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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

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PART 66 

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




Boston Public Library 
SuperintPTT^;?nt of Documents 

JAN 29 1958 


.TAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 


OLIN D. JOHNSTON. South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, Nortli D.iliota 





SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 


SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 
J. G. Sourwine, Associate Counsel 
William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



Korchak-Sivitsky, Rev. Michael 4171 

Mandel, Benjamin 4126 

Tytell, Martin Kennetli 4099, 4117 

Appendix 4173 




United States Senate, 

Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OF the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2 : 30 p. m., in room 
253, Senate Office Building. 

Present : Senator Olin D. Johnston. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
associate counsel; and Benjamin Mandel, director of research. 

Also present: Chester T. Lane, 150 Broadway, New York, N. Y., 
and Byron N. Scott, 517 Wyatt Building, Washington, D. C. 

Senator Johnston. Do you swear the evidence you are to give before 
this subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee of the United States 
Senate to be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Tytell. I do. Senator. 

Mr. Morris. Let the record show that, at the direction of Senator 
Johnston, we are proceeding to room 155, where the interrogation will 
be had, and counsel for Mr. Tytell have so consented. 

(Thereupon, the following proceedings were had in room 155, Sen- 
ate Office Building.) 


Mr. Morris. Would you give your full name and address to the 
reporter ? 

Mr. Tytell. Martin Kenneth Tytell. 

Mr. Morris. Wliere do you reside ? 

Mr. Tytell. 3031 Scenic Place, Riverdale 63, N. Y. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. And what is your business or profession, Mr. Tytell ? 

Mr. Tytell. I am a typewriter mechanic ; I am a typewriter dealer ; 
and I am a typewritten-document analyst. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have your own business ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What is the name of your business ? 

Mr. Tytell. Tytell Typewriter Co., Inc. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Is that the only corporation with which you are 
associated in the businesses you have stated ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Do you operate under the ISTew York corporation laws? 



Mr. Tttell. New York corporation. 

Mr. Morris. When was that mcorporated ? 

Mr. Tytell. Approximately, oh, about 10 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. And will you tell us generally the nature of that 
business ? 

Mr. Tytell. I rent typewriters. I sell typewriters. I rebuild 
typewriters. I convert typewriters to any one of 100 or so languages 
and any special technical keyboards that are required. I build special 
typewriters for television, for the handicapped, for all special pur- 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business, is it one that would be 
called a successful business ? 

Mr. Tytell. I believe so. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you specialize in any particular type of type- 
writer construction or repairs or business ? 

Mr. Tytell. Special machines are our specialty, languages or tech- 
nical, any special purpose. But I also do the normal typewriter 

Mr. Morris. What do you mean, "normal" ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I mean, we buy and sell normal typewriters. 

Mr. Morris. Do you do any export ? 

Mr. Tytell. No; we do not do export directly to a foreign firm. 
In other words, people who buy here have orders and we sell directly 
to those people. 

jMr. Morris. Not to the export company, you mean, to the people 
who buy them from you ? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; to people who are agents of these foreign buyers. 

Mr. Morris. And would you tell us to whom and what countries 
those machines are sent? 

Mr. Tytell. By that, do you mean since I have been in business, or 
currently, or what ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, I think if j'ou could answer it generally, I would 
appreciate it. 

Mr. Tyit;ll. Well, lately, my machines have been going to Brazil. 
I should say my typewriters are being put out and used all over the 
world. I have made practically every language or dialect 

Mr. i\IoRRis. Do you specialize in any particular language ? 

Mr. Tytell. No. 

Mr. Morris. Like Russian 

Mr. Tytell. I have all of them — Serbian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, 
anything yon can think of, we have 2 million types in stock. 

Mr. Morris. And you construct and manufacture them? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I did explain what we do. We do actually, to 
go into it further, we actually solder the letters upon the machines, we 
put in the lettei-s they want, we solder them. We do not manufacture 
the machine. We coiivert it to what the customer wants. 

Mr. Morris. Have you done any business at all with any of the coun- 
tries in the Soviet bloc, directly or indirectly ? 

Mr. Tytell. I did some work for Amtorg during the Second World 

]Mr. INIoRKLs. Would you tell us the circumstances surrounding the 
establishment of that particular business? I mean, the circumstances, 
how you got the business. 


Mr. Tytell. They called us and said they wanted to buy a few 
Russian typewriters and asked for a quotation and we gave them a 
quotation and they gave us an order. 

Mr. Morris. Approxinuitel}' what was the extent of this business 
with them ? 

Mr. Tytell. Very little, maybe a couple of hundred. 

Mr. Morris. Do you remember the name of the individual with 
whom you dealt ? 

Mr. Tytell. Xo ; I cannot. 

Mr. Morris. Have you done any business for the Soviet embassies? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Any of the Soviet consulates ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, the correct answer would be that I have people 
calling in, speaking all languages. I do not ask them if they come 
from any consulate. There is a possibility somebody might come from 
one of the Soviet consulates and has brought a typewriter but I don't 
ask questions. 

Mr. Morris. But if someone comes in and speaks in broken English 
or Russian, the presumption Avould be that he was from the Russian 
consulate and 

Mr. Tytell. Well, they speak English very well, these fellows. 

Mr. Morris. Will you answer this question: When the gentlemen 
come in and order typewriters, what language do they order to be 
placed on the typewriter? Some languages have different letters. 

Mr. Tytell. And I answered, I don't ask them where they come 

Mr. Morris. No ; but you make the language for them on the type- 
writer, don't you, you construct the typewriter with a certain 
language ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have Russian typewriters, if that is what you want, 
ready at all times to sell. 

Mr. Morris. And these are made, if I want a typewriter in a cer- 
tain language, you give me that language imposed on the typewriter, 
you do impose that language on the typewriter? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Well, tell us the language of the typewriters you have 
sold to people from consulates who have come to your shop. 

Mr. Tv^rELL. The only way of answering that is, we bill everybody 
that we sell, and I could get the bills going back to 15 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. I thought you had only been in business 10 years. 

jSIr. Tytell. Oh, no ; I have been in business since I have been about 
15 years of age. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you owned your own business ? 

Mr. Tytell. Since I was a kid of 15. 

Mr. Morris. I see, and this company you incorporated, that par- 
ticular company, 10 years ? 

Mr. Tytell.^ That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what business did you have prior to the incor- 
poration of this? '\Vliat was its name? 

Mr. Tytell. Tytell Typewriter Co. which became Tytell Type- 
writer Co., Inc., and I don't know the exact date but we coiild get that 
for you. 


Mr. Morris. And liow long has that business been in being ? 

Mr. Tytell. Since I was about 15 years of age. I am 43 now. 

Mr. Morris. Do you mean, that is the one prior to the one that you 
have now? 

Mr. Tytell. It is the same business, it is just tliat it was incor- 

Mr. Morris. And you cannot tell us with any degree of particu- 
larity without, as you say, referring to your own invoices, what lan- 
guage typewriters were sold to whom over the years? 

Mr. Tytell. I could specifically tell you by referring to my bills. 
I could tell you every machine I have ever sold, going way back. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you sold any typewriters to any Bulgarians, 
would you say, in the last 10 years? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Morris. Could you give us an estimate of the extent of that? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, there again, I could show you the bills, who 
bought it, what he paid for it, and the keyboard. 

Mr. Morris. Well, is the same true with respect to Albanian? 

Mr. Tytell. Any language in the world. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I think as a practical thing I might suggest 
that maybe what we should do is that after you get back, after you 
leave here, if you could look through the bills and give us a general 

Mr. Tytell. I asked Mr. Frank (Mr. Nelson Frank of the sub- 
committee staff) what he wanted me to bring and he said to bring 
my material for the talk that I gave before the American Association 
of Science, the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence. Had he asked me for it, I would have brought it. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry, and I do not have any idea why he said 

Mr. Tytell. If any of you would like to come into my office, if your 
research director would care to come to New York I would be glad to 
sit down with him. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry, the only way that we can find what 

Mr. Tyi'ell. If you let your research director come down, at any 
time he wants, he can see every language — every bill, and it is all open 
to you. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. 

Now, did you ever build a typewriter for Marshal Zluikov ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the circumstances ? 

Mr. Tytell. My commanding officer, Colonel Morris, gave me an 
order to build one. 

Mr. Morris. You were in the service ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes, Avorking for the colonel in the Adjutant General's 

Mv. Morris. Where wei e you then ? 

Mr. Tytell. 165 Broadway. 

Mr. Morris. And where was Marshal Zhukov at the time? 

Mr. Tytell. He Avas supposed to arrive at the Pentagon Building. 
I was sent over to the Pentagon with tlie typewriter and I waited for 
him and he never showed up and I Avont home. 

Mr. Morris. Have you made any other typewriters for any individ- 
uals of the Soviet personalities ? 


Mr. Tytell. ^Vhat do you mean by "Soviet personalities" ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, such as INIarshal Zhukov, Soviet officials. 

Mr. Tytell. Well, again, sir, I will open to you every bill and you 
can decide for yourself who is a "personality" and who is not. I sell 
typewriters regardless of 

Air. Morris. That is very good. Your suggestion is perfectly rea- 
sonable and we will be very happy to accept your invitation. 

Now, have you ever been to the Soviet Union or any of the satellite 
countries ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in connection with the operation of this par- 
ticular type of business, are there any Soviet individuals or you might 
say communistic individuals that you know of with whom you may 
have been carry ng on business relations ? 

Mr. Tytell. No. 

Mr. JMoRRis. In other words, all your transactions have been, you 
might say, off the street ? 

Mr. Tytell. Right. 

Mr. Morris. The man walks in and buys? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And you have a reputation for selling typewriters in 
whatever language is desired ? 

Mr. Tytell. Right. 

Mr. Morris. And strictly on that basis ? 

Mr. Tytell. Right. 

Mr. IMoRRis. And you have now what you would call good business 
friends in the Soviet Union or satellite countries ? 

Mr. Tytell. No, I don't. 

]Mr. INIoRRis. Were you once registered as a member of the American 
Labor Party ? 

Mr. TyiT:LL. To the best of my knowledge, no. 

Mr. Morris. You don't think you coulcl have been a member of the 
American Labor Party and not recall at this time ? 

Mr. Tytell. Have been a member 

Mr. Morris. Member, registered. 

Mr. Tytell. Register when you went to vote, you mean ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Tytell. I don't remember. Anything is possible, though. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I mean, as a matter of fact, were you a member 
of the American Labor Party ? 

Mr. Tytell. I don't recall having been a member of the American 
Labor Party. 

Mr. Morris. Well, have you ever been active in that party ? 

Mr, Tytell. Definitely not. 

Mr. Morris. Do you lecture at any university ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us which ones ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have lectured at New York University. 

Mr. Morris. How often have you done that and over what period 
of time ? 

Mr. Tytell. I took the police science course, 104, last year and T 
taught the document section of New York University last year and 
it is being repeated this September and I am also going to Puerto 


Rico for NYU in June to take a course in document identification. 

Mr. Morris. Take a course or give one ? 

Mr. Tytell. I am going to give a course there. 

Mr. Morris. Now, where else have you lectured ? 

Mr. Tytell. New York Institute of Criminology. 

Mr. Morris. What is the New York Institute of Criminology ? 

Mr. Tytell. It is a private school that trains investigators. 

Mr. Morris. Where is it located ? 

Mr. Tytell. 40 East 40th Street, New York City. 

Mr. IMoRRis. And who is the director of that school ? 

Mr. Tytell. Donald E. J. McNamara. 

Mr. Morris. And how long to your knowledge has that school been 
in existence ? 

Mr. Tytell, About 15 years or more. 

Mr. Morris. And how long have you known Mr. McNamara ? 

Mr. Tytell. Since 1955. I took a course with him in New York 
University in homicide investigation. He was the instructor. 

Mr. Morris. How did you come to know Mr. McNamara ? 

Mr. Tytell. I took a course with Mr. McNamara. He was an 
instructor. A course in homicide investigation which I took in 1955 
at NYU, as a requisite or one of my courses for my doctor of philos- 
ophy degree. I am working for my doctor of philosophy degree. 

Mr. Morris. Are you familiar with a series of four articles that 
recently ran in the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have read them. 

Mr. Morris. And a name appears on the article, Milly Salwen. 
Do you k]iow who Milly Salwen is ? 

Mr. Tytell. She called me on the phone to tell me the articles 

Sir. ]\IoERis. Have you ever spoken to or seen Milly Salwen prior ? 

Mr. Tytell. Not prior to this call, no. 

Mr. Morris. Not what ? 

Mr. Tytell. Not prior to this phone call. 

Mr. Morris. Did anyone in the Daily Worker interview you in con- 
nection with those articles? 

]Mr. Tytell. No, sir. 

Mr. Mo:?Ris. Nom', according to the articles, you undertook an in- 
vestigation of the so-called Yeremin documents of Stalin, did vou 
not ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would just tell your interest in that? 

Mr. Tytell. As a documentary hoax, it is a forgery 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what your interest was ? 

My Tytell. Well, my interest was that — do you want me to go 
into Life magazine? 

Mv. Morris. Please do. 

Mr. Tytell. If you want to, I can give the entire material to you. 
I have slides that I used in the talk before the American Associa- 

Mr. Morris. Well, that is not necessary. 

Mr. Tytell. If you want a copy of my talk, you can have it. 

Mr. Morris. I would appreciate it very much. 

Now, would you tell us from the very beginning how you became 
interested in this thing and what you did after you became interested ? 


Mr, Tytell. At the time this article appeared in Life magazine, I 
was teaching at Brooklyn College. 

One of my students brought this to me and asked me to justify this 
opinion here, that a typing expert was convinced that the Stalin 
letter (1), and the document known to have come from the St. Peters- 
burg Police Department (2), were both written on machines of the 

same model and make then in use in Hussia, yet it is obvious 

Air. Morris. What was tiie name of the student ? 
Mr. Tytell. Oh, I don't know. I had about — I think I had 70 
students at that time, I can't remember. 

And so I asked Life to send this thing down to my class and 

they sent us a batcli of these and we used them in the class 

Mr. Morris. Approximately when was this ? 
Mr. Tytell. Sometime in May. 
Mr. Morris. Of 1956? 
Mr. Tytell. 1956. 

Mr. Morris. And at that time you were then teaching at Brooklyn 
Mr. Tytell. That is right. 
Mr. Morris. As a regular staff member ? 
Mr. Tytell. As a lecturer. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been at Brooklyn College? 
Mr. Tytell. That was the first term. I had taught previously iso- 
lated lectures. This was a complete course. 
Mr. Morris. And you had 70 students ? 
Mr. Tytell. Approximately. 

Mr. Morris. And one particular student brought you the article and 
asked you about it and excited your interest ? 
Mr. Tytell. That is right. 
Mr. Morris. What did you do ? 

Mr. Tytell, Well, I could not understand how an expert could say 
that the questioned documents were done on the same typewriter, 
especially since I know the Remington Russian type. 

So I checked my files. I have extensive documentary files of most 
typewriters, and I could not find any standard of this particular 

" And my students were able to point out differences and none of them 
could come to the conclusion this expert had, that this was the same 
make and model of typewriter. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. In other words, in this Life article an expert is repre- 
sented to say 

Mr. Tytell. That both of these are the same make and model 

* Mr. Morris, And you made an analysis, samples of which you have 
given me ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, those are the same, this one is enlarged so you 
can see it easier. 
Mr. Morris. And the samples indicate they were not ? 
Mr. Tytell. Impossible to have been. 
Mr. Morris. Then what did you do? 

Mr. Tytell. I contacted Life magazine to see if I could get a 
better copv because, if you put this under the miscroscope, you get the 
Ben Day dots. 


Life magazine referred me to Howard McCann, the publisher of a 
book by Mr. Levine, and Howard McCann referred me to Mr. Levine. 

So I called Mr. Levine and Mr. Levine agreed to meet with me in 
New York and bring other papers to show me that this was indeed 
a Remington typewriter or at least he had been advised it had been. 

I also contacted the Stanford University Library and requested a 
copy of what had been used as a standard. 

Mr. Morris. With whom did you speak at Stanford University 
Library ? 

Mr. Tytell. I wrote to the librarian on May 31. 

Mr. Morris. You mean just to "Librarian"? 

Mr. Tytell. To "Librarian," right. 

And I did not get any reply. So on June 13 I called on the tele- 
phone and I spoke to Mr. Sworakowski. 

Mr. Morris. And then what happened ? 

Mr. Tytell. And I wanted additional information because he said 
they had been looking for it and they couldn't find anything, and I 
followed up with a letter on June 20 and then I got a letter back on 
July 3 but they still had not been able to find it but they did find 
some correspondence that they had sent to Mr. Levine. 

Would you care to look at these? You are welcome to have them. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you will leave them. I will see that you 
get them back in a day or so. 

Mr. Tytell. Why not. 

Mr. Lane. Could they be marked ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, mark them as "Exhibit A, B, C." 

(The documents referred to were marked "Exhibits A, B, C," and 
read as follows :) 

Tytell Exhibit A 

May 31, 1956. 
Librarian, Hoover Library, 

Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 

Dear Sir: In the April 23, 1956, issue of Life Magazine an article by Issac 
Don Levine, A Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy, makes references on page 
50, to, "* * * a document preserved in the Hoover Library at Stanford Univer- 
sity. It came from the acting director of the department of police in St. 
Petersburg and was dated Nov. 5, 1912, * * *." 

This article has a photograph of the salutation of this document. 

I am to deliver a paper at the next meeting of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science to be held at the Hotel Statler in New York City, 
and would like to prepare an exhibit of this document in connection with my 

May I please have a good sharp copy of this document, or preferably a nega- 
tive that I may use to prepare my blowup. I will cheerfully defray any charges 
m connection with this service. 

If my request is not practical, may I please have permission to examine 
this document at your earliest convenience, to enable me to prepare my ma- 


Martin K. Tytell. 

Tytell Exhibit B 

June 20, 1956. 
Librarian, Hoover Library, 

Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 
Di:ar Sir : Reference is made to my letter of May 31st, 1956, with regard to 
obtaining a sharp photograph or preferably a negative of "* ♦ * a document 
preserved in the Hoover Library at Stanford University. It came from the act- 
ing director of the department of police at St. Petersburg and was dated Nov. 5, 


1912, * * *" referred to in the article by Isaac Don Levein in Life Magazine 
issue of April 23, 1956. 

On June 13, 1956, I phoned your office and was connected with Mr. Swora- 
kowski, who promised to write to me about this letter : to date I have received no 
communication. He also stated that if I could furniish some reference number 
it would assist in locating the document. 

Enclosed is a photostat of the letter given to me by Life Magazine. There 
appear to be some numbers on the documents ; perhaps they are your file 
numbers. At any event it should aid in clearing up the question of the existence 
of this document in your archives. 

Your cooperation in definitely establishing the existence of this document 
in your tiles is extremely important as it was used as a standard to establish 
the authenticity of a questioned letter. 

May I please hear from you at your earliest convenience. 
Sincerely yoiirs, 

Martin K. Tytell. 

Tttell Exhibit C 

The Hoover Ixstitute and Library 

ON War, Revolution, and Peace, 
Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., July 3, 1956. 
Mr. Martin K. Tttell, 
123 Fulton Street, 

Neio York 38, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Tytell : Upon receipt of your letter of June 20, I began a search for 
the original document from which the negative photostat you sent was made. 
The photostat gave me an idea of where to look for the material, and I was 
also able to learn from our tiles that Mr. Don Levine received this photostat 
from the Hoover Library in Augiist 1949. The correspondence between the 
Library and Mr. Levine establishes beyond any doubt that the photostat in 
question is a copy of an original deposited in our Library. In order to find 
the original I have had to check, page by page, a large file pertiiiniug to the 
year 1912. I have done some 30 percent of the checking and will proceed as 
time permits me. However, I do not see what additional evidence you can 
receive from a new photostat. It will be identical with the one you have. 

I am still keeping your photostat as it will guide me in the search for the 

Sincerely yours, 

Witold S. Sworakowski, 

Assistant Director. 

Mr. Morris. What happened next ? 

Mr. Tytell. Mr. Levine was able to give me a photostatic copy of 
the standard and the Tolstoy Foundation gave me a copy of the 
questioned document. 

So, I now had something to work with. So I checked my files very 

Mr. Morris. Now, what you were doing, what you are now describ- 
ing, was a task you were undertaking in an amateur way, or as a busi- 
ness venture ? 

Mr. Tytell. Maybe I did not make myself clear. One of my spe- 
cialties is the identification of typewritten documents. 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; but for your own 

Mr. Tytell. As a professional challenge. 

Mr. Morris. A professional challenge; you were not working for 
anyone ? 

Mr. Tytell. Oh, no; as a professional challenge and also material 
to be used for lectures. I always need material to keep my courses 
alive and anything that currently happens makes them more 

4108 scorE OF soviet activity in the united states 

And I checked all my files that I had on Remington and I could 
find nothing to match that, and yet the expert here says it is a Reming- 
ton. So, that looks to me like some kind of forgery. 

I went to Elmira — no, first, I checked with Remington Rand in New 
York and then I went to Elmira and I went through everything they 
had at Elmira. 

Do you wish to see copies of all of the different types made at Elmira 
in Russian? 

Mr. Morris. I don't think so ; no. 

Mr. Tytell. I have copies of all of them. And I was convinced 
this was not a Remington. And then I checked Royals, Underwoods, 
L. C. Smiths, and all of the foreign machines and I could find nothing 
to match this type. So, by this time, that made me really curious. 
Well, I had planned on going to Europe to visit the crime labs and 

Mr. Morris. The what? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, the various documentary laboratories. My idea 
of a busman's holiday is to visit typewriter plants, where I watch them 
manufacture types and I go through the plants and I do this whenever 
I can, but I hadn't done any foreign — and the laboratories, I went to 
Scotland Yard, the French Surete, the police lab in Stockholm, in Ber- 
lin, in Wiesbaden, the International Police, the Irish Police 

Mr. Morris. You say you did visit all of them ? 

Mr. Tytell. I visited these laboratories — — 

Mr. Morris. You mean generally ? 

Mr. Tytell. Generally. In fact, I had planned this for a long time 
and this thing gave me the opportunity to find out further — -well, what 
impressed me was what Mr. Levine gave as his chain of evidence, Mr, 
Levine said that he was not just sure because of — well, he had this 
chain of evidence. Now, I teach documentary research, and so I de- 
cided to follow up on his chain of evidence, which I did. 

Mr. Morris. How did you follow it up ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, Mr. Levine mentioned the fact that he went to a 
church on Nachodstrasse in Berlin, this being the result of an interro- 
gation he had with General Spiridovitch. 

He pressed General Spiridovitch, and General Spiridovitch reluc- 
tantly gave him the name of an individual he regarded was the last 
of the agents that could have had contact with Stalin. 

Mr. Morris. What was that name ? 

Mr. Tytell. Dobroliubov, and that this man was believed dead, 
but that, in fact, he was hiding out as a sexton in this church, and, as 
Levine puts it very dramatically, here, among all of this political and 
foreign intrigue, this man was hiding out. That interested me. It 
sounded very romantic. So I went to the same church and checked 
with the priest. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have affidavits. That is why I wanted to read 

Mr. Mandel. Was it Adamantov ? 

i\Ir. Tv'j'ELL. No; that was at Wiesbaden; that is another priest. I 
have liere attached the affidavit he gave — the affidavit of my interpreter 
or guide that I employed in that church. This man was a prisoner 
of war of the Americans and he spoke very fine English. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name? 


Mr. Tytell. Igor Fromke. And he wrote up what happened for 
me. And the first man I interviewed was Father Sergius- 

Mr. Morris. You went there, is that right, to Berlin ? 

Mr. Tytell. I was in Berlin. I wanted to visit, actually, the type 

Mr. Morris. "Where was this sexton ? 

Mr. Tytell. This alleged sexton was supposed to be working at 
this church. 

Mr. Morris. In Berlin ? 

Mr. Tytell. Initially, yes; and then, according to Levine — and this 
priest said he never heard 

Mr. Morris. Who was the priest ? 

Mr. Tytell. Father Sergius. 

Mr. Morris. And while there you met this Mr. Fromke ? 

Mr. Tytell. He was administering — an altar boy — I explain all of 
that. And at this point I wanted to be sure I was in the right church, 
because I had the right priest, or thought I had, and on further inter- 
rogation it developed that they had another priest. So I immediately 
went to visit this other priest on Sunday, but the other priest was 
preaching someplace else, and so I came back and I was introduced 
to the second priest, and he was even more emphatic that he never 
knew of Dobroliubov. And also he had never met Mr. Levine. I 
showed a book with a picture and neither priest had ever spoken to 
Levine or Dobroliubov, and neither had a sexton by that name, because 
the present incumbent sexton had been there the last 25 years. And 
then Mr. Levine goes on to say how his quarry had fled to this church 
in Wiesbaden, which had been erected by a prince in the memory of 
his wife 

]\Ir. Morris. What church ? 

Mr. Tytell. It is called the Greek Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden. 

Actually, I had planned to go to Wiesbaden anyway, to visit the 
state center of the Federated— it is called the Bundes Kriminal 
Amt, Federated German Police. They have, incidentally there — 
off tlie record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Tytell. And so then I went to this adjoining cemetery, after. 
They have a regular guided tour, it is a tourist spot and I interviewed 
the priest. 

Mr. Morris. What was his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have affidavits from him. Archpriest Paul Adam- 

Mr. Morris. And what was the purpose of interviewing him ? 

Mr. Tytell. To find out if there was a man by the name of Dobrol- 
iubov that this priest had taken Levine — according to Levine's book, 
this priest had taken Levine, taken him to the tombstone in the ceme- 
tery and showed him the final resting place, and I wanted to see this. 
But there was no tombstone, no grave. I had the grave register read 
to me, 2 times and there was no name like that going back 15 years. 
And I interviewed the priest's daughter, who speaks English very 

Mr. Morris. Did the priest himself speak English ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes, not too coherently, but he understands — in fact, 
he reads English, he reads several languages. And I have an affidavit 


here from the priest's daughter who checked the register. We went to 
the cemetery 

Mr. Morris. What names did you look for ? 

Mr. Tytell. All the names since the last 15 years and there was no 

Mr. Morris. No similar name ? 

Mr. Tytell. No name with any resemblance to Dobroliiibov. 

Mr. Morris. And they did not by any chance point out there was a 
name resembling that name? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I was looking for any resemblances, I had that 
in mind that somebody might have had a similar name, but there 
wasn't any. 

Mr. Morris. Nor by the first name ? 

INIr. Tytell. I didn't have the first name. All I had was the 
Dobroliiibov, that is the second name. 

Mr. Morris. You did not have the first name ? 

Mr. Tytell. No; the book does not speak of any first name, just 

Mr. Morris. But it is your testimony there was not that name or any 
similar name? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. And I have also an affidavit from the 
priest's daughter and from my guide, Fromke, who went with me. 

Mr. Morris. Do you have copies ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; I took Fromke with me because I did not know 
if anybody there could speak English. 

Mr. Morris. And he was present all the time ? 

Mr. Tytell. All the time. 

Mr. Morris. Shall we make the same arrangement with these ex- 
hibits ? 

Mr. Lane. I make the suggestion Mr. Tytell offer the originals. 

Mr. Tytell. Here are the originals and the photostats. This is 
Fromke's original. And this is the priest's daughter's — who, inci- 
dentally, writes double, a very fascinating way in which to write. 

(The material supplied by Mr. Tytell appear as an appendix in this 

Mr. Morris. What language is this ? 

Mr. Tytell. This is Kussian and I have the translation in my speech. 

Mr. Morris. Is this the only affidavit he gave ? 

Mr. Tytell. The priest, Adamantov — it tells that I was there and 
nobody by the name of Dobroliubov is buried there. 

Mr. Morris. The specific question: Was there another affidavit he 

Mr. Tytell. Adamantov, no, just one. 

Mr. Scott. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. The point is that you did ascertain from conversations 
with Adamantov, the daughter, the register, that there was no one 
by the name of Dobroliubov or anything like that ? 

Mr. Tytell. Dobroliubov or any similar name as having been in- 
terred in that cemetery or registered in the grave register. 

Mr. Morris. And none similar? 

Mr. Tytell. None whatsoever. My guide was very eager to see 

]\Ir. Morris. And Mr. Fromke was the man you took ? 


Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you known Mr. Fromke ? 

Mr. Tytell. When I employed him. 

Mr. Morris. You never met him before ? 

Mr. Tytell. Never met him before. 

Mr. Morris. '\^nio recommended him to you ? 

INIr. Tytell. Nobody did. I just walked into the church and services 
were going on and there was beautiful singing and so I listened to 
the singing for about an hour. 

And I felt that this was excellent singing but I was there for a 

So, I asked the sexton, the fellow selling candles if anybody spoke 
English, and he walked up to the altar and he stopped the entire service 
and of course I asked what time I could come back without disturbing 
the service. 

And I came back and asked if he would act as the interpreter, and 
he was on vacation, 3 weeks, at that time and I asked, "Would you like 
to work with me?" 

And he said "I would" and I checked into him, and I have it, and 
it tells about him, how many children he had, how long he had been 
working, it is all in there. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Tytell, did you go further in connection with 
your undertaking in Germany ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where else did you go? Did you check any municipal 
records ? 

Mr. Tytell. No, I did not. All of the records of deaths are car- 
ried right in tliat church, they have a regular book, a bound book which 
has an official connotation there. I did not inquire whether there 
were any other records that I could go to because it specifically said 
here that Dobroliubov is buried in this cemetery. 

So, nobody is buried there unless his name is in the bound book 
and that name was not in it, no record he was buried there, which I 
thought was sufficient. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. In other words, you exhausted all the possibilities. 
First you spoke to the priest. 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And second 

Mr. Tytell. First, the man who was the sexton, alleged sexton ac- 
cording to Levine, but this man had been sexton there before, and I 
asked the priest and they did not know, and there was no one there 
buried by that name, and when I asked for a further check then the 
daughter read all of the names from the book and I had her do this 
twice. And I went to the cemetery and I had the guide check the 
names, all of the names, I did not want any slipup. 

Mr. Morris. But no municipal records ? 

Mr. Tytell. No municipal records. 

Mr. Morris. And you checked the other point, no similar names? 

Mr. Tytell. No similar names, absolutely. 

Mr. Morris. And what next ? 

Mr. Tytell. I went to Hamburg. 

Mr. Morris. What happened there ? 

93215— 57— pt. 66 2 


Mr. Tytell. In Hamburg, I went to interview initially the man — 
the biggest publisher of literature in the field I am interested in, per- 
taining to office equipment and I went there and engaged a young 
man from the University of Hamburg 

Mr. Morris. What was his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. The name was Jurgen Grassel and with Grassel as a 
guide, we polled the university and asked for students who were com- 
petent in English and in German and this man was in the law school 
there and he had also been in England, and I was sent to this big com- 
pany, where I was introduced and I employed liim and he went with 
me to the Slavonic section, and I went through all of that and not 
only that but other factories where they made type, but this specific 
thing — I went to the University of Hamburg, the Slavonic section, 
and the upshot was that they told me there that if I wanted real 
documentary proof, to go to Finland because Finland had been a 
possession of Russia until 1917 and that is where I could really get 
the material. 

So, from there, after I went to Paris, where I made arrangements 
to visit certain labs, I went to Finland. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have a visa to go to Finland ? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I did not. I didn't know I would need any visa. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you run into any difficulty on that account ? 

Mr. Tytell. No. 

Mr. Morris. You just went in there ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, this is very funny. When I got there they said, 
"Have you got a visa?" Well, I said that they were expecting me at 
the university, and the next day, when I got to the university they 
said, "We have been expecting you." So I had no difficulty. 

Mr. Morris. What happened in Finland ? 

Mr. Tytell. At the university, I spoke to the director's assistant 
there, and they gave me a girl. 

Mr. Morris. What was her name ? 

Mr. Tydell. Maria Wyclnas. 

Mr. Morris. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. What was the general nature of those documents ? 

Mr. Tytell. The affidavits I brought back from Finland, I have 
microfilms, they are from the same office of the MVD Ministry of 
Internal Affairs, signed by Yeremin, the man supposed to have signed 
the questioned document and, actually, there was no resemblance in 
that signature and the signature on the questioned document. That 
shows, definitely, it is a phony document, from the point of signature. 
From the point of typing — I will show you copies of the signature. 

Mr. Morris. Did anyone make any prearrangements for you as 
you did this ? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I did it all while I was there. 

Mr. Morris. You were at the university, and they made the arrange- 
ment, and they gave you all the material ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right; anybody can go there. This is open 
material there. 

Mr. Morris, You have an affidavit on that ? 

Mr. Tytell. I have one from Maria Wydnas; I have an affidavit. 

Mr. Morris. Off the record. 

( Discussion off the record. ) 


Mr. Tytell. The typewriter I finally found at Frankfurt-am-Main, 
made at the Kleyer-Adler Works. 

Mr. Morris. How did you learn that ? 

Mr. Tytell. Burglihagen had established that. 

Mr. Morris. Had established what ? 

Mr. Tytell. Established that Eussian type had been manufactured 
in America, had been manufactured by Rosmeyer & Biak, by Gooske, 
and by Adler. And I had checked Eosmeyer, and I had been there, 
but I had not been in Adler. And I was sure that nobody in America 
made that type, and so this left Adler, so, when I got there, I spent 
the whole morning going through 

Mr. Morris. In other w^ords, you were now trying to ascertain scien- 
tifically this machine made by Adler? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, if it was not made b}^ Adler, then somebody 
would have had to have made it by hand. 

Mr. Morris. And did you find it ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. It was manufactured in 1912. 

Mr. Morris. How did you learn that ? 

Mr. Tytell. From the people at the plant. I told them what I 
was interested in, and they were very helpful and went through all 
of the old macliines, and the plant superintendent 

Mr. Morris. What was his name? 

Mr. Tytell. I don't know his name. 

Mr. Morris. And you don't have any affidavits from him ? 

Mr. Tytell. No, but I took a sample off the machine. 

Mr. Morris. And you do not have a certification from him it was 
made by Adler in 1012 ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I ran into a problem there. All of their records 
had been destroyed. The plant had been completely destroyed dur- 
ing the war, so that was the problem, and it was a matter of getting 
enough people who had been there at the factory, and there were a half 
a dozen people, and it was discussed, and the conclusion was, more 
or less, made unanimously that they did not make a Eussian t3'pe- 
writer until 1912. 

Mr. Morris. But there is nothing scientific? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; nothing that you could get, because all the records 
were destroyed. 

Mr. Morris. And you got this from the superintendent? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right 

Mr. Morris. But j^ou don't know his name ? 

Mr. Tytell. Well, I was introduced to the fellow. 

Mr, Morris. Maybe, if you check your records, you could tell us 

Mr. Tytell. No; I did not make any notation, other than taking 
a sample off the typewriter. 

Mr. Morris. Would you recognize the name if you saw it? 

Mr. Tytell. No ; I don't think so. 

Mr. Morris. It is your testimony you did speak with him ? 

Mr. Tytell. Oh, yes, and, if this committee wants to go to this 
plant and ask the superintendent, you can ask him if he took a type- 
writer off the showcase, that he never did before 

Mr. Morris. Well, the important thing is to try — it is a point of fact 
to prove it was made in 1912. 


Mr. Tttell. There is nothing definite that I could prove that with ; 
it is strictly this man's opinion and others there, there are no factory 
records, the records had been destroyed. But Mr. Levine did find 
out, somewhere, that they did make Russian machines in 1909 — let us 
assume Mr. Levine is right and that they did in 1909 ; still this doc- 
ument could not have been typed in 1913, unless somebody had put a 
motor under the machine and struck the keys constantly 24 hours a 
day to wear the type down to this point where it looks like this [indi- 
cating], and I know about that; I have had numerous tests that I 
have made and I could prove that this machine had been made and 
was used many years. 

Mr. MoERis. And you make the flat statement it was made in 1912 ? 

Mr. Tttell. Yes. I flatly state they did not make any Russian 
machine until 1912, based upon what they told me, but, assuming I am 
wrong and Mr. Levine is right 

Mr. Morris. The only thing is, you made a statement that it was 
definitely established that Adler's factory first made a Russian type- 
writer in 1912. Now, you are a man of science 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, and when you say something is definitely estab- 
lished, I wonder what documentation you have. 

Mr. Tytell. My documentation is interviewing people that had been 
there a long time and who agreed it was made in 1912 and, in the ab- 
sence of any record, I have to believe them and I see no reason not ; I 
see no reason why they would tell me any other date when they did 
not make it — I mean, this is not materially important to my presenta- 
tion, now 

Mr. Morris. What else did you do at Frankfurt ? 

Mr. Tytell. I also wanted to check whether or not an Adler type- 
writer had ever been used at that time at St. Petersburg. 

Sir, we inquired at the church, the Russian church in Hamburg with 
my guide, and they told us that — about some high dignitaries that were 
at the old-folks' home at Varel, and that is near Bremerhaven ; I got 
up at 6 o'clock in the morning and I got there and interviewed 2 people. 
One had been a district attorney and the other had been a clerk, and 
I have the dates that they were ; it is in my article on page 10. 

I spoke with Colonel Feodor Yurietf, who worked as Government 
prosecutor from 1904 to 1917. This man was 3 months away from 
becoming general, and life had passed him by ; they had the revolution 
3 months too soon. And Stepan Rusanow; he worked from 1908 to 
1918 as typist in various St. Petersburg offices. 

And they said they had never seen an Adler and I have got affidavits 
and the colonel's wife, incidentally, gave me this to show what a fine 
person her husband was (exhibiting) . 

When I got back to New York I gave all this material to Mr. Levine 
except one affidavit, I didn't give this affidavit but all of this other 

Mr. Morris. And that was the end of the trip ? 

Mr. Tytell. And then I gave the talk. 

Mr. ScoTT. Could I ask, I don't know whether I understood your 
question as to when the machine was built, as to whether or not there 
was scientific proof that it was not built before 1912, but did I under- 
stand you to say that Mr. Tytell had stated that it was — that he had 
defiii itely established it ? 


Mr. Morris. I was reading an excerpt from his speech, if I read it 
correctly — off the record. 

(Discussion off tlie record.) 

Mr. Morris. Yon have no interest in the rehabilitation of Marshal 

Mi-.Tttell. No. 

Mr. Morris. I think that is all. 

( Discussion off the record. ) 

Mr. Lane. I would like the record to show that the paper which has 
been produced as the Ncav York University tape of Mr. Tytell's talk 
states : 

All the records of the company had been destroyed during the war but from 
conferences there with the old men who had been with the company for some 
many years it was definitely established that the Adler Co. first made a Russian 
typewriter in 1912. 

Mr. Morris. Anything else, Mr. Lane, that you think should be 
mentioned before the record is closed ? 

In the event that we may want to pursue the inquiry in any way, 
may we have a meeting by my phoning either Mr. Scott or Mr. Lane ? 

Mr. Tytell. You mean at my office ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, I don't know 

Mr. Tytell. Because that is where I have got all of the information 
you want. 

Mr. Lane. Well, if you want any other formal conferences, they can 
be arranged by telephone. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. That is all, thank you. 

(Thereupon, at 4 p. m. the hearing was adjourned.) 


THURSDAY, JUNE 27, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Inatsstigate the Ad3Iinistration 
OF THE Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 11 : 30 a. m., in room 
404, Senate Office Building, Senator John Marshall Butler presiding. 
Also present: William A. Rusher, associate counsel, and Benjamin 
Mandel, research director. 



Senator Butler. Will you please raise your right hand. Do you 
solemnly promise and declare in the presence of the Almighty God that 
the evidence that you will give to the Internal Security Subcommittee 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mr. Tytell. I do. 

Senator Butler. The witness is sworn, the counsel may proceed. 

Mr. Rusher. This is a regular open hearing of the submittee held 
at the request of this witness, Mr. Tytell, who appeared some time ago 
in executive session and, as I understand it, wishes to reaffirm in public 
session the truth of the answers he gave in the executive session, subject 
to various corrections as to detail and various additions. So I will 
ask you, Mr. Tytell 

Mr. Scott. May I interrupt just a moment to make a statement that 
I think may clarify the record — just that Mr. Tytell did appear under 
subpena in executive session, diet give his testimony and later vvrote a 
letter to the committee in which he stated that he thought that 
perhaps, although he was not sure, one answer that he had given to a 
question Avas not as responsive as perhaps the questioner had had in 
mind when he answered the question at the conclusion of that hearing. 
Request was made that the testimony given at that executive session be 
published or made public. It is my understanding that in response 
to that request, Mr. Tytell was invited to come today to make that 
testimony public. There was a question in Mr. Tytell's mind then as 
to wliether he wanted to insist on the right to make his testimony 
public, and in conversation with Judge ]\Iorris — was it Judge Morris or 
Mr. Rusher? — Judge Morris, it was stated that the invitation was a 
direction to come and that there would not be an adjournment of the 



Mr. Rusher. I beg your pardon. I think you're referring to a 
phone conversation I had with Mr. TytelL It was I and not Mr. 

Senator Butler. Are the facts that are stated otherwise correct? 

Mr. Rusher. Yes ; I understand they are. 

Mr. Tytell, you have read this morning the testimony you gave 
before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee on February 8, 

Mr. Tttell. I have. 

Mr. Rusher. Do I undersand that this letter of which I now show 
you a photostat, dated March 2G, 1957, addressed by you to Robert 
Morris, makes certain addenda and corrections to your testimony? 

Mr. Tytell. It doesn't make any corrections; I believe it is just 
addenda. I stand by everything I said previously. 

Mr, Rusher. Is the testimony contained in this transcript of Feb- 
ruary 8 — are the answers that you gave true? 

Mr. Tytell. The answers are true. There are many typograph- 
ical errors and errors of verbiage, but on the whole this can stand as 
is to save time. 

Senator Butler. Now, I don't understand what you mean when 
you say there is verbiage. What do you mean by that '? 

Mr. Tytell. Specific examples would be "we called the Univer- 
sity of Hamburg :" the hearing would say "we polled the University 
of Hamburg." Errors of that type which are not important. 

Mr. Rusher. As to matter of substance, Mr. Tytell, you say that 
these answers as stated are true. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Rusher. And you stand by them ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes. 

Mr. Rusher. Now, Senator, may we introduce into the record at 
this point a letter which I described a moment ago ? 

Senator Butler. Without objection it will be so ordered. 

Mr. Rusher. That is Mr. Tytell's letter dated March 26, 1957. 

Martin K. Tytell, 
Examiner of Disputed Documents, 

A^cii5 York, N. Y., March 26, 1957. 
Robert Morris, Esq., 

Counsel, Special Subcommittee on Internal Seouritij, 
Senate Conwiittee on the Judiciary, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Judge Morris : Mr. Byron Scott, who as ruy attorney last week examined 
the stenographic transcript of my testimony at the hearing on February 8, tells 
me that the transcript contains the following exchange : 

Q. Now, what you were doing, what you are now describing, was a task that 
you were undertaking in an amateur way, or as a business venture? 

A. As a professional challenge. 

Q. A professional challenge: you were not working for anyone? 

A. Oh, no ; as a professional challenge and also material to be used for lec- 
tures * * *. 

What I was describing was, of course, my investigation of the claims made 
by Mr. Isaac Don Levine, in his Life article and his book, as to the authenticity 
of the so-called "Yeremin Letter" dealing with Stain's prerevolutionary activi- 

I stand by everything I said in my testimony, but after reconsidering the 
exact form of the quoted questions I think now that to make my answer com- 
plete I should have added one further fact. 


As I recall it, I explained in my testimonj^ how inquiries from my students 
first aroused my curiosity as to the "Yeremin Letter", and led me to investigate 
the soundness of Mi*. Levine's "proofs" of its genuineness. I began my investi- 
gation, as I said, strictly as a professional challenge, and I was at no time 
working for anyone. 

However, I should perhaps have added that not long after I began my investi- 
gation it occurred to me that the attorneys for Alger Hiss (for whom I had 
done some work in connection Vvith his motion for a new trial) might perhaps 
be interested in the genuineness or spuriousness of a typewritten document 
sponsored by Mr. Isaac Don Levine. Accordingly, I visited Mr. Chester T. Lane, 
Mr. Hiss's attorney, and explained to him my suspicions as to the document. 
He said that he would be very much interested if my investigation should tend 
to show that the forgery, if it was one, had been done by use of a fabricated 
typewriter, of the kind he thought had been used to forge the documents in 
the Hiss case. I said I thought that was a real possibility, and asked if he would 
be willing to compensate me for my time and expenses to the extent that I 
concentrated my investigation on this angle. He said he would be glad to do 

In fact I concluded definitely, well before my trip to Europe, that although 
the "Yeremin Letter" was almost undoubtedly a forgery there was no reason 
to believe that it was done by means of a fabricated machine. I so reported 
to Mr. Lane, and as agreed he paid me for my time and expenses involved in 
establishing that fact. From that point on I was completely on my own, and 
neither Mr. Lane nor anyone else paid me anything whatsoever in connection 
with my further investigation or my trip to Europe. 

There is one other minor correction which ought to be made in the tran.script. 
Mr. Ben Mandel, you will recall, produced a document which he identified as 
a transcript of a tape recording of my speech. ]\Ir. Lane asked Mr. Mandel — 
off the record, I think — whether this was the WNYC tape, and Mr. Mandel 
said it was. Then Mr. Lane read a small portion of the document into the 
record, prefacing his reading by describing the document as "the paper which 
has been produced as the NYC tape of Mr. Tytell's talk." Presumably your 
reporter was not familiar with the name of New York's municipal station 
WNYC. and so transcribed his notes as NYU, or New York University, which is 
the way the I'eference appears in the record. 

In fact, I have discovered on investigation that there was no tape record- 
ing taken by New York University, and that although one was taken by WNYC 
it was erased within a few minxites. and no transcript of it was ever made. 
I have this directly from the technician who made the recording and who in- 
formed me that it was erased because my movements around the platform 
made it impossible to secure a satisfactory recording. I have also discovered 
that Mr. Mandel's source was a police lieutenant who attended my lecture 
and took a recording for use in a training course he was giving. It would seem 
desirable that the record be corrected to show the actual source of Mr. Mandel's 
document. Also, in view of the difficulty experienced by the WNYC operator, 
it would seem very doubtful whether the transcript the committee has is ac- 
curate, and if the committee is going to rely on it, fairness to me requires 
that I be given a copy, so that I can check it. 

I think also that in fairness to me the entire record of the hearing ought 
to be made public. Before I was called to testify I was harassed by repeatea 
(luestions and insinuations put to my professional associates by Mr. Levine ana 
by your committee's Mr. Frank. These, as they were repeated to me, were 
obviously designed to cast doubt on my professional qualifications and my 
motives in exposing the "Yeremin Letter" as a forgery. Such tactics coula 
only have had the aim of injuring me professionally, and my only real answer 
to them is to meet them with my sworn testimony before your committee. 
The connuittee's rules permit publication of testimony taken at an executive 
hearing if a majority of the committee approves, and if a witness himself asks 
that this be done, and no question of national security is involved, commou 
decency requires that his request be honored. 
Very truly yours, 

Martin K. Tttej^l. 

P. S. — There is an additional correction I would like to make as to the aace 
when I incorporated my typewriter business. The correct date is July 1938. 


Mr. KusHER. Now, Mr. Tytell, I would like to ask you just a few 
questions about the matters in this letter. You state in the letter 
that before going to Europe you visited Mr. Chester Lane — L-a-n-e — 
who is the attorney for Alger Hiss, and that you told him certain sus- 
picions you had concerning a typewritten document sponsored by 
Mr. Isaac Don Levine. 

And your letter goes on to say that Mr. Lane was very much inter- 
ested and that he agreed to compensate you for your time and expenses 
to the extent that you concentrated your investigation on that subject. 

Why was he interested in establishing the spuriousness of this docu- 
ment ? 

Mr. Tytell. Mr. Lane was interested only in one fact. Now, that 
is an investigation that might show that a forgery had been done by the 
use of a fabricated typewriter. That is the only interest of Mr. Lane. 

Mr. Rusher. In short, he wanted to establish that forgery by type- 
writer was a practical possibility ? 

i\Ir. Tytell. I didn't say that. Mr. Lane was interested, and is still 
interested, in any case involving a fabricated typewriter — a type which 
is used for the purpose of committing forgery by typewriter. 

Mr. Rusher. Now you say that he paid you for your time and ex- 
penses. Will you tell the committee how much he paid you ? 

Mr. Tytell. One thousand dollars. 

Senator Bl^'ler. Including expenses ? 

Mr. Tytell. That included everything — my expenses, my time, and 
my travel. 

Senator Butler. You were not then really compensated, because 
your fare would be more than that. 

Mr. Tytell. This is just one phase covering an investigation about 
the use of a typewriter for the creation of forgery. It had nothing to 
do with ni}' investigation in Europe, or any other part of the investiga- 
tion which I did on my own. 

Mr. Rusher. Isn't it a fact, though, Mr. Tytell, that in Europe you 
also actively concerned yourself with establishing a typewriter 
forgery ? 

Mr. Tytell. My trip to Europe had nothing to do with Mr. Lane 
and did not involve any more interest in wliat ]SIr. Lane had employed 
me for. I gave my report to ]Mr. Lane in the phase that he was inter- 
ested in long before I left for EurojDe. 

Senator I3utler. I don't think, Mr. Tytell, 5^011 have answered the 
question you were asked. 

Mr. Rusher. I will restate the question. Isn't it a fact that while in 
Europe you actively investigated a case involving possible typewriter 
forgery ? 

Mr. Tytell. It is definitely not a fact. 

Mr. Rusher. You didn't inquire about the first date on which a par- 
ticular typewriter manufacturer made a specific kind of typewriter? 

Mr. Tytell. We are speaking about a fabricated typewriter. Mr. 
Lane's interest is purely in that of a fabricated typewriter. Anything 
away from fabricated typewriter is of no interest to Mr. Lane. 

Mr. Rusher. Will you tell us then 

Mr. Scott. May I insert a remark ? 

(Discussion off the record.) 


Mr. KusHER, Will you tell us, then, briefly, what the investigation 
was, for which Mr. Lane did retain you, or pay your expenses ? 

Mr. Tytell. It was obvious to me that the statement in Life maga- 
zine that the questioned typewriter and the typewriter used to produce 
the standard were not the same make and model, that the representa- 
tion as given by Life was false. It was also obvious to me that the ex- 
pert whom Mr. Isaac Don Levine had consulted, and according to the 
statement of Life and of Isaac Don Levine, that the expert had said 
that the two typewriters were the same make and model was also false. 
To the extent that I could, on my own, without giving it full time, I 
checked my files thoroughly. I also checked with the Remington Rand 
office in New York City, and the more I checked the more convinced I 
was that there was something very wrong with the picture as presented 
in Life, and that there was good possibility that somebody had cre- 
ated a typewriter to type the Yeremin document. 

At one point in my research I explained how I felt to Mr. Lane, and 
Mr. Lane said that he would be interested to have me go further and 
to investigate and to show that a fabricated typewriter had been used 
to prepare the Yeremin document. Mr. Lane believe that a fabricated 
typewriter was used to prepare the Baltimore documents in the Hiss 
case, and that is why he was interested. 

When I reported back to Mr. Lane that a fabricated typewriter was 
not used, he paid me. I would not take the research for Mr. Lane on 
any contingency. My answer whether it was or was not a fabricated 
machine had nothing to do with my fee. 

Mr. Rusher. And, also, as I understand it, you are distinguishing 
whether it was a fabricated machine from the question of the authen- 
ticity of the document. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; that is correct. 

Mr. Rusher. In other words, Avhile you remained uncon^^nced of 
the authenticity of the document, you became convinced it had not 
been written on the fabricated machine? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Rusher. And Mr. Lane's payments to you w^ere only for in- 
vestigations conducted in this country ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Rusher. You mentioned Elmira, X. Y. 

Mr. Tytell. That is right. 

Mr. Rusher. Now, what happened at Elmira? 

Mr. Tytell. In Elmira. Mr. Earl Palmeder, a man who has been 
with Remington Rand for 50 years, approximately — for a good num- 
ber of years he was a final aliner ; a final aliner is one who does the 
final inspection operation of the type on a typewriter; he takes off the 
final sheet which is filed to show the actual typing impressions of the 
machine. Today Mr. Palmeder is in an executive capacity on final 

Mr. Palmeder, as a hobby, or because of his deep interest in special 
foreign-language types, took me to his home where he has a collection 
of various oriental and Cyrillic typewriter keyboards, off actual type- 
writers which he alined, going back for about half a century. He and 
I went over in great detail every Russian specimen he had, to see if 
any of them compared in class characteristics with that of the Yere- 
min document. 


At Elmira, I also went over all the type specimens that they had in 
their printed catalogs, going as far back as their records were kept. 

Some of the jjeople who worked with me in Elmira on this problem 
were Mr. Redmond, Mr, Bruce Raye, Mr. John Strong, Mr. Floyd 
Adams, chief type designer. By the end of the day in Elmira, the 
people who worked with me, and I, were of the opinion that the Yere- 
min document was definitely not typed on a Remington typewriter or 
or any machine having Remington type soldered on to it. 

Mr. Rusher. Mr. Tytell, have you ever received any fee from Mr. 
Lane other than the one already described? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; I received a fee for the v.'ork I did for Mr. Lane 
in connection with the Alger Hiss appeal for a new trial on newly 
discovered evidence. 

Mr. Rusher. Vv^as that before or after the particular retainer you 
]iave described heretofore ? 

Mr. Tytell. That was about 1951. 

Mr. Rusher. In other words, earlier ? 

Mr. Tytell. Yes ; about 6 years ago. 

Mr. Rusher. Are those the only two fees he has paid you ? 

Mr. Tytell, Yes. 

Mr. Rusher. Are those the only two jobs you have done for him, 
indepeiidently of whether you received a fee ? 

Mr. Tytell. Let me put it this w^ay. I have called Mr. Lane to 
ask him questions regarding some lectures I have given at Brooklyn 
College, Xew York Institute 

Mr. Rusher. Beyond such phone calls and the two investigatlOll^ 
you have described, have 3'ou done any other work for him, whether 
paid for or not ? 

Mr. Tytell. Not that I can think of. 

Mr. Rusher. Could you say, definitely, "No"? 

Mr. Tytell. We are covering a period of 1951-57. I may have 
had conversations with him. There is nothing major that would in- 
volve a fee. I may have 

Mr. Rusher. Do I understand that, aside from occasional phone 
conversations or short conferences at your request, there has been no 
other major undertaking for Mr. Lane ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is correct. 

Mr. Rusher. And only those two fees ? 

Mr. Tytell. That is correct. 

Mr. Rusher. Just so we can have a terminal date, can you tell us 
when your last report was given to Mr. Lane ? 

Mr. Tytell. I cannot give you an exact date. I will say it was 
around the last week in June or the first week in July of 1956. 

Mr. Rusher. Was your report to Mr. Lane in writing ? 

Mr. Tytell. No; it was an oral report, but I did give him several 
little diagrams, such as we used in my speech, to illustrate my con- 
clusion, and I did show him photographs of material I have here, 
Avhich you may be interested in seeing, and I will be glad to show you. 

Mr. Rusher. You did not put in Avriting the conclusion, however, 
for which he had paid the tliousand dollars ? 

Mr. Tytell. My reports to liim were very informal. They were 
merely vague statements as to what I was doing, the techniques I was 
usinjr to make a determination. 


Mr. Rusher. And it is your statement that none of the costs of your 
trip to Europe were paid by Mr. Lane, nor Avas he concerned in any 
investigations you conducted there. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Tytell, Yes; that is correct. Naturally, I did telephone Mr. 
Lane when I came back from Europe, and told him of my findings, and 
also went up to see him and showed him my speech I was going to 
deliver before the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science. But this was definitely in the nature of a social meeting, 
rather than one of a professional nature wliere I would be retained for 
this part of the investigation. I want to make that very clear. 

Mr. Rusher. I have no further questions. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Scott. Objection is entered now to the designated scope of 
investigation to which the question of INIr. Tytell has contributed. 
That is, it is his feeling that he is not being investigated as a possible 
espionage agent ; that he is called upon by the committee to give infor- 
mation that may be of value to it in its investigative work, but not of 
him as a possible espionage agent. Mr. Tytell stands ready to assist 
the committee at any time with its work, but does not want his testi- 
mony published under the general designation of "Scope of Soviet 
Activity in the United States." 

Mr. Rusher. I can only say this : There is no allegation here, and 
never has been, that Mr. Tytell is an espionage agent. The title for 
the series of hearings is a standard one, from which I think no such 
unwarranted inference should be draAvn. 

Senator Butler. The subcommittee will stand in recess until call of 
the Chair. 

(Thereupon, the subcommittee hearing adjourned at 12:20 p. m.) 



United States Senate, 

Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 

OF the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 

Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

New York, N. T. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 12 : 20 p. m., in room 36, 
United States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York City, Senator 
Olin D. Johnston (South Carolina) presiding;. 

Also present: Eobert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamhi Mandel, 
director of research; Roj^ Garcia and Nelson Frank, consultants. 

Mr. Morris. This is the Reverend Michael Korchak-Sivitsky. 

Senator Johnston. Will you raise your right hand ? Do you swear 
the evidence you give in this case will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. koRCiiAK-Si\T:TSKY (through interpreter). Yes. 

Senator Johnston (to the interpreter) . Do you swear that j'^ou will 
interpret to the best of your knowledge what is conveyed to you, and 
convey it to us ? 

Miss GiNSBURG. Yes ; I will. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, this testimony this morning is being taken 
subsequent to the testimony taken of JNIr. Martin K. Tytell who has 
already testified before the subcommittee. 

Late in 1956 there appeared in the American press various an- 
nouncements to the effect that John Santo, a former member of the 
Communist Party, U. S. A., who had been voluntarily deported to 
Soviet Hungary, had left that country, that he was in Vienna, and 
was willing to testify before a congressional committee regarding his 
defection from communism. 

Moved by an interest in this case, the Senate Internal Security Sub- 
committee asked Mr. Benjamin Mandel, its research director, to inter- 
view Mr. Santo in Vienna early in January 1957, with a view to 
possiblj^ securing Mr. Santo as a witness. 

In the meantime certain articles had appeared in the (Communist) 
Daily Worker, specifically on December 31, 1956; January 6, 1957; 
January 13, 1957; and January 20, 1957, which articles dealt with 
the alleged revelations of Martin K. Tytell whom this })ublication 
referred to as a scientist with a lifelong passion for questionable 
documents; as a lecturer on police science at Brooklyn College and 
New York University; and as a document expert who had been 
used previously in the case of Alger Hiss to establish forgery by 



Mr. Tytell addressed the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science on December 29, 1956, and his remarks were repxinted 
in the Worker of January 13, 1957, pages 3 and 14. The effect of the 
articles was to defend Premier Stalin. 

Concerned about the possibility that Communists might be embark- 
ing on a campaign to rehabilitate Marshal Stalin, the subcommittee 
decided to learn what Mr. Tytell was doing. It, therefore, asked Mr. 
Mandel to look into certain phases of Mr. Tytell's investigation while 
in Europe on the Santo matter. 

Senator, we have here the pi'evious testimony, and we would like to 
take now the testimony of Mr. Benjamin Mandel. 

Mr. Mandel, I wonder if you would stand to be sworn ? 

Senator Joiinstox. Do you swear the evidence you give to this com- 
mittee to be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Mandel. I do. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with your testimony, Mr. ISIandel, you 
have 26 exhibits, do you not ? 


Mr. JVLiNDEL. I do. Before submitting my testimony, let me insert 
into the record certain data necessary for an understanding of the 
exhibits which I propose to present. 

The Worker of January 13, 1957, pages 3 and 14, printed a report 
titled : 

"Exposing a Documentary Hoax" * * * delivered by a distinguished scientist, 
Martin K. Tytell, December 29, 1956, before one of the seminars of the American 
Academy of Social Science, on Science Versus Crime. * * * Mr. Tytell is a lec- 
turer at several universities on criminology and is recognized as an expert on 
questioned documents. 

The correct title of the organization before which this report was 
given was American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Avhich met at the Hotel Statler in New York City. The meeting was 
cosponsored by the Society for the Advancement of Criminology. 
Mr. Tytell's report dealt with an article in Life magazine dated April 
23, 1956, by Isaac Don Levine, called Stalin's Great Secret, which 
included A Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy. The article was later 
expanded into a book. 

In this report reprinted in the Worker of January 13, 1957, Mr. 
Tytell is quoted as follows : 

My investigation led me abroad to Germany in July of this year. In Frank- 
furt I found that the questioned document was in fact written on an Adler — a 


machine manufactured in Germany. The Adler factory was demolished by bomb- 
ing and, therefore, a determination of the date of the machine used for the ques- 
tioned document was impossible. 

However, company employees who had been manufacturing typewriters for 
many years, stated that Russian type which produced the questioned document 
was first manufactured in the year 1912. 

According to Mr. Tytell, the book mentioned a certain "Dobroliu- 
bov, who had been an officer of the Okhrana, or czarist secret police" 
who had died and been buried in the cemetery of a Russian chapel in 
Wiesbaden, Germany. 

Mr. Tytell's report stated : 

The next day I left Berlin for Wiesbaden, taking Fromke with me to act as 

Mr. Tytell explained that Igor Fromke was a ministrant at the 
Greek Orthodox Church on Nachodstrasse in Charlottenburg, Berlin. 
Speaking of his trip to the chapel, Mr. Tytell declared : 

I spoke to the local priest * * *. This priest too knew nothing of Dobroliubov 
and had never heard the name in his tenure at the church dating back to 
11)08 * * *. 

I went through the adjoining cemetery ; there was no tombstone for Dobroliu- 
bov. There was no record in the church registry of deaths, going back to 1945, 
of a burial of such an individual or anyone bearing a name similar to 

I arrived in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany, on January 15, 1957, 
and remained there until January 16, 1957. During this time I visited 
the Russian Church, also called the Greek Chapel, located at 99 
Kappellenstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany. It is also known as the 
Russian Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden. I interviewed Archpriest 
Pavel Adamantov, the head of this church, and his daughter, Anast- 
asia Adamantov, who speaks English fluently. Her father under- 
stands a little English but speaks only Russian. 

I left for Vienna to interview Mr. John Santo and remained there 
from January 16 to January 21 when I returned to Frankfurt-am- 
Main, remaining until January 25, 1957. 

Between January 21 and 25 I visited the Russian Orthodox Church 

I asked Archpriest Adamantov, tlirough his daughter Anastasia, 
about the grave of Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky, also known as 
Dobroskok and Dobroliubov and the visit of Martin K. Tytell to the 
church on this matter. Permit me at this point to place in the record 
as exhibit 1, a photograph taken at my direction, of the Russian 
Orthodox Church. 

(The photograph was marked "Exhibit No. 492" and is reproduced 

93215—57 — pt. 66- 


Exhibit No. 492 

Russiau Greek Orthodox Church at 09 Kappelleustrasse, Wiesbadeu, Germany. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 2 is a booklet I obtained at the cliurch con- 
taining additional photographs and entitled "The Russian Church on 
the Neroberg in Wiesbaden, usually called the Greek Chapel." 


(The cover of the pamphlet referred to above was marked "Exhibit 
No. 492-A" and appears below:) 

Exhibit No. 492-A 

* "^rKW* 

msu^iij tail id 

f-'it" W.T 

-igciivenag dtB EircftciiTorstaadei 

Reproduction of the cover of a 26-page descriptive pamphlet entitled "The 
Russian Church on the Neroberg in Wiesbaden, usually called the Greek 


Mr. Mandel. As exhibit 3, I present a certified abstract in the 
Russian language, from the Russian Orthodox Church register dated 
February 1 (old calendar) and February 14 (new calendar), 1947, 
showing the death of Col. Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky, aged 65, and 
ask that a certified translation be made by the Library of Congress 
and placed in the record. 

(The abstract referred to above was marked "Exhibit No. 493," and 
is reproduced below, followed by an English translation :) 

Exhibit No. 493 


s.J.^ jLi.l> 

Abstract from church record recording death of Dobrovolsky 

Russian Orthodox Church at Wiesbaden (Germany) 

Kapellenstr. 99. 


Excerpt From the Book of Vital Statistics 


pertaining to the death 

for the year 194" 

Issued by the Russian Orthodox Church of the Blessed Saint Elizabeth at 

Item No. : Male 2. 

Month and date of death : February 1/14. 

Month and date of burial : February 9/22. 

Occupation, name, father's name and family name of deceased : Colonel of 
the Russian Army in retirement, Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky. 

Age of the deceased : 65. 

Cause of death : Apoplexy. 

Confession and the last rites: Performed by the pastor, Michael Korchak- 



Who conducted the burial services and where buried : Very Rev. Pavel Adam- 
autov, assisted by the deacon, Vassili Chekmarev, and sacristan, lakov Kash- 
chenko ; buried at the Russian Orthodox cemetery at Wiesbaden. 

No. 5/1957. 

[Seai. (of Russian Orthodox Church at Wiesbaden) ]. 

In virtue thereof we sign below and affix the seal of the church. 

Wiesbaden, January 21, 1951. 
Pastor of the church : Archpriest Pavel Adamantov, 
Sacristan Iakov Kashchenko. 
( Translated by George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress, September 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 4 is a photograph which shows Archpriest 
Pavel Adamantov signing the above document with his daughter 
Anastasia at the upper right. Exhibit 5 is a photograph showing the 
archpriest sealing the above document. 

(The above described photographs were marked "Exhibit 494 and 
494 A" and appear below :) 

Exhibit No. 494 

ritot./t;! aiili oi' Aiciipiieht i'uvel Adamantov signing death certificate referred to 
above. Photo was taken in his home. Woman on extreme right is his 


Exhibit No. 494-A 

Archpriest Adamantov affixes his seal to the Dobrovolsky death certificate. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 6 is a photograph of the cemetery of the 
Russian Orthodox Church showing Archpriest Pavel Adamantov 
and others. 


(The photograph was marked "Exhibit No. 495" and is reproduced 

Exhibit No. 495 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 7 is a photograph of a wooden cross headstone 
in this cemetery with the inscription in Russian with the name Ivan 
Vassilievich Dobrovolsky, 5.1.1882, 14.2.1947 which was explained to 
me as the birth and death date of the deceased. 


(The photograph described above was marked "Exhibit No. 496" 
and is reproduced below, followed by a translation of the marker :) 

Exhibit No. 496 

Wooden cross marking Dobrovolsky grave, 
r Translation, Inscription on wooden cross headstouol 

Colonel Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky 
January 5, 1882— February 14, 1947 

(Translated by George Starosolsky, translator, Library of Congress, September 


Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 8 is a photograph of Archpriest Pavel Ada- 
mantov with his assistant, lakov Kaschenko in the Russian Ortho- 
dox Church cemetery near the wooden cross headstone of Ivan Vas- 
silievich Dobrovolsky. 

(The photograph described above was marked "Exhibit No. 496-A" 
and is reproduced below :) 

Exhibit No. 496-A 

Archpriest Adamaniov .ti^u cu ci.-.-i.:,iant standing before the grave of Dobrovolsky 
(marked by dark wood cross). Grave is in second tier of the cemetery. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 9 is another photograph of Archpriest Pavel 
Adamant ov at the grave of Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky. 


(The photograph was marked "Exhibit No. 49G-B" and appears 

Exhibit No. 496-B 

v^"- %v'Si¥ '#T%^'^<^''^g«?Si??§5^jSs3Si|!SsiSji; 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 10 is a photostat copy of a handwritten in- 
scription signed by Martin K. Tytell with his visiting card in the 
book "The World's Greatest Spy Stories" by Kurt Singer, given to 
Archpriest Pavel Adamantov on July 17, 1956, and in turn given to me 
when I visited the archpriest. The book contains, on pages 91 to 108, 
a reprint of the article The $7,500 Typewriter I Built for Alger Hiss 
by Martin Tytell for True magazine, for August 1952. 

(The photostat of the note, and the publishers' "blurb" on the dust- 
cover of the volume was marked "Exhibit No. 497" and is reproduced 

: ^ 

; « 
^ 2 

O fc 

Exhibit No. 497 


'C^^ -O 13. *«. --<!r^~>,. -^^Ji 

.™if" -^-4 -^ '^^ 




<^ ^. ^ M I '^ s- s I ^ " ~ 

i i 

i$i "T? ^ 3 ^ ^ jE fi* ^ £ ^ ^ ^ §• "S ^ ^ ^ ?: V *■' 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 11 is a photostatic copy of this article as it 
appeared in True magazine for August 1952. 


(The article was marked "Exhibit No. 498" and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 49S 

[From True magazine, August 1952] 

The $7,500 Typewriter I Built for Alger Hiss 

(As far as typewriter-expert Tytell knew, a job like the one Alger Hiss 
lawyers wanted had never been done before. This is how he did it) 

By Martin Tytell As Told to Harry Kursh 

It began for me in the latter part of March 1950, less than 2 months 
after Alger Hiss, convicted of perjury, had implied that he was the victim of a 
"forgery by typewriter." I was sitting at my desk behind a jungle of papers and 
typewriter parts when a tall, lean young man of about 28 came in. He carried 
a bulging briefcase by its handle and, standing over my desk, peered intently 
at me from behind thick horn-rimmed glasses. 

He identified himself as a member of the Hiss defense staff and seemed to 
have trouble expressing what was on his mind. He stammered for a few 
moments. "I once read something about you," he said. 

Then he came right to the point. "Do you believe typewriters can be dupli- 
cated?" he asked. 

"I don't see why not," I replied. 

He sat down on a stool near my desk. "Do you think you can duplicate a 
typewriter?" His eyes had an anxious look. 

"I've never given it any real thought. What have you in mind?" 

He sat straight up. Then, looking squarely at me, he said, "Alger Hiss's attor- 
ney, Chester T. Lane, would like to engage you to assist in proving that two 
typewriters can be made to type so much alike that it would be confusing for 
experts to distinguish between documents typed on either of them." 

"Hiss had two jury trials," I said. "And he was convicted. How many 
trials do you want? It would be a waste of time even to try." 

He thanked me for my opinion and left, but only to return the following day. 
"I know how you feel about the case," he said, "but we're not asking you to be 
pro- or anti-Hiss. Would you be willing to take the job on as an experiment?" 

Actually, my first reaction was that I didn't want to have anything to do with 
the controversial Hiss case. I thought I'd discourage him. I told him I could 
not guarantee success, since I had never attempted such a job. 

"Whatever results I come up with," I added, "will become public information. 
I don't withhold any of my knowledge from document experts. If I should fail, 
it would undoubtedly hurt your case." 

"It probably would," he said, "but we want an intensive scientific study. 
We're willing to take a chance on the results, if you're willing, of course, to take a 
chance on your reputation." 

I thought it was shrewd of him to put it that way. Then I said emphatically, 
"But if I do succeed, it will upset the entire theory of identifying typewritten 
documents. It might even set criminals free. It might cast doubt on every con- 
viction ever obtained based on typewritten evidence. Don't you know the experts 
have never even considered the possibility that typewriters can be forged?" 

His answer was simple. "That's quite true. The ends of justice, however, are 
served only when all known factors concerning evidence have been exposed and 
properly considered under law.'' 

Finally I agreed to take the assignment on the condition that I do it only in 
my spare time, in my own way, without control or dictation from any members of 
the Hiss defense staff, and purely as a scientific experiment. He agreed to this 
and said Chester I-ane would draw up the agreement. 

Newspaper columnists around the country have been attempting to explain 
how I did the job, some reporting my fee as high as $30,000. As to how I did the 
job, not one guessed correctly. As to how much I got for the job, I can lay that 
erroneous report to rest right now. 

On April 17, 1950, Chester Lane came to my oflice with a written agreement, 
which stated I was to receive $2,500 in advance to conduct the experiment and 
that upon the completion of my work I was to receive another $5,000. That's 
what I got. However, the agreement further stated: "It is understood that you 
will work solely from [typewritten] samples without access to or inspection of the 
machine on which the samples are typed." 


Actually, it was the Hiss defense staff that had found Woodstock No. 230,099 
even though more than two dozen FBI men had turned Washington, D. C, inside 
out to find it. Edward McLean, one of Hiss's attorneys, in April 1949, traced it 
to a man named Ira Lockey, a trucker who said he had gotten it from a family 
named Marlow in exchange for a house-moving job. I knew this ; and my original 
impression was that I would simply make castings of the machine's individual 
type faces, insert them in a similar Woodstock model and adjust the entire 
machine to reproduce the original. The realization that I would have to work 
without the actual machine before me stunned me. I was to work only with 
the specimens of typing from the so-called Hiss Woodstock. But that made the 
challenge all the greater, and I decided to go ahead. 

Like millions of Americans I had followed accounts of the Alger Hiss trials, 
but throughout both of them (the first trial ended in a hung jury) I was also 
busy with my chores running the Tytell Typewriter Co. at my two-story Fulton 
Street shop in lower Manhattan. It's a quarter-million dollar business I've built 
up from scratch over the past 15 years — buying, renting, repairing and selling 
typewriters. I am 39 years old, but I've been handling typewriters more than 
half my lifetime. As a result I have been able to acquire certain skills that have 
given me an international reputation, mainly because I can convert, within 24 
hours, any standard American typewriter to type in practically any language 
you can name. When I was a GI in the last war, the OSS had me '•discharged" 
from the Army for 3 months so that I could fulfill a top-secret typewriter proj- 
ect. I am consulted regularly by criminologists. 

It was typewriter evidence that formed the core of the case against Alger 
Hiss. He was convicted officially on two counts of perjury committted before 
an espionage-hunting Federal grand jury in Deceml^er 194S. But even a school 
kid knew that behind it all lay ex-Communist Whittaker Chambers' spectacular 
charges that Hiss had been passing him confidential State Department data up 
until the time Chambers deserted the Communist Party in April 1938. The Gov- 
ernment charged that 42 out of 43 such documents produced by Chambers had 
been written on the same typewriter as a number of notes and lettei\s admittedly 
typed in the Hiss home during the same period. 

Through more than 8,000 pages and 2.300,000 woi-ds of trial testimony, Wood- 
stock typewriter model No. 230,099, built around August 1929, sat on the court- 
room table in New York's Foley Square. It was conceded at the time of the 
trial to have belonged to the Hisses. Government prosecutor Thomas F. Mur- 
phy used the typewriter to bring his against Hiss to a flashing climax. 
Pointing dramatically to the machine he told the jury that if ever there was a 
charge against Hiss, that typewriter was "the immutable witness forever 
against" him. In fact. Hiss himself practically labeled the typewriter the 
same way. 

When the lean and youthful-looking ex-State Department official stood sober- 
faced before Federal Judge Henry W. Goodard on January 25, 1950, he was 
granted permission to make a statement before sentencing. 

In a packed courtroom the reporters could be seen leaning forward intently, 
pencils poised, for what was expected to be a dramatic declaration of inno- 
cence — or a confession ! But Hiss declared simply : 

"I am confident that in the future all the facts will be brought out to 
show how Whittaker Chambers was able to commit forgery by typewriter. 
Thank you. sir.'' 

What did Hiss mean? Undoubtedly, he meant that somewhere, somehow, 
someone got hold of letters that had actually been typed on his Woodstock 
when he owned it. Then these letters were used to make a machine that would 
reproduce specimens — or documents— with the same characteristics of type- 
writer habits, typeface design, deviations, and flaws. The experts must have 

Much of the expert opinion today comes from a handful of professional men 
known as the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners. Ramos 
Feehan, FBI expert on questioned documents, fulfilled that role for the gov- 
ernment's case against Hiss by comparing the copied State Department docu- 
ments to letters written by the Hisses on their Woodstock back in 1937. 

Using easels, charts, and photographic blowups, Feehan showed the jury how 
the small a, d, e, g, i. I, o, n. and the capital A in the evidence had all the ear- 
marks of the same type faces found in the Hiss letters. That would be up- 
setting evidence in any man's court. Feehan's accuracy was not contested by 
the defense. 


Is there a chance that identity between typewriter characteristics could crop 
up accidentally in two different machines? Possibly. But such a coincidence is 
remote, to say the least. This was effectively demonstrated by a Cornell Uni- 
versity mathematics professor, Virgil Snyder, in a 1911 New York Supreme 
Court case, the People v. Ristcij- 

Risley had been accused of fraudulently altering an affidavit by typewriter. 
During the course of the trial. Professor Snyder testified that the chances of 
only six type characters appearing accidentally with identical design and devia- 
tions in the same six type characters of another machine would have to be ex- 
pressed as somewhere between one in 3 trillion to 4 trillion — a virtually im- 
possible accident. FBI expert Feehan was content to point out ten such simi- 
larities in the Hiss trial ! 

Oddly enough, the Risley trial is the only known case in which a conviction 
was obtained because it was shown that Risley had actually attempted to alter 
type faces on one machine to duplicate another. The attempt was made by a 
typewriter mechanic in a second-hand typewriter shop but was crude and 
readily discovered. The mechanic later testified, though, that he had been sus- 
picious of Risley's intentions and had not made as many alterations as he should 
have. I was setting out to make the duplication as complete and accurate as 
I could. 

Unusual jobs aren't anything new to me — though this one promised to be in 
a class by itself. My customers include professionals ranging from designers 
and architects to druggists, chemists, engineers, astronomers, and a newspaper 
columnist who writes on bridge. I design and build keyboards for them in the 
special symbols of their respective fields. For musicians I have made keyboards 
v.-itli musical notes. For a well-known mystery writer I once designed a key- 
board Wiitli a A'ariety of crosses and bones, and an astronomer once left my 
office with a typewi-iter containing a fantastic array of space symbols, such as 
ringed planets, comets and stars. A few years ago, I had a man ask me to build 
him a typewriter with question marks — nothing but question marks. On top of 
that, he wanted each symbol to fall at a certain level above or below the line. 
It was probably the weirdest request I've ever received. I completed the job 
according to his specifications, but I never did learn what it was all about. 

Perhaps one of my most interesting jobs found me a Pfc. in the Army. I got 
into the Army in January 1943. A few months later I was dischai'ged, but not 
for good. It seems that the U. S. Government had seized a coutrabrand ship- 
ment of 100 Siamese typewriters leaving for ports unknown. Nobody knew 
what to do with such a strange catch. They were placed under the custody 
of the National City Bank in New York. It was at a time when we ourselves 
were experiencing a serious war-bred shortage of typewriters. 

Few knew at the time that one of the most urgent needs for typewriters with 
foreign-language keyboards was with OSS forces planted in different countries. 
Someone suggested that the Siamese typewriters be converted for this use. 
But there was trouble in finding a man for the job. And, with the materials 
shortage, there was trouble in finding the appropriate foreign type and sym- 
bols. I already had nsany of tliese in my shop. I stock more than 2 million 
type faces, mostly foreign-language and technical. 

Fortunately, I had once done some unique foreign-language work for a Na- 
tional City Bank branch manager. Wlien he heard about the need for eon- 
verting the typewriters, he passed my name along, together with the suggestion 
that I could convert them for use on several languages at a time. 

One day in August 1943, while I was assigned as a typewriter repairman at 
Fort Jay in New York, a confidential order came through from the War Produc- 
tion Board in the form of a directive. It asked my command to release me for 
a top-secret job. No one at Fort Jay knew what it was all about : neither did I. 
When I was confronted with the problem, I told top Army brass in Washington 
that I could make each of the typewriters work for many languages. I was told 
to use my own shop, which was being run by my wife largely for typewriter 
rentals — still a good part of my business today — because they did not want word 
of the project to leak out. The typewriters had to be flown overseas, then drop- 
ped by parachute to dozens of OSS underground headquarters. 

In order to keep the project under a tight lid, I was actually discharged from 
the Army on August 25, 1943, and given a Certific;ite of Service to certify that I 
bad "served in the active Army" in order to keep my draft board from getting 
too inquisitive and to keep the cops from picking me up. Once in mufti, I re- 
turned to ray shop and sealed off an entire section of one workroom. I did every- 


thing possible to keep my work secret. But I had to make up some strange stories 
for a lot of c-urious neighbors who, until they read this, never could figure out why 
I had been released from the Army after only a few months of service. I have 
always been on the tall, round and broad-shouldered side, so to them I was the 
healthiest 4-F ever seen under a shock of light brown hair. 

Within three months, I had completed my assignment. The Siamese keyboard 
had forty-six type bars. Hence, I was able to do more with them than I had done 
with any other machine. I was able to arrange a keyboard that could lie used 
for seventeen languages in all, inclviding French, Spanish, Czech, Hungarian, 
Turkish, Danish and German. I never did learn just where they were dropped. 

When I was ''re-enlisted," I was returned to Fort Jay. There I was placed in 
charge of typewriter repair and given similar responsibility over 14.000 machines 
in the New York area — with a crew of more than a dozen technicians and still 
a Pfc. Later, I was made a staff sergeant in time to be discharged as such on 
November 26, 1945. 

Unquestionably, though, I still consider work on tracing questioned documents 
my most exciting and challenging assignments. But for excitement and chal- 
lenge, I'd never had anything to compare with the job I was starting out to do 
on the Hiss case. This promised to be the biggest one yet. 

To get started, I asked Lane's secretary to get specimens for me from Wood- 
stock No. 2.30,099. I asked her for single-spaced pages of typing with vchole lines 
of capital A's, then whole lines of small a's and to continue like that until she had 
covered every symbol on the machine. Then I asked her to do the same thing 
over, except to place capital Y's and H's next to each letter. lil:e NaNaNa, Halla- 
Ha. The A's and H'a act as guides against which other letters can be properly 
aligned. The reason is simple. 

Most typewriters carry pica or elite type. Any ten symbols on a pica machine, 
including space between letters, fill a horizontal inch. Six vertical lines of type 
also cover an inch. On an elite machine the only diiference is that it takes twelve 
symbols to fil! a horizontal inch. The Hiss Woodstock is a pica machine. Each 
of its letters, therefore, fills an imaginary rectangle of one-tenth of an inch hori- 
zontally and one-sixth of an inch vertically. Any divergence from this alinement 
is consequently one of the means by which experts trace typewritten documents. 
The letters N and // are neat guides against which a mechanic can work to make 
one specimen of typewriting match another in perfect alignment. 

After I got the specimens I had asked for, I went to my own morgue of beat-up 
typewriters, which I have collected over the years as a source of parts, and I 
selected a Woodstock model No. 231,195. It undoubtedly was built in the same 
year as No. 2.30,099, if not during the same month. I compared specimens from 
both under a magnifying glass and a binocular comparison microscoi^e. \"\'hen I 
first looked at these side by side. I noticed that my ."specimens had far fev\er 
inconsistencies than those taken from the machine. The latter appeared 
alien to Woodstock. In fact, this led me to remark facetiously to a member of 
Lane's staff that I \A'as making a forgery of a forgery. 

In making a forgery, ho\vever, you have to be concerned with more than differ- 
ences in type-face defects and design. To prevent detection by the experts, you 
have to create the same regular or irregular alignment pattern that may show up 
in specimens of the machine you are forging. You'd also have to get the same 
regularity of shading. For instance, since it's almost impossible to get each type 
face to print uniformly by striking dead center, as it should, magnification by ex- 
perts will show up a regular pattern of certain letters darker or lighter on one 

My major task was to get all the typeface defects and characteristics of the 
Hiss machine engraved into other Woodstock type faces. Since forgery was 
never my line, I decided to enlist the services of a topnotch hand engraver. 
Every expert engraver I visited in New York refused the job when I told him it 
was in connection with an assignment from the Hiss legal defense. I was finally 
able to locate a retired engraver in a small New Jersey town. Interested by the 
experimental nature of the job, he consented to take on the assignment. I 
brought an old Woodstock with me and taught him how to remove type. 

I gave him some photographic blowups of typing from the Hiss machine and 
asked him, as a test, to duplicate any two type faces in the blowups. A few days 
later I returned to pick up what he had done. He said it was a slow, tedious 
job, but not difficult. That evening I examined the results of his work under the 
microscope. His success was amazing. I knew from then on all that had to be 
done was for me to give him enough type on which he could copy the exact char- 
acteristics of the Hiss machine type faces. I would then solder the forged type 
93215— 57— pt. {!6 4 


faces onto my Woodstock type bars — the slender metal fingers which fly up to 
strike the paper. This would be followed by the mechanical adjustments. 

Meanwhile, I knew that the end results of my work would have to be scruti- 
nized by an outstanding document examiner. His job would be to examine any 
specimens against the Hiss specimens and. with his fresh and expert (^ves, detect 
flaws that might escape me. I also wanted other opinions about the possibility 
of accomplishing what I had set out to do. All document examiners I had 
visited refused a professional assignment to assist me. Instead, they berated 

Once I went to see Albert D. Osborn, a heavy-set balding man of about 50, 
whose father, the late Albert S. Osborn, is considered the founder of scientific 
questioned-document examination. He greeted me cordially but formally in his 
Woolworth Building ofilce. He told me that he had heard some disquieting 
news — that I was doing "something illegal." That surprised me. But I was 
really shocked when he added that it would get me into a lot of trouble- 
It seems that word had got around. Like others I had visited, he declined to 
take on the assignment, on the ground that success in my task would not serve 
the ends of justice. It was my old argument thrown right back at me. 

"If anything," I told him, "I am undertaking a purely scientific experiment. 
Any knowledge we can gain from it would help, not hinder, justice. If there 
is something we don't know about questioned typewritten documents, now is as 
good a time as any to find out." 

When I left his office, I was considerably upset. Here was the man who had 
testified in the famous trial of Bruno Hauptmann, later executed for kidnaping 
and murdering the Lindbergh baby. Here was the man who first introduced 
ultraviolet light to dociiment examination. Was I really doing something wrong, 
and in the end, perhaps, making a fool of myself? 

I went to my bookshelf that night and pulled out Questioned Document Prob- 
lems by Albert S. Osborn, which I consider the most authoritative book in 
its field. I had read it many times before. I was up all night reading it again. 
This time I was struck by this statement toward the end of the book : "The 
scientific spirit seeks the truth at all hazards and gradually unlocks the great 
secrets and brings abont the desirable reforms." (My italics.) It was enough 
to convince me that if anyone's conception of the scientific attitude was wrong 
it was not mine. 

It was then, too, I decided that I would not submit my typewriter unless it 
came out as nearly perfect as possible, not in just matching the ten letters FBI 
expert Feehan had chosen to use as comparisons in his testimony at the Hiss 
trial, but perfect in every conceivable variation of all eighty-four type faces. It 
was this decision that led me on a hunt for type that was to take me as far as 
Detroit and Chicago. 

I was not content to find type of the same design. I wanted type which had 
practically no wear, so that I could get every single defect of the Hiss machine's 
type faces engraved onto the type faces of my forgery. 

After taking my own Woodstock morgue apart, I went to a former Woodstock 
company branch office in New York. With a magnifying glass I checked every 
type face they had in stock. It took several days. I bought more than 500 type 
faces and took them home, soldered them onto type bars, put them in my 
machine and struck off specimens. Over a period of about two weeks, during 
which I compared each of my specimens against the standards, I finally selected 
a handful for my New Jersey engraver to work on. It was during the month 
of June and he was busy doing work all day on wedding gifts. At night he 
worked for me. 

Several weeks later, I got a call from New Jersey, a call that was to set all 
my plans back more than a year. My engraver had come down with tubercu- 
losis and had to enter a sanatorium. I went back to pick up all my type and 
tools and began looking for a new engraver. After weeks of futile searching, I 
was given the name of a first-rate engraver not far from my own office. 

First I wanted to see if he would do the job if it were for something entirely 
different. So I took along some samples of Hindi type and told him these had 
to be adjusted, otherwise in a Hindi typewriter they would have different 
meanings. He said he could do it easily and asked me to come back with the 
rest of my samples. But when I returned, of course, I had only Woodstock type 
with me. Then I told him it was in connection with my Hiss-case assignment. 
He blew up in my face. 


"If you lay in a gutter with lice, you get lousy," he exploded. "I don't want 
any trouble. Take your damned type and get the hell out of here." I argued, 
but it only made him more violent. 

I told my wife. Pearl, about this experience. Tears came to her eyes. She 
pleaded with me to drop the assignment. "We have two children," she sobbed. 
"We took years to build up our business, now we're begging for trouble." Her 
voice rose to a pitch near hysteria. 

"We're doing nothing wrong," I found myself shouting back. 

"No," she cried, "but why should we be pioneers? We're bucking public 
opinion. Everyone you've seen is against you. They predict trouble. They 
threaten trouble. Don't you realize it might ruin us?" 

After I had pacified her, I reasoned. I told her that yielding to fear was a 
poor excuse for canceling a business obligation. This was as much part of my 
business as renting a machine. I said, "I'd rather a thousand times that my 
children be proud of parents who refused to be beaten to their knees than of 
parents who ran a successful business. 

"Besides," I added firmly, "we may lose a few narrow-minded customers but 
as long as we do honest work we'll gain others. We're doing nothing criminal. 
Nobody can put us out of business." 

We argued for weeks. Finally, she agreed to my views and I told her that I 
would do the engraving myself, though I knew my own engraving skill was such 
that I wotild probably drag the assignment out for more than a year. I knew, 
too, that I would probably ruin ten pieces of type for every one I would succeed 
in engraving properly. 

This began a mad merry-go-round hunt for old Woodstocks from which I could 
remove more type. My wife got on the telephone and called just about every 
typewriter dealer in New York. I examined thousands of Woodstocks with 
serial numbers close to 230,099 and took home whatever pieces of type I felt were 
good enough to work on. 

Essentially, the engraving process called for the use of three tools : diamond- 
tipped chiseis for cutting into the hard steel type faces, a triangular India stone 
for rubbing down chisel marks, and a superfine dental bufiing tool to finish 

From nearly 2,000 pieces of type I had collected, I succeeded in sorting out and 
duplicating twenty-five to match the Hiss specimens. I would need seventeen 
more. Another intensive search around New York failed to yield the kind of 
type I wanted. 

Meanwhile, I used what I had already completed and ran off a few specimens. 
Together with a member of the Hiss defense staff, I went to Chicago and Detroit 
to continue the hunt. These were major business areas close to Woodstock, Illi- 
nois, the town from which the company originally got its name. It was recently 
bought out by the R. C. Allen Company. 

At the same time, I decided to submit my forged specimens to a document ex- 
pert in Chicago. Choosing a name at random from the classified telephone di- 
rectory, I went to the office of D. W. Schwartz at 10 South La Salle Street. I 
gave him my specimens and the Hiss machine specimens. He examined them all. 

"Could you tell me how many machines were involved in typing these?" I 

"All came from one machine," was his answer. 

I was elated. Little more than half my goal was accomplished and already I 
was able to stump an expert. The Chicago and Detroit hunt yielded another 
ten type faces into which I was able to engrave successfully all the necessary 
characteristics of the Hiss specimens. But I was still short seven. 

On a hunch, I made a return trip to the Brownsville Typewriter Company in 
Brooklyn. It was like falling into an abandoned mine of Woodstocks. They 
often buy old typewriters from junk peddlers, and they had taken in a bunch 
of old Woodstocks since my last visit. I rented all the old Woodstocks I wanted 
from them on the condition that any type I removed I would replace with an- 
other. This maneuver got me enough type to finish the job. 

From that point on I had to work on mechanical adjustments almost exclu- 
sively. After all the letters were aligned, I had to adjust the typewriter so that 
the spacing between lines was exactly like the Hiss machine to within a thou- 
sandth of an inch. Most people know that the typewriter spacing handle, at- 
tached to the carriage and to a ratchet at the end of the roller, can be set on most 
typewriters for single, double or triple spacing. The hard-rubber roller itself, 
however, plays an important although microscopic part in spacing. The manner 
in which it is ground and the hardness of the riibber used will make fractional 


differences between lines, which experts can detect through magnilication, al- 
though to the nalvcd eye six lines of typing on any typewriter will still apparently 
cover one vertical inch. On an old machine, as the rubber wears down, varia- 
tions of the spaces between lines become more apparent. Experts can detect 
and measure these variations by placing a special transparent ruler over speci- 
mens of typing. 

I went to the Ames Supply Company in New York, a firm known to the trade 
for its specialization in I'ecovering old rollers through grinding. I had them 
grind about thirty different rollers for me — with deviations from the standard 
thickness ranging from a thousandth to one two-thousandths of an inch and in 
five different rubber densities. I put these in my machine and on each copied a 
page of typescript from the Hiss machine. None was good enough. I went 
back to Ames and borrowed a tool called the Ames Densimeter, which was de- 
signed originally by that company to eliminate human error in gauging roller 
densities. Only about twelve of these delicate instruments are in existence. It 
looks like a small watch with a sweep second hand and a needlelike plunger 
sticking out from its rim. The plunger is inserted into the rubber and the hand 
moves around. Where it stops you get a density reading. From the rollers I 
had, I chose two which were closest in matching spacing on the Hiss specimens. 
I got a density reading on each roller. Between these I struck an average and 
got the company to grind just such a roller for me. 

It worked perfectly. But another major defect had to be copied from the 
Hiss specimens. This was a tendency of the Hiss machine to "creep," that is, to 
crowd letters toward the right-hand edge of the paper. This I knew was caused 
by a defect in the Hiss machine escapement. There's no one part in a type- 
writer by that name. It's a combination of parts in the back of and under the 
machine which control the typewriter's spacing from one letter to the next. 
Through trial and error I made enough escapement adjustment to match per- 
fectly the same creep in the Hiss specimens. 

By this time I had achieved wliat I felt was a successful forgery. But I was 
too close to the machine. My eyes had become stale. Bmotiouaily, I had come 
to regard it almost as if it were a third child in my family. E very time I moved 
it, I was fearful of dropping it. 

Once more we made the rounds for the assistance of another expert. One, 
J. H. Haring, in New York, who had been consulted in the case by the defense 
lawyers before the first Hiss trial, was willing to discuss the possibility of fur- 
ther employment in the case. But be finally decided to refuse to work with 
us, on the ground that if he were to t:ike part in our experiment he would be 
helping to make a machine to deceive his brother experts, and he thought that 
would be unethical. 

As the search for an expert continued, though sporadically, it was decided that 
I ought to remove my forged typewriter to a safe place. On December 28, 1950, 
after strapping a .oS-caliber revolver around my waist. I left my office with a 
friend in a new Cadillac sedan. I was not being theatrical. During the time I 
had been working on the machine many strange things had been taking place. 

Once, in early June, a girl from Lane's office met me in the street in front of 
my shop. She was returning some samples of spechuens I had taken off the 
forgery job. I put the samples in my outer coat pocket, went upstairs and, as 
was my custom, hung the coat in a small outer room at the head of the stairway 
leading to my shop. The stairs go straight up two flights from the street. A few 
minutes after I sat down at my desk, I heard footsteps running up. This hap- 
pens all day long, and I looked for a customer to walk in. But no one came in, 
and I board fontsteps ruiuung down very fast. I walked out to look around. I 
looked in the outer room. ]My coat was gone. 

A number of suspicious incidents around my home cropped up. A telephone 
repairuian got by the maid to take care of some complaints — but I had never 
made any comidaints. A mysterious inquisitor tried dating my neighbor's maid 
after asking her if she could tell him all she knew about the Tytells and their 

I finally reported everything to the iiolice. They suggested that these were 
the techni(ni('s of clever burglars. After that I hid the nmchine I was working 
on and scattere;! several other simil.-ir machines around the house in an effort to 
confuse any attempt at stealing my "third child." 

After I deposifed the machine in a Marine Midland Bank vault, I went back 
to my office and Lane gave me a check for $.",000. I signed a note giving him 
complete title to the machine. I agreed, however, to continue any work found 
necessary by any document expert willing to check me on what I had done. 


A New England colleague finally put Lane in touch with Elizabeth McCarthy, 
of Boston. A tall, dynamic woman in her forties, with the vigor and charm of an 
Ethel Barrymore, Miss McCarthy is probably the only woman questioned-docu- 
ment expert in this country. She is used regularly by the Massachusetts State 
Police and the Boston police. For sixteen years, despite her own standing as a 
lawyer, she has done little more than work ou thousands of questioned docu- 
ments, and has been giving expert testimony in courts around the nation at least 
twice a week. She has been responsible for the discovery of direct clues in some 
of the nation's most spectacular document mysteries, and she has testified in 
many criminal cases. 

She agreed readily to taking an assignment on the case. But there were many 
long delays, one for a period of six months, before I\Iiss McCarthy, a busy woman 
herself, and I settled. down to a close examination of all the typewritten speci- 
mens in my home. When we had decided that there were still some minor flaws 
in my work, I decided to reengrave new type faces. This called for a new hunt 
for Woodstock type. It was late in 1951. After weeks of meticulous searching, 
I came across a small Woodstock branch store in a dingy section of Newark, 
New Jersey. 

I made arrangements for a special appointment with the store manager on a 
Saturday morning and drove out there with my wife early in January 19o2. I 
explained to the manager what I was after, but told him nothing about its con- 
nection with the Hiss case. He led me to the basement through a trapdoor a 
little to the right of the store's center. From under an old wooden table in a 
neatly kept room, he hauled out a battered wooden crate used for packing type- 
writers for export. There were about 1,200 type bars in the box. They were 
kept in sets. I chose four sets and went over to a workbench light to examine 
them closely, though without benefit of a magnifying glass. He looked at me 
suspiciously. I also examined several old Woodstock machines. On several I 
found just what I was looking for. I arranged to rent the machines overnight. 

"I might remove some of the tvpe bars," I said. "But I'll replace any I do 

"That's all right," he said. 

Then, just as I began gathering the machines upstairs to load in my Plymouth 
suburban, he leaned casually against one wall and said haltingly, '"Say, Tytell, 
do you know who you remind me of V" 

My wife answered, "No, tell me." 

"You remind me of the FBI," he said. I ignored that, but be continued talking 
to my wife. He put his hand to his head. 

"Now, what was that ease they were working on?" He paused, then blurted, 
"Oh, I remember. The Alger Hiss case. V/hen we had our ofiice down on Halsey 
Street a couple of FBI men came into the office and they went through every- 
thing. Right in that office they found what they were looking for." 

I pursued the subject no further. All I wanted was some type. And I had my 

On the afternoon of January 24, 1952, I dictated my affidavit to Lane's secre- 
tary, attesting to the fact that the machine in Lane's possession was fabricated 
by me. 

During my last weekend working with Miss McCarthy, however, we had a final 
set of specimens made. These were made under a variety of conditions on the 
forged typewriter and on the Hiss machine. In sum, it was a formula designed 
to put document experts to the supreme scientific test. This formula is now a 
sealed code in a bank vault. It reveals just which specimens were typed on the 
forged machine, how they were typed, and under what conditions. 

An example, perhaps, of how I think the experts will be stunned can be seen 
in a letter Mr. Lane received only a few days before I filed my affidavit. Dated 
January 14, 1952, it came from Donald Doud, a prominent Detroit questioned- 
document examiner. 

"To subscribe to the theory that typewriter 230,099 was a manufactured ma- 
chine," he wrote, "one would have to assume that some individual had specimens 
of letters written on the machine that Alger Hiss used, and possessed the ability, 
knowledge, and skill to discover all the type-face defects apparent in these docu- 
ments and then in some manner proceed to have these defects incorporated in 
typewriter 230,099. To me this is an almost impossible task. I don't think the 
expert in Boston (Miss McCarthy) could do it, nor could anyone else. * * *" 

Oddly enough, he had outlined generally just the way such a forgery would 
have to be done ; he doubted only that it could be done. Of course, I never saw 
Woodstock No. 230,099, but my Woodstock is No. 231,195. If any expert thinks 


he can tell the difference between typing from my forgery and typing from 
230,099, his conclusions will be judged impartially — by the sealed code. 

One expert has already tried. She is Mrs. Evelyn S. Ehrlich, who for more 
than ten years was employed by Harvard University's Fogg Museum of Art 
to detect deceptive print and typography. She was asked to apply her unique 
skills in comparing the Hiss-Tytell specimens. But she was told delinitely that 
two machines were involved. Using a microscope with a magnification of 
thirty, more than six times the magnification I had used, she declared in a sworn 
statement that "an amazingly faithful reproduction of the so-called Hiss ma- 
chine had been fabricated in almost every respect." 

"Except for subtle details," she continued, "I found that microscopic varia- 
tions on one machine had been duplicated on the other so faithfully that I 
might not have believed it possible if I had not been informed that two 
machines were involved." 

So far as I know, this story reveals for the first time how forgery by type- 
writer can be committed. The experts may now come down on my neck, saying 
that I have disclosed secrets which might encourage others to commit typewriter 
forgery and get away with it. I have searched my conscience long and hard, 
but I cannot agree with them. It would be the same as if someone were to say 
that newspapers should not print the details of crimes because it only gives 
criminals and potential criminals encouragement. So long as there are good 
detectives, criminals can be outwitted. As far as I am concerned, I stand 
solidly with Miss McCarthy when, in her affidavit, she said that the "profession 
of document examiners, as well as the public at large, were entitled to learn 
whether any such experiment could be successfully conducted, since, if it could, 
general knowledge of the fact would be essential as a means of preventing 
numbers of forgeries which might otherwise be successfully carried out." 

After I had filed my aflidavit, my telephone did not stop ringing for days. 
Practically every news agency, radio and television correspondent wanted a 
statement from me. Some made fancy offers to demonstrate my work on 
television. All had many, many questions. At the request of Chester T. Lane, 
however, lest I disclose the details of my work in such a way that might antag- 
onize the courts, I refused to answer any questions. 

Some of the typical questions appeared in a feature article by Bert Andrews, 
prize-winning veteran Washington correspondent for the New York Herald Trib- 
une. In a lengthy article on the typewriter last January 27, he asked : 

"How long has work on the typewriter gone on? Since the time of [Hiss's] 
sentencing? Or even before that? 

"How was the 'manufacturing' done? 

"How much did it cost? 

"And why — that is, from personal sympathy for Mr. Hiss, or from scien- 
tific interest to see whether it could be done?" 

The facts, he said, were important to any student of the Hiss case. The next 
week he followed up with another article, saying he had done some research, and 
attempted to describe how I might have done the job. 

I think this story gives all the answers. 

Martin K. Tytell. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 12 is a photostat of the death certificate of 
Col. Janis Dobrovolski, dated February 15, 1957, which I secured from 
the city hall in Wiesbaden, Germany. On this certificate is the name 
of the witness Alma Alia Hoppe. The document is in German and 
should be translated by a translator from the Library of Coni^ress. 


(The photostat was marked "Exhibit Xo. 499" and is reproduced 
below, followed by an English translation.) 

Exhibit No. 499 

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No. 430. 

Wiesbaden, Fehruary 15, 19^1. 

Retired Colonel Jauis Dobrowolskis (this may be Latvian or Lithuanian 
spelling of the name) . 

Residing at Hindenburgallee 34, Wiesbaden, died in his apartment at Wies- 
baden on February 14, 1947, G : 15 p. m. 

The deceased \A'as born on .January 5, 1882, at Kemmern, Russia. 

Father : Wasili Dobrowolskis. 

Mother : Soja Dobrowolskis ; maiden name not known, both lately in 

The deceased was widower of Tatjana Dobrowolskis, maiden name, Karakweli. 

Recorded on the basis of an oral report of the dentist (Miss) Alma-AUa 
Hoppe, Hindenburgollee 34, Wiesbaden. 

The reporting person was identified by her personal identification card and 
declai-ed that she was present at the time of the death. 

Read, approved, and signed. 

Alma-Axla Hoppe. 

Official of the Bureau of Vital Statistics. 

( Signature illegible. ) 

(Translated by George Staro.solsky, translntor, Library of Congress, Septem- 
ber 27, 19.J7.) 

(On the back of the photostat is the certification, in German, that 
the statements on the face are a true copy of the death record appear- 
ing in tlie master file of the register of the bureau of vital statistics 
at Wiesbaden. It is dated January 24, 1957, and bears a notation: 
Fee 1 ; Serial No. 12995. The signature of the person acting for the 
registrar is illegible.) 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 13 is a photostat of a letter in Russian signed 
by Arclipriost P. Adamantov, dated July 17, 195(5, with the English 


translation. Tlie original was loaned to me b}' Archpriest Aciamantov. 
In the original Russian, one paragraph "was excised by a diagonal line 
drawn through it. 

The excised paragraph reads : 

But there is one grave, in which there is buried the Coloael of the Russian 
service in reserve, Ivan Vasilievich Dobrovolsky, 6-5 years old. (1/14. February 
1947) Dobrovolsky took up residence in Wiesbaden where after the 2nd War he 
teinpornrily carried out the duties of a churcli sexton in our church. 

Otherwise the letter corresponds with the letter of the same date 
produced by Mr. Tytell. 

(The letter above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 500" and is 
reproduced below, i'oUo wed by an English translation :) 

ExHiiJiT No. ."iOO 



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Original Uncut Draft of Affidavit Signed by Archpriest P. Adamantov 

Wiesbaden, 17-VII-1956. I, the signer of this, am on duty at the Russian 
Orthodox Church in Wiesbaden since September 1906, till today, except the time 
of the First World War (1914-1919). With me there was not at our church on 
any kind of a job any person with the name Dobrolinubov. Similarly on our 
Russian cemetery there is no grave with the same name. 

(But there is one grave, in which there is buried the Colonel of the Russian 
service in reserve, Ivan Vasilievich Dohrovolsky, 65 years old. (1/14. Febru- 
ary, 1947). Dobrovolsky took up residence in Wiesbaden where after the 2nd 
War he temporarily carried out the duties of a church sexton in our church.) 

I do not remember anything about my encounter with Mr. Levine. 

Archpriest P. Adamantov. 

The middle paragraph is in parentheses in the Russian original, and is 
crossed out with a diagonal line through 7 lines in Russian. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 14 is a letter in English signed by Anastasia 
Adamantov dated February 19, 1957, from Wiesbaden addressed to 
me, explaining the circumstances surrounding the excision of the 
aforementioned paragraph. 

(The letter was marked "Exhibit No. 501" and is reproduced 

Exhibit No. 501 

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Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 15 is a quotation from the book, Three "Wlio 
Made a Revohition, by Bertram D. Wolfe, appearing on pages 301 
and 302, as follows : "There was the inevitable police agent among 
them, one Dobroskok, nicknamed 'Gold-spectacled Nikolai.' " 

Exhibit 16 is a letter addressed to Benjamin Mandel from Dr. Alia 
Alma Hoppe, of 115 West End Drive, Syracuse, N. Y., dated April 9, 
1957, giving certain biographical information regarding Ivan Wasil- 
jewitsch Dobrowolski. 

(The letter referred to above was marked ''Exhibit No. 502" and is 
reproduced below : ) 

Exhibit No. 502 

April 9, 1957. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandew., 
Research Director, 

Internal Security Suhcommlttee, 

United States Senate. 
Deak Sir : I first knew Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski as a florist in Riga, 
Latvia, in 1930. I heard from various sources that he had been a gendarme in 
Russia before World War I. This information came to my attention through 
newspapers and other persons in Riga. 

I knew Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski until 194G in Berlin and Wiesbaden, 
Germany, as a florist. He died in Wiesbaden in 1947. 

I never knew Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski by any other name. However, 
in the early 30's in Riga, I do remember a newspaper article that referred to 
him as "Dobriskok of the Golden Glasses." 

At no other time did I ever know him by any other name or hear him referred 
to by any other name. 

Alla Alma Hoppe 
(Dr. Alla Alma Hoppe), 
115 West End Drive, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 17 is a reference from the book by Leon Trot- 
sky entitled "My Life," which on page 171 refers to Dobroskok as 
follows : 

It [the Menshevik group] was betrayed by one of its active members, Dobros- 
kok, known as "Nikolay of the gold spectacles," who turned out to be a profes- 
sional agent-provocateur. 

Mr. ]NL\NDFX. Exhibit 18 is a letter dated January 16, 1957, ad- 
dressed to Benjamin Mandel and delivered to me personally in the 
office of Adlerwerke in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, signed by Hans 
Abend, manager of the export division, Adlerwerke, 17 Kleyer Strasse, 
Frankfurt am Main, Germany, and notarized by Thomas A. Kelly 
and witnessed by John K. Munson, relative to the manufacture of 
Adler typewriters. 


(The above letter was marked "Exhibit No. 503" and is reproduced 

Exhibit No. 503 


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Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 19 is a letter dated February 7, 1957, from 
Harold A. Voorhis, vice president and secretary of New York Uni- 
versity, relative to the service of Martin K. and Pearl Tytell with the 


(The letter referred to above was marked "Exhibit No. 504" and 
appears below:) 

Exhibit No. 504 

New York University, 
Is^ew York, N. Y., Februanj 7, 1957. 
Mr. Ben Mandel, 

iSenate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Mandel: My associate, Mce President Howley, has relayed to me 
your inquiry concerning Mr. Martin K. Tytell. His name does not appear in any 
of our records covering the whole range of regularly appointed officers of instruc- 
tion. Such records, however, do not cover the names of occasional guest speakers. 
We do find from our payroll accounts that such a guest speaker, in the person of 
one Pearl Tytell, made a few appearances last year before groups in our graduate 
school of public administration and social service. Moreover, I learn from the 
latter source that tentative arrangements have been made for Martin K. Tytell 
and Pearl Tytell to render similar services in the same school at New York 
University in the term beginning next September. I understand that Pearl 
Tytell's specialty is graphology and that of her husband (if this the relation- 
ship) is documentation, and that their projected lectures will have to do with 
the general subject of problems and techniques in documents examination. 
Very truly yours, 

(Signed) PIarold O. Voorhis, 

Vice President and Secretary. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 20 is a letter dated February 6, 1957, to Ben- 
jamin Mandel from Harry D. Gideonse, president of Brooklyn Col- 
lege, relative to the service of Martin K. Tytell with the college. At- 
tached to this letter is a photostat of Mr. Tytell's application for em- 
ployment, dated May 8, 195G, and a photostat of Mr. Tytell's signed 
statement that — 

I am not now a member of the Communist Party and that if I have ever been a 
member of the Communist Party I have communicated that fact to the president 
of the college. 

This statement is dated May 8, 1956. 

(The above letter and statement were marked '"Exhibit No. 505" and 
read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 50.j 

Brooklyn College, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., February 6, 1957. 
Mr. Ben Mandel, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Mandel : In accordance Mith our telephone conversation on Wednes- 
day, February 6, I am sending you the following summary of our conversation. 
Mr. Martin K. Tytell is not a member of our staff now, and he was never a 
member of our regular faculty. He was a part-time teacher in our division of 
vocational studies during the spring of 1956. He took the place temporarily of 
a regular teacher who had died, and he served for 28 teaching hours in May and 
.Tune of 1956. He also served for 4 hours as a substitute teacher during the 
l)receding term. He taught a course called police laboratory, which is concerned 
with the techniques of document identification, fingerprinting, etc. His name 
was suggested to us by Dean MacNamara of the New York Institute of Crimi- 
nology, and the checked references also include the name of Mr. .James W. 
Osterberg of the New York City Police Department. Mr. Tytell signed the re- 
quired statement with regard to the application of the regents rules under the 
Feinberg law. I enclose a photostatic copy of the latter, as well as of the 
revelant pages of Mr. Tytell's application blank at the time of his appointment. 
Sincerely yours, 

Harry D. Gideonse, President. 


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Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 21 consists of photostats of the following: 
Page 162 of the 1943 book of enrolled voters, folio 155/2, showing 
Martin K. Tytell residing at 455 Sheffield Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., 
registration No. 74, date of registration, October 2, 1943, number of 
enrollment blank 196, party of enrolled voter : American Labor Party, 
also photostat of the 1941 enrolled voters, folio 161/2 showing on page 
164: Martin Tytell, 455 Sheffield Avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y., registra- 
tion No. 723, date October 2, 1941, number of enrollment blank 609, 
party of enrolled voter, American Labor Party. 

(The photostats were marked "Exhibit No. 506" and placed in tlie 
subcommittee files. ) 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 22 is a photostatic copy of a letter from 
Edward Mulliken of the central European bureau of Time-Life, 
dated February 18, 1957, relative to his visit to Archpriest Adaman- 
tov of the Russian Orthodox Church in Wiesbaden. 

(The letter was marked "Exhibit No. 507" and reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 507 

Time-Life Overseas Bureaus, 

Central European Bureau, 

February 18, 19511. 
{ Personal and confidential. ) 

Mr. Robert Elson, 

Time Inc., New York. 

Dear Bob : I finally had a chance to get down to Wiesbaden and see Archpriest 
Adamantov and was able to bring along an interpreter who speaks Russian as 
well as English and German. The Archpriest, and his English speaking 
daughter, do live, indeed, in the little cottage adjoining^ the Greek Orthodox 
Church overlooking the city of Wiesbaden, and the old man has been there since 
1908. They received us cordially. By now they are used to people inquiring 
after a Dobroliubov. 

To cut through all of the windings and backtrackings of who-was-where-wheu 
and get to the point of the confusion, I think it is best to begin here. From 
what I was told by the Archpriest and his daughter, it would seem that Mr. 
Isaac Don Levine made two mistakes in Wiesbaden which allowed Mr. Martin 
K. Tytell to attack that section of his story: (1) He got his man's name wrong. 
It is not Dobroliubov but Dobrovolsky (as your letter of January 18 indicates you 
already know and the Daily Worker article of January 6 mentions Levine now 
remembers). (2) He did not make certain that the Archpriest, or his daughter 
would remember his visit to Wiesbaden, which, after all, was 7 years ago. I 
realize at the time Levine had no reason to get written proof that he had talked 
to Adamantov, but today it certainly would help as neither the Archpriest nor 
his daughter can remember Levine's visit, and, in fact, go as far as to say that 
as far as they are concerned neither of them has ever seen Levine. I even showed 
them the picture of Levine which we ran with his April article. 

Now to Mr. Tytell's visit to Wiesbaden, and you will see how he twisted Levine 
mistakes, or omissions, to form the Wiesbaden section of his lecture of December 
29, 1956. Tytell came to Wiesbaden, as he said he did, in July 1950. He arrived 
at about 1 : 30 in the afternoon with his interpreter, Igor Fromke. It was a 
busy day at the church, and the Archpriest was engaged, but he managed to give 
Tytell some time. It was time enough for Tytell and Frondce to learn that there 
had been no Dobroliubov but also time enough for them to learn that there had 
been a Dobrovolsky who perfectly fitted the description given for Dobroliubov 
and who in fact was buried in the nearby cemetery. But Tytell and Fromke 
were aggressively uninterested in the Dobrovolsky. Froudve said, "No, no the 
names are completely different." They also had no interest in going to look at 
the grave. 

Fromke and Tytell also learned that the Archpriest could not remember having 
met Levine. They were onto a good thing and they knew it, but they ha<l to get 
it in writing from the Archpriest. He, however, was too busy. Frondve and 
Tytell had to leave the cottage, but they did not leave the church grounds. They 


stayed in their car outside from 2 until 6 p. m. At 6 the daughter came 
down, and Tytell offered to drive her to the station to pick up some people she 
was meeting. While they were away Fromke got the old man to write out the 
statement Tytell incorporated in his paper. 

The statement is correct (except that the date 1906 should be 1908) but not 
complete. On the first statement the Archpriest wrote he added an explanatory 
paragraph in which he brought out the theory that although he knew no 
Dobroliubov was it not possible that the man everyone wanted was Dobrovolsky. 
Fromke immediately dismissed this paragraph with a "no, no it can't be," and 
made the old man write another draft of his statement. Then Fromke and 
Tytell, who by then had returned from the station, left. 

If Tytell had probed the old Archpriest a little further, he probably would 
have discovered that Dobrovolsky, indeed, had been in Berlin until 1945. Then 
he had come to Wiesbaden where he served as church warden until 1947 when 
he died. And possibly Tytell also would have found out that the Archpriest 
knew that Dobrovolsky had been in the Okhrana and had been called "Golden 
Glasses." (He still wore gold rimmed glasses when he got to Wiesbaden.) 
The Archpriest said he had got this information from a pamphlet he had read 
long ago. I believe that he got it straight froan Dobrovolsky, but the source 
matters little, as the information proves Dobrovolsky was definitely the man 
for whom Levine was searching and was, indeed, in the cemetery In Wiesbaden. 
If he had kept on probing Tytell might even have got the photograph I have. 
It was taken in 1946 and shows the Archpriest holding service in the Wiesbaden 
church. Beside him is Dobrovolsky, still wearing his "golden glasses." But 
Tytell and Fromke had every intention of not admitting "wrong name but right 
man." They had to hang on to their precious six different last letters and 
got no further. I imagine they had this tactic already in mind before they left 
Berlin where they must have discovered that there had been no Dobroliubov but 
there had been a Dobrovolsky. 

The Archpriest and his daughter had another caller about a month ago who 
also was interested in the matter of Dobroliubov and Dobrovolsky. He was 
Benjamin Mandel, an investigator for the Senate Internal Security Committee. 
Mandel got the same story I did and took away with him the first draft of the 
Archpriest's statement which contains the additional paragraph about Dobrovol- 
sky which Fromke had the old man omit from his second draft. Mandel also 
photographed the name plate on the cross at Dobrovolsky's grave which reads 
"Colonel Ivan Vasilezich Dobrovolsky, 5/1/1882-14/2/1947." (My interpreter 
was able to read the Cyrillic lettering.) I also photographed this plate. 

If you are interested in discovering more about Dobrovolsky, the Arch- 
priest told us he had lived with a Mrs. Hoppe, who knew all about him but 
who has gone to the United States. The Archpriest does not know where Mrs 
Hoppe is now but she is a very good friend of Michail Korchak-Sivitsky (also 
is in the photograph of the Archpriest and Dobrovolsky) who now lives in 
apartment 63 at 606 West 132d Street, New York 31, N. Y. Telephone WA 
6-4647 and who might know Mrs. Hoppe's address. 

Thus, aside from this letter, I am packeting to you the photograph of Dobrovol- 
sky, which could you please have copied and returned soonest, and photographs 
of the name plate over his grave. If you need it, I am certain I can get the 
Archpriest to give us a signed statement as to what passed between him, Tytell, 
and Fromke. We did not request it this time as he was getting tired and we were 
not certain you wanted it. 

Edward John Mullikin. 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 23 consists of translations with accompany- 
ing photostats of Russian publications giving information about the 
Russian Churcli at Nachodstrasse in Berlin. 

The material and translations come from the Library of Con- 


(The translations, with an accompany ing; letter were marked "Ex- 
hibit No. 508" and read as follows:) 

Exhibit No. oOS 

The Library of Congress, 
Legislative Reference SER^^CE, 

Washington, D. C, June 3, 1957. 
Mr. Benjamin Mandel, 

Research Director, Internal Security Su'bcoinmittee, 
Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Mandel : In accordance with our recent telephone conversations, 
we have examined the files of the Russian Journal Golos pravoslaviia (Th'.» 
Voice of Orthodoxy), published in Berlin by the German Orthodox Diocese of the 
Patriarchate of Moscow. 

From the journal, it appears that there are three churches in Berlin under the 
jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate: (1) The Resurrection Cathedral 
(British Sector) ; (2) the St., Vladimir Church at Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Nach- 
odstrasse 10 (British Sector) ; and (3) the Sts. Constantine and Helen Church 
(Tegel, French Sector) as well as what appears to be a chapel at the Bishop's 

We attach three photostats from the journal in regard to St. Vladimir's 
Church. They are as follows : 

(1) A general description of the church, from issue No. 1 for 1952. This states 
that the church was under the jurisdiction of Archbishop Boris and gives the 
priest's name as Sergei Polozhenskii : 

(2) A statement, taken from the same issue, showing that Archbishop Boris 
was under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate ; and 

(3) A statement (from issue No. 4/5 for 1953) that Father Polozhenskii re- 
ceived an award directly from the Patriarchate of Moscow. 

We trust that this information vvill be of interest to you. 
Sincerely yours, 

Sergius Yakobson, 
Senior Specialist in Russian Affairs. 
(Translations of the three documents referred to read as follows:) 

Document No. 1 

The Church of St. Vladimir, Prince and Equal of the Apostles (Berlin, 
Nachodstrasse 10) 

In the Church of St. Vladimir, Prince and Equal of the Apostles, church serv- 
ices are performed without interruption, as in the Cathedral. lilvery day the 
Divine Liturgy is performed. On Wednesdays every week Acathists are sung, 
followed by talks by the Pastor to the laity on topics of Orthodox dogma and 
ritual ; and readings are made from the literature of the Church Fathers, the 
works of Russian saints and teachers of the Church. 

The Rector of the (Tiurch, Archpriest Sergei Polozhenskii. who has carried on 
his pastoral work in the St. Vladimir Parish since 1935. carries on his work 
with the assistance of Archpriest Mikhail Radziuk and Priest loann Razumov. 

From Golos pravoslariia, 1952, No. 1. 

Document No. 2 

On the Appointment of the Very Reverend Boris, Archbishop of Berlin and 
Germany, as the Acting Exarch of the Moscow Patriarchate in Western 

By a Ukase of the Most Holy Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia and the 
Sacred Synod, dated October 26, 1951, No. 1329, the Very Reverend Boris, Arch- 
bishop of Berlin and Germany, is designated the Acting Exarch of the Moscow 
Patriarchate in Western Europe. 

By the same Ukase, Fotii (Toinro), Archbishop of Vilno and Lithuania, is 
relieved of the responsibilities of Exarcli of the Moscow Patriarchate in Western 

From Qolos pravoslaviia; 1952, No. 1. 


Document No. 3 

Awards to Clergy and Laity of the German Diocese of the Moscow Patriarchate 
on the Occasion of Holy Easter, 1953 

On the occasion of Holy Easter, 1953, for zealous and beneficial service to the 
Divine Church, His Holiness, Aleksii, the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, 
upon the recommendation of the Most Reverend Boris, Archbishop of Berlin 
and Germany, Acting Exarch of the jNIoscow Patriarchate in Western Europe, 
favored with awards the following clergy and laity of the German Diocese of 
the Moscow Patriarchate : Archpriest Sergei Polozhenskii, Ecclesiastical Su- 
perintendent of the Orthodox Parishes of the German Diocese, the blessing of 
His Holiness Aleksii, the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia, with the pres- 
entation of a testimonial letter signed by the Patriarch. * * * 

From Golos pravoslaviia, 1953, No. 4/5. 

Mr. IVL^NDEL. Exhibit :24 consists of translations and photostats 
from the German publication Tagesspiegel relative to the Nachod- 
strasse church. Translations were made by the Library of Congress. 

(Translations of the articles referred to above were marked "Ex- 
hibit No. 509" and read as follows :) 

Exhibit No 509 

The Library of Congress, 
Legislative Reference Sb:rvice, 

Washington, D. C. 

[Translation (German)] 

[Der T;igesspiegel, February 21, 1951] 

NKVD Spy as a Minister 

a bishop from moscow preaches in the french sector (of berlin) 

At the "Saint Vladimir"' Church at Tegel-Borsigwalde, a church which was 
built by the Tsarist Government for the Russian community at Berlin, a "Father 
Boris" has been pi'eaching for some time * * * "Father Boris" is not an in- 
nocent minister, but a Red Bishop who was brought to Berlin by the Communist 
rulers of the Kremlin, 10 weeks ago. He is subject to the Soviet Metropolitan 
at Moscow, while the Russian-Orthodox ministers in the Federal Republic recog- 
nize as their head the Metropolitan Anastasiev at Munich, an old immigrant who 
is a bitter foe of the Soviets. "Father Boris" and his two assistants are, in 
their exposed positions, under Moscow's control. To the few Russian emigrees 
who have survived the occupation of Berlin by the Red Army, it is no secret 
that this Bishop and his assistants are men who are spying among the Russian 
emigrees at West Berlin on orders of the NKVD. So far nobody has been ar- 
rested in the church, but several Russian emigrees who were lured to Soviet 
Offices under some false pretense did not return to their West Berlin homes. 
Among them were a remarkable number of Russian men and women whom 
"Father Boris" and his associates had met. This is the reason why the Russian 
emigrees at Berlin do not attend the "Saint Vladimir" Church any more. The 
time has arrived for the responsible authorities to deal with this camouflaged 
Soviet spy net in the French Sector. * * * Some 900 of the about 50,000 former 
Russian emigrees, who managed to live through to our times, live secluded. No 
one trusts the other ; the Soviet arm which could grasp them is too close. The 
only link which has been holding the emigrees togetlier for years, the church, 
is likely to fall down since "Father Boris" started preaching there for Stalin. 

[Der Tagesspiegel, March 11, 1951] 

When Will the Red Bishop Disappear? 

Berliners should be interested in the article by Georges Blun in the Journal de 
Geneve which presents some characteristic peculiarities of the French Sector of 
Berlin. The article quotes our report on the Red Bishop of Tegel-Borsigwalde 
(No. 1657) and subsequently makes the following general remarks ; 


* * * As far as Father Boris, the Red Bishop, is concerned, one should know 
that lie is not an ordinary innocent minister, but an untrustworthy person whom 
the Russians launched at Berlin some 10 weeks ago. Father Boris is subject to 
the Soviet Metropolitan at Moscow, while the orthodox priests in the Federal 
Republic acknowledge as their head the Metropolitan Anastasiev of Munich, a 
Russian emigre and a bitter foe of the Soviet. To the few Russian emigrees 
who survived the occupation of Berlin by the Red Army, it is no secret that this 
Bishop and his assistants are under the NKVD's orders to spy among the 
emigrees who reside in the "Western Sectors (of Berlin). * * * 

[Security Report, April 6, 1951] 

The following information was received from a member of the NTS (Rus- 
sian Emigre Organization) : * * * 

In view of the above described situation among the Russian emigrees in West- 
ern Berlin after 1945 it is understandable that the priests and other members 
of the Community have behaved very cautiously and repeatedly showed their 
loyalty to the Soviet regime. * * * The pastor of the Church at Hohensol- 
lerndamm and two ministers from the Nachodstrasse church were taken several 
times to the NKVD under the pretense of being called to a dying person, where 
they were apparently reminded again and again that they were dependent on 

* * * At the end of 1950 Archbishop Sergius, who accepted Russian citizen- 
ship, [but who was] probably not "political" enough, was called back to Soviet 
Russia and supposedly made Archbishop of Kazan. In his place the former 
Bishop of Chkalov Boris (Family Name probably AVik) was installed. (Per- 
sonal description of Boris : Between 50 and 55 years old.) Since the prosecution 
of the Church in the middle of the twenties he has been a monk. In 1944 appointed 
Bishop. They think that in the many of the places he was active he got into 
conflict with the Soviet Government, therefore he was transferred so many times. 
Boris is the same Bishop who was appointed Bishop of Tokyo some 2 years ago 
but was not given an entry visa by MacArthur. At Potsdam Boris moved into 
the same villa which was occupied by Sergius before. 

Along with Boris the Priest Michael Sernov came from Moscow, who as early 
as 1945-46 published Soviet-patriotic articles in the paper of the Moscow 
patriarch and who was known for his flexibility at the Moscow Cathedral. 

The priests cannot be suspected of being direct accessories in any kidnaping. 
But it should be assumed that an organization for drafting Russian emigrees for 
spying services has been built around them. There is no reason to believe that 
Bishop Boris is a faithful servant of the Soviet Government, but naturally he 
obeys the state authorities which he cannot avoid doing, and he supports the 
policy of the Moscow Patriarch, who intends to secure a minimum possibility 
for development of the church by making concessions to the state. 

The reputation of the priest Sernov is less favorable, and it is possible that 
he receives political orders from the NKVD. 

It could be said about the other priests that they seem to have too little 
political experience and therefore could be easily abused by the Soviets by 
skillful tricks. Their addresses, as far as is known, are : 

Priests Sergius Polosnenski, Trautenau Str. 9 or 10, Berlin-Wilmersdorf. 

Priest Michael Radsiuk, and Priest Iwan Rasumow, Helmstetter Str. 16 or 
26, Berlin. 

The Pastors of the Churches at Hohenzollerndamm and Tegel reside in the 
premises of the church or at the Alexanderstift. * * * 

[Illustrierte Berliner Zeitschrift, No. 17, April 20, 1951] 
The Red Bishop 

The Russian Orthodox Diocese in Berlin consists of the community Tegel- 
Borsidwalde and the two Wilmersdorf communities of Hohenzollerndamm and 
Nachod Street. In 1894-95 the real property was purchased from the dean of 
the former Botschaftskirche (Church of the Annunciation) and the buildings 
were erected ; in 1929 the title of the property was registered in the name of the 
"Association for the Preservation of the Greek-Orthodox Churches and for 


Relief of Needy Russians." In 1946 the title was changed again in the name of 
the "Russian-Orthodox Church in Germany and Belgium." This territory of the 
Diocese is extraterritorial and its ruler is "Father Boris." 

"Father Boris," Bishop of the Russian-Orthodox Church in Berlin, is subject 
to the Metropolitan in Moscow, while the believers of his denomination in the 
Federal Republic recognize as their Head the Metropolitan of Munich, Anasta- 
siev, a foe of Stalinism. Boris, they say, used to oppose Communism in former 
days and was arrested for this reason. But he must have proved that he changed 
his mind, because he was made Bishop of Chakalov, and finally took over the 
post in Berlin which clearly established that he enjoys confidence in the 
Kremlin. Sergius, his predecessor, was ordered home because of his political 
passiveness. As a special token of favor Boris received a brand new BMV car 
and a 12-room apartment at Potsdam. 

"Nix verstahn" (incorrect German for "I don't understand") was the answer 
of the sexton at the Tegel-Borsigwalde Church, given to our reporters who asked 
about Father Boris. He pretended not to know his pastor at all. But he must 
be very well aware of the state of fear which rules in the community since 
Boris took over at the end of 1950. 

With sacrificial candles in his hands, "Father Boris" conducts his Mass. The 
robes confirm the impression that he is a patriarchal, good minister. But Boris 
has not been installed in this foreign position outside of the "Iron Curtain" for 
nothing. He is required to prove his abilities by performing spy services for the 
NKVD. A cemetery and a church are under the Red Bishop's jurisdiction. 
Many prominent personalities of Tsarist Russia are buried at Tegel, among 
others, the former Minister of War Sukhomlinov, and the composer Glinka, who 
died in Berlin in 1857. The community, which has 300 registered members, also 
owns the neighboring "Emperor-Alexander-Home" (right picture). Formerly it 
served as a transient asylum for poor Russians, mainly emigrants to America. 
Today 44 old people live there, among them two aged Tsarist Colonels. Of them, 
90 percent are German citizens ; nearly all of them receive social benefits out of 
West Berlin taxpayers' money ; they pay their rent in good Westmarks — to Boris. 

[Tagesspiegel (Dally Mirror), November 4, 1953] 

An Exile Minister Escapes to Kaelhorst — He Took With Him Cash and 
Files — Are There Agents in the Russian Orthodox Church? 

The endeavours of the Russian Emigrants in West Berlin to establish their ovpn 
Greek Orthodox Church have failed, the Organization of Russians in Exile (NTS) 
reports. According to NTS' information, Father Volontsevich, the Minister of 
this Church Community, fled to Karlshorst (in the Russian Sector) on October 
1, 1953, taking with him the Community treasury — 500 to 600 DM — and the list 
of the 60 Community members. He surrendered to the Soviet Authorities. 
Volontsevich was installed 2 years ago by the Synod of the Russian Orthodox 
Church in Exile. Before that time he was in Holland, at Liibeck and Hamburg. 

* * * When Volontsevich was installed as pastor of the West Berlin Emigree 
Community, the Exile Russians accepted the fact with reservations, because it 
was said that he caused scandals when at Liibeck, Hamburg, and in Holland. 
On September 10th Volontsevich was arrested on orders of the West Berlin Dis- 
trict Attorney on charges of an offense under section 175 (Homosexuality), but 
was set free the next day. Although he was ordered by the District Attorney 
to leave Berlin at once, he remained here. Twice he received visits of Soviet 
Russians and kept on his friendly relations with the leader of the Nashod Street 
Community, Father Poloskenski, as before his arrest. When they searched for 
him in the seat of the Exile Community at Kulmbacher Street 6, Wilmersdorf, 
he hid for some time with the widow and the late pastor of the Tegel Community, 
Sakidalsky. * * ♦ 

[Berliner Zeitung, November 5, 1953] 

Head of Church Breaks With U. S. A. — Politics — Archimandrit Mstislav 
Turned to the Government of the DDR, a Blow to the Church Dividers 
Especially in West Berlin 

Berlin (own report). — We received a letter from the Archimandrit Mstislav, 
the former Head of the Orthodox Emigree Church in Germany. Mstislav has 
turned to the Government of the DDR (German Democratic Republic) with the 
request for permission to perform his church activities in the DDR. 

93215— 57— pt. 66 6 


Following we reproduce his letter with nonessential abbreviations : 

"I would like, in the Berliner Zeitung, to publicly express my motives which 
caused me to break with the New York anti-Church group of immigrants from 
Russia, the so-called Karlovchan group of the Metropolitan Anastasi and his 
Foreign Synod. 

What is this anti-Church group which calls itself "Russian Orthodox Church 

After the defeat of the White Guardists and the foreign interventionists in 
1920 some bishops, fanatical partisans of the Tsarism, who did not want to 
stay with their people, fled to Sremski Karlovici in Serbia. There, acting 
wilfully, they formed the so-called Highest Church Administration — the Foreign 
Synod, which received the name Karlovatski, and which started opposing the 
highest Church Administration in Soviet Russia. In 1921 this Synod turned 
to the Geneva Conference requesting it not to enter diplomatic relations with 
the Soviet Union. It sent a congratulatory message to Hitler upon his taking 
power, and it blessed the Fascist arms for the fight against the peoples of the 
Soviet Union. Shortly after the war it suggested in an Easter Message of the 
Metropolitan Anastasi, the dropping of atom bombs on the Soviet Union. At 
present, this Synod, which exists on foreigii money, keeps slandering the Russian 
Orthodox Church, his holiness, the Patriarch Alexei, and the Soviet Union. 

In 1944, separated from my home country by the events of war, I was sent 
to Western Germany by the Fascists and thus, against my will, I found myself 
among the "Karlovatski" group. After the arrival of the Soviet Liberation 
Army in Germany, Orthodox Bishops from the Soviet Union started traveling 
abroad and telling the truth about church life in the Soviet Union. By and by 
all the falsehoods of the "Karlovatski" group became clear to me. The Soviet 
Constitution strictly protects freedom of conscience of its citizens. The church 
is not limited in its church activities. There is freedom of Divine Services, 
of sermons, of priest seminaries and academies, church congresses to which 
representatives of other orthodox churches are invited. * * * All this proves 
that there is a normal church life in the Soviet Union. I learned that the 
famous "Karlovatski" movement was lacking any religious contents and meaning 
and was nothing else than a group of ill-minded church schismatics with a clear 
political object. I felt it especially strongly after I was sent to Berlin by the 
Munich administration of the "Karlovatski" Synod. I received an order to wage 
a fight against the Moscow Patriarch. I arrived at the conclusion that my sub- 
ordination to the "Karlovatski Synod" was contrary to my being an Orthodox 

I do not wish to be a slave of [the] American policy, which is directed against 
my own people. It is contrary to my national and religious conscience. From 
now on I wish to serve my Church and my native country faithfully. 

Arkhimandkit Mstislav. 

[Der Tagesspiegel (Daily Mirror), October 31, 1954] 
Today — Yesterday — Tomorrow 

Berlin. — Archbishop Boris, the Exarch of the Russian Orthodox Church in 
Western Europe, with his residence at Karlshorst, has been nominated Exarch 
for the United States. He will be replaced by Superintendent General Paul 
Statov who will take over the care of the Russian-Orthodox Communities in 
Germany. (UP) 


[Die Neue Zeitung, December 31, 1952] 
Archbishop Servius Dead 

Berlin (DPA). — On December 18th, the former Russian-Orthodox Archbishop 
of Berlin, Sergius, died at Kanzan/Soviet Union. In September 1950 he was 
forced, through intervention of the Soviet Police, to leave his post in Berlin 
which he entered after the war. 


[Die Neue Zeitung, January 7, 1953] 
Russian Christmas 

A few thousand members of tlie Russian-Orthodox Church in Berlin cele- 
brated Christmas Eve according to the Russian Church Calendar yesterday. 
It was for the first time that the division of the church into an independent 
church and one subordinated to the Patriarch of Moscow (which took place last 
December in Berlin) was apparent at the services. The adherents of the Inde- 
pendent Russian Church celebrated their Christmas Eve in a provisionally 
arranged room, and the adherents of the Moscow line — in their Cathedral at 
HohenzoUerndamm at Wilmersdorf. Alons with the believers of Berlin civilian 
members of the Soviet and the Western Occupation Powers took part at the 
Masses. The Service was celebrated by Archbishop Boris, the Exarch for the 
Russian-Orthodox Church in Germany, who resides in East Berlin. 

[Berliner Woche (Berlin Week), December 13, 1952, p. 3] 

Exile Church in an Apartment House 


The German Bishop of the Russian-Orthodox Emigrants at Munich had prom- 
ised, several times, that he would send a priest to West Berlin who would as- 
semble in one community, independent from Moscow, all those church members 
who refuse to acknowledge the Patriarch of Moscow as the Head of their Church. 
The man who took over this delicate job in Berlin's heated streets is Father Vol- 
onsevich. He has rented an apartment at the Kulmbacher Street and there he 
has set up a chapel. * * * 

But at the Church located at the Fehrbelliner Platz, Archbishop Boris, whose 
residence is in Karlshorst, has been preaching for a few years. His superior 
is the Metropolitan of Moscow ; his Community in Berlin amounts to some 400 
members. In his opinion, as well as in the opinion of the Soviets, the new pastor 
and his independent Community are schismatics and heretics. But it was the 
Bishop of Karlshorst, whom many exiles call "the Red Bishop with Rasputin's 
Eyes" who involuntarily contributed to the fact that the new parish, in spite of 
its short existence, found a relatively gi-eat appeal among the Exiles. 

"We are afraid of Boris" the members of the independent church say. "Since 
his ai'rival things happen in our church which would never have taken place 
before." For example, the Archbishop's constant companion, deacon Alexander 
Lechno, often takes pictures of the priest and the churchgoers during services. 
Naturally, the greatest part of the emigrants do not care that such pictures go 
to Moscow. "During the revolution we lost many of our relatives and we do not 
want that these photos are used for possible persecution of those still living. 
Stalin is anti-Christ. We cannot trust the church which must exist under his 
regime." These are not the only things which embitter the emigrees. The 
Orthodox Church Calendar for 1952 published by the Patriarchat of Moscow 
contains religious holidays, however small and black is their print. But along 
with them there are, printed in bold red type, all the days which are a sad mem- 
ory to the emigrees : Lenin's memorial day, Day of the October Revolution, the 
day of the Soviet Army, Navy, etc. "In addition," the schismatics say, "Boris 
used to distribute Moscow leaflets in the Cathedral in which, among other things, 
you could read about 'Facts on the American Germ Warfare in Korea,' a report 
of the Russian priests on 'the lies of the Katyn Committee.' These leaflets 
were handed over to the Allied Offices in Berlin. 'We do not want to get infil- 
trated by Communism ; it was for the same reason that we fled Russia.' " 

(Translated by George Starosolsky June 24, 1957.) 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 25 is a photograph taken at Wiesbaden, origi- 
nal in possession of Reverend Korchak, showing him, Archpriest 
Adamantov, Colonel Dobrovolsky, and others. 

(The photograph referred to was marked "Exhibit No, 510," and is 
reproduced below :) 

4170 scope of soviet activity in the united states 

Exhibit No. 510 

Photograph of Dobrovolsky (extreme right), Archpriest Adamantov (second 
from right), and others including Mr. Korchak-Sivitsky (at extreme left). 

Mr. Mandel. Exhibit 26 is an abstract from letter received by well- 
known anti-Communist author, Mikhail Soloviev, now of Washington, 
from Dr. Grigory Saharuni, from Berlin, about Nachodstrasse church. 

(The letter above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 511," and 
reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 511 

Beelin, February 19, 1957. 

Deab Mikhail Stepanovich [Soloviev] : The fact of the matter is that the 
church in Nachodstrasse is in the hands of the "comrades." The "Father" 
Sergius mentioned in the letter, to whom I would have to turn for information, 
is a distinct and very shameless agent of the MGB. Since I live here and am 
active in a manner far from incognito, it is clear that he knows me. Therefore: 

(a) It would be very dangerous for me to visit him at home or in the church, 
risliing my head, for in both places he is surrounded by men who carry out the 
orders of the organs of the MGB for whom I am a most desirable morsel. 

(b) He would hardly give me any explanation — not to speak of data — sought 
by Don Levine, for he would know instantly the purpose for which it is needed. 

(Signed) G. S. 

Mr. Morris. Shall I call you Father Korchak ? 



(Through Interpreter Mirra Ginsburg) 

Mr. KoRCHAK, Yes. 

Mr, Morris. Father Korchak, are you the priest who performed the 
funeral service for the late Colonel Dobrovolsky according to this 
copy of the Wiesbaden Church Register? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You did ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes, 

Mr. Morris. Will you identify the photograph and point out in it 
Archpriest Adamantov ? 

Mr, Korchak, Yes. This priest Adamantov. 

Mr. Morris. That is the second person from the right, the priest 
with the long vestments. Father Korchak, let me ask you the question 
this way : Where is Colonel Dobrovolsky in that picture ? 

Mr, Korchak. Here he is, 

Mr, Morris. He is on the extreme right ? 

Mr, Korchak. Yes. 

Mr, Morris, In other words the person to the left of him as you look 
at the picture is Archpriest Adamantov ? 

Mr, Korchak. Yes, that is so. 

Mr. Morris. Do you yourself appear in that picture ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes, here. 

Mr. Morris, You are the person on the extreme left in the picture? 

Mr, Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. When was that picture taken ? 

The Interpreter. He doesn't remember exactly but he thinks it was 
in the spring of 1947. 

Mr. Morris. Was that long before Colonel Dobrovolslvy died ? 

Mr. Korchak, This was in the spring ; and as I remember, Dobro- 
volsky died in the late fall, 

Mr. Morris. The records indicate that the date of burial was Feb- 
ruary 22, 1947. 

The Interpreter. You see, he doesn't remember the exact dates. He 
remembers it was cold. It must have been either early spring or late 

Mr. Morris. But you are sure of the year 1947 ? 

Mr. Korchak. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How long had you known Dobrovolsky then ? 

The Interpreter. He says the photograph must have been in 1946 
because it was some time. 

Mr, Morris, How long had you known Colonel Dobrovolsky ? 

Mr, Korchak. 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948. From 1945 until his death. 

Mr, Morris. Were you aware of his former service in the Okhrana, 
the political secret police. 

Mr, Korchak. It was widely known, 

Mr. Morris, Was he known by any other name ? 

Mr. Korchak. No, he was not known under any other name. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge ? 

Mr. Korchak. No. 

Mr. Morris, Was it a practice of Okhrana officers to use more than 
one name ? 


The Interpreter. He doesn't know that. 

Mr. Morris. I show you a photograph and ask you if you will iden- 
tify the wooden cross with the inscription in this picture which was 
taken in the Wiesbaden Cemetery ? 

The Interpreter. He says that while he was in Europe this cross 
was not there. It was evidently erected after he left. 

Mr. Morris. When did you leave ? 

The Interpreter. He left in December 1949. 

Mr. Morris. December 1949 ? 

Mr. KoRCHAK. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What, to the best of your knowledge, is the political 
reputation of the Nachodstrasse Church in Berlin which is under the 
Moscow patriarchy ? 

The Interpreter. He knew the church only before the Bolsheviks 
came, but when they came, the priests who had remained submitted to 
the Moscow patriarchy and he doesn't know any further about that. 

Senator Johnston. When did they come, approximately ? 

Mr. KoRCHAK. At the end of the war when Berlin was taken. 

Mr. Morris. That was the Reverend Sergei Polozhenskii, the pri- 
mate in that church ? 

Mr. KoRCHAK. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is his assistant one Igor Fromke ? 

The Interpreter. He doesn't know. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know whether the Reverend Polozhenskii wrote 
to Archpriest Adamantov in the Wiesbaden Church to come under 
the Soviet jurisdiction ? 

Tlie Interpreter. He says yes, he knows about it. 

All three of them received similar letters, Dobrovolsky and • 

Mr. IMoRRis. What did these letters say ? 

The Interpreter. Asking them to submit to the Moscow Church. 
But they did not answer. He says that, at that time, they did not 
know where the church authorities were because they were moving 
from place to place trying to get away from the Bolsheviks and trying 
to get to where the Americans were. When they received the letter 
they were pretty much at sea. They did not know where their superiors 
were and they just let it go. They did not answer. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much. We appreciate very much the 
trouble you have taken to come down and testify for us. 

Senator Johnston. We certainly appreciate it. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you very much for coming. We are most grate- 
ful to you. 

(The subcommittee then heard two witnesses on another subject and, 
at 12 : 55 p. m. the hearing was adjourned.) 


(The following documents were submitted by Mr. Tytell during his 
testimony on February 8, 1957. See p. 4110.) 


Mr. Feodor Yurieff, colonel of the Tsar's Russia, has been employed here as 
warden of the Orthodox Church Peter and Paul at Guttingen. At the same time 
he holds the direction of the choir of the church. He has executed these employ- 
ments with great cleverness and he was of great use for us as a composer of 
sacred music, too. The wife of Colonel Yurieff, Mrs. Xenia Yurieff, is a member 
of our Church Committee. During the first world war already she has served 
as a nurse and as an artist she performed the decoration of the churches in the 
field hospitals. Living in exile Mrs. Yurieff continued her church painting and 
during this war she painted perfectly, alone, the altar of the Orthodox Church 
at GiJttingen ; Mrs. Yurieff" was of great use for our church by her employment 
as storyteller and writer of articles of religious and moral character. This is to 
certify that the couple Yurieff are diligent and useful people and have the abilities 
which are needed for these works. 

Priest of the Greek Orthodox Church. 

( For correct translation : Signature illegible. ) 

[stamp] Ubersetzungsbtjro, 

Welfare Committee, DP Camp Wentorf. 



./"!*■'''> i^-Z-il-^-^ 

Translation of Adamantov's Statement 

Wiesbaden, July 17, 1956. 
I, the undersigned, have been serving with the Russian Orthodox Church at 
Wiesbaden since September 1908 up to now with the exception of the period of 
the First World War (1914-1919). No person of the name Dobroliubov served 
with me in any capacity. Also there is no grave with an inscription bearing this 
name at our Russian cemetery. 

I do not recall my meeting with the American journalist, Mr. Don Levine. 
Pastor of the Russian Orthodox Church at Wiesbaden. 

(signed) Archpriest Pavel Adamantov. 

(Translated by Dr. George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress, 
October 4, 1957.) 


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Translation of Loriev's Statement 

From 1904 on I served with the Military Court Administration holding various 
positions. At first I was a candidate for [part of the sentence illegible] then 
an assistant to the Military Prosecutor and during the First World War I was 
a Military Prosecutor with the rank of Colonel. 

During that time exclusively Remington typewriters were used in our offices. 
I didn't know any other typewriters. 

As far as I know, in the main office of the Military Court Administration at 
Petersburg, Remington typewriters were also used. 

( Signed ) F. Loriev, 
Former Military Prosecutor. 

July 20, 1956. 

Varel (old.) 

Old People's Home, Block 4, Room 41. 

(Translated by Dr. George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress, 
(October 4, 1957.) 


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Translation of Rusanow's Certificate 

I, the undersigned, Stepan Rusanow, residing at the Old People's Home at 
Varel, certify herewith that during my service with the District Attorney's 
office in Czarist Russia from 1908 to 1918 I saw only American typewriters, Rem- 
ington and Underwood, used by the Court Administration. I have no knowledge 
whatsoever about the use of typewriters of the make "Adler.'' 

Mostly I worked in various agencies of the District of Petersburg and I had 
access to different offices of the District Attorney. 

Varel, July 20, 1956. 

(Signed) Stepan Rusanow. 

(Translated by Dr. George Starosolsky, Translator, Library of Congress. 
October 4, 1957.) 

I, Marie Widniis, who am a Doctor of Philosophy, graduated from The Uni- 
versity of Helsinki-Helsingfors (Finland) in 1952, and an elder assistant 
librarian at the University Library of Helsinki-Helsingfors having been working 
at the forenamed library since autumn 1927, who live in Helsingfors (Finland) 
Briksgatan 1. C. Phone 37430, hereby certify that I have been asked by phone 
by the University Rector's Secretary on July 25th at 10 o'clock in the morning 


to meet Mr. Martin Tytell, Examiner of Disputed Documents, and go to him 
to the State Archives in Helsinlii-Helsingfors in search for documents dated 
from the time July 1913 and issued by The Russian Ministry of Intern Affairs, 
Police Department, Special Section (Ministerstvo Vnutrennicli del. Departament 
Policii. Po osobomu otdelu) to compare them with the document brought to 
Finland by Mr. Tytell issued by Ministry of Intern Affairs. Head of Department 
of The Special Section of the Police Department (Ministerstvo Vnutrennich del. 
Zav^dyvaju^cij Osobym Otd^lom Departamenta Policii) on 12th Julv 1913 
No 2898 (12 ijulja 1913 goda No. 2898) and signed by Eremin. We went 
through about three thousand documents issued by the said police Department, 
but we did not even find one bearing the name Director of Special Section of 
the Department Police {Zav4duju-^cij Osobym Otdelom Departamenta Policii). 
The opinion of the archivists, who have spent their lifetime in filing Russian 
documents, and especially those of the Governor General's Office's Chancellery, 
which is the only place where documents sent by Russian authorities can be 
found in Finland is that the document shown by Mr. Tytell must be a photograph 
of a forgery, because : because accordingly to the document of June 21th 1913, 
stating that the forenamed Eremin had been appointed on 11th June 1913, to 
be a head of the gendarmery oflSce in Finland, could not sign any document 
issued from the Police Department M. of Intern Affairs in Petersburg (Russia), 
this being the exact statement of an elder archivist Doct. of Phil. OUi Seitkari. 
We spent the first day of research in this helped by archivist Salmela, M. A. 
and archivist Valoniemi, M. A. who was kind enough to have photostats arranged 
for us at the firm Herman Lindell Oy-Ab. Helsingfors-Helsinki, Kaisaniemenk. 
1 C. Next days. We looked with the help of Archivist Salmela through all 
documents even of 1914 from the Chancellery of the Governor General of Finland 
we found some more documents signed by Eremin. The handwriting of all 
these signatures of Eremin. the first of them dating from 19th July 19."J6, is 
different from the signature on the document belonging in photostat to Mr. 
Tytell, which is the second reason why the archivists, Seitkari, Salmela, Valo- 
niemi and also the elder archivist Blomstedt considered that the document 
brought from America could not be authentical. 

On July 27th we went with Mr. Tytell to the Central Police to make sure 
that there were no Russian documents preserved elsewhere in the archives 
of Helsinki. We also got through the newspapers of Hensiuki from 1913 : 
Hufvudstadsbladet, Finlands Allmiinna Tidninger and Finljand skaja Gazeta to 
get information about when Eremin would have arrived to Helsinki -Helsingfors 
in July or August 1913 — the difference of 13 days between Russian old style and 
Western new style also being taken into consideration. This research is con- 
tinued. After this we went to the firm Lindell to make sure of photostats and 
microfilms of all the material we thus had gathered. 

That all this happened thus and has been correctly related by me is hereby 

Helsinki-Helsingfors (Finland), July 27th, 1956. 

I and the staff of 3 archivists spent three full days with Mr. Tytell in 

Maria Widnas, 
Maria Widnas, 
Dr. Phil, Elder Assistant Librarian. 

Address §Helsinki. Erikeg 1 C 17. Phone nr. 37430. 


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Paper to be Presented at the New York Meeting of the American Associa- 
tion FOR THE Advancement of Science, 1956 

Subject : Exposing a Documentary Hoax 

Author: Martin K. Tytell, M. B. A., Lecturer on Questioned Documents, New 
York University, N. Y., Institute of Criminology ; Lecturer on Police Science, 
Brooklyn College ; Lane Scholar, New York University. 
Address : 123 Fulton Street, New York 38, N. Y. 
Time : Saturday, December 29, 1956, 2 : 00 p. m. 
Place : Penn-Top Room, Hotel Statler, New York City 

Program: Seminar: Science Versus Crime. AAAS Section on Social Sciences 
(K) Cosponsored by Society for the Advancement of Criminology 

On April 23, 1956, Life Magazine, one of the most influential mass-circulation 
media in the United States, published an article by the prominent journalist, 
Isaac Don Levine, entitled "Stalin's Great Secret." The substance of the article 
was that the late dictator of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, had been a Czarist 
spy in prerevolutionary days, working for the government against his revolu- 
tionary comrades. In support of this contention was produced a typewritten 
document purportedly signed by a Colonel Yeremin in St. Petersburg on July 
12, 1913. 

To substantiate the authenticity of this document, which identified Stalin as a 
Czarist spy, another letter, an official communication from the Russian Acting 
Director of the Department of Police, dated November 5, 1912, was presented 
as a "standard," in document examiners' parlance. The Life article asserted 
that the Stalin-Yeremin document and the standard were both typed on the 
"same model and same make" of typewriter. Mr. Levine cited a noted docu- 
ment examiner, Mr. Albert D. Osboru, in support of this finding. Mr. Levine's 
article was later expanded into a book published earlier this year by Coward- 

The Life article was of great interest to me, and I read it carefully. Hav- 
ing devoted a lifetime to the study of type and typewriters, and having en- 
gaged in document examination for many years, I was especially attracted 
by the comparison of the Stalin-Yeremin letter and the standard, as presented 
in photographs accompanying the article. Even working from the photo- 
graphs reprinted in the magazine, it was obvious to me that these documents 
were not typed on the same model typewriter, and in that respect at least the 
Life article was inaccurate. 

The next day, I obtained from Life a number of reprints of the article. 
These reprints were distributed by me to my classes in Police Science at Brook- 
lyn College for examination. The students in my classes easily detected 
twenty-five differences in type design between the two documents, and none of 
the students in the group was of the opinion that the Stalin-Yeremin letter 
and the standard could have been typed on the same model or make of machine. 

My interest in the questioned documents led me to request an examination 
of the originals of both letters. I communicated regarding the Stalin-Yeremin 
letter with Mr. Levine, the author, and with Leland Stanford University Li- 
brary concerning the standard. I could obtain the original of neither ; the 
Stalin-Yeremin letter is in a vault of the Tolstoy Foundation, while the Leland 
Stanford people could not locate the standard. However, I did secure a good 
photostat copy of the Stalin-Yeremin letter from the Tolstoy Foundation, and 
a good photostat copy of the standard from Mr. Levine. 

But my investigation of the Stalin-Yeremin letter, which eventually involved 
my traveling through several European countries, interviewing people who 
might have knowledge of this matter, and examining several thousand docu- 
ments, has convinced me that the letter is a fraud. 

Now, I would like to make clear that my investigation concerns the authen- 
ticity of the Stalin-Yeremin letter only as a problem in document examination. 
I say this because I understand that in some circles the letter has led to political 
controversy in which I have no interest whatsoever. In addition, my findings 
are not to be construed as impugning the motives of Life, Mr. Levine, or Mr. Os- 
born. As a document examiner, however, I am concerned with exposing fraud- 
ulent documents, and the Stalin-Yeremin letter is a fraud. 

Because it seems the most logical way in which to tell the story, I should like 
to relate the course of my investigation chronologically from that day when my 
classes at Brooklyn College and I examined the questioned document and the 

93215—57 7 


The Levine book and article identify tlie typewriter used to produce the docu- 
ments as a Russian machine made by Remington and exported to Russia in pre- 
revolutionary days. An investigation at the Remington Plant in Elmira and 
at the offices of the company in this city established that the standard was indeed 
produced by a Remington machine. However, the questioned document, as I 
shall refer to the Stalin-Teremin letter, was not written on a Remington at all. 

My investigation led me abroad, to Germany, in July of this year. In Franli- 
furt, I found that the questioned document was in fact written on an Adler — a 
machine manufactured in Germany. The Adler factory was demolished by 
bombing, and therefore a determination of the date of the machine used for the 
questioned document was impossible. However, company employees who had 
been manufacturing typewriters for many years stated that Russian type which 
produced the questioned document was first manufactured in the year 1912. 
But the questioned document could not have been typed in 1912 or even 1913, 
but much later since the type is worn and battered. The questioned document 
must have been written many years after the manufacture of the machine used. 
I have taken samples of type taken from the 1912 Adler, which may be compared 
with the questioned document in support of my identification. 

While in Germany, I retraced some of the steps described by Mr. Levine in 
his book. On page 107 of the book, Stalin's Great Secret, Mr. Levine tells of 
his search for a Dobroliubov, who had been an officer of the Okhrana, or Czarist 
Secret Police. The author related how he visited the Greek Orthodox Church on 
Nachodstrasse in Charlottenburg, Berlin, where the priest "responded instantly" 
to the name of Dobroliubov, and he dates this incident some time in March 1950. 
I visited the same church and spoke to the priest, who had held his office for 
many years. He knew nothing about Dobroliubov, and he did not recollect 
meeting any American or anyone else who had mentioned that name. In fact, 
there was a second priest who assisted at the church, whom I interviewed, who 
likewise knew nothing about Dobroliubov and did not recollect any inquiry 
about such person. 

Mr. Igor Fromke, a man of thirty-nine who serves as a ministrant or mass 
servant, who had been a prisoner of war of the Americans and speaks fluent 
English as well as Russian and German, offered to assist me in my research. In 
brief summary, let Fromke tell his own part of the story : 

"On Sunday, July 15, I was called out of the altar to meet an American 
who introduced himself as Martin K. Tytell. He asked could I speak English 
and what time the church service would be over. After the last sermon, Mr. 
Tytell again approached me and Father Sergius and put the following questions 
to us : Could Father Sergius remember an American writer, Isaac Don Levine, 
coming to Berlin in March 1950, asking about a sexton who should work at our 
church for a long period before the last war by the name of Dobroliubov? 
Father Sergius said that such a sexton was never at our church and he can't 
remember Mr. Don Levine. But since our church has always had two priests, 
he said we also should contact Father Michael. On July IGth at 9 : 30 A. M., 
me and Mr. Tytell met again at the entrance to the church, went at once inside 
and saw Father Michael preparing for his duty. We asked him the same ques- 
tions. Father Michael denied them even more strictly and assured me that he 
doesn't know any such man." 

In the Levine book, also on page 107, it is stated : "The search for Dobroliubov 
brought me to Wiesbaden and ended there, in the adjoining cemetery. The 
good local priest had taken me to his grave. He had recently died, and with 
him lay buried many secrets of the Okhrana." 

The next day I left Berlin for Wiesbaden, taking Fromke with me to act as 
an interpreter for a visit to the German Crime Laboratory, still in search of clues 
to the typewritten Stalin-Yeremin letter. A short distance away lay the beauti- 
ful chapel referred to by Mr. Levine on page 107, and I spoke to the local priest 
mentioned there. This priest too knew nothing of Dobroliubov, and had never 
heard the name in his tenure at the church dating back to 190S, and again let 
Fromke tell it : 

"Near to that office (the crime laboratories) on a hill called Nevoberg is erected 
a beautiful Russian Orthodox Church in honor to a dead grand duchess of Russia 
and for her sepulchre. We were led to see the old Russian priest in a adjoining 
small cottage. This still lively and erect old patriarch of eighty-four years, who 
performs his duties in Wiesbaden now for fifty-five years, this priest whose 
memory is functioning well in spite of his age, never saw a Mr. Levine at all, and 
in 1950 especially, never talked to him about a man named Dobroliubov, and 


never showed him the grave of such a person. The same thing was confirmed by 
his daughter, who is speaking English fluently. We also checked the books about 
all the funerals since 1945 up to now, and couldn't find any trace of a Dobro- 
liubov. There is also no grave in the Russian cemetery with such a name. I 
for myself, can only say that, belonging since my early childhood to the church 
in Berlin Nachodstrasse, I don't know any sexton with such a name. The same 
applies to my mother who is also an old member of this church. Our longtime 
sexton and church warden cannot be that man. He has quite another name. 
Living in the Eussian-occupied zone of Eastern Germany, his name cannot be 
quoted for reasons of safety. But no other sexton was employed during all 
that time (25 years) ." 

I went through the adjoining cemetery ; there was no tombstone for Dobroliu- 
bov. There was no record in the church registry of deaths, going back to 1945, 
of a burial of such an individual or anyone bearing a name similar to Dobroliubov. 

The "lively and erect old patriarch," Levine's "good local priest," who had 
led him to see Dobroliubov's grave, himself gave me, voluntarily, the following 
affidavit : 

"Wiesbaden, 17-VII-1956. I, the signer of this, am on duty at the Russian 
Orthodox Church in Wiesbaden since September 1908, till today, except the time 
of the First World War (1914-1919). With me there was not at our church on 
no kind of a job any person with the name Dobroliubov. Similarly on our Russian 
cemetery (sic) is no grave with the same name. About my encounter with an 
Americiui journalist Mister Don Levine I don't remember anything." Signed: 
Dean of the Orthodox Russian Church in Wiesbaden, Archpriest Paul Adamantov. 

I then went to Hamburg, where I consulted Professors Tange and Johansen, 
heads of the Slavonic and Finnish departments of the Hamburg University. 
They examined my copy of the Yerem in- Stalin document and labeled it a fraud. 
They referred me to the archives in Helsinki, Finland, for documentary proof. 

From Hamburg, I made a side tour to Varel, near Bremen, where I was able 
to interview two men who had worked in government offices in St. Petersburg 
in Czarist days. Col. Feodor Yurieff of the Russian army worked as a govern- 
ment prosecutor from 1904 to 1917, while Stepan Rusanow worked from 1908 
to 1918 as a typist in various offices in St. Petersburg. They had seen many 
Remington machines in the course of their work, while the Adler was a stranger 
to them. I have aflBdavits from both these individuals. 

Later in Helsinki, I found that a tremendous quantity of documentary evidence 
dating back to Czarist days is available. In fact, there is a question as to w'hy 
Mr. Levine chose an obscure document from Leland Stanford University Library 
as a standard, when thousands of authentic official communications of Czarist 
days are available in Finland. 

P'inland before World War I, was a province of Russia, and the same Yeremin 
who supposedly signed the questioned document identifying Stalin as a spy, 
served as chief of the gendarmerie of the province. I examined more than 3,000 
documents, including 85 signed by Yeremin. None of the documents was typed 
on an Adler machine ; as for the signatures, the difference is so obvious that 
no further comment is needed. 

I was assisted in my research in the Helsinki archives by a trained librarian. 
In extract, here is her statement : 

"I, Maria AVidnas, Ph. D., University of Helsinki-Helsingfors, elder assistant 
librarian at the University Library, was asked by the University Rector's secre- 
tary on July 25 to meet Mr. Martin Tytell, Examiner of Disputed Documents, 
and go with him to the state Archives in search for documents dated from July 
1913 and issued by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, Police Department, 
Special Section, to compare them with the document brought to Finland by Mr. 
Tytell, issued by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, head of the Department of 
the Special Section of the Police Department on 12th July 1913 (Nr. 2898), and 
signed by Eremin (Yeremin) . We went through about three thousand documents 
issued by the Police Department, but we did not find even one bearing the name 
Director of Special Section of the Police Department (Zavedujusci j Osobym 
Otedelom Departamenta Policii). The opinion of the archivists who have spent 
their lifetime in filing Russian documents, and especially those of the Governor 
General's Office's Chancellery, which is the only place where documents sent 
by Russian authorities can be found in Finland, is that the document shown by 
Mr. Tytell must be a photograph of a forgery. 


"We spent the first day of research assisted by archivist Salmelma, M. A., 
and Archivist Valoniemi, M. A., who was kind enough to have photostats (of 
genuine Yeremin letters) arranged for us. In the next few days, we looked 
with the help of Archivist Salmelma through all the documents even of 1914 
from the Chancellery of the Governor General of Finland. We found some 
more documents signed by Eremin. The handwriting of all of these signa- 
tures of Eremin, the first of them dated 19th July, 1913, is different from the 
signature of the document belonging in photostat to Mr. Tytell, which is the 
second reason why the archivists, Seitkari, Salmela, Valoniemi, and also the 
elder Archivist Blomstedt, considered that the document brought from America 
could not be authentic. On July 27th we went with Mr. Tytell to the Central 
Police to make sure that there were no Russian documents preserved elsewhere 
in the archives of Helsinki." 

Certified and Signed : Maria Widnas, Dr. Phil., Elder Assistant Librarian. 

As further corroborative evidence, among the Helsinki documents I found 
a government order appointing Yeremin to his post in Finland, dated Jiine 21, 
1913. A piece of correspondence indicating that Yeremin was in the midst of 
his business in Helsinki dated July 19, 1913, was also uncovered. Mr. Levine is 
aware that the questioned document, dated July 12, 1913, from St. Petersburg 
is inconsistent with the time of his appointment in Helsinki, but has said 
that it is possible that Yeremin did not report to his new post immediately 
upon assignment. But the document dated July 19, which indicates that 
Yeremin was fully in charge of his post in Finland and apparently working 
there for some time, makes it most unlikely that he could have been in St. 
Petersburg just a week before. 

The Finnish authorities were most cooperative, and I have photostats and 
microfilm of numerous documents which have been offered to Mr. Levine and 
Life for their inspection. 

All of the circumstances surrounding the Stalin- Yeremin letter, therefore, sup- 
port the finding that this document is fraudulent. 

I might add, as a postscript, that I have offered my findings to Life, and 
to Mr. Levine. But truth usually has a diflacult time catching up with false- 
hood, so that it is unlikely that this bit of research will ever gain the circula- 
tion given the fraudulent document. 


Life, "Stalin's Great Secret," 4/23/56 

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Martin K. TyteH Document Analyst 
123 Fulton Street, New York 38, NY 


Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the names of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 



Abend, Hans 4155 

Adamantov, Anastasia 4127, 4152, 4154, 4178 

Adamantov, Archpriest Paul (Pavel) 4108-4110,4127. 

4131, 4133, 4137, 4138, 4150-4152, 4162, 4169, 4171, 4172, 4174, 4185 

Adams, Floyd 4122 

Adler (typewriter/company) 4113-4115, 4126, 4127, 4155, 4176, 4184, 4185 

Albanian language 4102 

Aleksii, the Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia 4165 

American Academy of Social Science 4126 

American Association for the Advancement of Science 4102, 

4104, 4106, 4123, 4126, 4183 

American Labor Party 4103, 4162 

American Society of Questioned Document Examiners 4141 

Ames Densimeter (typewriter tool) 4146 

Ames Supply Co. in New York 4146 

Amtorg 4100 

Anastasiev of Munich 4166, 4107 

Andrews, Bert 4148 

Appendix I (documents submitted by Mr. Tytell during his testimony of 

February 8, 1957) 4173-4188 


Baltimore documents in Hiss case 4121 

Ben Day dots 4105 

Berlin 4108, 4109, 4155, 4163^167, 4170, 4172, 4184 

French sector of 4165 

Berlin police lab 4108 

Blomstedt (archivist) 4177, 4186 

Bhin, Georges 4165 

Boris, Archbishop (the Red Bishop) 4164-4169 

Brazil 4100 

Brooklyn College 4105, 4122, 4125, 4157, 4183 

Brownsville Typewriter Co. in Brooklyn 4145 

Bulgarian language 4100 

Bulgarians 4102 

Bundes Kriminal Amt, Federated German Police 4109 

Burghhagen 4113 

Butler, Senator John Marshall 4117 


Chambers, Whittaker 4141 

Chicago 4144 

Churches : 

Greek Chapel, 99 Kappellenstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany (also known 

as Russian Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden) 4127-4129 

Greek Orthodox Church on Nachodstrasse in Charlottenburg, 

Berlin 4127, 4184 

Greek Orthodox Church Peter & Paul at Gottingen 4178 


Churches — Continued Fage 

Greek Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden 4109 

Nachodstrasse Church in Berlin 4108,4163,4166,4170,4172,4185 

Russian-Orthodox Cliurch in Berlin 4169 

Russian Orthodox Church of Wiesbaden (also known as Greek 

Chapel) 4127-4132, 4137, 4152, 4162, 4168, 4174, 4185 

St. Vladimir Church, Prince <& Equal of the Apostles (Berlin, 

Nachodstrasse) 4164, 4165 

Chekmarev, Vassili 4131 

Communist/s 4126, 4165 

Communist Party, U. S. A 4125,4157 

Comparison of type (Tytell exhibit) 4187,4188 

Cornell University 4142 


Daily Worker 4104, 4125, 4126, 4162 

Danish language (typewriter) 4143 

DDR (German Democratic Republic) 4167 

Detroit 4144 

"Dobriskok of Golden Glasses" (see Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky) 4155 

Dobrolinbov {See Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky) 4108-4110 

4127, 4152, 4153, 4162, 4163, 4174, 4184, 4185 

Dobroskok ("Gold-spectacled Nikolai") 4127, 4155 

Dobrowolski, Ivan Wasiljewitsch ("Dobriskok of the Golden Glasses") 4155 

Dobrovolski(s), Col. Janis 4148, 4150 

Dobrovolsky, Col. Ivan Vassilievich (also known as Dobroskok and 

Dobroliubov) 4127, 4130, 4131, 4135-4137, 4151-4153, 4163, 4169-4171 

Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy, article for Life magazine by Isaac Don 

Levine 4106, 4126 

Doud, Donald, questioned-document examiner 4147 


Ehrlich, Mrs. Evelyn S., deceptive print and typography expert 4148 

Elmira (typewriter company) 4108, 4122, 4184 

Elmira, N. Y 4121 

Elson, Robert 4162 

English language 4112 

Eremin. (See Yeremin.) 

Europe 4108, 4120, 4123 

Exhibit No. 492 — Photograph of Russian Greek Orthodox Church at 99 

Kappellenstrasse, Wiesbaden, Germany 4128 

Exhibit No. 492-A — Photograph of pamphlet cover entitled "The Russian 
Church on the Neroberg in Wiesbaden, usually called the Greek 
Chapel" 4129 

Exhibit No. 493 — Abstract from Russian Orthodox Church register dated 
February 1947, showing the death of Col. Ivan Vassilievich Dobro- 
volsky 4131, 4132 

Exhibit No. 494 — Photograph of Archpriest Adamantov signing death 

certificate of Dobrovolsky 4133 

Exhibit No. 494-A — Photograph of Archpriest Adamantov affixing his seal 

to Dobrovolsky death certificate 4134 

Exhibit No. 495 — Photograph of the cemetery of the Russian Orthodox 

Church showing Archpriest Adamantov and othei's 4135 

Exhibit No. 496 — Photograph of wooden cross headstone with the name 

Ivan Vassilievich Dobrovolsky 4136 

Exhibit No. 496-A — Photograph of Archpriest Adamantov and others in 

cemetery near headstone of Ivan Dobrovolsky 4137 

Exhibit No. 496-B — Another photograph of Archpriest Adamantov at grave 

of Dobrovolsky 4138 

Exhibit No. 497 — Photostat of the note, and the publishers' blurb on the 

dust cover of The World's Oreatest Spy Stories 4139 

Exhibit No. 498 — Article from True magazine entitled "The $7,500 Type- 
writer I Built for Alger Hiss," by Tytell, as told to Harry Kursh__ 4140-4148 

Exhibit No. 499 — Photostat of death certificate of Col. Janis Dobro- 

volski 4149,4150 


Exhibit No. 500 — Photostat of letter signed by Archpriest P. Adamantov, Page 
dated July 17, 1956 4151 

Exhibit No. 501 — Letter signed by Anastasia Admantov dated February 

19, 1957, addressed to Ben Mandel 4153, 4154 

Exhibit No. 502 — Letter addressed to Benjamin Mandel from Dr. Alla- 
Ahua Hopiie dated April 9, 1857, giving certain biographical informa- 
tion regarding Ivan Wasiljewitsch Dobrowolski 4155 

Exhibit No. 503 — Letter addressed to Benjamin Mandel from Hans Abend 
dated January 16, 1957, relative to the manufacture of Adler type- 
writers 4155 

Exhibit No. 504 — Letter from Harold A. Voorhis to Benjamin Mandel 
dated February 7, 1957, re service of Martin K. and Pearl Tytell at New 
York University 4157 

Exhibit No. 505 — Letter to Benjamin Mandel from Harry D. Gideonse, 
president of Brooklyn College, re service of Martin K. Tytell with the 
college and Tytell 's application for employment and his signed state- 
ment re Communist Party membership 4157-4161 

Exhibit No. 506 — Photostats from book of enrolled voters showing Mar- 
tin K. Tytell enrolled as American Labor Party (in subcommittee 
files) 4162 

Exhibit No. 507 — Photostatic copy of a letter from Edward Mulliken 
of central European bureau of Time-Life, dated February 18, 1957, 
relative to his visit to Archpriest Adamantov 4162, 4163 

Exhibit No. 508 — Letter to B. Mandel from Library of Congress with 
translations with accompanying photostats of Russian publications 
giving information about Russian Church at Nachodstrasse in Berlin 4164 

Exhibit No. 509 — Translations and photostats from the German publi- 
cation Tagesspiegel relative to the Nachcdstrasse Church 4165 

Exhibit No. 510 — Photograph of Korchak, Adamantov, and Dobrovol- 

ski at Wiesbaden 4170 

Exhibit No. 511 — Abstract from letter to Mikhail Soloviev from Dr. 

Grigory Saharuni about Nachodstrasse Church 4170 

Exposing a Documentary Hoax, article in Daily Worker, January 13, 1957- 4126 


FBI 4141, 4147 

Feehan, Ramos, FBI expert on questioned documents 4141 

Finland 4112, 4185 

Foley Square, New York 4141 

Fort Jay 4142, 4143 

Fotii (Topiro), Archbishop of Vilno and Lithuania 4164 

Frank, Mr 4119, 4125 

Frankfurt-am-Main 4113, 4114, 4126, 4127, 4155, 4184 

French language/typewriter 4143 

French Surete lab 4108 

Fromke, Igor, guide and interpreter for Tytell 4109, 

4110, 4127, 4162, 4163, 4172, 4179, 4184 
Letter of 4179-4182 

Garcia, Roy 4125 

German language/typewriter 4112, 4143 

German Orthodox Diocese of the Patriarchate of Moscow (Berlin) 4164 

Germany 4111, 4126, 4127, 4165, 4168 

Gideonse, Harry D., president of Brooklyn College 4157 

Ginsburg, Mirra, interpreter for Rev. Michael Korchak-Sivitsky 4125, 4171 

"Gold-spectacled Nikolai" (Dobroskok) 4155 

"Golden Glasses" : 

(Dobrovolsky) 4163 

(Dobriskok) 4155 

Golos pravoslaviia (The Voice of Orthodoxy, publication) 4164, 4165 

Goodard, Federal Judge Henry W 4141 

Gooske (typewriter company) 4113 

Grassel, Jurgen 4112 


H Page 

Hamburg 4111, 4112, 4114 

Hamburg University 4112, 4118, 4185 

Haring, J. H 4146 

Harvard University's Fogg Museum of Art 4148 

Hauptmann, Bruno 4144 

Helsinki documents 4186 

Hiss, Alger 4119-4122, 4125, 4138, 4140, 4141, 4143, 4147, 4148 

Hoover Library, Stanford University 4106, 4107 

Hoppe, Alma Alia 4148-4150, 4155, 4163 

Howley, vice president of New York University 4157 

Hungarian language/typewriter 4143 

Hungary 4125 


International Police 4108 

Irish Police 4108 


Johansen, Professor 4185 

Johnston, Senator Olin D 4099, 4125 

Journal de Geneve 4165 


Karlovatski ( Synod) 4168 

Kashchenko, lakov 4131, 4137 

Kelly, Thomas A. (notary) 4155 

Kleyer-Adler Works 4113 

Korchak-Sivitsky. Rev. Michael 4125,4131,4163,4169 

Testimony of 4171, 4172 

Mirra Ginsburg, interpreter 4171 

Performed funeral service for Colonel Dobrovolsky 4171 

Kremlin 4165,4166 

Kursh, Harry 4140 


Lane, Chester T 4119, 4120, 4122, 4123, 4140, 4146-4148 

150 Broadway, New York N. Y 4099 

Counsel to Martin Kenneth Tytell 4099 

Lechno, Alexander (deacon) 4169 

Leland Stanford University Library 4185 

Letter to Morris from Tytell dated March 26, 1957, making addenda to 

previous testimony 4118 

Levine, Isaac Don 4106-4109, 4111, 4114, 4118-4121, 4126, 4162. 

4163, 4170, 4174, 4183, 4185, 4186 
Article in Life entitled "Stalin's Great Secret" which includes "A 

Document on Stalin as Czarist Spy," April 23, 1956 4106, 4126 

Book 4184 

Library of Congress 4131, 4136, 4148, 4150, 4163-4165, 4175, 4176 

Life magazine 4104-4107, 4118, 4121, 4126, 4183, 4186 

Lockey, Ira 4141 

Loriev, F 4175 

MacArthur 4166 

Mandell, Benjamin 4099, 4117, 4125 

Testimony of 4126^170 

Marine Midland Bank vault 4146 

McCann, Howard, publisher 4106 

McCarthy, Elizabeth, questioned-doeument expert 4147 

McLean, Edward, one of Hiss' attorneys 4141 

McNamara, Donald E. J., director of New York Institute of Criminology — 4104 

MGB 4170 

Michael, Father 4184 

Morris, Colonel 4102 



Morris, Robert 4099, 4125 

Moscow 4166 

Moscow Cathedral 4166 

Mstislav, Archimandrit ( Arkhimandrit) 4167 

Mulliken, Edward, of central European bureau of Time-Life 4162,4163 

Munson, John Iv 4155 

Murphy, Thomas F 4141 

MVD Ministry of Internal Affairs 4112 

2Iy Life, by Leon Trotsky 4155 


National City Bank of New York 4142 

New York ^ 4099, 4100, 4102, 4106, 4126, 4143 

New York Herald Tribune 4148 

New York Institute of Criminology 4104, 4122 

New York University (NYU) 4103, 4104, 4115, 4119, 4125, 4156, 4157 

NKVD 4165, 4166, 4167 

NTS (Russian emigre organization) 4166, 4167 


Okhrana (czarist secret police) 4127, 4133, 4163, 4171, 4184 

Osborn, Albert D 4144, 4183 

OSS 4141, 4142 


Palmeder, Earl 4121 

Paris 4112 

Pentagon Building 4102 

People V. Risley 4142 

Poloskenski, Father 4167 

Polosnenski, Priest Sergius 4166 

Polozhenskii, Sergei (priest) 4164, 4165, 4172 

Puerto Rico 4103, 4104 


Radsiuk, Priest Michael 4166 

Radziuk, Archpriest Mikhail 4164 

Rasumow, Priest Iwau 4166 

Raye, Bruce 4122 

Razumov, Priest loann 4164 

R. C. Allen Co 4145 

Red Army 4166 

Red Bishop of Tegel-Borsigwalde (see Archbishop Boris) 4165-4167, 4169 

Redmond, Mr 4122 

Remington Rand in New York 4108, 4121, 4184 

Remington typewriter/s 4105, 4106, 4108, 4122, 4175, 4185 

Riga, Latvia 4155 

Rosnieyer & Biak (typewriter company) 4113 

Rusanow, Stepan 4114,4176, 4185 

Rusher, Wm. A 4099, 4117 

Russia 4105, 4112, 4185 

Russian emigrees 4165, 4166 

Russian language/typewriter 4101, 4105, 4110, 4113, 4127 

Russian Orthodox Church Abroad 4168 


St. Petersburg 4114, 4186 

St. Petersburg Police Department 4105, 4106 

Saharuni, Dr. Grigory 4170 

Salddalsky (priest) 4167 

Salmela (archivist) 4177, 4186 

Salwen, Milly 4104 

Santo, John 4125, 4127 

Schwartz, D. W 4145 



Scotland Yard lab 4108 

Scott, Byron N 4099,4117,4118 

517 Wyatt Building, Washington, D. C 4099 

Counsel to Martin K. Tytell 4099 

Second World War 4100 

Seitkari, Olli 4177 

Serbian language 4100 

Sergius, Father (Archbishop) 4109,4166-4168,4170,4184 

Sernov, Priest Michael 4166 

$7,500 Typewriter I built for Alger Hiss, The, by Martin Tytell— 4138, 4140-4148 

Siamese typewriters/keyboards 4142, 4143 

Singer, Kurt (author of The World's Greatest Spy Stories) 4138 

Slavonic section 4112 

Snyder, Prof. Virgil 4142 

Society for the Advancement of Criminology 4126 

Soloviev, Mikhail 4170 

Soviet Russia 4166 

Soviet Union 4103 

Spanish language (typewriter) 4143 

Spiridovitch 4108 

Stalin 4104, 4106, 4108, 4115, 4118, 4126, 4165 

Stalin- Yeremin document/letter. (See Yeremin.) 

Stalin's Great Secret, by Isaac Don Levine 4126, 4183, 4186 

Stanford University Library 4106 

Starosolsky, George (translator for the Library of Congress) 4131, 

4136, 4150, 4169, 4175, 4176 

State Department 4141 

Statler Hotel 4126 

Statov, Paul 4168 

Stockholm police lab 4108 

Strong, John 4122 

Sworakowski, Mr. (with Stanford University Library) 4106,4107 

Synod 4168 


Tagesspiegel (German publication) 4165 

Tange, Professor 4185 

Three Who Made a Revolution, by Bertram D. Wolfe 4155 

Time-Life, central European bureau of 4162 

Tolstoy Foundation 4107, 4183 

Trotsky, Leon : 4155 

True magazine 4138-4140 

Turkish language (typewriter) 4143 

Tytell, Martin Kenneth 4099- 

4123, 4125^127, 4138, 4141, 4142, 4156, 4157, 4162, 4163 

3031 Scenic Place, Riverdale 63, New York 4099 

Testimony of 4099-4123 

Typewriter mechanic and dealer ; typewritten-document analyst 4099 

Owner of Tytell Typewriter Co., Inc 4099 

Did work for Amtorg during World War II 4100 

Lectured at New York University 4103 

Lectured at Brooklyn College 4105 

Lectured at New York Institute of Criminology 4104 

Assignment with OSS 4141,4142 

Speech before American Association for the Advancement of Science- 4183- 


Exhibits 4157-4161 

Tytell, Pearl (Mrs. Martin Kenneth) 4156, 4157 

Tytell Exhibit A — Letter from Tytell to Librarian, Hoover Library, dated 

May 31, 1956, re document referred to in Life article by Levine 4106 

Tytell Exhibit B — Letter from Tytell to Librarian, Hoover Library, dated 

June 20, 1956, referring to previous letter 4106, 4107 

Tytell Exhibit C — Letter from Hoover Library, Stanford University, to 
Tytell, dated July 3, 1956, re document referred to in Life article of 

April 23, 1956, by Levine 4107 

Tytell Typewriter Co., Inc 4099, 4101, 4141 


U Page 

Ukrainian language 4100 


Valoniemi (archivist) 4177, 4186 

Varel 4114, 4176, 4185 

Vienna 4125, 4127 

Voice of Orthodoxy, The (Russian journal published in Berlin) 4164 

Volontsevich, Father 4167, 4169 

Voorhis, Harold A., vice president and secretary of New York University_4156, 



War Production Board 4142 

Washington, D. C 4141, 4170 

Widnas, Marie 4176, 4177, 4185, 4186 

Wiesbaden (Germany) 4108, 

4109, 4127, 4132, 4148, 4150-4152, 4155, 4162, 4163, 4169, 4174, 4184, 4185 

Wiesbaden Cemetery 4172 

Wiesbaden Church Register 4171 

WNYC tape 4119 

Wolfe, Bertram D 4155 

Woodstock 4145 

Woodstock No. 230,099 4141, 4143, 4147 

Woodstock No. 231,195 4144, 4147 

World's OrecAtest Spy Stories, The, by Kurt Singer 4138 

Wydnas, Maria 4112 

Yakobson, Sergius, senior specialist in Russian affairs, Library of Con- 
gress 4164 

Yeremin, Colonel (Eremin) 4112, 4177, 4183, 4185, 4186 

Yeremin documents of Stalin 4104, 4112, 4118, 4119, 4121, 4122, 4183-4186 

Yurieff, Col. Feodor 4114, 4173, 4185 

YuriefE, Mrs. Xenia 4173 

Zhukov, Marshal 4102, 4103 




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