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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."

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JHPOIITORY 7^S' fA 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAEY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



JUNE 11, 1957 



PART 70 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1957 



yqOTK!0^ 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

JAN 29 1958 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HBNNINGS, Je., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinoi 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jb., North Carolina ROMAN L, HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 
J. G. SouRWiNE, Associate Counsel 
William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 
Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of- J^J^ 

Elliott, Roland 4d2» 

Korolkoff. Mrs. Nicholas 4328 

Lotto, Jack 4337 

Samoilow, Mrs. Olga 4339 



III 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, JUNE 11, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 
New Yovk^ N. Y. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2 : 45 p. m., in room 35, 
United States Courthouse, Foley Square, New York, N. Y., Senator 
Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; William A. Rusher, 
associate counsel ; and Roy Garcia, investigator. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, the first witness this afternoon will be Roland 
Elliott. Is Roland Elliott in the courtroom? 

Senator Hruska. The conunittee will come to order and we will com- 
mence our hearings. 

Mr. Elliott, you take the stand, please ? 

Mr. Elliott. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, before commencing the hearing this 
afternoon, I would like to mention that for the last 2 years, last year 
and a half at least. Senator, the Senate Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee has been studying and analyzing the circumstances surrounding 
the defection and the redefection of escapees and refugees who have 
come to the United States. In the past, the subcommittee has found 
that the Russian officials, Soviet officials in the United States, have 
used tactics which have not been legal and have engaged in activities 
outside the scope of their authority. 

In connection with today's hearing, Senator, we have no evidence in 
the public record that there have been any improper activities used 
by Soviet officials. However, we are simply looking at the facts. 
We have to learn all the circumstances so that, at the proper time, 
when we report to the United States Senate, we will be able to present 
all the facts surrounding these redef ections. 

Senator Hruska. Very well, you may proceed to the questioning 
of the witness. 

Mr. Morris. Will you stand to be sworn, ]Mr. Elliott, please ? 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God % 

Mr. Elliott. I do. 

4325 



4326 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF ROLAND ELLIOTT, DIRECTOR, IMMIGRATION SERV- 
ICES, DEPARTMENT OF CHURCH WORLD SERVICE OF THE 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES IN THE U. S. A. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the re- 
porter, Mr. Elliott ? 

Mr. EixiOTT. My name is Roland Elliott, director of the immigra- 
tion services. Church World Service, 215 Fourth Avenue, New York 
City. 

Mr. Morris. And will you tell us generally, what is the function of 
the Church World Service? 

Mr. Elliott. Mr. Chairman, I think it might save your time for 
more specific questions of other witnesses if I give you a general 
statement which will answer the question that Mr. Morris has just 
asked and extend my remarks in the way that I think may be helpful 
to your committee. 

Church World Service represents the refugee resettlement activi- 
ties of over 30 Protestant and Eastern Orthodox Churches in the 
United States. In the past 10 years we have helped provide resettle- 
ment opportunities for more than 100,000 refugees and displaced 
persons. The overwhelming majority of these people adjust well in 
our communities and make a vital contribution to our American cul- 
tural and economic life. 

It is a matter of grave concern to us, therefore, whenever outside 
influences, either directly or indirectly, disturb the American inte- 
gration of these refugees whom our agency has sponsored and lead 
them to feel that they need to return to Soviet countries from which 
they fled, either to protect their own interests or the interests of family 
members in their country of origin. 

Wliile we recogTiize the right of these people to return to the Soviet 
Union, we believe that their decision to return should be a free one, not 
based upon threats of any sort. 

We believe that our governmental agencies and this committee are 
well advised to study their procedures with respect to persons who seek 
to return to Iron-Curtain countries. Our agency has cooperated ac- 
tively with the Government in explaining and in protecting the rights 
of these new Americans but we must emphasize that the responsibility 
for their protection rests primarily on the Government rather than on 
a voluntary agency such as Church World Service. 

We are particularly concerned at this time, Mr. Chairman, with the 
apparent evidence that "come home" appeals from relatives in the 
Soviet Union are increasing in number and in effectiveness. This 
seems to be a new emphasis in the redefection campaign. We hope 
your committee will be able to ascertain the extent to which these ap- 
peals constitute coercion or harassment by outside influence and to 
recommend effective ways in which such intervention may be countered. 

In cases like that of Igor Samoilow, Me believe that responsibilities 
toward one's family need special consideration before departure is 
permitted. 

Wliere American-born children are involved, we believe that the 
future religious and political liberty of these American-born children 
needs to be especially studied and safeguarded, in connection with 
the return of any such people to the Soviet Union. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACnVITY IN THE imiTED STATES 4327 

All refugees who have been sponsored by Church World Service 
should know — witness the Tanya Romanov case — that our churches 
will continue to stand by them — to assist in their welfare and to co- 
operate in their protection. 

To your committee, Mr. Chairman, we offer our full cooperation 
in ways consistent with the character and policies of our churches. 

That general statement, Mr. Chairman, with regard to our agency 
may be taken as a supplement to the specific questions that will be put 
to the other witnesses. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you, Mr. Elliott. 

Mr. Elliott. If there is any way in which our Church World Serv- 
ice can answer any specific questions with regard to the background, the 
background experience of these people before they came to this coun- 
try, or since they have come, we will be very glad indeed to cooperate 
with you. 

Senator Hrttska. I want to thank you, Mr. Elliott, not only for the 
statement but also for your offer of help. You are making a good 
contribution to the efforts of tlie committee. 

Mr. Morris, have we any further questions ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Elliott, just a few questions. 

You mentioned here there is an apparent increase in the "come home" 
appeals. The Internal Security Subcommittee, too, has been observ- 
ing that the tempo has increased with respect to these appeals. Is 
there anything you can tell us about that by way of amplifying that 
paragrapli, Mr. felliott ? 

Mr. Elliott. I think our general observation is that that would be 
quite difficult for us to support too factually but it is our impression, 
nevertheless, that whereas a year or 2 years ago, there was a redefection 
campaign that was largely in the nature of pamphlets, printed material, 
disseminated from an office in Europe, either Munich or Berlin, that 
latterly, that is, in the past 6 months and, more particularly, in the 
last 3 or 4 months, that campaign has shifted largely to one of pressure 
through the relatives of people in this country. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was that campaign you mentioned that prevailed 
a year ago, the campaign being undertaken by General Mikhailov? 

Mr. Elliott. That is right, and I am thinking also, Mr. Chairman, 
of the activities of certain agents of the foreign governments in this 
country who were, themselves, active in bringing pressure to bear upon 
people in this country. 

Mr. Morris. But, now you say the emphasis more is on letters com- 
ing into the United States from relatives ? 

Mr. Elliott. I think the emphasis now is through family members 
in the Soviet Union who write appeal letters, imploring letters, to their 
relatives in this country urging them to come home. 
^ Mr. Morris. Senator, I might mention for the record that Mr. El- 
liott has testified for us in the case of Tanya Romanow, and also his or- 
ganization has given us testimony in connection with the efforts made 
on the part of the Soviet officials here to coerce the Russian seamen to 
return back to the Soviet Union. So, there is that background to this. 
Senator, 

Senator Hruska. That is fine. 

(Witness excused.) 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Korolkoff, will you come forward, please ? 



4328 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTivnT nsr the imiTED states 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. NICHOLAS KOEOLKOFF 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Korolkoff, nice to see you again. Senator Hruska, 
as you know, Mrs. Korolkoff has testified previously before the Senate 
Internal Security Subcommittee. She testified in Washington with 
her husband. What month was that ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. I think it was last year, in August or July. I 
don't remember. 

Mr. Morris. 1956. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. 1956. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the steno- 
typist ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Mrs. Nicholas Korolkoff. 

Mr. Morris. Please spell your name. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. K-o-r-o-l-k-o-f-f . 

Mr. Morris. What does your husband do, Mrs. Korolkoff ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. He is an employee. I wouldn't like to mention 
where. 

Mr. Morris. You would rather not, all right. What do you do, Mrs. 
Korolkoff? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. I am a chicken farmer. 

Mr. Morris. You stay home and take care of the chicken farm ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you would tell us very briefly about what 
efforts you and your husband may have made to aid in the resettlement 
of escapees from the Soviet Union and other East European countries. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. We have supported refugees through Church 
World Settlement and resettled them mostly in our community where 
there are farmers who need farm help, and after that construction jobs 
and domestic servants, and something like that. Wlierever there is a 
job open, we get somebody there from the displaced persons. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how long have you been doing this work ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. I really don't know. I think it was 1948 when 
we started. I really don't know. 

Mr. Morris. You do it purely on a voluntary basis ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Just as an eleemosynary gesture, in order to help your 
former countrymen ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And how many people — I think you told us in your pre- 
vious testimony, you estimated the number of people you have aided in 
the resettlement over here. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. We started, I think 

Mr. Morris. All told? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. About 5,000. Mr. Elliott knows more than I. I 
don't know. From 1954 1 know we resettled 500 families. 

Mr. Morris. In 1954 alone ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Since 1954. 

Mr. Morris. Since 1954 you have resettled 500 families. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 4329 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I think you told us previously that many appeals have 
come from abroad to people working in your community. 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. First, about 2 years ago pamphlets started 
to come from New York and from Europe from a post office, return 
home, come home, stuff like that. 

Mr. Morris. Was that part of General Mikhailov's campaign ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. I know nothing about politics. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us what you do knoAV. 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. And then, after that, we went to Washington and 
after that it stopped. And we w^ere very upset about it because people 
used to come to us with them and trusted us and we felt they don't 
trust us any more, and then a different type of propaganda, how you 
call it, special to the Cossacks. After that stopped this last year in 
the fall, the letters came to families which didn't hear from IT years 
from their relatives. The wife or the son or the uncle or somebody 
wrote a letter. First, we asked the people if they wrote Russian ; they 
said, "No." And we couldn't understand however did they get the 
addresses where the people are living, and I think it should be looked 
into, however they know how everybody lives in our section. We have 
a rule. The mailman goes around and puts mail in the boxes like 
that and there are numbers on the boxes, and about 2 years ago they 
changed it because the community is growing. Now again the mail 
comes in the new numbers. 

Mr. Morris. So you mean the people who are sending these letters, 
whether they are pamphlets 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. They know all the addresses. 

Mr. Morris. They seem to know the addresses of these people ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. That is right and we just can't understand how 
this happens. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are any of these people living under assumed 
names ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I think you told us before. 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes, I know. I don't want to get anybody in 
trouble. 

Mr. Morris. I am not going to ask specifically. 

Senator, this is a situation that has come up before. It has been 
in the public records. At the time of the Yalta Conference, there was 
a statement in the Yalta agreement which required all persons born 
within the confines of the Soviet Union, that they be returned forcibly 
if necessary to the Soviet Union by the Allied Governments and, as a 
result of which, more than 1 million people were sent back to the Soviet 
Union, and by way of trying to prevent that there were many in- 
stances of suicide. People preferred to commit suicide rather than 
face being sent back to the Soviet Union. 

Now, many of the people, and the number has been estimated be- 
tween 20,000 and 40,000, rather than go back to the Soviet Union, as- 
sumed false names. In other words, they gave to the authorities in 
the United States names that were not — gave a birthplace other than 
the confines of the Soviet Union and gave a name that would not be 
Russian in origin. In other words, they would assume a Yugoslavian, 
a Polish name. 

93215— 57— pt. 70 2 



4330 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. That is right. Everybody wanted to be from 
Yugoslavia, Bavaria, not the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Morris. And, therefore, they were never sent back. It was 
misrepresentation. It is the most understandable kind of misrepre- 
sentation there is. These people did not want to be forcibly sent back , 
to the slave labor camps of the Soviet Union. Many of them are here. 
Some of them are living in Mrs. Korolkoff's community under dif- 
ferent names. 

Under what names did they receive these "come home" letters ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Under their real names. Sometimes we didn't 
even know that he changed his name because his papers always had 
a different name, and then he comes with a letter, what he received 
a pamphlet, and we asked him if that is your name and why did you 
accept it. He said, that is my real name, that is what upsets me. 

Senator Hruska. Addressed to the actual residents in the mailbox 
where they live ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes, sir. This mailbox Kural Delivery 1, is the 
same, the street, just a different name, and Avhere he lives on them, his 
original name. 

Mr. Morris. Are these people now in your community receiving 
letters from abroad now ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes; they are receiving many letters now from 
home. 

Mr. Morris. You heard Mr. Elliott testify that the emphasis now 
seems to be on relatives and former family members ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Just family ties, calling them back. Mother is 
sick or the daughter had a grandchild, and you should come back, 
and after 17 years, people get affected and get homesick. And then 
Khrushchev's speech, I think, affected a lot of them. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Well, you see, first we heard about it, that Khrush- 
chev was going to be on the television, so the rumor went around, 
because many of the displaced persons have televisions. 

Senator Hruska. The same as they would have if they stayed in 
Europe ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. They know that. 

So, then, all went in one — whoever who had television, who didn't, 
came to who had, and after that they came to us and told us, how 
come America put on such a program. When the translator was trans- 
lating a few times, he said, everything is different. Well, some of 
the people are receiving mail and Khrushchev says everything is dif- 
ferent, so he starts to think. He starts to believe. Maybe he is right 
and then we are afraid. No, maybe it has affected more people to go 
back. 

Mr. Morris. Do you think the Khrushchev broadcast has had ef- 
fect from the Soviet opinion ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. That is personally my opinion. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your opinion as a result of talking with your 
friends ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes, because people are talking about it and 
before never nobody had any doubt. We know what communism is 
and now they already say, well, maybe it is different. When you stop 
to think maybe later, you say, well, it is different, maybe. Maybe the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE "CWITED STATES 4331 

Americans are wrong and anything can happen then, because it is a big 
thing to be homesick. 

Senator Hruska. Is that especially true of those who have been here 
a longer time and think that maybe changes occurred ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. I don't know w^iat you mean, sir. 

Senator Hruska. 7, 8, or 10 years. 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Nobody is here 10 years. 

Senator Hruska. Up to 10 years? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, up until recently, have any people in your com- 
munity gone back to the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes, from our community went 1 woman, 1 man^ 
and these 2 Nidzi brothers now, and the 

INIr. Morris. This Nidzi 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Sunday they left. 

Mr. Morris. Up until a month ago had there been many redef ections 
in your community ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Not many. 

Mr. Morris. This is a new development ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien was the first redefection ? 

]\Irs. Korolkoff. I never found out. It goes quietly rolling. We 
find out then somebody is leaving. 

Mr. Morris. A\^ien did you first learn of any redefection? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Excuse me? 

Mr. Morris. When did you first learn of any redef ections ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Last year we started to look into that ; something 
is going on. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us about it. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. How did we find out when somebody wants to 
leave, how we find out. We see that the person is changing. Before he 
goes iDetween other people, he goes to church. He is happy. He has 
his home. He likes his job. He is satisfied. Then he stays home, 
doesn't want to go no place. Then Ave ask him, what, are you sick? 
Wliat is wrong with you ? No, I received a letter and I never thought 
my wife is living. Wliat am I going to do now ? I have to send her 
packages. 

He starts to send packages and starts to correspond and then we just 
find out that he is leaving. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when was the first — when did the first redefection 
take place? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. The first woman from our place left this spring, 
before Easter. I think it was in March. And then in April, the other 
woman left her husband here and went to return and left her home 
here, everything. Just picked herself up and went. 

Senator Hruska. Did she have any children ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. No; she didn't have any children here; all her 
children are in Russia with her first husband. This is her second. 

Mr. Morris. Had she received letters ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And they were 

Mrs. Korolkoff. And pictures, too. At one point a man who used 
to work in the Kolkhoz, a labor organization. Now, he works like a 



4332 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 

carpenter and very handy. He received a letter that his son is a 
doctor. He starts to brag about him. The doctor sends a picture 
wearing a new suit. It looks like it might not be so bad in Kussia. 
Look what nice clothes he has, and then he starts to correspond with 
him and then 

Senator Hruska. Mrs. Korolkoff, a little bit ago you said you testi- 
fied before this committee last August and following that testimony 
that people stopped coming to you for advice about these letters? 

Mrs. KoROLKorr. That is right. 

Senator Hruska. How long did they stop coming to you ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Oh, it took a good half a year before they started 
to trust us again. 

Senator Hruska. And are they — have they been coming back in 
recent months again ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes ; they come to us and tell us they received a 
letter. Sometimes they don't even know how to read in Eussian. 
They say in Kussia everybody is literate. That isn't true, some of 
them don't know how to write. Some come to ask that my husband 
should read the letter to them. That is how we find out what is hap- 
pening to them. 

Mr. Morris. Do more people come to you now about advice than 
last August ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. Sometimes they say, what can we do ? Do 
you think it is from my wife? How can we answer? We say, write 
and ask for a picture. Maybe you can recognize her. Sometimes 
17 years ago a husband doesn't recognize his wife. Somebody comes 
with a handkerchief over her head. The clothing is different; he 
doesn't know what it is. It is his wife. 

Mr. Morris. Have any persons received messages by prearrange- 
ment from persons who defect to the U. S. S. R. ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us about that. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Well, a woman when she left her husband here, 
they gave her $500. She bought a whole suitcase of evening clothes 
and from the 10-cent store jewelry. I pointed out I don't think it is 
very practical. She said she wants to take them and then she would 
write a letter that they received her in Russia, the music was playing, 
the whole town came to the train to meet her and she had seen all her 
family and she is very happy, and before she left, she told her husband 
that when she is going to write a letter, she is going to mention that 
she lost her wedding band from her finger. That means that every- 
thing is finished. 

Mr. Morris. What do you mean, everything is finished? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. I don't know. She took — they took away the 
money ; the money they took away. 

Mr. Morris. The situation was bad ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes, and she wrote a letter that she lost her wed- 
ding band, so he came to the conclusion that she is very poor now, 
has nothing left. And then some 

Ml'. Morris. In other words, tliat indicated to her that this other 
campaign, this other information about her being Avell received, every- 
thing real]v not 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4333 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes, just for half a year, mostly. Because it hap- 
pened to that JMr. Seherbakov, I think was his name who left for 
Paris and 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Shepilov ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Seherbakov. I think his name is Seherbakov. He 
had a leather jacket and all his friends said, you are not going to 
keep long that leather jacket. They are going to take that away 
from you. He wrote back a letter from Russia to that friend and said, 
you were wrong. I am 4 months here and I still have the leather 
jacket on me, and he proved it. He sent a picture. And he still had 
this leather jacket on. 

Just after that, he received a letter, his friend, where he said that, 
you don't like me any more and I am not going to write to you be- 
cause I received a 10-year contract. 

So, you can make out whatever you want from that. We don't 
know what that means. 

Mr. Morris. Now, these people in your community, many of them 
serve in our military service, do they not ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes, the young ones. They came back, some of 
them already from the draft. They were drafted. 

Mr. Morris. And the overwhelming majority become very good 
citizens ; do they not ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. I was yesterday a witness for one. He was 
going to get his papers yesterday. I would say about 20 already are 
citizens and very good ones. 

Mr. Morris. Now, is there anything more, Mrs. Korolkoff, you can 
tell us about this new type of redefection campaign, where the em- 
phasis is on personal appeals ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. I wish it would stop somehow because I feel 
sorry for the people. They found peace and happiness here and are 
settled down and once they receive a letter, it upsets everybody 
around. Even if somel)ody doesn't have anybody, just his neighbor 
receives a letter, so he gets upset too. That is one thing. 

Senator Hruska. What is your personal opinion as to whether 
things have improved in Russia or not ^ 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Mine ^ I never believe it is improved. I think 
it is worse than it was. 

!Mr. Morris. Do you know Mr. Nidzi ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes, I know him very well. ]Mr. Maxim Nidzi. 
That is the older brother. 

Mr. Morris. When did you first hear about the possibility of his 
redefection ? _ 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Oh, about in April. 

Mr. Morris. April, 2 months ago. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, wdiat did you first hear? 

]Mrs. Korolkoff. We didn't hear first, nothing. We just seen that 
he is getting different than he used to be. So once we met him on the 
street, my husband, and we asked him what is wrong, if he is ill. He 
says, no, I am all right. You know, just news, I received a letter from 
my wife and from my son. So then we didn't pay any attention to it 
much. Then we heard that he is selling his house here. He built it 
himself, and he loved it very much, and he sold it for very cheap. He 



4334 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

lost money on that. And then we just found out that he is leaving. 
And we told him, you know what is going to happen to you. He said, 
yes, I realize what is going to be. I want to live with my family at 
least half a year. No, he said, I was promised 4 to 6 months and after 
that, what happens I don't care. I am old and I will die home then. 
I would like to see my family. 

He is a really very sad case. He is just homesick and I can under- 
stand it. 

Mr. Morris. Now, where is Mr. Nidzi now? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. AVell, I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. I mean, he hasn't gone back yet, has he? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. I don't know nothing. He left Sunday at 2 
o'clock from Three Wood Acres and after that we don't know nothing. 

Mr. Morris. Was there anybody with him ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes, his brother, lUjia, and that woman with four 
children. 

Mr. Morris. And then you have heard nothing? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. No. They say they went to New York. 

Mr. Morris. They didn't say where in New York? 

Mrs. KOROLKOFF. No. 

Mr. Morris. You don't know whether it was the United Nations 
Headquarters, the Soviet delegation of the United Nations? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. We don't know nothing. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, we have been trying to summon Maxim Nidzi 
and we have not been able to find him. Apparently, he has not left 
the country, to the best of our knowledge. 

Now, are there any other people who have recently left Three Wood 
Acres ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. No. 

Mr. Morris. That is the only one? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Just recently, Sunday, just this year. 

Mr. Morris. Just this one man ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How about this other family that left with Illjia ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. That is a common law marriage. I mean, they 
were living together in Bristol, Pa., and they decided to leave all to- 
gether. I don't know whether she is going to — going with Illjia or 
going to her husband. I have no idea. 

Mr. Morris. The Nidzi brother, Illjia, was apparently going back 
with them, taking this woman and the children ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. She is from the Ukraine. He is from 
Kuban. If the two brothers are going to their own home and the 
woman going to the Ukraine, I don't know. I never knew that woman. 
She has a daughter living in the United States, a married daughter. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony that nobody else from Three Wood 
Acres has redef ected recently ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. No. 

Mr. Morris. Just these few cases ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen any of the appeals written to people in 
Three Wood Acres that have been recently sent in ? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. You mean the pamphlets or letters ? 

Mr. Morris. The letters. 

Mrs. Korolkoff. Oh, yes ; I have seen letters. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4335 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us something of them ? 

Mrs. KoROLOKOFF. It is the usual story. It just says, dear son, dear 
husband, I would like to see you. I would like to hear your voice. 
I am grown up now. I am going to get married, or the mother is 
ver}^ ill and before she dies she would like to see you, and a man re- 
ceives a letter — he was 17 years hid away and now, after 17 years, 
his wife turns up and sends a letter and he left his twins, 2 boys, and 
they are 21 years old now. So she writes a letter that he should 
give permission that they should get married. It is very strange be- 
cause the first thing I think he even forgot he had the children — • 
for 17 years. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you seen the forms that the Soviet Union 
asked them to fill out if they want to go back ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Whose form did you see or are you in a position to 
tell us? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. No ; I couldn't tell you that because 

Mr. Morris. Tell us about the form. 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. The form, I can tell you. It is a long piece of 
paper, a questionnaire. It says you have to answer from 1937 all 
the places wherever you were living. And, on the other side, on the 
bottom it says that you should continue living in the community, where 
you are living, because whenever you send in the questionnaire and 
you have to send 2 pictures and $1.75 — I don't know why that is — then 
you sit there and wait until they let you know, because when you send 
in an application, it doesn't mean you can go immediately to Russia. 
I have seen such a questionnaire because a woman wanted me to help 
her fill it out. That is how I know about it. She is a very old lady. 
It has nothing to do with politics ; just wants to die in Estonia. 

Senator Hruska. What other questions do they ask besides the 
places of residence ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Where they were living, what they were doing. 

Especially, I can't understand Mr. Ivan Bezbenow, who left from 
Passaic ; however, he could fill out the questionnaire. 

In 1917 he was fighting against the Communists. He was a lieu- 
tenant. Then he went to all this trouble through that tragedy in 
Lienz when they walked through the Alps, when they betrayed the 
Cossacks there — the trouble there. Then, in the displaced persons 
€amps, then we spotted him. He had a nice job here. Before Easter, 
he sent us a very nice letter, thanking us that we had helped him re- 
settle here and he was very happy ; a nice letter. And then a news- 
paper man calls him and says he went to Russia. I just can't under- 
stand it. 

Mr. Morris. Have you heard anything about the activities of a 
man named Georgi Ananiv, the third secretary of the Soviet Em- 
bassy, who has been active in these campaigns? Do you know any- 
thing about his activities ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. I don't know nothing about it; just yesterday 
evening we received a call from a newspaper that the secretary of 
the Soviet consulate was in our section looking for the Nidzis, the 
brothers, the Nidzi brothers. We told the newspaperman we don't 
know nothing about it because they left Sunday. 

After that, my husband got in the car and I went with him and we 
went looking for — we asked how would we know who it is? They 
said there is a different kind of plate on the car, a number. So we 



4336 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVrTY IN THE UNITED STATES 

were riding around in that section looking for a kind of automobile 
if we can find it. We didn't see anj^thing at all. 

Tuesday morning, about 5 o'clock, again somebody calls up. A^Hiere 
are the Nidzi brothers? You are hiding them there. No; we are 
not hiding them. They are in New York. We are not hiding them. 
I don't know nothing about them. 

Senator Hruska. What else can you tell us, if anything? You 
said the places of residence in this form, and where they worked ? Do 
they ask about property or money or relatives in that blank? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes ; they asked who is your closest kin in Russia, 
in the Soviet Union, and that is all they asked mostly. 

Senator Hruska. Now, is there anything further that you would 
have to tell us about the result and the impact of this Khrushchev 
television appearance that was made ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Well, I think, personally, it wasn't a very bright 
idea, whoever arranged that. It was good propaganda for other 
people. 

Senator Hruska. And you think it resulted in a lot of confusion 
among those in your little colony ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. That is right. It has no purpose. I don't know 
what purpose for the United States, what purpose is in it. 

Mr. Rusher. Mrs. Korolkoff, are you familiar with the delegation 
of Russian churchmen, so-called, who were sent over from the Soviet 
Union last year sometime ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. No. 

Mr. Rusher. You know that there was one. 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Yes ; I know nothing about it. 

Mr. Rusher. Can you tell me whether or not the fact that these 
men came to this country, giving the appearance of freedom of religion 
in the Soviet Union, had the tendency to encourage people to redefect? 

Mrs. Korolkoff. No; the displaced persons in our sections didn't 
believe that at all. 

Mr. Rusher. So, it didn't have a propaganda effect ? 

Mrs. KoROLKOFF. Nobody believed that. Nobody believed a change 
there. 

Senator Hruska. Any further questions ? 

Mr. Rusher. No. 

Mr. Morris. No further questions. 

Senator Hruska. That will be all at this time. Thank you very 
much, Mrs. Korolkoff. 

Mr. Morris. Mrs. Samoilow. 

Mr. Chairman, Mrs. Samoilow is very reluctant to appear here 
where there are television cameras, and I think she is very upset 
about this whole experience of her husband leaving, and would rather 
give us the testimony not in the presence of any people. What we 
could do — we could have a hearing that would be open, and we would 
make the results of it known and yet, in deference to her extreme 
timidity at this time 

Senator Hruska. When did her husband leave ? 

Mr. Morris. Within the last week. 

Senator Hruska. Within the last week ? 

Mr. jNIorris. And she doesn't understand the forces involved be- 
hind it, and she is understandably distressed by it all. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIYITY EN THE XnSTITED STATES 4337 

Senator Hruska. I think we should sympathize with her position, 
and especially any apprehension she might have. Her wishes will 
be abided by. 

Have we any further witnesses? 

Mr. Morris. I think not, Senator. ^Vliat we can do is make her 
testimony available within 15 minutes after it is done. The reporter 
could read that back. 

Senator Hruska. Very well ; that could be done. 

Mr. Morris. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Senator Hruska. We will recess the hearing, then, for that pur- 
pose, and make a further announcement at a later time. 

Mr. Morris. We will read it to you in 15 or 20 minutes. 

(Whereupon, Mrs. Samoilow's testimony was taken, as ordered 
by Senator Hruska, at the conclusion of which the following proceed- 
ings were had:) 

Mr. Morris. Before we read the testimony of Mrs. Samoilow, there 
are 2 developments proceeding from her testimony about which I 
would like to ask questions of" 2 people who are still here. One is 
Mr. Jack Lotto, who not only has reported this case, Senator, but 
actually has been to see some of the witnesses involved here. So, 
therefore, he is a competent witness. 

Mr. Lotto, would you come forward, please? Will you raise your 
right hand, please ? 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony that 
you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Lotto. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF MR. LOTTO 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Lotto, did you, in the course of your covering this 
redefection tliat we have been hearing about today, did you visit 
Mrs. Samoilow ? 

JNIr. Lotto. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Morris. "\'\nien did you visit her ? 

Mr. Lotto. On May 27 and one day last week. I believe it was 
Friday. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. I see. Tliat was at her home at 161 Columbia Avenue? 

Mr. Lotto. 161 Columbia Avenue, Jersey City. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us what you observed from talking to her 
on both of those occasions ? 

Mr. Lotto. Well, on both occasions I was struck by the fact that 
she was thoroughly frightened about what was going on, and was 
afraid to talk about it. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, did she tell you that her husband had 
gone to the United Nations Headquarters at Park Avenue, New York 
City? 

Mr. Lotto. She said he had received instructions the day before he 
sailed, that is, on May 29, to report to the United Nations Headquarters 
Building on Park Avenue in New York. 

Mr, Morris. And, to your knowledge, did he go there ? 

Mr. Lotto. She said he did. 



4338 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, also in this connection, in connection with this, 
did you go to the pier the day he sailed ? 

Mr. Lotto. On the day he sailed, I went to the pier and on the 
ship. 

Mr. Morris. Did you see him ? 

Mr. Lotto. I saw ? [r. Samoilow. 

Mr. Morris. Was there anyone with him ? 

Mr. Lotto. When I saw him, no. But, just before I got into his 
cabin, there was a man walking around the pasageway in the opposite 
direction to which I was going, and so as he passed me I saw the "S" 
on his handkerchief and I thought I recognized him, and I thought 
he was Theodore Salomatin, the second secretary in the Embassy in 
Washington. As soon as I saw Mr. Samoilow, I asked him was that 
Mr. Salomatin who escorted him aboard and he said yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you run into Georgie Ananiev at all, the third 
secretary of the Soviet Embassy ? 

Mr. Lotto. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. We have heard, Senator Hruska, that Georgie Ananiev, 
who is the third secretary of the Soviet Embassy has, in the last day or 
so, called a halt to all pending repatriation cases. We have learned 
that at staff level. Senator. I am just wondering if you have run into 
him at all. Do you know whether he was working on the case? 

Mr. Lotto. No; I have heard he works in redefection cases. 

Senator HDruska. Did you see Mr. Salomatin later that day on a 
later occasion ? 

Mr. Lotto. When I went off the ship he was at the gangway and 
stayed there for 2 hours until the gangway came down. That is where 
I was, also, because I thought an attempt might be made to kidnap 
the two children of Mr. Samoilow. 

Senator Hruska. Was Mrs. Samoilow on the pier ? 

Mr. Lotto. No ; she was not. She told me she was afraid the chil- 
dren might be kidnaped. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, she was not on the pier ? 

Mr. Lotto. I didn't see her. She may have been there earlier. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you know Mr. JBezbenow ? 

Mr. Lotto. I saw him on the ship the day he sailed, also. 

Mr. Morris. He is the man 

Mr. Lotto. He is the one who wrote the letter to Mrs. Korolkoff, 
and was happy and content in the United States 4 weeks before he 
departed. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Senator, that is the reason why we have asked Mr.' 
Lotto, who has been covering this hearing, to appear as a witness. 
Ordinarily, it is against our practice, but we have here somebody 
who is a competent witness to testify, and I think those facts are im- 
portant. Senator, as the record shows, a consular official, such as Mr. 
Salomatin is, is authorized by law to aid someone who wants to go 
back to the Soviet Union, but, as we brought out in previous hearings, 
at the U. N. and the U. N. delegation or the residence of the U. N. chief 
delegate on Park Avenue, they are all forbidden by hvw to engage in 
any consular activities. Senator, and that is the importance of Mr. 
Lotto's testimony. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you, Mr. Lotto ; that will be all. 

(Witness excused.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY EN THE -UNITED STATES 4339 

Mr. MoRKis. The United Press, Philadelphia bureau, has stated that 
they have contacted the seven redefectors at Bristol, Pa., who say they 
are waiting for a phone call from the Soviet mission in New York to 
return to New York and fly via Scandinavia Airlines. 

(The testimony of Mrs. Samoilow, as ordered by Senator Hruska, 
then was read as follows:) 

Senator Hruska. Will you stand and be sworn ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony Which you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? 

Mrs. Samoilow. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP OLGA SAMOILOW, JEESEY CITY, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Olga Samoilow, 161 Columbia Avenue, Jersey 
City, N. J. 

Mr. jMorris. How long have you been living at that address? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Oh, about 5i^ years, I think. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you come to the United States? 

Mrs. Samoilow. July 29, 1940. 

Mr. Morris. And where did you come from at that time? 

Mrs. Samoilow. From Germany. 

Mr. Morris. You are a German? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. I am Polish. 

Mr. Morris. You are Polish? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you marry Igor Samoilow ? 

Mrs. Samoilow\ October 26, 1954. 

Mr. Morris. So, you married him in the United States? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, where was he born? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He was born in the Ukraine. 

Mr. Morris. "Wlien did he come to the United States ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, I think 1951, because he was exactly 6 years 
over here when he left. May 29, 1951. 

Mr. Morris. Now, how many children do you have ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Two. 

Mr. Morris. He is the father of two children ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. How old are the children? 

Mrs. Samoilow. The son is 2 years old and the daughter 1 year. 

Mr. Morris. Has he been employed regularly? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And has he been happy in the United States? 

Mrs. Samoilow. I think he was. 

Mr. Morris. He was. Did you notice anything that was disturb- 
ing him lately? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. I don't think so. 

Mr. Morris. Did he receive any letters, for instance, from abroad? 
Did he receive any letters ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Morris. From his mother? 

Mrs. Samoilow. From his mother; yes. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about them? 



4340 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, he was the only one son and she is alone over 
there. She has no more children, and she asked him to come back. 

Mr. Morris. How many letters like that did he receive ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. She was sending pretty often. 

Mr. Morris. Approximately. When did the first letter come in? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Last year. I think about — I don't remember ex- 
actly the month. I think it was in the spring, after Christmas. 

Mr. Morris. After Christmas? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And, since then, approximately how many letters 
has he received? 

Mrs. Samoilow. I think about every month. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he tell you what was in the letters? 

Mrs. Samoilow. She was asking him to come back and she didn't — 
when he left the country he was about 13 years old. She didn't know 
what had happened to him. She said she would like for him to come 
back. 

Mr. Morris. Did he show you the letters or just tell you what was 
in the letters? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He showed me the letters; yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know they were having an effect on him ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, I don't know. I can't say. 

Mr. Morris. Did he seem troubled? How did he react to the 
letters? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He was happy that he found his mother, natu- 
rally, and he wrote to her. 

Mr. Morris. Did he write to his mother ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. He answered her letters. 

Mr. Morris. Did she send him pictures ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes ; she did. 

Mr. Morris. What was his pay? What salary was he making? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He was bringing in about $70 clear money. 

Mr. Morris. How much ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. About $70. 

Mr. Morris. A week ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You say that was his take-home pay, or was that his 
salary ? You say he was bringing home $70 a week ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you mean he was receiving more than that, and 
that is what he got after he paid his taxes ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. That is what we call take-home pay. 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And was that adequate to meet the needs of running 
your home ? Was that enough to run your home ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Naturally, it was enough. 

Mr. Morris. You were comfortable ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. With no financial problems? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you first get any inkling that he 
may be wanting to go back to the Soviet Union ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 4341 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, he said he would like to go back, and natu- 
rally he wanted me to go with him, but I refused. 

I said: "I am not going. If you want to go, you can go alone. I 
am staying here with the children." 

Mr. Morris. And what did he do ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He decided to go alone. 

Mr. Morris. And then what did he do ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He wrote a letter to the Soviet Embassy asking 
them to make him a passport and they sent him an application and 
he filled out the application and sent it back, and a few weeks later 
they sent him a letter: the passport and the ticket is in New York. 

Mr. Morris. Did he go to visit anyone, any of the Soviet officials? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Mr. Morris. When he left, where did he say he was going? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, he said he was going to New York to Park 
Avenue. They told him to go there even the day before, so that they 
can help him to get to the ship. But he didn't go. He went the 
same day he got to the ship, Wednesday. 

Mr. Morris. When you say Park Avenue, you mean the Soviet 
residence at 68th and Park ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes, I think. 

Senator Hruska. Did you go with him ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No, I didn't. 

Senator Hruska. Where did he pick up his ticket ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. About 5 days, I think, before he left. About 5 
days. 

Senator Hruska. Where? 

Mrs. Samoilow. In New York. 

Senator Hruska. You don't know the place he got it? Was it a 
travel agency ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Travel union, whatever they call it. 

Senator Hruska. Travel office. 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Wliere they sell the tickets. 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Did he ever visit the United Nations Building? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Senator Hruska. You said that he had heard from his mother first 
about a year ago, in the springtime. 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Had she written him any letters before that ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Senator Hruska. Did he Imow where she was before that? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No, he didn't. 

Senator Hruska. How did she find his address? How did she 
find out where he was ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He sent her first a letter. 

Senator Hruska. When was that? Wlien did he write to her the 
first time ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. After Christmas. Then a few weeks later she sent 
a letter. First she sent a telegram that she is still alive and she said 
in the telegram, wait for a letter. 

Senator Hruska. Is that after he had written to her? 



4342 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTivrrT IN THE insrrrED states 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Has he any brothers or sisters ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. No brothers. 

Senator Hruska. Is his father alive ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Did he write any letters, too ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Did whom ? 

Senator Hruska. Did his father write any letters to your husband? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He used to write, but when he said he wanted to 
go back to Russia, he didn't write any more. His father is in Ger- 
many. He even tried to stop him, but there was no use. 

Senator Hruska. So the father used to write to him until he told 
the father that he was going back to Russia ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. And then he quit writing ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when he left in the first place, did anyone from 
the Imigration and Naturalization Service come to your home ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. Mr. Greenleaf. 

Mr. Morris. Was that Mr. Earl Greenleaf ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. T\'liat did he do when he came to your home ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He had some papers to check up and that is all. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, he had been told that your husband 
was about to leave ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well 

Mr. Morris. The Immigration man knew that your husband was 
about to leave the country ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did he say anything about that ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, he didn't say anything. He just said if he 
wants to leave the country, he can go. 

Mr. Morris. He is free to go? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did he say anything about whether or not he would 
be able to come back again ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. I don't think he said that. I think he said 
that the ticket he would get is only one-way ticket. 

Mr. Morris. What? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He said that the ticket he gets is only one way to 
Russia — no back. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Mr. Bezbenov ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. I think the man who was in Passaic with him. 

Mr. Morris. He went with your husband ; did he not ? 

Mr. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Were they friends? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. My husband only met him in New York when 
he went to pick up his ticket, his passport, he told me. 

Mr. Morris. Your husband saw you after he went to pick up his 
passport and ticket? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What was the occasion of his seeing you ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. I don't understand. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4343 

Senator Hruska. Off the record. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. Did you go to the pier to see him off ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. I went, but I didn't see him. I didn't want to go 
on the boat and I was on the pier, but I didn't see hirn. 

Mr. Morris. Did you see any of the Soviet officials there? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did he say anything to you about how he was 
going to take care of your children ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. He didn't say anything. 

Mr. Morris. Just abandoned you? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. In that respect. 

Did he mention anything about providing for you after he got back 
to the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat discussion did you have with him about getting 
along ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, I tried to stop him, not to go, because in the 
first place he is my husband and the father of the children, but he 
decided to go, and so he went. 

Mr. Morris. Now, after he left, have you gotten a job? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, I started to work before he quit the job, 
February 6. 

Mr. Morris. February 6 ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Who will take care of your children now ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, he was with the children. 

Mr. Morris. Pardon? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He was with the children. He was watching the 
children. 

Mr. Morris. Who is going to take care of your children now? 

Mrs. Samoilow. My mother. 

Mr. Morris. Did your mother come to the United States with you ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions to ask this witness. 
I think this is a specific instance of how letters from the Soviet Union 
have caused a defection, in this case left a woman with two children 
completely without provision. 

Senator Hruska. Do you think your husband was afraid and that 
is why he went back ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Well, I don't know. 

Senator Hruska. Did he say that he was afraid something would 
happen to his mother? 

Mrs. Samoilow. He didn't say. 

Senator Hruska. If he didn't go back? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Senator Hruska. He did not say ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. No. 

Senator Hruska. How did he act? Did he act like he was happy 
to go back to his mother ? 

Mrs. Samoilow. Yes. He was happy. 

Mr. Morris. Not happy about leaving you, though? 



4344 SCOPE OF SOVIET Acnvrry m the united states 

Mrs. Samoilow. I think not. 

Senator Hruska. I think that is all. Any questions, Mr. Rusher ? 

Mr. Rusher. No questions. 

Senator Hruska. If there are no further questions, we want to thank 
you very much for helping us out this way. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Mrs. Samoilow. 

(Whereupon, at this point, the subcommittee went into executive 
session.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

Allied governments 4329 

Ananiv, Georgi (Georgie Ananviev) 4335, 4338 

B 

Bavaria 4330 

Berlin 4327 

Bezbenow, Ivan 4335, 4338, 4342 

Bristol, Pa 4334, 4339 

C 

Church World Service of the National Council of Churches in U. S. A__ 4326, 4327 

Church World Settlement 4328 

Communist/s 4335 

E 

Eastern Orthodox Churches 4326 

Elliott, Roland 4325. 

Testimony of 4326-432& 

Director, Immigration Services, Department of Church World Service 

of the National Council of Churches in the U. S. A 4326 

Estonia 4335 

Europe 4327, 4329, 4330 

F 
Foley Square, New York 4325 

G 

Garcia, Roy 4325 

Germany 4339,4342 

Greenleaf, Earl 4342 

H 
Hruska, Senator Roman L 4325 

I 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 4342 

Iron-Curtain countries 4326 

K 

Khrushchev TV speech 4330, 4336 

Kolkhoz (labor organization) 4331 

Korolkoff, Mrs. Nicholas : 

Testimonv of 4328-4337 

Letter to 4338 

Kuban 4334 

I 



II INDEX 

L Page 

Lienz 4335 

Lotto, Mr. : 

Testimony of 4337-4339 

Interviewed redefectees 4337 

M 

Mikhailov, General 4327, 4329 

Morris, Robert 4325 

Municli 4327 

N 

New York 4329, 4334 

Nidzi, Illjia 4331, 4334-4336 

Nidzi, Maxim 4331, 4333-4336 

P 

Paris 4333 

Passaic 4335,4342 

Protestant cliurches 4326 

R 

Romanov, Tanya 4327 

Rusher, William A 4325 

Russia. (/See Soviet Union.) 

Russian seamen 4327 

S 

Salomatin, Theodore 4338 

Samoilow, Igor 4326, 4338, 4339 

Samoilow, Olga (Mrs. Igor) 4336 

Testimony of 4339-1344 

161 Columbia Avenue, Jersey City, N. J 4339 

Came to United States from Germany in 1949 4339 

Polish 4339 

Scandinavia Airlines 4339 

Scherbakov, Mr 4333 

Shepilov, Mr 4333 

Soviet Embassy in Washington 4335,4338,4341 

Soviet mission in New York 4339 

Soviet officials 4325. 4343 

Soviet Union 4326-4333, 4335, 4336, 4338, 4340, 4342, 4343 

T 
Three Wood Acres 4334 

U 

Ukraine 4334, 4339 

United Nations Building 4341 

United Nations Headquarters, Park Avenue, New York 4334, 4337 

United Press, Philadelphia bureau 4339 

United States 4325, 4327, 4338, 4343 

U. S. S. R. ( See Soviet Union. ) 

W 
Washington, D. C 4328,4329 

Y 

Yalta Conference 4329 

Yugoslavia 4330 

o 



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