 
no further comment is needed. 

I was assisted in my research in the Helsinki archives by a trained librarian. 
In extract, here is her statement : 

"I, Maria Widnas, Ph. D., University of Helsinki-Helsingfors, elder assistant 
librarian at the University Library, was asked by the University Rector's secre- 
tary on July 25 to meet Mr. Martin Tytell, Examiner of Disputed Documents, 
and go with him to the state Archives in search for documents dated from July 
1913 and issued by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, Police Department, 
Special Section, to compare them with the document brought to Finland by Mr. 
Tytell, issued by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, head of the Department of 
the Special Section of the Police Department on 12th July 1913 (Nr. 2898), and 
signed by Ereinin (Yeremin). We went through about three thousand documents 
issued by the Police Department, but we did not find even one bearing the name 
Director of Special Section of the Police Department (Zavedujusci j Osobym 
Otedelom Departamenta Policii). The opinion of the archivists who have spent 
their lifetime in filing Russian documents, and especially those of the Governor 
General's Office's Chancellery, which is the only place where documents sent 
by Russian authorities can be found in Finland, is that the document shown by 
Mr. Tytell must be a photograph of a forgery. 



4186 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

"We spent the first day of research assisted by archivist Salmelnia, M. A., 
and Archivist Valoniemi, M. A., who was kind enough to have photostats (of 
genuine Yereniin letters) arranged for us. In the next few days, we looked 
with the help of Archivist Salmelma through all the documents even of 1914 
from the Chancellery of the Governor General of Finland. We found some 
more documents signed by Eremin. The handwriting of all of these signa- 
tures of Eremin, the first of them dated 19th July, 1913, is different from the 
signature of the document belonging in photostat to Mr. Tytell, which is the 
second reason why the archivists, Seitkari, Salmela, Valoniemi, and also the 
elder Archivist Blomstedt, considered that the document brought from America 
could not be authentic. On July 27th we went with Mr. Tytell to the Central 
Police to make sure that there were no Russian documents preserved elsewhere 
in the archives of Helsinki." 

Certified and Signed : Maria Widnas, Dr. Phil., Elder Assistant Librarian. 

As further corroborative evidence, among the Helsinki documents I found 
a government order appointing Yeremin to his post in Finland, dated June 21, 
1913. A piece of correspondence indicating that Yeremin was in the midst of 
his business in Helsinki dated July 19, 1913, was also uncovered. Mr. Levine is 
aware that the questioned document, dated July 12, 1913, from St. Petersburg 
is inconsistent with the time of his appointment in Helsinki, but has said 
that it is possible that Yeremin did not report to his new post immediately 
upon assignment. But the document dated July 19, which indicates that 
Yeremin was fully in charge of his post in Finland and apparently working 
there for some time, makes it most unlikely that he could have been in St. 
Petersburg just a week before. 

The Finnish authorities were most cooperative, and I have photostats and 
microfilm of numerous documents which have been offered to Mr. Levine and 
Life for their inspection. 

All of the circumstances surrounding the Stalin- Yeremin letter, therefore, sup- 
port the finding that this document is fraudulent. 

I might add, as a postscript, that I have offered my findings to Life, and 
to Mr. Levine. But truth usually has a difficult time catching up with false- 
hood, so that it is unlikely that this bit of research will ever gain the circula- 
tion given the fraudulent document. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4187 



M£e, "Stalin' 5 Great Secret, " 4/23/66 




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Martin K. Tytell Document Analyst 
123 Fulton Street, New York 38, NY- 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the names of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

Abend, Hans 4155 

Adamantov, Anastasia 4127, 4152, 4154, 4178 

Adamantov, Archpriest Paul (Pavel) 4108-4110,4127, 

4131, 4133, 4137, 413S, 4150-4152, 4162, 4169, 4171, 4172, 4174, 4185 

Adams, Floyd 4122 

Adler (typewriter/company) 4113-4115, 4126, 4127, 4155, 4176, 4184, 4185 

Albanian language 4102 

Aleksii, the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia 4165 

American Academy of Social Science 4126 

American Association for the Advancement of Science 4102, 

4104, 4106, 4123, 4126, 41S3 

American Labor Party 4103, 4162 

American Society of Questioned Document Examiners 4141 

Ames Densimeter (typewriter tool) 4146 

Ames Supply Co. in New York 4146 

Amtorg 4100 

Anastasiev of Munich 4166, 4167 

Andrews, Bert 414S 

Appendix I (documents submitted by Mr. Tytell during his testimony of 

February 8, 1957) 4173-418S 

B 

Baltimore documents in Hiss case 4121 

Ben Day dots 4105 

Berlin 4108, 4109, 4155, 4163-4167, 4170, 4172, 4184 

French sector of 4165 

Berlin police lab '. 4108 

Blomstedt (archivist) 4177, 4186 

Blun, Georges 4165 

Boris, Archbishop (the Red Bishop) 4164-4169 

Brazil 4100 

Brooklyn College 4105, 4122, 4125, 4157, 4183 

Brownsville Typewriter Co. in Brooklyn 4145 

Bulgarian language 4100 

Bulgarians 4102 

Bundes Kriminal Amt, Federated German Police 4109 

Burghhagen 4113 

Butler, Senator John Marshall , 4117 

C 

Chambers, Whittaker 4141 

Chicago 4144 

Churches : 

Greek Chapel, 99 Kappellenstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany (also known 

as Russian Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden) 4127-4129 

Greek Orthodox Church on Nachodstrasse in Charlottenburg, 

Berlin 4127, 4184 

Greek Orthodox Church Peter & Paul at Gottingen 4173 



II INDEX 

Churches — Continued Page 

Greek Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden 4109 

Nachodstrasse Church in Berlin 410S, 4163, 4166, 4170, 4172, 4185 

Russian-Orthodox Church in Berlin 4169 

Russian Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden (also known as Greek 

Chapel) 4127-4132, 4137, 4152, 4162, 4168, 4174, 4185 

St. Vladimir Church, Prince & Equal of the Apostles (Berlin, 

Nachodstrasse) 4164, 4165 

Chekmarev, Vassili 4131 

Communist/s 4126, 4165 

Communist Party, U. S. A 4125,4157 

Comparison of type (Tytell exhibit) 4187,4188 

Cornell University 4142 

D 

Daily Worker 4104, 4125, 4126, 4162 

Danish language (typewriter) 4143 

DDR (German Democratic Republic) 4167 

Detroit 4144 

"Dobriskok of Golden Glasses" (see Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky) 4155 

Dobrolinbov (See Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky) 4108-4110 

4127, 4152, 4153, 4162, 4163, 4174, 4184, 4185 

Dobroskok ("Gold-spectacled Nikolai") 4127, 4155 

Dobrowolski, Ivan Wasiljewitsch ("Dobriskok of the Golden Glasses") 4155 

Dobrovolski(s), Col. Janis 4148, 4150 

Dobrovolsky, Col. Ivan Vassilievich (also known as Dobroskok and 

Dobroliubov) 4127, 4130, 4131, 4135-4137, 4151-4153, 4163, 4169-4171 

Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy, article for Life magazine by Isaac Don 

Levine 4106, 4126 

Doud, Donald, questioned-document examiner 4147 

E 

Ehrlich, Mrs. Evelyn S., deceptive print and typography expert 4148 

Elmira (typewriter company) 4108, 4122, 4184 

Elmira, N. Y 4121 

Elson, Robert 4162 

English language 4112 

Eremin. (See Yeremin.) 

Europe 4108, 4120, 4123 

Exhibit No. 492 — Photograph of Russian Greek Orthodox Church at 99 

Kappellenstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany 4128 

Exhibit No. 492-A — Photograph of pamphlet cover entitled "The Russian 
Church on the Neroberg in Wiesbaden, usually called the Greek 
Chapel" 4129 

Exhibit No. 493 — Abstract from Russian Orthodox Church register dated 
February 1947, showing the death of Col. Ivan Vassilievich Dobro- 
volsky 4131, 4132 

Exhibit No. 494 — Photograph of Archpriest Adamantov signing death 

certificate of Dobrovolsky 4133 

Exhibit No. 494-A — Photograph of Archpriest Adamantov affixing his seal 

to Dobrovolsky death certificate 4134 

Exhibit No. 495 — Photograph of the cemetery of the Russian Orthodox 

Church showing Archpriest Adamantov and others 4135 

Exhibit No. 496 — Photograph of wooden cross headstone with the name 

Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky 4136 

Exhibit No. 496-A — Photograph of Archpriest Adamantov and others in 

cemetery near headstone of Ivan Dobrovolsky 4137 

Exhibit No. 496-B — Another photograph of Archpriest Adamantov at grave 

of Dobrovolsky 4138 

Exhibit No. 497 — Photostat of the note, and the publishers' blurb on the 

dust cover of The World's Greatest Spy Stories 4139 

Exhibit No. 498 — Article from True magazine entitled "The $7,500 Type- 
writer I Built for Alger Hiss," by Tytell, as told to Harry Kursh__ 4140-4148 

Exhibit No. 499 — Photostat of death certificate of Col. Janis Dobro- 

volski 4149,4150 



index m 

Exhibit No. 500 — Photostat of letter signed by Archpriest P. Adamantov, Page 
dated July 17, 1956 4151 

Exhibit No. 501 — Letter signed by Anastasia Adrnantov dated February 

19, 1957, addressed to Ben Mandel 4153, 4154 

Exhibit No. 502 — Letter addressed to Benjamin Mandel from Dr. Alla- 
Alma Hoppe dated April 9, 1857, giving certain biographical informa- 
tion regarding Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski 4155 

Exhibit No. 503 — Letter addressed to Benjamin Mandel from Hans Abend 
dated January 16, 1957, relative to the manufacture of Adler type- 
writers 4155 

Exhibit No. 504 — Letter from Harold A. Voorhis to Benjamin Mandel 
dated February 7, 1957, re service of Martin K. and Pearl Tytell at New 
York University 4157 

Exhibit No. 505 — Letter to Benjamin Mandel from Harry D. Gideonse, 
president of Brooklyn College, re service of Martin K. Tytell with the 
college and Tytell 's application for employment and his signed state- 
ment re Communist Party membership 4157-4161 

Exhibit No. 506 — Photostats from book of enrolled voters showing Mar- 
tin K. Tytell enrolled as American Labor Party (in subcommittee 
files) 1 4162 

Exhibit No. 507— Photostatic copy of a letter from Edward Mulliken 
of central European bureau of Time-Life, dated February 18, 1957, 
relative to his visit to Archpriest Adamantov 4162, 4163 

Exhibit No. 508 — Letter to B. Mandel from Library of Congress with 
translations with accompanying photostats of Russian publications 
giving information about Russian Church at Nachodstrasse in Berlin — 4164 

Exhibit No. 509 — Translations and photostats from the German publi- 
cation Tagesspiegel relative to the Nachcdstrasse Church 4165 

Exhibit No. 510 — Photograph of Korchak, Adamantov, and Dobrovol- 

ski at Wiesbaden 4170 

Exhibit No. 511 — Abstract from letter to Mikhail Soloviev from Dr. 

Grigory Saharuni about Nachodstrasse Church 4170 

Exposing a Documentary Hoax, article in Daily Worker, January 13, 1957- 4126 

F 

FBI 4141,4147 

Feehan, Ramos, FBI expert on questioned documents 4141 

Finland 4112, 4185 

Foley Square, New York 4141 

Fort Jay 4142, 4143 

Fotii (Topiro), Archbishop of Vilno and Lithuania 4164 

Frank, Mr 4119, 4125 

Frankfurt-am-Main 4113, 4114, 4126, 4127, 4155, 4184 

French language/typewriter 4143 

French Surete lab 4108 

Fromke, Igor, guide and interpreter for Tytell 4109, 

4110, 4127, 4162, 4163, 4172, 4179, 4184 
Letter of 4179-4182 

G 

Garcia, Roy 4125 

German language/typewriter 4112, 4143 

German Orthodox Diocese of the Patriarchate of Moscow (Berlin) 4164 

Germany 4111, 4126, 4127, 4165, 4168 

Gideonse, Harry D., president of Brooklyn College 4157 

Ginsburg, Mirra, interpreter for Rev. Michael Korchak-Sivitsky 4125, 4171 

"Gold-spectacled Nikolai" (Dubroskok) 4155 

"Golden Glasses": 

(Dobrovolsky) 4163 

(Dobriskok) 4155 

Golos pravoslaviia (The Voice of Orthodoxy, publication) 4164, 4165 

Goodard, Federal Judge Henry W 4141 

Gooske (typewriter company) 4113 

Grassel, Jurgen 4112 



IV INDEX 

H Page 

Hamburg 4111, 4112, 4114 

Hamburg University 4112, 4118, 4185 

Haring, J. H 4146 

Harvard University's Fogg Museum of Art 4148 

Hauptmann, Bruno 4144 

Helsinki documents 4186 

Hiss, Alger 4119-4122, 4125, 4138, 4140, 4141, 4143, 4147, 4148 

Hoover Library, Stanford University 4106, 4107 

Hoppe, Alma Alia 4148-4150, 4155, 4163 

Howley, vice president of New York University 4157 

Hungarian language/typewriter 4143 

Hungary 4125 

I 

International Police 4108 

Irisb Police 4108 

J 

Jobansen, Professor 4185 

Jobnston, Senator Olin D 4099, 4125 

Journal de Geneve 4165 

K 

Karlovatski ( Synod) 4168 

Kasbchenko, Iakov 4131, 4137 

Kelly, Thomas A. (notary) 4155 

Kleyer-Adler Works 4113 

Korchak-Sivitsky, Rev. Michael 4125, 4131, 4163, 4169 

Testimony of 4171, 4172 

Mirra Ginsburg, interpreter 4171 

Performed funeral service for Colonel Dobrovolsky 4171 

Kremlin 4165,4166 

Knrsh, Harry 4140 

L 

Lane, Chester T 4119, 4120, 4122, 4123, 4140, 4146-4148 

150 Broadway, New York N. Y 4099 

Counsel to Martin Kenneth Tytell 4099 

Lechno, Alexander (deacon) 4169 

Leland Stanford University Library 4185 

Letter to Morris from Tytell dated March 26, 1957, making addenda to 

previous testimony 4118 

Levine, Isaac Don 4106-4109, 4111, 4114, 4118-4121, 4126, 4162, 

4163, 4170, 4174, 41S3, 4185, 41S6 
Article in Life entitled "Stalin's Great Secret" which includes "A 

Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy," April 23, 1956 4106, 4126 

Book 4184 

Library of Congress 4131, 4136, 4148, 4150, 4163-4165, 4175, 4176 

Life magazine 4104-4107, 4118, 4121, 4126, 4183, 4186 

Lockey, Ira 4141 

Loriev, F 4175 

M 
MacArtbur 4166 

Mandell, Benjamin 4099, 4117, 4125 

Testimony of 4126-4170 

Marine Midland Bank vault 4146 

McCann, Howard, publisher 4106 

McCarthy, Elizabeth, questioned-doeument expert 4147 

McLean, Edward, one of Hiss' attorneys 4141 

McNamara, Donald E. J., director of New York Institute of Criminology 4104 

MGB 4170 

Michael, Father 4184 

Morris, Colonel 4102 



INDEX V 

Pasre 

Morris, Robert 4099, 4125 

Moscow 4166 

Moscow Cathedral 4166 

Mstislav, Arehimandrit (Arkhimandrit) 4167 

Mulliken, Edward, of central European bureau of Time-Life 4162, 4163 

Munson, Jobn K 4155 

Murphy, Thomas F 4141 

MVD Ministry of Internal Affairs 4112 

My Life, by Leon Trotsky 4155 

N 

National City Bank of New York 4142 

New York 4099, 4100, 4102, 4106, 4126, 4143 

New York Herald Tribune 4148 

New York Institute of Criminology 4104, 4122 

New York University (NYU) 4103, 4104, 4115, 4119, 4125, 4156, 4157 

NKVD 4165, 4166, 4167 

NTS (Russian emigre organization) 4166, 4167 

O 

Okhrana (czarist secret police) 4127, 4133, 4163, 4171, 4184 

Osborn, Albert D 4144, 4183 

OSS 4141, 4142 

P 

Palmeder, Earl 4121 

Paris 4112 

Pentagon Building 4102 

People v, Risley 4142 

Poloskenski, Father 4167 

Polosnenski, Priest Sergius 4166 

Polozhenskii, Sergei (priest) 4164, 4165, 4172 

Puerto Rico 4103, 4104 

R 

Radsiuk, Priest Michael 4166 

Radziuk, Archpriest Mikhail 4164 

Rasumow, Priest Iwan 4166 

Raye, Bruce 4122 

Razumov, Priest Ioann 4164 

R. C. Allen Co 4145 

Red Army 4166 

Red Bishop of Tegel-Borsigwalde (see Archbishop Boris) 4165-4167, 4169 

Redmond, Mr 4122 

Remington Rand in New York 4108, 4121, 4184 

Remington typewriter/s 4105, 4106, 4108, 4122, 4175, 4185 

Riga, Latvia 4155 

Rosmeyer & Biak (typewriter company) 4113 

Rusanow, Stepan 4114, 4176, 4185 

Rusher, Win. A 4099, 4117 

Russia 4105, 4112, 4185 

Russian emigrees 4165, 4166 

Russian language/typewriter . 4101, 4105, 4110, 4113, 4127 

Russian Orthodox Church Abroad 1 4168 

S 

St. Petersburg 4114, 4186 

St. Petersburg Police Department 4105, 4106 

Saharuni, Dr. Grigory 4170 

Sakidalsky (priest) 4167 

Salmela (archivist) 4177, 4186 

Salwen, Milly 4104 

Santo, John 4125, 4127 

Schwartz, D. W 4145 



VI INDEX 

Page 

Scotland Yard lab 4108 

Scott, Byron N 4099,4117,4118 

517 Wyatt Building, Washington, D. C 4099 

Counsel to Martin K. Tytell 4099 

Second World War 4100 

Seitkari, Olli 4177 

Serbian language 4100 

Sergius, Father (Archbishop) 4109, 4166-4168, 4170, 4184 

Sernov, Priest Michael 4166 

$7,500 Typewriter I built for Alger Hiss, The, by Martin Tytell— 4138, 4140-4148 

Siamese typewriters/keyboards 4142, 4143 

Singer, Kurt (author of The World's Greatest Spy Stories) 4138 

Slavonic section 4112 

Snyder, Prof. Virgil 4142 

Society for the Advancement of Criminology 4126 

Soloviev, Mikhail 4170 

Soviet Russia 4166 

Soviet Union 4103 

Spanish language (typewriter) 4143 

Spiridovitch 4108 

Stalin 4104, 4106, 4108, 4115, 4118, 4126, 4165 

Stalin-Yeremin document/letter. (See Yeremin.) 

Stalin's Great Secret, by Isaac Don Levine 4126, 4183, 4186 

Stanford University Library 4106 

Starosolsky, George (translator for the Library of Congress) 4131, 

4136, 4150, 4169, 4175, 4176 

State Department 4141 

Statler Hotel 4126 

Statov, Paul 4168 

Stockholm police lab 4108 

Strong, John 4122 

Sworakowski, Mr. (with Stanford University Library) 4106,4107 

Synod 4168 



Tagesspiegel (German publication) 4165 

Tange, Professor 4185 

Three Who Made a Revolution, by Bertram D. Wolfe 4155 

Time-Life, central European bureau of 4162 

Tolstoy Foundation 4107, 4183 

Trotsky, Leon : 4155 

True magazine 4138-4140 

Turkish language (typewriter) 4143 

Tytell, Martin Kenneth 4099- 

4123, 4125-4127, 4138, 4141, 4142, 4156, 4157, 4162, 4163 

3031 Scenic Place, Riverdale 63, New York 4099 

Testimony of 4099-4123 

Typewriter mechanic and dealer; typewritten-document analyst 4099 

Owner of Tytell Typewriter Co., Inc 4099 

Did work for Amtorg during World War II 4100 

Lectured at New York University 4103 

Lectured at Brooklyn College 4105 

Lectured at New York Institute of Criminology 4104 

Assignment with OSS 4141,4142 

Speech before American Association for the Advancement of Science. 4183- 

4186 

Exhibits 4157-4161 

Tytell, Pearl (Mrs. Martin Kenneth) 4156, 4157 

Tytell Exhibit A — Letter from Tytell to Librarian, Hoover Library, dated 

May 31, 1956, re document referred to in Life article by Levine 4106 

Tytell Exhibit B — Letter from Tytell to Librarian, Hoover Library, dated 

June 20, 1956, referring to previous letter 4106, 4107 

Tytell Exhibit C — Letter from Hoover Library, Stanford University, to 
Tytell, dated July 3, 1956, re document referred to in Life article of 

April 23, 1956, by Levine 4107 

Tytell Typewriter Co., Inc 4099, 4101, 4141 



index vn 

U Page 

Ukrainian language 4100 

V 

Valoniemi (archivist) 4177, 4186 

Varel 4114, 4176, 4185 

Vienna 4125, 4127 

Voice of Orthodoxy, The (Russian journal published! in Berlin) 4164 

Volontsevich, Father 4167, 4169 

Voorhis, Harold A., vice president and secretary of New York University _4156, 

4157 

W 

War Production Board 4142 

Washington, D. C 4141, 4170 

Widnas, Marie 4176, 4177, 41S5, 4186 

Wiesbaden (Germany) 4108, 

4109, 4127, 4132, 4148, 4150-4152, 4155, 4162, 4163, 4169, 4174, 4184, 4185 

Wiesbaden Cemetery 4172 

Wiesbaden Church Register 4171 

WNYC tape 4119 

Wolfe, Bertram D 4155 

Woodstock 4145 

Woodstock No. 230,099 4141, 4143, 4147 

Woodstock No. 231,195 4144, 4147 

World's Greatest Spy Stories, The, by Kurt Singer 4138 

Wydnas, Maria 4112 

Y 
Yakobson, Sergius, senior specialist in Russian affairs, Library of Con- 
gress 4164 

Yeremin, Colonel (Eremin) 4112, 4177, 4183, 4185, 4186 

Yeremin documents of Stalin 4104, 4112, 4118, 4119, 4121, 4122, 4183^186 

Yurieff, Col. Feodor 4114, 4173, 4185 

Yurieff, Mrs. Xenia 4173 

Z 
Zhukov, Marshal 4102, 4103 

o 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 



II II llll I 



3 9999 05442 1605