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Full text of "Scope of Soviet activity in the United States. Hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-fourth Congress, second session[-Eighty-fifth Congress, first session] .."



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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE' UNITED STATES 




HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTKATION OF THE INTEENAL SECUEITY 

ACT AND OTHEE iSrEEkAf SECUEITY LAWS 



OF THE 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIMY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



AUGUST 1, 1957 



<.«,«/.; PART 76 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES ^ A 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
83215 ' WASHINGTON : 1958 



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Boston Public Library 
Superintcnrlent of Document! 

IS«ft-f4-W58 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAKY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANQER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, JE., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN. Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, lUinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Je., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administbation of the Intebnal Security 
Act and Othee Internal Secubitt Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN. Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Je.. North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. Q. SouRwiNE, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

BsNJAMm Mandel, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Statement of — Page 

Heimbuch, Msgr. William C 4498 

Poleshuck, Walter S 449O 

Tushnet, Dr. Leonard 4491 



in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 1, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal. Security Act 
and Other Internal Security Laws, 
OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 10 a. m., in room 457, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, re- 
search director ; and F. W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The committee will come to order. 

This is a continuation of the hearing which was commenced with 
William Wallace. Testimony by William Wallace was had on July 
23. At that time, an extended statement was made with reference to 
the particular aspect of legislative inquiry in which the committee is 
now engaged. 

We are particularly concerned with the adequacy of the Communist 
Control Act of 1954. 

During the course of Mr. Wallace's testimony, several names were 
mentioned. And it was felt by the staif and by the committee that it 
would be well to bring these folks in and give them an opportunity to 
comment upon the testimony given by Mr. Wallace. 

Now, Judge Morris, if you have anything further to add to that 
opening statement, you may add it now, if you will. And then we 
will call the first witness whom you have arranged for this morning. 

Mr. Morris. I just want to add one thing. Some of the people men- 
tioned in the testimony of Mr. Wallace issued statements at the time 
which were not under oath. 

One of them, Mr. Poleshuck particularly, said some very incrimi- 
nating things about Mr. Wallace. We felt in fairness to the subcom- 
mittee we should have them here under oath. 

Senator Hruska. Those statements were made following Mr, Wal- 
lace's testimony ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. That is fair. It is as fair for this witness to be 
given an opportunity to elaborate on his comments. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Poleshuck. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I do. 

4489 



4490 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER S. POLESHUCK; ACCOMPANIED BY 
STANLEY FAULKNER, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Give your name and address to the reporter. 

Mr. PoLESHUCK. Walter S. Poleshuck. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. 355 Tower Street, Vauxhall Post Office, Union, 
N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I work at Singer Manufacturing Co., presently 
employed as a surface grinder. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you worked at Singer Sewing Machine 
Co.? 

Mr. Poleshuck. Since November 1, 1948. 

Mr. Morris. Were you at Singer Sewing Machine Co. during the 
168-day strike in 1949 ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Recently, on July 23 specifically, William Wallace 
testified that you were a member of the Singer Sewing Machine club 
of the Communist Party at that particular time. 

Were you in fact, Mr. Poleshuck, a member of the Singer Sewing 
Machine club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. To that question I will have to exercise the rights 
granted to me under the fifth amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States, which gives me the right not to be a witness against 
myself. 

Senator Hruska. The ground for refusing to answer is considered 
valid and you are excused from answering at this time. 

Mr. Morris. Did j^ou attend meetings of the Singer Sewing Ma- 
chine club in which plans were made to strike the Singer Sewing 
Machine Co. ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I am sorry. I did not get the question. 

Mr. Morris. Were you present at meetings of the Singer Sewing 
Machine club of the Communist Party at which plans were discussed 
whereby Singer Sewing Machine Co. was to be struck? 

Mr. Poleshuck. My answer to that question would be the same as 
before. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, those are the references Mr. Wallace made to 
this witness, Mr. Poleshuck, in connection with his testimony. 

Now, after Wallace testified, Poleshuck issued a statement saying 
Mr. Wallace was a liar. We have asked him these same two questions 
before us. He now claims privilege under the fifth amendment. 

I have no further questions of this witness. 

Senator Hruska. I should like to ask the witness if he has any 
comment at this time in regard to the testimony given by Mr. Wallace 
here on July 23. 

Mr. Poleshuck. No comment, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Did you make comment following the testimony 
for the benefit of the press or for anything else ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. I will confer with my attorney on that question. 

On that question, I will be compelled to use my rights not to be 
a witness against myself under the fifth amendment. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACnVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4491 

Senator Hruska. It is the information of the chairman that the 
press recorded you as having been interviewed and as having stated 
that Mr. William Wallace was a liar in connection with the testimony 
which he gave here concerning you on July 23. 

What comment would you have on that, Mr. Poleshuck ? 

Mr. Poleshuck. What comment would I have ? 

Senator Hkuska. Yes. 

Mr. Poleshuck. No comment. 

Senator Hruska. Anything further, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. No ; I have nothing further. 

Senator Hruska. If not, the witness is excused. 

The next witness, please. 

Mr. Morris. Dr. Tushnet. 

Counsel, I did not identify you for the record. Will you give your 
appearance for the record ? 

Mr. Faulkner. Stanley Faulkner, 9 East 40th Street, New York 
16, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Will you stand and be sworn ? 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Dr. Tushnet. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LEONARD TUSHNET 

Mr. Morris. Give you name and address to the reporter. 

Dr. Tushnet. Leonard Tushnet, 572 Prospect Street, Maplewood, 
N. J. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Dr. Tushnet. I am a physician. 

Mr. Morris. And you practice in Maplewood, N. J. ? 

Dr. Tushnet. I practice in Irvington, N. J. It is nearby. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Dr. Tushnet, we had testimony from Mr. Wal- 
lace. He said he attended a meeting at your home. 

Mr. BouDiN. May I ask that pictures not be taken while testimony 
is being given ? 

Senator Hruska. You may. 

And the photographers will be expected to desist therefrom during 
the course of the actual testimony. 

Mr. BouDiN. My name is Leonard Boudin, 25 Broad Street, New 
York 4, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Wallace testified that a meeting was held in your 
home. Are you acquainted with his testimony ? 

I could read it to you, if not. 

Dr. Tushnet. I saw that testimony this morning in the transcript. 

Senator Hruska. You read it over from the transcript which had 
been prepared for the committee ? 

Dr. Tushnet. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. You are familiar with it ? 

Dr. Tushnet. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. You may proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Was a meeting held in your home as described by Mr. 
William Wallace on July 23 before the subcommittee? And that was 
approximately in the summer of 1954. 



4492 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVrTT EST THE UNITED STATES 

Dr. TusHNET. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. It was not held in your home ? 

Dr. TusHNET. It was not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Wallace testified that there met at your home 
a man named Moroze. 

Did a man named Louis Moroze have a meeting at your home ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Are you referring to the same meeting ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Dr. TusHNET. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did Mr. Wallace ever attend a meeting at your home? 

Dr. TusnNET. There were no meetings at my home. He was at my 
home. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did people meet at your home as he described it 
in his testimony ? 

I do not know, Senator, but I think the witness is taking exception 
to my word "meeting." 

Mr. BouDiN. That is exactly the point. 

Mr. Morris. Did certain people meet in your home in the summer 
of 1954? 

Dr. TusHNET. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did Mr. Wallace ever meet in your home ? 

Mr. BouDiN. Again, we understand the word "meet" has no formal 
significance. 

Mr. Morris. They gathered. 

Dr. TusHNET. Eepeat that. 

Mr. Morris. Did Mr. Wallace ever visit you at your home ? 

Dr. TusHNET. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us the occasion of his coming to your 
home? 

Dr. TusHNET. Well, in the summer — in May of 1955, the House Un- 
American Activities Committee came to Newark, and one of the peo- 
ple that they called to appear before them was my wife. 

Mr. Morris. What is her name ? 

Dr. TusiiisrET. Fannie Tushnet. 

Mr. Morris. Frances Tushnet ? 

Dr. Tushnet. No; Fannie. 

During that time a lot of our friends came to visit us, to assure us 
of their loyalty and friendship and to ask how they could help us. 
And during that period, there were a number of people who came to 
our house in the evenings and afternoons, up until the time of the 
actual hearings themselves. And on one of those occasions, one of 
those evenings, William Wallace came with 3 or 4 other people, whom 
I do not know, to our house. 

Mr. Morris. Now, at that time. Dr. Tushnet, were you a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Dr. Tushnet. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Had you been a member of the Communist Party 
earlier ? 

Dr. Tushnet. I think the question is objectionable. And I object 
on the ground of lack of pertinency, because it invades my rights un- 
der the first amendment. And I avail myself of the privileges of the 
fifth amendment and decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. But you do claim among your claims of privileges the 
fifth amendment? 



SCOPE OF S0\1ET ACTIVITY IN" THE UNITED STATES 4493 

Dr. TusHXET. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. That ground is recognized. 

The other grounds are overruled. 

The witness is excused from answering on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment, which he asserts. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you were chairman of the Committee for the 
Rosenbergs in Essex and Union County, were you not ^ 

Dr. TusHXET. It was the Rosenberg Committee in New Jersey, 
actually. There was no specific county. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

You were chairman of the committee ? 

Dr. TusHXET. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, had you earlier attended the 20th annual con- 
vention of the Communist Party ? 

Rather, the 20th anniversary celebration of the Communist Party 
in Newark, N. J., at Kruger Auditorium on Belmont Avenue on 
September 24, 1939? 

Dr. TusHXET. In 1939? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Dr. TusHXET. I decline to answer that question for the grounds — 
on the grounds of lack of pertinency under my rights of the first 
amendment, and avail myself of the privileges of the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Senator Hrtjska. The grounds other than those on the fifth amend- 
ment are overruled. The refusal to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment is recognized. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Nathan Harris, police officer in 
Newark, N. J., told the subcommittee yesterday that in connection 
with his official police duties at that particular time, he was observing 
the gathering at the 20th annual celebration of the Communist Party 
in Newark, N. J., at the Kruger Auditorium, and he noticed a man 
leave his automobile and bring circulars to the convention. And he 
told us he checked the license plates of the automobile, and the auto- 
mobile belonged to Dr. Leonard Tushnet, 662 18th Avenue, Irving- 
ton, N. J. 

Did you live at that 662 18th Avenue, Irvington, N. J., at any time? 

Dr. TusHXET. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And did you take circulars to the Communist Party 
convention at that time as Nathan Harris, the police officer, has told the 
subcommittee ? 

Dr. TusHXET. I decline to answer on the same grounds previously 
stated. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was it your testimony that, at the time these 
people gathered at your home, that you were not then a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Dr. TusHXET. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, had you been a member of the Communist Party a 
month earlier than that ? 

Dr. TusHXET. I think that I will decline to answer that question 
on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. Now, was the meeting in your home a meeting of Com- 
munists ? 

93215— 58— pt. 76 2 



4494 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Dr. TusiixET. I don't know what the political affiliations were of 
the people at my home. 

Mr. Morris. Who were the people present on that occasion? 

Dr. TusiiXET. It was myself and my wife. There was Frances 
Xnssbamn, Robert LoAvenstein, Harrj^ Zimmerman, William Wallace, 
3 people he brought with him whom I did not know, and 3 or 4 other 
people, oiii' friends, who came and went during the course of the 
evening. 

And I must admit that one evening was more or less like another 
during that period. And I don't recall exactly those people. 

Senator Hruska. Had any of these people visited you in your home 
before that ? 

Dr. TusHNET. Yes, sir. Many of our friends have visited us. 

Senator Hruska. Did they usually come together in a group like 
that when they came to visit with you ? 

Dr. TusHNET. Well, during that period people came in tAvos or 
threes, husbands and wives, friends and acquaintances. 

Senator Hruska. Did they visit you after that occasion, after the 
event of the House Un-American Activities Committee hearing? 

Dr. TusHNET. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Were they likewise in similar groups or similar 
combinations ? 

Dr. TusHNET. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. As to personalities ? 

Dr. TusHNET. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. And on any of these occasions did j'^ou discuss the 
Singer strike which was then going on ? 

Dr. TusHNET. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. What is the period that you are talking about? 
Are you talking about 1955 ? 

Dr. TusHXET. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. I see. That would not apply to the Singer strike, 
which was some time before that. 

Mr. BouDix. You will note that Mr. Wallace testified that these 
meetings occurred in 1054 and that his testimony is inaccurate in that 
respect, as well as in others, as appears from the record. 

Mr. Morris. Dr. Tushnet, were plans made there for the retention 
of counsel for the witnesses who were to appear before the House 
Un-American Activities Committee? 

Dr. TusiiNET. No, sir ; as I recall, we had already engaged counsel 
for my wife. 

Mr. Morris. Who was representing your wife ? 

Dr. Tushnet. Osmond K. Fraenkel. 

Mr. BouDix. He is general counsel of the xlmerican Civil Liberties 
Union. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Wallace said the discussion was as to who was to 
rejjresent the three teachers. 

Dr. Tushnet. Robert Lowenstein said he had already spoken to 
Judge Bigelow. 

Tliere were some general discussions about other attorneys who had 
declined to take the cases. There was a suggestion made that they 
go to the State Bar Association or to the American Civil Liberties 
Union. But since the attorney for the American Civil Liberties 



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SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4495 

Union had already been subpenaed by the House Un-American Activi- 
ties Committee 

Mr. JNIoRRis. What Avas his name ? 

Dr. TusHXET. Oxfeld — it was felt that that was out. And there 
were no plans made for anyone to hire counsel at that gathering at all. 

jNIr. 13()i'Dix. Senator, may I just make one observation? I did not 
want to interfere with the examination. But I do think it fair to say 
that I think that it is improper for this committee or any other to 
make an investigation into the processes by whicli people select counsel 
to appear before a House committee or a Senate committee or any 
other committee. 

I tliink this is something beyond the jurisdiction of this committee, 
and does, although the committee may not have realized it before, 
raise a question as to whether it is not interfering directly or indirectly 
with the right of counsel. 

I know that Mr. Wallace testified. I have seen the transcript. It 
seems to me the testimony is not germane to any bona fide legislative 
purpose. 

I feel the same way about the examination that has been had here 
today. Regardless of how people select a lawyer, every effort should 
be made to facilitate the selection of counsel. And it would obviously 
not facilitate selection of counsel if the choice of counsel were made 
subject to investigation by a congressional committee. 

]\ir. Morris. May I observe, in connection with what Mr. Boudin 
has said, that the subcommittee is not inquiring into the circumstances. 
But this meeting is being held this morning in which Dr. Tushnet is a 
witness because Dr. Tushnet and others had issued statements to the 
press taking exception to what Mr. Wallace had said. 

Mr. Boudin. Of course, I raise the question as to whether the Wal- 
lace testimony ever was pertinent to a legislative purpose. And that 
it was improper to have had Wallace testify to begin with as to how 
people are selecting counsel. 

If that was improper, then no matter what the witnesses have said 
or other people have said thereafter, it is not proper to continue the 
investigation. I really think the committee ought to give serious con- 
sideration — and I know it would not do something wrong deliber- 
ately — to whether it is really proper, whether it really was proper to 
have gone into the question of how lawyers were selected, whether it 
was Judge Bigelow or anybody else, and whether it is proper to pursue 
this investigation with this or any other witness. 

I do think that the statements that were made by Judge Bigelow 
and by Mrs. Nussbaum repudiated in part the statements made by Mr. 
Wallace. They are in themselves a demonstration of the inadvisabil- 
ity of having witnesses testify in the area of the attorney-client rela- 
tionship. 

I hope the Senator will give serious consideration to the very serious 
problem which I have raised. And Mr. Morris will, too. 

Senator Hruska. We are always glad to consider suggestions by 
counsel. On the other hand, the committee might have its own ideas 
as to what is pertinent. 

I can see where, under some circumstances, either the selection of 
counsel or the fashion in which they are selected or the furnishing of 
counsel for others would be Dertinent to the inauirv of the committee. 



4496 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Chair wants to thank the counsel for his contribution in that 
regard. 

You may proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. I notice it is 3 minutes before 10 : 30. I have just 
one other thing I would like to offer for the record here. And I sug- 
gest that we further take Mr. Boudm's suggestions under considera- 
tion and possibly we can make a decision after 10 : 30. 

Were you a trustee for the bail fund of the Civil Eights Congress 
of New Jersey, Dr. Tushnet ? 

Dr. Tushnet. I object to the question and decline to answer on the 
grounds of lack of pertinency, and my rights under the first amend- 
ment, and avail myself of the privilege of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Hruska. The same ruling will be made as on previous 
rulings. 

May I ask, Mr. Witness, and Mr. Counsel, when you refer to the 
fifth amendment, do you mean that portion thereof relating to your 
rights to refuse to be a witness against yourself ? 

Dr. Tushnet. That is correct, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. The record should so show, because there are 
other facets of that amendment. 

Mr. BouDiN. In the light of recent decisions, we are not raising 
our right under the due process law of the fifth amendment. But 
you are quite right. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling on the objection. 

Mr. Morris. I show you that certificate of the Civil Rights bail 
fund in which it names you as trustee. Can you tell us what that is ? 

Dr. Tushnet. I decline to answer for the reason previously given. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. I offer that for the record. 

Senator Hruska. It will be received for the record. It will be 
made a part thereof. 

(The document above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 487" and 
is reproduced below:) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVrTY IN THE UNITED STATES 4497 



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4498 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITy EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Because the Senate apparently is called in session, 
may we defer further examination at this moment ? 

I will talk with counsel as to when we can continue this hearing. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

The witness is excused for the time being. 

Are there any further witnesses ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; Monsignor Heimbuch is here. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. I do. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Morris, it will be necessary that I leave for 
a short while. Will you continue the discussion here, and I will re- 
join you as soon as I can. 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Senator. 

TESTIMONY OF MSGR. WILLIAM C. HEIMBUCH 

Mr. Morris. Would you give your full name and address to the 
reporter ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Kt. Kev. William C. Heimbuch. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. 52 Smith Street, Elizabeth, N. J., St. 
Michael's Church. 

Mr. Morris. You are a monsignor of the Catholic Church? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And were you at St. Michael's Church in 1949 during 
the Singer Sewing Machine strike ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Every day. 

Mr. Morris.- And were you in a position to observe the demonstra- 
tions and the outcome of that particular strike ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. I was in a very good position ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder, monsignor, if you would tell, if the acting 
chairman of the subcommittee asked you to, the circumstances that 
you were able to observe about the Singer Sewing Machine strike in 
1949. 

Monsignor Heimbuch. I became suspicious from the very begin- 
ning. I have quite a few men who are employees of Singer's and 
who are parishioners of mine. And practically every one of them 
was satisfied with what they were getting. 

Then, we suddenly heard these complaints coming froin I don't 
know where, about the injustices, the conditions at Singer's, some- 
thing about the incentive plan, and a speed-up, or some similar ques- 
tions that I never thought existed seriously down there. And this 
led to what I thought was a very phony strike vote. It was taken 
at the Elizabeth Armory. I wasn't present but from what I know, 
you were just handed a paper ballot. I don't think anybody checked 
or anybody counted. 

When it was all over, a report came out that the strikers over- 
whelmingly are in favor of a strike. And that didn't correspond 
with what I heard from my men. 

So, from that time on, I started to investigate. Then we got pe- 
culiar names coming into the picture, who were foreigners to Eliza- 
beth. For instance, there was a Walter Barry, who came around. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACnVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4499 

And then Marshall Scherer. He is a famous man with a tent. 

Walter Barry, I think he came from Newark. He was, I think, 
supposed to be the sergeant-at-arms. He ran the show. 

This Marshall Scherer, he set up a tent right outside the grounds 
there. And he was supposed to give instructions to the strikers. 
But what he was actually doing was giving Conmimiist propaganda. 
It got so bad that in the course of events there, the tlE issued a 
leaflet telling me I should mind my own business ; I should not inter- 
fere with labor-management conditions; that there were a lot of 
Catholics in the union, and I was doing them a disservice by what I 
was doing and saying. 

That, in general, is the thing that made me very suspicious and it 
got me working, too. 

Mr. INIoRRis. Is it your testimony, Monsignor, that you felt the 
employees of Singer Sewing Machine Co. actually did not want to 
go on strike '? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Well, I will tell you what they did. They 
were complaisant. They were indifferent. Here is the attitude they 
took. I heard this quite often. 

You hear them say "I don't give a 'G. D.' who runs my union as 
long as I get an extra buck in my pay envelope." 

I think that was the reason why the strike succeeded. They didn't 
care who was running the union, ]ust as long as 'T get one extra buck 
in my pay envelope." 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Wallace told us that 20 people he knew to be 
Communists caused the strike, and that they were the leaders of the 
strike. 

Monsignor Heimbuch. That is true. 

Mr. Morris. Did you see any evidence of that at all, Monsignor? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. I couldn't mention any names. But you 
could always see that somebody was pulling the strings behind the 
curtain. A lot of it happened down in that tent. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did this strike cause much damage ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. You mean financially ? 

Mr. Morris. To the city of Elizabeth ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Oh, we had a depression. First of all, the 
strikers lost about $10 million. The Singer Co. lost $24 niillion. The 
business people lost $30 million. And that does not take into account 
all the money they pulled out of their savings account and spent out- 
side of Elizabeth. 

I would say the figure was well over $54 million. From time to 
time, I used to go into merchants' stores in the Elizabeth area. Time 
and again they would tell me, "My receipts yesterday were $2.89," 
or "$3.12." And that is what it did to Elizabeth. We were in bad 
shape, very bad shape. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mayor James Kirk was the mayor at that time. 

Monsignor Heimbuch. That is right. 

Mr, Morris. He was the mayor from 1939 until 1952? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. I think so. He was the mayor at the time. 

Mr. Morris. I spoke to former Mayor Kirk yesterday, Monsignor. 
And he said in connection with all those figures about damage caused 
by the strike that he did not take into consideration the large ex- 
penditures the city of Elizabeth had to make for things like relief 
and relief rolls. 



4500 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Monsignor Heimbuch. That would just add to your $54 million. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what did you do during the strike ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Well, a fellow by the name of Pat White, I 
think he was the first one who recognized what we were dealing with. 

Mr. Morris. Who was he ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. He was an employee at Singer's. 

He spoke to me very early. He said, "This thing isn't right. I am 
sure there is Red influence. We ought to do something." 

So, he and a number of others tried to organize another union, 
because the UE was getting nowhere. And Singer was not budging 
one inch. So, they figured they would have to have a new bargaining 
agent. And they tried to establish another union. In fact, they got 
so far that they really had an election. 

That election smelled a little bit also. I think it was held down at 
the Immaculate Heart of Mary's School. I think that is where it was. 
The voting started at 7 o'clock in the morning. And there had been 
set up some kind of a deadline or mark beyond which the strikers 
were not supposed to go, only when voting. 

At 10 o'clock I got a call from somebody ; I don't know who it was. 
He said, "You better come down here, the strikers are interfering with 
the men who want to vote. They are going beyond the line before 
they should. And they are intimidating the voters." 

So, I rushed up to Mayor Kirk, and I got extra police down there. 
But from 7 until 10 o'clock, I think the independent voters lost at 
least 300 votes. And the final result was, I think, the UE won that 
election. I don't know by how many votes, a couple of hundred 
votes. Nobody will be able to say just how many they lost. But 
they lost quite a few. 

Now, if the independent union had won, that strike, I think, would 
have been ended in July instead of November. 

Mr. Morris. Why do you say that ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Because Singer would have bargained with 
them. I know they would have. And I might add this : During all 
that period I never had one single contact with Mr. Rawl or any 
official in the Singer Manufacturing Co. There was never any col- 
lusion or meeting. In fact, I never spoke to Mr. Rawl until after the 
strike was over. But I was accused of being a stooge for the company. 

Mr. Morris. You wrote a letter to the editor of the Elizabeth Jour- 
nal after the testimony of Mr. William Wallace; did you not? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to read this letter into the record and ask 
you questions about it. This is in the Elizabeth Journal of July 26, 
1957. [Reading:] 

A news item that appeared in all of the daily papers concerning the strike at 
Singer's in 1949 must have awakened a lot of bitter memories in the minds of our 
people, and especially in the minds of the men and women who were members of 
the UE at that time. 

The story, which recalls the misery and the suffering so many citizens of Eliza- 
beth endured during this calamity which was inflicted upon us in the name of and 
under the smokescreen of justice for the laboring man, contains a very valuable 
lesson. Communism is not dead by any means, and we hope the Supreme Court 
has not given new life to an evil cause that was gasping for breath in this country. 

To say that all Singer union workers were gullible or complaisant would be 
untrue. But there were enough of them asleep at the switch to enable the Reds 
and the near-Reds to take over. Anyone who had the temerity to condemn the 
strike was criticized as an enemy of the workingman and organized labor. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTrVITY IN" THE UNITED STATES 4501 

Now, we learn that the strike cost the city $54 million, and that after 168 days 
of strike, engineered and masterminded by the Reds, the workers obtained the 
raise which they were offered when the strike began. 

That's a pretty high price to pay for complacency and slumber. 

You wrote that letter, did you ? 

Monsignor PIeimbuch. I did. 

Mr. Morris. You mentioned in there that anyone who had the 
temerity to condemn the strike was criticized as the enemy of the 
workingman. Have you any experience along that line ? 

]\Ionsignor Heimbuch. I meant especially myself. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that ? 
. Monsignor Heimbuch. Well, there were letters coming through, 
anonymous letters, disrespectful letters. And I think one of those 
letters got to the Elizabeth Journal. And that is the reason for that 
editorial you have that was written to the Elizabeth Journal. And 
those organized for the independent union had trouble also. 

yir. jMorris. Were you personally criticized ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Oh, yes. Oh, yes. 

;Mr. ^loRRis. Well, now, did you actually oppose the strike? 

]\Ionsignor Heimbuch. Did I what ? 

Mr. Morris. Did yon actually oppose the strike ? 

^Monsignor Heimbuch. Not directly, no. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat were you doing ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. I was trying to get the UE out. That is 
what I was trying to do. As a bargaining agent. 

'Sir. Morris. You were trying to get an independent union in? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Any union, rather than the UE. I didn't 
care what it was. I think the lUE was just beginning to be formed 
at that time. That is not too clear in my mind. That is the one that 
is down there now. I think they were still in their infancy. At 
least, thev weren't powerful. 

Eventually, they won the election. But only after all the damage 
had been done. 

Mr. Morris. Now, did you yourself receive any criticism ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Pardon? 

Mr. Morris. Did you yourself receive any criticism ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Certainly. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Well, they usually revolved about this idea : 
TNHiy doesn't a priest mind his own business ; that I was interfering 
with labor-management. 

I would like to put this officially: The only reason I interfered 
was this. I was convinced in the beginning it was not an issue be- 
tween management and labor; it was an issue between communism 
and Americanism. 

And I felt that as a priest I had a perfect right to interfere. And 
I didn't hesitate to act. And I didn't hesitate to talk when I thought 
I was helping the cause of justice. 

Mr. Morris. Now, I wonder, Monsignor, if you would tell us some- 
thing of the suffering of the people that you mentioned in that letter. 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Well, what I told you about the merchants 
will give you an idea. In Elizabeth there, you have a lot of promi- 
nent stores. If a store takes in $2 or $3 a day over a long period^ 
3'ou know what it is going to mean. 



4502 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 

And I was getting a lot of complaints from the women, mothers, 
and sisters and daughters. And eventually that had a lot to do with 
brmging the real matter to the attention of the people. 

I said, "If you people are suffering so much, if you are so much 
against this strike, why don't you write to the papers?" 

And, of course, in time these letters appeared. I think they had 
a big influence on the final closing of the strike. 

You would get a letter signed, "A Heartbroken Mother," "A Desti- 
tute Wife," "A Disappointed Sister." And after those things ap- 
peared in the paper over a long period of time, everybody seemed to 
wake up. And eventually we got what we wanted. But only after 
most of the damage had been done. The women can take a lot of 
credit. 

Mr. Morris. Who can take a lot of credit. 

Monsignor Heimbuch. The women. They always get in the pic- 
ture. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else, Monsignor, you can tell us 
about that strike ? 

Monsignor Heimbuch. Any particular phase of it? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. Anything at all that you can add to what we 
have already covered. 

Monsignor Heimbuch. No. 

Well, I will mention this : At the time of the strike there was a man 
by the name of Brennan. He was the head of the union down there. 
I always figured he was nothing more than a stooge. But they used 
him as an implement to get after me, because Mr. Brennan was a 
Catholic. 

They said "How can you call this union Eed if Mr. Brennan is 
the head of this union ?" 

I would put Mr. Brennan in the same class with Mr. Fitzgerald, 
who is the national director or president of the UE. 

They used these Catholic names. And they tried to confuse us 
and get us off the track. 

Now, this Robert Brennan, he had nothing to do with that. He 
was just a stooge. People like Barry and Scherer were running the 
strike. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Monsignor Heimbuch. I think it is a general principle among the 
Red-tainted unions to try to get a Catholic in some prominent place 
where he will probably take the edge off of any attack, and say "How 
come you are so opposed to our union when we have Catholic members 
at the head of it?" 

That is what I mean. 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, very much. 

( Discussion off the record. ) 

Mr. Morris. That concludes the testimony. 

(Whereupon, at 10 : 55 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned, subject 
to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A Page 

American Civil Liberties Union 4494 

B 

Barry, Walter 4498, 4499, 4502 

Bigelow, Judge 4494, 4495 

Boudin, Leonard, attorney for Leonard Tushnet, 25 Broad Street, New 

York 4491 

Brennan, Robert 4502 



Catholic/s 4499, 4502 

Catholic Church 4498 

Civil Rights Congress 4496 

Committee for the Rosenbergs 4493 

Communist/s 4493, 4499 

Communist Control Act of 1954 4489 

Communist Party 4490, 4492, 4493 

Twentieth Annual convention of 4493 

Constitution 4490 

E 

Elizabeth, N. J 4498-4501 

Elizabeth Armory 4498 

EUzabeth Journal 4500, 4501 

Essex County, N. J 4493 

Exhibit No. 487 — Certificate of ciivl rights bail fund naming Dr. Tushnet 
as trustee 4497 

F 

Faulkner, Stanley: 

Attorney for Walter Poleschuk 4490 

9 East 40th Street, New York 4491 

Fifth amendment 4490, 4492, 4493, 4496 

First amendment 4492, 4493, 4496 

Fraenkel, Osmond K 4494 

H 

Harris, Nathan 4493 

Heimbuch, Msgr. William C. : 

Testimony of 4498-4.502 

52 Smith Street, Elizabeth, N. J., St. Michael's Church 4498 

Monsignor of Catholic Church 4498 

House Un-American Activities Committee 4492, 4494, 4495 

Hruska, Senator Roman L 4489 

I 

Immaculate Heart of Mary's School 4.500 

lUE 4501 

I 



II INDEX 

K 

Page 

Kirk, Mayor James 4499, 4500 

Kruger Auditorium in Newark 4493 



Letter to Elizabeth (N. J.) Journal dated July 26, 1957, re Singer Strike 

by Monsignor Heimbuch 4500, 4501 

Lowenstein, Robert 4494 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 4489 

Moroze, Louis 4492 

Morris, Robert 4489 

N 

New Jersey - 4493, 4496 

Newark, N. J 4492, 4493, 4499 

Nussbaum, Frances — ^ 4494, 4495 

O 
Oxfeld, Mr 4495 



Poleschuck, Walter : 

Testimony of 4490^491 

Stanley Faulkner, attorney 4490 

355 Tower Street, Yauxhall Post Office, Union, N. J 4490 

Surface grinder for Singer Manufacturing Co 4490 

Fifth amendment - 4490 

R 

Rawl, Mr 4500 

Rosenbergs 4493 

S 

Scherer, Marshall 4499, 4502 

Schroeder, F. W 4489 

Singer Sewing Machine Co ._^__-^___^ _ 4490, 4499, 4500 

Club 4490 

Strike 4494,4498 

State Bar Association 4494 

Supreme Court 4500 

T 

Tushnet, Fannie (Mrs. Leonard) 4492 

Tushnet, Leonard : 

Testimony of 4491-4498 

572 Prospect Street, Maplewood, N. J 4491 

Physician in Irvington, N. J 4491 

Leonard Boudin, attorney 4491 

Fifth amendment if member of Communist Party — _ _ 4492 

U 

UE 4499-4501 

Union County, N. J 4403 

W 

Wallace, William 4489-^92, 4494, 4495, 4499, 4500 

White, Pat 4500 

Z 
Zimmerman, Harry 4494 



o 



PC /T/ /<^ 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Extent of Communist Activity in Labor) 



HEARING 

VUii'.'.vI BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAEY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



JULY 30, 1957 



PART 77 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
S321fi WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

WAR 1 1 1958 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAHY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jk., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
AoT AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Cbairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. Q. SOURWINE, Associate Counftl 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, DirectoT of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



Statement of — Pase 

Bradley, William V 4535 

Gleason, Thomas W 4526 

Goldblatt, Louis 4503 



rn 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, JULY 30, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws, 
OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to caU, at 10 : 25 a. m., in room 
457, Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director ; and F. W. Schroeder, cliief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The committee will come to order. Will you call 
the first witness. Judge Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Goldblatt? 

I would like the record to show that Mr. Goldblatt has appeared in 
a short executive session and has been sworn. 

Mr. FoRER. That's right ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Be seated, Mr. Goldblatt. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS GOLDBLATT, SECRETARY-TREASURER, 
INTERNATIONAL LONGSHOREMEN'S AND WAREHOUSEMEN'S 
UNION, ACCOMPANIED BY JOSEPH FORER, HIS ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Senator, this witness is called this morning in con- 
nection with the activity of the ILWU, which is a union concerning 
which the subcommittee has received evidence that has involved Com- 
munist Party activity. 

The Internal Security Subcommittee went to Honolulu in Novem- 
ber and December 1956 and had extensive hearings on the Communist 
activity within the IL'WTJ. That, of course, involved mostly the 
activity of local 142, which is the Hawaiian local of the ILWU. 

About 2 months ago, I think it was, a subpena was issued to Mr. 
Goldblatt and at that time Mr. Goldblatt was engaged in activity 
for the union and asked that his appearance be deferred ; and subse- 
quently Mr. Goldblatt was having a vacation and again we put off 
our hearing in order to accommodate Mr. Goldblatt. 

Have I stated the situation correctly, Counsel ? 

Mr. FoRER. I believe that is correct. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Generally. 

Senator Hruska. We can state, counsel, that the appearance of the 
witness here is pursuant to subpena. 

Mr. FoRER. Yes, sir ; pursuant to subpena. I would like the record 
to show, Senator, that we object to the entire proceeding on the 

4503 



4504 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

ground that this inquiry cannot serve a valid legislative purpose and 
that the committee does not have the power to compel testimony in 
light of the decisions in the Watkins and Peck cases. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. In that connection, the chairman 
would like to make this statement by way of showing the connective 
grounds or connective purposes between the inquiry here and the 
legislative purposes of the committee. 

This is a legislative committee and one of the committee's jobs 
is the legislative oversight of the Internal Security Act which in- 
cludes the Communist Control Act of 1954 dealing with Communist 
activity in labor unions; also other bills dealing with this question 
of Communist infiltration of labor unions have been referred to 
this subcommittee because the question is one which affects the internal 
security of our country. 

The committee has a duty and obligation to the Senate to arrive 
at sound legislative recommendations in this area of legislative pur- 
poses, and m order to know whether additional legislation is needed 
or desired to deal with the problem of Communist infiltration of 
labor unions and if so, what kind of legislation. For this purpose 
this subcommittee needs to have as much information as it can 
get respecting Communist activity in the labor field. Communist 
efforts to infiltrate the labor unions and Communist connections and 
activities of union officials in particular. 

The subcommittee therefore, Mr. Witness, is interested in any 
and all associations you may have had with the Communist Party 
while you were a labor union official. Such association as member- 
ship would have a bearing on your qualifications and your ability 
to testify as to these things which I have already mentioned. 

The subcommittee is informed that you were at one time an in- 
structor in the Workers' School at 463 Hayes Street in San Fran- 
cisco where you taught the subject, "Youth in the Class Struggle." 

The committee is interested in this and other information because 
the recent decision of the Supreme Court in the Yates cases indi- 
cates the necessity for revision of the Smith Antisubversion Act; 
and in order to make intelligent legislative recommendations in that 
area, the subcommittee needs to know as much as possible about what 
has been taught and what is being taught in Communist Party 
schools. 

We understand also that you at that time, in the Western Summer 
School for Workers in Berkeley, taught the "Future of the CIO" 
and other subjects. 

You may be asked, during the course of this inquiry, about your 
present connection, if any, with the world Communist controversy. 

This subcommittee is very much interested in the problem pre- 
sented by Communist infiltration of key labor unions and is anxious 
to learn as much as possible about how Communist activity in this 
field is carried on and how labor unions are used to furtlier Com- 
munist objectives. 

We want to know all these things as a basis for making legislative 
recommendations for the protection of the internal security of the 
United States. 

Your union, because of its liighly strategic position in the political 
and economic life of Hawaii, is in a position to have special impact, 
through its actions, on the security of the United States, and thus the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4505 

problem presented by Communist infiltration through your union 
or through any of the officials of your union is of particular interest 
to this committee in its special office as a factfinding and recommend- 
ing body for the entire Congress. 

You may be asked questions about your knowledge of the use of 
union funds for the defense of Communists, because this is one facet 
of the j)roblem of Communist infiltration of unions and the utiliza- 
tion of unions for Communist purposes and the attainment of Commu- 
nist objectives, with respect to which this coimnittee is seeking to de- 
termine facts which may form the basis for legislative recommenda- 
tions. 

That is the preliminary statement whereby we hope that you can 
readily see the conection between these inquiries and the legislative 
purposes of this committee, and we will go on from there. 

You may proceed with your questions. Judge Morris, unless there 
are some observations or some questions that either the witness or coun- 
sel may have with reference to the purposes of this committee and the 
special purposes of this hearing this morning. 

Mr. Morris. Counsel, has the witness a copy of Resolution 366 ? 

Mr. FoRER. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Counsel likewise is familiar therewith and has 
studied same ? 

Mr. Forer. I have studied it. I have never been able to understand 
it any more than I can understand your general statement. 

Senator Hruska, At least you were given an opportunity to observe 
it and be guided by your own conclusions with reference to both of 
them ? 

Mr. Forer. Yes; that's right. After studying it I am convinced 
it is too vague to support the legislative function of this committee. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Goldblatt, will you give your name and address for 
the public record ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. My name is Louis Goldblatt. Address, 150 Golden 
Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. I am the secretary-treasurer of the International 
Longshoremen and Warehousemen's Union. 

Mr. Morris. What is the International Longshoremen's and Ware- 
housemen's Union ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. It is a trade union. 

Mr. Morris. How many members does it have ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Oh, approximately 65,000. 

Mr. Morris. Wliere is its headquarters ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. In San Francisco. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you can tell us where some of the more 
important locals of the IL'WU are located ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. The principal membership of the union is along 
the western seaboard, in the States of California, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington. We have a substantial membership in Hawaii. We have 
members in Alaska, some in British Columbia. 

Senator Hruska. How long have you been associated with the 
union, Mr. Goldblatt ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. I have been a member of the union since 1935. 

Senator Hruska. What have been your various capacities in that 
union? 



4506 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I have held the position of vice president of the 
Warehouse Local 6, of which I am a member. I have served as 
international representative for some time. I was elected interna- 
tional secretary-treasurer around 1943. 

Senator Hruska. How long has it been that you have been a full- 
time officer or employee of the union ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Of the ILWU? 1942, 1943 or 1941, thereabouts. 

Senator Hruska. How long have you been secretary-treasurer ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Since 1943. 

Senator Hruska. How far east does your union have locals at the 
present ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. We have small locals in Chicago, New Orleans, 
Washington, D. C. Those are comparatively insignificant. 

Senator Hruska. Have any efforts been made to extend the number 
of locals and your jurisdiction into other parts of the country in 
recent days ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Where ? We are always organizing, if that is what 
you mean. 

Senator Hruska. Have you any special drive at the present time 
or in recent months, for example, in the southern part of the country 
or the eastern part of tlie country ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No. 

Senator Hruska. Have you made efforts to get into the New York 
area in recent months ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No, we haven't. 

Senator Hruska. Have you conducted any negotiations or any 
transactions preliminary to getting into the New York area ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I dou't know what you mean by that, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Have you a representative in New York repre- 
senting your union and interested in its establishment in the New 
York area ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. We have an observer in New York. He is not there 
for the purpose of trying to organize workers in New York. 

Senator Hruska. AVliat is his name ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. His name is Charles Velson. 

Mr. Morris. I tliink the record should show. Senator, that Mr. 
Velson has appeared before the Internal Security Subcommittee, and 
wheii questions were asked him about his connections with the Com- 
munist Party he refused to answer, claiming his privilege mider the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Goldblatt. I might add that the workers in New York, the 
longshoremen, for example, are very well organized and seem to be 
doing quite well. 

Mr. Morris. How much money does Mr. Velson have, to carry out 
his activities which you described as observer? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Mr. Morris, I intended to decline to answer any 
questions concerning finances, and if you will allow me, I would like 
to explain why. 

Senator Hruska. You will be permitted to state your reasons. 
Mr. Goldblatt. For the past year and a half, I believe, or at least 
a year and 4 or 5 months, there have been 2 agents of the Department 
of Internal Revenue who have been ferreting through our books and 
records, our financial records. They have indicated that they have 
varied purposes in doing this research job on our records. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 4507 

Frankly, we suspect their motives, and we think that they are trying 
to build some sort of a case against our union. 

About 2 months ago 2 agents of the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion called upon me and notified me that they were there, pursuant 
to the instructions of warrant only, to investigate whether or not the 
financial return we filed with the Department of Labor each year was 
a fraudulent one, and on the following specific bases at least : Namely, 
that in 1952 the Supreme Court of the United States handed down a 
decision against us in the so-called Juneau Spruce case, which was a 
suit for damages that arose out of a strike in Alaska. The judgment 
was for a million dollars. 

The truth of the matter is, we did not list that as a liability when we 
filed our financial statement with the Department of Labor. 

Of course, that merelj^ indicates the fantastic extremes to which 
some people in the Government are going to try to rig some sort of 
charge against us. 

There are no accusations, there have been none, and I am sure there 
will never be any about personal malfeasance in office or misappro- 
priation of funds or some of the other scandalous activities that have 
recently been making the headlines around the country. 

There are none such against any of the officials of the IL'^YU, nor 
will there ever be. 

However, it is quite apparent to me and to our entire union that 
these efforts on the part of the Department of Internal Revenue and 
the efforts on the part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are part 
of a pattern of continuous harassment against this union. 

Consequently, I don't intend to answer any questions concerning 
funds. 

Mr. Morris. On what grounds ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. On the grounds just given and the privileges ac- 
corded me under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. ]\Iay I point out that the privilege under the fifth 
amendment is a privilege that adheres to you personally ; and as far 
as the union finances are concerned, you cannot, on behalf of the 
union, claim that privilege for the union. 

If you are going to claim the privilege under the fifth amendment, 
it means you, personally, are saying that if you answer the question 
you might possibly incriminate yourself, not the union. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Mr. Morris, I am the one who makes the returns 
to the Department of Labor as secretary. 

Mr. Morris. You feel, as a possibility of personal responsibility, 
you decline to answer that question ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. For the grounds just given. I know they are rather 
lengthy, but I thought you were entitled to the explanation. 

Mr. Morris. The grounds given to include the privilege under the 
fifth amendment ? 

Mr. GoLDBL/VTT. Definitely. 

Senator Hruska. The chairman would like to point out that the us© 
of union funds by anyone who represents your union who might be 
active in the Communist Party is definitely a part of our inquiry. We 
feel that it serves a legislative purpose. 

93215 — 58 — pt. 77 2 



4508 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

We want to know if there has been any connection between any of 
the unions and the funds which they have and the Communist Party 
and whether one is being used by the other. 

Therefore, we feel that that is a legitimate objective of inquiry and 
that it will serve a definite legislative purpose. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Senator, if you will get the Department of Internal 
Revenue and the FBI off our backs and stop them on this ferreting 
and harrassment and what we think is a deliberate frameup program 
against the union, I will answer all questions on finances until the 
cows come home or dust falls around here. 

Senator Hruska. Any activities in which they are engaged are pre- 
sumably legal activities, activities in which they are engaging pursuant 
to law and in compliance with the general statutory provisions. It is 
difficult for this committee to reach out and assume to have any juris- 
diction over their activities. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I wish I could agree with you. I am not, of course, 
here to argue with you, but we don't believe their activities are in 
keeping with their function and duties. 

We saw 20 years of deliberate, repeated, trials and harrassment of 
the president of our union on exactly the same charges and same 
trumped-up evidence. Finally the matter has been put to rest, but 
that was 20 years of persecution of the man. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, the reason for asking that question of this 
particular witness was because we have information that Mr. Velson, 
the person to whom reference has been made, has been spending money 
trying to exert the power of the IL'\yU on the east coast. We got 
various reports as to the extent of this and we have no way of deter- 
mining exactly how much he has been given by the union unless we 
ask the secretary-treasurer of the union. It is information we require 
for the continuance of our investigations. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I liave answered your question. Judge Morris, re- 
garding any efforts to organize on the east coast. We are not tiying 
to organize on the east coast. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. Have you further questions. Judge 
Morris? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Senator. 

Can you tell us how many members there are in the IL"WU? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I have given you the answer to that question. It 
is approximately 65,000. It varies seasonally, by the way. 

Mr. Morris. Now, are you acquainted with a recent visit of some 
IL"WU clerks to the east coast ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I am. 

Mr. Morris. There is a reference to it in the Dispatcher, which is 
the official publication of your union, is it not ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. I have before me the Dispatcher of June 7, 1957, and 
it reports an item that "ILA officials welcome visiting ILWU clerks.'' 

Could you tell us about that visit? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. "Wliy don't you read the Dispatcher's story into the 
record ? It is all there. 

Mr. Morris. I think you know more about it than appear in the 
Dispatcher. I ask you to answer the question as a witness. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Is there any particular aspects of that visit that 
puzzle you f 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4509 

Mr. Morris. Is that representative of the activity of the ILWU on 
the east coast and if so, what is the pm-pose ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Any visit is a form of activity ; just the very fact 
that you take an airplane, that is a form of activity. 

Senator Hrusk^v. Wliat was the purpose of the visit? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. As I tried to explain to Judge Morris, it is all 
covered in the Dispatch. I can supplement it here if you wish. 

Senator Hruska. We would rather have your testimony than that 
of the publication. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. The west-coast longshoremen, clerks, and walk- 
ing bosses contract was opened this spring for a wage review — not 
just confined to wages, but welfare and several other aims were in- 
cluded, mattei-s of the penalty rates and skill differentials, and so 
forth. 

One of the issues that was pending in that wage review which was 
subject to negotiations and in the event of a deadlock would then go 
to arbitrations, was the wages paid to ship clerks. 

I hope you will bear with me; it is a little bit complicated, but I 
will try to simplify it because it is a subject concerning longshore- 
men and clerks, but I am sure you will get the full impact of the 
visit of these clerks to the east coast. 

Tlie longshoremen of the west coast work under a basic 6-hour-day 
provision; namely, the 6-hour day is work performed from 8 a. m. 
to 3 p. m. They are paid at the straight-time rate for that 6-hour 
period and all work thereafter is on the overtime rate, including 
nights, Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. That is the hourly pro- 
vision of the longshoremen. 

The ship clerks, who work side by each of the longshoremen 
either in the receiving or checking of cargo on the dock or in the 
hold of the vessel — depending upon the nature of the operations, 
and that varies with different commodities — have a basic 8-hour day ; 
namely, they will work from 8 in the morning to 5 in the afternoon 
before their overtime starts. That has resulted in a certain dis- 
parity in their take-home pay at the end of 8 hours, for obvious 
reasons. 

Altliough the ship clerks have been making 10 cents an hour more 
than the longshoremen on their hourly rate of pay, when it came to 
the end of 8 straight-time hours, the ship clerk had lagged behind 
the longshoremen in the terms of the total amount of take-home pay. 
It is easy to take pencil and paper and figure that out. 

Consequently, they, the clerks, were preparing for their negotia- 
tions and they had a plan to effect parity. There were two ways of 
trying to determine parity. One was to recompute the ship clerks' 
wages so as to give them the same take-home pay based on 6 hours 
of straight time and 2 hours of overtime that the longshoremen had. 
And the other way would be to convert the 8 hours to 6 hours 
straight and 2 hours overtime. That would be the second. The 
second one would be extremely inconvenient to the shipowner and ship- 
pers: the reason for that being that the substantial section of ship 
clerks, perhaps as much as 70 percent of them, work in conjunction 
with the teamster deliveries or pickups on the docks, and the teamsters 
are on an 8-hour day, so a changeover to a 6-hour day would have 
dislocated too many things in terms of computation of wages and 
so on. 



4510 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The other way of measuring parity, therefore, was to try to meas- 
ure the ship clerks' conditions on the west coast with comparable 
working conditions with the same companies on the east coast. 

Bear in mind the work is identical. In other words, the shiji 
clerk checking cargo in San Francisco is doing exactly the same 
work as the ship clerk does in checking cargo in New York or 
Newark. 

Senator Hruska. Wliat is the interest of the ILWU in the eastern 
wage scale ? Have you jurisdiction there or are 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No, the men do identically the same work and iden- 
tically for the same companies. 

Senator Hruska. What interest has your union in the wage struc- 
ture on the east coast ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. They always have a certain relationship to each 
other. They do the same work. The same is true with the seaman's 
wages on the east coast ; it has a direct relationship to the seaman's 
wages on the west coast. 

Senator Hruska. Unless you have locals on the east coast, unless you 
have some jurisdiction on the east coast, I just wondered what is your 
interest on the east coast wages ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Jurisidictiou is of no importance. Let me give 
you an example. 

Assuming there were two General Motors plants — both of them in 
Detroit. One happened to be in one union and the other happened to 
be in a different union. Obviously, these workers are directly in- 
terested and affected by the wage scales and conditions in each one of 
these General Motors plants. 

All that a shipping comj^any is, if I can explain this to you, a ship- 
ping company and a ship is only a floating factory or floating ware- 
house; so that companies like the American President Lines, Matson, 
Luckenbach, Moore-McCormack, Pope-Talbot, Isbrandtsen, and I 
could go on and on and on. These companies operate off both these 
coasts. The work is identical, the longshore work is identical. 

We believe that the ship clerk work is identical, and if you will let 
me finish my point I think you will understand the significance of this 
visit. 

It was our opinion that the only possible argument that the Pacific 
Maritime Association, the employers, would have in arbitration on the 
issue of the ship clerks' wages, would be for one reason or another the 
work was completely different. In other words, we were fearful that 
the employers would come along and say, "It is true that the ship 
clerks on the east coast work an 8-hour day. The same is true with 
the ship clerks on the west coast. However, their work is arranged 
slightly different. Their duties vary a bit and therefore the disparity 
in wages is not unjustified." 

Consequently, this delegation was of extreme importance to study 
the operation and find out whether the functions of a ship clerk, su- 
pervisory clerk, or checker happened to be identical on the east coast 
for the same companies as they were on the west coast. 

Incidentally, they discovered that they were, and I am sure the 
committee will be very happy to hear that when the case went to 
arbitration, in addition to getting across-the-board increases that the 
longshoremen got, the clerks got an additional 5 cents an hour to close 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACl'IYITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4511 

the difference and disparity between themselves and the longshoremen 
and the east coast clerks. 

It was a very successful venture. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your answer to the question that the clerks came 
east to study the conditions and learn these factors ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That was the purpose of it. 

Mr. Morris. Is it one of the objectives of the ILWU to secure a 
common expiration date to terminate contracts ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That is not merely our objective, that is the objec- 
tive of the House Merchant Fisheries Committee. That is the objec- 
tive of the Federal Maritime Board; that is the objective of a sub- 
stantial number of east coast employers and I know that it is the 
objective of the west coast employers. 

Mr. Morris. What is the purpose of that ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. The purpose is clearly explained 

By the way, perhaps the best thing for this committee to do — I 
would like to talk about these things because I think it is important 
that the entire committee and the Senate, of course, being interested 
in the stability of the maritime industry, should know about these 
things. It is a lengthy subject. There were exhaustive hearings 
held on this and it might be well to enter this into the record. 

Mr. Morris. You are referring to the Bonner committee report? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. We are cognizant of that. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. You are what ? 

Mr. Morris. We are cognizant of that report. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I See. Then you understand the value of the com- 
mon expiration date. It would be of tremendous value to the in- 
dustry as a whole. It would be of benefit to the unions. It would 
stop what is commonly called the "whipsaw," and other expressions, 
"whiplash," the "stepladder," and so forth. 

We have a situation in the maritime industry right now where dif- 
ferent unions have different expiration dates. There is a continuous 
maneuvering where every union wants to be last in negotiations. 
The reason is quite obvious : If everybody else has settled, a compara- 
tively small group of men, even a handful of men, think they have 
an economic strength over the proportion of their numbers. It re- 
sults in collective bargaining by maneuver instead of by merits. It 
imstabilizes the industry. We know it has done a tremendous amoimt 
of damage to intercoastal trade which we think is one of the aspects 
of the industry which should be revived. It is moving ahead, but 
what it needs more than anything is some stability. 

Mr. Morris. It does make it possible to have an industrywide strike, 
does it not, universal in nature ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. You dou't need a common expiration date to have 
an industrywide strike. 

Mr. Morris. It would be much more difficult to have an industrywide 
strike when having different terminal dates on the east coast and on 
the west coast ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That's not true. Any unionman worthy of his salt 
won't handle a scab ship, contract or no contract. That is our position. 
Mr. Morris. You are acquainted with the strike that the ILWU 
carried on in Honolulu in 1950 ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That was not in 1950. 



4512 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. 1949? 

Mr. GOLDBLATT. 1949. 

Mr. Morris. But it lasted into 1950 ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No. 

Mr. Morris. Of what duration was that strike ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That was a lollapalooza. That strike lasted almost 
6 months. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you have working on the islands of Hawaii three 
different groups, do you not ? The sugar plantation workers, the pine- 
apple workers and the longshoremen. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That's right. 

Mr. Morris. You didn't strike the three groups, did you ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. We have a fourth group, too — miscellaneous 
workers. 

Mr. Morris. You didn't strike all categories of your workers, did 
you? 

Mr. GoLDBLATi\ That was a strike of longshoremen only. And I 
would like to point out to the committee that there were only two 
issues in that strike, no others. 

I know the committee has been there, and I wish the committee had 
taken the time to find out a little more about that 1949 strike. It was 
extremely important. It had certain basic sociological issues. We 
think that it actually involved the fundamental issue of economic sta- 
tus. The basic issue m that strike was that the longshoremen in Hawaii 
were being paid 42 cents an hour less than the longshoremen on the 
west coast, leaving aside other conditions, the question of hiring hall, 
grievance machinery, load limitations and other aspects of the contract, 
and the basic 6-hour day which prevails on the west coast as against 
the 8-hour day in Hawaii, leaving aside all those, the longshoremen in 
Hawaii were being paid 42 cents an hour less for doing exactly the 
same work on the same cargo for the same shippers as the longshoremen 
on the west coast. 

All they were trying to do in the course of that strike was not elimi- 
nate that entire differential but to narrow that gap somewhat. 

I know a great deal about it because I happened to live with al- 
most that entire strike outside of a short period. 

The longshoremen on the west coast had just gotten a 15-cent-an- 
hour wage boost when the contract in Hawaii was opened. I had 
indicated to the employers any number of ways that they could have 
made an offer, even slightly in excess of the 15 cents, that if they 
made an offer of, say, 16 cents, which would have closed the gap be- 
tween Hawaii and the mainland by 1 penny— and at that rate it would 
have been some 42 years for the Hawaii longshoremen to get the same 
basic wages for the same work as the west coast men— if they had 
made 1 penny in addition to the 15 cents, we would have been inclined 
to settle and not strike. 

The employers' position was adamant. They refused to grant even 
the 15 cents. The best offer and final offer was 12 cents, which would 
have widened the gap to 45 cents as against the west coast long- 
shoremen. 

The strike began. The other proposal to go was to submit the issue 
to arbitration. The employers conducted a vitriolic campaign 
action, a fantastic campaign, and I think that is one of the things 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACnVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4513 

that this committee ought to investigate, which by the time they got 
through, identified arbitration with anarchy, communism, free love, 
and atheism. You couldn't tell the difference between any of them. 
Just a simple question of arbritation, something that exists in indus- 
tries all over the country, something that the Matson Co. adheres to in 
San Francisco. 

Incidentally, Senator and Judge, there happened to be some special 
hearings conducted by the Senate Labor Committee sometime during 
that strike, the latter^ part — I am not sure of the exact months, either 
August or September, 19i9 — when these questions were asked, when 
the then Secretary of the Department of Labor Tobin urged arbi- 
tration. He was pilloried by the press. Senator Morse urged arbi- 
tration. He too was attacked. And when a Federal judge of San 
Francisco happened to gratuitously remark in the course of one of 
their hearings that perhaps arbitration was the solution, he, too, was 
ignored. 

Xow, the final outcome is this. Judge : It was a 6-month's strike and 
a very bitter strike. I know you took a lot of testimony in Hawaii 
that certain people suffered. I would like to make this very plain, 
and I would like to have this in the record. Judge, that nobody 
suffered during that strike like the longshoremen did. They are the 
men who had to do without. They are the ones who really took the 
brunt of it and they never broke ranks ; not a single man went back to 
work. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. The islanders suffered very greatly, did they not? 
Mr. GoLDBLATT. I dou't think so. I think that a lot of the stories 
are exaggerated, and fabricated and I think the committee itself was 
terribly delinquent in a failure to get more accurate information. 
Wh'At is the score today? The situation today is as follows: 
Approximately a year ago we signed an agreement in Hawaii 
which closed down the last chapter of the 1949 Hawaii longshore- 
men's strike. That agreement provided for a 5-year extension of 
contract with certain automatic progressions and wages, so that, at 
the end of 5 years, the longshoremen in Hawaii will be getting exactly 
the same wages as the longshoremen on the west coast. And during 
the interim, any wage adjustments that are made for the west coast 
longshoremen automatically apply in Hawaii. 

So that in our last arbitration we got an 8-cent increase that auto- 
matically applied to Hawaii, plus an augmented amount to help 
eliminate a differential. 

Senator Hruska. That is all very interesting, I am sure, in its 
proper setting. It is almost fascinating. But it is a long way from 
New York, which is what we are concerned with here. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. We have been belayed for this 1949 strike and yet 
history has proven we were right; history has proven that the em- 
ployers had no business forcing this strike and history has proven 
that the economy down there can pay those wages instead of trying to 
classify those citizens in a second-class position. 

Senator Hruska. This, I think, is important and interesting; but 
it has little connection with your union in New York. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I think that the judge 

Senator Hruska. This is far beyond the purpose of this inquiry. 
Mr. GoLDBLATT. I didn't ask that question; the judge asked that 
question. 



4514 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hkuska. I am a^va^e of that, but let's get back to the 
Xew York situation, because that is the particular area in which we 
are inquiring. 

Have you any further questions about that situation. Judge Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. No; I have questions about tlie WFTU which I was 
leading up to. 

Senator PIruska. How long has Mr. Velson been your represent- 
ative oil the east coast ? 

Mr. GoLDBLA-rr. I don't recall the exact date. Senator. 1 think 
areund 1954, thereabouts. 

Senator Hruska. And what are his assigned duties, what is his 
sphere of activity ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. He is an observer. As I said before, we are not 
trying to organize the east coast. He is an observer for the ILWU. 

There are a number of things that occur on the east coast and in 
other ports that have a very direct and important interest to us. 

For example, we have been extremely anxious to follow the work- 
ings of tlie Waterfront Commission. We think it is an extremely 
unjust body. We think it presents a real menace not only to the 
longshoremen who are compelled to work under its aegis, but to other 
longshoremen throughout the country. 

We would not like to see any such body on the west coast. We want 
all the information we can get about its operation, and on that score, 
Mr. Velson provides a very great service. We know a great deal now 
about its method of blacklisting and discrimination and its method 
used for strikebreaking, too, and they boast about it. 

We went through a similar situation with the Coast Guard on the 
west coast. We struggled with that problem for some, oh, 6, 7 years. 
We knew the whole thing was illegal because we had talked to emi- 
nent attorneys on the matter. They hffd gone through the thing in 
great detail. They told us the entire proceeding was illegal. In the 
meantime, the Coast Guard Avent along and blacklisted all kinds of 
men, screened them off the ships. They tried to apply the same regu- 
lations to the longshoremen and succeeded in part, I will admit, but 
not entirely. 

Senator Hruska. Who is associated with Mr. Velson in his activi- 
ties on behalf of your union ? 

Mr. GoLDBLA'iT. He is our onl}' representative in New York. 

Senator Hruska. He is your only representative. Have you any 
other representatives on the east coast ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. We have a Washington representative, yes. 

Senator Hruska. What is his name? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Jeff Kibre. 

Senator Hruska. How long has he been in that capacity? Is he 
an observer? 

Mr. GoLDBLA'rr. No, he is a lobbyist. 

Senator Hruska. Now, Velson ; what does Velson have as his pre- 
scribed duties or activities ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Well, I don't know exactl}^ what you mean by that. 

Senator PIruska. What else does he do besides observe in the type 
of operation to which you have already referred ? 

Mr. GoLWBLATT. Not only matters of the waterfront commission; 
there are a lot of new operations going into effect on the east coast. 
Those are operations that have to do with new devices and methods 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4515 

of liandliiig cargo, the piggyback method, for example, the roll-on, 
i-oll-oll" method. They wUrbe introduced primarily in intercoastal 
trade. They will ait'ect our work. It is important that we find out all 
we can about it — the men being us^d, the longshore gang size. He 
tries to keep an eye on contracts on the east coast, the negotiations. 
They, too, liave an impact on the longshoremen of the west coast. 

]\Ir. ]MoRKis. What is the association of you and your longshoremen 
with the World Federation of Trade Unions? 

;Mr. GoLDBLATT. At the present moment we have no association with 
them. 

Mr. Morris. You have attended their meetings of WFTU? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I have. 

Mr. Morris. Your union has been affiliated with the WFTU ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. For a short while we w^ere affiliated with the mari- 
time division. 

Mr. Morris. What is the WFTU ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. World Federation of Trade Unions. 

Mr. Morris. You have been to their meetings. Will you tell us 
about them ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. It is a federation of trade unions from different 
countries. It claims some 80 million members. 

Mr. Morris. Is it Communist controlled ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I dou't IvllOW. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, did you encounter at these meet- 
ing you have attended persons you knew to be members of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Let me put it this way : When I attended the first 
meeting of the maritime division of the World Federation of Trade 
Unions in JNIarseilles, there w^ere present representatives from long- 
shoremen's unions in France, Italy, Holland; there were some from 
the Soviet Union, from Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, I believe; there 
were some representatives from Australia. 

Mr. Morris. I will ref rame the question. 

Have you yourself been a Communist ? 

Mr. FoRER. I am going to object to that question as obviously having 
nothing to do with the claimed legislative purpose of this committee. 

Doesn't this committee learn something from the decisions in the 
Peck case, and so forth ? Obviously, the witness is here ready, will- 
ing, and anxious to talk about the activities of the ILWU, and now 
you are switching to what amounts to a personal inquisition of the 
witness. 

I don't think that the Congress is interested in that or has a right 
to be interested in that. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, by way of giving some background to that 
question, we have extensive evidence to date showing that the Commu- 
nist Party and the Communist International Organization has oper- 
ated within the ILWTF. W^e have further sworn testimony to the 
eflfect that the witness here today has been a Communist. We are try- 
ing to determine whether or not he is ciualified to tell us whether or not 
Communists are in fact working within the ILWU, of wdiich he is the 
secretary -treasurer. 

I think it is a necessary question in order to support the testimony 
of the witness. 

93215—58 — pt. 77 3 



4516 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. FoRER. Senator, if Mr. Morris is going to talk publicly about 
witnesses that have talked against my client, I ask that they be pro- 
duced here so that I can cross-examine them. 

If that is not the procedure, I don't think we should go into the 
subject at all, because I don't think it has a legislative function. 

Senator Hruska. Well, have j^ou stated in full the extent of your 
reasons why you don't 

Mr. FoRER. I stated my objections, the reasons why; yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. I will overrule that refusal to answer on the 
grounds assigned and I will instruct the witness to answer. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. That wasn't the question. Senator. 

"Have you been a Communist" is the question. 

Mr. FoRER. Do you want to make that a little less vague? 

Mr. Morris. Have you in the past been a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. GoLDRLATT. I am sorry, I got the question wrong. 

I would like to state that on that particular question I think that 
it not only has no good legislative purpose, I believe that it is simply 
investigation for investigation's sake alone and I will decline to 
answer that question based upon those reasons and on the recent 
decisions of the Supreme Court as well as upon the fifth amendment. 

Senator Hruska. I will overrule all of the assigned reasons except 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Incidentally, I ought to make another point here 
and I think you ought to be aware of it. Senator. 

I believe that committee counsel and the committee itself is aware 
of the fact that our union has been in compliance with Taft-Hartley 
for a number of years past, at least since 1949, I believe, and during 
that entire period we have continued in compliance with Taft-Hartley 
and that includes the officers signing a non-Communist affidavit. 

Your committee is aware of those things. 

Senator Hruska. The Chair will rule that all of the objections and 
the gt'ounds for refusing to answer except the fifth amendment are 
overruled, and inasmuch as one of the grounds is considered valid 
and recognized, you are not required to answer the question. 

Have you any further questions, Mr. Morris? 

Mr. Morris. I would like to know whether the witness was a Com- 
munist at the time he received notice that he was to appear here for 
testimonv. 

Mr. Forer. When you sa}'^ the "witness was a Communist," the 
definition of "Communist" varies a great deal. 

As a matter of fact, the court says that the term is too vague to be 
made the basis of an indictment. 

Can you tell us what you mean when you say "a Communist"? 

Ml-. Morris. Wiat were your connections with the Communist Party 
when you received notice in May or ,Tune of this year that you would 
appear before the Senate Internal Security SulDcommittee ? 

]Mr. GoLDBLATT. That is vaguer yet. 

Mr. Morris. You can't tell us what your connection with the Com- 
munist Party was at that time? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I doii't know what you mean. 

Mr. Morris. You do not? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4517 

Mr. Morris. Specifically, were you a member of the Communist 

Party? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I liave already answered those questions. 

Mr. Morris. What is your answer ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I luive answered the question. I have told you 1 
am not a member of the Communist Party. I have told you that this 
union has been in compliance with Taft-Hartley since 1949. We have 
signed the affidavits. 

What are you trying to do ? Are you merely trymg to entrap me « 
I hope that isn't the purpose of this hearing. 

Senator Hruska. The witness is here to answer questions, not to ask 
them, Mr. Goldblatt. 

Do you want to assert your grounds previously assigned i it you 
do, say so, there will be a ruling and we will go on to the next ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Goldblatt. O. K. I assert the gromid previously stated. 

Senator Hruska. Very well, the objections are all overruled except 
the resort to the fifth amendment and that will be accepted as valid 
ground for not answering. 

You may proceed, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever used the name "Louis Miller" as an 
alias ? 

Mr. FoRER. On behalf of the witness I object to that question as 
unpertinent and again not fulfilling a legislative purpose. 

Senator Hruska. The objection is overruled and the witness is 
instructed to answer unless he has any further ground for refusing to 
answer. 

Mr. Goldblatt. I don't think it serves a good legislative purpose at 
all. I am beginning to get somewhat concerned about counsel here 
and efforts I think are being made to entrap me. 

I am going to stand on the same grounds I gave before. 

Senator I&uska. The grounds are overruled with the exception of 
the fifth amendment which is recognized as a valid reason for refusing 
to answer. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Goldblatt, can you tell us how many Communists 
there are in the ILWU ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Let me explain, counsel, that we have a constitution 
which prohibits discrimination because of race, creed, color, or politi- 
cal belief. We don't conduct a political saliva test before a person 
becomes a member. 

The employers hire people ; we only organize them. We don't ask 
the employers who they hire because, in many cases, we don't have 
much to say about it. 

Mr. Morris. You have a lot to say about the selection of the officials 
of the union ? 

Mr. Goldbi^vtt. We have very, very little to say. 

Mr. Morris. Of your own union ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. I said — you said "If I have anything to say?" 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Do I have anything to say — the answer is '"N'o." 
If you will study the constitution, because we feel very strongly 
that ours is perhaps one of the cleanest, most democratic, and some- 
what aggressive unions in the entire country. We have a provision 



4518 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IX THE UNITED STATES 

for election of officials by referendum, and that is an entire vote of 
the membership. 

Nominations take place in a convention and a man can nominate 
himself for any office, and then those nominees go to the membership 
for referendum election. 

We have a provision in our constitution that if the membership 
doesn't like the officials, the signatures of 15 percent of the members 
recall any officer and he is compelled to stand trial and then the 
findings of that trial are forwarded to the membership. 

Senator Hruska. The question, Mr. Goldblatt, is: How many of 
3^our IL'V^nj members are members of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Goldblatt. That was not the question. He asked me how 
much influence I had over the selection of officials. I told him I 
didn't have any. 

Senator Hruska. That was a later question. 

Mr. Morris, would you like to restate the basic question ? 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, Mr. Goldblatt, how many persons 
in the ILWU are members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. I have answered that question.' We don't conduct 
political tests ; we have no way of knowing. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended meetings of the Communist Party 
at which were present officials of the IL'V'V'TT ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATi'. That's a little diiferent question. 

Mr. Morris. "Wliat is your answer to that question ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Would you repeat that once again ? 

^Ir. Morris. Have you attended meetings of the Communist Party 
at which were present officials of the ILWtJ ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
I have already given. 

Senator Hruska. The grounds are overruled with the exception 
of the fifth amendment, which is recognized as a valid ground for 
refusal to answer. 

Mr. Morris. With how many officials of the ILWU have you at- 
tended Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Goldblatt. That's really a "When did you stop beating your 
wife" question. 

I will refuse on the same grounds, and I think committee counsel 
is not trying to pursue any legislative inquiry but simply making 
efforts to entrap me. 

Senator Hruska. The grounds asserted having been the same, the 
chairman's ruling is the same as previously given. 

Do you have further questions, Mr. ISIorris ? 

Mr. Morris. I have a question, Senator. 

The International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union con- 
ducted an ody&sey to Washington recently to attend a trade conven- 
tion, did it not? 

Mr. Goldblatt. An "odyssey" is an interesting word to use there. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is the word you would use ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Well, I would like to have your definition of odys- 
sey. I have always been interested in semantics. 

Mr. Morris. Did that delegation 

Mr. Goldblatt. An odyssey has concern with many vicissitudes 
.such as trying to get your way between Scylla and Charybdis, or the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTR^ITY IN" THE UNITED STATES 4519 

onus of Circe, Avhich must have been a pleasant diversion on the part 
of Ulysses. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have a delegation in Washington « 

Mr. GoLCBLATT. Yes ; there was a delegation in Washington. 

Mr. Morris. What did it do and what was its purpose ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. The purpose of the delegation was to— in pursuance 
of our convention action, our international convention met in the 
month of April. 

Mr. Morris. In 1957? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Yes. And among other resolutions that were dis- 
cussed and acted upon, there was one on the promotion of trade, and 
that included trade with all countries. As the committee must be 
aware, of course, trade is the lifeblood of our union. The greater the 
trade volume, the more secure our employment, the greater the job 
opportunities. 

The convention also elected a delegation that would go to Washing- 
ton and in effect do everything possible to promote the idea of trade 
with all countries of the world, including China. That was its pur- 
pose. 

Mr. Morris. Wasn't the emphasis on China trade ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Yes ; a good deal, because that is one of the places 
we ought to open up. 

Mr. Morris. You mean free China or occupied China ? 

]klr. GoLDBLATT. Who is occupyiug what ? 

Mr. Morris. The Communists are occupying the mainland. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I thought Chiang Kai-shek was occupying For- 
mosa. 

Mr. Morris. When I use the word "China," I am asking you which 

term you use. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. All China. 

Senator Hruska. The mainland as well as Formosa ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Of course, of course, sure. 

Mr. Morris. You are interested in promoting trade with China, you 
mean trade with the Government of China with its headquarters in 
Taiwan ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I dou't know whether it would be the Government ; 
it would be trade with China. 

Mr. Morris. You consider that part of the trade program that you 
would promote ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Of course, of course. Incidentally, we are not the 
only ones in favor of this. "Wliy don't you read the Pacific Ship 
Owner, the owners' publication ? They are in favor of that. 

Henry Ford III is in favor of opening up China trade. 

Mr. Morris. What exactly did the delegation do ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. They talked to Senators, Congressmen, people at 
the "\Yliite House. 

Mr. Morris. Presenting the facts ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. And figures. 

Mr. Morris. What were some of the facts presented to the various 
people you mentioned ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. As I recall. Judge — I don't have them on hand — 
I think you asked for a copy of the letter and documentation of ma- 
terial that was sent to some Senators and Congressmen in support of 
the delegation's position ; isn't that right ? 



4520 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. That's right. 

I would like to offer a paper, Senator, "United States Expansion of 
Trade in the Pacific Area," to the witness and ask if that is a publica- 
tion of the ILWU. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That was ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. How many people made up the delegation ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Either 6 or 7. If you have a copy of our trade 
union paper, the Dispatch, I think it gives the names. 

Mr. Morris. May that go into the record as identified by the witness 
as a summary of the activities of the delegation that went to Wash- 
ington related to increased trade with Communist Red China? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. It is not a summary of their activities. 

Mr. Morris. "Wliatisit? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. It is sort of a brief, factual documentation of why 
we think trade ought to be with China. 

Senator Hruska. I think it will speak for itself. It will be re- 
ceived, having been duly identified by the witness. 

(The document referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 512" and 

reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 512 

UNITED STATES EXPANSION OF TRADE IN THE PACIFIC AREA 

(Submitted by the International Longshoremen's and "Warehousemen's Union, 
150 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, Calif., June 24, 1957) 

Introduction 

The International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union has tradition- 
ally favored the widest possible trade between the United States and all other 
countries of the world. This policy of the ILWU, repeatedly endorsed at conven- 
tions and executive board meetings, has been reiterated because of our belief that 
trade (1) reduces world tensions and helps make for a more peaceful world, 
(2) helps make for more jobs for members of this union, and (3) contributes to a 
healthier economic situation within the United States as a whole. 

In recent years, because our emphasis has been on trade in the Pacific area, 
the ILWU has been especially concerned with the United States embargo policy 
on trade with China. This has been one of the main deterrents to stimulating 
commercial trade, as distinguished from military or Government-subsidized 
trade, in that part of the world. It is trade with which the west-coast ports are 
most intimately concerned. For this reason and because currently reopening 
China trade has become a matter of debate and discussion in Government, busi- 
ness, and trade circles in the United States, the following memorandum deals 
exclusively with various aspects of United States-China trade. 

Widespread Support for China Trade 

Support for opening up trade with China is widespread throughout significant 
trade, business, and other similar circles on the west coast today. The ILWU. 
in the course of its own activities, has systematically contacted representatives of 
shipping, forwarding, and manufacturing firms, of chambers of commerce, banks, 
and trade groups on the west coast, to learn their attitude toward ending the 
United States boycott. A sampling of opinion shows the following : 

(a) The world trade department of the San Francisco Chamber of Com- 
merce, speaking through its manager, James L. Wilson, declared that "San 
Francisco businessmen would like to see the China embargo partially lifted" 
( San Francisco Chronicle, June 9, 1957) . 

(ft) George E. Talmadge, Jr., vice president of Pacific Transport Line- 
States Lines, speaking as president of the Bay Area World Trade Associa- 
tion, indicated the need for changing the United States "no trade" policy 
(San Francisco Chronicle, June 9, 1957) . 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4521 

(c) The Pacific-coast foreign tradei-s advisory committee to the United 
States Department of Commerce, at its semiannual meeting in April 1957, 
forcibly indicated the need for an immediate review of the United States- 
China embargo policy, looking toward reviving trade with that country. 

(d) Such major lumber producing and exporting firms of the Pacific 
Northwest as Dant-Rusell and Georgia-P:)cific Plywood indicated to ILWU 
representatives their active interest in opening up lumber trade with China. 

(e) The First National Bank of Portland, in a letter to this union, indi- 
cated its support for opening trade, and so informed Senator Magnuson 
(Democrat, Washington). 

(/) Shippers in various major ports of the west coast favor expanding 
trade through opening up the China market. But, like many of the steam- 
ship operators, according to newspaper accounts "* * * (they) are reluctant 
to join in such a statement because most lines are subsidized by the Govern- 
ment'' ( San Francisco Chronicle, June 9, 1957) . 

(g) Such diversified publications as the following have carried editorials 
urging a reexamination of the United States trade-embargo policy and indi- 
cating their own sympathy with opening up trade, at least on the limited 
basis that already exists between the United States and the U. S. S. R. (the 
Pacific Shipper, March 4, 11, May 13, 1957 ; San Francisco Chronicle, May 31 
and June 3, 1957 ; the New York .Journal of Commerce, May 9, 1957 ; the 
Coos Bay (Oreg.) Times, April 22, 1957.) 

Past Teade Patterns 

Although on an allover basis trade between the United States and China was 
never a major item, it did represent at one time 70 percent of all China's foreign 
trade. In addition to certain industries, especially in the Pacific Northwest, this 
trade was of major importance. 

For example, in 1931, some 314 million board-feet of lumber were exported 
from Oregon and Washington to China. In 1956, the total of all lumber exports 
to all countries of the world from these 2 States amounted to 300 million board- 
feet. 

Between the years 1922 and 1944, China was among the top six foreign pur- 
chasers of flour from Oregon and Washington. During 8 of these 24 years, China 
ranked first among the countries importing flour from these 2 States. 

New Trade Potential 

Past trade with China was almost exclusively in consumer and luxury goods. 
China today is rapidly becoming an industrial nation and, as a result, its foreign 
trade has expanded sharply while at the same time it has changed markedly in 
composition. 

For example, between 1952 and 1955, China's foreign trade expanded 61 percent, 
and capital goods accounted for 89 percent of all the goods imported by that 
country. 

Great Britain, for example, exported goods to China to the value of about $20 
million in 1956. It is anticipated, in view of the new British trade policy, that 
this will quadruple and reach some .$89 million in 1957-58, and among the prod- 
ucts which it is expected will flow in such trade from England to China are 
rolling mills and parts, machine tools, powerplants and electric equipment, tele- 
communication, electronic equipment, and so forth. 

Because the Chinese Government's second 5-year plan of industrial develoi>- 
ment (19.58-62) is now being finalized, the British look forward to obtaining a 
dominant position in supplying foreign capital goods which, they hope, the United 
States will not be able to supplant at some later date. 

Trade Versus Recognition 

Opening up trade, which is clearly in the interest of the United States, does 
not require any de facto recognition of the Chinese Government. Although the 
ILWU feels that continued nonrecognition of the new regime is a ridiculous 
policy for the United States to follow, we recognize that objection to recognition 
still exists in certain quarters of the United States. For this reason we are 
urging a trade policy separate and apart from recognition. 

We have been informed by the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce that such 
a policy is feasible. Trade need not wait until recognition has been agreed to. 



4522 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Moreover, we are convinced that, once trade is opened up and relations between 
the United States and China become increasingly normalized, full recognition 
will follow in due course. 

Current Non-United States Trade With China 

China's trade has been growing, as already indicated. This fact explains 
why United States policy should be changed to take advantage of a growing and 
increasingly sipiificant market. 

As articles in the Pacific Shipper, already noted, make clear, more and more 
ships of the leading maritime nations are calling on Chinese ports. In addition, 
trade delegations from Belgium, France, and England have visited China in 
recent months to conduct trade surveys and to firm up contracts for firms of their 
respective countries. According to reports, a similar delegation representing 
key manufacturing firms of West Germany will soon be in China as well. 

There is no doubt that these countries, directly competitive with the United 
States, will not only skim the cream o& the top of China trade but will establish 
a beachhead in China's planned industrial development which the United States 
will not be able to overcome at a later date. 

Senator Heuska. Any further questions, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes ; I have further questions, Senator. 

What organizations have you outside the continental limits of 
the United States ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. You mean Territories, Judge ? 

Mr. Morris, Yes. I think you mentioned Alaska. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Well, we have an organization in Alaska. 

Mr. Morris. What organization do you have in Alaska ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. They are locals of the ILWU. 

Mr. Morris. Is that local 62, of Ketchikan, Alaska ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That sounds right. 

Mr. Morris. And local 30 ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. We have several locals in Ketchikan. We have 
some, I believe, in Sitka. 

Mr. Morris. How about the fisherman's locals? Do vou organize 
them? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. We have some fishermen, but most are miorganized. 

Mr. Morris. Were they generally incorporated into the ILWU a 
few years ago ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. They were pretty well put out of business. 

Mr. Morris. How many 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. They were put out of business by the Antitrust 
Committee, you know. The only really active locals of fishermen are 
the ones in Seattle and San Pedro. 

Mr. Morris. Your Honolulu organization amounts to about 26,000, 
does it not? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That's about right. 

Mr. Morris. Do you operate or organize in Central America ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No. 

Mr. Morris. Did you mention you had a local in British Honduras ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No, uo. British Columbia. 

Mr. Morris. You don't organize at all in Central America? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. No. 

Mr. Morris. I note the Dispatch shows a great deal of interest in 
Guatemala. What is the interest of the IL'WU in Guatemala? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I hadn't noticed any particular interest in Guate- 
mala recently. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4523 

Mr. Morris. Here in the July 23, 1954, issue of the Dispatcher 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That is 3 years ago. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. You had an interest in Guatemala 3 years ago ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Everybody should have. 

3^Ir. Morris. What was the interest there 3 years ago ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I don't know, specifically. All I recall is the 
date. 

Mr. Morris. It states "Guatemala, 1,776" in the Dispatcher. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That's right. We have always been interested in 
what is going on in Guatemala. We are interested in what goes on 
around the world. We are always trying to learn. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your specific interest in Guatemala ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Any specific trade union interest as against what 
goes on in Mexico. 

Mr. Morris. What is your interest in politics as a trade unionist? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Well, politics or trade unions, I don't think you can 
have a competent trade unionist who doesn't take an interest in what 
goes on around the world, who isn't interested in political develop- 
ments, as well as economic developments. 

There have been some who confine themselves to a narrow scope of 
activities and they found that trade unionists are within the whole 
seat of social structure, within the country and the world. For the 
same reason, our union has always been interested in the condition 
of longshoremen around the world. They have a direct impact on 
them. We are interested to the greatest degree possible in furtherance 
of the trade union interests. 

Mr. Morris, You say in your Dispatcher, the Dispatcher published 
by the lUVTJ 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Well, I don't own it. 

Mr. Morris (reading) : 

Guatemala Government blocked by the United States State Department in its 
attempt to buy arms in the "Western World" faced by mounting threats of 
violence finally turned to the "Eastern World." 

And the Western World and Eastern World are in quotes. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I gucss that's what happened. 

Mr. jSIorris. TVIiat is the trade union activity in that statement? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. That is not trade union activity ; it is news. 

Mr. Morris. The Dispatcher publishes that by way of disseminating 
news to the members ? 

Mr. FoRER. Excuse me. Is this really connected with the purpose 
of the committee, Mr. Chairman ? 

Senator Hruska. I think until we find that it has no 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Is it your position, Judge, that trade unionism is 
supposed to be stupid ? 

Mr. FoRER. Just a minute, Mr. Goldblatt. Let's hear the chair- 
man's ruling. 

Senator Hrtjska. I think the counsel should be allowed to develop a 
point and then see whether or not it has any connection. If it de- 
velops that it has not, we will drop it. 

Jk6^". Morris. One of the things that w^e learned in Honolulu was 
that the ILWU, Senator, does indeed have a great political interest, 
and the supporting statements made by the witness here are, they are 
engaged in making propaganda. 



4524 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. GoLBLATT. We are very active in Hawaii, no question about 
that. Our people are citizens, they vote. 

Are you trying to say that they cannot be active in politics, they 
can't vote ? There are some Senators that believe that, I know that. 

Incidentally, the Senator that came down to Hawaii believed that, 
Senator Eastland. 

Senator Hruska. If the witness please, it is not the recollection of 
the Chair that there was any question of the right to participate in 
politics. 

The question was an inquiry into the extent of other interests in 
Guatemala. There is no inference here that any rights of a specific 
nature should be denied to you or any member of the union or the 
union itself. 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Then I misunderstood the question. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Goldblatt, the subcommittee uses the figure in re- 
porting on the expenditures of local 142 of the ILWU in Hawaii of 
$290,000 a year spent by that particular local for propaganda pur- 
poses. 

I wonder if you can tell us whether that is an accurate figure ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. I don't Imow, to tell you the truth. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us what the expenditure is by ILWU on 
political activities generally ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. That is almost entirely local activities. 

Mr. Morris. What about the issues of the Dispatcher ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. The newspaper ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Goldblatt. That is printed by the international. 

Mr. Morris. You characterized it as a political publication. 

Mr. Goldblatt, I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I asked you 

Mr. Goldblatt. I simply said that it was news, that's all. 

Mr. Morris. You went on to make the expression "Political activi- 
ties." 

Mr. Goldblatt. No ; I didn't. 

Mr. Morris. How much money do you spend on the Dispatcher ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Well, I would have to — wait just a jiffy 

Are you trying to get into the whole business of finances again ? 

Mr. Morris. I would like to know how much — we have been talking 
about political activities, Mr. Goldblatt, and we would like to find out 
the extent to which the ILWU engages in it, and the best gage of that 
is the amount of money spent on it. 

Mr. FoRER. Hold on, now. In addition to my other objections I 
would like to add the objection that now counsel's inquisition is viola- 
ting the first amendment, and I call attention to what Judge Youngdahl 
held in the Peck case. 

Counsel has no right to ask questions about a newspaper published 
by the union on what the newspaper says and how much they spend 
for it. 

I think in addition to all the other objections, this inquiry, besides 
obviously having no legislative purpose, is now a violation of the first 
amendment. 

I Avould like to have the Chair rule on that. 

Mr. Morris. In support of the particular question. Senator, we have 
found that the best gage of determining the extent of the issuance of 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IK THE UNITED STATES 4525 

Communist propaganda is to try to determine the amount of money 
being spent on it. 

In connection with that particular inquiry, I was asking how much 
money is spent on the pubhcation the Dispatcher, with which the wit- 
ness is conversant and over which he has some control. 

Mr. FoRER. I just want to add that in the Peck case they were investi- 
gating the New York Times ; now you are investigating the Dispatcher. 

Senator Hruska. The objection is overruled and the witness is 
directed to answer. 

Mr. Forer. What was that. Senator ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I Stated earlier in this hearing, Senator, that I 
didn't intend to answer any finance questions and I think I went into 
those reasons in considerable detail. 

Senator Hruska. You continue to object, therefore, on the grounds 
previously assigned ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Ou the grounds mentioned. 

Senator Hruska. The record will show that the objections have been 
overruled and the witness is directed to answer. 

]\Ir. Morris. I wonder if you can tell 

Mr. Forer. I assume you honored the refusal for the grounds pre- 
viously assigned, is that correct? We didn't understand what you 
said. 

Senator Hruska. No, I did not. I overruled the objection and 
directed the witness to answer. 

]Mr. Forer. Counsel then went on without giving him a chance to 
continue. 

Senator Hruska. The record will show what the witness did. 

Mr. Forer. Did you know one of the previous grounds was the priv- 
ilege under the fifth amendment ? 

Senator Hruska. Very well. The fifth amendment is recognized 
as valid ground for refusing to answer and the witness, because of that, 
is excused from answering. 

Mr, Forer. All right. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you can tell us, Mr. Goldblatt, of the dif- 
ficulty you have had with the British Government in connection with 
your visits to the Marseilles convention of the World Federation of 
Trade Unions. Reference has been made to that in the record. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Yes. When I returned from the meeting of the 
maritime division in Marseilles, I was in Paris and I got a telegram 
from the chairman of the rank-and-file strike committee of long- 
shoremen in London. There was a large-scale longshoremen's strike 
on at the time. It was in support of the Canadian seamen and an 
attempt had been made to work certain ships which they called Black 
Ships, scab ships. 

The London longshoremen refused to work them. Strike began and 
it spread very rapidly until all of the London docks were tied up and 
the strike was spreading from there to other groups of workers. 

This wire asked that I merely stop by and have a talk with them 
and find out what the score was. Naturally, we were interested. 

Mr. Morris. lYhere was he ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. In London. So I took a plane, together with a 
couple other fellows, my fellow delegates and a chap from Holland. I 
went to visit them and hadn't been there very long. We arrived, 
went down, met this fellow Timothy, had a very interesting session, 



4526 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITT IN" THE TINITED STATES 

found out a good deal about their working conditions — which varied 
considerably from those in this country. 

When I returned to my hotel, Scotland Yard was waiting, picked 
me up, heaved me into Old Bailey ; the next day they paid my passage 
out of the country. 

Mr. Morris. "Wliat was the reason given for that ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. I Still have it framed in my office as a sort of a 
diploma, signed by Home Secretary Reid, saying I am not wanted. 

I can't understand a big government like Great Britain being 
frightened by me. I am surprised at the Labor government losing its 
head that way. They had a strike, yes, but that's not too 

Senator Hruska. Was the Labor govermnent in control then ? 

Mr. GoLDBLATT. Yes, sir. This is a very antilabor action against 
me. 

Incidentally, I couldn't get any sympathy at all from my own mem- 
bers when I got home. They said it couldn't be called punishment if 
you are deported from London to Paris. 

Mr. Morris. I have other questions to ask of this witness. Senator, 
but we have a schedule to maintain. 

We have Mr. Gleason here and I would like to take some testimony 
from Mr. Gleason. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. The witness will be excused and we 
will ask Mr. Gleason to take the stand. 

Mr. Gleason, will you be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Gleason. I do. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Mr. Goldblatt, what was the year of that Marseilles 
conference ? 

Mr. Goldblatt. 1949. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS W. GLEASON, GENERAL ORGANIZER FOR 
THE INTERNATIONAL LONGSHOREMEN'S ASSOCIATION, INDE- 
PENDENT, ACCOMPANIED BY WILLIAM B. MISCHO AND JOHN T. 
SULLIVAN, HIS ATTORNEYS 

Mr. Morris. Will you give the reporter your full name and 
address ? 

Mr. Gleason. Thomas W. Gleason, 29 Charles Street, Xew York 
City. 

Mr. Morris. Did you hear the testimony of the preceding witness ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir, I did. 

Mr. Morris. Are you fairly conversant with the area covered dur- 
ing this particular hearing ? 

Mr. Gleason. Not all of it ; no, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did you understand Senator Hruska's opening state- 
ment, the general legislative purpose of the committee ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. You know that the subcommittee has learned and has 
reported the fact that there are Communist influences in the IL"WU 
and that the IL^^HJ is making some efforts, initiating efforts to gain 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY m THE UNITED STATES 4527 

a foothold on the east coast in certain ports, and we would like to 
have some testimony from you along- those lines. 

What is your business or profession ? 

j\Ir. Gleason. I am a general organizer for the International 
Longshoremen's Association (Independent). 

Mr. Morris. General organizer? 

Mr. Gleasox. General organizer, yes, sir. 

^Ir. Morris. How long have you been a general organizer of the 
ILA— is that right, ILA ? 

Mr. Gleasox. ILA. I have been an official since 1934, but I have 
been general organizer since November of 1953. 

Mr. Morris. Are you generally aware of the activities of the 

ILT\"U? 

Mr. Gleasox. I tiy to keep abreast of them ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with your official duties ? 

Mr. Gleasox. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us, Mr. Gleason, whether or not repre- 
sentatives of the ILWU, the one whose name came up here today, 
Mr. Charles Velson, have made any efforts to organize in New York 
City? 

Mr. Gleason". Mr. Velson wouldn't be able to organize in >*ew 
York City. To my knowledge, Mr. Velson has never made an 
attempt to organize in New York City. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you known Mr. Velson ? 

Mr. Gleason. I think sometime in 1955, 1 think, 

Mr. ]MoRRis, Now, how many times have you met Mr. Velson dur- 
ing that period ? 

Mr. Gleason. He sought me out probably in the period from 1955 
to the present, I would say ; maybe 30 or 40 times. 

Mr. Morris. What was his purpose in seeking you out, Mr. Gleason ? 

Mr. Gleason. Well, his first purpose was in coming down here be- 
fore the Bonner committee. He said that he felt that there should 
be common termination dates as far as the longshore contracts were 
concerned, and he said that he felt it would be the best thing as far 
as the industry was concerned to get stability in the industry, and 
we discussed it. And then he appeared down here before the Bonner 
committee with the IL^VXJ representatives. 

Mr. Morris. You say Mr. Velson sought you out 30 or 40 times. 

How many times did you meet with him in his efforts to seek you 
out? 

Mr. Gleason. Well, maybe 25, 30 times. 

Mr. Morris. What was the duration of your meetings with him? 

Mr. Gleason. Never lasted more than 20 minutes or half an hour 
at the most. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever spend several hours with him in suc- 
cession ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Did he ever visit you at your home ? 

Mr. Gleason. He met me at my door in New York City when he 
would come down there. 

Mr. Morris. Can you give us an idea of how much money Mr. 
Velson and other representatives of the ILWU spend in connection 
with their activity in New York City ? 



4528 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE TmiTED STATES 

Mr. Gleason. I wouldn't know. There is no way of my finding 
out that. 

Mr. Morris. Is there any evidence of the ILWTJ giving money to 
representatives of the ILA ? 

Mr. Gleason. Just money collected by a rank and file committee 
sometime in 1954 or 1955, I don't recall the dates ; but two rank-and- 
file men went out there 

Mr. Morris. Of what union ? 

Mr. Gleason. Of the International Longshoremen's Association, the 
ILA. They collected money. That's the only knowledge I have. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us about the collection of this money ? 

Mr. Gleason. I didn't know it until it was all over. 

They went out there. We had a strike and they went out there and 
made a tour of the west coast, to local unions, soliciting money to 
help them take care of the longshoremen who were on strike in the 
city of Brooklyn. I believe it was in 1954 and 1955. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Velson ever give you any money ? 

Mr. Gleason. He never has given me 5 cents. 

Mr. Morris. Can you tell us generally about the activities of Mr. 
Velson or as far as j'ou have been able to observe ? 

Mr. Gleason. Well, the only thing that I know about Mr. Velson 
is what I heard Mr. Goldblatt say here this morning. 

I have kept close watch on Mr. Velson in New York and I seem 
to have to agree that he has been in there more or less as an observer, 
more or less looking for information as far as contracts were con- 
cerned and as far as these new procedures, these tank ships and 
piggyback ships were coming into effect. 

They are looking for at least uniformity in new contracts of that 
type. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Charles Keith ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Sam Madell ? 

Mr. Gleason. No. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know any other representatives of the ILWU 
in New York City? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. 

Mr. Morrls. Have you met with any other person you know to be 
a member of the ILWU? 

Mr. Gleason. I met with Mr. Bridges. 

Mr. Morris. Wlien? 

Mr. Gleason. Four or five months ago. 

Mr. Morris. What was the purpose of that meeting? 

Mr. Gleason. I believe they were going over their contracts. Mr. 
Bridges at that time felt that the Government and the ILA had let 
him down insofar as the contracts were concerned, the common termi- 
nation dates. 

Mr. Morris. When was that ? 

Mr. Gleason. I think it was probably, maybe February or March 
that I met Mr. Bridges. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Of what duration was that meeting? 

Mr. Gleason. Ten or fifteen minutes, half an hour. 

ISIr. Morris, Have you seen Mr. Bridges since then ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. When did you see him before that ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE TINITED STATES 4529 

]Mr. Gleasok. Down here in Washington when I was clown here 
with the committee, the Bonner committee. 

Mr. Morris. What meetings have you had with him in the last 2 
years — with Harry Bridges ? 

^Ir. Gleason. I probably met Mr. Bridges 3 or 4 times, altogether, 
I don't recall. 

INIr. Bridges was a member of the ILA in 1935 with me. He was 
the president of the west coast ILA group and he was a member of 
the ILA until he seceded in 1937. I attended with him conventions 
prior to him leaving the ILA. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man by the name of Hyman Bershad ? 
B-e-r-s-h-a-d ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir, never met him. 

Mr. iVIoRRis. Do you know a publication called the Dockers' News ? 

Mr. Gleason. I see it. I try to tear it up when I do see it. 

Mr. Morris. Whose publication is that? 

Mr. Gleason. I couldn't tell you. 

Senator Hruska. "Wliy do you tear it up when you see it ? 

Mr. Gleason. It is not the type of stulf we want around the New 
York waterfronts. 

Senator Hruska. It supports the position of the ILA ? 

ISIr. Gleason. We have no control over what other people do, Mr. 
Chairman. I have listened to the previous witness and they are 
mainly concerned with the waterfront commission, the last two edi- 
tions that I saw, that we were kicking around, the waterfront com- 
mission in New York City. 

As I listened to the other witness say, they are afraid of getting the 
same type of Government supervision or representation in other ports. 

Senator Hruska. Do you know the editorial staff or the reporters? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Who publishes the documents ? 

Mr. Gleason. I couldn t tell you. I don't have no idea. 

Mr. Morris. To your knowledge, is it published by the waterfront 
section of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gleason. I wouldn't know that, sir. 

I would like to say here and now that I never was a Communist, 
never want to be a Communist, never will be one ; don't know the first 
thing about them. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I would like the record to show here that we 
have no evidence whatever that the witness before us now has ever 
been a member of the Communist Party or has been a Communist. 

We have asked him to testify here today, Senator, because being in 
a strategic position on the New York waterfront we felt he might be 
able to give us information as to the activity of Mr. Velson and the 
other activities of the ILAVU. 

Senator Hruska. The record will so show, and to be fair to the w^it- 
ness, he comes here to contribute his knowledge about this situation. 

Mr. Morris. In your meetings with Mr. Velson, did you at any time 
take up the possibility of securing support from the ILWU for any of 
your activities, of the ILA ? 

Mr. Gleason. I never sought that. It was always an offer for sup- 
port and any offer, I would always bring it right to Captain Bradley. 

The last I knew about it was the time we had our east coast and gulf 



4530 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

strike. I went to Captain Bradley at the time and they offered to help 
us and Captain Bradley turned it down. 

Senator Hruska. Wlio offered? 

Mr. Gleason. Harry Bridges. 

Senator Hruska. What type of help ? 

Mr. Gleason. Like the previous witness said, they did stop a 
couple scab ships. They refused to handle scab cargo. But as far 
as we were concerned, we didn't need any assistance. We were able 
to take care of our own affairs. 

Senator Hruska. When you say they stopped a couple ships, where 
did that happen ? 

Mr. Gleasox. I believe on the west coast. I believe they had a 
couple intercoastal ships that were loaded here and were going to 
discharge in one of the west coast ports. 

Senator Hruska. Did they offer help in other ways ? 

Mr. Gleason. That was as far as I know. 

Senator Hruska. They offered help by way of strike funds or other 
fashion ? 

Mr. Gleason. Not that I know of, sir ; no, sir ; 

Mr. Morris. How many offers did they make ? 

Mr. Gleason. I believe that was the only one. 

Mr. Morris. You said they frequently offered, I think you said 
that before. 

Mr. Gleason. As far as the compensation bill was concerned, they 
offered there, they helped there, we were down here with them. As 
you know, we were going through a period of strife among ourselves. 
We had internal dissension in our organization. When Captain Brad- 
ley and myself came in there we didn't have the facilities to come down 
here and go through this procedure. A legal representative they had 
down here, lobbyist down to Washington, and we surely needed help 
to get that bill put over, because it was something the longshoremen 
were aching to get for a period of years. 

We did get their help and they came in alongside of us. 

The common termination date was another offer. They came in 
on the Bonner committee and Maritime Administration were the ones 
who initiated that; and I believe it was the best thing for this industry 
because we are out on strike at least four times a year, the way the 
contracts are negotiated now. 

First is the SUP ; then it's the SIU ; then it's the marine cooks ; then 
it's the longshoremen. 

We are always on the street. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Gleason, did they offer to give you any money as- 
sistance ? 

Mr. Gleason. I think at one particular time a man, Matt Meehan, 
who happened to be a secretary of the Pacific coast under the ILA, and 
I believe at that time he offered some money and it was turned down. 

Mr. Morris. He was not in the ILA ? 

Mr. Gleason. Formerly an ILA man, 

Mr. Morris. Associated then with the IL"WU ? He offered money 
to whom in the union ? 

Mr. Gleason. Captain Bradley, myself, and Pete Cannon. 

Mr. Morris. How much money did he offer ? 

Mr. Gleason. I don't know. I don't remember whether it was a 
certain sum or not. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTrVlTL^ IN THE UNITED STATES 4531 

Mr. MoKRis. May I read to you an extract from the ILWU con- 
vention, specifically, page 41. This is the convention of April 4-8, 
1955. [Reading:] 

In the spring of the year a delegation from the ILA, Broolvlyn division, visited 
many ILWU locals. They were well received, and, having given the members a 
firsthand picture of what was going on in the east coast, they wanted support 
and financial assistance. 

Can you state about that ? 

Mr. Gleason. I guess they repeated the story about the 2 or 3 rank- 
and-file men who went out from Brooklyn soliciting funds. I believe 
they had a book about hiring practices in the east and west coast ports. 
That states what they did, how much was the amount and everything 
else. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Morris, I have already overstayed my allotted 
period of time by some 20 minutes. 

I take it you have not finished? 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I think we can work it out with Mr. Gleason 
to finish this at some time, possibly ; Counsel Sullivan, here, after the 
session we may be able to work something out either today or 
tomorrow. 

Mr. Sullivan. One thing, Senator, before you leave. 

After listening to Mr. Goldblatt I would like the record to show 
that the ILA went on record as being opposed to any opening of trade 
with Red China. 

As to continuing, I don't know what Mr. Gleason can do on that. 

Mr. Gleason. I would appreciate it if I could finish up today. I 
haven't had a vacation, but I would like to take at least 2 weeks or 10 
days if we can go through with this. 

Senator Hruska. The record should show that Mr. Sullivan is 
appearing as counsel for the witness, and also Mr. 

Mr. MiscHO. Mr. Mischo, M-i-s-c-h-o. I have already noted my 
appearance, William B. Mischo. 

Senator Hruska. Fine. The record will note the full name. 

Mr. Sullivan. Mr. Mischo is the general house counsel and general 
counsel for the ILA, and I am special counsel. 

Mr. Mischo. I am the man-of-all-work. 

Mr. Morris. I know Mr. Bradley is here. Did I understand he is 
here offering to testify ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Captain Bradley is here because of our recommenda- 
tion that anything this committee wants of Captain Bradley, if you 
want him to make any statement or ask any questions, he is always 
available and he will answer every question. He is the president of 
the ILA. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you very much for your cooperation and 
for your contribution to the hearings in this committee. 

The meeting is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 55 a. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

(The hearing resumed at 3 : 17 p. m., in room 313, Senate Office 
Building.) 

Senator Hruska (presiding). We will resume our committee 
hearing. 



4532 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Judge Morris, have you a statement to make ? 

Mr. Morris. No, Senator. We have taken further questions and 
answers of Mr. Gleason and Captain Bradley, who was present, asked 
for some statements on the record. 

I now request that you ask each of them if the statements they have 
given are true and will they swear that they are true, so they may be 
part of the official record. 

Senator Hruska. I shall do so. 

Mr. Gleason, of course, has been sworn already. 

Perhaps we can swear Mr. Bradley and ask him that that operate 
retroactively as to the questions and answers. 

Mr. Bradley, do you solemnly swear that the testimony in this case 
which you have given and which will be incorporated into the record 
at this point was the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Bradley. I do. 

Mr. Morris. One question of Mr. Gleason. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Gleason, you have heard Judge Morris' 
reference to the question and answer statement which you gave him 
a little bit ago. Are you stating for the purpose of the record that 
those answers which you have given were true statements ? 

Mr. Gleasox. To the best of my knowledge, they were. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

That testimony, then, and the question and answer statements of 
both Mr. Gleason and Mr. Bradley will be incorporated into the record 
as fully and completely at this point as they would have been had 
these proceedings preceded their taking. 

(The testimony of Mr. Gleason and Mr. Bradley, above referred to, 
is as follows:) 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS W. GLEASON— Resumed 

(The proceedings had in room 319, Senate Office Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C, July 30, 1957, are as follows :) 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Gleason, was Velson ever hired on the ILA 
payroll at any time ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Not even for a short period of time ? 

Mr. Gleason. Never. Not for a day. Not for an hour. Not for a 
minute. 

Mr. Morris. And was subsequently dismissed ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. That is propaganda. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the information the committee has was that he 
was hired as a public-relations assistant and that he had been hired 
by Packy Connelly. But that is erroneous ; is that right ? 

Mr. Gleason. That is absolutely wrong. If Packy Connelly wanted 
to hire a boy, we would never <j^et Velson. 

Mr. Morris. You have told us all about your meetings in that 
connection ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir, believe me. 

Mr. Morris. Have you ever met with Goldblatt? 

Mr. Gleason. I think I met Goldblatt down here once or twice and 
maybe once in New York, sir. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4533 

Mr. :Morris. xVnd then at the time the four of you testified together, 
you met him then, did you not ? I mean at the same time ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Goldblatt, Bridges, and yourself and Captain Bradley ? 

Mr. Gleason. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Xow, did Velson help you prepare your statement that 
you gave to the committee ? 

Mr. Gleason. Well, he did. He did do some of that. But it was 
our own thoughts. He did not help me alone. But he prepared 
many releases that day; yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. What were some of the releases ? 

Mr. Gleason. I just do not recall. But they were all along the 
same lines. 

Mr. Sullivan. May I say something at that particular point ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Sullivan. Velson would submit — well, sometimes he would 
come up with things. He is always writing things. Invariably any- 
thing that ever came around to Mr. Gleason, he would submit to me. 
Whenever Mr. Gleason made any statements or submitted any docu- 
ments, it was the result of my work. Anything this fellow gave me I 
would reject it. 

Mr. Morris. Tell me this : Why was Velson writing statements for 
people ? 

Mr. Gleason. Well, here is what happened, Mr. Morris: Like I 
told you this morning, when we first came down here, with our long 
fight and everything, and the history behind us, we did not have a 
lobbyist down here. And when we came down here, we had these 
statements prepared. And we screened them. Jolin says we screened 
them. Plus John Condon, our public relations guy, went over them. 
We took out the things we thought wasn't any good and that we didn't 
want to be part of it. 

We submitted our own statement. We screened it, or censored it, 
or what you may call it. But we submitted our own statement after 
we got a line on what the whole story was here. 

Mr. Sullivan. This was only in connection with the common ter- 
mination and the committee. 

Mr. Gleason. The compensation, yes. 

Mr. Morris. For whom else did he prepare anything? 

Mr. Gleason. I couldn't think of anybody else. 

Mr. ScHROEDER. Did he bring those statements to you personally ? 

Mr. Gleason. I think he was passing them out over there. I think 
he had quite a few of them over there. 

Mr. Schroeder. Over where ? 

Mr. Gleason. Over at the hearing. 

Mr. Morris. The Labor Committee hearings, the House Labor Com- 
mittee hearings? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the Bridges people have consistently pressed for 
a common joint termination date, have they not ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir. But, you see, this morning, listening to 
them, they could have had a common termination date if they wanted it. 
All they had to do was extend their contract to September 30. They 
extended to August 1. But for some reason they wanted August 1. 



4534 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

But if they wanted it, if they had really wanted to get a common ter- 
mination date, all they had to do was extend their contract to Sep- 
tember 30. 

Mr. Morris. Who is Tony Anastasia ? 

Mr. Gleason. He is vice president of ILA. 

Mr. Morris. Did he ever have a discussion with you concerning the 
possibility of obtainmg further help from Bridges and the Inter- 
national Longshoremen's Union on the west coast ? 

Mr. Gleason. Never to my mind ; never to my recollection. 

Mr. Morris. That is approximately in April or May of 1954 ? 

Mr. Gleason. I don't recall any such things. 

Mr. Morris. There is nothing more you can tell us about Dockers 
News now ? 

Mr. Gleason. No. 

We drove them off the waterfront. We drove them off. We beat 
them, and everything else. If they come down — now they get those 
Dockers News in the morning — is around 4 o'clock in the morning — 
they are off the highway ; they don't show up at all. 

Mr. Morris. One other question. Who was Tom Di Bello ? 

Mr. Gleason. Tom Di Bello was a former member of the ILA; 
he worked at the Army base in Brooklyn. 

Mr. Morris. How about Peter Kossi 'i 

Mr. Gleason. I don't recall the name, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Blackie Impellasso ? 

Mr. Gleason. He is a checker. 

Mr. Morris. Did those three gentlemen go to San Francisco to meet 
with Louis Goldblatt ? 

Mr. Gleason. We didn't know Mr. Goldblatt until they were there 
and back. We had nothing to do with sending them out there. We 
didn't know anything about it mitil it broke. I think it broke in the 
papers. 

Mr. Morris. Is that the episode you referred to in your testimony 
this mornmg ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir. I don't know Rossi. But I know Impel- 
lasso and Di Bello. 

Mr. Morris. They were successful in obtaining checks from the ILA 
organizations, from the various locals ? 

Mr. Gleason. That is what the book shows, yes. 

Mr. ScHROEDER. Did these checks go through your bookkeeping ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. The international had nothing to do with 
it. In fact, I think that Anastasia let Di Bello go. He is out of the 
union. He is no longer a member of the union. I don't know what 
became of Blackie Impellasso. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything more, Mr. Gleason, you feel you 
can tell us in connection with our efforts to learn of ILWU activities 
on the east coast ? 

Mr. Gleason. Believe me, Mr. Morris, if I knew, I would break 
their heads for them to bring them down here. One time I went to — 
well, I don't know a single thing. If I did, I wouldn't have to be 
under cover. But I come down here directly right in the open and 
tell you about it. 

Mr. Morris. I think that is all. 

One second more here. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4535 

Do you know Earl King ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Of MEjBA? 

Mr. Gleason". That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Was he the business manager of MEBA ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you Imow anything about a loan or a contribution 
of $20,000 to the ILA from Earl King? 

Mr. Gleason. I believe there was a loan to the ILA. Or a dona- 
tion. 

Mr. Morris. What was that? Wliat was the nature of that? 

Mr. Gleason. I think that was the — I think the captain could 
testify more about that. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us, captain. 

Mr. Bradley. That was for the purpose of a labor dispute between 
the MEBA, and the SIU, and the ILA. The SIU was raiding the 
MEBA, and King and the MEBA came to our office and asked us 
for support. We said we couldn't afford to get in the fight on the 
basis of the AFL and the SIU, but we would fight Paul Hall if they 
would finance the fight. And they turned over $20,000 of the MEBA 
Local 33 to fight the separate issue. And the MEBA national organ- 
ization turned over $10,000. And we turned that over to some of 
Paul Hall's ex-members to fight it on a different issue. There is quite 
a story in it. 

Mr. Morris. Did Earl King have anything to do with the Com- 
munists ? 

Mr. Bradley. To my knowledge, no. 

Mr. Morris. Did you subsequently learn that he did ? 

Mr. Bradley. No. I never heard of him being connected with 
them. This is the first I ever heard him mentioned. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM V. BRADLEY, ACCOMPANIED BY JOHN T. 

SULLIVAN, ATTORNEY 

Mr. Morris. Will you please state your name and address for the 
record. 

Mr. Bradley. William V. Bradley, 174 Pelton Avenue, West 
Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. What position do you have in the ILA ? 

Mr. Bradley. I am president of the International Longshoremen's 
Association. 

Mr. Morris. How many members are there in the ILA ? 

Mr. Bradley. We figure between 75,000 and 85,000 men. 

Mr. Morris. Captain Bradley, you heard the testimony of Mr. Gold- 
blatt ? You heard the testimony of Mr. Gleason, of your own organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Bradley. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You have come down here voluntarily ? 

Mr. Bradley. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything you would like to add to the testi- 
mony of both of those witnesses ? 

Mr. Bradley. Well, the testimony that I heard today, I heard the 
name of Velson mentioned quite often. And my first connection with 



±536 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

liim, as far as the organization is concerned, was that he came to our 
office as a member of one of our local unions. And he made quite an 
impression, the way he spoke of labor and the organization in general. 

At that particular time, we were in a strike or we were about to call 
a strike. And we were speaking mostly with the Governors of the 
States of New York and New Jersey on the strike situation at the port 
of New York. And he began to give some advice of some things that 
he knew about Government operations. 

Shortly, about 2 or 3 days, I got a telephone call from Mayor Grogan, 
of Hoboken, and he asked me if I had on our payroll a fellow by the 
name of Velson. And I told him I didn't have anybody by that name 
on the payroll by the name of Velson. 

Mr. Morris. John Grogan is the name ? 

Mr. Bradley. Yes. 

As a matter of fact, when we first met Velson, his name was Jackson, 
not Velson. 

And, of course, we checked — I always call our publicity man here 
on anything like that. And he came back with the word that it was 
Velson, not Jackson. 

And I called Velson in, and I told him that we didn't want him on 
the waterfront and we didn't want him around our office. We didn't 
want him in the office, and we wanted nothing to do with him nor his 
people. And that was even before we knew he had any connection 
with Bridges. 

Later on, we found out that he had connections with Bridges. 
When I found that out, I called Gleason in. And I told him, I said 
"Get the word around to the boys on the piers and our delegates." 

I spoke at the district council meeting, and I told Gleason to keep 
an eye on him, of his activities. And that he did. He reported to 
me and we knew that Velson was in Baltimore. We got that report. 

We called Baltimore. We called our people in Baltimore to keep 
an eye on him. 

The same in Pliiladelphia and Boston. And they were all on the 
alert, keeping their eye on Velson. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Was Velson a member of your organization? 

Mr. Bradley. No, we found no record of his being a member of our 
organization. 

Mr. Morris. Ca]3tain Bradley, how is it that if you discovered him 
to be one of Bridges' people, how was it that an official of your 
union continues to see him all the time? 

Mr. Bradley. He was arovmd there anyway. I thought it was bet- 
ter to find out what he was doing than to just let him go in the dark; 
keep track of his movements. 

Mr. Morris. You mean the fact that he has made these overtures, 
35 to 40 overtures to you ? Should that not put you on your warning ? 

Mr. Bradley. Well, I think when Mayor Grogan called me, it put 
me on my warning. I didn't need any more than that. Then we 
followed right through. 

Mr. Morris. Well, Mr. Gleason has been seeing him right down 
here recently. 

Mr. Bradley. I knew that. I told him to keep an eye on liim. 

Mr. Morris. When did Mayor Grogan call you ? 

Mv. Bradley. That would be sometime 

When was that? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4537 



Mr. Gleason. That was the time — 

(Discussion olf the record.) 

Mr. BR.VDLEY. July or August of 1955. 

Mr. Morris. Did the Bonner committee people know that Velson 
was going around preparing statements for people ? 

Mr. Bradley. Well, I don't get these remarks of the statement too 
much. When we were called before the Bonner committee, I was — 
I am going to get the two commitees mixed up there. 

Was the first committee the Bonner committee ? No ; the first one 
was the Compensation Committee. Velson wasn't in that at all. That 
was the first time I met him. 

Whose committee was that, Fergiison ? 

Mr. Sullivan. Congressman Smith of the House Labor. 

Mr. Bradley. Well, I don't understand your saying something 
about him giving us statements or putting statements out. 

Mr. Morris. Well, preparing statements. I asked Mr. Gleason if 
he prepared a statement. He said yes, he did. Then gave certain 
modifications to it. 

Mr. Bradley. We were all given statements in support of the com- 
pensation bill. Is that what you are referring to ? 

Mr. Morris. Except that I asked particularly if Velson had pre- 
pared for Mr. Gleason a statement. And he said "Yes." But then he 
said that you did not put anything in it unless it was your own idea. 

Mr. Gleason. I do not know whether he prepared them or not. He 
was giving them out. 

Mr. Bradley. They were just handing them out to anybody that 
came along. They were handing them out on the waterfront. 

Mr. Sullivan. He was not preparing statements for Mr. Gleason. 

Mr. Bradley. We have our own man here for that. And always 
have had him. 

(Discussion off the record.) 

Mr. Morris. AA^iat did Velson do with these statements ? 

Mr. Bradley. He just handed them to anybody on the waterfront 
or he handed them out in the corridor of Congress or the Senate, 
wherever he would be. If he didn't hand them out, somebody else 
handed them out. 

But they were statements — they were statements that came from 
Bridges' outfit. It wouldn't necessarily have to be Velson. WHioever 
sends them out. They come down, oh, not too long ago. I would say 
6 months ago, statements. 

And the boys escorted them right up the street, chased them right 
up the streets with the packages and all. I think they brought down 
a load of those Dispatchers. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, Mr. Gleason, at any time did Velson give 
you a prepared statement ? 

Mr. Gleason. That I would use ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Gleason. I don't think so. Any time he would come along 
with points, what he thought should be done on the compensation bill, 
or what he thought should be done on the new one here, the third 
party choices, with this common termination date, I would take ahold 
of whatever ideas he would have and give them to John. 



4538 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

John would go through them and screen them and pass them on, and 
he would look them over. Ninety-nine times out of a hundred we never 
used the stuff. 

Mr. Morris. One time out oi a hundred, you did. 

Mr. Gleason. I couldn't say that we did. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Mischo. 

Mr. Mischo. Before you close the record, I wonder if we could have 
read into the record a resolution on relations with Red China, dated 
July 15, 1957? 

Senator Hruska. Is it a resolution of the convention of the ILA ? 

Mr. MiscHO. Yes, it is. 

Senator Hruska. Yes ; if it is the one to which reference was made 
this morning by Mr. Gleason, that will be very appropriate. 

Mr. Gleason. I passed this resolution in. 

Senator Hruska. Is there an extra copy ? 

Mr. Gleason. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. We will incorporate it into the record. 

The resolution will be accepted and made a part of the record. 
And it is entirely appropriate in view of the other testimony given 
during the course of the day. 

Mr. Mischo. Thank you, sir. 

(The resolution referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 513" and 
reads as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 513 

Resolution on Relations With Red China 

Whereas the Red dictators of the Soviet Union have again and again returned 
evil for good in our relations, ever since we recognized them in 1933 on liberal but 
definite terms which they promptly violated ; and 

Whereas in the years since 1933, despite all pledges given us then and in the 
Declaration of the United Nations of January 1, 1942, and the Charter of the 
United Nations signed by them in 1945, they have enslaved one-third of mankind, 
killing millions, sending millions more to slave labor camps, destroying free trade 
unions and freedom of speech, of religion and of assembly ; and 

Whereas the Red Dictatorship in China, under the chairmanship of Mao Tse- 
tung, has risen to power over the bodies of millions of their countrymen slain 
in civil war ; another 15 million reported by Asst. Secretary of State Robertson 
to have been executed as counter revolutionaries ; and more than 20 million more 
condemned to slave labor ; and 

Whereas this bloody tyranny over the oldest civilized nation in the world, 
defied the U. N. in Korea and committed unspeakable crimes against the Korean 
people, and American and Korean soldiers, all of which, and much more, caused 
the House of Representatives and the Senate of the U. S. and both political parties 
in their Conventions of 1956 to vote unanimously against any form of recognition 
of Red China or its admittance into the U. N. ; and 

Whereas the Honorable John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, on June 28, 
1957, did declare that American policy stood firmly on these principles and with 
certainty regarded the evil that now afflicts the 600,000,000 people of China as 
only "a passing phase" : Therefore be it 

Resolved, That the ILA in Convention assembled congratulates Secretary 
Dulles for his firm pronouncement to the whole world that the U. S. stands firm 
for the unanimous policy of both our political parties against trade with or recog- 
nition of Communist China ; and be it further 

Resolved, That it is beneath the dignity of free American workers to handle 
goods produced by slave labor and that the ILA hereby vigorously opposes any 
trade which would strengthen the Chinese Communist regime which is the enemy 
of Our Counti-y and of free workingmen throughout the world ; and be it further 

Resolved, That all members of the International Longshoremen's Association 
will refuse to work on any job connected with trade with the Peiping regime 
and calls on all free labor, in this country and abroad, to follow suit by refusing 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4539 

to work in the production or distribution of any material wbicli v\iil be shipped to 
Mainland China, which can only strengthen the brutal regime temporarily in 
power ; and be it still further 

Resolved, That Congress should investigate the connections, affiliations and 
motivations of any and all who seek to destroy the greatest unity achieved by 
Americans on any foreign policy issue in our generation. This investigation 
should be so thorough as to reveal whether such activities were undertaken 
without ulterior motives or on behalf of enemies of the USA and should be under- 
taken without respect to persons or organizations involved, whether business 
groups such as the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce or Harry Bridges' 
ILWU, or pseudo-scholarly groux)s such as the Institute of Pacilic Relations, 
the Association for Asian Studies, or others ; and still further 

Resolved, That while the line is firmly held against any fraternization or ap- 
peasement of the Red tide in the Pacific, that our Secretary of State demand 
redress by the Soviet Union for violation of the orders of the U. N. and the man- 
dates of humanity in Korea and Hungary, failing which that we break rela- 
tions with the U. S. S. R. and all its satellite puppet regimes and call for trial 
and expulsion from the U. N. 

July 15, 1957. 

Submitted by the International Longshoremen's Association, Public Rela- 
tions Department. 

Mr. IMoRRis. One other point. In your convention you had a resolu- 
tion voted down that you would have nothing more to do with Bridges. 

Mr. Gleason. No. That resokition was not only to Bridges, it was 
a resolution that would tie the hands of the international from talking 
to anybody. And it was referred to the executive council of the 
international for action, with a recommendation that the interna- 
tional — that the president of the international reaffirm the interna- 
tional's stand against communism. 

Mr. Morris. But you did not go on record as not having any further 
dealings with Bridges ? 

Mr. Gleason. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. That is all. 

Mr. Bradley. In all fairness to you, I would like to say that that 
resolution, as far as I could see, was put in for political reasons in our 
own organization. And it has got nothing to do with this Communist 
or Bridges or anything else, because there are certain angles bemg 
worked in our own organization. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you, Mr. Bradley. 

( Wliereupon, at 3 : 25 p. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

Alaska 4505, 4507, 4522 

American Federation of Labor (AFL) 4535 

American President Lines 4510 

Anastasia, Tony (vice president, ILA) 4534 

Antitrust Committee 4522 

Association for Asian Studies 4539 

Australia , 4515 

B 

Baltimore 4536 

Bay Area World Trade Association 4520 

Belgium 4522 

Berkeley, Calif 4504 

Bershad, Hyman 4529 

Black ships (scab ships) , 4525 

Bonner committee, the 4511, 4527, 4529, 4530, 4537 

Boston 4536 

Bradley, William V 4529-4533, 4535-4539 

174 Peltoa Avenue, West Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y 4535 

President, International Longshoremen's Association 4535 

Attorney, John T. Sullivan 4535-4539 

Testimonv of 4535-4539 

Bridges, Harry 4528-4530, 4533, 4534, 4536, 4537, 4539 

British Columbia  4505, 4522 

British Government 4525 

British Honduras 4522 

Brooklyn 4528, 4531, 4534 

Bulgaria 4515 

C 

Qalifornia . 4505 

Canadian 4525 

Cannon, Pete 4530 

Central America 4522 

Chiang Kai-shek 4519 

Chicago 4506 

China 451^-4522, 4538, 4539 

China, Government of 4519, 4521 

China, Red 4520, 4531, 4538 

China, Red dictatorship of 4538 

Coa.st Guard 4514 

Commerce, Department of 4520 

Communist/s 4503^505, 4515^517, 4519, 4525, 4526, 4529, 4535, 4539 

Communist Control Act of 1954 4504 

Communist International Organization .__ 4515 

Communist Party 4503, 4504, 4506-4508, 4515-4518, 4529 

Waterfront section of 4529 

Compensation Committee 4537 

Condon, John 4533 

Congress 4505, 4515, 4539 



n INDEX 

Paae 

Connelly, Packy 4532 

Coos Bay (Oreg.) Times, April 22, 1957 4521 

Czechoslovakia 4515 

D 

Dant-Rusell (Pacific Northwest firm) 4521 

Detroit 4510 

Di Bello, Tom 4534 

Dispatcher, the (official publication of the ILWU) 4508, 

4509, 4520, 4522-4525, 4537 

For June 7, 1957 4508 

For July 28, 1954 4523 

Dockets' News (publication) 4529,4534 

Dulles, Hon. John Foster 453S 

E 

Eastland, Hon. James O 4524 

England 4521,4522 

Exhibit No. 512 — United States Expansion of Trade in the Pacific Area, 
submitted by the International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 

Union, June 24, 1957 4520-4.522 

Exhibit No. 513— Resolution on Relations With Red China, ILA Con- 
vention resolution, July 15, 1957 4538, 4539 

F 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 4507,4508 

Federal Maritime Board 4511 

Fifth amendment 4506, 4507, 4516-4518, 4525 

First amendment 4524 

First National Bank of Portland 4521 

Ford, Henry, III 4519 

Forer, Joseph, attorney for Louis Goldblatt 4503-4526 

Formosa 4519 

France 4515,4522 

Future of the CIO (classroom subject at Western Summer School for 
Workers) 4504 

G 

General Motors 4510 

Georgia-Pacific Plywood (Pacific Northwest firm) 4521 

Germany, West 4522 

Gleason, Thomas W 4526-4537 

29 Charles Street, New York City, N. Y 4526 

General organizer, ILA Independent 4526 

Attorneys, William B. Mischo and John T. Sullivan 4526-4535 

Testimony of 4526-4535 

Goldblatt, Louis 4503-4526, 4528, 4531-4535 

150 Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco, Calif 4505 

Attorney, Joseph Forer 4503-4526 

Testimony of 4503-4526 

Secretary-treasurer, ILWU 4503, 4505 

International representative 4506 

Member of union since 1935 4505 

Previously held position of vice president of the Warehouse Local 6__ 4506 

Fifth amendment 4507, 4516-4518, 4525 

Great Britain 4.521, 4522, 4526 

Grogan, Mayor (Hoboken, N. J.) 4536 

Guatemala 4522-4524 

Guatemala Government 4523 

H 

Hall, Paul 4535 

Hawaii 4503^505, 4512, 4513, 4524 

Hoboken (N. J.) 4536 



INDEX m 

Page 

Holland 4515, 4525 

Honolulu 4503, 4511, 4522, 4523 

House Labor Committee 4533, 4537 

House Merchant Fisheries Committee 4511 

House of Representatives 4538 

Hruska, Hon. Roman L 4503, 4531 

Hungary 4539 



ILA. (See International Longshoremen's Association, Independent, 

below. ) 
ILA OflScials Welcome Visiting ILWU Clerks (from the Dispatcher, June 

7, 1957) 4508 

ILWU. {See International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, 
below.) 

Impellasso, Blackie 4534 

Institute of Pacific Relations 4539 

Internal Revenue, Department of 4506-4508 

Internal Security Act (1950) 4504 

International Longshoremen's Association, Independent (ILA) 4526-4532, 

4534, 4535 

Brooklyn division 4531 

Convention resolution, July 15, 1957 (exhibit No. 513) 4538, 4539 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union (ILWU) 4503, 

4505, 4507^511, 4514, 4515, 4517, 4518, 4520-4524, 4526-4530, 4534, 
4539 

Local 6 4506 

Local 30 4522 

Local 62 (Ketchikan, Alaska) 4522 

Local 142 (Hawaii) 4503,4524 

Convention (April 4-8, 1955) 4531 

Isbrandtsen 4510 

Italy 4515 

J 
"Jackson" 4536 

Juneau Spruce case 4507 

K 

Keith, Charles 4528 

Ketchikan, Alaska 4522 

Kibre, JefE 4514 

King, Earl 4535 

Korea 4538, 4539 

L 

Labor, Department of 4507, 4513 

Labor Government (Great Britain) 4526 

London 452.5, 4526 

Longshoremen (Hawaii group) 4512 

Luckenbach 4510 

M 
Madell, Sam 4528 

Magnuson, Hon. Warren G 4521 

Mandel, Benjamin 4503 

Mao Tse-tung 4538 

Marine cooks 4530 

Maritime Administration 4530 

Marseilles, France 4515, 4525, 4526 

Matson Co 4510, 4513 

MEBA 4535 

MEBA, Local 33 4535 

Meehan, Matt 4530 



iV INDEX 

Pago 

Mexico 4523 

"Miller, Louis" 4517 

Miscellaneous workers (Hawaii) 4512 

Mischo, William B., attorney for Thomas W. Gleason 4526-4531 

Moore-McCormack 4510 

Morris, Robert 4503 

Morse, Senator 4513 

N 

New Jersey 4536 

New Orleans 4506 

New York 4506, 4510, 4513, 4514, 4526-4529, 4532, 4536 

New York Journal of Commerace, May 9, 1957 4521 

New York Times 4525 

Newark (N. J.) 4510 

Non-Communist affidavit (Taft-Hartley) 4516 

O 
Oregon 4505, 4521 

P 

Pacific 4520, 4539 

Pacific Maritime Association 4510 

Pacific Shipowner (owners' publication) 4519 

Pacific Shipper (publication) 4521, 4522 

Pacific Transport Line-States Lines 4520 

Paris (France) 4525, 4526 

Peck case 4504, 4515, 4524, 4525 

Peiping regime 4538 

Philadelphia 4536 

Pineapple workers (Hawaii) 4512 

Pope-Talbot 4510 

R 

Reid, Home Secretary (Scotland Yard) 4526 

Robertson, Assistant Secretary of State 4538 

Rossi, Peter 4534 

S 

San Francisco, Calif 4504, 4505, 4510, 4513, 4520, 4534 

San Francisco Chamber of Commerce 4520, 4521, 4539 

San Francisco Chronicle : 

June 9, 1957 4520, 4521 

June 3, 1957 4521 

May 31, 1957 4521 

San Pedro 4522 

Schroeder, F. W 4503 

Scotland Yard 4526 

Seattle, Wash 4522 

Senate (United States) 4504, 4511, 4538 

Senate Labor Committee 4513 

Senate Resolution 366 4505 

Sitka (Alaska) 4522 

SIU (Seafarer's International Union) 4530, 4535 

Smith Act, the 4504 

Smith, Congressman (House Labor Committee) 4537 

Soviet Union 4515, 4538, 4539 

State, Department of 4523 

State, Secretary of 4538,4539 

Sugar plantation workers (Hawaii) 4512 

Sullivan, John T., attorney for Thomas W. Gleason 4526-4535 

And for William Y. Bradley 4535-4539 

SUP (Sailor's Union, Pacific) 4530 

Supreme Court (United States) 4504, 4507, 4516 



INDEX V 

T Page 

Taft-Hartley non-Communist affidavit 4516, 4517 

Taiwan (Formosa) 4519 

Talmadge, George E., Jr 4520 

"Timothy" 4525 

Tobin, former Secretary of Labor 4513 

U 

United Nations 4538, 4539 

United Nations Charter 4538 

United Nations Declaration, January 1, 1942 4538 

United States Expansion of Trade in the Pacific Area, submitted by the 

ILWU, June 24, 1957 (exhibit No. 512) 4520-4522 

U. S. S. R 4521,4539 

V 

Velson, Charles 4506, 4508, 4514, 4527-4529, 

4532, 4533, 4535, 4537 

W 

Washington ( State) 4505, 4521 

Washington, D. C 4506, 4514, 4518-^520, 4529, 4530 

Waterfront Commission 4514 

Watkins case 4504 

Western Summer School for Workers, Berkeley, Calif 4504 

AVilson, James L 4520 

Workers' School, 463 Hayes Street, San Francisco 4504 

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) 4514,4515,4525 

Y 

Yates case 4504 

Youngdahl, Judge 4524 

Youth in the Class Struggle (classroom subject at Workers' School, San 
Francisco) 4504 

o 



/Jl I ^i^i-v  



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Extent of Communist Activity in Labor) 



HEARINGS 

-' 'KHXFOKE THE .'^■').»'j 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO mtESTI&ATE THE 

ADMINISTRATION Of -flltefll^ERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUWCIAEY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



AUGUST 6 AND 8, 1957 



PART 78 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 1 1 1958 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Je., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH 0. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Elinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Je., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. O. SouRwiNE, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of — ^"^® 

Cameron, Clifton 4560 

Cole, Archer 4555 

Schumann, Louis 4541 

Trueba, Samuel D 4551 



in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 6, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
AND Other Internal. Security Laws, 
OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 10 a. m., in room 155, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Koman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present : Robert Morris, chief counsel ; Benjamin Mandel, re- 
search director ; and F. W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. jMorris. Senator, on July 23, Mr. William Wallace testified that 
he had been a Communist and had been a member of the Singer Sew- 
ing Machine Club in the Communist Party. He proceeded to tell us 
generally how the Communist plan of action was to infiltrate the main 
AFL-CIO unions. In the process, they expected there would be 
certain casualties among the leadersliip of these Communist-controlled 
unions, but they felt if they could make an infiltration into AFL- 
CIO, these casualties would be worth that. 

In the testimony, Mr. Wallace mentioned Mr. Louis Schumann as a 
member of the Singer Sewing Machine Club of the Communist Party. 
We have tried to give anybody whose name was mentioned in the 
public record an opportunity to answer, particularly when he can add 
to the record of the subcommittee. 

In Mr. Louis Schumann, we have a witness who has not only been 
responsive to the staff in executive session, but by letting him testify 
today I think we can give him an opportunity to put the situation in 
perspective as we know it today. 

Will you come forward, Mr. Schumann ? 

Chairman Hruska. Will you be sworn, sir ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give will 
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Schumann. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF LO¥IS SCHUMANN, LINDEN, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Will you spell your name and address for the reporter, 
please ? 
Mr. Schumann. Louis Schumann, S-c-h-u-m-a-n-n. 
Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 
Mr. Schumann. 710 Chandler Avenue, Linden, N. J. 
Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

4541 



4542 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY INT THE TmiTED STATES 

Mr. Schumann. I am a bench worker in the Singer Manufacturing 
Co. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Schumann ? 

Mr. Schumann. In Elizabeth, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been working at the Singer Sew- 
ing Machine Co. ? 

Mr. Schumann. Approximately 21 years. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the Singer Sewing Machine Co. was organized in 
1949 by the UERMW, was it not ? 

Mr. Schumann. No ; I believe it was organized in 1943 or 1944. 

Mr. Morris. In 1949, when the strike took place, it was the 
UERMW? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. That is not the situation now, is it ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. What is the organization now ? 

Mr. Schumann. IUE. 

Mr. Morris. That is an AFL-CIO union ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. How many members are in that local, do you know ? 

Mr. Schumann. I would say approximately 5,000. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Wallace told the subcommittee that he and 
you worked together in a Singer Sewing Machine club of the Commu- 
nist Party during that period. 

Mr. Schumann. There was such a club. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of that club ? 

Mr. Schumann. I was. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us roughly when you joined the Commu- 
nist Party ? 

Mr. Schumann. I would say I was approached by Anthony Rodri- 
gues in the latter part of 1948. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell Mr. Rodrigues' name ? 

Mr. Schumann. R-o-d-r-i-g-u e s. 

Mr. Morris. He was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Schumann. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Morris. He asked you to join in 1948 ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did you join ? 

Mr. Schumann. I did. 

Mr. Morris. How long did you remain in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Schumann. I remained actively until approximately July 1949. 

Mr. Morris. What happened in July 1949 ? 

Mr. Schumann. Our local met and decided that, for the benefit of 
the members, our officers should sign Taft-Hartley affidavits. 

Mr. Morris. Who attended this meeting, and who made that 
decision ? 

Mr. Schumann. Well, it was made by the officers and the executive 
board of the local then in office. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

Wlio were the leading officers ? 

Mr. Schumann. The leading officers were myself as business agent, 
Robert Brennan as president, and other people of the executive board. 

Mr. Morris. Who made the decision that you should resign from 
the Communist Party ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UTSnTED STATES 4543 

Mr. Schumann. Speaking for myself, I made the decision after I 
read the terras on the affidavit. 

Mr. Morris. After you effected this resignation from the Communist 
Party in July of 1949, did you remain friendly and cooperative with 
the Communists ? 

Mr. Schumann. With some of them ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend the Communist meetings ? 

Mr. Schumann. I couldn't accurately state whether they were Com- 
munist meetings or not. It may have been a meeting concerning 
strictly trade-union policies of the shop, but known Communists were 
present. 

Mr. Morris. How would you describe your relationship with the 
Communists in the period immediately following July of 1949 ? 

Mr. Schumann. I would say I was cooperating to an extent in 
matters that I felt would aid the people at the shop. 

Mr. Morris. However, you had technically resigned from the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. You had — when did you have another break with the 
Communists, and by that I mean an ideological difference with them? 

Mr. Schumann. I would say the complete and final break came in 
1952. 

Mr. Morris. How did you account for that break ? 

Mr. Schumann. I feel that I didn't go along with their policies. I 
felt I had made a fool of myself, and this was the time to make sure 
that I severed all connections. 

Mr. Morris. So you severed all connections with the Communists in 
1952? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. For instance, did you go to the FBI and mention to 
them the identity of people you knew to be Communists ? 

Mr. Schumann. Yes; I have given a complete statement of my 
activities and everybody I was concerned with to the FBI. 

Mr. Morris. "When was that ? 

Mr. Schumann. Early this year. 

Mr. Morris. 1957? 

Mr, Schumann. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Hruska, we have gone over the problems of 
what names to put in the record. Mr. Wallace has put many of them 
in. He was careful to put in only the names of those he thought to be 
leaders of the group. One of them was Mr. Schumann here. 

Now, we have gone through the names with Mr. Schumann and I 
will ask him now, if you will agree to this, Senator — if you will recall, 
I mentioned it to you — that we feel we should only put the important 
leaders of the groups into the record and not the names of those who 
were in the Communist Party for a short time, who may have been 
led astray by the Communists. 

Senator Hruska. That is fair. We will proceed along that line, 
if you will, Mr. Schumann. 

Mr. Morris. Who were the members of the Communist Party in the 
Singer Sewing Machine Club in the period you were active, Mr. 
Schumann ? 

Mr. Schumann. Anthony Rodrigues. 



4544 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

]Mr. Morris. He is the man you mentioned before ? 

Mr. Schumann". Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where is he now, do you know ? 

Mr. Schumann. I think he is working privately, I am not sure. I 
think he is connected with a private firm. 

Mr. Morris. He was a member of the Singer Sewing Machine Club ? 

Mr. Schumann. He was, to my knowledge, the only one before I 
was approached. 

Mr, Morris. Mr. Wallace said there were nine members of the club 
at the time he was a member. 

Mr. Schumann. There was Robert Brennan. 

Mr. Morris. How many were there, roughly, to your knowledge ? 

]\Ir. Schumann. Actively working in the plant, to my knowledge, 
there were 9 or 10. 

]\Ir. Morris. So it would coincide roughly with his recollection ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

I am leaving out the ones that I felt were involved for 1 meeting or 2. 

Mr, IMoRRis. You mean there are 9 or 10 important ones, and others 
who were identified with the Communist Party for shorter periods of 
time, and you are not including them in the 9 or 10 ? ^ 

Mr. Schumann, That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Hruska, would our record be in good shape if 
we left it that way ? 

Senator Hruska. Are tliere others you would care to name as having 
been associated with the Communist Party in a known fashion? 

]Mr. Schumann. Well, there are others that I shall name that were 
active, but did not work at the Singer plant. They were outsiders. 

]\Ir. iSIoRRTS. INIr. Schumann says he will give us these names in 
executive session if we want them, those that were onl}^ with the Com- 
munist Party, to his knowledge, for a short time. 

Senator Hruska. You may proceed along that line. 

Mr. Schumann. The last name I gave was Robert Brennan. He 
was president of the shop local. 

Mr. IMoRRis. And he was a member of the Communist Party ? 

INIr. Schumann. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What is he doing now, do you know ? 

Mr. Schumann. He is working at the plant. 

Mr. Morris. He is no longer president ? 

Mr. Schumann. No, he is not. 

There was Norval Butterfield. 

iNIr. jMorris. ^Miat is he doing now ? 

Mr. Schumann. I don't know. He is not at the plant any more. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. Not at the plant ? 

Mr. SoHuiNiANN. There was Anthony Cascone, C-a-s-c-o-n-e, 

Mr. Morris. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Schumann. I have no knowledge. He is not in the plant. 

There was Walter Poleschuk. 

Mr, Morris. We know Walter Poleschuk. He testified last week 
or, ratlier, refused to testify. 

Mr. Schumann. William Wallace vou know. 



^ The subcomniittee has received an affidavit from Arcl)ibald H. Payne HI to the effect 
that, while he was employed at the Singer plant, he attended Communist meetings but 
withdrew after an association of about a year. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY TN" THE UNITED STATES 4545 

There was JM^a-tle Schoen. 

Mr. MoKRis. How do you spell that ? 

Mr. ScHUMANX. S-c-h-o-e-n, I believe. 

Mr. Morris. Is that Myrtle, M-y-r-t-1-e, a woman ? 

Mr. ScHUMAXx. Yes. 

]Mr. ^Morris. "\Miere is she now ? 

]Mr. ScHUMAX^x^. Workino- in the plant. 

Mr. Morris. "What is she doing now ? 

]Mr. ScHUMAX^x. I think she is a clerk ; I am not sure. 

Mr. Morris. Does she hold any office in the union 'i 

^Ir. ScHUMAX'x. Not to my knowledge. 

There was Al Lipari, L-i-p-a-r-i. 

Mr. Morris. In connection with the last-mentioned name, I would 
like the record to show that he has expressed a willingness to testify, 
if you want his testimony, Senator. 

Mr. ScHUMAXx. To my Imowledge, Mr. Lipari was only at 1 or 2 
meetings, and he was used mainly as a fund source. When they 
wanted to get a few dollars, I think they used Mr. Lipari. 

Senator Hruska. What was his occupation ? 

Mr. ScHUMAX'x. Carpenter. 

Senator Hruska. In the plant ? 

Mr. ScHUMAXx. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Who were some of the leaders outside the plant who 
exercised an influence on those inside the plant who were Communist 
Party members ? 

Mr. SciiUMAX^x. The ones that Avere recruited at the same time I 
was were a girl working in the local office at that time, Helen Ciurczak. 

Mr. Morris. Would you spell that, please ? 

Mr. ScHUMAX'X'. C-i-u-r-c-z-a-k. 

Mr. Morris. Where is she now, do you know ? 

Mr. ScHUMAxx. I have no knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. Anybody else ? 

Mr. SciiUMAxx-^. Walter Barry. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. What was his position ? 

Mr. ScHUMAXN. Walter Barry was an international representative 
of the UE, assigned to the local by the national office, and worked 
verv closelv with mvself and other officers from the time I became 
interested in the movement. 

Mr. Morris. Was he, to your knowledge, a Communist ? 

Mr. ScHUMAxx. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You met him under circumstances that would indicate 
to you that he was a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. ScHUMAxx'. Yes. 

Mr. JMoRRis. "\'\Tiere is he now ? 

Mr. SciiuMAxx. I don't know. 

Mr. Morris. "Who are some of the other members ? 

Mr. ScHUMAxx. Archer Cole. 

Mr. Morris. "Where is he now ? 

Mr. ScHUMAX. I belieive he is working for a local union. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, it is our information that Archer Cole has 
been under subpena now by the subcommittee for 2 weeks, or since Mr. 
Wallace's testimony. He is now an official — is he an official, Mr. 
Schumann ? 

93215 — 57 — pt. 78 2 



4546 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Schumann. I am not sure. I know he works for the union. 

Mr. Morris. He works for local 485 of the lUE. 

Have you seen Archer Cole recently ? 

Mr. ScHUJiANN. I have seen him, I would say, approximately 2 
weeks ago, after he received his original subpena. 

Mr. Morris. What happened when you saw him ? 

Mr. Schumann. I hadn't seen him in 2 or 3 years. He came to my 
home, which happens to be a short distance from his. He wanted to 
know if I wanted to meet with him on the problem of getting legal 
advice. 

Mr. Morris. Was he offering to get legal assistance for you? 

Mr. Schumann. No, because before he really got into the subject, I 
stated to him that it was my intention, if I were subpenaed, to answer 
all questions. I felt that I had better advise him of that fact before 
he disclosed his intentions to the committee. 

Mr. Morris. What hajspened when you told him that ? 

Mr. Schumann. He indicated he didn't think it was the best thing 
to do. But I said my mind was made up. I did not indicate to him 
at that time that I had previously notified the FBI. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, this testimony is a bit unusual inasmuch as 
Archer Cole has been calling in here regularly, giving reasons why he 
cannot testify. The reason each time has been that he is not able to 
obtain counsel. Apparently, then, he was willing to advise Mr. 
Schumann how to obtain counsel. 

Mr. Schumann. He stated to me that the person he did want to 
secure as counsel was on vacation, or something. I have no way of 
knowing whether that is correct or not. 

Senator Hruska. Did he give you the name of the person ? 

Mr. Schumann. Yes, I believe he stated Mr. Stavis. 

Mr. Morris. Are there any other people outside ? 

Mr. Schumann. Yes, Sid White, who worked at the local as a pub- 
licity man. I believe he is located in New York now. 

And Martha Stone. 

Mr. Morris. "Who was Martha Stone ? 

Mr. Schumann. I found out later that she was a big wheel in the 
party. I didn't know her exact title, but she was a higher up in the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Sylvia Cohen at all ? 

Mr. Schumann. I knew her in connection with union work, but 
not otherwise. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, Sylvia Cohen was identified by Mr. Wallace 
as a member of the Communist Party. We have ascertained that she 
is working as a clerk in the office of district 4, lUE, AFL-CIO, at 21 
Fulton Street, Newark, N. J. 

Archer Cole we would like to get in here, along with other members 
of the Communist Party who have not been able to obtain counsel. 

Altogether we have 16 officials, not rank and file people, but people 
who are working as officials of the lUE who have been identified as 
Connnunists in our record, both open and executive. 

Almost without exception they take the position they cannot come 
in because they cannot obtain counsel. 

Mr. Carey, who is the head of the lUE, has been outspoken in his 
opposition to Communists, Senator, and if you think it is advisable, 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE tnsnTED STATES 4547 

we might ask him to assist us in getting these people to testify in order 
to clear up the record. 

Senator Hkuska. Are subpenas outstanding on them ? 

Mr. Morris. On most of them. We have subpenas outstanding on 
Clifton Cameron, business manager of local 485. 

We have a subpena outstanding on Archer Cole. 

There has been a subpena issued for James McLeish. He is an 
official in New Jersey. 

Altogether, there are 6 officials in Brooklyn, 2 in White Plains, 
2 from Jersey City, 1 from Newark, 1 from West Orange, 1 from 
Sterling, N. J., and— those are the ones about whom we have evi- 
dence of Communist Party membership. 

These, for the most part, are people who were in another union 
which has been dismissed by the AFL-CIO as Communist-controlled. 
Some of the locals have been absorbed into the lUE, which is a large 
AFL-CIO union. 

Now, you will find that at least six of them are now holding offices 
of some kind, some of them rather important offices. 

Senator Hruska. In what locals ? 

Mr. Morris. I can go through them. 

Senator Hruska. Without reference to individuals, what locals ? 

Mr. Morris. We have 2 people identified with local 485 ; we have 
1 in local 475, 1 in local 431, 1 in local 486, 1 in local 301, 1 in local 1227. 
We have several in district 4. That is the district of the lUE, and one 
in local 451 — I am not sure of 451. 

Senator Hruska. The committee would be interested in getting in- 
formation about activity in those locals, and former activities in 
which members of them may have been engaged. With that thought 
in mind, I would like to ask you, Mr. Schumann, what were the activi- 
ties of this Singer Club to which you referred ? 

Mr. Schumann. Officially, I believe the activities were mainly 
concerned with the actual trade-union aspects of the Singer plant. 
That is mainly what I was interested in. But eventually I believe 
they attempted to promote certain ideas and objectives that some of 
us did not see eye to eye with. 

Senator Hruska. When you say "they," to whom do you refer? 

Mr. Schumann. I would state they w^ould be mainly people such 
as Mr. Eodrigues, Mr. Barry, Mr. Cole, Mr. Poleschuk. 

Senator Hruska. What are some of these ideas, so we can get some 
idea on our part of the things to which you objected ? 

Mr. Schumann. I believe there was a very conscious effort at all 
times to promote a feeling that they must do something to bring the 
Negro leadership in the shop forward. 

Now, our shop has quite a few Negroes. There are very outstand- 
ing people employed there. But there was a conscious effort to at- 
tempt to get people of the Negro race involved, for what actual pur- 
poses I don't know. But there was always a conscious effort to try 
to become friendly with the Negro people. 

Senator Hruska. Is there anything else they did that you did not 
like? 

Mr. Schumann. Well, for example, if they had an opinion of how 
a certain project in the plant should be handled, and you disagreed 
with them, there was a very strenuous objection on their part. 



4548 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE IHSriTED STATES 

In fact, you might wind up in an argument for hours, until you 
either gave up and felt, -well, let it go that way, or else they brought 
it up later on. 

Senator Hruska. Now, what activity was there, or what discussion 
was there about the way the strike was handled ? 

Mr. Schumann". Well, there were some discussions by the party 
group of the issues of the strike. It is very possible that some of those 
meetings held prior to the strike could lead to different conclusions. 

Myself, I was strictly interested in the trade-union aspects of the 
shop. I felt that tliat was the correct discussions we were holding. 
But it is very possible that other people, maybe, were being groomed 
for a higher position in the party, or maybe were in favor with some 
of the officials of the party, and would get a different interpretation 
of the meetings I attended. 

Senator Hruska. What specific things about the strike were dis- 
cussed in the Singer Club ? 

Mr. Schumann. Well, discussions of how to raise money and how 
to keep the people from disintegrating, more or less, maintaining 
picket lines — the normal tilings of any strike that could be looked at 
from two sides, whether it was a party function or a trade-union 
function. 

It is very hard to draw this line, because the party can adopt many 
things tliat ai'e favorable to a working force. If it suits their means, 
adopted for tlieir own. If not, why 

Senator Hruska. What discussioris were there of the Communist 
line, so called? Was there any conscious effort to indoctrinate the 
members of tlie club or any of the union members about the Communist 
line as such? 

Mr. Schumann. I think there was, because I know in the early 
stages I was sent to a supposed school, or something of that nature. 

Mr. Morris. What school was that ? 

Mr. Schumann. It was not a school officially ; it was held in a pri- 
vate home. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about that ? We are very interested, 
are we not, Senator ? 

Senator Hruska. Yes. 

Mr. Schumann. I went to a liome in Elizabeth with Helen Ciurczak, 
myself, and an organizer for the Communist Party, Mr. Robert Ensel. 

Mr. Morris. Ensel? 

Mr. Schumann. E-n-s-e-1. 

Mr. Morris. Whose home was that ? 

Mr. ScnuiMANN. I don't know. It was a long time ago. I only 
went a few times. It was a private home. 

Mr. Morris. You liad some kind of indoctrination : is that right ^ 

Mr. ScTiUJViANN. They bad books and things. They wanted you to 
I'ead the books and come back for a few weeks and discuss it. I, for 
one, felt I couldn't understand half the books, so I didn't bother much 
with it. 

Senator Hruska. What were these books about? 

Mr. Schumann. I think they were the historj' of the Communist 
Party, and things of that nature. They wanted you to read the whole 
background of it. But I couldn't understand it thoroughly, and I 
didn't have the stomach for it. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4549 

Senator Hruska. How often were meetings of the Singer Club 
held? 

Mr, Schumann. I would say an average of at least once a month, 
maybe a little sooner. 

Senator Hruska. Did they also meet in different residences ? 

Mr. ScHUMAXX. They did. 

Senator Hkuska. Getting back to the strike business, did they dis- 
cuss the techniques of the strike, any slowdown, or agitation that was 
to be generated? The picketing? Did they deal with any of those 
things? 

Mr. ScHuaiANN. There were discussions of the general conduct of 
the strike. Again, I repeat that I felt many of these issues were 
strictly trade-union issues. Whether there was then a separate meet- 
ing where further details were outlined, I don't know. It is possible 
that maybe somebody like Wallace could get a deeper understanding 
of this. I think he was being led more into the political line of it 
than myself, who was interested in the trade-union aspects. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a business agent of the union local ? 

Mr. Schumann. I was. 

Senator Hruska. What were your duties as such ? 

Mr. Schumann. My duties were to run the office of the local and 
aid in the settling of disputes and disagreements. 

Senator Hruska. '\^niat local was that? 

Mr. Schumann. 401, UE. 

Senator Hruska. Did you continue after it was changed from the 
UE to — what was it ? 

Mr. Schumann. IUE. 

Senator Hruska. Did you continue as business agent for the local 
then ? 

Mr. Schumann. No ; I did not. When we were defeated in an elec- 
tion, I went back to work. I had a leave of absence from the plant. 
I went back to work in my regular occupation. 

Senator Hruska. When you say "we," you mean the UE local ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

Senator Hruska. Of what local did you become a member then? 

Mr. Schumann. I eventually became a member of local 461, IUE. 

Senator Hruska. Is that where you are now ? 

Mr. Schumann. Yes. 

Senator Hrusk.4. You were about to say something else ? 

Mr. Schumann. Well, it slipped my mind. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet with Martha Stone at all ? 

]Mr. Schumann. I met her a few times. 

Mr. Morris, Did she give you instructions what to do ? 

Mr, Schumann. Well, she discussed various things. I can't pin 
them at the moment, because I am trying to go back pretty far. 

Mr. Morris. Did you meet with Walter Barry and James McLeish ? 

Mr. Schumann. Not Mr. McLeish. I met Mr. ISIcLeish many 
times as president of district 4, but I didn't meet him any other 
way. 

Senator Hruska. Did you meet with Sid White ? 

Mr. Schumann. Yes; my work and Mr, White's threw us con- 
stantly together. 

Senator Hruska. Wliat was the nature of his work ? 



4550 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Schumann. He was employed by our union as a publicity man. 

Senator Hruska. Was he one of those whom you knew as a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. 

Senator Hruska. Did he profess to be ; did he say he was ? 

Mr. Schumann. He attended meetings with me. 

Senator Hruska. Meetings held exclusively by Communist Party 
members ? 

Mr. Schumann. That is right. That was prior to the strike. 

Senator Hruska. What kind of publicity did he engage in ? 

Mr. Schumann. The normal publicity engaged in by locals — 
monthly newspapers, and books and publications put out through the 
plant at large. 

Senator Hruska. Do you know where he is now, at this time? 

Mr. Schumann. I believe he is employed in New York City, sir. 

Senator Hruska. In what capacity, or kind of business is he in { 

Mr. Schumann. I don't know. 

Senator Hruska. Do you know where he lives ? 

Mr. Schumann. In New York City. 

Senator Hruska. You spoke of having withdrawn from this type of 
activity in July 1949, and it was the decision of the officers of the union 
that you decided to sign these affidavits. Wliat kind of affidavits were 
they ? 

Mr. Schumann. Taft-Hartley. 

Senator Hruska. Was there any discussion with regard to these ? 

Mr. Schumann. There were a couple of lengthy discussions; yes, 
sir. 

Senator Hruska. Was there much violent disagreement m the rank 
and file ? 

Mr. Schumann. There were normal, regular arguments about it. 

Senator Hruska. Did some resist it ? 

Mr. Schumann. There was some resistance, but I felt the people 
that actually resisted it did so on a normal stand. I don't think there 
was an ulterior motive. 

Senator Hruska. Was this brought formally to the attention of the 
members of the union ? 

Mr. Schumann. I don't recall whether it was brought formally, or 
we signed it, and then had the membership sign them. I know that 
that material is mostly all a matter of public record from the local 
press. 

Senator Hruska. Is there anything further of this witness. Judge 
Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. No, Senator, But I would like the record to show that 
we are most appreciative of Mr. Schumann's testimony here today. 
It is extremely difficult for us to get responsive witnesses such as Mr. 
Schumann. li^Hien we do. Senator, I would like the record clearly to 
show that he should be commended for his frank, direct, and candid 
testimony, which is so very helpful. 

Senator Hruska. Let the record show that those are the sentiments 
of this subcommittee, and also of the chairman. 

Thank you again for coming, Mr. Schumann. 

Mr. Schumann. Thank you, sir. I would like to say that it is most 
helpful to have this forum to get something off my chest. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4551 

Mr. Morris. That testimony from Mr. Scliumann is further cor- 
roboration of testimony that Mr. Wallace has given us. Almost 
every witness we have called so far since this testimony has in various 
ways corroborated his testimony. 

Senator, Mr. Trueba, president of the local, is here. He would 
like to make a few remarks for the record. He would like to make 
the record clear on the local's position. 

Senator Hruska. Will you be sworn, Mr. Trueba ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you will give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Trueba. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL TRUEBA, ROSELLE, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Will you be seated, Mr. Trueba ? 

Give your name and address to the reporter, please. 

Mr. Trueba. Samuel D. Trueba. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Trueba. 225 Linden Koad, Eoselle. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business ? 

Mr. Trueba. I am at the present time president of local 461, lUE. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been president of 461 ? 

Mr. Trueba. For the last 6 years, and a year prior to that, business 
agent. 

Mr. Morris. That is 1951? 

Mr. Trueba. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. And the year before that you were the business agent ? 

Mr. Trueba. May I relate it in this way ? 

We had a labor board election between the UE, and lUE and 
an independent union in September of 1950. The lUE won out, and 
when we had our elections in January of the next year, I was elected 
business agent of the 461 local. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Trueba, we have had testimony again this 
morning that certain people working at the Singer Sewing Machine 
plant, some of whom have been officials of the union that preceded 
you have in fact been members of the Communist Party. I under- 
stand you would like to tell the subcommitte the attitude of your 
local now toward people who are members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Trueba. Well, I might start by saying briefly that as I said 
during the election in 1950, or prior to the election, we had had a 
rank-and-file group in the plant m previous years who were opposed 
to the UE, basically on a national basis, as being Communist-dom- 
inated. That fight had always been carried on in the shop in previous 
years. They had not won any officer elections. 

The final break came right after the strike, when it terminated in 
November — October 19, rather. 

Senator Hruska. Of what year ? 

Mr. Trueba. In 1949. 

Subsequently, or right around that time, the UE was expelled from 
the CIO for being Communist-dominated. 

Eight after that, we started campaigning for the local to go back 
into the CIO. We did not want to belong to the UE. We wanted to 



4552 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

belong to organized labor. The subsequent election was the result of 
campaigning where we linally won the local. The new officers were 
installed. 

Over the years since then, we have followed a line of combating 
the UE on a Communist level. We intend to do so in the future as 
far as we can. 

I may point out that in May of 1955, before the House Un-Ameri- 
can Activities Committee hearings, Mr. Poleschuk took the fifth 
amendment. At that time, even though at an executive board hear- 
ing I had instructed him to testify on behalf of his obligations to 
the Singer workers, he took the fifth, and we subsequently removed 
him from any office of the local for a period of 3 years, at which time 
we would again review his position. 

Mr. Morris. Is that the general policy of the local ? 

]Mr. Trueba. That is right. I felt that any officer that would not 
testify was not doing his job as an officer, or as a steward of the local. 
I felt it puts the onus on the Singer workers. 

The overwhelming majority of Singer workers are good, decent 
Americans, and will have no truck with the followers of the party. 

Subsequently, as I said, we removed him. That was the reason I 
asked the committee for a chance to appear the other day. I felt 
that the names of those who have been identified as party members 
should come out. I think that our people are entitled to know them 
as they will now. 

Secondly, I have spoken, incidentally, to Mr. Lipari, as union 
president. He has told me if he is summoned he will testify to any- 
thing that he knows. We will be glad to tell you. 

On the basis of Mr. Lipari and Mr. Schumann, I think I speak 
for the membership, especially with regard to Mr. Schumann, that I 
commend his coming before the committee. It is not an easv thing. 
But I think the union will also commen.d him for it. 

Mr. Morris. In so doing, he clears the reputation of the union and 
the others who are not Communists. 

Mr. Trueba. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. So you know exactly who the Communists are and 
something will be done about it. 

Mr. Trueba. That is right. 

Mr. ]\Iorris. How about Myrtle Schoen? She is still in the plant? 

]\Ir. Trueba. Yes, but she does not hold any office in the union. 

JNIr. Morris. If she does, you will take some action ? 

Mr. Trueba. Definitely, unless she is to appear before the com- 
mittee. I would like to have it in the record that I hope the com- 
mittee does, as you pointed out, give these people the opportunity to 
appear to clear themselves, or state whatever position they take. 

Senator Hruska. That is our regular policy. They will be afforded 
the chance, if they want to take it. We shall encourage them to do it. 
Is the UE still active in competing Avith you for jurisdiction there? 

Mr. Trueba. The UE is virtually wiped out in our district, which is 
northern New Jersey and New York. I believe there is one shop in 
Jersey City, but it is practically extinct. 

Senator Hruska. But they have not worked with you in recent 
years in regard to your jurisdiction ? 

Mr. Trueba. No ; they haven't. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN" THE UNITED STATE'S 4553 

Mr. Morris. "Wliat is the practice of those people who have been 
identified as Communists, who have been leaders of the UE, but whose 
locals and districts have been absorbed by the lUE ? 

Mr. Trueba. Our international constitution prescribes that no one 
can be an officer who is a Communist or Fascist or follows the Com- 
munist line. I think the international's position would also be that 
anyone who would appear here and take the fifth amendment as an 
officer or representative of the international would be discharged. 

Senator Hruska. You say the UE had been fading out. Has that 
been a gradual practice in the last 6 or 7 years? 

Mr. Trueba. Yes ; it has. 

Senator Hruska. You mentioned one shop still existing. Where is 
that? 

Mr. Trueba. I am not sure. I think it was in Jersey City, in one 
of the Westinghouse plants. 

Senator Hruska. Is it a large local ? 

Mr. Trueba. No, and the company is in the process of moving the 
plant to Dover. 

Senator Hruska. Would that have the effect of wiping out that 
particular local ? 

Mr. Trueba. I think it will. 

Senator Hruska. There are no UE locals in Dover ? 

Mr. Trueba. No. 

Mr. Morris. I might point out that that does not solve the situa- 
tion as far as the subcommittee is concerned. We have the testimony 
of Mr. Wallace and other witnesses, together with Communist Party 
directives, that Communists in the UE have been ordered to get into 
the main part of the AFL-CIO, even at the risk of losing some of 
their leaders. 

Senator Hruska. Some of the testimony before this committee in- 
dicates that they have been successful in penetrating those ranks. 
The committee is well aware of that. However, having rid the body 
politic of the union of trade unions dominated at one time by the 
Communist Party line, that is an achievement in itself. I think we 
should pay some tribute to those loyal and patriotic people of your 
local, Mr. Trueba, and of the international, which I would like to 
recognize. 

As a committee, we want to recognize the good things and not have 
to get into those things that are not so good. 

Mr. Morris. We would like to thank Mr. Trueba for coming forward 
here today. 

Mr. Trueba. May I add one more thing? I know that the basic 
member in the local — it is my feeling that, in the 1949 strike, he was 
supporting it on a trade-union basis. We have had various strikes 
of various kinds. I have conducted them. It is a matter of negotia- 
tion. It is my own thinking that the member in the shop was sup- 
porting these strikes on a trade-union basis. Of course, in the light 
of the testimony of Mr. Wallace, I can see now that they were tied 
together. We had a trade-union issue and the Communist Party was 
using it to further their own ends in the union shop. 

I hope that the evil, which I think caused it all — sometimes I think 
the lack of interest on the part of the members, as Monsignor Heim- 
bach — incidentally, he has been very helpful to us — the lack of interest 



93215— 58— pt. 7S- 



4554 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

and enthusiasm on tlie part of the members has made it easy for this 
situation to exist. If the rank-and-file member paid a little more 
attention to the situation around him, I think the problem would be 
much smaller in taking care of the Communist element that may try 
to put their ideas across. 

Senator Hruska. Is there anything further, Judge Morris? 

Mr. Morris. No. I will give you a report as to what officials of the 
lUE can be here on Thursday. 

Senator Hruska. The meeting is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 10:55 a. m., the hearing adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 8, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee to Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
AND Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 15 a. m,, in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, re- 
search director ; and F. W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. Very vrell ; the committee will come to order. 

Judge Morris, who is the first witness ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Cole, would you take the stand ? 

Mr. Chairman, this is a continuation of the hearings the subcom- 
mittee has been holding on the Communist penetration into the main- 
stream of American laoor. 

Senator Hruska. The witness having been sworn, you may proceed 
with your questions. 

TESTIMONY OF ARCHER COLE, ROSELLE, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the re- 
porter ? 

Mr. Cole. Archer Cole, 814 Chestnut Street, Roselle, IST. J. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your business or profession, Mr. Cole? 

Mr. Cole, I am an organizer for local 485, lUE. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been an organizer for local 485 
of the lUE? 

Mr. Cole. Four months. 

Mr. Morris. Four months ? 

Mr. Cole. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. I see. Now, how long have you been with the lUE ? 

Mr. Cole. Since May 1956. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do between May 1956 and 4 months ago ? 

Mr. Cole. I was an international field representative for the lUE. 

Mr, Morris. "\Aniere did you work ? 

Mr, Cole. I worked in the New York-Newark area. 

Mr, Morris. Have you ever worked in Phillipsburg, N. J.? 

Mr. Cole. Phillipsburg, N. J.? Yes; I did, in 1954 and 1955. 

Mr. Morris. You were not with the lUE at that time ? 

Mr. Cole. I did work with the lUE in Phillipsburg in 1956. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born, Mr. Cole ? 

4555 



4556 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Cole. In New York City. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you first become active in the trade-union 
movement ? 

Mr. Cole. I guess it was around 1938, when I worked for Western 
Union. 

Mr. Morris. ^Yhat union were you associated with at that time ? 

Mr. Cole. The CIO union, American Communications Association. 

Mr. Morris. When did you leave the ACA ? 

Mr. Cole. At the time that I left the job. 

Mr. Morris. When was that ? 

Mr. Cole. Around 1940. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Cole, three witnesses have told the subcom- 
mittee that you have been active in the Communist Party. 

Do you know a man named William Wallace ? 

Mr. Cole. I know he testified here concerning the Singer strike 

Mr. Morris. He has testified specifically that you were a member of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. Cole. He made certain statements here about the strike which 
I would like to have a chance to clear the record on, because these 
statements were false in many, many respects. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now^, the question is, Mr. Cole : As Mr. Wallace 
testified, were you a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cole. Well, he testified here, as I read his transcript, that I was ; 
and I am going to assert my privilege not to testify against myself. 

I don't think it is within the province of this committee to ask me 
that question. 

However, I would like to have this opportunity to say that Mr. Wal- 
lace's statements in regard to the Singer strike and my role in it as 
triggering that strike in order to embarrass the Government and to 
affect national defense is entirely false. That was a trade-union strike, 
pure and simple, and my role was as a negotiator to attempt to settle 
it, and I have documentary proof that that was my role there. 

And it was the Singer Co. which prolonged the strike and which 
attempted to refuse, rather, to answer any" of the problems of the 
people during these negotiations. 

Mr. Morris. Were you attending Communist Party meetings that 
formulated plans for that strike ? 

Mr. Cole. Well, you see, that is a loaded question. 

Mr. Morris. No; it's not loaded. We have had testimony that you 
in fact attended Communist Party meetings at which plans were made 
to cause the strike. 

Mr. Cole. I say it was only one group which planned the strike, 
and that was the workers in that shop w^ho voted it, the executive board 
which posed the vote to the people. They were the only ones that 
planned that strike. 

Mr. Morris. I submit. Senator, that the question has not been an- 
swered. 

Senator Hruska. The chairman agrees that the question has not 
been answered. 

Did you attend Communist Party meetings at which plans were 
made to bring about the Singer Sewing Machine strike ? 

Mr. Cole. I am going to assert my privilege here. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4557 

However, I wanted to say that the only ones that planned the strike 
were the workers and the union in that strike, and that this was a result 
of many grievances of these people which had accumulated for years 
and which the record will show from newspapers and from every other 
union record available in the CIO that that was an economic strike and 
it received the support of the entire labor movement. 

I might say that, on the second day of that strike, the company sent 
out Christmas greetings to the workers. I want to repeat that. Sen- 
ator : On the second day of the strike the company on May 2 — I have 
the article here, I would like to give it to you — the company sent out 
Christmas greetings saying they would never negotiate the issues in 
this strike and that they would be out until Christmas rather than 
negotiate around the issues of that strike. 

I think it is the Singer Co. that should be indicted for prolonging 
that strike and not honest union officials that tried to settle it. 

I made a statement in New York, which the New York News has — 
and I have it here, again— in which I would have called for arbitration 
of the strike the day before it began, arbitration of the key issue of the 
strike — the incentive problem. 

So that this testimony here that this was some plot to embarrass the 
United States Government and national defense and that the workers 
were perfectly happy with their incentive system is not true, because 
in the middle of the strike, after 14 weeks, the Government conducted 
an election in this strike and all the issues were known and the workers 
voted by almost 2,000 votes to remain out on strike with their bargain- 
ing agent. The vote was 4,000 to 2,400. I know there was testimony 
here that we won by 200 votes. 

I want to make it clear that there was no plot here other than a 
trade-union strike, legitimate grievances of workers which had to be 
rectified. 

Mr. Morris. You will not tell us about what transpired at the 
Communist Party meetings where we have evidence that there was a 
plan drawn up for a strike ? 

Mr. Cole. I am not going to testify in this respect against myself, 
and I say there was no other plans, to my knowledge, other than the 
trade union in regard to the Singer strike, of longstanding griev- 
ances of the people. 

Senator Hruska. Are you familiar with the organization known 
as the Singer Club of the Singer Co. ? 

Mr. Cole. I will use my privilege not to testify here against my- 
self. 

Senator Hruska. Were you ever a member of the Singer Club of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Cole. The answer is the same, sir. 

Senator Hruska. There was testimony given to this committee 
that you were chairman of that Singer Club and very active in its 
affairs and that it took a part in the plans of that Singer strike and 
in some of the bases for negotiations of the Singer strike. 

Were you so active in that Singer Club for those purposes? 

Mr. Cole. I assert my same privilege and I say that the only 
plans that were discussed, as far as I know, for the running of that 
strike was in the trade union. 



4558 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. Well, the Chair would like to observe there 
certainly has been a difference of opinion in this regard. There is 
positive and affirmative testimony the other way and, of course, as 
long as you assert your fifth-amendment privileges against self- 
incrimination, we are going to observe them and comply with them. 

Mr. Cole. Well Senator, isn't the history of that strike important 
for this committee to learn? Because certain untrue allegations 
were made — the plant was not on defense. 

Senator Hruska. The chairman would like to call the attention of 
the witness to the fact that William Wallace was under oath when 
he testified, and you are under oath. 

Mr. Cole. I understand that. 

Senator Hruska. There appears to be a conflict of evidence; but 
that doesn't mean that your evidence, particularly when you won't 
give us the whole story, that your evidence is necessarily the evi- 
dence that will be accepted by this committee as true. 

Mr. Cole. I understand that. But I think in regard to the pub- 
lic, you see, so many newspaper headlines were made that we were 
using this strike for a guinea pig and not one person has yet come 
forward about the strike. 

Senator Hruska. We are trying to get the truth. We are asking 
you questions; we give you your opportunity now to disclose what 
you consider the truth so that we can get at the truth. 

Mr. Cole. That is what I am trying to do, under difficult circum- 
stances. 

Senator Hruska. We Understand they are difficult, but they are 
difficulties not of our making. 

Mr. Cole. I will say this : That in order to avert the strike, we called 
on the mayor of Elizabeth 2 days prior to the strike and sat in his 
office for 22 hours prior to the strike and the company attorney said — 
and I am quoting what he said at that time — the mayor hit the 
ceiling 

Mr. Rossmoore. Just a minute, Mr. Cole. 

I am William Rossmoore, 60 Park Place, Newark, N. J., and I am 
counsel for Mr. Cole. 

Senator, I request that the newspapermen either take Mr. Cole's 
picture before or after he gives his testimony. I don't think his 
testimony should be interrupted. 

Senator Hruska. Your request will be granted and the photogra- 
phers will act accordingly. They will be given a chance to take their 
pictures after the testimony has been given. 

Mr. Cole. The company attorney said, "We are going to teach these 
workers a lesson." Not the union, mind you, but the workers, because 
they said their grievances were frivolous and yet those workers stayed 
out for that length of time in order to try to solve them and voted in 
the middle of the strike to continue it despite all these charges hurled 
at the union that it was, as the company said, a Communist plot to 
embarrass the Government and interfere with national defense, and I 
wonder when I hear that reiteration here, that it is Communist propa- 
ganda, pure and simple, because they refused to meet fact to face with 
the union for 4 months during that strike, and 

Mr. Morris. Excuse me, Mr. Cole. I submit at this time, Senator, 
when the witness is denying, it seems to me when the witness is de- 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY UST THE UNITED STATES 4559 

nying that it was Communist propao:anda to do a certain thing and 
at the same time refuses to answer questions by claiming his privilege 
under the fifth amendment, that it may well be that he is waiving his 
privilege there, and maybe we can ask him 

Mr. Cole. You missed the point. I said the company stated in their 
letters that was a Communist plot and I say that that was disproven 
by the vote the people took. The people had a chance to determine 
whether they wanted to remain on strike after 14 months on strike, 
and they voted to remain out by 2,000. 

Senator Hruska. The chairman would like to observe that by being 
given what amounts to an expurgated set of facts here by reason of 
your assertion of privilege in certain areas, it is difficult to judge very 
charitably the balance of the testimony which you are giving. 

I understand your situation and your difficulties, but again I want to 
say that those difficulties are not of our making. 

I would like to suggest. Judge Morris, that you ask further ques- 
tions, if you will, and we will try to get responsive answers if we can. 
We have gone far enough along this line. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever discuss this strike with Martha Stone, 
Communist Party organizer? 

Mr. Cole. I am going to assert my privilege here. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, we have had testimony from Ernest Charles 
Moyer on March 29, 1955, that the witness here was a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Do you know Ernest Charles Moyer ? 

Mr. Cole. I knew him, yes. 

Mr. Morris. He testified that you were active in the Communist 
Party around Phillipsburg, N. J. Was that accurate testimony? 

Mr. Cole. If I recall his testimony, sir, I don't think he said that. 
I think he said — he was asked in that hearing whether he knew me 
and he said he did and whether he thought I was a Communist and he 
said yes. He said he hadn't been at any meetings with me nor had 
he ever discussed the question with me. That was the testimony I 
read, at least. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, so that the testimony itself is in the record. 
Subcommittee Counsel Arens asked, "And is he a person — " — speaking 
of Cole — "who to your certain knowledge was a member of the Com- 
munist Party?" Mr. Moyer said, "Yes, sir." And Mr. Sourwine, 
counsel, said, "Now, describe Archer Cole." The answer was, "He is 
5 feet 8, dark complected, weight 140 pounds." 

"When did you last see him?" 

"About a month ago." 

"How did you know Archer Cole was a Communist?" 

"Because Walter Barry told me he was." 

Were you in fact a Communist ? 

Mr. Cole. I assert my privilege here. 

Mr. Morris. The testimony, Mr. Chairman, of Louis Schumann this 
past week, was that Mr. Cole was a member of the Commmiist Party 
and he knew you as a member of the Communist Party and worked 
with you. That was his testimony. 

Mr. Cole. I assert my privilege here. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Schumann further testified that after you had been 
served a subpena and after a subpena had been sent out to Mr. Schu- 



4560 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

mann but before it was served upon him that you called upon Mr. 
Schumann and asked him if he had in fact gotten a lawyer. 

Was that accurate testimony ? 

Mr. Cole. I would like to describe the circumstances of that. 

Senator Hruska. You may proceed. 

Mr. Cole. Mr. Schumann is my neighbor that lives about a mile 
away. I was served late Saturday afternoon, and I think it was Sun- 
day morning and I went over to his house and told him I had been 
served, and since we had been named just 2 days before, I said I was 
going to Newark the next day to seek counsel and did he need counsel. 
That was the nature of our discussion. He said at that point that 
he didn't believe he would want it and about 2 minutes later I left. 

Senator Hruska. Is that the full extent of the conversation be- 
tween you two ? 

Mr. Cole. In addition to that, he stated that he was going to testify 
freely. I said — I think he asked me about myself. I said, as for my- 
self, I didn't feel that I would get involved here because of certain 
of the allegations made here. 

Senator Hruska. Now, you are saying, Mr. Cole, that you joined 
local 485 in May 1956. Of what labor local were you a member 
prior to that time? 

Mr. Cole. I testified I joined lUE May 1956, and before that I 
was a member of United Electrical Radio and Machine Workers of 
America. 

Senator Hruska. And in what capacity were you active with them ? 

Mr. Cole. International representative. 

Senator Hruska. Have you any further questions, Judge Morris? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Senator, I have. Were you a Communist, Mr. 
Cole, when you were a member of the ACA, American Communica- 
tions Association ? 

Mr. Cole. I assert my privileges here. 

Mr. Morris. One more question. May I ask you if you are now a 
Communist, Mr. Cole ? 

Mr. Cole. I assert my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions of the witness. Senator, 

Senator Hruska. Very well, the witness is excused. 

Mr. Morris. We will now have Mr. Cameron testify. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Cameron, will you be seated, please? 

The witness having been already sworn, Judge Morris, you may pro- 
ceed with the questions. 

(The testimony of Mr. Cameron follows :) 

TESTIMONY OF CLIFTON CAMERON, BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Cameron, will you give your name and address 
to the reporter ? 

Mr. Cameron. I am sorry, I didn't hear you. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please ? 

Mr. Cameron. My name is Clifton Cameron. My address is 1110 
Carroll Street— 2 r's and 2 I's in that— Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Cameron. I am the business manager of local 485 of the 
IUE,CIO-A.F.ofL. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN" THE UNITED STATES 4561 

Mr. Morris. Are you represented by counsel today ? 

Mr. Fraenkel. Yes, sir; Osmond K. Fraenkel, 120 Broadway, 
New York. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Cameron, what is local 485 ? 

Mr. Cameron. It is a local that is composed of some eighty-odd 
shops in the Brooklyn area, and its office is at 160 Montague Street. 
It is the local whose members appeared before the jNIcClellan com- 
mittee last Friday and has been very active in lighting against gang- 
sterism and corruption. 

As a matter of fact, we have liberated about 11 racket-ridden shops 
from the racketeers, involving some 500 workers. 

Mr. Morris. How may members are there in your miion ? 

Mr. Cameron. Approximately 4,250. 

Mr. Morris. Is Mr. Charles Fay the president of that local? 

Mr. Cameron. Yes, sir ; he is. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Cameron, have you been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. I am not a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, I submit that that answer is not re- 
sponsive to the question. 

Senator Hruska. The answer was not responsive. You may ask 
the question again. 

]Mr. JSIoRRis. Mr. Cameron, have you been a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. I assert my privileges against self-incrimination 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended meetings of the Communist Party 
at any time? 

Mr. Cameron. Judge Morris, I am prepared to answer any and all 
questions about my activities since I have become a member of the 
lUE, Local 485, since May 17, 1956 ; and I would assert my privileges 
on my activities prior to that time. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony, Mr. Cameron, that you are going 
to say that you were not a member of the Communist Party on May 
18,1956? 

Mr. Cameron. That is true, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How about May 16, 1956, the day before you joined 
thelUE? 

Mr. Cameron, I would assert my privileges on my activities prior 
to May 17, 1956. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what happened vis-a-vis you and the Communist 
Party on May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. Cameron. I didn't understand the question. 

Mr. Morris. What happened between you and the Communist Party 
in 1956 to cause you to answer the two questions as you have just 
answered them? 

Mr. Cameron. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment on 
that question. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. The reason, Senator, I ask that question is that very 
often, in order to decide the precise nature of the Communist Party, 
we have to know the circumstances suirounding a person's defection 
from the Communist Party, if there is a defection. 

Speaking purely hypothetically, I don't want to be unfair. Counsel, 
but very often we have a situation where for certain tactical reasons 



4562 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE ■UNITED STATES 

a person can effect a resignation from the Communist Party, and in 
order to really determine whether or not these defections are genuine, 
we feel we should know the circumstances surrounding the departure. 

Mr. Schumann was very direct and candid when he told us about his 
defection from the party, and we were able to form our ow^n judgment 
on that. 

That is why it is important that we know, Mr. Cameron and counsel, 
of the circumstances of a person's defection from the Communist 
Party if there has been a defection. 

Mr. Fraenkel. May I be allowed to say something? 

Senator Hruska. Surely. 

Mr. Fraenkel. Where a witness admits prior membership in the 
party, claims that he severed it; it is, of course, appropriate to find 
out the circumstances under which he severed, to test his good faith 
in his contentions and so on. 

I just had an interesting case that has been all the way up to the 
court of appeals in New York, of a college teacher being reinstated 
because the court found he had severed in good faith. 

But where a witness asserts privilege under self-incrimination with 
respect to Commmiist Party membei-ship at some time, he cannot an- 
swer the question which has just been put because that would be a 
denial of his claim of privilege by constituting admission that he was 
at one time a member of the Communist Party. 

Therefore, it seems to me that the statement by the witness that he 
claimed his privilege is perfectly logical and is the only answer which 
he can make in view of the position which he has previously taken. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, may I get back to the question that I think 
caused Mr. Cameron to answer and counsel to intervene ? 

The question was. Have you attended in the past meetings of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Have you attended Communist Party meetings with 
Charles Fay, the president of local 485? 

Mr. Cameron. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment, 
sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the Daily Worker of June 2, 1935, page 8, lists 
you as a speaker at a forum sponsored in New York by the New York 
Peace Council of the American Peace Crusade, which is an organiza- 
tion that has been recently declared to be a subversive organization by 
the Subversive Activities Control Board. 

Did you in fact speak at this New York rally of the American Peace 
Crusade, on presumably June 2, 1935 ? 

Mr. Cameron. I assert my privilege and decline to answer — my 
privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the Daily Worker of January 3, 1952, page 6, 
lists you as a speaker at a labor symposium on "We Charge Genocide," 
sponsored by the trade union committee. 

Did you in fact speak at that labor meeting described in the Daily 
Worker ? 

Mr. Cameron. My answer is the same, sir. 

Mr. Morris. The Daily Worker of January 15, 1952, reported that 
you participated in a freedom of the press rally. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4563 

Mr. Mandel, will you explain what the freedom of the press rally is ? 

Mr. Mandel. That name was given to rallies for the support of the 
Daily Worker, the Communist paper. 

Mr. Cameron. I decline to answer. 

Mr. MoRias. Have you contributed articles to the March of Labor ? 

Mr. Cameron. I decline to answer that question, sir, for the same 
reason. 

Mr. Morris. Have you participated in a meeting of the Brooklyn 
Citizens Committee Against the Mundt Bill? 

Mr. Cameron. I decline to answer that question for the same reason, 
sir. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a speaker at the rallies under the auspices 
of the American Labor Party in the 1950's ? 

Mr. Cameron. I decline to answer that question for the same reason, 
sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Martha Stone ? 

Mr. Cameron. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Cameron, with what labor organization were 
you affiliated prior to May 17, 1956 ? 

Mr. Cameron. Local 475 of the United Electrical Workers, Inde- 
pendent. 

Senator Hruska. And in what capacity were you engaged by them ? 

Mr. Cameron. Business manager. 

Senator Hruska. And for how long ? 

Mr. Cameron. Since from about the middle of 1946, June or July 
of 1946. 

Senator Hruska. Wlien did you first become active in the trade- 
union movement and where ? 

Mr. Cameron. In Bayonne, N. J., I first became active in the same 
union, the United Electrical Workers. I think the local number was 
439, but I am not sure of that now. It later became 427. 

Senator Hruska. To your knowledge, are any of the members of 
local 485 members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. I have seen no evidence, none has been called to my 
attention, of any Communist activity in the local and therefore I 
must assume there are no Communists in the local. 

Senator Hruska. To your knowledge are there any members of 
local 485 who are Communist Party members ? 

Mr. Cameron. I don't have any knowledge of it. 

Senator Hruska. To your knowledge were any members of the local 
of the UEW with which you were active prior to 1956, members of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment on 
that. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. To your knowledge have any of the members of 
local 485 attended Communist meetings and otherwise evidenced an 
interest in the activities of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. As members of local 485, 1 have no knowledge of it. 

Senator Hruska. I will ask that same question with reference to the 
members of the UE local with which you were affiliated and active in 
at one time. 

Mr. Cameron. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment, 
Senator. 



4564 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hkuska. Mr. Morris, have you any further questions ? 

Mr. Morris. No. 

Mr. Cameron. Judge JMorris, could I have a chance to say some- 
thing — I'm sorry — Senator ? 

Senator Hruska. Concerning what ? 

Mr. Cameron. You talked about some of my activities in local 485. 
I don't want to make a long statement; 1 just have a couple things 1 
want to sav that I have been doing. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

Mr. Cameron. Because I am very proud of the record our local has 
built up. 

We were one of the first locals to wade into the racketeers in New 
York. At one time I was very badly beaten in a fight in the Bronx. 
The New York Post carried stories of it, and it was in two shops in 
our local that Jolmny Dio, who I understand is going to appear before 
the McClellan committee today, came to a head-on collision and he 
couldn't break us there. 

I was under subpena as a State's witness and testified before the 
grand jury. Our local has been extremely active in community 
activities. 

I personally was given an award from the Urban League and we 
have been given an award by the NAACP for our activities. 

We have been conmiended by the Association of the Catholic Trade 
Unionists for our activities. 

As a matter of fact, we have cooperated with them when they 
testified before the McClellan committee. 

I thought it was important to put some of these things on the 
record as positive evidence of our activities to try to meet the obliga- 
tions of our union, the lUE, which I regard as a very fine union, and 
our obligations to adhere scrupulously to its constitution and program 
and policy. 

Senator HjtusKA. xVnd in connection with fighting these rackets 
within your union, have you made affirmative efforts to search them 
out and track them down in their activities? 

Mr. Cameron. Yes, sir; yes, sir. As a matter of fact, if I might 
for just a moment here— Senator, this is the record of Friday's hearing, 
a portion of it, before the McClellan committee. 

For example — I will have to put my glasses on, I don't see too 
good — I just wanted to say, for example, in a shop called Century 
Enterprises in the Bronx, which was a local of the Allied Industrial 
Workers, which was reputed to be a local of the Allied Industrial 
Workers, we want after that shop and the workers were referred to us, 
as testified to at the McClellan committee, by the Association of 
Catholic Trade Unionists; and in the election that was finally held 
under the auspices of the National Labor Relations Board, our local 
got 106 votes, there was 1 vote for no union, and the Allied Industrial 
Workers got no votes. 

Senator Hruska. Why did you become interested in this racket 
business within the union? 

Mr. Cameron. I am sure. Senator, that any employer whom we 
have relations with can be prepared to testify that we are very hard 
bargainers but scrupulously honest. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNTTED STATES 4565 

Senator Hruska. What occasioned yonr inquiry into the rackets? 

Mr. Cameron. I will tell you what occasioned 

Senator Hruska. Was some evidence of racketeering brought to 
your attention? 

Mr. Camerox. I will tell you what occasioned us into that. In this 
King's Electroplating, the shop where the employer was supposed to 
have paid $10,000 to Dio, it was our shop and he was trying to get 
rid of us. We struck the shop to fight off the racketeers. 

And then another occasion, where the employer wanted to make 
another move in the shop in the Bronx, and we struck that shop in 
order to protect our contract and the bargaining rights for our workers. 
That was the shop where I got beaten up pretty badly. I had my 
head cut open and one eye closed up ; one of my associates got a number 
of ribs broken. 

Our local has a great majority of Spanish-speaking workers, and as 
you know, many of these Spanish-speaking workers were under mem- 
bers in these rackets and they have come to us and asked us to help 
out our friends, their relatives and friends in these places. 

It has been a combination of these things that make us do this. We 
have had, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 shops involving over 500 workers where 
we have taken on racketeers in the past few months and these are all 
the press releases for them. 

Senator Hruska. Well, now, it is assumed, from your testimony 
here, that you felt that the activities which you describe were harmful 
to your union and to trade unionism as such, and therefore you pro- 
ceeded to deal with them and expose them the best way you knew how. 

Have you made similar effort into inquiries of Communists or sub- 
versives in any way who might be active in the same direction with the 
same goals in mind of inflicting harm upon your union and using it 
for purposes which are ulterior or unpatriotic or dishonest? 

Have you made any similar inquiry or check into those things ? 

Mr. Cameron. In my local. Senator, I know of no such activities. 

Senator Hruska. Have you made inquiry as to any activities of 
that kind or any alliances or any memberships of that nature of any 
of the members of your union who might be so minded ? 

Mr. Cameron. It is understood in our union local that we must 
adhere and are adhering willinging, vigorously, to the constitution of 
the lUE, which has an anti-Communist clause in it. 

Senator Hruska. We understand that ; and yet the number is legion 
of trade unions in which there have been Communists and whose con- 
stitutional language is just as glorious as yours in phraseology. The 
Communists glory in the constitution whenever it is to their advan- 
tage to do so — even if it is the Federal Constitution. 

That is still not an answer, and I would like to know. Have you 
made an affirmative and vigorous inquiry into subversion and com- 
munism within your union as you have with racketeers and hoodlums ? 

Mr. Cameron. The point I want to make clear. Senator, is there 
were no racketeers in our union. It was things that were brought to 
us, and there has been nothing brought to my attention of any sub- 
versive activity. 

Senator Hruska. There has been testimony before this committee 
that certain of the members in local 485 have been, in the past, active 
in the Communist Party ; that they have been members of the Com- 



4566 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

munist Party ; and that has surely come to your attention, has it not, 
Mr. Witness, through the press and through the testimony given be- 
fore this committee ? 

Mr. Cameron. Some of the testimony has come to my attention that 
has been given to the committee. 

Senator Hruska, Haveyouconcernedyourself withit at all? Have 
you made any inquiry about it? Have you made any similar effort 
in that line as you have with these rackets which have threatened 
your union, or don't you consider it that important? 

Mr. Cameron. I consider being patriotic in fighting against sub- 
version as important as anything else. 

Senator Hruska. But not to the extent of making a search or in- 
quiry into it, although these have been called to your attention ; is that 
what you want to tell the committee ? 

Mr. Cameron. No, sir, Senator. To my knowledge, in our local 
union, there's been absolutely no evidence of that brought to our at- 
tention, my attention. 

Senator Hruska. What about these persons to whom your atten- 
tion has been directed because of testimony before this committee? 
The testimony of William Wallace, for example. Did that concern 
you ; did that bother you any ? Did you consider that your patriotism 
stopped at the time that William Wallace and others have disclosed 
that these people who were once active in the Communist Party are 
now members of local 485 ? 

Mr. Cameron. I must say that in local 485, to my knowledge, there 
is no evidence of any kind of activity such as you i-efer to here. 

Senator Hruska. Is there any member of local 485 who is presently 
a member or who was active in the Communist Party in recent years, 
to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Cameron. I must assert my privilege on that. 

Senator Hruska. What about the last witness who testified in this 
committee room just prior to you and during which time you were 
present here ? What about Archer Cole ? 

Mr. Cameron. During the period that Archer Cole has been a 
member of our local, he has adhered to its constitution and carried 
out its policy and program, which is consistent with that of our inter- 
national union in every iota, so far as I know. 

Senator Hruska. Did you know he had been active in the Com- 
munist Party in some of his affairs and some of its doings ? 

Mr. Cameron. I must assert my privilege on that question, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Did you make inquiry of him since that time 
and since he joined the local 485 in May 1956 as to whether or not 
he has discontinued his activity in the Communist Party and dis- 
affiliated himself with it? 

Mr. Cameron. In connection with that, my job. Senator, is to see 
that the members of the organization's staff' of our union carry out 
the program and policy of the union. That is my job, and Archer 
Cole is so doing and he is bound by the constitution to carry this 
program and policy out. 

Senator Hruska. The chairman is aware that you are, apparently, 
trying to do a good job. But I don't like the inference, Mr, Witness, 
that you are trying to do a good job with reference to hoodlums and 
racketeers that might be threatening your union and yet you shut 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4567 

your eyes so completely and are indifferent to other threats which 
face you and your country and, apparently, do nothing about it, and, 
if you have done something about it, what is it you have done? 

Mr. Cameron. Let me say one of the very best guaranties, I believe, 
in any local union that no organization or no group will influence 
is to have tlie membership run the union, and, as a matter of fact, 
we have established a policy in our local union which, I think, is 
one that is really dedicated* to the guaranty that the membership 
participates in the union. "We have established a rule that each shop 
must meet each month; each shop must meet each month so there 
is an opportunity for the worker to make the decisions. 

Our contracts are required to be accepted only by vote by the 
membership. Our strikes can only be called by votes of the mem- 
bership. So, there is no chance for anybody to exert any influence 
over the membership other than the members themselves. 

Senator Hruska. I think that is commendable; it is laudable; it 
is very fine. But have you made any effort to inquire as to the 
present affiliations of local 485 members Avith the Communist Party 
in instances where they have been known to be active in Communist 
Party affairs prior to their becoming members of the local 485 ? 

jNIr. Cameron". I will say again. Senator, that, to my knowledge, 
there is no activity of such kind in the local and 

Senator Hruska. I am not talking about activity. I am talking 
about people who were at one time active in the Communist Party 
and who are now members of local 485. 

Mr. Cameron. Do I know any such people ? 

Senator Hruska. Do you know any present members of local 485 
who in the past have been active in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. I must assert my privilege on that question. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. That is very revealing to the chairman, and I am 
sure the record will speak for itself as to others. 

Now, Mr. Witness, Fred Gardner, who has stated 

Mr. Morris. Pardon me. Senator. 

Mr. Cameron, do you know Fred Gardner? 

Mr. Cameron, I am not sure whether I do or not. I think he was 
an international representative of the UE, but I am not sure. 

Senator Hruska. Now, Mr. Witness, Fred Gardner said that you 
were business agent of the old local 75 in the UE and that you were 
a very dedicated member of the Communist Party and often on top 
policymaking groups. What comment would you have on that state- 
ment by Fred Gardner ? 

Mr. Cameron. I would decline to answer, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Are you aware that Archer Cole at one time was 
active in the affairs of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Cameron. I decline to answer that question, based on my priv- 
ileges of self incrimination of the fifth amendment. 

Senator Hruska. The Chair would just like to observe that it is 
very fine for witnesses to come before this committee and parade 
their virtues of fighting some vice or other and danger to their coun- 
try and then show by their refusal to answer pertinent questions that 
they are completely indifferent to the existence of another clear and 
present danger with which they don't concern themselves whatso- 
ever. 



4568 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Have you other questions, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. I would suggest one way, which you started, Senator, 
for Mr. Cameron to have ascertained whether there were any Com- 
munists still in 485 was to ask a man like Archer Cole, who, accord- 
ing to three witnesses, at least, who have testified, was in the party. 

Senator Hruska. The witness has already made clear he has no 
interest and has not interested himself in the slightest with that type 
of danger. He is apparently selective in his choosing danger, and 
he has made clear that he has not bothered about asking anybocly, 
regardless of his background. 

Unless the witness has something to connnent upon, I don't know 
that there is any further progress we can make in that direction. 

Mr. Morris. I think the record should show, Senator, that we asked 
the witness to testify back in May or June, several months ago, did 
we not ? 

Mr. Cameron. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. And the subcommittee has given you several adjourn- 
ments for various reasons, some at your request and some at the request 
of outside forces and some at the request of your attorney. You have 
had three adjournments. 

Mr. Camerox. I think the record will show I have only two. I first 
got the subpena and called you and told you I didn't have an attorney, 
and you gave me an adjournment, and I engaged Mr. Fraenkel as my 
attorney. 

The second subpena was the same day or period of time that I had 
a subpena also from the district attorney as a State's witness in the 
Dio trial. 

Mr. Morris. That is the second adjournment. 

Mr. Cameron. That is all I have had. 

Mr. Morris. I think we have one more. 

Mr. Cameron. They were both simultaneous. Mr. Fraenkel was 
on vacation. 

Mr. Fraenkel. Mr. Cameron is right. The occasion when he, 
through the district attorney, obtained an adjournment was the same 
occasion that I asked for an adjournment for Mr. Fay because I was 
away in Vermont. 

Mr. Morris. I want the record to show. Senator, that we have been 
very patient in asking these lUE local officials to testify. Mr. Cole, 
I think, has been subpenaed for — how long, about 3 weeks ? 

Mr. Cole. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How long ? 

Mr. Cole. Exactly 10 days; and we had 1 postponement, exactly 
1 postponement. 

_ Mr. Fraenkel. No one has complained to me that it was incon- 
siderate. 

Mr. Cameron. I want the record to show that I went to the State's 
district attorney because I couldn't be in both places at the same time. 
I suggested he ought to talk to you. 

Senator Hruska. That was one of the occasions for postponement. 

Mr. Cameron. Yes. That was when I first called. 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. I have nothing further. Senator. 

We have more subpenas here. It has been suggested to us that we 
allow some of the local officials of this lUE a little time to talk to the 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UlSnTED STATES 4569 

international officers in the hope that they may be more responsive 
to questions. 

We had a hearing scheduled for next Tuesday, and I have taken the 
liberty to extend that further along, just in the hope that their answers 
might be more productive. 

Senator Hruska. And not have the hearing on Tuesday ? 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. We have scheduled a hearing on the Singer strike for 
that day and given the witnesses who would have appeared that day 
additional time. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. If there is nothing further, the com- 
mittee is in adjournment. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 03 a. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaclies no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

ACA. {See American Communications Association.) 

AFL-CIO. (See American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial 

Ori^anizations. ) ^^^^ 

Allied Industrial Workers 4564 

American Communications Association (ACA) 4556, 4560 

American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations 

AFL-CIO) 4541, 4542, 4546, 4547, 4553, 4560 

American Labor Party 4563 

American Peace Crusade 4562 

Arens, subcommittee counsel 4559 

Association of the Catholic Trade Unionists 4564 

B 

Barry, Walter 4545, 4547, 4549, 4559 

International representative of UE 4545 

Bayonne, N. J 4563 

Brennan, Robert 4542, 4544 

President of shop local 4544 

Bronx 4564, 4565 

Brooklyn, N. Y 4547, 4560, 4561 

Brooklyn Citizens Committee Against the Mundt Bill 4563 

Butterfield, Norval 4544 

C 

Cameron, Clifton 4547, 4560-4569 

Testimony of 4560-4569 

1110 Carroll Street, Brooklyn, N. Y 4560 

Business manager of Local 485, lUE 4547, 4560 

Osmond K. Fraenkel, counsel 4561 

Not presently member of Communist Party 4561 

Fifth amendment re ever Communist 4561 

Member of lUE, Local 485, since May 17, 1956 4561 

Fifth amendment re attending party meetings 4562 

Fifth amendment re speaker at New York rally of American Peace 

Crusade 4562 

Fifth amendment re speaker at labor symposium 4562 

Fifth amendment re participation in freedom of press rally 4563 

Fifth amendment re contributor to March of Labor 4563 

Fifth amendment re participating in meeting of Brooklyn Citizens 

Committee Against the Mundt Bill 4563 

Fifth amendment re speaker under auspices of American Labor Party. 4563 

Fifth amendment re Martha Stone 4563 

Affiliated with Local 475 of UEW 4563 

Fifth amendment re Archer Cole 4566 

Carey, Mr 4546 

Head of lUE 4546 



n INDEX 

Page 

Cascone, Anthony 4544 

Century Enterprises 4564 

Christmas greetings 4557 

CIO. (See Congress of Industrial Oi'ganizations.) 

Ciurczalf, Helen 4545, 4548 

Cohen, Sylvia 4546 

Clerk in office of District 4, lUE, AFL-CIO 4546 

Cole, Archer 4545-4547, 4555-4560, 4566-4568 

Testimony of 4555-4560 

814 Chestnut Street, Roselle, N. J 4555 

Organizer for Local 485, lUE 4546, 4555 

Been with lUB since May 1956 4555,' 4560 

Prior to 4 months ago international field representative for lUE 4555 

1954 and 1955 worked in Phillipsburg, N. J 4555 

Boni in New York City 4556 

Around 1938 worked for Western Union 4556 

Left ACA around 1940 4556 

Fifth amendment re Communist Party 4556, 4559, 4560 

Fifth amendment re Singer Club 4556 

William Rossmore, counsel 4558 

Communist 4541. 

4543-4546, 4548,4550-4555, 4558-4560, 4562, 4563, 4565, 4568 

Communist Party 4541-4548, 

4550, 4551, 4553, 4556, 4557, 4559, 4561-4563, 4565^568 

History of (book) 4548 

School 4548 

Singer Sewing Machine Club 4541-4544, 4547-4549, 4557 

Communist paper — Daily Worker 4563 

Communist propaganda 4559 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 4551, 4556, 4557, 4560 

D 

Daily Worker 4562, 4563 

Dio, Johnny 4564, 4565 

Dio trial 4568 

Dover 4553 

E 

Elizabeth, N. J 4542, 4547, 4558 

Ensel. Mr. Robert 4548 

Organizer for Communist Party 4548 

F 
Fascist 4553 

Fay, Charles 4561, 4562, 4568 

President of Local 485, lUE 4561 

FBI. (See Federal Bureau of Investigation.) 

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 4543, 4546 

Federal Constitution 4565 

Fifth amendment 4552, 4553, 4556-4563, 4566, 4567 

Fraenkel, Osmond K 4561, 4568 

120 Broadway, New York 4561 

Attorney for Clifton Cameron 4561 

Freedom of the press rally 4562 

G 

Gardner, Fred 4567 

International representative of UE 4567 

H 

Heimbach, Monsignor 4553 

History of the Communist Party (book) 4548 

House Un-American Activities Committee 4552 

Hruska, Senator Roman L 4541 



INDEX m 

I 

Page 
lUE (International Union of Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of 

America) 4542, 

4546, 4547, 4549, 4551, 4553^555, 4560-4562, 4564-1568 

District 4 4547 

Local 301 4547 

Local 401 4549 

Local 431 4547 

Local 451 4547 

Local 461 4549, 4551 

Local 475 4547 

Local 485 4546, 4547, 4555, 4560-4562, 4564-4568 

Local 1227 4547 

lUE constitution, anti-Communist clause 4565 

J 
Jersey City 4547, 4552, 4553 

K 

King's Electroplating 4565 

L 

Labor symposium on We Charge Genocide, sponsored by trade union 

committee 4562 

Linden, N. J 4541 

Lipari, Al 4545, 4552 

Was carpenter in Singer plant 4545 

Union president 4552 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 4541, 4555 

March of Labor (publication) 4563 

Mayor of Elizabeth 4558 

McClellan committee 4561, 4564 

McLeish, James 4547, 4549 

Official in New Jersey 4547 

President of district 4 4549 

Monsignor Heimbach 4553 

Morris, Robert 4541 

Moyer, Ernest Charles 4559 

Mundt bill 4563 

N 

NAACP 4564 

National Labor Relations Board 4564 

Negro leadership 4547 

Newark, N. J 4546, 4547, 4560 

New Jersey 4547 

Northern 4552 

New York 4546, 4552, 4557, 4562, 4564 

New York-Newark area 4555 

New York News 4557 

New York Peace Council of the American Peace Crusade 4562 

New York Post 4564 

P 

Payne, Archibald H., Ill 4544 

Phillipsburg, N. J 4555, 4559 

Poleschuk, Walter 4544, 4547, 4552 

R 

Rodrigues, Anthony 4542, 4543, 4547 

Roselle, N. J 4551, 4555 

Rossmoore, William 4558 

60 Park Place, Newark, N. J 4558 

Counsel for Archer Cole 4558 



IV INDEX 

S Page 

Schoen, Myrtle 4545, 4552 

Clerk in Singer plant 4545 

Schroeder, F. W 4541 

Schumau, Louis 4541-4552, 4559, 4560, 4562 

Testimony of 4541-4551 

710 Chandler Avenue, Linden, N. J 4541 

Bench worker. Singer Manufacturing Co 4542 

Born in Elizabeth, N. J 4542 

Member, Singer Sewing Machine Club of the Communist Party 4542 

1948, joined Communist Party 4542 

Until July 1949 remained active in Communist Party 4542 

1952, final break from Communist Party 4543 

Early 1957, complete statement to FBI 4543 

Business of agent of Local 401, UE 4549 

Singer Sewing Machine Club of Communist Party 4541-4549, 4557 

Singer Sewing Machine Co 4542, 4544, 4545, 4547, 4551, 4552, 4556, 4557 

Organized in 1948 or 1944 by UERMW 4542 

Now lUE which is AFL-CIO union 4542 

Singer strike 4556-4559, 4569 

Sourwine, Mr 4559 

Spanish-speaking workers 4565 

Stavis, Mr 4546 

Sterling, N. J 4547 

Stone, Martha 4546, 4549, 4559, 4563 

Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) 4562 

T 

Taft-Hartley affidavits 4542, 4550 

Trade union committee 4562 

Trueba, Samuel D 4551-4554 

Testimony of 4551-4554 

225 Linden Road, Roselle 4551 

President of Local 461, lUE 4551 

Prior to 1951 business agent 4551 

U 

UB 4549, 4551-4553, 4567 

Expelled from CIO for being Communist-dominated in 1949 4551 

UERMW 4542 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America 4560 

United Electrical Workers 4563 

United Electrical Workers, Independent Local 475 4563 

United States Government 4557 

Urban League 4564 

V 
Vermont 4568 

W 

Wallace, William 4541, 4543-4546, 4551, 4553, 4556, 4558, 4566 

We Charge Genocide 4562 

Westinghouse plants 4553 

West Orange 4547 

White Plains 4547 

White, Sid 4546, 4549, 5540 

Worked at local as publicity man 4546, 4550 

Located in New York now 4546, 4550 

o 



>OSITORY / y*^ ■' 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Inside the Communist Movement) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

subcommittee to investigate .the 

admijSISteation of the inteenal security 

act and other internal security laws ' 

OF THE 

COMmTTEE ON THE JUWCIAEY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGEESS 

FIRST SESSION^ 
ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



AUGUST 14, 1957 



PART 79 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library- 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 1 1 1958 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAKY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missom-i WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARS^ ALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. B 'USKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administbation of the Internal Security 
Act AND Otheb Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North CaroUna JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. Q. SouRwiNE, Associate Counsel 

WiLUAM A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of — 

Miss Stephanie Horvath, detective, New York City Police Depart- Page 
ment 4571 



m 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 14, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 
OP the Internal Security Act and Other Internal 
Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 9 : 35 a. m., in room 
457, Senate Office Building, Senator William E. Jeiiner presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director ; and F. W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will come to order. 

The witness will be sworn. 

Do you swear that the testimony you give in this hearing will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Miss HoRVATH. I do. 

Senator Jenner. Proceed, Mr. Morris. , 

Mr. Morris. We have here. Senator, a witness who I believe is 
competent to give testimony about recent developments in the Com- 
munist Party, the subject that is under consideration by the Internal 
Security Subcommittee at this time. 

Will you give your full name and address to the reporter ? 

TESTIMONY OF STEPHANIE HORVATH, DETECTIVE, NEW YOEK 

CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT 

Miss HoRVATH. Stephanie Horvath, New York City. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your business or profession ? 

Miss Horvath. I am employed by the New York City Police De- 
partment, holding the rank of detective. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you could give the subcommittee a short 
description of your duties ? 

Miss Horvath. In 1943, shortly after I was appointed to the police 
department, I was assigned to undercover work, and requested to 
seek entry into the Communist Party and report on the membei-s and 
their activities. 

I was a member of the Communist Party from 1943 to the end of 
1947. 

Mr. Morris. You say you joined the police department in 1943? 

Miss Horvath. 1942. 

Mr. Morris. Did they ask you to go into the Communist Party ? 

Miss Horvath. Yes. I was specially assigned by the police de- 
partment to become a Communist for the police department. I did 
not do that of my own volition. 

4571 



4572 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTWITY IN THE UNITED STATE'S 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

And then you reported back to the police department; is that 
correct ? 

Miss HoRVATH. I reported back to the police department until I 
was expelled from the party. And since my expulsion I have main- 
tained my contacts. Well, I have been kept in subversive- activities 
work which has kept me abreast of what has happened in the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you get reports from those in the Communist 
Party? 

Miss HoRVATH. Yes. I am still assigned to cover meetings which I 
report on and all the information which comes in from different agen- 
cies is thoroughly studied by me so that I have a pretty good knowledge 
of the present situation. 

Mr. Morris. Then you officially report when you learn what goes on 
in the Communist Party to the New York police special squad? 

Miss HoRVATH. And whatever agency might be interested, also. 

Mr. Morris. I see. You do cooperate with other agencies ? 

MissHoRVATH. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you could, based on your experience, tell 
us what the recent developments have been in the Communist Party as 
a result of the recent Supreme Court decisions ? 

Miss HoRVATH. Well, as I see it, following the end of World War II, 
and even in the subsequent period of the cold war, the Communist 
Party in the United States was at that time at its numeric peak. The 
Communists were not fearful of openly declaring themselves to be 
members of the Communist Party, nor did they expect dire conse- 
quences, except for the small minority who, because of party orders or 
possibly jeopardizing their livelihood, could not reveal such 
affiliation. 

Publicly announced and advertised meetings and rallies were filled 
to overflowing, and collections taken up thereat in the name of the Com- 
munist Party or its numerous front organizations were always re- 
sponded to generously. It was not until after the initial blow came — 
and that was in the form of the first trial of the 11 Communist leaders 
in Foley Square, wherein they were charged with violation of the 
Smith Act — that the Communist Party structure first began to weaken. 

All throughout that first trial it seemed as if the strong support of 
the comrades and their open contempt for the effectiveness of the 
Smith Act insofar as it could curb their activities or penalize them for 
membership in the Communist Party might affect the decision of the 
Court. 

Mr. Morris. And you were m the Communist Party then ; were you 
not? 

Miss HoRVATH. No ; I had already been expelled. 

Mr. Morris. "Wlien were you expelled ? 

Miss HoRVATH. At the end of 1947. 

The slow but steady decline in the rank and file membership has been 
fully realized by the Communist Party as more and more of their 
leaders and comrades have been tried, convicted, and imprisoned. 
Ranking as No. 1 on their program has been the weakening or repeal 
of tlie Smith Act, the provisions of which the Communist Party has 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4573 

consistently attacked as being the primary cause of the decline and 
loss of membership. 

Closely related to the Smith Act have been the investigations into 
Communist activities by the congressional committees and the hear- 
ings conducted by the Subversive Activities Control Board. 

Their adverse decisions on Communist-front organizations and indi- 
viduals has made deep inroads on the so-called Communist sympa- 
thizer who, more often than not, was actually a Communist Party 
member. Added to this, the publication of the Attorney General's 
list of subversive organizations and the disclosure of the true purpose 
and identity of the leaders of the group was another blow to Com- 
munist Party membership. 

The loyalty oath required not only of persons in Government employ 
but more and more adopted in private industry has had its effect on 
weakening the party. 

Loss of union affiliation because of Communist Party membership 
and the subsequent housecleaning of Ked leaders in unions has caused 
still another gap in Communist ranks. 

Further, the fear of deportation on grounds of having been a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party at the time of naturalization or if con- 
victed under the Smith Act has had a powerful effect and added to 
the party's decline. The ever-growing list of difficulties facing the 
Communist Party on the domestic front and the resultant reduction in 
the numbers was heightened by the growing unrest and nationalist 
stirrings in the Soviet dominated and controlled satellites. 

Its climax was reached with the outbreak of the Hungarians. The 
horrors and cruelties of the repressive measures taken by the Com- 
munists, and the revelation of the truth by thousands of Hungarian 
refugees, many of whom had been Communists themselves, was more 
than many Communists in the United States could swallow. 

Yet despite all the obstacles, adversity, and confusion which caused 
the Communist Party to shrink in numbers through the past years, 
the hard-core, die-hard party members have never given up hope that 
their party would some clay be rearmed for the battle and would again 
resume a place as the leaders of the American people. 

That shot in the arm which has revitalized the Communist Party and 
evoked joyous prospects for the future of the party has been the 
Supreme Court decisions on the Smith Act. Communists have seized 
upon these decisions as their salvation from the provisions of this act. 

Concentrated effort and a vigorous campaign to completely nullify 
the Smith Act through application of these decisions was the principal 
theme dominating the welcome home rally and reception for released 
Smith Act violators. 

Mr. Morris. Give us some quotes of what went on at this Commu- 
nist meeting. 

Miss HoRVATH. This was the report I took. 

Mr. Morris. What is the date of that ? 

Miss Horvath. It was held Wednesday, July 24, 1957, at Carnegie 
Hall. There were about 1 ,400 people there. 

Mr. Morris. You say you attended it ? 

Miss Horvath. Yes. I attended it and took stenographic notes of 
what the speakers said. 

Mr. Morris. Did anyone interfere with your doing that ? 



4574 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 
MissHORVATH. No. 

Ben Davis was the chairman of the meeting, and John Gates was one 
of the speakers, John having been convicted for violation of the Smith 
Act. 

Among the things that Jolm Gates said was : 

The recent decisions of the Supreme Court, as our chairman, Ben Davis, has 
said, was a victory for the whole American people. I am proud of the modest 
but very important part that the Daily VP^orker played in helping to bring about 
this victory, and in particular I am proud of the role we played in helping to 
bring about the release of Bob Thompson. 

Now we are going to launch another campaign because, although the Smith 
Act has received a very heavy blow with the Supreme Court decisions, and 
although the tide in our country is against such reprehensible laws as the Smith 
Act, it is not yet dead and will not be dead so long as Winston, Green, and 
Potash are still in jail, and so long as other convictions are hanging over the 
heads of many of our comrades. 

The recent Supreme Court decision threw out the organizing section of the 
Smith Act indictments ; that is, that we were accused of organizing the Commu- 
nist Party in 1945 as an organization which taught and advocated destruction of 
the Government. 

Another speaker was Pettis Perry, recently released from Federal 
prison : 

I think, comrades, we have a special responsibility here, taking into account 
the new energy and intiative that the American people have begun to show, which 
has reflected itself in the Supreme Court decisions involving the Communist 
Party. Take this as a new impetus against lingering McCarthyism in our 
country. I think there is every reason to feel and believe that it is possible for 
us to bring into being in the United States a broad, yes, and serious, movement 
for amnesty for Comrades Green and Winston. 

Eugene Dennis, convicted under the Smith Act stated 

Mr. Morris. He has been the head of the party ? 
MissHoRVATH. Yes. He was secretary. 
He said: 

Further, I would like to salute the host of non-Communist defenders of 
democracy and peace, many of whom likewise felt the blow of reaction and 
victimization. Their stanchness and efforts helped create the change in 
political climate that cheeked McCarthyism and made possible the significant 
June 17 decisions of the Supreme Court. 

Paul Novick stated : 

The Supreme Court decisions in the California Smith Act case in the .Tencks- 
Watkins case substantiated it. 

And he said : 

The defense of the rights of the Communists is the first line of defense of 
American principles. 

John T. McManus, editor of the National Guardian, and long a 
Communist sympathizer, stated : 

It is, in my opinion, no accident that the Warren Court — and Warren is no 
accident either — had the courage and determination to right the wrongs of 
the Vinson Court. * * * 

I think we must look back also over the behavior of some of the Federal 
judiciary, and set aside a special niche for Justices Black and Douglas, and I 
think we should recognize the tremendous force of the dissent of Judge William 
Hastie and Judge Lazarus in the Pittsburgh cases. 

Mr. Morris. Is that a direct quote? Were they direct quotes? 
Miss HoRVATH. These are all verbatim quotes, yes. 
Senator Jexner. You were at the meeting ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4575 

MissHoRVATH. Yes, sir. 

Senator Jenner. You took this down in shorthand ? 
MissHoRVATH. I did. I have my notes. 
McManus also stated : 

I wonder whether we can truthfully rejoice that the reign of terror is over. 
It seems in view of the Supreme Court decisions that no further Smith Act cases 
can again be undertaken, and those under prosecution must be quashed. It 
seems that the FBI's nest of rumors and lies must go to wrack or be forced out 
into the open if they try to use them. 

Mr. Morris. So, all in all, you say that the Communists have de- 
rived a great deal of satisfaction from this decision ? 

Miss HoRVATH. Yes. They are rejoicing over what they consider 
one of their biggest victories since the party began to decline. 

I have still another quote from Weinstock. Would you like to 
hear it ^ 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

JNIiss Horvath. Weinstock, who made the collection speech, pref- 
aced his appeal for funds 

Mr. Morris. All of these people are Communist leaders; are they 
not? 

MissHoRVATH. Yes. 

Louis Weinstock was convicted under the Smith Act and recently 
released from Federal prison. He asked for funds in order to — 

declare null and void all the indictments and to return citizenship rights to 
everyone of us who has spent time in jail. 

Then he said : 

I would like to say a word about the Supreme Court decisions. 

I had to go down to Foley Square on July 5 or 6 and report to the parole oCacer, 
tell him where I worked, what time I went home last night, what I did with 
the money I earned, and who I associated with. I walked in the oflBce and he 
said, "You know, Mr. Weinstock, I was thinking of you all day today." 

Mr, Morris. This is the parole officer speaking ? 
Miss Horvath. Yes. 
Now, this is Weinstock : 

I felt then he must be a social worker of the prison bureau. 

He said, "The Supreme Court ruled that to teach and advocate the overthrow 
of the Government by force and violence is not a crime. So what did you spend 
time in jail for?" 

That was the parole officer. 
Then Weinstock said : 

So I said to the man, "First of all, I never advocated it, so I couldn't have 
been sent to jail because I was found guilty of the charge." 

Then the parole officer said : 

You know, Mr. Weinstock, you shouldn't feel too bad or feel frustrated. 

Then Weinstock : 

I looked at the poor guy and said, "Up to July 22 I can't say anything. But 
after July 22, you will hear from me and my friends many times. And it is not 
going to be frustration." 

The same day I read the remarks made by one Senator who said that the 
Supreme Court Judges should be impeached. The others said that they should 
be upheld in the eyes of the people of the United States as i)eople who are de- 
fending the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. And he said this is actually 
what the Communist have been doing ever since they have been carrying on 
their activities. 



4576 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. What was the meaning of that last thing? 

Miss HoRVATH. Well, I got the impression that he meant by his 
remarks that the public is beginning to be more and more impressed 
with the incorrectness of the Smith Act, especially as applied to the 
Communists. 

Mr. Morris. You mean he was trying to say that the Communists 
are good people, after all ? 

Miss HoRVATH. That is right ; that they are not so wrong. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, that is the area I wanted to traverse with the 
witness. I have nothing further. 

Senator Jenner. The committee will stand in recess. We may 
want you to come back at some later time. 

(Whereupon, at 9 : 50 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



]VoTE. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the m«re fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

^ Page 

Attorney General's list 4573 

B 

Bill of Rights 4575 

Black, Justice 4574 

O 

California Smith Act 4574 

Carnegie Hall 4573 

Communist/s 4571,4573-4576 

Communist-front organizations 4573 

Communist Party 4571-4573 

Constitution 4575 

D 

Daily Worker 4574 

Davis, Ben 4574 

Dennis, Eugene 4574 

Douglas, Justice 4574 

F 

FBI 4575 

Foley Square, New York 4575 

G 

Gates, John 4574 

Green 4574 

H 

Hastie, Judge William 4574 

Horvath, Stephanie : 

Testimony of 4571-4576 

Detective, New York Police Department 4571 

Assigned to join Communist Party 4571 

Hungarain refugees 4573 

J 

Jencks-Watkins case 4574 

Jenner, Senator William E 4571 

L 

Lazarus, Judge 4574 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 4571 

McCarthyism 4574 

McManus, John T., editor of National Guardian 4574, 4575 

Morris, Robert 4571 

I 



n INDEX 

New York City Police Department 4571, 4572 

Novick, Paul 4574 

P 

Perry, Pettis 4574 

Pittsburgh cases 4574 

Potash 4574 

S 

Schroeder, F. W 4571 

Smith Act 4572-4576 

Cases 4574 

Subversive Activities Control Board 4573 

Supreme Court decisions 4572-4575 

T 

Thompson, Bob 4574 

Trial of 11 Communist leaders 4572 

V 

Vinson Court 4574 

W 

Warren Court 4574 

Weinstock, Louis 4575 

Winston 4574 

World War II 4572 

o 



' 



v^^i iNiyivr 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Extent of Communist Activity in Labor) 



HEARINGS 

'r-.f BEFORE THBt-'^'T 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OP THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIAEY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



AUGUST 13 AND 15, 1957 



PART 80 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Jadiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93216 WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library 
Superintopdent of Documents 

MAR 1 1 1958 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVEB, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisonnsin 

CLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Dlinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER. Mwyland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. SouRwiNE, Associate Counsel 

William A. Rusher, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 

II 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of— Pae* 

Barrett, Douglas W 4578 

McLeish, James B 4589 

San Giovanni, Dominicli 4601 



in 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 13, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Inv^estigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 
AND Other Internal Security Laws 
OF THE Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 35 a. m., in room 
457, Senate Office Building, Senator Koman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director; and F. W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Judge Morris, we have this morning, I understand, two witnesses 
present in the committee room, one of whom, however, has requested 
that he be given an opportunity to consult with his superiors, and 
also to obtain counsel. His name is 

Mr. Morris. Milton Felsen. 

Mr. Felsen, will you come forward j'ust a minute ? 

Senator Hruska. You are appearing here in response to subpena 
served on you ? 

Mr. Felsen. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Will you give your name and address to the re- 
porter, so that we may show you have responded to the subpena ? 

Mr. Felsen. Milton Felsen, F-e-1-s-e-n, 18 Manitou Trail, Wliite 
Plains, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. You are an international representative of the lUE ? 

Mr. Felsen. That is right. 

Senator Hruska. In the executive session, Mr. Felsen indicated 
his desire for an opportunity to consult with his superiors, and also 
to obtain counsel. That request has been granted, and you will keep 
in touch, Mr. Felsen, with Judge Morris here ? 

Mr. Felsen. Certainly. 

Senator Hruska. Later in the day, he will inform you when you 
will appear. Very likely it will be a week from today. That will be 
subject to confirmation from him. 

Judge Morris, have you any observations to make ? 

Mr. Morris. None at all. 

Thank you, Mr. Felsen. If you want to ask anything else about 
committee procedure, or anything, feel free to call. 

Mr. Felsen. Thank you. 

Senator Hruska. Do we have another witness ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Douglas Barrett. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Barrett has been sworn. 

4577 



4578 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITy m THE UNITED STATES 

TESTIMONY OF DOUGLAS W. BARRETT, DENVILIE, N. J., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY WILLIAM ROSSMOORE, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address for the public 
record ? 

]Mr, Barrett. Douglas W. Barrett, 44 Summit Drive, Denville, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. You are accompanied by counsel ? 

Mr. RossMOORE. Yes. I am William Rossmoore, 60 Park Place, 
Newark, N. J. 

Senator Hruska, I have asked the gentlemen of the press to confine 
their picture taking to the beginning or the end of the hearing. I 
wonder if that would be in accord with the committee ? 

Senator Hruska. Yes, that will be in accord with the subcommittee. 
I want to say that the photographers and the press have been most 
cooperative in these matters. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Barrett, where were you born ? 

Mr. Barrett. Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Morris. What has been your education ? 

Mr. Barrett. Public schools, high school, 2 years at the University 
of Wisconsin. 

Mr. Morris. "Wlien did you leave the University of Wisconsin ? 

Mr. Barrett. In 1938, 1 believe. 

Mr. Morris. When did you first become affiliated with the trade 
union movement ? 

Mr. Barrett. Excuse me. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Barrett. Just what do you mean by affiliated ? 

Mr. Morris. When did you first become active in the trade union 
movement ? 

Mr. Barrett. I was working in a plant that I attempted to organ- 
ize, so I guess that would be the first. But I was not an official. In 
fact, I wasn't even a member of the union, unfortunately. 

Mr. Morris. What plant was that, and what union was it ? 

Mr. Barrett. It was the UE, in a place called Scientific Glass Ap- 
paratus, in Bloomfield, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. What year was that ? 

Mr. Barrett. What year ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Barrett. That must have been 1939 or 1940. 

Mr. Morris. Did you then subsequently become active in the UE ? 

Mr. Barrett. I went in the Army very shortly after that. 

Mr. Morris, In other words, 3'ou went into the Army in 1938 or 
1939? 

Mr. Barrett. No. I am sorry. I started to work in Scientific Glass 
about 1939. The time we tried to organize the union was 1941, 1 would 
say. 

Mr. Morris. And you went into the Army shortly thereafter ? 

Mr. Barrett. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. When did you leave the Army ? 

Mr. Barrett. October 1945. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do after you left the Army ? 

Mr. Barrett. Excuse me. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4579 

Mr. Barrett. After I came out out of the Army, within a short 
period of time I went to work in a factory in Newark. 

jMr, Morris. Then did you become an official of the UE at that time ? 

Mr. Barrett. No, sir. I was laid off from that job. After that I 
went to work for the union. 

Mr. Morris. What have you done for the UE ? 

Mr. Barrett. My official position ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Barrett. I have been a field representative — field organizer. 

Mr. Morris. I see. For what j)eriod of time were you a field organ- 
izer for the UE ? 

Mr. Barrett. From 1946 until 1950. 

Mr. Morris. In 1956 you moved over into the lUE ? 

Mr. Barrett. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Specifically, what do you do now ? 

Mr. Barrett. I am a field representative for the lUE. 

Mr. Morris. Will you describe to Senator Hruska your duties as 
such ? 

Mr. Barrett. Well, the general name for that is organizer. We at- 
tempt to organize workers in new shops, negotiate contracts — handle 
grievances — any related activit}^ such as that. 

Mr. Morris. And what is your present salary ? 

Mr. Barrett. I am sorry. I didn't mean to laugh at that. I am 
just very curious as to why such a question should be asked, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Do you think that information sought by the subcom- 
mittee is a matter of general information, Senator Hruska ? 

Mr. Barrett. I mean, there is no secret; it is w^ell known in the 
union. 

Senator Hruska. Yes ; we will ask you to answer. 

Mr. Barrett. About $125 a week. 

Mr. Morris. Is that salary, or take-home ? 

Mr. Barrett. No ; that is salary. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Barrett, the subcommittee has been told by 
Mr. W^illiam Wallace, who was a member of the Communist Party, and 
who later in his work as a member of the Communist Paity, was a 
counteragent for tlie FBI — an FBI informant 

Mr. Barrett. I didn't get the first part of your statement. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. "Wallace has told us that you were a member of the 
Communist Partv. Have you been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Barrett. I will claim my privilege on that, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. What privilege ? 

Mr. Barrett. Under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Hruska. Specifically, what privilege under the fifth 
amendment ? The privilege against self-incrimination ? 

Mr. Barrett. Against self-incrimination. 

Mr. Morris. AVere vou a Communist when vou left the University 
of Wisconsin in 1938?^ 

Mr. Barrett. I will give the same answer, sir, of my privileges. 
I'll assert my privileges. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a Communist the day before you went 
into the United States Army ? 

Mr. Barrett'. Again I'll assert my privileges. 



4580 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Did you remain a member of the Communist Party 
while you Avere a member of the United States Army ? 

Mr. Barrett, I never said I was a member, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party while you 
were in the United States Army ? 

Mr. Barrett. Again I assert my privileges. 

Mr. Morris. Now, we have learned that you were a member of the 
National Council of American Youth for Democracy for the State of 
New Jersey, and were elected to such at the June 1946 convention of 
the AYD. Can you tell us whether or not we have been correctly 
advised of that fact ? 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to give the same answer, claiming my 
privilege, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Well, you will not tell the subcommittee whether or 
not you were a member of the AYD, the American Youth for Democ- 
racy, in the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Barrett. I will claim my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Mandel, would you identify the American Youth 
for Democracy ? 

Mr. Mandel. The American Youth for Democracy is the successor 
organization to the Young Communist League, which has been identi- 
fied as a Communist organization by the Attorney General. 

Mr. Morris. Was there elected with you to the same post a woman 
named Evelyn Gordon ? 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to repeat my previous answer. 

Mr. Morris. A person named AVillie Mae Gordon ? 

Mr. Barrett. I will make the same answer again, sir. 

Mr. Morris. A woman named Mary Adanatzias, A-d-a-n-a-t- 
z-i-a-s? 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to repeat my previous answer, sir, and 
claim my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Was that last-named person director of the AYD for 
Essex County? 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to repeat my previous answer. 

Mr. Morris. Are you now a Communist, Mr. Barrett. 

Mr. Barrett. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist a year ago ? 

Mr. Barrett. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on February 1, 1954? 

Mr. Barrett. As I said, in executive session, sir, roughly at that 
time — I'll claim the privilege before that approximate date of Janu- 
ary to February of 1954, the time I came to New Jersey. Prior to 
that, I claim the privilege. 

Senator Hruska. When did you come back to Jersey, would you 
put it ? 

Mr. Barrett. I believe that was the first week of Febi-uaiy 1954. 

Senator Hruska. In February 1954, by whom were you employed ? 

Mr. Barrett. By the UE. 

Senator Hruska. When was it that you clianged from employment 
by the UE to the lUE ? 

Mr. Barrett. About May 15, 1956. 

Senator Hruska. Now, were you a Communist at that time? 

Mr. Barrett. No, sir. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE ITNTrED STATES 4581 

Senator Hrusk^v. Did you attend meetings held exclusively for 
Communist any time between Fbruary 1, 1954, and the present time ? 

Mr. Barrett. Not to the best of my knowledge. 

Senator Hruska. Have you participated in any Communist activi- 
ties during that same period of time? 

Mr. Barrett. Not to the best of my knowledge. 

Senator Hrusbl\. Would you care to tell the subcommittee why you 
here choose to assert your privilege as to events happening prior to 
February 1, 1954, and you do not assert that same fifth amendment 
privilege in the time following that date ? 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to claim the privilege, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Witness, I must say the chainnan is a little 
puzzled by your attitude here in taking the fifth amendment. 

I refer you to a statement made by the president of the AFL-CIO, 
George Meany, just yesterday, in Chicago, as reported in this morn- 
ing's press. 

"When he was asked about the congressional committee investiga- 
tions here, particularly those having to do with "turning up corrup- 
tion in labor," he is reported to have taken a firm stand against labor 
leaders invoking the fifth amendment to protect themselves. He said, 
among other things : 

Things that have been exposed are things that labor should not be proud 
of. I am interested in eradicating these things. 

Then, later on, the press has reported Mr. Meany, during the course 
of that testimony, as saying: "Meany said he stands by the AFL- 
CIO policy," which sets forth, and he quotes then from an official 
document of the AFLr-CIO : 

If a trade-union oflBicial decides to invoke the fifth amendment for his personal 
protection and to avoid scrutiny by the proper legislative committees, law- 
enforcement agencies, or other bodies into alleged corruption on his part, he 
has no right to continue to hold office in his union. 

Are you familiar with that interview, or that report of the inter- 
view as contained in this morning's press? 

Mr. Barrett. Not that particular interview. I understand in gen- 
eral what you are talking about. 

Senator Hruska. You understand that it is the policy of the AFL- 
CIO to cooperate and to look with disfavor upon those who take the 
fifth amendment? 

Mr. Barrett. Excuse me. 

(Witness consulted with counsel.) 

Mr. Barrett. I just don't Imow what to say, Senator. I under- 
stand what you are saying, and, of course, I am not a policymaker in 
any union. 

Senator Hruska. Well, now, as an organizer, and as a trained 
unionist of many years' standing, you certainly know the basic poli- 
cies of the AFL-CIO : do you not ? " 

Mr. Barrett. Yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Are you aware that one of its policies is to look 
with disfavor upon those who claim the fiftli amendment for their 
own personal protection, and noncooperation Avith constituted Govern- 
ment bodies ? Are you aware that is their policy ? 

93215—58 — pt. 80 2 



4582 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Barrett. Yes. But for my own part, I think every case must 
be handled on an individual basis. 

Senator Hruska. Are you familiar in general, Mr. Witness, with 
the constitution and the bylaws of the AFL-CIO ? 

Mr. Barrett. More particularly with my own union, sir, but gen- 
erally with the AFL^CIO. 

Senator PIruska. I am reading now from article 7, section 7, of the 
AFL-CIO constitution, which is contained in an officially published 
booklet of the AFL-CIO which I now hold before you so tliat you 
can identify it by appearance. I am reading now from that section 
on page 5 of this leaflet : 

It is a basic principle of this federation that it must be and remain free from 
any and all corrupt influences, and from the undermining efforts of Commu- 
nists. Fascists, or other totalitarian agencies who are opposed to the basic 
principles of our democracy and of free and democratic trade unionism. 

Does that language strike a familiar note in your mind? 

Mr, Barrett. Yes ; that is part of the constitution of the lUE, my 
own union, sir, and I think I am abiding by it. 

Senator Hruska. Reading from page 12 of that same leaflet, I read 
as follows : 

We recognize that any person is entitled in the exercise of his individual con- 
science to the protection afforded by the fifth amendment, and we reaffirm our 
conviction that this historical right must not be abridged. It is the policy of 
the AFL-CIO that if a trade-union official decides to invoke the fifth amendment 
for his personal pi-otection and to avoid scrutiny by law-enforcement a"j;encies 
into alleged corruption on his part, he has no right to continue to hold office 
in his union. 

Does that language strike a familiar note in your mind? Have 
you ever read it or has it ever come to j^our attention before ? 

Mr. Barrett. Yes, sir ; I am familiar with it. 

Senator Hruska. Reading from page 25 of that document, that 
little pamphlet, I read again — this is from the ethical practices code 
No. 3, having to do with racketeers, crooks. Communists, and Fascists, 
where the language reads as follows : 

The AFL-CIO and each of its affiliated unions should undertake the obligation, 
through appropriate constitutional or administrative measures and orderly pro- 
cedures, to insure that no persons who constitute corrupt influences or practices, 
or who represent or support Communist, Fascist, or totalitarian agencies, should 
hold office of any kind in such trade unions or organizations. 

Are you familiar with that paragraph in the code of ethical prac- 
tices ? 

Mr, Barrett. Yes, sir. That is part of the lUE's constitution, 
which I am aoiding by. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. And you don't feel yourself bound by that code 
of ethical practices which is referred to in the material which I just 
read ? 

Mr. Barrett, The best I can say is that I am abiding by the consti- 
tution of the lUE, which is very explicit about the membersliip and 
officers of the union. 

Senator Hruska. Is there anything in the constitution which con- 
dones membership in or support of Communist organizations? 

Mr. Barrett. Lord, no, not in the lUE, sir. I am sure you recog- 
nized the position of the lUE in the labor movements. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4583 

Senator IIruska. I am not sure tliat I do, now. Will you tell us 
what it is with reference to Communist organizations and support of 
or membership in Communist organizations'^ Will you tell us what 
that is ? What is their policy in that regard ? 

Mr. Barrett. Well, I should have a copy of the constitution of the 
union with me. 

Senator Hruska. Describe it in substance as best you can. 

Mr. Barrett. In substance, no Communist or Fascist or totalitarian 
members or advocates are allowed to hold office in the union — the lUE. 

Senator Hruska. You don't feel that you are in that category ? 

Mr. Barrett. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Now, we have information here that you have 
been a member of the Communist Party. We have information here 
which indicates that you were not only a member of it, but that you 
were active in it for many, many years. We also know, and we would 
like to know from you — in all fairness, we would like to know from 
you whether that is true. 

Secondly, we also know that by its very nature, communism and the 
Communist technique does not depend on formal membership for 
some of its effectiveness. We know that within their membership 
and their techniques, they have often caused people to resign from 
the party, and to disavow^ loyalty to it, and to disavow any activity 
in it, and yet the}^ still retain that sympathy and that willingness to 
work for the party. 

We would like to know whether or not there is anything like that, 
not only in your own personal case and in fellow workers of yourself, 
but in fellow officials of 5''our union, so that we may arrive at grounds 
which will allow us to firm up the laws that we have, or to pass new 
laws to meet that policy. 

Now, don't you feel that in view of that that you are not in keeping 
with the policy of the AFIj-CIO as George Meany referred to it yes- 
terday in Chicago ? 

Mr. Barrett. Well, speaking for myself, and to the best of my 
knowledge, the situation that you described is not the case with me, 
nor, as far as I know, with others in my union. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, may I make an observation ? 

Senator Hruska. Yes. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Mr. Barrett, we have been told that you have sat in 
behind the closed doors of the Communist organization. Now, if that 
information is accurate, and you have not, with the modifications 
that have been made, denied that, if you could tell us about what hap- 
pened at these Communist councils, you would be giving to the Senate 
Subcommittee on Internal Security, evidence that would be most help- 
ful in our determining to what extent Communists are now infiltrating 
the mainstream of the x\FL-CIO. 

The Communist Party convention, Senator Hruska, has made some 
observations, the 16th National Convention of the Communist Party 
says : 

After the 1952 elections, as demands for unity become more intense, our party 
more energetically called for united action as a step toward labor unity. 

Now, if you could tell us, Mr. Barrett, who the people are who are 
Communists, as I said, we could go a long way toward determining 
to what extent Communists are still in the main stream of the unions. 



4584 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVrrT EN- THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Barrett. I believe the only answer I can give to you, Mr. 
Morris, is that I am not a Communist, and not in a position to enlarge 
very much upon what you said or read. 

Mr. Morris. But you will not tell us whether or not you did sit in 
closed meetings to keep the unity of Communist members? 

Mr. Barrett. Are you referring to any particular time, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. At any time in the past. 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to claim my privileges. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, only certain witnesses are competent to tell 
us who the Communists are, and only those who have taken active 
part in the Communist organization. It is the only way we can get 
first-hand direct evidence of who the Communists are. 

According to our evidence, the man who is here today is a com- 
petent witness to tell us who the people are w^ho have sat in on those 
meetings of the Communist Party. Apparently, he is not going to do 
it. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Barrett, are you familiar with the fashion 
in which the Communist unit meetings are held ? 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to take the privilege on that, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Are you familiar with the training which they 
give to members, to persons who are either members of their organi- 
zations, or sympathetic with their party and its objectives? 

Mr. Barrett. Are you speaking of now, sir ? 

Senator Hruska. Have you any knowledge of the training which 
the Communist Party, as such, gives to persons who are members of 
their party, or who are in sympathy with it, or with its objectives? 

Mr. Barrett. I will have to repeat my previous answer. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. So as to your present knowledge of those things, 
as they may have existed, or as they exist, you are claiming j^our 
privilege under the fifth amendment ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Barrett. Sir, as of the present time, I have no knowledge. 
But previous to the time I specified, before February 1954, 1 will have 
to claim the privilege. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Witness, I don't know how your mind works, 
but after all, you do have knowledge now, do you not? You may 
have gained that knowledge prior to February 1, 1954, but you have 
present knowledge now, have you not, of Communist Party activities 
and the fashion in which they operate ? 

Mr. Barrett, I have no present knowledge, sir, of that. And as 
to the past, previous to that date, I claim tlie privilege. 

Senator Hruska, You recited at some length your activities in 
the trade union movement as far back as 1946, and as far back as 1936, 
in fact, I think; but you say now you have no knowledge of Com- 
munist Party activities, and the fashion in which they operated dur- 
ing those same years. Is tliat what you want to tell us ? 

Mr. Barrett. Oh, no. I think you misunderstood. I said I have 
no present knowledge of such. 

Senator Hruska. I didn't misunderstand you for a minute. You 
do have present knowledge of many things that happened as long as 
20 years ago. Do you want to say you have no present knowledge 
of the fasliion in which Communist Party activities are conducted? 
Do you want to tell us that you have no present knowledge of how 
Communist Party units or cells or organizations conduct their 
business ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4585 

Mr. Barrett. I don't know if this is a different answer or n^, 
frankly. I have no present knowledge of what may be now in line 
with what you said. As to the past, previous to that time, I imagine 
I would have to claim the privilege, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. I think the record will speak for itself in regard 
to the cooperation or noncooperation which you are extending to the 
congressional committee, especially in view of the previous answers 
which you have given, or refused to give. 

Judge Morris, is there anything further you would like to bring 
up at this time ? 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I would like to offer for the record, pages 282 
beginning with the last paragraph, 283, and half of page 284 of the 
proceedings of the 16th National Convention of the Communist Party 
which sets forth counterstrategy of the Communists at that time. 

Senator Hruska. They will be accepted for the record. 

(The excerpt from the proceedings of the 16th Convention, CPUS A, 
above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 488" and reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 488 

The kind of mistakes we have been discussing are left-sectarian errors. These 
mistakes were reflected generally and did injury to the fine tradition of our 
party as the outstanding advocate of trade-union unity. 

In this postwar period, our thoughts, interests, and concern began to center 
around those in the labor movement who agreed with our point of view, rather 
than on the essential but infinitely more difficult task of resolutely fighting to 
unite all labor to meet employer attacks. While we were quite correctly con- 
cerned with the most dynamic section of labor — the CIO — our concern got to be 
one-sided. In fact, we ignored a consideration of the problems of the majority 
of the workers in the AFL. This was particularly true after the unjustified 
expulsion of the progressive-led unions from the CIO in 1949. 

After the 1952 elections, as demands for unity became more intense, our party 
more energetically called for united labor action as a step in the direction of 
labor unity. This call, valid as it was, nevertheless did not measure up to what 
was needed. Hobbled by our estimate of the political situation and our evaluation 
of the trade-union leadership, our call for united action was in effect suggesting 
a preunity trial period which workers felt had long since passed. In the absence 
of a real and sustained fight for trade-union unity, many comrades in the party 
were unprepared for the rapidity with which organic unity was achieved between 
the AFL and the CIO. A few even felt that this was in fact a State Department 
plot, not warranting our support. Hence, as a consequence of our backsliding 
on this question, the Communists, the traditional and most forceful proponents 
of such unity, had little to contribute to realize the full potential of organic unity 
when the merger of AFL and CIO finally came about. 

As a result of the postwar attacks, taken together with our own errors, the 
party today does not have the influence among workers it had in past years. 
Today, some union leaders feel called upon to vie with each other in expressing 
their opposition to the party and communism. Innumerable constitutional pro- 
visions bar Communists from membership or from holding oflBce in many unions. 
There is a fear among many workers to knowingly associate with us. In spite of 
this, there have been some changes taking place in the most recent period. The 
easing of tensions on a world scale as well as the correction and overcoming of a 
number of the forementioned errors, is making it possible for Communist workers 
to participate on a more normal basis in the trade-union activity of their shops 
and local unions. In some instances, new coalitions, including workers long 
known as leftwingers, have been formed. This trend toward fuller unity, espe- 
cially at the local union level, has been growing. While this is true, the ab- 
normal and harmful attitude toward the Communist Party as such on the part 
of the labor leadership and most workers, still prevails. This is of no help to 
the labor movement itself. 

An examination of the work of our party in the last period shows that we 
have a considerable distance to go to eliminate the mistakes of the past. These 



4586 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

errors are the responsibility of the party leadership. They penetrated deep into 
the organization. Therefore, many hangovers of the past still remain. We 
particularly need a firmer effort to eliminate sectarian oppositionist policies 
not based on program, and to develop a clearer understanding for ourselves 
and others on the relationships between the party and the trade unions. We 
have been very slow to overcome our errors in the field of trade-union policy. 
This only emphasizes the need for closer relations between the party leadership 
and the workers in our party. The experience of these comrades emphasizes 
that the main thing for the party is work at the shop level, that trade-union 
work is above all shopwork, concern about what is happening in the depart- 
ments, the grievances, the thinking and discussion there, the problems of devel- 
oping one's base there. It requires an end to the departmentalization, the 
separation of industrial problems from the leading committees. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Witness, are you aware of the investigations 
which are being made into the corrupt practices of some labor unions 
and some leaders and which have been going on here in the Senate? 

Mr. Bakrett. In a general way, sir, yes. 

Senator Hruska. That has been a practice which has always been 
denounced, is it not, by the AFL-CIO in all trade-union charters 
and constitutions, the idea of hoodlumism and racketeering in the 
union ? Do you consider that a part of the policy of trade unionism, 
as such ? 

Mr. Barrett. I agree that that is the position of the AFL-CIO, 
the position they have taken. I think that is what you asked me. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Witness, I again, bearing on this same gen- 
eral proposition of how important it is that we get as much coopera- 
tion as an arm of the Congress, and as an arm of the legislative 
brancli of the United States, I want to draw attention to the fact 
that yesterday there was a disclosure by Boris Morros in New York 
of his activities in tlie Communist Party, and some of the disclosures 
wliich he made after some 10 or 12 years of being a counterspy. He 
is quoted, for example, in the press this morning as saying, among 
other things, this : 

I know from personal information and experience that Soviet espionage has 
made considerable infiltration in this country. Many of the Soviet's most active 
workers in this country don't come from the rank and file, nor from the under- 
privileged. They are people who have the kind of contacts which will be helpful 
to tht Soviets and they are being paid to do their job of treason to the United 
States. 

I might say parenthetically that Boris INIorros, pursuant to consulta- 
tions we have had with the chairman of this subcommittee, Senator 
Eastland, is being subpenaed for later hearings before this subcom- 
mittee. I cite that as an additional reason why this Congress and 
this subcommittee is interested in the story which you can make avail- 
able to the subcommittee if you will only cooperate. 

Mr. Barrett. Of course, I have no sympathy with what he has 
found out. I don't believe that is directed at me whatsoever, with 
regard to any sort of espionage. 

Mr. IMoRRis. Well, Mr. Barrett, the point is that the subcommittee 
has learned that the Communist Party is a recruiting ground for 
espionage and things like that ; and the knowledge we feel you have, 
the evidence you can give us, would be most helpful in pursuing our 
work to try to determine the full extent of Soviet activity here in the 
United States. ^ ij 

Mr. Barrett. I certainly have no knowledge of any espionage or 
spying or treason, or anything of that sort. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4587 

Mr. Morris. You have knowledge of Communist Party activity in 
the United States ? 

Mr. Barrett. I claim the privilege again, Mr. Morris. 

Senator Hruska. It is quite evident to the chairman that there will 
be no disposition on the part of this witness, in spite of the many 
declarations that are high sounding and tine. To the contrary, there 
is no indication, Mr. Morris, that there is going to be any cooperation 
in a very vital held of inquiry. 

Unless you have further questions, the witness will be excused for 
the time being. 

Mr. jNIorris. I have no more questions, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. You are excused, Mr. Witness. 

The subcommittee will stand adjourned, subject to the call of the 
Chair. 

j\Ir. Morris. Senator, we have witnesses on Thursday. Mr, James 
jNIcLeish and several other witnesses for the lUE will appear on 
Thursday. 

Senator Hruska. All right. 

The subcommittee stands adjourned. 

(Thereupon, at 11 : 10 a. m., the subcommittee was adjourned.) 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 15, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration 

OF THE Internal Security Act and Other Internal 

Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 a. m., in room 155, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel; Benjamin Mandel, 
research director ; and F. W. Schroeder, chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The subcommittee will come to order. 

The first witness will be James McLeish, who has already been 
sworn. 

The record will also show the presence of his counsel, who will give 
his name and address at this point. 

Mr. RossMOORE. William Rossmoore, 60 Park Place, Newark, N. J. 

Senator Hruska. You may proceed. Judge Morris. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES B. McLEISH, WEST OEANGE, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McLeish, will you give your full name and address 
to the reporter for the purpose of the public record? 

Mr. McLeish. My name is James B. McLeish, and my address is 
725 Eagle Rock Avenue, West Orange, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. "Wliere were you born ? 

Mr. McLeish. I was born in Scotland. 

Mr. Morris. In what year ? 

Mr. McLeish. In 1899. 

Mr. Morris. Now, when did you come to the United States, Mr. 
McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. I came to the United States in 1925. 

Mr. Morris. When did you first become active in the trade-union 
movement ? 

Mr. McLeish. I became active in the trade-union movement in the 
United States in 1936, when I helped to organize the shop in which 
I worked at that time. 

Mr. ISIorris. For what union ? 

Mr. McLeish. It was for the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine 
Workers of America. 

Mr. Morris. Were you identified in various capacities with that 
union through the years ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

4589 

93215 — 58 — pt. 80 3 



4590 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

I was a shop steward. I was a shop chairman. I was a local union 
president. I was district secretary. I was district president. I was 
an international vice president of the Electrical Radio and Ma- 
chine Workers of America. 

Mr. Morris. That is district 4 ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where is district 4 ? 

Mr. McLeish. District 4, at that time when I was district secre- 
tary, was the northern New Jersey area. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

When were you district president ? 

Mr. McLeish. In September 1937 I was elected district president of 
a combined district of New York plus New Jersey. 

Mr. Morris. In 1937? 

Mr. McLeish. In September 1937 ; yes. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat was that district called? 

Mr. McLeish. That was called district 4. 

Mr. Morris. That was district 4 ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. So, how many members did that embrace ? 

Mr. McLeish. At that given time ? 

Mr. Morris. At that time, and later ? 

Mr. McLeish. I would say, in 1937 — and this can only be an ap- 
proximate figure— about 35,000 members. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat did it develop into ? 

Mr. McLeish. It developed into a peak during the war years of 
115,000. 

Mr. Morris. That is while you were still president ; is that correct? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Now, in addition to holding those offices in the UE, 
you were also holding important positions within the CIO ; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. McLeish. I did. 

Mr. Morris. '\Miat positions did you have in the CIO ? 

Mr. McLeish. On two occasions, I was elected — or I served two 
terms of a])proximately 3 years each time as the president of the 
Greater Newark Industrial Council of the CIO. 

Mr. Morris. How many members did that embrace ? 

Mr. McLeish. I would say — I am trying to recollect. It was ap- 
proximately a quarter of a million. 

Mr. Morris. Two hundred and fifty thousand ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, approximately. 

Mr. Morris. Approximately 250,000 ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You were president of the Greater Newark Industrial 
Union Council of the CIO, you said ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. That roughly was comparable to the organization that 
was known in New York as the Greater New York Industrial Union 
Council ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Just a difference in jurisdiction ; is that correct ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, that is right. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN" THE UlSnTED STATES 4591 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Did you meet with the leaders of that Greater New 
York Industrial Union Council from time to time, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. Occasionally, yes. 

Mr. Morris. What other offices did you have in the CIO ? 

Mr. McLeish. I was the vice president of the State council of the 
CIO. 

Mr. Morris. That is New Jersey ? 

]\Ir. McLeish. New Jersey State Council, yes. 

Mr. Morris. When were you naturalized, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. I was naturalized in 1933. 

Mr. Morris. In New York ? 

Mr. McLeish. No, in Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Now, we have had testimony, Mr. McLeish, that you 
have been an important member of the Communist Party, and that 
you have attended from time to time Communist caucuses, preconven- 
tion Communist caucuses of the Communist Party. 

We are wondering if that is the case? Is the testimony that we 
have received accurate ? 

Mr. McLeish. During what period of time would this be, Mr. 
Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Well, do you want to make a distinction for the record 
here now ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, I would. 

Mr. Morris. Why don't you tell us what distinction you want to 
make ? 

Mr. McLeish. I would like to state for the record that I am prepared 
to answer any and all questions up to the time I was elected to the 
office of international vice president of the UE in September 1937. 

And I am prepared to answer any and all questions after May 16, 
1956, at which time I had left the UE. 

Mr. Morris. Well, now, is it your testimony that you were not 
a Communist Party member in August of 1937 ? 

Mr. IMcLeish. I beg your pardon ? 

]Mr. Morris. Is it your testimony that you were not a member of the 
Communist Party on August 1937 ? 

INIr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And were you a member of the Communist Party on 
May 17, 1956? 

Mr. McLeish. May 17, 1956, no, sir. 

Mr. Morris. But May 15, 1956 ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. What about the testimony that we have received that 
you attended Communist caucus meetings prior to UE conventions; 
and, therefore, it must have been prior to May 15, 1956. 

Mr. McLeish. That would be during this period of time ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. I would understand that from the question, Mr. 
Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. I must decline to answer that question, Mr. Morris. 

Senator Hruska. On what grounds, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. On the basis of my privileges under the Constitu- 
tion ; the amendments of the Constitution. 



4592 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. Which specific amendment ? 

Mr. McLeish. In this particular mstance, it would be the fifth 
amendment. 

Senator Hruska. And the provisions in the fifth amendment guar- 
anteeing you the right not to incriminate yourself; is that the one 
you rely upon ? 

Mr. McLeish. If that is the interpretation you put on it. 

Senator Hruska. Well, there are several privileges granted in the 
fifth amendment. 

I just wondered which one you are relying upon. 

Mr. McLeish. I am relying on the part that says I would not be 
used as a witness against myself. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know a man named Salvatore M. Vottis ? 

Mr. McLeish. At the moment it does not strike any chord with 
me. 

Mr. Morris. He has told the Internal Security Subcommittee that 
he attended preconvention meetings of the Communist Party — caucus 
meetings of the Communist Party — with you. 

Mr. McLeish. During this period of time ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. I don't recall the guy's name. But I must repeat 
mj answer to this question about having attended such meetings that 
I invoke my privileges. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know William Wallace ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, I know William Wallace. 

Mr. Morris. Did you attend Communist Party meetings with Wil- 
liam Wallace? 

Mr. McLeish. That was also during this period of time; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. I will invoke my privileges. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Wallace told us that you arranged for his 
trip to Moscow. 

Did you arrange for Mr. Wallace's trip to Moscow, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. I did not. 

Mr. Morris. You did not? 

Mr. McLeish. No. 

Mr. Morris. When Mr. Wallace told us that you bought liim his 
tickets, was he testifying accurately, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. This maj^ take me a little time, if you will bear 
with me. 

Mr. Wallace was never authorized to go to Moscow, either by me or 
by the union. 

Mr. Morris. Well, did you buy him his tickets, Mr. McLeish? 

Mr. McLeish. Mr. Wallace was authorized to visit Paris and Lon- 
don, and the hometown of my birtli, to visit my mother while he was 
on that trip. 

He carried with him three letters of identification and introduction ; 
one was to the secretary of the union that held the contract in the 
Singer plant 40 kilometers outside of Paris. I just don't recall his 
name. He had a letter of introduction to a Mr. Tanner — Jack Tan- 
ner — the president of the Amalgamated Engineering Union in London. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACmVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4593 

He had a third letter of introduction to my mother, as to who he was. 

His instructions were specific. And they were to visit the plants 
that I myself had visited in 1947. 

Mr. Morris. This is in 1951, isn't it ? 

Mr. McLeish. Approximately near the end of 1950 or the early part 
of 1951. Around that time. 

]\Ir. Wallace's transportation was as far as Paris. I did not pur- 
chase his ticket personally. I issued on behalf of the union a check 
to cover the purchases of a ticket which was turned over to him. 

Mr. ^Morris. I think, Senator, that is substantially what Mr. Wal- 
lace has told us ; that he didn't mean Mr. McLeish physically bought 
the tickets, but that he authorized tlie money for the purchase of the 
tickets. 

Senator Hruska. Did Wallace visit Moscow on that trip ? 

Mr. McLeish. I presume he did. Senator, because when he came 
back, or before he came back, I got a telephone call from his wife that 
slie had had a cablegram that he had had his appendix removed some- 
where in the U. S. S. R. 

Senator Hruska. Wlien he came back, did he report to your union 
on his trip ? 

]\Ir. McLeish. He reported to the executive board of our union. 

Senator Hruska. Were you present at that meeting, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes ; I was. 

Senator Hruska. Wliat did he include in his report on that trip ? 

Mr. McLeish. He included, as I recall it, the fact that he made the 
trip to Paris. He was 3 days in Paris. And while he was in Paris, he 
had a discussion with some people. And he was offered a trip to the 
Soviet Union. He reported also as clearly as I can recall that the first 
leg of that trip was from Paris to, I think, Warsaw, if that is in 
Czechoslovakia. 

It was Czechoslovakia, anyway. 

Mr. Morris. It probably was Prague. 

Mr. McLeish. It was somewhere in there, anyway. 

And he eventually went to Moscow. After he had been 3 days in 
Moscow, he took sick and had his appendix removed. He then was 
sent to somewhere on the Black Sea to a convalescents' home. 

T\Tien he came out of there, he made the return trip to Paris, and 
he eventually got back again to Newark. 

Senator Hruska. Did he get to visit any industrial plants in Russia ? 

Mr. McLeish. If he did, it must have been a very short visit, of a 
very short duration. 

Senator Hruska. What did he report ? 

Mr. McLeish. What he reported to me was that he was only 3 days 
in Moscow. And one of those days, he told me, he attended or viewed 
a parade. So I imagine there was no visiting that day. 

If there was any visiting of plants, it must have been confined to 2 
days. 

Senator Hruska. He was longer in Russia than those 3 days, how- 
ever, was he not ? 

Mr. McLeish. Well, he was in the hospital and had his appendix 
removed. And he was, if I remember correctly, about 12 days in some 
convalescents' place on the Black Sea, or some place like that. So he 
couldn't have had much time to visit plants in the short period of time 



4594 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

that he was missing from Newark, which was a total of approximately 
6 weeks. 

Senator PIruska. Was he a member of the Communist Party at 
that time ? 

Mr. McLeish. I have no knowledge as to that. 

Senator Hruska. Do you think he was a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Have you reasonable grounds upon which to base that conclusion ? 

Mr. McLeish. As of today, Senator ? 

Senator Hruska. No. As of that time. 

Mr. McLeish. As of that time, I had no knowledge. 

Senator Hruska. What about today ? 

Mr. McLeish. I have read the newspapers, sir, since that time. 

Senator Hruska. What did they say about that point ? 

Mr. McLeish. I am not too sure what he said about that point. But 
I have heard him say — or I have seen it reported that he said he was a 
member of the Communist Party. 

But as to my personal knowledge at that time, I had none. 

Mr. Morris. You had attended Communist Party meetings with 
him, had you not ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I mean if you had attended Communist meetings 
with him, you could reasonably suppose he was a Communist, could 
you not, if you had ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is a sort of a hypothetical question, sir, that 
would require a hypothetical answer. 

Mr. Morris. Well, that is what I want. 

Mr. McLeish. The only answer I can give you is that I am afraid I 
can't answer that question. 

Mr. Morris. Why not? 

Mr. McLeish. Because I would have to invoke my privileges. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have here the testimony of Mr. Wallace 
specifically about this particular trip. And I am sorry it got so 
complicated. 

Mr. Wallace said in answer to the question "Who issued the checks 
to you or bought your tickets ?" "Mr. McLeish." 

And, Senator Ferguson, who was then questioning Mr. Wallace 
said, "He bought your tickets ?" 

Mr. Wallace said, "No, he issued the checks." 

Senator Ferguson. Issued the checks to you and you went to Air France and 
you bought your tickets? 

Mr. Wallace. No, told him I had made arrangements with this Mr. Velson, 
Charles Velson, since he could get it cheaper for me, and to get a ticket for me. 
He said O. K. 

Mr. Morris. Now, do you know Charles Velson ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question. 

I may say this, if I may 

Senator Hruska. Well, what is the ground for that refusal to 
answer that question ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer on the basis of my privileges; I 
invoke my privileges. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. As previously referred to ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Fred Gardner ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY Iti THE UNITED STATES 4595 

Mr. McLeish, Yes. 

I know a Fred Gardner. I don't know if it is your same Fred 
Gardner, 

I know a Fred Gardner. 

Mr. Morris. Did you ever attend a Communist Party meeting with 
him ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that, sir. 

]\Ir. Morris. You were sponsor of a mass meeting at the Polo 
Grounds in New York City in support of the Soviet Union; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. McLeish. I couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Morris. I see. 

The Daily Worker of July 6, 1943, at page 3, lists you as a sponsor 
of the mass meeting at the Polo Grounds in New York City in sup- 
port of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. McLeish. I couldn't tell you. 

Mr. Morris. You do not recall ? 

Mr. McLeish. No. 

Mr. Morris. Had you signed an appeal on behalf of Earl Browder 
in 1942? 

Mr. McLeish. That I couldn't recall, either. 

Mr. Morris. You do not recall? 

Mr. McLeish. No. 

Mr. Morris. Have you signed an appeal on behalf of the Daily 
Worker in January 1914 ? 

Mr. McLeish. I don't recall that, either. 

Mr. Morris. Did you sign a statement in support of George Dimi- 
troff, head of the Communist International, as the New York Times of 
December 22, 1913, page 40, reports, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. jNIcLeish. I doubt it. 

But I couldn't recall. 

Mr. Morris. Was your name used very often in these appeals for 
various projects? 

IMr. McLeish. Well, I am not aware of how often my name might 
have been used. 

It is possible that it could have been used lots of times. As I said 
before in other testimony, I at one time held three official offices 
which were a little more than I could handle. And if my name had 
been used, it could have been in connection wdth any one of the three 
offices I held. 

Mr. Morris. Did you specifically authorize the use of your name 
on these occasions? Or was it just accepted that your name would 
be used and you would agree to it, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. That I couldn't tell you, either, Mr. Morris. 

I have no such recollection. 

Mr. Morris. Your name turns up scores of times in connection 
with these various Communist and Soviet projects. 

Is it your testimony that you just do not recall the individual 
application ? 

Mr. McLeish. I have got no recollection at all, Mr. Morris. 

My name appeared on lots of things. 

Mr. Morris. It certainly did. 



4596 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. McLeish. And I was a pretty busy fellow during those prewar 
and wartime years. 

Senator Hruska. Did you ever refuse to allow the use of your name 
in those instances? 

Mr. McLeish. I don't recall having refused to allow my name to be 
used either, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Did you ever object to its being used when 
instances came to your attention that it was so used? 

Mr. McLeish. I doubt it. 

Senator Hruska. You did not object? 

Mr. McLeish. I don't suppose so. 

Senator Hruska. So that the use on these numerous occasions was 
with your tacit consent ? 

Can we draw that conclusion ? 

Mr. McLeish. Well, you may. I wouldn't. But you may, if you 
care to. 

Senator Hruska. Well, would you differ with that conclusion ? 

And if you differ with that conclusion, on what grounds do you 
differ with it? 

Mr. INIcLeish. Well, without my having an accurate knowledge or 
remembrance of having done it, l\vouldn't question whether you put 
your interpretation on it or not. That would be solely up to you. 
Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Several instances have been given, and you say 
you have never objected, and you have never objected when you were 
asked to do so, nor have you objected after it came to your attention 
that that name was so used. 

Mr. McLeish. Well, just let me say this, without saying whether I 
did or not, because I clon't recall, you know, whether I did object or 
didn't object: 

It was a little too late to object after it has been done. 

Senator Hruska. Except as to future instances of similar character. 

Were you concerned about that ? 

Mr. McLeish. Oh, naturally I was concerned with anything that 
might affect myself. 

Senator Hruska. And yet you didn't see fit to object, Mr. McLeish. 

Mr. McLeish. No, I didn't say that. 

I said I don't recall that I did. Perhaps I did. Perhaps I didn't. 
T don't recall any such instances. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have seen his name used scores of times 
in connection with those particular projects. 

Now, William Wallace has told us that you were a veteran Com- 
munist, an experienced Communist? 

Would you like to disagree with his description of you, Mr. 
McLeish ? ' 

-''- ' Mr. McLeish. Well, I could agree that I am a veteran, Mr. Morris. 
Mr. Morris. A veteran Communist, though? 
Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been active in an organization called the 
Civil Rip^hts Congress? 

Mr. McLeish. T decline to answer that question, Mr. Morris. 
Mr. Morris. Senator, this is the third witness now wlio has told 
us that on May 16, 1956, he stopped being a Communist. Whatever 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4597 

it was that happened on that date, the three of them stopped being 
Communists. 

I would like to submit, Senator, that if the subcommittee could find 
out what happened on that day, we might be able to make a determi- 
nation as to what the relationship of these particular witnesses is. 

Senator Hruska. Well, I don't believe the record shows that they 
testified they stopped being Coinmunists on that date. 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. Thank you, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. They testified that they asserted their privilege 
as to the period preceding that date. 

Is that correct ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

I was going to object to the statement by Mr. Morris, Senator. 

Mr. Morris. I stand corrected, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. I still agree with comisel, however. 

I think it is very important that we make every effort to find out. 
And I am going to ask the witness in a little while. 

We ought to make every effort to find out what occurred on that 
date, what magic occurred on that day that they want to draw the 
iron curtain down and say they will resort to the fifth amendment as 
to anything that happened, anything they did, prior to that date. 

And Mr. McLeish, I should like to ask you what happened on that 
date that leads you to assert the fifth amendment prior to that time, 
whereas you do not assert it after that time. 

Mr. McLeish. Just let me say this, Senator : 

As of that date, I ceased to be an officer and member of the UE. 

Senator Hruska. We are not asking about the UE. We are asking 
about the Communist Party. 

Mr. McLeish. As of that date, I sought and accepted membership 
in another union. 

Senator Hruska. Are we to assume from that that the UE and the 
Communist Party had something in common, and that you had some- 
thing in common with both of those organizations simultaneously prior 
to that date ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Wliat is your present position ? 

What is your present employment ? 

Mr. McLeish. My present position is that I am employed by my 
local union to advise them, assist them, in arbitrations, grievances, 
and so forth. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your local union ? 

Mr. McLeish. My local union is 467 of the lUE. 

Mr. Morris. And where is that ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is in Orange, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you have had other positions with the lUE, have 
you not ? 

Mr. McLeish. I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Morris. You have had other positions with the lUE since 
May 16, 1956, have you not ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

In the year 1950, approximately 6 weeks after the date of affiliation, 
I was employed by the lUE on a mopup operation of other UE shops 
in the area that I had previously represented. 



4598 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. And your employment was at the hands of the 
international ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. You were mopping them up, as you say; is that 
correct ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat was mopping up ? 

Mr. McLeish. Mopping up was following through, attending meet- 
ings, debating the question as to whether there should be disaffiliation 
or not, membership reports; if they voted in favor of disaffiliation, 
making application to the lUE for membership ; proceeding to nego- 
tiate contracts with the employers, until the mopup operation was 
completed. 

My service with the international union extended until May 15 
of this year. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. McLeish, in connection with these mopping-up 
operations of the UE, did you meet in this connection with UE officials 
whom you had known prior to May 16, 1956, as Communists ? 

Mr. McLeish. I didn't meet with them as such. But I did come 
up against some of them in membership meetings where they were 
advocating the retention of the UE. 

Mr. Morris. They were people you had known as Communists? 

Mr. McLeish. No. They were people who I had known as members 
oftheUE. 

Mr. Morris. No. I asked you had you met any people in connection 
with this mopping-up operation, that is, persons you had met as 
Communists in the UE ? 

Mr. McLeish. I will have to decline to answer that question, sir, 
because that is taking me back into the realm of when I was a member 
ofUE. 

Mr. Morris. It is taking you back in one sense ; I am talking about 
your meetings in this mopping-up operation. During this mopup 
operation did you meet with people — in other words, in the meetings 
that took place after May 16, 1956, did you meet with people whom 
you had known as Communists prior to May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. McLeish. I think that is a tricky question, and I will have to 
decline to answer it. I am sorry, but I have to decline to answer it. 

Senator Hruska. On the basis of your privilege under the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

Was the UE affiliated with the AFL ? 

Mr. McLeish. No. The UE was originally affiliated with the CIO. 

Senator Hruska. With the CIO ? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Senator Hruska. When did it cease to be affiliated with the CIO ? 

Mr. McLeish. 1949. 

Senator Hruska. "Wliy was it disaffiliated? On what grounds? 

Mr. McLeish. There is a dispute on that. 

The UE claims that they left. The CIO claims they were expelled. 

Senator Hruska. 'What were the grounds of expulsion ? 

Mr. McLeish. The grounds used by the CIO in their convention 
resolution was that the UE was Communist dominated. That was 
the main reason, or one of the reasons. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE XJNITED STATES 4599 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I submit that this witness has, according to 
our evidence, been in a position where he has learned many Communist 
secrets which would be very valuable to this subcommittee. 

In other words, according to our evidence, he has attended Com- 
munist meetings. He has been the head of union organizations with 
literally hundreds of thousands of members — literally the head of it. 

And you feel you cannot answer any of those questions simply for 
reasons of your own, and have put, as Senator Hruska said, an Iron 
Curtain over jour activities between September 1937 and 1956? 

Mr. McLeish. Did you ask me that question, sir ? 

]\Ir. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. McLeisii. I decline to answer. 

Senator Hruska. Were you general vice president of the UE in 
October 1919 ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes, sir ; I was. 

Senator Hruska. Is it a fact that you signed a non-Communist affi- 
davit under the Taft-Hartley Act on October 3, 1949 ? 

Mr. McLeisii. Approximately that date. 

I am not just too sure of the date. But I did sign one in 1949, 
around that time. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on that date, Mr. 
McLeish ? 

]Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Hruska. But you did sign a sworn affidavit to the effect 
that you were not a Communist on that date ; is that true ? 

Mr. jMcLeish. I filed an affidavit in proper form. My signature is 
attached. It was filed with the Department of Labor as of that date. 

Senator Hruska, We have information to the effect that you were 
general vice president of the UE, district 4, on September 28, 1950, 
at which time you filed a non-Communist affidavit. 

Mr. McLeisii. That is correct. 

Senator Hruska. Under the Taft-Hartley Act. 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Senator Hruska. Is that information true and correct, Mr. Mc- 
l^eish ? 

Mr. McLeish. That I filed the affidavit ? 

Senator Hruska. Yes. 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

Senator Hri'ska. You signed it of your own free will under oath ? 

Mr. McLeish. Notarized, yes, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on that date, Mr. Mc- 
I^eish ( 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Hruska. You answered it once to the notary public when 
you said you were signing that affidavit that you were non-Communist 
on that date. And you swore to that. But you didn't want to say 
now whether or not you were a Connnunist on that date ? 
Is that what you want to tell the committee ? 
Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

Senator Hrusk.\. We have information to the effect that you filed 
a non-Communist affidavit under the Taft-Hartley Act on September 
8, 1952, at which time you were general vice president of UE district 4. 
Is that information correct ? 



4600 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. McLeish. General vice president of the international union, 
Senator ? 

Senator Hruska. General vice president of the International Union 
ofUE? 

Mr. McLeish. That is correct. 

I filed one in 1952. I filed one in 1953. I filed one in 1954. And 
I filed one in 1955, the last one I filed, all of which I filed, Senator, with 
my signature, duly attested before a notary public in the State of New 
Jersey. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on any of those dates, 
and at the time that you signed any of those affidavits, Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. McLeish. I must decline to answer that question also, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on the day preceding the 
signing of any of these affidavits ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question also. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. On the same grounds ? 

Mr. McLeish. On the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. We have been told, and there has been evidence 
before this committee that there have been some instances where sig- 
natures on those affidavits is preceded the day before by a resignation 
from the Communist Party and then a signing of the affidavit and then 
a rejoining of the party, or doing whatever is necessary to rejoin the 
Communist Party. 

Would you tell us whether or not in any of these instances where 
you filed a Taft-Hartley non-Communist affidavit that practice was 
followed ? 

Mr. McLeish. I am sorry ; I have to decline to answer the question. 

Senator Hruska. On the same grounds ? 

Mr. McLeish. On the same grounds, yes. 

Senator Hruska. Do you have anything further, Judge Morris? 

Mr. Morris. Yes, Senator. 

When did you last see Charles Velson ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen Charles Velson since May 16, 1956? 

Mr. McLeish. Since May 15, 19561 

Mr. Morris. Since May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. McLeish. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen Martha Stone since May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. McLeish. No, sir ; I have not. 

Senator Hruska. Is Charles Velson a member of the Commmiist 
Party? 

Mr. McLeish. I wouldn't know, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Have you personal knowledge of liis membership 
at any time in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question also. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Has he been affiliated and active with organiza- 
tions of the Communist Party within your personal knowledge? 

Mr. McLeish. I decline to answer that question also. Senator. 

Mr. Morris. You have been president of the Gas, Coke and Chemi- 
cal Workers, have you not ? 

Mr. McLeish. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Morris. Have you been president of the Gas, Coke and Chemi- 
cal Workers ? 

Mr. McLeish. No. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITT IN THE UNITED STATES 4601 

Mr. MoRMS. You say "No" ; is that correct ? 

Mr. McLeish. Yes. 

i\Ir. INIoRRis. There is a reference to you as president of the Gas, 
Coke and Chemical Workers. 

Mr. McLeisii. Somebody must have been confused. 

Mr. Morris. Yes. All right. 

I have no more questions, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. All right. 

The witness is excused. 

Mr. Morris. I am sorry, Senator, the last question was on my 
sheet for the next witness. Excuse me. 

Senator Hruska. "\Ye will call the next witness, then. Judge Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. San Giovanni. 

Senator Hruska. This witness has been previously sworn also. 

And this witness is also accompanied by counsel. Will you give 
your name again for the record, please. 

Mr. Rossmoore. William Rossmoore, 60 Park Place, Newark, N. J. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF DOMINICK SAN GIOVANNI, STIRLING, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Give your name and address to the reporter, Mr. San 
Giovanni. 

Mr. San Giovanni. Dominick San Giovanni, 28 Essex Street, 
Stirling, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your business or profession, Mr. San 
Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I am a field representative for the lUE, AFL- 
CIO. 

Mr. Morris. Now, out of what office are you working, Mr. San 
Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Out of the Newark office. 

Mr. Morris. That is district 4 ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. And you do not work for district 4, but you work out 
of district 4 ; is that correct, Mr. San Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I work for the international union, yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I had, in earlier reference to this witness, men- 
tioned that he was associated with district 4. And the leaders of dis- 
trict 4 expressed disagreement with my description of the witness. 

So that it why I would like with great particularity to have this 
witness say exactly what his relationship is to district 4. 

We were under the impression that your office is in district 4. 

Mr. San Giovanni. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You physically have an office there ; is that correct ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. District office ; yes. But they have a national. 

We can be assigned to any place at any time. At this present time, 
I happen to be working out of district 4 office. But I work under the 
direction of the international union. 

Mr. Morris. But in district 4 ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Well, wherever they may want to send me. 

Mr. Morris. And you are paid by the international ; is that right ? 

Mr, San Giovanni. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. "\^nien did you first join the trade union ? 



4602 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Well, first, let me ask you this question : Where were you born, Mr. 
San Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Where ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. San Giovanni. Stirling, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. When did you first become active in the trade-union 
movement ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. In the early 1940's, I believe, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. What unions have you been associated with, Mr, San 
Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. District 50 of the United Mine Workers. Gas, 
Coke and Chemical Workers, CIO. And the UE. 

Mr. Morris. You have been president of the Gas, Coke, and Chem- 
ical Workers, have you not ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I was president of a local union, the shop that 
I worked in, when we organized it. 

I was elected president of that particular local union. 

Mr. Morris. What local was that ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Well, we had 2 different local numbers, because 
at the time we were in CIO, within district 50 of the United Mine 
Workers. And when Lewis decided to leave the CIO, our local and 
the majority of the locals in the district of the United INIine Workers 
decided to leave Lewis and petition the national CIO for a chemical 
workers charter which was granted at a later date. 

There were two different local numbers. 

One, I remember, was local 20. I think that was the new local num- 
ber assigned to us after we left district 50 of the United Mine Workers 
and received a charter from the International Union of Chemical 
Workers. 

Senator Hruska. TSHiat year was that ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I couldn't tell you. 

Senator Hruska. Approximately what year was that, Mr. San 
Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Maybe 1943, 1944. 

Senator Hruska. And when was it that you were president of this 
gas, coke, and chemical local ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. When was it? 

Senator Hruska. Yes. 

Mr. San Giovanni. Around that period of time. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Hruska, I have here a statement protesting 
what the Daily Worker called the reactionary intervention of the 
United States in the Italian elections on April 13, 1948, in which is 
listed as a signer Dominick San Giovanni, president of tlie Gas, Coke, 
and Chemical Workers, CIO, district 4. 

Senator Hruska. What was that date ? 

Mr. Morris. That was April 13, 1948, Senator, if that would help. 

ISIr. San Giovanni. Do you want me to explain the time, Mr. Morris ? 

Senator Hruska. Yes. 

Mr. San Giovanni. Well, you asked me a question 

Mr. Morris. About the time, about whether or not you signed the 
statement. 

Mr. San Giovanni. I was fired by district 50, 

Mr. Morris. That is John L. Lewis ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Yes. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4603 

For being one of the members who petitioned Philip Murray of the 
pational CIO for a charter. 

I had a leave of absence from the plant, and I was still president of 
the local union up until that time, on leave. 

I went back into the plant to Avork, even prior to 1948 on two differ- 
ent occasions. And the local kept me in office as president at that 
;ime. 

Mr. Morris. Did you, as a matter of fact, sign this protest against 
he "reactionary intervention of the United States in the Italian elec- 
ions in 19-18" ? 

Mr. San Gioa'anni. I may have signed it. I am not sure. 

It was quite a long time ago. I do not remember that in detail, no. 

Mr. Morris. jNIr. San Giovanni, ]\Ir. William Wallace has told us 
rou have been an active Communist in Xew Jersey. 

Is what he told us accurate ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Morris. 

Senator Hruska. On what ground ? 

]Mr. San Giovanni. On the basis of the fifth amendment. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Self-incrimination ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I decline to answer the question also, Mr. 
yiorris. 

Mr. iVIoRRis. As you are here this morning, are you a member of the 
^'ommunist Party, Mr. San Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni, No. 

Mr, ISIoRRis. Were you a member of the Communist Party on May 
5, 1956? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party on May 
LT, 1956? 

Mr. San Giovanni. No. 

Senator Hruska. Did you resign from the Communist Party be- 
tween May 15, 1956, and May 17, 1956 ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I decline to answer that question. 

Senator Hruska. The preceding witness, Mr. San Giovanni, said 
;hat he was willing to answer any questions about his membership in 
he Communist Party prior to September 1937 and May 1956. 

Let me start that over again. 

The preceding witness said that he would be willing to answer any 
luestions about his Communist Party membership except between 
September of 1937 and May of 1956. 

Now, is there any period that you would like to exclude in a similar 
"ashion or are you simply saying after May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Well, I am willing to answer any questions on 
his question from May 16 to the present time. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist in September of 1937 ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I decline to answer that question also. 

Senator Hruska. How old are you ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Forty- two. 

I would like to answer this in the record, if I may. Senator : During 
;he period of the Second World War, I served as a representative for 
;he CIO for the Somerset County area, and labor representative for 
;he War Manpower Commission for a period of 3i^ years. And I 



4604 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 

would like to submit a duplicate copy of the certificate I received from 
the War Manpower Commission during this period. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, they gave you a certificate commending 
you for your service ; is that correct, Mr. San Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. It will be received for the record. 

(The certificate above referred to was marked "Exhibit No. 489" 
and is reproduced below :) 

Exhibit No. 489 

WAR MANPOWER COMMISSION 

Jtz r^ecogmtion of 

U^istinguisnea ^tvice in Jime of War 
Jkis certificate is axvarciea to 
OOMENtCK SPN6I0VPNI 
a memoer of the lAJar nlanpower Commission's ulanagement- 

Jahor Committee of the NEW BBUNSV/ICK 4rea, 

who served the nation faithfully and selflessly oy uniting the 
efforts of laoor and management toward the common cause of 
producing the tools of victory, f-^resented on this i^th day of 
.jieotemoer, nineteen hundred and forty-fi\>e. 



y^ PAUL C LEWIS 

maiONAL DtiircTDR 



Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist when you served with the War 
Manpower Commission ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I decline to answer that question, Mr. Morris. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions. 

Senator Hruska. Mr. San Giovanni, what is the policy of the lUE 
with reference to Communists and subversives and Communist sym- 
pathizers as being active within your union ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Would you repeat that question, Senator ? 

Senator Hruska. What is the policy of the lUE with reference to 
Communists and Communist sympathizers and subversives being ac- 
tive within the ranks of your international organization ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. They are not permitted to hold any office. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4605 

As a matter of fact, our constitution specifically states that anyone 
who is a member of the Communist Party, a sympathizer, or a mem- 
jer of the Fascist Party, is not permitted to hold any office, I believe. 

Senator Hruska. As a matter of fact, that goes to membership as 
well, does it not ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I assume s6 ; yes. 

Senator Hruska. Do you know of any member or any applicant for 
membership in the lUE who was turned down on account of his affilia- 
tion with the Communist Party, Mr. San Giovanni ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I am not in a position to answer that question, 
because that does not come within the scope of my job. 

Senator Hruska. Well, your personal knowledge, then. It comes 
within the scope of your personal knowledge, does it not ? 

Do you know of any instance or have you heard of any instance 
where an applicant for membership in the lUE was turned down be- 
cause he was a Communist or Communist sympathizer? 

Mr. San Giovanni. I don't know of any. 

Senator Hruska, You don't know of any ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Well, let me say this, in all due fairness to the 
union. 

That does not necessarily mean because I am not aware of it at the 
present time, that it may not have taken place. 

Senator Hruska. Yes ; I understand that. 

Mr. San Giovanni. One could assume by my answer that that 
didn't happen. I don't know. 

Senator Hruska. We have had testimony that has been given in 
sworn form before this committee in which it was stated that mem- 
bers and some of the officers of UE were Communists. 

Do you know of any such instances ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. In the lUE ? 

Senator Hruska. No ; in the UE. 

Mr. San Giovanni. I will have to resort to my privileges under the 
fifth amendment. 

Senator Hruska. Do you have any further questions. Judge Mor- 
ris? 

]\Ir. Morris. No, Senator. 

I think it points up the problem that we should tiy to find out what 
happened on May 16 within the councils of the Communist Party 
which caused at least three people, described to us as veteran Com- 
munists, to refuse to answer questions on one day but then answering 
questions relative to the subsequent day. 

Senator Hruska. Did you ever hold any office that would require 
the filing of a non-Commmiist affidavit under the Taft-Hartley Act 
provisions ? 

Mr. San Giovanni. Not to my knowledge ; no. 

Senator Hbuska. Do you have anything further, Judge INIorris? 

Mr. Morris. I would "like to offer for the record something that is 
not related to this particular hearing. But I would like it in, because 
we want to print it. 

This is to be printed as an appropirate part of the record of our 
hearings. 



4606 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

We have received from Harry Gold a supplemental statement. 
Harry Gold is in prison in Lewisburg. We have received a statement 
on his experiences within the Soviet espionage network. 

I would like that to go into the record, Senator, if it may. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. It will be received and placed in the 
record. 

Mr. Morris. Together with the indictment of Rudolph Ivanovich 
Abel, to be printed in the record. 

Senator Hruska. It will be placed in the record at this point. 

(The statement of Harrj' Gold appears at p. 3814 of pt. 58; the in- 
dictment of Rudolph Abel is printed in pt. 71 of this same series on 
Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States.) 

Senator Hruska. If there is nothing f urtlier of this witness, he may 
be excused. 

I would like to announce that on the 22d we will hear testimony of 
Boris Morros before this subcommittee. 

It is my understanding that unless your plans have changed that 
you are proceeding up to New York on Monday in order to make 
preparations for that testimony and that hearing ? 

Mr. Morris. That is correct, sir. 

Senator Hruska. The meeting is adjourned. 

(AVliereupon, at 10 : 55 a. m., the subcommittee adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance to 
the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization 
in this index. 

A 

Page 

Abel Rudolph Ivanovich 4606 

Adanatzias. Marv 4580 

AFL 4585,4598 

AFL-CIO 4581-4583, 4586. 4609 

Air France 4.594 

Amalgamated Engineering Union in London 4592 

American Youth for Democracy, National Council of (AYD) 4580 

Attorney General 4580 

B 
llarrett, Douglas AY. : 

testimony of 4578-4587 

44 Summit Drive, Denville, N. J 4578 

William Rossmoore. attorney 4578 

2 years at Univ. of Wisconsin 4578 

worked for Scientific Glass Apparatus in Bloomfield, N. J 4578 

field organizer for UE from 1946-56 4579 

presently field organizer for lUE 4579 

fifth amendment if member of Communist Party 4579 

Black Sea 4593 

Bloomfield. N. J 4578 

Browder, Earl 4595 

C 
Chicago 4581 

CIO 4585, 4590, 4591, 4598, 4602, 4603 

Civil Rights Congress 4596 

Communist(s) 457^-4585, 4594, 4596-4600, 4603, 4604 

Communist International 4595 

Communist Party 4579, 

4580, 4583, 4584, 4586, 4587, 4591, 4592, 4594. 4595, 4600, 4603, 4605 

16th National Convention of 4583, 4585 

Congress 4586 

Constitution 4591 

Czechoslovakia 4593 

D 

Daily Worker 4595, 4602 

Denville, N. J 4578 

Dimitrol¥. George 4595 

E 

Essex County, N. J 4580 

Exhibit No. 488 — Excerpt from proceedings of 16th National Convention 

of CPUSA 4.585, 4586 

Exhibit No. 489 — Certificate received by Dominick San Giovanni from 

War Manpower Commission 4604 



II INDEX 

F 

Page 

FBI 4579 

Felsen, Milton : 18 Manitou Trail, White Plains, N. Y., international rep- 
resentative of lUE 4577 

Ferguson, Senator 4594 

Fifth amendment 4579-4582, 4584, 4587, 4591, 4592. 4594-4600, 4603-4605 

G 

Gardner, Fred 4594, 4595 

Gas. Coke, and Chemical Workers, CIO 4602 

Gold, Harry 4606 

Gordon, Evelyn 4580 

Gordon, Willie Mae 4580 

Greater New York Industrial Union Council 4590, 4591 

Greater Newark Industrial Council of the CIO 4590 

H 
Hruska, Senator Roman L 4577, 4589 



International Radio and Machine Workers of America 4590 

District 4 4590 

International Union of Chemical Workers 4602 

lUE 4577, 4579. 4580, 4582, 4583, 4587, 4598, 4601, 4604, 4605 

Local 467 4597 

L 

Labor Department 4599 

Lewis, John L 4602 

Lewis, Paul C 4604 

London 4592 

M 

Mandel, Benjamin 4577, 4589 

Meany, George 4581. 4583 

McLeish, James B. : 

Testimony of 4589-4601 

725 Eagle Rock Avenue, West Orange, N. J 4589 

William Rossmoore, attorney 4589 

Horn in Scotland 4589 

With United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America 4589 

With International Radio and Machine Workers of America 4590 

Fifth amendment if member of Communist Party 4591 

Morris, Robert 4577, 4589 

Morros, Boris 4586, 4606 

Moscow 4592, 4593 

Murray, Philip 4603 

N 

New Jersey 4590, 4591, 4600, 4603 

New York 4586, 4590, 4591, 4595, 4606 

New York Times 4595 

Newark, N. J 4579, 4589, 4591, 4593, 4594, 4601 

O 
Orange, N. J 4597 

P 

Paris 4592, 4593 

Polo Grounds in New York City 4595 

Prague 4593 



INDEX in 

R 
Rossmoore, William : Page 

Attorney for Doughis W. Barrett 4578 

60 Park Place, Newark, N. J 4578 

Attorney for James McLeish 4589 

Attorney for Dominick San Giovanni 4601 

San Giovanni, Dominick : 

Testimony of 4601-4606 

William Rossmoore, attorney 4601 

28 Essex Street, Stirling. X. J 4601 

Field representative for lUE, AFL-CIO 4601 

Fifth amendment if member of Communist Party 4603 

Scliroeder. F. W 4577,4589 

Scientific Glass Apparatus in Bloomfield. N. J 4578 

Second World War 4603 

Singer plant 4592 

Somerset County 4603 

Soviet Union 4586, 4593, 4595 

State Department 4585 

Stirling. N. J 4601, 4602 

Stone, Martha 4600 

T 

Taft-Hartley Act 4599,4605 

Non-Communist affidavit 4600 

Tanner, Jack 4592 

U 

UE 4578, 4579, 4580, 4590, 4591, 4597, 4598, 4602, 4605 

District 4 4599 

International Union of 4600 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America 4589 

United Mine Workers, District 50 4602 

United States Army 4578-4580 

University of Wisconsin 4578, 4579 

U. S. S. R 4593 

V 

Velson, Charles 4594, 4600 

Vottis, Salvatore M 4592 

W 

Warsaw 4593 

Wallace, William 4579, 4592-4594, 4596, 4603 

War Manpower Commission 4603, 4604 

West Orange, N. J 4589 

Y 

Youns Communist League 4580 

o 



OTORY 'iC- ,, 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Extent of Communist Activity in Labor) 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECUEITY 

ACT AND OTHEE INTEENAL SECUEITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIMY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH COXGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



AUGUST 19, 1957 



PART 81 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
i»;21'^i WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 1 1 1958 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER. Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, "Wisconsin 

OLLX D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina AVILLLVM LANGER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLL\M E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER. Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



SUBCOM.MITTKK To INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

Act AND Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virgmia ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 

RonERT Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. SouRWiXE, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



restinionv of— ^^^^ 

Barile, Pasquale 4615 

P'av, Charles 4607 

Feisen, Milton 4612 

Garry, James 4617 

Jaffe", Eleanor 4609 

III 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 19, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

and Other Internal Security Laws, 
of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington^ D. G. 
The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 12 : 20 p. m., in room 155, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L. Hruska presiding. 

Also present: Robert Morris, chief counsel, and F. W. Schroeder, 
chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The subcommittee will come to order. 

We will call Milton Felsen. 

Where is your counsel, Mr. Felsen ? 

Mr. Felsen. He is on his way. 

Mr. Morris. While we are waiting for him, we will call Mr. Charles 

Fay- 
Senator Hruska, Will you be sworn, Mr. Fay ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Fay. I do. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Fay, will you give your name and address to the 
reporter ? 

Mr. Fay. CharlesFay,611 West Road, Broad Channel, N.Y. 

Mr. Morris. I would like the record to show that this hearing is 
being held in connection with the subcommittee's inquiry into the 
determination of whether or not Communists are infiltrating the 
mainstream of American labor, the AFL-CIO. One of the things we 
are trying to determine is whether or not the Communist Control 
Act of 1954 should be amended in order to provide for the situation, 
whatever the subcommittee finds it to be. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES FAY, NEW YORK CITY, ACCOMPANIED 
BY HIS ATTORNEY, OSMOND K. FRAENKEL 

Mr. Morris. Where did you say you reside ? 
Mr. Fay. 611 West Road, Broad Channel, N. Y. 
Mr. Morris. Wliere is that ? 
Mr. Fay. Toward the Rockaways. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat is your present business or occupation ? 
Mr. Fay. I am a union official, president of local 485, lUE, AFL- 
CIO. 

4607 



4608 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been president of local 485 ? 

Mr. Fay. Since May 17 of 1956. 

Mr. Morris, How man}^ members are in that local i 

Mr. Fay. Approximately 4,250. 

Mr, Morris. Now, are you now a member of the Connnunist Party, 
Mr. Fay? 

Mr. Fay, I am not a member of the Connnunist Party, 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party on May 10, 
1956^ I use that because that is the cutolf date the witnesses have 
been giving us, beyond which they refuse to say whether or not they 
have been members of the Communist Party. Were you a member of 
the Communist Party on May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. Fay. I assert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Senator Hruska. That portion of the hfth amenchnent by which 
you 

Mr, Fay, Self-incrimination. 

Mr. Morris, The pressure of time here has been quite great, I 
know that you have very limited time, Senator, I have rather exten- 
sive examinations prepared, but I would like to say essentially I 
would like to have this in the record, that the witness will not deny 
the testimony of Mr, William Wallace that he has been a member of 
the Comnuinist Party, Mr, Wallace left the Communist Party in 
1955, He said that during that period, Mr. Fay was a member of 
the Connnunist Party. Were you, Mr. Fa}' ? 

Mr. Fay. I assert my privilege. 

Mr. Morris, Do you know a man named Marcel Scherer, 
S-c-h-e-r-e-r? 

Mr, Fay, Excuse me. 

(Witness consults with counsel,) 

Mr, Fay. I assert my privilege, 

Mr. Morris. You won't tell us whether you know Marcel Scherer ? 

jVIr. Fay. I assert my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. In view of that, Senator, I think the evidence in the 
record, and the failure of Mr, Fay to answer is in the record, and only 
because of the time schedule, I Avould like to let the record stand. 

Senator Hruska. I would like to ask Mr, Fay : Of your own per- 
sonal knowledge, are any officers or members of local 485 members of 
the Communist Party, or affiliated witli it ? 

Mr. Fay. Not to my own personal knowledge. 

Senator Hruska. To your own personal knowledge, are there any 
officers or members of local 485 who have been members of the Com- 
munist Party, or affiliated with it ? 

Mr, Fay. I assert my privilege, sir. 

Senator Hruska, I want to say, Mr, Witness, I am not asking for 
names, I am not asking you to embarrass anyone or to subject them 
to any questioning or questions or criticisms. I am simply asking 
whether or not you know if there are any members, whether there 
are any members of local 485 or officers of 485, who have at any time 
been members of the Communist Party, or affiliated with it, | 

Mr, Fay, I assert my privilege, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1937? ^ - 

Mr, Fay, I assert my privilege. 

\  : 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4609 

Senator Hriska. Where were you born, Mr. Fay? 

Mr. Fay. In Koxbury. jMass. 

Senator Hkuska. How many affidavits have you filed, non-Com- 
munist affidavits, for officials of unions, pursuant to the Taft-Hartley 
Act? 

Mr. Fay. Since 1949. 

]Mr. MoKRis. The Senator asked how many have you tiled ? 

Senator Hriska. Each year since 1949 ? 

Mr. Fay. Yes ; each year since 1949. 

Senator Hruska. And on those occasions, in that affidavit you swore 
to the notary public or the officer taking your oath, or taking your 
attestation, that you were not a member of the Conununist Party; is 
that correct? 

Mr. Fay. That is true. 

Senator Hruska. Were you, on any of those days when you signed 
those affidavits, a member of the Communist Party or affiliated with it ? 

Mr. Fay. I assert my privilege. 

Senator Hruska. I have no further questions. 

Have 5^ou any, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. Just one thing. I mentioned Marcel Scherer. To your 
knowledge was Marcel Scherer district representative of district 4 of 
the ITERMIY, CIO ? I put that name in the record. I would like some 
identification. 

Mr. Fay. I am not sure at this point what his capacity was. 

Mr. Morris. Our information, Senator, is he was district representa- 
tive, district 4, of UERMW. That is not the lUE. Were you as- 
sociated with him in a project called the New York Laboi- Conference 
for Peace ? 

Mr. Fay. I assert my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. I have more questions. Senator, but 

Senator Hruska. I understand. 

Mr. Morris. Mr, Fraenkel, will you identify yourself for the 
record ? 

Mr. Fraenkel. Osmond K. Fraenkel, 120 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Senator Hruska. The record will show that counsel just named was 
present during the taking of testimony. 

Mr. Morris. Since counsel is here, will his other witness, Miss Jaffe, 
come forward, please? 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

MissJAFTE. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ELEANOR JAFFE. BROOKLYN, N. Y., ACCOMPANIED 
BY HER ATTORNEY, OSMOND K. FRAENKEL 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name and address to the 
reporter ? 

Miss Jaffe. Eleanor Jaffe, 276 Henry Street, Brooklyn. 

Mr, Morris. What is your business or occupation ? 

Miss Jaffe. I am an office worker for local 485. 

Mr. Morris. Are y<3U secretary to Mr. Fay or Mr. Cameron ? 



4610 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Miss Jaffe. Not for one more than the other. 

Mr. MoREis. You work for both ? 

Miss Jaffe. Both, and for the whole staff. 

Mr. Morris. You will recall, Senator, that Clifton Cameron, who 
testified here last week, said he was business agent for local 485. 

You say you work for both Mr. Fay and Mr. Cameron ? 

Miss Jaffe. Yes ; and for other staff' members. 

Mr, Fraenkel. Mr. Morris, I don't believe the last answer was 
clear. 

Miss Jaffe. I said I worked for both, and for other staff' members. 

Mr. Fhaenkel. I also represent this witness. 

Senator Uruska. I understand. 

Mr. ^Morris. Just so we will understand. Miss Jaff'e, have you been 
the wife of Walter Barry ? 

Miss Jaffe. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You are not his wife now ? 

Miss Jaffe. No ; I am not. 

Mr. Morris. Is Jaff'e the name of your })i-esent husband ? 

Miss Jaffe. No ; I am not married. 

Mr. Morris. Oh, Jaff'e is your maiden name ? 

Miss Jaffe. No ; Jaff'e is the name of a previous husband. 

Mr. Morris. You Avill recall, Senator, that Walter Barry has been 
identified frequently in testimony before the subcommittee as one of the 
Communist leaders who, among other things, led the Singer Sewing 
Machine strike, and participated in other Communist activities. 

Miss Jaff'e, you say you are not his wife now ? 

Miss Jaffe. No ; I am not. 

Mr. ]\ [orris. How long have you been with local 485 ? 

Miss Jaffe. Since May 17, 1956. 

Mr. ]Morris. What did you do before that ? 

Miss Jaffe. I was an office worker for local 475. 

Mr. Morris. Which is the UE local, which became local 485 of the 
lUE. 

Miss Jaffe. That is right. M 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party on May  
1 6, 1956, the day before you moved into the lUE ? " 

Miss Jaffe. I use my constitutional privilege on that question. 
Judge Morris. 

I am willing to answer any questions about May 17, 1956, since I 
became a member of the lUE. but ]5rior to that, I wish to use my 
privileges under the Constitution. 

Senator Hruska. Would you identify that privilege ? 

Miss Jaffe. The ])rivilege against self-incrimination undei- the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. Mary Markward, who has been identified as a former 
Communist Party member, has told us you were a member of the 
Communist Party. Would you like to deny that ? 

Miss Jaffe. T will use my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know who Mary Markward is ? 

Miss Jaffe. I use my privilege. 

Mr. INIoRRis. You will not deny that ? 

Miss Jaffe. I use my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Were vou a member of the Communist Party on May 
18, 1956, the day after you moved from the UE to the lUE? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4611 

Miss Jaite. I am not a member of the Comnmnist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party on May 

18,1956? * ..,.., 

Miss Jaffe. As I said before, I use my constitutional privileges. 

Just a minute. 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

Miss Jaffe. Oh, no. 

Mr. Morris. Emphatically no ? 

Miss Jaffe. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. On May 16, you use your privilege ? 

Miss Jaffe. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. But as to May 18, you say emphatically, "No," that 
you were not a member of the Communist Party ? 

MissJiVFFE. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us what took place in the Communist 
Party on May 17, which caused you to give a difierent answer with 
respect to May 16, from what you gave when you were asked the ques- 
tion regarding May 18, 1956 ? 

Miss Jaffe. I use my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. The pattern is becoming more clear here all the time. 
Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Are you in sympathy with the objectives of the 
Communist Party, Miss Jaffe ? 

Miss Jaffe. No; I am not. 

Senator Hruska. Were you in sympathy with the objectives of the 
Communist Party at any time ? 

Miss Jaffe. I use my privilege on that question. 

Senator Hruska. Were you in sympathy with the objectives of the 
Communist Party on May 16, 1956 ? 

Miss Jaffe. I use my privilege on that question. 

Senator Hruska. Were you in sympathy with the objectives of the 
Communist Party on May 18, 1956 ? 

Miss Jaffe. No. 

Senator Hruska. Would you tell us why that change of mind over- 
night, Miss Jaffe ? 

Mr. Fraenkel. Just a minute, Senator. I know counsel is not sup- 
posed to speak, but there has been no testimony of change of mind, sir. 
There is a refusal to answer as to certain questions. 

Senator Hruska. Can you tell us why there is a different answer 
which is prompted by the passage of hours of 1 night ? 

Miss Jaffe. I assert my privilege. 

Senator Hruska. Is there anything further, Judge Morris? 

Mr. Morris. No, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Then we will hear from the next witness. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Felsen ? 

Senator Hruska. Will counsel identify himself for the record, 
please ? 

Mr. Rossmoore. William Rossmoore, 60 Park Place, Newark. 

Mr. Morris. You will have two clients today, Mr. Felsen and Mr. 
Barile? 

Mr. Rossmoore. Yes. 

93215— 58— pt. 81 2 



4612 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE XJNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Felsen, do you solemnly swear that the testi- 
mony you are about to give shall be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothinjcr but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Felsex. I do. 

Senator Hruska. The photographers will take their pictures at the 
instance and suggestion of counsel, and, when that has been done, we 
shall proceed with the questioning of the witness. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON FELSEN, WHITE PLAINS, N. Y., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY WILLIAM ROSSMOORE, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Give your full name and address to the reporter, please. 

Mr. Felsen. Milton Felsen, 18 Manitou Trail, White Plains, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession, Mr. Felsen ? 

Mr. Felsen. I am an international representative of the lUE, 
AFL-CIO. 

Mr. Morris. And wliere do you work as international i-epresenta- 
tive? 

Mr. Felsen. Well, wherever the union sees fit to assign me, which, 
of course, covers the jurisdiction of the union. At the moment it is 
in the New York area. 

Mr. Morris. Have you worked out of district 4? 

Mr. Felsen. Xo. 

Mr. Morris. Xow, Mr. Felseu, we have been told that you have been 
a member of the Communist Party. Have you been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. P^ELSEN. Well, I would like to testify in relation to those mat- 
ters as of February '2, 195(). Before that time, I would like to claim 
privilege. 

Senator Hruska. And that will be the privilege against self- 
incrimination, as provided in the fifth amendment of the Constitution 
of the United States ; is that right ? 

Mr. Felsen. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Felsen. In Brooklyn. 

Mr. Morris. In what year ? 

Mr. Felsen. 1912. 

Mr. Morris. And when did you first enter the trade-miion move- 
ment ? 

Mr. Felsen. Well, in what capacity ? 

Mr. Morris. You imderstand that that is a broad term. I used it 
broadly. 

When did you first become interested in organized labor? 

Mr. Felsen. Well, I first went to work for the unions after the war. 

Mr. Morris. After 1945 ? 

Mr. Felsen. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. But you were a member of the imion before that, 
and active in its affairs as a member ? 

Mr. Felsen. I suppose not really active — just as a member. 

Mr. Morris. What was your business before 1945 ? 

Mr. Felsen. Again, what do you mean? 

Mr. Morris. Well, what was your profession prior to 1945 ? You 
are now a trade-union man. What did j^ou do prior to that war? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4613 

Mr. Felsen. I did a number of kinds of work. I drove a truck; I 
worked in shops ; I really had not established any particular occupa- 
tion. 

Mr. MoRiiis. What was the trade union you first became active in? 

Mr. Felsex. I first went to work for the CIO relief fund in New 
York. 

Mr. Morris. Was that in 1945 or 1946 ? 

Mr. Felsen. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do with tlie CIO relief fund i 

Mr. Fj:lsex. I was employed in a publicity capacity. 

Mr. Morris. How long did vou do that ? 

Mr. Felsex. Until 1947. 

Mr. Morris. What did you do in 1947 ? 

Mr. Felsen. I w^as employed by the UE. 

Mr. Morris. You worked for the UE up until the time you worked 
for the lUE ? 

Mr. Felsen. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Were you in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade? 

Mr. Felsen. Well/ that goes back to the Spanish civil war. I 
think that covei-s the area I would like to claim my privilege on. 

Mr. Morris. You wouldn't like to tell us whether, in fact, as we 
have been told, you were a member of the Abraliam Lincoln Brigade i 

Mr. Felsen. I would rather claim privilege on those matters. 

Mr. Morris. How did you get to Spain in connection with that? 

Mr. Felsen. My privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Did you use an American passport ? 

Mr. Felsen. My privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Do you still have the American passport you took to 
Spain, or was your passport one of the passports that were taken by 
the Communists in Spain ? 

Mr. Felsen. Excuse me. 

( Witness consults with counsel. ) 

Mr. Felsen. I don't have any passport now. 

Mr. Morris. What happened to the passport you took to Spain ? 

Mr. Felsen. Excuse me. 

(Witness consults with counsel.) 

]SIr. Felsen. It strikes me as part of the other question. I would 
like to take the privilege on it. 

Mr. Morris. Did you give j^our American passport to the Commu- 
nists? 

Mr. Felsen. I claim the privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Did you have anv military training under Soviet offi- 
cers while you were in Spain ? 

Mr. Felsen. Privilege. 

Mr. Morris. But did you serve the United States Army in World 
War II? 

IVIr. Felsen. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Felsen. As a member of the Armed Forces. Do you want my 
rank? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mr. Felsen. Well, when I came out, I was first sergeant. 

Mr. Morris. Did you do any special training? Any special work 
in view of your experience in Spain? 



4614 SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Well, I'll take the second part of the question, because answering 
that might— Did you do any special work, Mr. Felsen, in World 
War II? 

Mr. Felsen. I like to think I did very good work. 

Mr. Morris. Tell us generally what it was. 

Mr. Felsen. Well 

Mr. Morris. You weren't with the OSS, for instance, were you ? 

Mr. Felsen. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Oh, you were. 

Were you taken into the OSS on the basis of your training in Spain ? 

Mr. Felsen. In relation to the recruiting and operations and activ- 
ities of the OSS as such, of which I am very proud, I think you may 
be familiar that there is an understanding and oath when we left that 
sort of inhibits 

Mr. Morris. In other words, you don't want to tell us about what 
you did for the OSS? 

Mr. Felsen. Well, I would like to tell you that I went overseas; 
that I was captured after having been wounded. Maybe one of the 
first casualties of the OSS. A person captured with me was Col. 
Jerry Sage, from whom I have a very nice letter; it happens it is in 
my pocket. I don't want to go into it, unless you would be interested, 
and I think I had a fine commendation at the end of the war, and 
during 1945. 

I spent a couple of years in German prison camps, came back to tlie 
OSS, and was discharged only because the war ended. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Gommunist while you were in the OSS? 

Mr. Felsen. No. 

Mr. Morris. You were not ? 

Mr. Felsen. No. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist the dav before you joined the 
OSS? 

Mr. Felsen. I will claim the privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist the day after you left the OSS ? 

Mr. Felsen. I would like to claim the privilege, because it covers 
that area of time you were talking about. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, while you were a member of the OSS, 
you can say you were not a member of tlie Communist Party. 

Mr. Felsen. I think 

Mr. ]\IoRRis. That is what he said, didn't he, Mr. Counsel ? 

Consult your counsel, Mr. Felsen. 

Mr. Felsen. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Did you effect a tactical resignation from the Com- 
munist Party because of your relationship with OSS, because of a 
Government regulation that no member of the Communist Party sliall 
be affiliated with the OSS ? 

Mr. Felsen. I never said I was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Morris. Did you effect a tactical resignation from the Com- 
munist Party because of your relationship with the OSS ? 

Mr. Felsen. I claim my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist Avhen you did CIO publicity 
work in the postwar period ? 

Mr. Felsen. Are you talking about — oh, I claim my privilege. 

Senator Hruska. Were you placed in the OSS immediately upon 
your induction into the service ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4615 

Mr. Felsen. Prior to it. 

Senator Hruska. "Well, now, were you in the OSS before you were 
in the Army ? 

Mr. Felsen. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. I would like to submit, Senator, that all throughout 
our hearings, during the last 3 or 4 years, the situation has frequently 
come up in the record with people who were formerly Communists 
that for the period while they were in the armed services they deny 
'Communist membership. Ex-Communists have told us that when 
they do go into the armed services they do detach themselves from 
formal membership so they can take the oath of office. 

Mr. EossMOORE. I would like to say something. I don't know what 
testimony Mr. Morris is referring to, but I think it is unfair to this 
witness, who was wounded and served honorably in the Army, to cast 
aspersions on his service. If there is any aspersion intended, I think 
it is unfair. 

Senator Hruska. I don't think there is any intended. It is in the 
background. We don't create the situation where he wants to use the 
fifth amendment. That is his privilege, and he is asserting it. 

Mr. Felsen. I think I can assert it without any assumptions as to 
my innocence. 

Senator Hruska. That is right, as far as proof is concerned, but it 
does not bar anyone from indulging in any presumption he wants. 

Mr, Felsen, Inferences and innuendo sometimes get involved in 
something else. 

Senator Hruska. That is true, but they are not of our making. 

Is there anything further. Judge Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Have you filed non-Communist affidavits, as re- 
quired by the Taft-Hartley Act ? 

Mr. Felsen. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. Were j'^ou required to by the law ? 

Mr. Felsen. No. 

Senator Hruska. And that is by reason of the fact that you are not 
an officer of the union ; is that the basis of it ? 

Mr. Felsen. I suppose so ; yes. 

Senator Hruska. At any rate, whether you are required to or not, 
you have never filed any affidavit ? 

Mr. Felsen. I would rather put it that I was never required to. 

Mr. Morris. An international representative does not have to ? 

Mr. Felsen. No. 

Mr. Morris. I have no further questions. 

Senator Hruska. Who is your other witness ? 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Barile. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Barile. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PASQUALE BARILE, WHITE PLAINS, N. Y., ACCOM- 
PANIED BY WILLIAM EOSSMOORE, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. "What is your full name and address ? 
Mr. Barile. Pasquale Barile. 



4616 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVIl^ IN THE UNITED STATES 



Mr. Morris. Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Barile. 52 South Kensco Avenue, White Plains, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mr. Barile. Union organizer. 

Mr. Morris. For what union ? 

Mr. Barile. The lUE, CIO-AFL. 

Mr. Morris. Where do you organize ? 

Mr. Barile. I am currently assigned to eastern Massachusetts ; that 
area. 

Mr. Morris. You are not connected with district 4 ? 

Mr. Barile. I am working now in Massachusetts. The union makes 
the assignments ; I go where they assign me. 

Mr. Morris. You had been working in district 4 ? 

Mr. Barile. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. When? 

Mr. Barile. May 16, 1956, up until the early part of this year. 

Mr. Morris. Where are you now in Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Barile. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. '\Yliere in Massachusetts ? 

Mr. Barile. Along Route 128. That is the area where a lot of 
new shops are going up, and we want to organize the shops. 

Mr. Morris. But you are working out of the international head- 
quarters ? 

Mr. Barile. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. And you work out of the international headquarters 
for these assignments ? 

Mr. Barile. Yes. 

And vou are assigned now to eastern Massachusetts ? 

Yes.^ 

Where were you born ? 

Jersey City, N. J. 

Mr. IMoRRis. What year ? 

Mr. Barile. 1920. 

Mr. Morris. When did you become associated with the trade-union 
movement ? 

Mr. Barile. When I worked in a shop in 1943, I joined the union 
which was in the shop. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you could tell us, Mr. Barile, as we have 
been told by Fred Gardner, that you have been a member of the Com- 
munist Party. Have you been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Barile. Sir; on this question, I am a member of the lUE, 
AFL-CIO. I have been since May 1956. I am not a Communist. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist on May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. Barile. I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment of 
the Constitution. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist on May 18, 1956 ? 

Mr. Barile. I was not. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know Fred Gardner ? 

Mr. Barile. I invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more cjuestions. 

Senator Hruska. What did you do prior to May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. Barile. You mean an occupation f 

Senator Hruska. Yes, 



Mr. IMoRRis. 
Mr. Barile. 
Mr. Morris. 
Mr. Barile. 



SCOPE OP SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4617 

Mr. Barile. I was a union organizer. 

Senator Hruska. For whom ? 

Mr. Barile. For the UE. 

Senator Hruska. How long had yon been organizer for the UE ? 

Mr. Barile. Approximately 4 years. 

Senator Hruska. Was the UE affiliated with the AFL at that time ? 

Mr. Barile. No ; they were an independent union. 

Senator Hruska. Were they at any time affiliated with the AFL ? 

Mr. Barile. No; not to my knowledge. I don't think they were 
ever in that district. If you are referring to the fact that they were 
not affiliated with the CIO, they were, in fact, affiliated at one time 
with the CIO, but not with the AFL. 

Senator Hruska. When were they affiliated with the CIO? 

Mr. Barile. They were affiliated with the CIO from their inception 
until around 1949. 

Senator Hruska. Then they were expelled ; were they ? 

Mr. Barile. Well, they left the CIO. The two groups parted 
company around 1949. 

Mr. Morris. You won't tell us what took place in the councils of 
the Communist Party on May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. Barile. Will you repeat that ? 

Mr. Morris. You won't tell us what took place in the councils of 
the Communist Party on May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. Barile. I invoke my privilege. 

Mr. Morris. I have no more questions. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. Call your next witness. 

Mr. Morris. The next witness is James Garry. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Garry. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES GARRY, NEW YORK, N. Y., ACCOMPANIED 
BY EPHRAIM LONDON, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Give your full name and address to the reporter, please. 

Mr. Garry. James Garry, 4210 216th Street, New York City. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what is your present business or profession, Mr. 
Garry ? 

Mr. Garry. I am the business manager of the local union. 

Mr. Morris. Business manager of local 

Mr. Garry. 477 of the lUE, AFI^CIO. 

Mr. Morris. What was that formerly '( 

Mr. Garry. The former affiliation was UE, and the local number 
was 1227. 

Mr. Morris. Now, the president of the union is Victor Teich; is 
he not? 

Mr. Garry. That is correct. 

Mr. Morris. What position does Sidney Gilbert have? 

Mr. Garry. Business agent. 

Mr. Morris. You are the business manager ? 

Mr. Garry. That is correct. 

MV' Morris. Who is Hans Schuttig? 



4618 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Garry. He is the financial secretary-treasurer of tlie local union. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Wallace has told us in sworn testi- 
mony that the four officers of local 477, whom I have just mentioned — 
the present witness, who is business manager ; Victor Teich, the presi- 
dent; Sidney Gilbert, the business agent; and Hans Schuttig, the 
financial secretary-treasurer — were all members of the Communist 
Party. 

Now, we have had subpenas out. Senator, since July 26 of this year. 
Despite all our efforts, the only witness we have been able to serve is 
Mr. Garry. 

Senator Hruska. You mean among those you have named ? 

Mr. Morris. The four we have identified: {a) we wanted to give 
them an opportunity to deny the testimony of Mr. Wallace if it was 
not accurate, and (&) we wanted them to answer some questions for us. 

We have a report from the marshal that he has been unable to serve 
them, and he has efficiently tried to effect service, Senator. Mr. Garry 
was served a few weeks ago, and we gave him an adjournment. 

Mr. Garry. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen Mr. Teich recently ? 

Mr. Garry. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Garry. He has been constantly in the factory that employs 
him. I have noticed even that the newspapers have identified the, 
factory in which he is employed. I don't know where the origin of the 
press release was, but he is working in the plant. 

Mr. Morris. What is this plant ? We don't even know what plant 
he works in. 

Mr. Garry. It is a plant called Waldes Kohinoor. He has been 
constantly there. The only time he has not been there has been when 
he was on vacation, a vacation that was scheduled many, many weeks 
before any subpena was issued. 

Senator Hruska. Do you know these things of your own personal 
knowledge ? 

Mr. Garry. I know the plant closes down for 2 weeks amiually, and 
I know it did this year. 

Senator Hruska. Do you know of your own personal knowledge 
that he has been at the plant at work all this time, except for the vaca- 
tion period? 

Mr. Garry. I can, I think, safely say that ; yes. 

Senator Hruska. Did you see him there ? 

Mr. Garry. I did see him in the plant. 

Senator Hruska. On how many occasions ? 

Mr. Garry. I have been in the plant twice in the last couple of weeks. 

Senator Hrusi^a. On those two occasions you saw him on duty there, 
working in the regular fashion? 

Mr. Garry. No; I didn't see him on duty. In fact, I saw him in 
the cafeteria of the plant. 

Mr. Morris. I don't know. Senator, if we should put into the record 
the efforts of the marshal to serve the other three witnesses, or work 
out some later date with them. What is your wish ? 

I know it is getting near the end of the session. 

Senator Hruska. The evidence will be available for incorporation 
in the record in connection with their testimony. Let's hold it in 
abeyance for the moment. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4619 

JNIr. Morris. Mr. Garry, William Wallace has told us that you 
have been a member of the Communist Party. Have you in fact been 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Garry. I want to answer that question in this way: I am a 
member — in fact, I am business manager — of the local union of lUE, 
AFL-CIO, and the international constitution of our union makes 
membership in the Communist Party impermissible in holding office, 
or in any other way representing or being employed by the union. I 
am not a Communist, I have, however, learned that William Wallace 
and possibly others have made statements to the effect that I am. 

Mr. Morris. Just a minute, now. Mr. Wallace said he knew you 
were a Communist when he was a Communist with you. He couldn't 
testify about your present activity. He said while he was a Com- 
munist, you were a Communist with him. 

Mr. Garry. I understand that such charges were made here before 
this committee. I would like to say this with respect to that, I want 
to shield myself from any possible f rameup, and state to you that in 
response to your question, I do not think that you have a right to 
ask it. 

I furthermore stand on my rights under the first amendment of the 
Constitution, and also under the fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Senator Hruska. The refusal to answer insofar as it is based on 
the first amendment is overruled. We do, however, recognize as a 
subcommittee, and the chairman recognizes, that insofar as the fifth 
amendment is concerned, and the self-incrimination features thereof, 
that is a good ground for refusing to answer. 

Mr. Morris. We have also been told that you have frequently gone 
in and out of Communist Party headquarters, ]Mr. Gairy. 

Have you gone in and out of the national headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party with any frequency in the past ? 

Mr. Garry. I let the previous answer that I have given you stand. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. How many members are there in local 477 ? 

Mr. Garry. About 1,000. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat generally do you organize ? 
> Mr Garry. Well, we organize almost any plant that we can get 
members in that comes within the jurisdiction of the international 
union. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been active in the Citizens Committee To 
Defend Representative Government, the object of which organiza- 
tion, we were told, was to place the Communist, Simon W. Gerson, in 
the New York City Council in New York ? 

Mr. Garry. I refer back to my previous answer. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. Were you active in the American Peace Mobilization ? 

Mr. Garry. Same answer. 

Mr. Moris. In 1940, did you preside at the youth session of the May 
Day Conference of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Garry. Same answer. 

Senator Hruska. The record will show the same ruling on all 
these answers. 

Mr. Morris. Again I have a few questions I could ask, but in the 
interest of time, and for the reasons I gave you, I shall refrain, be- 
cause the pattern has been set. 



4620 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. When did you become associated with local 477, 
Mr. Garry? 

Mr. Garry. I believe the exact date would be May 17, 1956. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on that day, or affiliated 
with the party? 

Mr. Garry. I was not. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party, or 
affiliated with it on May 16, 1956? 

Mr. Garry. I was not. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party or 
affiliated with it on May 15, 1956 ? 

Mr. Garry. I was not. 

Senator Hruska. Have you been a member of the Communist Party 
or affiliated with it at any time ? 

Mr. Garry. I will let my previous answer stand. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party or 
affiliated with it on January 1956 ? 

Mr. Garry. I was not. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party or 
affiliated with it in 1945 ? 

Mr. Garry. I will rely on my previous answer. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party or 
affiliated with it in 1948 ? 

Mr. Garry. My previous answer stands. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party or 
affiliated with it in 1949 ? 

Mr. Garry. My previous answer will stand. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1950? 

Mr. Garry. My previous answer will stand. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Coimiiunist Party in 
1951? 

Mr. Garry. My previous answer will stand. 

If I might help you, Senator 

Senator Hruska. I am trying to get a cutoff date. 

Mr. London. If I may interject, Senator, we informed Judge Morris 
before this hearing that the witness would testify as to any period after 
January 1, 1956, but would decline to answer on anything before 
that. 

Senator Hruska. I was not aware of that, Mr. London. 

Mr. Morris. When Senator Hruska asked him if he was a member 
of the Communist Party on January 1, 1956, he said no. 

Mr. London. That is quite right. 

Senator Hruska. January 1 was the dividing line ? 

Mr. Morris. Oh, I am sorry, Senator. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party on December 31, 
1955? 

Mr. Garry. I decline to answer that for reasons previously given. 

Mr. Morris. But on the morning of January 1, 1956, were you a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Garry. My answer has already been given. 

Mr. Morris. What was that? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY ENT THE UNITED STATES 4621 

Mr. Garry. I think Senator Hruska asked me- 



Mr. Morris. Yes, he did. But can you just answer the ques- 
tion ? 

Mr. Garry. I am about to. I think Senator Hruska asked me that 
question, and I answered it. I think the record will show it. I will 
make sure the answer is clear by saying that I was not a Communist 
on that date. 

Senator Hruska. Or a member of the Communist Party or affiliated 
with it ^ 

Mr. Garry. Nor a member of the Communist Party or affiliated 
with it. 

Senator Hruska. Wliere were you born, Mr. Garry ? 

Mr. Garry. Scotland. 

Senator Hruska. "Wlien were you born ? 

Mr. Garry. 1914, August 31. 

Mr. Morris. Are you acquainted with Mr. McLeish ? 

Mr. Garry. Yes, I know Mr. McLeish. 

Mr. Morris. What year were you naturalized, Mr. Garry ? 

Mr. Garry. In 1943, 1 believe. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on that date ? 

Mr. Garry. I have already answered that question. 

Senator Hruska. On the day you were naturalized ? 

Mr. Garry. I have answered that question. Senator. 

Senator Hruska. I beg your pardon ; you did not answer. 

Mr. Garry. I think I will say to you that I rely on my previous 
answer for that. 

Senator Hruska. You are asserting your privilege as to that ? 

Mr. Garry. That is correct. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. 

Is there anything further, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. I have nothing further. 

Senator Hruska. The witness is dismissed. 

Mr. Morris. The committee will have to decide what to do about 
the other three officials, the president, the business agent, and the 
financial secretary-treasurer of local 477. 

Senator Hruska. We shall consult with the chairman of the com- 
mittee, and make a decision in due time. 

Mr. Morris. Thank vou, Senator. 

Senator Hruska. The committee stands adjourned. 

("Whereupon, at 1 : 05 p. m., the subcommittee was adjourned.) 

(The following editorial from the issue of August 10, 1957, of the 
Advocate, published in Newark, N. J., w^as later ordered into the 
record:) 

The Sad Singek Strike 

In Elizabeth they still talk about the "depression of 1949." That was the year 
of the ill-conceived, ill-planned, and ill-fated strike at the Singer plant, that 
crippled the economy of a city of well over 100,000 inhabitants for almost half 
a year. The strike began in late Spring and it did not end until some time in 
November. 

This tragedy and misfortune for one of the largest cities in New Jersey occu- 
pied headlines very recently and recalled many bitter memories, when William 
Wallace, an ex-Red at the Singer plant, gave a startling account before the 
Internal Secui'ity Committee in Washington : "It was easy to get the plant out 
on strike. There were about 20 of us in the Singer Club (a Communist club) at 
the plant, and we pulled those 9,000 men and women out of that plant without 
any trouble at alL * * * Five men could have pulled the plant out." 



4622 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The most shocking feature of this testimony was the manner in which Mr. 
Wallace spoke of the ease of the project. There were 9,000 men and women at 
the plant, most of them from Elizabeth. They were all thrown out of work 
through the strike, and they remained out for a period of 168 days. During that 
time the city of Elizabeth lost $54 million. Of this sum the business people of 
Elizabeth lost $20 million, the company lost $24 million, and the strikers lost $10 
million in wages. And that does not include the amounts the strikers had to 
extract from their savings accounts to buy the necessities of life. Along Eliza- 
beth Avenue, which is one of the most busy thoroughfares, merchants were con- 
tinually complaining that their day's receipts frequently amounted to $2 or $3. 

And all this happened because the order had come from Moscow to call this 
strike, and the majority of union members were so docile and complacent, that 
the plan was carried out without too much difficulty. 

The tragic part of the story is the bitter truth, that when the strike finally 
ended in November, the union got exactly the same contract they could have had 
in May without a strike. 

How were the Reds able to accomplish such results with such fantastic ease? 
A partial answer was given by some of the strikers who in their ignorance or 
folly made this statement : "I don't care who runs the union as long as I get an 
extra buck in my pay envelope." 

A story is told of a large auto plant somewhere in New Jersey, whose union 
members numbered over 2,200. The average attendance at a union meeting was 
100 or less, and these were mostly Reds, near-Reds, fellow travelers, and pinkos. 
They became the officers of the union, tliey ran the meetings, they determined 
the policy — in short they ran the whole show. And while they were laying plans 
to cripple United States industry and sabotage the Nation, the so-called good, 
patriotic members (about 2,000 of them), were home on the meeting nights, 
looking at television, listening to the radio, or they went to the movies. 

That is the price that the unions paid for their complacency and their indif- 
ference. Today the picture at Singer's is quite different. The lUE has dis- 
placed the UE, which was expelled as bargaining agent. They have made a 
serious effort to clean house. But, the sad fact remains that many men and 
women who are prominent in the lUE today, were asleep for a long time. Finally 
they were aroused to action, but only after a futile strike that had cost over 
$54 million. 



INDEX 



The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee attaciies no significance to the 
mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organization in 
this index. 

A 

Page 

Abraham Lincoln Brigade 4613 

Advocate (publication) 4621 

AFL 4617 

AFI^-CIO 4607 

American Peace Mobilization 4619 

B 
Barile, Pasquale: 

Testimony of 4615-^617 

William Rossmore, attorney 4615 

52 South Kensco Avenue, White Plains, N. Y 4616 

Union organizer for lUE, AFL-CIO 4616 

Fifth Amendment re being member of Communist Party 4616 

Barry, Walter 4610 

Brooklyn  4612 

O 

Cameron, Clifton 4609, 4610 

CIO 4613, 4614 

Citizens Committee To Defend Representative Government 4619 

Communist (s) 4607, 4610, 4613-4616, 4620, 4621 

Communist Control Act of 1954 4607 

Communist Party 4608-4612, 4614, 4616-4621 

Constitution 4619 

D 
District 4 4609, 4616 

E 
Elizabeth, N. J 4621, 4622 

F 

Fay, Charles 4610 

Testimony of 4607-4609 

611 West Road, Broad Channel, N. Y 4607 

Osmond K. Fraenkel, attorney 4607 

President of Local 485, lUE, AFL-CIO 4607 

Fifth amendment if past member of Communist Party 4608 

Felsen, Milton 4607 

Testimony of 4612-4615 

18 Manitou Trail, White Plains, N. Y 4612 

William Rossmoore, attorney 4612 

International representative of lUE, AFL-CIO 4612 

Fifth amendment re being Communist 4614 

W/OSS during World War II 4614, 4615 

Fifth amendment 4608-4612, 4614-4617, 4619, 4620 

First amendment 4619 

Fraenkel, Osmond K. : 

Attorney for Charles Fay 4607 

Attorney for Eleanor Jaffe 4609 

120 Broadway, New York City 4609 



n INDEX 

G 

Page 

Gardner, Fred 4614 

Garry, James : 

Testimony of 4617-4622 

4210 216th Street, New York City 4617 

Epliraim London, attorney 4617 

Business manager for Local 477 of lUE, AFI^CIO 4617 

Fifth amendment re being Communist 461H 

Gerson, Simon W 4619 

Gilbert, Sidney 4617, 461S 

H 

Hruska, Senator Roman L 4607 

I 

lUE 4609, 4610, 4622 

lUE, AFL-CIO 4616, 4619 

Local 4S5 4607, 4608, 4610, 4612 

Local 477 4617^620 

lUEA, AFL-CIO 4614 

J 

Jaffe, Eleanor : 

Testimony of 4609-1612 

276 Henry Street, Brooklyn 4609 

Osmond K. Fraenkel, attorney 4609 

Office worker for local 485 4609 

Ex-wife of Walter Barry 4610 

Fifth amendment if had been member of Communist Party 4610 

Jersey City, N. J 4616 

K 

Kohinoor, Waldes 4618 

L 

London, Ephraim, attorney for James Garry 4617 

Markward, Mary 4610 

Massachusetts 4614 

Mav Day Conference of Communist Party 4619 

McLeish, Mr 4621 

Morris, Robert 4607 

Moscow 4622 

N 

New Jersey 4621, 4622 

New York 4612 

New York Labor Conference for Peace 4(i09 

Newark, N. J 4621 

O 
OSS 4614, 4615 

P 
Passport 4613 

R 
Rossmoore. William : 

60 Park Place, Newark, N. J 4011 

Attorney for Milton Felsen 4612 

Attorney for Pasquale Barile 4615 



I 
I 



INDEX m 

s 

Page 

Sad, Singer Strike, The, editorial in tlie Advocate dated August 10, 1957-_ 4621, 

4622 

Sage, Col. Jerry 4614 

Scherer, Marcel 4608, 4609 

Schroeder, F. W 4607 

Schuttig. Hans 4617, 461S 

Singer Club 4621 

Singer Sewing Machine strike 4610 

Spain 4618, 4614 

Spanish civil war 4618 

T 

Taft-Hartley Act: Non-Communist affidavit 4600, 4615 

Teich, Victor 4617, 4618 

U 

UE 4617, 4622 

Local 475 4610 

UERMW, CIO 4600 

United States Army 4613 

AV 

Wallace. William 4608. 4618, 4610, 4621, 4622 

World War II 4613,4614 

O 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

(Extent of Communist Activity in Labor) 



viin 



HEARING 



,._.^^ BEFORE THE 



SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE 

ADMINISTEATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY 

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIFTH COXGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 

ON 

SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE 
UNITED STATES 



AUGUST 27, 1957 



PART 82 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
93215 WASHINGTON : 1958 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Documents 

MAR 1 1 1958 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLL\M LANQER, North Dakota 

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska 



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security 
Act and Other Internal Security Laws 

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman 
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah 

SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland 

MATTHEW M. NEELY, West Virginia ROMAN L. HRUSKA. Nebraska 

Robert Morris, Chief Counsel 

J. G. Sour WINE, Associate Counsel 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



CONTENTS 



Testimony of — ^^^^ 

Brennan, Robert William 4630 

Gilbert, Sidney 4625 

Lipari, Alfredo 4634 

Nusbaum, Mrs. Frances 4634 

Sirota, Alex 4628 

Teich, Victor 4623 

m 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 27, 1957 

United States Senate, 
Subcommittee To Investigate the 
Administration of the Internal Security Act 

AND Other Internal Security Laws of 

the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 40 a. m., in room 
457, Senate Office Building, Senator Roman L, Hruska presiding. 

Also present : Robert JNIorris, chief counsel, and Frank W. Schroeder, 
chief investigator. 

Senator Hruska. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Victor Teich is the first witness. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Teich. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF VICTOR TEICH, FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, ACCOM- 
PANIED BY EPHRAIM LONDON, HIS COUNSEL 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your full name to the reporter ? 

Mr. Teich. Victor Teich. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or occuj^ation ? 

JNIr. Teich. I am a tool and die maker. 

]\Ir. Morris. Where do you work ? 

Mr. Teich. Waldes, Inc. 

Mr. Morris. And you are a union official, are you not ? 

Mr. Teich. I am the president of the local union. 

Mr. Morris. What union is that ? 

jMr. Teich. Local 477 of the International Union of Electrical, 
Radio, and Machine Workers of America, AFL-CIO. 

Mr. Morris. How many members are in that local ? 

Mr. Teich. Approximately 1,000. 

Mr. Morris. You are its president ? 

Mr. Teich. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been president ? 

Mr. Teich. SinceMay of 1956. 

Mr. Morris. Now, what has been your trade-union experience other 
than the fact that you are president of the local 477 ? 

Mr. Teich. Do you mean 

Mr. Morris. What other positions have you had in the trade-union 
movement ? 

4623 



4624 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Teich. Well, I am chairman of my shop, if that is what you 
mean. Shop chairman. 

Mr. Morris. Before that, before your present position. 

Mr. Teich. I was a president of the local of the United Electrical, 
Radio, and Machine Workers. 

Mr. Morris. Was that local 1227? 

Mr. Teich. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Were you identified with other unions ? 

Mr. Teich. I was once a member of the National Maritime Union. 

Mr. Morris. Wliat year? 

Mr. Teich. 1943 to 1946. 

Mr. Morris. From what college were you graduated ? 

Mr. Teich. New York University. 

Mr. Morris. What year? 

Mr. Teich. 1937. 

Mr. Morris. You were born in New York? 

Mr. Teich. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you active in the American Student Union 
in 1940? 

Mr. Teich. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. Morris. Were you ever a member of the American Student 
Union ? 

Mr. Teich. Yes; I was. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Teich. As I recollect, I joined in about 1936, and I was active 
for a few years thereafter. I don't recall exactly when I left. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Communist Party at that 
time? 

Mr. Teich. Mr. Morris, I want you to laiow that I am not a Com- 
munist. I belong to a union, the International Union of Electrical 
and Radio Machine Workers of America, whose constitution prohibits 
membership in the Communist Party for those who are officers. 

Mr. Morris. The question was, Were you a Communist when you 
were active in the American Student Union in the late 1930's? 

Mr. Teich. Mr. ]\Iorris, I — Judge Morris, excuse me — I must de- 
cline to answer that question and, in so doing, invoke my rights under 
the Constitution, particularly with regard to the first amendment 
and with regard to that section of the Constitution that protects me 
against self-incrimination. I must also point out that I consider 
that question one that is not in the province of this committee to ask. 

Mr. Morris. Do I understand you are not invoking your privilege 
under the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Teich. Excuse me? 

Mr. Morris. Do I understand that you are not invoking your privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Teich. I am saying that I am invoking the Constitution and 
that section of it that protects me against self-incrimination. 

I should make one point at this time, if I may. That is, I am sure 
you are aware that this provision of the Constitution was designed 
to protect the innocent as well as the guilty. 

Senator Hruska. The chairman overrules your refusal to answer 
on the basis of the first amendment, but we do respect the assertion 
of the rights under the fifth amendment, of the self-incrimination 
parts thereof. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4625 

Mr. Morris. Were you a member of the Commmiist Party when 
you were president of the UE Local 1227 ? 

Mr. Teich. I must decline to answ^er 

Senator Hruska. In the interest of saving time, Mr. Witness, if you 
want to you may say, the same objection, and I will give the same 
ruling. 

Mr. Teich. Same objection. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. You were president of the UE local until May 16, 1956, 
were you not ? 

Mr. Teich. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. On May 16, 1956, were you a Communist? 

Mr. Teich. No. 

Mr. Morris. INIay 16 ? 

Mr. Teich. No ; I was not. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist on May 1, 1956 ? 

Mr. Teich. No. 

Mr. Morris. On the 1st of January, 1956 ? 

Mr. Teich. No. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist on the 1st of January, 1955 ? 

Mr. Teich. Same answer. 

That is, the same objection. I decline to answer for the reasons 
given previously. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. In the interest of time, Counsel, is there a particular 
date? 

Mr. London. In the interests of time, and without waiving his 
rights by reason of giving this answer, I believe the witness will 
answer any question with respect to the period beginning November 
1, 1955. He will decline to answer questions with respect to the 
period prior thereto. 

Mr. Morris. Well, I shall ask the question, were you a Com- 
munist on October 31, 1955 ? 

Mr. Teich. I decline to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. You have publicly endorsed Israel Amter, the Com- 
munist candidate for Governor, have you not ? 

Mr. Teich. I decline to answer for the reasons previously given. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions of this witness. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. The witness is dismissed. 

Mr. Morris. Is your next witness here. Counsel London ? 

Mr. London. Yes ; Mr. Gilbert. 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SIDNEY GILBERT, BROOKLYN, N. Y., ACCOMPANIED 
BY HIS COUNSEL, EPHRAIM LONDON 

Mr. Morris. Give your name and address to the reporter, please. 
Mr. Gilbert. Sidney Gilbert, 1589 East Ninth Street, Brooklyn. 
I have a cold, so I hope you will excuse me if I don't speak up too 
loud. 



4626 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY .IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I think the record might show that the previ- 
ous witness and this witness are represented by Mr. London. 

Will you identify yourself for the record, Mr. London. 

Mr. London. I did before the hearing commenced. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession, Mr. Gilbert ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Business agent. 

Mr. Morris. For what local ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Local 477, International Union of Electrical, Radio, 
and Machine Workers, AFL-CIO. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been business agent for local 477? 

Mr. Gilbert. Since about May IG or 17, 1956. 

Mr. Morris. And what did you do before that, Mr. Gilbert ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I was business agent of Local 1227, United Electrical, 
Radio, and Machine Workers of America, known as the UE. 

Mr. Morris. Now, we have been told, Mr. Gilbert, by two witnesses, 
a Fred Gardner and a witness named Conroy, that you have been a 
member of the Communist Party. 

Have you been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Gilbert. I am not a member of the Communist Party. I am 
a member of the lUE, and as has already been stated here, the lUE 
has a constitution which bars Communists, Fascists, and other sub- 
versives from holding any positions of leadership in the organization. 
I have complied with that constitution for all the time I have been 
a member of this organization. 

Mr. Morris. Now, were you a Communist on May 16, 1956 ? 

Mr. Gilbert. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist on May 1, 1956 ? 

Mr. Gilbert. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Were you a Communist on January 1, 1956 ? 

Mr. Gilbert. No, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How about November 1, 1955? 

Mr. Gilbert. Well, Mr.. Morris, I understand that a witness by the 
name of Wallace 

Mr. Morris. William Wallace. 

Mr. Gilbert. William Wallace appeared before this committee 
and — excuse me. 

(Consults with counsel.) 

Mr. Gilbert. I have decided to decline to answer the question on 
the grounds, first, that I do not believe that it is the province of this 
committee to make such inquiries ; secondly, on the grounds that it is 
an invasion of my rights under the first amendment; and finally, be- 
cause I wish to invoke the protection the Constitution gives me 
against self-incrimination. 

Senator Hruska. The refusal to answer on any other grounds ex- 
cept the self-incrimination portion of the fifth amendment are over- 
ruled. The fifth amendment portion, to which I have referred, is 
allowed as a good basis for not answering. 

Mr. Morris. Did you know Fred Gardner? Did you know a man 
named Fred Gardner? 

Mr. Gilbert. I decline to answer for the same reasons. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Jack Conroy ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4627 

Mr. INIoRRis. Jack Conroy has told the Internal Security Subcom- 
mittee that, in 1953, he met with you in secret Communist Party 
meetings. Is his testimony accurate ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I decline to answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Morris. JNIr. Gardner has said you were a dedicated member 
of the Communist Party. 

Were you a dedicated member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I decline to affirm or deny for the same reasons. 

Senator Hrl^ska. Same ruling. 

Mr. ]MoRRis. Did you effect a tactical resignation from the Com- 
munist Party in order to comply with the lUE regulations ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I beg your pardon ? 

Mr. Morris. Did you effect — did you bring about — a tactical resig- 
nation from the Communist Party in order to comply with the lUE 
regulations ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I decline to answer, because your question assumes 
something which is contrary to what I stated before, which is that I 
am not a member. 

Mr. Morris. That does not imply that you are a member now. I 
have asked you whether you effected a resignation from the Commu- 
nist Party in order to comply with the lUE ruling. 

Mr. Gilbert. I decline to answer for the reasons given before, and 
because your question assumes something that I never stated. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. However, you will not deny that you have been a 
member of the Communist Party in the past ? 

Mr. Gilbert. I decline to answer the question for the same reason 
that you are assuming something I never stated. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, I have no more questions, in view of the 
answers. 

We liave one more witness — Hans Schuttig is the secretary-treasurer 
of your local ; is he not ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Yes, sir. 

Mr. London. We have been unable to locate Mr. Schuttig. 

I would like to direct the committee's attention to the fact that this 
witness was not served with a subpena. He appeared voluntarily 
because we were unable to reach him. He came in — broke his vacation 
period — and came in to testify. We have not been able to locate Mr. 
Schuttig. 

Mr. Morris. Is he on vacation ? 

Mr. London. Yes, he is. 

Mr. Morris. We have had subpenas out for almost a month for these 
witnesses. 

I suppose you do a lot of traveling, Mr. Gilbert? 

Mr. Gilbert. No, sir. I have been trying to enjoy my regular vaca- 
tion, which I planned for earlier this year. I have been on such vaca- 
tion. I had been around for some 15 or 20 days since this committee 
announced they wanted to subpena me. I wasn't subpenaed during 
that time. While I was on vacation I heard that a subpena was out 
for me, and I came in voluntarily to get it over with. I am supposed 
to be on vacation now. 

Senator Hruska. Anything further ? 

Mr. Morris. I have no further questions. 

93215— 58— pt. 82 2 



4628 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. Where were you born, Mr. Gilbert ? 

Mr. Gilbert. Brooklyn, N. Y., the lionie of the Dodgers. 

Senator Hruska. Were you required at any time to file a non- 
Communist affidavit under the Taft-Hartley Act ? 

Mr. Gilbert. No, sir. 

Senator Hruska. That is all. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Sirota? 

Senator Hruska. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sirota. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ALEX SIROTA, BEONX, N. Y., ACCOMPANIED BY 

HIS COUNSEL, ROBERT H. SILK 

Mr. Morris. Give your name and address to the reporter, please. 

Mr. Sirota. Alex Sirota, S-i-r-o-t-a. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or occupation, please ? 

Mr. Sirota. I am secretary -treasurer for my union. 

Mr. Morris. What is your union ? 

Mr. Sirota. Local 140 of the United Furniture Workers of America. 

Mr. Morris. And you are secretary-treasurer ? 

Mr. Sirota. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. How many members are in this local ? 

Mr. Sirota. Approximately 1,500. 

Mr. Morris. ^Yh?it international union are you affiliated with? 

Mr. Sirota. United Furniture Workers of America, AFL-CIO. 

Mr. Morris. How long have you been in the AFL-CIO ? 

Mr. Sirota. Since the merger took place a year ago — about 2 years 
ago. 

Mr. Morris. The furniture workers were part of the CIO before 
the merger ? 

Mr, Sirota. That is right. 

Mr. Morris. Where were you born ? 

Mv. Sirota. Rumania. 

Mr. Morris. In what year? 

Mr. Sirota. 1903. 

Mr. Morris. When did vou come to the United States? 

Mr. Sirota. 1920. 

Mr. Morris. When were vou naturalized ? 

Mr. Sirota. 1930. 

Mr. Morris. In what court? 

jSIr. Sirota. Bronx Supreme Court. 

Mr. JNIoRRis. Now, what has been your experience in the trade-union 
movement, Mr. Sirota? 

Mr. Sirota. What do you mean by "experience" ? 

Mr. Morris. What locals and unions have you been affiliated with? 

Mr. Sirota. This is the only union in which I have been an officer. 

Mr. Morris. Have you been a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer on the first and fifth amendments. 
The first amendment, that it abridges my privilege of free speech and 
assembly ; and under the fifth amendment, that I refuse to be a witness 
against myself. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4629 

Senator Hruska. The Chair rules that the first objection, on the 
basis of the first amendment, is not good, but we shall recognize the 
vahdity of your assertion of rights under the fifth amendment. 

Mv. SiROTA. I plead the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Morris. May the record show that jNIr. Sirota is accompanied 
by counsel? 
" Senator Hruska. Yes. 

Mr. Morris. You will identify yourself, sir. 

Mr. Silk. Robert H. Silk, 140 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know a man named Jay Peters, Mr. Sirota ? 

Mr. SmoTA. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris. He was head of the Communist underground for some 
time ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. Same ruling. 

Mr. Morris. Well, you met him on November 16, 1946 ; did you not ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer the question for tlie same reasons. 

Mr. MoRiiis. Now, you have attended meetings of the State com- 
mittee of the Communist Party of New York; have you not, Mr. 
Sirota ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer, sir, for the same reasons. 

Senator Hruska. Are you a member of the Communist Party or 
affiliated with it in any way now ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. Have you filed a non-Communist affidavit under 
the Taft-Hartley Act? 

Mr. SrROTA. I did. 

Senator Hruska. How many times ? 

Mr. Sirota. Twice. 

Senator Hruska. Do you remember the dates ? 

Mr. Sirota. I don't recall the dates. 

Senator Hruska. What year was it in ? 

Mr. Sirota. I think it was in 1956, and it was renewed in 1957. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
the date you signed those affidavits ? 

Mr. Sirota. I was not a member of the Communist Party on the date 
when I signed the affidavit. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
the day before you signed the affidavits ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer the question for the same reasons. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
the day after you signed each of those affidavits ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer the question for the same reasons. 

Senator Hruska. Did you resign from the Communist Party on the 
day before you signed the affidavits in question ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. Did you renew your membership in the Commu- 
nist Party, or become affiliated with it, on the day after you signed the 
affidavits ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a member of the Communist Party, or 
affiliated with it, in 1930, when you were naturalized as a United States 
citizen ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer, Senator, for the same reason. 



4630 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Senator Hruska. Mr. Witness, have you been in Europe in recent 
years ? 

Mr. SiROTA. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. When was that ? 

Mr. SiROTA. In 1951. 

Senator Hruska. Where did you go ? 

Mr, SiROTA. I refuse to answer, Senator, on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. Is it true that you visited Russia ? 

Mr. SiROTA. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. The same ruling will apply in each instance. 

In the interest of saving time, I shall omit making the ruling each 
time. 

Is it true that you visited Moscow? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer for the same reason. 

Senator Hruska. How long were you in Europe? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer. 

Senator Hruska. Did you apply for a passport on April 6, 1951 ? 

Mr. Sirota, I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska. Did you leave the United States without a 
passport ? 

Mr. Sirota. I couldn't have. 

Senator Hruska. Did you ? 

Mr. Sirota. No. 

Senator Hruska. You had to have a passport, then, when you left 
America for Europe? 

Mr, Sirota. I suppose I did. 

Senator Hruska. Did you apply for it? 

Mr. Sirota. I did. 

Senator Hruska. Were you a Communist on the day you applied for 
that passport ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer the question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Morris, Are all the answers you gave in the passport application 
truthful answers ? 

Mr. Sirota. I refuse to answer, Mr, Morris, on the same grounds. 

Senator Hruska, Same ruling. 

Mr. ]\IoRRi8. I think in view of the witness' responses, Senator, that 
I have no more questions to ask of this particular witness. 

Senator Hruska. The witness is dismissed. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator, we have in connection with the Singer 
Sewing Machine strike — there were some names that came up in our 
records, Senator, that leaves the situation at present such as to suggest 
unfinished business. We have been asked if we will hear the testimony 
of three of tliese people by way of clarifying their present status, 

I think if Mr, Brennan will come forward, we can proceed. 

Senator Hruska, Mr, Brennan has already been sworn, so you may 
be seated, Mr, Brennan. 

TESTIMONY OF KOBERT WILLIAM BRENNAN, ELIZABETH, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Your name is what, Mr, Brennan ? 
Mr, Brexnax, Robert William Brennan. 
Mr. Morris. AVhere do you reside ? 
Mr, Brennan, 730 Fay Avenue, Elizabeth, N, J. 
Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4631 

Mr. Brennan. My occupation is filer for the Singer Manufacturing 
Co., in Elizabeth, N. J. 

]\Ir. Morris. And you are — you were — president of the UE local 
that organized the Singer Sewing Machine Co. ? 

"Sir. Brennan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How long were you president of that UE local ? 

Mr. Brennan. I was president from approximately February 1949 
to October 1950, when tlie lUE, in a National Labor Board election, 
took over the plant. 

Mr. Morris. And you have not held office since that time? 

Mr. Brennan. I have held two offices briefly, Mr. Morris. After 
this period I was steward for a while, and was later on chief steward 
_of an assembly department. 

Mr. Morris. Now, you were president of the UERMW at the time 
of the Singer strike in 1949 ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Mr. Brennan, were you a Communist? 

Mr. Brennan. I was a Communist, Mr. Morris, from around the 
end of 1948, or sometime in the early part of 1949. 

Mr. Morris. And how long did you remain a Communist? Tech- 
nically ? 

Mr. Brennan. Technically, from in around June or July. 

Mr. Morris. Of what year ? 

Mr. Brennan. Of 1949. 

INIr. Morris. What happened at that time ? 

Mr. Brennan. I was pretty much dissatisfied with some of the 
things that were going on previous to tlie strike, and some of the 
pressures that were brouglit to bear by, if I may say so, and I don't 
know, some of the professional Communists, of the outside influences 
that were brought in there, and that we tried to work with. I was 
dissatisfied with this element, and also dissatisfied with some of the 
things they were trying to do and some of the things they had 
done, and then, when the question of signing the affidavit arose, 
which was very essential to us at this time because, to a large extent 
our membership was split over the question, and many of us took the 
position that we should sign the affidavit 

Senator Hruska. You refer to the Taft-Hartley non-Communist 
affidavit for imion officials ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir, I do. 

At that time — previous to this, I don't know just how long — a 
few weeks previous to the signing of the Taft-Hartley affidavit, I 
told the party members that I was definitely finished with this group 
as a Communist group. 

I would like to 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Brennan, did the requirement of the Taft-Hartley 
law accelerate this process you have just described, of separating your- 
self from the Communists ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir ; this gave me a definite reason, without any 
ifs, ands, or buts, of quitting this Communist group, sir. 

Mr. Morris. In other words, looking back to the past, it has a bene- 
ficial effect so far as you are concerned ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir ; it certainly did. 

Mr. Morris. Have you noticed that it had a beneficial effect on 
others ? Can you give us any experience along those lines ? 



4632 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Brennan. Well, Mr. Morris, I can say it had a definitely better 
effect upon our membership, because we were in a crisis at this time, 
and it seemed to me that some of these people on the outside were 
working on the outside with us. I am speaking now of Barry and 
Cole, especially. 

Mr. Morris. Who is that, Walter Barry ? 

Mr. Brennan. Walter Barry and Archer Cole. 

Mr. Morris. They were Communists ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir; they were, as far as I knew. They were 
always trying to bring some issue up that would split us wide open. 
I disagreed with this wholeheartedly, and this is the thing that made 
me break away altogether, or as far as possible, I should say that. 

Mr. Morris. Were you given orders by your Communist superiors? 

Mr. Brennan, Mr. Morris, in the sense of the w^ord, I was not given 
orders, but, say, in many instances, because I had to work with these 
people, because I didn't know the ifs, ands, and buts of this situation 
because I had never been in a situation like this before— I had to work 
with these people. They therefore brought pressures upon me where 
it was sometimes easier to go along with the pressures, hoping they 
would do the job in another field. 

I hope that answers you. Senator. I may have mixed you up. If I 
did, I will try to answer it if you give me another question. 

Mr. Morris. Who were the people putting pressures on you ? 

Mr. Brennan. The pressures, jSIr. Morris, come from the repre- 
sentatives of the UE — I am speaking now specifically of Barry and 
Cole, who were working with the UE and directly with the local, and 
I am also talking about pressures brought about later by Mr. Poleshuk. 

Mr. Morris. Mr. Poleshuk ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. How about Sidney White ? 

Mr. Brennan. Sid White was publicity director for the local, sir. 
In other words, he put out a lot of the leaflets, a lot of the mimeo- 
graphed stuff, a lot of the mailing, and he put together the newspaper. 

Mr. Morris. Is there any doubt in your mind now, looking back, 
that this local was controlled by Communists ? 

Mr. Brennan. I would say that they had a terrific influence upon 
this local. But we always were having a fight, a knock-down, drag- 
out fi^ht with these people on many of these issues, the decent trade 
unionists within the different caucuses within the different groups of 
the union, Mr. Morris. , 

Mr. Morris. Now, what was the Singer Communist Club ? ^ 

Mr. Brennan. Mr. Morris, I would like to say for the record 
that I was a member of this club, and I will give you names of 
other people I knew as members of this club, but I would also like 
to state for the record that in becoming a Communist in late 1948 I 
never signed any card, I never made out any application, and I never 
paid any dues. 

Mr. Morris, Senator, I don't think it is necessary for us to have 
the names in the record at this time. The fact that this is the last 
session in the present series, by putting the names in the record, in all 
fairness we really should be calling these people in. I don't think. 
Senator, we should continue on with this particular line of inquiry. 

I think if you would give us those names in executive session, we 
would appreciate it, Mr. Bremian. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4633 

What was the Labor Youth League ? 

Mr. Brennan. The Labor Youth League was a group that came 
into existence sometime during the strike. I mention the Labor 
Youth League, Mr. Morris, because at that time it brouglit forth a 
member as a leader of this group who nobody seemed to know — that 
is, by nobody, I mean myself and other of&cers and rank and file 
members, knew anything about. 

Mr. PoLESHUK. Through what channel I don't know, because I 
wasn't too well acquainted — took over the leadership of this Labor 
^outh League, I believe it was. 

To my knowledge, I don't believe it existed too long. I think it 
went out of existence — how long, I couldn't say, but within a short 
period. They got many of the younger people that were participat- 
ing in the strike to join this Labor Youth Leag;ue. 

Mr. Morris. Using it as a means of recruiting young people into 
the Communist organization ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Morris. Now, have you anything to say generally about the 
Communist influence or the effect, the good or bad effect, of Commu- 
nists on the labor movement? Was communism a bad thing for the 
labor movement, Mr. Brennan ? 

Mr. Brennan. Yes, sir. If I may, I would like to tell you why. 

Many times in the shop, this outside group — we had trade-union 
problems. I would like to say for the record that as far as this strike 
is concerned, it was a legitimate trade-union strike. The only thing 
that bothered me and some of the other people in the local tliat this 
time they, for some reason or other, refused to go along witli the feel- 
ing of the general membership. 

When I pointed out that I was thoroughly dissatisfied with these 
people when they refused to sign the Taft-Hartley affidavits and do 
away with the club, because I don't think the club was helping us — 
I think it was helping their own people. This is just one example 
of how they injected their propaganda in order to further their own 
means. 

First it was the affidavits, then it was a break with the CIO, where 
the people in the shop wanted to go along with the CIO, where they 
refused to go along with the CIO. 

Then it was these peace petitions, "Bring our boys back from Ko- 
rea." We didn't agree with them whatsoever. I would like to say, 
Mr. Morris, time and time again when these peace petitions were 
leady, they wanted me to take them into the shop. I never took 
any petitions into the shop, and never signed any of the petitions, be- 
cause I couldn't go along with their feelings. I was trying to do a 
]ob in the shop. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, we would like to thank Mr. Brennan for his 
testimony. People like Mr. Brennan are rare and hard to find. If 
we had more witnesses like Mr. Brennan, we could get to the bottom 
of this thing and clear it up. 

At the same time, I would like to commend the president of local 
461, Mr. Trueba for his cooperation in this matter. 

Senator Hruska. I join in those expressions of appreciation, and 
we want to thank you, Mr, Witness, for making the contribution 
you have. 



1 



4634 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Brennan. I want to thank this committee for the opportmiity 
to appear. 

Mr. Morris. Senator, Mr. Lipari is here. I don't think it is nec- 
essary to take his testimony publicly. 

TESTIMONY OF ALFREDO LIPARI, AVENEL, N. J. 

Mr, Morris. In the interest of time, am I stating the proposition 
properly ? 

You listen, will you, Mr. Lipari ? 

Mr. Lipari appeared in executive session. He had been named as 
a member of the Communist Singer Club. He told us he did join 
the Singer Club, stayed in it very briefly, didn't like it, and got out. 

Is that right, Mr. Lipari ? 

Mr. Lipari. That is right. I didn't know what it was anyhow. I 
didn't know how^ I get in there. 

Senator Hruska, Very well. 

Mr. Morris. I am advised that Mr. Poleshuk, whose name has come 
up in the course of these hearings, resigned from the Singer Sewing 
Machine Co. last month. Isn't that right, Mr. Trueba ? 

Mr. Trueba. Eight. 

Mr. Morris. Have you seen him ? 

Mr. Trueba. No ; I haven't. I was on vacation, Mr. Morris. m 

Mr. Morris. Thank you, Mr. Lipari, for coming down. J 

Mr. Lipari. I thank you. fl 

Mr. Morris. That finishes off, as best we can, this particular group. 

There is a woman named Schoen, whom we have tried to subpena 
without success. 

Now, there is one other piece of business. Senator. We have a re- 
quest from Mrs. Frances Nusbaum to appear publicly in connection 
with a reference that has been made to her in testimony. 

Is Mrs. Nusbaum here ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Yes. 

Senator Hruska. Mrs. Nusbaum has already been sworn. 

Please be seated. Mrs. Nusbaum. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. FRANCES NUSBAUM, NEWARK, N. J. 

Mr. Morris. Will you give your name and address to the reporter, 
please ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Mrs. Frances Nusbaum, 55 Goldsmith Avenue, 
Newark. 

Mr. Morris. What is your business or profession ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. I am a housewife. 

Mr. INIoRRis. You don't have a profession ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. No. 

Mr. Morris. Haven't you been connected with the Board of Edu- 
cation ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Yes ; I was a member of the board for 3 years, from 
1950 to 1053. 

Mr. ISIoRRis. And you are the wife of Dr. Marcus Nusbaum ? 

Mrs. Nausea UM. That is correct. 

Mr. jNIorris. He is a dentist? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Yes, sir. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4635 

Mr. Morris. And you reside at 15 Goldsmith Avenue ? 

Mrs. Is AUSBAUM. No ; 55 (xoldsniith Avenue. 

Mr. Morris. Now, AVilliam Wallace has testified that you were 
present at a meeting at the home of Dr. Tushnet. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Can we have these pictures taken first so I can 
toncentrate? 

Senator Hruska. The photographers will be given another moment 
or two. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Thank you. 

Mr. Morris. ISIr. William Wallace, who was at the time a member of 
the Connnunist Tarty, said he attended a meeting at the home of Dr. 
Tushnet at Maplewood. There is some question as to the time of the 
meeting. I think we shall try to come to that. 

He said most of the people present at that meeting were Commu- 
nists, and he said it was a rallying meeting in the defense of three 
schoolteachers who had been identified as Communists and who were 
due to appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee at 
that time. 

Now, in executive session you took exception to the word "meeting." 
Did you attend this session at Dr. Tushnet's house ? 

Mi-s. NusBAUM. Yes, sir, Judge Morris. As you know, I sent a 
statement to this committee which is in your possession. I would like 
to make that a part of the record first. 

Then I would like to enlarge upon my answer concerning this 
meeting. 

Senator Hruska. Very well. The statement was received yesterday, 
and it will be made a part of the record at this time. I might say that 
it appears to be very complete, Mrs. Nusbaum, and we are appreciative 
of your thoughtfulness in sending us your statement in advance. 

It will be made a part of the record at this point. 

(The statement by Mrs. Nusbaum referred to was marked "Exhibit 
No. 490" and reads as follows :) 

Exhibit No. 490 

Newark, N. J., August 23, 1957. 
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, 
Senator Roman L. Hrtska, 
Judge Robert Morris, Chief Counsel, 

Washington, D. C. 

Gentlemen : With your permission, I submit what I consider to be the perti- 
nent facts relating to the matter before you. 

I intend to testify fully and truthfully, to the best of my ability, to such ques- 
tions as will be asked by this committee. 

I am not a Communist. I have never been a Communist/ I am not a Com- 
munist sympathizer. 

It has been said by a witness that I attended a meeting at the home of 
Dr. Tushnet sometime in .July of 19.54. I was not at Dr. Tushnet's home in 1954. 
The witness is confused and in his confusion he has imagined events which 
never occurred, or else he speaks about an incident at which I was not present. 

These are the facts. I read in the local newspapers that the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities was coming to Newark and that certain teach- 
ers had been subpenaed to appear before it. 

One evening in the early part of INIay 195.5, Dr. Robert Lowenstein. with whom I 
was friendly, telephoned me and asked if I would attend a gatliering at the 
home of Dr. Tushnet. He said that the teachers' difBculties would be dis- 
cussed. I knew at that time that Dr. Lowen.'-tein had been subpenaed to appear 
before the committee. I knew him as a good t a -her and knew that he had been 
recently recommended for promotion to chairman of the language department. 
I had never previously met Dr. Tushnet or his wife. 



4636 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

I told Dr. Lowenstein that I would attend. He furnislied me with the doctor's 
address and I arrived at his home at about 9 : 30 p. m. There were a number 
of people in the living room. Most of them were strangers to me. The only 
person that I knew well at this gathering was Dr. Lowenstein. 

It was said by the witness that I was the "prominent woman in Essex County" 
who.se role it was to see Judge Bigelow since I was on "friendly terms" with 
him, to influence him to represent some of the persons who had been subpenaed by 
the committee and to establish a climate to permit other prominent lawyers to 
represent some of the persons subpenaed. This is not so. 

I am informed by Dr. Lowenstein that he had previously retained Judge Bige- 
low. To the best of my reciUlection, the name of Judge Bigelow did not come 
up at all that evening. The fact is that I never, to this date, ever met or spoke 
to Judge Bigelow. I never discussed with him his representation of Dr. Low- 
enstein. 

I have a sworn afiidavit of Jxidge Bigelow in which he states that a fellow 
member of the bar asked him to represent Dr. Lowenstein and that to the 
best of his recollection he never met me and that he knows that I never con- 
tacted him in this matter or had any part in it. 

I have been, I believe, a good citizen and a reputable member of my com- 
munity. I have held various public positions. I was president of the Newark 
Chapter of Hadassah, the largest women's organization in the country — my 
chapter had 5,000 members. I served as chairman of law and social action for 
the Greater Newark Women's Division of American Jewish Congress. I am edu- 
cation and policy chairman of the Newark Chapter of the American Association 
for the United Nations. I am vice president of the Zionist Council of Essex 
County. 

I have been unit chairman of the League of Women Voters, area chairman of 
the March of Dimes, supervisor of Womens' Activities of the city of Newark 
pool program, on the board of the Newark Citizens Housing Council, and other 
such groups. My family and I have been lifelong members of Temple Bnai 
Abraham, a conservative congregation of over 1,000 families. 

Politically, I supported for public office the former mayor of our city ; 
worked hard for the election of various National and State candidates ; was co- 
chairman for fraternal activities for the election of Governor Driscoll, and held 
the same post in the last Essex County Republican campaign for State senator 
and the county ticket. In 1954 I was a candidate for elective office. 

In 1950 I was appointed to the Newark Board of Education for a 3-year 
term. Both of my children were in the public schools and I was grateful for 
an opportunity to do something to improve the school system. I worked hard 
night and day in that unsalaried and often frustrating position. I learned a 
great deal about conditions in our schools and fought as hard as I could to better 
them. I made a great many lasting friendships with many teachers. 

When one of these friends was subpenaed to appear before the House Un- 
American Activities Committee, I was deeply concerned and was glad to help 
him. 

All that was done was to try to establish a fair climate in our community so 
that the hearings might be conducted without prejudice. I joined with many 
other individuals and organizations in the community, including the American 
Civil Liberties Union, the American Veterans Committee, Americans for Demo- 
cratic Action, Association of University Professors (Newark Rutgers Chapter), 
Essex County Intergroup Council, Jewish C()mmunit.y Council of Essex County, 
Newark Council on Human Relations, and the Urban League of Essex County. 

Although I had nothing to do with obtaining counsel for Dr. Lowenstein if 
that was an objective I would have gladly participated in that etfort. There 
certainly is nothing sinister or un-American in being represented by counsel. It 
just happens that I was not asked nor was it necessary for me to do anything 
in that direction. 

The case of the school teachers is still luiresolved. The matter is now again 
before the Newark Board of Education. It is probalily only coincidence that my 
name came before your committee at this time, but there is a great deal of 
conjecture around town as to any possible connection between the two matters. 

The newspapers reprinted the unveritied statements of your witness concern- 
ing me before I could appear before you and answer them. The ensuing no- 
toriety in the local press has caused me and my family unnecessary and unwar- 
ranted hurt and embarrassment. 

I am the mother of 2 daughters, 1 a junior in college the other a second-year 
student in high school. My husband enjoys a fine reputation in his profession 
and in the community. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY EST THE UNITED STATES 4637 

To those who are our close friends, no explanation is necessary. To those who 
do not know ns well, no explanation will suffice. 

I expect my Government to protect my security. It is my earnest hope that 
this committee will do whatever can be done too, in some small degree, repair 
the grave damage done to me and to my family. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Fbances NrSBAUM. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I also want to say I appreciate this public oppor- 
tunity to refute some of the things Mr. Wallace said about me. I read 
his testimony, and he was wrong about a number of things. 

In the first place, he set the date of this evening a year prior to the 
time I had come to Dr. Tushnet's home for the first time. 

Mr. MoKRis. "VVlien was the meeting ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. The meeting was early in the spring, I believe early 
in May of 1955. Mr. Wallace said it was in July of 1954, which was 
incorrect. 

Mr. Morris. Senator Hruska has to leave. Do you mind going 
ahead ? He has to vote on the floor. 

Mrs. NusBATjM. I shall continue. 

Mr. Wallace also said in his testimony that I had been 

Mr. Morris. Did you go to the meeting ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Do you want to take each part of what he said 
separately ? 

Mr. Morris. Yes. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I was invited one evening to come up to Dr. Tush- 
net's home. This was several weeks prior, I believe, to the coming of 
the House Un-American Activities Committee to Newark. 

I was invited to come up because of my interest in the public schools, 
and the fact that three teachers had been subpenaed by this committee. 

I went to his home. It was in his living room, as casual a social 
gathering as you are Usually invited to. There was conversation and 
discussion. There was no meeting. 

Mr. Morris. Was it held under any auspices, the Emergency Civil 
Liberties ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. It was definitely not held under the auspices of the 
Emergency Civil Liberties Committee, or any other committee. It 
was purely an informal coming together of people to discuss something 
that was occurring in our town. 

Mr. Morris. How did it come that you were attending? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. As I told you, I had been on the board of education 
for 3 years prior to this time. I was known in the community to be 
actively concerned with the public schools. I had made a great many 
friends among the teachers. One of these teachers who was my friend 
had been subpenaed, so it was quite natural for him to call me. I 
said I would do whatever I could to help him. 

Mr. Morris. Who was he? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Dr. Lowenstein. 

Mr. Morris. Was he a Communist, to your knowledge? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know that he has been identified in the record 
as a Communist and that he claimed privilege under the fifth 
amendment ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. No, sir, he was never identified as a Communist. 
He took the fifth amendment and never answered that question. 



4638 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Morris. Now, what took place at the meeting — I am sorry— 
the social gathering? That was your characterization. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Yes, Judge Morris, it was. It was not a meeting. 

I am really not quite clear about what did happen that evening. 
I had been to a great many gatherings of that kind for various social 
reasons and others. It was a meeting where we discussed the impact 
this committee might have on the community and upon the schools. 
No action flowed from the meeting, no resolution, because it wasn't 
a meeting. It was purely a discussion of a brandnew situation that 
had happened in our town. 

Mr. Morris. Most of the people there have been identified in our 
record as Communists. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I don't know — I knew very few — in fact, I didn't 
know any of the people there except Dr. Lowenstein, who had invited 
me. Then I was introduced to Dr. Tushnet and his wife, whom I 
met for the first time. 

Mr. Morris. Is there anything else you want to tell us about the 
meeting ? 

Mrs. NusBATjM. Yes, there is a great deal I want to tell you in refer- 
ence to what Mr. Wallace says about the meeting. 

He said I was an intermediary between tlie Communist Party and 
Judge Bigelow. I have never been an intermediary for the Com- 
munist Party or for any other people, nor have I ever been a member 
of the Communist Party. 

As a matter of fact, politically I have been as independent as I 
could. It is just coincidental that I have supported more Kepublicans 
than Democrats. I have supported them actively. I have had a 
political fling of my own. In addition to supporting candidates, you 
know I ran for elective office in NeAvark. 

He also called me — he wasn't sure about my being a Communist — 
a Communist sympathizer. 

Mr. Morris. He said he thought you were in sympathy with what 
they were trying to do. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I read his testimony very carefully. If he didn]t 
call me a Communist sympathizer, the newspapers at home reported it 
as my being a Communist sympathizer. This I resent very much, 
because my record will prove that the greater part of my life I have 
been active in the Zionist movement, which is in support of Israel, 
which certainly could not make me active in the Communist movement, 
which is anti-Israel. 

I have been active in Marshall aid and many things which the Com- 
munists are against. This is contrary to my political philosophy. 

Mr. Morris. After you attended this meeting, did you do anything 
that would be helpful' to Dr. Lowenstein or the other teachers? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Oh, yes, I did. We organized a committee of our 
own, just people. We called it the Newark Teachers' Defense Com- 
mittee. We issued a pamphlet — I have a copy of it here which you 
might wisli to see. Tlie attitude we took in the community was ex- 
plained in this pamphlet. 

I worked with the American Civil Liberties Union, the American 
Veterans Committee, the Council of Churches. 

Mr. Morris. How about the iVmerican Emergency Civil Liberties ? 
Mrs. NusBAUM. No, I did not. But we did get these other groups 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4639 

together, including the Jewish Connnunity Council, and the Urban 
League. 

"We held a large public meeting on Fifth Amendment and Academic 
Freedom and Constitutional Rights and so on. 

Mr. Morris. You did this on behalf of what teachers ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. The three teachers that had been subpenaed. 

Mr. Morris. Now, inasmuch as they have been identihed as Com- 
munists, does it not appear as if indeed you have been helping the 
Communists ? 

JSIrs. NusBAUM. No, sir, this w^as not helping Communists. This 
was heljDing Americans and helping public schools, in my opinion. 

I was very anxious that there should not be a spirit of suspicion 
about the public schools, that people's confidence in them should not 
be shaken, that teachers should not be frightened or intimidated. I 
was anxious to create a climate where they could be heard without 
hvsteria. 

One of the newspapers, the minute subpenas had been issued, had 
carried on a crusade which was almost a lynching kind of crusade 
against them. 

Mr. Morris. Is it your position that Communist teachers should 
be left in the schools ? 

]\Irs. NusBAUM. As I told you in executive session. Judge Morris • 

Mr. Morris. That is all right. This is a public record and you 
want this record. Therefore, some of these views you gave Senator 
Hruska, I think should be in the public record. 

What is your position, then, if you would take this activity on the 
part of three persons who have been identified as Communists and 
haven't been able to deny it? 

Mrs. NrsBAUM. In the first place, they were not identified as Com- 
munists at that time. 

My position is the same as Senator Taft's position was, that com- 
petency in the classroom is the only yardstick by which you measure 
a teacher. 

Mr. Morris. Even if they are Communists, they can be kept in the 
schools ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. If their record is good and their public conduct 
is good, I would not inquire into their political beliefs. 

Mr. Morris. Communism is not exactly a political belief. It has 
certain fixed purposes, among which is to convert America into Soviet 
America. Is it your opinion that someone who is a full-fledged 
member of the Communist organization can be a good teacher? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I judge by the record of these teachers, or any 
teachers, if their supervisors and superiors and administrators have 
found them fit over the years, if they have not indoctrinated in the 
classroom, or propagandized 

Mr. Morris. How can you tell they have not indoctrinated in their 
classrooms ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I think you can tell. I think you can tell when 
any prejudice is shown by a teacher in a classroom. These teachers 
were not left alone. They are constantly being supervised. 

Mr. Morris. When a supervisor comes around, if they are slanting 
their teaching, they would not do it when the supervisor is there ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Well, Judge Morris 

Mr. Morris. Well, I'm just getting your views. 



4640 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UTSriTED STATES 

Mrs. NusBAUM. This is getting again into the realm of opinion. My 
opinion is, and I maintain that opinion, that if a teacher is competent 
and his public conduct is good, this would be all that I would judge 
him by in maintaining him as a teacher in the school system. 

Mr. Morris. Therefore, the campaign that you described to us that 
you conducted on behalf of these teachers fitted into this view you have 
just given us? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Yes; and this was the view of the Council of 
Churches ; it was the view of the Jewish Community Council ; it was 
the view of the Essex Bar Association, and of a great many organi- 
zations in our community. 

I also want. Judge- 

Mr. Morris. Did you do anything about getting them legal counsel ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. No ; I did not. This was never even raised, as far 
as I was concerned. 

In that connection, Mr. Wallace also said that I had gone to see 
Judge Bigelow. I deny completely ever having seen him 

Mr. Morris. I think he said they were trying to influence Dr. Bige- 
low through you. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Yes; he said I was on friendly terms with Judge 
Bigelow and therefore I would be the right person to go. I have an 
affidavit which I would also like to put into the record, signed by 
Judge Bigelow, denying, as I have denied, that I ever approached 
him, that 1 ever met him. I have never even had the honor of meeting 
Judge Bigelow. 

Mr. Morris. I am sure the Senator w411 put it in. 

Is there anj^thing else about that meeting you want to tell us about, 
Mrs. Nusbaum? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. There is nothing about that evening that was 

Mr. Morris. What was disscusecl at the meeting — the social gather- 
ing, excuse me. 

Wliat took place there ? I wonder if you would tell us ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. I recall very vaguely. It was a very general dis- 
cussion, as I have told you, about the coming of the committee, about 
the teacher situation and- — it was not that kind of an affair where you 
took notes. 

Mr. Morris. But you are sure that Judge Bigelow's name never 
came up ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. To my knowledge, it never came up. 

As I also told you in my statement, I have been informed tliat 
Judge Bigelow had already been retained by Dr. Lowenstein before 
that meeting. 

Mr. Morris. How long had you known Dr. Lowenstein? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Well, I have knoAv him a great many years. I have 
known him well since I became a school board member in 1950. 

Mr. Morris. Will you tell us about his standing in the community ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Well, he had a very fine standing in the community. 
I had known him through community work of various kinds. 

Mr. Morris. Was he active in community work ? 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Yes; he was around in a number of the things I 
was interested in. 

Mr. Morris. I wonder if you coidd tell us some of the things he is 
known as doing ? 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4641 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I can't specifically. I know I kept meeting him. 
I met him at the Jewish Connnnnity Center, in the Jewish programs. 
He was active in that. I was friendlier with his wife than with him. 
She was active in the community. 

]\Ir. ISIoRRis. Did it come as a surprise to you that he was involved 
with the Communists? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. His subpena came as a surprise to me. I didn't 
know anything about his involvement with Communists. 

Mr. Morris. He has been dismissed as a school teacher? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. He was dismissed as having invoked the fifth 
amendment before the committee. Our State supreme court has 
found that that was not sufficient grounds for dismissing him. 

Mr. Morris. Wasn't his reinstatement denied by the superintendent 
of schools ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. The superintendent of schools, also at the directive 
of the State supreme court, had heard the three teachers in what was 
supposed to be private executive session. Then the news of these 
sessions leaked out into the local press. 

Mr. Morris. I think it was released publicly. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. It was released this week, but it leaked out a month 
ago. 

Mr. Morris. Are you still a friend of Dr. Lowenstein? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Morris. Have you conducted any activity on behalf of him 
recently ? 

Mrs. NusBAUM. No ; I have not. 

Mr. Morris. Now, Senator Hruska is voting. If you don't mind 
waiting, Mrs. Nusbaum, until he gets back, he may have some things 
he wants to bring out. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. Why, certainly. 

Where do you want me to put this affidavit ? 

Mr. Morris. The Senator has to receive it into the record. 

Mrs. Nusbaum. I see. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Senator Hruska. All right, we shall resume our hearing. I am 
sorry for the interruption, but we have higher loyalties, at least 
momentarily. 

Will you proceed, Judge Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. I think. Senator, Mrs. Nusbaum had given her views on 
that meeting. They are all in the record now, and she has offered the 
affidavit of -Judge Bigelow. 

Senator Hruska. It will be received into the record. 

(The affidavit referred was marked "Exhibit No. 491" and reads 
as follows:) 

Exhibit No. 491 
State of New Jersey, 

Count II of Essex, ss: 

John O. Bigelow, being duly sworn on his oath says : 

I am an attorney at law of New Jersey, with my office at 500 Broad Street, 
Newark. I appeared with Dr. Robert Lowenstein, as his counsel, before the Un- 
American Activities Committee of the House of Representatives on May 19, 19.55, 
and have since then represented him in sundry proceedings and litigation arising 
out of his appearance before that committee. 

A fellow member of the bar asked me to represent Dr. Lowenstein and when 
I consented to do so the doctor called and retained me. I was at the time chair- 
man of the Civil Liberties Committee of the Essex County Bar Association and 



4642 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

it is likely that this fact liad some influence in my being asked to accept Dr. 
Lowenstein as a client. I have never met Mrs. Frances Xnsbaura to the best of 
my recollection and I know she never contacted me in tliis matter or had any 
part in it. 

John O. Bigelow. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 29th day of July 1957. 

Dorothy Stumpf, 
Notary Public of New Jersey. 
My commission expires May 5, 1958. 

Mr. Morris. Mi-s. Niisbaum, "William "Wallace was at the social 
gathering, was he not? 

Mrs. NusBAFM. I liave no recollection of liis being there. 

Mr. Morris. Do you know what he looks like ? 

Mrs. NuSBAUM. No ; I do not. I have never met him. 

Mr. Morris. He is a tall, angular Xegro man. 

Mrs. NusBAUM. I have been told that, because I asked after that, 
loo. But I have no recollection of his having been there. He may 
have been. 

]\Ir. Morris. Several other people have told us he was there and he 
brought four Communist organizers with him. 

Mrs. XusBAUM. I am not saying he was not there. He may have 
been. 

When I came in, people were introduced to me. I probably didn't 
])ay close enough attention to names. I hadn't met any of those people ' 
before, and I just walked out, not knowing whether ]Mr. "Wallace or | 
anybody like that was there. 

Senator Hruska. Are there any further questions, Mr. Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. No. 

Senator Hruska. Thank you very much for coming, Mrs. Nusbaum, 
and adding to our record. 

Mrs. Nusbaum. Thank you for this opportunity to refute Mr. 
"Wallace's testimony. It has been very damaging because of the local 
press treatment of it. 

Senator Hruska. This committee has the policy of opening its doors 
and making itself available for anyone who would like to come for that 
purpose. "We are glad to have you. 

Is there any further business ? 

Mr. Morris. There is quite a bit of unfinished business, but in view 
of the time and the exigencies of the situation, I think that is all at 
this time. 

Senator Hruska. I would like to say that I have prepared a state- 
ment b}^ way of summary of some of our activities, ancl particularly 
with reference to the hearings of these later weeks, a series of hearings 
pertaining to some of the trade unions. 

A phase of the Internal Security Subcommittee's inquiries aimed at 
providing a basis for determination of the necessity, if any, for legis- 
lation to protect the internal security of our country, has involved the \\ 
purposes and the activity of the Communists in the labor movement 
in the United States. 

After reaching an eminence during the middle 1940''s when they 
represented an effective force in labor, even to the extent of forming a 
base for a formidable mass Comnumist movement, the American rep 
resentatives of the Soviet international organization began to lose j 
some of their numbers and by 1949 and early 1950 had been the object 
of a house cleaning by major segments of American labor. 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 4643 

During- the Korean war the political climate, tending to isolate those 
' persons who owed their allegiance to the Chinese Communists because 
they represented a sector of the International, accelerated this proc- 
ess; antl b}- 1953 they had descended to a low point in isolation. 

The Communists were able, however, to maintain their control over 
important workers in the martime industry on the west coast and in 
Hawaii; in the communications field in New York, where they con- 
tinued to remain astride vital communication lines ; in the mines that 
produce some of our most critical and strategic metals necessary for 
our defense ; and in certain parts of our electronics industry. 

The International liOngshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union 
(ILTVTJ), the American Communications Association (ACA), the 
International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers (MMSW), 
and the United Electrical, Eadio, and Machine Workers (UE) re- 
mained steadfast under Communist control. 

This control was impressive and effective and insured minimal con- 
trol of a portion of American labor which when the international 
crisis sharpened, would pose a very grave threat to our security. 

The Internal Security Subcommittee has been accumulating evi- 
dence that the Communists have, since 1954, begun to expand this 
beachhead and to expand their impact in the American labor move- 
ment to the extent of invading the mainstream of American labor. 
The 16th annual meeting of the Communist Party in America, for 
instance, found the leaders of that portion of the worldwide Commu- 
nist movement urging their members to avoid what they called left 
sectarianism and to join the mainstream of labor. 

By this they meant that some of the Communists from the UE and 
other unions were to join the AFL-CIO. In addition to the docu- 
mentary evidence of this we have taken testimony from former Com- 
munists that this has been the plan of the Communist leaders and we 
have called as witnesses many of the individuals involved in this trans- 
fer, and without exception no one of them lias been able to deny our 
testimony, but invoked the constitutional privilege against self- 
incrimination. 
I During the past year we have confirmed that Communists are indeed 
• astride the communication lines of our Government. Their hold on 
the ACA is unbroken. Harry Bridges, with his powerful labor em- 
pire, can choke the main channels of our lifeline to the Far East, and 
hold Hawaii, our Pacific bastion, in his vise. The subcommittee held 
hearings in Honolulu in November and December of 1956 and had 
confirmed the severest charges of Communist dominion in those lovely 
islands. 

Moreover, we began to learn that the Communist unions, notably 
the UE, were becoming systematically proliferated and their members 
were issuing further into the mainstream of the AFL-CIO. We 
began to pile, brick upon brick, individual cases. 

Since May 9, 1956, when we began to take testimony that Commu- 
nists were moving into the mainstream of labor, we continually ques- 
tioned witnesses who were identified as Communists. The evidence 
was taken partly in executive or secret session, partly in open session, 
and, in some few cases, by staff interviews. It is rare indeed when a 
subcommittee experiences not even one case wherein its evidence could 
 be denied, particularly when it has dealt with scores of cases. 



4644 SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES 

The only defense that the persons identified as Communists as of a 
particular time, usually in the middle 1950's, have used has been to 
invoke privilege covering the times of the identification, and to deny 
Communist membership at a later time, most often during 1956. 

A factor in all of this has been the limitation of subcommittee evi- 
dence, as the subcommittee said in its annual report : 

* * * that it generally takes 3 or more years for a Communist agent or party 
member to disentangle himself emotionally from his past sufficiently to testify 
against the conspiracy. So our direct evidence is at best that old at its point 
of origin. 

For instance, the UE. a Communist controlled union, saw certain of 
its locals transferred on May 17, 1956, to the lUE, AFL-CIO. The 
UE had been a powerful union whose membership reached more than 
a half million members at its peak. The subcommittee learned that cer- 
tain of its leaders actually were members of the Communist Party as 
late as 1955. Such evidence is unusual in view of the difficulty sur- 
rounding the identification of Communist Party members. 

When we began to question these people about this evidence we 
learned a remarkable fact, that six important officers of the lU E identi- 
fied as experienced Communists were unable to deny Communist Party 
membership as of May 16, 1956, but did deny membership as of a day 
later. 

The implied coincidence of six veteran Communists having changed 
their circumstances in 1 day so as to be able to deny as of May 17, 1956, 
that which they could not deny as of May 16, 1956, poses an underlying 
condition that certainly reflects a planned defense. Experienced Com- 
munists just don't change their allegiance when they change their 
jobs. 

In the Communist conspiracy as such, coincidences such as here im- 
plied do not take place. The situation suggests very strongly a tac- 
tical resignation from the Communist Party in view of the changed 
facts. 

Very often the evidence showed, particularly with reference to the 
United Auto Workers, that the witnesses, after acknowledging party 
membership up to a certain date, denied it thereafter but affirmed facts 
justifying a conclusion brought out by one of the officers who char- 
acterized himself as a fellow traveler. 

One such instance was that of the editor of Ford Facts, the publica- 
tion of local 600, the largest of the UAW locals. This editor acknowl- 
edged that he had been a Communist in the past ; under questioning, 
however, lie conceded that he had been attending Communist meetings 
since that time. The rationale of Ids attempted justification for at- 
tending these meetings proved to be the claim that he was attending 
Communist front meetings in order to take photographs of these meet- 
ings. He contended that he Avas hired by the Communists in order to 
take pictures for a profit. That Communists should employ a man 
who professed to be an ex-Communist and a person out of sympathy 
with the Communist movement, to take pictures of them in the intimacy 
of their meetings, was never ade((uately explained to the subcommittee. 

In all of our activities in this area the box score of the hearings 
looks like this : 

During the course of the inquiry by the Internal Security Sub- 
connnittee from May 9 of this year to date, 39 witnesses have asserted 



SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE "UNITED STATES 4645 

constitutional privilege under the first and fifth amendments; 14 
persons affiliated M'ith the International United Electrical, Radio 
and Machine Workers (lUE), AFL-CIO; 11 persons affiliated with 
United xVuto Workers (UAW), xVFL-CIO; 6 high-ranking officers 
and members of the American Communications Association (ACA) ; 
■1 members of the International Association of Machinists (lAM), 
AFL-CIO; 1 member of the United Furniture Workers of Amer- 
ica; and the Secretary-Treasurer of the ILAVU, Louis Goldblatt, 
all have taken the first or fifth amendment before the subcommittee 
when asked about the committee's evidence regarding their participa- 
tion in the Communist organization. 

]My own conclusion after taking the testimony is that the Com- 
munists are indeed infiltrating the mainstream of American labor. 
They are using the present stage of the world struggle to infiltrate. 
They are now preparing for the phase ahead, whatever it is. And if 
the Communists are able to use the present period of time to extend 
their base of operations, our own problem will become more serious. 

It seems to me that the Communist Control Act of 1954 is inade- 
quate and must be amended. It demands a standard of proof that is 
almost impossible to achieve. Other legislation must be enacted to 
realistically meet the challenge of the changing Communist tactics. 
We see too that there is much to suggest that there have been viola- 
tions of the non-Communist affidavit provisions of the Taft-Hartley 
Act and I am asking that the National Labor Relations Board examine 
our record in certain cases to determine if there have been such 
violations. 

I am also asking the Department of Justice to look into the im- 
migration status of certain of the witnesses who testified before us. 
Finally, the whole record of these hearings will be considered by the 
subcommittee in its annual report. 

That constitutes my statement in summary at the conclusion of 
this series of hearings. 

Is there anything further, Judge Morris ? 

Mr. Morris. No, Senator, not at this time. 

Senator Hruska. I want to say in closing these meetings for this 
session, that the subcommittee is very appreciative of the coopera- 
tion of its staff. They have done very hue work and have labored 
long and well. The subcommittee is grateful for their assistance. 

Since there is no further business, the subcommittee is adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 12:05 p. m., the hearing was adjourned.) 



INDEX 



Note. — The Senate Intei-nal Security Subcommittee attaches no significance 
to the mere fact of the appearance of the name of an individual or an organiza- 
tion in this index. 

A 

Page 

ACA (See American Communications Association.) 

Affidavit of Judge John O. Bigelow regarding Mrs. Frances Nusbaum, 

July 29, 1957 (exhibit No. 491) 4641-4642 

AFI^CIO 4623, 4626, 4628, 4643-4645 

American Civil Liberties Union 4636, 4638 

American Communications Association (ACA) 4643, 4645 

American Student Union 4624 

American Veterans Committee 4636, 4638 

Americans for Democratic Action 4636 

Amter, Israel (Communist candidate for Governor) 4625 

Association of University Professors, Newarli Rutgers chapter 4636 

B 

Barrv, Walter 4632 

Bigelow, Judge John O., 500 Broad Street, Newark, N. J___ 4636, 4638, 4640-4642 

Brennan, Robert William, 730 Fay Avenue, Elizabeth, N. J. : 

Testimony of 4630-4634 

Filer for Singer Manufacturing Co. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 4631 

Past president UE local that organized the Singer Sewing Ma- 
chine Co 4631 

President of the UERMW in 1949 4631 

Bridges, Harry 4643 

O 

Chinese Communists 4643 

CIO . 4628, 4633 

Cole, Archer 4632 

Communist(s) 4624-4626, 4629-4633, 4635, 4637-4639, 4641-4645 

Communist Control Act of 1954 4645 

Communist Party 4624-4629, 4635, 4638, 4644 

Communist Party in America 4643 

Communist Party of New York, State Committee of 4629 

Conroy, Jack 4626. 4627 

Constitution 4624, 4626 

Council of Churches 4638, 4640 

D 
Driscoll, Governor  4636 

E 

Elizabeth, N. J 4630, 4631 

Emergency Civil Liberties Committee 4637 

Essex County (N. J.) 4636, 4641 

Essex County Bar Association 4640, 4641 

Essex, Civil Liberties Committee of 4641 

Essex County Intergroup Council 4636 

Europe 4630 

I 



H INDEX 

Page 
Exhibit No. 490 — Statement by Mrs. Frances Niisbanm to Internal Se- 
curity Subcommittee, August 23, 1957 4635-4637 

Exhibit No. 491 — Affidavit of Judge John O. Bigelow regarding Mrs. 

Frances Nusbaum, July 29, 1957 4641-4642 

F 

Far East 4643 

Fascists 4626 

Fifth amendment 4624, 4626-4629, 4637, 4641, 4645 

First amendment 4624, 4626, 4628, 4629, 4645 

Ford Facts (publication, Local 600-UAW) 4644 

G 

Gardner, Fred 4626 

Gilbert, Sidney, 1589 East Ninth Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. : 

Testimony of 4625-4628 

Attorney, Ephraim London 4625 

Business agent for Local 477, lUE, since May 1956 4626 

Business agent for Local 1227, UE, prior to May 1956 4626 

Born Brooklyn, N. Y 4628 

Not presently member of the Communist Party 4626 

First and fifth amendment privilege 4626, 4627 

Goldblatt, Louis (secretary-treasurer, ILWU) 4645 

Greater Newark Women's Division of American Jewish Congress 4636 

H 

Hawaii 4648 

Honolulu 4643 

House Un-American Activities Committee 4635-4637, 4641 

Hruska, Hon. Roman L 4623,4635 

Closing statement of 4642-4645 



lAM. (See International Association of Machinists.) 

ILWU. (See International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union.) 

International Association of Machinists (JAM, AFL-CIO) 4645 

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union ( ILWU ) ) - 4643, 4645 
International Union of Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of Amer- 
ica, (lUE, AFL-CIO) 4623, 4624, 4626, 4627, 4631, 4644, 4645 

Local 477 of 4623,4626 

International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers (MMSW) 4643 

International 4643 

Israel 4638 

lUE. (See International Union of Electrical, Radio, and Machine Work- 
ers of America.) 

J 

Jewish Community Center 4641 

Jewish Community Council of Essex County 4636,4639,4640 

Justice, Department 4645 

K 
Korea 4633 

Korean war 4643 

L 

Labor Youth League 4633 

League of Women Voters 4636 

Lipari, Alfredo, Avenel, N. J.: Testimony of 4634 

London, Ephraim : 

Attorney for "Victor Teich 4623 

Attorney for Sidney Gilbert 4625 

Lowenstein, Dr. Robert 4635-4638, 4640-4642 



ESTDEX m 

M 

Page 

Maplewood 1^ 4635 

Marshall aid 4638 

MMSW. (Sec International Union of Mines, Mill, and Smelter Workers.) 

Morris, Robert 4623, 4635 

Moscow 4630 

N 

National Labor Board election 4631 

National Labor Relations Board 4645 

National Maritime Union 4624 

Newark (N. J.) 4635-4638, 4641 

Newark Board of Education 4635, 4636 

Newark Chapter of the American Association of the United Nations 4636 

Newark Chapter of Hadassah 4636 

Newark Citizens Housing Council 4636 

Newark Council on Human Relations 4636 

Newark Teachers' Defense Committee 4638 

New Jersey 4641 

New York 4624, 4629, 4643 

New York University 4624 

Non-Communist affidavit (Taft-Hartley) 4628, 4629, 4631, 4633, 4645 

jNusbaum, Mrs. Frances, 55 Goldsmith Avenue, Newark, N. J. 

Testimony of 4634-4642 

Statement containing biographical data submitted to Internal Se- 
curity Subcommittee, August 23, 1957 (exhibit No. 490) 4635-4637 

Bigelow affidavit regarding 4641-4642 

Nusbaum, Dr. Marcus 4634 

P 

Pacific 4643 

Peters, Jay 4629 

Poleshuk, Mr 4632, 4634 

R 

Rumania 4628 

Russia 4630 

S 

Scboen (Myrtle) 4634 

Schroeder, Frank W 4623 

Schuttig, Hans (secretary-treasurer. Local 477, lUE) 4627 

Silk, Robert H., 140 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y., attorney for Alex 

Sirota 4628 

Singer Communist Club 4632, 4634 

Singer Manufacturing Co. (Elizabeth, N. J.) 4631 

Singer Sewing Machine Co 4630, 4631, 4634 

Singer strike 4631 

Sirota, Alex, Bronx, N. Y. : 

Testimony of 4628-4630 

Attorney, Robert H. Silk 4628 

Born in Rumania, 1903 4628 

Came to United States in 1920 4628 

Naturalized, Bronx Supreme Court in 1930 4628 

Secretary-treasurer, Local 140, LTnited Furniture Workers of America. 4628 
First and fifth amendment privilege re past and present membership 

in Communist Party 4628, 4629 

Soviet international organization 4642 

Stumpf, Dorothy (notary public. New Jersey) 4642 

Supreme Court, Bronx 4628 

Supreme Court, New Jersey 4641 



TV INDEX 

T 

Page 

Taft-Hartley Act 4628, 4629, 4631, 4645 

Taft-Hartley non-Communist affidavit 4628, 4629, 4631, 4633, 4645 

Taft, Senator 4639 

Teich, Victor, Flushing, Long Island : 

Testimony of 4623-4625 

Attorney, Ephraim London 4623 

Born in New York 4624 

Employed Waldes. Inc., tool and diemaker 4623 

President, Local 477, lUE since May 1956 4628 

Past president. Local 1227, UE 4624 

Onetime member National Maritime Union (1943-46) 4624 

Graduated from New York University, 1937 4624; 

Onetime member American Student Union 4624 

First and fifth amendment privilege prior to November 1, 1955 4625 

Temple Bnai Abraham 4636 

Trueba, Mr 4633, 4634 

Tushnet, Dr 4635, 4637, 4638 

U 
UAW. (See United Auto Workers.) 
UE. (See United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers.) 

United Auto Workers (UAW) 4644, 4645 

United Auto Workers, Local 600 4644 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers (UE) 4624, 

4625, 4631, 4632, 4643, 4644 

Local 1227 4624-4626 

United Furniture Workers of America 4628, 4645 

Local 140 4628 

United Furniture Workers of America, AFL^CIO 4628 

Urban League of Essex Coimty 4636, 4639 

W 
Waldes, Inc 4623 

Wallace, William 4626, 4635, 4637, 4638, 4640, 4642 

White, Sidney 4632 

Z 

Zionist Council of Essex County 4636 

Zionist movement 4638 



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